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 Front Cover
 Author Guidelines
 Table of Contents
 Nicholas A. Peppas of the University...
 Chemical Engineering at the University...
 AIChE Centennial Celebration: Introduction,...
 Implementing Concepts of Pharmaceutical...
 Wiki Technology as a Design Tool...
 Design Course for Micropower Generation...
 Ideas to Consider for New Chemical...
 The History of Chemical Engineering...
 NANOLAB at the University of Texas...
 "Student Lab"-on-a-Chip: Integrating...
 Priorities in Hard Times
 Biokinetic Modeling of Imperfect...
 Back Cover






























Chemical engineering education
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Title: Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title: CEE
Abbreviated Title: Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher: Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date: Summer 2009
Frequency: quarterly[1962-]
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Subjects / Keywords: Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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 Notes
Citation/Reference: Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note: Title from cover.
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This item has the following downloads:

Nicholas A. Peppas of the University of Texas at Austin, Jennifer Sinclair Curtis and Christopher N. Bowman ( PDF )

Chemical Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Edmund G. Seebauer, Paul J.A. Kenis, and Marina Miletic ( PDF )

Introduction, David L. Silverstein and Phillip C. Wankat ( PDF )

Implementing Concepts of Pharmaceutical Engineering Into High School Science Classrooms, Howard Kimmel, Linda S. Hirsch, Laurent Simon, Levelle Burr-Alexander, and Rajesh Dave ( PDF )

Wiki Technology as a Design Tool for a Capstone Design Course, Kevin R. Hadley and Kenneth A. Debelak ( PDF )

Design Course for Micropower Generation Devices, Alexander Mitsos ( PDF )

Ideas to Consider for New Chemical Engineering Educators, Part 1. Courses Offered Earlier in the Curriculum, Jason M. Keith, David L. Silverstein, and Donald P. Visco, Jr. ( PDF )

The History of Chemical Engineering and Pedagogyz: The Paradox of Tradition and Innovation, Phillip C. Wankat ( PDF )

NANOLAB at the University of Texas at Austin: A Model for Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Science and Engineering Education, Andrew T. Heitsch, John G. Ekerdt, and Brian A. Korgel ( PDF )

"Student Lab"-on-a-Chip: Integrating Low-Cost Microfluidics Into Undergraduate Teaching Labs to Study Multiphase Flow Phenomena in Small Vessels, Edmond W.K. Young and Craig A. Simmons ( PDF )

Priorities in Hard Times, Richard M. Felder ( PDF )

Biokinetic Modeling of Imperfect Mixing in a Chemostat: An Example of Multiscale Modeling, Michael B. Cutlip, Neima Brauner, and Mordechai Shacham ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Author Guidelines
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page 169
    Nicholas A. Peppas of the University of Texas at Austin
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
    Chemical Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
    AIChE Centennial Celebration: Introduction, David L. Silverstein and Phillip C. Wankat
        Page 186
    Implementing Concepts of Pharmaceutical Engineering into High School Science Classrooms
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
    Wiki Technology as a Design Tool for a Capstone Design Course
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
    Design Course for Micropower Generation Devices
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
    Ideas to Consider for New Chemical Engineering Educators, Part I: Courses Offered Earlier in the Curriculum
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
    The History of Chemical Engineering and Pedagogy: The Paradox of Tradition and Innovation
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
    NANOLAB at the University of Texas at Austin: A Model for Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Science and Engineering Education
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
    "Student Lab"-on-a-Chip: Integrating Low-Cost Microfluidics into Undergraduate Teaching Labs to Study Multiphase Flow Phenomena in Small Vessels
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
    Priorities in Hard Times
        Page 241
        Page 242
    Biokinetic Modeling of Imperfect Mixing in a Chemostat: An Example of Multiscale Modeling
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
    Back Cover
        Page 249
Full Text











Chemical engineering education












Nicholas A. Peppas

c- ... of the University of Texas at Austin


SPECIAL ISSUE:
C

C
'h-
aIntroduction (p. 186)
Silverstein, Wankat
U. Implementing Concepts of Pharmaceutical Engineering Into High School Science Classrooms (p. 187)
8 Kimmel, Hirsch, Simon, Burr-Alexander, Dave
Wiki Technology as a Design Tool for a Capstone Design Course (p. 194i
Hadley, Debelak
o Design Course for Micropower Generation Devices (p. 201)
V1 Mitsos
C
M Ideas to Consider for New Chemical Engineering Educators. Part 1.
FU Courses Offered Earlier in the Curriculum (p. 207)
FP 5 Keith, Silverstein, Visco
-T The History of Chemical Engineering and Pedagogy:
C The Paradox of Tradition and Innovation (p. 216)
. . ' Wankat
> _ NANOLAB atThe University ofTexas at Austin:
0o E A Model for Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Science and Engineering Education (p. 225)
S- Heitsch, Ekerdt, Korgel
a) U
C 0
T i "Student Lab'-on-a-Chip: Integrating Low-Cost Microfluidics Into Undergraduate Teaching Labs to Study
" .Lu Multiphase Flow Phenomena in Small Vessels (p. 232)
7 Young, Simmons
E c Biokinetic Modeling of Imperfect Mixing in a Chemostat: An Example of Multiscale Modeling (p. 243)
r_ U Cutlip, Brauner, Shacham
a Random Thoughts: Priorities in Hard Times (p. 241)
< Richard M. Felder



S The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign












Author Guidelines for the

LABORATORY

Feature

The laboratory experience in chemical engineering education has long been an integral part
of our curricula. CEE encourages the submission of manuscripts describing innovations in the
laboratory ranging from large-scale unitoperations experimentsto demonstrations appropriate
for the classroom. The following guidelines are offered to assist authors in the preparation of
manuscripts that are informative to our readership. These are only suggestions, based on the
comments of previous reviewers; authors should use their own judgment in presenting their
experiences. A set of general guidelines and advice to the author can be found at ourWeb site:
.

c Manuscripts should describe the results of original and laboratory-tested ideas.
The ideas should be broadly applicable and described in sufficient detail to
allow and motivate others to adapt the ideas to their own curricula. It is noted
that the readership of CEE is largely faculty and instructors. Manuscripts must
contain an abstract and often include an Introduction, Laboratory Description,
Data Analysis, Summary of Experiences, Conclusions, and References.
* An Introduction should establish the context of the laboratory experi-
ence (e.g., relation to curriculum, review of literature), state the learning
objectives, and describe the rationale and approach.
* The Laboratory Description section should describe the experiment in
sufficient detail to allow the reader to judge the scope of effort required
to implement a similar experiment on his or her campus. Schematic dia-
grams or photos, cost information, and references to previous publica-
tions and Web sites, etc., are usually of benefit. Issues related to safety
should be addressed as well as any special operating procedures.
If appropriate, a Data Analysis section should be included that concisely
describes the method of data analysis. Recognizing that the audience
is primarily faculty, the description of the underlying theory should be
referenced or brief.The purpose of this section is to communicate to the
reader specific student-learning opportunities (e.g., treatment of reac-
tion-rate data in a temperature range that includes two mechanisms).
* The purpose of the Summary of Experiences section is to convey the
results of laboratory or classroom testing. The section can enumerate,
for example, best practices, pitfalls, student survey results, or anecdotal
material.
* A concise statement of the Conclusions (as opposed to a summary) of
your experiences should be the last section of the paper prior to listing
References.













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Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009


Chemical Engineering Education
Volume 43 Number 3 Summer 2009




> DEPARTMENT
179 Chemical Engineering at The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Edmund G. Seebauer, Paul J.A. Kenis, and Marina Miletic

> EDUCATOR
170 Nicholas A. Peppas of the University of Texas at Austin
Jennifer Sinclair Curtis and Christopher N. Bowman

> RANDOM THOUGHTS
241 Priorities in Hard Times
Richard M. Felder

> SPECIAL SECTION: AICHE CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION
186 Introduction
David L. Silverstein and Phillip C. Wankat
187 Implementing Concepts of Pharmaceutical Engineering Into High School
Science Classrooms
Howard Kimmel, Linda S. Hirsch, Laurent Simon, Levelle Burr-Alexander,
and Rajesh Dave
194 Wiki Technology as a Design Tool for a Capstone Design Course
Kevin R. Hadley and Kenneth A. Debelak
201 Design Course for Micropower Generation Devices
Alexander Mitsos
207 Ideas to Consider for New Chemical Engineering Educators, Part 1. Courses
Offered Earlier in the Curriculum
Jason M. Keith, David L. Silverstein, and Donald P Visco, Jr.
216 The History of Chemical Engineering and Pedagogy: The Paradox of Tradition
and Innovation
Phillip C. Wankat

225 NANOLAB at The University of Texas at Austin: A Model for Interdisciplinary
Undergraduate Science and Engineering Education
Andrew T Heitsch, John G. Ekerdt, and Brian A. Korgel

> LABORATORY
232 "Student Lab"-on-a-Chip: Integrating Low-Cost Microfluidics Into
Undergraduate Teaching Labs to Study Multiphase Flow Phenomena in
Small Vessels
Edmond WK. Young and Craig A. Simmons

> CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS
243 Biokinetic Modeling of Imperfect Mixing in a Chemostat: An Example of
Multiscale Modeling
Michael B. Cutlip, Neima Brauner, and Mordechai Shacham



CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering
Division,American Society for EngineeringEducation, and is edited at the University of Florida. Correspondence regarding
editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University
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Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily
those of the ChE Division,ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced ifnotified within
120 days of publication. Writefor information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and availability. POSTMASTER:
Send address changes to Chemical Engineering Education, Chemical Engineering Department., University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Periodicals Postage Paid at Gainesville, Florida, and additional post offices (USPS 101900).

169










Ij i'1educator
---- --- s_____________________________________


Nicholas A. Peppas


of the University of Texas at Austin


JENNIFER SINCLAIR CURTIS
AND CHRISTOPHER N. BOWMAN
It is quite rare to encounter a person
with a commitment to excellence that
spans the personal and the profes-
sional, education and research, science
and engineering, fundamentals and ap-
plications, chemical engineering and the
broader academic fields, and language and
culture. Nicholas A. Peppas is just such
an individual, having made exceptional
contributions with breadth and depth that
span the chemical engineering field. Were
one to write an article that described each
award and recognition that he has received
in even the briefest manner, it would read-
ily fill this issue of Chemical Engineering
Education. While if one allowed each of
the undergraduate and graduate students
whose lives he has touched to write briefly
about Nicholas's influence on their careers,
it would span numerous issues. By committi
quality and strongly supporting those who
sphere of influence, Nicholas Peppas shines ii
of his life.

THE EARLY YEARS
Nicholas A. Peppas was born on Aug. 25, 19
Greece. He was the eldest of two children born
and Aliki Peppas. His parents were educated
and classics and taught him at an early age
classical education as well as learning and di:
stressed balance in life and also modeled perse
work, and dedication to life goals that remain
his personal traits to this day.
Early on, Nicholas was fascinated with medic
ventions of the pioneers in engineering, while si


,\


F -
Nicholas poses above the Peppas-Merrill equation for the analysis of gels,
which is engraved in an entry of the atrium of the new BME Building at the
University of Texas.

ng himself to developing a passionate interest in opera. Whlik. iIn high school
come into his he studied Byzantine music in the Hellenic Conservatory of
i every aspect Music, and he also began his studies of Greek and Byzantine
history. His interest in history was initiated through the influ-
ence of several family members who were archaeologists or
historians, including his father.
48, in Athens, Knowing that he did not want to practice medicine, Nicholas
to Athanasios decided to pursue engineering and he received his Dipl. Eng.
in economics degree in chemical engineering at the National Technical Uni-
to appreciate versity of Athens in 1971. Although he worked in industry for
scovery. They all three summers during his undergraduate days (including a
verance, hard stint with Shell in Rotterdam, the Netherlands), he chose an
hallmarks of academic career. His family has a rich history of academicians
with professors of chemistry, history, and plant physiology, as
ine and the in- well as archaeology- going back to G6ttingen, Heidelberg,
simultaneously @ Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009


Chemical Engineering Education






































in his career, and to practice it as a pioneer in the field. He
emigrated to the United States at the age of 22 and continued
on for graduate work in chemical engineering at the Mas-
sachusetts Institute of Technology. He chose to work in the
research group of Edward W. Merrill, a great role model,
AIChE Founders' Award recipient, and pioneer in the field
of bioengineering-a field that combined Nicholas's love of
both engineering and medicine, as well as his strong desire
for the novel and unusual. For his research, Nicholas worked
on developing a series of nonthrombogenic biomaterials that
could be used for artificial organs.
Nicholas continued with his balanced interests during his
graduate school days and pursued a minor in comparative
linguistics with studies of French, German, Italian, Spanish,
Dutch, and Russian. Nicholas spent a little over two years
in graduate school, receiving his Sc.D. degree in chemical
engineering in October 1973. The highly remarkable speed
with which he completed his Ph.D. was just one of the early
indications of the amazing productivity and impact that
characterizes his entire career. While at MIT, he became
best friends with classmates Mike Sefton (a fellow Ph.D.
student in Merrill's group, now a professor at the University
of Toronto) and Bob Langer (a Ph.D. student in Professor
Clark Colton's labs and now a professor at MIT). Along with
sharing lofty research interests, in their down time all three
cultivated a keenness for two simpler things: ping pong and
ice cream. The odd combination added up to many good
times, and his deep friendship with these two individuals
endures to this day.


After finishing at
MIT, Nicholas did two
years of military ser-
vice as a second lieu-
tenant in the Greek
Army. At this point,
Nicholas was com-
pletely sure that he
wanted to get more a .
involved in biomedi- L
cal engineering. So,
he returned to MIT as - -
a research associate
in the Department of Chemical Engineering and the Arte-
riosclerosis Center, serving as a post-doc with Clark Colton
(himself a former Ph.D. student of Ed Merrill) and Ken
Smith. His research involved understanding the mechanisms
of arteriosclerosis-how the transport of blood and the cho-
lesterol and lipoprotein components in the blood contribute
to plaque formation.

PURDUE UNIVERSITY: 1976 - 2002
Following his post-doctoral appointment at MIT, Nicholas
was committed to a career as a faculty member in chemical
engineering, seeking the opportunity to perform research
while simultaneously educating students in the classroom and
in the laboratory. From his first day at Purdue through today,
Nicholas has been committed to education, research, and the
general improvement of his profession.


Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009


K
it


and K6nigsberg- so this was a very
natural path for him. Before he left
Greece in 1971, he knew he wanted
to do something novel and unusual


Left, in the summer of 1954, 6-year-old Nicho-
las rides his favorite American bicycle-sent
from New York by his aunt. Right, in 1959,
standing amid confetti from Carnival in Ath-
ens. Above, with his father, Nassos, and sister,
Louiza, in the summer of 1970, Athens.


ft-� I



















































Nicholas was hired at Purdue as an assistant professor
in 1976 and rapidly promoted to associate professor
after just two years. His research program began by
looking at two themes that continue through his research
today. Todd Gehr (now head of nephrology at Virginia
Commonwealth) and William Bussing (until recently a
VP of BP in Singapore) completed their master's theses
under Nicholas's supervision in 1978, with both doing
polymerization reaction engineering-including in
Bussing's thesis an examination of the importance of
crosslinking reactions, while Gehr's thesis examined
copolymerization reactions appropriate for hydrogel
production and subsequently developed techniques for
heparinizing these hydrogels to improve biocompatibil-
ity. Simultaneously, Nicholas was initiating programs
on diffusion and mass transfer in polymers and mem-
branes, including his first Ph.D. student, Ming-Shih
Yen, who was jointly supervised by Prof. Schoenhals
in mechanical engineering.


Above left, Nicholas as a second lieutenant in the Greek
Army in 1974. He served two years following completion
of his Ph.D. Below left, lab mates in Ed Merrill's lab at MIT
in 1972 (from left to right, Steve Rose, Hussein Banijamali,
Tim Burke, Mike Sefton, and Nicholas). Above, as a young
assistant professor at Purdue, 1976.

By 1982, Nicholas had been promoted to full professor and his
first batches of chemical engineering Ph.D. students began to gradu-
ate. The cohort of Lucy Lucht, Richard Korsmeyer, and Donald
Miller completed their doctoral theses in 1983 and 1984 in research
themes that focused on applying the fundamentals of polymer sci-
ence and transport phenomena to fields as broadly ranging as the
macromolecular structure of coal, synthetic gels, solute release, and
biocompatibility. These first doctoral students represented only the
tip of the iceberg, as Nicholas has now supervised 83 completed
doctoral theses. Further, along with Robert Gurny (a post-doc
who started in 1977) these students and Nicholas were building
the foundation of and initiating his work in the fields for which he
has become best known: biomaterials, controlled drug delivery,
and hydrogels. Throughout the late '70s and early '80s, Nicholas
worked extensively on enhancing the fundamental understanding of
transport phenomena in polymeric materials. In particular, Nicholas
worked to develop and apply knowledge of how penetrants are trans-
ported through polymer networks where the size of the diffusing
molecule relative to the mesh size of the network dictates transport.
Further, in work begun by Richard Korsmeyer and Jennifer Sinclair
(an undergraduate researcher at the time) and followed up on by
many others through the years, Nicholas analyzed the transport of
penetrants into glassy polymers. Here, the transport relationships
are dramatically complicated by the strong concentration dependant
diffusion coefficient, arising from the glass transition that occurs
in the polymer.
In 1982, he went to the University of Geneva as a visiting professor
and was also selected to be the editor of the journal Biomaterials-a
position he kept for 20 years, transforming the publication into the
premier journal of the field. His work during this period was high-
lighted by the completion of Raymond Davidson's doctoral thesis
Chemical Engineering Education




























Above, Nicholas poses with best buddy
Bob Langer, left, and Bob's wife, Laura, at
the first U.S.-Japan Drug Delivery Meeting, in
Maui, Hawaii, in 1991. Above right, Nicholas
and Lisa with Terry Papoutsakis in Basel,
Switzerland, in August 1988-just days after Nicholas
and Lisa's wedding, in which Terry served as best man.

in 1985 that provided a foundation from which to predict drug
release from swollen polymeric systems and drug-delivery
devices. The targeted application of this work was the bur-
geoning field of controlled drug delivery that Nicholas was
leading along with his good friend (and fellow fan of ping
pong and ice cream) Bob Langer at MIT.
In the early to mid 1980s, Nicholas recruited an exceptional
group of students that comprised Andy Tsou, Tony Mikos,
Ronald Harland, Steven Lustig, Lisa Brannon, John Klier,
and Alec Scranton. Nicholas worked with these students to
expand the breadth and depth of his impact by focusing on
hydrogel materials and transport phenomena in glassy poly-
mers. He examined the formation and network properties
of the hydrogel through reaction engineering and structural
modeling of the polymer network while extending his previ-
ous work to examine the effects of pH, hydrogen bonding,
and various other intra- and intermolecular interactions that
could be used to control drug release from or swelling in these
hydrogel materials. From the early to mid 1980s Nicholas was
developing smart, responsive hydrogels that were ultimately
used to produce pH- and temperature-sensitive polymer net-
works for the delivery of streptokinase and other enzymes.
At this same time, in 1984 Nicholas's parade of awards
began in earnest as he was selected to receive the Materials
Engineering and Sciences (now CMA Stine) Award from
the American Institute of Chemical Engineers in recognition
of his outstanding contributions to materials science. A few
years later he also received the Food, Pharmaceuticals, and
Bioengineering Award of AIChE.
In the 1986-87 academic year Nicholas took sabbaticals first
at the University of Paris, then at the University of Parma,
Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009


a .


where he was a visiting professor. At Parma, Nicholas estab-
lished one of his longest and most productive collaborations,
with Professor Paolo Colombo-a collaboration that has
produced more than 25 refereed journal articles and several
jointly supervised students and student exchanges.
At around this same time of the late 1980s and early 1990s
Nicholas's group underwent another major expansion with
more than 20 graduate students and post-doctoral research-
ers in the laboratory at various times during this period. His
group also led the field into several new areas by beginning
research projects focused on bionanotechnology and molecu-
lar imprinting, while significantly expanding his focus on
controlled drug delivery by targeting several specific diseases
and clinical needs. His program was recognized repeatedly
throughout this period with numerous awards, including the
1988 American Society for Engineering Education's Curtis
McGraw Award for Outstanding Research that is awarded to
the most outstanding researcher from any engineering disci-
pline under the age of 40. Nicholas also was recognized for
his excellence by several nonengineering organizations dur-
ing this period-a testament to his focus on interdisciplinary
work that has broad impact across traditional boundaries. The
awards include the Controlled Release Society's Founders'
Award (1991), the Society for Biomaterials Clemson Award
for basic research (1994), the Research Achievement Award
in Pharmaceutical Technology (1999), and the Dale Wurster
Award from theAmerican Association of Pharmaceutical Sci-
entists (2002). Purdue recognized Nicholas by naming him the
Showalter Distinguished Professor of Biomedical Engineering
in 1993, and in 1999 and 2000 Nicholas received honorary
doctorates from the Universities of Ghent, Athens, and Parma
in recognition of his distinguished career-long achievements
and his valued contributions to those institutions.











THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN:
2003-PRESENT
During the 2002-03 academic year, Nicholas sought a change
in direction for a variety of personal and professional reasons
and found the ideal fit at the University of Texas at Austin.
There, in 2003, Nicholas became the Fletcher Stuckey Pratt
Chair with appointments in the Departments of Chemical En-
gineering and Biomedical Engineering as well as the College of
Pharmacy. His move was bittersweet, with fond memories and
strong collaborations at Purdue but with exciting opportunities
availed by his new location and colleagues.
At Texas he made the transition as smoothly and as rapidly
as possible, transferring many students and picking up new
ones such that he has already had more than 10 students
complete their doctoral theses at Texas in just six years there.
Nicholas's research programs have also taken on new and ex-
panded directions since his move, although he has continued
to focus on biomaterials. In particular, his work on molecular
imprinting and selective molecular capture and release from
synthetic hydrogels has led to great successes in intelligent
polymer therapeutics. A recent focus of his group is the com-
bination of hydrogel technology with micro- and nanotechnol-
ogy for single cell delivery devices, for biomimetic systems,
and for nanovalves and other micro- and nanostructures.
Since his move to Texas, the national and international
recognition of Nicholas's research accomplishments has been
astounding. He has been elected to the National Academy of
Engineering (2006), the Institute of Medicine of the National
Academies (2008), and the French Academy of Pharmacy
(2005), in addition to receiving the AIChE William Walker
Award (2006) and the Jay Bailey Award (2006), and being
named the Institute Lecturer by AIChE (2007) and receiving
its Founders' Award (2008). Last year he was also selected
one of the 100 Chemical Engineers of the Modem Era by
AIChE and became an associate editor of the AIChE Journal.
Nicholas also received the 2008 Pierre Galletti Award from
the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineers.
This is the highest award given by this organization, recog-
nizing exceptional career achievements in the medical and
engineering arenas.
Over the course of his career, Nicholas has established
himself as one of the preeminent polymer scientists and
biomedical engineers of our time, particularly in the area of
creating new fundamental knowledge in regard to polymer
science and engineering and subsequently translating those
results into practical knowledge and viable commercial sys-
tems. As noted, Nicholas's ability to apply polymer science
to a wide variety of bioengineering fields has been recognized
by numerous international, interdisciplinary organizations.
In fact, the interdisciplinary nature of Nicholas's work is
highlighted by his selection as a fellow of nine diverse or-
ganizations that span engineering, science, physics, materi-


Nicholas, circulating amid the hundred guests at his
surprise 50th birthday party in 1998, passes the table of
friends and colleagues Balaji Narasimhan of Iowa State
and Mike Sefton of the University of Toronto.

als, biomaterials, and pharmacy, while also being named a
founder of three of these organizations (AIChE, the Society
for Biomaterials, and the Controlled Release Society). He has
regularly demonstrated a unique talent for achieving signifi-
cant fundamental insights into polymer materials fabrication
and modification, polymer thermodynamics, polymerization
kinetics, and transport behavior-and then applying that
knowledge to the development of improved materials, mate-
rial performance, and biomedical devices. Nicholas's ability
in this area is highlighted by the more than 1,000 manuscripts
that he has published, the more than 18,000 citations of his
work, his H-factor of 72, and his impact on practical devices
and companies.
Nicholas's fundamental achievements have been translated
into more than 20 commercial medical products, each in
collaboration with his students and frequently with others
as well. For example, he has developed, patented, and/or
commercialized materials for vocal cords, intraocular lenses
for cataract patients, nanodelivery systems for oral adminis-
tration of insulin to type I diabetic patients, systems for oral
delivery of calcitonin for treatment of postmenopausal women
suffering from osteoporosis, and devices for oral delivery of
interferon-beta for multiple sclerotic patients. His work with
Professors Colombo and Conte in collaboration with several
companies has resulted in hydrogel controlled-release devices,
and his more recent work at UT has led to the AffinimerTM,
TheraSmartTM, TabletSmartlM, BeautySmartTM ,AppiFormTM,


Chemical Engineering Education





































and other technologies for smart, programmed, and respon-
sive/recognitive delivery of drugs, proteins, and cosmetic and
consumer products.
Nicholas's research record obviously places him at the
absolute top of his peers in this generation of polymer and
biomaterials researchers-yet that is only one of his many
contributions to our field. Nicholas has trained more than 95
past or current Ph.D. students and hundreds of undergraduate
researchers. These students have gone on to have an ever-ex-
panding impact on the chemical engineering, polymer science,
pharmaceutical engineering, and biomaterials fields, with
more than 30 having entered academia and numerous others
having become corporate leaders. In just the last eight years,
Nicholas's former students have received five different AlChE
Institute-level awards, and the 2008 and 2009 ASEE Chemical
Engineering Lectureships have both been awarded to former
undergraduate or graduate students of his. In conversations
with Nicholas, it is clear that his greatest pride lies in his
students -those he has advised in the lab as well as those he
has taught in class.

COMMITMENT TO EDUCATION
At work, first and foremost, Nicholas is committed to stu-
dents and their education. In a recent interview for the January
2009 issue of the Controlled Release Society Newsletter (to
go along with his 2008 election to the Institute of Medicine
of the National Academies of Science), Nicholas was asked
what he regarded as his most significant achievement of his
career. His response was "my contribution to the education
of the younger generations of chemical engineers, biomedical


Nicholas, center,
receiving the
2008 Career
Research Excel-
lence Award-the
highest UT
recognition for a
professor. Flank-
ing him are Uni-
versity of Texas
Vice President for
Research
Juan Sanchez,
left, and Uni-
versity of Texas
President
William Powers,
right.



engineers, pharmaceutical scientists, and especially industrial
and academic leaders in drug delivery, controlled release,
biomaterials, and nanobiotechnology." Anyone who has
participated in his research group or has ever been a student
in one of his classes can verify how his actions line up with
his answer to the interviewer's question.
In the classroom, he is a very animated teacher and his
lectures incorporate the latest research advances. Students
in his classes learn first-hand how fundamental knowledge
of engineering concepts can translate to products or devices
that help people and society. Because he conveys such excite-
ment for learning and discovery, students are highly engaged
in his classes and are eager for knowledge. As a result of his
excellence in classroom instruction, Nicholas has received
numerous teaching awards including the engineering-wide
teaching award at Purdue (the Potter Award) three times,
and the chemical engineering department teaching award at
Purdue (the Shreve Award) five times. In 2007 he was voted
the "Best Faculty Member in Chemical Engineering" by the
students at UT-Austin.
In addition to authoring more than 20 educational papers,
Nicholas has combined his love of history and chemical and
biomedical engineering by writing several historical books
and articles on the chemical and biomedical engineering
profession. One of his first history books along this line was
a book about how chemical engineering developed at Purdue
and what Purdue's contributions were to the chemical engi-
neering field. This book was published in 1986 on the occasion
of the 75th anniversary of the department. After that, Nicholas
started to write books and articles on how the fields of chemical


Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009










engineering and biomedical engineering de-
veloped, including his 1988 Kluwer book,
History of Chemical Engineering. Just last
year, he completed another article, "The
First Century of Chemical Engineering,"
for the Chemical Heritage Foundation and
the AlChE Centennial celebration.
Not only is Nicholas an excellent
teacher, but as a mentor and advisor he is
unsurpassed. Undergraduates flock to his
research group; they want to be a part of
the excitement. He takes in students who
know nothing about research or academia,
but are interested in learning. Not only
does he actively mentor them in techni-
cal matters, he cares about their families,
their personal lives, and their aspirations. *
Due to his holistic approach to advising,
and perhaps in part because of the nature
of his research field, Nicholas's group is
always filled with female students. It has Lisa and Nichol
been that way even since the early days various
of his independent research program in
the late 1970s, when it was very rare to find any females at
all in chemical engineering research. With his continuous,
lifelong support and mentoring, many of Nicholas's female
students have gone on to the very top positions in industry
and academia. He has always been one to lead the way in
breaking the glass ceiling!
To date, more than 500 undergraduate students have par-
ticipated in research projects supervised either directly by
Nicholas or by one of his graduate students. This number is
staggering and shows his unwavering commitment to enhanc-
ing the quality of undergraduate education through the involve-
ment of chemical and biomedical engineering undergraduates
in research. The undergraduates who work in his research
group get a taste of all of the same experiences as his graduate
students-undergraduate students are co-authors on his jour-
nal and conference publications, present at national scientific
meetings, and even participate in proposal preparation. Five
of Nicholas's patents even have undergraduates as co-inven-
tors! When undergraduates are brought into Nicholas's group,
they are treated as full members of the research team and are
expected to perform as such. They are given a defined project
and a high level of responsibility. Because of this approach,
students typically rise to the challenge and learn to become
productive and effective researchers. Nearly two-thirds of all
students participating in Nicholas's group have gone on to
further their educations with an advanced degree.
For his successes in mentoring and advising, he has received
the Myron Scott Best CounselorAward at Purdue and the na-
tional AlChE Counselor Award associated with his service as
the faculty advisor for the Purdue AIChE Student Chapter for


as at the Indianapolis Zoo in 1996. Both are avid supporters of
zoo projects and efforts to protect endangered species.

15 years. The American Society for Engineering Education
has also recognized him with all its major awards includ-
ing the 1992 George Westinghouse Award for teaching, the
2000 General Electric Senior Research Award, and the 2006
Dow Chemical Engineering Award for both educational and
research accomplishments, as well as election as an ASEE
fellow in 2008.
Nicholas's mentoring and connectedness with his students
do not end when a student graduates or leaves his group. He
proactively keeps up with his former students' careers and per-
sonal lives via periodic "what's up?" / "how are you doing?"
e-mails and phone calls. He will always do whatever he can
to help a former student at any time in their career if they call
on him for assistance. Nicholas also keeps his former students
-affectionately known as "peppamers"-connected with
each other. He sends out regular e-mail blasts to his students
letting the others know about any successes or recognition
any one of them has achieved.
Because Nicholas gives so much of himself to his students,
he is very much loved and honored in return. For his 50th
birthday in 1998, about 100 friends and former students
gathered in Indianapolis for a surprise party. Recently, for
his 60th birthday, a research symposium and party in his
honor was held at the University of Texas at Austin and was
attended by more than 200 people, many from his MIT and
Purdue days.

NICHOLAS AND LISA-THE DYNAMIC DUO
Nicholas met his wife Lisa when she (then Lisa Brannon,
now Lisa Brannon-Peppas) was enrolled in the Ph.D. program


Chemical Engineering Education





















III


Pride and joy: Nicholas with his children,
Alexi and Katia.


in chemical engineering at Purdue. They were married in 1988 after
she completed her degree. Nicholas will readily tell you that not
only does he love Lisa deeply, but that he is also madly "in love"
with her even after all their years of marriage. Nicholas and Lisa
make quite a team as two ambitious and highly successful chemi-
cal engineering professionals. As Nicholas told AIChE Extra in a
Chemical Engineering Progress article (February 2000), "I am very,
very lucky to have met Lisa in that respect. When I go home, I am
grateful to have someone I can share my work with." They both
agree that science is certainly one of the big topics that comes up
at the dinner table.
After finishing her Ph.D., Lisa worked at Eli Lilly for three
years. She then founded her own company, Biogel Technology,
Inc., in 1991, where she served as president for 11 years. During
that time, she made significant research contributions in the areas
of biomaterials, controlled drug delivery, drug targeting, biodegrad-
able materials, and the structure-property relationship of polymers.
One of her key accomplishments was developing targeted delivery
systems to treat breast cancer using biodegradable nanoparticles.
In 2003, Lisa also joined the University of Texas at Austin faculty,
as a research professor and as director of the Center of Biological
and Medical Engineering. While there, she received a biomedical
engineering department teaching award as well as several research
awards for her work in biomaterials. In 2008, Lisa decided to leave
academia and is currently vice president of Appian Laboratories,
LLC, in Austin.
Lisa is a fellow of the American Institute of Medical and Biologi-
cal Engineering (in fact, she was the youngest fellow ever elected


Nicholas and Andreas Acrivos (of CUNY), two of the
prestigious list of "100 Chemical Engineers of the
Modern Era," honored at the AIChE meeting in 2008.

to the Institute at the time of her election) and a fellow
in biomaterials science and engineering of the Society
of Biomaterials. Most recently, she received the very
prestigious national 2008 AIChE Award in Chemical
Engineering Practice for outstanding contributions in
the industrial practice of the profession-right along-
side Nicholas, who received the 2008 AIChE Found-
ers' Award for outstanding contributions to the field
of chemical engineering. Nicholas and Lisa have both
served as directors of AIChE as well as chairs of the
Materials Engineering and Sciences Division of AIChE.
They truly are a dynamic duo!
Besides Lisa, the deepest joys in Nicholas's life are
his children Katia (Katherine), an 8-year-old, and Alexi


Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009



































A lifelong lover of opera, Nicholas poses outside
the entrance to an opera concert in Busseto, Italy,
prior to attending the event on the exact day of famed
composer Giuseppe Verdi's centennial.

(Alexander), who is 5. Nicholas is very clear-no matter what
the demands on his time, his family always comes first. So that
Nicholas can spend more time with his family, he has become
very judicious in his choice of opportunities to travel.
Nicholas and Lisa have an active social life with many
interests. They are avid supporters of various zoo projects
including the protection of endangered species. Before kids,
their travel schedule was extensive-many wonderful sites
and much fine cuisine. An itinerary incorporating trips to
places like Paris, Las Vegas, and Japan back-to-back was not
uncommon. Now, family travel typically involves trips to the
beach with lots of sun, sand, and swimming. They also take
a family vacation to Maui, Hawaii, every other year along
with their participation in the U.S.-Japan Symposium on
Drug Delivery Systems.

AWAY FROM WORK
Nicholas is a true renaissance man. His interests are un-
believably broad with music and history dominating the
scene. For music, opera is his love and helps him relax. As
Lisa says, "He'll drop any chemical engineering project for
opera." Nicholas has spent more than 40 years writing about
Italian, French, and romantic German opera. He has published
hundreds of critiques, essays, and articles on opera and classic
music performances on various Web sites and in magazines
including Fanfare, High Fidelity, Stereo Review, International


Opera Record Collector, and The Record Collector. He has
even published two books (Vasso Argyris: The Great Greek
Tenor of the Interwar Years and Greek Light Music of the
1935-1975 Period).
For history, his main interest is the Byzantine Empire based
in Constantinople, especially the period of 976 to 1025,
which is in the middle of a series of emperors known as the
Macedonian Dynasty. He has published 26 articles on the
Byzantine Empire, the history of Attica, and related subjects.
Another historical topic of key interest for Nicholas is ocean
liners and 19th- and 20th-century immigration to the United
States. He has written some 300 short articles on these topics
in various sites.
Nicholas has also contributed articles to various literary jour-
nals and newspapers. For example, he was a major contributor
to the 1968 and 1978 Tourist Guides of Greece (Institute of
Tourist Publications, Athens, Greece). He has also contributed
articles in the magazines Eleusinian and Hellenic Chronicle,
and the Greek newspapers Daily and The Tribune.
Nicholas speaks Greek, French, German, Italian, and Span-
ish, can read/write in Russian, Portuguese, and Dutch, and
can read several other languages. He has even taken classes
in Hebrew and Japanese (especially because of his sabbatical
leaves to Hebrew University and Hoshi University) although
he admits these are extremely difficult languages for him.
Aiding Nicholas in his mastery of all of these languages is his
encyclopedic memory. Lisa says that the only thing he ever
forgets are the items he hints at during the year that he might
like for Christmas presents. Therefore, when he receives his
presents at Christmas, they are a surprise to him! Lisa also says
that Katia appears to have inherited Nicholas's encyclopedic
memory, but does not forget about her Christmas present
hints! Nicholas's organizational skills are also incredible-
these skills go hand-in-hand with his amazing productivity
and memory. He believes there is a place for everything and
everything in its place. He can lay his hands on any piece of
paper or any electronic file within seconds.
Nicholas is a collector of opera and classical music CDs.
Lisa says that if there were space, he would have a CD of ev-
ery opera ever published. Other extensive collections include
operatic 78-rpm records-including many rare records from
the period of 1898 to 1912-history books in every possible
language, nutcrackers, and old maps.
Also among his collections is an assortment of silver
serving pieces. Nicholas actually likes cleaning them. While
others might dread the tedious task, carefully polishing each
piece pleases him, he says, because he very much appreciates
seeing the results of his labor-fine silver with a beautiful
shine. For an educator, mentor, and researcher for whom the
success of his students is the brightest reflection of a brilliant
career, it's a fitting image. 7


Chemical Engineering Education










Iejn1 department


Chemical Engineering at...


the University of Illinois


at Urbana-Champaign

EDMUND G. SEEBAUER, PAUL J.A. KENIS, AND MARINA MILETIC


C chemical engineering
education at Illinois is
unique. That unique-
ness springs in part from the
nature of the state of Illinois
and its university system, and
from the unusual administrative
structure of our department.
The University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign is the Mor-
rill-Act land-grant institution of
the state. In fact, the land-grant
idea was conceived by Jona-
than Baldwin Turner of Illinois
College and driven mainly by
the Illinois Congressional del-
egation. The state of Illinois at
that time hosted an exception-
ally diverse economy including
manufacturing, transportation,
agriculture, and services. New
universities were needed espe- The R
cially "to promote the liberal the University of IlI
and practical education of the
industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in
life."'M' The economy of the state continues to be very diverse
today, and it supports 11 million residents-yet only two pub-
lic chemical engineering departments reside within the state.
These factors lead to an extraordinarily large, talented, and
socioeconomically diverse undergraduate student pool.
Our department is administratively unique by maintaining
strong structural connections with two colleges: Engineering
and Liberal Arts and Sciences. Indeed, Chemical & Biomo-
lecular Engineering (ChBE) is formally housed within the
School of Chemical Sciences (together with the Department of
Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009


oger Adams Laboratory North Entrance, at
inois at Urbana-Champaign, the primary home of ChBE.
Chemistry) in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. Yet the
department participates in virtually all College of Engineering
affairs except budget, and throughout most of the 1990s, the
dean of the College of Engineering was from the Department
of Chemical Engineering. Sitting astride these two colleges
promotes an outlook among the faculty and students that
emphasizes both technical strength and the appreciation of
the social context, history, intellectual flexibility, and lifelong
learning that represent core values of the liberal arts.


� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009











EDUCATION: INNOVATIVE AND EFFICIENT
Our department operates within a public research univer-
sity, one of many such institutions that face long-standing
challenges of balancing strong teaching and research within
a changing framework of state and corporate support. Within
that context, ChBE frames its mission as follows:
To improve the human condition 1 il..-,. 1, the study
and practice of chemical engineering by education,
research, economic development, and engagement
with and service to the profession and society.

We strive to educate leaders who are rooted deeply in the
technical foundations of chemical engineering science, yet
have cultivated the intellectual scope, flexibility, and determi-
nation to apply knowledge in novel ways throughout life. That
we have succeeded is demonstrated by our family of living
alumni, which boasts three individuals who have served as
chief executives of Fortune 500 companies, four executive
vice presidents, and one university president.

Undergraduate Education: Holistic
Central to the ethos of a public research university is en-
hanced access to education at modest cost: Such institutions
are geared to educating large numbers of students. Yet for
decades, our department has chosen to keep the number of
faculty relatively low. The number of tenured/tenure-track
faculty oscillated between about six and nine in the 1970s,
and has grown to its record size of 15.5 only in the past
year (one is shared with another department). Even that
number remains small compared with the undergraduate
student enrollment of 425, leading to a student/faculty ratio
in the high twenties. The small faculty size encourages a
degree of coordination and integration that becomes more
difficult for large departments, but it also requires special
attentiveness and creativity by the faculty to foster a high-
quality learning environment. Efficiency is paramount,
with only the design and unit operations courses taught
more than once per year. Many elective courses are taught
in simultaneous graduate and undergraduate versions that
have one set of lectures but homework and examinations
attuned to the different degree levels.
The environment is intellectually diverse, stimulating,
and demanding, and requires students to take considerable
responsibility for their own education and to be personally
invested in their future success. Graduates of the curriculum
cultivate a disposition and skillset that make them excep-
tionally successful in either graduate school or entry-level
corporate jobs, and also throughout their careers. Figure 1
shows placement statistics by job function averaged over
the past decade.
ChBE's close administrative alignment with the chemis-
try department promotes a strong emphasis on basic science
in education. Indeed, Figure 2 shows that the undergraduate
180


curriculum includes 23% chemistry in the total course content,
which is significantly higher than most chemical engineering
programs. Students take two required courses in analytical as
well as physical chemistry in addition to organic and general
chemistry. This emphasis on chemistry provides not only a
strong conceptual base in diagnostic methods, analysis, and
quantum mechanics but also lots of hands-on experience
through laboratory courses.
Consistent with the strong science base in the department
and the research mission of the overall university, many un-
dergraduate students are actively involved in research. Over
time, 50-75% of undergraduates have worked on at least
one individual research project. Typically, 60-70% of these
projects involve ChBE faculty.
ChBE's administrative alignment within the College of Lib-
eral Arts and Sciences and geographical location near central
campus (separate from most other engineering departments at
the north end of the campus) fosters an environment wherein
our students routinely rub shoulders with many nonengineers.


Figure 1. Placement statistics for Illinois ChBE graduates by job
function averaged over the past decade.


Figure 2. Distribution of subject material in the Illinois un-
dergraduate curriculum. Chemistry, mathematics, and other
sciences are represented particularly strongly.
Chemical Engineering Education


B.S. Placement


Other
6% A


wIdustfy
Mya


Consulting
8%


Foreign Computer
Foreign Science Undergraduate
Language 2
4% 2% Curriculum
Physics-


Technical
Electives
9%










The relationships thus formed also stimulate increased intel-
lectual breadth and scope among the ChBE undergraduates.
The curriculum is unusually holistic in the sense that it
proves a great deal of chemistry, mathematics, and physics
as a foundation for hands-on, practical, and real-world rigor-
ous capstone courses. The curriculum strongly emphasizes the
development of technical problem-solving skills in the senior
year. Students learn open-ended process and product design and
control with cost optimization, technical communication, theory,
statistical analysis, equipment troubleshooting, plant safety,
engineering disaster prevention, equipment design, the Kepner
Tregoe problem-solving process, and case study analysis.
A strong foundation is laid in chemical engineering for all
students starting with the first year. Engineering is introduced
early in the freshman year through Engineering 100: Introduc-
tion to Engineering and ChBE 121: The Chemical Engineer-
ing Profession. Students complete a chemical engineering
group project, and are encouraged to join such professional
organizations as the student chapter of AIChE, Omega Chi
Epsilon, and the Society of Women Engineers. This strong
foundation helps students successfully adapt to the curriculum
and stay in the program.
Rigorous experimentation and data analysis comprise the
unit operations course in which statistics and model creation
meets troubleshooting, process scale up, and economics. Stu-
dents study everything from the internals of pumps and com-
pressors to experiment design and creative problem solving.
Each project builds on the previous one and requires critical


analysis of the prior group's results. The laboratory course
has evolved to include new experiments such as polymer
extrusion, liquid-liquid extraction, ideal reactor optimization,
and bioreactors and fermentation. The course revolves around
characterizing systems, creating models, performing statistical
and profitability analysis, and troubleshooting equipment.
The capstone design course is one of the most rigorous
and demanding in the curriculum, with a strong emphasis of
chemical engineering fundamentals integrated with process
simulation, hazard and operability studies, economics, sus-
tainability, and optimization. Through group and individual
reports students create a process that produces a commodity
chemical safely and efficiently with little wasted energy
or physical resources. Each design becomes more detailed
than the previous, including more safety and economic
optimization.
Overall, students in the senior year write eight individual
and group reports and give about five hours of group presenta-
tions. Students work in a variety of groups with and without
team leaders to implement shared project ownership, efficient
decision making, delegation, constructive peer feedback, and
self-reflection. All students complete a multi-stage qualita-
tive and quantitative peer- and self-performance review.
Presentations are reviewed live by peers. Students critique
their own presentations and create performance goals for
subsequent projects.
In response to student requests, we introduced in 2002 a for-
mal Biomolecular Engineering concentration to the chemical















Lecturer
Marina
Miletic
(standing)
teaches un-
dergraduates
in the unit
ops lab.


Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009










engineering bachelor degree. The con- ., , ,
centration allows students to enhance /
their understanding of bioprocessing,
food processing, systems biology, and
biomolecular engineering through their
choice of technical electives. '
Our graduates continue to find excel-
lent places to embark on their profes-
sional careers, although placement
distribution continuously evolves with
societal needs. After many years of a
steady increase in the fraction of gradu-
ates joining food, personal care, and
consumer products industries, the oil/
energy companies are now re-emerging
as a major destination.
Graduate Education and Research
Our department recognizes that well-
educated graduate students constitute
a "product" of the research endeavor
as much as discoveries and technical
results. That is, the quality of research
is determined as much by the quality
of the mentoring relationships between
students and faculty as by the factual
content generated by those relation-
ships. Accordingly, graduate education
at Illinois emphasizes continually de-
veloping and exercising an integrative
thought process.
The U.S. education system has long
internalized the basic notion that link-
ing doctoral education with research
strengthens both.P2I This idea traces back Graduate student.
to the 19th-century German principle of The gn
Bildium' durch Wissenschaft (education
through science) advanced by Wilhelm
von Humboldt. Yet elevating the impor-
tance of the mentoring relationship represents a key develop-
ment. In the original formulation of the German philosophy
Idealism, the purpose of education was to find "absolute truth
as such,"'31 so that society could be rationally ordered on the
principles thus discovered. The subject matter rather than the
person received the most attention. Faculty teaching reflected
the search for objective knowledge, while students were left
to learn independently, with minimal direction.
At Illinois we feel that the focus on the student is especially
important to properly justify research in a public university.
As Harvey Brooks wrote over a quarter of a century ago,
"The public... is now more skeptical that the universities
are the best locale for basic and generic applied research,
especially when that research is being justified for its


s in discussion with Professor Huimin Zhao (second from left).
oup's focus is on ways to engineer proteins enabling
the production of biofuels.


benefits to the market economy rather than for its benefits
to public sector responsibilities such as health or environ-
mental protection. The idea that the universities are the
principal locale for virtually all forms of research in the
public domain needs restatement and ,iL ,,,1i, ",4]
As public research universities currently seek to face the
challenges they confront, we believe an important aspect of
"restating and updating" the justification for research should
include this focus on students.
Accordingly, our graduate curriculum is structured care-
fully. The doctoral degree requires a total of eight courses. All
students take applied mathematics to build a solid foundation
in the development of mathematical models and be exposed
to modem mathematical methods currently used in the solu-
tion of chemical and biomolecular engineering problems.


Chemical Engineering Education
































Figure 3. Placement of Illinois Ph.D. students by sector.

Furthermore, they are required to take one graduate-level
transport phenomena course and at least one graduate-level
course on kinetics, reaction engineering, or thermodynam-
ics. The remaining five courses can be chosen based on the
student's research needs and personal interests within sci-
ence or engineering. As part of these technical electives, all
students need to take at least one bio-related course and one
graduate-level course outside our department in recognition
of the interdisciplinary nature of today's research enterprise.
The recent increase in the number of ChBE faculty overall,
as well as the number of faculty with research interests in
"bio" and/or "micro/nano," has led to new graduate elec-
tives in Techniques in Biomolecular Engineering, Systems
Biology, Microelectronics Processing (lecture and lab), and
Microchemical Systems.
Consistent with ChBE's alignment in the College of Liberal
Arts and Sciences, many of our graduate students choose to
broaden their horizons in nontechnical directions. Students
take courses in such topics as economics, finance, statistics,
leadership, and proposal writing. Some also obtain formal
teaching and leadership certificates. The faculty actively seek
to show by example how to broaden one's intellectual scope.
For example, a textbook on ethics in science and engineering
emerged from the department earlier this decade.P5]
To emphasize breadth and flexibility, the qualifying exami-
nation for doctoral study comprises two components: a written
exam on coursework concepts and an oral presentation on
proposed research. Both are normally completed within the
first year of study. The written exam is offered in January, and
students must correctly answer eight questions out of a selec-
tion of 16-22 total questions on undergraduate and graduate
course work. At least four must be chosen from the "core"
list, which comprises all traditional undergraduate chemical


Ph.D. Placement


Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009


National Lab
4%

Pharma and
Biotech
8%

Automotive
and Aerospace
8%


Faculty in
Academia
8%


engineering topics. The remaining questions are drawn from
all graduate electives offered in recent years.
The flexibility in required coursework as well as in selec-
tion of questions for the qualifying exam ensures also that
graduate students that enter our program with a nonchemical
engineering background [e.g., bioengineering, (bio-)chem-
istry, mechanical engineering] have no trouble fulfilling
these requirements, while still ensuring basic knowledge of
chemical engineering principles. This has become particularly
important over the last decade as the percentage of applicants
with nonchemical engineering undergraduate degrees has
grown steadily, to about 25% of the applicant pool.
The oral part of the qualifying exam entails a presentation
of proposed research to a committee of faculty in April. The
students need to (i) demonstrate a coherent understanding of
their research area in general; (ii) describe and justify their
particular project; and (iii) unfold a research plan for the next
six to twelve months. We introduced this component in 2004
with the aim of helping graduate students think critically
about their research project early, so they will have a much
quicker start. Indeed, this exercise has induced students to take
charge of their project and they seem to become independent
more quickly.
The graduate program has grown recently to its present size
of about 110 graduate students. In addition, 30 or so students
from other graduate programs pursue their Ph.D.'s with ChBE
faculty. More than 94% of the graduate students that enter
our program successfully obtain a Ph.D. degree, with most of
the few remaining students leaving with a M.S. degree. Upon
graduation our Ph.D. graduates embark on a wide variety
of careers, spanning academia, national labs, and various
industries. Figure 3 shows the placement of these students
by industry sector averaged over the past decade.
ChBE's research directions exemplify the diversity of the
chemical engineering discipline today, encompassing fun-
damental and applied efforts in long-standing areas such as
microelectronics and complex fluids as well as a wide range
of emerging efforts in energy and biomolecular engineering.
Demographically, the department is young, with slightly
over half the faculty at the assistant or associate professor
level in 2008. Thus, it is easy to cultivate an environment
that fosters collaboration to address subjects of immediate
societal interest. The department seeks to provide ample
room for fundamental science investigations, while provid-
ing every opportunity for the outcomes of fundamental sci-
ence to translate into inventions that lead to new tools for
scientific study and ways to address society's most daunting
challenges. Reflecting this commitment, the department has
major research efforts in human health, energy/sustainability,
and advanced computation for applications.
Many of our research efforts require an inter- or multi-
disciplinary approach for which the Illinois environment is










exceptionally well-suited through the Beckman Institute for
Advanced Science & Technology, the Institute for Genomic
Biology (IGB), the National Center for Supercomputing
Applications (NCSA), the Materials Research Laboratory
(MRL), the Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI), and the Mi-
cro- and Nanotechnology Laboratory (MNTL). Not only do
these research institutes provide an environment for faculty
to come together and pursue collaborative multidisciplinary
projects, they also house a suite of world-class instrumenta-
tion facilities.
This environment has fertilized extraordinary research
quality and breadth within the department. As one indica-
tion, ChBE faculty have enjoyed nine elections to Fellow
status within six different professional societies over the
past half-dozen years or so. The primary areas of endeavor
are as follows.
* Human Health
Professors Leckband, Kenis, Kraft, Masel, Zhao, Price,
and Schroeder are developing a range of experimental and
computational approaches to unravel the genetic and mo-
lecular basis of many complex diseases such as cancer and
AIDS or to develop new tools to detect such diseases, or even
environmental threats. Many of our faculty are active in the
development, manufacture, and delivery of pharmaceuticals.
For example, professors Braatz, Kenis, and Zukoski are
studying pharmaceutical crystallization for screening for
appropriate solid forms of active pharmaceutical ingredients
and for the selective manufacture of desired polymorphs at
industrial scales. Braatz, Pack, and Zhao are pursuing novel
approaches for the controlled-released delivery of drugs and
gene delivery. In addition, Zhao and Rao are developing new
approaches for treating infection caused by antibiotic-resis-
tant bacteria. As part of the Regenerative Biology and Tissue
Engineering research theme at IGB, several of our faculty,
including Kong, Harley, Kenis, Pack, Rao, and Braatz are
unraveling the fundamentals of tissue regeneration and devel-
oping clinical strategies for cardiovascular and bone repair.
* Energy and Sustainability
Professors Kenis, Masel, and Seebauer are pursuing a wide
range of studies to design better catalysts and electrodes for
more efficient energy conversion, and they apply these in fuel
cells for portable electronics or transportation applications.
These efforts already have led to two startup companies that
are pursuing the commercialization of these microfuel cell
technologies. Looking ahead, they are taking on the inter-
twined challenges of climate change and energy security by
converting carbon dioxide back into chemical intermediates
presently derived from fossil fuels. Another active area of
study in our department is alternative energy based on bio-
fuels. As part of the EBI established by the oil company BP
in collaboration with the University of California-Berkeley
and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, professors Zhao, Rao,
Schroeder, and Price are engineering micro-organisms for
184


Graduate students and Professor Paul Kenis (center)
testing a microfluidic chip for membrane
protein crystallization.
efficient production of novel biofuels such as ethanol, butanol,
and alkanes from nonfood crops. Related protein engineering
and metabolic engineering efforts are also being used for the
green synthesis of fine chemicals via biocatalysis.
* Advanced Computation
Professors Braatz, Higdon, Price, and Rao are creating
theoretical and computational tools for the modeling, design,
simulation, optimization, and control of complex chemical
and biomolecular systems. Frequently, widely generalizable
tools are used to address specific problems in the chemical,
energy, microelectronics, biomedical, and pharmaceutical
industries. Many of these efforts rely upon collaboration with
scientists and engineers in academia and industry.
Global Programs
The original conception of the research university in the
19th century was tacitly local, meaning that the university
and its branches were rarely geographically distant from
each other. With the advent of easy telecommunication and
air travel, however, the time has arrived for a globalized re-
search university that permits the formation of new alliances
to improve education and research. Accordingly, over the past
decade ChBE has established an increasing number of depart-
ment-level connections with universities around the globe.
Such connections have progressed furthest at the doctoral
level with the National University of Singapore, with which
Chemical Engineering Education

























Professor Ed Seebauer reviews semiconductor defects for
microelectronics applications with three of his
graduate students.

ChBE established in 2009 a multi-institutional doctoral degree
with the counterpart department there. Students are jointly
advised by faculty at both institutions, split their time evenly
between the locations, take courses almost interchangeably
between the two universities, and ultimately receive a single
degree bearing two seals.

PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT
The nature of engineering is often poorly understood by
the general public. Technological literacy yields citizens
who can make informed decisions, and workers who ensure
long-term economic health. Among the engineering disciplines,
chemical engineering is sometimes the least understood. As W.H.
G. Armytage has put it, "The artistry of a bridge-builder is
obvious to the naked eye, but the activities of the chemical
engineer are not, until the products are bottled, batched, or
baled. Both profoundly affect the progress of mankind."'61
Given our society's pervasiveness of products and energy
that are chemically derived, it is especially important to make
chemical engineering intelligible to the general public.
ChBE is one of the few engineering departments in the
United States to take this public engagement mission seriously
enough to host a faculty member whose main purpose is its
pursuit. Bill Hammack uses mass media to communicate
engineering to the public, and has received numerous awards
for his efforts. He has created a remarkable public radio series
called Engineering & Life, in which he shares the wonders of
engineering while also emphasizing the responsibilities asso-
ciated with technological change. His hundreds of radio pieces
have been heard on public radio's premier business program
Marketplace, which has an audience of 8 million, and around
the globe on Radio National Australia's Science hI. .w'.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The department's research activities have led to tangible
economic development for societal benefit. In the past five
years ChBE faculty have filed more than 10 patent applica-
tions per year, a significant increase from, on average, 1-2
Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009


applications per year prior to 2000. Much of the intellectual
property has been licensed to companies. In addition, four
startup companies have been created recently with ChBE
faculty involvement: two in energy, one in microanalysis
systems, and one in tissue engineering.

SUMMARY
We are deeply conscious within ChBE of our role as a
department within a public research university, and we
seek to be distinctive in the ways we fulfill that role. Our
undergraduate education ranks among the best in the United
States even with a large student/faculty ratio. The curriculum
emphasizes chemistry, laboratory experiences, and practical
creative problem solving in a unique way. The program of-
fers extensive opportunities for undergraduate research, and
features a biomolecular course option taught by leaders in
the field. In graduate education, the department features an
extraordinary dedication to collaboration across disciplines
and with many individual faculty spanning a wide range of
areas. The large proportion of early-career faculty sharpens
the focus on current-day research problems, and also fosters
an environment of especially close mentorship of gradu-
ate students. The department exhibits a rare willingness to
build global graduate education programs at the level of a
multi-institutional doctoral degree, and to embrace public
engagement efforts to interpret the engineering endeavors to
the society at large.
Looking ahead, we believe public research universities
need to re-envision themselves in the changing social and
economic landscape. As a discipline, chemical engineering
must recognize that its reach extends with particularly broad
scope into the pressing problems of our day, in areas of human
health, energy, and sustainability, and in a milieu where access
to powerful computational tools becomes widespread. Large
numbers of students at both the undergraduate and graduate
levels are seeking to enter these areas for the benefit of the
common good, and chemical engineering departments in
public research universities must embrace those students in
a spirit of both innovation and efficiency.

REFERENCES
1. Title 7, U.S. Code Section 304
2. Gumport, P.J., "Graduate Education and Organized Research in the
United States," The Research Foundations of Graduate Education,
ed. B.R. Clark, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, p. 225
(1993)
3. Gellert, C., "The German Model of Research andAdvanced Education,"
The Research Foundations of Graduate Education, ed. B.R. Clark,
University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, p. 5 (1993)
4. Brooks, H., "The Outlook for Graduate Science and Engineering," The
State of Graduate Education, ed. B.L.R. Smith, Brookings Institution,
Washington, D.C., p. 183ff (1985)
5. Seebauer, E.G., and R.L. Barry, Fundamentals of Ethics for Scientists
and Engineers, Oxford Univ. Press, New York (2001)
6. Armytage, W.H.G., A Social History of Engineering, MIT Press,
Cambridge, MA, p. 323 (1961) 1









INTRODUCTION
TO THREE SPECIAL ISSUES OF PAPERS FROM THE

AIChE Centennial Celebration






"History never looks like history
when you are living through it."
S-John W. Gardner





DAVID L. SILVERSTEIN, Chair of AIChE Topical Conference on Education


PHILLIP C. WANKAT, Proceedings Editor

Marking where chemical engineering education
emerges in history is a challenge. Perhaps it
should be traced to the growing practice of
industrial chemistry courses during the 19th century.
Some would cite the formation of the first degree pro-
gram in the field at MIT in 1888. Doubtless, the forma-
tion of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers
in 1908 marked a significant milestone in the rapidly
developing profession of chemical engineering. During
the Institute's 2008 Annual Meeting in Philadelphia,
we celebrated the centennial anniversary of AIChE's
role in chemical engineering and in the education of
chemical engineers.
As part of the Centennial Celebration, the Group
4 (Education) Programming Committee of AIChE
sponsored a Topical Conference entitled "Chemical
Engineering Education: Past and Future." The theme
was a "retrospective look forward" at many topics that
form the chemical engineering curricula. Highlights
included: "200 Years of Chemical Engineering Peda-
gogy: Reflecting on the Past, Designing the Future";
a comprehensive history of the ASEE ChE Division
Summer Schools for Chemical Engineering Faculty;
sessions on core areas of chemical engineering featuring
some of the most prominent people in their fields; a joint
education session with the Indian Institute of Chemical
Engineers; and a full program of traditional education
sessions. In an effort to further disseminate and preserve
the collected knowledge, experience, and advice offered
in the Centennial education sessions, extended abstracts
were requested of all presenters. These abstracts are


available in the Proceedings published by AIChE and
on the CEE Web site, .
While the planning for the Topical Conference was
ongoing, another significant education initiative was
under way in AIChE. In an effort to expand the role of
chemical engineering education in AIChE, an Educa-
tion Division was formed with probationary status. The
Education Division seeks to provide resources faculty
need to teach well; promote the scholarship of engi-
neering education; and provide an opportunity for all
of those interested in chemical engineering education
to become involved in a meaningful way to shape the
practice of chemical engineering education. In addi-
tion to continuing to provide an innovative and useful
technical program, current Division projects include: a
partnership with the Chemical Engineering Division of
ASEE for a special session on "Fundamental Research
in Education"; an annual multi-national survey on
how chemical engineering courses are taught; and an
expanded sequence of career development workshops
targeted at new and prospective faculty.
It seems natural that the Education Division would
partner with Chemical Engineering Education. Authors
submitting extended abstracts to the AIChE Proceedings
were invited to submit an article to CEE. These papers
went through the normal, rigorous CEE peer-review
process. This issue is the first of three featuring these
papers. We hope to forge closer links between AIChE's
Education Division and CEE, and expect to see addi-
tional special issues of CEE based onAIChE Education
Division programming in the future. 7


� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009

86 Chemical Engineering Education











I]*=l AlChE special section )







IMPLEMENTING CONCEPTS OF

PHARMACEUTICAL ENGINEERING

Into High School Science Classrooms








HOWARD KIMMEL, LINDA S. HIRSCH, LAURENT SIMON, LEVELLE BURR-ALEXANDER, AND RAJESH DAVE
New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ
engineering plays a major role in shaping the world Howard Kimmel is a professor of chemical engineering and the executive
today. The application of science, mathematics, and director of the Center for Pre-College Programs at the New Jersey Institute
technology into engineering benefits people and makes of Technology. He has spent the past 30 years designing and implement-
ing professional development programs and curricula for K-12 teachers in
the world we live in possible. Most students are unaware of science and technology. At the college level, he collaborates on projects
the benefits that engineering provides people in their daily exploring teaching methodologies and assessment strategies in first-year
lives.1 2] One of the more critical reasons most students, college courses in the sciences, engineering, and computer science.
Linda S. Hirsch is the program evaluator in the Center for Pre-College
particularly those from underrepresented populations in programs. She has a doctoral degree in educational psychology with a
urban school districts, are not interested in pursuing careers specialty in psychometrics and a master's degree in statistics. She has
been involved in all aspects of educational and psychological research
in engineering is that they are not exposed to topics in engi- for 15 years. Dr. Hirsch has extensive experience conducting longitudinal
neering during their K-12 studies. Most K-12 teachers have research studies and is proficient in database management, experi-
not been trained to incorporate engineering and technology mental design, instrument development, psychometrics, and statistical
programming.
topics into their classroom lessons and there is a lack of high- Laurent Simon is an associate professor of chemical engineering and
quality curricular materials in these areas.[3] Comprehensive the associate director of the pharmaceutical engineering program at the
professional development programs are needed for teach- New Jersey Institute of Technology. He received his Ph.D. in chemical
engineering from Colorado State University in 2001. His research and
ers to address the new skills and knowledge necessary for teaching interests involve modeling, analysis, and control of drug-delivery
improved classroom teaching and kllll.. 5] if we expect systems. He is the author of Laboratory Online (available at I . rentsimon.com/simon/>), a series of educational and interactive modules
them to integrate engineering concepts into their classroom to enhance engineering knowledge in drug-delivery technologies and
practice.[6 8] One perspective on the features influencing ef- underlying engineering principles.
fective professional development outcomes is provided by Levelle Burr-Alexander is a project manager responsible for the Educa-
a Council of Chief State School Officers report,[9] in which tion and Training Institute of the Center for Pre-College Programs at NJIT.
a Council of Chief State School Officers report,' in which She has a B.S. degree with thesis in chemistry from Stevens Institute of
five features were considered: three core features (active Technology, an M.S. degree in biomedical engineering from NJIT, and is
learning, coherence, and content focus), and two structural pursuing a Ph.D. in education specializing in instructional and curriculum
leadership from Northcentral University. Her work and research interests
features (duration and collective participation). With this in focus on STEM education for students and educators through curriculum,
mind, the Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) program instruction, and assessment of learning at the secondary-school level.
was designed to include each of these five features: 1) Ac- Rajesh N. Dave received a B. Tech. degree in mechanical engineering
from Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, in 1978, and M.S. and Ph.D.
tive Learning: Teachers were involved in discussion and degrees in mechanical engineering from Utah State University in 1981
planning, as well as research; 2) Coherence: Activities were and 1983, respectively. He is a distinguished professor of the Otto York
Department of Chemical, Biological, and Pharmaceutical Engineering at
built on what they were learning, and led to more advanced NJIT. He has published extensively in two main research areas, particle
work; 3) Content Focus: Content was designed to improve technology/engineered particulates and fuzzy pattern recognition.
� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009
Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009 18










and enhance teachers' knowledge and skills; 4) Duration:
Professional development for the teachers extended over six
weeks during the summer and continued during the school
year; and 5) Collective Participation: Teachers met in teams
and as a group to discuss strategies and content as well as to
develop approaches that they presented to their peers.
A focus is needed on content in currently available curricu-
lum materials that creates connections between the science
used in engineering applications in the real world and the
science curriculum standards for which teachers and admin-
istrators are held accountable.E3 1011] While substantial energy
has been devoted to developing standards-based curriculum
materials and achievement tests, little is known about new
lesson planning, teaching, and student activities needed in
a standards-based classroom. O'Shea and Kimmel'121 have
developed a protocol for standards-based lesson planning that
allows teachers to systematically assess learning outcomes
that are aligned with state content standards.
RET programs are seen as a vehicle for introducing engi-
neering into secondary-school curricula to increase students'
interest in engineering, and ultimately increase the number of
qualified students pursuing engineering degrees,13 15] but many
programs lack follow-up and\or effective evaluation.13, 14]
An RET program at the New Jersey Institute of Technol-
ogy (NJIT) has been designed to provide high school science
teachers with a professional development program that en-
hances their research skills and their knowledge of science
and engineering concepts-enabling them to incorporate
real-world applications (e.g., pharmaceutical engineering)
into high school science curricula. As part of the program
teachers developed instructional modules they could use to
integrate engineering principles into their classroom teaching.
The project also focused on helping the teachers refine their
instructional planning skills and providing them with an effec-
tive protocol for developing standards-based lesson plans.

THE SETTING
The RET program at NJIT is a collaboration between the
Engineering Research Center for Structured Organic Particu-
late Systems (ERC-SOPS) and the University's Center for Pre-
College Programs (CPCP), initiated under an NSF-sponsored
four-university project. The goal of the program is to educate
high school teachers in the opportunities and challenges in-
volved with manufacturing pharmaceutical products, and thus
help educate future generations of students-helping create
a strong pipeline of talented students interested in pursuing
careers in engineering and science.
The ERC-SOPS is a four-university project, involving about
30 faculty members, with a central systems-oriented theme
of developing a model-predictive, integrated framework
for systematically designing materials, composites, and the
processes used to manufacture them. The NJIT ERC includes
seven faculty members, who mentor research projects aligned
188


with three main research thrusts: 1) a New Manufacturing
Science for Structured Organic Particulates, 2) Composite
Structuring and Characterization of Organic Particulates, and
3) Particle Formation and Functionalization.
The Center for Pre-College Programs (CPCP) at NJIT has
been working with the public school systems in Newark and
others across the state of New Jersey for almost 40 years."161
The mission of the center includes the planning, develop-
ment, and assessment of STEM education programs, and
the development and coordination of academic programs to
serve elementary- and secondary-school teachers. Among the
many successful programs at CPCP is the Pre-Engineering
Instructional and Outreach Program (Pre-IOP), established
to raise awareness about the importance of pre-engineering
concepts in science and mathematics curricula., 17I Pre-IOP
included the development of pre-engineering curriculum mod-
ules (aligned with the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content
Standards) for use in secondary mathematics and science
classrooms. Teacher professional development programs were
established to train teachers how to integrate the pre-engineer-
ing curriculum into their classroom teaching as a way for their
students to apply classroom lessons to real-life problems.
The pre-engineering curriculum in science, mathematics,
and technology classroom was found to improve students'
and teachers' attitudes toward engineering and knowledge of
careers in engineering.18, 19] The RET program at NJIT con-
tinued the work of Pre-IOP by incorporating pharmaceutical
concepts into the high school science curriculum.

THE RESEARCH EXPERIENCE
The 2007 NJIT RET program provided the opportunity for
nine high school science teachers (chemistry, biology, and
physics) to engage in a six-week experience in a research
group of the Center for Structured Organic Particulate Sys-
tems (C-SOPS). Participating teachers were selected from
local urban schools with whom NJIT already had working
relationships. Working side-by-side with university research
faculty, graduate students, and undergraduate students (par-
ticipating in a parallel Research Experience for Undergradu-
ates, or REU, site program) in discovery-based, hands-on
research projects, teachers developed basic knowledge and
skills in the area of pharmaceutical particulate and composite
systems that could be incorporated into their teaching prac-
tice. Implicit was the opportunity for intellectual professional
growth for the teachers.
The first week of the program was an orientation, which
included an introduction to NJIT and ERC-SOPS's research
activities, methodologies, instrumentation, and safety proce-
dures, as well as the scientific tools, protocols, and equipment
necessary to gain meaningful hands-on experience in the labo-
ratory. Teachers were trained to become contributing members
of their research team and given instruction in how to develop
standards-based lessons/modules for use in their classrooms.


Chemical Engineering Education










An introduction to the technical literature and methodologies
for searching the Web to support their research activities was
included. Ongoing discussion during the summer experience
focused on the development of lesson plans.
RET projects were small sub-projects within the research
at ERC-SOPS, in recognition that much of the research deals
with concepts that can be difficult to translate into labora-
tory and instructional activities for high school classrooms.
Simplified versions of the basic concepts in a research project
were developed. For example, dissolution of particles can be
related to basic concepts of solubility, equilibrium, and rates
of processes by developing simple experiments that involve
observing dissolution of sugar crystals of varying size, with
or without stirring or agitations. Teachers worked in teams
of two that also involved at least one graduate student and
one undergraduate REU student. The REU students will
have had several weeks of experience by the time the RET
program begins, and hence the team consisting of one gradu-
ate student and one REU student will be well-versed in the
research project.
For example, in one research project, a method for dry
particle coating was used to deposit a very small amount of
nano-size additives with a high degree of precision onto drug
or excipient particles to change their flow and other properties.
RET participants examined the application of this technique
on improvement, control, and characterization of flowability
of cohesive powders in a predictive manner through dry par-
ticle coating. A lesson was designed to introduce the topic of
nano-technology so that students may acquire an understand-
ing of what it means to be that small. First the students were
given a sense of what it means to be as small as micro- and
nano-size, as compared to larger objects. Then the students
explored why ultra-small size matters to scientists and engi-
neers with examples of the applications making use of it in
various industries, including pharmaceuticals. The students
were also introduced to some of the problems encountered
when working with very small particles. To help students
think about how different micro- and nano-size particles are
when compared to people, students compared objects that are
6 and 9 orders of magnitude apart in size, including atoms and
molecules and the wavelength of light in the electromagnetic
spectrum. The lesson included hands-on activities and dem-
onstrations that used meter sticks, micrometers, and finely
ground or powdered substances such as sugar, sand, and flour,
to demonstrate properties of particles as well as compare sizes
of objects and flow rates of fine particles.
Another research project focused on crystallization-the
most common method used in the pharmaceutical industry
for generating particles of active substances or intermediates.
Teachers examined the role of agitation on crystal size as
part of a study of the hydrodynamics of a stirred-tank-im-
peller assembly, with particular attention being paid to solid
dispersion and the determination of the minimum agitation


speed for off-bottom solid suspension, both in the presence
and the absence of an impinging jet apparatus. A lesson was
developed on the crystallization of ultrafine nanoo and micro)
particles of active pharmaceutical ingredients using a liquid
anti-solvent technique. The lesson was used to demonstrate
the principles of solution mixing and crystallization and re-
lated engineering themes, by having students determine the
optimum concentration for crystallization and effect of surfac-
tants. The students were introduced to the liquid anti-solvent
method of crystallization, which involves the formation of
nanoparticles of different compounds. The lesson focused
on how to make crystallized particles of a substance from a
given solution using an anti-solvent. In the first part of the
lesson, students in groups discuss the various crystallization
methods and advantages of the liquid anti-solvent method.
Next, using solutions of aspirin and ibuprofen in acetone, they
find the amount of anti-solvent needed to precipitate the given
amount of drug substance. They do so by first finding the
volume of anti-solvent needed to precipitate the given amount
of aspirin, and then finding the volume of anti-solvent needed
to precipitate the given amount of ibuprofen. The students
could then plot a graph of concentration of drug substance
vs. amount of anti-solvent needed for precipitation of aspirin
and ibuprofen, and determine the optimum concentration of
the active pharmaceutical ingredients in acetone.
Development of the instructional modules was critical to the
RET program. Teachers and their mentors met frequently to
develop a simple topic that is closely related to the pharma-
ceutical industry as well as the research they were conducting.
To be effective, the modules had to address important issues
including: the real-life implications of the research; which
experiments would best relate the information to students in
an exciting, insightful way; whether the materials and meth-
ods required to perform these experiments are accessible in
high school laboratories; the insurmountable safety issues in
planning such experiments; the step-by-step procedure for
disseminating the information to students in a logical way;
and the assessments to be used to show that students have
internalized the information.
Because there was an odd number of teachers, one of the
teachers served as a "swing teacher" working jointly with each
team to monitor progress and communicate with the mentors.
The swing teacher developed an instructional module that
encompassed the research projects of the other teachers, "A
Step Toward Discovery: Inquiry Skills in Science," designed
to help students think like engineers and scientists, while con-
necting relevant mathematics and science skills.

STANDARDS-BASED LESSON PLANNING
Curricular materials in support of the integration of engi-
neering into science instruction have been made available
through organizations such as NASA, ASME, and IEEE,
as well as through university- and teacher-developed lesson


Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009










plans. Only concepts included in state content standards are
taught in the classroom, however, as teachers believe they
will only be accountable for what is in the standards.[12] As
a result, the only curriculum materials usually considered,
let alone implemented, are those that reinforce state con-
tent standards, since student achievement (and schools'
and districts' achievement) is measured largely by student
performance on the statewide assessment tests.[20] So, if
teachers are to make engineering principles a part of their
instruction for student learning, then engineering principles
must be part of the state science standards. Translation into
standards-achieving lessons is critical.[3] Curriculum topics
aligned to standards alone are not sufficient, however.[12 21]
Alignment with standards must also include the assessment
of student achievement of the skills and knowledge defined
by the standards.

Research suggests that lesson and unit plans are essential
and powerful tools for instructional improvement and in-
creased student achievement.[21] When teachers prepare truly
standards-based lessons, their teaching is focused on student
achievement in relation to specific standards.[22 23] A protocol
for the creation and implementation of standards-based lesson
plans has been developed at CPCP and used in previous and
current professional-development programs.[121 The protocol
includes identification of measurable learning objectives,
specification of the corresponding statement from the con-
tent standards, adaptation of the activity that provides the
student the opportunity to acquire the skill and/or knowledge
specified by the learning objective, and the expected student
performance that provides the evidence that the student has
acquired the skill and/or knowledge. The RET participants

Percentage

90.-


70 ,


50 ---"

40
30

20

10


Awareness Information Personal Management Consi


000 Beginning of Program 111 End of Program 2-


were introduced to the protocol and a template was developed
for use in the development of their instructional modules.

EVALUATION
Teachers' Concerns About Integrating Engineering
Skills Into Classroom Teaching
Teachers' concerns about integrating engineering skills into
their classroom teaching were measured using The Teachers'
Concerns Questionnaire (TCQ) adapted from the Concerns
Based Assessment Model (CBAM).[241 Repeated administra-
tions of the TCQ are used to identify teachers' concerns and
track changes in their concerns as they engage in educational
reforms, focusing on how they progress through seven stages
of concern: Awareness, informational, personal, management,
consequences, collaboration, and refocusing. Teachers com-
pleted the TCQ at the beginning and end of the RET program
and again several months into the school year after they had
time in their classrooms. All three sets of responses were
examined by graphing teachers' percentile scores across the
seven stages. The highest percentile score indicates the stage
teachers are focused in.1241 Initially, the teachers showed low
levels of awareness and\or some were not very interested
(see Figure I).
By the end of the program most teachers increased their
awareness and many had moved into the information-gather-
ing stage (indicated by a moderate decrease in the percentile
score for the Awareness stage such that it was lower than the
score for the Information stage). Not until a few months into
the school year did the teachers begin shifting toward whether
the new curriculum would help their students learn math
and/or science. Three teachers completed the TCQ toward the
end of the school year,
expressing fewer per-
sonal and management
concerns about the time
commitments required
to implement their new
instruction modules. The
teachers were focused on
how the implementation
may have impacted their
students and appeared
to have shifted into the
collaboration stage indi-
cated by the high percen-
tile score.


Figure 1. Teachers' concerns profile.


Teachers' Readiness
to Teach
At the end of the
RET program teachers
completed a Readiness
to Teach Questionnaire
(RTQ). The RTQ118,19] re-


Chemical Engineering Education


sequence Collaboration Refocusing


2-2 Into the school year











quires teachers to indicate how ready they feel they are to teach
lessons on new topics and\or skills they have learned on a scale
from 1 to 4 where 1 is "I would have to start from scratch"; 2 is
"I would need more training to teach this topic"; 3 is "I would
have to look at my notes to do this"; and 4 is "I can teach a les-
son on this topic tomorrow." For example, one item asks "How
ready are you to teach the concept of steady state?" Teachers
were asked to complete the RTQ again a few months into the
school year after they had some time in their classrooms. At the
end of the summer program average scores for the 13 topics
ranged from 2.8 to 3.8, indicating that most of the responses
were 3 or 4. Only one teacher gave any responses that indicated
1 ("I would have to start from scratch"). For many topics the
percentage of teachers that indicated 4 ("I can teach a lesson on
this topic tomorrow") was over 50%. Average scores for most of
the topics increased slightly a few months into the school year;
ranging from 3.2 to 3.8. The average scores for two of the topics
did not change and only one topic, Drug Release From a Lozenge,


showed a decrease in the average re-
sponse from 3.1 to 2.8. This was due
mostly to a few teachers indicating 3
("I would have to look at my notes")
the second time rather than their initial
response of 4 ("I can teach a lesson on
this topic tomorrow"). Again, three
of the teachers completed the RTQ a
third time toward the end of the school
year. Their average scores ranged
from 3.5 to 4.0 indicating that at least
these three teachers could teach all of
the topics even if they had to look at
their notes.

Attitudes to Engineering

Teachers completed the Teacher
Attitudes To Engineering survey
(TATE) at the beginning of the RET
program and again a few months
into the school year after they had
completed the program and had some
time in their classrooms. The TATE,
developed as part of the center's Pre-
IOP program, measures teachers'
overall attitudes toward engineering
as well as their knowledge of careers
in engineering and their self-efficacy
for assisting students who might want
to study engineering.18, 19] Teachers'
attitudes toward engineers and
engineering as a career were fairly
high, even at the beginning of the
program. All nine teachers agreed
with the statement that "skills
learned in engineering are useful in

Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009


everyday life" and disagreed with the statement "I would not
like any of my students to be engineers." Their average TATE
scores increased from 3.9 at the beginning of the program to
4.2 during the school year. See Table 1 for a sample of items
from the TATE that appeared to show the most change in the
teachers' attitudes toward engineering.
Most teachers were somewhat informed about how to
help prepare students interested in studying engineering.
Most agreed they would "know where to find the necessary
information to help my students if they wanted to become
engineers" but most disagreed with the statement "I have all
the information I need to help prepare any of my students
who may want to be an engineer." Only a few indicated they
knew of summer programs to help students learn more about
careers in engineering. Average scores on the items that assess
teachers' self-efficacy for helping students who might want to
study engineering were low, only 3.0, at the beginning of the
program, but increased to 4.3 during the school year.


TABLE 1
Changes in Teachers' Attitudes to Engineering and Self Efficacy
for Helping Students
Attitudes toward engineering Start of End of
program program
I think that engineering could be an enjoyable career. 3.6 4.5
Engineers have little need to know about environmental issues. 1.9 1.6
I would not like any of my students to become engineers. 2.7 2.1
The rewards of becoming an engineer are not worth the effort. 2.2 1.7
To be an engineer requires an IQ in the genius range. 2.5 2.2
My students would have no problem finding jobs if they had an 3.6 4.4
engineering degree.
Engineering plays an important role in solving society's problems. 4.4 4.8
A woman can succeed in engineering as easily as a man of similar 3.9 4.3
ability.
Engineers spend most of their time doing difficult mathematical 3.6 2.7
calculations.
Most of the skills learned in engineering are useful in everyday life. 4.2 4.7
From what I know engineering is boring. 1.8 1.4
Self-efficacy for helping students
I feel I have all the information I need to help students who may 3.0 3.0
want to become engineers.
I suggest engineering as a possible career if students do well in math 2.8 3.9
and science.
I suggest medicine as a possible career if students do well in math 4.1 4.0
and science.
I think I know what engineers do. 3.6 4.5
I am aware of grade-appropriate information on engineering careers 2.6 3.6
for my students.
I actively encourage my students to consider engineering as a career. 1.9 3.2
I know of summer programs that would help students prepare for an 2.7 3.8
engineering career.
I have discussed engineering as a possible career option with my 2.6 3.4
students.











Knowledge of engineers and careers in engineering is
measured using a multiple-part, open-ended question that
requires teachers to "name five different types of engineers"
and to "give an example of the work done by each type." Each
type of engineer is coded '1' for correct or '0' for incorrect.
Possible total scores range from 0 to 5. Each example of the
work they do is coded '2' for completely correct,' 1' for partly
correct, or '0' for incorrect. Possible total scores range from
0 to 10. At the beginning of the program only five of the nine
teachers were able to correctly name five different types of
engineers and two were able to name two types correctly. Only
one of the teachers was able to give correct or partly correct
examples of the work done by all five types of engineers, re-
ceiving 7 points. One teacher did not give any examples and
the rest were only able to give one, two, or three partly correct
examples. When the teachers completed the survey again a
few months later results showed that teachers' knowledge of
engineers and engineering as a career had increased. Six of
the teachers were able to correctly name five different types
of engineers, two teachers named four types, and the last
teacher named three. All of the teachers were able to give at
least some partly correct examples of the work done by the
types of engineers they named, most scoring at least 5 points;
a few scored 8 or 9 points.
Teachers' Feedback on Program Effectiveness
Periodically during the program teachers were asked to


provide written feedback on how they felt
the program was progressing. Teachers were
asked to rate each activity or learning expe-
rience by indicating how useful they felt it
was to them as a teacher (2 = very useful,
1 = somewhat useful, 0 = not useful) and
the value they felt it had for student learn-
ing (2 = high value, 1 = some value, 0 = no
value). The average rating for a majority
of the activities was at least 1.5. See Table
2 for a summary of the average ratings for
the major topics and activities.
Two activities-poster presentations to
share their research experience with others
and the mentoring process-had an aver-
age rating of 1. Many of the teachers just
did not find the poster presentation very
useful. Two of the teachers rated the men-
toring process as not useful. Unfortunately
one of the two teachers reported that their
mentor had "not been available" during the
program. The teachers found a majority
of the activities to have a high value for
student learning, with average ratings of
at least 1.6. The activities that teachers did
not find useful for their students-scoring
an average of 1 or less-were things such


as tours of laboratories, poster presentations, and discussions
of ongoing research.

CONCLUSIONS
Teachers found the RET program useful to them as in-
structors and found a lot of value in the experience for their
students. This conclusion is exemplified by the response of
one teacher to a survey on their implementation of what they
learned into their classroom practice:
"I have seen ,, ifi. . ,it gains in basic skills as a
result of student willingness to risk failure. In my es-
timation I've done a horrible job of harnessing this
new power, being completely unprepared for how
successful it might be. I've got freshmen handling
vector math and multiple-step equation manipula-
tion problems but there's more I can do. I can't wait
for next year so I can apply what I've learned from
this first attempt. Since the approach focuses on the
students' skills and self-improvement they've gotten
some benefit in other classes as well. My freshmen
are doing very well. They apply engineering prin-
ciples to their own student behavior and are actually
taking pride in improving themselves. As we might
expect, their initial efforts in the laboratory were
disastrous, but they have begun to avoid blame and
self-doubt. It has completely changed their concep-


TABLE 2
Teachers' Feedback on Program Effectiveness
Average usefulness for:
You as a Student
teacher learning
Introduction to pharmaceutical engineering, discus- 1.8 1.6
sions, demonstrations
RET mentor presentations 1.7 0.6
What we can bring to the classroom? Q & A 1.8 1.6
Information literacy: research and communication 1.4 1.2
skills
Brainstorming sessions with RET mentors 1.2 0.7
Skills necessary for pharmaceutical manufacturing 1.6 1.4
Various lab tours, presentations on lab techniques, 0.8 0.3
safety
Teamwork on project and planning of educational 2.0 1.6
module
Team presentations of projects 1.8 0.9
Project management: presentation preparation w\RET 0.2 0.1
mentors and research facilitators
Poster presentations, discussion of ongoing research 0.9 0.2
Individual research 2.0 1.8
Module development: lesson planning discussion of 1.9 1.6
progress
Undergraduate symposium 1.8 1.0


Chemical Engineering Education












tualization of failure-they are now seeing failure of
method instead of failure-as-a-person; not surpris-
ingly they are trying very difficult ;/ii. . since they
can take pride in success and not feel guilty about
failure. As one example, I did a i- ...i. '-1 -,' unit on
technology and engineering awareness, focused
mainly on career opportunities and the roles of
engineering in society. I also ran a task-oriented
laboratory in which advanced chemistry students
were asked to separate chicken soup into its com-
ponent parts, having been informed of separation
techniques but without specific instructions or previ-
ous complex separation experience. The laboratory
experience was designed to show 'failure,' as well
as success in solving engineering problems. The
students found that such a process was indeed quite
difficult to carry out."

Participation in the RET program increased teachers' at-
titudes toward engineering, their knowledge of engineering
careers, and their self-efficacy for helping students who might
be interested in studying engineering. Many of the teachers
expressed an interest in repeating such an experience.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This project is based on work supported by a grant from the
National Science Foundation, ERC Supplement Award for an
RET Site, EEC-0540855, which is gratefully acknowledged.
Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations
expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not
necessarily reflect the views of the NSF.

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Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009











r.1I.1 AIChE special section


WIKI TECHNOLOGY AS A DESIGN TOOL

FOR A CAPSTONE DESIGN COURSE









KEVIN R. HADLEY AND KENNETH A. DEBELAK
Vanderbilt University * Nashville, TN 37235-1604


Web 2.0 technologies allow sharing of information
and are designed to enhance creativity, communi-
cation, and the overall collaborative functionality
of the Internet. These Internet tools, like wilds, are becoming
an integral part of the upcoming generation's (the Net Gen-
eration) social and academic life.E11 Educators and students
alike benefit from incorporating these technologies into the
classroom.2]1 With wiki technology, student interaction, idea
collaboration, and organization of information can be im-
proved compared to traditional ways of teaching.[3]
A wiki is a Web site where users add, view, and edit content
as needed. Different users can add content and review material
added from other users allowing for collaboration and sharing
of information within groups.
According to a survey conducted by the Educause Center
for Applied Research (ECAR), the use of information tech-
nology and Web 2.0 technologies is astonishingly high.J11 Out
of the 20,000-plus students surveyed, engineers spent more
time online (an average of 21.9 hrs/week) than any other
discipline. Specifically pertaining to wiki usage, 41.7% of
all of those surveyed access or use wikis on a weekly basis.
According to the conductors of the study, this number may be
understated because the students may not know what a wiki is
or realize their Internet searches direct them to a wiki site. An
additional factor is the survey does not distinguish between
access and contribution. Another part of the survey reported
32.6% of the students liked learning through contribution to
wikis and blogs. Again, this number may be skewed due to
the ignorance of what constitutes a wiki.


Although technology is an integral part of the Net Gener-
ation's social and professional life, educators should show
restraint when incorporating technology into the classroom.
The main question to keep in mind when deciding to include
new technology (or a new approach in general) is "will it
benefit the students?" According to Oblinger and Oblinger,[41
even though the Net Generation values what older generations
consider new technology- wikis -what they value most is in-
teraction. Professors can't replace interaction with technology,
but must augment and enhance interaction using technology.

Kevin R. Hadley is currently a Ph.D. student
in the chemical and biomolecular engineering
program at Vanderbilt University. He earned a
B.S. in chemical engineering from Colorado
School of Mines. He will defend his thesis in
the summer of 2009 and plans on pursuing a
career in academia, thereafter. His teaching
interests include engineering design and
thermodynamics, and his research interests
are in multi-scale modeling and self-assem-
bling systems.

Kenneth A. Debelakis an associate professor
in the Department of Chemical & Biomolecu-
lar Engineering at Vanderbilt University. He
received his B.E. (1969) from the University
of Dayton and M.S. (1973) & Ph.D. (1978)
from the University of Kentucky. His research
interests are process modeling and control
and application of supercritical fluids.


� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009
Chemical Engineering Education










Interaction and learning are the keys when bringing something
new into your classroom.
Of course, it is hard to know whether or not something
new will enhance interaction or learning, which served as
the motivation of the study discussed here. The goals were to
understand how to introduce wikis to students and what their
value was as a design tool. This article presents a descrip-
tion of wikis, the details of the wiki study, what was learned
from the study, and suggestions for further wiki use in the
engineering classroom.

WIKIS AND THEIR FEATURES
Wiki is a Hawaiian word for quick, but in the context of
this study it is a type of Web site any user can view and edit
like any word processor without the knowledge of html or
similar programming languages. An appropriate illustration
of wikis and their potential can be found online at doiop.com/wiki-che>. There are many wiki hosts on the
Web, but we chose to use (version 1.0),
because it was very user-friendly and it was free. Wikis have
a number of features appealing to engineering and engineer-
ing education. First, there is a complete revision history for
each page in the wiki. From the student's perspective, they
can go back to any version and not only see what has been
changed, but they have access to make it the current version
if mistakes were made later. From an educator's perspective,
a professor can track the progression of the project through
the students' eyes. Also, the teacher can observe specific
changes between versions.
Every saved change to a page can be tracked to a specific
user and that change is time-stamped. This means a professor
can really enforce accountability with respect to each team
member. If Jean and Tom say Billy isn't working, the professor
can go to the wiki and confirm Billy made four minor addi-
tions to the wiki. In addition, a professor has verification if a
group is being lazy or if they are procrastinating.
A final feature is the ability to add comments. If the educa-
tors don't feel comfortable editing a student's work, they can
leave a comment on a page of interest. Instead of meeting at
key points in the semester, a professor can go to the wiki and
look at how things are going. If something of concern exists
or if the students have questions or concerns, the professor
can address those concerns or notify the group of his/her
concerns. The ability to do this ties directly into the goal of
integrating technology into the classroom, while promoting
interaction between students and the faculty.

SENIOR DESIGN PROJECT
AND WIKI STUDY DETAILS
The participants of the study were the seniors enrolled in
the Chemical Engineering Process Design course at Van-
derbilt University. Their final project was the 2008 AIChE


National Student Design Competition project: to design a
process to convert coal into methanol and perform a complete
economic analysis.
Ten groups of three students were given 30 days to complete
their design and present their results to the rest of the class. At
the start of the project, the teaching assistant (TA) introduced
how to use wikis and displayed their potential to the students
and encouraged (but did not require) them to add content to
the wiki as part of the project. Each group's wiki was set to
private, so only the professor, the TA, and the group members
could view and edit the content. The class was also provided
with a class hub wiki to post common questions, to see an
example page, and to have links to pbwiki tutorials.
Each week, the professor received weekly reports from each
group, some directly from the wiki, and the group's progress
was discussed in a weekly meeting with the main instructor.
In addition, throughout the project, the TA and the professor
would monitor the wiki of each group and add comments,
questions, or concerns when necessary and reply to comments
or questions expressed by the group within their wiki.
At the end of the project, 25 out of the 30 students were
given a survey asking about their experience with the wiki,
their opinions of the wiki's use, and their suggestions for
further use. Within the survey, there were three sections: posi-
tive and negative statements requiring a numerical allocation
from the student on a 6-point Likert scale, a list asking which
project items were included in the wiki, and open-ended
questions about the good and bad points of the wiki and its
implementation.

SURVEY RESULTS
The first section of the survey contained 12 statements, and
the students were asked to circle a number between 1 and 6
to describe how much they agreed with the statement, where
a choice of 1 indicated strong disagreement and a choice of
6 indicated strong agreement. To prevent a neutral response,
an even number was chosen for the maximum. Also, a mix of
positive and negative responses was included to ensure valid
results from those surveyed.
The scores were analyzed and (for the most part) students
liked the use of wikis in the design course. One group didn't
add any content to their wiki in any form, and their responses
were negative with respect to the wiki. The members of that
group provided helpful open-ended comments, but their
responses were excluded from the numerical analysis of the
survey. We decided the absence of their participation didn't
qualify them for a valid opinion about the implementation
and general opinion of the wiki.
The first step in evaluating wiki use in a design course was
taking the average score for each statement. If the score was
greater than 4.0 or less than 3.0, we considered that score to
have a significant positive or negative agreement. The state-


Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009











ments with values between 3 and 4 were regarded as a neutral
response. Table 1 lists the average score for each statement and
as you can see, the students agreed with six statements:
* (I.) They will tell others about wiki technologyfor col-
laboration.
* (II.) They would like to use a wiki in their future career.
* (III.) They recommended use of the wiki for other senior
design courses.
* (V) They used the wiki only because it was required.
* (VI.) The wiki helped organize their work and findings.
* (XII.) There was more interaction from the professor
and the TA in this project than others in the past.

In addition, the students disagreed with three of the nega-
tive statements:
* (IV) Adding to the wiki took more time than it saved.
* (IX.) The wiki overcomplicated the project.
* (XI.) The wiki was confusing, and it made the project
more difficult.

There was not a definitive agreement as to whether the wiki
was a key component to finishing the project (VIII.), if the
wiki helped them finish the project more efficiently (VII.), or
if the student had better understanding of their team members'
progress because of the contributions to the wiki (X.).
Taking these numbers into account, statement V. was the
only one expressing a negative opinion toward wilds. From the
rest of the statements, the benefits outweigh the shortcomings.


The authors speculate the students may have re-
alized this if the project was longer term and/or
involved more members per group who didn't
have a history of working with each other. Also,
in our opinion, the neutral statements may have
shifted toward a positive response if the project
was changed with respect to the two factors
mentioned in the previous sentence.
Another criteria for acceptance of the wiki
was average individual and group scores for
each statement. For the negative statements,
the scores were adjusted by reflecting their
value across the median of the Likert scale.
The score for each statement was summed.
We looked at the average score for all of the
statements to evaluate if an individual or group
had a positive response to the implementation
of the wiki, as shown in Figures 1 and 2, re-
spectively. On an individual basis, six students
had a negative response (including the three
who didn't use the wiki), eight had a neutral
response, but a third of the class (11 students)
had a positive response with four individuals
having an average score of 5 or greater. On a
196


group basis, half of the groups had a positive response, four
had a neutral response, and the group that didn't use the wild
had a negative response.
The frequency, volume, and quality of content added to
a group's wiki correlates with the average opinion of the
group. In other words, the groups who utilized their wiki
liked using the wiki and those who didn't use the wiki had
a neutral opinion about its usefulness. But it is difficult to
evaluate cause and effect with respect to recommendation
of the wiki and wiki contribution. We hypothesize, however,
that if the wikis were implemented throughout the entire
senior design course vs. a 30-day project, the students might
have begun to see the appeal of the technology and have a
more positive reaction.
From our data, we have seen the students agree the wild
is a good organizational tool. With a larger-scale project,
we expect more data, more ideas, more decisions, and more
files would be generated from a group. As such, as a project
supervisor or a professor, we would require more robust
documentation and suggest use of the wiki. We hypothesize
if the students use the wiki, they will see its potential and
begin to hold it in high regard. We have other ideas as to what
might have increased the positive opinion of the use of wikis
in design, but those are discussed in a later section.
Table 2 summarizes student use of the wiki or the typical
content of the wild. From the open-ended responses, the ability
to have a central hub for shared files like Excel files or Aspen
files was a very appealing feature of the wiki. The students
also used the wiki to organize their meetings and update the


TABLE 1
Average Scores for Survey Statements
Number Statement Score
XII. The interaction/involvement of Dr. Debelak and Kevin 4.8
in this project was more productive to my progress than
the involvement of other professors and teaching as-
sistants in the past.
III. I believe the wiki should be implemented in next year's 4.5
senior design course.
V. If it wasn't required, I wouldn't have used the wiki. 4.3
I. I will tell others about wiki technology for collaboration. 4.2
II. I would like to use a wiki in my future career. 4.0
VI. The wiki helped organize our work and our findings. 4.0
VII. This design project was finished more efficiently than 3.6
other school projects.
X. I had a better understanding of my team members' prog- 3.4
ress because of their individual contributions to the wiki.
VIII. The wiki was a key component to finishing this project 3.2
quickly and thoroughly.
IV. Adding to the wiki took more time than it saved. 2.9
IX. The wiki overcomplicated the project. 2.8
XI. The wiki was confusing, and it made the project more 2.2
difficult.

Chemical Engineering Education











specifics of the group's timeline and task allocation. Finally,
most of the students utilized the capability of the wiki to
quickly make links to important references.

POSITIVE REACTIONS TO WIKIS FROM THE
STUDENTS' AND EDUCATORS' PERSPECTIVE
The last section of the survey asked open-ended questions
regarding their likes and dislikes of the wiki, in general, and its
integration into senior design. A lot of what the students liked


Negative Neutral Positive No Reply

Figure 1. Comparison of the number of individual students with a ne
opinion (black/grey), a neutral opinion (horizontal gradient), and a p
opinion (vertical gradient) of the wiki. The grey region represents the
who didn't use their wiki, and the black region represents the student
used the wiki but had a negative opinion.


S4




42





0


Negative


Neutral


Positive


Figure 2. Comparison of the number of groups with a negative opinion
(black), a neutral opinion (horizontal gradient), and a positive opinion (ver-
tical gradient) of the wiki.

Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009


wikis didn't surprise us. The main thing commented on
he wiki serving as a central hub for files and informa-
They said it diminished inconsistencies in the content
s (i.e., weekly reports) and everybody had easy access
most up-to-date files. Finally, in cases where certain
dual tasks of the project overlapped, students could find
*cessary details in their partner's added content to help
the progression of their portion of the project.
other appealing feature to the students was the dynam-
ics of the wiki. Instead of sending multiple
e-mails, it was much easier to come to a con-
sensus on meeting times or have discussions
without having to schedule a formal group
meeting. Within an instant, the students could
add little pieces to a discussion or make slight
alterations to a plan (meeting schedule) until
the group was satisfied with the final result.
Compared to other discussion mediums, the
whole discussion is automatically recorded
and archived.
The other thing related to the appeal of
the dynamics of the wiki was the interaction
from the authors of this article. Students felt
their questions and concerns were addressed
frequently and in a timely manner. The wiki
provided more interaction on this project
compared to other projects. It is crucial to
reiterate what was said in the introduction
nativee about new technology in the classroom.
positivee
positive Students perceive enhancement of interac-
group
ts who tion as a main requirement when deciding to
integrate technology into a class.[4] From the
responses to the survey, wiki use seems to
- have met this requirement.
The addition of wikis to the class had
a big impact on project evaluation by the
professor compared to previous offerings of


TABLE 2
Summary of how many groups included
each item in their wiki
Wiki item Number of
occurrences
Timeline/calendar 8
Attaching files (e.g., Aspen) 8
Meeting notes 8
Links to references 7
Group/professor discussion 7
Task allocation 6
Coordinate meeting times 6
Pre-meeting agenda 3










From a pedagogical standpoint,

wikis provide a great potential for

study. Wikis allow easy sharing of

information among a group. A pro-

fessor may get a lot more informa-

tion about what went on throughout

the semester compared to solely

reading weekly or final reports.



the class. In the past, students kept paper folders containing
documentation of their design work analogous to an artist's
or architect's portfolio. Evaluating the content of the design
folders was cumbersome and could only be done at the end of
the semester and during one-hour meetings. With the groups'
content stored on a wiki, evaluation of the design and student
progress was drastically more convenient.
With respect to the wiki acting as a central hub for infor-
mation, the wiki content could be viewed at the educator's
convenience, the evolution of the design can be observed in
real time (and suggestions to redirect the group can be made,
if necessary), and shared electronic files for process simula-
tions or design calculations can be downloaded and evaluated
by the professor. With the students adding content, the wiki
documents what options the students were exploring, what
decisions were being made, and, occasionally, why those
decisions were made.
Although not a perfect indicator of student progress, the
wiki program sends the instructor an e-mail every time the
wiki is changed-documenting when and how often the
students are working on their project. The e-mail alerts also
highlight the type of changes (additions/deletions), who made
them, and when they were made, providing a summary of
progress made.
Another reason we believe wikis make a great tool for
students is that the faculty interaction with the wiki better
simulates the interaction they'll receive in practice. In in-
dustry, an engineer doesn't collaborate solely by writing a
report every month or at the end of a project. The supervisor
keeps constant tabs on a group's progress, so the project gets
completed on time and the results are valid. With respect to the
students' comments about the frequency of interaction from
the professor and the teaching assistant, it was easy to address
concerns and questions raised by the students. If a student/
group posted a question or uncertainty about their design in
their wiki, it took no more than 15 minutes to see the question
198


and to answer it in a place where all of the members could see
it, and it was easy to find what information was shared at a
later time vs. hunting through a slew of e-mails. In addition,
knowing their progress was being monitored; these students
were more on task than students of previous semesters.
From a pedagogical standpoint, wikis provide a great poten-
tial for study. Wikis allow easy sharing of information among a
group. A professor may get a lot more information about what
went on throughout the semester compared to solely reading
weekly or final reports. Also, because of its revision history,
we can observe the dynamics of the design process from the
students' point of view. If the students use the wiki and add
content as information is gathered and decisions are made,
an outside observer can start to see the thought process of the
designers. Another appealing piece of the revision history is
the record of who added what and when. As observed by Heys,
individual accountability can really be enforced.7] Early in a
project, if there is a lack of content added or participation by
an individual, the group or teacher can take steps to prevent
further laziness or problematic procrastination. The content of
the wiki may also serve as a source of learning assessment. If
interpretations are provided within the content, the educator
and outside evaluators can determine the quality and accuracy
of that interpretation and conclude if the students apply the
fundamentals correctly.

NEGATIVE RESPONSE TO THE WIKI
Amain goal of this study was to investigate the benefits and
the potential pitfalls associated with implementing wikis into
the classroom. Although most students had a positive opin-
ion of the wiki and recognized its utility in design, hurdles
existed that prevented use of the wikis. From the opinions
pointing out the flaws of the wiki and its implementation,
constructive decisions could be made about what to change
in the future and how.
The students' three main arguments against the use of the
wiki involved the preference for e-mail, the small size of the
groups, and the small scale of the project (amount of work
required and time to finish). A large percentage of the students
commented on how they "prefer to use e-mail." They thought
the wiki was more work whereas it was easier to use e-mail.
In addition, they thought it was easier to use e-mail because
of the size of the groups. It was much easier to meet up with
two other people or e-mail two other people, than to add their
content to the wiki. Another factor related to the size of the
groups was the familiarity of the group members. Each group
member shared at least two (if not more) classes with their
teammate, they socialized in their personal time, and they saw
each other outside of group meeting times very often.
With the project lasting only 30 days, the students didn't
think it was worth adding content to the wiki. One student is
quoted as saying, ". . . given more time than four otherwise
busy weeks with graduating and major life changes approach-
Chemical Engineering Education










ing, we would have had time to use it for effective group and
time management." Because there was no requirement for the
content added, some students minimized the content added
to save them time.
There were other hurdles preventing or discouraging the
students from adding to their wikis. The students began the
study with minimal familiarity with wiki technology. Some
embraced the new technology, but others stayed away from
it because it was new. This is consistent with what was seen
in the ECAR study.1u That study found that students who
considered themselves early adopters of new technology
had a greater affinity to using wikis in the classroom than
those who utilize technology at the same rate as the aver-
age population.
Other hurdles were the organization of the wiki, the al-
located amount of file storage, and full group participation.
Some students thought the wiki could be a great tool if the
information gathered throughout the project was organized,
but the time required to organize the information was more
than the time saved by having the information organized. With
respect to the amount of storage, the free pbwiki account only
allows a maximum of 15.0 MB worth of files to be uploaded.
There is no limit on the amount of content added directly to
the wiki, but pictures and actual files saved to the wiki count
toward the maximum. Finally, there was at least one group
where one of the members didn't attempt to contribute to the
wiki, discouraging the rest of the group from adding to it.

SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE USE
In general, we believe the wiki is a good design tool for
students and recommend it to all design groups in education
and in industry. The authors have been communicating with
the design team at pbwiki.com to improve what the wiki has
to offer. Since the beginning of this study, some of our sug-
gestions for changing pbwiki have been implemented into the
newest version, or the feature is being tested as a beta version,
e.g., the file limit of the free version of pbwiki 2.0 now has a
maximized capacity of 2.0 GB, as opposed to 15.0 MB.
The suggestions for change try to address all of the things
that prevented students from embracing the wiki. To address
the problems with organization, the authors suggest having
a prebuilt skeleton structure for the wiki. The designers have
come up with a way to make this very easy for an educator.
First off, any previously made wiki page can serve as a tem-
plate for future pages made. Another feature in beta is the
ability to "clone" a wiki. In this fashion, not only does the
structure of one page get copied (as in a page template), but
all of the links, all of the pages, and the whole structure of the
wiki Web site can be made as an exact replica. Using these
two new features, we plan on making one wiki whose pages
contain suggested headings and space for new additions in
a manner we, as supervisors, prefer. We will clone all of the
pages of the wiki Web site to make each group's beginning
Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009


wiki exactly the same. An example of a "skeletal" wiki can
be found at .
Being able to give the students a skeleton structure of the
wiki helps alleviate a lot of problems with how the wiki was
initially implemented. The biggest benefit is organization.
The students can appreciate this, because they don't have
to spend as much time organizing, and can spend more time
adding content. The teacher can use this organization to al-
low finding exactly what he or she wants, e.g., the results of
a decision matrix. The teacher won't need to go through page
after page looking for the justification for the use of a piece
of technology. Another helpful aspect of the preconstructed
wiki is how it will take away the intimidation of wiki technol-
ogy and de-emphasize students' lack of familiarity with it by
giving them a head start on the project.
Changing the logistics of the project could solve the other
issues with the use of the wiki in the class. To address the
issues discovered from this study, the following are plans for
further offerings of the course using wikis as a design tool:
* Increase the number of members in each group to four
or five.
* Randomize the members of the group to reduce familiarity
based on class rank.
* Increase the scale of the project to last the whole semester
and assign it the first day of class.
* Require specific entries into the wiki (not just weekly
reports).
* Require equal contributions to the wiki by all members
. h,. .,, , a participation grade.
* Incorporate other departments for an interdisciplinary
design project.

Considering factors the students said prevented their wiki
contribution, we think the above will alleviate those problems.
Being digital immigrants, we didn't enforce using wikis
above e-mail. Throughout the project, some students would
e-mail us with their concerns and questions (vs. putting them
on the wiki) and we would reply using e-mail. The main ad-
vantage of wikis over e-mail is the centralization of data and
its organization. By responding to the students via e-mail, we
decentralize correspondences and add to the disarray of infor-
mation. By posting the question and the response on the wiki
(vs. an e-mail), the conversation is recorded and can be easily
referenced for later use. In short, a project manager or profes-
sor needs to be consistent about adding to wikis if all group
members are expected to use wikis rather than e-mail.

CONCLUSIONS
Wikis have a lot of potential in the classroom. 11k used
wiki technology for a class project to improve the learning of
his Mass & Energy Balances class. Some educators are using
wikis as a replacement for traditional textbooks, where the
199











students add problems and edit the educational content.[3] In
this study, we used wikis as a design tool.
Overall, the students liked using the wiki and recommended
it for further use. They liked how the wiki improved interac-
tion among group members, the professor, and the TA. In
addition, they utilized how a wiki can centralize their findings
and its dynamic nature for collaboration. They didn't like tak-
ing the time to organize their wiki and prefer using e-mails
for a variety of reasons. E-mail can be used for collaborating,
but for a large design project, we think organized wikis are
more beneficial. As a result, we have suggested changes for
further use of the wiki in a design course.
Finally, we think wikis have great potential for pedagogical
research and learning assessment. If the students properly
add content to their wikis, we can delve into how students
approach and implement a design project. In addition, research
can explore what factors affect group productivity and design
quality. The content of the wikis can also be used as a way to
assess proper application of previous course material.
Web 2.0 technologies like wikis have great potential in
the classroom for the Net Generation. These technologies,
however, should be used with caution. We as educators can't
integrate these technologies into our classes simply because
we want to seem novel and up-to-date, but we should integrate


them if the desired result is to improve student learning. By
doing studies like the one from this article, we can decide
the best way to involve technology in lectures and teaching
design. From this study, wikis were established as a good
design tool, but changes must be implemented in the future
to encourage their use.

REFERENCES
1. Salaway, G., J.B. Caruso, and M.R. Nelson, The ECAR Study of Un-
dergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2006, EDUCAUSE
Center for Applied Research, Boulder, CO (2007)
2. Chubin, D., K. Donaldson, B. Olds, and L. Fleming, "Educating Gen-
eration Net-Can U.S. Engineering Woo and Win the Competition for
Talent?," J. Eng. Educ., 97(3) 245 (2008)
3. Richardson, W., Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts, and Other Powerful Web Tools
for Classrooms, 2nd Ed., Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks, CA (2006)
4. Oblinger, D.G., and J.L. Oblinger, "Is itAge or IT: First Steps Toward
Understanding the Net Generation," in Educating the Net Generation,
ed. D.G. Oblinger and J.L Oblinger, 2.1-2.20, EDUCAUSE, Boulder,
CO (2005)
5. Commoncraft, "Wikis in Plain English," available at com/wiki-che> accessed March 15, 2008
6. Hadley, K.R. "DesignClassHub,"availableat<., i1. 1.-11. I 1-i .1..
pbwiki.com> accessed March 15, 2008
7. Heys, J.J., "Group Projects in Chemical Engineering Using a Wiki,"
Chem. Eng. Educ., 42(2) 91 (2008)
8. Hadley, K.R., "Example Skeletal Wiki,"available at eton.pbwiki.com> accessed Jan. 10, 2009 1


Chemical Engineering Education











r.1.1 AIChE special section


Design Course for

MICROPOWER GENERATION DEVICES








ALEXANDER MITSOS
Aachen Institute for Advanced Study in Computational Engineering Science, RWTH Aachen * Aachen, Germany


The chemical engineering field of study is undergoing
changes, with more focus on emerging areas in mo-
lecular chemistry and biology, product design, and
micro- and nanotechnology. On the other hand, design courses
are still considered the capstone of an undergraduate chemical
engineering program. This article describes a recently devel-
oped course for the Department of Chemical Engineering
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the
Aachen Institute for Advanced Study in Computational Engi-
neering Science (AICES) at the RWTH Aachen. The course
considers the design of microfabricated fuel cell systems for
man-portable power generation.
The term man-portable is defined as: capable of being
carried by one person, typically over long distance, without
serious degredation of the performance of that person's nor-
mal duties. Efficient alternatives to batteries for man-portable
power generation are necessitated by the ever-increasing use
of portable electric and electronic devices. The desired power
level is in the order of 0.5 to 50W. There are several reasons
for replacing batteries. In addition to their high cost and large
life-cycle environmental impact, batteries have relatively low
gravimetric (Wh/kg) and volumetric (Wh/1) energy density.
State-of-the-art rechargeable batteries reach only a few hun-
dred Wh/1 and Wh/kg. Battery performance has significantly
improved over the last decades, but it is believed that the upper
limit on performance is being approached, because the list of
potential materials is being depleted. A promising alternative
is to use common fuels/chemicals such as hydrocarbons or
alcohols as an energy source.
There is significant research activity in the area of micro-
chemical systems.J1l Chemical units such as reactors, sepa-


rators and fuel cells with feature sizes in the submillimeter
range have been considered for a variety of applications, due
to their advantages compared to macroscale processes, such
as the increased heat and mass transfer rates.[2] The replace-
ment of batteries for electronic devices requires man-portable
systems and therefore the use of microfabrication technologies
is plausible since a minimal device size is desired.
There is great military31] and civilian interest in developing
battery alternatives based on common fuels/chemicals such
as butane. As a consequence, a lot of research projects have
been undertaken in academia and industry (see, for example,
References 4-6 for reviews). While there are well-established
microchemical courses with emphasis on microfabrication,
the author is not aware of any course with emphasis on process
synthesis, process design, or optimization. Such a course is
proposed herein; in addition to covering technological aspects
of exciting topics (microchemical systems, fuel cells) it com-
bines process and product design. This is important in view
of recent trends for product-oriented design. 7-12] The course
developed is based on several research publications of the
Process Systems Engineering Laboratory at MIT.[13 211 In the


� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009


Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009


Alexander Mitsos is currently a junior research
group leader at RWTH Aachen. He received
his engineering diploma from the University
of Karlsruhe and his Ph.D. from MIT, both in
chemical engineering. For both degrees he
was awarded distinctions, prizes, and fellow-
ships. He has more than two years of industrial
experience, and has authored or co-authored
more than 15 articles in refereed journals. His
research includes microscale and macroscale
energy systems and the development of global
optimization algorithms.










remainder of the article, first the contents of the lectures are
described in Section 1, and then the project tasks are sum-
marized in Section 2. The article concludes with the skills
gained by students, scope of improvement for the class, and
summary of the experiences from teaching the class.

1. LECTURE CONTENTS
The course duration is six weeks, with three hours of lec-
tures per week. No textbook is available for the course, but
the material covered in Reference 6 is the primary reference.
Other useful references are books on microchemical systems,
design, and thermodynamics.J22 26] Approximately one week
of lectures is reserved for software tutorials and discussions
of issues raised by the students during the project execution.
The remaining five weeks are devoted to five topics, namely
the introduction and motivation, aspects of fuel cells, process
synthesis, selection of alternatives, and process optimization.
These topics are summarized in the following.
1.1 Introduction, Motivation, and Project Description
The first week of lectures is devoted to a description of the
project as well as an introduction. These lectures are intended
to give the students the big picture of the project and help them
understand the goals of their tasks. First, the motivation for
micropower generation is given. This is done by comparing
the trends in power consumption by portable electric devices
and electronics to the performance characteristics of batter-
ies. Pricing and performance of batteries are discussed, along
with their environmental impact. A common critique to fuel
cell-based systems for micropower generation is that they
are deemed too dangerous. To put these claims into perspec-
tive the safety issues of batteries (fire, explosions, etc.) are
discussed and demonstrated by pictures and movies.
The next step in the introduction is the definition of the key
metrics for man-portable power generation devices, namely
the gravimetric and volumetric energy densities


sys = mission PW
gv - MS" y


T PW
sys -mission PW
vol Vsys


where the mission duration Tmission (h) is the time between re-
fueling or recharging, PW (W) is the power output (assumed
constant for simplicity), Msys (kg) is the mass of the system,
and Vsy (1) is the volume of the system. These metrics are typi-
cally the objectives to be maximized by the process synthesis
design and operation. In cases where the mission duration is
very long and the device miniaturized, the size of the system
is dominated by the fuel cartridge, in which case the simpler
metrics of fuel energy density can be used:


eful PW
gray 3600V MWN '
1_^ 1 1,i1


e 3N (2)
vol 3600T MVN ' (2)


where Nn (mol/s) is the inlet molar flowrate of species i, MW
(kg/mol) is the molecular weight of species i, MV (1/mol) is

202


the molar volume of species i at storage conditions, 3600 is
the conversion factor from hours to seconds, and the summa-
tion is taken over all stored fuels and oxidants.
In man-portable power generation the most important ad-
vantage of microfabrication is device miniaturization. Micro-
fabrication techniques are outside the scope of the course. On
the other hand, various examples from microchemical systems
are analyzed with emphasis on entire systems as opposed to
components. The importance of physical phenomena at the
microscale is analyzed and compared to the macroscale; for
instance, it is shown that viscous forces dominate over iner-
tial forces and that heat transfer (and loss) has much more
importance than in the macroscale. Various alternatives for
man-portable power are summarized, such as microturbines[271
and devices based on man-power.[281
A common critique of micropower generation devices,
and particularly of high-temperature systems, is that they
pose safety threats and generate a lot of heat. These concerns
are analyzed via back-of-the-envelope calculations. It is
argued that these concerns are partially true and partially
misconceptions resulting from macroscale experience. The
high energy density of the fuels is of concern, as is the use
of toxic fuels. On the other hand, the use of high-tempera-
ture devices is not a safety hazard, because of the low heat
capacity and the insulation.
1.2 Fuel Cell Working Principles and Types
Both the batteries and the fuel cell systems studied, i.e.,
the product to be replaced and the proposal for replacement,
rely on electrochemical reactions. Electrochemistry is cov-
ered in some undergraduate curricula, but not in sufficient
detail for performing and understanding the project tasks.
Therefore, the principles of fuel cells are briefly summarized,
along with a repetition of the relevant concepts from reactor
engineering and thermodynamics. Then, the thermodynamic
limits of fuel cell performance are analyzed and compared
to heat engines.
Several fuel cells technologies have been proposed over
the last decades. Some of the fuel cell types have a poten-
tial for scale down, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs),
polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) oper-
ating with hydrogen, direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC),
proton ceramic fuel cells (PCFC), and membrane-less fuel
cells, e.g., References 29-31. Miniaturization has been
performed for some of the fuel cell types, often with the use
of microfabrication technologies. These fuel cell types are
analyzed with an emphasis on advantages, disadvantages,
and operating characteristics.
1.3 Conceptual Process Design at the Macroscale
Process synthesis at the macroscale is typically included
in undergraduate curriculum. In the proposed course a brief
summary of the techniques and methodologies is given, with
emphasis on superstructure-based approaches.[251 This is
Chemical Engineering Education










deemed helpful for the students to be able to compare the chal-
lenges with the selection of alternatives at the microscale. For
instance, the discussion of heat exchanger network synthesis
demonstrates that at the microscale the challenges are very
different: no utility streams are available, and the operating
conditions of various components are not independent from
each other due to the pronounced heat transfer. In addition,
having this short summary allows students from different dis-
ciplines to attend the course. The lectures also briefly discuss
some of the mathematical and algorithmic background used
in conceptual process design. The emphasis is on the material
that is relevant to the project tasks.
1.4 Selection of Alternatives
A major challenge in the system design of micropower gen-
eration processes is the selection of alternatives, in particular
which fuel to use for power and/or heat generation, what
fuel cell type to select, whether a fuel reforming path should
be followed and how heat integration should be performed.
This selection of alternatives at the microscale is analogous
in principle to macroscale process synthesis. Moreover, some
of the mathematical techniques used in macroscale process
synthesis can also be used for the selection of alternatives.
There are several major differences, however, including dif-
ferent objectives and constraints and the fact that the unit
operation paradigm must be replaced by that of highly inte-
grated components in a system.P321 An additional challenge is
the early stage of technology development.
The lectures describe the large number of alternative pro-
cesses arising from the large choice of fuels, fuel reforming
reactions, and fuel cells. The advantages and disadvantages
are discussed and a system-level approach for modeling is
detailed.[13 14] This modeling approach is then used in one of
the projects offered, see Section 2.1. The advantage of this
methodology is that the most promising alternatives) can be
selected without detailed knowledge about the technological
details, such as the catalysts used or the reactor configuration.
The disadvantage is that some parameters, which in principle
can be calculated, are viewed as input parameters- e.g., the
fuel conversion in the reforming reactor for a given operating
temperature and residence time.


1.5 Optimization of a Given Process Alternative
Once a promising alternative has been chosen, the design
and operation can be optimized via models of intermediate
fidelity.[15 19] The spatial discretization results in problems with
(partial) differential-algebraic equations. The models employ
spatial discretization when necessary and are based on first-
principle models. As a consequence they are predictive and
can be used to find the optimal sizing of units (reactor, fuel
cell, etc.) as well as operating variables (voltage, temperature,
flowrates, etc.). A drawback is that the development of such
a model takes significant effort and requires knowledge of
kinetic rates.
For the optimization of design and operation, algorithms
from mathematical programming with differential-algebraic
equations (DAEs) embedded can be used. These techniques
are briefly described in the lectures along with techniques
for the simulation of DAE systems. The state-of-the-art in
dynamic optimization, however, is such that the use requires
significant mathematical background and computational expe-
rience, and is deemed limitedly suitable for an undergraduate
class in chemical engineering. Instead, in the project (Section
2.2) the optimization is based on a simulation approach, in
which the students must specify the degrees of freedom. To
simplify the problem, some variables (such as the operating
temperature and voltage) are prespecified. On the other hand,
to give some experience in the use of advanced methods, the
simpler problem of parameter estimation is given as a subtask
to be solved with an optimization algorithm.

2. DESCRIPTION OF PROJECTS
Two alternative projects are offered. The recommendation
is to offer these in alternate years. Offering both projects in
parallel (to different groups of students) is also possible, how-
ever it complicates logistic considerations significantly, since
the material necessary for the project must be covered in class
prior to the project assignment. A third alternative would be
to assign both projects, and extend the course duration.

2.1 Selection of Alternatives
Two main processes are considered, see Figures 1. Both are


Figures 1. Process flow sheets for project on selection of alternatives.


Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009










based on a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC); one of them uses NH3
as the fuel for power generation while the other uses C4H10.
All units are modeled using stoichiometric reactors, i.e., a
fixed conversion is assumed for each reaction. As a conse-
quence, relative rough estimates for the process performance
are obtained; however, these estimates are sufficient for a
comparison of alternatives. All units are microfabricated on
a single silicon chip; as a consequence they share the operat-
ing temperature of T = 1000K. The entire process operates
at ambient pressure. The gas phase is assumed to be ideal.
A power production of 10W is requested. The enthalpy of
the inlet streams is calculated at ambient conditions and the
gaseous phase. For the outlet streams a temperature of Tout --
600K is assumed, based on heat recovery.
The models for the processes are given to the students as a
JacobianE331 input file. The students must perform additional
calculations, such as the calculation of energy density based
on the calculated flow rates. For these calculations the stu-
dents have the choice of using Jacobian or a software tool of
their choice.
2.1.1 Project Tasks
The first task is to optimize the processes based on NH3 and
on C4H10. The operational variables are the flow rates of fuel
and the split fractions in the 3 splitters. The flow rates of air
are a direct consequence of the fuel flow rates and a speci-
fied stoichiometric ratio. The objectives are to maximize the
volumetric and gravimetric energy density; the device mass
and volume can be ignored, but the fuel cartridges must be
accounted for.
The second task is to compare the optimized processes with
a conceptual process based on methane, stored at ambient
temperature. An overall efficiency (power produced divided
by chemical energy consumed) of 50% is assumed. The main
challenge is to calculate the required cartridge thickness and
volume as a function of pressure for various container types,
e.g., plastic or steel.
The third task is to compare the optimized processes with
a process based on an H2 generator, such as a hydride. The
goal of this task is to identify the storage properties (hydrogen
volume % and density) required to match the best process in
terms of both gravimetric and volumetric energy density. To
do so, an overall efficiency of 70% is assumed.
2.2 Optimization of NH3-Based Process
The project task is to optimize a micropower generation
device for the production of PW = 10W. A fixed process is
considered based on NH3 cracking to H2 and electrochemical
oxidation of the produced H2 in a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC).
The device comprises two parallel lines, namely the NH3 line
for power generation and the C4H10 line for heat generation,
see Figure 2. These two lines are not independent, because
they are microfabricated in a single silicon chip; as a conse-
quence they share the operating temperature of 1000K. The
204


entire process operates at ambient pressure. The gas phase is
assumed to be ideal. The model considers one-dimensional
spatial discretization and a kinetic model for the catalytic
reactions. All assumptions for the model have been shown
to be valid (see Reference 15).
2.2.1 Project Tasks
The first project task is to determine appropriate values for
the constants in the kinetic rate of NH3 cracking, by fitting to
a set of experimental values. The students are given a pos-
tulated kinetic mechanism along with experimental data of
conversion as a function of residence time for four different
temperatures. The kinetic mechanism has two adjustable pa-
rameters and the data contain random error. The students must
extend an example provided to them. This task is relatively
simple, thanks to the estimation capabilities of Jacobian.
The main task of the project is to maximize the energy
density of the device; this is done by optimizing the volumes
of the device components and the flowrates of fuel and air.
There are four design variables, namely the volumes of the
reactor, SOFC, hydrogen burner, and butane burner. In ad-
dition, there are also four operational variables, namely the
feed flowrates of fuel (NH3 and C4H10) and air (to the SOFC
and to the butane burner). The temperature and voltage have
been fixed. The optimization is a challenging task, in which
the students can only succeed if they employ a systematic
procedure for varying the variables. The achievable energy
densities are significantly higher than in state-of-the-art bat-
teries; however this requires successful optimization of the
process design and operation.
The final task is to analyze potential improvements to the
process. This analysis includes the comparison of the chosen
process configuration with alternatives, such as using stored
oxygen and having a fresh-air stream to the burner instead
of using the cathode effluents. The students are also asked to
comment on the effect of increasing or decreasing the temper-
ature and the voltage. The process relies heavily on catalysts,
and not surprisingly the performance of catalysts significantly


Figure 2. Process flow sheet for project
on process optimization.
Chemical Engineering Education










affects the overall process performance; the students are asked
to identify which component is the most important to optimize
(reactor, burner, or fuel cell). Finally, the students are asked
to explain how a doubling of the desired power demand level
will affect the process design and operation.

3. CONCLUSIONS
A new course on the design of microfabricated fuel cell
systems is offered for chemical engineering students.
The course is project-based and spans six weeks. The theo-
retical material needed for a successful project execution is
covered in three lectures per week, each one-hour long. The
students learn several skills through the lectures and project.
Likely the most important skill is learning how to work in
a team, as in any course based on group projects. The most
important technical skills are process and product design,
and in particular their interaction. The students have a chance
of integrating the knowledge acquired in their preparatory
classes, especially thermodynamics and reactor engineering.
Finally, the students are familiarized with the exciting tech-
nologies of fuel cells and microchemical systems.
The course was developed for chemical engineers. The class
was first offered in Spring 2008 at RWTHAachen. The format
of the class was a seminar for graduate students with back-
grounds in mechanical and chemical engineering. Approxi-
mately five students attended the lectures, which is a typical
size for seminars. No project was offered. The full class, in-
cluding the project, is currently offered at MIT. It is one of the
elective modules in Integrated Chemical Engineering. More
than 20 students, corresponding to approximately one third
of the class, chose this module. This is a success, given that
the course is offered for the first time. Class evaluations are
not available yet, but the preliminary informal feedback from
the students is also very positive. A potential extension would
be to aim at interdisciplinary class. In particular it would be
interesting to consider teaching joint classes in chemical,
mechanical, material, and electrical engineering.
In the lectures and project, material and structural consid-
erations are taken into account as simple constraints, e.g., a
maximal operating temperature. It would be interesting to in-
corporate the interaction of these considerations with process
design and optimization more thoroughly. This is currently not
possible, since the effect has not been examined sufficiently
in the literature. Moreover, incorporating such structural and
material considerations in a chemical engineering class would
be very challenging.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I am indebted to Professor Paul I. Barton for his research
guidance during my thesis work, and for providing me the
opportunity to develop this course. Financial support from
the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research
Association) through grant GSC 111 is gratefully acknowl-
Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009


A common critique of micropower

generation devices, and particularly

of high-temperature systems, is that

they pose safety threats and generate

a lot of heat. These concerns are

analyzed via back-of-the-envelope

calculations. It is argued that these

concerns are partially true and par-

tially misconceptions resulting from

macro-scale experience.


edged. The development of this class was sponsored in part
by the Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology.

REFERENCES
1. Hessel, V., and H. Lowe, "Mikroverfahrenstechnik: Komponenten -
Anlagenkonzeption- Anwender- akzeptanz - Teil 1," Chemie Ingenieur
Technik, 74(1-2) 17 (2002)
2. Jensen, K.E, "Microreaction Engineering-Is Small Better?" Chem.
Eng. Science, 56(2) 293 (2001)
3. National Research Council Committee of Soldier I.. i 1.. Sys-
tems, Meeting the Energy Needs of Future Warriors, National Academy
Press, Washington, D.C. (2004)
4. Holladay, J.D., Y. Wang, and E. Jones, "Review of Developments
in Portable Hydrogen Production Using Microreactor Technology,"
Chemical Reviews, 104(10) 4767 (2004)
5. Maynard, H.L., and J.P. Meyers, "Miniature Fuel Cells for Portable
Power: Design Considerations and Challenges," J. Vacuum Science
Technologies, 20(4) 1287 (2002)
6. Mitsos, A., and P.I. Barton, eds., Microfabricated Power Generation
Devices: Design and Technology, Wiley-VCH (2009)
7. Moggridge, G.D., andE.L. Cussler, "An Introduction to Chemical Prod-
uct Design," Chem. Eng. Research and Design, 78(A1) 5 (2000)
8. Cussler, E.L., and J. Wei, "Chemical Product Engineering," AIChE
Journal, 49(5) 1072 (2003)
9. Wei, J., "Molecular Structure and Property: Product Engineering,"
Indust. and Eng. ( /,...... , , Research, 41(8) 1917 (2002)
10. Westerberg, A.W, and E. Subrahmanian, "Product Design," Computers
and Chem. Eng., 24, 959 (2000)
11. Wintermantel, K., "Process and Product Engineering," Trans IChemE,
77(A) (1999)
12. Cussler, E.L., and G.D. Moggridge, Chemical Product Design, Cam-
bridge University Press, New York (2001)
13. Mitsos, A., I. Palou-Rivera, and P.I. Barton, "Alternatives for Micro-
power Generation Processes," Indust. and Eng. ( i...... Research,
43(1)74(2004)
14. Mitsos, A., M.M. Hencke, and P.I. Barton, "Product Engineering for
Man-Portable Power Generation Based on Fuel Cells,"AIChE Journal,
51(8) 2199 (2005)
15. Chachuat, B., A. Mitsos, and P.I. Barton, "Optimal Design and Steady-
205












State Operation of Micro Power Generation Employing Fuel Cells,"
Chem. Eng. Science, 60(16) 4535 (2005)
16. Chachuat, B., A. Mitsos, and PE. Barton, "Optimal Start-Up of Micro
Power Generation Processes Employing Fuel Cells," AIChE Annual
Meeting Cincinnati, OH, October-November (2005)
17. Barton, P.I., A. Mitsos, and B. Chachuat, "Optimal Start-up of Micro
Power Generation Processes," in C. Puigjaner and A. Espufia, eds.,
Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, 20B, 1093, Elsevier, ESCAPE
15, Barcelona, Spain, May-June (2005)
18. Chachuat, B. , A. Mitsos, and P.I. Barton, "Optimal Design and Tran-
sient Operation of Micro Power Generation Employing Fuel Cells,"
in press: Optimal Control Applications and Methods (2009)
19. Yunt, M., B. Chachuat, A. Mitsos, and P.I. Barton, "Designing Man-
Portable Power Generation Systems for Varying Power Demand,"
AIChE Journal, 54(5) 1254 (2008)
20. Mitsos, A., B. Chachuat, and P.I. Barton, "What is the Design Objec-
tive for Portable Power Generation: Efficiency or Energy Density?,"
J. Power Sources, 164(2) 678 (2007)
21. Mitsos, A., B. Chachuat, and PI. Barton, k ,.....1... for the De-
sign of Man-Portable Power Generation Devices," Indust. and Eng.
( hI...... ., Research, 46(22) 7164 (2007)
22. Seider, W.D., J.D. Seader, and D.R. Lewin, Product & Process Design
Principles, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York (2004)
23. Douglas, J.M., Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes, McGraw-


Hill, New York (1988)
24. Smith, J.M., and H.C. Van Ness, Introduction to Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill (1987)
25. Biegler, L.T., I.E. Grossmann, andA.W Westerberg, Systematic Meth-
ods of Chemical Process Design, Prentice Hall, New Jersey (1997)
26. Hessel, V., S. Hardt, H. Ldwe, A. Mtuller, and G. Kolb, Chemical Micro
Process Engineering, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany (2005)
27. Epstein, A.H., and S.D. Senturia, "Macro Power From Micro Machin-
ery," Science, 276(5316) 1211 (1997)
28. Rome, L.C., L. Flynn, E.M. Goldman, and T.D. Yoo, "Generating
Electricity While Walking With Loads," Science, 309(5741) 1725
(2005)
29. Green, K.J., R. Slee, and J.B. Lakeman, "The Development of a
Lightweight, Ambient-Air-Breathing, Tubular PEM Fuel Cell," J. New
Materials for Electrochemical Systems, 5, 1 (2002)
30. Sammes, N.M., R.J. Boersma, and G.A. Tompsett, "Micro-SOFC
System Using Butane Fuel," Solid State lonics, 135, 487 (2000)
31. Shao, Z.P, S.M. Haile, J. Ahn, P.D. Ronney Z.L. Zhan, and S.A.
Barnett, "A Thermally Self-Sustained Micro Solid Oxide Fuel-Cell
Stack with High Power Density," Nature, 435(9) 795 (2005)
32. Mitsos, A., and P.I. Barton, Microfabricated Power Generation De-
vices: Design and Technology, chapter "Selection of Alternatives and
Process Design," Wiley-VCH (2009)
33. Numerica technology 1


Chemical Engineering Education











I]*=l AlChE special section )













IDEAS TO CONSIDER FOR NEW

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATORS

Part 1. Courses Offered Earlier in the Curriculum







JASON M. KEITH
Michigan Technological University
DAVID L. SILVERSTEIN
University of Kentucky
DONALD P. Visco, JR.
Tennessee Technological University
A although teaching is a critical mission of any college
or university, today's faculty members are increas- Jason Keith is an associate professor of chemical engineering at
. o Michigan Technological University. He received his B.S. Ch.E. from the
ingly becoming involved in other scholarly activities. University of Akron in 1995, and his Ph.D. from the University of Notre
Thus, when teaching a new course, developing a good set of Dame in 2001. His current research interests include reactor stability,
instructional materials can be a challenging, time-consuming alternative energy, and engineering education. He is the 2008 recipient
instructional materials can be a challengingof the Raymond W. Fahien Award for Outstanding Teaching Effective-
task. In this paper we provide a review of some of what we ness and Educational Scholarship.
consider the best practices in engineering education, applied David L. Silverstein is currently the PJC Engineering Professor and
to the following courses: Freshman Chemical Engineering, an associate professor of chemical and materials engineering at the
University of Kentucky College of Engineering Extended Campus
Material and Energy Balances, Fluid Mechanics, Introductory Programs in Paducah. He received his B.S. Ch.E. from the University
Thermodynamics, and Separations. Note that a companion of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, Ala.; his M.S. and Ph.D. in chemical engi-
neering from Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tenn.; and has been a
paper covering those chemical engineering classes that nor- registered P.E. since 2002. He is the 2004 recipient of the William H.
mally occur later in the curriculum is planned. Corcoran Award for the most outstanding paper published in Chemi-
cal Engineering Education during 2003, and the 2007 recipient of the
The format used for each course is: Raymond W. Fahien Award for Outstanding Teaching Effectiveness
and Educational Scholarship.
A Brief description of typical course content n .
Don Visco is a professor of chemical engineering at Tennessee Tech-
A Discussion about novel and successful methods used, nological University, where he has been employed since 1999. Prior to
that, he graduated with his Ph.D. from the University at Buffalo, SUNY.
including best practices and new ideas His current research interests include experimental and computational
thermodynamics as well as bioinformatics/drug design. He is an active
A , f,, of i.*,, t concepts" for the students (and how and contributing member of ASEE at the local, regional, and national
to address them) level. He is the 2006 recipient of the Raymond W. Fahien Award for
Outstanding Teaching Effectiveness and Educational Scholarship.
We note that most of this material was originally presented
� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009
Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009 20










by the authors at the 2007 ASEE Chemical Engineering
Division Summer School in Pullman, WA.J11 This work was
originally published (and also presented) at the 2008 ASEE
Annual k1.iing' as paper number #AC 2008-1147.

FRESHMAN CHE COURSE
Depending on the school, this course is either a "stand-
alone" introduction to chemical engineering or is part of a
college-wide introductory course (with a portion devoted to
chemical engineering). Ironically, many chemical engineering
educators may never have taken such a course.
A major goal of the course, since it is for freshmen, should
be to cultivate student interest in engineering 31 and motivate
students to pursue an engineering career. This course can have
a wide variety of formats, depending upon the number of
credits and objectives of the course for a particular institution.
For example, Brigham Young University has a three-credit
course that introduces (via an integrated design problem) all
of the aspects of the chemical engineering curriculum, Ilul k.
Tennessee Technological University has a one-credit course
that focuses more on hands-on experiments and information
exchange. 5] Whatever the course, it is important for a depart-
ment to identify why they have introduced or are teaching such
a freshman course and whether (via specific assessment) the
goals and objectives of the class are being met, from both the
faculty and student standpoint.
In the rest of this section, we briefly highlight (as a resource)
some of the novel work available on freshman courses in
chemical engineering.

Best Practices / New Ideas
Some best practices that we have used (or discovered) for
this course are:
A The use of freshman design projects:
* Design an economic analysis of a controlled-release
nitrogen fertilizer plants6'
* Design, build, and test an evaporative cooler7
* Design and build a pilot-scale water treatment
plant"8'
* Analyze and design sneakers with better material
properties"91
A Introduce in-class, hands-on experiments:
* '-1 ,,,, chocolate and ...i 1,,,, cookieso�1
* Electrophoresis and brewing with ...i.. ,. i..
* Heat transfer scaling with hot dogst5
* Human respiration process 121
One overlooked concept in designing this course is to con-
sider the needs of the student from the student perspective.
Recently, the University of Pittsburgh asked their freshmen
engineering students to conduct a survey of other first-term
freshmen engineering students on topics the students felt were
important.[13] While the results of the surveys are interest-
208


ing in their own right, the most useful result is the types of
surveys the students developed. The top 10 types of surveys
were as follows:
1. C, ii,,, enough sleep?
2. Has high school prepared you for college?
3. Do you feel safe on campus?
4. Any new romantic relationships?
5. Is partying ,i .,,, , in the way of schoolwork?
6. Exercise more or less than in high school?
7. Homesick?
8. Favorite campus food options?
9. Susceptible to doing drugs / alcohol now?
10. Confidence in time-management skills?

It is noted that there is nothing about a student's major listed
in the top 10. Thus, a freshman engineering course requires a
balance between what an instructor knows (or thinks) that a
student needs, and what the students think they need. There-
fore, while a freshman chemical engineering course must
(obviously) contain information about the field of chemical
engineering, it should also find ways to address non-chemical
engineering related issues as well. Here, ample use of guest
speakers in Counseling Services or similar offices on campus
should be explored.
In addition to what has been discussed above, other ideas in
freshman chemical engineering courses exist as well. Roberts
discusses a course that focuses on, among other areas, com-
munication skills.[141 Worcester Polytechnic Institute looks
to mix writing with first-year engineering in a course shared
by a ChE faculty member and a Writing faculty member.[151
Vanderbilt University describes a course where students are
introduced to chemical engineering by "using examples from
cutting-edge research to illustrate fundamental concepts."[161
At Youngstown State University they are demonstrating com-
bustion principles to chemical engineering (and non-chemical
engineering) students using a potato cannon.[171
Trouble Spots
Trouble spots for this course include:
A Most students do not know what chemical engineers
do-one idea is to have teams of like-minded students in-
i i,. -, i'. where chemical engineers work in a particular
field. Each team will present this information to the rest
of the class at the end of the semester. Also, The Sloan
Career Cornerstone Center"81 has short "Day in the
Life" interviews with various young chemical engineers
in a wide variety of industries that are quite informative
at emphasizing the diversity of career options accessible
for B.S. chemical engineering graduates.
A Most students have only a vague idea as to why they are
taking math-one idea is to have upperclassmen come
into the class and tell them how they are using math in
their courses. In fact, using upperclassmen as much as
Chemical Engineering Education











possible during the semester is a good idea as it indoc-
trinates the students more easily into the program.

A Many students struggle with the transition from high
school-one idea is to use upper-class peer mentors or
speakers from on-campus who can discuss student-rele-
vant issues. Having students conduct their own surveys,
as discussed in a previous section of this work, might
identify the most important issues for your students.


MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCES
This course may also be called the Stoichiometry or Pro-
cess Principles course by faculty. Students may refer to it as
a weed-out class as some students drop and switch majors
during or after completing the course. Much of this perception
may be because it requires students to think at a higher level
than in previous courses. A typical course will cover: units
and dimensions, properties, measurements, phase equilibria,
material balances, energy balances (nonreactive and reac-
tive systems), and combined mass and energy balances. The
course should prepare students to apply conservation laws to
process simulation as the first source of modeling equations.
The course is the foundation for the rest of the curriculum-it
is all about planting seeds for the future!
Best Practices / New Ideas
Some best practices and useful tools that we have used (or
discovered) for this course are:
A Emphasize importance of communication in problem
solving."19 Requiring students to submit a solution or
two that meets corporate standards can be a useful
exercise in developing students' communication skills.
Overuse of such a requirement can distract from the
problem-solving objectives, so use sparingly.

A Teaching by ,.1,,. ., : -Using simple analogies for ex-
plaining confusing topics such as mass/mole fractions,
steady-state, specific volume, saturated air, and others
can help students grasp topics that might elude them
from lecture and reading alone. Analogies provide a
link between what the student already knows and what
you are trying to teach them.

A Mass and energy balances on the human body.'21' In this
module students are asked to measure flows and com-
positions using a medical gas analyzer while exercising
and at rest. They then apply several ChE fundamental
principles (ideal gas law, partial pressure, stoichiom-
etry, relative humidity, heat of reaction, work, efficiency,
and process simulation) to analyze their results.
A 'i., i-.,, the unit operations early in the curriculum.'22'
The equipment is already in the laboratory, so why not
use it within the material and energy balance course?
This allows for introduction of measurement, applica-
tion of conservation laws, and an introduction of the
fundamentals of design. Any time students can apply
knowledge to a real task, they learn better.
A I-. 1-.. p ,,, programming with templates.1231 Pro-
Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009


gramming is an effective way of teaching students
numerical methods. The problem with programming is
that it often has significant overhead (input/output, user
interface, etc.) that has ,.. i,,,,, to do with the objec-
tives of an assignment. Using templates, or "almost
finished" programs lacking only the numerical method
code, enables students to focus on .,,q i ...... ,,,, the
numerical method and concentrate on the learning
objectives for the assignment.

A Student-centered teaching.'24 261 These references pro-
vide a host of ",,-, ,1 ... for the material and energy
balance course, including: developing a well-struc-
tured team approach to homework, t. "- i,,, homework
answers (but not solutions), giving open-book exams,
and developing clear objectives and exam study guides
to aid in student learning.

A Psychrometric chart applet.271 This applet allows the
user to calculate properties of humidified air, and
helps students understand how to use the psychromet-
ric chart. It also frees up valuable lecture time when
assigned to students to study on their own and then
assessed . 1, -..1 , in-class active-learning exercises.

A Richard Felder's Resources in Science and Engineering
Education. This is a popular site containing a link to
the stoichiometry course taught by the textbook'291 co-
author. The site also contains links to Excel tutorials.'30o
Furthermore, there are many links to information on
using active learning in your courses.

A Graph paper Web site.1311 Assuming you still expect
students to learn fundamentals of graphing such as use
of . ...,,, ii,..... axes, these papers will come in handy.

Trouble Spots
Trouble spots for this course include:
A Reluctance to show work. Students should be required
from the start to show clean, detailed solutions even
on the easiest problems assigned earlier in the class.
Significant point deductions for deviations early in the
course help train students to clearly communicate with
their problem solving.

A Reluctance to apply rigorous methods to simple prob-
lems. The grader must pay attention to the method and
not just the final answer. Requiring students to start
from the general material balance even on problems
that can be solved intuitively will aid students in solv-
ing more complex problems later in the course.

A Misunderstandings about density / specific volume and
g,. Repetition, drills, quizzes, and clear examples help
to clear up some of these common misunderstandings.
Warning students that these can be challenging issues
may help a few pay more attention. Keeping a refer-
ence page at the beginning of their notebook or in the
cover of the textbook with notes on these and other key
subjects can also help.

A Trouble with thermodynamic diagrams. Students will
not grasp these diagrams without working with them.











One approach is using online interactive tutorials.
Another effective approach is to bring copies of charts
(even if they are in the text) for students to use in work-
ing problems either with the instructor, or better still,
in small groups. They will only learn how to use these
charts if they practice using the diagrams.

A Reluctance to apply rigorous methods to simple
problems. Yes, this problem is significant enough to
mention twice.
A Lack of.wf ,,,1.. .. of "old" material into subsequent
chapters. Students are going to tend to compartmental-
ize knowledge from each chapter (or each homework
assignment, each exam, etc.) and not internalize the
concepts into their problem-solving repertoire. Blend-
ing lectures in a manner that bridges the chapter
divide, using problems that draw extensively on previ-
ous topics, and even giving quizzes on material covered
earlier in the course can help develop anchors to key
elements in a course as they move on to new topics.


FLUID MECHANICS
Fluid Mechanics has an interesting history within chemical
engineering programs.[321 It developed from steam and gas
technology for industrial chemistry and chemical engineering
needs. From this evolved Unit Operations, which helped make
chemical engineering a unique field. Meanwhile, fundamental
studies in fluid mechanics were quite popular (and remain
so) in the literature. This research work became integrated
into the chemical engineering curriculum mostly due to the
Transport Phenomena text.E133

Best Practices / New Ideas
One major advantage of teaching a course in fluid mechan-
ics is the visualization that could be easily brought into this
course. Some best practices that we have used (or discovered)
for achieving this in the fluids course are:
A Ford's paper on "Water Day""34' developed several
observation stations so that students can visualize
continuity, the Bernoulli equation, conservation of linear
momentum, the vena contract effect, and relative and
absolute velocities.

A Incorporate high school outreach into the course
* Using pressure concepts'35'
* Using a tank-tube viscometer experiment"36'

A Use unit operations and/or research laboratories
* Unique experiments have been developed by Fan"37
who discusses flow surrounding a bubble, two-phase
theory, flow , ,.,,. ... phenomena of bubble-wake
dynamics, and computational fluid dynamics ofpar-
ticulate systems).
* Particle technology is afield that offers a large
number of simple experiments that can be brought
into the classroom.1381 These include wet-powder sys-
tems (single-particle settling, hindered and lamella


settling, sedimentation and flocculation, interpar-
ticle force effects on colloidal suspension rheology,
-., ii-, behavior of dry powders, and ,,,i.,,i, i.. l.
coalescence behavior) and dry particle systems (hop-
per flow, consolidation effects of powder flow, parti-
cle dilation, wall friction, , ,,,,r. .. during hopper
flow, vibrational , ,, ii ,,. fluidization, and flow
improvement due to powder o, i. ...' . . i There
are also a CD'391 and Web site1401 available with ad-
ditional powder-technology education information.
* Golter, et al.,f41] have developed a ,,, t . i. -i. ., c to
teach students fluid mechanics and heat transfer
inductively. Many of their modules are see- i.l. .1, i,
to aid in visualization. These include Reynolds
,/, fi ... tin...,i, clear pipe, pressure drop .1:-i ..i
fiii,,, and valves, flowmeters (Venturi, orifice, and
Pitot tube), extended surface heat exchangers, kettle
boiler / steam condenser, 1-2 shell and tube heat
exchanger, fluidized bed (compressed air :.- 1..., i
sand), and a double-pipe heat exchanger.
* Wright, et al.,[42' introduced bioseparations .1h-., `, a
three-part laboratory experiment. This includes bed
expansion characterization under fluidization condi-
tions, tracer studies, and protein adsorption studies.
* Other experimental unit operations that could be
demonstrated include o1, I,.. ., and aeration,1431
solid/liquid and liquid/liquid mixing,'441 and com-
pressible flow analysis.1451

A Use fluid mechanics videos from the Web
* Most notable is the "Fluid Mechanics" video series
starring Prof. Hunter Rouse of the University of
Iowa. These videos are available online at the Iowa
Web site.1461 General topics include the introduction
to the study of fluid motion; experimental principles
of flows; characteristics of the laminar and turbulent
flows; fluid motion in a ,,,1 , tI..i... field; form
drag, lift, and propulsion; and effects of fluid com-
pressibility.
* There is also the "National Committee for Fluid
Mechanics Film Series"147' with sample topics: aero-
dynamic , ... ,an. -. of a sound, cavitation, chan-
nel flow of a compressible fluid, deformation of a
continuous media, Eulerian Lagrangian description,
and flow instabilities.

A Use commercially available software
* Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) case studies
in the fluids course1481 and for fluid-particle flow'49'
* COMSOL modules for fluid dynamics and heat and
mass transfer applied to fuel cells'501
* Use of Mathematica'51 to analyze non-Newtonian
flow systems

Trouble Spots
Trouble spots for this course include:
A Students may possess weak math skills. Instructors
can develop handouts to step students .1 ... i,/, difficult


Chemical Engineering Education










solution processes (such as solving differential equa-
tions). Have them practice with in-class problems and
homework before ., 111,, them.
A Difficulty in . .. . o,,, highly theoretical content to
real industrial applications-if there is an Internet-
connected computer and projector in the classroom,
instructors can use online and/or laboratory demon-
strations to make a strong connection. This connection
can also help students with their subsequent classes.
A Students often do not know order-of-magnitude values
for pressure drops, velocities, Reynolds numbers, etc.
The teacher can provide them with general values on a
handout they can paste in the front of their textbook.
A Students 1i1, ,i 1 ii, when to eliminate terms in the
governing equations. If they are provided with handouts
to step them .1 ,.. ,, , difficult solution processes (such as
solving differential equations), they will be prepared for
more advanced homework and exam questions.

INTRODUCTORY THERMODYNAMICS
This course is normally the first of two thermodynamics
courses where fundamental thermodynamics concepts are
introduced (first and second law of thermodynamics) while
solution properties are normally not discussed. Processes
and equipment are emphasized, including various thermody-
namic cycles and the analysis of their components (turbines,
compressors, throttling valves, etc.) The course enrollment
can also include non-chemical engineering students, so the
instructor must also be aware of issues that mechanical or
civil engineers may encounter in their careers.
German Physicist Arnold Sommerfeld said it best when
discussing the topic of thermodynamics:
"Thermodynamics is a funny subject. The first time you go
.I,- - , J, it, you don't understand it at all. The second time
you go .1 ..,- , J, it, you think you understand it, except for
one or two small points. The third time you go .1- ..- , , it,
you know you don't understand it, but by that time you are
so used to it, it doesn't bother you anymore."
Best Practices / New Ideas
The subject of thermodynamics can be confusing due to a
number of issues, but most notable is the lack of an intuitive feel
for certain integral concepts, such as entropy, internal energy,
fugacity, chemical potential, etc. Recently one of us observed, in
research involving student-prepared study guides, that entropy
and the second law of thermodynamics are the most confusing
topics. In fact, students did not put much information, if at all,
on their study guides for these two topics-not because they
were comfortable with them, but because they had a poor un-
derstanding of the topics. This manifested itself in exam scores
on problems with these concepts.5s21
One way to connect this concept for students is through
unique, nonlecture methods. Kyle discusses the mystique
of entropy, applied to a wide range of fields including


If chemical engineering (or any

engineering) faculty were to work

with calculus instructors to pro-

vide context to some of the math

(students) are learning, this could

potentially mitigate the need for

the remedial work when students

arrive in the classes that depend

on this knowledge.


cosmology, time, life, and art.J531 Muiller integrates second
law concepts into common life experiences and economic
theories.[541 Foley presents a view of entropy as a quality of
energy degraded. 55l There are also newer thermodynamic
terms that are gaining in popularity, including exergy (maxi-
mum work done by a system that brings it into equilibrium
with a reservoir) and emergy (the cost of a process or product
in solar energy equivalents).
Another problem that students face with thermodynamics is
the strong importance placed on the use of differential calculus
concepts. While students have normally been exposed to all of
these concepts in their calculus sequence, the act of placing it
in a thermodynamic context often proves a significant barrier.
Working with F=F(x,y) is, seemingly, different from working
with P=P(T,v). Accordingly, the thermodynamics instructor
has two options. The first involves re-teaching the fundamen-
tal concepts of differentials, partial derivatives, meaning of
integrals, etc. within the thermodynamics course. The second
is to work with the people who are teaching students these
math concepts, which are Mathematics Department faculty
members. If chemical engineering (or any engineering) faculty
were to work with calculus instructors to provide context to
some of the math they are learning, this could potentially
mitigate the need for the remedial work when their students
arrive in the classes that depend on this knowledge.
Other new ideas associated with this course include:
A Incorporation of biological concepts in addition
to traditional chemical engineering examples. For
example, Haynie"56I describes the irreversible increase
in entropy involved in how a grasshopper jumps. Ad-
ditional problems are available in this area as part of
the Bioengineering Educational Materials Bank.'57
A Development of a Personalized Class Binderf"58 that
requires students to put class notes, handouts, in-class
problems, quizzes, exams, and homework into a binder.
The binder is graded at various points during the
semester. Students are also required to rewrite or type


Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009











the notes neatly for inclusion in the binder and to show
reworked exams, quizzes, and homework. Finally, the
binder will include brief biographies of the scientists
mentioned in the course, which goes toward human-
izing the subject matter.

A Creative Expression Day, where students make posters
to be placed above the chalkboard that contains vari-
ous concepts or formulas important for the course.
Students can then easily "view" this information dur-
ing the whole semester.

A Extensive use of NIST WebBookfor data to perform
any of a number of comparisons of involving polar
and nonpolar substances.s59'

A Earlier presentation of power cycles (such as Rankine)
as motivation for studying and contextualizing tur-
bines, efficiency, latent heats, etc.

Do note that many articles in the journal Chemical Engineer-
ing Education have been written on thermodynamics problems,
especially in the "Class and Home Problems" section. Some
notable ones include a powerful example on energy consump-
tion relating the second law, by Fan and colleagueso60; an
open-ended design estimation problem from LombardoE611; and
the description of an experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium
laboratory at the University of Delaware.[62]
Trouble Spots
Trouble spots for this course include:
A Difficulty comprehending the second law of thermody-
namics. One idea is to use the statistical nature of en-
tropy as an introduction as well as the works of Foley'55'
and Fan.160'
A Difficulty .,,1,, i.,ii,, concepts of mathematics into this
course. Rather than assume knowledge of differentials,
partial derivatives, etc., spend some time to remind
students of these concepts.


EQUILIBRIUM-STAGED SEPARATIONS
This course typically combines steady-state material and
energy balances with phase equilibrium to form the student's
first experience with equipment design. Students apply equi-
librium relationships to the design of staged separations equip-
ment. Typical operations include flashes, cascades, absorption,
stripping, binary distillation, and extraction. This course may
also cover rate-based processes such as membranes, adsorp-
tion, and ion exchange.
Graphical methods are used to learn conceptual relation-
ships and for order-of-magnitude design. Analytical methods
are then used as rigorous design tools and provide a founda-
tion for simulation.
Best Practices / New Ideas
Some best practices that we have used (or discovered) for
this course are:


A Ask the experts. Sometimes we do not teach the courses for
which we have the most relevant experience. Both Chemi-
cal Engineering Progress'637 and Chemical Engineering
Magazine'64' routinely publish relevant articles on separa-
tions applications. They are often written at a level that
students can understand better than their textbooks.

A Bring in the history of the field.6s5I Separations have
been performed for millennia. The earliest recorded
use of distillation dates back to 50 B.C.; it was used
in the 12th century for ethanol processing; and in the
16th century it was widely used for perfumes, vinegars,
and oils. Occasionally .... pt"in', terribly . ,
technical lectures with historical anecdotes can renew
students' interest in a lecture while giving them perspec-
tive on their current course of study.

A Use literature from industrial suppliers.'66' Many
manufacturers and distributors of industrial equipment
have useful applications papers describing not only
their equipment in particular but general concepts as
well. A Web search will easily find vendor articles such
as "Factors Aits. i,,, Distillation Column Operation,"
"Evaporator Handbook," and "Liquid-Liquid Coalesc-
er Design Manual." These are also written at a very
accessible technical level.

A Wankat's "Why, What, How?" approach. Establish why
you're teaching ..... -i,,,,, (economics, core of chemical
engineering), what exactly you're teaching (equilibrium
1,1, .i , J "., . . and then teach it using best peda-
gogical practices (lecture with simulation labs, induc-
tively structure the course, using both graphical and then
analytical methods, and then reinforce with laboratory
exercises and design projects).'67 This process should
lead to a deeper understanding of the subject.

A Levels of understanding.168' Dahm combines Wankat's
approach with Haile's Special Hierarchy of understand-
ing to give a specific possible formulation of the levels
of understanding in teaching separations.

A Separations using spreadsheets. iH.., /,,,, with
students to develop an analytical approach to graphi-
cal separations on a spreadsheet forces a connection
between the graphical ,, it,. .. i. -i., c and the theoretical
underpinnings. Am .. -. 1,,, shortcut separations devel-
ops an understanding of what is required to be known in
what order.

A Use of commercial simulation.1'71 Use of commercial
simulators in the classroom enables a range of induc-
tive exercises to be incorporated into a course. Instead
of performing time-consuming laboratory exercises
(which do have an esteemed place in the course) to
explore a piece of equipment, experiments can be per-
formed virtually with the simulator, enabling students
to observe results and draw conclusions. When the
theory is later discussed, students have a framework of
understanding whereby they can assimilate the salient
points of the discussion.


Chemical Engineering Education











Occasionally interrupting terribly

interesting technical lectures with

historical anecdotes can renew students'

interest in a lecture while giving

them perspective on their current

course of study.


Trouble Spots
Trouble spots for this course can include:
A Reluctance to show work; reluctance to apply rigorous
methods to simple problems; trouble with thermody-
namic diagrams. These are problems encountered in
earlier courses and they have been discussed in the
Material and Energy Balances portion of the paper.
A Looking for "answers" instead of trends. Students often
fail to see that the point of solving model equations (out-
side of homework and exams) is not to find a particular
number. Models are always approximations or subject to
other forms of error. The real value of models is in simu-
lation to determine answers to questions such as "What
happens ifmyflowrates vary +/- 50%" or "What would
be the effect ofo -.1u ,,,. i *.n. , thermocouple?"
A F-1 -. 1 i,, rigor in graphical approximate solutions.
You will need to constantly remind and reinforce the
fact that assumptions are being made ... ..,,.- ! the
course. Some of the assumptions may not be significant
(equimolar counter diffusion for a binary distillation
with similar substances) or may change the character
of the entire separation (use of inappropriate thermo-
dynamic models).
A Disconnect between theory and simulators. If students do
not learn how to use a process simulator for separations
as they learn theory, they will have difficulty reconciling
the terminology used in their text and the input fields in
the simulator. Fostering that connection .1-,.. --, .,, the
course makes use of simulators more effective.

USE OF ACTIVE LEARNING
The authors are all advocates of using active learning within
their courses. As such, a brief background and listing of simple
ideas on how to integrate active learning into a core chemical
engineering course is provided.
Studies have ,hlii ii"' --1 that students typically learn best
in an active mode; however, engineering is usually taught as
lectures. The use of active learning is underscored in teaching
textbooks 7172] and those intended for the new professor 731 as
well as in numerous conference proceedings and engineering
education archival publications. A good listing of references
is presented by Smith 741 and by Dyrud. 751


A great deal of information on improving student-teacher
interaction through active learning is presented at the Na-
tional Effective Teaching Institute (NETI)7'61 and the Excel-
lence in Engineering Education (ExcEEd) 771 workshops. One
former attendee and active learning advocate is Ken Reid,
who highlighted the positive experiences in his classroom, 781
and summarized simple ways that faculty can increase ac-
tive and collaborative learning in their lectures and within
the laboratory.[79]
Improving student motivation may also improve learning,
as was recently illustrated by Newell - who developed a game
based on the reality television show Survivor within a material
and energy balance course.o80] Newell referenced the student
motivation classifications of Biggs and Moorea811:
1. Intrinsic-learning because of a desire to learn
2. Social- learning to please others
3. Achievement- learning to enhance one's position
4. Instrumental-learning to gain long-term rewards

Game-based active learning exercises certainly address the
social and achievement components of Biggs and Moore.811 In
his study, Newello801 found that the Survivor game addressed all
four motivation categories and improved student learning.
There are other quiz shows and contests that can be used
within the classroom. The chemical engineering education
literature has described ways to integrate formats from game
shows and games such as Jeopardy, "Trivial Pursuit,"[821 and
Hollywood Squares,83] as well as offered professor-created
games such as "Green Square Manufacturing,"'841 "True Blue
Titanium Game,"I851 "Chemical Engineering Balderdash,""851
and the "Transport Cup."[861 Most of these games usually
only address the knowledge or comprehension component
of Bloom's taxonomy. [71
Other simple-to-use active-learning methods include:
A Think-pair-share- think for 1-2 minutes, talk with
neighbor for 1-2 minutes, then share answers with the
rest of the class
A Poll the audience-with a show of hands, colored note-
cards, or clickers
A Minute paper-the students write down 1-2 ways to do
.*..... i,,,-,. then the instructor solicits answers from
the students. This is also a good way to get anonymous
feedback on the course content, what the "muddiest"
point of a lecture is, etc.
A Engineering Education articles from Rich Felder128'-
this site highlights recent teaching methods that have
been proven to improve student learning

CONCLUSIONS
This paper has described some of the best practices for use
in the chemical engineering courses that traditionally occur


Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009












earlier in the curriculum: Freshman Chemical Engineering,
Material and Energy Balances, Fluid Mechanics, Introduc-
tory Thermodynamics, and Separations. A common thread
is deviation from the traditional lecture format. When this
happens, the students are given the opportunity to take own-
ership of their own learning. Popular methods include the
use of in-class demos, hands-on activities, tours of the unit
operations lab, and seeing a movie or simulation of a concept.
Additionally, the softer skills of engineering are finding their
way into the classroom, with the most popular ones being
an increased emphasis on communication and on teamwork
skills. It is noted that it is particularly important for instruc-
tors of beginning courses (freshman chemical engineering
and/or material and energy balance courses) to understand
the concerns facing the students as they begin their college
careers. Incorporating novel methods into the classroom can
increase learning as well as retention.

For copies of the presentation slides from the Summer
School, contact one of the authors.


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86. Keith, J.M., "The Transport Cup," Proceedings of the 2005 ASEE
Annual Conference & Exposition, ASEE (2005)
87. Bloom, B.S., i .1 1, ....... - ofEducational Objectives: The Classifica-
tion of Educational Goals: Handbook I, Cognitive Domain, Longmans,
Green, New York (1956) 1


Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009










r.1I.1 AIChE special section


THE HISTORY OF

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND PEDAGOGY

The Paradox of Tradition and Innovation









PHILLIP C. WANKAT
Purdue University


Despite the conservatism of ChE departments, chemi-
cal engineering has been at the forefront of helping
new professors learn how to teach and individual
chemical engineering professors have been leaders in the
push for engineering education reform. Examples of chemi-
cal engineering leadership in pedagogy include the Chemical
Engineering Division of ASEE Summer School every five
years, the division's publication of the journal Chemical En-
gineering Education, and leadership in teaching professors
how-to-teach. Individual efforts include the development
of the guided design method, introducing Problem-Based
Learning into engineering, laboratory improvements and
hands-on learning, the textbook Teaching Engineering, and
the championing of cooperative group learning. Despite these
efforts, most ChE professors insist on lecturing.
This paper will provide a brief history of chemical engineer-
ing programs, curricula, and pedagogies.

INTRODUCTION AND EARLY PROGRAMS
In 1888 MIT started Course X (course refers to curricu-
lum), which began as a mechanical engineering curriculum
with time devoted to the study of chemistry, and eventually
became chemical engineering.1"3] MIT did not claim inven-
tion of chemical engineering but noted that similar engineers
216


were active in Europe.[41 Davies'51 starts his history of chemi-
cal engineering with the ancient Greeks and continues to the
1887 series of lectures presented by George E. Davis at the
Manchester Technical School in England. [The Manchester
Technical School became the University of Manchester
Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST) and in 2004
merged with the Victoria University of Manchester to form
the University of Manchester.] These lectures, which were
published over the next few years in the Chemical Trade
Journal, are often considered the start of formal education in
chemical engineering. Davis published the first Handbook of
Chemical Engineering in two volumes in 1901 and 1902.[6]
Since this is the 100th anniversary of the American Institute

Phil Wankat has a joint appointment in
Chemical Engineering and in Engineering
Education at Purdue University. He has a
B.S. ChE from Purdue, a Ph.D. from Princ-
eton, and an M.S. Ed from Purdue. He is
the associate editor of CEE.


� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009
Chemical Engineering Education










of Chemical Engineers, we will generally limit our comments
to the American experience and refer readers interested in the
history of chemical engineering in other countries to the many
fine chapters in Furter. 71

The historical role of MIT in starting chemical engineering
education in the United States has been well documented.E14
81 The initial Course X, founded by Lewis Mill Norton, was
contained in the department of chemistry. Chemical engineer-
ing became a separate department in 1920 with Warren K.
Lewis as the head. Perhaps the firstAmerican text in chemical
engineering, Elements of Fractional Distillation, was pub-
lished by MIT professor Clark Shove Robinson in 1922 as
part of McGraw-Hill's International Chemical Series.[9] This
was followed in 1923 by the seminal Principles of Chemical
Engineering by William H. Walker, Warren K. Lewis, and
William H. McAdams,1101 which laid the quantitative founda-
tions of the discipline and used the concept of unit operations
first recognized by George E. Davis (although not by that
name)3 5s 6] and first delineated by Arthur D. Little in 1915.111
MIT also developed the idea of intensive practical education
through a graduate level practice school, but this innovation
has not spread beyond MIT.1 "11

Although there were programs in practical industrial
chemistry before 1888, MIT was the first school to use the
title chemical engineering.[21 After MIT, the University of
Pennsylvania introduced a four-year chemical engineering
program within chemistry in 1892; although, a separate
department was not established until 1951.[21 In 1894 Tulane
started the third curriculum in chemical engineering followed
by the University of Michigan and Tufts in 1898 and the
University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign in 1901.[2] The first
independent chemical engineering departments in the United
States apparently were the University of Wisconsin in 1905[21
and Purdue University in 1911.[121


CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTS
Early curricula were often cobbled together from existing
industrial chemistry and mechanical engineering courses, and
it was common, as was the case at MIT, to have no courses
labeled as chemical engineering.[21 As programs grew, pro-
fessors of chemical engineering were assigned and specific
courses in chemical engineering were developed.
AIChE became involved in studying the education of
chemical engineers in 1919 through its committee on Chemi-
cal Engineering Education."131 Between 1921 and 1922 the
committee, chaired by Arthur D. Little, studied the programs
at 78 schools that claimed to teach chemical engineering and
decided that chemical engineering was based on the unit op-
erations and involved industrial-scale chemical processes. [13
Although controversial, the report of Little's committee
was approved in 1922, and a new committee chaired by
H.C. Parmelee was given three years to determine which
programs were satisfactory. This report, with the names
of 14 acceptable programs, was given in June 1925, and
constitutes the beginning of engineering accreditation in the
United States.[13] The Engineers' Council for Professional
Development (now part of ABET) was formed in 1932.
Since AIChE was the only engineering society involved in
accreditation at that time, the institute requested and received
special status. One of these perks, that a copy of each ChE
program's self-study report was to be provided to the AIChE
committee, was not removed until the March 2008 meeting
of the ABET Board of Directors. [14
In 1925, AIChE recommended that 10.3% of the curriculum
be devoted to chemical engineering courses. The recommended
amount of engineering has increased over the years. In 1938, 15
to 20 percent of the curricula was expected to consist of chemi-
cal engineering courses[15] (Table 1). Currently, ABET does
not spell out the percentages of chemical engineering courses


TABLE 1
Accreditation Recommended Percentage in ChE Curriculas15' 16]
Topic AIChE 19381151 Topic ABET 2008-20091161
Chemistry 25-30% Math & Basic Science 25% minimum
Sufficient material to be consistent with
objectives
Math 12%
Physics 8%
Other Sciences 2%
Mechanics 6%
Chemical Engineering 20-15% Engineering 37.5%
Must include design and sufficient material
to be consistent with objectives
Other Engineering 12%
Cultural Subjects 15% General Education Complement other components and
consistent with objectives
Total ~148 credits ~124 or more credits


Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009











TABLE 2
ChE Plans of Study at Purdue University"2]
Topic 1907-08 1923-242 1936-373 1965-66 Proposed 2009-10
Chemistry 15.1% 23.7-29.9% 24.2-26.9% 16.7% 14.5%
Math 16.8% 12.3% 11.8% 12.5% 14.5%
Physics 6.6% 4.9% 5.3% 8.3% 5.3%
Biology 1.0% 1.2-3.1% -----.---- 2.3%
Mech. Draw. 3.0% 2.5% 2.6% -----.----
Mechanics 4.4% 4.9% 7.9% 2.1% -----
Ind. chem./ 11.0% --- -- -- --
tech.
Chem. Engr. -- 6.7-10.4% 18.3-20.3% 25.-25.7% 36.6%
Other Engr. 12.6% 12.3-19.0% 5.2% 8.3% 5.3%
Shop 7.0% 2.5% 2.6% -----.----
Tech. electives --------- 4.9-5.6% 2.3%
Military 3.0% 3.9-13.1% 4.4% 0-5.6% -----
English/ 5.6% 3.7% 5.9% 3.5% 5.3%
Speech
German 10.0% 7.4-9.2% 3.9% --- ---
Other 3.8% 5.5% 2.0% 12.5% 13.7%
humanities
Other 4.0% 5.6-0%
Total credits 398.5 pts'1 163-169 cr 152.7-154.7 cr. 144 cr 131 cr
1 I point for each hour per week in courses with no outside work and 2.5 points for each hour per week in courses with outside work.
2 Depends on options chosen. The 163 minimum was used to determine %.
3 Depends on options. The 152.7 minimum was used to determine %.


but focuses on the skills required by graduates.16, 17] The total
engineering percentage has increased, h 1, ", ' C (Table 1).
It is interesting to consider the historical development of
curricula. The curricula for Purdue University, which has
always had a fairly typical curriculum, are shown in Table
2.[12] While chemical engineering was still part of chemistry
(1907-08), there were no courses identified as chemical
engineering, and German was required since much of the
chemistry literature was published in German (Table 2). In
addition, a thesis was required for graduation. This plan of
study was truly a combination of industrial chemistry and
mechanical engineering. An increase in military training oc-
curred during the First World War. After chemical engineering
became a separate department, separate ChE courses appeared
and the industrial chemistry courses disappeared (1923-24 in
Tables 2 and 3). Although still required, the amount of Ger-
man decreased. Both the 1907-08 and 1923-24 plans of study
required a modest amount of biology. The other engineering
courses included Electrical and Mechanical Engineering,
plus Surveying. Descriptive Geometry, required in 1907, was
dropped by 1923. The 1923-24 plan of study had insufficient
chemical engineering courses to meet the recommendations of
the AIChE Parmelee committee, and Purdue plus many other
schools were not on the AIChE list of approved schools.
218


Purdue (and most other rejected schools) worked hard to
satisfy AIChE requirements.J121 Purdue's 1936-37 plan of
study (Tables 2 and 3) satisfied the AIChE recommendations
(Table 1) and Purdue was first accredited in 1933. The 28 to 31
credits of chemical engineering shown for 1936-37 in Table 3
include 6 credits of Metallurgy, which was part of chemical
engineering. Biology was no longer required although Min-
eralogy (listed as 2 % in "other") was required. The German
requirement had been reduced to 6 credits and disappeared
entirely by 1950. By 1965, Shop, Mechanical Drawing, ad-
ditional science, and German had all been eliminated. The
Military requirement was made semi-optional and the hu-
manities requirement (elective with a few constraints) was
increased significantly. Chemical engineering requirements
were increased to 25% of the course load. The 1965-66 cur-
riculum is fairly close to the "four-year compromise curricu-
lum light in chemistry" discussed in 1969 by Morgen.J151 The
proposed 2010-11 curriculum shows the inclusion of Biology,
an increase in chemical engineering courses including more
Design, and a change in when students take hands-on labo-
ratory (1 credit each of Fluids, Heat and Mass Transfer, and
Reactor Engineering are for laboratory). The molecular basis
of ChE is taught in ChE, which only partially compensates
for the reduction in Chemistry. This proposed curriculum has
Chemical Engineering Education











TABLE 3
Chemical Engineering Courses at Purdue University"121
Semester 1907-08 1923-24 1936-371 1965-66 Proposed 2010-11
1 None None None None None
2 None None ChE/Met. .............. 3 None None
(optional)
3 None None None ChE Calc ........ 3 ChE Calc. ........ 4
4 None None None Intro. Chem. Thermo. ........ .4
Proc. Ind ....... 3 Stat. Model ...... 3
5 None None None Thermo .......... .3 Separation ... . ... 3
Fluids & Heat Fluids .......... .4
Trans.......... 4
6 None Thermo. . 3 cr. Thermo. ............... 3 Mass Transfer .... 4 Heat/Mass Transfer 4
Elem. Unit Ops .......... 2 ChE Lab......... 2 Rx Eng.......... 4
Molec. Eng . . . . . . 3
Prof. Semin . . . . . . 1
7 Indus. Chem. Elements Elem. Unit Ops ......... .2 Rx Kinet ......... .3 ChE Lab .......... .4
& Tech. Analy- ChE I . .... 3 Unit Ops ............... .3 ChE Lab ..... .. .2 Proc. Dynam. &
sis . . 22 points Metallurgy .. .3 Non-Ferrous Metallurgy. . 3 Prof. Guid. & Control ........ .3
(optional) Pyrometry .............. 2 Inspection Trips . 1 Des & Cost Analysis 3
Plant Des............... 2 ChE Elec....... 3-4 ChE Elec......... 3
ChE Prob............... 1
8 Indus. Chem. Elements Inorg. & Org. Tech. & Proc. Dynam. & Proc. Des. ........ 2
& Tech. Analy- ChE II ..... 3 Stoich.................. 3 Control ........ 3 ChE Elec......... 3
sis . . 22 points Metallurgy .. .3 Unit Ops ............. . 3 Proc. Des. &
(optional) Ferrous Metall ....... . . .3 Economics . . . .. 3
ChE Prob............... 1 ChE Elec......... 3
Total 44 points 9-15 cr. 28-31 cr. 36-37 cr. 48 cr.
1 Shown for the General Chemical Engineering program (other options were Gas Technology, Metallurgy, Military, and Organic Technology).


two ChE electives, an additional engineering elective, and a
technical elective. Several options such as pharmaceutical
engineering allow students to use their electives in an orga-
nized fashion. The Military requirement disappeared during
the Vietnam War.
Although total credits have dropped through the years
(Table 2), the student work load appears to have stayed
constant or increased. The amount of chemistry in the
curriculum (Table 2) has decreased significantly. Shop,
German, Mechanical Drawing, Mechanics, Circuits, and
Military have slowly been phased out of the curriculum.
Although still available, these courses are selected by few
students. Biology has done a boomerang and returned to the
curriculum. Chemical engineering science courses replaced
practical, but less scientifically oriented, courses after World
War II.E181 The percentage of chemical engineering courses
has steadily increased, and there has been a trend to move
these courses earlier in the curriculum (Table 3). Although
not obvious from Table 3 because of the years selected, the
amount of design has oscillated back and forth and is cur-
rently waxing. Hougen's[191 analysis of the curriculum trends
at the University of Wisconsin reveals patterns similar to
those shown here, except that Wisconsin was often several
years ahead of Purdue in making changes.
Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009


The current ChE curriculum at Purdue and most schools is
extremely hierarchical. Starting with the first Calculus course,
Purdue has a seven-semester sequence of required courses to
graduation consisting of the Calculus courses and Differential
Equations, which is a co-requisite for Fluids, which is fol-
lowed by Heat and Mass Transfer, which is a co-requisite for
the first of two ChE design courses. There are also several
four-semester sequences of ChE courses starting with Mass
and Energy Balances. Few of the other engineering programs
have prerequisite requirements as strict.
A long-term change not readily evident from looking at
curricula is who teaches chemical engineering. Initially, there
were no chemical engineers and the courses were usually taught
by chemists and mechanical engineers. Once chemical engi-
neers had graduated and were available to become professors,
most of the chemical engineering professors had significant
industrial experience and rarely had a Ph.D.81 Over the years
an earned Ph.D. became a requirement and the expectation that
engineering professors would have practical experience was
lost. The current lack of practical understanding of industry and
the practice of chemical engineering is obviously a problem in
the education of undergraduate chemical engineers.120, 211 The
current interest in rewarding research makes it unlikely that
this lack will be solved in the near future.











Similar to allfields,531 most ChE

professors lecture much of the time

in class. Their teaching would

improve if they heeded the

oft-given advice, "Lecture less."



CURRENT CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTS
There have been a number of recent efforts at national cur-
riculum reform. The University of Texas-Austin Septenary
committee did a major analysis of the curriculum in the early
1980s.[22 23] The committee recommended the following: an
overhaul of all the ChE courses to strengthen fundamentals
and include computer calculations in all courses; inclusion
of modem biology, economics, and business courses in the
curriculum; sufficient electives to allow specialization; and
an overhaul of teaching methods and tools including major
revisions of all the textbooks. The recommendations of the
committee to provide incentives for rewriting textbooks have
been ignored, but many of the other recommendations made
by the Septenary committee were adopted at Texas. The report
also had some impact elsewhere. In particular, the need to
integrate Biology and Chemistry into the curriculum has been
widely understood.124, 25] The use of options or tracks, which
had been recommended previously,�261 does not appear to have
been widely adopted. The current University of Texas-Austin
curriculum271 differs from Purdue's (Tables 2 and 3) by speci-
fying humanities electives in American History and American
Government and requiring a literature course. In addition, an
Electrical Engineering course is required, and there are a total
of six electives in science, technical, and engineering areas
compared to the four electives in these areas at Purdue. Both
programs now require Biology. Thus, the differences in these
two curricula are rather small.
There has also been a push to focus chemical engineering
education more on product engineering because the structure
of the chemical industry has changed markedly. Many chemi-
cal engineers at both the bachelor's and the Ph.D. levels now
work for companies that are not considered to be chemical
companies, 21 28313 21 and the world of chemical engineering
continues to expand. 331 Many more chemical engineers will
work in specialty chemicals instead of commodity chemicals.
Specialty chemicals will require more chemistry, in particular
structure-property relationships including the use of quantum
mechanical software. Graduates will need to be comfortable
with producing products that function based on their micro-
or nano-structure. In addition, there will be more interest and
need to teach batch processing. Our examples and textbooks


need to be revised to include examples from a much wider va-
riety of industries. Some detailed examples of product design
are available. 30 31] At least from course tides, product design
does not appear to have become a required course at MIT, 341
Purdue (Table 3), University of Minnesota,351] or University
of Texas-Austin. 271 Perhaps professors are including product
design as examples in their courses.
Another current curriculum revision initiative is called the
Frontiers in Chemical Engineering Education Initiative[36 391
that started with meetings in 2002. The initiative looks to: 1.
integrate Biology into the curriculum; 2. balance the diversity
of research areas with a strong undergraduate core; 3. balance
applications and fundamentals; 4. include both process and
product design; and 5. attract the best students to ChE. The
initiative proposes that the organizing principles of chemi-
cal engineering are molecular transformations, systems, and
multiscale analysis. The new curriculum is supposed to be
integrative and include the organizing principles plus labo-
ratory experiences, examples, teaming, and communication
skills throughout the course sequence. Unfortunately, most
popular chemical engineering textbooks are not arranged
around the proposed organizing principles and little material
for teaching within this curriculum is available. Although the
initiative has been led by an MIT professor, the current MIT
curriculum[341 does not reflect this initiative. To be successful,
this initiative will have to convince professors that the changes
are necessary, train professors in new pedagogy, and sponsor
the development of an enormous amount of teaching material.
In a related effort that was started independently, the chemical
engineering professors at the University of Pittsburgh appear
to have been convinced that these changes are necessary
since Pitt has instituted a "Pillars of Chemical Engineering"
curriculum.[39 42] The six "Pillar" courses on foundations,
thermodynamics, transport, reactive processes, systems & dy-
namics, and design are block scheduled to provide additional
time. The courses include Molecular Insight and Modeling,
Product Design, Multiscale Analysis, and a significant amount
of simulations. Preliminary assessment data with concept
maps and concept inventories shows that students are learning
concepts better with the new curriculum.[41, 42]
A trend that so far has been generally ignored in curriculum
revisions is the increasing number of engineers employed
in the service sector in a post-industrial United States. 321
Chemical engineers are popular in these positions because
they are intelligent people who voluntarily undertook one of
the most rigorous undergraduate curricula. These graduates
need less chemistry, more professional skills, and more global
awareness. Wei1321 recommends that the current curriculum,
with appropriate fine tuning, should not be changed to accom-
modate these students since it is usually unclear which path
students will follow after graduation. To a large extent the
ABET professional criteria-3d (multidisciplinary teams), 3f
(professional & ethical responsibility), 3g (communication),


Chemical Engineering Education










3h (global/ societal context of engineering), 3i (lifelong learn-
ing), and 3j (contemporary issues)E161-help prepare graduates
for jobs in the service sector. Currently, strengthening these
professional criteria in existing curricula is probably all that
is needed to prepare graduates for service-sector positions.
Although local curriculum revisions are needed periodically,
I personally do not believe that a national one-size-fits-all cur-
riculum revision is wise. Schools should focus on their strengths
and local needs, and not blindly copy what other institutions are
doing. If an innovation makes sense and fits, then by all means
adapt it to your institution. If an innovation does not fit your
institution, keep doing what the institution is doing well.

TEXTBOOKS AND OTHER
TEACHING MATERIALS
"The very boundaries of what we mean by chemical engi-
neering are determined to a significant extent by the textbooks.
The publication of Principles of Chemical Engineering by
Walker, Lewis, and McAdams ... shaped the field of chemical
engineering for many decades afterwards."E43 p 185] In addition
to Walker, Lewis, and McAdams,I101 Professor BirdI431 cited
the books by Hougen and Watson,1441 and Hougen, Watson,
and R.igai'4 461 as particularly influential. We can certainly
add Badger and McCabe1471 and many other books to this
list. The McGraw-Hill series of chemical engineering books
started in 1925 was also very important for a number of years.
Although not a textbook, Perry's Handbook,1481 first published
in 1934 with significant contributions from DuPont chemical
engineers, has also been quite influential in chemical engi-
neering education.
Textbooks can both constrain and open a discipline.1231 For
example, Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot1491 clearly helped open
chemical engineering to a more scientific approach, but later
helped constrain the discipline to a continuum approach.
Extremely popular textbooks such as Felder and RousseauI5�1
and FoglerI511 serve to standardize parts of the ChE curriculum
across the country since the vast majority of students have
used these books. Because they are so widely used, the popular
books can enhance or impede curriculum changes depending
on the interests of the authors.
One of the current problems in chemical engineering edu-
cation is that, with very few exceptions, there are no young
textbook authors. The first edition of most of the current
ChE textbooks were written when the authors) were in their
forties or fifties, and many of these texts are in the 2nd, 3rd,
or higher editions. Younger professors are more likely to be
trained in new content that should be worked into the cur-
riculum. Unfortunately, because the current reward system
at research universities is based on research papers, standard
advice for untenured professors is to not write a textbook.123
4352, 531 Professor Bird also advises, "Book writing should
not be undertaken to gain fame and fortune."I431 Although a
successful textbook can pay for the college education of the


author's children, the other rewards are seldom commensu-
rate with the effort required to write a good book.I43 531 Most
chemical engineering professors are not trained in pedagogy
and a really good textbook has to be based on sound learn-
ing principles in addition to being technically correct. The
soundness of the pedagogical approaches is one reason for
the successes of Felder and RousseauI501 and Fogler.I511 Train-
ing all professors how-to-teachI521 would reduce the amount
of on-the-job-training in writing textbooks. There have been
calls for more rewards for writers of textbooks ,123 38 431 but so
far action has been sparse.
There have been attempts to use other materials besides text-
books for presenting teaching material. In the 1980s AIChE
developed a series of six volumes of Modular Instruction
(AIChEMI) under the overall direction of Prof. E.J. Henley.
The six volumes covered Kinetics, Mass and Energy Balances,
Process Control, Stagewise and Mass Transfer Operations,
Thermodynamics, and Transport. Modules had the advantage
that the effort to write a module was orders-of-magnitude
less than writing a textbook. Unfortunately, the quality was
erratic and the modules were not widely adopted. The effort
has apparently disappeared since none of the modules appears
in the current AIChE catalog.
Computer-aided instruction and educational games have
enormous potential for improving technical educationI53 -56
particularly for students in the gamer generation.I551 Some
of the leading ChE textbooks (e.g., References 50 and 51)
provide supplemental instructional software as either a CD
bundled with the textbook or as a course Web page. Unfor-
tunately, students often do not use the supplemental material
even when required to do so.5171 Instructional games have
considerable promise,I561 but, with current technology, devel-
oping a professional-quality educational game takes an order
of magnitude or more effort than producing a textbook. The
chemical engineering market is not large enough to support
these efforts without subsidies. A major reduction in the time
and cost required to develop instructional games is necessary
before educational games can become economically viable to
teach chemical engineering material. Chemical engineering
students, however, may use these methods to learn Calculus,
Chemistry,I561 Physics, Biology, Economics, and other large-
enrollment subjects.

HIGHLIGHTS OF PEDAGOGICAL
DEVELOPMENTS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Similar to all fields,[53] most ChE professors lecture much of
the time in class. Their teaching would improve if they heeded
the oft-given advice, "Lecture less." Instead of lecturing they
could use various active and inductive learning methods that
have been extensively studied by ChE professors.I53, 58-69]
These methods include cooperative group learning, "click-
ers," guided design, problem-based learning, quizzes, labo-
ratory improvements and hands-on learning, and computer


Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009











simulations for part or all of the class periods. Chemical
engineering professors have also been at the forefront of
activities to make ABET requirements for assessment more
meaningful.F0. 71] A paradox is that chemical engineering
professors such as John Falconer, Rich Felder, Ron Miller,
Mike Prince, Joe Shaeiwitz, Jim Stice, Charlie Wales, Phil
Wankat, Don Woods, Karl Smith (an honorary ChE since
his B.S. and M.S. degrees were in process metallurgy), and
the entire ChE faculty at Rowan University have been at the
forefront of developing and popularizing these techniques,
but most ChE professors do not use them.

Chemical engineers have also been at the forefront of
helping professors learn how-to-teach.152, 7275] The Chemical
Engineering Summer School was first held in 1931 and then
1939, 1948, 1955, 1962, and every five years after that. The
Summer School has included a how-to-teach workshop since
1987, and the popular and successful ASEE National Effective
Teaching Institute is led by chemical engineers. In addition,
the Chemical Engineering Division of ASEE publishes the
highly respected journal Chemical Engineering Education,
which covers new chemical engineering content and how to
improve teaching and learning in chemical engineering. Teach-
ing interested volunteers to be better teachers is relatively easy
and effective. [72 3] Because professors who take workshops find
that they can improve some aspects of their teaching without
devoting excessive time to it, they are motivated to use at least
some of the methods learned in the workshop. Yet, it is doubt-
ful that the majority of ChE professors have attended a formal
teaching workshop or teaching course. In the past, teaching
workshops and courses for engineering professors were not
readily available, and the reward structure at most universities
did not strongly encourage faculty to improve their teaching. In
my opinion the single most effective action that can be taken to
improve engineering education is to require all new engineering
professors, and encourage current engineering professors, to
take a course in how-to-teach.

Research in improving engineering education has very
recently become much more popular. This is signaled by the
increased attention paid to this research by ASEE and the Na-
tional Academy of Engineering, the elevating of publication
requirements by the Journal of Engineering Education, 741 the
emergence of engineering education as a separate research
field,F 51 and the development of new engineering education
Ph.D. programs. 761 Ultimately, this research should lead to
better answers to important questions such as why students
choose to major in engineering and why some leave engineer-
ing, how students learn engineering topics, and how to further
improve the teaching of engineering. Chemical engineers
have been at the forefront of many of these efforts. Because
most engineering professors are not trained to do rigorous
educational research, NSF has sponsored workshops to help
interested professors start learning how to do rigorous edu-
cational research.


CLOSURE
Chemical engineers active in improving engineering edu-
cation are often asked why chemical engineering, which is
not one of the larger engineering disciplines, has had a large
impact on engineering education. I will close by speculating
on the answer. Chemical engineers are interested in processes
while most engineering disciplines have focused on products.
Teaching and learning are processes. Thus, it is natural that
chemical engineers would contribute to improving these
processes. The other major engineering field interested in
processes, albeit of a different type, is industrial engineering.
Industrial engineering has been at the forefront of graduating
Ph.D.s who did their research on engineering education. I
believe that their interest in processes is a major reason that
chemical engineers have been and will continue to be leaders
in engineering education.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
A shorter version of this paper was presented at the AIChE
100th Anniversary Meeting in November 2008. Detailed
comments by Professor Joe Shaeiwitz were most helpful in
revising the paper.

REFERENCES
1. Weber, H.C., "The Improbable Achievement: Chemical Engineer-
ing at MIT," in Furter, W.E (Ed.), History of Chemical Engineering,
Washington, D.C., American Chemical Society, Advances in Chemistry
Series, 190, 77-96 (1980)
2. Westwater, J.W, "The Beginnings of Chemical Engineering Educa-
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Chemical Engineering Education










I]="1 AlChE special section )








NANOLAB AT

THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN:

A Model for Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Science

and Engineering Education






ANDREW T. HEITSCH, JOHN G. EKERDT, AND BRIAN A. KORGEL
The University of Texas at Austin * Austin, TX 78712
S significant discussion has taken place in recent years Andrew T. Heitsch is a Ph.D. candidate in
about the future of the undergraduate chemical engi- the Department of Chemical Engineering at
neering curriculum, with consideration of how content the University of Texas at Austin. He gradu-
might be revised and updated, how the degree program might ated summa cum lauded with a B.S. degree
in chemical engineering from the University
be made more flexible, and how innovative teaching strate- of Florida in 2005. His research focuses on
gies could be incorporated.1 5] A slightly different chemical the development of colloidal silicon nano-
structures and magnetic nanocrystals for
engineering curriculum issue has also arisen, and that is, next-generation technologies.
"What is the broader role of the chemical engineering faculty John G. Ekerdt
in educating science and engineering undergraduates at the received a B.S
university?" At the graduate level, this question has become degree from the
. University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1974,
important as chemical engineering research has evolved and a Ph.D. degree from the University of
into a highly interdisciplinary effort with research projects California, Berkeley, in 1979, both in chemical
straddling disciplinary boundaries. Chemical engineering engineering. He is currently associate dean for
research in Engineering and the Dick Rothwell
Ph.D. students interact and collaborate with Ph.D. students Endowed Chair in Chemical Engineering at
and faculty outside of chemical engineering and as a conse- the University of Texas at Austin. His current
interests include growth and properties of
quence, require a diverse set of fundamentals and skills in a barrier thin films; kinetics of silicon-germanium
number of different disciplines. The successful education of alloy epitaxy and nanocrystal dot growth from hydrides; organometallic
. precursor chemistry in thin film growth; thin film and quantum dot self-
chemical engineering students at the graduate level requires assembly at interfaces; growth and properties of dielectric films; and
available and effective courses in several departments, and lignin depolymerization kinetics.
an educational infrastructure that promotes interdisciplinary Brian A. Korgel received his B.S. and Ph.D.
learning. Therefore, chemical engineering faculty need to be degrees from the University of California at
heavily involved in curriculum development in science and giAngrile inis1991e d 1997 o chemical
engineering outside their home department, focusing on the plex fluids and nanomaterials. He is Cockrell
university as a whole. One example of a specific graduate School of Engineering Temple Professor #1
and Matthew Van Winkle Regents Professor
program that has been developed at UT Austin with this in of Chemical Engineering at the University
mind is the Doctoral Portfolio Program in Nanoscience and of Texas at Austin. He is the director of the
Doctoral Portfolio Program in Nanoscience
Nanotechnology. The program is directed by a chemical en- and Nanotechnology at UT Austin.
gineering faculty member and chemical engineering played
� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009
Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009 22.










an influential role in the development of the program, but it
was initiated by a grass-roots efforts of faculty from eight
different departments.E6 71
In contrast, chemical engineering departments have re-
mained relatively insulated from other departments with
respect to the issue of the undergraduate curriculum. The
chemical engineering curriculum itself has changed little in
the past few decades. But there may be a new need for chemi-
cal engineering faculty to reach outside of the department
and become involved in the broader educational goals of the
university at the undergraduate level. As an illustration, new
educational initiatives at UT Austin are being developed by
the upper levels of administration, including the formation
of an Undergraduate College, an undergraduate "core" cur-
riculum, new interdisciplinary "signature" courses available
to all incoming first-year undergraduates, and a proposal that
all undergraduates will enter the university "undeclared" and
then pick a major after their first year.[8] These initiatives have
been driven in part by increasing pressures from the state and
general public for public universities to move their curriculum
away from a traditional, compartmentalized model focused on
technical specialization toward a broader and more flexible
education that provides more independence for the students
and a broader perspective when they graduate.[9] This is forc-
ing chemical engineering educators to reassess long-held
assumptions about what "needs" to be taught-partly as a
pragmatic matter at UT Austin since "signature" first-year
and second-year courses may be added at the expense of
more specialized departmental courses, and partly as a mat-
ter of self-preservation (and perhaps self-promotion) as the
department will be directly competing with other departments
to attract students to its major. Needless to say, the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering at UT Austin is reassessing
the broader educational role of its faculty.
In the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology, the chemi-
cal engineering department is well-poised to play a particu-
larly influential role in the broader educational mission of the


Figure 1. Six different departments participate in
NANOLAB. The first year was a trial period with the De-
partments of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry/Biochem-
istry, and Mechanical Engineering participating during
the Fall semester. Biomedical Engineering joined
NANOLAB for the spring semester. Physics will join in
Fall 2009 and Electrical Engineering after that.


university. One of the defining features of the contemporary
field of chemical engineering is its interdisciplinarity-the
research programs of its faculty now span biology, chem-
istry, physics, and engineering-and in the area of nanoo,"
this interdisciplinarity is fundamental. At UT Austin, the
chemical engineering faculty has begun to take on such a
leadership role. With a recent financial boost provided by a
Nanoscale Undergraduate Education (NUE) grant from the
National Science Foundation, faculty and graduate students
have developed an innovative new laboratory experience
for undergraduate science and engineering students, called
"NANOLAB." NANOLAB is a laboratory hub designed
to serve six different departments and educate nearly 1,000
undergraduate science and engineering majors per year with a
hands-on nanoscale science and education (NSE) experience.
This paper describes the NANOLAB model for teaching NSE
concepts across departmental boundaries, including how it
was developed, and some of its successes.

WHAT IS NANOLAB?
There are many strategies for creating interdisciplinarity in
the curriculum; for example, offering traditional course enroll-
ment to students in other majors or cross-listing courses in
multiple departments. These can be effective ways to educate
students from other disciplines, but these efforts are not fun-
damentally interdisciplinary, as the information is taught from
the perspective of a particular discipline. The NANOLAB
is a genuine attempt to promote interdisciplinary learning,
while introducing large numbers of undergraduate science
and engineering students-nearly 1,000 per year-to NSE
concepts that they will benefit from in their future careers.
The NANOLAB is an upper-division undergraduate labora-
tory hub. It is unconventional because it is not a stand-alone
course offered by a single department, but is instead inte-
grated with existing laboratory courses sprinkled throughout
six participating departments-Biomedical Engineering,
Chemical Engineering, Chemistry/Biochemistry, Electrical
Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Physics-across
both the Colleges of Engineering and Natural Sciences. The
NANOLAB is designed to serve the general science and
engineering undergraduate population at UT Austin.
Figure 1 outlines how students from different science and
engineering departments interface with NANOLAB. Stu-
dents enroll in an existing undergraduate laboratory course,
such as the physical chemistry laboratory, and then supple-
ment their laboratory experience by performing one of the
NANOLAB experiments during the semester. A chemical
engineering student in the "fundamentals" laboratory does
likewise. The NANOLAB experiments are then designed so
that students work in multidisciplinary teams of two natural
sciences and two engineering students. The NANOLAB is an
autonomous teaching resource, providing a possible model
for education in interdisciplinary areas that do not fit neatly


Chemical Engineering Education










into the pre-packaged departmental educational system. This
article describes NANOLAB -how it was formed and what it
is -with the hope that other universities may adopt a similar
educational model for NSE, or may elect to incorporate one
or more of the experiments into existing courses within their
own departments.

THE NANOLAB EXPERIMENTS
NANOLAB consists of four 6-hour experiments: (1) Fabri-
cation of gold nanoparticles using self-assembled templating;
(2) Optical and redox properties of colloidal semiconducting
quantum dots; (3) Acid-doped polyaniline nanofiber sensor
for vapor detection; and (4) Gold nanorod synthesis and
optical properties. Three of the experiments were designed
and developed during the summer of 2007 by three chemi-
cal engineering graduate students, Andrew Heitsch, Shawn
Coffee, and Navneet Salivati, and one materials science
and engineering graduate student, Damon Smith. A fourth
experiment was added for the Spring semester 2008 based
upon student and TA feedback after the Fall semester. The ex-
periment was developed by three other chemical engineering
graduate students, Mike Rasch, VahidAkhavan, and Danielle
Smith. As described in more detail below, each NANOLAB


No. 1: Fabrication of Gold Nanoparticles
using Self-assembled Templating


No. 3: Acid Doped Polyaniline Nanofiber
Sensors for Vapor Detection


experiment was designed to teach a different concept that is
unique to the nanoscale: self-assembly, nanofabrication, and
quantum confinement. Consideration in the design of the
experiments was also given to how much time students would
need to complete each experiment. One experiment must be
completed in two 3-hour laboratory course periods by four
students working together in a multidisciplinary team. [10 Fig-
ure 2 summarizes the experiments described below, showing
students and TA's working in the NANOLAB and examples
of data that are collected by the students.
(1) Fabrication of gold nanoparticles using self-assembled
templating: A diblock copolymer is spun cast onto a sub-
strate, annealed, and then etched to form an ordered array of
cylindrical holes. This self-assembled polymer film is then
used as a mask to deposit an array of gold nanoparticles by
vapor deposition followed by lift-off. The Au particle ar-
rays are examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The
students learn about polymer self-assembly and the basics
of masked film deposition, which is one of the process steps
at the heart of the microelectronics industry. They also gain
exposure to a scanning probe microscopy technique, which
is one of the most important analytical tools in nanoscience
and nanotechnology.


No. 2: Optical and Redox Properties of
Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Dots


No. 4: Gold Nanorod Synthesis and
Optical Properties


-I--
-


Figure 2. Images from the NANOLAB.


Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009










One of the defining features of

the contemporary field of chemical

engineering is its interdisciplinarity- the

research programs of its faculty now

span biology, chemistry, physics, and

engineering- and in the area of nanoo,"

this interdisciplinarity is fundamental.


(2) Optical and redox properties of colloidal semiconduct-
ing quantum dots: Colloidal semiconductor (CdS) nanocrys-
tals are synthesized by arrested precipitation and then used to
drive a light-activated reduction of an organic dye molecule.
The nanocrystals absorb light, create an excited electron-hole
pair, which then drives a redox reaction. Students also mea-
sure the absorbance and fluorescence spectra of a standard
CdSe nanocrystal sample, revealing the size-dependent shift
in optical properties that is characteristic of a quantum dot.
This laboratory exposes students to the concept of quantum
confinement in a semiconductor and provides a real-world
example of how a semiconductor nanocrystal can be used as
a photocatalyst to drive a chemical reaction. This basic infor-
mation is important for many applications of nanomaterials
related to energy and environment.
(3) Acid-doped polyaniline nanofiber sensor for vapor
detection: Polymer nanofibers are synthesized and then used
to construct vapor sensor devices on interdigitated array
electrodes on plastic substrates. The TA fabricates the elec-
trode structures on plastic at the beginning of the semester.
Students test the sensitivity of these chemiresistive sensors.
This is a good introduction to the fundamentals of sensing
and provides an opportunity for students to proceed through
the steps of nanomaterials synthesis, device fabrication, and
then property testing.
(4) Gold nanorod synthesis and optical properties: Col-
loidal gold nanorods are synthesized using a "standard"
two-step seeded growth approach. The optical properties
of the gold nanorods, i.e., the absorbance spectra, are then
measured. The absorbance spectra predominantly reflect the
surface plasmon resonances within the nanorods, which have
peak energies that depend on the dimensions of the nanorods.
The experiment gives the students the chance to make some
nanomaterials, examine their optical properties, and then
begin to understand the origin of the optical properties. The
physics is rather complicated and the concept of "plasmon
resonances" is difficult for many undergraduate students to
understand without doing this kind of hands-on experiment.
Students are then called upon to tackle a biosensor design
problem using the data that they have acquired.
228


LOGISTICS: LOCATION AND TUTORIALS
The NANOLAB is housed next to the clean room in
modular interdepartmental laboratory space in the newly built
Nanoscience and Technology (NST) Building in the Center
for Nano- and Molecular Science and Technology (CNM)
at UT Austin.11l1 The building is centrally located between
participating departments and is easily accessible by the
undergraduate students. The location is also an exciting one
for the undergraduate students because the NST building is
primarily designed as modular research and training space for
graduate students and it gives the undergraduate students a
glimpse of "life after graduation" in a research environment.
For many of the students, this is the first time that they will
see a clean room, for example. It is an inspiring place for the
students to participate in the laboratory.
Considering that students have little background knowledge
related to the laboratories, the initial concept was to develop
and make available video-based tutorials for each laboratory
experiment on DVDs that would be distributed to the students.
The video-based tutorials were developed and have turned out
to be central to the success of the NANOLAB. They provide
a resource for the students to help them come quickly up
to speed on new information and ensure that they have the
necessary knowledge to complete the NANOLAB in the al-
lotted time. But instead of being offered on DVD, the tutorials
have been placed on the Internet as Web-based tutorials. The
use of the Internet has saved significant cost-i.e., the time
to write the DVDs and their cost-and provided convenient
access for the students. Online educational media is also
easily accessed by educators from outside UT Austin that are
interested in adopting the NANOLAB model and experiments
at their own institution.

STARTUP OF THE NANOLAB
There was a significant initial cost to developing the NANO-
LAB. This cost was offset by a $200,000 seeding grant from
the NSF through the Nanoscale Undergraduate Education
(NUE) funding program. The NSF funding was matched 3:1
by UT Austin from various sources on campus, with the deans
of both the Colleges of Engineering and Natural Sciences
and the chairs of the participating departments contributing
money for supplies and teaching assistants (TA's) for three
years to support NANOLAB.[121 A significant amount of ef-
fort was then spent designing and developing the NANOLAB
experiments. The three initial NANOLAB experiments were
designed and developed over the course of one summer. Dur-
ing the Fall semester when the NANOLAB experiments were
first offered, the graduate students who designed them trained
the TA's of the laboratory courses and were available for help
and troubleshooting as the semester progressed.
One thing to note about the experiments is that they were
designed and developed almost exclusively by chemical en-
gineering Ph.D. students. Perhaps it may be better to involve
Chemical Engineering Education










Ph.D. students and faculty from all of the participating depart-
ments in the experiment design, but practical issues and time
constraints did not allow this during the initial development
of the UT Austin NANOLAB. Other universities looking to
develop a similar nanolab may consider the pros and cons
of developing the laboratories with a larger team of students
and faculty.
The first semester of operation of NANOLAB proved the
importance of the online tutorials and the value of the TA.
Because of their rigorous academic schedules, the undergradu-
ate students have limited time to prepare for the NANOLAB
experiments and need readily accessible teaching resources,
of which there are primarily three (Figure 3): (1) an Experi-
mental Manual, (2) aWeb-based tutorial, and (3) the TA. The
manual provides background information and explains the
laboratory procedures that the students must know to perform
the experiment. The Web-based tutorial has illustrations and
video of the experiments being conducted.101 These visual
"models" provide the students with a snapshot of what they
will be doing in the laboratory. The Web-based tutorials have
been a particularly effective way to provide undergraduate
students with the quick training needed to complete the experi-
ments. At the end of the Web-based tutorial, and after read-
ing the background information in the manual, the students
are expected to complete a set of pre-laboratory exercises
to ensure they have read and understood the critical issues.
The TA is then available for support during the laboratory.
Specialized equipment requires a hands-on demonstration,
which the TA provides at the beginning of the laboratory.
The TA also ensures that the students work safely and is
available as questions arise during the laboratory session. It
is worth mentioning that safety training is a vital component
to preparing the students to work in the laboratory. Because
the students are entering NANOLAB from various other un-
dergraduate laboratories, it is necessary to properly provide
the students with safety training that is specific to what they
will be doing in NANOLAB. Therefore, students must view
a safety video and then the TA provides additional safety
training immediately upon the students entering the laboratory
for the first time. With these resources, students have been
able to complete the NANOLAB experiments and learn the
intended concepts.


NANOLAE Ewwknst 02



l 4 -, N - Se 2
.- -.-: :e k. "





Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009


FOR THE FUTURE: CONTINUING CHALLENGES
AND IMPROVEMENTS

The NANOLAB is an innovative "integrated-lab" ap-
proach to teaching that goes beyond a rigid departmental
teaching structure, and although there are other examples
of interdisciplinary laboratory courses developed at other
universities, the NANOLAB is the only hub-style under-
graduate laboratory of which we are aware. 11171 As such,
the NANOLAB is an educational experiment that is still
being refined and evaluated. Thus far, student feedback
has been very positive. Most students have found the
cross-disciplinary and hands-on approach to learning to be
a refreshing change from their typical routine. They have
also been enthusiastic about learning about nanoscience and
nanotechnology and many students have noted that this is
their first exposure to NSE concepts. Some students have
mentioned that this is an experience that they had been
hoping for since entering the university, as there is little
offered in the way of nanotechnology-related coursework
to undergraduate students. Faculty feedback has also been
good. In particular, instructors of the participating laboratory
courses have found the new laboratories to be an effective
way to update their existing range of laboratory experiments.
The biggest challenge expressed by faculty has been the
ability to effectively integrate student evaluation within
their existing frameworks. For example, in the Department
of Biomedical Engineering the undergraduate laboratory is
established with groups of four students that work together
for the entire semester and their grades are linked. It is
difficult to separate the students into the multidisciplinary
teams of students for the NANOLAB and still evaluate the
students using the same mechanism. In the Department of
Mechanical Engineering, students are already expected to
complete every laboratory station in their existing course,
making their participation in the NANOLAB voluntary for
extra credit. Approximately 20% of the students enrolled in
the course volunteered to participate in NANOLAB. It is not
clear how some of these issues will ultimately be resolved,
but there is no question that the students have benefited
tremendously from the NANOLAB experience and have
expressed very positive feedback.


Figure 3.
Educational
Resources:
(Left) Experi-
mental Man-
ual; (Center)
TA's from each
participating
department;
(Right) Web
Tutorials.10'










Because the NANOLAB experiments are newly designed,
they are also re-evaluated each semester, with continual im-
provements of the experiments, the experimental objectives,
and the associated teaching media. For example, based on
the recent excitement about renewable energy, a new photo-
voltaics laboratory was designed and implemented in the Spring
semester of 2009. Two additional components are also planned
for the Web-based tutorials: (1) a pre-recorded lecture to give
the students a quick fundamental introduction to the topic of the
experiment, and (2) a broader discussion about the health, ethics,
and societal impact of the underlying nanoscience and nanotech-
nology that the students will study in their experiments. A vast
array of Web-based educational media has also developed in the
recent past which could be incorporated into the tutorials to
provide additional background for the students. An example
is ,f181 which provides a plethora of simulations
of various nanoscale phenomena that could add a great deal
to the content of the tutorials.
The other practical issue is sustainability of the NANOLAB
after its "honeymoon" period. The NANOLAB has a financial
commitment from the deans of the Colleges of Engineering and
Natural Sciences and the chairs of six different academic depart-
ments for three years. The NANOLAB will then be evaluated
by an independent committee to determine if it will continue.
An exit survey and casual feedback of former undergraduate
students who participated in the NANOLAB will provide im-
portant information for this evaluation (Figure 4).

CONCLUDING REMARKS
NSE concepts cut across departmental boundaries and
students benefit from the interdisciplinary approach to


engineering context. The experiments require students to think
broadly about how nanomaterials and their unique properties
might be used to solve a particular technological challenge,
and students work with these materials with their hands and
experience them directly. The NANOLAB illustrates the
concept of product development, in contrast to traditional
process development that is the primary focus of the tradi-
tional chemical engineering curriculum.[3,19,20] Furthermore,
the NANOLAB and its experiments provide undergraduate
chemical engineering students with a snapshot of the interdis-
ciplinary environment they will enter after graduation, which
will most certainly help prepare them for success. For all of
these reasons alone, it has made sense for the Department of
Chemical Engineering to play a leading role in the develop-
ment of the NANOLAB. NANOLAB is not only benefiting
the undergraduate science and engineering student body as
a whole, but also chemical engineering students specifically.
Perhaps this effort will also provide the undergraduate chemi-
cal engineering curriculum-rooted in tradition-with more
inspiration for change.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors acknowledge the efforts of Bill Lackowski and
Paul Barbara in the Center for Nano- and Molecular Science
and Technology for playing critical roles in the development
of NANOLAB. The authors also thank the National Science
Foundation for partial financial support of the NANOLAB
by a Nanoscale Undergraduate Education (NUE) program
grant (EEC-06434221). This paper is similar to a presentation
recently given by the authors at the 2008 Annual Meeting of
the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).


instruction of the NANOLAB.
The NANOLAB's hub-style ap-
proach also provides a practical
means of teaching NSE concepts
to a large cross-section of under-
graduate students at a large public
university, providing a hands-on
active-learning environment to
illustrate concepts unique to the
nanoscale, including self-assem-
bly, nanofabrication, and quantum
confinement. The new Web-based
and written laboratory materials
provide the opportunity for easy
adoption by other institutions and
wide dissemination among peer
institutions.
From a chemical engineering
perspective, the NANOLAB ex-
periments employ a significant
amount of chemistry, but in an


Quotes from Students and TA's
Student: I was never taught about nanoscience
,*, before I came to the NANOLAB.
Student: It is a A-
neat concept to be Student: This lab is
working in a actually fun!
multidisciplinary
team in a Student: It is great to
laboratory setting. have the opportunity to
have hands-on
experience with
- nanoscience and
technology. NANOLAB
is very different from our


. TA: "NANOLAB is an awesome
typically.


,, .. experience for the
undergraduates. Undergraduates
receive an opportunity to look at
how differently things behave at
the nanoscale versus bulk."

Figure 4. End of semester feedback from students and TA's about NANOLAB.


Chemical Engineering Education












REFERENCES

1. Armstrong, R.C., 'The Chemical Engineering Evolution: What Comes
Next?," Chem. Eng. Prog., 103, 33 (2007)
2. McCarthy, J., and R.S. Parker, "The Pillars of Chemical Engineering:
A Block Scheduled Curriculum," Chem. Eng. Ed., 38, 292 (2004)
3. Ritter, S.K., "The Changing Face of Chemical Engineering," Chem.
Eng. News, 79, 63 (2001)
4. Chang, J.P, "A New Undergraduate Semiconductor Manufacturing
Option in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum," Int. J. Engng. Ed.,
18, 369 (2002)
5. Korgel, B.A., "Nurturing Faculty-Student Dialogue, Deep Learning,
and Creativity through Journal Writing Exercises," J. Eng. Ed., 91,
143 (2002)
6. Rockwell, L., "UT Will Offer New Nanotechnology Doctorate: Inter-
disciplinary Program One of the First in the Nation," Daily Texan (Jan.
17, 2003)
7. For more information, see folio.html>
8. "Report of the Task Force on Curricular Reform," (Oct. 27, 2005):

9. For example, the UTAustin Final Report bythe Commission of 125-a
committee of 125 educational and business leaders assembled to review
the educational mission of UT Austin-states, "A narrow education,
no matter how deep in its field, will not be sufficient. Future citizens
will need to think critically and have a confident grasp of the arts, the
humanities, mathematics, science, and technology. The Final Report
(Sept. 30, 2004) can be accessed on the Internet at edu/coml25/final.html>
10. For detailed descriptions of the NANOLAB experiments, visit the
online tutorial:
11. For more information, see html>


12. The Colleges of Engineering and Natural Sciences each contributed
money for supplies and equipment for the first three years of the
NANOLAB. The largest contribution from UT Austin, however, was
in the form of TA equivalents. Each of the six participating depart-
ments contributed TA resources dedicated to the NANOLAB, equaling
approximately $165,000 per year. In sum, UT Austin contributed the
equivalent of nearly $600,000 for the first three years of NANOLAB.
After 3 years, the NANOLAB will be evaluated by an advisory panel
to determine if the NANOLAB will continue to operate.
13. Jez, J.M., D.P. Schachtman, and R.H. Berg, et al., "DevelopingA New
Interdisciplinary Lab Course for Undergraduate and Graduate Students:
Plant Cells and Proteins," Biochem. Mol. Biol. Ed., 35, 410 (1997)
14. Ruzickova, P, I. Holoubek, and J. Klanova, "Experimental Studies
of Environmental Processes: A Practical Course in Environmental
Chemistry," Environ. Sci. Pollution Res., 13, 435 (2006)
15. Miller, W.H., P Duval, and S.S. Jurisson, etal., i .. .... l ,. - i i,.
University of Missouri- Columbia: A Joint Venture with Chemistry,
Nuclear Engineering, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and the Mis-
souri University Research Reactor (MURR)," J. Radioanal. Nuclear
Chem., 263, 131 (2005).
16. Bopegedera, A.M.R.P, "The Art and Science of Light-An Interdis-
ciplinary Teaching and Learning Experience," J. Chem. Ed., 82, 55
(2005)
17. Allen, E., S. Gleixner, and G. Young, etal., "Microelectronics Process
Engineering at San Jose State University: A Manufacturing-Oriented
Interdisciplinary Degree Program," Intl. J. Eng. Ed., 18, 519 (2002)
18. See
19. Favre, E., L. Marchal-Heussler, A. Durand, N. Midoux, and C. Roiz-
ard, "A Graduate-Level-Equivalent Curriculum in Chemical Product
Engineering," Chem. Eng. Ed., 39, 264 (2005)
20. Costa, R., G.D. Moggridge, and PM. Saraiva, "Chemical Product
Engineering: An Emerging Paradigm within Chemical Engineering,"
AIChE J., 52, 1976 (2006) 1


Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009











i] 1= laboratory


"STUDENT LAB"-ON-A-CHIP:

Integrating Low-Cost Microfluidics Into

Undergraduate Teaching Labs to Study

Multiphase Flow Phenomena in Small Vessels



EDMOND W.K. YOUNG AND CRAIG A. SIMMONS
University of Toronto, 164 College Street * Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G9


Blood is a complex fluid composed of cells and other
biomolecules suspended in plasma. Its main function
is to carry oxygen and nutrients to organs and tissues
in the body, while also serving as a transport mechanism for
elements of the immune system. Because of its composition,
blood is a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning fluid that becomes
less viscous at higher shear rates, and flows only after
overcoming a yield stress that induces rouleaux breakup.[1]
Rheological properties of blood are altered under certain
pathological conditions, such as sickle cell anemia where
abnormalities in red blood cell (RBC) morphology and stiff-
ness result in cell clumping, lower RBC levels, and ultimately
higher effective viscosity.[2] Knowledge of blood rheology is
therefore fundamental not only to physiologists and biolo-
gists, but also to engineers who wish to design biomedical
devices, engineer replacement blood vessels, or model blood
flow patterns in vivo.
Courses in transport phenomena are core to most chemical
engineering programs. Increasingly, interest in biomedical
applications of transport and chemical engineering principles
has led to the introduction of courses in biotransport and
cardiovascular fluid mechanics in chemical and biomedical
engineering curricula. At the University of Toronto, topics
covered in these courses include blood rheology, steady and
unsteady blood flow in large blood vessels, and blood flow
in small vessels. The latter topic is interesting because non-
intuitive microscale phenomena occur when blood flows in
small vessels like arterioles, capillaries, and venules. For
blood flowing at a specific shear rate in vessels less than 250
microns in diameter: 1) blood has lower effective viscosity in
smaller vessels; and 2) blood hematocrit (i.e., volume fraction
of RBCs in the blood) is lower as vessel diameter is reduced.[3, 4]
These two phenomena are collectively known as the Fahraeus-
Lindqvist (F-L) effect, named after the two scientists who
discovered the phenomena in a series of experiments involving
the flow of ox blood in fine glass capillaries.P5] This effect can
be explained by the concept of the plasma skimming layer,


discussed in detail in Ethier and Simmons.11 Briefly, RBCs
concentrate in the core of small blood vessels, away from the
walls where RBCs are depleted and where only a thin layer
of plasma is present. In smaller vessels, this thin plasma layer
occupies a larger fraction of the cross-sectional area compared
to the plasma layer in larger vessels, resulting in lower RBC
density (i.e., decreased hematocrit) within the vessel and lower
viscosity. From this basic explanation, it is clear that the F-L
effect is a simple yet useful illustration of the non-Newtonian
behavior of blood, and furthermore, is a textbook example of
fluid-particle interactions in multiphase flows.
To enhance the students' understanding of the F-L effect
and its origin, we developed a low-cost, practical, and feasible
laboratory procedure that demonstrates key features of the

Edmond W.K. Young received his Ph.D. at
the Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical
Engineering at the University of Toronto, and
is now a postdoctoral fellow at the University
I jof Wisconsin-Madison. His main research
interests are in designing and integrating
microfluidic tools for studying endothelial
cell biology. During his Ph.D. studies, he
was a teaching assistant for a biomechan-
ics course taught by Dr. Simmons where he
developed the reported laboratory session
to demonstrate the Fahraeus-Lindqvist ef-
fect using microfluidics.
Craig A. Simmons is an assistant professor
and the Canada Research Chair in Mecha-
nobiology at the University of Toronto in the
Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical
Engineering, the Department of Mechanical
and Industrial Engineering, and the Faculty
of Dentistry. His research group applies
principles of biomedical engineering, cell
and molecular biology, and tissue engineer-
ing to study how mechanical forces regulate
tissue regeneration and pathology. Dr.
Simmons teaches a senior undergraduate
course in biomechanics and is the co-author of Introductory Biomechan-
ics: From Cells to Organisms, a textbook for engineering students at
the upper undergraduate and graduate levels.

SCopyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009
Chemical Engineering Education










original experiments performed by Fahraeus and Lindqvist.
The experiment, which can be performed by the students, uses
microchannels fabricated by soft lithography, a popular and
widely available technique used for microfluidics research for
myriad engineering applications.1 The use of microfluidics
and "lab-on-a-chip" technologies in engineering courses
is a growing trend., 8] In this lab, cells in suspension were
forced through microchannels of varying widths and heights
to mimic blood flow through small vessels. Images taken by
light microscopy were used to determine cell density (i.e.,
equivalent of tube hematocrit in blood) by cell counting,
flow rate of the suspension by particle streak velocimetry,
and effective viscosity as functions of channel dimensions.
Here, we present the methods and results from our F-L ex-
periment, discuss the pedagogical details related to the course
and the potential usefulness of the laboratory procedure, and
provide recommendations to those who may be interested in
developing their own microfluidics laboratory experiment for
demonstrating the F-L effect.

MATERIALS
For microchannel fabrication by soft lithography, SU-8-
25 negative photoresist and SU-8 developer were acquired
from Microchem Corporation (Newton, MA). Sylgard-184
poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) (Dow-Corning, Midland,
MI) was obtained from Paisley Products of Canada, Inc.
(Toronto, ON). Glass microscope slides for microchannel
device assembly and Intramedic polyethylene tubing (PE60
and PE190) were from VWR International (\iImiag.,
ON). All slides were cleaned with piranha solution, pre-
pared as a 3:1 (v/v) mixture of sulfuric acid and hydrogen
peroxide. Concentrated sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide
(30%) were from Fisher Scientific Canada (Ottawa, ON).
Becton Dickinson Luer-Lok syringes and Precision Glide
needles were also purchased from Fisher Scientific Canada.
For cell culture, DMEM, penicillin-streptomycin (P/S), and
0.25% trypsin with EDTA were from Sigma-Aldrich Canada
(Oakville, ON, Canada). Fetal bovine serum (FBS) was
purchased from Hyclone (South Logan, UT, USA). T-75 and
T-225 tissue-culture-treated flasks were from Fisher Scientific
Canada (Ottawa, ON).

METHODS
Microchannel Fabrication
Microchannels were formed from PDMS and glass using
the rapid prototyping technique (Figure I).[9] Briefly, straight
channel patterns were drawn inAutoCAD and printed at high
resolution on a transparent photomask. Masters were fabri-
cated by spin-coating SU-8-25 negative photoresist on glass
slides that had been cleaned in piranha solution (30 min).
After pre-baking, exposure, and post-exposure baking (ac-
cording to SU-8 manufacturer specifications), the photoresist
layer was developed by gentle agitation in SU-8 developer.


PDMS in a 10:1 base-to-curing agent ratio was poured over
the masters, exposed to vacuum to remove air bubbles, and
cured at 70 �C for at least four hours. A piranha-washed glass
slide and a PDMS cast of the microchannel pattern were both
rinsed in isopropyl alcohol, surface-treated for 90 seconds in a
plasma cleaner (Harrick Plasma, Ithaca, NY, USA), and then
assembled with polyethylene tubing as inlet and outlet ports.
Microchannels fabricated in this manner were either used
immediately following inlet and outlet assembly, or stored
indefinitely for future use.
Cell Culture
A mouse fibroblast cell line (L929) was obtained from the
American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), and used as the
model cell type for studying the F-L effect. Cells were seeded
at ~20,000 cells/cm2 in tissue-culture-treated polystyrene
flasks, and cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS
and 1% P/S. Media was changed every two days, and cells
were passage every four to five days, depending on conflu-
ency. To prepare for the F-L experiment, cells were detached
from the flasks with 0.05% trypsin with 40 gg/mL EDTA,
centrifuged at 284 x g for 7 min, resuspended in supplemented
media at 20 million cells/mL, and kept on ice for the duration
of the experiment.
Syringe
A reservoir Microchannel













B INFLOW OUTFLOW
_.* --' suspension
I -- * Glass
bottom



C inlet
S" - microchannel
glass slide , ,
outlet
PDMS slab
Figure 1. Microfluidic experimental setup. (A) Gravity-
driven flow is generated in the microchannel by securing
the syringe containing the cell suspension to the micro-
scope. (B) Side view of cell suspension flowing through
microchannel and detected by objective of inverted
microscope. (C) Construction of microchannel slide used
in the laboratory session.


Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009










Experimental Setup
To observe the F-L effect, an
optical microscopy-based method
was used (Figure 1). Microchannel
slides were mounted on the micro-
scope stage of an optical phase con-
trast microscope (Olympus IX-71),
and connected via polyethylene
tubing to an open syringe-needle
assembly. The syringe-needle
assembly was secured to the mi-
croscope at a height of ~10-15
cm above the microchannel. Cells
suspended in media at 20 million
cells/mL were dispensed into the
syringe barrel and allowed to flow
into the microchannel by gravity.
Phase contrast images of the flow-
ing cell suspension were captured
with a CCD camera (QImaging
Retiga, Surrey, BC) connected to
the microscope, and analyzed using
ImageJ software (NIH).
Particle Streak Velocimetry
Phase contrast images of the
flowing cell suspension were used
to determine the flow rate within
the microchannels by particle
streak velocimetry.1101 Suspended
particles traveling at a steady veloc-
ity U generate a streakline in flow
of length 1 over time t. Measuring
lengths of streaklines for an image
taken with a given exposure time
yields velocity U 1/t. Particles re-
siding on differ-
ent streamlines
of flow produce A
streaklines with
varying lengths
depending on
the particles'
location. The
longest streak-
lines are found
on the horizontal
midplane, near
the center of the
microchannel, Figure 2. Pai
and correspond cells. (A) Fluo,
to maximum to produce streak
velocity in the a 200-gm wide
microchanne streaklines in (i
microchannel.


Thus, the mean velocity, flow rate, and ultimately the effective viscosity can be calcu-
lated from measurements of the longest streakline in each image and formulae for the
theoretical velocity profile in a rectangular microchannel. Figure 2A shows a typical
particle streakline image obtained using fluorescent microbeads seeded into a rectangular
microchannel, while Figures 2B and 2C are similar images from flowing cells.
Flow in Rectangular Microchannels
The theoretical background presented here was included in the laboratory manual
presented to the students (see handout available at com>). In the original experiments by Fahraeus and Lindqvist,E51 and in subsequent tests
by Barbee and Cokelet,414 fine glass capillaries with circular cross sections were used,
and effective viscosity, g-,, was determined using Poiseuille's law:
7R4 AP (1)
8tff L

Q 2D2 AP (2)
A 64ie-ff L

In Eqs. (1) and (2), Q is the flow rate, APis the pressure drop across the capillary, L is the
capillary length, R is the capillary radius, D is the capillary diameter, A is cross-sectional
area, and um = Q/A is the mean velocity in the channel. The constant P = 64 is the friction
constant, equal to the product of the Reynolds number Re and the friction factor f:
S= f. Re (3)

In the current study, Poiseuille's law was modified for flow in rectangular micro-
channels.
Eq. (2) thus becomes:
2 D, AP
u. - (4)
u -teff L
3~effL


where capillary diameter D is replaced by the hydraulic diameter Dh
the wetted perimeter, P = 2(w + h). 3 for rectangular cross sections
empirical relationshipu111 for channel aspect ratio a = h/w:

3= f -Re = 961- 1.3553c, + 1.9467a2 - 1.7012a3 + 0.9564a4


= 4A/Pw, and P is
is governed by an


- 0.2537a5


article streak velocimetry using fluorescence microbeads or phase contrast imaging of
recent 1-im microbeads inside a 500-mm microchannel, using 200 ms exposure time
klines. (B and C) L929 mouse fibroblasts suspended in media at 20 million cells/mL in
microchannel, using (B) 3 ms exposure time, and (C) 10 ms exposure time. The short
B) were suitable for determining cell density within the microchannel, while the longer
streaklines in (C) were suitable for determining velocity.
Chemical Engineering Education










For gravity-driven flow, the pressure drop across the channel
is AP = pgH, where H is the height difference from inlet to
outlet reservoir. Thus, measurement of the mean velocity in
the microchannel provides a solution to the effective viscos-
ity using Eq. (4).
For laminar flow in rectangular channels, an approxima-
tion for the fully developed velocity profile was proposed
by Purday.E11I For a microchannel of half-width a = w/2, and
half-height b = h/2, the laminar velocity profile is:

u _m+1 n+1 y (Z
- -[m -- 1-i 1- (6)
um m n b a

or

u__ -m un 1 (7)
um m ) n )

where y is the channel height direction, z is the channel
width direction, u and umx are the local axial and maximum
velocities, respectively, and m and n are empirical parameters
found to be:
m= 1.7 +0.5ac 14 (8)


S 2 a< 1/3
n 2+0.3(ao-1/3) a > 1/3


Figure 3 illustrates the velocity profile of Eq. (6). The profile
is parabolic in the y-direction. The maximum velocity occurs
at the midplane at y = 0. This maximum velocity is fairly
constant throughout the midplane, except near the side walls
where the no-slip condition reduces the velocity to zero.
Normalized Cell Density
To determine volume cell density within each of the four
microchannels, short-exposure-time images were captured,
and the number of cells in each image was counted. The
total cell volume in the image was equal to the product of
the number of cells and the volume of one cell, estimated by
assuming that each cell was spherical with average diameter
16.5 pmr (determined using the Vi-CELLAnalyzer (Beckman
Coulter, Mississauga, ON)). Dividing the total cell volume
by the volume of the channel section in the viewfield yielded
the volume cell density. Finally, the volume cell density
was normalized by dividing it by the known suspension
cell density in the reservoir. This normalized value was
equivalent to the relative tube hematocrit reported in the
classical F-L experiments.


u (m+lj n+l L-"'
u,, m J n b aj


X




















L
x


------------------------------------------- z= 0


-------------------------------- ---------- y = 0


Figure 3. Laminar
velocity profile
in microchannel
of rectangular
cross-section.
The profile in the
vertical x-y plane
is parabolic for
most of the chan-
nel width, except
near the side walls
where the velocity
decreases to zero
because of the no-
slip condition.


Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009











RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENTS
Experimental trials of the above methods were tested for
four microchannels of varying cross-sectional dimensions
to demonstrate changes in effective viscosity (Table 1). For
each microchannel, the column height of the cell suspension
above the microchannel was measured, and 10 images each
of short and long exposure time (Figure 2B and 2C) were
captured. Short-exposure-time (3 milliseconds in our case)
images were used to determine cell density in the micro-
channels, and long-exposure-time (10 milliseconds in our
case) images were used to determine flow rates by particle
streak velocimetry.
Figure 4 shows results for effective viscosity and normal-
ized cell density from one representative trial. Effective vis-
cosity was calculated using Eqs. (6) and (7) to determine mean
microchannel velocity from measured streaklines, and then
using Eq. (4) to solve for fef. Effective viscosity decreased
monotonically as the hydraulic diameter of the microchannel
was reduced. Normalized cell density also decreased with
decreasing hydraulic diameter, although the results for the


40 50 60 71
Hydraulic Diameter (rnm)


w = 465 tm
w = 116 pm n




w = 176 Mm



w = 66 �m

40 50 60 7(
Hydraulic Diameter (rtm)


Figure 4. (A) Effective viscosity vs. hydraulic diameter.
Effective viscosity decreases monotonically with decreas-
ing hydraulic diameter, as expected from the Fahraeus-
Lindqvist effect. (B) Normalized cell density vs. hydraulic
diameter. The general trend of decreasing normalized cell
density with decreasing hydraulic diameter is apparent.


116- and 176-g n-wide microchannels deviated substantially
from the general trend. The results for effective viscosity, and
the general trend for normalized cell density, were consistent
with the classical observations by Fahraeus and Lindqvist.

DISCUSSION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Fahraeus and Lindqvist observed that the effective viscosity
and relative tube hematocrit of flowing blood in glass capil-
laries less than 250 mn in diameter both decreased as tube
diameter decreased.I51 These phenomena were confirmed by
Barbee and Cokelet,3, 4] and are now frequently cited as text-
book examples of the non-Newtonian behavior of blood. To
enhance student understanding of this concept, we designed a
laboratory session to allow students to observe the F-L effect
firsthand. Four microchannels with hydraulic diameters rang-
ing from ~ 40 to 70 mn were fabricated by soft lithography.
Gravity-driven flow through the channels demonstrated that
the effective viscosity and tube hematocrit decreased for
smaller channels, consistent with the F-L effect reported in
the literature.
Development of this laboratory session was made possible
by the advances in microfluidics technology, and the continu-
ing trend for less expensive and more accessible fabrication
techniques. Microfabrication facilities and resources for
producing chips by soft lithography are available at many
universities, and increasingly so. If these facilities or materi-
als for the production of SU-8 masters are not available or
are too costly, alternative fabrication methods may be used,
including recently reported techniques that employ Shrinky-
Dink thermoplastics [121 or rapid felt-tip marker masking.[13]
While these techniques generally result in microchannels with
dimensions that are difficult to characterize accurately due
to greater surface roughness and less uniformity along the
channel length, they are attractive because of their extremely
low cost, and would likely be adequate for demonstration of
the F-L phenomenon.
The laboratory procedure involved flowing a concentrated
suspension of cells (20 million cells/mL of mouse L929 fibro-
blasts) through the microfluidic channels. This cell suspension
is considerably different from a normal blood sample since
there are typically ~5 x 109 RBCs/mL in blood, and RBCs
(~ 8 gm) are biconcave disks that are much smaller than the
spherical fibroblasts in suspension (~ 16 mn diameter). Using
a non-blood sample has several advantages, however. First,
the cell concentration can be tailored to produce images that
have appropriate lengths of streaklines for easier analysis. A
blood sample was used during preliminary lab testing, but the
high density of RBCs generated overlapping streaklines, and
thus was not well-suited for velocimetry. Secondly, from a
biosafety standpoint, the mouse fibroblasts are an established
cell line that requires facilities to be biosafety-certified to
Containment Level 1 standards.[141 In contrast, human blood
samples require Containment Level 2 safety. Since the L929


Chemical Engineering Education


2



0 1.6

a 1.4
.U
S1.2


1



2.5


w = 465 pm


w = 176 Am


w = 116 um


w = 66 pim


-



-

-

-










cells demonstrated the F-L effect in an effective manner, these
two advantages made the cell line an attractive alternative to
blood. We note that commercial microparticles can be used as
an alternative to cells if cell culture facilities are not available,
but we suggest that they be avoided if possible since they lack
important cellular properties, such as deformability and the
propensity for aggregation, that provide students with a more
useful learning experience.
The use of the cells themselves as tracer particles was
convenient, but the relatively large cell size compared to
typical tracer particles meant that the cells likely interacted
hydrodynamically with the surrounding fluid, and did not
accurately represent the true channel velocity, as when 1- m
particles are used to generate streaklines (Figure 2A). This
discrepancy is likely more important for wider microchannels
where the cell density is greater, and particle-fluid interac-
tions are therefore greater than in narrower microchannels.
For the purposes of this lab, however, it was found that the
use of cells did not adversely affect the ultimate outcome and
that the F-L effect is clearly noticeable under the proposed
experimental conditions.
Results for normalized cell density in the microchannels
followed the expected trend as predicted by the F-L effect.
There were inconsistencies with some of the results, however.
First, the normalized cell densities for the 116- and 465-gm-
wide microchannels were larger than unity when normalized
cell densities were expected to be always less than unity for
conduits having hydraulic diameters less than 250 gm. Sec-
ond, the 176-gm microchannel had a considerably lower cell
density compared to the 116-gm microchannel. These two
anomalies may be attributable to two important differences
between the experimental setup described here vs. those of
the classical experiments: 1) the microchannel cross-section
is rectangular, which likely impacts the effective surface
area available for a plasma skimming layer to form; and 2)
the syringe-needle assembly and microchannel reservoir
geometry likely concentrated the cell suspension prior to
its entrance into the microchannel, leading to cell densities
higher than the density predicted for the reservoir cell sus-
pension. This latter issue may be avoided by re-designing
the microchannel geometry at the inlet port to reduce the
amount of cell accumulation.


COURSE BACKGROUND, LAB-
ORATORY IMPLEMENTATION,
PEDAGOGY, AND FEEDBACK
Course background
The lab has been conducted the past two
years as part of MIE439-Biomechanics, a
one-semester senior-level course offered
by the Department of Mechanical & In-
dustrial Engineering at the University of
Toronto. The course serves as a capstone
Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009


elective primarily for students in the bioengineering streams
of mechanical and chemical engineering, and those in the bio-
medical engineering program of the Division of Engineering
Science. This course provides a broad survey of topics within
biomechanics, ranging from cell biomechanics to human lo-
comotion, with emphasis on solving physiological problems
using basic engineering principles. The course is popular, with
typical enrollment of approximately 40-60 senior engineering
students each semester. The course consists of three one-hour
lectures per week, biweekly tutorial sessions, three laborato-
ries per semester, and a semester-long group project. Evalua-
tion is based on mid-term and final examinations, laboratory
reports, homework assignments, and final class presentation
and written technical report of the group project. There are no
formal prerequisites, but the nature of the curricula ensures
that all students have basic understanding of elementary
dynamics, application of the Navier-Stokes equations, the
concept of viscosity, and the difference between Newtonian
and non-Newtonian fluids; these concepts are also reviewed
during lecture. Indeed, it is the application of these principles
and the synthesis of fundamental concepts from lower-level
courses to solve complex biological problems that make this
course unique from other electives.
Laboratory Logistics and Personnel
The laboratory was held in the undergraduate teaching
laboratory of the Institute for Biomaterials and Biomedical
Engineering (IBBME) at the University of Toronto. The
IBBME teaching facility has biosafety level 1 (BSL-1) des-
ignation and has basic equipment for sterile cell culture work,
as well as six phase contrast microscopes equipped with video
cameras and basic imaging software.
Due to practical issues of course scheduling and the limited
capacity of the teaching lab, the lab has been run in three one-
hour sessions the past two years. In each section, students were
further divided into groups of three to four students, with each
group stationed at one microscope with one set of microchan-
nels to obtain a shared set of data between all team members.
Because of these logistics, the lab assignment was designed
for completion within 50-60 minutes and preparations were
made to attempt smooth transition between the three sections
of students, such that as one section completed their work and
the next was ready to begin.


TABLE 1
Measured Microchannel Dimensions
Channel Height Width Cross Sectional Hydraulic
(Gim) (imn) Area (103 sq. Jim) Diameter
S(m)
1 33.2 66 2.2 44.2
2 35.5 116 4.1 54.4
3 37.7 176 6.6 62.1
4 36 465 16.7 66.8










One week prior to the laboratory session, the students were
divided into their groups and informed of the logistics. In the
week leading up to the lab, various preparations were made.
A laboratory manual was posted on the course Web site for
students to download (available at mechanics.com>). The relevant theoretical concepts were
presented in the regular lectures prior to the lab so that the lab
served as reinforcement of the lecture material. Also during
the week before the lab, cells were maintained and expanded
in the teaching facility by a teaching assistant and lab tech-
nician to obtain sufficient quantities for running the lab. On
lab day, the instructor, teaching assistant, and lab technician
were present for the entire three-hour session to provide basic
background materials, assist the students in setup, monitor
their progress during the assignment, and provide formative
feedback. Because dedicated hands-on training could not be
provided due to limited resources, student groups relied on
help from the staff and, in some cases, team members who had
cell-handling and lab-bench experience from other bioengi-
neering courses. Students were also given detailed instructions
in the lab handout on how to operate the microscope and use
the software package, and they were expected to come to the
lab having read the material.
After completion of the lab, students were asked to analyze
the data and complete three post-lab questions listed in the
laboratory manual. The questions provided students with
the opportunity to re-examine the experimental design, and
discuss possible sources of error in the experiment. Since

Str(
dis



The lab helped reinforce concepts discussed in the lectures.

The lab helped me understand and remember the concept
of the F-L effect.

The lab made me more aware of the area of microfluidics.

The lab raised my interest in the area of blood flow/blood
rheology.
The lab was a fun and practical learning experience for
hands-on laboratory skills (cell handling, microscopy, flow
visualization basics).
The lab was well organized and expectations on student
performance were reasonable.

The lab was a fitting and useful componentto the
biomechanics course curriculum.


the post-lab questions were given to the students before the
start of the lab, students were prepared to make observations
about the procedure, and discuss possible improvements
for the lab.
In terms of material costs and other resources, the teaching
facility provided the space and access to equipment. Device
fabrication and cell maintenance and expansion totaled ap-
proximately $200 CAD. Approximately 30 hours of time
from the teaching assistant were devoted to design, develop-
ment, and validation of the lab procedure prior to the pilot
study. An additional 10 hours subsequent to development
were devoted to preparations for operation of the actual lab,
including microdevice fabrication, cell maintenance and
expansion, student interaction on the day of the lab, and
post-lab feedback.

Laboratory Pedagogy
The laboratory exercise served mainly to reinforce the con-
cept of the F-L effect taught in lecture. An additional benefit
of the lab, however, was that it acted as a hands-on exercise
in cell handling, microscopy, and flow visualization, as well
as a tool to reinforce other aspects of the bioengineering
curriculum. Blood rheology and hemodynamics comprise a
significant portion (approximately 25%) of the lecture mate-
rial in MIE439, yet prior to this lab, the material was presented
only during lectures and not through an active-learning ex-
perience. Engineering students have many different learning
styles,15] and lab exercises such as the one described here

)ngly Neutral Strongly
agree agree
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


Figure 5. Summary of student feedback from a voluntary online survey.
Bars represent mean + standard deviation for 34 to 36 responses per question.
'38 Chemical Engineering Education










complement the lecture material, provide a visual representa-
tion to abstract concepts, and cater to the visual and sensory
learners of the class.[161
Other than the content described in the lab handout, stu-
dents were not responsible for additional material related
to microfabrication or microfluidics since these were not
main topics within the course. Nonetheless, the exposure
to microfluidics allows the students to learn basic aspects
about this emerging field, its impact on biological and
biomedical research activities, and its associations with
other relevant courses in their chemical, mechanical, or
biomedical engineering programs. Thus, the microfluidics
aspect of the current lab assignment provides students with
a clear example of the integrative nature of bioengineering
as well as the importance of making connections between
different science and engineering disciplines, an issue that
remains an ongoing challenge in the development of core
bioengineering curricula at many universities.J171
The post-lab activities were limited to student contempla-
tion of the questions posed in the lab handout. A formal labora-
tory report was not required, so as to relieve the "burden" of
another report18, 19] and to allow the students to focus on learn-
ing the concepts. To ensure the material was reviewed and the
questions answered, the students were informed before the lab
that a question on the final exam would be based directly on
the lab exercise. As such, answers to the post-lab questions
were not provided to the students. Though some may argue
that a mandatory write-up of the exercise would have further
improved chances of students retaining the material,[201 our
guarantee of a final exam question in fact resulted in more
student-staff interaction, and created a new opportunity for
formative feedback because students came forward to discuss
their interpretations of the post-lab questions with the teaching
staff in preparation for the exam.
Logistics and resource limitations prevented the students
from receiving hands-on training on the equipment prior to
the lab. Therefore, to successfully complete the lab, teams
had to rely on the laboratory manual and laboratory staff
for assistance, but more often on their colleagues' experi-
ence and the team's ability to solve problems. Thus, an
unintended benefit of the lab exercise was that it provided
an opportunity for students to engage in face-to-face promo-
tive interaction and to develop collaborative skills for future
team-based projects. 21
Student Feedback
Students in the Fall 2008 course were asked to provide feed-
back by completing a voluntary online survey; approximately
60% of the students responded. Feedback was generally very
positive (Figure 5). The majority of students moderately or
strongly agreed that the lab reinforced concepts from lecture
and helped them understand and remember the F-L effect- the
main objectives of the lab exercise. Many students appreci-
ated the "hands-on experience" that was closely aligned with
Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009


An additional benefit of the lab was

that it acted as a hands-on exercise in

cell handling, microscopy, and flow

visualization, as well as a tool to

reinforce other aspects of the

bioengineering curriculum.




lecture material, such that the lab enabled them to "visualize
the F-L effect," making it "very educational" and "useful
for understanding the theory" from lecture. As summarized
by one student: "Anyone can draw diagrams of fluid flow in
capillaries and provide the equations, but it didn't really mean
anything to me until I saw it happen-and this lab enabled
that." Similarly, the vast majority of students moderately or
strongly agreed that the lab was a fun and practical learning
experience for hands-on laboratory skills that had the added
benefit of making them more aware of microfluidics. The
opportunity to work with "cutting-edge," "high-tech" equip-
ment that was "simple," involved "something other than
computer simulations," and allowed them to see "real cells"
was mentioned frequently by the students. In total, 94% of the
students agreed that the lab exercise was a useful component
of the course curriculum.
Most students generally "appreciated being able to use the
(laboratory) time to learn the concepts without the pressure
or burden of having an ugly follow-up report." In contrast, a
minority felt that a formal lab report would further reinforce
concepts by forcing the students to answer the questions fully.
Interestingly, only 56% of students agreed that the lab helped
their performance on the final exam. Qualitatively, students
did very well on the exam question related to the lab, but
because a similar question was not asked in years prior to
implementing the lab, it is not known to what extent the lab
exercise was responsible for the students' performance. The
majority of students reported that they were more interested
in blood rheology as a result of the lab.
Criticisms and suggestions for improvement were primarily
related to the logistics of the lab. Many students commented
that they would have preferred more than one hour to complete
the lab because they had felt rushed, and several felt that the
groups should be limited to two students so that there would
be more opportunity for everyone to get hands-on experience
and the laboratory room would be less crowded. Laboratory
and course staff had the same opinion, and these issues will
be addressed in the future by having several 1.5 hour sessions
over multiple days. Other criticisms were related to equipment
issues (e.g., a malfunctioning camera, software problems,
239











leaky connections in some chips), and problems with cells
clogging in the channels, which delayed data collection.
Clogs were readily cleared by application of positive pressure
with the syringe, and-as suggested by one student-may
be minimized by using other cell lines, such as nonadherent
Jurkat cells (an immortalized line of T-cells).

CONCLUSIONS
Microfluidics was successfully implemented into an un-
dergraduate teaching laboratory session to demonstrate the
Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect visually through optical imaging.
Effective viscosity and normalized cell density within the
microchannels was calculated and compared qualitatively to
expected results. Overall, the experiment produced results
that were consistent with the observations made originally
by Fahraeus and Lindqvist. The experimental setup was
easy, affordable (assuming soft lithography equipment and
biosafety-certified laboratory facilities are available), and rea-
sonable to manage. Students learned to apply particle streak
velocimetry as a technique for determining flow rate within
microchannels, and were able to observe flow phenomena
firsthand in a practical laboratory setting. The implementation
of this lab session therefore appealed to visual and sensory
learners, and generated interest in the topic on hemodynamics
and blood rheology.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank Mr. Bryan Keith of the University of Toronto
teaching laboratory for L929 cells and for use of his facilities,
and Mr. Jan-Hung Chen for running the lab session for the
September 2008 semester.

REFERENCES
1. Ethier, C.R., and C.A. Simmons, Introductory biomechanics: From cells
to organisms, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, UK (2007)
2. Chien, S., S. Usami, and J.E Bertles, "Abnormal rheology of oxygen-
ated blood in sickle cell anemia," J. of Clinical Investigation, 49(4)
623 (1970)
3. Barbee, J.H., and G.R. Cokelet, "Fahraeus Effect," Microvascular
Research, 3(1) 6 (1971)


4. Barbee, J.H., and G.R. Cokelet, "Prediction of Blood Flow in Tubes
With Diameters As Small As 29 Microns," Microvascular Research,
3(1) 17 (1971)
5. Fahraeus, R., and T. Lindqvist, "The Viscosity of the Blood in Narrow
Capillary Tubes," American J. of Physiology, 96(3) 562 (1931)
6. Whitesides, G.M., E. Ostuni, S. Takayama, X.Y. Jiang, and D.E. Ingber,
"Soft Lithography in Biology and Biochemistry," Annual Review Of
Biomedical Engineering, 3, 335-373 (2001)
7. Allam, Y., D.L. Tomasko, B. Trott, P Schlosser, Y. Yang, T.M. Wilson,
and J. Merrill, "Lab-On-a-Chip Design-Build Project With a Nanotech-
nology Component in a Freshman Engineering Course," Chem. Eng.
Educ., 42(4) 185 (2008)
8. Legge, C.H., "Chemistry Under the Microscope-Lab-On-a-Chip
Technologies," J. of Chem. Educ., 79(2) 173 (2002)
9. Duffy, D.C., J.C. McDonald, O.J.A. Schueller, and G.M. Whitesides,
i ,1.l ii " ._ 1 ofMicrofluidic Systems in Poly(dimethylsiloxane),"
Analytical ( i...... ,, 70(23)4974(1998)
10. Sinton, D., "Microscale Flow Visualization," MicrofluidicsAndNano-
fluidics, 1(1) 2 (2004)
11. Shah, R.K., and A.L. London, Laminar Flow Forced Convection in
Ducts, Academic Press, New York (1978)
12. Grimes, A., D.N. Breslauer, M. Long, J. Pegan, L.P Lee, and M. Khine,
- Ih,,,,. - Dink Microfluidics: Rapid Generation of Deep and Rounded
Patterns," Lab on a Chip, 8(1) 170 (2008)
13. Abdelgawad, M., andA.R. Wheeler, "Low-Cost, Rapid-Prototyping of
Digital Microfluidics Devices," Microfluidics And Nanofluidics, 4(4)
349 (2008)
14. University of Toronto, E.H.a.S. Classification of Biological Agents.
[cited May 22, 2009]; Available from: . i , , - *@ - l**, - I I. *......1 i..11 i I.... hi..* >
15. Finelli, C.J., A. Klinger, and D.D. Budny, "Strategies for Improving the
Classroom Environment," J. of Eng. Educ., 90(4) 491-497 (2001)
16. Felder, R.M., and L.K. Silverman, "Learning and Teaching Styles in
Engineering Education," Engineering Educ., 78(7) 674 (1988)
17. Desai, T.A., and R.L. Magin, "A Cure for Bioengineering?A New Un-
dergraduate Core Curriculum," J. of Eng. Educ., 90(2) 231 (2001).
18. Bella, D.A., "Plug and Chug, Cram and Flush," J. of Professional
Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 129(1) 32 (2003)
19. Truax, D.D., "Restructuring the Undergraduate Laboratory Instruc-
tional Process," J. of Professional Issues in Engineering Education
and Practice, 133(3) 192 (2007)
20. Auerbach, J.L., C.M. Bourgeois, and T.R. Collins, Do Students Ben-
efit? Writing-to-Learn in a Digital Design Laboratory Course, in 34th
ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, 2004, Savannah, GA,
p. T1F 20-25
21. Felder, R.M., and R. Brent, 'The ABC's of Engineering Education:
Abet, Bloom's Taxonomy, Cooperative Learning, and So On," in
Proceedings of the 2004 American Society for Engineering Education
Annual Conference & Exposition, 2004. Salt Lake City, Utah 1


Chemical Engineering Education











Random Thoughts ...








PRIORITIES IN HARD TIMES





RICHARD M. FIELDER
North Carolina State University


It's been one annoying budget cut after another around
here lately, and when I read the memo limiting faculty
members to one box of paper clips a year I went straight to
Kreplach, my guru on administrative policy. (I almost went to
him when the toilet paper memo came out but got distracted.)
I found him in his office, staring at his computer.
Me: Good morning, Kreplach-got a few minutes?
Kreplach: Certainly, certainly-I was just reading the
Chancellor's invitation to the reception for the
new Deputy Associate Vice Chancellor for Parking
Permits.
M: I hadn't heard about that position-seems pretty
specialized.
K: Maybe, but it's essential. Ever since the motor pool
was cut to three cars and a pair of roller blades, the
Associate Vice Chancellor for Vehicular Affairs has
been spending so much time on backed-up requests
that it's been cutting into his midday power walk.
M: I can see why he'd be distressed.
K: Who wouldn't be? Anyway, what can I do for you,
my boy?
M: I was just told that we're limited to a box of paper
clips a year, and it seemed to me that...


K: Ah ye
M: You?


s-you have me to thank for that.


Absolutely! The Provost's original plan was to have
faculty requisition one clip at a time from Central
Stores, and I talked him out of it.


M: Well done, Kreplach-what a waste of faculty time
that would have been!
K: Faculty time? ... Oh, I suppose there's that too, but
the real issue was the added load it would have put
on Central Stores, especially since they just cut the


service staff in half. We would have had to add a
new assistant provost just to coordinate paper clip
dispensation.
M: Point taken-but really, isn't rationing paper clips a
little over the top?
K: Not at all. You know we've been mandated by the
legislature to cut our expenses by 15%, which means
we all have to make sacrifices.
M: True enough, but I still think the administration is
overdoing the penny-pinching, and the faculty is
taking the biggest hits.
K: It may look that way to you, but only because as usu-
al you're missing the big picture. We're all assuming
our fair share of the burden, with the administration
leading the way.
M: That's reassuring to know.
K: Yes, and everything that can be cut is on the table ex-
cept critical functions the university simply couldn't
manage without .... excuse me, that's the Chancellor
calling, let me just ... Hello, sir ... right ... Flight
207 to Honolulu ... business class . . . meet you in the
departure lounge . . . great, see you then ... Ciao.
M: Sounds like a big trip coming up.


Richard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese
Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering
at North Carolina State University. He is co-
author of Elementary Principles of Chemical
Processes (Wiley, 2005) and numerous
articles on chemical process engineering
and engineering and science education,
and regularly presents workshops on ef-
fective college teaching at campuses and
conferences around the world. Many of his
publications can be seen at edu/felder-public>.


� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009


Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009


K:










K: Yeah, it's a high-level conference on maintaining
administrators' salaries in the face of budget cuts ...
now where were we?
M: Everyone is sharing the burden and only indispens-
able functions aren't being cut.
K: Right.
M: But see here, Kreplach-a conference trip to discuss
salaries doesn't seem like an indispensable function,
especially since faculty travel has been completely
suspended.
K: Except for emergencies -and if the potential impact
of these cuts on the Chancellor's salary doesn't count
as an emergency, I don't know what does.
M: That makes sense . . . but Hawaii in business class?
K: Look, if we want to keep our top administrative
talent we have to treat them right. If we tell the
Chancellor he can't go to this conference or the one
in Paris next month on modem developments in
dry-erase marker technology, or that he has to fly
economy class, his CV will be on its way to Stanford
in the next FedEx pickup.
M: We certainly can't risk that.
K: No indeed . .. and it might interest you to know
that he insisted on flying business class to Paris
instead of first class-that's just the kind of team
player he is.
M: Unbelievable-the man is a saint! So, any other
budget cuts coming down the pike?
K: Well, yes, but I need you to keep this one under your
hat until it's official. Last week yours truly came up
with an idea that will save the university tens of mil-
lions every year and it got the Chancellor's approval
yesterday. I even impressed myself with this one.
M: I'm all ears.
K: Okay, first we make the minimum class size in
freshman courses 250, which means we can get rid
of three-quarters of the English and Math faculties.
That already saves millions. Next we eliminate PE,
which lets us convert all those open gym spaces to
auditoriums big enough for the new freshman class-
es, and-here's the beauty part-we no longer have
to heat the gym! Someone in mechanical engineering
figured out that the body heat from all those students
should be enough to keep the building comfy even in
the dead of winter.
M: Kreplach, that's the most brilliant plan I've ever ...


K: Wait, I'm not done yet! Those vacant rooms where
the freshman classes used to meet? We rent them out
to small businesses!
M: Fast food places, I suppose?
K: Nope-plenty of those across the street. I was trying
to think of something students spend lots of money
on but can't get easy local access to ... and then it
hit me. Composition facilitation!
M: Say liha '
K: You know-a student has a paper or project report to
write and turns to a skilled professional for help with
the background research and the paper composition,
and then ...
M: Wait a minute, Kreplach-are you talking about
those outfits that write students' papers?
K: Certainly not-that would be unethical. This service
would just produce first drafts and the students
would then do their own supplementary research
and rewriting, with a reasonable percentage of the
fee-say, 6( r. - g ing into the Provost's discretion-
ary fund.
M: But what would keep the students from just turning
in the papers as their own work?
K: Aha-I anticipated that some cynical faculty mem-
bers would raise that unlikely scenario, so I make the
students pledge that everything in the paper is either
their words or exactly what they would have written.
M: Fiendishly clever-that should satisfy even the most
jaded among us! Kreplach, I've got to hand it to
you- you've thought of everything.
K: Coincidentally, that's just what the Chancellor said.
He was so excited about all those savings that he
switched himself back into first class on the Paris
flight, and then he ... oh my goodness, look at the
time! I've enjoyed this little chat but I need to run to
a meeting with the Search Committee for the Deputy
Vice Provost for Emergency Relief Revenues.
M: Boy, that sounds really important! I imagine a seri-
ous salary goes with it.
K: You got that right, but it's crucial if you want to get
someone with the right qualifications for a sensi-
tive job like this one-all hell could break loose
if you put an amateur in charge of converting all
the rest rooms on campus to pay toilets. Oh, by the
way-would you happen to have an extra paper clip
on you? 0


All of the Random Thoughts columns are now available on the World Wide Web at
http://www.ncsu.edu/effective_teaching and at http://che.ufl.edu/~cee/

Chemical Engineering Education











MR]!t class and home problems


The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collections of interesting and novel prob-
lems in chemical engineering. We request problems that can be used to motivate student learning
by presenting a particular principle in a new light, can be assigned as novel home problems, are
suited for a collaborative learning environment, or demonstrate a cutting-edge application or
principle. Manuscripts should not exceed 14 double-spaced pages and should be accompanied
by the originals of any figures or photographs. Please submit them to Dr. Daina Briedis (e-mail:
briedis@egr.msu.edu), Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan
State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1226.




BIOKINETIC MODELING

OF IMPERFECT MIXING IN A CHEMOSTAT

an Example of Multiscale Modeling

MICHAEL B. CUTLIP
University of Connecticut * Storrs, CT 06269
NEIMA BRAUNER
Tel-Aviv University * Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel
MORDECHAI SHACHAM
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev * Beer-I- \1.. i 84105, Israel


Mathematical software packages such as Excel�, MA-
PLETM, MATHCAD�, MATLAB�, Mathematical,
and POLYMATHTM are currently used routinely
for numerical problem solving in engineering education.1, 2]
From the numerical solution perspective, it is convenient to
characterize the various problems as Single Model-Single
Algorithm (SMSA) problems and complex problems with
some combination of Multiple Models and Multiple Algo-
rithms (MMMA). A typical example of an SMSA problem
is the solution of a system of ordinary differential equations
coupled with explicit algebraic equations where one numeri-
cal integration algorithm (such as the 4th order Runge-Kutta)
can be used to solve the problem (e.g., steady-state operation
of a tubular reactor).
The application of mathematical software packages for solv-
ing SMSA problems has essentially replaced all other solution
techniques, as can be seen in many recent textbooks (see, for
example, Fogler[31). For complex and/or multi-scale problems,
however, the solution process is often more involved.
The types of models included in the "complex" category are:
1. Multiple Model-Single Ai.. i,,,,i (MMSA) Problem.
A typical example is the cyclic operation of a semi-
batch bioreactor.4' The three modes of operation of the
� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009
Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009


Michael B. Cutlip is professor emeritus of
the Chemical, Materials, and Biomolecular
Engineering Department at the University of
Connecticut and has served as department
head and director of the university's Honors
Program. He has B.Ch.E. and M.S. degrees
from Ohio State and a Ph.D. from the University
of Colorado. His current interests include the
development of generalsoftware fornumerical
problem solving and application to chemical
and biochemical engineering.
Neima Brauner is a professor in the School
of Mechanical Engineering and Heat Transfer
at the Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. She
received her B.Sc. and M.Sc. in chemical
engineering from the Technion Institute of
Technology, Haifa, Israel, and her Ph.D. in
mechanical engineering from the Tel-Aviv
University. Her research interests include
hydrodynamics and transport phenomena
in two-phase flow systems.

. , . Mordechai Shacham is the Benjamin H.
Iof Chemical Engineering at the Ben-Gurion
University of the Negev in Israel. He received
his B.Sc. and D.Sc. degrees from the
Technion, Israel Institute of Technology. His
research interests include analysis, modeling,
and regression of data, applied numerical
methods, and prediction and consistency
analysis of physical properties.











bioreactor initializationn, processing, and h ,, , , , )
are represented by different models comprising ordinary
differential equations and explicit algebraic equations.
All models can be solved by one numerical .,,, , .1 ... "
0,i. - ,i,,,, I ,,. I, as the 4th order Runge-Kutta).

2. Single Model-Multiple Ai, .. i . ,,i (SMMA) Problem.
Typical examples are the solution of two-point boundary
value problems, where the .1,t a,. I, of the model is
carried out in the inside loop and a nonlinear equation
solver oi',. ., ,l . i. i,,. : the boundary values in an outer
loop, or the solution of ,iff . ,.i.al.ui, i.,1,. systems of
equations where the same oi,. , .... are used but in an
opposite hierarchy.
3. Multiple Model-Multiple Ai, .. i,,, (MMMA) Problem.
A typical example is the modeling of an exothermic
batch reactor, where the two stages of operation (heat-
ing and cooling) require different models and different
.,,i ,1, ., . 11 . i., , i.... (stiff and non-stiff).

The solution of such complex problems can be rather
cumbersome and time consuming even if mathematical soft-
ware packages are used, as manual transfer of data from one
model/problem to another and consecutive manual reruns


are often required. Combining the
use of several software packages
of various levels of complexity,
flexibility and user friendliness,
however, can considerably reduce
the time and effort required for solv-
ing complex models.
Following this premise, the mod-
els representing the various stages
of the problems can be coded and
tested using a software package
(for example, POLYMATH51]) that
requires very little technical cod-
ing effort. After testing each of
the modules separately, they are
combined into one program us-
ing a programming language, or
a mathematical software package
that supports programming (say,
MATLAB[6]). To minimize the prob-
ability of introducing errors into the
model equations, the POLYMATH
input for the various modules can
be automatically converted within
POLYMATH to MATLAB code.
This allows MATLAB functions to
be created that enable the consecu-
tive and repetitive calls to the vari-
ous models, apply the appropriate
solution algorithms, and assign the
hierarchy of the computations dur-
ing the solution.

244


A homework assignment that demonstrates this suggested
approach is the following problem of biokinetic modeling of
a chemostat with imperfect mixing. This problem is a modi-
fied version of a problem presented by Cutlip and Shacham.J'
The solution algorithm presented for this problem includes
the use of various computing tools in the different stages
of the problem solution (the solution of an SMSA problem,
parametric runs of an SMSA problem, and the solution of an
SMMA problem).

PROBLEM BACKGROUND
Biokinetic Modeling of Imperfect Mixing
in a Chemostat
A chemostat is usually considered to be a completely
mixed reactor; however, this is not always the case. Consider
the situation where the chemostat may be considered to be
modeled as a reactor with a completely-mixed volume V1
(dm3) that interacts with another completely-mixed volume
V2 (dm3) as shown in Figure 1. Volume V2 with an exchange
flow rate F2 (dm3/hr) may be considered to model the poorly
mixed regions within a production fermenter. The microbial


TABLE 1
POLYMATH Model for the Chemostat with Imperfect Mixing
No. Equation # Comment
1 f(S1) = F1*SO+F2*S2-(1/Yxs)*(mum*S l/(Ks+S1))*X1*V 1-F*S1 F2*S1 # Substrate
balance on volume V 1
2 f(S2) = F2*S-(1 /Yxs)*(mum*S2/(Ks+S2))*X2*V2-F2*S2 # Substrate balance on volume
V2
3 f(X1) = F2*X2+(mum*S l/(Ks+S1)-kd)*X1*V 1-FI*X1-F2*X1 # Cell balance on volume
VI
4 f(X2) = F2*X1+(mum*S2/(Ks+S2)-kd)*X2*V2-F2*X2 # Cell balance on volume V2
5 F1 = 0.17 # Feed flow rate to volume V 1 (dmA3/hr)
6 F2 = 0.2*F1 # Feed flow rate to volume V2 (dmA3/hr)
7 PI = Yps*(SO-S1) # Production (g/dmA3)
8 D = F1/(V1 +V2) # Dilution rate (1/hr)
9 SO = 0.6 # Feed substrate concentration (g/dmA3)
10 kd = 0.002
11 Yxs = 0.4 # Yield coefficient (g cells/ g substrate)
12 Yps = 0.2 # Yield coefficient (g product/ g substrate)
13 Ks = 0.2 # Saturation constant (g substrate/dm^3)
14 mum = 0.2 # Maximal specific growth rate (1/hr)
15 V 1 = 1.7 # Volume 1 (dm^3)
16 V2 = 0.3 # Volume V2 (dm^3)
17 PR_DX1 = D*X1 # Cell production rate (g/hr)
18 PR _DP1 = D*P1 # Product production rate (g/hr)
19 Sl(0) = 0 # Substrate concentration in volume V 1 (g/dm^3)
20 S2(0) = 0 # Substrate concentration in volume V2 (g/dm^3)
21 Xl(0) = 0.025 # Cell concentration in volume V 1 (g/dm^3)
22 X2(0) = 0.025 # Cell concentration in volume V2 (g/dm^3)

Chemical Engineering Education










system to be modeled involves substrate S (__ dim I going to
product P (, dim i only under the action of cells X i.' dim ).
The following separate balances on the substrate, cells, and
product in each reactor volume use Monod kinetics and a cell
death rate constant given by k (hr 1).
Steady-State Substrate Balance on Volume V,

FSo + F2S2 -- S [-- X1V = FS1 + F2S1 (1)
Yx/S Ks + S1

where F is flow rate (dm3/hr), Yxs is yield coefficient (g cells/g
substrate), gm is the maximal specific growth rate (hr 1), and
Ks is the saturation constant (g substrate/dm3). The indexes
0, 1, and 2 are used as shown in Figure 1.
Steady-State Substrate Balance on Volume V2

F2S1 -- I 2 X2V2 = F2S2 (2)
x/S KS+S2

Steady-State Cell Balance on Volume V,

F2X2 m + k XlVl = FX1+F2X1 (3)
Ks ++S1

Steady-State Cell Balance on Volume V2

F2X + KmS2 - k X2V2 = F2X2 (4)


Overall Steady-State Material Balance for the Product

P = Yp/s (So - S) (5)

where YPs is the yield coefficient (g product/g substrate).

PROBLEM STATEMENT
Microbial growth has been studied in a continuous culture,
and the following parameters were obtained: g. = 0.2 h 1, Ks
= 0.2 g/dm3, kd- = 0.002 hr 1, Y�s = 0.4 g cells/g substrate, and
Yp/ = 0.2 g product/g substrate. Tracer studies have indicated
that the incomplete mixing can be described by a well-mixed

TABLE 2
Chemostat Results From POLYMATH For F, = 0.17 dm3/hr
Variable Value f(x) Initial Guess
S1 (g/dm3) 0.1821 4.20E-11 0
S2 (g/dm3) 0.03589 3.91E-11 0
X1 (g/dm3) 0.1631 -1.68E-11 0.025
X2 (g/dm3) 0.2178 -1.56E-11 0.025
D (1/hr) 0.085
F (dm3/hr) 0.17
F2 (dm3/hr) 0.034
PR_DP1 (g/hr) 0.00711
PR_DX1 (g/hr) 0.01387

Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009


volume V1 = 1.7 dm3 and a volume of V2 = 0.3 dm3 with an
exchange flow rate F2. The flow rate relationship with the
overall flow rate to chemostat, F1, is given by F2 = 0.2 F1 in
dm3/hr. Chemostat operation is such that F1 = 0.17 dm3/hr,
X0 = 0 and So = 0.6 g/dm3, and the endogenous metabolism
can be neglected.
(a) Create a single graph of S1, X1, and P1 vs. the dilution
rate defined by D = F/V.
(b) Plot the cell production rate, the product DX, and the
product production rate, the product of DP,, as func-
tions of the dilution rate between 0.05 and 0.130 hr '.
(c) Estimate the dilution rate that will maximize the produc-
tion rate, DX1, for the cells and the dilution rate that will
maximize the production rate, DP, for the product.

PROBLEM SOLUTION
Modeling the Chemostat and Solving the Single
Model-Single Algorithm (SMSA) Problem
The mathematical model of the chemostat can be formulated
as a system of nonlinear algebraic equations (NLEs) that can
be solved by a single algorithm. This simple, uncomplicated
model can be easily solved with POLYMATH version 6.1 to
obtain the solution of this SMSA problem.
The complete POLYMATH code for the chemostat model is
given in Table 1. The model includes four implicit nonlinear
algebraic equations that are obtained from the material bal-
ances. The POLYMATH model (including the "comments,"
which start with the # sign) provides complete documenta-
tion of the equations, the values of the constants, and the
initial estimates used for the four unknowns: Si, S2, X1, and
X2. Statements 1 through 4 present the implicit equations
for obtaining the substrate concentration in the well-mixed
volumes (S , S2, respectively), and the cell concentration in
the well-mixed volumes (X1, X2, respectively). Explicit vari-
ables and constants are described in statements 5-18. Initial
estimates for the unknowns in the nonlinear equations are
provided in lines 19 to 22.
The results for the case where F = 0.17 dm3/hr and the
initial estimates S1,0 = S2,0 = 0, X1,0 = 0.025, and X2,0 = 0.025
are given in Table 2. For this case with the dilution rate D =


F, F,
so -- S,
X1 Figure 1.

F2 F2 P Chemostat
o 0 model.











TABLE 3
MATLAB Function (Model) for the Chemostat with Imperfect Mixing
No. Equation % Comment
1 function fx = MNLEfun(x, Fl);
2 S1 = x(l); %Substrate concentration in volume V 1 (g/dm^3)
3 S2 = x(2); %Substrate concentration in volume V2 (g/dm^3)
4 XI = x(3); %Cell concentration in volume V 1 (g/dmA3)
5 X2 = x(4); %Cell concentration in volume V2 (g/dm^3)
6 Fl = 0.17; %Feed flow rate to volume V (dm^3/hr)
7 F2 = 0.2 * Fl; %Feed flow rate to volume V2 (dm^3/hr)
8 Yps = 0.2; %Yield coefficient (g product/g substrate)
9 V2= 0.3; %Volume V2 (dm^3)
10 SO = 0.6; %Feed substrate concentration (g/dm^3)
11 kd = 0.002; %Cell death rate (1/hr)
12 Yxs = 0.4; %Yield coefficient (g cells/g substrate)
13 P1 = Yps * (SO - Sl); %Production (g/dm^3)
14 Ks = 0.2; %Saturation constant (g substrate/dm^3)
15 mum = 0.2; %Maximal specific growth rate (1/hr)
16 V1 = 1.7; %Volume V1 (dm^3)
17 D = F1 / (VI + V2); %Dilution rate (1/hr)
18 PR_DX1 = D * XI; %Cell production rate (g/hr)
19 PR_DP1 = D * PI; %Product production rate (g/hr)
20 fx(1,1) = F1 * SO+F2* S2- (1 /Yxs* mum* Si / (Ks + Sl) * X *
V1) - (Fl * Si) - (F2 * Si); %Substrate balance on volume V1
21 fx(2,1) = F2 * Si - (1 / Yxs * mum * S2 / (Ks + S2) * X2 * V2) - (F2 *
S2); %Substrate balance on volume V2
22 fx(3,1) = F2 * X2 + (mum * Si / (Ks + Si) - kd) * XI * VI - (Fl * X1)
- (F2 * XI); %Cell balance on volume V 1
23 fx(4,1) = F2 * XI + (mum * S2 / (Ks + S2) - kd) * X2 * V2 - (F2 * X2);
%Cell balance on volume V2


TABLE 4
Part of the MATLAB "Main Program" for Parametric Studies
with the Chemostat
No. Equation % Comment
1 options = optimset('Diagnostics',['off'],'TolFun',[le-9],'TolX',[le-9]);
2 Yps = 0.2; SO = 0.6; kd = 0.002; Yxs = 0.4; Ks = 0.2;
3 mum = 0.2; V = 1.7; V2 = 0.3;
4 Fl=0.1; %Initial feed flow rate to volume V (dm^3/hr)
5 xguess = [0 0 0.025 0.25]; % initial guess vector
6 for k=l:16
7 xsolv=fsolve(@MNLEfun,xguess,options,F1);
8 S1(k)=xsolv(l); S2(k)=xsolv(2); Xi(k)=xsolv(3); X2(k)=xsolv(4);
9 Fllist(k)=Fl; D(k)= F1 / (VI + V2); Pl(k)= Yps * (SO - S1(k));
10 PR_DXI(k) = D(k) * Xl(k); PR_DPI(k) = D(k) * Pl(k);
11 F =F +0.01; %Incrementing feed flow rate to volume V (dm^3/hr)
12 end


0.085 hr', the cell production rate DX1 = 0.0139
g/hr and the product production rate DP1 =
0.00711 g/hr. Lower initial values of X10 = X2,0
that are less than 0.0247 g/dm3 result in negli-
gible steady-state reaction corresponding to cell
washout operation. Thus the simulated chemostat
has a critical value of initial cell concentration
that leads to a sustained steady-state biochemical
reaction. The production rates associated with the
operation where washout of the cells is avoided
will be studied in more detail.

Parametric Studies on the Chemostat
Parametric runs, requested in the second part
of the assignment, can be carried out with POLY-
MATH by manually changing the parameter
values. This approach, however, is inefficient
and cumbersome-particularly for problems
where there are many parameters and a wide
range of parameter values to be considered. In
such cases, programming is desirable for repeti-
tive solution of the problem with the various
parameter values. One option is to carry out the
parametric runs efficiently using MATLAB. The
MATLAB function representing the operation
of the chemostat can be automatically and ef-
ficiently generated by POLYMATH (Table 3).
Note that MATLAB requires input of the vari-
able values into the function in a single array (x,
in this case), and return of the function values in
a single array (fx, lines 20-23 in Table 3). The
variable values are put back into variables with
the same names as used in the POLYMATH
model (lines 2-5) to make the MATLAB code
more meaningful. POLYMATH orders the
basic model equations sequentially as required
by MATLAB and converts any needed intrinsic
functions and logical expressions.

Convenient parametric runs can be made for
various values of the feed flow rate (F), and
this variable can be added as an input parameter
to the MNLEfun function (Table 3). A main
program can be prepared that changes the value
of F1, solves the system of nonlinear equations,
collects the pertinent data, and plots the results of
the parametric runs. Part of this main program is
shown in Table 4. The value of F1 is changed start-
ing at F1 = 0.1 up to F1 = 0.25 with steps of 0.01.
The MATLAB library functionfsolve is used to
solve the system of algebraic equations as shown
in line 7 of Table 4. The variable values needed
for preparing the various plots are calculated and
stored in lines 8 through 10.


Chemical Engineering Education












Excell81 can also be used for carrying out the para-
metric runs efficiently. The model can be automatically
exported from POLYMATH to Excel with a single key
press. Part of the Excel worksheet as generated by
POLYMATH is shown in Table 5, where the variable
cell calculations are indicated. The variable names
are translated to cell addresses, a new equation that
calculates the sum of squares of the function values
is added, and the equations are rearranged in a form
that is appropriate for solving the equation using the
solver add-in available within Excel. The complete
worksheet with the solution obtained using solver is
shown in Table 6 (next page). The numerical results
are identical to those obtained by POLYMATH. The
variable names in column B, the POLYMATH equa-
tions in column D, and the variable descriptions in
column E provide complete documentation for the
Excel formulas in column C.

Solution of the system of equations using solver for
various values of F requires the creation of a macro
or a VBA (Visual Basic forApplications '1) program. A
plot of S , X1 , and P1 as functions of the dilution rate is
shown in Figure 2, and the cell and product production
rates are plotted in Figure 3. Maximum points for the
two production rates in the vicinity of D = 0.1 hr1 can
be observed in this figure. A more precise determination
of the maximum is discussed in the next section.

Maximization of the Production Rates by
Solving an SMMA Problem

The two optimization problems can be posed as the
following minimization problems:

min- DX1 and min- DP where D = F, / V, (6)


(The minus signs in front
of DX1 and DP1 are used
to convert the maximiza-
tion problems into mini-
mization problems).
The calculation of D,
X , and P associated with
a particular value of F1
involves the solution of
a system of NLEs, while
a minimization algorithm
is required in order to find
the values of F1 that satis-
fy Eq. (1). This is a single
model (the chemostat)
and multiple algorithms
(one for solution of NLEs
and one for minimization)
problem.

Vol. 43, No. 3, Summer 2009


03
*. S1 X1 A P1
325

02 i
U**
D 15
4 U
01


005 006 007 008 009
Dilution Rate (D)


01 011 012 013


Figure 2. Plot of S1, X1, and P, as functions of dilution rate.

0016
* PR DX1 * PR DP1
0014* *

0012 -
O

0 01



* U



005 006 0 07 008 009 01 0 11 012 013

Dilution Rate (D)

Figure 3. Cell production rate (PR_DX1) and product production
Rate (PR_DP1) as functions of dilution rate.


TABLE 5
POLYMATH Model of the Chemostat Exported to Excel with Display Formulas Option.
A B C
a1 POLYMATH NLE Migration Document
2 Variable Value
3 Explicit Eqs F1 =0 17
4 F2 =(0 2 * C3)
5 Pi =(C10 (C7 - C17))
6 D =(C3 /(C13+ C14))
7 SO =0 6
8 kd =0 002
9 Yxs 04
10 Yps =0 2
11 Ks =0 2
12 mum =0 2
13 V1 =1 7
14 V2 =0 3
15 PR_DX1 =(C6 * C19)
16 PR_DP1 (C6 * C5)
17 Implicit Vars S1 0
18 S2 0
19 X1 0 025
20 X2 0 025
21 Implicit Eqs f(S1) =(((((C3 * C7) + (C4 C18)) - ((((1 / C9) * ((C12 * C17) / (C11 + C17))) * C19) * C13)) - (03 * C17)) - (C4 * C17))
22 f(S2) =(((C4 C17) - ((((1 /C9) * ((C12 C18) /(C11 + C18))) * C20) * C14)) - (C4 * C18))
23 f(X1) =((((C4 * C20) + (((((C12 * 17)/ (C11 + C17))- C8) * C19) * C13)) - (C3 * C19)) - (C4 * C19))
24 f(X2) =(((C4 * C19) + (((((C12 * C18) / (C11 + C18)) - C8) * C20) * C14)) - (C4 * C20))
25 Sum of Squares: =((((C21 A 2) + (C22 A 2)) + (C23 A 2)) + (C24 A 2))













The MATLAB library function fminbnd for
single-value minimization can be used for
finding the minimum of the functions in Eq.
(1). In order to carry out the minimization, two A
new functions should be prepared. The first 1 POL
one (shown in Table 7) obtains F1 as input, 2_
uses the fsolve library function to solve the Expllclt
chemostat model, and returns - DX1 to the 5
calling function. The second function does the 6
same except that it returns the value of - DP . 8
Two calls to the library function fminbnd 1-0
identify the highest production rate for cells -1T
DX1 = 0.0142 g/hr at a dilution rate of D =
0.0986 hr1 and the highest production rate for 14
product DP1 = 0.00727 g/hr at a dilution rate 15
of D = 0.0979 hr 1. 17 Implicit
18
19
CONCLUSIONS 20
21 Implicit
The example presented here provides an 22
opportunity to practice several aspects of 23
24
modeling and computation: 25 Sum of

* Modeling of a bio-reactor and imperfect
mixing.
* Categorizing problems according to the
number of models and number of ol,. *. i....
involved.
No.
* Solving SMSA problems with a software -
package. 1
* Using Excel (VBA) or MATLAB program- 2
ming for parametric runs of SMSA problems. 3
* Using MATLAB programming for solving 4
SMMA problems. 5

We suggest that a combination of three 6
popular packages- POLYMATH, Excel, and -7
MATLAB -enables the solution of problems of
8
increasing complexity in the educational setting. -
The example presented is suitable for courses 9
in chemical reaction engineering, biochemical
engineering, numerical methods, and optimization.

The POLYMATH and MATLAB programs used in
study are available at the site chemostat/>.


REFERENCES
1. Cutlip, M., J.J. Hwalek, H.E. Nuttall, M. Shacham, J. Brule, J. Wid
T. Han, B. Finlayson, E.M. Rosen, and R. Taylor, "A Collection
Numerical Problems in Chemical Engineering Solved by Various M\
ematical Software Packages," Computer Applications in Enginet
Education, 6, 169 (1998)
2. Shacham, M., and M.B. Cutlip, "Selecting the Appropriate Nume
Software for a Chemical Engineering Course," Computers and Ch


TABLE 6
Excel Worksheet with Numerical Results and Documentation
for the Chemostat Problem.
B C D E F
YMATH NLE Migration Document
Variable Value Polymath Equation Comments


Eqs F1
F2
P1
D
SO
kd
Yxs
Yps
Ks
mumr
V1
V2
PR_
PR
Vars S1
S2
X1
X2
Eqs f(S1
f(S2
f(X1
f(X2
Squares:


0 17 F1=0 17
0 034 F2=0 2F1
0083588165 PI Yps*(SO-
0 085 D=F!/(VI+V2
06 SO=O 6
0 002 kd=O 002
04 Yxs=i 4
02 Yps=0 2
0 2 Ks=0 2
0 2 mum=0 2
1 7 V1=: 7
0 3 V2=0 3
DX1 0013867371 PRDXI=D'>
DP1 0007104994 PR DPI=D*F
0 182059175 Sf(0)=0
0 035888744 S2(0)=0
0 163145542 X1(0)=0 02S5
0 217791093 X2(0)=0025
-77311E-07 f(S1)=F1'SO+
-5 0319E-07 f(S2)=F2'*S1-
8 79323E-07 f(X1)=F2'X2+
-5 0428E-07 f(X2)=F2*XI+
1.8784E-12 F= f(S1)^2+f(


Si)









$1
'1


Feed flow rate to volume VI (dm^3/hr)
Feed flow rate to volume V2 (dmA3/hr)
Production (g/dmr3)
Dilution rate (1/hr)
Feed substrate concentration (g/dm^3)
Cell death rate (1/hr)
Yield coefficient (g cellslg substrate)
Yield coefficient (g product/g substrate)
Monod constant (g substrate/dm^3)
Maximal specific growth rate (1/hr)
Volume V1 (dm^3)
Volume V2 (dmA3)
Dilution rate (1/hr)
Cell production rate (g/hfr)
Substrate concentration in volume VI (g/dm^3)
Substrate concentration in volume V2 (g/dm^3)
Cell concentration in volume VI (g/dm^3)
Cell concentration in volume V2 (/dm^3)


F2'S2-(1/Yxs)*(mum'S /(Ks+Si))*X1V1-F'S1 -F2TS I
(1/Yxs)*(mum'S2'(Ke+S2))*X2'V2-F2'S2
(mum'S/(Ks+Si )-kd)*X1'V1-FI'X1-F2*X1
(mum'S2/(Ks+S2)-kd)*X2'V2-F2'X2
(S2)^2+f(X1)^2+f(X2)'2


TABLE 7
A Function for Calculating the Cell Production Rate
for a Single Value of F,

Equation % Comment

function PR_DX=ProdRateCell(F1) %Cell production rate (g/hr)

V1 = 1.7; %Volume VI (dm^3)

V2 = 0.3; %Volume V2 (dm^3)

xguess =[0 0 0.025 0.025]; %initial guess vector

options =optimset('Diagnostics',['off'],'TolFun',[le-9],'TolX',[le-9]);

xsolv=fsolve(@ MNLEfun,xguess,options,F1);

Xl=xsolv(3); %Cell concentration in volume V 1 (g/dm^3)

D = F1 / (VI + V2); %Dilution rate (1/hr)

PR_DX = -D* XI; %Cell production rate (g/hr)


cal Engineering, 23(suppl.), S645 (1999)
3. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, 4th Ed,
this Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey (2005)
4. Cutlip, M.B., and M. Shacham, "Modular and Multilayer Modeling
-amApplication to Biological Processes" pp. 1019-1024 in V. Plesu and
P S. Agaci (Editors), Proceedings of the 17th European Symposium
on Computer Aided Process Engineering, Elsevier (2007)
5. POLYMATH is a product of Polymath Software
  • math-software. com>.
    man, 6. MATLAB is a trademark of The Math Works, Inc. of 10 works.com>
    lath- 7. Cutlip, M.B., and M. Shacham, Problem Solving in Chemical and
    ring Biochemical Engineering with POLYMATH, Excel and MATLAB, 2nd
    Ed., Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey (2008)
    rical 8. Visual Basic for Applications and Excel are trademarks of Microsoft
    emi- Corporation 1


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