Chemical engineering education

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Chemical engineering education
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CEE
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Chem. eng. educ.
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v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
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English
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American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
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Chemical abstracts
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Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
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Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
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Full Text












Chemical engineering education














The 10 Worst Teaching Mistakes I. Mistakes 5-10 (p. 201)
Felder, Brent
Advisors Who Rock: An Appioach to Academic Counseling (p. 218)
B Bullard
"' The Hydrodynamic Stability of a Fluid-Particle Flow: Instabilities in Gas-Fluidized Beds (p. 179)
Liu, Howley, Johri, Glasser
Ca Quick and Easy Rate Equations for Multistep Reactions (p. 211)
Savage
"u Lab-on-a-Chip Design-Build Project with a Nanotechnology Component
in a Freshman Engineering Course (p. 185)
Allam, Tomasko, Trott, Schlosser, Yang, Wilson, Merrill
0
o A Module to Fostei Engineel ing Creativity; an Interpolative Design Problem and
C an Extrapolative Research Project (p. 166)
3 Forbes
F 2 5Introduction to Studies in Granular Mixing (p. 173)
< Llusa, Muzzio
.o Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab
> to Reactoi Design to Separation (p. 193)
6 E Aimstrong,Comitz, Biaglow, Lachance, Sloop
C C(
Z .r Pedagogical Training and Research in Engineering Education (p. 203)
S- Wankat
.C O 0


C C
C -
F M

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.

c Manuscripts should describe the results of original and laboratory-tested ideas.
The ideas should be broadly applicable and described in sufficient detail to
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An Introduction should establish the context of the laboratory experi-
ence (e.g., relation to curriculum, review of literature), state the learning
objectives, and describe the rationale and approach.
The Laboratory Description section should describe the experiment in
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grams or photos, cost information, and references to previous publica-
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A concise statement of the Conclusions (as opposed to a summary) of
your experiences should be the last section of the paper prior to listing
References.













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Chemical Engineering Education
Volume 42 Number 4 Fall 2008



> RANDOM THOUGHTS
201 The 10 Worst Teaching Mistakes
I. Mistakes 5-10
Richard M. Felder and Rebecca Brent

> ADVISING
218 Advisors Who Rock: An Approach
to Academic Counseling
Lisa G. Bullard

> CURRICULUM
179 The Hydrodynamic Stability of a Fluid-Particle Flow: Instabili-
ties in Gas-Fluidized Beds
Xue Liu, Maureen A. Howley, Jayati Johri,
and Benjamin J. Glasser


211 Quick and Easy Rate Equations for Multistep Reactions
Phillip E. Savage


185 Lab-on-a-Chip Design-Build Project with a Nanotechnology
Component in a Freshman Engineering Course
YosefAllam, David L. Tomasko, Bruce Trott, Phil Schlosser,
Yong Yang, Tiff tn M. Wilson, and John Merrill

> CLASSROOM
166 A Module to Foster Engineering Creativity: an Interpolative
Design Problem and an Extrapolative Research Project
Neil S. Forbes

173 Introduction to Studies in Granular Mixing
Marcos Llusa and Fernando Muzzio

193 Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from Organic
Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation
Matt Armstrong, Richard L. Comitz, Andrew Biaglow,
Russ Lachance, and Joseph Sloop

> EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
203 Pedagogical Training and Research in Engineering Education
Phillip C. Wankat






CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering
Division, American Societyfor Engineering Education, and is edited at the University ofFlorida. Correspondence regarding
editorial matter, circulation, and changes ofaddress should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University
of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Copyright 0 2008 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for
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those ofthe ChE Division,ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced ifnotified within
120 days ofpublication. Writefor information on subscription costs and forback copy costs and availability. POSTMASTER:
Send address changes to Chemical Engineering Education, Chemical Engineering Department., University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Periodicals Postage Paid at Gainesville, Florida, and additional post offices (USPS 101900).


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008











MR! t classroom
---- --- s_____________________________________


A MODULE TO FOSTER

ENGINEERING CREATIVITY:

an Interpolative Design Problem and

an Extrapolative Research Project




NEIL S. FORBES
University of Massachusetts, Amherst Amherst, Massachusetts 01003


Teaching techniques that enhance creativity are as criti-
cal as teaching technical skills. Innovation, the result
of the creative process, is necessary for technological
advancement and is highly correlated with economic pros-
perity and success.1, 2] While creativity and innovation play a
role in most aspects of engineering, they are rarely discussed
explicitly in engineering courses. Engineers typically receive
instruction in scientific principles and their conceptual ap-
plication, but seldom do they receive formal instruction in
creative problem solving.[3 5] It is particularly important to
focus on creativity in introductory engineering courses to
retain independent thinkers who tend to leave university
earlier than others.[6] In addition, tools that enhance creativity
are necessary because of increased employment in the life
sciences and a general expansion in career opportunities for
chemical engineers.7 12] Creativity skills enable engineers to
learn new material faster and improve interactions with col-
leagues in other disciplines.
Throughout my teaching experience I have been asked by
many students how they can improve their creativity and prob-
lem-solving skills. From these experiences, I have noticed that
many students limit their creative potential by censoring their
ideas before fully investigating them. Encouraging students
to pursue ideas regardless of how outlandish the ideas appear
produces more vibrant, diverse, and ultimately useful output.
Formalization of this instruction process will benefit a greater
population of students than individual interactions alone.
Engineering creativity can be broken down into two dis-
tinct steps: idea generation and idea analysis. Success with
creativity dependents on the number of ideas formed and
the ability to perform these two steps be separately.[, 13-15]
Generating a large number of ideas, regardless of their qual-
ity, increases the likelihood that an innovative concept will
be discovered.[13-16] Students who struggle with open-ended
problems often try to combine idea analysis and generation.
166


Analysis requires contradictory thought processes that can
poison self-confidence and tolerance of risk, which are nec-
essary for idea generation. During the brainstorming step,
overly critical analysis limits the formation of the random
and disparate connections that are needed to generate long
lists of potential ideas, which often leads to abandonment of
the most tangential and innovative ideas.
Here I describe a teaching module that can be integrated
into an introductory chemical engineering course to maximize
students' creative potential. This module builds upon previous
efforts that have shown that creativity can be taught in the
classroom.11, 117 This module includes an exercise to illustrate
engineering creativity, an open-ended research project, and a
questionnaire to assess individual creativity. The material that
describes the role of creativity in engineering can typically
be described in one or two lectures.

IDEA GENERATION
Idea generation is a highly personal process that varies
greatly from person to person. Many techniques have been
described to explain the workings of this process,[4, 13 15,
181 including brainstorming,19, 20] synectics,[21, 22] and lateral
thinking.[23 24] Creativity in engineering is dependent on many

Neil Forbes is an assistant professor in the
Department of Chemical Engineering at the
University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He
has an adjunct appointment in the Molecular
and Cell Biology Program and at the Pioneer
Valley Life Sciences Institute. He received
his Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the
University of California, Berkeley, and was
a postdoctoral fellow in radiation oncology at
Harvard Medical School. His education inter-
ests are in introductory engineering education
and the integration of life-science
material into the chemical engineering curriculum. His research interests
include drug delivery, tumor biology, and bacterial anti-cancer therapies.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008
Chemical Engineering Education










factors, including innate ability, experience, and good mental
habits.l15 16] While some students have more innate ability
and experience from which to draw, many students fall into
mental traps that limit their creative potential. Reading and
exposure to experiences outside of engineering often enhances
creativity.[25] A creative environment encourages independent
thinking, self-awareness, openness to experience, and breadth
of vision.6, 18]
Wl. 11, [ini 1'lii to generate novel ideas, students should be
encouraged to use their own personal experiences. The most
creative ideas often come from students who can effectively
use their personal experiences and knowledge base. For ex-
ample, a foreign student in a bioprocess engineering course I
taught in 2003 had worked previously in a laboratory studying
gene therapy. She was from a tropical country and had a family
that had been painfully affected by malaria. Putting these two
experiences together, she came up with an idea to manipulate
the sickle cell gene to provide protection against malaria.
Similar ideas could not be found in the literature, and this ap-
proach has therapeutic promise. This example illustrates how
connecting personal experience (malaria) with educational
knowledge (gene therapy) can lead to innovation.

EXTRAPOLATIVE VS. INTERPOLATIVE
PROBLEMS
To help students with open-ended tasks I suggest that cre-
ative problems be divided into two distinct modes: extrapola-
tive and interpolative. These two modes are defined by how
the goals of the problem relate to known facts. Interpolative
creativity is the creation of connections between known facts
to arrive at clearly defined goals. Extrapolative creativity is
the creation of new ideas as an outgrowth from known facts
toward more loosely defined goals. For example, mass and
energy balance problems require interpolative creativity;
research papers predominately require extrapolative creativ-
ity; and process design requires elements of both. Typically,
engineering students prefer interpolative problems. Both
types of problems, however, require the generation of many
high-quality ideas and the confidence to generate them.
Understanding the similarity of the tools needed to address
these two modes will enhance students' ability with open-
ended problems.
Classic examples of problems that require interpolative
creativity are the mass balance problems encountered in
introductory chemical engineering courses (Figure 1). Prob-
lems of this type require small creative steps when drawing
system boundaries. For the example in Figure 1, three different
choices are possible: around unit A, around unit B, and an
overall balance. More complex problems would have more
possibilities, with some being difficult to identify on first
observation. Many students start such a problem by writing
mass balance equations around unitAbefore conceptualizing
all possible system boundaries. In doing so, they miss that an


overall balance is necessary to solve the problem. Generating
a list of possible boundaries (ideas) before analyzing them
would help students solve these problems more efficiently.
A research paper is good example of an extrapolative cre-
ativity problem that students often encounter. When assigned
extrapolative problems, students should use similar techniques
to generate ideas as they do with interpolative problems. Idea
generation is complicated for open-ended problems by the
"fear of a blank page" that leaves students not knowing where
to start. As with interpolative problems, practice generating
disparate ideas before evaluating them can help with the
extrapolative creative process. Different from interpolative
problems, loosely defined goals can make the brainstorming
space seem limitless. To overcome this apparent limitlessness,
students should be encouraged to use their previous experi-
ence and prior knowledge to redefine the goals of the assign-
ment. They should especially be encouraged to use those
experiences outside of engineering. For example, a student
struggling to find a subject for a research paper (as described
in detail below) found a clever topic by exploring his hobbies.
This student was an avid bicyclist who had recently paid too
much for a high-end bicycle. He chose to write a paper about
ways to improve the production of titanium and reduce its
cost, which turned out to be a well-defined and interesting
project that the student found highly rewarding.


What is the production rate of acetic acid?
Figure 1. Simple mass balance problem to illustrate
interpolative creativity. An equimolar stream of water
and acetic acid is fed to a liquid-liquid exchanger (A),
which partitions the acetic acid into a chloroform extract
and produces an idealized pure water stream. The acetic
acid is removed from the chloroform by distillation (B).
Three different system boundaries can be drawn: around
A, around B, and around the entire process. Without
knowing the recycle rate of chloroform an entire process
balance is necessary to calculate the production rate of
acetic acid. Identifying many possible solutions (in this
case system boundaries) is necessary to solve
interpolative problems.


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008









EXERCISE TO DEMONSTRATE ENGINEERING
CREATIVITY
The following interpolative exercise is a project to design
column packing material that illustrates engineering creativity.
Presenting this exercise during class complements the lectures
and provides a defined time period for students to practice
their creativity skills. The exercise is comprised of two parts
that are to be administered before and after instruction on cre-
ativity. Designing column packing is a geometric problem that
has many possible solutions, is complex enough that an opti-
mal solution cannot be ascertained on first inspection, but is
simple enough to allow students to easily analyze their ideas.
This exercise complements the extrapolative brainstorming
problems5, 13] and interpolative, brain teasersi15 17] that have
been described previously. The complexity of this problem
illustrates to students how separating brainstorming and analy-
sis can produce many distinct and effective designs.
There are currently numerous designs and shapes of column
packing commercially available (Figure 2). Most of these
designs were determined by a combination of experimenta-
tion, trial and error, and experience. 261 While the shape of
the packing materials significantly affects their behavior, the
optimal shape cannot be determined theoretically. The best
packing materials have a high surface area for mass transfer
and a low resistance to gas flow.126 271
To begin the exercise the entire column packing simulation
is described in detail. The overall goal of the process is to
design a packing material that maximizes productivity in a
packed column absorber. To make the design of packing mate-
rial a tractable creativity exercise it was reduced to two dimen-
sions. During the exercise, packing materials are designed on



pima


1 y
Figure 2. Examples of commercially available column
packing materials.


11 X 11 grids and are filled into a theoretical 59 X 51 column
using a stochastic Visual Basic simulator (Figure 3, which is
available upon request). Packing designs must be physically
possible, single pieces: all pixels in each design must share
a border with at least one other pixel (as in Figures 2-4). The
simulator fills the column by rotating the two-dimensional
designs and placing them as close to the bottom of the column
as possible without overlapping already packed pieces (Figure
3). Once the simulator has filled the column, it calculates the
overall void fraction from the percentage of empty space
and the surface area from the length of exposed edges. For
simplicity, the gas flowrate and the overall production rate are
assumed to be directly proportional to the void fraction. The
simulator determines the performance of packing materials
by multiplying the void fraction by the surface area.
As an example of packing material simulation, a solid square
(Figure 3A) has a void fraction of 0.359, a surface area of 616,
and a productivity of 221. It is a poor performer because it does
not have much surface area. A better design would be a crossed
I-bar (Figure 3B), which has a void fraction of 0.726, a surface
area of 1,641, and a productivity of 1,192. These two examples
demonstrate why this problem is useful for demonstrating the
utility of engineering creativity. While void fraction and surface
area are coupled to each other, good designs can independently
increase both independently. In addition, the nonlinear relation-
ship between these two parameters makes theoretical prediction
of an optimum design difficult.
The exercise is broken into two parts. In the first part, prior
to instruction on creativity, students are provided with the


Figure 3. Two examples of packing materials
filling a two-dimensional column. The solid square pack-
ing (A) is a poor performer. When packed it had a void
fraction of 0.359, a surface area of 616 and an overall
productivity of 221. The I-bar packing (B) is a much
better performer. When packed it had a void fraction of
0.726, a surface area of 1,641 and an overall productivity
of 1,192. All values are dimensionless.
Chemical Engineering Education











packing simulator, and asked to create designs with the great-
est productivity that they can in 10 minutes. During this time,
students generate only a few designs with little variation. At
the end of this period, students are introduced, by lecture, to
the creativity techniques describe above, with emphasis on
the utility of generating many disparate ideas and decoupling
idea generation and analysis.
In the second part of the exercise students are provided
with a handout containing a set of 11 X 11 grids on which
to design packing materials by hand (Figure 4). Students are
asked to generate as many packing designs as possible without
analysis in 10 minutes. Their ideas for packing designs can
be entirely disparate or can build upon each other. If the ideas
build upon each other, students could provide an explanation
of how it improves on previous ideas (Figure 4). Students
are encouraged, however, to have as many disparate design
ideas as possible, so as to add new possibilities regardless
of whether productivity is improved. Creating only ideas
that obviously improve productivity could potentially limit
the creative process. After the 10-minute idea generation
period, students return to the simulator and determine the
void fraction, surface area, and productivity of each design.
This second part of the exercise is intended to illustrate the
benefit of generating a large number of potential designs
before analysis. Students will find that while many designs
perform poorly, some outlandish ideas will outperform their
best ideas from the first part of the exercise. Typically, classes
observe that students who have generated the most ideas also
have the most productive designs.

CREATIVITY IN AN ENGINEERING RESEARCH
PROJECT
Open-ended literature research projects are an excellent
mechanism to illustrate extrapolative engineering creativity
to introductory engineering students. This section describes a
short research project in which students are asked to describe
an aspect of chemical engineering that has a significant impact
on society. Students can approach this broad assignment from
two directions; they can either 1) describe a novel technol-
ogy that could be used for societal benefit using engineering
principles, or 2) describe a societal problem that could be
addressed by novel chemical engineering methods. In other
words, focus can be on either the technology or the societal
problem. Students are encouraged to identify topics that are
interesting and personally significant to them. Identifying
novel and appropriate topics can be a daunting task for some
student and requires considerable effort and creativity. The
techniques described to enhance creativity can be especially
helpful during the initial topic-identification period of this
assignment.
The final paper should 1) fully describe the technology or
societal problem, 2) describe how the technology addresses a
problem or how the problem could be addressed with technol-


ogy, 3) describe challenges that exist in the application of
the technology or the solution of the problem, and 4) cite
at least three references supporting all technical claims.
Because the focus of the assignment is on the generation
of a novel idea, the paper can be short, about 3-5 pages.
In addition, an important component of the assignment is
exploration of the scientific literature. In the process of
exploration students will learn how large or small their
chosen fields are and how difficult it can be to generate
truly novel ideas.
When first introduced, students are not given any specific
guidance to help generate ideas. Many students have difficulty
with this aspect of the assignment. Generating new technical
ideas is a skill that students are not typically exposed to in
high school education. After allowing students a few days
to independently struggle with creative idea generation, the
lectures and exercises described in the sections above are
presented. Students are then asked to return to the task of idea
generation. They are encouraged to use the literature and their
personal experiences to generate as many topics as possible
before evaluating them. Once a reasonable list is generated,
students use the literature, peer review, and their own judg-
ment to pick the best one. Students are told to rate their ideas
based on 1) novelty, 2) scientific correctness, 3) interest, 4)
potential societal benefit, 5) feasibility, and 6) testability. A
good idea will also not be too large (i.e., catalysis or energy)
that it cannot be easily summarized or be too small that not


Design


__xxx xx_
X X XX



xx xx



xx _x x
XX X xxx
X X




xxxx::: xx


_x x xx _
_xx xx X




xxx xx
XXXXX
X XX__iXX


XX XXXX__XW
X X X X X


Reason / Improvement

Adwlo. be4er bar\ 4IeA


sate rae. Caea. area


Figure 4. Portion of student handout used to design two-
dimensional column packing material containing two
designs and brief rationales justifying them.


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008
















Figure 5. Results
of creativity survey
administered to
first-year chemical
engineering students
at the University of
Massachusetts in
2004 and 2005. Most
differences between
the beginning and
end of the semester
were significant (*,
P<0.05; t, P<0.01).


TABLE 1
Student Creativity Survey


Rate the following as best as possible:
strongly strongly
agree disagree

1. I feel confident developing novel ideas and 1 2 3 4 5
concepts

2. Based on my previous educational experience, I 1 2 3 4 5
feel that I have the skills necessary to generate
novel ideas and concepts

3. When assigned an poorly defined, open-ended task 1 2 3 4 5
I eagerly start generating ideas

4. I enjoy finding solutions to difficult problems 1 2 3 4 5

5. I enjoy formulating concepts to describe how things 1 2 3 4 5
work

6. I have trouble generating unique ideas because I 1 2 3 4 5
don't like the quality of the ideas I generate

7. I have trouble listing more than three unique ideas 1 2 3 4 5
when faced with open-ended assignments

8. I prefer problem-solving to tackling open-ended 1 2 3 4 5
tasks

9. Based on my previous educational experience, I 1 2 3 4 5
feel better prepared to solve specific problems than
approach open-ended tasks

10. I often brainstorm when finding solutions to 1 2 3 4 5
problems

11. When solving problems, I evaluate ideas as I 1 2 3 4 5
generate them

12. I usually generate a series of possible ideas before 1 2 3 4 5
evaluating them


0 5

O 4





' : ,'ll ,


E Beginning
* End


enough information is available. Most
students find that the challenge of
generating ideas for this assignment,
similar to the in-class exercise, helps
foster their engineering creativity and
improves the quality of their ideas.

EVALUATION OF STUDENT
CREATIVITY
For two sequential years (2004 and
2005), surveys were used to evaluate
student confidence with engineering
creativity in the first-year chemical
engineering course at the University
of Massachusetts (Table 1). Students
were asked to rate whether they
strongly agreed (1) or strongly dis-
agreed (5) with the twelve statements
in the survey. These surveys were
administered at the beginning of the
semester (before any discussion of
creativity) and at the end of the semes-
ter. During the semester, the materials
and exercises on engineering creativity
were presented. The questions were
designed to ascertain students' attitude
toward creativity (questions 1,4, 5, 6,
and 8), behavior when required to be
creative (questions 3, 7, 11, and 12)
and skills at being creative (questions
2, 9, and 10).
Between the beginning and end of
both investigated semesters, 10 of the
twelve student-responses changed sig-
nificantly (Figure 5). For all questions,
students responded positively about
creativity (responses less than 3). The
only questions that students disagreed
with (questions 6 and 7; responses
greater than 3) were worded negative-
ly. Comparing students' responses at
the beginning and end of the semester
gave an indication of the effectiveness
of the presented materials. Over the
course of the semester (Figure 5) stu-
dents gained confidence with generat-
ing ideas (question 1; P<0.05), felt that
they had more skills to generate ideas
(question 2; P<0.01), more eagerly
generated ideas (question 3; P<0.01),
enjoyed solving difficult problems
more (question 4; P<0.01), liked the
quality of their ideas more (question
6; P<0.05), and brainstormed more
Chemical Engineering Education











TABLE 2
Correlation between questions at beginning of semester

Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1. Confidence
2. Skills to generate ideas 0.70 T
3. Eagerly generate ideas 0.36 T 0.28 *
4. Enjoy difficult problems 0.37 T 0.35 T 0.21
5. Enjoy how things work 0.39 T 0.37 T 0.28 T 0.71 "
6. Don't like ideas generated -0.30 T -0.27 -0.12 -0.22 -0.10
7. Trouble listing ideas -0.23 -0.25 -0.21 -0.24 -0.15 0.36 "
8. Prefer problem solving 0.04 0.11 -0.32 T 0.34 T 0.26 -0.08 0.09
9. Skills to solve problems 0.12 0.08 -0.30 T 0.32 T 0.27 0.06 0.15 0.57 -
10. Brainstorming 0.24 0.30 T 0.17 0.24 0.29 T -0.01 -0.14 0.05 0.11
11. Evaluate while generating 0.26 0.23 0.17 0.11 0.18 -0.20 -0.05 -0.01 0.00 0.34 f
12. Generate series of ideas 0.03 -0.04 0.12 0.05 0.14 0.09 -0.10 -0.07 0.01 -0.01 -0.09
Elements contain the Pearson coefficient and the significance of population correlation coefficient (*, P<0.05; t, P<0.01). The sign of the Pearson coefficient indicates
direct (+) and indirect (-) correlation.

TABLE 3
Correlation between questions at end of semestera

Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1. Confidence
2. Skills to generate ideas 0.58 t
3. Eagerly generate ideas 0.54 f 0.42 ?
4. Enjoy difficult problems 0.42 t 0.35 t 0.47 t
5. Enjoy how things work 0.31 0.29* 0.45 t 0.74 f
6. Don't like ideas generated -0.43 f -0.32 -0.33 t -0.06 0.05
7. Trouble listing ideas -0.52 -0.34 f -0.24 -0.17 -0.09 0.59 f
8. Prefer problem solving 0.11 0.22 -0.01 0.46 t 0.43 t 0.31* 0.17
9. Skills to solve problems 0.39 f 0.42 t 0.11 0.50 t 0.43 t 0.12 -0.20 0.67 t
10. Brainstorming 0.52 0.39 t 0.31 0.46 t 0.36 t -0.13 -0.29 0.28 0.47 t
11. Evaluate while generating 0.28* 0.18 0.35 0.35 t 0.42 t 0.00 0.10 0.43 f 0.36 t 0.36 -
12. Generate series of ideas 0.12 0.31 0.10 -0.03 0.20 -0.15 -0.34 f -0.08 0.12 0.24 -0.14

Elements contain the Pearson coefficient and the significance of population correlation coefficient (*, P<0.05; t, P<0.01). The sign of the Pearson coefficient indicates
direct (+) and indirect (-) correlation. Shaded cells are significant in Table 3 and not in Table 2.


when solving problems (question 10; P<0.01). Students
reported that they enjoyed formulating concepts to describe
how things work less (question 5; P<0.01), evaluated ideas as
they generated them more (question 11; P<0.01), and gener-
ated a series of ideas less (question 12; P<0.01). These three
results may reflect increased student understanding about
the creative process. After the lectures, they may have had a
better understand about what was meant by generating ideas
before evaluating them and may be more accurately reporting
their behavior. Lastly, students reported that their preference


shifted from specific problems to open-ended tasks (question
9). This reflects that the creativity module was successful for
those two groups of students.
Pearson correlations between the questions were calculated
to determine how individual students felt about creativity
and idea generation before exposure to the creativity module
(Table 2). The sign of the Pearson correlation indicates direct
or indirect correlation between the questions. Significance
of the population correlation coefficients indicates 95% (*,
P<0.05) and 99% (1, P<0.01) confidence. Many of the initial


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008











questions were tightly correlated, indicating that students who
were confident about developing ideas (question 1) felt that
they had the necessary creativity skills (question 2; Q1-Q2,
P<0.01) and enjoyed the creative process (question 4 & 5;
Q1-Q4, P<0.01; Q1-Q5, P<0.01). The correlations show that
students who don't like the ideas they generate (question
6) have trouble listing more than three ideas (question 7;
Q6-Q7, P<0.01). Question 12, which asks whether students
generate a series of ideas before evaluating them, was not
correlated with any other question, including confidence
with idea generation (question 1), liking the quality of
ideas (question 6), or feeling that they have the skills for
idea generation (question 2). This lack of correlation indi-
cates that at the beginning of the course students had not
been introduced to the concept of generating ideas before
evaluating them.
Many more of the questions were correlated at the end of
the semester than at the beginning (Table 3; shaded region).
Question pairs with increased correlation indicate changes in
student perception and understanding of the creative process.
Students reported that generating ideas before solving them
(question 12) and brainstorming (question 10) gave them skills
to generate ideas (question 2; Q2-Q12, P<0.05) and skills to
solve open-ended problems (question 9; Q9-Q10, P<0.05).
These new skills helped students have confidence to develop
new ideas (question 1; Q1-Q9, P<0.01). Using brainstorm-
ing (question 10) and enjoying idea generation (question 6)
helped students feel more comfortable with open-ended tasks
(question 8; Q6-Q8, P<0.05; Q8-Q10, P<0.05). Importantly,
students who learned to brainstorm (question 10) and generate
ideas before evaluating them (question 12) had less trouble
listing unique ideas when faced with open-ended assignments
(question 7; Q7-Q10, P<0.05; Q7-Q12, P<0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

The concepts introduced in this engineering creativity
module helps students become more comfortable with open-
ended problems. With these tools they learn how to approach
open-ended problems and how to separate idea generation
form analysis. The questionnaires administered in an introduc-
tory chemical engineering course confirmed that engineering
creativity can be enhanced. The surveys showed that learn-
ing how to brainstorm and generate ideas independent of
analysis reduces students' difficulty with ambiguous tasks.
The results also showed that practice with creative exercises
increases confidence with novel idea generation. Students who
brainstormed had more success with open-ended problems
and students that liked their ideas more effectively generated
many ideas. While creativity is difficult to teach explicitly,
creating a defined space for students to practice these skills
clearly enhanced their abilities.


REFERENCES
1. Sadowski, M.A., and Connolly, PE., "Creative Thinking: The Gen-
eration of New and Occasionally Useful Ideas," Engineering Design
Graphics Journal, 63(1), 20-25 (1999)
2. Weiner, S.S., "Winning Technologies" and the Liberal Arts College,
paper presented at the Summer Meeting of the State Association
Executives Council. National Institute of Independent Colleges and
Universities, Washington, DC (1984)
3. Balabanian, N., and W.R. Lepage, Electrical Science Course for Engi-
neering College Sophomores, Development of an Integrated Program
Utilizing a Broad Range of Materials. Final Report, report: br-5-0796
(1967)
4. Felder, R.M., "Creativity in Engineering Education," ( i... i -i,,.
22(3), 120-125 (1988)
5. Felder, R.M., "On Creating Creative Engineers," Eng. Educ., 77(4),
222-227 (1987)
6. Cross, K.P, On Creativity, The Center for Research and Development
in Higher Education, University of California, Berkeley, 1-4 (1967)
7. Utterback, J., Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation: How Companies
Can Seize Opportunities in the Face of Technological ( .. .. ii ,vard
Business School Press, Boston, MA (1996)
8. Rosenbloom. R., and W. Spencer, eds., Engines of Innovation: Indus-
trial Research at the End of an Era, Harvard Business School Press,
Boston, MA (1996)
9. Rosenberg, N., Exploring the Black Box: Technology, Economics and
History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England (1994)
10. Barabaschi, S., "Managing the Growth of Technical Information," in
Technology and the Wealth of Nations, N. Rosenberg, R. Landau, and
D.C. Mowery, eds., Stanford University Press, PaloAlto, CA, 407-435
(1992)
11. Bhide, A., The Origin and Evolution of New Business, Oxford Univer-
sity Press, Oxford (2000)
12. Wessner, C.W, ed., Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities:
Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Informa-
tion Technologies, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC
(2001)
13. Lumsdaine, E., M. Lumsdaine, and J.W. Shelnutt, Creative Problem
Solving and Engineering Design, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York
(1999)
14. Wankat ,PC., and E S. Oreovicz, Teaching Engineering, McGraw-Hill,
Inc., New York (1993)
15. Christensen, J.J., "Award Lecture... Reflections on Teaching Creativity,"
Chem. Eng. Educ., 22(4), 170-176 (1988)
16. Fogler, H.S., and S.E. LeBlanc, Strategies for Creative Problem Solv-
ing, Prentice Hall PTR, Englewood Cliffs (1995)
17. Connolly, PE., and M.A. Sadowski, "Creativity Development in a
Freshman-Level Engineering Graphics Course-an Application,"
Engineering Design Graphics Journal, 63(3), 32-39 (1999)
18. Churchill, S.W., "Can We Teach Our Students to Be Innovative?,"
Chem. Eng. Educ., 36(2), 116 (2002)
19. Osborne, A.E, Your Creative Power, Scribner, New York (1948)
20. Osborne, A.E, Applied Imagination, Scribner, New York (1963)
21. Gordon, W.J.J., Synectics, the Development of Creative Capacity,
Harper and Row, Publishers, New York (1961)
22. Prince, G.M., The Practice of Creativity:A Manualfor Dynamic Group
Problem-Solving, Simon & Schuster (1972)
23. de Bono, E., Lateral Thinking, a Textbook of Creativity, Ward Lock
Educational, London (1970)
24. de Bono, E., Lateral Thinking, Harper and Row, New York (1992)
25. Prausnitz, J.M., "Toward Encouraging Creativity in Students," Chem.
Eng. Educ., 19(1), 22-25 (1985)
26. Perry, R.H., D.W. Green, and J.O. Maloney, Perry's Chemical Engi-
neers'Handbook, 7th Ed., McGraw Hill, New York (1997)
27. King, C.J., Separation Processes, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York (1980) 1


Chemical Engineering Education











MR classroom
----- --- s___________________________________________


INTRODUCTION TO STUDIES


IN GRANULAR MIXING










MARCOS LLUSA, FERNANDO Muzzio
Rutgers University Piscataway, NJ 08854


A common complaint of instructors in engineering and
pharmaceutical science is the lack of laboratory ex-
eriments to teach powder processing. There are, for
example, educational activities to demonstrate the effect of
different variables in the particle segregation phenomena.1, 2]
Many of these activities, however, are not designed to test par-
ticles of industrial interest. It is even more rare that segregation
measurements are part of a process development educational
activity. Developing a pharmaceutical process, for example,
involves understanding the impact of several process and
material variables (e.g., fill level of blender, speed of rotation,
drug loading method) on the characteristics of a final blend
(e.g., homogeneity and segregation of minor components,
flowability and density). In addition, the activity should also
study the correlations among the various blend properties;
for example, changes in flowability due to lubrication can
hinder the dissolution of the drug. Pharmaceutical companies
can benefit greatly from well-planned process development,
especially when the activity can first be developed in the
small scale.[3]
In this paper, a sequence of activities provides a concise
yet illustrative training exercise to introduce students (and/or


industry personnel) to some classic problems[41 in process de-
velopment for granular solids. We focus on a pharmaceutical
example where the mixing operation is expected to yield a
blend with specific drug and lubricant homogeneity. Events

Marcos Llusa joined the Chemical Engineer-
ing Department at Rutgers University under
the Fulbright program. There, he completed
his M.S. and his Ph.D., and now holds a post-
doctoral research position. He has a B.S.
in chemical engineering from the National
University of Rio Cuarto, Argentina.




Fernando Muzzio is the director of the new
National Science Foundation Engineering
Research Center on Structured Organic Par-
ticulate Systems. The center focuses on phar-
maceutical product and process design. The
FDA and 30 companies are currently partners.
Professor Muzzio is a professor of chemical
engineering at Rutgers University. For the last
15 years, pharmaceutical product and process
design has been Professor Muzzio's main
research and educational focus.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008











such as segregation and agglomeration of the minor compo-
nents, which can adversely affect homogeneity, are examined.
Techniques to measure both homogeneity and segregation
tendencies are discussed. The density and the flowability
of raw materials, drug preblends, and lubricated blends are
measured and correlated. The activities are designed for a
class of typically 20 students, which allows separating them
into groups that will later compare and discuss the effect of
using different operating conditions.
In the Materials and Methods section, the techniques needed
to measure each of the properties of interest are described.
The Results section presents and discusses the measurement
obtained by a group of students. A Summary and Conclusion
section provides concluding remarks.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Raw materials
The formulation contains the following components: 84%
Fast Flo lactose (Foremost Farms), 15% acetaminophen
(APAP, Mallinckrodt) and 1% magnesium stearate (Mallinck-
rodt). The mass of each component to be added to the blender
is given by the different terms on the right side of Eq. (1).

Volume= .15+ -w.84+- w.01 (1)
PAce PLac PMg
where pAe' pLac' and pMg are the bulk densities of acet-
aminophen, lactose, and lubricant respectively, and w is the
total mass of all materials. The bulk density of materials is
measured following the procedure described in the section
"Testing bulk and tapped density.".
Activities
The process (Figure 1) entails preblending drug (APAP)
and excipient (i.e., lactose) and, in a second mixing step,
adding the lubricant (magnesium stearate) to the formulation.
Properties are measured for the raw materials, for the drug
pre-blend, and for the lubricated blend. Different groups of
students (if possible) should use different conditions for the
blender, such as fill level (40% of the total volume, 80%,
etc.) and initial layout of the minor component in
the blender (layered, one side, etc). The details to
Raw mat
perform blending and measure each blend parameters
are given in subsequent sections.
Blending APAP and lubricant (in a
V-blender or other tumbling blender)
The blender is used in two steps, first to prepare
a pre-blend of APAP and excipients, and second to
mix the lubricant with the pre-blend. Having several
groups of students gives the possibility to study the Test flow
and denst
impact of blender parameters.51] In the present case,
two teams operate the 1 cu. ft V-blender at 40% of
its total capacity (i.e., 0.4 cu. ft.), loading the APAP
either through a single side or with a layered method
174


(Figure 2). In the side method, all the lactose is loaded first
into the blender, then all the APAP is introduced into one of
the shells of the V-blender (Figure 1). In the layered method,
half of the lactose is added into the blender, then all the
APAP is evenly distributed in a layer, and finally, the rest of
the lactose is added on top of the APAP (Figure 2). The other
two teams operate the blender at 80% capacity (0.8 cu. ft),
using the same two loading methods for the APAP Once the
V-blender is loaded, it is operated at 30 rpm for 10 minutes.
After mixing, two groups of five samples each are collected
from each shell of the blender using a Globe-Pharma thief
(New Brunswick, NJ) or similar. A thief is an instrument to
extract samples from a powder bed. Each sample is collected
at a different depth of the shell (Figure 3) and transferred
to a glass vial to determine chemical composition using a
suitable analytical method. Additionally, a 300-gram sample
is extracted to perform density, flowability, and segregation
measurements.
Next, the magnesium stearate (lubricant) is added into the
blender through the valve at the bottom (Figure 1) and mixed
for another 10 minutes at 30 RPM. Samples are collected again
from both shells with the Globe-Pharma thief and a 200-gram
sample of the blend is taken to measure density, flowability,
and the segregation of APAP and magnesium stearate. The
composition of these samples is determined with a suitable
analytical method.
Sampling the blender (Global Pharma thief or other)
Sampling is the most important task for assessing homoge-
neity. The FDA provides guidance regarding tools and meth-
odologies,[6] and more importantly, most sampling tools have
been characterized.[78] The thief sampler (Global Pharma) is
one of several sampling tools available. The thief is inserted
into the blend, and the operator opens the sampling cavities
using a handle at the other end of the sampler. Powder fills the
cavities, which are subsequently closed, trapping the powder
samples. The design of the thief allows extracting one to three
samples at a time. Samples are 0.5-1.5 grams each, depending
on the size of removable dies used.



enals Preblend APAP Lubncation
MgSt



Fast Flo Lactose

j APAP preblend
Mix for 10 minutes at 30 rpm Mix for 10 minutes at 30 rpm
ability Sample with thief -Measure APAP Sample with thief -Measure APAP and
ty homogeneity MgSt homogeneity
Test density and flowabilihty Test density, flowablihty, and APAP and
MgSt segregation
Figure 1. Three stages in the mixing
process development.


Chemical Engineering Education










Determine sample concentration (NIR or other
technique) and homogeneity
There are many techniques available to determine APAP and
lubricant concentration in samples (e.g., UV, titration, conduc-
timetry, NIR). Although USP recommends a technique for a
given component, sometimes there are situations in which it
is necessary to consider alternative analytical methods. For an
educational activity, the instrumentation available in the lab
may determine the selection of the technique. The technique
used in the present study is NIR spectroscopy, a non-destruc-
tive technique[9,10] that allows a fast assessment of concentra-
tion because it does not require sample dissolution (as in UV
or conductimetry) or any other sample preparation (although it
assumes that the sample itself is homogeneous). The technique
requires developing a calibration equation using standard
samples with a known drug concentration. Chemometric
software (application of mathematical or statistical methods
to chemical data), typically provided by the NIR instrument,
facilitates the selection of the most appropriate standards to
build the calibration equation based on the spectra collected
and on the concentration of each standard.
The sample concentrations are used to estimate one of the
many indexes available to determine the homogeneity of
minor components (APAP and MgSt) in the blend. The index
most commonly used in industry is RSD (relative standard
deviation).

n n

RSD= = (2) where s = 1 [ (3)
C n(n 1)
In the previous equations, s is the standard deviation of all
sample concentrations, C is the average concentration, C
is the concentration of each individual sample, and n is the
total number of samples. The more homogeneous the mixture,
the smaller the RSD index. In general, an acceptable value
would be below 5% based on samples of ~0.5 grams that are
completely assayed by the analytical method.
Measuring segregation (Sifting Segregation Tester)
Segregation of components is one of the main rea-
sons for heterogeneity of pharmaceutical formula-


Fast Flo Lactose

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


tions. The segregation tester used here (Jenike & Johanson,
Tyngsboro, MA) determines sifting segregation, one of the
most common types of segregation for pharmaceutical mate-
rials.[11 12] When the flowing layer dilates (a powder usually
expands when flowing), smaller particles percolate through
a matrix of larger ones. The sifting mechanism is most likely
to occur for particles of different size when they flow during
filling, transfer, etc.
The tester consists of a steep angle and a shallow angle
cone (hoppers), with the steep one initially placed above the
shallow one. The upper hopper is filled with the formulation,
which is discharged into the lower hopper and then recircu-
lated into the upper hopper. This process is repeated 10 times
in order to maximize segregation. Finally, several samples
are collected at the discharge of the lower hopper and their
concentration determined with NIR.
Testing bulk and tapped density
The bulk and tapped densities are evaluated for the raw
materials, for the APAP blend, and for the lubricated blend.
The compaction ability of a powder or blend is an important
property because it correlates with its ability to flow. Ad-
ditionally, it can be used to estimate the amount of material
that will go into the dies of a tableting machine.
Bulk density is evaluated by filling a 100 ml graduated
cylinder with material and determining its net weight. In or-
der to determine the tapped density, the cylinder is "tapped"
~1000 times in a density tester (VanKel, Model 50-1200)
and the new volume for the same amount of material is
measured. The tester provides a fixed drop of one-half inch
at 300 taps/min.
Measuring flowability (prediction and flow tester)
Flowability should be assessed for the raw materials, for
the preblend of APAP, and for the lubricated blends. The
flowability of powders and blends can be assessed using
predictive correlations and direct experimental measurements.
Among the predictive correlations, there is the Carr index,13]
which uses the bulk and tapped density to estimate the flow-
ability of the blend. Flowability is classified according to
the value of the Carr compressibility index (C.I. = (tapped
density bulk density)/tapped density 100) as: Excellent
(0-11%), good (12-16%), fair (18-21%), poor (25-35%), and
very poor (>33%).


4 Figure 2. V-blend-
er loaded with the
layering method.


D Figure 3. Sampling
positions.











The flowability of blends can be measured using a num-
ber of devices (e.g., hoppers, flow testers). In the activities
reported here, flowability is measured using a flow tester
(PTG-S3 system). This instrument measures the time it takes
for 100 grams of material in a funnel to flow through a speci-
fied pouring nozzle. When powder flow starts, it is detected
by two IR sensors, which activate a timer. As soon as there is
no more powder flow, the funnel is closed and the timer stops.
A stirrer is sometimes needed in the funnel as some pharma-
ceutical materials will not start flowing without assistance.
The test should be repeated five times, and the deviation of
results should not exceed 5%.
The comparison of flow indexes and the direct flow mea-
surements is an interesting exercise that allows students to
understand the correlation between ability to densify and
flowability.



TABLE 1
Bulk density (B.D.) and tapped density (T.D.) for different mat
(gr./ml) and the standard deviation of the measurements (of 4 rea
Raw materials APAP preblend Lubricated
Lactose. B.D.: 0.613 (2.26 B.D.: 0.529 (3.89 B.D.: 0.645 (
%), T.D.: 0.695 (3.62 %) %), T.D.: 0.690 T.D.: 0.798 (1
APAP. B.D.: 0.355 (3.75 %), (1.19%)
T.D.: 0.588 (1.67 %)


TYPICAL RESULTS
Bulk and tapped density, and flowability of pure
materials and blends
The density measurements are used to estimate the amount
of material needed to load the blender, and to estimate the
Carr compactability index (an indication of the compress-
ibility of a powder). Bulk and tapped density measurements
are performed four times (each group takes one measurement)
using the 100 ml graduated cylinder, and the average and
standard deviation are calculated. Table 1 shows the average
and the standard deviation of the four values. As expected,
bulk densities are always lower than tapped densities, and
lubricated blends are more dense than the premix. In general,
there is more uncertainty (larger standard deviation) in the
measurement of bulk density because it is more sensitive to
the manner of loading the graduated cylinder (i.e., effect of
the operator). In the case of lubricated blends, the
I different conditions of operation (i.e., fill level
and loading of minor components) of the blender


introduce an additional source of variation for the
measurement.
The flowability of raw material and blends is
predicted with the Carr index and measured using
the Flow tester PTG-S3 (Table 2). Preblends of
APAP do not flow through the tester. Lubricant
addition improves the flowability


in all cases.


Homogeneit]
tion of minoi
Table 3 shoi
centration of


APAP in preblend APAP in lubricated blend
series 1 series 2 series 3 series 4
conditions 80%, top-bot 40%, top-bot 80%, side-side 40%, side-side 80%, top-bot 40%, top-bot 80%, side-side 40%, side-side
R1 1361 1294 1230 1031 1488 1462 1439 1562
R2 1353 1361 1255 10 12 1454 1481 1409 1447
R3 1302 1477 21 85 11 34 1487 1492 1476 1505
R4 1362 1347 1281 11 93 1569 1476 1581 1520
R5 1327 1393 1294 1306 1564 1464 1761 1496
R Average 1341 1374 1449 11 35 1512 1475 1533 1506
R- SD 026 068 412 1 21 051 0 12 1 43 042
R RSD % 1 92 492 2846 1063 340 084 932 277
L1 1316 1307 1250 1264 1546 1511 1553 1744
L2 1277 1451 1281 1295 1473 1487 1478 1490
L3 1990 1301 1232 1295 1528 1491 1432 1547
L4 1383 1556 1346 1268 1547 1536 1582 1449
L5 1364 1276 1287 1477 1605 1488 1604 17 14
L Average 147 138 128 132 1540 1502 1530 1589
L -SD 30 1 2 04 09 047 021 072 1 33
L- RSD % 202 88 34 67 307 1 39 474 837
Total Average 14.0 13.8 13.6 12.3 15.26 14.89 15.32 15.47
SD 2.1 0.9 2.9 1.4 0.49 0.22 1.07 1.03
RSD % 14.9 6.7 21.3 11.4 3.20 1.46 6.98 6.63


y and segrega-
r components
vs the APAP con-
samples extracted
from the right
and left shell
(R or L) of the
V-blender in
the APAP pre-
blend step and
in the lubrica-
tion step. In the
same table, the
average concen-
tration, the stan-
dard deviation
of concentration
[Eq. (3)] and the
homogeneity
index [Eq. (2)]
are estimated
for each shell
of the blender
and for the en-
tire blender for


Chemical Engineering Education


erials
idings).
Blend
2.02 %)
.23 %)


TABLE 2
Flowability Indexes (C.I.) and Measurements (PTG-S3)
Raw materials APAP preblend Lubricated blend
Lactose. C.I.: 11.8; PTG-S3: C.I.: 23.24; PTG-S3: no flow C.I.: 19.20; PTG-S3: 8.9, 12.1,
5, 5.3, 5.7, 5.7 sec. APAP C.I.: 11.1, 10.3 sec.
39.67; PTG-S3: no flow


TABLE 3
APAP Concentration Values for the Right (R) and Left (L) Legs of the Blender











different APAP loading conditions and fill levels. In Figure 4,
the global RSD values for APAP are plotted as a function of
fill level of the blender. Four series of data can be identified
in this figure; the first two correspond to the RSD for APAP
in the preblend (one series for each APAP loading method)
and the last two correspond to the RSD for APAP, after lu-
bricating the preblends. The top-bottom loading method for
APAP always leads to more homogeneous blends (smaller
RSD values) than the side-side loading method (series 1 has
larger values than series 2 and series 3 has larger values than
series 4). Lubrication enhances APAP homogeneity (series
3 has smaller RSD values than series 1 and series 4 has
smaller values than series 2). A larger fill level always leads
to a less homogeneous mixture (i.e., larger RSD value), and
this variable has a larger impact at short mixing times (series
1 and 2) than at longer mixing times (series 3 and 4). These
variables do not have an effect on the homogeneity of the
different shells.
The APAP and lubricant segregation tendencies are de-
termined using portions of the lubricated blend. The blend
portions are processed with the segregation tester, and the
segregation index is estimated using a group of samples col-
lected at the outlet of this tester. Table 4 compares the RSD of
the initial blend and the RSD of the samples from the segrega-
tion tester for APAP and for the lubricant. The RSD of APAP
in the blender is larger than the RSD index of the segregation
samples. Not only does the blend not segregate, but, in fact,
more mixing occurs as we pass the blend through the fun-
nels of the segregation tester, yielding more homogeneous
samples. Therefore the RSD in the blender is not affected by
APAP segregation, and instead reflects the effects of fill level
and loading method.
Conversely, the RSD index for magnesium stearate in
the blender is, in general, smaller than for the segregation
samples (Table 4). This indicates that the homogeneity of
magnesium stearate becomes worse in the tester as a result
of segregation.
Summary: Main observations
The activities show that the APAP homogeneity is affected
by the loading method of APAP, the fill level of the blender,
and the lubrication of the blend. The segregation test shows
that while the APAP does not segregate, the lubricant does.
Lubrication leads to the densification and the improved flow-
ability of the blends. In order to carry out the homogeneity
test in a reasonable time frame, the sampling of the blend is
not extensive (~10 samples). Although
this does not confer a strong statisti-


cal significance to the homogeneity
results, the results obtained by different
groups are coherent and show trends
and effects of different variables (e.g.,
fill level and method of loading for
homogeneity).

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


CONCLUSIONS
The main objective of this paper is to present an activity
illustrating several aspects of pharmaceutical powder process
development. The procedure to evaluate blend properties
(homogeneity, segregation, density, and flowability) is de-
scribed and the analysis of results takes inter-relations among
properties of the blend (e.g., between segregation and homo-
geneity, between flowability and density) into consideration.
If several groups of students are available, then there is the
possibility to study the effect of operating parameters of the
blender (e.g., fill level, loading method of minor components)
on blend properties.

REFERENCES
1. Tordesillas, A., and D. Arber, "Capturing the S in segregation: A simple
model of flowing granular mixtures in rotating drums," International
J. of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 36, 861
(2005)
2. Fritz, M.D., "A Demonstration of Sample Segregation," J. of Chemical
Education, 82, 255 (2005)
3. Pisano, G.P, "Knowledge, Integration, and the Locus of Learning: An
Empirical Analysis of Process Development," Strategic Management
Journal, p. 85. (1994)
4. "Guidance for Industry. PAT A Framework for Innovative Phar-
maceutical Manufacturing and Quality Assurance," gov/Cder/guidance/6419fnl.htm>
5. Brone, D., A. Alexander, and EJ. Muzzio, "Quantitative Characteriza-
tion of Mixing of Dry Powders in V-blenders," AIChE Journal, 44(2),
271(1998)
6. 'The use of stratefied sampling of blend and dosage units to demonstrate
adequacy of mix for powder blends," PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol., 57,
p. 64 (2003)


*series 1: pre-blend (side-side)
* series 3: lubr (side-side)


* series 2: preblend (top-bottom)
*series 4: lubr (top-bottom)


25
..***'-.
Preblend side-side ....***** ..
20 ..*** ..
1 ............. . ... .. .... .

150 ...... .... ... .. P*eblend top-bottom
...... .. ..... ...... ......... .......... .....
........... ....

S....'" Lubncated side-side :
S.. ..... ....... L bri ated................... ...............................
"" Lu ed to ..........**
0


30 40 50 60
Fill level (%)


70 80 90


Figure 4. Effect of fill level, loading method
and lubrication on the APAP RSD.



TABLE 4
mogeneity in the Blender and Segregation indexes for APAP and MgSt


APAP Lubricant
capacity(%) 80 40 80 40 80 40 80 40
loading method top-bot top-bot sidelside sidelside top-bot top-bot sidelside sidelside
Blender 14.86 6.70 21.30 11.36 4.03 6.57 10.01 4.35
Segregation test 3.61 7.46 5.33 3.54 9.02 17.49 9.19 9.06


Comparison of Ho












7. Muzzio, EJ., et al., "Sampling Practices in Powder Blending," Int. J.
Pharm, 155, 153-178 (1997)
8. Muzzio, EJ., C.L. Goodridge, A. Alexander, P Arratia, H. Yang, 0. Su-
dah, and G. Mergen, "Sampling and Characterization of Pharmaceutical
Powders and Granular Blends," Int. J. Pharm., 250, p. 51 (2003)
9. Duong, N.H., P. Arratia, E Muzzio, A. Lange, J. Timmermans, and S.
Reynolds, "A Homogeneity Study Using NIR Spectroscopy: Tracking
Magnesium Stearate in Bohle Bin- Blender," Drug Development and
Industrial Pharmacy, p. 679 (2000)
10. Li, W., and G.D. Worosila, "Quantitation of active pharmaceutical


ingredients and excipients in powder blends using designed multivariate
calibration models by near-infrared spectroscopy," Int. J. Pharm., 295,
p. 213 (2005)
11. Alexander, A., M. Roddy, D. Brone, J. Michaels, and E Muzzio, "A
Method to Quantitatively Describe Powder Segregation During Dis-
charge from Vessels," Pharm. Tech. Yearbook, p.6 (2000)
12. Feise, H.J., and J.W. Carson, "Review. The Evolution of Bulk Solids
Technology Since 1982," Chem. Eng. & Tech, 26(2), 121 (2003)
13. Carr, RL., "Evaluating flow properties of solids," Chem Eng., 72, 163
(1965) [


Chemical Engineering Education











MR1,curriculum
-0


The Hydrodynamic Stability of a Fluid-Particle Flow:


INSTABILITIES IN GAS-FLUIDIZED BEDS








XUE Liu, MAUREEN A. HOWLEY, JAYATI JOHRI, AND BENJAMIN J. GLASSER


Rutgers University Piscataway NJ 08854
The last few lectures of an undergraduate class in fluid
mechanics offer instructors an opportunity to teach
students some advanced topics that go beyond the
traditional course material.E11 Fluid-particle flows, where both
the fluid and particle are in motion, are prevalent in many
industries including the chemical, materials, and energy
industries. 2] In the pharmaceutical and biotechnology indus-
tries, which are hiring unprecedented numbers of chemical
engineers, nearly all manufacturing facilities involve multiple
processing steps that include fluid-particle flows. In spite of
the industrial importance of fluid-particle flows, they are
rarely covered in any depth in a fluid mechanics course.1 3
Moreover, it is difficult to find examples of fluid-particle
flows where undergraduates have the necessary background
to handle the equations and analysis that is necessary if more
than a survey of the material is to be achieved.
The hydrodynamic stability of a fluid in motion is a fun-
damental concept in fluid mechanics.P41 In an undergraduate
fluid mechanics class, students are usually introduced to hy-
drodynamic stability during discussions of the transition from
laminar to turbulent pipe flows,t51 but a detailed understanding
of hydrodynamic stability is not critical for most single-phase
flow examples. In multiphase flows, however,flow instabili-
ties, density waves, and nonuniform flows are generic. Thus
controlling and understanding flow instabilities is crucial for
numerous industries that process fluid and particles.
Here we present a fluid-particle example, a gas-fluidized
bed, that has been taught at Rutgers in the fluid mechanics
class. It relies on a student's knowledge of the Navier Stokes


equations together with Taylor series and complex numbers
to perform a fluid-particle stability analysis. At Rutgers,
students have already learned Taylor series and complex
numbers in a previous math class by the time they take the
fluid mechanics class in their junior year. The fluid- particle
flow problem presented for analysis has been simplified as a
single-phase compressible fluid acted upon by a force repre-
senting the fluid-particle drag force, and analytical solutions
can be obtained for this simplified system. Thus the model
looks like the Navier Stokes equations with an extra term. The
problem could be easily implemented in a Fluid Dynamics or
Transport Phenomena course in the chemical or mechanical
engineering curriculum or an Applied Math course in Fluid
Dynamics. In general, we would like to provide students with
a fundamental understanding of fluid-particle flows and linear
stability theory.

Xue Liu received his B.S. and M.S. from Tsinghua University, and his
Ph.D. from Rutgers University. He is currently a research associate of
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering at Rutgers University.
Benjamin J. Glasser is an associate professor of Chemical and Bio-
chemical Engineering at Rutgers University. He earned degrees in
chemical engineering from the University of the Witwatersrand (B.S.,
M.S.) and Princeton University (Ph.D.). His research interests include
gas particle flows, granular flows, multiphase reactors, and nonlinear
dynamics of transport processes.
Maureen A. Howley received her B.S. from the University of New Hamp-
shire and her Ph.D. from Rutgers University. She is currently a physics
teacher at Mounts Saint Mary Academy in Watchung, NJ.
Jayati Johri received her B.S. from the University of Texas at Austin, and
her Ph.D. from Rutgers University. She is currently a design engineer at
GE Water and Process Technologies.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008



























Figure 1. Fluidized bed.

In fluid mechanics, stable flow is best described as flow that
will be maintained in spite of small disturbances or perturba-
tions to the flow. The flow is unstable if a small disturbance
will lead to the flow to progressively depart from the initial
base state.J61 The study of hydrodynamic stability thus involves
determining when the state of fluid flow becomes unstable
to small perturbations, and how instabilities evolve in space
and time.[4, 7]
In stability theory, flow behavior is first investigated by
performing a linear stability analysis of steady state solutions
satisfying appropriate equations of motion and boundary
conditions. The stability of such a system is determined by ex-
amining its reaction to all possible infinitesimal disturbances
to basic steady flow. These results provide the groundwork
for further investigation of development of instabilities and
evolution of unstable waveforms. Since these methods of
analysis involve the linearization and numerical integration
of nonlinear partial differential equations of motion, this can
lead to many technical difficulties in all but the simplest of
flow configurations, and thus is difficult for undergraduate
students. To avoid these difficulties, the following problem
demonstrates how the stability of a two-phase flow system can
be examined using a single-phase compressible flow model,
which has been shown to capture the salient features of insta-
bility development in the physical system it represents.

PHYSICAL PROBLEM
The gas-fluidized bed consists of a vertical column contain-
ing particles supported by a porous bottom (distributor) plate
(Figure 1). MWkn a ga. is introduced to the column through the
distributor, the particles remain stationary until the drag force
exerted by the upward flow of gas is balanced by the weight
of the bed. At this point, the particles become mobilized, and
the bed transitions from being packed to fluidized. In some
cases, the bed can expand uniformly at points beyond the mini-
mum fluid velocity umf with relatively little particle motion
(see Figure 2a depicting uniform or particulate fluidization).


0 0 drag



buoyancy -r gravity

Gas Flow


Chemical Engineering Education


For most cases, however, uniform fluidization is restricted
to a narrow fluidization velocity range bounded by umf and
the commencement of bubbling, umb. At this point, the bed
becomes hydrodynamically unstable to small perturbations
and lends itself to the formation of vertically traveling void-
age waves that can become spatially amplified in the bed and
bring about complex and turbulent flow behavior (see Figure
2b depicting bubbling or aggregative fluidization).
In the fluidization research, instability behavior in gas-
fluidized beds has been examined by hydrodynamic stability
analysis since the early 1960s. Flow instabilities in these
systems are in the form of "traveling waves." The physical
manifestation of the traveling wave solution in a fluidized bed
takes the form of particle free voidage waves (e.g., bubbles,
slugs, and other waveforms), as well as dense particle-cluster
formations, which can move violently throughout the bed
and dramatically impact process performance and safety 21
(see Figure 2b). Since fluidized beds are of tremendous im-
portance in industry, the onset and behavior of the unstable
flow regime must be well characterized by analysis of the
equations governing fluid and particle flow.
Continuum arguments have been used to develop equations
of continuity and motion for describing the behavior of the
fluid and particle phases in a similar way to the development
of the Navier-Stokes equations for Newtonian single phase
flows.J81 The multiphase continuum approach has been used
quite successfully for predicting the onset and propagation
behavior of instabilities in gas-fluidized beds. Recently, it has
been shown that the salient features of instability develop-
ment in gas-fluidized beds predicted using the multiphase
continuum approach are also captured using a single-phase
flow model for a compressible fluid acted upon by a density
dependent force provided by the drag force.9, 10] This simpli-
fied model takes a form similar to the Navier Stokes equations
for fluid flow. While this problem is quite significant in itself
for gaining physical insight into the development of density
waves in fluidized beds, it also presents an opportunity for
chemical engineering students to develop analytical skills for
examining the hydrodynamic stability of a fluid-particle flow
using a simple flow model.

MODEL EQUATIONS
The underlying assumption of the Johri & Glasser[9,10] model
is that a nonuniform suspension of particles fluidized by a gas
can sometimes behave (in the continuum) like a Newtonian
compressible "fluid" whose motion can be related to the
solids in a fluidized bed. From this point on the term "fluid"
will be used in this context where "gas" refers to the fluidiza-
tion medium. Based on the assumption that the inertial and
viscous force terms in the gas phase equation are negligible,
these authors simplified the multiphase model to equations
of continuity and motion for a single fluid having variable
density. Continuum equations of continuity and motion for









the fluid are respectively written as10o1:

+Vjp, )= 0 (1)

P -y v. = F -V + pg (2)

where the density of the Newtonian fluid (p) varies linearly
with the solids volume fraction 0 as p = p 9 and p, is
the absolute particle density. The fluid velocity vector is
represented by v ; T is the fluid phase stress tensor; and g
is the gravity force vector. The density dependent force F
represents the drag force exerted on the particle assembly by
the gas flow. Eqs. (1) and (2) represent equations of continu-
ity and motion for a compressible fluid and are exactly what
students would be exposed to in a course in fluid mechanics
except for the additional density dependent force, F.
Continuum arguments provide constitutive relations for the
various terms. Johri & Glasser10l adopted a suitable closure for
a motivated by the work of Anderson & Jackson,"111 which
takes a form analogous to that for a Newtonian fluid:

where = PI -p Vv+ of the fluid (assumed to be constant

where ,u is the viscosity of the fluid (assumed to be constant


in this analysis), and P is the pressure, which is dependent on
particle volume fraction q, or, in this case, p. This pressure
term is analogous to the pressure of an ideal gas, which is
a function of gas density. We will examine flow only in the
vertical dimension (x), in which case there is no variation in
the other two directions (y and z) thus equations 1 and 2 are
written as:

S+V (pv) = 0 (4)

Fv v P 95)
p -+v- = +F+ x pg
9t ax ax 3 Ox2 P

where v=v and F=F Linear forms for F and P are adopted
and these represent the simplest possible forms capable of
capturing the hydrodynamic instability:
F= Ap+B; P=Ep (6)

where A, B, and E are appropriately assigned constants
consistent with experimental evidence of gas-fluidized bed
behavior.

LINEAR STABILITY ANALYSIS PROCEDURE
As stated in the Introduction, hydrodynamic stability of a
system is first investigated by linear stability analysis (LSA)


Particulate Fluidization

Packed bed




















Uniform Expansion


Aggregative Fluidization

Packed bed
















Bubbling Slugging Clustering


Figure 2a. (left) Particulate fluidization.
Figure 2b. (above) Aggregative fluidization.


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008










of steady state solutions satisfying the governing equations.
We therefore begin with a linear stability analysis of the steady
state solution. Students should perform each of the following
steps (in their entirety) either individually or in small groups
of two to three students. Discussion is strongly encouraged
during the analysis to provide the students with insight into
the system's physical behavior. Topics for discussion are
provided within the text.
Steady State Solution: Prove that the simplest solution
to the set of coupled nonlinear partial differential Eqs. (4)
and (5) represents a spatially uniform state of static "fluid"
where the density dependent force F is balanced by the gravi-
tational force of the fluid. In particular, show that under these
conditions v0=0 p= po and F= .,,. where po0 p o0 and the
subscript '0' is used to designate conditions at steady state.
Find numerical solutions for the steady state values of 00 and
F in dilute beds having p =220 and 440 kg/m3 and dense
beds with po=1100, 1210, and 1320 kg/m3 when p=2200
kg/m3. Find the constant B which is chosen in accordance
with F, = p0g for each of these bed conditions and write
functional forms for the linear closure for F using parameter
values from Table 1.
Linearization: Impose perturbations p' and v' on the
steady state solution representing infinitesimal changes in
density and velocity:


p = Po +


V =V+V


bations in density and velocity respectively, and K is the
wavenumber of the disturbance (in one dimension x), having
real components, whose wavelength A = 27r / d In general,
s is complex, s = T --i, where the imaginary part is used
to determine wavespeed (c) according to the relationship
c = c / K, and the real part determines the growth or decay
rate of the wave with time. If a is positive, the perturbations
grow in time and the base state is unstable, and if a is nega-
tive, the perturbations decay and the base state is stable [see
Eq. (10)]. That is, for a positive a the base state solution will
not be observed in practice.
Computational Analysis: By combining Eqs. (7) and (8),
we can reduce the linearized PDE's to a single algebraic equa-
tion in s by performing the following steps: take the 0 / Ox
of Eq. (8); substitute into the resulting equation using the
expression for Ov' / OxOt, O3v' / Ox3 obtained from continuity
Eq. (7) and its derivatives to eliminate v'. The student should
obtain a single differential equation in the density perturba-
tion variable p':


02 ___ I
t2 P Ox2


F I 4p 03Pb


A solution for p' in the form of Eq. (10) and its derivative
forms are then introduced into Eq. (11) to obtain a quadratic
expression in s whose roots are given by


Rewrite Eqs. (4) and (5) in terms of the perturbation variables,
and perform a Taylor series expansion about the steady state
solution. Since the perturbations are assumed to be both small
and smoothly varying in space and time, their derivatives are
also small. By neglecting terms in the series involving powers
of perturbation variables greater than one, and eliminating
products of perturbation variables, the students should obtain
the following linearized equations in perturbation variables
p' and v':

+ po =0 (7)
at Ox


Ov'
Po0 Ot


p, OP
0 Ox


F 4 02V=
F -g~ +/ Ox2 = 0




P/ dP
0 dp n


where:


F'= d[
a dp ),


We seek a solution to Eqs. (7) and (8) in the form of plane
waves since in real fluidized beds the development of the
density waves can be observed in the bed:
p' = exp(st)exp(irK) v'=1 exp(st)exp(iK) (10)

where p and 9 are (complex) amplitudes of the pertur-
182


3ps=


l1 9pP 9p2F g)i
4p2, 2 4 2 K3


The resulting growth rate s is thus a function of parameter val-
ues ... p F', and P0 and the wavenumber of the disturbance
K. Moreover, s is complex indicating disturbances propagate
through the bed in the form of traveling waves. From Eq. 12,
it is clear that we have analytically solved the problem, and
numerical analysis used in most multiphase flow simulations
is avoided. This will greatly reduce the mathematical difficulty
and help students to focus on the stability theory and the prob-
lem itself instead of the numerical analysis. Note that a sign
error was made in Eq. (23) of Johri & Glasseru10l and Eq. (18)
of Johri & Glasser[91 where the last term under the square root
should be not +. This error resulted in negative computed
wavespeeds. Johri & Glasseru10l discusses the implications
of wavespeed direction with respect to fluid flow in order to
physically justify their findings. Correct signage, however,
[as shown in Eq. (12) of this manuscript] results in computed
wavespeeds of equal magnitude to Johri & Glasser results, but
in the direction of fluid flow and physically realizable.

RESULTS
Since we are interested in distinguishing waves that become
amplified in the bed from those that are damped out, the student
should proceed to plot the real part of the growth rate a versus
Chemical Engineering Education










wavenumber using parameter values from Table 1. These
values were chosen to represent glass beads a few hundred
micron in diameter fluidized by air. Here, closures for F and P
from Eq. (6) are used where Fo=A and Po=E. To examine the
density effect, the students should compare the linear stability
of steady state solutions having low fluid densities, p0=220
and 440 kg/m3 (representing dilute fluidized beds) with steady
states having high fluid densities, po=1100, 1210, and 1320
kg/m3 (representing particle dense fluidized beds). Results for
a high density fluidized bed (po=1100 kg in I are shown in
Figure 3 where the real part of the growth rate a is plotted as
a function of wavenumber r Students should independently
generate linear stability curves for each po value condition
using Mathematica, MatLab or equivalent.
As shown in Figure 3, the curve has positive growth rate a
for a range of wavenumbers beginning at r, =0. The growth
rate then goes through a maximum at am, and then decreases
to zero at a critical wavenumber o,. Physically, this represents
the boundary between disturbances, which become amplified
as they propagate through the bed from those that are damped
out. Note that the use of linear closures results in the system
becoming more unstable as fluid density is increased, that
is, the critical wavenumber r, and maximum growth rate
am both increase with an increase in po. This is because the
inertial terms, which drive the instability, increase with an
increase in density.
Points for discussion: What do the density dependent force
terms physically represent? Use Figure 1 to illustrate that
as particles move closer together in the bed to form a more
densely packed region, the interstitial gas velocity increases
between particles resulting in an increase in particle "drag."
How significant is the effect of closure in the dilute and dense
flow regimes? How might the magnitude and direction of this
force term serve to damp out or
amplify unstable voidage waves?
Discuss the physical significance
of competing density effects with
Number
respect to stability. Why would an
increase in the pressure gradient Str
(as opposed to pressure) serve to Di,
stabilize the bed? How might one Category
conceive of the origin and growth Q1
of low density cluster-like insta-


TABLE 1
Parameter Values for the
Linear Closures
Po 1100kg/m3
Y 0.665 kg/(m.s)
A 14.7m/s2
E 0.03J/kg
Cb 0.173m/s
Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


In spite of the industrial importance

of fluid-particle flows, they are

rarely covered in any depth in a

fluid mechanics course.





8 -



6-/\

\

4



2





0 50 100 150 200 250


Figure 3. The real part of the growth rate o (with units
of 1/s) versus the vertical wavenumber (with units of
1/m), computed by a linear stability analysis about the
uniform state using linear closures for F and P evaluated
at p= 1100 kg/m3.


TABLE 2
ChE 303 Linear Stability Survey
of students in each category (total student number = 28).
-ongly Neutral Strongly
agree Agree
1 2 3 4 5
14 11 3
8 13 7
3 9 10 6
1 10 8 9
deal in the lecture.


Q2: The lecture helped me understand that just because a solution is obtained using a
momentum balance doesn't mean it will be observed in practice.
Q3: I feel I had adequate math background to understand the mathematical concepts
put across in the lecture.
Q4: I recommend teaching this material to the class next year.


Q2
Q3
Q4
QI: I learned a great











abilities versus that of bubble-like high density instabilities,
and how is this analogous to the behavior of a compressible
fluid? What would be the physical manifestation of unstable
waveforms in low density and high density flow of a com-
pressible fluid? What is the role of the density dependent
force, and what effect does its closure form have? The reader
is referred to Johnri a& Glasser[9, 10] for further discussion of
the physical situation.

EVALUATION
The stability theory discussed in this paper has been taught
in a chemical engineering course: Transport Phenomena I,
at Rutgers University in 2005 and 2006. To spur students'
interest in the stability theory, we played experimental videos
in the beginning of the class to show the development of the
density waves, such as bubbles and slugs in fluidized beds.
Such videos are available on a CD from Rhodes.[121 Student
feedback in 2006 was obtained by issuing a questionnaire
(see Table 2, previous page), in which students had to state
to what extent they agreed with four statements on a scale
ranging from 1, "strongly disagree," to 5, "strongly agree."
Generally, we obtained positive feedback from students. A
fair number of students felt that they learned a lot from this
lecture (Qi and Q2 in Table 3), and would recommend teach-
ing this material to the class next year (Q4 in Table 3). Some
of the comments from students included "I really enjoyed this
class. It really sparked my interest in chemical engineering,"
"I think the explanations were valuable and showed a great
deal of importance," and "It was good because it connected
several courses. It is always good to see applications that
span different classes." Most students believed that they had
adequate math background to understand the mathematical
concepts put across in the lecture (Q3 in Table 3). Several
students, however, also pointed out that one lecture is not
enough to fully understand the stability theory material. Such
comments included \ kla% I there was less time for all that
material," and "It is a good beginning to understanding the
material that will grow more in depth." We will focus on this
point in future classes.


CONCLUSION
We have presented a simple example of an industrially rel-
evant fluid-particle flow problem, which introduces students to
methods of linear stability analysis involving nonlinear partial
differential equations. This example demonstrates how the
stability of a two-phase flow system can be examined using
a simplified single-phase compressible flow model, which
has been shown to capture the salient features of instability
behavior. Students are expected to perform each step of the
analysis, and points for classroom discussion have been noted
to provide physical insight into the mechanistic features as-
sociated with unstable flow behavior and the physical mani-
festation of unstable waveforms.

REFERENCES
1. Conesa, J.A., and I. Martin-Gullon, "Courses in Fluid Mechanics and
Chemical Reaction Engineering in Europe," Chem. Eng. Educ., 34, p.
284 (2000)
2. Fan, L.S., and C. Zhu, Principles of Gas-Solid Flows, Cambridge
University Press, New York (1998)
3. Fan, L.S., "Particle Dynamics in Fluidization and Fluid-Particle Sys-
tems," Chem. Eng. Educ., 34, p. 40 (2000)
4. Drazin, P.G., and WH. Reid, Hydrodynamic Stability, Cambridge
University Press, New York (1981)
5. Churchill, S.W, "ANewApproach to Teaching Turbulent Flow," Chem.
Eng. Educ., 33, p. 142 (1999)
6. Campbell, L., and W. Garnett, The Life of James Clerk Maxwell,
Macmillan, London (1982)
7. Chandrasekhar, S., Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability, Oxford
University Press, Oxford (1961)
8. Jackson, R., The Dynamics ofFluidized Particles, Cambridge Univer-
sity Press, New York (2000)
9. Johri, J., and B.J. Glasser, "A Bifurcation Approach to Understanding
Instabilities in Gas-Fluidized Beds Using a Single Phase Compressible
Flow Model, Computers & Chem. Eng., 28, p. 2677 (2004)
10. Johri, J., and B.J. Glasser, "Connections Between Density Waves in
Fluidized Beds and Compressible Flows," AIChE Journal, 48, p. 1645
(2002)
11. Anderson, T.B., and R. Jackson, "A Fluid Mechanical Description
of Fluidized Beds: Stability of the State of Uniform Fluidization,"
Industrial and Eng. ( h...... Fundamentals, 7, p. 527 (1968)
12. Rhodes, M., et al., Laboratory Demonstrations in Particle Technology,
CD (1999) 1


Chemical Engineering Education












MR1,curriculum
--- ^K__________________________-0


LAB-ON-A-CHIP DESIGN-BUILD PROJECT


WITH A NANOTECHNOLOGY COMPONENT

in a Freshman Engineering Course











YOSEF ALLAM, DAVID L. TOMASKO, BRUCE TROTT, PHIL SCHLOSSER, YONG YANG,


TIFFANY M. WILSON, AND JOHN MERRILL
The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210
Government initiative, market-driven, and research-
driven forces have drawn international attention to
the emerging field of nanotechnology. Nanotechnol-
ogy research spans many disciplines in the sciences and en-
gineering, and encompasses advanced materials, electronics,
and sensors, as well as biomedical applications.[1] Although
some institutions offer degrees in this area, while others offer


Yosef S. Allam is a graduate teaching associate in the First-Year Engineer-
ing Program at The Ohio State University, in which he develops new cur-
riculum and helps with piloting and revising newly implemented curriculum.
He holds B.S. and M.S. degrees in industrial and systems engineering
from OSU. He is currently pursuing a Ph.D. in engineering education with
research interests in spatial visualization, curriculum development, and
fulfilling the needs of an integrated, multi-disciplinary first-year engineer-
ing environment through the use of collaborative learning, problem-based
learning (including design-build projects), classroom interaction, and
multiple representations of concepts.
David L. Tomasko is professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering,
deputy director of the Center for Affordable Nanoengineering of Polymeric
Biomedical Devices, and director of the Honors Collegium at The Ohio
State University. He has research interests in molecular thermodynamics,
supercritical fluid solutions, and polymer processing.
Bruce Trottis a lecturer in the First-Year Engineering Program at The Ohio
State University. He came to OSU in 2002 after 33 years as an engineer in
R&D organizations for high-technology companies such as Bell Labs and
Lucent Technologies. His roles included software and hardware developer,
system integration specialist, senior project manager, software develop-
ment manager, and corporate manufacturing planner.
Phil Schlosser teaches courses in the First-Year Engineering Program in
the College of Engineering at The Ohio State University. Dr. Schlosser holds
more than 20 U.S. and foreign patents for various electronic devices and
systems. In addition to his teaching activities, he has been instrumental


individual courses, as late as 2004 only Cornell University
and The Ohio State University offered a full-fledged freshman
engineering course that fulfills undergraduate engineering de-
gree requirements and includes a term-length, hands-on nano-
technology design, fabrication, and application project.
In the last decade or more, researchers have investigated and
repeatedly stressed the need to change the manner in which


in starting several electronics companies and developing and teaching
courses in innovation and entrepreneurship at The Ohio State University.
Yong Yang is a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Biomedical En-
gineering at Duke University. Prior to moving to Duke, he was a Research
Associate in The Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center (NSEC) for
Affordable Nanoengineering of Polymer Biomedical Devices (ANPBD) at
The Ohio State University. He received a Ph.D. in chemical engineering
from The Ohio State University in 2005. His research interests include stem
cell technology, polymer micro/nanotechnology, polymer nanocomposites,
and supercritical fluids technology.
Tiffany M.S. Wilson is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Chemical
and Biomolecular Engineering at The Ohio State University. She is currently
completing her dissertation work at Sandia National Laboratories in Liver-
more, California. Her research focuses on structure/property relations and
processing effects in semiconducting polymers to enable their improved
use in micro and nanosystems and detectors for ionizing radiation.
John A. Merrill is director of the First-Year Engineering Program at The
Ohio State University College of Engineering. His responsibilities include
operations, faculty recruiting, curriculum management, student retention,
and program assessment. He also works with the associate dean for Un-
dergraduate Education & Student Services in the establishment of outcome-
based assessment processes for program improvement and accreditation.
Dr. Merrill received his Ph.D. in instructional design and technology from
The Ohio State University in 1985, and has an extensive background in
public education, corporate training, and contract research.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008










engineering is introduced to pre-engineers.[2 5] From their re-
search, they have proposed integrated curricula incorporating
an introduction to engineering, engineering graphics and com-
munication, technical writing, engineering technology tools,
engineering ethics, hands-on or active-learning experiences,
cooperative or collaborative learning, and teamwork.
During the past 10 years, The Ohio State University's Col-
lege of Engineering has established a dual offering of integrat-
ed course sequences known as Fundamentals of Engineering
(FE) and its parallel, Fundamentals of Engineering for Honors
(FEH). The goals of FE courses (ENG 181 and ENG 183) are
to provide freshman engineering students with knowledge of
engineering fundamentals and engineering graphics; skills in
engineering communication and engineering problem solv-
ing; experience in team-building; knowledge of and ability
to apply the design process; ability to make measurements;
knowledge of how things work; and experience in a hands-on
laboratory. In the second session of the FE program, ENG 183
provides a quarter-long design, fabrication, and implementa-
tion project. Students are expected to tend to such issues as
initial research, brainstorming, designing, building, testing,
and implementation. They are also expected to exercise
project management, project economics, and teamwork as
they work. Throughout the project, lab memos are assigned
on a regular basis and each team gives an oral presentation at
the conclusion of the quarter. The instructional goals of the
Fundamentals of Engineering course sequence at The Ohio
State University are discussed thoroughly by Merrill.f61
Previously implemented ENG 183 design projects include
designing and building a conveyor that sorts objects of vari-
ous dimensions and material properties, and building a model


roller coaster that meets specified design and performance
criteria. A Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) design-build project with a
nanotechnology component has been developed as a volun-
tary alternative to the ENG 183 design project. This alternate
design-build project was piloted during Winter and Spring
Quarters of 2004, with one section offered in each quarter
for a total of 127 students then expanded to 3 sections in
2005 with an enrollment of 190 students. It continues to be
offered twice annually with a total of 2 sections of enrollment
per academic year.
The premise for the Nanotechnology and Microfabrication
LOC pilot course for freshmen engineers complements the
findings of other researchers seeking to offer courses in
nanotechnology and related areas to post-secondary stu-
dents. 712] By converting knowledge from local graduate and
faculty researchers to a format accessible to freshmen, it is
hoped that first-year engineering students will acquire the
fundamentals of nanotechnology and develop an interest in
this and other areas of research. The purpose of this paper
is to share the fruits of this effort and provide a high-level
presentation of the curriculum developed and preliminary
research findings.

PROJECT
Goals
This new project offering represents a significant effort
to expose freshman engineering students to cutting-edge
research topics and foster an early interest in academic and
professional careers in new fields such as nanotechnology
and biomedical devices. The project also demonstrates a safe
method of incorporating more chemical- and biological-based
engineering disciplines into a freshman
laboratory course as an alternative to the
traditional electro-mechanical emphasis.


A three-pronged approach was employed
in developing the project, involving
hands-on lab activities, nanotechnol-
ogy teaching modules, and on-campus
nanotechnology research laboratory
tours hosted by faculty and researchers.
Through oral presentations and formal
written reports, students later make con-
nections and draw analogies between the
top-down microfabrication methods used
in their project and the nanotechnology
and nanofabrication technologies dis-
cussed in the teaching modules they read
and the nanotechnology research labora-
tory tours. In doing so, they recognize the
challenges associated with engineering
at the nanoscale, and hopefully get inter-
ested in doing research in this area. The
lab activities included a quarter-length


Chemical Engineering Education


TABLE 1
Lab Topics and Activities


Lab Session Topics / Activities
1 Introduction: Nanoscale Definitions, Techniques, Devices
Hands-on experimentation and benchmarking.
2 Fluid mechanics, capillary flow, clean room practices
Advanced capabilities testing. Begin design.
3 Lab Tours or Sensor Circuit Design I
Paper chip design, operational design, calculations due.
4 Lab Tours or Sensor Circuit Design I
Final CAD design in Inventor, operational design, calculations due.
5 Sensor Circuit Design II
Dilution of concentrations and detection device calibration.
6 PDMS Chip Moklding, Prototype Chip, Sketch Designs, Manufacturing Principles
2 chips per team.
7 Chip Demolding & Assembly, Production, Economics
Initial testing.
8 Chip Fluidics Test, History of IC Talk & Relevance to Micro- & Nanote-
chology
9 Final Chip Test
Determine unknown concentration based on calibration; competition.










design, build, and test problem using project management and
team-building skills found in the standard lab sections.
Premise
Fluorescein is a chemical used to detect an eye disorder
known as dry-eye syndrome. Typically, testing for this
condition requires expensive instruments in a doctor's of-
fice. Samples of tears are taken from the eye in micro-liter
amounts. Thus, students are told the project's objective is to
design a cheap, portable LOC to measure the concentration
of fluorescein. The benefit of this device would be to greatly
reduce the cost of equipment required (fluorimeters) as well
as to provide a product that is readily portable. Portability is
very helpful in situations where older or disabled patients find
it difficult to travel to a doctor's office. Thus, the students are
given a real-life premise for their project.
Laboratory Activities
The overall design objective given to the students is to
design, fabricate, and operate an LOC made from polydimeth-
ylsiloxane (PDMS) capable of optically detecting the presence
and quantity of an agent via detection of emissions from a
fluorescent tracer using an electronic detection device built
by the students. The LOC integrates biochemical analysis
with proper microfluidic components (such as sample dilu-
tion, pumping, mixing, metering, incubation, separation),
and detection in micron-sized channels and reservoirs into a
miniaturized device. The integration and automation involved
can improve the reproducibility of the results and eliminate
labor, time, and sample-preparation errors that occur in the
intermediate stages of an analytical procedure.
Table 1 summarizes the lab activities. The hands-on activi-
ties expose students to the design process in which, after
significant benchmarking and analysis, they design, revise,
and build a prototype based on the lessons learned earlier in
the quarter with a generic design. They also experience first-
hand the importance of proper calibration of a detection and
measurement device and use their calibration data to derive a
curve and function that is employed in testing and determining
the concentration of an unknown sample. Because the student
teams are exposed to important engineering topics such as
analysis, design, synthesis, calibration, and testing with a
microfabrication and nanotechnology focus, the hands-on
activities represent the most important focus of this project.
Chip Design and Fabrication
The four-member student teams spend the first two weeks
benchmarking a generic chip design with experiments to
determine performance on various features. In the first four
weeks, the student teams design their own chip by using
knowledge gained from the benchmarking activities to pro-
duce a chip that will outperform the generic design. Chip
design, mold fabrication, and molding processes are based
on ongoing research113 16] in the Department of Chemical and
Biomolecular Engineering.
Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


A chip is comprised of wells and channels connecting those
wells. Required components include: staging wells for sample
and solvent, flow-through detection well, and a waste well
to accept solvent wash and unused reagent from the detec-
tion well. Figure 1 shows the currently used generic chip
design. The student teams are provided with requirements
and constraints regarding channel and well sizes. Addition-
ally, capillary action is presented and capillary check valves
can be an optional component in the design.
Provided with design constraints and given two lab pe-
riods to explore the workings of a prototype device, the
students will note nuances of the generic design and its
performance and use insight gleaned from this lab to un-
derstand design considerations in building a better chip
and the importance of proper equipment and procedure.
The generic design is not a particularly good design, as
some shortcomings have intentionally been incorporated
for the students to investigate. After benchmarking, they
are encouraged to brainstorm and then narrow ideas
based on the constraints, requirements, and information
needs of the project. They are encouraged to be creative,
while keeping the overall function of the chip in mind.
The students must also be mindful that only a single
prototype iteration is possible due to time constraints.
The students sketch a design of the channels and wells of
the chip. They are also required to author an operational
design-essentially procedures on the use of the chip-as
well as provide design notes including calculations and
similar justifications for particular design characteristics.
Upon instructional team review, the student team final-
izes its design and uses Autodesk Inventor to prepare
a true-scale drawing of the microfluidic LOC within a
2" (5.08 cm) circle. Profiles of sample student designs are


Figure 1. Autodesk Inventor rendering of generic chip de-
sign: 1 Staging wells; 2 Channels with in-line capillary
valves; 3 Detection well; 4 Waste well; 5 Team logo.
187










provided in Figure 2. Most student designs are improve-
ments over the generic design, as they find ways to avoid
the difficulties encountered during their investigations in
the first two labs, while providing a more aesthetically
pleasing final result.
The files are sent out for printing on transparency at
16000 DPI and the transparency is used as the photomask
for photolithographic production of a mold on a silicon
wafer. Standard photolithography procedures with SU 8-
2075 photoresist (MicroChem Co.) are used for a target
feature thickness of 150 microns.[41 This back-end process
is performed by graduate student fellows in our Nanoscale
Science and Engineering Center (NSEC). During these
background activities, which require a total of 3 weeks
(weeks 3-5 of the session), the student teams build their
detection circuits, take and report on lab tours of campus
nanotechnology research facilities where some students
may have the opportunity to meet the graduate student
volunteers performing the back-end processing on their
chips-and experiment with their newly built detection
devices with the generic chips prepared in advance by the
instructional team.
The processed wafers are returned to the student teams in
the sixth lab session and the teams produce a polydimethyl
siloxane (PDMS) casting from the silicon wafer mold as w
a flat lid. Each of the castings is contained in a polystyrene
dish. The PDMS resin (Sylgard 185, Dow Corning) and c
agent represent a very safe crosslinking polymerization the
be carried out with straightforward safety precautions (goggle
gloves). Students are introduced to and required to read the I
rial Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for these chemicals prior t(
Details regarding mixing, degassing, and molding are provic
the lab procedures.
In the subsequent lab session (after several days curing at air
temperature), the PDMS chip is ready to demold. A small sI
is used to separate the PDMS from the sides of the Petri dis
then the student very slowly pulls the PDMS (often with the'
attached) out of the Petri dish. The wafer is carefully sept
from the PDMS and the 2" patterned area is isolated using
punch. Finally, a 2" flat lid is also punched out from the PDI
the second Petri dish.


Chip-Chip Holder Assembly
A 1:1 (full scale) outline of the chip and chip holder design is
printed out from the Inventor file to assist assembly of the chip
and chip holder. The PDMS lid is aligned on the top of the outline
printout. The center of the staging wells and waste well access ports
are marked with a small dot of a permanent marker. A leather punch
is used to punch the 1/8" diameter holes centered on the marked
spots. These access holes punched in the lid will later have plumb-
ing inserted for sample delivery and flushing. Prior to alignment
and assembly, the students clean all the chip assembly components
with an ultrasonic cleaner in a detergent solution. The pieces are
rinsed with distilled deionized water.
188


Figure 2. Sample student design profiles.


Figure 3. PDMS chip, PDMS lid, and chip holder
aligned and assembled over transparency.

The Plexiglas bottom of the chip holder is placed on
the outline printout and aligned precisely. The PDMS
chip is transferred onto the base, patterned channels fac-
ing up and lined up with the design on the outline. The
detection well is correctly located and the staging wells
are carefully aligned with access holes. The PDMS lid
is then aligned to the design on the outline and chip. The
Plexiglas chip holder top is then placed over the entire
assembly. It is imperative that there are no air bubbles
between the parts. Finally, the three nuts are tightened
only as much as necessary to hold the top in place and
maintain a seal. It is important not to apply too much
Chemical Engineering Education
























+5V

D1
-X5093SB {


AII
ADC BINA


BLUE LED GREEN
LIGHT
DETECTOR


Figure 4. Detection circuit schematic. ADC0804 is an analog-to-dig
20-pin IC. Each team constructs this circuit on a prototyping


Figure 5. Detection and calibration setup with the generic chip.

torque to the nuts to avoid deformation. The finished chip-chip
holder assembly is shown in Figure 3.
Upon assembly, the chip is tested for proper fluid flow. Glass
plumbing is inserted into the access holes at the top of the device.
Syringes are used to pump dyed water into the detection well. Then
clear deionized water is used as a flushing agent in the same fashion
it would be used with real samples. It is during this stage that the
students are expected to gain valuable experience in manipulating
samples in their chips and troubleshooting any sealing, incomplete
filling, or other operational issues.
Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


From the remainder of the seventh lab
through the open eighth lab, the student
teams are expected to refine their opera-
tion procedures and prepare for the final
test, which is held in the ninth lab.

Detection
0 D3 J
I D3o During the lab sessions in which
0- the chips are being fabricated, basic
D -01 electronics are discussed along with
0D6 1- photometric detection methods while
D7 0- the students build and calibrate their
Do, electronic optical detection devices.
D9 The detection device consists of a
D o0 blue-light LED excitation source and
green-light photosensor for detecting
emitted photons integrated with an
analog-to-digital converter. An electric
circuit, which is built on a prototyping
board (PB) and powered by a desktop
I power supply, takes the analog output of
ARY DISPLAY the photosensor and converts the signal
to an eight-bit binary value. These eight
bits are displayed on eight LEDs on the
ital converter board from least-significant bit to most-
board. significant bit. Figure 4 is the circuit
schematic of the detection device. The
detection device is then attached to the electric circuit.
Figure 5 shows a prototype of the electronic detection
device setup with the chip and agent plumbed into the
chip. After testing the flow of water through their chip
to explore pumping and capillary valving at the micron
level, the students are ready to calibrate their device. For
calibration, they are provided a 1000 PPM stock fluo-
rescein solution and are required to make 250 PPM and
500 PPM calibration solutions by dilution. The binary
output from the detector is recorded for each of four
concentrations of fluorescein (0 PPM [DI water], 250
PPM, 500 PPM, and 1000 PPPM). Between samples,
distilled deionized water is flushed using the syringe to
displace the sample from the detection well. Using these
results, they then prepare a calibration curve from which
an unknown sample concentration can be determined.
In the ninth lab session, the students perform a final
test with unknown concentrations of fluorescein solu-
tion. Five different unknowns are provided but each
team is only required to analyze three (the rest are
available for bonus points). The accuracy of properly
calibrated student devices falls in the range of 3-30%,
depending on factors such as device sealing, cleanliness,
consistently filled detection wells, consistent chip-de-
tector orientation, and general attention to detail of the
individual student teams. Certificates and small cash
awards (made available through corporate donations to
189










the First-Year Engineering Program) are given to the top two
teams with the best chip performance (accuracy); the team
with the best project notebook; and the team giving the best
oral presentation.

Nanotechnology Teaching Modules
Most of the lab activities are not truly nanoscale due to the
lack of access to the major research instrumentation required
(e.g., electron beam lithography) and the associated costs.
Students are, however, introduced to current and future appli-
cations of micro- and nanotechnology and the relative length
scales of macro-, micro-, and nano-systems via multimedia
presentation. This is intended to help the students to connect
to the project on the first day of class. Moreover, the students
are provided with six teaching modules of approximately six
pages in length each, to discuss and explore nanotechnology
issues related to the hands-on activities they perform in the
lab. Table 2 lists these modules by topic, author, the respective
affiliation of the author, and a brief synopsis of each. Discus-
sion questions addressing the content of these modules are
assigned for inclusion in lab memos and reports.

Nanotechnology Research Laboratory Tours
Lab tours are conducted by faculty and graduate researchers
specifically recruited to demonstrate their nanotechnology
research facilities to the freshman students. There are nine tours
scheduled over a two-week period, allowing one lab section to
work on the "Circuits I" lab while the other section tours re-
search facilities during the third- and fourth-week lab sessions.
A summary of the facilities toured and the corresponding topics
covered in the tours is provided in Table 3. These tours enhance
the students' overall experience and provide direct exposure to
ongoing nanotechnology research. Many tour guides provide
handouts and access to other information as well as visual aids
for use by the student teams in their oral presentations at the end
of the quarter. Oral presentations on their projects and lab tours
are given in the tenth and final lab. Although each lab group
only tours a single facility, the final class laboratory period is
devoted to oral presentations where each group gives an 8-
minute talk on the lab they visited, thus exposing the remainder
of the class to the lab they experienced. The oral presentations
also address the student designs and testing results and issues.
The student teams are expected to discuss the relevance of the
formal research conducted at the on-campus facilities in regards
to their own design-build projects.
Although the design and fabrication techniques employed
by the students represent the state of microscale research from
as recently as the mid- to late 1990s, it is important to show
the students how their work in microfabrication and design
is analogous to current nanotechnology research. Both the
Nanotechnology Teaching Modules and the lab tours provide
a bridge from the students' hands-on lab activities and their
associated assignments to the current research and pioneering
efforts in the field of nanotechnology.
190


STUDENT RESPONSE
Midterm examinations with identical test content written
by instructors uninvolved in this project were identically
proctored during the 2004 academic year. A comparison of the
mean scores of students in the pilot course vs. the remainder
of the population in the standard course yielded statistically
insignificant differences. This suggests that substituting a
nontraditional design-build lab project for the existing elec-
tro-mechanical design-build project does not adversely affect
students' learning of engineering fundamentals.
In the pilot course, the students' increases in knowledge and
understanding of nanotechnology-related concepts during the
quarter is indicated by their improved performance as they
progressed from the preliminary queries of the first lab as-
signment, through the quizzes, to the nanotechnology-related
questions on the final exam. Their enhanced grasp of nano-
technology and microfabrication concepts is also evident in
their final project documentation and oral presentations. This
suggests that first-year engineering students in an introductory
engineering course can learn nanotechnology fundamentals
and can apply basic microfabrication technology.
Although baseline results were not available for comparison,
an overwhelming majority of students surveyed in the Spring
2004 version of the pilot course indicated interest in some form
of research, although only two were actually involved at that early
point in their studies. For some, this awareness of and interest in
research may have been sparked by the students'involvement in
the nanotechnology and microfabrication course.
The students also provided generally positive responses
when asked about the connectedness of the various nano-
technology-related activities. A majority of students indicated
that they felt the combinations of nanotechnology teaching
modules, lab tours, and lab experiences provided a strong,
integrated learning experience.
There is also an ongoing longitudinal study tracking stu-
dent pursuits academically and professionally. Results of this
study will be published in the future. Anecdotally, students
have written members of the instructional team of this course
thanking them for their experiences in the design-build and
project-management activities, citing these as helpful with
later coursework and in securing summer engineering intern-
ships. Other students have stated that this course has either
fostered new interest or confirmed their existing interest in
research, nanotechnology, and chemical engineering. Still
other students have, after taking this course, applied and been
selected to participate in National Nanotechnology Initiative
(NNI) summer programs at respected institutions.

CONCLUSIONS
The successful implementation and standardization of the
LOC design-build project with a nanotechnology component
for first-year engineering students is promising in that it shows
Chemical Engineering Education












TABLE 2
Nanotechnology Teaching Modules, Authors, and Affiliations
Module Topic Author Affiliation Summary
1 Top-Down vs. Derek J. Hansford Biomedical Engi- Methods, strengths, and limitations of fabricat-
Bottom-Up Nano- neering Program; ing nanometer-scale structures using Top-down
manufacturing Department of methods (lithography and patterning) compared
Materials Science & to bottom-up methods (self-assembly and selec-
Engineering tive growth); current uses of both nanomanufac-
turing techniques.
2 Molecular James F. Rathman Department of Role of intermolecular forces in molecular self-
Self-Assembly Chemical and Bio- assembly of amphiphilic molecules; formation of
molecular Engineer- 3-D structures by self-assembly in solution; sur-
ing face tension and the formation of 2-D structures
by self-assembly at interfaces.
3 Nano-Structured Sheikh A. Akbar Department of The emerging field of nano-ceramics and nano-
Ceramics for Materials Science & technology; some potential applications with an
Chemical Sensing Engineering emphasis on chemical sensors; the challenges and
opportunities in this evolving area.
4 Polymer L. James Lee Department of The emerging field of nanoscale manufacturing
Processing at the Chemical and Bio- of polymeric materials; state-of-the-art mold
Nanoscale molecular Engineer- (master) making and replication techniques; chal-
ing lenges and opportunities in this evolving area.
5 Nanofluidics A. Terrence Conlisk Department of Me- How nanofluidics differs from traditional fluid
chanical Engineering mechanics, with emphasis on fluid flow in a tube
or channel.
6 Nanotechnology Derek J. Hansford Biomedical Engi- Concepts in drug delivery, including tissue
for Drug Delivery neering Program; targeting, biomolecular markers, and reasons
Department of to use controlled release; basic concepts of
Materials Science & nanoparticles and why they are useful for drug
Engineering delivery; understanding the differences of classes
of nanoparticles.


TABLE 3
Nanotechnology Research Facility Tours
Facility Toured Tour Topic
Ohio MicroMD Laboratory Cleanroom Facility Medical and biomedical applications; silicon, polymer characterization; photolithography;
(now Nanotech West) biohybrid processing.
Micro/Nanoscale Welding Laboratories Nanoindenter, Nd:YAG laser micromachining.
Nanoscale Metrology and Measurement Lab Laser-guided magnetic suspension stage; dynamic modeling with ATM tip-cantilever system.
Microfabrication Laboratory Replication of microstructures for microfluidics, sensing, tissue engineering, and drug deliv-
ery; structural testing; microfluidic testing; fluorescence testing with microscope.
Atomic Force Microscopy Lab Use of Atomic Force Microscopy for surface topography at the atomic length scale.
Electronics Cleanroom Manufacturing Facility Silicon processing; photolithography equipment and methods; mask aligners; spinner; ther-
mal evaporator.
Nanoelectronics and Optoelectonics Lab Dielectric deposition, hydrogen processing, and etching; electron beam evaporation; filament
evaporation; ellipsometer; photolithography; annealing, oxidation and diffusion furnaces;
pulsed laser deposition.
Semiconductor Epitaxy and Analysis Laboratory Applications in optoelectronics, photovoltaics, electronics, and integrated systems.


that traditional boundaries of electro-mechanical design-build
projects can be expanded to include new and cutting-edge
technologies only recently trickled down from the graduate
research arena to the undergraduate classroom. It is impor-
tant to expose new engineering students early to these new
technologies as there is a projected need for researchers and
professionals in the burgeoning field of nanotechnology. It is

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


yet to be confirmed, but this early exposure can potentially
foster student interest in careers in nanotechnology, thus
helping fulfill future demand for qualified scholars and profes-
sionals. The standardization (after revisions) and expansion
of this offering to more course sections illustrates that the
importance of nanotechnology in research and education can
be addressed at the early undergraduate level.











It is shown that nanotechnology can fit in an introductory
engineering program. The comparable performance of the
pilot and nonpilot students on identically proctored and inde-
pendently graded exams supports this statement. In addition,
the online journal and assessment responses from the students
in the pilot course do not stand out from comments provided
by the nonpilot students.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This project was supported financially by the National
Science Foundation (EEC- 0304469) and the First-Year
Engineering Program in the College of Engineering at The
Ohio State University. The authors also acknowledge the
contributions of Professors Derek Hansford (Biomedical
Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering) and L.
James Lee (Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering) to the
success of the project.

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Chemical Engineering Education












MR classroom
----- --- s___________________________________________


Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students


FROM ORGANIC CHEMISTRY SYNTHESIS LAB


TO REACTOR DESIGN TO SEPARATION















MATT ARMSTRONG, RICHARD L. CoMITZ, ANDREW BIAGLOW, RUSS LACHANCE, AND JOSEPH SLOOP
United States Military Academy West Point, NY


Interdisciplinary learning and curriculum integration are
two very valuable methods to develop our future lead-
ers. Klein (1990) defines interdisciplinary learning as
the synthesis of two or more disciplines, establishing a new
level of discourse and integration of knowledge. [1] Curriculum
integration implies restructuring learning activities to help
students build connections between topics.[2] Since our main
goal at the United States Military Academy is to develop


Major Matthew Armstrong teaches
CH101/102, General Chemistry, CH 364
Chemical Reaction Engineering, CH 489/
CH490 Individual Research, and also serves as
the Department S4. He received his B.S. and 'V
M.S. in chemical engineering from Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute in Troy, NY.
Major Rich Comitz
taught CH101/102
3 General Chemistry
last year. He is now
the assistant course
director for CH 3831384, Organic Chemistry I
& II, and CH 489/CH490 Individual Research.
He received his B.S. in chemistry at the United
States Military Academy, at West Point, NY, and
his M.S. in chemistry at the Florida Institute of
Technology.

Dr. Andrew Biaglow teaches chemistry core and elective courses. He is


multidimensional problem solvers, it only makes sense that
we as an institution try to integrate interdisciplinary learning
into more classes. We saw a perfect opportunity to do this in
the Department of Chemistry and Life Science.
At the United States Military Academy, the Chemical
Engineering curriculum has the students enrolled in three
courses simultaneously in the Spring semester of their third
year-Organic Chemistry II, Separation Processes, and


the director of the Chemical Engineering Program, and responsible for
establishing a research program in Chemical Reaction Engineering. Dr.
Biaglowis a member of the International Zeolite Association, the American
Institute of Chemical Engineers, and the American Society of Engineering
Educators. He conducts research on reaction pathways and intermediates
in solid-catalyzed reactions. He is a member of the Materials Research
Society, New York Catalysis Club, and the American Chemical Society.
Colonel Russ Lachance is an Academy Professor supporting the Chemical
Engineering Program. His teaching responsibilities include all chemical
engineering and general chemistry courses. Col. Lachance is the Head
Academic Counselor and the ABET coordinator for the Department. He
serves on the ABET Committee and the Faculty Council, and is the Officer-
in-Charge of the Cadet Spirit Band and Spirit Group. He is also the PME2
Team Leader for Company B4.
Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Sloop teaches CH383/384, Organic Chemistry
I & II. Lieutenant Colonel Sloop's scientific interests include heterocycle
synthesis, substituent effects on reactivity in organic systems, and mag-
netochemistry. He is a member of the American Chemical Society, Phi
Lambda Upsilon, Phi Kappa Phi, Gamma Sigma Epsilon, and the Chemical
Corps regiment.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 19.










Chemical Reaction Engineering
(Figure 1).
In Organic Chemistry II, students
learn the theory behind organic
reactions as well as do bench-top ex- Reaction
periments that show the practical ap- Engineeri
plications of this theory. In Chemical
Reaction Engineering, the students
learn how to scale the bench-top | separation
experiments up and to design reac-
tors to perform these experiments at
Organic
industrial levels. Finally, in Separa- chemistry
tion Processes, students learn how
to take this scaled-up process and
improve the yield and purity of the Energy
final product. This juxtaposition Balance
allowed us to simultaneously study
a common reaction, the Friedel-
Crafts alkylation, in each of the
respective classes. During one of
the laboratory experiments in Organic
Chemistry II, the students performed a reaction in
which two products are formed. They were then
tasked to separate these two products, but because
of time and instrumentation constraints, were mostly
unsuccessful. For chemical engineering students, it
seems a natural progression to explore solutions to
this problem in the context of a chemical separations
issue and reactor design. Since these students often
take organic chemistry, chemical reactor design, and
chemical separations together, an interdisciplinary
project such as this provides a practical application
to bridge the theory developed in all three courses
with an experimental challenge. With our sequenc-
ing of courses we have provided our students with
an approach that closely resembles the reality of the
actual design process, to include the ability to use
chemical engineering software in an earlier stage of
the development process.
Another significant added benefit was a connec-
tion we began to draw between the engineering design
(Figure 2) and the Military Decision Making Process (
(Figure 3) taught in third-year military science cla
processes first define the problem or the mission by e?
facts, assumptions, and specified/implied/critical tas
processes then design alternatives and model or t(
alternatives so they can be analyzed and compared.
both processes enable us to arrive at a reasonable
and both are iterative in nature with feedback loops t
refine the design or plan. While this interdisciplinar
was designed to show our students the connections
organic chemistry, reaction engineering, and separal
were able to draw multiple connections across man,


ng


ns Tpal Pr[ra

U MA Program




d
s

Sophomore Junior Senior
Year
Figure 1. Chemical Engineering Program order of courses.


Figure 2. The engineering design process!31


of our curriculum like the case of engineering design and
military science.

BACKGROUND
The Friedel-Crafts reaction is used in laboratory synthesis
as well as in industry in the synthesis of ethylbenzene and its
derivatives as an intermediate to make styrene monomers.[3]
Therefore, this reaction was a good choice to integrate several
different courses.
Laboratory experiments conducted during the second
semester of organic chemistry generally illustrate practical
application of topics covered in lecture. A convenient Frie-


Chemical Engineering Education


The Engineering Design Process












Input


* Mission received from higher
HQs or deduced by
commander and staff




SHigher HQs coer pan
* Higher HQs IPB
* Staff Estimates






* Restated mission
* Initia Cdr's intent, planning
guidance, and CCIR
* Updated staff estimates
* Initia I PB products


* Refined Cdr's intent and
plan ng guidance
* Enemy COAs
* COA statements and
sketches


* War-Game results
* Critera for comparison


* Decision Matrix



* Approved COA
* Refined Car's intent and
guidance
* Refined CCIR


Steps


Step 4: COA Analysis
(War Game)



Step 5: COA
Comparison


Step 6: COA Approval *

WARNO

Step 7: Orders
Production


Output


* Ca's Initial Guidance
- WARNO



* Restated mission
* Initial Cats intent and
planning guidance
SInitial CCIR
* Upcated staff estimates
* Initial IPB products
- Initial ISR Plan
* Preliminary movement


Updated staff estimates and
products
COA statements and
sketches
* Refined Cr's intent and
planning guidance

SWar-Game results
- Decision support templates
STask crgan ization
* Mission to suborcinale units
* Recommended CCIR


* Decision Matrix


Approved COA
Refined Cr's intent
Refined CCIR
gh pay-off target st



OPLANIOPORD


Note 1: A star depicts commander -
activites or decisions. Ie

Note 2: Rehearsals and backbriefs _____Prepar
occur during preparation and ensure Assess
an Drderly rranslion between planning
and execution. E x c t o
Execution I
Note 3: Preparation and execution,
wthie not part of the MDMP. are
shown to high ght the importance of
continuous planning throughout the
operations process


Figure 3. The Military Decision Making Process!4'

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008










del-Crafts alkylation reaction that demonstrates the util
of electrophilic aromatic substitution and carbocation re
rangement is that of p-xylene with 1-bromopropane yieldi
approximately a 1:2 ratio of n-propyl-p-xylene to isoprop
p- xylene (Figures 4 and 5).31]
Even with activated arene systems like p-xylene, carbocat
rearrangement leads to a substantial proportion of the isopro]
p-xylene. Given that the boiling point difference between
isomeric p- xylenes is only 8 C, typical microscale distil
tion techniques and equipment are not adequate to fraction
separate the isomers. So, although the reaction is satisfact<
from a synthetic standpoint, the inability to isolate isomerica
pure products leaves students with a problem.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Chemical Reaction Engineering Design Project
In the Chemical Reaction Engineering class, the stude
were given a design project with the following specificatio
1. Volumetric flow rate vo is 52 L/min; 2. A desired prod
ratio of 50:50 n- propyl-p-xylene to
isopropyl-p-xylene at the outlet; and
3. T is 15 C and T is 70 C.
These requirements were dictated
in order to focus their problem-
solving efforts. The students were
directed to use ChemCad to develop
their designs, but ChemCad needs
frequency factor and activation
energy values to correctly model
the reactions mathematically. Since
these values could not be found in b.p (0C)
the literature, it was necessary to
conduct some preliminary experi-
ments to gather data that the students
could use to calculate the
frequency factor, kO, and
activation energy, E of Temp Time [X
each parallel reaction, (K) Time [X
(K) (min) (
and the overall reac- 295.5 0
tion. Three independent 10
experiments were run at
different temperatures to
18 3
collect the data required 20
for the concentration vs. 311 0
time plot. These plots
were then used to find
6
reaction rate constants,
14
k, for each temperature
18 2
for each parallel reac- 333 0
tion. The kinetic data
was collected following 2
the same procedures 6
the students used in 10
the organic chemistry 14
196


laboratory earlier in the semester.
To calculate the total reaction rate constant a plot of
C bromopropane/C xyln vs. time was constructed. To understand this
leap it is necessary to derive the irreversible bimolecular-type
second order reaction performance equation: [4]
Starting with the generic second order reaction:
A + B -> products (1)

The corresponding rate equation is as follows:[4]

-r dCA dCB -ktotCAC (2)
A-- dt -- dt B (2)

It is possible to follow the derivation of this equation in
Chemical Reaction Engineering, by Octave Levenspiel, in
Chapter 3. The following is the end result of the derivations:


In CB
MCA


ln1- X
In -X
1- A


M XA
M M1--XA)


(CBO CAO)ktott (3)


*Br

A1C13 T



1 : 2
138 204 196


Figure 4. Friedel-Crafts alkylation of p-xylene.

TABLE 1
Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Kinetic Data

ylene] [CH3CH2CH2Br]
(M) (M) CB/CA in (CB/CA)
.29 3.859 0.729 -0.315
.79 2.36 0.623 -0.473
.63 2.2 0.606 -0.501
.34 1.91 0.572 -0.559
.18 1.75 0.550 -0.598
.29 3.859 0.729 -0.315
3.8 2.369 0.623 -0.472
3.3 1.97 0.597 -0.516
3.1 1.6 0.516 -0.661
2.88 1.42 0.493 -0.707
.29 3.85 0.728 -0.3178
2.83 1.4 0.495 -0.704
2.39 0.96 0.402 -0.912
2.04 0.61 0.299 -1.21
.73 0.3 0.173 -1.75

Chemical Engineering Education













ABC13 "C


H


H Br-AlC13



H Br-AlC13






@ A-


+ HBr + AIC13






HBr + AICIl


Figure 5. Friedel-Crafts alkylation of p-xylene mechanism]51


where M= CBo/C X = conversion, k = reaction rate constant,
reactant A = p-xylene, B = 1-bromopropane.
The implication of this result show that a plot of In (CB /CA)
versus time will yield a straight line if indeed the reaction is
second order, and first order with respect to each reactant.
The intercept will equal M, and the slope will be equal to
(CBO-CAO)ktot.

EXPERIMENTAL
Three experiments were set up identically at temperatures
of 295.5 K, 311 K, and 333 K. To 15.0 mL of p-xylene was
added 1.00 g of AlCl The resulting mixture was allowed to
stir while 8.0 mL of 1-bromopropane was added dropwise over
a period of 5-10 minutes. At two-minute intervals, a microliter
sample was extracted from the reaction vessel, quenched with
water, and diluted with diethyl ether. After removal of the
aqueous layer, the samples were dried over sodium sulfate.
The samples were examined in the Gas Chromatograph/MS
to determine the concentrations of reactants and products in
each sample.
The reaction progress was monitored by gas chromatog-
raphy, and the kinetic data recorded in Table 1. By plotting
the concentration data from the gas chromatograph found in
Table 1, it is possible to calculate the kot.[41
With that information and the average ratio of products at
each time step it is possible to calculate k and k with the
following two equations: [4]
ktot = k = k2 (4)


Cn propyl

isopropyl AVE


When all of the reaction rate constants were determined it
was then possible to solve for individual frequency factors,
ko, and activation energies, Ea, using the Arrhenius relation-
ship:

k = koe E/RT (6)

Plotting In k vs. 1/T, the slope of this line is -E /R, and the
y intercept is ko, thus permitting the calculation of both ko and
Ea for each parallel reaction, and the overall reaction.
The activation energy values and frequency factors are
critical to model and scale up the reaction using ChemCad.
This entire process was expected to be executed by each
student, thus reinforcing the derivation of a concentration vs.
time model. Each student had to demonstrate mastery of this
process at a desk-side briefing to the instructor before using
ChemCad. Upon successful calculation of the reaction rate
constants, students were allowed to start the scale-up model-
ing with ChemCad.
With this data, it was now possible to establish the appropri-
ate kinetic relationships in ChemCAD. The students then used
ChemCad to search the most economically feasible reactor
design. A cursory analysis of the data yielded an appropriate
plot of 1/-rA vs. XA. Analysis of the plot makes it clear that
the best reactor design to minimize volume should be a plug
flow setup. Using Mathematica, the mean residence time and


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


Br--A1CI3










For chemical engineering students, it seems a natural progression to explore solu-
tions ... in the context of a chemical separations issue and reactor design. Since these
students often take organic chemistry, chemical reactor design, and chemical separa-
tions together, an interdisciplinary project such as this provides a practical application
to bridge the theory developed in all three courses with an experimental challenge.


volume for the initial guess can be estimated. Questions left
to resolve are reactor volume, heat duty, and isothermal vs.
adiabatic operation. Students were free to explore various
reactor networks, such as parallel vs. series reactors and use of
recycle. Students were given latitude to explore other unique
strategies using ChemCad.

CHEMICAL SEPARATIONS DESIGN PROJECT
The chemical separations design phase of this interdisci-
plinary project was fairly open ended. The students could
use any combination of separations schemes to achieve 90%
purity of all components in the system (feed, catalyst, prod-
ucts) and then attempt to achieve a 95% n-propyl-p-xylene
product stream. This open-ended approach forced the students
to consider all aspects of a realistic separation problem that
originated in their organic chemistry lab and that they might
see in industry. At first, the students were intimidated because
a detailed solution required knowledge beyond their current
level, but they eventually enjoyed working on this problem
because it truly challenged them to think.
Like the reactor design project, our students began the
separations design project by gathering property information.
When they could not find certain property information for
some of the compounds they quickly learned how to make
reasonable approximations and assumptions. We advised the
students that a critical task in their design was to determine
the best separation technique for each of the components and
decide on the most logical sequencing of those techniques.
Based on the available property information, most student
teams chose to flash off HBr, extract AlC13 using water, and
use a series of distillation columns to purify the remaining
components. Much like a real-world design process, however,
we forced each team to consider at least two different separa-
tion sequences and compare and contrast them. In this way our
students learned a great deal about separations processes.
The separations design project also used ChemCad software
as the vehicle for the design. Most student teams attempted to
jump right into ChemCad without much preparatory analysis,
and their initial results clearly emphasized the importance of
choosing a reasonable thermodynamic model, and making some
preliminary estimates. While students will be expected to use
thermodynamic modeling in greater depth later in their cur-
riculum, this exercise served as an excellent tool to emphasize
the importance of material yet to come. As a result of creating,
manipulating and running ChemCad examples, all students in-


creased their ChemCad proficiency, which is a critical software
thread for our entire chemical engineering program.
One design team exceeded our expectations for a truly
integrated design solution. This team combined their reactor
design with their separations design in the same process flow
sheet. Although we expected separate reactor and separa-
tions designs from these third-year students in these separate
courses, this team made the logical leap and combined the
designs to achieve some additional efficiencies. Figure 7
depicts their ChemCad design flow sheet which incorporates
a recycle stream for unconverted reactants.

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
To analyze the results the students were given a quiz at
the beginning of the semester consisting of representative
questions from the organic chemistry, chemical reaction
engineering, and separations disciplines. The same quiz was
then re-administered at the end of the semester to see if there
was improvement, and retention of knowledge. These results
are in Table 3.
In addition to this the students were asked the following
questions regarding their individual experiences with the
design project at the end of the semester. These questions
were answered on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 represented the
most positive feedback and 5 was the least positive. These
questions are listed in Table 4 accompanied by the averaged
response. A comparison will be made of final examination
results from AY06-02 to AY07-2 in the chemical reaction
engineering course, to see the impact this had on performance.
Although the data only showed a small increase, the students
overall exhibited more confidence when approaching these
type of problems in other courses.
From the results, it is clear that the design experience had
a positive outcome in terms of mastery of the material. The
students' responses to the questions were also quite positive.
We will conduct the same approach in the years to come and
continue to gather data.

TABLE 2
Rate Constant (k) vs. Temperature (K)

Reaction #1 isopropyll) Reaction #2 (n-propyl)
k, T k2 T
0.0296 333 0.00653 295.5
0.0050 311 0.0085 311
0.0029 295.5 0.035 333

Chemical Engineering Education













0 -

-02

-04

-0 6
In(CA/CB) A
-O 8 \-


12

0 T-311 K
-1 4 A T=333K

-1 6 -

-18A
0 5 10 15 20
Time (min)

Figure 6. Concentration vs. time plot.


Figure 7. Student team's fully integrated
reactor and separations design proposal.


TABLE 3
Quiz Results

Pre-Project: Post-Project:

Question Question Correct Incorrect Question # Correct Incorrect

What is a Friedel Crafts 1 5 6 1 7 4
alkylation?
Give an example of one. 2 3 8 2 9 2

Method of calc. k0 and EA. 3 2 9 3 8 3

Method of k1, k2 calc. parallel 4 0 11 4 7 4
rxns.
Can ki, k2 be found graphically? 5 0 11 5 2 9

Give two ways to separate gas 6 8 3 6 10 1
and liquid phases.
Give two ways to separate two 7 8 3 7 10 1
liquid phases.



TABLE 4
Questions Regarding Individual Experiences

Question Regarding Individual Experience Ave Response


1. Was this design project useful in terms of helping the learning process? 1.64


2. Was this design project helpful to wrap up the course material at end of semester? 1.73


3. Did this design project aid your learning in organic chemistry and separations? 2.27


4. Would you recommend this project format next year? 2.09


5. Did you like the design project? 2.55


6. Do you think the design experience helped your Term End Exam preparation? 2.09



Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008











CONCLUSION
This idea started out as merely a project for our Chemi-
cal Reaction Engineering course, but evolved into a novel
educational approach to chemical engineering curriculum
development using a technique closely paralleling the actual
industry design process. From our results, it is apparent that
this is indeed a valid approach. The experience allowed
the students to approach the problem as a design engineer
in industry would, as well as use the problem-solving
techniques previously discussed. Additionally, the students
were able to use the chemical engineering software ear-
lier by using the kinetic data given to them. We intend to
use this technique again, and recommend it fully to other
programs. In fact, the project is in its second iteration and
has evolved to include other factors such as cost optimiza-
tion and environmental impact. As this project becomes a


more prominent feature of our program, we will give the
students less data, requiring them to decide what informa-
tion is needed.

REFERENCES
1. Eves, R.L., et al., "Integration of Field Studies and Undergraduate Re-
search Into an Interdisciplinary Course," J. College Science Teaching,
36(6) 22 (May/June 2007)
2. The Foundation Coalition "Curriculum Integration-Students Linking
Ideas across Disciplines," lications/brouchures/curriculum-integration.pdf>
3. CE300 Course Book, USMA (20 June 2007)
4. FM5-0, Army Planning and Orders Production (January 2005)
5. Gilbert, J.C., and S.F. Martin, Experimental Organic ( ...... ,, A
Miniscale and Microscale Approach, 4th Ed., Thomson Brooks, Cole,
CA (2006)
6. Levenspeil, 0., Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd Ed., John Wiley
and Sons Inc., New York, (1999) [


Chemical Engineering Education











Random Thoughts ...







THE 10 WORST TEACHING MISTAKES

I. MISTAKES 5-10


RICHARD M. FIELDER
North Carolina State University
REBECCA BRENT
Education Designs, Inc.


Like most faculty members, we began our academic
careers with zero prior instruction on college teach-
ing and quickly made almost every possible blunder.
We've also been peer reviewers and mentors to colleagues,
and that experience on top of our own early stumbling has
given us a good sense of the most common mistakes college
teachers make. In this column and one to follow we present
our top ten list, in roughly increasing order of badness. Doing
some of the things on the list may occasionally be justified, so
we're not telling you to avoid all of them at all costs. We are
suggesting that you avoid making a habit of any of them.
Mistake #10. When you ask a question in class, immedi-
ately call for volunteers.
You know what happens when you do that. Most of the
students avoid eye contact, and either you get a response from
one of the two or three who always volunteer or you answer
your own question. Few students even bother to think about
the question, since they know that eventually someone else
will provide the answer.
We have a suggestion for a better way to handle question-
ing, but it's the same one we'll have for Mistake #9 so let's
hold off on it for a moment.
Mistake #9. Call on students cold.
You stop in mid-lecture and point your finger abruptly: "Joe,
what's the next step?" Some students are comfortable under
that kind of pressure, but many could have trouble thinking
of their own name. If you frequently call on students without
giving them time to think ("cold-calling"), the ones who are
intimidated by it won't be following your lecture as much as
praying that you don't land on them. Even worse, as soon as
you call on someone, the others breathe a sigh of relief and
stop thinking.
Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


A better approach to questioning in class is active learn-
ing.1l Ask the question and give the students a short time to
come up with an answer, working either individually or in
small groups. Stop them when the time is up and call on a few
to report what they came up with. Then, if you haven't gotten
the complete response you're looking for, call for volunteers.
The students will have time to think about the question,
and-unlike what happens when you always jump directly
to volunteers (Mistake #10)-most will try to come up with
a response because they don't want to look bad if you call on
them. With active learning you'll also avoid the intimidation
of cold-calling (Mistake #9) and you'll get more and better
answers to your questions. Most importantly, real learning

Richard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese
Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering
at North Carolina State University. He is co-
author of Elementary Principles of Chemical -.
Processes (Wiley, 2005) and numerous
articles on chemical process engineering 9
and engineering and science education,
and regularly presents workshops on ef-
fective college teaching at campuses and
conferences around the world. Many of his
publications can be seen at edu/felder-public>.
Rebecca Brent is an education consultant
specializing in faculty development for ef-
f fective university teaching, classroom and
computer-based simulations in teacher
education, and K-12 staff development in
language arts and classroom management.
She codirects the ASEE National Effective
Teaching Institute and has published articles
S on a variety of topics including writing in un-
dergraduate courses, cooperative learning,
public school reform, and effective university
teaching.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008











will take place in class, something that doesn't happen much
in traditional lectures. 21
Mistake #8. Turn classes into PowerPoint shows.
It has become common for instructors to put their lecture
notes into PowerPoint and to spend their class time mainly
droning through the slides. Classes like that are generally a
waste of time for everyone.P3] If the students don't have pa-
per copies of the slides, there's no way they can keep up. If
they have the copies, they can read the slides faster than the
instructor can lecture through them, the classes are exercises
in boredom, the students have little incentive to show up,
and many don't.
Turning classes into extended slide shows is a specific
example of:
Mistake #7. Fail to provide variety in instruction.
Nonstop lecturing produces very little learning ,21 but if good
instructors never lectured they could not motivate students
by occasionally sharing their experience and wisdom. Pure
PowerPoint shows are ineffective, but so are lectures with no
visual content-schematics, diagrams, animations, photos,
video clips, etc.-for which PowerPoint is ideal. Individual
student assignments alone would not teach students the criti-
cal skills of teamwork, leadership, and conflict management
they will need to succeed as professionals, but team assign-
ments alone would not promote the equally important trait of
independent learning. Effective instruction mixes things up:
boardwork, multimedia, storytelling, discussion, activities,
individual assignments, and group work (being careful to
avoid Mistake #6). The more variety you build in, the more
effective the class is likely to be.
Mistake #6. Have students work in groups with no indi-
vidual accountability.
All students and instructors who have ever been involved
with group work know the potential downside. One or two
students do the work, the others coast along understanding
little of what their more responsible teammates did, everyone
gets the same grade, resentments and conflicts build, and the
students learn nothing about high-performance teamwork
and how to achieve it.
The way to make group work work is cooperative learn-
ing, an exhaustively researched instructional method that
effectively promotes development of both cognitive and in-
terpersonal skills. One of the defining features of this method
is individual accountability-holding each team member
accountable for the entire project and not just the part that
he or she may have focused on. References on cooperative
learning offer suggestions for achieving individual account-


ability, including giving individual exams covering the full
range of knowledge and skills required to complete the project
and assigning individual grades based in part on how well the
students met their responsibilities to their team.4, 5]
Mistake #5. Fail to establish relevance.
Students learn best when they clearly perceive the relevance
of course content to their interests and career goals. The "trust
me" approach to education ("You may have no idea now why
you need to know this stuff but trust me, in a few years you'll
see how important it is!") doesn't inspire students with a
burning desire to learn, and those who do learn tend to be
motivated only by grades.
To provide better motivation, begin the course by describ-
ing how the content relates to important technological and
social problems and to whatever you know of the students'
experience, interests, and career goals, and do the same thing
when you introduce each new topic. (If there are no such con-
nections, why is the course being taught?) Consider applying
inductive methods such as guided inquiry and problem-based
learning, which use real-world problems to provide context
for all course material.[6] You can anticipate some student
resistance to those methods, since they force students to take
unaccustomed responsibility for their own learning, but there
are effective ways to defuse resistance[71 and the methods lead
to enough additional learning to justify whatever additional
effort it may take to implement them.
Stay tuned for the final four exciting mistakes!

REFERENCES
1. Felder, R.M., andR. Brent, "Learning by Doing,"( b..i... ...,t-
tion, 37(4), 282 (2003) pdf>
2. Prince, M., "Does Active Learning Work?A Review of the Research,"
J. Engr. Education, 93(3), 223 (2004) Papers/Prince AL.pdf>
3. Felder, R.M., and R. Brent, "Death by PowerPoint," Chem. Engr.
Education, 39(1), 28 (2005) PowerPoint.pdf>
4. Felder, R.M., and R. Brent, "Cooperative Learning," in PA. Mabrouk,
ed., Active Learning: Models from the Analytical Sciences, ACS Sym-
posium Series 970, Chapter 4. Washington, DC: American Chemical
Society (2007) pdf>
5. CATME (Comprehensive Assessment of Team Member Effectiveness),

6. Prince, M.J., and R.M. Felder, "Inductive Teaching and Learning
Methods: Definitions, Comparisons, and Research Bases," J. Engr.
Education, 95(2), 123 (2006) InductiveTeaching.pdf>
7. Felder, R.M. ,"Sermons for Grumpy Campers,"( t ..... i .. ...,....
41(3), 183 (2007) pdf> [


Chemical Engineering Education


All of the Random Thoughts columns are now available on the World Wide Web at
http://www.ncsu.edu/effective_teaching and at http://che.ufl.edu/~cee/










Ij1educational research


PEDAGOGICAL TRAINING AND RESEARCH

IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION


PHILLIP C. WANKAT
Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907-2100
Significant changes are occurring in the ways that en-
gineering is taught and in our understanding of how
students learn. Signs of this ferment include the chang-
ing publication requirements of the Journal of Engineering
Education (JEE),[1, 2] increased interest in teaching professors
how to teach, National Academy of Engineering (NAE) studies
on engineering education in the 21st century,3, 4] the develop-
ment of the NAE Center for the Advancement of Scholarship
on Engineering Education (CASEE)E51 and its development of
the engineering education research portal AREE,[61 the avail-
ability of funds for engineering education research from NSF
including the National Engineering Education Colloquies71
that resulted in a national research agenda for engineering
education,E81 the development of numerous engineering edu-
cation research centers,s5l changes in ABET requirements,[91
the development of Departments of Engineering Education
at Purdueo101 and Virginia Tech,111 the development of an en-
gineering and science education department at Clemson,[121
the development of an engineering and technology education
department at Utah State,13l and an increasing number of
chemical engineering departments that allow students to do
their Ph.D. research on engineering education. After a short
history of engineering education, we will discuss pedagogical
training for all professors and research training for specialists
in engineering education.

BRIEF HISTORY OF ENGINEERING
EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES[14]
The first engineering instruction in the United States oc-
curred at the United States Military Academy at West Point,


New York, which was authorized by Congress in 1802. In
1819Alden Partridge, a graduate and former instructor at West
Point, founded the American Literary, Scientific, and Military
Academy (now Norwich University) at Norwich, Vermont.
The first civilian courses in engineering were taught at this
academy. Shortly after this, in 1824, Stephen Van Rensselaer
established the Rensselaer School (now Rensselaer Polytech-
nic Institute) at Troy, New York. The amount of engineering in
the curriculum was gradually increased until the first degrees
in civil engineering were granted in 1835.
The increasing development of canals and railroads in-
creased demand for engineers, who were seen as necessary for
economic development. This led to the opening of a number
of engineering schools; however, many of these schools closed
during the depression of the late 1830s and 1,4 \ h, wi ,igltcd
lack of support of engineering education during lean economic
periods has been repeated several times since then. After the
depression ended, the westward expansion of the United States
continued to increase the demand for engineers.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


Phil Wankat has a joint appointment in
Chemical Engineering and in Engineering
Education at Purdue University. He has a
B.S.ChE from Purdue, a Ph.D. from Princ-
eton, and an M.S.Ed from Purdue. He is the
Associate Editor of CEE.










In 1862, Justin Morrill of Vermont succeeded in passing
the seminal Morrill Land Grant Act that was then signed by
President Lincoln. This act allowed the federal government
to give the proceeds from the sale of federal land to the states
for support of colleges to teach "agriculture and mechanical
arts." The act had little effect during the Civil War, and by
1865 there were only approximately 20 engineering schools
in the United States, including several dormant schools in
the South. After the war, engineering education boomed and
by 1872 there were 70 engineering colleges. Some of the
land grant programs were at existing state universities (e.g.,
Minnesota, Rutgers, and Wisconsin), others were formed by
converting existing small private colleges into state universi-
ties (e.g., Auburn and Virginia Tech), while some were totally
new institutions (e.g., Purdue and Texas A&M). In 1890 the
land grant schools were stabilized by the passing of the sec-
ond Morrill Act that provided for annual appropriations.[15]
In this second law MorrillF151 also tried to prevent spending
federal funds in states where there was "a distinction of race
or color." Unfortunately, this intent to encourage integration
was unsuccessful, and after numerous compromises the act
permitted the development of separate land-grant institu-
tions for blacks (e.g., Tennessee State University and North
Carolina A&T). They were supposed to be equal, but soon
became unequal.[s15
Another pattern has been the establishment, then closure,
and occasionally reestablishment, of engineering colleges.
Examples are the programs at the College of William and
Mary, the Polytechnic College of Pennsylvania, the University
of Alabama, and Harvard t in% it, 11 1I Money continues to
have an effect on developments in engineering education.
The urge to develop new engineering disciplines is almost
as old as the teaching of engineering. Military engineering was
naturally the subject at West Point. Both Norwich and Rensse-
laer started teaching civil engineering. Mechanical engineer-
ing followed with the U.S. Naval Academy offering steam
engineering in 1845, and the first mechanical engineering
degrees awarded by the Polytechnic College of Pennsylvania
in 1854. The Polytechnic College of Pennsylvania also insti-
tuted mining engineering in 1857 followed by the Columbia
University School of Mines in 1864. Electrical engineering,
introduced at MIT in 1882, very rapidly flourished. The first
course in chemical engineering was taught at MIT in 1888.[16]
Fledgeling chemical engineering programs formed within
chemistry departments at the University of Pennsylvania in
1892, Tulane University in 1894, the University of Michigan
and Tufts University in 1898, and the Armour Institute of
Technology (now Illinois Institute of Technology) in 1900.
Although most chemical engineering departments are now
in the college of engineering, some chemical engineering
departments retain their formal affiliation with chemistry.
The situation is similar in computer science, in which some
departments are in the college of science and some are in the


college of engineering. The first industrial engineering cur-
riculum was started in 1908 at Pennsylvania State College,
and aeronautical engineering was started at the University
of Michigan in 1914.[141 Initially, mining engineering was
an interdisciplinary combination of civil and mechanical
engineering, electrical engineering was an interdisciplinary
combination of mechanical engineering and physics, chemical
engineering was an interdisciplinary combination of mechani-
cal engineering and chemistry, and industrial engineering was
a combination of engineering and management.
Engineers have long had interest in and disagreements on
how engineering should be taught. Laboratory instruction in
engineering was started at Stevens Institute of Technology
in 1871 and summer camps were started at the University of
Michigan in 1874. In the late 1800s mechanical engineers
disagreed over whether education should be practical or
theoretical-a disagreement that continues. Shop classes (very
hands-on!) were considerably more common than labora-
tory courses at this time. Cooperative education (alternating
periods of work and study) is arguably the most important
development in higher education that was clearly first devel-
oped in engineering. Co-op was started by Herman Schneider
at the University of Cincinnati in 1906. Cooperative group
learning was also used in engineering classrooms at least as
early as 1907[141 although the principles were not codified at
that time. It is clearly difficult to develop any educational
method that is totally new.
Development of a professional society to improve engi-
neering education can be traced to 1876 when a joint com-
mittee of the American Institute of Mining Engineers and
the American Society of Civil Engineers met.[141 A later joint
committee meeting in 1882 included the American Society
of Mechanical Engineers. In 1893 the Society for the Pro-
motion of Engineering Education (SPEE) was born at the
Chicago World's Columbian Exposition. At the first meeting
of the society in 1894 President DeVolson Wood noted that
SPEE was open to both men and women. Unlike the earlier
attempts, SPEE survived and became the American Society
for Engineering Education (ASEE) in 1946. Engineering has
the proud distinction of being the first profession to form a
society devoted to professional education. 141
From the beginning SPEE published a Proceedings that
included papers and board minutes. In 1910 a regular Bul-
letin was started that became Engineering Education in 1916.
When the number of conference papers became too large for
the journal, ASEE started the Annual Conference Proceedings.
The Fi. .. ... ,r. thi mcinl. became very large and filled two
or three large volumes every meeting. The 1996 and later
Proceedings are available on CDs at the ASEE Web site. 171
The Frontiers in Education (HE) Conferences were started
in 1971 by the Education Group of IEEE, and in 1973 the
Engineering Research and Methods (ERM) Division of ASEE
started co-sponsoring the HE conference.[181 The 1995 and


Chemical Engineering Education










later Proceedings of the Frontiers in Education Conferences
are available electronically from the FIE Clearinghouse.[191 For
many years Engineering Education tried to fulfill the roles of
a society newsletter, a semi-popular magazine, and a learned
journal. These multiple roles became increasing strained and
in 1991 publication of Engineering Education temporarily
ceased and the new magazine ASEE Prism was born. In 1993
the Journal of Engineering Education (JEE) was restarted.
JEE has had three editors (Ed Ernst, John Prados, and Jack
Lohmann) since being restarted and has successively become
more rigorous.
The training of engineering professors in pedagogy was
an early and continuing interest of SPEE and ASEE.[141 In
1901 SPEE called for teaching engineering professors how
to teach. Formal training in teaching occurred at the SPEE
summer schools from 1911 to 1915 and again from 1927
to 1933. Unfortunately, the dislocations caused by war and
depression ended these pioneering efforts. A large number of
additional summer schools, most for specific disciplines, have
been sponsored since then. The Hammond Report in 1944
reiterated the need for systematic development of teaching
skills. In 1955 the Grinter Report stated "it is essential that
those selected to teach be trained properly for this function." In
1955 the Interim Committee for Young Engineering Teachers
proposed a summer school for new faculty. This was first held
as a two-day meeting, "Principles of Learning in Engineering
Education," following the 1958 annual conference of ASEE.
Regional institutes were started in 1966 and were eventually
put under the ERM Division of ASEE. These programs con-
tinue including the highly successful ASEE National Effective
Teaching Institutes. The 1983 ASEE Quality in Engineering
Education project again called for more training of faculty
in teaching.
Although relatively small, the Chemical Engineering
Division (ChED) of ASEE has been a leader in improving
teaching. The Division started publishing its journal Chemi-
cal Engineering Education (CEE) in 1966. CEE is widely
admired as probably the best of the disciplinary journals in
engineering education. The mission of CEE is to aid in the
education of chemical engineers, which is much broader
than the current research mission of JEE. The Division has
sponsored 14 summer schools approximately every five years.
The ChED summer schools focus mainly on how to teach new
material, and it was not until 1987 that the first how-to-teach
workshop was included. Following the success of that work-
shop, regularly scheduled how-to-teach workshops have been
held at every ChED summer school since then and are now
required of new faculty, whose travel expenses are partially
supported by the summer school.
An engineering course to train ChE teaching assistants how-
to-teach was first developed by Jim Stice at the University of
Texas, who also developed an in-house teaching workshop for
new faculty.[20] The first course for Ph.D. students in engineer-


Engineering has the proud

distinction of being the first

profession to form a society

devoted to professional education.

ing who planned on academic careers was taught at Purdue
L iin.iI ,' II Since that time a large number of additional
faculty ,, iklhi, pF'1 and regular citli .i, to improve the
teaching of engineering have been developed, and a textbook
was published.[24]

WHY EDUCATION IN PEDAGOGY NOW?
Most engineering professors do not have training in peda-
gogy. Instead, most are superbly trained in how to do research.
If the system isn't broken, why fix it? Unfortunately, with
respect to education, the system is broken. When professors
learn through on-the-job-training (OJT), the first few classes
suffer even if the professors eventually become excellent
teachers. Since OJT does not provide a theoretical framework,
it is difficult for these professors to understand educational
research or to adopt new teaching methods. With the current
system some professors never become good teachers. Low
retention rates 251 are partially caused by the current system.
After more than 100 years of calls to improve engineering
education, why would anyone believe that a lasting reform
can happen now? As the NAE reports13, 4] note, the world has
changed. Engineering students have changed; they are much
more diverse including gender, ethnicity, age, part-time status,
and educational background than they used to be. The increase
in diversity is welcomed, but most of the students are weaker
in mathematics, particularly algebra, than they used to be.[261
In addition, the average work ethic appears to be lower. [261
Different active-learning teaching methods are needed and
fortunately are available.[24, 27 28] New technical content such
as nano-scale engineering, bioengineering, and particulate
processing, as well as increased professional content[9] such
as teamwork, ethics, work experience, and global/societal
effects, all need to be included. Employers are expecting
more of graduates. 3 271
If more content and different teaching methods are ex-
pected, what do we do less of?
Students know that they may need more than four years
to earn a degree. Faculty will need to reduce the time spent
lecturing to provide time for more effective active learning
methods.J24. 27, 28]
Faculty need to replace hand calculations with computer
methods and to remove other obsolete material such as Pon-
chon-Savarit diagrams.[29] Unfortunately, there is never agree-
ment on what material to remove, which makes all suggestions
for removal of material controversial. Although this will not


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008










be a popular suggestion, I also think that we need to reduce
the amount of theory and analysis. Schools need to experiment
with unified and spiral curriculao301 as well as with curricula
with a smaller required core and more options.
The good news is we know how to teach professors how
to improve their teaching, and it is not that difficult or
expensive. Both teaching ,ikIh, p. 22 31 32] and regular
for-credit c nI I,'-' I are effective in increasing the teach-
ing competence of attendees. The bad news is we don't do
this routinely and professors who have been in academe for
a period of time have difficulty finding the motivation and
time to attend workshops. Stice 201 found that experienced
professors will attend summer teaching workshops if they
are paid to attend. Our experience at Purdue is similar. New
professors on the other hand (including those returning to


Teaching senior Ph.D. students
how-to-teach has the advantages that
they are used to taking courses, they
have time, and knowing how to teach
instead of learning on the job provides
them significantly more time to start
their research programs when they
become assistant professors.


academe from industry), are much more interested in learning
how-to-teach. Teaching senior Ph.D. students how-to-teach
has the advantages that they are used to taking courses, they
have time, and knowing how to teach instead of learning on
the job provides them significantly more time to start their
research programs when they become assistant professors. 231
Courses on how-to-teach also provide access to modem engi-
neering education scholarship by providing a vocabulary and
introducing engineering professors to theories of development
and learning. If the vast majority of engineering professors
are not taught the basics of pedagogy, then the researchers in
engineering education will end up talking to themselves and
there will be very little if any impact of the research on the
teaching of engineering.

SCHOLARSHIP IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION
Early scholarship in engineering education did not have to
be very rigorous to be accepted. Many papers were basically
"I tried this new method and the students loved it," and were
published with little or no data and often few references. After
restarting in 1993, JEE was still not very rigorous compared
to journals in education and educational psychology, but it
was generally more rigorous than the proceedings published


by ASEE and than other engineering education journals. The
new higher standards encouraged including student course
evaluations and/or surveys plus appropriate references. This
is a quality level that all engineering professors can meet if
they are pushed to do so. I will call this level the old paradigm
for quality in engineering education research. Note that during
this period engineering was typical of many other disciplines
-disciplinary educational research was not held to a very
high standard.
The watershed event in educational research occurred in
1990 with the publication of Ernest Boyer's Scholarship
Reconsidered. 331 Boyer defined four scholarships:
1. Discovery, which in engineering is the usual high-pres-
tige technical research.
2. Application, which in engineering is applied research and
is relatively high;,,, i ,,
3. In,, ,. .. which includes interdisciplinary research
and, 1 i,,,, scholarly books, is the search for meaning
and significance in research. Unfortunately, most univer-
sity faculty have yet to recognize the importance of the
scholarship of .11t ,,1. -t in engineering education.f34'
4. Teaching, which was quickly extended to a scholarship
of teaching and learning, is scholarly study to improve
teaching and learning, not teaching itself Unlike re-
searchers in the other scholarships, however, scholars of
teaching and learning must be good teachers or they will
lose credibility.
Boyer's book had an enormous impact on the scholarship
of teaching and learning. A few universities started accepting
the scholarship of teaching and learning almost overnight, but
most universities took significantly b lng. i' I And engineering
was not an earlier adopter.[35]
There were a variety of other factors influencing engineer-
ing education research at the end of the 20th century and
the beginning of the 21st century. First, and most important,
money talks. When NSF started providing funds for engineer-
ing education research it made that research affordable and
more prestigious. Additionally, the requirement for a teach-
ing component in NSF CAREER proposals forced most new
faculty to think more seriously about teaching and educational
research. And, the requirement for broad impact statements
in regular technical proposals probably had a positive effect
despite a backlash from many researchers.
Second, ABET requirements forced many professors to
be more serious about outcomes and to pay attention to as-
sessment. ABET clearly had a positive impact despite push
back from professors who disliked ABET's methods. Third,
the NAE charted CASEE and started to consider educational
accomplishments in admission to NAE. CASEE probably
had more impact since NAE admission affects only a small
fraction of professors. Fourth, the general interest in good col-
lege teaching from government, parents, students, and college


Chemical Engineering Education










presidents impacts engineering deans, department heads, and
professors. Fifth, with more research support and more rigor-
ous judging of quality, some schools now include engineering
education research grants and papers in their promotion and
tenure decisions, although they may still be undervalued
compared to technical research. Sixth, as the faculty environ-
ment became even more pressurized, new faculty- who were
expected to "hit the ground running"-found that receiving
training in how-to-teach as Ph.D. students helped them have
more time for research during the first few years. 231
The final important factor influencing engineering education
research was the gradual development of JEE as a rigorous
research journal. As noted previously, using the old paradigm
the threshold standard in JEE was to include student course
evaluations and/or surveys plus appropriate references. This
level was a bit higher than many other engineering education
journals, but still not up to world-class standards as set by the
best journals in education and educational psychology. In 2003
JEE moved its acceptance standards for research papers to a
level of rigor on par with highly ranked educationjournals.11
The rigor required to publish research papers in JEE outstrips
the rigor of the average research paper published in other en-
gineering education journals and in conference proceedings.
Because of this JEE has had a positive effect on the quality
of research published in these other venues.
The changes in JEE have resulted in unexpected conse-
quences. First, professors not trained in educational research
have found that the research articles in the journal are a lot
more difficult and less fun to read. Unfortunately, if the aver-
age engineering professor does not read JEE or other engineer-
ing education journals, engineering education research will
probably have little impact in the classroom. Second, most
engineering professors need to collaborate with someone
with the right skill set to reach the quality level required. This
partially caused the third effect, an acceptance rate that plum-
meted to about 10 %. The other cause for the low acceptance
rate is that as a new discipline, engineering education has
a low consensus on the standards required for scholarship,
which is known to reduce journal acceptance rates."36] Unfortu-
nately, with a 10 % acceptance rate many prospective authors
will not submit to JEE, preferring to publish elsewhere. It is
now significantly harder for most ChE professors to publish
in JEE than in the most prestigious ChE journals. Fourth, the
change in rigor increased the amount of collaborative research
published in JEE. A fifth effect was that the total number of
papers has decreased in the last five years, but the number of
review papers appeared to increase. Apparently, engineering
faculty can write critical reviews even if they are not trained
in rigorous educational research methods.
Finally, there are many topics of interest to engineering
professors that cannot be published in JEE because they are
not research topics. Examples are articles on meeting ABET
assessment requirements, curriculum developments, how to


teach a particular topic, and course development. Fortunately,
chemical engineers can publish on these topics in CEE, which
is a refereed journal that does not focus totally on research.
For professors in most other engineering disciplines, ASEE
discovered that there was a large publishing hole between
the semi-popular Prism magazine and the rigorous research
published in JEE. To fill this hole ASEE started the applica-
tions-oriented electronic journal Advances in Engineering
Education in 2007. [371
Scientifically rigorous research in engineering education
meets a series of well-known criteria.1, 27 36 381 Rigorous
educational research needs to be planned in advance- trying
a new method in class, finding it seemed to work, and then
deciding to write an article is not rigorous research although
it may be valuable to other professors. Rigorous educational
research requires stating hypotheses on significant questions
in advance and then testing them during the research.
A thorough literature review is required. The research
should be grounded with a theory of learning or human
development. The research tools will consist of quantitative
(statistical) methods; qualitative methods such as survey
instruments, protocol analysis, ethnography, and interview
techniques; or mixed methods. Methods should be selected
that allow direct investigation of the hypotheses. Before
conducting the research, approval or an exemption must be
obtained from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) if stu-
dents are involved. Finally, the research will be presented to
peers through oral and/or written papers. These requirements
set the level for the new paradigm of quality in engineering
education research.
The Engineering Education Research Colloquies 71 devel-
oped a national agenda for research in engineering educa-
tion.[81 The five research areas are[81:
Area 1-Engineering Epistemologies: Research on
what constitutes engineering .i,,i ,,, and knowledge
within social contexts now and into the future."
Area 2-Engineering Learning Mechanisms: Research
on engineering learners'developing knowledge and
competencies in context."
"Area 3-Engineering Learning Systems: Research on
the instructional culture, institutional infrastructure, and
epistemology of engineering educators."
"Area 4-Engineering Diversity and Inclusiveness:
Research on how diverse human talents contribute solu-
tions to the social and global challenges and relevance
of our profession."
"Area 5-Engineering Assessment: Research on, and the
development of, assessment methods, instruments, and
metrics to inform engineering education practice and
learning."

Although quite broad in scope, these five areas do not and
were not expected to encompass all areas of research of inter-


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008










est. For example, research on the motivations of engineering
students and how they differ from the motivations of students
in other disciplines is certainly of interest.
The vast majority of engineering professors are unfamiliar
with these research areas and with the tools required for
rigorous educational research. They are unfamiliar with learn-
ing and human development theories and in many cases are
unfamiliar with teaching methods other than lecture, lab, and
design. Although they may be knowledgeable about statistical
methods, educational statistics tend to be different since many
variables cannot be controlled and correlation coefficients
(r values) of 0.5 are considered high. Qualitative methods
are probably unheard of and may not be trusted. Although
engineers have started to do assessments for ABET accredita-
tion, these assessments are fairly crude compared to rigorous
educational research.
How can an engineering professor get started in engineering
education research at the level of rigor of the new paradigm?
Perhaps the easiest approach is to find a collaborator from
Education who can provide the necessary theories and re-
search tools. By working with an expert, reading about basic
pedagogical methods, utking teaching workshops such as at
the ChED Summer School or the ASEE NETI, reading about
scientific research methods in education, 27 36 381 attending
workshops on rigorous engineering education research,[391
and studying articles in JEE and other journals, engineering
professors can slowly pull themselves up to a level where
they can compete for NSF grants, do rigorous research, and
publish in the highest quality journals.

PH.D. PROGRAMS IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION
Whether their degree is from an engineering education
department or a disciplinary department, Colleges of Engi-
neering must ensure that all graduates earning Ph.D. degrees
based on research in engineering education do their research
at the level of the new paradigm. Thus, they must have some
knowledge and skill with both quantitative and qualitative
research methods. Graduates who are only trained in the old
paradigm have obsolete skills and represent a tragedy for
both the graduate and for the nascent discipline of engineer-
ing education.
In a very short time (a 2002 paper on the scholarship of
teaching and learning in engineering had no mention of
Ph.D. programs in engineering education 351) three different
models have been developed for students who want to earn
a Ph.D. doing research in engineering education. The oldest
model is to do engineering education research in a disciplin-
ary department.
The Department of Industrial Engineering at the University
of Pittsburgh uses this model and produces very well qualified
graduates. A scattering of chemical engineering departments
have awarded Ph.D. degrees to students who did engineering


education research. An advantage of this model is that since
graduates have to take the required disciplinary courses and
pass the appropriate qualifying examinations, they are well
qualified to teach and collaborate with other professors in
their discipline. This model is also inexpensive and easy to
implement since it fits within an existing unit. The lack of
structure, however, can also mean a lack of quality control.
If the members of the Ph.D. research committees are not
familiar with rigorous engineering education research, they
may set the requirements for rigor too low and not require
students to take appropriate research methods courses in
education, and the resulting research may be conducted at
the level of the old paradigm. These graduates, although per-
fectly capable in teaching and curriculum development, will
not be prepared to do engineering education research at the
level of the new paradigm. This danger is much more severe
than with disciplinary research because faculty have been
trained to do disciplinary research and the level of consensus
of what is good scholarship is much higher in technical areas
than in engineering education. 361 To some extent this danger
can be alleviated by treating the research as interdisciplin-
ary and having a co-advisor from the College of Education.
Unfortunately, I have observed several cases where a recent
Ph.D. who did research in engineering education within a
disciplinary department was not trained to perform research
at the desired level of rigor.
The second model is to develop a new department such as
engineering education at Purdue101] and Virginia Tech,[111 engi-
neering and science education at Clemson,121 and engineering
and technology education at Utah State.[131 The Purdue Depart-
ment of Engineering Education (ENE) started its Ph.D. pro-

Purdue ENE Ph.D. Requirementst41'
Admission: B.S. or M.S. in engineering, high GPA,
letters, statement of interest.
Must have high quality students not a consolation
prize


Courses:
Grad-level technical engineering courses 15 cr.
May use transfer credit from engineering
master's program.
ENE Intro course & ENE seminar 4 cr.
Intro Statistics & Intro Ed Research 6 cr.
Research Methods electives 6 cr.
ENE electives and Grad elective 9 cr.
40 cr.
Thesis

Figure 1. Purdue University's ENE Ph.D. requirements.


Chemical Engineering Education










How can an engineering professor get started in engineering education research at the level
of rigor of the new paradigm? Perhaps the easiest approach is to find a collaborator from
Education who can provide the necessary theories and research tools.


gram in 2005 and has two graduates (Dr. Tamara Moore who
transferred into ENE from Math Education and Dr. Euridice
Oware who transferred into ENE from Civil Engineering). The
Virginia Tech Department of Engineering Education started
its Ph.D. program in 2007. Both of these Ph.D. programs are
cross-disciplinary and require course work in ENE, another
engineering department, and the College of Education. The
Clemson Department of Engineering and Science Education
has established a Certificate in Engineering and Science Edu-
cation for graduate students and plans on starting a graduate
degree program. Although the Engineering and Technology
Education Department at Utah State University is part of the
College of Engineering, its cross-disciplinary Ph.D. is cur-
rently granted by the College of Education. The Utah State
program focuses on curriculum and instruction mainly for
technology education teachers. Utah State is in the process
of developing a Ph.D. program in engineering education that
would be granted by the College of Engineering. I believe
these departments should be within the College of Engineering
so that graduates will think of themselves as engineers and
will be able to work with other engineering professors. The
advantages of developing a separate degree-granting depart-
ment include the higher prestige of departments, the ease in
tapping sources for research and development money, and the
greater stability of departments. The main disadvantage is the
cost of developing a new administrative structure.
The third model is to develop an interdisciplinary program
in engineering education at the Ph.D. level. There are, of
course, an almost infinite variety of ways this could be done.
For example, plans at Washington State University are that
students will receive their degree from their engineering de-
partment (e.g., ChE) and will meet additional requirements
of the interdisciplinary program hosted by the Engineering
Education Research Center. [40] These requirements will prob-
ably include taking courses from the College of Education
and engineering education courses.
What courses are typically included in a Ph.D. program
in engineering education? The requirements for Purdue's
program, 411 listed in Figure 1, are fairly typical. The research
methods courses either from the College of Education or
from ENE are critically important regardless of the model
selected. In addition, research advisors must ensure that re-
search is rigorous. One of the electives in ENE that is highly
recommended is a how-to-teach course.[231 Most engineering
colleges at universities with a College of Education could
offer an interdisciplinary program similar to Figure 1 with
the development of a few specialized courses. The model
used for administering the program is less important than


the availability of required courses and of interested research
advisors who are knowledgeable in engineering and in edu-
cational research.
The new programs in engineering education may also help
engineering address one of the problems left over from its
military heritage- a culture that keeps the number of women
studying and teaching engineering low. Women have been
attracted to the Ph.D. programs in engineering education and
to the faculty in the engineering education departments. For
example, 16 of the 28 graduate students in Purdue's School
of Engineering Education are female (57 %) and 7 of the 18
faculty members are female (39 %).

CAREERS FOR GRADUATES
IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION

After formation of engineering education departments,
we were continually asked "What will the graduates do?"
We believe there will be significant opportunities for gradu-
ates of the Ph.D. programs. If current departments expand
or new engineering education departments are formed, new
graduates will be in demand for tenure-track positions in these
departments. We also think that graduates will be attractive
candidates for both tenure-track and instructor positions in
first-year engineering programs, at undergraduate institutions,
and at community colleges. Some large disciplinary depart-
ments at research universities will also be interested in hiring
graduates, particularly those that have a disciplinary Ph.D.,
as an educational expert. In addition, graduates are likely
to be attractive candidates for non-tenure-track positions at
teaching centers, as the educational leader in engineering
research centers, and in engineering outreach to K-12. For at
least the next 10 years demand will probably be greater than
the supply of graduates.
For long-term viability of both departments and graduates,
universities need to make some modest changes. Promotion
and tenure committees will need to learn to accept engineering
education research as equivalent to technical research, and
they will need to learn to evaluate the quality of engineer-
ing education research. In addition, engineering education
researchers must do research that eventually commands the
respect of engineering faculty who do technical research.
What careers will be open for students who earn master's
degrees in engineering education? Both Virginia TechV111 and
Utah State[13] have master's programs. Based on feedback
from Purdue's industrial advisory council, we believe that
there is a large, untapped market for graduates with engi-
neering education master's degrees in the training programs


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008












of large companies. If they have industrial experience, these
graduates are also expected to find professorial positions at
community colleges. Staff positions at four-year colleges
and research universities in first-year engineering programs,
technology programs, instructors for lower-division courses,
and outreach programs are also likely to hire graduates. Again,
the demand will probably be greater than the supply for quite
some time.

CONCLUSIONS

Engineering education requires a change in the status quo in
which new professors receive no training in how to teach. If
the attendees are motivated to learn, teaching Ph.D. students
and new professors to improve their teaching is neither dif-
ficult nor expensive. To continually improve engineering
education we also need to have professors who conduct
rigorous engineering education research. To improve the
quality of engineering education research, professors must
transform their approach to a new, scientifically rigorous
paradigm. This new paradigm requires that engineering edu-
cation researchers plan in advance, do a thorough literature
review, state and test hypotheses, use appropriate quantita-
tive and qualitative research tools, and disseminate results
to peers. An increasing number of students are doing their
Ph.D. research on engineering education. Regardless of the
type of program, it is vitally necessary that graduate students
conduct their research at the level of the new engineering
education research paradigm.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This paper is based on a presentation at Washington State
University, July 27, 2007.

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March 19, 2008
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22. Brawner, C.E., R.M. Felder, R. Allen, and R. Brent, "A Survey of
Faculty Teaching Practices and Involvement in Faculty Development
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Faculty How To Teach," Intl. J. Eng. Educ., 21 (5) 925 (2005)
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25. Seymour, E., and N.M. Hewitt, Talking About Leaving: Why Under-
graduates Leave the Sciences, Westview, Boulder, CO (1997)
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Proceedings ASEE 2005 Annual Conference, Portland, OR (June,
2005). CD, session 1353
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Curriculum and Instruction, IEEE Press/Wiley, Hoboken, NJ (2005)
28. Prince, M., "Does Active Learning Work?A Review of the Research,"
J. Eng. Educ., 93, 223 (2004)
29. Wankat, PC., "What Will We Remove From the Curriculum to Make
Room for X? Bite the Bullet-Throw Out Obsolete Material," Chem.
Eng. Educ., 21 (2), 72 (Spring 1987)
30. DiBasio, D., L. Comparini, A.G. Dixon, and W.M. Clark, "A Project-
Based Spiral Curriculum for Introductory Courses in ChE. Part 3.
Evaluation," Chem. Eng. Educ., 35 (2), 140 (Spring 2001)
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Teachers to Teach Engineering-T4E," J. Eng. Educ., 89, 31 (2000)
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MA (1997)
33. Boyer, E., Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate,
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Jossey-Bass (1990)
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J. Eng. Educ., 95 (4), 263 (2006)
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neering Approach to the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning," in M.
T. Huber and S. Morreale (Eds.) Disciplinary Styles in the Scholarship
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Association for Higher Education, Washington, D.C., 217-237 (2002).

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41. ate/requirements> Accessed March 19, 2008 1


Chemical Engineering Education











MR1,curriculum
--- ^K__________________________-0


QUICK AND EASY RATE EQUATIONS


FOR MULTISTEP REACTIONS


PHILLIP E. SAVAGE
University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136
In many different aspects of chemical engineering educa-
tion, we teach students first to analyze a general system
and then to simplify that general analysis as allowed by
the specific system being examined. For example, we show
students the general energy balance and then subsequently
show how it can be simplified when applied to special cases
(e.g., adiabatic systems, steady state systems, systems with
negligible changes in kinetic or potential energy). We show
students the equations of motion in fluid mechanics and then
subsequently show how they can be simplified for special
cases (e.g., steady flow, incompressible fluids, Newtonian flu-
ids). In the field of chemical kinetics, an opportunity exists to
apply this same educational approach when teaching students
how to develop reaction rate equations based upon application
of the quasi-stationary-state approximation (QSSA) to the
governing chemical mechanism. The purpose of this article
is to make this opportunity more widely known.
Chemical kinetics and reaction engineering textbooksi1 5]
discuss techniques for deriving closed-form analytical rate
equations from sets of elementary reaction steps. Types of
reaction systems covered include chain reactions, catalysis,
and chemical vapor deposition. The QSSA is one of the tools
discussed in texts. This approximation, which in many texts
gets the confusing and potentially misleading label of "steady-
state"* attached to it, allows one to neglect the comparatively
small net reaction rate for a reactive intermediate (RI) relative
to its very fast formation and disappearance rates. The result
is that one can take the formation and disappearance rates to
be approximately equal, and then solve algebraically for the
concentration of the reactive intermediate.
r r r 0(1)
LetRI formation,RI disappearance RI
verysmall large large

Oftentimes, this result contains the concentrations) of other

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008
Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


reactive intermediates, so the QSSA must be applied next to
those reactive intermediates. This procedure is repeated to get
explicit expressions for each reactive intermediate.
The application of the QSSA in textbooks almost always
involves only one or two reactive intermediates, because the
number of simultaneous equations and tediousness of the
algebra, if done manually, grow as the number of reactive
intermediates increases. Most texts, when covering multistep
reactions with two or more intermediates, teach students to
make restrictive assumptions (e.g., rate determining steps),
which simplify the algebra. The price paid for the simplified
mathematics, though, is a less general rate equation. If there is
a shift in the rate-determining step with temperature or conver-
sion, for example, the rate equation will no longer apply.
The lack of coverage of QSSA applications to larger multi-
step reaction systems in chemical engineering education need
not persist. Easy-to-use general methods exist to develop ana-
lytical rate equations for arbitrarily large multistep reactions
without making assumptions about the existence or identities
of rate-determining steps. This article describes these general
methods. One method, developed by Helfferich,16 8] applies to

Phillip Savage is a professor of chemical
engineering at the University of Michigan. He
received his B.S. from Penn State in 1982 and
his M.Ch.E. (1983) and Ph.D. (1986) degrees
from the University of Delaware, all in chemi-
cal engineering. His research and teaching
interests focus on the rates, mechanisms, and
engineering of organic chemical reactions.
Current research projects deal with renew-
able energy from biomass and environmen-
tally benign chemical synthesis.


The QSSA has nothing to do with steady states, either mathematically
or conceptually. The QSSA deals with process rates (rates of chemical
reactions), and not rates of change (dCdt). This approximation does
i,.* ., (., ...**, ,,,ri, ,,l,,. i, It = O nor does it require or imply that
CRa is constant. That using the term "steady state" creates confusion
is evident in textbooks and educational articles where authors er-
roneously state that this approximation means the concentration of
the reactive intermediate (RI) is constant!











reactions wherein all reactant, final product, and free catalyst
concentrations are much greater than the concentrations of the
intermediates. A second method, based upon work published
by Christiansen,P911] relaxes the requirement that the catalyst
concentration exceed that of the reactive intermediates.

APPLICABILITY
The formulas given in this article provide the rate equation
for any multistep chemical reaction mechanism that meets
the following criteria.
The steps in the mechanism are all sequential (no branches).
None of the steps involve more than one molecule of
reactive intermediate as reactant or more than one mol-
ecule of reactive intermediate as product (so the set of
algebraic equations from application of the QSSA can be
solved using linear algebra).
All of the intermediates are present only in trace-level
quantities (so the QSSA can be applied to each).

Networks that meet these three criteria are said to be "simple."
Many reactions catalyzed by acid, base, organometallic
complexes, or solid surfaces meet these criteria. The catalytic
cycle in Figure 1,[121 which accounts for the synthesis of bi-
sphenol A from acetone and phenol, is one example.

NOTATION
We adopt the notation used in the original literature. X
designates reactive intermediates, which by definition are
present in trace level. The reaction steps are written with the
reactive intermediates (X) appearing as the explicit reactant
and product in a step. Any co-reactant (or co-product) mol-
ecules in a step appear either above (or below) the arrow for
that reaction step. We use a double subscript notation for the
rate coefficients. The first subscript identifies the reactive
intermediate involved as a reactant in that step and the second
subscript identifies the reactive intermediate that is formed.


OH
P


Me

BPA


Me A

OH
H+




Me
OH-C-- OH
Me P'-<
X2


O-C- H H+ OH-C OH
X4 X,


Figure 1. Catalytic cycle for BPA synthesis from phenol
and acetone (adapted from Ref [12]).


Me OH


HC --


To illustrate this notation, consider the reaction X, + B -t> X .
The forward rate constant is k and the reverse rate constant is
J B
k We rewrite this step as X -s>X with B appearing above
the arrow because it is a co-reactant. The pseudo-first-order
forward rate coefficient for this step is X where X = k CB.
The pseudo-first-order reverse rate coefficient is X where
X = k The net rate of this reversible reaction step would
be written as
-rB = kljCC, k jCxj = XC jlCx (2)

Using pseudo-first-order rate coefficients (kX) allows all rates
to be written explicitly in terms of the concentrations of the
reactive intermediates and the reactant and product.

RATE EQUATION HELFFERICH METHOD
(BULK CATALYSIS)
Helfferich developed this first method while doing process
development work for Shell Chemical. It was homogeneous
reactions of commercial significance catalyzed by transition
metals that provided motivation. In these systems, the free
catalyst concentration was large relative to the concentrations
of the catalyst-containing reactive intermediates. The rate
equation for such a simple multistep network, which converts
reactant A into end product P, is[6 8]
k-1 k-1

r = 10 10 (3)
P k 1-1 k-1 (


k-1
where rp is the rate of forming product P, H' >,l is the product
1=0 k-1
of all of the forward pseudo-first-order rate coefficients, H', X,
1=0
is the product of all of the reverse pseudo-first-order rate coef-
ficients in the multistep reaction, and the index k is the number
of steps in the sequence. If the lower limit in the product
exceeds the upper, the product is taken to be equal to unity.
The denominator in the rate equation involves a summation
over a double product. Refer to Helfferich'6 71 for a simple,
easy-to-remember way to perform these operations and gener-
ate the denominator without going through the formalism of
evaluating each term in the summation.
Application
Figure 1 shows the multistep reaction for the acid-catalyzed
synthesis of bisphenol A from acetone (A) and phenol (P).
This six-step mechanism can be written as
H+ P P
A-X1 X2 -#X X3 -X e X BPA (4)
H20 H+

Acetone is species number zero and BPA is species number
six. For this network the relationships between the pseudo-
first-order rate coefficients and the true rate constants are


Chemical Engineering Education











X =01 k01CH+ 10 =kio TABLE 1
Form of QSSA Rate Equation for Specific Three-Step Catalyzed Reac-
>12 kC k21 tons
12 12 P 21 21tin


>23 = k23 32 k32
X34 = k34 43 = k43
\45 = k45 54 = k54 H2O

X56 = k56 P X65 = k65C H+ (5)

By applying the formula for the rate equation to
this specific example
5 5
H1 ,11 CA 11,1 CBPA
rBPA l=0 6 1-1 10 (6)



one can very quickly write the rate as


rBPA 01 X12 23 34 45 56 A 10 21 32 43 54 65 BPA
A 12 23 34 45 56 10 23 34 45 56 10 21 34 45 56 10 21 32 45 56 10 21 32 43 56 10 21 32 43 54
Replacing the \ in the rate equation with the corresponding k and any co-reactant concentration for that step, and then sim-
plifying leads to the general form of this rate equation as

kaCH+ CPA kb H+ W BPA
rBPA (8)
BPA kC +kd CP +kC

where the k parameters are collections of rate constants for individual steps. This final form of the general rate equation is not
very complicated even though no assumptions were made about any step being rate determining.

Rate equations for this system have been reported[12] to be irreversible and both first-order in phenol rBPA = kCH+ CA )
and second-order in phenol rBPA = kC H+ C C2 These experimental rate equations are simply special cases of the general rate
equation above. First-order kinetics arise when the second step is rate-determining and irreversible. Second-order kinetics arise
when the final step is rate determining and irreversible. If a step is rate-determining, the pseudo-first-order rate coefficients for
that step must be very much smaller than the rate coefficients for all other steps in the sequence. That is Xjrds << all other X .
Moreover, if a step is irreversible, X = 0 for that step.
P
When the second step, X1 :->X2 is rate-determining, A12 and X21 are much smaller than all other X so denominator terms
containing either X 12 or 21 will be much smaller than denominator terms that do not contain these terms. Therefore, only the
denominator terms that omit X12 and X21 need to be retained in the rate equation. It is only the second term in the denomina-
tor that survives. Moreover, if any step is irreversible, the second term in the numerator vanishes. The rate equation for this
scenario then becomes

rBPA 01 1223344556 A 0112 A kok12 CC = K01C CC (9)
S 10 23 34 45 56 10 k1o
which is precisely a first-order rate equation, as seen experimentally. K01 is the equilibrium constant for the first reaction step.
P
When the final step, X5 -> BPA, is rate determining, only the denominator terms that omit X56 and X65 need to be retained in
H+
the rate equation. Also, as before, the contribution for the reverse reaction in the numerator vanishes when any step is irrevers-
ible. The rate equation for this scenario is

rBPA = X01 1223X34X45 56CA kolkl2k 23k34k45k56 H PCA = k56K01K12K23K4K45 H+ A (10)
S10 21 32 43 54 k1ok21k32k43k54 H0 HO20
Here we obtain the rate equation that is second order in phenol, as was seen experimentally.
Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 213


Reaction System General Rate Equation
Heterogeneous kaCA kbB) CT
Isomerization r [\CA k b B T


Enzyme Kkes _k cpc0
Catalysis r a C kbP)E
1 +kCs + kdCP

Ozone
Decomposition kaC20 b C T
koC +kd C +keC + kfC2 +kC C










This example shows that multistep reactions of commercial significance can be easily treated with this method to obtain general
reaction rate equations. The complexity in the form of the general rate equation is no more than that in Langmuir-Hinshelwood
rate equations, which have long been used in heterogeneous catalytic kinetics. Significantly, however, one can recover even
simpler rate equations (e.g., power-law) for situations where one step is rate determining or where a step or steps are irreversible.
Note that this approach of starting with the general equation and then simplifying it for special limiting cases is fully consistent
with the approach many take in chemical engineering education.
Extension to Non-Trace Intermediates
The general Helfferich method applies to simple pathways with all reactants, products, and free catalyst present in much higher
concentrations than the intermediates. But, there are some reactions where the concentration of one or more intermediates rises
above trace level, perhaps because the intermediate is a molecular product rather than being a reactive intermediate. In these
cases, the pathway can be broken at those intermediates, and each of the fragments of the overall network can then be treated
using the general method described in this article.[6]
To illustrate, consider the acid-catalyzed dehydration of cyclohexanol in supercritical water131 as shown in Figure 2. This
network is nonsimple because one of the intermediates, cyclohexene, is not at trace levels. Its concentration is comparable to that of
the reactant cyclohexanol and end product methylcyclopentene. Therefore, one cannot use the general formula to write a single rate
equation for the conversion of cyclohexanol to methyl cyclopentene. One can break the complete network into two piece-wise simple
portions, however, and apply Helfferich mathematics to each portion. These two piece-wise simple portions appear as Figure 3.
Using the general formula, one can write the rate equation for the first sequence, the conversion of cyclohexanol (A) to cy-
clohexene (B) plus water (W).

X01 x12CA X10 x21 B kolkl2C A CW CH30, k1ok21 C CH30+ CB kolkl2C A CH30, k1ok21C WC H30+ B
r 01 12 A (11)
r10+ 12 (kio + k2)C ko +k12

The rate equation for the second portion is, for the general case of all steps being reversible,

r2 X23 X3445 B 32 43 54CC (12)
X34 45 32 45 32 43
Note that cyclohexene is designated as species 2 in the second sequence to maintain consistent species indexes. Methyl cyclo-
pentene (C) is species 5. Note too that for this second network, the first step (protonation) is irreversible, so X32 = 0. The rate
equation for the second portion then becomes simply
r2 = X23CB = k23CBC (13)

Akiya and Savage131 modeled the kinetics for this system using the two rate equations above. Doing so led to a model that
contained only three parameters to be determined from experimental data; two in the first rate equation and one in the second.
A numerical modeling approach based on an explicit accounting for each step would have necessitated the inclusion of nine
different parameters. Using the Helfferich formula to develop analytical rate equations has certainly simplified the task of
parameter estimation.
The interested reader is directed to Helfferich[6 8] and the references therein for more information regarding additional exten-
sions of this general method.

RATE EQUATION-CHRISTIANSEN MATHEMATICS (TRACE-LEVEL CATALYSIS)
The material presented thus far, when used for catalyzed reaction systems, applies when the concentration of free catalyst
is much higher than concentrations of the intermediates. Examples of this situation include acid or base catalysis and many
homogeneous transition metal catalyzed reactions. This section treats trace-level catalysis, where the free catalyst concentra-
tion is small, and a significant fraction of the total catalyst amount can be bound with intermediates. Enzyme catalysis and



Figure 2. Multistep networks for cyclo- OH kol0 OH2 k12 k23 k34 k45
hexene formation from cyclohexanol -H30 H20 H30 Ho20
(top) and methylcyclopentene forma- H20 H0 H20 H30
tion (bottom) (adapted from Ref. [13]) H20
(0) Xi (2) X3 X4 (5)

214 Chemical Engineering Education











some heterogeneously catalyzed reaction sequences (e.g.,
some isomerizations, Eley-Rideal reactions) are examples of
simple reaction systems with trace-level catalysis. Christian-
sen[9 11] developed the general treatment for systems of this
type, Helfferich[6] discusses it in some detail, and Boudart[141
provided a short overview nearly 40 years ago.
Helfferich[6] shows that the rate of conversion of re-
actant A into product P via the general linear network
A
cat =>Xl =... =-Xk lp-cat,is
Sk-I1 k-1

h)1,+1 i+ 1+1,1 CT
0 1=0 (14)
P DCH

where D H is the Christiansen denominator for a network with
k reaction steps. The Christiansen numerator contains CT, the
total catalyst concentration (sum of the concentrations of the
free catalyst and all catalyst-containing intermediates). In
trace-level catalysis, it is often the total catalyst concentration
(amount added to the reactor) that is known. Its distribution
among the different catalyst-containing species is not easily
measured in engineering applications.
The denominator is the sum of all terms in the Christiansen
matrix, and Helfferich describes how to generate these terms.

For a generic 3-step reaction network, cat -# x1 -#> X2 '- cat,
the Christiansen matrix is 0 3

12 23 10 23 X10 21
23 01 21 01 21 32 (15)
01 12 32 12 32 10
An important property of this matrix is that the sum of the
terms in each row is proportional to the concentration of one
of the catalyst-containing species in the reaction network.[6]
The sum of the terms in the first row is proportional to the


(0)

k23
H30+
H20


k OH2


H30
'H20H3


H20

H20


(2)

k45
H20
H30+

(5)


Figure 3. Multistep network for methylcyclopentene for-
mation from cyclohexanol (adapted from Ref. [13])


Xi


k34


concentration of the free catalyst. The sum of the terms in the
second row is proportional to the concentration of interme-
diate X1, and so on. This relationship between the relative
abundances of the different catalyst containing species and
the relative magnitudes of the sums of the terms in each
row allows one to simplify the denominator for cases in
which one or more of the catalyst-containing species are
present in much higher (or lower) concentrations than the
others. For example, if X2 is the most abundant catalyst
species (macs), then the sum of the terms in the third row
of the matrix will be much larger than the sums of the
terms from the other rows. Therefore, one can neglect
the small contributions from the other rows, and to a very
good approximation the Christiansen denominator can be
taken to be the sum of the terms in the third row alone.
The number of denominator terms for a network with k
steps can therefore been reduced from k2 to k when there
exists a macs. Likewise, one can obtain simplification if
there exists a lacs (least abundant catalyst species). In this
case, one can neglect the small contribution made by the
sum of the terms in the matrix row corresponding to the
reactive intermediate that is the lacs.
Application
Consider the generic three-step sequence
cat- X1 X2 @-#ca, which has two catalyst-containing
reactive intermediates. Any number of co-reactants or co-
products can appear in any of the three steps. Numerous
catalytic systems have reaction mechanisms of this form. For
example, the solid-catalyzed isomerization A = B can occur
through a three-step sequence of adsorption of A, isomeriza-
tion on the surface, and desorption of B from a surface site (S)
back into the fluid phase. The reactive intermediates X1 and
X2 are surface bound A (A S) and B (B S) respectively.
A
S-#A Sw-B Sw-S (16)
B
Some enzyme-catalyzed reactions that convert a substrate,
S, into a product, P, proceed through two different enzyme-
substrate complexes (E S).515 Each complex is a catalyst-
containing reactive intermediate.

E (E S)l (E S) 2>E (17)

The heterogeneously catalyzed decomposition of ozone over
MnO2 is another example of a specific reaction that has the
same structure as the network under consideration.[15, 161
03 03
S=O S= O StS (18)
02 02 02
The acid-catalyzed isomerization of cyclohexene (C) to
methylcyclopentene (M),1131 which was examined previously,
is one more example.
The general form of the Christiansen rate equation for a


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008










single catalytic cycle with three steps is

r >>2 > > X 01 12 X23 10 X21 X32 CT (19)
12 23 + X10 23 + 10 21 +2301 2101 + X21 32 + 01 12 + 32 12 + X32 10
To derive this rate equation manually would require algebraic manipulations with two QSSA expressions (one for each interme-
diate) and the catalyst balance (since the distribution of catalyst material amongst the different forms is not known). This task
is tedious, and a tremendous amount of algebra is required to obtain the simplified form of the rate equation above.
Table 1 (page 213) shows the general rate equation for each of the specific application systems in view. The parameters (k)
in these rate equations are collections of rate constants for individual steps. Rarely does one need to retain all of the terms in
the general rate equation. For example, in heterogeneous catalysis, such as the isomerization example, one often assumes that
one of the steps is rate determining and that all others are in quasi-equilibrium. If we assume that step 2, the surface reaction
(A S->B S), is rate determining (X 12 X21 << other X ), then the rate equation becomes

r (01 12 23 X 10 21 X32 ) CT (20)
X10 23 X23 01 X32 10
Replacing the pseudo-first-order rate coefficients with the rate constants and species concentrations and then simplifying,
leads to

kl2KOCTACA B/K )/K
r 12 K0 T A--CB/K whereK = KoiK12K23 and K 1 (21)
1 01 oCA + K32CB 1 1
as the rate equation. This Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson rate equation shows precisely the same dependence of the
rate on the concentrations of A and B as the general rate equation for this system in Table 1. Thus, no simplification in form
resulted from assuming the existence of a rate-determining step.

For enzyme-catalyzed reactions, step 3, product formation (E S)2 = E is often irreversible and rate determining (X32 0;
X23 << other X ). The rate equation for this case is

r= ( 01 12 23)CT (22)
10 21 21 01 + 01 12
Upon replacing the pseudo-first-order rate coefficients with the appropriate rate constants and concentrations, one obtains the
rate equation,
k12k23 SCOG

r= kk E K .-- (23)
klok21 + CU+Cs
k01 k21 + kl2)

which is the familiar Michaelis-Menten result. Vmax is the maximum reaction velocity (rate). Co is the total enzyme concentra-
tion.
For ozone decomposition, Oyama and coworkers[15,16] reported that all three steps are irreversible and that absorbed 0 atoms
are the lacs. Thus, all reverse rate coefficients will be zero, and the denominator will omit the terms in the second row of the
Christiansen matrix. The resulting rate equation is shown below.

S 01 12 23 T ko01 CoCT
r = k (24)
>12>23 >2k23
0 12 1 23
This example illustrates the utility of Christiansen mathematics for single catalytic cycles. The general rate equation can be
written quickly, and then rate laws for special cases (rate determining steps, irreversible steps, lacs, etc.) can be recovered by
omitting the terms that are negligible.


Chemical Engineering Education











CLOSING REMARKS
This article outlines and illustrates methods for quickly
getting closed-form analytical rate equations for multistep net-
works using only the QSSA. These methods were developed at
an industrial R&D center to deal with practical kinetics issues
in chemical process development. Uncatalyzed reactions and
those catalyzed by acid, base, homogeneous transition metal
complexes, enzymes, and solid surfaces can all be handled
by these methods. The chief constraint is that each step must
be unimolecular in reactive intermediate. This constraint
reduces the utility of this method for chain reactions that
include branching, termination, and initiation steps and for
heterogeneous catalysis with bimolecular surface reactions.
Though components of these approaches have been in the
literature for decades, these methods do not appear in many
popular chemical reaction engineering textbooks. I have been
teaching these methods in our core chemical reaction engi-
neering graduate course, a senior/ graduate elective class on
chemical kinetics, and continuing education courses on reac-
tion kinetics. Graduate students or practicing professionals are
probably the proper audience for this material. The students
appreciate learning about this approach, which allows them
to develop a rate equation very quickly for a general case
and then simplify it to recover results for numerous special
cases. Simplifying the general equation also reinforces the
concepts of rate-determining steps, quasi-equilibrium steps,
macs, and lacs.


A more detailed tutorial on the use and teaching of these
methods is available from the author upon request. In
addition, HelfferichE61 provides a detailed treatment and
many examples.

REFERENCES
1. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, 4th ed.,
Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2006)
2. Masel, R.I., Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis, Wiley-Interscience, New
York (2001)
3. Davis, M.E., and R.J. Davis, Fundamentals of Chemical Reaction
Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York (2003)
4. Schmidt, L.D., The ,,.. ...... .... - ... ,, ...-... 2,...,.I Oxford
University Press, New York (2005)
5. Roberts, G.W., Chemical Reactions and Chemical Reactors, Wiley
(2009)
6. Helfferich, EG., Kinetics of Multistep Reactions, 2nd ed., Elsevier,
Amsterdam (2004)
7. Helfferich, EG., J. Phys. Chem. 93, 6676 (1989)
8. Chern, J-M, and EG. Helfferich, AIChE J. 36, 1200 (1990)
9. Christiansen, J.A.Z., Physik. Chem. Bodenstein-Festband 69 (1931)
10. Christiansen, J.A.Z., Physik. Chem. B 28, 303 (1935)
11. Christiansen, J.A., Adv. Catal. 5, 311 (1953)
12. Gates, B.C., Catalytic ( b...... .. John Wiley & Sons, New York
(1992)
13. Akiya, N., and PE. Savage, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 40, 1822 (2001)
14. Boudart, M., Kinetics of Chemical Processes, Prentice-Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ (1968)
15. Li, W., G.V. Gibbs, and S.T. Oyama, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 120, 9041
(1998)
16. Li, W., and S.T. Oyama, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 120, 9047 (1998) 1


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008











n M1advising


ADVISORS WHO ROCK: AN APPROACH

TO ACADEMIC COUNSELING











LISA G. BULLARD
North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695


Extensive educational research has established that stu-
dent-faculty interactions have a significant impact on
student retention and success. Baker and SirykV1 found
that first-year students who had one-hour advising sessions
not only had significantly higher scores on an adjustment
scale, but were also less likely to drop out of college than
were students who did not have those sessions. Pascarella and
Terenzinii21 found that students who persisted in their chosen
major fields of study had a significantly higher frequency of
interaction with faculty than did those who chose to switch or
drop out. The widely cited "Talking about Leaving" by Elaine
Seymour and Nancy M. Hewitt testifies to the importance of
good advising:
Failure to find adequate advice, counseling, or tutorial
help was cited as ... t, ii.,, ,,, to one-quarter (24.0%) of
all switching decisions; it was mentioned as a source of
frustration by three-quarters (75.4%) of all switchers (for
whom it was the third most common source of complaint)
and it was an issue raised by half (52.0%) of all non-switch-
ers, for whom it was the second most commonly cited
concern. Among all of the factors, ...i i ,i.,,-,,, to attrition,
student difficulties in ii,, appropriate help is the factor
which is most clearly derived from flaws in the institutional
structure.131
As the director of Undergraduate Studies of the Chemical
and Biomolecular Engineering Department at North Carolina
State University, I do a great deal of advising. My route to
this position was nontraditional. After completing my Ph.D.
in chemical engineering at Carnegie Mellon in 1991, I1 worked
at Eastman Chemical Company in Kingsport, TN for nine


years. During that time, I had positions in process engineer-
ing, plant engineering, quality management, business process
redesign, and business market management. In 2000 I1 had the
opportunity to return to NC State, my undergraduate alma
mater, to assume my present position. Besides advising 216
students myself, I coordinate advising for the entire depart-
ment and also teach several undergraduate courses, includ-
ing the sophomore course on material and energy balances,
a junior-level professional development seminar, and the
capstone senior design course. Like all of my departmental
colleagues, I had no training whatsoever in either teaching
or advising prior to joining the faculty, but I found that my
industrial experience was invaluable in doing both. I share my
advising story not as a model that all advisors should follow,
but as one example of how an advisor might connect with
students. Readers who would like more in-depth background
on advising skills and approaches can consult one of several
excellent references.[471


Lisa G. Bullard is a teaching associate
professor and director of Undergraduate
Studies in the Department of Chemical
and Biomolecular Engineering at North
Carolina State University. She received
her B.S. in chemical engineering from NC
State, her Ph.D. in chemical engineering
from Carnegie Mellon University, and
served in engineering and management
positions within Eastman Chemical Co.
from 1991-2000.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008
Chemical Engineering Education











MY STYLE OF ADVISING
If you want to know my style of advising, step into my of-
fice. It doesn't resemble the stereotypical professor's office
-a desk covered with computer printouts, teetering piles of
journals, and stacks of lab reports in the comer. It looks like
someone's home. There are two bentwood Amish rocking
chairs gently inclined toward one another, resting on a warm
oriental rug. There is a rustic red and white quilt on the wall
above the cabinet. Bookshelves line one long wall, but in
addition to holding books, they are filled with photographs,
mementos from students, artwork, and collages of graduation
pictures from years past. On the bottom shelf is a basket
with wooden blocks and a jar with seashells to entertain
young children who come with their parents for advising
appointments. This is my academic home and a sanctuary
for students away from home. More than one student has
commented, as we rocked and talked, "I feel like I'm rock-
ing on your front porch."
At our first meeting, students are taken aback by the rocking
chairs, unsure as to whether they should sit in them or not.
Once I sit down and motion them to do the same, they tenta-
tively sit on the edge of the chair, then ease into the molded
seat and nestle back. I can see them almost perceptibly take
a deep breath and relax. It's impossible to be uptight when
you are rocking in a comfortable chair. When we are sitting
side by side in the rocking chairs, I'm on the same level with
the students. I'm not sitting behind my desk looking at them
across a broad expanse-we're in this thing together. I'm
not judging them or telling them the answers-I'm listen-
ing. Many times people come looking for answers, when all
they really need is someone with whom to talk. The rocking
chairs remind me that students come one at a time, and dur-
ing the time I am talking with a student, he or she is the most
important person in the world.
Every student has a story. Sometimes the story spills out at
the very first meeting, but in most cases, layers are revealed
over time. Often I meet students while they are still in high
school. When they arrive at NC State, I am their first advisor.
I teach many of them in the intro sophomore course, and by
the time they graduate, I have had all of them in one or more
of the courses I teach. They all experience the rocking chair at
some point. It is a privilege and an honor for me to learn their
stories, and in doing so, to become part of each story.
The bulletin board behind the rocking chairs is criss-crossed
with red ribbons and covered with layers of letters, cards, baby
announcements, photographs, and few a poignant programs
from memorial services. It's practically an archeological
dig in progress, and it reminds me that although students do
graduate (at least, that's the goal!), they never truly leave.
Although I have only been at NC State since 2000, I have
772 alumni "children" and friends who are working, changing
jobs, requesting recommendations for graduate school, getting
Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


I am especially conscious of my role

as a mentor to female students-a

model that was not available to me

as an undergraduate when there

were no female professors in the

department. I want these young

women to know that they can

practice engineering and still have

a family and a life outside of

their profession.


married, having children, and otherwise going about the task
of living their lives as chemical engineers and young adults.
With their many success stories in mind, I have started inviting
them back to speak to current students about the challenges
they have faced.
Scattered on the shelves are photographs of my family
and artwork that my daughter has generated over the years.
The bulletin board contains some special notes in childish
writing, like "GO MOM! I LOVE YOU." I am especially
conscious of my role as a mentor to female students- a model
that was not available to me as an undergraduate when there
were no female professors in the department. I want these
young women to know that they can practice engineering
and still have a family and a life outside of their profession.
As someone who has taken time off to have a child, worked
part-time, and chosen assignments that allowed me more
flexibility during various times during my career, I can assure
students that work and life can be balanced to allow room for
success in both.
On the side desk sits a computer-the office's one nod to
modem technology. When I'm not sitting in a rocking chair,
I'm at the computer keeping a steady stream of e-mails flow-
ing in and out. I've never been able to follow the advice of
efficiency experts who suggest checking e-mail only once in
the morning and once at the end of the day. Even in a depart-
ment as large as ours (421 undergraduates), effective use of
e-mail can eliminate barriers to communication, especially
since we are located in a new section of the campus out of
the mainstream of student traffic. Information about summer
job postings, AIChE student chapter meetings, undergradu-
ate research and scholarship opportunities, recommendation
letters, and departmental details routinely zip across the
lines to and from students. I want my students to be well
informed and knowledgeable about campus and professional
opportunities.











The final element of the office that reflects my advising phi-
losophy is the door. It's open, and my desk chair is positioned
so that I can see someone hovering around the entrance. Unless
I'm doing something that must be completed at that moment,
which is rare, I stop, smile, and say, "Come in, how can I help
you?" The student usually says something like, "Are you busy?"
Even if I'm in the middle of grading 40 essays for our under-
graduate seminar course, checking blue cards for graduation,
or contacting guest speakers for senior design, I say, "No, I'm
not busy. Please come in and sit down." We rock. They talk.
I listen. Often they leave saying something like, "Thanks for
seeing me. I always feel better after leaving your office."
That's why I'm here.

SUGGESTIONS FOR ADVISORS
At this point the reader may be thinking, "Give me a break.
Besides the fact that I couldn't possibly fit a rocking chair
into my tiny office, I'm no Mother Teresa. And my gradu-
ate students already feel neglected, not to mention my own
children." My purpose in writing this article is not to suggest
that my style is the only style, or even the best style, but to
encourage faculty to find their own style. The rockers and
most of those little personal touches and the time I spend on
advising (which is, after all, my main job) are nice, but they're
not essential. Based on my experience, literature in the area
of advising, and the feedback I have gotten from my students,
I would offer the following suggestions on how faculty can
make their advising more effective within the constraints of
the other demands of the job:

Organize your department advising system to improve con-
sistency and efficiency. Depending on the size and structure
of your department, consider ways to structure the advising
process to allow faculty to best meet student needs. For
example, I serve as the Coordinator of Advising and advise
all the freshmen, double majors, and transfer students-in
general, students who require "extra attention" and may
have unusual or challenging curricular issues. This allows
each of our faculty to advise a smaller group of students
(typically 25 or less) who are doing the "standard" cur-
riculum or a concentration in their area of expertise. This
organizational structure improves advising consistency and
efficiency, "giving back" time to other colleagues who are
more focused on other key department functions such as
instruction and research.
Use resources within your department to leverage
advisors' time with students. Our faculty call on me as
a resource for information, as a referral if they feel the
student needs additional attention, or as a "substitute" if
they know they will be on travel status during advising
time. I publish an annual advising handbook for both
students and faculty with curricular information and
frequently asked questions, and this information is also
available on the departmental Web site. One of our staff
members distributes hard copies of student degree audits
at advising time and maintains a file for each student with


relevant information on their advising history. Don't feel
as though you have to have all the answers yourself-use
all the resources available to ensure that the time you do
spend with each student is worthwhile.
Learn your advisees'names and use them. Our Regis-
tration and Records Web site has an option that allows
you to access a photo of each student-you can print out
the pictures and names for easy reference. I take photos
of students in my introductory class holding name tents,
and study them in my office. A colleague photocopies his
students' drivers licenses! Whatever works for you, use it.
When you are talking with a student, try to resist the
temptation to peek at your watch or glance at your com-
puter screen to read your latest e-,, .,i- ..i i,,,,, sends
the message faster that "I have better .1,,,, to do." (I
have a large clock on the wall opposite the rocking chairs
that helps me be aware of the time without seeming
impatient or anxious to be rid of the student).
After you take care of the business of; Ii,, ...-i., ,i ,.,
take a moment to ask students about their summer plans, ca-
reer goals, or hobbies. This helps students feel that they are
more than just a number, especially in a large department.
Let students know that you have a life outside of the office.
You could do this by posting an article or picture on your
bulletin board, having a family or vacation picture on a desk,
or displaying a memento from a recent trip or conference.

Finally, but most importantly, care. Findings by Wilson, et
al.,48' indicate that faculty who are frequently sought out as
advisors outside the classroom tend to provide clear clues
about their accessibility through their in-class teaching style
and their attitude. You can go to teaching workshops and
even advising workshops to hone your skills, but simply
caring is the foundation of all student interactions. No one
cares how much you know, unless they know how much
you care. You could be the one to make the difference in a
student leaving, staying, or staying and enjoying the ride.
Advisors rock!

REFERENCES
1. Baker, R.W., and B. Siryk, i .1l.., ,i..; Intervention with a Scale
Measuring Adjustment to College," J. Counseling Psychology, 33(1),
31 (1986)
2. Pascarella, E.T., and PT. Terenzini, "Patterns of Student-Faculty
Informal Interaction beyond the Classroom and Voluntary Freshman
Attrition," The J. of Higher Educ., 48(5), 540 (Sept.-Oct. 1977)
3. Seymour, E., and N.M. Hewitt, Talking about Leaving, Westview Press,
Boulder, CO, p. 134 (1997)
4. Light, R.J., Making the Most of College, Harvard Univ. Press, Chapters
3 and 5, Cambridge, MA, (2001)
5. Wankat, PC., "Current Advising Practice and Suggestions for Improv-
ing Advising," Eng. Educ., 76, 213-216 (Jan. 1986)
6. Wankat, PC., and Oreovicz, ES., Teaching Engineering, Chapter 10,
McGraw-Hill, NY (1993). Available free as pdf files on the Web at
ingEng/index. html>
7. Wankat, PC., The Effective Efficient Professor: Teaching, Scholarship,
and Service, Sections 7.2 and 7.4, Allyn & Bacon, Boston (2002)
8. Wilson, R, J. Gaff, E. Dienst, L. Wood, and J.L. Bavry, College Profes-
sors and Their Impact on Students, Wiley, New York (1975) 1


Chemical Engineering Education








INDEX Graduate
A kron, U university of ............................ ........................ 223
Alabama, University of ..................................224
Alabama, Huntsville; University of .................................225
A lberta, U university of............................. ..................... 226
A rizona, U university of............................ ..................... 227
A rizona State U niversity....................... ...................... 228
A rkansas, U university of................................ ................... 229
A uburn U niversity....... ..... ........................................ 230
Brigham Young University..................... ......................325
British Columbia, University of ......................................231
Brow n U university ................ ........................ 336
B ucknell U niversity................................... ................... 325
California, Berkeley; University of ..................................232
California, Los Angeles; University of .............................233
California, Riverside; University of..................................234
California, Santa Barbara; University of...........................235
California Institute of Technology ....................................236
Carnegie Mellon University.................. ......................237
Case Western Reserve University ..................................238
Cincinnati, U university of .............................. ................ 239
City College of New York..................... ......................240
Colorado, U university of................................ ................ 241
Colorado School of Mines...................... ......................242
Colorado State University..................... ...................... 243
Columbia University ............ .....................326
Connecticut, University of ............... ...................244
D artm outh C college ....... ..... ......................................... 245
D elaw are, U university of ........................ ...................... 246
Denmark, Technical University of ...................................247
D rexel U university ................ ........................ 248
Florida, U university of........................................................ 249
Florida A&M/Florida State College of Engineering...............326
Florida Institute of Technology ............... ...................250
Georgia Institute of Technology.....................................251
H ouston, U university of ................................. .................. 252
H ow ard U university ....... ..... ......................................... 327
Idaho, U university of....... ..... ....................................... 327
Illinois, Chicago; University of ....................................... 253
Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; University of.......................254
Illinois Institute of Technology .............. ...................255
Iow a, U university of....... ..... ........................................ 256
Iow a State U university ........................... ........................ 257
K ansas, U university of ................................... .................. 258
Kansas State University ........................... ................... 259
K entucky, U university of ........................ ...................... 260
Lam ar U niversity....... .... .......................................... 328
L aval U university ....... ..... .......................................... 328
L high U niversity....... ..... ......................................... 26 1
Louisiana State University .............. ...................262
Louisville, University of ..................................329
Maine, University of ............ .....................263
M anhattan C college ...................................... ................... 264
Maryland, College Park; University of .............................265
Massachusetts, Amherst; University of.............................266
Massachusetts, Lowell; University of ...............................336
Massachusetts Institute of Technology..............................267
M cG ill U university ................ ....................... 268
M cM aster U niversity....... ..................... ...................... 269
M ichigan, U university of ........................ ...................... 270
M ichigan State U niversity...................... ...................... 271
Michigan Technological University..................................329
Minnesota, Minneapolis; University of.............................272
Mississippi State University................... ......................273


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


Education Advertisements

Missouri, Columbia; University of....................................274
M issouri S & T ........ .... ............................................. 275
M ontana State University...................... ...................... 330
N ebraska, U university of............................... ................. 276
New Jersey Institute of Technology..................................277
New M exico, University of ................... ...................... 278
New Mexico State University ............... ...................279
North Carolina State University.....................................280
Northeastern University ..................................281
Northwestern University ..................................282
Notre Dam e, University of .................... ...................... 283
O hio State U niversity............................ ...................... 284
O klahom a, U university of ....................... ...................... 285
Oklahoma State University .................... ...................286
O region State U niversity........................ ...................... 330
Pennsylvania, University of ............... ...................287
Pennsylvania State University........................................288
Petroleum Institute, The ..................................289
Pittsburgh, U university of ....................... ...................... 290
Polytechnic U university .......................... ...................... 291
Princeton U niversity............................... ...................... 292
Purdue U niversity............................................... .................. 293
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute......................................294
Rhode Island, University of ............... ...................331
R ice U niversity....... ..... ........................................... 295
Rochester, U university of.............................. ................. 296
R ose-H ulm an....... ..... ............................................ 33 1
R ow an U niversity....... ...... ........................................ 297
R utgers U niversity....... ...... ....................................... 298
R yerson U university ...................................... ................... 332
Singapore, National University of.....................................299
South Carolina, University of.........................................300
South Dakota School of Mines........................................332
South Florida, University of................... ...................... 301
Southern California, University of ...................................302
State University of New York .................. ...................303
Stevens Institute of Technology ............... ...................304
Syracuse U niversity..................................... ................... 333
Tennessee, Knoxville; University of .................................305
Tennessee Technological University.................................306
Texas, Austin; University of.................... ...................... 307
Texas A&M University, College Station .............................308
Texas A&M University, Kingsville....................333
Texas Tech University ..................................309
Toledo, U university of....... ..................... ......................3 10
Toronto, U university of ........................... ...................... 334
T ufts U niversity...... ...... .......................................... 3 11
Tulane U university ....... ..... ..........................................3 12
Tulsa, U university of ....... ....................... ......................3 13
Vanderbilt University ............ .....................314
Villanova U university ..... ......... ..................... 334
Virginia, U university of............................ .....................315
Virginia Tech University ..................................316
W ashington, University of...................... ...................... 317
W ashington State University.................. ...................... 318
W ashington U niversity.......................... ......................319
W aterloo, U university of ......................... ...................... 320
W est Virginia U niversity....................... ...................... 321
Western Michigan University........................................335
W isconsin, U university of ....................... ...................... 322
Worchester Polytechnic University...................................323
W yom ing, U university of.............................. ................. 335
Y ale U university ...... ...... ........................................... 324









An Open Letter to ...

SENIORS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


Should you go to graduate school?
We invite you to consider graduate school as an opportunity
to further your professional development. Graduate work can
be exciting and intellectually satisfying, and at the same time
can provide you with insurance against the ever-increasing
danger of technical obsolescence in our fast-paced society. An
advanced degree is certainly helpful if you want to include a
research component in your career and a Ph.D. is normally a
prerequisite for an academic position. Although graduate school
includes an in-depth research experience, it is also an integra-
tive period. Graduate research work under the guidance of a
knowledgeable faculty member can be an important factor in
your growth toward confidence, independence, and maturity.
What is taught in graduate school?
A graduate education generally includes a coursework com-
ponent and a research experience. The first term of graduate
school will often focus on the study of advanced-core chemi-
cal engineering science subjects (e.g., transport phenomena,
phase equilibria, reaction engineering). These courses build
on the material learned as an undergraduate, using more
sophisticated mathematics and often including a molecular
perspective. Early in the graduate program, you will select
a research topic and a research adviser and begin to estab-
lish a knowledge base in the research subject through both
coursework and independent study. Graduate education thus
begins with an emphasis on structured learning in courses and
moves on to the creative, exciting, and open-ended process
of research. In addition, graduate school is a time to expand
your intellectual and social horizons through participation in
the activities provided by the campus community.
Perusing the graduate-school advertisements in this special
compilation can be a valuable resource, not only for deter-
mining what is taught in graduate school, but also where it is
taught and by whom it is taught.
What is the nature of graduate research?
Graduate research can open the door to a lifelong inquiry
that may well lead you in a number of directions during your
professional life, whether you pursue it within the confines of an
industrial setting or in the laboratories of a university. Learning
how to do research is of primary importance, and the training
you receive as a graduate student will give you the discipline, the
independence, and (hopefully) the intellectual curiosity that will
stand you in good stead throughout your career. The increasingly
competitive arena of high technology and society's ever-expand-
ing fields of inquiry demand, more than ever, trained and capable
researchers to fuel the engines of discovery.
Where should you go to graduate school?
There are many fine chemical engineering departments,


each with its own "personality" and special strengths. Choos-
ing the one that is "i iglu" for you is a highly personal decision
and one that only you can make. Note, however, that there
are schools that specialize in preparing students for academic
careers just as there are those that prepare students for specific
industries. Or, perhaps there is a specific area of research you
are interested in, and finding a school or a certain professor
with great strength or reputation in that particular area would
be desirable. If you are uncertain as to your eventual field
of research, perhaps you should consider one of the larger
departments that has diversified research activity, giving you
the exposure and experience to make a wise career choice
later in your education.
Many factors may eventually feed into your decision of
where to go to graduate school. Study the ads in this special
printing and write to or view the Web pages of departments
that interest you; ask for pertinent information not only about
areas of study but also about fellowships that may be available,
about the number of students in graduate school, about any
special programs. Ask your undergraduate professors about
their experiences in graduate school, and don't be shy about
asking them to recommend schools to you. They should know
your strengths and weaknesses by this stage in your collegiate
career, and through using that knowledge they should be a
valuable source of information and encouragement for you.
Financial Aid

Don't overlook the fact that most graduate students receive
financial support at a level sufficient to meet normal living
needs. This support is provided through research assistant-
ships, teaching assistantships, or fellowships. If you are
interested in graduate school next fall, you should begin the
application process early this fall since admission decisions
are often made at the beginning of the new calendar year.
This process includes requesting application materials, seek-
ing sources of fellowships, taking national entrance exams
(i.e., the Graduate Record Exam, GRE, is required by many
institutions), and visiting the school.
A resolution by the Council of Graduate Schools -in which
most schools are members-outlines accepted practices for
accepting financial support (such as graduate scholarships,
assistantships, or fellowships). You should be aware that the
agreed upon deadline for accepting offers of financial support
for a fall-term start is April 15. The resolution states that you
are under no obligation to respond to offers of financial sup-
port prior to April 15 (earlier deadlines for acceptance violate
the intent of the resolution). Furthermore, an acceptance given
or left in force after April 15 commits you to reject any other
offer without first obtaining a written release from the institu-
tion to which the commitment has been made.O


222 Chemical Engineering Education











Graduate Education in Chemical and


Teaching and
research assistantships
as well as
industrially sponsored
fellowships
available


In addition to
stipends,
tuition and fees
are waived.


PhD students
may get
some incentive
scholarships.


The deadline for
assistantship
applications
is
April 15th.


Biomo

G. G. CHASE
Multiphase Processes,
Fluid How, Interfacial
Phenomena, Filtration,
Coalescence




H. M. CHEUNG
Nanocomposite Materials,
Sonochemical Processing,
Polymerization in Nanostruc-
tured Huids, Supercritical
Fluid Processing



S. S. C. CHUANG
Catalysis, Reaction Engi-
neering, Environmentally
Benign Synthesis,
Fuel Cell




J. R. ELLIOTT
Molecular Simulation,
Phase Behavior, Physical
Properties, Process
Modeling, Supercritical
Fuids



E. A. EVANS
Materials Processing and
CVD Modeling
Plasma Enhanced Deposition
and Crystal Growth
Modeling


lecular Engineering

L.-K. JU
i i "Bioprocess Engineering,
Environmental
Bioengineering


For Additional Information, Write
Chairman, Graduate Committee
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
The University of Akron Akron, OH 44325-3906
Phone (330) 972-7250 Fax (330) 972-5856 www.chemical.uakron.edu


Department Chair



L. LIU
Biointerfaces,
Biomaterials, Biosensors,
Tissue Engineering





S. T. LOPINA
BioMaterial Engineering
and Polymer Engineering






B.Z. NEWBY
Surface Modification,
Alternative Patterning,
AntiFouling Coatings,
Gradient Surfaces




H. C. QAMMAR
Nonlinear Control,
Chaotic Processes,
Engineering Education





J. ZHENG
Computational Biophysics,
Biomolecular Interfaces,
Biomaterials


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008








THE UNIVERSITY OF


ALABAMA


Chemical

& Biological

Engineering


A dedicated faculty with state of the art
facilities offer research programs leading to
Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Science
degrees.

Research Areas:
Biological Applications of Nanomaterials,
Biomaterials, Catalysis and Reactor Design,
Drug Delivery Materials and Systems,
Electronic Materials, Energy and CO2
Sequestration, Fuel Cells, Interfacial Transport,
Magnetic Materials, Membrane Separations
and Reactors, Molecular Simulations,
Nanoscale Modeling, Polymer Processing,
Rheology


For Information Contact:
Director of Graduate Studies
Department of Chemical and
Biological Engineering
The University of Alabama
Box 870203
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0203
Phone: (205) 348-6450
Email: sritchie@eng.ua.edu
Web: http://che.eng.ua.edu


ChB;
An equal employment/
educational opportunity in


Faculty:
V. L. Acoff, Ph.D. (UAB)
G. C. April, Ph.D. (Louisiana State)
D. W. Arnold, PhD. (Purdue)
Y. Bao, Ph.D. (Washington)
C. S. Brazel, Ph.D. (Purdue)
E. S. Carlson, Ph.D. (Wyoming)
P. E. Clark, Ph.D. (Oklahoma State)
A. Gupta, Ph.D. (Stanford)
T. M. Klein, Ph.D. (NC State)
A. M. Lane, Ph.D. (Massachusetts)
S. M. Ritchie, Ph.D. (Kentucky)
C. H. Turner, Ph.D. (NC State)
- M. L. Weaver, Ph.D. (Florida)
J. M. Wiest, Ph.D. (Wisconsin)
equal
stitution


Chemical Engineering Education













Chemical


and Materials


Engineering


Graduate Program


acufty anda Research

R. Michael Banish; Ph.D., University of Utah
Associate Professor
Crystal growth mass and thermal diffusivity
measurements.
Ram6n L. Cerro; Ph.D., UC Davis
Professor and Chair
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics and
physicochemical hydrodynamics.
Chien P. Chen; Ph.D., Michigan State
Professor
Lab-on-chip microfluidics, multiphase transport,
spray combustion, computational fluid dynamics,
and turbulence modeling of chemically reacting
flows.
Krishnan K. Chittur; Ph.D., Rice
Professor
Biomaterials, bioprocess monitoring, gene
expression bioinformatics, and FTIR/ATR.
James E. Smith Jr; Ph.D., South Carolina
Professor
Ceramic and metallic composites, catalysis and
reaction engineering, fiber optic chemical sensing,
combustion diagnostic of hypergolic fuels, and
hydrogen storage.
Katherine Taconi; Ph.D., Mississippi State
Assistant Professor
Biological production of alternative energy from
renewable resources.
Jeffrey J. Weimer; Ph.D., MIT
Associate Professor
Adhesions, biomaterials surface properties, thin film
growth, and surface spectroscopies.
David B. Williams; Sc.D., Cambridge
Professor and University President
Analytical, transmission and scanning electron
microscopy, applications to interfacial segregation and
bonding changes, texture and phase diagram
determination in metals and alloys.


http://www.uah.edu
http://www. che.uah. edu


The Department of Chemical and Materials
Engineering offers coursework and research leading
to the Master of Science in Engineering degree. The
Doctor of Philosophy degree is available through
the Materials Science Ph.D.
program, the
Biotechnology Science and
Engineering Program, or
the option in Chemical
Engineering of the
Mechanical Engineering
Ph.D. program.
S The range of research
interests in the chemical
engineering faculty is broad.
It affords graduate students
opportunities for advanced
work in processes, reaction
engineering, electrochemical
systems, material processing
and biotechnology.
The proximity of the UAH
S campus to the 200+ high
technology and aerospace
industries of Huntsville and
NASA's Marshall Space
Flight Center provide exciting opportunities for
our students.




UAH
The University of Alabama in Huntsville
An Affimnnative Action Equal Opportunity Institution
Office of Chemical and Materials Engineering
130 Engineering Building
Huntsville, Alabama 35899
Ph: 256-824-6810 Fax: 256-824-6839


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008









DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING


UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA


Our Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
offers students the opportunity to study and conduct leading
research with world-class academics in the top program
in Canada, and one of the very best in North America. Our
graduate student population is culturally diverse, academically
strong, innovative, creative, and is drawn to our challenging
and supportive environment from all areas of the world.
- Degrees are offered at the MSc and PhD levels in chemical
engineering, materials engineering, and process control.
- All full-time graduate students in research programs
receive a stipend to cover living expenses and tuition.

Our graduates are sought-after professionals who will be
international leaders of tomorrow's chemical and materials
engineering advances. Research topics include:
biomaterials, biotechnology, coal combustion, colloids and
interfacial phenomenon, computational chemistry, compu-
tational fluid dynamics, computer process control, corrosion
and wear engineering, drug delivery, electrochemistry, fluid-
particle dynamics, fuel cell modeling and control, heavy
oil processing and upgrading, heterogeneous catalysis,
hydrogen storage materials, materials processing, micro-
alloy steels, micromechanics, mineral processing, molecular
sieves, multiphase mixing, nanostructured biomaterials,
oil sands, petroleum thermodynamics, pollution control,
polymers, powder metallurgy, process and performance
monitoring, rheology, surface science, system identification,
thermodynamics, and transport phenomena.

D- The Faculty of Engineering has added more than one
million square feet of outstanding teaching, research, and
personnel space in the past six years. We offer outstanding
and unique experimental and computational facilities,
including access to one of the most technologically advanced
nanotechnology facilities in the world the National Institute
for Nanotechnology, connected by pedway to the Chemical
and Materials Engineering Building.
D- Annual research funding for our Department is over
$14 million. Externally sponsored funding to support
engineering research in the entire Faculty of Engineering has
increased to over $50 million each year-the largest amount
of any Faculty of Engineering in Canada.

For further information, contact:
Graduate Program Office
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6
Phone: 780-492-1823 Fax: 780-492-2881
www.engineering.ualberta. ca/ cme


A. Ben-Zvi, PhD (Queen's University)
S. Bradford, PhD (Iowa State University) Emeritus
R.E. Burrell, PhD (University of Waterloo)
K. Cadien, PhD (University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana)
W. Chen, PhD (University of Manitoba)
P. Choi, PhD (University of Waterloo)
K.T. Chuang, PhD (University of Alberta) Emeritus
I. Dalla Lana, PhD (University of Minnesota) Emeritus
J. Derksen, PhD (Eindhoven University of Technology)
R.L. Eadie, PhD (University of Toronto)
J.A.W. Elliott, PhD (University of Toronto)
T.H. Etsell, PhD (University of Toronto)
G. Fisher, PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus
J.E Forbes, PhD (McMaster University) Chair
A. Gerlich, PhD (University of Toronto)
M.R. Gray, PhD (California Institute of Technology)
R. Gupta, PhD (University of Newcastle)
R.E. Hayes, PhD (University of Bath)
H. Henein, PhD (University of British Columbia)
B. Huang, PhD (University of Alberta)
D.G. Ivey, PhD (University of Windsor)
S.M Kresta, PhD (McMaster University)
S.M. Kuznicki, PhD (University of Utah)
J.M. Lee, PhD (Georgia Institute of Technology)
D. Li, PhD (McGill University)
Q. Liu, PhD (University of British Columbia)
J. Luo, PhD (McMaster University)
D.T. Lynch, PhD (University of Alberta) Dean of Engineering
J.H. Masliyah, PhD (University of British Columbia)
A.E. Mather, PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus
W.C. McCaffrey, PhD (McGill University)
D. Mitlin, PhD (University of California, Berkeley)
K. Nandakumar, PhD (Princeton University) Emeritus
J. Nychka, PhD (University of California, Santa Barbara)
E Otto, PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus
B. Patchett, PhD (University of Birmingham) Emeritus
J. Ryan, PhD (University of Missouri) Emeritus
S. Sanders, PhD (University of Alberta)
S.L. Shah, PhD (University of Alberta)
J.M. Shaw, PhD (University of British Columbia)
U. Sundararaj, PhD (University of Minnesota)
H. Uludag, PhD (University of Toronto)
L. Unsworth, PhD (McMaster University)
S.E. Wanke, PhD (University of California, Davis)
M. Wayman, PhD (University of Cambridge) Emeritus
M.C. Williams, PhD (University of Wisconsin) Emeritus
R. Wood, PhD (Northwestern University) Emeritus
Z. Xu, PhD (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
T. Yeung, PhD (University of British Columbia)
H. Zhang, PhD (Princeton University)
Chemical Engineering Education














ROBERT G. ARNOLD, Professor (CalTech)
Microbiological Hazardous Waste Treatment, Metals Speciation and Toxicity
JAMES C. BAYGENTS, Associate Professor (Princeton)
Fluid Mechanics, Transport and Colloidal Phenomena, Bioseparations
ERIC A. BETTERTON, Professor, (University of Witwatersrand)
Atmospheric and Environmental ( h ..-. ,,
PAUL BLOWERS, Associate Professor (Illinois, Urbana-Champaign)
Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis, Environmental Foresight, Green Design


WENDELL ELA, Associate Professor (Stanford)
Particle-Particle Interactions, Environmental ( / ..
JAMES FARRELL, Professor (Stanford)
Sorption/desorption of Organics in Soils
JAMES A. FIELD, Professor (Wageningen University)
Bioremediation, Microbiology, White Rot Fungi, Hazardous Waste
ROBERTO GUZMAN, Professor (North Carolina State)
Affinity Protein Separations, Polymeric Surface Science
ANTHONY MUSCAT, Associate Professor (Stanford)
Kinetics, Surface ( i ...... 1,. Surface Engineering, Semiconductor
Processing, Microcontamination
KIMBERLY OGDEN, Professor (Colorado)
Bioreactors, Bioremediation, Organics Removal from Soils
THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor and Dean (CalTech)
Aerosols, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Microcontamination
ARA PHILIPOSSIAN, Professor (Tufts)
Chemical/Mechanical Polishing, Semiconductor Processing
SRINI RAGHAVAN, Professor, (UC Berkley)
Microelectromechanical Systems and ( ...... i.., ....
MARK RILEY, Professor, (Rutgers University)
Application of Engineering Principals to Biological Systems
EDUARDO SAEZ, Professor (UC, Davis)
Polymer Flows, Multiphase Reactors, Colloids
GLENN L. SCHRADER, Professor & Head (Wisconsin)
Catalysis, Environmental Sustainability, Thin Films, Kinetics
FARHANG SHADMAN, Regents' Professor (Berkeley)
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactive Membranes,
Microcontamination

REYES SIERRA, Associate Professor (Wageningen L 1.......1
Environmental Biotechnology, Biotransformation of Metal -.....
Engineering

ARMIN SOROOSHIAN, Assistant Professor (8/09) c ..I i.... I
Aerosol Composition and Hygroscopicity, Climate ( l .

For further information
http://www.chee.arizona.edu
or write
Chairman, Graduate Study Committee
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineel in-
P.O. BOX 210011
The University ofArizona
Tucson,AZ 85721


Chemical and Environmental

Engineering

at

THE UNIVERSITY OF


ARIZONA

TUCSON ARIZONA


The Department of Chemical and
Environmental Engineering at the
,ik 4 University of Arizona offers a wide
range of research opportunities in all
major areas of chemical engineering
and environmental engineering. Our
sf. department offers a comprehensive
&a approach to sustainability which is
grounded on the principles of conser-
vation and responsible management of water, energy, and material
resources. Research initiatives in solar and other renewable energy,
desalinization, climate modeling, and sustainable nanotechnology are
providing innovative solutions to the challenges of environmental
sustainability. A significant portion of research effort is devoted to
areas at the boundary between chemical and environmental engineer-
ing, including environmentally benign semiconductor manufacturing,
environmental remediation, environmental biotechnology, and novel
water treatment technologies.The department offers a fully accredited
undergraduate degree in chemical engineering, as well as MS and PhD
degrees in both chemical and environmental engineering.
Financial support is available through fellowships, government
and industrial grants and contracts, teaching and
research assistantships.


Tucson has an excellent climate and many
recreational opportunities. It is a growing modern city that
retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere.

The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity educational institution/equal opportunity employer
Women and minorities are encouraged to apply


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008











ff Ira A. Fulton
School of Engineering

ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY


Department of Chemical Engineering
Learn and discover in a multi-disciplinary research environment with opportunities in advanced materials, atmospheric
chemistry, biotechnology, electrochemistry and sensors, electronic materials processing, engineering education, process control,
separation and purification technology, thin films and flexible displays.


Program Faculty
Jean M. Andino, Ph.D., P.E., Caltech.
Atmospheric chemistry, gas-phase kinetics and mechanisms,
heterogeneous chemistry, air pollution control
James R. Beckman, Emeritus, Ph.D., Arizona.
Unit operations, applied mathematics, energy-efficient water
purification, fractionation, CMP reclamation
Veronica A. Burrows, Ph.D., Princeton.
Engineering education, surface science, semiconductor
processing, interfacial chemical and physical processes for
sensors
Lenore Dai, Ph.D., Illinois
Surface, interfacial, and colloidal science, nanorheology and
microrheology, materials at the nanoscale, synthesis of novel
polymer composites, thermal and mechanical analyses of soft
materials
Jeffrey Heys, Ph.D., Colorado, Boulder.
Modeling of biofluid-tisue interaction, tissue and biofilm
mechanics, parallel multigrid solvers
Jerry Y.S. Lin, Ph.D., Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
Advanced materials (inorganic membranes, adsorbents and
catalysts) for applications in novel chemical separation and
reaction processes
Robert Pfeffer, Ph.D., New York University.
Dry particle coating and supercritical fluid processing to produce
engineered particulates with tailored properties; fluidization,
mixing, coating and processing of ultra-fine and nano-structured
particulates; filtration of sub-micron particulates; agglomeration,
sintering and granulation of fine particles
Gregory B. Raupp, Ph.D., Wisconsin.
Gas-solid surface reactions, interactions between surface
reactions and transport processes, semiconductor materials
processing, thermal and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor
deposition (CVD), flexible displays
Kaushal Rege, Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Molecular and cellular engineering, engineered cancer
therapeutics and diagnostics, cellular interactions in cancer
metastasis
For additional details see
http://che.fulton.asu.edu/ or contact Brian
Goehner at 480-965-5558 or
bhoehner( iasu.edu


Daniel E. Rivera, Ph.D., Caltech.
Control systems engineering, dynamic modeling via system
identification, robust control, computer-aided control system
design, supply chain management
Michael R. Sierks, Ph.D., Iowa State.
Protein engineering, biomedical engineering, enzyme kinetics,
antibody engineering
Bryan Vogt, Ph.D., Massachusetts
Nanostructured materials, organic electronics, supercritical fluids for
materials processing, moisture barrier technologies
Joe Wang, Ph.D., Technion.
Biosensors, nanobiotechnology, electrochemistry, biochips


Affiliate/Research Faculty
John Crittenden, Ph.D., N.A.E., P.E., Michigan.
Sustainability, catalysis, pollution prevention, physical chemical
treatment processes modeling of fixed-bed reactors and adsorbers,
surface chemistry and thermodynamics, modeling of wastewater and
water treatment processes
Paul Johnson, Ph.D., Princeton.
Chemical migration and fate in the environment as applied to
environmental risk assessment and the development, monitoring and
optimization of technologies for aquifer restoration and water
resources management
Bruce E. Rittmann, Ph.D., N.A.E., P.E., Stanford.
Environmental biotechnology, microbial ecology, environmental
chemistry, environmental engineering
Jonathan D. Posner, Ph.D., University of California-Irvine
Micro/nanofluidics, fuel cells, precision biology


Chemical Engineering Education









Graduate Program in the Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering


University of Arkansas


as- c The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas
S- offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees.
S i Qualified applicants are eligible for financial aid. Annual departmental
_- Ph.D. stipends provide $20,000, Doctoral Academy Fellowships provide
up to $25,000, and Distinguished Doctoral Fellowships provide $30,000.
For stipend and fellowship recipients, all tuition is waived. Applications
"a 0rs zoo received before April 1 will be given first consideration.


Areas of Research


El Biochemical engineering
El Biological and food systems
[E Biomaterials
[E Electronic materials processing
[E Fate of pollutants in the environment
[E Hazardous chemical release consequence analysis
[E Integrated passive electronic components


El Membrane separations
El Micro channel electrophoresis
[E Supercritical fluid t. hliii lo 1'.y
El Phase equilibria and process design


''I


Faculty
M.D. Ackerson
R.E. Babcock
R.R. Beitle
E.C. Clausen
J.A. Havens
C.N. Hestekin
J.A. Hestekin
J.W. King
W.R. Penney
D.K. Roper
T.O. Spicer
G.J. Thoma
R.K. Ulrich


For more information contact
Dr. Richard Ulrich or 479-575-5645
Chemical Engineering Graduate Program Information: http://www.cheg.uark.edu/graduate.asp


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


tit










AUBURN UNIVERSITY




Engineering





m Alternative Energy and Fuels
SBiochemical Engineering
SBiomaterials
m Biomedical Engineering
SBioprocessing and Bioenergy
SCatalysis and Reaction Engineering
m Computer-Aided Engineering
SDrug Delivery
SEnergy Conversion and Storage
m Environmental Biotechnology
SFuel Cells
m Green Chemistry
m Materials
SMEMS and NEMS
m Microfibrous Materials
m Nanotechnology
SPolymers
m Process Control
m Pulp and Paper
SSupercritical Fluids
m Surface and Interfacial Science
m Sustainable Engineering
SThermodynamics



Director of Graduate Recruiting
Department of Chemical Engineering
Auburn, AL 36849-5127
Phone 334.844.4827
Fax 334.844.2063
www.eng.auburn.edulche
chemical@ng.auburn.edu
Financial assistance is available to qualified applicants.


230 Chemical Engineering Education



















Vancouveris thelargestcityin Western Canada, ranked The University of British Columbia is the largest public university in Western Canada
the 3rdmost hlvable placein the world* Vancouver's and is ranked among the top 40 institutes in the world by Newsweek magazine, the
natural surroundings offer limitless opportunities for Times Higher Education Supplement and Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
outdoor uy rsuit ty hrou nhout tfhe e/ar- hikiyn cnoenn~n


mountain biking, skiing In 2010, the city will host the
Olympic and paraolympic WInter Games


Chercal and BiologcalEngneerg Buling, officallyopened n2006

Faculty


Susan A Baldwin (Toronto)
Chad PJ Bennington (British Columbia)
Xiaotao T Bi (British Columbia)
Bruce D Bowen (British Columbia)
Richard Branion (Saskatchewan)
Louise Creagh (California, Berkeley)
Sheldon J B Duff (McGill)
Naoko Ellis (British Columbia)
Peter Englezos (Calgary)
Norman Epstein ( New York)
James Feng (Minnesota)
Bhushan Gopaluni (Alberta)
John R Grace (Cambridge)
Elod Gyenge (British Columbia)
Savvas Hatzikiriakos (McGill)
Charles Haynes (California, Berkeley)
Dhanesh Kannangara (Ottawa)
Richard Kerekes (McGill)
Ezra Kwok (Alberta)
Anthony Lau (British Columbia)
Eric Legally (California, Santa Barbara)
C Jim Lim (British Columbia)
Mark D Martinez (British Columbia)
Madjid Mohseni (Toronto)
Colin Oloman (British Columbia)
Royann Petrell (Florida)
Kenneth Pinder (Birmingham)
James M Piret (MIT)
Dusko Posarac (Novi Sad)
Kevin J Smith (McMaster)
FariborzTaghipour (Toronto)
A Paul Watkinson (British Columbia)
David Wilkinson (Ottawa)


Faculty of Applied Science

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING


www. chml.ubc.ca/prog r/g rad


MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE (M.A.SC.)
MASTER OF ENGINEERING (M.ENG)
MASTER OF SCIENCE (M.SC.)
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (PH.D.).

Currently about 120 students are enrolled in graduate studies. The
program dates back to the 1920s. Nowadays the department has a
strong emphasis on interdisciplinary and joint programs, in particular
with the Michael Smith Laboratories, Pulp and Paper Research Institute
of Canada (PAPRICAN), Clean Energy Research Centre (CERC) and
the BRIDGE program which links public health, engineering and policy
research.


Main Areas of Research


Biological Enaineerina
Biochemical Engineering *
Biomedical Engineering *
Protein Engineering Blood
research Stem Cells
EneraG
Biomass and Biofuels Bio-oil
and Bio-diesel Combustion,
Gasification and Pyrolysis *
Electrochemical Engineering *
Fuel Cells Hydrogen
Production Natural Gas
Hydrate
Process Control
Pulp and Paper
Reaction Enaineerina


Environmental and Green
Engineering
Emissions Control Green
Process Engineering Life
Cycle Analysis Wastewater
Treatment Waste
Management *Aquacultural
Engineering
Particle Technology
Fluidization Multiphase Flow *
Fluid-Particle Systems *
Particle Processing *
Electrostatics
Kinetics and Catalysis
Polymer Rheoloav


Financial Aid

Students admitted to the
graduate programs leading to
the MA Sc, M Sc or Ph D
degrees receive at least a
minimum level of financial
support regardless of
citizenship (approximately
$16,500/year) Teaching
assistantships are available (up
to approximately $1,000 per
year) All student are eligible for
several merit based entrance
scholarships of $5,000/year and
University Graduate
Scholarships of approximately
$16,000/year


Mailing address 2360 East Mall, Vancouver B C, Canada V6T 1Z3 gradsec@chml ubc ca tel +1 (604) 822-3457

231


*2006 survey, the Economist magazine

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008







Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
Electrochemical Engineering
Polymers and Complex Fluids
Microsystems Technology and Microelectronics
Molecular Simulations and Theory
Interfacial Engineering
Product Development Masters Program 9
Biochemical and Bioprocess Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Synthetic Biology


4


\
\~


study Chemical

Engineering

at the University of California, Berkeley I


The Chemical Engineering Department at
the University of California, Berkeley, one
of the preeminent departments in the
field, offers graduate programs leading to
the Doctor of Philosophy or a Master of
Science in Product Development.


For more information visit our website at:
htp / heme kele .e


Chemical Engineering Education










CHEMICAL AND BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERING AT









FOCUSKAREAS FACULTY

0 Biomolecular and Cellular J. P. Chang
Engineering (William E Seyer Chair in
Materials Electrochemistry)
C Process Systems Engi- P. D. Christofides
neering (Simulation, 4
Design, Optimization, -.Y. Cohen
Dynamics, and Control) J. Davis
,r n (Assoc. Vice Chancellor
i Semiconductor Information Technology)
Manufacturing and C S R c.
Electronic Materials R.F. Hicks
E cMe s "L. Ignarro
(Nobel Laureate)
GENERAL THEMES "' J. C. Liao



w Nanoengineering ad V.I. Manousiouthakis
Nanoengineering H.G. Monbouquette
(Dept. Chair)
PROGRAMS G. Orkoulas
UCLA's Chemical and T. Segura
Biomolecular Engineering S.M. Senkan
Department offers a an
program of teaching and
research linking
fundamental engineering science and industrial practice. Our Department has strong graduate research programs
in Biomolecular Engineering, Energy and Environment, Semiconductor Manufacturing, Engineering of Materials,
and Process and Control Systems Engineering.
Fellowships are available for outstanding applicants interested in Ph.D. degree programs. A fellowship includes
a waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend.
Located five miles from the Pacific Coast, UCLA's attractive 417-acre campus extends from Bel Air to West-
wood Village. Students have access to the highly regarded engineering and science programs and to a variety of
experiences in theatre, music, art, and sports on campus.
CONTACT







Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 233













































Bourns College
of Engineering


Chemical Engineering Education











UC SANTA BARBARA


chemical engineering


Award-winning faculty

Bradley F Chmelka
Patrick S. Daugherty
Michael F Doherty
Francis J. Doyle III
Glenn H. Fredrickson, NAE
Michael J. Gordon
Jacob Israelachvili, NAE, NAS, FRS
Edward J. Kramer, NAE
L. Gary Leal, NAE
Glenn E. Lucas
Eric McFarland
Samir Mitragotri
Baron G. Peters
Susannah L. Scott
Dale E. Seborg
M. Scott Shell
Todd M. Squires
Theofanis G. Theofanous, NAE
Matthew V. Tirrell, NAE
Joseph A. Zasadzinski

Affiliatedfaculty
Song-1 Han
George M. (Bud) Homsy, NAE


SBA-16 (cubic mesoporous silica)


Interdisciplinary research

California Nanosystems Institute
Center for Control Engineering
and Computation
Center for Polymers and Organic Solids
Center for Risk Studies and Safety
Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies
Institute for Energy Efficiency
Institute for Quantum Engineering,
Science & Technology
International Center for Materials Research
Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics
Materials Research Laboratory

Interdisciplinary research and entrepreneurship are hallmarks of Engineering
at UCSanta Barbara. Many graduate students choose to be co-advised.


The UCSB campus, located on the Pacific Coast about 100 miles
northwest of Los Angeles, has more than 20,000 students.


Doctoral students in good academic standing receive financial support via teaching and research
assistantships. For additional information and to complete a pre-application form, visit
www.chemengr.ucsb.edu or contact chegrads@engineering.ucsb.edu


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


Is ,. ..










CALTECH

CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING


"At the Leading Edge"


The Warren and Katharine Schlinger Laboratory
for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering is scheduled to
open Fall, 2oo9.


CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE
OF TECHNOLOGY


, ,


Contact information:
Director of Graduate Studies
Chemical Engineering 210-41
California Institute
of Technology
Pasadena, CA 91125


http://www.che.caltech.edu


Frances H. Arnold Protein Engineering &
Directed Evolution, Biocatalysis,
Synthetic Biology, Biofuels

Anand R. Asthagiri Cellular & Tissue
Engineering, Systems Biology, Cancer &
Developmental Biology

John F. Brady Complex Fluids,
Brownian Motion, Suspensions

Mark E. Davis Biomedical Engineering,
Catalysis, Advanced Materials

Richard C. Flagan Aerosol Science,
Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics,
Bioaerosols, Nanotechnology, Nucleation

George R. Gavalas (emeritus)

Konstantinos P. Giapis Plasma Processing,
Ion-Surface Interactions, Nanotechnology

Sossina M. Haile Advanced Materials,
Fuel Cells, Energy, Electrochemistry,
Catalysis & Electrocatalysis

Julia A. Kornfield Polymer Dynamics,
Crystallization of Polymers, Physical Aspects
of the Design of Biomedical Polymers

John H. Seinfeld Atmospheric Chemistry &
Physics, Global Climate

David A. Tirrell Macromolecular Chemistry,
Biomaterials, Protein Engineering

Nicholas W. Tschoegl (emeritus)

Zhen-Gang Wang Statistical Mechanics,
Polymer Science, Biophysics


Chemical Engineering Education








I


I I Ii I H 1I 1 nii 11W,


SI! I I R- -iH I I I L!


:1 ifTTirJ-IT 1tk'i r I] T


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I~r,.,i lan I ris .[.' lpj 1 11': !!l ,rr, i II: 1' .% l, ih iJ h,, 'lj.
hI ll, i" r Il*h* ll ,'_\ 1 !,r*- IIllJ,***, lL Jr.. iud **I. lMr illI ,.hI l! ,**l !ltl *' !lt1,
Think you have the proper head gear?
Join our world-class crew and together we'll lay the foundation
for an exciting career in research.


( ari w Melloi niv. rr.ity

L . i ... .... I . ...l ..


1 I.... 4,1.. .I 1. 11 \l % 1 i. ..1.....
apply.cheme.cmu.edu
Contact Information
chemc-admissions+@andrewm Iu.edu
412.268.2230


Research TiiiusL Ateas
SBioengineernmg
* Complex Fluids Engineering
*r i ,ir .


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


1111l


{;1( MI; 1N llilk
















You will find Case to be an exciting environment to carry
out your graduate studies. Case has a long history of
scientific leadership. Our department alumni include many
prominent chemical engineers, such as Herbert Dow, the
founder of the Dow Chemical Company. We are located in
beautiful University Circle, the cultural and medical hub of
Cleveland, a "full service" city that is one of the most
affordable major cities in the country.
-The Chemical Engineering Faculty


Interdisciplinary Research
Opportunities
Energy Systems
Fuel Cells and Batteries
Micro and Bio Fuel Cells
Electrochemical Engineering
Membrane Transport, Fabrication

Biological Engineering
Biomedical Sensors and Actuators
Neural Prosthetic Devices
Cell & Tissue Engineering
Transport in Biological Systems

Advanced Materials and Devices
Diamond and Nitride Synthesis
Coatings, Thin Films and Surfaces
Unique Materials for Sensors
Fine Particle Science and Processing
Polymer Nanocomposites
Electrochemical Microfabrication
Processing
Molecular Simulations
Microplasmas and Microreactors


Faculty Members
John C. Angus
Harihara Baskaran
Robert V. Edwards
Donald L. Feke
Daniel J. Lacks
Uziel Landau
Chung-Chiun Liu
J. Adin Mann
Heidi B. Martin
Syed Qutubuddin
R. Mohan Sankaran
Robert F. Savinell
Thomas Zawodzinski


For more information on Graduate Research, Admission, and Financial Aid, contact:


UCASEWESTERNRESERVE
UNIVERSITY
CASE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING


Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
10900 Euclid Avenue
Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7217


E-mail: chemeng@case.edu
Web: http://www.case.edu/cse/eche


Chemical Engineering Education


Case Westem Reserve University

Advanced Study in Interdisciplinary Cutting-Edge Research









Opportunities for Graduate Study in CIL un, di Engineering at the









M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in

Chemical Engineering


,- Faculty = . .


A.P. Angelopoulos

Carlos Co

Junhang Dong

Joel Fried

Rakesh Govind

Vadim Guliants

Chia-chi Ho

Yuen-Koh Kao

Soon-Jai Khang

Paul Phillips

Neville Pinto

Vesselin Shanov

Peter Smirniotis


Financial Aid

Available
The University of Cincinnati is
committed to a policy of
non-discrimination in
awarding financial aid.

For Admission Information
Director, Graduate Studies
Department Chemical and
Materials Engineering
PO Box 210012
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0012
E-mail:
darla.bowen@uc.edu
or
vadim.guliants@uc.edu

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


Engineering
Research Cen-
ter that houses
most chemical
engineering
research.


E Emerging Energy Systems
Catalytic conversion of fossil and renewable resources into alternative fuels, such as hydrogen, alcohols and liquid
alkanes; solar energy conversion; inorganic membranes for hydrogen separation; fuel cells, hydrogen storage
nanomaterials
D Environmental Research
Mercury and carbon dioxide capture from power plant waste streams, air separation for oxycombustion; wastewa-
ter treatment, removal of volatile organic vapors
D Molecular Engineering
Application of quantum chemistry and molecular simulation tools to problems in heterogeneous catalysis,
(bio)molecular separations and transport of biological and drug molecules
D Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering
Selective catalytic oxidation, environmental catalysis, zeolite catalysis, novel chemical reactors, modeling and
design of chemical reactors, polymerization processes in interfaces, membrane reactors
D Membrane and Separation Technologies
Membrane synthesis and characterization, membrane gas separation, membrane filtration processes, pervapora-
tion; biomedical, food and environmental applications of membranes; high-temperature membrane technology,
natural gas processing by membranes; adsorption, chromatography, separation system synthesis, chemical reac-
tion-based separation processes
D Biotechnology
Nano/microbiotechnology, novel bioseparation techniques, separation, biodegradation of toxic wastes,
controlled drug delivery, two-phase flow
D Polymers
Thermodynamics, polymer blends and composites, high-temperature polymers, hydrogels, polymer rheology,
computational polymer science, molecular engineering and synthesis of surfactants, surfactants and interfacial
phenomena
D Bio-Applications of Membrane Science and Technology
This IGERT program provides a unique educational opportunity for U.S. Ph.D. students in areas of engineering,
science, medicine, or pharmacy with above focus. This program is supported by a five-year renewable grant from
the National Science Foundation. The IGERT fellowship consists of an annual stipend of $30,000 for up to three
years.
D Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology (INST)
INST brings together three centers of excellence-the Center for Nanoscale Materials Science, the Center for
BioMEMS and Nanobiosystems, and the Center for Nanophotonics-composed of faculty from the Colleges of En-
gineering, Arts and Sciences, and Medicine. The goals of the institute are to develop a world-class infrastructure
of enabling technologies, to support advanced collaborative research on nanoscale phenomena.














Chemical


Engineering at


The City College of


New York CUNY

(The City University of New York)


A 155-year-old urban University, the oldest public
University in America, on a 35-acre Gothic and modern
campus in the greatest city in the world


FACULTY RESEARCH:
Alexander Couzis: Polymorph
selective templated crystallization;
Molecularly thin organic barrier layers;
Surfactant facilitated wetting of hydro-
phobic surfaces; soft materials

Morton Denn_<: Polymer science
and rheology; non-Newtonian fluid
mechanics

Lane Gilchrist: Bioengineering with
cellular materials; Spectroscopy-guided
molecular engineering; Structural
studies of self-assembling proteins;
Bioprocessing

Ilona Kretzschmar: Materials science;
Nanotechnology; Electronic materials

Leslie Isaacs: Preparation and charac-
terization of novel materials; Applica-
tion of thermo-analytic techniques in
materials research

+Jae Lee: Theory of reactive distilla-
tion; Process design and control; Sepa-
rations; Bioprocessing; Gas hydrates

Charles Maldarelli: Interfacial
fluid mechanics and stability; Surface
tension driven flows and microfluidic
applica- tions; Surfactant adsorption,
phase be- havior and nanostructuring at
interfaces

Jeff Morris: Fluid mechanics; Fluid-
particle systems

+Irven Rinard: Process design meth-
odology; Process and energy systems
engineering; Bioprocessing

David Rumschitzki: Transport and
reaction aspects of arterial disease;
Interfacial fluid mechanics and stabil-
ity; Catalyst deactivation and reaction
engineering

240


Carol Steiner: Polymer solutions and
hydrogels; Soft biomaterials, Controlled
release technology

Raymond Tu: Biomolecular engineering;
Peptide design; DNA condensation; micro-
rheology

Gabriel Tardos: Powder technology;
Granulation; Fluid particle systems, Elec-
trostatic effects; Air pollution

Sheldon Weinbaumo: Fluid mechanics,
Biotransport in living tissue; Modeling of
cellular mechanism of bone growth; bioheat
transfer; kidney function


ASSOCIATED FACULTY:
Joel Koplik: (Physics) Fluid mechanics; Molecu-
lar modeling; Transport in random media
Hernan Makse: (Physics) Granular mechanics
'Mark Shattuck: (Physics) Experimental
granular rheology; Computational granular fluid
dynamics; Experimental spatio-temporal control
of patterns

EMERITUS FACULTY:
'Andreas Acrivos*-<
Robert Graff
Robert Peffer
+Reuel Shinnar-
Herbert Weinstein


o Levich Institute
+Clean Fuels Institute
National Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Engineering



CONTACT INFORMATION:
Department of Chemical Engineering
City College of New York
Convent Avenue at 140th Street
New York, NY 10031
www-che.engr.ccny.cuny.edu
chedept@ccny.cuny.edu


Chemical Engineering Education





















CHBE FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS:
lU KristiAnseth-biomaterials, photopoly-meriza-
tion, tissue engineering, and drug delivery
I[ Christopher Bowman -biomaterials, photopoly-
merization, reaction kinetics, polymer chemistry
I[ Stephanie Bryant-functional tissue engineer-
ing, mechanical conditioning, mechano-transduc-
tion, photopolymerization
I[ David Clough-process control
I[ Robert Davis -fluid mechanics of suspensions,
sedimentation, coagulation, filtration, particle
collisions in fluids, microbial suspensions, bio-
technology, membrane fouling
I[ John Falconer-heterogeneous catalysis, en-
vironmental catalysis, photocatalysis, zeolite
membranes
I[ Steven George-surface chemistry and thin
films, materials processing and environmental
interfaces
I[ Ryan Gill-evolutionary and inverse metabolic
engineering, genomics
I[ Douglas Gin-polymer science, liquid crystal
engineering, and nanomaterials chemistry
I[ Christine Hrenya-gas-particle fluidization,
granular flow mechanics, turbulent flows, com-
putational fluid mechanics
I[ Arthi Jayaraman-nanomaterials, biophysics,
molecular simulations and theory, statistical
thermodynamics
I[ Dhinakar Kompala- recombinant mammalian
and microbial cell cultures, high cell density
bioreactors design, bioprocess engineering
I[ Melissa Mahoney-neural tissue engineer-
ing, pancreatic regeneration, drug delivery,
biopolymers
[ Will Medlin -surface chemistry, heterogeneous
catalysis, solid-state chemical sensors, computa-
tional chemistry
I[ Charles Musgrave-theoretical studies of sur-
faces and reactions
I[ Richard Noble-reversible chemical complex-
ation for separations, mass transfer, mathematical
modeling, membranes, thin films
I[ Theodore Randolph-thermodynamics of pro-
tein solutions, lyophilization, supercritical fluid
reaction engineering
I[ Robert Sani- fluid dynamics
I[ Aaron Saunders- colloidal nanocrystals, materi-
als science
I[ Daniel Schwartz- interfacial phenomena, bioma-
terials, complex fluids, and nanoscale materials
I[ Jeffrey Stansbury-dental and biomedical poly-
meric materials, photopolymerization processes,
network polymers, hydrogels
I[ Mark Stoykovich-block copolymer self-as-
sembly and thin films
I[ David Walba- organic stereochemistry, photonic
materials and ferroelectric liquid crystals
I[ Alan Weimer-reactor engineering, advanced
ceramic materials, fluidization, environmental
resource recovery
Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


Colorado


University of Colorado at Boulder


The Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at the University of Colorado
at Boulder offers an outstanding graduate program that emphasizes the doctoral degree.
Our excellent national and international students take advantage of a high level of faculty-
student interaction and benefit from access to four interdisciplinary research centers: the
Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, the Center for Fundamentals and Application
of Photopolymerization, the Center for Membrane Applied Science and Technology, and
the newly-formed Colorado Center for Biorefining and Biofuels (C2B2).
The Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering is one of the top research
departments in the United States, based on publications and citations per faculty, and
maintains sophisticated facilities to support research endeavors. The faculty have won
numerous awards for research accomplishments and for teaching.
Some areas of research emphasis in the department include biomaterials, biopharma-
ceuticals, catalysis and surface science, complex fluids and microfluidic devices, energy
and environmental applications, functional materials designed at the micro- and nanoscale,
membranes and separations, metabolic engineering and directed evolution, nanostructured
films and devices, polymer chemistry and polymer engineering, reaction engineering, re-
newable energy, sensors,
and tissue engineering.
We invite prospec- For information and online application:
tive graduate students Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical
& Biological Engineering University of Colorado at Boulder,
to learn more about 424 UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0424
our department and Phone (303) 492-7471 Fax (303) 492-4341
ongoing research at chbegrad@colorado.edu
www.colorado.edu/che. http://www.colorado.edu/che/















... school of mining founded in
1873, CSM is a unique, highly-

a R u scholarship and research in
materials, energy, and the envi-





sources include federal agencies such as the NSF, DOE, DARPA, ONR,
NREL, NIST, NIH as well as multiple industries. Research areas within the
department include:

Material Science and Engineering
Organic and inorganic membranes (Way)
Polymeric materials (Dorgan, Wu, Liberatore)
Colloids and complex fluids (Marr, Wu, Liberatore)
Electronic materials (Wolden, Agarwal)

Theoretical and Applied Thermodynamics
Molecular simulation and modeling (Ely, Wu, Sum)
Natural gas hydrates (Sloan, Koh, Sum)

Biomedical and Biophysics Research
Microfluidics (Marr, Neeves), .D ,




Water mist flame suppression (McKinnon)
Fuel Cell Research
Low temperature fuel cell catalysts (Herring)
High temperature fuel cell kinetics (Dean)
H2 separation and fuel cell membranes (Way, Herring)
Reaction mechanisms (McKinnon, Dean, Herring)


Finally, located at the foot of the Rocky
Mountains and only 15 miles from downtown
Denver, Golden enjoys over 300 days of
sunshine per year. These factors combine to
provide year-round cultural, recreational, and
entertainment opportunities virtually
unmatched anywhere in the United States.


Faculty
* S. Agarwal (UCSB, 2003)

* A.M. Dean (Harvard, 1971)

* J.R. Dorgan (Berkeley, 1991)

SJ.F. Ely (Indiana, 1971)

* A. Herring (Leeds, 1989)

* C.A. Koh (Brunel, 1990)

* M. Liberatore (Illinois, 2003)

* D.W.M. Marr (Stanford, 1993)

* J.T. McKinnon (MIT, 1989)

* R.L. Miller (CSM, 1982)

* K.R. Neeves (Cornell, 2006)

* E.D. Sloan (Clemson, 1974)

* A.K. Sum (Delaware, 2001)

* J.D. Way (Colorado, 1986)

* C.A. Wolden (MIT, 1995)

* D.T. Wu (Berkeley, 1991)


http://www.mines.edu/academic/chemeng/


Chemical Engineering Education


I %


































Research Areas
Bioanalytical Chemistry
Biofuels and Biorefining
Biomaterials
Cell and Tissue Engineering
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Membrane Science
Microfluidics
Polymer Science
Synthetic and Systems Biology

Faculty
Travis S. Bailey, Ph.D., U. Minnesota
Laurence A. Belfiore, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin
David S. Dandy, Ph.D., Caltech
J.D. (Nick) Fisk, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin
Matt J. Kipper, Ph.D., Iowa State U.
James C. Linden, Ph.D., Iowa State U.
Christie Peebles, Ph.D., Rice U.
Ashok Prasad, Ph.D., Brandeis U.
Kenneth F. Reardon, Ph.D., Caltech
Brad Reisfeld, Ph.D., Northwestern U.
Qiang (David) Wang, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin
A. Ted Watson, Ph.D., Caltech
Ranil Wickramasinghe, Ph.D.,
U. Minnesota

View faculty and student research
videos, find application information,
and get other information at
http://cbe.colostate.edu


Research
The graduate program in the Department of Chemical and Biological
Engineering at Colorado State University offers students a broad range of
cutting-edge research areas led by faculty who are world renowned experts
in their respective fields. Opportunities for collaboration with many other
department across the University are abundant, including departments in
the Colleges of Engineering, Natural Sciences, and Veterinary Medicine and
Biomedical Sciences.

Financial Support
Research Assistantships pay a competitive stipend. Students on
assistantships also receive tuition support. The department has a number
of research assistantships. Students select research projects in their area of
interest from which a thesis or dissertation may be developed. Additional
University fellowship awards are available to outstanding applicants.

Fort Collins
Located in Fort Collins, Colorado State University is perfectly positioned as
a gateway to the Rocky Mountains.
With its superb climate (over 300
days of sunshine per year), there
are exceptional opportunities for
outdoor pursuits including hiking,
biking, skiing, and rafting.


For additional information or
to schedule a visit of campus:
Department of Chemical and
Biological Engineering
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523-1370
Phone: (970) 491-5253
Fax: (970) 491-7369
E-mail: cbegrad@colostate.edu


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008






















Unvrst .6f 66onn 6ct6cut









244 ChemicallEngineeringgEducatio










Graduate Study & Research in Chemical Engineering
at



Dartmouth's Thayer School of Engineering

Dartmouth and its affiliated professional schools offer PhD degrees in the full range of science disciplines as well as
MD and MBA degrees. The Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College offers an ABET-accredited BE degree,
as well as MS, Masters of Engineering Management, and PhD degrees. The Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Program features courses in foundational topics in chemical engineering as well as courses serving our areas of research
specialization:
Biotechnology and biocommodity engineering
Environmental science and engineering
Fluid mechanics
Materials science and engineering
Process design and evaluation
These important research areas are representative of those found in chemical engineering departments around the world.
A distinctive feature of the Thayer School is that the professors, students, and visiting scholars active in these areas have
backgrounds in a variety of engineering and scientific subdisciplines. This intellectual diversity reflects the reality that
boundaries between engineering and scientific subdisciplines are at best fuzzy and overlapping. It also provides opportunities
for students interested in chemical and biochemical engineering to draw from several intellectual traditions in coursework
and research. Fifteen full-time faculty are active in research involving chemical engineering fundamentals.




Faculty & Research Areas
Ian Baker (Oxford) Structure/property relationships of materials, electron microscopy
John Collier (Dartmouth) Orthopaedic prostheses, implant/host interfaces
Alvin Converse (Delaware) Kinetics & reactor design, enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose
Benoit Cushman-Roisin (Florida State) Numerical modeling of environmental fluid dynamics
Harold Frost (Harvard) Microstructural evolution, deformation, and fracture of materials
Tillman Gerngross (Technical University of Vienna) Engineering of glycoproteins, fermentation technology
Ursula Gibson (Cornell) Thin film deposition, optical materials
Karl E. Griswold (University of Texas at Austin) Protein Engineering
Francis Kennedy (RPI) D Tribology, surface mechanics
Daniel R. Lynch (Princeton) Computational methods, oceanography, and water resources
Lee Lynd (Dartmouth) Biomass processing, pathway engineering, reactor & process design
Victor Petrenko (USSR Academy of Science) Physical chemistry of ice
Erland Schulson (British Columbia) Physical metallurgy of metals and alloys
Petia Vlahovska (Yale University) Rheology of complex fluids, biological fluid dynamics, membrane biophysics



For further information, please contact:

Chemical Engineering Graduate Advisor Thayer School of Engineering Dartmouth College Hanover, NH 03755
http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/thayer/research/chemical.html
Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 2,












S1.1 N I E T i C F D EL 2 E Chemical Engineering at Delaware is ranked, by
Small metrics, in the top 10 programs in the US with
SCEhemic En ineein world-wide reputation and reach. Built on a long
and distinguished history, we are a vigorous and
active leader in chemical engineering research
and teaching. Our graduate students work with
a talented and diverse faculty, and there is a
correspondingly rich range of research and educational opportunities that are distinctive to Delaware.
We currently have 24 full time faculty, over 100 graduate students, nearly $9M in annual research
expenditures, and publish well over 100 scientific manuscripts and patents per year. The range of
research varies tremendously-from biomolecular and metabolic engineering to catalysis, energy, green
engineering, nanostructured materials, complex fluids engineering and polymers-advances are being
made in each area at Delaware. Finally, Delaware is one of the top chemical engineering departments
in the US in terms of faculty diversity, and is among the largest producers of Chemical Engineering PhD
students in the US.


GRADUATE EDUCATION at Delaware
offers unique opportunities for
professional development, including

>> The Teaching Fellows program
> Participation in national and
international conferences and
workshops
> Two annual student-run Departmental
symposia
The Teaching Fellows program promotes
the development of the next generation
of academic educators and scholars by
enabling graduate students to co-teach
Chemical Engineering courses with a
faculty mentor.

The graduate symposia are run by our
graduate student organization, the
Colburn Club, which also organizes social
activities and recruiting events within the
Department.

All graduate students are supported as
research assistants, and are provided a
comfortable stipend for living expenses.
Special competitive fellowships are
available to the best qualified applicants.

INDUSTRIAL COLLABORATIONS are
a hallmark of our Department. Many
research groups collaborate with local
and national industrial laboratories.


This blend of academic and applied
engineering research gives our students
a unique perspective that is useful
in academic or industrial careers.
We are close to major chemical and
pharmaceutical industry leaders.

CENTERS AND PROGRAMS provide
unique environments and experiences for
graduate students. These include:

> Delaware Biotechnology Institute (DBI)
> Center for Catalytic Science and
Technology (CCST)
> Center for Molecular and Engineering
Thermodynamics (CMET)
> Center for Neutron Science (CNS)
> Co..rei 1.:.n C.:. ..c..:.:.r_ n .renn l: sliCC ti
>> C l', rn''n:[ ,. e ..:.l.:.;., ln'r l .:e IC b I I
> In stitu te i.:.. t ...Ir. i,.: 1i t.:..]^ l.r.. .:.1
Biological ihr.rI i .:r..:.r.: i I: :i li
>> Solar H 1,.:..;-.e. iCEPT

INTERDISCIPLINARY o.:.rL d.:.ne at the
interfaces bet een rrajor re:ear.:h field:,
often throLgh :Io:e .:.ollabo:.rati.:.n: arnono
the faculty and .:.ther departmrrnt:

AFTER GRADUATION our graduate:
find fulfillie career: in 3.:ad.erria and,
industrial re:ear.:h, a3: 11 a: in la ,
medicine, and business.


Academia-Our graduates hold positions at
top-ten research institutions, as well as
in many other programs world-wide.

Industry-Delaware students are sought
after by local, regional, national and
international corporations.

DEPARTMENT RECOGNITION

>> #10 (2008 U.S. News Et World Report)
>> #3 (National Research Council, 1994)
>> 14 NSF CAREER and Presidential Young
Investigator Award Winners
>> 3 National Academy of Engineering
(NAE) Members
>> 10 Named Professors

LOCATION The Un, er:it, o:.f Dela are has
a c:.lle e.t. n atrMO.:.p.here. t e are
.:entrall, lc.:..:ated bet n N .:.rk City
and 3a:hingt.:.n. '. at the heart of the
3ea:t :'3:t':t :herri.:31a and pharrrmaceutical
indu;:trie:

APPLICATION t: the graduate pr.:.oram
i .:..:.ordinated thr.:.u h the Lini er:ity's
Off..:e of Graduate 5tudie:
The appll,:ati,:n :an be found at
U.]^l j..l '--:l iw.].: r.l : .' lpp: l ::l' ': .
..dri::i.-n: are r.:.lling. and the
application deadline is March 15 (earlier
applications are strongly encouraged.)


Browse our site www.che.udel.edu for updated news and information on our graduate program,
faculty research and alumni achievements!


APPLY ON LINE:
.udel.edu /gradeoffice/apphicantt



&EHIAWARE

I 4.'l .l :1 I' ,,, '-'' r--i l-:.ll:' l ii l L l:.:i i:i 'l- ". i, Ij. 1 'i. 1 ,:

Fa, 2 71 ?119
WWW.CHE.UDEL.EDU


Chemical Engineering Education


RESEARCH AREAS

Blomotecuilar, Cellular. and Protein Engineering,
Caulysis and Energy
Metabolic Engineering
Systems, Biology
Soft, Atakerlats, C61JIelds and Polymers
Surface Science
NanstechniAngy
Process Systems Engineering
Green Engineering


i&'N








DTU


Technical University of Denmark

Do your graduate studies in Europe!


The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is a
modern, internationally oriented technological
university placed centrally in Scandinavia's Medicon
Valley one of the worlds leading biotech clusters. It
was founded 1 77 years ago by H. C. Orsted. The
University has 6000 students preparing for their BSc
or MSc degrees, 600 PhD students and takes 400
foreign students a year on English-taught courses.
The DTU campus is located close to the city of
Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark.


Chemical Engineering focus areas of research and the research groups are:

Applied Thermodynamics, Aerosol Technology, Bio Process Engineering, Catalysis, Combustion Processes
Emission Control, Enzyme technology, Membrane Technology, Polymer Chemistry & Technology
Process Control, Product Engineering, Oil and Gas Production, Systems Engineering, Transport Phenomena
BioEng CAPEC CHEC DPC IVC-SEP


The Department of Chemical Engineering (KT) is a leading research institution. The
research results find application in biochemical processes, computer aided product
and process engineering, energy, enhanced oil recovery, environment protection
and pollution abatement, information technology, and products, formulations &
materials.

The department has excellent experimental facilities serviced by a well-equipped
workshop and well-trained technicians. The Hempel Student Innovation Laboratory
is open for students' independent experimental work. The unit operations laboratory
and pilot plants for distillation, reaction, evaporation, crystallization, etc. are used
for both education and research. Visit us at http://www.kt.dtu.dk/English.aspx.

Graduate programs at Department of Chemical Engineering:


Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
http://www.kt.dtu.dk/cbe
Petroleum Engineering
http://www.ivc-sep.kt.dtu.dk/petroleum/
Advanced and Applied Chemistry
http://www.kt.dtu.dk/aachemistry


The starting point for
general information
about MSc studies at
DTU is:
http://www.dtu.dk/msc


Stig Wedel sw@kt.dtu.dk

Erling H. Stenby ehs@kt.dtu.dk

Georgios Kontogeorgis gk@kt.dtu.dk


Visit the University at http:.','Avvw. dtdu.dk english.aspx

Department of Chemical Engineering


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008















Drexel University

Department of Chemical

and Biological Engineering


Faculty

Cameron F Abrams





Jason B Baxler
l II,,,. ; ,r, -,i I .



Richard A Cairncross
,1 1 I I, . ,r .,I ,,,,,,. .



Nily R Dan



Yossel A Elabd
1 ,111 I ,., H I.,I



Ehhu D Grossmann
I I I I ..1 .1


Kennelh K S Lau
IFI I l.l : :: I ., I...I : n




Anihony M Lowman
1>,11l I, h.1.I h,- II ,.-I ;ir,


Rai Mulharasan
,11 I I.. -.. I I, .. ... r,



Giuseppe R Palmese Head





Masoud Soroush



Charles B Weinberger



Sleven P Wrenn

,,, ... .. .. .. .


Chemical Engineering Education





































AwVard-winning lacuity
Ctuling-edge lacililies
Evlensive engineering resources
An hour rom Ihe Allanhic Ocean
and Ihe Gull o-i le ICO


Faculty
Tim Ander.:,n
Aravindj Aslhailin
Jac.:,n E Ei.Uller
Ani i:'ha ihan
ilicar CI 'nsalle
Jennifer Sinclair n Iuir
F'i,:harj E'P. fi,:lin .:in
Helena Hagqelin-.Ieaver
G'ar H.i:'I.ind
Peng Jianq
Lewis E J:rhn
Dmilry Ki:irpelevi;h
Anlh,:,ny J Ladd
Tanmay Lele
F'anga arayanan
Mar, E ,:,razem
i hanI.-A,:,n F'arl
Fan R:en
Dinesh 11 Shah
spyr,:,S Sv,:,r,:,n,:,S
iiiider TWeng
Serge Va.ent :,v
Jags:,n F lAieaver
K.rl Ziqeler


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


WIIn













: Florida Institute of Technology



Graduate studies in Chemical Engineering

Join a small, vibrant campus on Florida's Space Coast to reach your full academic and
professional potential. Florida Tech, the only independent, scientific and technological
university in the Southeast, has grown to become a university of international standing.

Faculty
P.A. Jennings, Ph.D., Department Head
J.E. Whitlow, Ph.D.
M.M. Tomadakis, Ph.D. q
M.E. Pozo de Fernandez, Ph.D.
J.R. Brenner, Ph.D.
R.G. Barile, Ph.D.
S. Dutta, Ph.D.

Research Interests
Spacecraft Technology
In-Situ Resource Utilization
Alternative Energy Sources
Materials Science
Membrane Technology
Hydrogen Technology

Research Partners 'v
NASA
Department of Energy
Department of Defense
Florida Solar Energy Center
Florida Space Grant


For more information, contact
Florida Institute of Technology
College of Engineering
Department of Chemical Engineering
150 W. University Blvd.
Melbourne, FL 32901-6975 '
(321) 674-8068 http://che.fit.edu


Chemical Engineering Education












Georgia Hnr1tato
ofTechnJolo@gy
S CONTACT INFORMATION:
k Dr. Amyn Teja, Associate Chair for Graduate Studies
School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
lanta, Georgia 30332-0100
grad.info@4chbe.gatech.edu
404.894.1838
404.894.2866 fax


rm Why, Genorgia,Tgch?
0 1.. 1. ,. Tech's School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering is one the oldest and
I.., 1 programs of its kind in the United States
0 Loutad in the heart of Atlanta, our students have unprecedented research, cultural, and
professional opportunities
D ChBE faculty members have received a combined total of 67 national and international awards
Six Members of the National Academy of Engineering
Ten NSF CAREER Award Winners
Cutting Edge. Res ach.

Biomedical Engineering
SBiotechnology, Bioinformatics & Bioprocessing
Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics & Reaction Engineering
Complex Fluids & Multiphase Flow
SEnergy Transformation & Utilization
SEnvironmental Science & Sustainable Development
M.S. inBiegieMicroelectronics, Microfluidics & MEMS
Nanotechnology
D in Beinrin Polymers & Materials Science
SProcess Systems Engineering
M.S i ae S n an E rin Pulp & Paper
V Separations
Ph.D. in Paper Sciee and Eng Thermodynamics & Intermolecular
Interactions







"'Atlantaoffers the av tg o a big ci but hs t
spri of a sm ltw KeithReed (Ph.D. stdet B.S MIT


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 251














UNIVERSITY of HOUSTON



Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering

Graduate Program





HOUSTON-Dynamic Hub of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

Houston is the dominant hub of the U.S. energy and chemical industries, as well as the
home of NASA's Johnson Space Center and the world-renowned Texas Medical Center. -

The Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Department at the University of Houstoni
offers excellent facilities, competitive financial support, industrial internships, and an
environment conducive to personal and professional growth.

Houston offers the educational, cultural, business, sports, and entertainment advantages
of a large and diverse metropolitan area, with significantly lower costs than average.



Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Research Faculty


Amundson
Balakotaiah
Harold
Luss
Richardson
T -1--


Daneshy* 10oos s
Economides* ENVIRONMENTAL
Mohanty & REACTION
Nikolaou ENGINEERING
Strasser


ENERGY CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING ENGINEERING


Balakotaiah
Harold
Jacobson* NANO-MATERIALS
Luss
Nikolaou Advincula*
Richardson Donnelly
Doxastakis
Economou
Flumerfelt
Jacobson*
Krishnamoorti
Lee*
Litvinov*
Stein'


Chellam*
Economou
c .-......-..


Strasser Annapragada*
Willson Bidani*
Briggs*
Fox*
Vekilov
Willson


BIOMOLECULAR
ENGINEERING


Doxastakis
Krishnamoorti
Mohanty

Chellam*
Harold
Luss
Nikolaou
Richardson
Strasser
Vekilov


* Adjunct
+ Affiliated
+ Jan. 2009
Bold denotes primary research area.


For more information:
Vsit: www.chee.uh.edu
Email: grad-che@uh.edu
Write: University of Houston
Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering
Graduate Admission
S222 Engineering Building 1
Houston, TX 77204-4004


UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON
The Universty of Houston s an equal opportunity nstituton. CULLEN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

252 Chemical Engineering Education













The University of Illinois at Chicago


u I C Department of Chemical Engineering


MS and PhD -

Graduate Program


FACULTY

Sohail Murad, Professor and Head
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
E-Mail: Murad@uic.edu
John H. Kiefer, Professor Emeritus
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
E-Mail: Kiefer@uic.edu
Andreas A. Linninger, Associate Professor
Ph.D., Vienna University of Technology, 1992 l
E-Mail: Linninge@uic.edu
G. Ali Mansoori, Professor
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
E-Mail: Mansoori@uic.edu
Randall Meyer, Assistant Professor
Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin, 2001
E-Mail: Rjm@uic.edu
Ludwig C. Nitsche, Associate Professor
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1989
E-Mail: LCN@uic.edu
John Regalbuto, Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986
E-Mail: JRR@uic.edu RPRP AR?,CH- AREFPAS


Christos Takoudis, Professor
Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1982
E-Mail: Takoudis@uic.edu
Raffi M. Turian, Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
E-Mail: Turian@uic.edu
Lewis E. Wedgewood, Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1988
E-Mail: Wedge@uic.edu
Ying Liu, Assistant Professor
Ph.D., Princeton University, 2007
E-mail: liuying@uic.edu
Laszlo T. Nemeth, Adjunct Professor
Ph.D., University of Debrecen, Hungary, 1978
E-Mail: Lnemeth@uic.edu
Anil Oroskar, Adjunct Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1981
E-Mail: anil@orochem.com


Transport Phenomena: Transport properties of fluids, Slurry transport, Multiphase fluid flow.
Fluid mechanics of polymers, Ferro fluids and other Viscoelastic media.
Thermodynamics: Molecular simulation and Statistical mechanics of liquid mixtures, Superficial fluid
extraction/retrograde condensation, Asphaltene characterization, Membrane-based separations.
Kinetics and Reaction Engineering: Gas-solid reaction kinetics, Energy transfer processes, Laser
diagnostics, and Combustion chemistry. Environmental technology, Surface chemistry, and optimization.
Catalyst preparation and characterization, Supported metals, Chemical kinetics in automotive engine emis-
sions. Density fictional theory calculations of reaction mechanisms.
Biochemical Engineering: Bioinstrumentation, Bioseparations, Biodegradable polymers, Nonaqueous
Enzymology, Optimization of mycobacterial fermentations.
Materials: Microelectronic materials and processing, Heteroepitaxy in group IV materials, and in situ
surface spectroscopies at interfaces. Combustion synthesis of ceramics and synthesis in supercritical fluids.
Product and Process Development and design, Computer-aided modeling and simulation, Pollution
prevention.
Biomedical Engineering Hydrodynamics of the human brain, Microvasculation, Fluid structure interaction
in biological tissues, Targeted drug delivery and Medical imaging.
Nanoscience and Engineering Molecular-based study of matter in nanoscale, Organic nanostructures,
Self-assembly and Positional assembly. Properties of size-selected clusters.


For more information, write to
Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago 810 S. Clinton St. Chicago, IL 60607-7000 (312) 996-3424 Fax (312) 996-0808
URL: http://www.uic.edu/depts/chme/
Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008









UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAM PAIGN


Chemical and Biomolecular

Engineering

The combination of distinguished faculty, outstanding
facilities, and a diversity of research interests results in
exceptional opportunities for graduate education at the
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The Chemical
and Biomolecular Engineering Department offers graduate
programs leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.

For more information visit www.chemeng.uiuc.edu
Or write to:
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
114 Roger Adams Laboratory, Box C-3
600 South Mathews Avenue
Urbana, IL 61801-3602

Department of Chemical
4r%^ & Biomolecular Engineering
THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN


Chemical Engineering Education
















































Research Areas


Energy & Sustainability
Fuel Cells & Batteries I Fluidization & Gasification I Hybrid Systems

Advanced Materials
Interfacial & Transport Phenomena I Nanotechnology


Biological Engineering
Molecular Modeling I Diabetes I Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Engineering

Systems Engineering
Complex Systems I Advanced Process Control I Process Modeling


Faculty Research Interests

Javad Abbasian (Illinois Institute of Technology) Hamid Arastoopour (lllinois Institute of Technology)
Coal gasification, high temperature gas cleaning Computational fluid dynamics of multi-phase
and process development systems, nanoparticle fluidization


Ali Cinar (TexasA&M)
Modeling, analysis and control of complex
distributed systems, batch process supervision


Dimitri Gidaspow (llinois Institute of Technology)
Hydrodynamics of multi-phase flow, coal
gasification, fuel cells


Satish Parulekar (Purdue University) Victor Perez-Luna (University of Washington)
Chemical and biochemical reaction engineering Surface chemistry, biomaterials, biosensors,
hydrogels, nanotechnology


Vijay Rama ni (university of Connecticut)
Electrochemistry, fuel cell materials


David C. Venerus (Penn State University)
Transport phenomena in complex materials,
polymer rheology and processing


Jay D. Schieber (University of Wisconsin)
Multiscale modeling of macromolecules, transport
phenomena, statistical mechanics

Darsh T. Wasan (UC-Berkeley)
Interfacial phenomena, wetting and spreading,
nanofluids, food colloids


Donald Chmielewski (University of California LA)
Design and control of energy systems


Allan S. Myerson (University of Virginia)
Crystallization and molecular modeling for
pharmaceutical processes

Jai Prakash (Case Western Reserve University)
Electrochemical characterization of novel materials
for batteries, fuel cells

Fouad Teymour (University of Wisconsin)
Complex systems, polymer engineering


www.chbe.iit.edu


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008










Graduate program for M.S. and Ph.D. degrees

in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering


FACULTY


Gary A. Aurand
North Carolina State U.
1996
Supercritical fluids/
High pressure biochem-
ical reactors


Greg Carmichael Chris
U. of Kentucky 1979 Coretsopoulos
Global change/ U. of Illinois at Urbana
Supercomputing/ Champaign 1989
Air pollution modeling Photopolymerization/
Microfabrication/
Spectroscopy


Jennifer Fiegel
Johns Hopkins 2004
Drug delivery/
Nano and
microtechnology/
Aerosols


C. Allan Guymon
U. of Colorado 1997
Polymer reaction
engineering/UV curable
coatings/Polymer liquid
crystal composites


Stephen K. Hunter
U. of Utah 1989
Bioartificial organs/
Microencapsulation
technologies


David Rethwisch
U. of Wisconsin 1985
Membrane science/
Polymer science/
Catalysis


Julie L.P. Jessop
Michigan State U. 1999
Polymers/
Microlithography/
Spectroscopy


Aliasger K. Salem
U. of Nottingham 2002
Tissue engineering/
Drug delivery/Polymeric
biomaterials/Immuno-
cancer therapy/Nano
and microtechnology


David
Murhammer
U. of Houston 1989
Insect cell culture/
Bioreactor monitoring


Alec B. Scranton
Purdue U. 1990
Photopolymerization/
Reversible emulsifiers/
Polymerization kinetics


Eric E. Nuxoll
U. of Minnesota 2003
Controlled release/
microfabrication/
drug delivery












Charles 0. Stanier
Carnegie Mellon
University 2003
Air pollution chemis-
try, measurement, and
modeling/Aerosols


Venkiteswaran
Subramanian
Indian Institute of Science
1978
Biocatalysis/Metabolism/
Gene expression/
Fermentation/Protein
purification/Biotechnology


Tonya L. Peeples
Johns Hopkins 1994
Bioremediation/
Extremophile physiol-
ogy and biocatalysis


Ramaswamy
Subramanian
Indian Institute of
Science 1992
Structural enzymol-
ogy/Structure function
relationship in proteins

For information
and application:
THE UNIVERSITY
OF IOWA
Graduate Admissions
Chemical and
Biochemical Engineering
4133 Seamans Center
Iowa City IA 52242-1527
1-800-553-IOWA
(1-800-553-4692)
chemeng@icaen.uiowa.edu
www.engineering.uiowa.
edu/~chemeng/


Chemical Engineering Education















IOWA STATE UNIVRSIY l
OF SIENE AD TCHN LOG


co
fin
st
to



Robert C. Brown
PhD, Michigan State University
Biorenewable resources for energy
Aaron R. Clapp
PhD, University of Florida
Colloidal and interfacial phenomena
Eric W. Cochran
PhD, University of Minnesota
Self-assembled polymers
Rodney 0. Fox
PhD, Kansas State University
Computational fluid dynamics and reaction
engineering
Charles E. Glatz
PhD, University of Wisconsin
Bioprocessing and bioseparations
Kurt R. Hebert
PhD, University of Illinois
Corrosion and electrochemical engineering
James C. Hill
PhD, University of Washington
Turbulence and computational fluid dynamics
Andrew C. Hillier
PhD, University of Minnesota
Interfacial engineering and electrochemistry
Laura Jarboe
PhD, University of California-LA
Biorenewables production by metabolic
engineering
Kenneth R. Jolls
PhD, University of Illinois
Chemical thermodynamics and separations
Mark J. Kushner
PhD, California Institute of Technology
Computational optical and discharge physics


wa State University's Department of
chemical and Biological Engineering
fers excellent programs for graduate
search and education. Our cutting-
dge research crosses traditional
sciplinary lines and provides
udents. Our diverse faculty are leaders
their fields and have won national and
international recognition for both
search and education, our facilities
laboratories, instrumentation, and
imputing) are state of the art, and our
ancial resources give graduate
udents the support they need not just
succeed, but to excel. Our campus



Monica H. Lamm
PhD, North Carolina State University
Molecular simulations of advanced materials
Surya K. Mallapragada
PhD, Purdue University
Tissue engineering and drug delivery
Balaji Narasimhan
PhD, Purdue University
Biomaterials and drug delivery
Jennifer O'Donnell
PhD, University of Delaware
Amphiphile self-assembly and controlled
polymerizations
Michael G. Olsen
PhD, University of Illinois
Experimental fluid mechanics and turbulence
Peter J. Reilly
PhD, University of Pennsylvania
Enzyme engineering and bioinformatics
Derrick K. Rollins
PhD, Ohio State University
Statistical process control
Ian Schneider
PhD, North Carolina State University
Cell migration and mechanotransduction
Brent H. Shanks
PhD, California Institute of Technology
Heterogeneous catalysis and biorenewables
Jacqueline V. Shanks
PhD, California Institute of Technology
Metabolic engineering and plant biotechnology.
R. Dennis Vigil
PhD, University of Michigan
Transport phenomena and reaction engineerir
in multiphase systems


houses several interdisciplinary research
centers, including the Ames Laboratory
(a USDOE laboratory focused on
materials research), the Plant Sciences
Institute, the Office of Biotechnology, the
Bioeconomy Institute, and the Institute
for Combinatorial Discovery.

The department offers MS and PhD
degrees in chemical engineering.
Students with undergraduate degrees in
chemical engineering or related fields
can be admitted to the program. We
offer full financial support with tuition
coverage and competitive stipends to all
our graduate students.


arn -- in'va 0011
515 294-7643

cheniengr@iastate.edu
-- I -- I hI


Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of
race, color, age, religion, national origin, sexual orientation,
sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U S Vietnam
Era Veteran Any persons having inquiries concerning
this may contact the Director of Equal Opportunity and
Diversity, 3680 Beardshear Hall, 515 294-7612 ECM 08499


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 25










- Graduate Study in Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the


UNIVERSITY OF


KANSAS


The University of Kansas is the largest and most comprehensive university in
Kansas. It has an enrollment of more than 28,000 and almost 2,000 faculty mem-
bers. KU offers more than 100 bachelors', nearly 90 masters', and more than 50
doctoral programs. The main campus is in Lawrence, Kansas, with other campuses
in Kansas City, Wichita, Topeka, and Overland Park, Kansas.
Graduate Programs
[1 M.S. degree with a thesis requirement in both chemical and petroleum engineering
[1 Ph.D. degree characterized by moderate and flexible course requirements and a strong research emphasis
[1 Typical completion times are 16-18 months for a M.S. degree and 4 1/2 years for a Ph.D. degree (from B.S.)


Faculty
Cory Berkland (Ph.D., Illinois)
Kyle V. Camarda (Ph.D., Illinois)
R.V. Chaudhari (Ph.D., Bombay University)
Michael Detamore (Ph.D., Rice)
Stevin H. Gehrke (Ph.D., Minnesota)
Don W. Green, (Ph.D., Oklahoma)
Javier Guzman (Ph.D., UC Davis)
Colin S. Howat (Ph.D., Kansas)
Jenn-Tai Liang (Ph.D., Texas)
Trung V. Nguyen (Ph.D., Texas A&M)
Karen J. Nordheden (Ph.D., Illinois)
Russell D. Osterman (Ph.D., Kansas)
Aaron Scurto (Ph.D., Notre Dame)
Marylee Z. Southard (Ph.D., Kansas)
Susan M. Williams (Ph.D., Oklahoma)
Bala Subramaniam (Ph.D., Notre Dame)
Shapour Vossoughi (Ph.D., Alberta, Canada)
Laurence V\ iidi.k Chair (Ph.D., Cambridge)
G. Paul Willhite (Ph.D., Northwestern)


Catalytic Kinetics and Reaction Engineering
Catalytic Materials and Membrane Processing
Controlled Drug Delivery
Corrosion, Fuel Cells, Batteries
Electrochemical Reactors and Processes
Electronic Materials Processing
Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes
Fluid Phase Equilibria and Process Design
Liquid/ Liquid Systems
Molecular Product Design
NanoTechnology for Biological Applications
Process Control and Optimization
Protein and Tissue Engineering
Supercritical Fluid Applications
Waste Water Treatment


FinancialAid
Financial aid is available in the form of research and teaching
assistantships and fellowships/ scholarships. A special program
is described below.
Madison & Lila Self Graduate Fellowship

For additional information and application:
http: //www.unkans.edu/~selfpro/


Research Centers
Tertiary Oil Recovery Program (TORP)
30 years of excellence in enhanced oil recovery research
Center for Environmentally Beneficial Catalysis (CEBC)
NSF Engineering Research Center
Transportation Research Institute (TRI)


Website for information and application:
http://www.cpe.engr.ku.edu/
Graduate Program
Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Kansas-Learned Hall
1530 W. 15th Street, Room 4132
Lawrence, KS 66045-7609

phone: 785-864-2900
fax: 785-864-4967
e-mail: cpe grad@ku.edu


Chemical Engineering Education










Kansas State University

Department of Chemical Engineering












Faculty, Ph.D. Institute, Research Areas
* Jennifer L. Anthony, University ofNotre Dame, advanced materials,
nanoporous molecular sieves, environmental separations, ionic liquids,
solvent properties
* Vikas Berry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
bionanotechnology, nanoelectronics, sensors
* James H. Edgar, University of Florida, crystal growth, semiconductor
processing and materials characterization
* Larry E. Erickson, Kansas State University, environmental engineering,
biochemical engineering, biological waste treatment process design and
synthesis
* L.T. Fan, West Virginia University, process systems engineering including
process synthesis and control, chemical reaction engineering, particle
technology
* Larry A. (GI. .., University ofMissouri, transport phenomena, bubbles,
droplets and particles in turbulent flows, coagulation and flocculation
* Keith L Hohn, University ofMinnesota, catalysis and reaction engineering,
natural gas conversion, and nanoparticle catalysts
* Peter Pfromm, University of Texas, polymers in membrane separations and surface science
* Mary E. Rezac (head), University of Texas, polymer science, membrane separation processes
* John R. Schlup, California Institute of Technology, biobased industrial products, applied spectroscopy, thermal
analysis, intelligent processing of materials
* Walter Walawender, Syracuse University, activated carbon, biomass energy, fluid particle systems, pyrolysis,
reaction modeling and engineering
* Krista S. Walton, Vanderbilt University, nanoporous materials, molecular modeling, adsorption separation and
purification, metal-organic frameworks

For additional information:

Graduate Program
Kansas State University
Chemical Engineering
1005 Durland Hall
Manhattan, KS 66506-5102
785-532-5584
che@ksu.edu
www.che.ksu.edu


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008











UK University of Kentucky
UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY
College of Engineering Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering
College of Engineering




Chemical Engineering Faculty

Tate Tsang, Chair University of Texas
K. Anderson Carnegie-Mellon University
D. Bhattacharyya Illinois Institute of Technology
T. Dziubla Drexel University
E. Grulke Ohio State University
Z. Hilt University of Texas
D. Kalika University of California, Berkeley
R. Kermode Northwestern University
B. Knutson Georgia Institute of Technology
S. Rankin University ofMinnesota
A. Ray Clarkson University
J. Seay Auburn University
D. Silverstein Vanderbilt University
J. Smart University of Texas


Materials Engineering Faculty

1 I I J. Balk The Johns Hopkins University
Y.T. Cheng California Institute of Technology
R. Eitel The Pennsylvania State University
B. Hinds Northwestern University
F. Yang University ofRochester
T. Zhai University of Oxford

Environmental Engineering
+ Biopharmaceutical & Biocellular Engineering
Materials Synthesis
Advanced Separation & Supercritical Fluids
Processing
+ Membranes & Polymers
+ Interfacial Engineering
Aerosols
+ Nanomaterials
+ Fuel Cells & Biofuels



For more information:

Web: http://www.engr.uky.edu/cme
Address: Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering
Director of Graduate Studies, Chemical Engineering
177 F. Paul Anderson Tower University of Kentucky
Lexington, KY 40506-0046

Phone: (859)257 8028 Fax: (859) 323 1929


Chemical Engineering Education











LEHIGH UNIVERSITY


Synergistic, interdisciplinary research in...
Biochemical Engineering Catalytic Science & Reaction Engineering
Environmental Engineering Interfacial Transport Materials Synthesis
Characterization & Processing Microelectronics Processing
Polymer Science & Engineering *Process Modeling & Control
Two-Phase Flow & Heat Transfer

Leading to M.S., M.E., and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering
and Polymer Science and Engineering




OUR FACULTY


Philip A. Blythe, University of Manchester
fluid mechanics heat transfer applied mathematics

Hugo S. Caram, University of Minnesota
high temperature processes and materials *
environmental processes reaction engineering

Manoj K. Chaudhury, SUNY- Buffalo
adhesion thin films surface chemistry

Mohamed S. EI-Aasser, McGill University
polymer colloids and films emulsion copolymerization *
polymer synthesis and characterization

Alice P. Gast, Princeton University
complex fluids colloids proteins interfaces

James F. Gilchrist, Northwestern University
particle self-organization mixing microfluidics

James T. Hsu, Northwestern University
bioseparation applied recombinant DNA technology

Anand Jagota, Cornell University
biomimetics mechanics adhesion biomolecule-
materials interactions

Andrew Klein, North Carolina State University
emulsion polymerization colloidal and surface effects in
polymerization

Mayuresh V. Kothare, California Institute of Technology
model predictive control constrained control *
microchemical systems


Ian J. Laurenzi, University of Pennsylvania
chemical kinetics in small systems biochemical
informatics aggregation phenomena

William L. Luyben, University of Delaware
process design and control distillation

Anthony J. McHugh, University of Delaware
polymer rheology and rheo-optics polymer processing
and modeling membrane formation drug delivery

Arup K. Sengupta, University of Houston
use of adsorbents ion exchange reactive polymers *
membranes in environmental pollution

Cesar A. Silebi, Lehigh University
separation of colloidal particles electrophoresis mass
transfer

Shivaji Sircar, University of Pennsylvania
adsorption gas and liquid separation

Mark A. Snyder, University of Delaware
inorganic nanoparticles and porous thin films *
membrane separations multiscale modeling

Kemal Tuzla, Istanbul Technical
heat transfer two-phase flows fluidization

Israel E. Wachs, Stanford University
materials characterization surface chemistry *
heterogeneous catalysis environmental catalysis


An application and additional information may be obtained by writing to:

Dr. James T. Hsu, Chair Graduate Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering, Lehigh University *111 Research Drive, lacocca Hall Bethlehem, PA 18015
Fax: (610) 758-5057 *Email: inchegs@lehigh.edu Web: www.che.lehigh.edu






/1] W~


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

















OI LS U

LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY


Cain Department of

Chemical

Engineering


ITHE CITY
Baton Rouge is the state capital and home of the state's flagship institution,
LSU. Situated near the Acadian region, Baton Rouge blends the Old South
and Cajun cultures. Baton Rouge is one of the nation's busiest ports and the
city's economy rests heavily on the chemical, oil, plastics, and agricultural
industries. The great outdoors provide excellent year-round recreational
activities, especially fishing, hunting, and water sports. The proximity of
New Orleans provides for superb nightlife, especially during Mardi Gras.
The city is also only two hours away from the Mississippi Gulf Coast, and
four hours from either Gulf Shores or Houston.

STHE DEPARTMENT
MS (thesis and non-thesis) and PhD Programs
Approximately 50 graduate students
Average research funding more than $2 million per year

DEPARTMENTAL FACILITIES
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LSUIS AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY/ACCESS UNIVERSITY


FACULTY

M.G. BENTON
Cain Professor/Asst. Professor; PhD, University of Wisconsin
Genomics, Bioengineering, Metabolic Engineering, Biosensors

K.M. DOOLEY
BASF Professor; PhD, University of Delaware
Heterogeneous Catalysis, High-Pressure Separations

J.C. FLAKE
Cain Professor/Assc. Professor; PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology
Semiconductor Processing, Microelectronic Device Fabrication

G.L. GRIFFIN
Nusloch Professor; PhD, Princeton University
Electronic Materials, Surface Chemistry, CVD

J.E. HENRY
Cain Professor/Asst. Professor; PhD, Texas A&M University
Biochemical Engineering, Biomimetic Materials, Biosensors

M.A. HJORTSO
Nusloch Professor; PhD, University of Houston
Biochemical Reaction Engineering, Applied Math

F.R. HUNG
Cain Professor/Asst. Professor; PhD, North Carolina State University
Nanoporous Materials, Confined Fluids, Liquid Crystals

F.C. KNOPF
Anding Professor; PhD, Purdue University
Supercritical Fluid Extraction, Ultrafast Kinetics

R.W. PIKE
Horton Professor; PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology
Fluid Dynamics, Reaction Engineering, Optimization

J.A. ROMAGNOLI
Cain Chair Professor; PhD, University of Minnesota
Process Control

J.J. SPIVEY
Shivers Professor/Assc. Professor; PhD, Louisiana State University
Catalysis

L.J. THIBODEAUX
Coates Professor; PhD, Louisiana State University
Chemodynamics, Hazardous Waste Transport

K.E. THOMPSON
Lowe Professor/Assc. Professor; PhD, University of Michigan
Transport and Reaction in Porous Media

K.T. VALSARAJ
Roddy Distinguished Professor; PhD, Vanderbilt University
Environmental Transport, Separations

D.M. WETZEL
Haydel Professor/Assc. Professor; PhD, University of Delaware
Hazardous Waste Treatment, Drying

M.J. WORNAT
Harvey Professor; PhD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Combustion, Heterogeneous Reactions


Chemical Engineering Education




Full Text

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 165 Chemical Engineering Education Volume 42 Number 4 Fall 2008 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of Florida. Co r respondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Copyright 2008 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily 120 days of pu b lication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and availability. POSTMA S TER: Send address changes to Chemical Engineering Education, Chemical Engineering Department., University of Florida, PUBLICATIONS BOARD EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS: Chemical Engineering Education Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 PHONE and FAX : 352-392-0861 EDITOR Tim Anderson ASSOCIATE EDITOR Phillip C. Wankat MANAGING EDITOR Lynn Heasley PROBLEM EDITOR James O. Wilkes, U. Michigan LEARNING IN INDUSTRY EDITOR William J. Koros, Georgia Institute of Technology CHAIRMAN John P. OConnell University of Virginia VICE CHAIRMAN C. Stewart Slater Rowan University MEMBERS Kristi Anseth University of Colorado Jennifer Curtis University of Florida Rob Davis University of Colorado Pablo Debenedetti Princeton University Dianne Dorland Rowan Thomas F. Edgar University of Texas at Austin Stephanie Farrell Rowan University Richard M. Felder North Carolina State University H. Scott Fogler University of Michigan Jim Henry University of Tennessee, Chattanooga Jason Keith Michigan Technological University Steve LeBlanc University of Toledo Ron Miller Colorado School of Mines Susan Montgomery University of Michigan Lorenzo Saliceti University of Puerto Rico Stan Sandler University of Delaware Donald R. Woods McMaster University RANDOM THOUGHTS 201 The 10 Worst Teaching Mistakes I. Mistakes 5 Richard M. Felder and Rebecca Brent ADVISING 218 Advisors Who Rock: An Approach to Academic Counseling Lisa G. Bullard CURRICULUM 179 The Hydrodynamic Stability of a Fluid-Particle Flow: Instabili ties in Gas-Fluidized Beds Xue Liu, Maureen A. Howley, Jayati Johri, and Benjamin J. Glasser 211 Quick and Easy Rate Equations for Multistep Reactions Phillip E. Savage 185 Lab-on-a-Chip Design-Build Project with a Nanotechnology Component in a Freshman Engineering Course Yosef Allam, David L. Tomasko, Bruce Trott, Phil Schlosser, Yong Yang, Tiffany M. Wilson, and John Merrill CLASSROOM 166 A Module to Foster Engineering Creativity: an Interpolative Design Problem and an Extrapolative Research Project Neil S. Forbes 173 Introduction to Studies in Granular Mixing Marcos Llusa and Fernando Muzzio 193 Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation Matt Armstrong, Richard L. Comitz, Andrew Biaglow, Russ Lachance, and Joseph Sloop EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 203 Pedagogical Training and Research in Engineering Education Phillip C. Wankat

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Chemical Engineering Education 166 T eaching techniques that enhance creativity are as criti cal as teaching technical skills. Innovation, the result of the creative process, is necessary for technological advancement and is highly correlated with economic pros perity and success. [1, 2] While creativity and innovation play a role in most aspects of engineering, they are rarely discussed explicitly in engineering courses. Engineers typically receive plication, but seldom do they receive formal instruction in creative problem solving. [3-5] It is particularly important to focus on creativity in introductory engineering courses to retain independent thinkers who tend to leave university earlier than others. [6] In addition, tools that enhance creativity are necessary because of increased employment in the life sciences and a general expansion in career opportunities for chemical engineers. [7-12] Creativity skills enable engineers to learn new material faster and improve interactions with col leagues in other disciplines. Throughout my teaching experience I have been asked by many students how they can improve their creativity and prob lem-solving skills. From these experiences, I have noticed that many students limit their creative potential by censoring their ideas before fully investigating them. Encouraging students to pursue ideas regardless of how outlandish the ideas appear produces more vibrant, diverse, and ultimately useful output. population of students than individual interactions alone. Engineering creativity can be broken down into two dis tinct steps: idea generation and idea analysis. Success with creativity dependents on the number of ideas formed and the ability to perform these two steps be separately. [4, 13-15] Generating a large number of ideas, regardless of their qual ity, increases the likelihood that an innovative concept will be discovered. [13-16] Students who struggle with open-ended problems often try to combine idea analysis and generation. Analysis requires contradictory thought processes that can essary for idea generation. During the brainstorming step, overly critical analysis limits the formation of the random and disparate connections that are needed to generate long lists of potential ideas, which often leads to abandonment of the most tangential and innovative ideas. Here I describe a teaching module that can be integrated into an introductory chemical engineering course to maximize students creative potential. This module builds upon previous efforts that have shown that creativity can be taught in the classroom. [1, 15, 17] This module includes an exercise to illustrate engineering creativity, an open-ended research project, and a questionnaire to assess individual creativity. The material that describes the role of creativity in engineering can typically be described in one or two lectures. IDEA GENERATION Idea generation is a highly personal process that varies greatly from person to person. Many techniques have been described to explain the workings of this process, [4, 13, 15, 18] including brainstorming, [19, 20] synectics, [21, 22] and lateral thinking. [23, 24] Creativity in engineering is dependent on many A MODULE TO FOSTER ENGINEERING CREATIVITY: ChE classroomNEIL S. FORBES University of Massachusetts, Amherst Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 167 factors, including innate ability, experience, and good mental habits. [15, 16] While some students have more innate ability and experience from which to draw, many students fall into mental traps that limit their creative potential. Reading and exposure to experiences outside of engineering often enhances creativity. [25] A creative environment encourages independent thinking, self-awareness, openness to experience, and breadth of vision. [6, 18] When struggling to generate novel ideas, students should be encouraged to use their own personal experiences. The most creative ideas often come from students who can effectively use their personal experiences and knowledge base. For ex ample, a foreign student in a bioprocess engineering course I taught in 2003 had worked previously in a laboratory studying gene therapy. She was from a tropical country and had a family that had been painfully affected by malaria. Putting these two experiences together, she came up with an idea to manipulate the sickle cell gene to provide protection against malaria. Similar ideas could not be found in the literature, and this ap proach has therapeutic promise. This example illustrates how connecting personal experience (malaria) with educational knowledge (gene therapy) can lead to innovation. EXTRAPOLATIVE VS. INTERPOLATIVE PROBLEMS To help students with open-ended tasks I suggest that cre ative problems be divided into two distinct modes: extrapola the goals of the problem relate to known facts. Interpolative creativity is the creation of connections between known facts the creation of new ideas as an outgrowth from known facts energy balance problems require interpolative creativity; research papers predominately require extrapolative creativ ity; and process design requires elements of both. Typically, engineering students prefer interpolative problems. Both types of problems, however, require the generation of many Understanding the similarity of the tools needed to address these two modes will enhance students ability with openended problems. Classic examples of problems that require interpolative creativity are the mass balance problems encountered in introductory chemical engineering courses (Figure 1). Prob lems of this type require small creative steps when drawing system boundaries. For the example in Figure 1, three different choices are possible: around unit A, around unit B, and an overall balance. More complex problems would have more observation. Many students start such a problem by writing mass balance equations around unit A before conceptualizing all possible system boundaries. In doing so, they miss that an overall balance is necessary to solve the problem. Generating a list of possible boundaries (ideas) before analyzing them A research paper is good example of an extrapolative cre ativity problem that students often encounter. When assigned extrapolative problems, students should use similar techniques to generate ideas as they do with interpolative problems. Idea generation is complicated for open-ended problems by the fear of a blank page that leaves students not knowing where to start. As with interpolative problems, practice generating disparate ideas before evaluating them can help with the extrapolative creative process. Different from interpolative space seem limitless. To overcome this apparent limitlessness, students should be encouraged to use their previous experi ment. They should especially be encouraged to use those experiences outside of engineering. For example, a student in detail below) found a clever topic by exploring his hobbies. This student was an avid bicyclist who had recently paid too much for a high-end bicycle. He chose to write a paper about ways to improve the production of titanium and reduce its project that the student found highly rewarding. Figure 1. Simple mass balance problem to illustrate interpolative creativity. An equimolar stream of water and acetic acid is fed to a liquid-liquid exchanger (A), which partitions the acetic acid into a chloroform extract and produces an idealized pure water stream. The acetic acid is removed from the chloroform by distillation (B). Three different system boundaries can be drawn: around A, around B, and around the entire process. Without knowing the recycle rate of chloroform an entire process balance is necessary to calculate the production rate of acetic acid. Identifying many possible solutions (in this case system boundaries) is necessary to solve interpolative problems.

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Chemical Engineering Education 168 E XER CI SE TO D E M ONSTRATE E N GI NEER I N G CREATIVITY The following interpolative exercise is a project to design column packing material that illustrates engineering creativity. Presenting this exercise during class complements the lectures their creativity skills. The exercise is comprised of two parts that are to be administered before and after instruction on cre ativity. Designing column packing is a geometric problem that has many possible solutions, is complex enough that an opti simple enough to allow students to easily analyze their ideas. This exercise complements the extrapolative brainstorming problems [5, 13] and interpolative, brain teasers [15, 17] that have been described previously. The complexity of this problem illustrates to students how separating brainstorming and analy sis can produce many distinct and effective designs. There are currently numerous designs and shapes of column packing commercially available (Figure 2). Most of these designs were determined by a combination of experimenta tion, trial and error, and experience. [26] While the shape of optimal shape cannot be determined theoretically. The best packing materials have a high surface area for mass transfer [26, 27] To begin the exercise the entire column packing simulation is described in detail. The overall goal of the process is to design a packing material that maximizes productivity in a packed column absorber. To make the design of packing mate rial a tractable creativity exercise it was reduced to two dimen sions. During the exercise, packing materials are designed on Figure 2. Examples of commercially available column packing materials. Figure 3. Two examples of packing materials lling a two-dimensional column. The solid square pack ing (A) is a poor performer. When packed it had a void fraction of 0.359, a surface area of 616 and an overall productivity of 221. The I-bar packing (B) is a much better performer. When packed it had a void fraction of 0.726, a surface area of 1,641 and an overall productivity of 1,192. All values are dimensionless. 11 51 column using a stochastic Visual Basic simulator (Figure 3, which is available upon request). Packing designs must be physically possible, single pieces: all pixels in each design must share a border with at least one other pixel (as in Figures 2-4). The designs and placing them as close to the bottom of the column as possible without overlapping already packed pieces (Figure overall void fraction from the percentage of empty space and the surface area from the length of exposed edges. For assumed to be directly proportional to the void fraction. The simulator determines the performance of packing materials by multiplying the void fraction by the surface area. As an example of packing material simulation, a solid square (Figure 3A) has a void fraction of 0.359, a surface area of 616, and a productivity of 221. It is a poor performer because it does not have much surface area. A better design would be a crossed I-bar (Figure 3B), which has a void fraction of 0.726, a surface area of 1,641, and a productivity of 1,192. These two examples demonstrate why this problem is useful for demonstrating the utility of engineering creativity. While void fraction and surface area are coupled to each other, good designs can independently increase both independently. In addition, the nonlinear relation ship between these two parameters makes theoretical prediction to instruction on creativity, students are provided with the

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 169 packing simulator, and asked to create designs with the great est productivity that they can in 10 minutes. During this time, students generate only a few designs with little variation. At the end of this period, students are introduced, by lecture, to the creativity techniques describe above, with emphasis on the utility of generating many disparate ideas and decoupling idea generation and analysis. In the second part of the exercise students are provided with a handout containing a set of 11 11 grids on which to design packing materials by hand (Figure 4). Students are asked to generate as many packing designs as possible without analysis in 10 minutes. Their ideas for packing designs can be entirely disparate or can build upon each other. If the ideas build upon each other, students could provide an explanation of how it improves on previous ideas (Figure 4). Students are encouraged, however, to have as many disparate design ideas as possible, so as to add new possibilities regardless of whether productivity is improved. Creating only ideas that obviously improve productivity could potentially limit the creative process. After the 10-minute idea generation period, students return to the simulator and determine the void fraction, surface area, and productivity of each design. This second part of the exercise is intended to illustrate the perform poorly, some outlandish ideas will outperform their observe that students who have generated the most ideas also have the most productive designs. CREAT I V I TY I N AN E N GI NEER I N G R ESEAR C H PROJECT Open-ended literature research projects are an excellent mechanism to illustrate extrapolative engineering creativity to introductory engineering students. This section describes a short research project in which students are asked to describe on society. Students can approach this broad assignment from two directions; they can either 1) describe a novel technol principles, or 2) describe a societal problem that could be addressed by novel chemical engineering methods. In other words, focus can be on either the technology or the societal problem. Students are encouraged to identify topics that are novel and appropriate topics can be a daunting task for some student and requires considerable effort and creativity. The techniques described to enhance creativity can be especially assignment. societal problem, 2) describe how the technology addresses a problem or how the problem could be addressed with technol ogy, 3) describe challenges that exist in the application of the technology or the solution of the problem, and 4) cite at least three references supporting all technical claims. Because the focus of the assignment is on the generation of a novel idea, the paper can be short, about 3-5 pages. In addition, an important component of the assignment is exploration students will learn how large or small their truly novel ideas. with this aspect of the assignment. Generating new technical ideas is a skill that students are not typically exposed to in high school education. After allowing students a few days to independently struggle with creative idea generation, the lectures and exercises described in the sections above are presented. Students are then asked to return to the task of idea generation. They are encouraged to use the literature and their personal experiences to generate as many topics as possible before evaluating them. Once a reasonable list is generated, students use the literature, peer review, and their own judg ment to pick the best one. Students are told to rate their ideas good idea will also not be too large ( i.e. catalysis or energy) that it cannot be easily summarized or be too small that not Figure 4. Portion of student handout used to design twodimensional column packing material containing two designs and brief rationales justifying them.

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Chemical Engineering Education 170 enough information is available. Most students find that the challenge of generating ideas for this assignment, similar to the in-class exercise, helps foster their engineering creativity and improves the quality of their ideas. EVALUATION OF STUDENT CREATIVITY For two sequential years (2004 and 2005), surveys were used to evaluate engineering course at the University of Massachusetts (Table 1). Students were asked to rate whether they strongly agreed (1) or strongly dis agreed (5) with the twelve statements in the survey. These surveys were administered at the beginning of the semester (before any discussion of creativity) and at the end of the semes ter. During the semester, the materials and exercises on engineering creativity were presented. The questions were designed to ascertain students attitude toward creativity (questions 1, 4, 5, 6, and 8), behavior when required to be creative (questions 3, 7, 11, and 12) and skills at being creative (questions 2, 9, and 10). Between the beginning and end of both investigated semesters, 10 of the twelve student-responses changed sig students responded positively about creativity (responses less than 3). The only questions that students disagreed with (questions 6 and 7; responses greater than 3) were worded negative ly. Comparing students responses at the beginning and end of the semester gave an indication of the effectiveness of the presented materials. Over the course of the semester (Figure 5) stu ing ideas (question 1; P<0.05), felt that they had more skills to generate ideas (question 2; P<0.01), more eagerly generated ideas (question 3; P<0.01), enjoyed solving difficult problems more (question 4; P<0.01), liked the quality of their ideas more (question 6; P<0.05), and brainstormed more Figure 5. Results of creativity survey administered to rst-year chemical engineering students at the University of Massachusetts in 2004 and 2005. Most differences between the beginning and end of the semester were signicant (*, P<0.05; P<0.01). TABLE 1 Student Creativity Survey

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 171 when solving problems (question 10; P<0.01). Students reported that they enjoyed formulating concepts to describe how things work less (question 5; P<0.01), evaluated ideas as they generated them more (question 11; P<0.01), and gener ated a series of ideas less (question 12; P<0.01). These three the creative process. After the lectures, they may have had a better understand about what was meant by generating ideas before evaluating them and may be more accurately reporting their behavior. Lastly, students reported that their preference those two groups of students. Pearson correlations between the questions were calculated to determine how individual students felt about creativity and idea generation before exposure to the creativity module (Table 2). The sign of the Pearson correlation indicates direct a direct (+) and indirect (-) correlation. TABLE 2 Correlation between questions at beginning of semester a TABLE 3 Correlation between questions at end of semester a a

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Chemical Engineering Education 172 questions were tightly correlated, indicating that students who they had the necessary creativity skills (question 2; Q1-Q2, P<0.01) and enjoyed the creative process (question 4 & 5; Q1-Q4, P<0.01; Q1-Q5, P<0.01). The correlations show that students who dont like the ideas they generate (question 6) have trouble listing more than three ideas (question 7; Q6-Q7, P<0.01). Question 12, which asks whether students generate a series of ideas before evaluating them, was not with idea generation (question 1), liking the quality of ideas (question 6), or feeling that they have the skills for idea generation (question 2). This lack of correlation indi cates that at the beginning of the course students had not been introduced to the concept of generating ideas before evaluating them. Many more of the questions were correlated at the end of the semester than at the beginning (Table 3; shaded region). Question pairs with increased correlation indicate changes in student perception and understanding of the creative process. Students reported that generating ideas before solving them (question 12) and brainstorming (question 10) gave them skills to generate ideas (question 2; Q2-Q12, P<0.05) and skills to solve open-ended problems (question 9; Q9-Q10, P<0.05). new ideas (question 1; Q1-Q9, P<0.01). Using brainstorm ing (question 10) and enjoying idea generation (question 6) helped students feel more comfortable with open-ended tasks (question 8; Q6-Q8, P<0.05; Q8-Q10, P<0.05). Importantly, students who learned to brainstorm (question 10) and generate ideas before evaluating them (question 12) had less trouble listing unique ideas when faced with open-ended assignments (question 7; Q7-Q10, P<0.05; Q7-Q12, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS The concepts introduced in this engineering creativity module helps students become more comfortable with openended problems. With these tools they learn how to approach open-ended problems and how to separate idea generation form analysis. The questionnaires administered in an introduc creativity can be enhanced. The surveys showed that learn ing how to brainstorm and generate ideas independent of The results also showed that practice with creative exercises brainstormed had more success with open-ended problems and students that liked their ideas more effectively generated clearly enhanced their abilities. REFERENCES 1. Sadowski, M.A., and Connolly, P.E., Creative Thinking: The Gen eration of New and Occasionally Useful Ideas, Engineering Design Graphics Journal 63 (1), 20-25 (1999) 2. Weiner, S.S., Winning Technologies and the Liberal Arts College paper presented at the Summer Meeting of the State Association Executives Council. National Institute of Independent Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC (1984) 3. Balabanian, N., and W.R. Lepage, Electrical Science Course for Engi neering College Sophomores, Development of an Integrated Program Utilizing a Broad Range of Materials. Final Report report: br-5-0796 (1967) 4. Felder, R.M., Creativity in Engineering Education, Chem. Eng. Educ. 22 (3), 120-125 (1988) 5. Felder, R.M., On Creating Creative Engineers, Eng. Educ. 77 (4), 222-227 (1987) 6. Cross, K.P., On Creativity, The Center for Research and Development in Higher Education University of California, Berkeley, 1-4 (1967) 7. Utterback, J., Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation: How Companies Can Seize Opportunities in the Face of Technological Change Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA (1996) 8. Rosenbloom. R., and W. Spencer, eds., Engines of Innovation: Indus trial Research at the End of an Era Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA (1996) 9. Rosenberg, N., Exploring the Black Box: Technology, Economics and History Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England (1994) 10. Barabaschi, S., Managing the Growth of Technical Information, in Technology and the Wealth of Nations N. Rosenberg, R. Landau, and D.C. Mowery, eds., Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, CA, 407-435 (1992) 11. Bhide, A., The Origin and Evolution of New Business Oxford Univer sity Press, Oxford (2000) 12. Wessner, C.W., ed., Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Informa tion Technologies, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (2001) 13. Lumsdaine, E., M. Lumsdaine, and J.W. Shelnutt, Creative Problem Solving and Engineering Design McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York (1999) 14. Wankat ,P.C., and F.S. Oreovicz, Teaching Engineering McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York (1993) Chem. Eng. Educ. 22 (4), 170-176 (1988) 16. Fogler, H.S., and S.E. LeBlanc, Strategies for Creative Problem Solv ing Prentice Hall PTR, Englewood Cliffs (1995) 17. Connolly, P.E., and M.A. Sadowski, Creativity Development in a Freshman-Level Engineering Graphics Coursean Application, Engineering Design Graphics Journal 63 (3), 32-39 (1999) 18. Churchill, S.W., Can We Teach Our Students to Be Innovative?, Chem. Eng. Educ. 36 (2), 116 (2002) 19. Osborne, A.F., Your Creative Power Scribner, New York (1948) 20. Osborne, A.F., Applied Imagination Scribner, New York (1963) 21. Gordon, W.J.J., Synectics, the Development of Creative Capacity Harper and Row, Publishers, New York (1961) 22. Prince, G.M., The Practice of Creativity: A Manual for Dynamic Group Problem-Solving Simon & Schuster (1972) 23. de Bono, E., Lateral Thinking, a Textbook of Creativity Ward Lock Educational, London (1970) 24. de Bono, E., Lateral Thinking Harper and Row, New York (1992) 25. Prausnitz, J.M., Toward Encouraging Creativity in Students, Chem. Eng. Educ. 19 (1), 22-25 (1985) 26. Perry, R.H., D.W. Green, and J.O. Maloney, Perrys Chemical Engi neers Handbook 7th Ed., McGraw Hill, New York (1997) 27. King, C.J., Separation Processes McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York (1980)

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 173 A common complaint of instructors in engineering and pharmaceutical science is the lack of laboratory ex periments to teach powder processing. There are, for example, educational activities to demonstrate the effect of different variables in the particle segregation phenomena. [1, 2] Many of these activities, however, are not designed to test par ticles of industrial interest. It is even more rare that segregation measurements are part of a process development educational activity. Developing a pharmaceutical process, for example, involves understanding the impact of several process and material variables ( e.g ( e.g., homogeneity and segregation of minor components, study the correlations among the various blend properties; hinder the dissolution of the drug. Pharmaceutical companies small scale. [3] In this paper, a sequence of activities provides a concise yet illustrative training exercise to introduce students (and/or ChE classroomINTRODUCTION TO STUDIES IN GRANULAR MIXINGMARCOS LLUSA, FERNANDO MUZZIO Rutgers University Piscataway, NJ 08854 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008 industry personnel) to some classic problems [4] in process de velopment for granular solids. We focus on a pharmaceutical example where the mixing operation is expected to yield a

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Chemical Engineering Education 174 such as segregation and agglomeration of the minor compo nents, which can adversely affect homogeneity, are examined. Techniques to measure both homogeneity and segregation of raw materials, drug preblends, and lubricated blends are measured and correlated. The activities are designed for a class of typically 20 students, which allows separating them into groups that will later compare and discuss the effect of using different operating conditions. In the Materials and Methods section, the techniques needed to measure each of the properties of interest are described. The Results section presents and discusses the measurement obtained by a group of students. A Summary and Conclusion section provides concluding remarks. MATERIALS AND METHODS rodt). The mass of each component to be added to the blender is given by the different terms on the right side of Eq. (1). Vo lume ww w Ac e L ac Mg .. .( ) 15 84 01 1 where Ace Lac and Mg are the bulk densities of acet aminophen, lactose, and lubricant respectively, and w is the total mass of all materials. The bulk density of materials is measured following the procedure described in the section Testing bulk and tapped density.. The process (Figure 1) entails preblending drug (APAP) and excipient ( i.e., lactose) and, in a second mixing step, adding the lubricant (magnesium stearate) to the formulation. Properties are measured for the raw materials, for the drug pre-blend, and for the lubricated blend. Different groups of students (if possible) should use different conditions for the etc.) and initial layout of the minor component in the blender (layered, one side, etc). The details to perform blending and measure each blend parameters are given in subsequent sections. a pre-blend of APAP and excipients, and second to mix the lubricant with the pre-blend. Having several groups of students gives the possibility to study the impact of blender parameters. [5] In the present case, its total capacity ( i.e., 0.4 cu. ft.), loading the APAP either through a single side or with a layered method into the blender, then all the APAP is introduced into one of the shells of the V-blender (Figure 1). In the layered method, half of the lactose is added into the blender, then all the the lactose is added on top of the APAP (Figure 2). The other using the same two loading methods for the APAP. Once the V-blender is loaded, it is operated at 30 rpm for 10 minutes. from each shell of the blender using a Globe-Pharma thief (New Brunswick, NJ) or similar. A thief is an instrument to extract samples from a powder bed. Each sample is collected at a different depth of the shell (Figure 3) and transferred to a glass vial to determine chemical composition using a suitable analytical method. Additionally, a 300-gram sample measurements. Next, the magnesium stearate (lubricant) is added into the blender through the valve at the bottom (Figure 1) and mixed for another 10 minutes at 30 RPM. Samples are collected again from both shells with the Globe-Pharma thief and a 200-gram and the segregation of APAP and magnesium stearate. The composition of these samples is determined with a suitable analytical method. Sampling is the most important task for assessing homoge neity. The FDA provides guidance regarding tools and meth odologies, [6] and more importantly, most sampling tools have been characterized. [7,8] The thief sampler (Global Pharma) is one of several sampling tools available. The thief is inserted into the blend, and the operator opens the sampling cavities cavities, which are subsequently closed, trapping the powder samples. The design of the thief allows extracting one to three samples at a time. Samples are 0.5-1.5 grams each, depending on the size of removable dies used. S a m p l e w i t h t h i e f M e a s u r e A P A P a n d M g S t h o m o g e n e i t y T e s t d e n s i t y f l o w a b i l i t y a n d A P A P a n d M g S t s e g r e g a t i o n S a m p l e w i t h t h i e f M e a s u r e A P A P h o m o g e n e i t y T e s t d e n s i t y a n d f l o w a b i l i t y T e s t f l o w a b i l i t y a n d d e n s i t y L u b r i c a t i o n M i x f o r 1 0 m i n u t e s a t 3 0 r p m P r e b l e n d A P A P M i x f o r 1 0 m i n u t e s a t 3 0 r p m R a w m a t e r i a l s S a m p l e w i t h t h i e f M e a s u r e A P A P a n d M g S t h o m o g e n e i t y T e s t d e n s i t y f l o w a b i l i t y a n d A P A P a n d M g S t s e g r e g a t i o n S a m p l e w i t h t h i e f M e a s u r e A P A P h o m o g e n e i t y T e s t d e n s i t y a n d f l o w a b i l i t y T e s t f l o w a b i l i t y a n d d e n s i t y L u b r i c a t i o n M i x f o r 1 0 m i n u t e s a t 3 0 r p m P r e b l e n d A P A P M i x f o r 1 0 m i n u t e s a t 3 0 r p m R a w m a t e r i a l s F a s t F l o L a c t o s e A P A P F a s t F l o L a c t o s e A P A P M g S t A P A P p r e b l e n d M g S t A P A P p r e b l e n d M g S t A P A P p r e b l e n d Figure 1. Three stages in the mixing process development.

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 175 There are many techniques available to determine APAP and lubricant concentration in samples (e.g., UV, titration, conduc timetry, NIR). Although USP recommends a technique for a given component, sometimes there are situations in which it is necessary to consider alternative analytical methods. For an educational activity, the instrumentation available in the lab may determine the selection of the technique. The technique used in the present study is NIR spectroscopy, a non-destruc tive technique [9, 10] that allows a fast assessment of concentra tion because it does not require sample dissolution (as in UV or conductimetry) or any other sample preparation (although it assumes that the sample itself is homogeneous). The technique requires developing a calibration equation using standard samples with a known drug concentration. Chemometric software (application of mathematical or statistical methods to chemical data), typically provided by the NIR instrument, facilitates the selection of the most appropriate standards to build the calibration equation based on the spectra collected and on the concentration of each standard. The sample concentrations are used to estimate one of the many indexes available to determine the homogeneity of minor components (APAP and MgSt) in the blend. The index most commonly used in industry is RSD (relative standard deviation). RS D s C wh er es nC C i i n i i n () 2 2 1 1 2 1 3 nn () () In the previous equations, s is the standard deviation of all sample concentrations, C is the average concentration, C i is the concentration of each individual sample, and n is the total number of samples. The more homogeneous the mixture, the smaller the RSD index. In general, an acceptable value completely assayed by the analytical method. Segregation of components is one of the main rea sons for heterogeneity of pharmaceutical formula tions. The segregation tester used here (Jenike & Johanson, Tyngsboro, MA) determines sifting segregation, one of the most common types of segregation for pharmaceutical mate rials. [11, 12] a matrix of larger ones. The sifting mechanism is most likely The tester consists of a steep angle and a shallow angle cone (hoppers), with the steep one initially placed above the which is discharged into the lower hopper and then recircu lated into the upper hopper. This process is repeated 10 times in order to maximize segregation. Finally, several samples are collected at the discharge of the lower hopper and their concentration determined with NIR. The bulk and tapped densities are evaluated for the raw materials, for the APAP blend, and for the lubricated blend. The compaction ability of a powder or blend is an important ditionally, it can be used to estimate the amount of material that will go into the dies of a tableting machine. cylinder with material and determining its net weight. In or der to determine the tapped density, the cylinder is tapped and the new volume for the same amount of material is at 300 taps/min. Flowability should be assessed for the raw materials, for the preblend of APAP, and for the lubricated blends. The predictive correlations and direct experimental measurements. Among the predictive correlations, there is the Carr index, [13] the value of the Carr compressibility index (C.I. = (tapped 1 F a s t F l o L a c t o s e A P A P F a s t F l o L a c t o s e A P A P Figure 2. V-blend er loaded with the layering method. 1 Figure 3. Sampling positions.

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Chemical Engineering Education 176 ber of devices ( e.g., (PTG-S3 system). This instrument measures the time it takes by two IR sensors, which activate a timer. As soon as there is A stirrer is sometimes needed in the funnel as some pharma surements is an interesting exercise that allows students to understand the correlation between ability to densify and TYPICAL RESULTS The density measurements are used to estimate the amount of material needed to load the blender, and to estimate the Carr compactability index (an indication of the compress ibility of a powder). Bulk and tapped density measurements are performed four times (each group takes one measurement) using the 100 ml graduated cylinder, and the average and standard deviation are calculated. Table 1 shows the average and the standard deviation of the four values. As expected, bulk densities are always lower than tapped densities, and lubricated blends are more dense than the premix. In general, there is more uncertainty (larger standard deviation) in the measurement of bulk density because it is more sensitive to the manner of loading the graduated cylinder ( i.e. effect of the operator). In the case of lubricated blends, the different conditions of operation ( i.e. and loading of minor components) of the blender introduce an additional source of variation for the measurement. predicted with the Carr index and measured using the Flow tester PTG-S3 (Table 2). Preblends of in all cases. Table 3 shows the APAP con centration of samples extracted from the right and left shell (R or L) of the V-blender in the APAP pre blend step and in the lubrica tion step. In the same table, the average concen tration, the stan dard deviation of concentration [Eq. (3)] and the homogeneity index [Eq. (2)] are estimated for each shell of the blender and for the en tire blender for T ABLE 2 Flowability Indexes (C.I.) and Measurements (PTG-S3) Raw materials APAP preblend Lubricated blend Lactose. C.I.: 11.8; PTG-S3: 5, 5.3, 5.7, 5.7 sec. APAP. C.I.: C.I.: 19.20; PTG-S3: 8.9, 12.1, 11.1, 10.3 sec. APAP in preblend APAP in lubricated blend series 1 series 2 series 3 series 4 conditions 80%, top-bot 40%, top-bot 80%, side-side 40%, side-side 80%, top-bot 40%, top-bot 80%, side-side 40%, side-side R1 13.61 12.94 12.30 10.31 14.88 14.62 14.39 15.62 R2 13.53 13.61 12.55 10.12 14.54 14.81 14.09 14.47 R3 13.02 14.77 21.85 11.34 14.87 14.92 14.76 15.05 R4 13.62 13.47 12.81 11.93 15.69 14.76 15.81 15.20 R5 13.27 13.93 12.94 13.06 15.64 14.64 17.61 14.96 R Average 13.41 13.74 14.49 11.35 15.12 14.75 15.33 15.06 R SD 0.26 0.68 4.12 1.21 0.51 0.12 1.43 0.42 R RSD % 1.92 4.92 28.46 10.63 3.40 0.84 9.32 2.77 L1 13.16 13.07 12.50 12.64 15.46 15.11 15.53 17.44 L2 12.77 14.51 12.81 12.95 14.73 14.87 14.78 14.90 L3 19.90 13.01 12.32 12.95 15.28 14.91 14.32 15.47 L4 13.83 15.56 13.46 12.68 15.47 15.36 15.82 14.49 L5 13.64 12.76 12.87 14.77 16.05 14.88 16.04 17.14 L Average 14.7 13.8 12.8 13.2 15.40 15.02 15.30 15.89 L SD 3.0 1.2 0.4 0.9 0.47 0.21 0.72 1.33 L RSD % 20.2 8.8 3.4 6.7 3.07 1.39 4.74 8.37 Total Average 14.0 13.8 13.6 12.3 15.26 14.89 15.32 15.47 SD 2.1 0.9 2.9 1.4 0.49 0.22 1.07 1.03 RSD % 14.9 6.7 21.3 11.4 3.20 1.46 6.98 6.63 T ABLE 3 APAP Concentration Values for the Right (R) and Left (L) Legs of the Blender T ABLE 1 Bulk density (B.D.) and tapped density (T.D.) for different materials (gr./ml) and the standard deviation of the measurements (of 4 readings). Raw materials APAP preblend Lubricated Blend Lactose. B.D.: 0.613 (2.26 B.D.: 0.529 (3.89

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 177 the global RSD values for APAP are plotted as a function of in the preblend (one series for each APAP loading method) and the last two correspond to the RSD for APAP, after lu bricating the preblends. The top-bottom loading method for APAP always leads to more homogeneous blends (smaller RSD values) than the side-side loading method (series 1 has larger values than series 2 and series 3 has larger values than series 4). Lubrication enhances APAP homogeneity (series 3 has smaller RSD values than series 1 and series 4 has to a less homogeneous mixture ( i.e. larger RSD value), and this variable has a larger impact at short mixing times (series 1 and 2) than at longer mixing times (series 3 and 4). These variables do not have an effect on the homogeneity of the different shells. The APAP and lubricant segregation tendencies are de termined using portions of the lubricated blend. The blend portions are processed with the segregation tester, and the segregation index is estimated using a group of samples col lected at the outlet of this tester. Table 4 compares the RSD of the initial blend and the RSD of the samples from the segrega tion tester for APAP and for the lubricant. The RSD of APAP in the blender is larger than the RSD index of the segregation samples. Not only does the blend not segregate, but, in fact, more mixing occurs as we pass the blend through the fun nels of the segregation tester, yielding more homogeneous samples. Therefore the RSD in the blender is not affected by and loading method. Conversely, the RSD index for magnesium stearate in the blender is, in general, smaller than for the segregation samples (Table 4). This indicates that the homogeneity of magnesium stearate becomes worse in the tester as a result of segregation. The activities show that the APAP homogeneity is affected and the lubrication of the blend. The segregation test shows that while the APAP does not segregate, the lubricant does. ability of the blends. In order to carry out the homogeneity test in a reasonable time frame, the sampling of the blend is this does not confer a strong statisti results, the results obtained by different groups are coherent and show trends and effects of different variables ( e.g ., homogeneity). CONCLUSIONS The main objective of this paper is to present an activity illustrating several aspects of pharmaceutical powder process development. The procedure to evaluate blend properties scribed and the analysis of results takes inter-relations among properties of the blend ( e.g., between segregation and homo If several groups of students are available, then there is the possibility to study the effect of operating parameters of the blender ( e.g., on blend properties. REFERENCES 1. Tordesillas, A., and D. Arber, Capturing the S in segregation: A simple International J. of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 36 861 (2005) 2. Fritz, M.D., A Demonstration of Sample Segregation, J. of Chemical Education 82 255 (2005) 3. Pisano, G.P., Knowledge, Integration, and the Locus of Learning: An Empirical Analysis of Process Development, Strategic Management Journal p. 85. (1994) 4. Guidance for Industry. PAT A Framework for Innovative Phar maceutical Manufacturing and Quality Assurance, 5. Brone, D., A. Alexander, and F.J. Muzzio, Quantitative Characteriza tion of Mixing of Dry Powders in V-blenders, AIChE Journal, 44 (2), 271 (1998) adequacy of mix for powder blends, PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol., 57 p. 64 (2003)T ABLE 4 Comparison of Homogeneity in the Blender and Segregation indexes for APAP and MgSt APAP Lubricant capacity (%) 80 40 80 40 80 40 80 40 loading method top-bot top-bot side/side side/side top-bot top-bot side/side side/side Blender 14.86 6.70 21.30 11.36 4.03 6.57 10.01 4.35 Segregation test 3.61 7.46 5.33 3.54 9.02 17.49 9.19 9.06 Figure 4. Effect of ll level, loading method and lubrication on the APAP RSD. 1 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 F i l l l e v e l ( % ) R S D s e r i e s 1 : p r e b l e n d ( s i d e s i d e ) s e r i e s 2 : p r e b l e n d ( t o p b o t t o m ) s e r i e s 3 : l u b r ( s i d e s i d e ) s e r i e s 4 : l u b r ( t o p b o t t o m ) P r e b l e n d : s i d e s i d e P r e b l e n d : t o p b o t t o m L u b r i c a t e d : s i d e s i d e L u b r i c a t e d : t o p b o t t o m

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Chemical Engineering Education 178 7. Muzzio, F.J., et al. Sampling Practices in Powder Blending, Int. J. Pharm, 155 153-178 (1997) 8. Muzzio, F.J., C.L. Goodridge, A. Alexander, P. Arratia, H. Yang, O. Su dah, and G. Mergen, Sampling and Characterization of Pharmaceutical Powders and Granular Blends, Int. J. Pharm. 250, p. 51 (2003) 9. Duong, N.H., P. Arratia, F. Muzzio, A. Lange, J. Timmermans, and S. Reynolds, A Homogeneity Study Using NIR Spectroscopy: Tracking Magnesium Stearate in Bohle BinBlender, Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, p. 679 (2000) 10. Li, W., and G.D. Worosila, Quantitation of active pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients in powder blends using designed multivariate calibration models by near-infrared spectroscopy, Int. J. Pharm. 295 p. 213 (2005) 11. Alexander, A., M. Roddy, D. Brone, J. Michaels, and F. Muzzio, A Method to Quantitatively Describe Powder Segregation During Dis charge from Vessels, Pharm. Tech. Yearbook, p.6 (2000) 12. Feise, H.J., and J.W. Carson, Review. The Evolution of Bulk Solids Technology Since 1982, Chem. Eng. & Tech 26 (2), 121 (2003) Chem Eng. 72 163 (1965)

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 179 T mechanics offer instructors an opportunity to teach students some advanced topics that go beyond the traditional course material. [1] industries including the chemical, materials, and energy industries. [2] In the pharmaceutical and biotechnology indus tries, which are hiring unprecedented numbers of chemical engineers, nearly all manufacturing facilities involve multiple [3] to handle the equations and analysis that is necessary if more than a survey of the material is to be achieved. [4] In an undergraduate drodynamic stability during discussions of the transition from [5] but a detailed understanding of hydrodynamic stability is not critical for most single-phase class. It relies on a students knowledge of the Navier Stokes INSTABILITIES IN GAS-FLUIDIZED BEDSXUE LIU, MAUREEN A. HOWLEY, JAYATI JOHRI, AND BENJAMIN J. GLASSER Rutgers University Piscataway NJ 08854 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008 ChE equations together with Taylor series and complex numbers students have already learned Taylor series and complex numbers in a previous math class by the time they take the looks like the Navier Stokes equations with an extra term. The problem could be easily implemented in a Fluid Dynamics or Transport Phenomena course in the chemical or mechanical engineering curriculum or an Applied Math course in Fluid Dynamics. In general, we would like to provide students with stability theory.

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Chemical Engineering Education 180 will be maintained in spite of small disturbances or perturba base state. [6] The study of hydrodynamic stability thus involves to small perturbations, and how instabilities evolve in space and time. [4, 7] performing a linear stability analysis of steady state solutions satisfying appropriate equations of motion and boundary conditions. The stability of such a system is determined by ex for further investigation of development of instabilities and evolution of unstable waveforms. Since these methods of analysis involve the linearization and numerical integration of nonlinear partial differential equations of motion, this can which has been shown to capture the salient features of insta bility development in the physical system it represents. PHYSICAL PROBLEM ing particles supported by a porous bottom (distributor) plate (Figure 1). When a gas is introduced to the column through the distributor, the particles remain stationary until the drag force of the bed. At this point, the particles become mobilized, and cases, the bed can expand uniformly at points beyond the mini mf with relatively little particle motion (see Figure 2a depicting uniform or particulate mf and the commencement of bubbling, u mb At this point, the bed becomes hydrodynamically unstable to small perturbations and lends itself to the formation of vertically traveling void 2b depicting bubbling or aggregative analysis since the early 1960s. Flow instabilities in these systems are in the form of traveling waves. The physical takes the form of particle free voidage waves ( e.g. bubbles, slugs, and other waveforms), as well as dense particle-cluster formations, which can move violently throughout the bed and dramatically impact process performance and safety [2] portance in industry, the onset and behavior of the unstable Continuum arguments have been used to develop equations of continuity and motion for describing the behavior of the of the Navier-Stokes equations for Newtonian single phase [8] The multiphase continuum approach has been used quite successfully for predicting the onset and propagation been shown that the salient features of instability develop continuum approach are also captured using a single-phase dependent force provided by the drag force. [9, 10] This simpli for gaining physical insight into the development of density chemical engineering students to develop analytical skills for MODEL EQUATIONS The underlying assumption of the Johri & Glasser [9, 10] model can sometimes behave (in the continuum) like a Newtonian tion medium. Based on the assumption that the inertial and viscous force terms in the gas phase equation are negligible, density. Continuum equations of continuity and motion for Figure 1. Fluidized bed.

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 181 [10] : t v0 1 v t vv Fg 2 ) varies linearly with the solids volume fraction as s and s is represented by v ; g is the gravity force vector. The density dependent force F represents the drag force exerted on the particle assembly by except for the additional density dependent force, F Continuum arguments provide constitutive relations for the various terms. Johri & Glasser [10] adopted a suitable closure for motivated by the work of Anderson & Jackson, [11] which PI vV vv I T 2 3 3 where in this analysis), and P is the pressure, which is dependent on particle volume fraction or, in this case, This pressure term is analogous to the pressure of an ideal gas, which is vertical dimension (x), in which case there is no variation in the other two directions (y and z) thus equations 1 and 2 are written as: t v0 4 v t v v x P x F 4 3 2 2 5 v x g where v=v x and F=F x Linear forms for F and P are adopted and these represent the simplest possible forms capable of capturing the hydrodynamic instability: FA BP E ; 6 where A, B, and E are appropriately assigned constants behavior. LINEAR STABILITY ANALYSIS PROCEDURE As stated in the Introduction, hydrodynamic stability of a Uniform Expansion Particulate Fluidization Packed be d Figure 2a Packed be d Clustering Slugging Aggregative Fluidization Bubbling Figure 2b Figure 2a. (left) Particulate uidization. Figure 2b. (above) Aggregative uidization.

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Chemical Engineering Education 182 of steady state solutions satisfying the governing equations. We therefore begin with a linear stability analysis of the steady state solution. Students should perform each of the following steps (in their entirety) either individually or in small groups of two to three students. Discussion is strongly encouraged during the analysis to provide the students with insight into the systems physical behavior. Topics for discussion are provided within the text. Steady State Solution: Prove that the simplest solution to the set of coupled nonlinear partial differential Eqs. (4) where the density dependent force F is balanced by the gravi conditions v 0 =0 = 0 and F 0 = 0 g, where 0 = s0 and the subscript is used to designate conditions at steady state. Find numerical solutions for the steady state values of 0 and F 0 in dilute beds having 0 =220 and 440 kg/m 3 and dense beds with 0 =1100, 1210, and 1320 kg/m 3 when s =2200 kg/m 3 Find the constant B which is chosen in accordance with Fg 00 for each of these bed conditions and write functional forms for the linear closure for F using parameter values from Table 1. Linearization: Impose perturbations and v on the density and velocity: 0 0 vv v Rewrite Eqs. (4) and (5) in terms of the perturbation variables, and perform a Taylor series expansion about the steady state solution. Since the perturbations are assumed to be both small and smoothly varying in space and time, their derivatives are also small. By neglecting terms in the series involving powers of perturbation variables greater than one, and eliminating products of perturbation variables, the students should obtain the following linearized equations in perturbation variables and v : t v x 0 0 7 0 0 0 4 3 v t P x Fg 2 2 08 v x where: F dF d P dP d 0 0 0 0 9 We seek a solution to Eqs. (7) and (8) in the form of plane density waves can be observed in the bed: ex pe xp exp( )e xp( ) st iv vs ti 10 where and v are (complex) amplitudes of the pertur bations in density and velocity respectively, and is the wavenumber of the disturbance (in one dimension x), having real components, whose wavelength 2/ In general, s is complex, si where the imaginary part is used to determine wavespeed (c) according to the relationship c / and the real part determines the growth or decay rate of the wave with time. If is positive, the perturbations grow in time and the base state is unstable, and if is nega tive, the perturbations decay and the base state is stable [see Eq. (10)]. That is, for a positive the base state solution will not be observed in practice. Computational Analysis: By combining Eqs. (7) and (8), we can reduce the linearized PDEs to a single algebraic equa tion in s by performing the following steps: take the /x of Eq. (8); substitute into the resulting equation using the expression for vx tv x /, / 33 obtained from continuity Eq. (7) and its derivatives to eliminate v The student should obtain a single differential equation in the density perturba tion variable : 2 2 0 2 2 0 0 4 3 t P x Fg x 3 2 01 1 tx A solution for in the form of Eq. (10) and its derivative forms are then introduced into Eq. (11) to obtain a quadratic expression in s whose roots are given by s P Fg i 2 3 11 9 4 9 4 2 0 0 2 0 22 0 2 0 2 3 3 12 The resulting growth rate s is thus a function of parameter val ues 0 , F and P 00 and the wavenumber of the disturbance Moreover, s is complex indicating disturbances propagate through the bed in the form of traveling waves. From Eq. 12, it is clear that we have analytically solved the problem, and and help students to focus on the stability theory and the prob lem itself instead of the numerical analysis. Note that a sign error was made in Eq. (23) of Johri & Glasser [10] and Eq. (18) of Johri & Glasser [9] where the last term under the square root should be not +. This error resulted in negative computed wavespeeds. Johri & Glasser [10] discusses the implications [as shown in Eq. (12) of this manuscript] results in computed wavespeeds of equal magnitude to Johri & Glasser results, but RESULTS Since we are interested in distinguishing waves that become should proceed to plot the real part of the growth rate versus

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 183 wavenumber using parameter values from Table 1. These values were chosen to represent glass beads a few hundred from Eq. (6) are used where F= A and P =E. 0 0 To examine the density effect, the students should compare the linear stability 0 =220 and 440 kg/m 3 0 =1100, 1210, and 1320 kg/m 3 0 =1100 kg/m 3 ) are shown in Figure 3 where the real part of the growth rate is plotted as a function of wavenumber Students should independently generate linear stability curves for each 0 value condition using Mathematica, MatLab or equivalent. As shown in Figure 3, the curve has positive growth rate for a range of wavenumbers beginning at =0. The growth rate then goes through a maximum at m and then decreases to zero at a critical wavenumber c Physically, this represents as they propagate through the bed from those that are damped out. Note that the use of linear closures results in the system becoming more unstable increased that is, the critical wavenumber c and maximum growth rate m both increase with an increase in 0 This is because the inertial terms, which drive the instability, increase with an increase in density. Points for discussion: What do the density dependent force terms physically represent? Use Figure 1 to illustrate that as particles move closer together in the bed to form a more densely packed region, the interstitial gas velocity increases between particles resulting in an increase in particle drag. force term serve to damp out or amplify unstable voidage waves? of competing density effects with respect to stability. Why would an increase in the pressure gradient (as opposed to pressure) serve to stabilize the bed? How might one conceive of the origin and growth of low density cluster-like insta TABLE 1 Parameter Values for the Linear Closures 0 1100kg/m 3 0.665 kg/(m.s) A 14.7m/s 2 E 0.03J/kg c b 0.173m/s TABLE 2 ChE 303 Linear Stability Survey Number of students in each category (total student number = 28). Strongly Disagree Neutral Strongly Agree Category 1 2 3 4 5 Q1 14 11 3 Q2 8 13 7 Q3 3 9 10 6 Q4 1 10 8 9 Q1: I learned a great deal in the lecture. Q2: The lecture helped me understand that just because a solution is obtained using a momentum balance doesnt mean it will be observed in practice. Q3: I feel I had adequate math background to understand the mathematical concepts put across in the lecture. Q4: I recommend teaching this material to the class next year. Figure 3. The real part of the growth rate (with units of 1/s) versus the vertical wavenumber (with units of 1/m), computed by a linear stability analysis about the uniform state using linear closures for F and P evaluated at o = 1100 kg/m 3 In spite of the industrial importance rarely covered in any depth in a

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Chemical Engineering Education 184 bilities versus that of bubble-like high density instabilities, and how is this analogous to the behavior of a compressible force, and what effect does its closure form have? The reader is referred to Johri a& Glasser [9, 10] for further discussion of the physical situation. EVALUATION The stability theory discussed in this paper has been taught in a chemical engineering course: Transport Phenomena I, at Rutgers University in 2005 and 2006. To spur students interest in the stability theory, we played experimental videos in the beginning of the class to show the development of the Such videos are available on a CD from Rhodes. [12] Student feedback in 2006 was obtained by issuing a questionnaire (see Table 2, previous page), in which students had to state to what extent they agreed with four statements on a scale ranging from 1, strongly disagree, to 5, strongly agree. Generally, we obtained positive feedback from students. A fair number of students felt that they learned a lot from this lecture (Q1 and Q2 in Table 3), and would recommend teach ing this material to the class next year (Q4 in Table 3). Some of the comments from students included I really enjoyed this class. It really sparked my interest in chemical engineering, I think the explanations were valuable and showed a great deal of importance, and It was good because it connected several courses. It is always good to see applications that span different classes. Most students believed that they had adequate math background to understand the mathematical concepts put across in the lecture (Q3 in Table 3). Several students, however, also pointed out that one lecture is not enough to fully understand the stability theory material. Such comments included Maybe there was less time for all that material, and It is a good beginning to understanding the material that will grow more in depth. We will focus on this point in future classes. CONCLUSION We have presented a simple example of an industrially rel methods of linear stability analysis involving nonlinear partial differential equations. This example demonstrates how the has been shown to capture the salient features of instability behavior. Students are expected to perform each step of the analysis, and points for classroom discussion have been noted to provide physical insight into the mechanistic features as festation of unstable waveforms. REFERENCES 1. Conesa, J.A., and I. Martin-Gullon, Courses in Fluid Mechanics and Chemical Reaction Engineering in Europe, Chem. Eng. Educ. 34 p. 284 (2000) 2. Fan, L.S., and C. Zhu, Principles of Gas-Solid Flows Cambridge University Press, New York (1998) 3. Fan, L.S., Particle Dynamics in Fluidization and Fluid-Particle Sys tems, Chem. Eng. Educ. 34 p. 40 (2000) 4. Drazin, P.G., and W.H. Reid, Hydrodynamic Stability Cambridge University Press, New York (1981) 5. Churchill, S.W., A New Approach to Teaching Turbulent Flow, Chem. Eng. Educ. 33 p. 142 (1999) 6. Campbell, L., and W. Garnett, The Life of James Clerk Maxwell Macmillan, London (1982) 7. Chandrasekhar, S., Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability Oxford University Press, Oxford (1961) 8. Jackson, R., The Dynamics of Fluidized Particles Cambridge Univer sity Press, New York (2000) 9. Johri, J., and B.J. Glasser, A Bifurcation Approach to Understanding Instabilities in Gas-Fluidized Beds Using a Single Phase Compressible Flow Model, Computers & Chem. Eng. 28 p. 2677 (2004) 10. Johri, J., and B.J. Glasser, Connections Between Density Waves in Fluidized Beds and Compressible Flows, AIChE Journal 48 p. 1645 (2002) 11. Anderson, T.B., and R. Jackson, A Fluid Mechanical Description of Fluidized Beds: Stability of the State of Uniform Fluidization, Industrial and Eng. Chemistry Fundamentals 7 p. 527 (1968) 12. Rhodes, M., et al., Laboratory Demonstrations in Particle Technology, CD (1999)

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 185LAB-ON-A-CHIP DESIGN-BUILD PROJECT WITH A NANOTECHNOLOGY COMPONENT ChE YOSEF ALLAM, DAVID L. TOMASKO, BRUCE TROTT, PHIL SCHLOSSER, YONG YANG, TIFFANY M. WILSON, AND JOHN MERRILL The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008 G overnment initiative, market-driven, and researchdriven forces have drawn international attention to ogy research spans many disciplines in the sciences and en gineering, and encompasses advanced materials, electronics, and sensors, as well as biomedical applications. [1] Although some institutions offer degrees in this area, while others offer individual courses, as late as 2004 only Cornell University gree requirements and includes a term-length, hands-on nano technology design, fabrication, and application project. In the last decade or more, researchers have investigated and repeatedly stressed the need to change the manner in which

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Chemical Engineering Education 186 criteria. A Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) design-build project with a nanotechnology component has been developed as a volun tary alternative to the ENG 183 design project. This alternate design-build project was piloted during Winter and Spring Quarters of 2004, with one section offered in each quarter for a total of 127 students then expanded to 3 sections in 2005 with an enrollment of 190 students. It continues to be offered twice annually with a total of 2 sections of enrollment per academic year. The premise for the Nanotechnology and Microfabrication LOC pilot course for freshmen engineers complements the nanotechnology and related areas to post-secondary stu dents. [7-12] By converting knowledge from local graduate and faculty researchers to a format accessible to freshmen, it is fundamentals of nanotechnology and develop an interest in this and other areas of research. The purpose of this paper is to share the fruits of this effort and provide a high-level presentation of the curriculum developed and preliminary PROJECT Goals to expose freshman engineering students to cutting-edge research topics and foster an early interest in academic and and biomedical devices. The project also demonstrates a safe method of incorporating more chemicaland biological-based engineering disciplines into a freshman laboratory course as an alternative to the traditional electro-mechanical emphasis. A three-pronged approach was employed in developing the project, involving hands-on lab activities, nanotechnol ogy teaching modules, and on-campus nanotechnology research laboratory tours hosted by faculty and researchers. Through oral presentations and formal written reports, students later make con nections and draw analogies between the top-down microfabrication methods used in their project and the nanotechnology and nanofabrication technologies dis cussed in the teaching modules they read and the nanotechnology research labora tory tours. In doing so, they recognize the challenges associated with engineering at the nanoscale, and hopefully get inter ested in doing research in this area. The lab activities included a quarter-length engineering is introduced to pre-engineers. [2-5] From their re search, they have proposed integrated curricula incorporating an introduction to engineering, engineering graphics and com munication, technical writing, engineering technology tools, engineering ethics, hands-on or active-learning experiences, cooperative or collaborative learning, and teamwork. During the past 10 years, The Ohio State Universitys Col lege of Engineering has established a dual offering of integrat ed course sequences known as Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) and its parallel, Fundamentals of Engineering for Honors (FEH). The goals of FE courses (ENG 181 and ENG 183) are to provide freshman engineering students with knowledge of engineering fundamentals and engineering graphics; skills in engineering communication and engineering problem solv ing; experience in team-building; knowledge of and ability to apply the design process; ability to make measurements; knowledge of how things work; and experience in a hands-on laboratory. In the second session of the FE program, ENG 183 provides a quarter-long design, fabrication, and implementa tion project. Students are expected to tend to such issues as initial research, brainstorming, designing, building, testing, and implementation. They are also expected to exercise project management, project economics, and teamwork as they work. Throughout the project, lab memos are assigned on a regular basis and each team gives an oral presentation at the conclusion of the quarter. The instructional goals of the Fundamentals of Engineering course sequence at The Ohio State University are discussed thoroughly by Merrill. [6] Previously implemented ENG 183 design projects include designing and building a conveyor that sorts objects of vari ous dimensions and material properties, and building a model TABLE 1 Lab Topics and Activities Lab Session Topics / Activities 1 Hands-on experimentation and benchmarking. 2 Advanced capabilities testing. Begin design. 3 Lab Tours or Sensor Circuit Design I Paper chip design, operational design, calculations due. 4 Lab Tours or Sensor Circuit Design I Final CAD design in Inventor, operational design, calculations due. 5 Sensor Circuit Design II Dilution of concentrations and detection device calibration. 6 PDMS Chip Molding, Prototype Chip, Sketch Designs, Manufacturing Principles 2 chips per team. 7 Chip Demolding & Assembly, Production, Economics Initial testing. 8 Chip Fluidics Test, History of IC Talk & Relevance to Micro& Nanote chology 9 Final Chip Test Determine unknown concentration based on calibration; competition.

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 187 design, build, and test problem using project management and team-building skills found in the standard lab sections. Premise Fluorescein is a chemical used to detect an eye disorder known as dry-eye syndrome. Typically, testing for this condition requires expensive instruments in a doctors of amounts. Thus, students are told the projects objective is to design a cheap, portable LOC to measure the concentration as to provide a product that is readily portable. Portability is given a real-life premise for their project. Laboratory Activities The overall design objective given to the students is to design, fabricate, and operate an LOC made from polydimeth ylsiloxane (PDMS) capable of optically detecting the presence and quantity of an agent via detection of emissions from a by the students. The LOC integrates biochemical analysis tion, pumping, mixing, metering, incubation, separation), and detection in micron-sized channels and reservoirs into a miniaturized device. The integration and automation involved can improve the reproducibility of the results and eliminate labor, time, and sample-preparation errors that occur in the intermediate stages of an analytical procedure. Table 1 summarizes the lab activities. The hands-on activi ties expose students to the design process in which, after and build a prototype based on the lessons learned earlier in hand the importance of proper calibration of a detection and measurement device and use their calibration data to derive a curve and function that is employed in testing and determining the concentration of an unknown sample. Because the student teams are exposed to important engineering topics such as analysis, design, synthesis, calibration, and testing with a microfabrication and nanotechnology focus, the hands-on activities represent the most important focus of this project. Chip Design and Fabrication benchmarking a generic chip design with experiments to weeks, the student teams design their own chip by using knowledge gained from the benchmarking activities to pro duce a chip that will outperform the generic design. Chip design, mold fabrication, and molding processes are based on ongoing research [13-16] in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. A chip is comprised of wells and channels connecting those wells. Required components include: staging wells for sample to accept solvent wash and unused reagent from the detec tion well. Figure 1 shows the currently used generic chip design. The student teams are provided with requirements and constraints regarding channel and well sizes. Addition ally, capillary action is presented and capillary check valves can be an optional component in the design. Provided with design constraints and given two lab pe riods to explore the workings of a prototype device, the students will note nuances of the generic design and its performance and use insight gleaned from this lab to un derstand design considerations in building a better chip and the importance of proper equipment and procedure. The generic design is not a particularly good design, as some shortcomings have intentionally been incorporated for the students to investigate. After benchmarking, they are encouraged to brainstorm and then narrow ideas based on the constraints, requirements, and information needs of the project. They are encouraged to be creative, while keeping the overall function of the chip in mind. The students must also be mindful that only a single prototype iteration is possible due to time constraints. The students sketch a design of the channels and wells of the chip. They are also required to author an operational designessentially procedures on the use of the chipas well as provide design notes including calculations and similar justifications for particular design characteristics. Upon instructional team review, the student team final izes its design and uses Autodesk Inventor to prepare a true-scale drawing of the microfluidic LOC within a 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 5 1 Figure 1. Autodesk Inventor rendering of generic chip de sign: 1 Staging wells; 2 Channels with in-line capillary valves; 3 Detection well; 4 Waste well; 5 Team logo.

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Chemical Engineering Education 188 provided in Figure 2. Most student designs are improve 16000 DPI and the transparency is used as the photomask for photolithographic production of a mold on a silicon wafer. Standard photolithography procedures with SU 82075 photoresist (MicroChem Co.) are used for a target feature thickness of 150 microns. [4] This back-end process is performed by graduate student fellows in our Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center (NSEC). During these background activities, which require a total of 3 weeks (weeks 3-5 of the session), the student teams build their detection circuits, take and report on lab tours of campus nanotechnology research facilitieswhere some students may have the opportunity to meet the graduate student volunteers performing the back-end processing on their chipsand experiment with their newly built detection devices with the generic chips prepared in advance by the instructional team. The processed wafers are returned to the student teams in the sixth lab session and the teams produce a polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) casting from the silicon wafer mold as well as dish. The PDMS resin (Sylgard 185, Dow Corning) and curing agent represent a very safe crosslinking polymerization that can be carried out with straightforward safety precautions (goggles and gloves). Students are introduced to and required to read the Mate rial Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for these chemicals prior to use. Details regarding mixing, degassing, and molding are provided in the lab procedures. In the subsequent lab session (after several days curing at ambient temperature), the PDMS chip is ready to demold. A small spatula is used to separate the PDMS from the sides of the Petri dish and then the student very slowly pulls the PDMS (often with the wafer attached) out of the Petri dish. The wafer is carefully separated from the PDMS and the 2 patterned area is isolated using a 2 the second Petri dish. Chip-Chip Holder Assembly A 1:1 (full scale) outline of the chip and chip holder design is and chip holder. The PDMS lid is aligned on the top of the outline printout. The center of the staging wells and waste well access ports are marked with a small dot of a permanent marker. A leather punch is used to punch the 1/8 diameter holes centered on the marked spots. These access holes punched in the lid will later have plumb and assembly, the students clean all the chip assembly components with an ultrasonic cleaner in a detergent solution. The pieces are rinsed with distilled deionized water. Figure 2. Sample student design proles. F igure 3. PDMS chip, PDMS lid, and chip holder aligned and assembled over transparency. The Plexiglas bottom of the chip holder is placed on the outline printout and aligned precisely. The PDMS chip is transferred onto the base, patterned channels fac ing up and lined up with the design on the outline. The detection well is correctly located and the staging wells are carefully aligned with access holes. The PDMS lid is then aligned to the design on the outline and chip. The Plexiglas chip holder top is then placed over the entire assembly. It is imperative that there are no air bubbles between the parts. Finally, the three nuts are tightened only as much as necessary to hold the top in place and maintain a seal. It is important not to apply too much

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 189 +5V +5V +5V R1 10K U2 ADC0804 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 1 2 3 5 8 6 7 19 4 9 20 10 DB0 (LSB) DB1 DB2 DB3 DB4 DB5 DB6 DB7 (MSB) CS RD WR INTR AGND VIN+ VINCLKR CLK VREF/2 VCC GND D1 LX5093SB R3 330 R4 330 R5 330 R6 330 R7 330 R8 330 R2 330 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 R9 330 D10 D2 TSLG257 1 2 3 C2 10 uF C1 150 pF BLUE LED GREEN LIGHT DETECTOR ADC BINARY DISPLAY Figure 4. Detection circuit schematic. ADC0804 is an analog-to-digital converter 20-pin IC. Each team constructs this circuit on a prototyping board. Figure 5. Detection and calibration setup with the generic chip. holder assembly is shown in Figure 3. plumbing is inserted into the access holes at the top of the device. Syringes are used to pump dyed water into the detection well. Then it would be used with real samples. It is during this stage that the students are expected to gain valuable experience in manipulating samples in their chips and troubleshooting any sealing, incomplete From the remainder of the seventh lab through the open eighth lab, the student test, which is held in the ninth lab. Detection During the lab sessions in which the chips are being fabricated, basic electronics are discussed along with photometric detection methods while the students build and calibrate their electronic optical detection devices. The detection device consists of a blue-light LED excitation source and green-light photosensor for detecting emitted photons integrated with an analog-to-digital converter. An electric circuit, which is built on a prototyping board (PB) and powered by a desktop power supply, takes the analog output of the photosensor and converts the signal to an eight-bit binary value. These eight bits are displayed on eight LEDs on the schematic of the detection device. The detection device is then attached to the electric circuit. Figure 5 shows a prototype of the electronic detection device setup with the chip and agent plumbed into the to explore pumping and capillary valving at the micron level, the students are ready to calibrate their device. For rescein solution and are required to make 250 PPM and 500 PPM calibration solutions by dilution. The binary output from the detector is recorded for each of four PPM, 500 PPM, and 1000 PPPM). Between samples, displace the sample from the detection well. Using these results, they then prepare a calibration curve from which an unknown sample concentration can be determined. tion. Five different unknowns are provided but each team is only required to analyze three (the rest are available for bonus points). The accuracy of properly depending on factors such as device sealing, cleanliness, tector orientation, and general attention to detail of the awards (made available through corporate donations to

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Chemical Engineering Education 190 the First-Year Engineering Program) are given to the top two teams with the best chip performance (accuracy); the team with the best project notebook; and the team giving the best oral presentation. Nanotechnology T eaching Modules Most of the lab activities are not truly nanoscale due to the lack of access to the major research instrumentation required ( e.g. electron beam lithography) and the associated costs. Students are, however, introduced to current and future appli cations of microand nanotechnology and the relative length scales of macro-, micro-, and nano-systems via multimedia presentation. This is intended to help the students to connect are provided with six teaching modules of approximately six pages in length each, to discuss and explore nanotechnology issues related to the hands-on activities they perform in the lab. Table 2 lists these modules by topic, author, the respective sion questions addressing the content of these modules are assigned for inclusion in lab memos and reports. Nanotechnology Research Laboratory T ours Lab tours are conducted by faculty and graduate researchers research facilities to the freshman students. There are nine tours scheduled over a two-week period, allowing one lab section to work on the Circuits I lab while the other section tours re search facilities during the thirdand fourth-week lab sessions. A summary of the facilities toured and the corresponding topics covered in the tours is provided in Table 3. These tours enhance the students overall experience and provide direct exposure to ongoing nanotechnology research. Many tour guides provide handouts and access to other information as well as visual aids for use by the student teams in their oral presentations at the end of the quarter. Oral presentations on their projects and lab tours devoted to oral presentations where each group gives an 8minute talk on the lab they visited, thus exposing the remainder of the class to the lab they experienced. The oral presentations also address the student designs and testing results and issues. The student teams are expected to discuss the relevance of the formal research conducted at the on-campus facilities in regards to their own design-build projects. Although the design and fabrication techniques employed by the students represent the state of microscale research from as recently as the midto late 1990s, it is important to show the students how their work in microfabrication and design is analogous to current nanotechnology research. Both the Nanotechnology Teaching Modules and the lab tours provide a bridge from the students hands-on lab activities and their associated assignments to the current research and pioneering STUDENT RESPONSE Midterm examinations with identical test content written by instructors uninvolved in this project were identically proctored during the 2004 academic year. A comparison of the mean scores of students in the pilot course vs. the remainder of the population in the standard course yielded statistically nontraditional design-build lab project for the existing elec tro-mechanical design-build project does not adversely affect students learning of engineering fundamentals. In the pilot course, the students increases in knowledge and understanding of nanotechnology-related concepts during the quarter is indicated by their improved performance as they signment, through the quizzes, to the nanotechnology-related technology and microfabrication concepts is also evident in engineering course can learn nanotechnology fundamentals and can apply basic microfabrication technology. Although baseline results were not available for comparison, an overwhelming majority of students surveyed in the Spring 2004 version of the pilot course indicated interest in some form of research, although only two were actually involved at that early point in their studies. For some, this awareness of and interest in research may have been sparked by the students involvement in the nanotechnology and microfabrication course. The students also provided generally positive responses when asked about the connectedness of the various nano technology-related activities. A majority of students indicated that they felt the combinations of nanotechnology teaching modules, lab tours, and lab experiences provided a strong, integrated learning experience. There is also an ongoing longitudinal study tracking stu dent pursuits academically and professionally. Results of this study will be published in the future. Anecdotally, students have written members of the instructional team of this course thanking them for their experiences in the design-build and project-management activities, citing these as helpful with later coursework and in securing summer engineering intern ships. Other students have stated that this course has either research, nanotechnology, and chemical engineering. Still other students have, after taking this course, applied and been selected to participate in National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) summer programs at respected institutions. CONCLUSIONS The successful implementation and standardization of the LOC design-build project with a nanotechnology component

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 191 TABLE 2 Module Topic Author Summary 1 Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Nano manufacturing Derek J. Hansford Biomedical Engi neering Program; Department of Materials Science & Engineering Methods, strengths, and limitations of fabricat ing nanometer-scale structures using Top-down methods (lithography and patterning) compared to bottom-up methods (self-assembly and selec tive growth); current uses of both nanomanufac turing techniques. 2 Molecular Self-Assembly James F. Rathman Department of Chemical and Bio molecular Engineer ing Role of intermolecular forces in molecular selfassembly of amphiphilic molecules; formation of 3-D structures by self-assembly in solution; sur face tension and the formation of 2-D structures by self-assembly at interfaces. 3 Nano-Structured Ceramics for Chemical Sensing Sheikh A. Akbar Department of Materials Science & Engineering technology; some potential applications with an emphasis on chemical sensors; the challenges and opportunities in this evolving area. 4 Polymer Processing at the Nanoscale L. James Lee Department of Chemical and Bio molecular Engineer ing of polymeric materials; state-of-the-art mold (master) making and replication techniques; chal lenges and opportunities in this evolving area. 5 A. Terrence Conlisk Department of Me chanical Engineering or channel. 6 Nanotechnology for Drug Delivery Derek J. Hansford Biomedical Engi neering Program; Department of Materials Science & Engineering Concepts in drug delivery, including tissue targeting, biomolecular markers, and reasons to use controlled release; basic concepts of nanoparticles and why they are useful for drug delivery; understanding the differences of classes of nanoparticles. TABLE 3 Nanotechnology Research Facility Tours Facility Toured Tour Topic Ohio MicroMD Laboratory Cleanroom Facility (now Nanotech West) Medical and biomedical applications; silicon, polymer characterization; photolithography; biohybrid processing. Micro/Nanoscale Welding Laboratories Nanoindenter, Nd:YAG laser micromachining. Nanoscale Metrology and Measurement Lab Laser-guided magnetic suspension stage; dynamic modeling with ATM tip-cantilever system. Microfabrication Laboratory Atomic Force Microscopy Lab Use of Atomic Force Microscopy for surface topography at the atomic length scale. Electronics Cleanroom Manufacturing Facility Silicon processing; photolithography equipment and methods; mask aligners; spinner; ther mal evaporator. Nanoelectronics and Optoelectonics Lab evaporation; ellipsometer; photolithography; annealing, oxidation and diffusion furnaces; pulsed laser deposition. Semiconductor Epitaxy and Analysis Laboratory Applications in optoelectronics, photovoltaics, electronics, and integrated systems. that traditional boundaries of electro-mechanical design-build projects can be expanded to include new and cutting-edge technologies only recently trickled down from the graduate research arena to the undergraduate classroom. It is impor tant to expose new engineering students early to these new technologies as there is a projected need for researchers and foster student interest in careers in nanotechnology, thus sionals. The standardization (after revisions) and expansion of this offering to more course sections illustrates that the importance of nanotechnology in research and education can be addressed at the early undergraduate level.

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Chemical Engineering Education 192 engineering program. The comparable performance of the pilot and nonpilot students on identically proctored and inde pendently graded exams supports this statement. In addition, the online journal and assessment responses from the students in the pilot course do not stand out from comments provided by the nonpilot students. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Science Foundation (EEC0304469) and the First-Year Engineering Program in the College of Engineering at The Ohio State University. The authors also acknowledge the contributions of Professors Derek Hansford (Biomedical Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering) and L. James Lee (Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering) to the success of the project. REFERENCES 1. Accessed Aug.14, 2004 2. Al-Holou, N., et al., First-year Integrated Curricula: Design Alterna tives and Examples, J. Eng. Educ. 88 (4): 435 (1999) 3. Finelli, C.J., A. Klinger, and D.D. Budny, Strategies for Improving the Classroom Environment, J. Eng. Educ. 90 (4), 491 (2001) 4. Guilbeau, E.J., and V.B. Pizziconi, Increasing Student Awareness of Ethical, Social, Legal, and Economic Implications of Technology, J. Eng. Educ. 87 (1) 35 (1998) 5. Mourtos, N.J., The Nuts and Bolts of Cooperative Learning in Engi neering, J. Eng. Educ. 86 (1) 35 (1997) 6. Merrill, J.A., The Role of Outcomes Assessment in a Large-Scale First-Year Engineering Environment, in Proceedings of the 2002 ABET Conference on Outcomes Assessment (2002) 7. Desai, T.A., and R.L. Magin, A Cure for Bioengineering? A New Undergraduate Core Curriculum, J. Eng. Educ. 90 (2) 231 (2001) 8. Choudhury, J., et al., Initiating a Program in Nanotechnology Through a Structured Curriculum, in Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE Interna tional Conference on Microelectronic Systems Education (2003) 9. Uddin, M., and A.R. Chowdhury. Integration of Nanotechnology Into the Undergraduate Engineering Curriculum, in International Confer ence on Engineering Education Oslo, Norway (2001) 10. Hersam, M.C., M. Luna, and G. Light, Implementation of Interdis ciplinary Group Learning and Peer Assessment in a Nanotechnology Engineering Course, J. Eng. Educ. 93 (1) 49 (2004) 11. Adams, J.D., B.S. Rogers, and L.J. Leifer, Microtechnology, Nanotechnology, and the Scanning-Probe Microscope: An Innovative Course, IEEE Transactions on Education 47 (1) 51 (2004) 12. Adams, J.D., B.S. Rogers, and L.J. Leifer, Effective technology trans fer to the undergraduate and graduate classroom as a result of a novel Ph.D. program, IEEE Transactions on Education, 47 (2) p. 227-231 (2004) 13. Lai, S., S. Wang, J. Luo, L.J. Lee, S.-T. Yang, and M.J. Madou, Design Immunosorbent Assay, Analytical Chemistry 76 (7), 1832-1837 (2004) 14. Madou, M.J., L.J. Lee, S. Daunert, S. Lai, and C.-H. Shih, Design Biomedical Microdevices 3 (3) 245 (2001) 15. Yang, Y., L.J. Lee, and K.W. Koelling, Structure Evolution in Polymer Blending Using Microfabricated Samples, Polymer 45 (6) 1959-1969 (2004) 16. Lee, L.J., M.J. Madou, K.W. Koelling, S. Daunert, S. Lai, and C.G. forms for Diagnostics: Polymer-Based Microfabrication, Biomedical Microdevices, 3 (4) 339 (2001)

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 193 I nterdisciplinary learning and curriculum integration are two very valuable methods to develop our future lead the synthesis of two or more disciplines, establishing a new level of discourse and integration of knowledge. [1] Curriculum integration implies restructuring learning activities to help students build connections between topics. [2] Since our main goal at the United States Military Academy is to develop F RO M O R G AN IC CHE MI STRY S YNTHES I S L AB TO REACTOR DESIGN TO SEPARATIONMATT ARMSTRONG, RICHARD L. COMITZ, ANDREW BIAGLOW, RUSS LACHANCE, AND JOSEPH SLOOP United States Military Academy West Point, NY ChE classroom Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008 multidimensional problem solvers, it only makes sense that we as an institution try to integrate interdisciplinary learning into more classes. We saw a perfect opportunity to do this in the Department of Chemistry and Life Science. At the United States Military Academy, the Chemical Engineering curriculum has the students enrolled in three courses simultaneously in the Spring semester of their third yearOrganic Chemistry II, Separation Processes, and

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Chemical Engineering Education 194 Chemical Reaction Engineering (Figure 1). In Organic Chemistry II, students learn the theory behind organic reactions as well as do bench-top experiments that show the practical applications of this theory. In Chemical Reaction Engineering, the students learn how to scale the bench-top experiments up and to design reactors to perform these experiments at industrial levels. Finally, in Separation Processes, students learn how to take this scaled-up process and improve the yield and purity of the final product. This juxtaposition allowed us to simultaneously study a common reaction, the FriedelCrafts alkylation, in each of the respective classes. During one of the laboratory experiments in Organic Chemistry II, the students performed a reaction in which two products are formed. They were then tasked to separate these two products, but because of time and instrumentation constraints, were mostly unsuccessful. For chemical engineering students, it seems a natural progression to explore solutions to this problem in the context of a chemical separations issue and reactor design. Since these students often take organic chemistry, chemical reactor design, and chemical separations together, an interdisciplinary project such as this provides a practical application to bridge the theory developed in all three courses with an experimental challenge. With our sequencing of courses we have provided our students with an approach that closely resembles the reality of the actual design process, to include the ability to use chemical engineering software in an earlier stage of the development process. tion we began to draw between the engineering design process (Figure 2) and the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP) (Figure 3) taught in third-year military science class. Both processes then design alternatives and model or test those alternatives so they can be analyzed and compared. Finally, both processes enable us to arrive at a reasonable decision and both are iterative in nature with feedback loops to further was designed to show our students the connections between organic chemistry, reaction engineering, and separations, we were able to draw multiple connections across many aspects Environment: Technological Economic Political Social Problem Definition Needs Analysis Value System Design Implementation Planning for Action Assessment & Control Execution Engineering Design Design & Analysis Alternatives Generation Modeling & Analysis Decision Making Comparison of Alternatives Decision Current Status: What is? T h e E n g i n e e r i n g D e s i g n P r o c e s s Desired End State: What should be? Assessment & Feedback Environment: Technological Economic Political Social Problem Definition Needs Analysis Value System Design Implementation Planning for Action Assessment & Control Execution Engineering Design Design & Analysis Alternatives Generation Modeling & Analysis Decision Making Comparison of Alternatives Decision Current Status: What is? T h e E n g i n e e r i n g D e s i g n P r o c e s s Desired End State: What should be? Assessment & Feedback Figure 2. The engineering design process. [3] Figure 1. Chemical Engineering Program order of courses. of our curriculum like the case of engineering design and military science. BACKGROUND The Friedel-Crafts reaction is used in laboratory synthesis as well as in industry in the synthesis of ethylbenzene and its derivatives as an intermediate to make styrene monomers. [3] Therefore, this reaction was a good choice to integrate several different courses. Laboratory experiments conducted during the second semester of organic chemistry generally illustrate practical application of topics covered in lecture. A convenient Frie-

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 195 Figure 3. The Military Decision Making Process. [4]

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Chemical Engineering Education 196 del-Crafts alkylation reaction that demonstrates the utility of electrophilic aromatic substitution and carbocation rear rangement is that of p-xylene with 1-bromopropane yielding approximately a 1:2 ratio of n-propyl-p-xylene to isopropylpxylene (Figures 4 and 5). [3] Even with activated arene systems like p-xylene, carbocation rearrangement leads to a substantial proportion of the isopropyl p-xylene. Given that the boiling point difference between the tion techniques and equipment are not adequate to fractionally separate the isomers. So, although the reaction is satisfactory from a synthetic standpoint, the inability to isolate isomerically pure products leaves students with a problem. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Chemical Reaction Engineering Design Project In the Chemical Reaction Engineering class, the students 0 is 52 L/min; 2. A desired product ratio of 50:50 npropyl-p-xylene to isopropyl-p-xylene at the outlet; and 3. T min is 15 C and T max is 70 C. These requirements were dictated in order to focus their problemsolving efforts. The students were directed to use ChemCad to develop their designs, but ChemCad needs frequency factor and activation energy values to correctly model the reactions mathematically. Since these values could not be found in the literature, it was necessary to conduct some preliminary experi ments to gather data that the students could use to calculate the frequency factor, k0, and activation energy, E a of each parallel reaction, and the overall reac tion. Three independent experiments were run at different temperatures to collect the data required for the concentration vs. time plot. These plots reaction rate constants, k, for each temperature for each parallel reac tion. The kinetic data was collected following the same procedures the students used in the organic chemistry 1 : 2 b.p ( o C) 138 204 196 B r A l C l 3 + Figure 4. Friedel-Crafts alkylation of p-xylene. T emp (K) Time (min) [ Xylene ] ( M ) [CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 Br] ( M ) C B /C A ln (C B /C A ) 295.5 0 5.29 3.859 0.729 0.315 10 3.79 2.36 0.62 3 0.473 14 3.63 2.2 0.606 0.50 1 18 3.34 1.91 0.57 2 0.55 9 20 3.18 1.75 0.550 0.59 8 311 0 5.29 3.859 0.729 0.315 2 3.8 2.369 0.623 0.472 6 3.3 1.97 0.59 7 0.51 6 14 3.1 1.6 0.516 0.66 1 18 2.88 1.42 0.493 0.707 333 0 5.29 3.85 0.72 8 0.317 8 2 2.83 1.4 0.49 5 0.70 4 6 2.39 0.96 0.40 2 0.912 10 2.04 0.61 0.299 1.2 1 14 1.73 0.3 0.173 1.75 TABLE 1 Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Kinetic Data laboratory earlier in the semester. To calculate the total reaction rate constant a plot of C bromopropane /C p-xylene vs. time was constructed. To understand this leap it is necessary to derive the irreversible bimolecular-type second order reaction performance equation: [4] Starting with the generic second order reaction: AB pr oducts () 1 The corresponding rate equation is as follows: [4] r dC dt dC dt kC C A A B to tA B () 2 It is possible to follow the derivation of this equation in Chemical Reaction Engineering by Octave Levenspiel, in Chapter 3. The following is the end result of the derivations: ln ln C MC X X MX MX CC k B A B A A A BA to 1 1 1 00 t t t( ) 3

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 197 B r + A l C l 3 + A l C l 3 B r H + + H H A l C l 3 B r A l C l 3 B r + H B r + A l C l 3 H B r + A l C l 3 + Figure 5. Friedel-Crafts alkylation of p-xylene mechanism. [5] where M = C Bo /C Ao X = conversion, k = reaction rate constant, reactant A = p-xylene, B = 1-bromopropane. The implication of this result show that a plot of ln (C B /C A ) versus time will yield a straight line if indeed the reaction is The intercept will equal M, and the slope will be equal to (C B0 C A0 )k tot EXPERIMENTAL Three experiments were set up identically at temperatures of 295.5 K, 311 K, and 333 K. To 15.0 mL of p-xylene was added 1.00 g of AlCl 3 The resulting mixture was allowed to stir while 8.0 mL of 1-bromopropane was added dropwise over a period of 5-10 minutes. At two-minute intervals, a microliter sample was extracted from the reaction vessel, quenched with water, and diluted with diethyl ether. After removal of the aqueous layer, the samples were dried over sodium sulfate. The samples were examined in the Gas Chromatograph/MS to determine the concentrations of reactants and products in each sample. The reaction progress was monitored by gas chromatog raphy, and the kinetic data recorded in Table 1. By plotting the concentration data from the gas chromatograph found in Table 1, it is possible to calculate the k tot [4] With that information and the average ratio of products at each time step it is possible to calculate k 1 and k 2 with the following two equations: [4] kk k to t 12 4 () Cp r opyl C k k n isopr opyl AVE 1 2 5 () ) When all of the reaction rate constants were determined it was then possible to solve for individual frequency factors, k 0 and activation energies, E a using the Arrhenius relation ship: kk e ER T a 0 6 / () Plotting ln k vs. 1/T, the slope of this line is E A /R, and the y intercept is k 0 thus permitting the calculation of both k 0 and E a for each parallel reaction, and the overall reaction. The activation energy values and frequency factors are critical to model and scale up the reaction using ChemCad. This entire process was expected to be executed by each student, thus reinforcing the derivation of a concentration vs. time model. Each student had to demonstrate mastery of this ChemCad. Upon successful calculation of the reaction rate constants, students were allowed to start the scale-up model ing with ChemCad. With this data, it was now possible to establish the appropri ate kinetic relationships in ChemCAD. The students then used ChemCad to search the most economically feasible reactor design. A cursory analysis of the data yielded an appropriate plot of 1/r A vs. X A Analysis of the plot makes it clear that the best reactor design to minimize volume should be a plug

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Chemical Engineering Education 198 volume for the initial guess can be estimated. Questions left to resolve are reactor volume, heat duty, and isothermal vs. adiabatic operation. Students were free to explore various reactor networks, such as parallel vs. series reactors and use of recycle. Students were given latitude to explore other unique strategies using ChemCad. CHEMICAL SEPARATIONS DESIGN PROJECT The chemical separations design phase of this interdisci plinary project was fairly open ended. The students could purity of all components in the system (feed, catalyst, prod product stream. This open-ended approach forced the students to consider all aspects of a realistic separation problem that originated in their organic chemistry lab and that they might a detailed solution required knowledge beyond their current level, but they eventually enjoyed working on this problem because it truly challenged them to think. Like the reactor design project, our students began the separations design project by gathering property information. some of the compounds they quickly learned how to make reasonable approximations and assumptions. We advised the students that a critical task in their design was to determine the best separation technique for each of the components and decide on the most logical sequencing of those techniques. Based on the available property information, most student use a series of distillation columns to purify the remaining components. Much like a real-world design process, however, we forced each team to consider at least two different separa tion sequences and compare and contrast them. In this way our students learned a great deal about separations processes. The separations design project also used ChemCad software as the vehicle for the design. Most student teams attempted to jump right into ChemCad without much preparatory analysis, and their initial results clearly emphasized the importance of choosing a reasonable thermodynamic model, and making some preliminary estimates. While students will be expected to use thermodynamic modeling in greater depth later in their cur riculum, this exercise served as an excellent tool to emphasize the importance of material yet to come. As a result of creating, manipulating and running ChemCad examples, all students in thread for our entire chemical engineering program. One design team exceeded our expectations for a truly integrated design solution. This team combined their reactor sheet. Although we expected separate reactor and separa tions designs from these third-year students in these separate courses, this team made the logical leap and combined the a recycle stream for unconverted reactants. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS To analyze the results the students were given a quiz at the beginning of the semester consisting of representative questions from the organic chemistry, chemical reaction engineering, and separations disciplines. The same quiz was then re-administered at the end of the semester to see if there was improvement, and retention of knowledge. These results are in Table 3. In addition to this the students were asked the following questions regarding their individual experiences with the design project at the end of the semester. These questions were answered on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 represented the most positive feedback and 5 was the least positive. These questions are listed in Table 4 accompanied by the averaged results from AY06-02 to AY07-2 in the chemical reaction engineering course, to see the impact this had on performance. Although the data only showed a small increase, the students type of problems in other courses. From the results, it is clear that the design experience had a positive outcome in terms of mastery of the material. The students responses to the questions were also quite positive. We will conduct the same approach in the years to come and continue to gather data. Reaction #1 (isopropyl) Reaction #2 (n propyl) k 1 T k 2 T 0.0296 333 0.00653 295.5 0.0050 311 0.0085 311 0.0029 295.5 0.035 333 TABLE 2 Rate Constant (k) vs. Temperature (K) For chemical engineering students, it seems a natural progression to explore solu tions . in the context of a chemical separations issue and reactor design. Since these students often take organic chemistry, chemical reactor design, and chemical separa tions together, an interdisciplinary project such as this provides a practical application to bridge the theory developed in all three courses with an experimental challenge.

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 199 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 5 10 15 20 Time (min) ln(C B /C A ) T=295.5 K T=311 K T=333 K 2 1 2 3 3 4 4 1 7 5 5 6 8 9 Figure 6. Concentration vs. time plot. Figure 7. Student teams fully integrated reactor and separations design proposal. Pre Project : Post Project : Question Question # Correct Incorrect Question # Correct Incorrect What is a Friedel Craft s a lkylation? 1 5 6 1 7 4 Give an example of one. 2 3 8 2 9 2 Method of calc. k 0 and E A 3 2 9 3 8 3 Method of k 1 k 2 calc. parallel rxns. 4 0 11 4 7 4 Can k 1 k 2 be found graphically? 5 0 11 5 2 9 Give two ways to separate gas and liquid phases. 6 8 3 6 10 1 Give two ways to separate two liquid phases. 7 8 3 7 10 1 TABLE 3 Quiz Results Question Regarding Individual Experience Ave Response 1. Was this design project useful in terms of helping the learning process? 1.64 2. Was this design project helpful to wr ap up the course material at end of semester? 1.73 3. Did this design project aid your learning in organic chemistry and separations? 2.27 4. Would you recommend this project format next year? 2.09 5. Did you like the design project? 2.55 6. Do you think the design experience helped your Term End Exam preparation? 2.0 9 TABLE 4 Questions Regarding Individual Experiences

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Chemical Engineering Education 200CONCLUSION This idea started out as merely a project for our Chemi cal Reaction Engineering course, but evolved into a novel educational approach to chemical engineering curriculum development using a technique closely paralleling the actual industry design process. From our results, it is apparent that this is indeed a valid approach. The experience allowed the students to approach the problem as a design engineer in industry would, as well as use the problem-solving techniques previously discussed. Additionally, the students were able to use the chemical engineering software ear lier by using the kinetic data given to them. We intend to use this technique again, and recommend it fully to other programs. In fact, the project is in its second iteration and has evolved to include other factors such as cost optimiza tion and environmental impact. As this project becomes a more prominent feature of our program, we will give the students less data, requiring them to decide what informa tion is needed. REFERENCES 1. Eves, R.L., et al., Integration of Field Studies and Undergraduate Re search Into an Interdisciplinary Course, J. College Science Teaching 36 (6) 22 (May/June 2007) 2. The Foundation Coalition Curriculum Integration-Students Linking Ideas across Disciplines, 3. CE300 Course Book USMA (20 June 2007) 4. FM 5-0 Army Planning and Orders Production (January 2005) 5. Gilbert, J.C., and S.F. Martin, Experimental Organic Chemistry A Miniscale and Microscale Approach 4th Ed., Thomson Brooks, Cole, CA (2006) 6. Levenspeil, O., Chemical Reaction Engineering 3rd Ed., John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, (1999)

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 201 L ike most faculty members, we began our academic careers with zero prior instruction on college teach ing and quickly made almost every possible blunder. Weve also been peer reviewers and mentors to colleagues, and that experience on top of our own early stumbling has given us a good sense of the most common mistakes college teachers make. In this column and one to follow we present our top ten list, in roughly increasing order of badness. Doing were not telling you to avoid all of them at all costs. We are suggesting that you avoid making a habit of any of them. Mistake #10. When you ask a question in class, immedi ately call for volunteers. You know what happens when you do that. Most of the students avoid eye contact, and either you get a response from one of the two or three who always volunteer or you answer your own question. Few students even bother to think about the question, since they know that eventually someone else will provide the answer. We have a suggestion for a better way to handle question ing, but its the same one well have for Mistake #9 so lets hold off on it for a moment. Mistake #9. Call on students cold. whats the next step? Some students are comfortable under that kind of pressure, but many could have trouble thinking of their own name. If you frequently call on students without giving them time to think (cold-calling), the ones who are intimidated by it wont be following your lecture as much as praying that you dont land on them. Even worse, as soon as you call on someone, the others breathe a sigh of relief and stop thinking.THE 10 WORST TEACHING MISTAKES RICHARD M. FELDER North Carolina State UniversityREBECCA BRENT Education Designs, Inc. A better approach to questioning in class is active learn ing [1] Ask the question and give the students a short time to come up with an answer, working either individually or in small groups. Stop them when the time is up and call on a few to report what they came up with. Then if you havent gotten the complete response youre looking for, call for volunteers. The students will have time to think about the question, andunlike what happens when you always jump directly to volunteers (Mistake #10)most will try to come up with a response because they dont want to look bad if you call on them. With active learning youll also avoid the intimidation of cold-calling (Mistake #9) and youll get more and better answers to your questions. Most importantly, real learning Random Thoughts . Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008

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Chemical Engineering Education 202 will take place in class, something that doesnt happen much in traditional lectures. [2] Mistake #8. Turn classes into PowerPoint shows. It has become common for instructors to put their lecture notes into PowerPoint and to spend their class time mainly droning through the slides. Classes like that are generally a waste of time for everyone. [3] If the students dont have pa per copies of the slides, theres no way they can keep up. If they have the copies, they can read the slides faster than the instructor can lecture through them, the classes are exercises in boredom, the students have little incentive to show up, and many dont. example of: Mistake #7. Fail to provide variety in instruction. Nonstop lecturing produces very little learning, [2] but if good instructors never lectured they could not motivate students by occasionally sharing their experience and wisdom. Pure PowerPoint shows are ineffective, but so are lectures with no visual contentschematics, diagrams, animations, photos, video clips, etc.for which PowerPoint is ideal. Individual student assignments alone would not teach students the criti they will need to succeed as professionals, but team assign ments alone would not promote the equally important trait of independent learning. Effective instruction mixes things up: boardwork, multimedia, storytelling, discussion, activities, individual assignments, and group work (being careful to avoid Mistake #6). The more variety you build in, the more effective the class is likely to be. Mistake #6. Have students work in groups with no indi vidual accountability. All students and instructors who have ever been involved with group work know the potential downside. One or two students do the work, the others coast along understanding little of what their more responsible teammates did, everyone students learn nothing about high-performance teamwork and how to achieve it. The way to make group work work is cooperative learn ing an exhaustively researched instructional method that effectively promotes development of both cognitive and in is individual accountability holding each team member accountable for the entire project and not just the part that he or she may have focused on. References on cooperative learning offer suggestions for achieving individual account ability, including giving individual exams covering the full range of knowledge and skills required to complete the project and assigning individual grades based in part on how well the students met their responsibilities to their team. [4, 5] Mistake #5. Fail to establish relevance. Students learn best when they clearly perceive the relevance of course content to their interests and career goals. The trust me approach to education ( You may have no idea now why you need to know this stuff but trust me, in a few years youll see how important it is! ) doesnt inspire students with a burning desire to learn, and those who do learn tend to be motivated only by grades. To provide better motivation, begin the course by describ ing how the content relates to important technological and social problems and to whatever you know of the students experience, interests, and career goals, and do the same thing when you introduce each new topic. (If there are no such con nections, why is the course being taught?) Consider applying inductive methods such as guided inquiry and problem-based learning, which use real-world problems to provide context for all course material. [6] You can anticipate some student resistance to those methods, since they force students to take unaccustomed responsibility for their own learning, but there are effective ways to defuse resistance [7] and the methods lead to enough additional learning to justify whatever additional effort it may take to implement them. REFERENCES 1. Felder, R.M., and R. Brent, Learning by Doing, Chem. Engr. Educa tion 37 (4), 282 (2003) 2. Prince, M., Does Active Learning Work? A Review of the Research, J. Engr. Education 93 (3), 223 (2004) 3. Felder, R.M., and R. Brent, Death by PowerPoint, Chem. Engr. Education 39 (1), 28 (2005) 4. Felder, R.M., and R. Brent, Cooperative Learning, in P.A. Mabrouk, ed., Active Learning: Models from the Analytical Sciences, ACS Sym posium Series 970 Chapter 4. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society (2007) 5. CATME (Comprehensive Assessment of Team Member Effectiveness), 6. Prince, M.J., and R.M. Felder, Inductive Teaching and Learning J. Engr. Education 95 (2), 123 (2006) 7. Felder, R.M. ,Sermons for Grumpy Campers, Chem. Engr. Education 41 (3), 183 (2007) All of the Random Thoughts columns are now available on the World Wide Web at

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 203 S gineering is taught and in our understanding of how students learn. Signs of this ferment include the chang ing publication requirements of the Journal of Engineering Education (JEE), [1, 2] increased interest in teaching professors how to teach, National Academy of Engineering (NAE) studies on engineering education in the 21st century, [3, 4] the develop ment of the NAE Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education (CASEE) [5] and its development of the engineering education research portal AREE, [6] the avail ability of funds for engineering education research from NSF including the National Engineering Education Colloquies [7] that resulted in a national research agenda for engineering education, [8] the development of numerous engineering edu cation research centers, [5] changes in ABET requirements, [9] the development of Departments of Engineering Education at Purdue [10] and Virginia Tech, [11] the development of an en gineering and science education department at Clemson, [12] the development of an engineering and technology education department at Utah State, [13] and an increasing number of chemical engineering departments that allow students to do their Ph.D. research on engineering education. After a short history of engineering education, we will discuss pedagogical training for all professors and research training for specialists in engineering education. BRIEF HISTORY OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES [14] curred at the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, which was authorized by Congress in 1802. In 1819 Alden Partridge, a graduate and former instructor at West Academy (now Norwich University) at Norwich, Vermont. academy. Shortly after this, in 1824, Stephen Van Rensselaer established the Rensselaer School (now Rensselaer Polytech nic Institute) at Troy, New York. The amount of engineering in in civil engineering were granted in 1835. The increasing development of canals and railroads in creased demand for engineers, who were seen as necessary for economic development. This led to the opening of a number of engineering schools; however, many of these schools closed during the depression of the late 1830s and 1840s. A shortsighted lack of support of engineering education during lean economic periods has been repeated several times since then. After the depression ended, the westward expansion of the United States continued to increase the demand for engineers. PEDAGOGICAL TRAINING AND RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING EDUCATIONPHILLIP C. WANKAT Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907-2100 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008 ChE educational research

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Chemical Engineering Education 204 In 1862, Justin Morrill of Vermont succeeded in passing the seminal Morrill Land Grant Act that was then signed by President Lincoln. This act allowed the federal government to give the proceeds from the sale of federal land to the states for support of colleges to teach agriculture and mechanical arts. The act had little effect during the Civil War, and by 1865 there were only approximately 20 engineering schools in the United States, including several dormant schools in the South. After the war, engineering education boomed and by 1872 there were 70 engineering colleges. Some of the land grant programs were at existing state universities ( e.g. Minnesota, Rutgers, and Wisconsin), others were formed by converting existing small private colleges into state universi ties ( e.g. Auburn and Virginia Tech), while some were totally new institutions ( e.g. Purdue and Texas A&M). In 1890 the land grant schools were stabilized by the passing of the sec ond Morrill Act that provided for annual appropriations. [15] In this second law Morrill [15] also tried to prevent spending federal funds in states where there was a distinction of race or color. Unfortunately, this intent to encourage integration was unsuccessful, and after numerous compromises the act permitted the development of separate land-grant institu tions for blacks ( e.g. Tennessee State University and North Carolina A&T). They were supposed to be equal, but soon became unequal. [15] Another pattern has been the establishment, then closure, and occasionally reestablishment, of engineering colleges. Examples are the programs at the College of William and Mary, the Polytechnic College of Pennsylvania, the University of Alabama, and Harvard University. [14] Money continues to have an effect on developments in engineering education. The urge to develop new engineering disciplines is almost as old as the teaching of engineering. Military engineering was naturally the subject at West Point. Both Norwich and Rensse laer started teaching civil engineering. Mechanical engineer ing followed with the U.S. Naval Academy offering steam degrees awarded by the Polytechnic College of Pennsylvania in 1854. The Polytechnic College of Pennsylvania also insti tuted mining engineering in 1857 followed by the Columbia University School of Mines in 1864. Electrical engineering, course in chemical engineering was taught at MIT in 1888. [16] Fledgeling chemical engineering programs formed within chemistry departments at the University of Pennsylvania in 1892, Tulane University in 1894, the University of Michigan and Tufts University in 1898, and the Armour Institute of Technology (now Illinois Institute of Technology) in 1900. Although most chemical engineering departments are now in the college of engineering, some chemical engineering The situation is similar in computer science, in which some departments are in the college of science and some are in the riculum was started in 1908 at Pennsylvania State College, and aeronautical engineering was started at the University of Michigan in 1914. [14] Initially, mining engineering was an interdisciplinary combination of civil and mechanical engineering, electrical engineering was an interdisciplinary combination of mechanical engineering and physics, chemical engineering was an interdisciplinary combination of mechani cal engineering and chemistry, and industrial engineering was a combination of engineering and management. Engineers have long had interest in and disagreements on how engineering should be taught. Laboratory instruction in engineering was started at Stevens Institute of Technology in 1871 and summer camps were started at the University of Michigan in 1874. In the late 1800s mechanical engineers disagreed over whether education should be practical or theoreticala disagreement that continues. Shop classes (very tory courses at this time. Cooperative education (alternating periods of work and study) is arguably the most important oped in engineering. Co-op was started by Herman Schneider at the University of Cincinnati in 1906. Cooperative group learning was also used in engineering classrooms at least as early as 1907 [14] method that is totally new. Development of a professional society to improve engi neering education can be traced to 1876 when a joint com mittee of the American Institute of Mining Engineers and the American Society of Civil Engineers met. [14] A later joint committee meeting in 1882 included the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. In 1893 the Society for the Pro motion of Engineering Education (SPEE) was born at the of the society in 1894 President DeVolson Wood noted that SPEE was open to both men and women. Unlike the earlier attempts, SPEE survived and became the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) in 1946. Engineering has society devoted to professional education. [14] From the beginning SPEE published a Proceedings that included papers and board minutes. In 1910 a regular Bul letin was started that became Engineering Education in 1916. When the number of conference papers became too large for the journal, ASEE started the Annual Conference Proceedings The Proceedings or three large volumes every meeting. The 1996 and later Proceedings are available on CDs at the ASEE Web site. [17] The Frontiers in Education (FIE) Conferences were started in 1971 by the Education Group of IEEE, and in 1973 the Engineering Research and Methods (ERM) Division of ASEE started co-sponsoring the FIE conference. [18] The 1995 and

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 205 later Proceedings of the Frontiers in Education Conferences are available electronically from the FIE Clearinghouse. [19] For many years Engineering Education a society newsletter, a semi-popular magazine, and a learned journal. These multiple roles became increasing strained and in 1991 publication of Engineering Education temporarily ceased and the new magazine ASEE Prism was born. In 1993 the Journal of Engineering Education (JEE) was restarted. JEE has had three editors (Ed Ernst, John Prados, and Jack Lohmann) since being restarted and has successively become more rigorous. The training of engineering professors in pedagogy was an early and continuing interest of SPEE and ASEE. [14] In 1901 SPEE called for teaching engineering professors how to teach. Formal training in teaching occurred at the SPEE summer schools from 1911 to 1915 and again from 1927 to 1933. Unfortunately, the dislocations caused by war and depression ended these pioneering efforts. A large number of been sponsored since then. The Hammond Report in 1944 reiterated the need for systematic development of teaching skills. In 1955 the Grinter Report stated it is essential that those selected to teach be trained properly for this function. In 1955 the Interim Committee for Young Engineering Teachers as a two-day meeting, Principles of Learning in Engineering Education, following the 1958 annual conference of ASEE. Regional institutes were started in 1966 and were eventually put under the ERM Division of ASEE. These programs con tinue including the highly successful ASEE National Effective Teaching Institutes. The 1983 ASEE Quality in Engineering Education project again called for more training of faculty in teaching. Although relatively small, the Chemical Engineering Division (ChED) of ASEE has been a leader in improving teaching. The Division started publishing its journal Chemi cal Engineering Education (CEE) in 1966. CEE is widely admired as probably the best of the disciplinary journals in engineering education. The mission of CEE is to aid in the education of chemical engineers, which is much broader than the current research mission of JEE The Division has The ChED summer schools focus mainly on how to teach new workshop was included. Following the success of that work shop, regularly scheduled how-to-teach workshops have been held at every ChED summer school since then and are now required of new faculty, whose travel expenses are partially supported by the summer school. An engineering course to train ChE teaching assistants howTexas, who also developed an in-house teaching workshop for new faculty. [20] ing who planned on academic careers was taught at Purdue University. [21] Since that time a large number of additional faculty workshops [22] and regular courses [23] to improve the teaching of engineering have been developed, and a textbook was published. [24] WHY EDUCATION IN PEDAGOGY NOW? Most engineering professors do not have training in peda gogy. Instead, most are superbly trained in how to do research. respect to education, the system is broken. When professors suffer even if the professors eventually become excellent teachers. Since OJT does not provide a theoretical framework, research or to adopt new teaching methods. With the current system some professors never become good teachers. Low retention rates [25] are partially caused by the current system. After more than 100 years of calls to improve engineering education, why would anyone believe that a lasting reform can happen now? As the NAE reports [3, 4] note, the world has changed. Engineering students have changed; they are much more diverse including gender, ethnicity, age, part-time status, and educational background than they used to be. The increase in diversity is welcomed, but most of the students are weaker in mathematics, particularly algebra, than they used to be. [26] In addition, the average work ethic appears to be lower. [26] Different active-learning teaching methods are needed and fortunately are available. [24, 27, 28] New technical content such as nano-scale engineering, bioengineering, and particulate processing, as well as increased professional content [9] such as teamwork, ethics, work experience, and global/societal effects, all need to be included. Employers are expecting more of graduates. [3, 27] If more content and different teaching methods are ex pected, what do we do less of? Students know that they may need more than four years to earn a degree. Faculty will need to reduce the time spent lecturing to provide time for more effective active learning methods. [24, 27, 28] Faculty need to replace hand calculations with computer methods and to remove other obsolete material such as Pon chon-Savarit diagrams. [29] Unfortunately, there is never agree ment on what material to remove, which makes all suggestions for removal of material controversial. Although this will not Engineering has the proud profession to form a society devoted to professional education.

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Chemical Engineering Education 206 be a popular suggestion, I also think that we need to reduce the amount of theory and analysis. Schools need to experiment [30] as well as with curricula with a smaller required core and more options. The good news is we know how to teach professors how to improve their teaching, and it is not that difficult or expensive. Both teaching workshops [20, 22, 31, 32] and regular for-credit courses [21, 23] are effective in increasing the teach ing competence of attendees. The bad news is we dont do this routinely and professors who have been in academe for time to attend workshops. Stice [20] found that experienced professors will attend summer teaching workshops if they are paid to attend. Our experience at Purdue is similar. New professors on the other hand (including those returning to academe from industry), are much more interested in learning how-to-teach. Teaching senior Ph.D. students how-to-teach has the advantages that they are used to taking courses, they have time, and knowing how to teach instead of learning on research programs when they become assistant professors. [23] Courses on how-to-teach also provide access to modern engi neering education scholarship by providing a vocabulary and introducing engineering professors to theories of development and learning. If the vast majority of engineering professors are not taught the basics of pedagogy, then the researchers in engineering education will end up talking to themselves and there will be very little if any impact of the research on the teaching of engineering. S C HOLARSH I P I N EN GI NEER I N G EDU C AT I ON Early scholarship in engineering education did not have to be very rigorous to be accepted. Many papers were basically I tried this new method and the students loved it, and were published with little or no data and often few references. After restarting in 1993, JEE was still not very rigorous compared to journals in education and educational psychology, but it was generally more rigorous than the proceedings published by ASEE and than other engineering education journals. The new higher standards encouraged including student course evaluations and/or surveys plus appropriate references. This is a quality level that all engineering professors can meet if they are pushed to do so. I will call this level the old paradigm for quality in engineering education research. Note that during this period engineering was typical of many other disciplines disciplinary educational research was not held to a very high standard. The watershed event in educational research occurred in 1990 with the publication of Ernest Boyers Scholarship Reconsidered [33] 1. Discovery, which in engineering is the usual high-pres tige technical research. 2. Application, which in engineering is applied research and is relatively high prestige. 3. Integration, which includes interdisciplinary research and writing scholarly books, is the search for meaning sity faculty have yet to recognize the importance of the scholarship of integration in engineering education. [34] 4. Teaching, which was quickly extended to a scholarship of teaching and learning, is scholarly study to improve teaching and learning, not teaching itself. Unlike re searchers in the other scholarships, however, scholars of teaching and learning must be good teachers or they will lose credibility. Boyers book had an enormous impact on the scholarship of teaching and learning. A few universities started accepting the scholarship of teaching and learning almost overnight, but [34] And engineering was not an earlier adopter. [35] ing education research at the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century. First, and most important, money talks. When NSF started providing funds for engineer ing education research it made that research affordable and more prestigious. Additionally, the requirement for a teach ing component in NSF CAREER proposals forced most new faculty to think more seriously about teaching and educational research. And, the requirement for broad impact statements in regular technical proposals probably had a positive effect despite a backlash from many researchers. Second, ABET requirements forced many professors to be more serious about outcomes and to pay attention to as sessment. ABET clearly had a positive impact despite push back from professors who disliked ABETs methods. Third, the NAE charted CASEE and started to consider educational accomplishments in admission to NAE. CASEE probably had more impact since NAE admission affects only a small fraction of professors. Fourth, the general interest in good col lege teaching from government, parents, students, and college Teaching senior Ph.D. students how-to-teach has the advantages that they are used to taking courses, they have time, and knowing how to teach instead of learning on the job provides their research programs when they become assistant professors.

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 207 presidents impacts engineering deans, department heads, and professors. Fifth, with more research support and more rigor ous judging of quality, some schools now include engineering education research grants and papers in their promotion and tenure decisions, although they may still be undervalued compared to technical research. Sixth, as the faculty environ ment became even more pressurized, new facultywho were expected to hit the ground runningfound that receiving training in how-to-teach as Ph.D. students helped them have [23] research was the gradual development of JEE as a rigorous research journal. As noted previously, using the old paradigm the threshold standard in JEE was to include student course evaluations and/or surveys plus appropriate references. This level was a bit higher than many other engineering education journals, but still not up to world-class standards as set by the best journals in education and educational psychology. In 2003 JEE moved its acceptance standards for research papers to a level of rigor on par with highly ranked education journals. [1] The rigor required to publish research papers in JEE outstrips the rigor of the average research paper published in other en gineering education journals and in conference proceedings. Because of this JEE has had a positive effect on the quality of research published in these other venues. The changes in JEE have resulted in unexpected conse quences. First, professors not trained in educational research have found that the research articles in the journal are a lot age engineering professor does not read JEE or other engineer ing education journals, engineering education research will probably have little impact in the classroom. Second, most engineering professors need to collaborate with someone with the right skill set to reach the quality level required. This partially caused the third effect, an acceptance rate that plum rate is that as a new discipline, engineering education has a low consensus on the standards required for scholarship, which is known to reduce journal acceptance rates. [36] Unfortu will not submit to JEE preferring to publish elsewhere. It is in JEE than in the most prestigious ChE journals. Fourth, the change in rigor increased the amount of collaborative research published in JEE review papers appeared to increase. Apparently, engineering faculty can write critical reviews even if they are not trained in rigorous educational research methods. Finally, there are many topics of interest to engineering professors that cannot be published in JEE because they are not research topics. Examples are articles on meeting ABET assessment requirements, curriculum developments, how to teach a particular topic, and course development. Fortunately, chemical engineers can publish on these topics in CEE which is a refereed journal that does not focus totally on research. For professors in most other engineering disciplines, ASEE discovered that there was a large publishing hole between the semi-popular Prism magazine and the rigorous research published in JEE tions-oriented electronic journal Advances in Engineering Education in 2007. [37] meets a series of well-known criteria. [1, 27, 36, 38] Rigorous educational research needs to be planned in advancetrying deciding to write an article is not rigorous research although it may be valuable to other professors. Rigorous educational in advance and then testing them during the research. A thorough literature review is required. The research should be grounded with a theory of learning or human development. The research tools will consist of quantitative (statistical) methods; qualitative methods such as survey instruments, protocol analysis, ethnography, and interview techniques; or mixed methods. Methods should be selected that allow direct investigation of the hypotheses. Before conducting the research, approval or an exemption must be obtained from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) if stu dents are involved. Finally, the research will be presented to peers through oral and/or written papers. These requirements set the level for the new paradigm of quality in engineering education research. The Engineering Education Research Colloquies [7] devel oped a national agenda for research in engineering educa tion. [8] [8] : Area 1-Engineering Epistemologies : Research on what constitutes engineering thinking and knowledge within social contexts now and into the future. Area 2-Engineering Learning Mechanisms : Research on engineering learners developing knowledge and competencies in context. Area 3-Engineering Learning Systems : Research on the instructional culture, institutional infrastructure, and epistemology of engineering educators. Area 4-Engineering Diversity and Inclusiveness : Research on how diverse human talents contribute solu tions to the social and global challenges and relevance of our profession. Area 5-Engineering Assessment : Research on, and the development of, assessment methods, instruments, and metrics to inform engineering education practice and learning. were not expected to encompass all areas of research of inter

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Chemical Engineering Education 208 est. For example, research on the motivations of engineering students and how they differ from the motivations of students in other disciplines is certainly of interest. The vast majority of engineering professors are unfamiliar with these research areas and with the tools required for rigorous educational research. They are unfamiliar with learn ing and human development theories and in many cases are unfamiliar with teaching methods other than lecture, lab, and design. Although they may be knowledgeable about statistical methods, educational statistics tend to be different since many (r values) of 0.5 are considered high. Qualitative methods are probably unheard of and may not be trusted. Although engineers have started to do assessments for ABET accredita tion, these assessments are fairly crude compared to rigorous educational research. How can an engineering professor get started in engineering education research at the level of rigor of the new paradigm? Education who can provide the necessary theories and re search tools. By working with an expert, reading about basic pedagogical methods, [24] taking teaching workshops such as at the ChED Summer School or the ASEE NETI, reading about [27, 36, 38] attending workshops on rigorous engineering education research, [39] and studying articles in JEE and other journals, engineering professors can slowly pull themselves up to a level where they can compete for NSF grants, do rigorous research, and publish in the highest quality journals. PH D PRO G RA M S I N EN GI NEER I N G EDU C AT I ON Whether their degree is from an engineering education department or a disciplinary department, Colleges of Engi neering must ensure that all graduates earning Ph.D. degrees based on research in engineering education do their research at the level of the new paradigm. Thus, they must have some knowledge and skill with both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Graduates who are only trained in the old paradigm have obsolete skills and represent a tragedy for both the graduate and for the nascent discipline of engineer ing education. In a very short time (a 2002 paper on the scholarship of teaching and learning in engineering had no mention of Ph.D. programs in engineering education [35] ) three different models have been developed for students who want to earn a Ph.D. doing research in engineering education. The oldest model is to do engineering education research in a disciplin ary department. The Department of Industrial Engineering at the University graduates. A scattering of chemical engineering departments have awarded Ph.D. degrees to students who did engineering education research. An advantage of this model is that since graduates have to take the required disciplinary courses and pass the appropriate qualifying examinations, they are well their discipline. This model is also inexpensive and easy to structure, however, can also mean a lack of quality control. If the members of the Ph.D. research committees are not familiar with rigorous engineering education research, they may set the requirements for rigor too low and not require students to take appropriate research methods courses in education, and the resulting research may be conducted at the level of the old paradigm. These graduates, although per fectly capable in teaching and curriculum development, will not be prepared to do engineering education research at the level of the new paradigm. This danger is much more severe than with disciplinary research because faculty have been trained to do disciplinary research and the level of consensus of what is good scholarship is much higher in technical areas than in engineering education. [36] To some extent this danger can be alleviated by treating the research as interdisciplin ary and having a co-advisor from the College of Education. Unfortunately, I have observed several cases where a recent Ph.D. who did research in engineering education within a disciplinary department was not trained to perform research at the desired level of rigor. The second model is to develop a new department such as engineering education at Purdue [10] and Virginia Tech, [11] engi neering and science education at Clemson, [12] and engineering and technology education at Utah State. [13] The Purdue Depart ment of Engineering Education (ENE) started its Ph.D. pro Purdue ENE Ph.D. Requirements [41] Admission: B.S. or M.S. in engineering, high GPA, letters, statement of interest. Must have high quality students not a consolation prize Courses: Grad-level technical engineering courses 15 cr. May use transfer credit from engineering masters program. ENE Intro course & ENE seminar 4 cr. Intro Statistics & Intro Ed Research 6 cr. Research Methods electives 6 cr. ENE electives and Grad elective 9 cr. 40 cr. Thesis Figure 1. Purdue Universitys ENE Ph.D. requirements.

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 209 gram in 2005 and has two graduates (Dr. Tamara Moore who transferred into ENE from Math Education and Dr. Euridice Oware who transferred into ENE from Civil Engineering). The Virginia Tech Department of Engineering Education started its Ph.D. program in 2007. Both of these Ph.D. programs are cross-disciplinary and require course work in ENE, another engineering department, and the College of Education. The Clemson Department of Engineering and Science Education cation for graduate students and plans on starting a graduate degree program. Although the Engineering and Technology Education Department at Utah State University is part of the College of Engineering, its cross-disciplinary Ph.D. is cur rently granted by the College of Education. The Utah State program focuses on curriculum and instruction mainly for technology education teachers. Utah State is in the process of developing a Ph.D. program in engineering education that would be granted by the College of Engineering. I believe these departments should be within the College of Engineering so that graduates will think of themselves as engineers and will be able to work with other engineering professors. The advantages of developing a separate degree-granting depart ment include the higher prestige of departments, the ease in tapping sources for research and development money, and the greater stability of departments. The main disadvantage is the cost of developing a new administrative structure. The third model is to develop an interdisciplinary program in engineering education at the Ph.D. level. There are, of For example, plans at Washington State University are that students will receive their degree from their engineering de partment ( e.g. ChE) and will meet additional requirements of the interdisciplinary program hosted by the Engineering Education Research Center. [40] These requirements will prob ably include taking courses from the College of Education and engineering education courses. What courses are typically included in a Ph.D. program in engineering education? The requirements for Purdues program, [41] listed in Figure 1, are fairly typical. The research methods courses either from the College of Education or from ENE are critically important regardless of the model selected. In addition, research advisors must ensure that re search is rigorous. One of the electives in ENE that is highly recommended is a how-to-teach course. [23] Most engineering colleges at universities with a College of Education could offer an interdisciplinary program similar to Figure 1 with the development of a few specialized courses. The model used for administering the program is less important than the availability of required courses and of interested research advisors who are knowledgeable in engineering and in edu cational research. The new programs in engineering education may also help engineering address one of the problems left over from its military heritagea culture that keeps the number of women studying and teaching engineering low. Women have been attracted to the Ph.D. programs in engineering education and to the faculty in the engineering education departments. For example, 16 of the 28 graduate students in Purdues School C AREERS F OR G RADUATES I N EN GI NEER I N G EDUCATION After formation of engineering education departments, we were continually asked What will the graduates do? ates of the Ph.D. programs. If current departments expand or new engineering education departments are formed, new graduates will be in demand for tenure-track positions in these departments. We also think that graduates will be attractive candidates for both tenure-track and instructor positions in and at community colleges. Some large disciplinary depart ments at research universities will also be interested in hiring graduates, particularly those that have a disciplinary Ph.D., as an educational expert. In addition, graduates are likely to be attractive candidates for non-tenure-track positions at teaching centers, as the educational leader in engineering research centers, and in engineering outreach to K-12. For at least the next 10 years demand will probably be greater than the supply of graduates. For long-term viability of both departments and graduates, universities need to make some modest changes. Promotion and tenure committees will need to learn to accept engineering education research as equivalent to technical research, and they will need to learn to evaluate the quality of engineer ing education research. In addition, engineering education researchers must do research that eventually commands the respect of engineering faculty who do technical research. What careers will be open for students who earn masters degrees in engineering education? Both Virginia Tech [11] and Utah State [13] have masters programs. Based on feedback from Purdues industrial advisory council, we believe that there is a large, untapped market for graduates with engi neering education masters degrees in the training programs How can an engineering professor get started in engineering education research at the level Education who can provide the necessary theories and research tools.

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Chemical Engineering Education 210 of large companies. If they have industrial experience, these community colleges. Staff positions at four-year colleges technology programs, instructors for lower-division courses, and outreach programs are also likely to hire graduates. Again, the demand will probably be greater than the supply for quite some time. CONCLUSIONS Engineering education requires a change in the status quo in which new professors receive no training in how to teach. If the attendees are motivated to learn, teaching Ph.D. students and new professors to improve their teaching is neither dif education we also need to have professors who conduct rigorous engineering education research. To improve the quality of engineering education research, professors must paradigm. This new paradigm requires that engineering edu cation researchers plan in advance, do a thorough literature review, state and test hypotheses, use appropriate quantita tive and qualitative research tools, and disseminate results to peers. An increasing number of students are doing their Ph.D. research on engineering education. Regardless of the type of program, it is vitally necessary that graduate students conduct their research at the level of the new engineering education research paradigm. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This paper is based on a presentation at Washington State University, July 27, 2007. REFERENCES 1. Lohmann, J.R., The Editors Page, J. Eng. Educ. 92 (1), 1 (2003) J. Eng. Educ. 97 (1), 1 (2008) 3. NAE Committee on the Engineer of 2020, The Engineer of 2020 National Academies Press, Washington, DC (2004) 4. NAE Committee on the Engineer of 2020 Phase II, Educating The En gineer of 2020 National Academies Press, Washington, DC (2005) 5. Accessed March 19, 2008 6. Accessed March 19, 2008 7. Steering Committee National Engineering Education Research Col loquies, The National Engineering Education Research Colloquies, J. Eng. Educ. 95 (4), 257 (2006) 8. Steering Committee National Engineering Education Research Col loquies, The Research Agenda for the New Discipline of Engineering Education, J. Eng. Educ. 95 (4), 259 (2006) 9. Accessed March 19, 2008 10. Accessed March 19, 2008 11. Accessed March 19, 2008 12. Accessed March 19, 2008 13. Accessed March 19, 2008 14. Grayson, L.P., The Making of an Engineer Wiley, New York (1993) 15. Lucas, C.J., American Higher Education. A History St. Martins Grif 16. Westwater, J.W., The Beginnings of Chemical Engineering Educa tion in the United States, in Furter, W.F. (Ed.), History of Chemical Engineering Washington, D.C., American Chemical Society, Advances in Chemistry Series, 190 140-152 (1980) 17. Accessed March 22, 2008 18. Biedenbach, J.M., and L.P. Grayson, Foreward, Proceedings Third Annual Frontiers in Education Conference p. viii, IEEE, New York (1973) 20. Stice, J.E., A Model for Teaching New Teachers How to Teach, Eng. Educ. 75 (2), 83 (Nov. 1984) 21. Wankat, P.C., and F.S. Oreovicz, Teaching Prospective Faculty Mem bers About Teaching: A Graduate Engineering Course, Eng. Educ. 75 (2), 84 (Nov. 1984) 22. Brawner, C.E., R.M. Felder, R. Allen, and R. Brent, A Survey of Faculty Teaching Practices and Involvement in Faculty Development Activities, J. Eng. Educ. 91 393 (2002) 23. Wankat, P.C., and F.S. Oreovicz, Teaching Prospective Engineering Faculty How To Teach, Intl. J. Eng. Educ. 21 (5) 925 (2005) 24. Wankat, P.C., and F.S. Oreovicz, Teaching Engineering McGraw-Hill, NY (1993) 25. Seymour, E., and N.M. Hewitt, Talking About Leaving: Why Under graduates Leave the Sciences Westview, Boulder, CO (1997) 26. Brannan, K.P., and P.C. Wankat, Survey of First-Year Programs, Proceedings ASEE 2005 Annual Conference Portland, OR (June, 2005). CD, session 1353 27. Heywood, J., Engineering Education : Research and Development in Curriculum and Instruction IEEE Press/Wiley, Hoboken, NJ (2005) 28. Prince, M., Does Active Learning Work? A Review of the Research, J. Eng. Educ. 93 223 (2004) 29. Wankat, P.C., What Will We Remove From the Curriculum to Make Room for X? Bite the BulletThrow Out Obsolete Material, Chem. Eng. Educ. 21 (2), 72 (Spring 1987) 30. DiBasio, D., L. Comparini, A.G. Dixon, and W.M. Clark, A ProjectBased Spiral Curriculum for Introductory Courses in ChE. Part 3. Evaluation, Chem. Eng. Educ. 35 (2), 140 (Spring 2001) 31. Conley, C.H., S.J. Ressler, T.A. Lenox, and J.A. Samples, Teaching Teachers to Teach EngineeringT4E, J. Eng. Educ. 89 31 (2000) 32. Kennedy, D., Academic Duty p. 75, Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA (1997) 33. Boyer, E., Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass (1990) 34. Radcliffe, D.R., Shaping the Discipline of Engineering Education, J. Eng. Educ. 95 (4), 263 (2006) 35. Wankat, P.C., R.M. Felder, K.A. Smith, and F.S. Oreovicz, The Engi neering Approach to the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, in M. T. Huber and S. Morreale (Eds.) Disciplinary Styles in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: Exploring Common Ground American Association for Higher Education, Washington, D.C., 217-237 (2002). neers Learning Educational Research Methods, J. Eng. Educ. 96 (2), 91 (2007) 37. Accessed March 19, 2008 38. Shavelson, R.J., and L. Towne, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. (2002) 39. Streveler, R.A., and K.A. Smith, Conducting Rigorous Research in Engineering Education, J. Eng. Educ. 95 (2) 103 (2006) 40. Professor Denny Davis, private communication, July 27, 2007 41. Accessed March 19, 2008

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 211QUICK AND EASY RATE EQUATIONS FOR MULTISTEP REACTIONSPHILLIP E. SAVAGE University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136 ChE The QSSA has nothing to do with steady states, either mathematically or conceptually. The QSSA deals with process rates (rates of chemical reactions), and not rates of change (dC i /dt). This approximation does not require or imply that dC RI /dt = 0 nor does it require or imply that C RI is constant. That using the term steady state creates confusion is evident in textbooks and educational articles where authors er roneously state that this approximation means the concentration of the reactive intermediate (RI) is constant! I n many different aspects of chemical engineering educa and then to simplify that general analysis as allowed by students the general energy balance and then subsequently ( e.g. adiabatic systems, steady state systems, systems with negligible changes in kinetic or potential energy). We show cases ( e.g. apply this same educational approach when teaching students how to develop reaction rate equations based upon application of the quasi-stationary-state approximation (QSSA) to the governing chemical mechanism. The purpose of this article is to make this opportunity more widely known. Chemical kinetics and reaction engineering textbooks [1-5] discuss techniques for deriving closed-form analytical rate equations from sets of elementary reaction steps. Types of reaction systems covered include chain reactions, catalysis, and chemical vapor deposition. The QSSA is one of the tools discussed in texts. This approximation, which in many texts gets the confusing and potentially misleading label of steadystate attached to it, allows one to neglect the comparatively small net reaction rate for a reactive intermediate (RI) relative to its very fast formation and disappearance rates. The result is that one can take the formation and disappearance rates to be approximately equal, and then solve algebraically for the concentration of the reactive intermediate. rr ne tR I ve ry smal l fo rm a tio nR I le , ar g r di sa ppear ance RI le ar g () 01 Oftentimes, this result contains the concentration(s) of other reactive intermediates, so the QSSA must be applied next to those reactive intermediates. This procedure is repeated to get explicit expressions for each reactive intermediate. The application of the QSSA in textbooks almost always involves only one or two reactive intermediates, because the number of simultaneous equations and tediousness of the algebra, if done manually, grow as the number of reactive intermediates increases. Most texts, when covering multistep reactions with two or more intermediates, teach students to make restrictive assumptions ( e.g. rate determining steps), mathematics, though, is a less general rate equation. If there is a shift in the rate-determining step with temperature or conver sion, for example, the rate equation will no longer apply. The lack of coverage of QSSA applications to larger multi step reaction systems in chemical engineering education need not persist. Easy-to-use general methods exist to develop ana lytical rate equations for arbitrarily large multistep reactions without making assumptions about the existence or identities of rate-determining steps. This article describes these general methods. One method, developed by Helfferich, [6-8] applies to Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008

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Chemical Engineering Education 212 concentrations are much greater than the concentrations of the intermediates. A second method, based upon work published by Christiansen, [9-11] relaxes the requirement that the catalyst concentration exceed that of the reactive intermediates. APPLICABILITY The formulas given in this article provide the rate equation for any multistep chemical reaction mechanism that meets the following criteria. The steps in the mechanism are all sequential (no branches). None of the steps involve more than one molecule of reactive intermediate as reactant or more than one mol ecule of reactive intermediate as product (so the set of algebraic equations from application of the QSSA can be solved using linear algebra). All of the intermediates are present only in trace-level quantities (so the QSSA can be applied to each). Networks that meet these three criteria are said to be simple. Many reactions catalyzed by acid, base, organometallic complexes, or solid surfaces meet these criteria. The catalytic cycle in Figure 1, [12] which accounts for the synthesis of bi sphenol A from acetone and phenol, is one example.NOTATION We adopt the notation used in the original literature. X i present in trace level. The reaction steps are written with the reactive intermediates (X i ) appearing as the explicit reactant and product in a step. Any co-reactant (or co-product) mol ecules in a step appear either above (or below) the arrow for that reaction step. We use a double subscript notation for the intermediate involved as a reactant in that step and the second To illustrate this notation, consider the reaction XB X i j The forward rate constant is k ij and the reverse rate constant is k ji We rewrite this step as XX i B j with B appearing above ij where ij = k ij C B ji where ji = k ji The net rate of this reversible reaction step would be written as rk CC kC CC Bi jX iB ji Xj ij Xi ji Xj () 2 ij ) allows all rates to be written explicitly in terms of the concentrations of the reactive intermediates and the reactant and product.RATE EQUATION HELFFERICH METHOD (BULK CATALYSIS) development work for Shell Chemical. It was homogeneous metals that provided motivation. In these systems, the free catalyst concentration was large relative to the concentrations of the catalyst-containing reactive intermediates. The rate equation for such a simple multistep network, which converts reactant A into end product P, is [6-8] r CC p ii A i k ii P i k , 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 l, l1 l i i i k i k 1 1 1 3 l,l+ 1 l () where r P is the rate of forming product P, ii i k 1 0 1 is the product ii i k 1 0 1 of steps in the sequence. If the lower limit in the product exceeds the upper, the product is taken to be equal to unity. The denominator in the rate equation involves a summation over a double product. Refer to Helfferich [6, 7] for a simple, easy-to-remember way to perform these operations and gener ate the denominator without going through the formalism of evaluating each term in the summation. Application Figure 1 shows the multistep reaction for the acid-catalyzed synthesis of bisphenol A from acetone (A) and phenol (P). This six-step mechanism can be written as AX XX XX BP A HP HO H P 12 34 5 2 4 () Acetone is species number zero and BPA is species number six. For this network the relationships between the pseudoO H C M e H O M e H + O O H O H O H O H H C M e M e O H O H C M e M e O H H + O H C M e M e O H H O H C M e M e H 2 O O H B P A A X 1 P P X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 Figure 1. Catalytic cycle for BPA synthesis from phenol and acetone (adapted from Ref [12]).

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 213 01 01 10 10 12 12 21 21 23 23 32 kC k kC k k H P k k k k k C k HO 32 34 34 43 43 45 45 54 54 56 5 2 6 6 6 56 5 5 Ck C P H () By applying the formula for the rate equation to r CC BP A ii A i ii BP A i , 1 0 5 1 0 5 1 1 l, l l i i i i 1 1 5 1 6 6 l, l l () one can very quickly write the rate as r C BP A A 01 12 23 34 45 56 10 21 32 43 54 65 5 12 23 34 45 56 10 23 34 45 56 10 2 C BP A 1 13 44 55 61 02 13 24 55 61 02 13 24 35 6 10 21 32 43 54 7 () Replacing the ij in the rate equation with the corresponding k ij and any co-reactant concentration for that step, and then sim plifying leads to the general form of this rate equation as r kC CC kC CC kC kC kC BP A a H PA b H WB PA cP dP eW 2 2 (8 8) where the k i very complicated even though no assumptions were made about any step being rate determining. Rate equations for this system have been reported [12] rk CC C BP A H AP and second-order in phenol rk CC C BP A H AP 2 These experimental rate equations are simply special cases of the general rate equation above. First-order kinetics arise when the second step is rate-determining and irreversible. Second-order kinetics arise ij,rds << all other ij Moreover, if a step is irreversible, ji = 0 for that step. When the second step, XX P 12 is rate-determining, 12 and 21 are much smaller than all other ij so denominator terms containing either 12 or 21 will be much smaller than denominator terms that do not contain these terms. Therefore, only the denominator terms that omit 12 and 21 need to be retained in the rate equation. It is only the second term in the denomina tor that survives. Moreover, if any step is irreversible, the second term in the numerator vanishes. The rate equation for this scenario then becomes r C BP A A 01 12 23 34 45 56 10 23 34 45 56 0 1 11 2 10 01 12 10 12 01 9 Ck k k CC Ck KC CC A H PA H PA () ) 01 XB PA H P 5 is rate determining, only the denominator terms that omit 56 and 65 need to be retained in t he rate equation. Also, as before, the contribution for the reverse reaction in the numerator vanishes when any step is irrevers ible. The rate equation for this scenario is r C k BP A A 01 12 23 34 45 56 10 21 32 43 54 01 11 22 33 44 55 6 2 10 21 32 43 54 2 kk kk kC CC kk kk kC H PA H O O H PA HO kKKK KK CC C C 56 01 12 23 34 45 2 2 10 () Here we obtain the rate equation that is second order in phenol, as was seen experimentally. TABLE 1 tions Reaction System General Rate Equation Heterogeneous Isomerization r kC kC C kC kC aA bB T cA dB 1 Enzyme Catalysis r kC kC C kC kC aS bP E O cS dP 1 Ozone Decomposition r kC kC C kC kC kC kC aO bO T cO dO eO fO 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 32 kC C gO O

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Chemical Engineering Education 214 O H O H 2 H 3 O + H 2 O k 0 1 H 3 O + H 2 O k 1 2 ( 0 ) X 1 H 2 O H 3 O + H 2 O k 2 3 k 3 4 H 3 O + H 2 O k 4 5 ( 5 ) X 3 X 4 ( 2 ) reaction rate equations. The complexity in the form of the general rate equation is no more than that in Langmuir-Hinshelwood simpler rate equations ( e.g. power-law) for situations where one step is rate determining or where a step or steps are irreversible. Note that this approach of starting with the general equation and then simplifying it for special limiting cases is fully consistent with the approach many take in chemical engineering education. Extension to Non-T race Intermediates The general Helfferich method applies to simple pathways with all reactants, products, and free catalyst present in much higher concentrations than the intermediates. But, there are some reactions where the concentration of one or more intermediates rises above trace level, perhaps because the intermediate is a molecular product rather than being a reactive intermediate. In these cases, the pathway can be broken at those intermediates, and each of the fragments of the overall network can then be treated using the general method described in this article. [6] To illustrate, consider the acid-catalyzed dehydration of cyclohexanol in supercritical water [13] as shown in Figure 2. This network is nonsimple because one of the intermediates, cyclohexene, is not at trace levels. Its concentration is comparable to that of the reactant cyclohexanol and end product methylcyclopentene. Therefore, one cannot use the general formula to write a single rate equation for the conversion of cyclohexanol to methyl cyclopentene. One can break the complete network into two piece-wise simple portions, however, and apply Helfferich mathematics to each portion. These two piece-wise simple portions appear as Figure 3. clohexene (B) plus water (W). r CC kk CC C A B AW HO 1 01 12 10 21 10 12 01 12 3 kk CC C kk C kk CC W HO B W A HO 10 21 2 10 12 01 12 3 3 kk CC C kk W HO B 10 21 10 12 3 11 () The rate equation for the second portion is, for the general case of all steps being reversible, r C C B C 2 23 34 45 32 43 54 34 45 32 45 32 43 12 () Note that cyclohexene is designated as species 2 in the second sequence to maintain consistent species indexes. Methyl cyclo 32 = 0. The rate equation for the second portion then becomes simply rC kC C B B HO 22 3 2 3 3 13 () Akiya and Savage [13] modeled the kinetics for this system using the two rate equations above. Doing so led to a model that A numerical modeling approach based on an explicit accounting for each step would have necessitated the inclusion of nine parameter estimation. The interested reader is directed to Helfferich [6-8] and the references therein for more information regarding additional exten sions of this general method.RATE EQUATIONCHRISTIANSEN MATHEMATICS (TRACE-LEVEL CATALYSIS) The material presented thus far, when used for catalyzed reaction systems, applies when the concentration of free catalyst is much higher than concentrations of the intermediates. Examples of this situation include acid or base catalysis and many homogeneous transition metal catalyzed reactions. This section treats trace-level catalysis, where the free catalyst concentra Figure 2. Multistep networks for cyclo hexene formation from cyclohexanol (top) and methylcyclopentene forma tion (bottom) (adapted from Ref. [13])

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 215 some heterogeneously catalyzed reaction sequences ( e.g. some isomerizations, Eley-Rideal reactions) are examples of simple reaction systems with trace-level catalysis. Christian sen [9-11] developed the general treatment for systems of this type, Helfferich [6] discusses it in some detail, and Boudart [14] provided a short overview nearly 40 years ago. Helfferich [6] shows that the rate of conversion of re actant A into product P via the general linear network cat xX cat A k P 1 1 is r C p ii i k ii i k , 1 0 1 1 0 1 T T k CH D () 14 where D k CH is the Christiansen denominator for a network with k reaction steps. The Christiansen numerator contains C T the total catalyst concentration (sum of the concentrations of the free catalyst and all catalyst-containing intermediates). In trace-level catalysis, it is often the total catalyst concentration (amount added to the reactor) that is known. Its distribution among the different catalyst-containing species is not easily measured in engineering applications. The denominator is the sum of all terms in the Christiansen matrix, and Helfferich describes how to generate these terms. For a generic 3-step reaction network, cat xX cat 0 12 3 the Christiansen matrix is 12 23 10 23 10 21 23 01 21 01 21 32 01 12 3 32 12 32 10 15 () An important property of this matrix is that the sum of the terms in each row is proportional to the concentration of one of the catalyst-containing species in the reaction network. [6] concentration of the free catalyst. The sum of the terms in the second row is proportional to the concentration of interme diate X 1 and so on. This relationship between the relative abundances of the different catalyst containing species and the relative magnitudes of the sums of the terms in each row allows one to simplify the denominator for cases in which one or more of the catalyst-containing species are present in much higher (or lower) concentrations than the others. For example, if X 2 is the most abundant catalyst species ( macs ), then the sum of the terms in the third row of the matrix will be much larger than the sums of the terms from the other rows. Therefore, one can neglect the small contributions from the other rows, and to a very good approximation the Christiansen denominator can be taken to be the sum of the terms in the third row alone. The number of denominator terms for a network with k steps can therefore been reduced from k 2 to k when there exists a macs there exists a lacs (least abundant catalyst species). In this case, one can neglect the small contribution made by the sum of the terms in the matrix row corresponding to the reactive intermediate that is the lacs Application Consider the generic three-step sequence cat XX cat 12 which has two catalyst-containing reactive intermediates. Any number of co-reactants or coproducts can appear in any of the three steps. Numerous catalytic systems have reaction mechanisms of this form. For example, the solid-catalyzed isomerization A = B can occur through a three-step sequence of adsorption of A, isomeriza tion on the surface, and desorption of B from a surface site (S) 1 and X 2 are surface bound A () AS and B () BS respectively. SA SB SS A B () 16 Some enzyme-catalyzed reactions that convert a substrate, S, into a product, P, proceed through two different enzymesubstrate complexes () ES [5] Each complex is a catalystcontaining reactive intermediate. EE SE SE S P 1 2 17 () The heterogeneously catalyzed decomposition of ozone over MnO 2 same structure as the network under consideration. [15, 16] SO SO SS O O O O O 2 3 2 3 2 2 18 () The acid-catalyzed isomerization of cyclohexene (C) to methylcyclopentene (M), [13] which was examined previously, is one more example. The general form of the Christiansen rate equation for a O H O H 2 H 3 O + H 2 O k 0 1 H 3 O + H 2 O k 1 2 H 3 O + H 2 O k 2 3 k 3 4 H 3 O + H 2 O k 4 5 ( 0 ) X 1 ( 2 ) ( 2 ) ( 5 ) X 3 X 4 H 2 O Figure 3. Multistep network for methylcyclopentene for mation from cyclohexanol (adapted from Ref. [13])

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Chemical Engineering Education 216 single catalytic cycle with three steps is r C T 01 12 23 10 21 32 12 23 10 23 10 2 21 23 01 21 01 21 32 01 12 32 12 32 1 10 19 () To derive this rate equation manually would require algebraic manipulations with two QSSA expressions (one for each interme diate) and the catalyst balance (since the distribution of catalyst material amongst the different forms is not known). This task i ) in these rate equations are collections of rate constants for individual steps. Rarely does one need to retain all of the terms in the general rate equation. For example, in heterogeneous catalysis, such as the isomerization example, one often assumes that one of the steps is rate determining and that all others are in quasi-equilibrium. If we assume that step 2, the surface reaction ( ) AS BS is rate determining ( 12 21 << other ij ), then the rate equation becomes r C T 01 12 23 10 21 32 10 23 23 01 32 1 10 20 () leads to r kK CC CK KC KC wh er eK K TA Be A B e 12 01 01 32 0 1 / 1 11 22 3 1 21 KK an dK ij ij j () as the rate equation. This Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson rate equation shows precisely the same dependence of the resulted from assuming the existence of a rate-determining step. For enzyme-catalyzed reactions, step 3, product formation () ES E P 2 is often irreversible and rate determining ( 32 =0; 23 << other ij ). The rate equation for this case is r C T 01 12 23 10 21 21 01 01 12 22 () rate equation, r kk kk CC kk kk E O S 12 23 21 12 10 21 01 2 21 12 23 k C VC KC S S mS ma x () which is the familiar Michaelis-Menten result. V max is the maximum reaction velocity (rate). C E O is the total enzyme concentra tion. For ozone decomposition, Oyama and coworkers [15,16] reported that all three steps are irreversible and that absorbed O atoms are the lacs Christiansen matrix. The resulting rate equation is shown below. r C kC C kk T OT 01 12 23 12 23 01 12 01 01 12 3 1 k kk C O 12 23 3 24 () This example illustrates the utility of Christiansen mathematics for single catalytic cycles. The general rate equation can be written quickly, and then rate laws for special cases (rate determining steps, irreversible steps, lacs etc.) can be recovered by omitting the terms that are negligible.

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 217 CLOSING REMARKS This article outlines and illustrates methods for quickly getting closed-form analytical rate equations for multistep net works using only the QSSA. These methods were developed at an industrial R&D center to deal with practical kinetics issues in chemical process development. Uncatalyzed reactions and those catalyzed by acid, base, homogeneous transition metal complexes, enzymes, and solid surfaces can all be handled by these methods. The chief constraint is that each step must be unimolecular in reactive intermediate. This constraint reduces the utility of this method for chain reactions that include branching, termination, and initiation steps and for heterogeneous catalysis with bimolecular surface reactions. Though components of these approaches have been in the literature for decades, these methods do not appear in many popular chemical reaction engineering textbooks. I have been teaching these methods in our core chemical reaction engi neering graduate course, a senior/graduate elective class on chemical kinetics, and continuing education courses on reac tion kinetics. Graduate students or practicing professionals are probably the proper audience for this material. The students appreciate learning about this approach, which allows them to develop a rate equation very quickly for a general case and then simplify it to recover results for numerous special cases. Simplifying the general equation also reinforces the concepts of rate-determining steps, quasi-equilibrium steps, macs and lacs A more detailed tutorial on the use and teaching of these methods is available from the author upon request. In addition, Helfferich [6] provides a detailed treatment and many examples.REFERENCES 1. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering 4th ed., Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2006) 2. Masel, R.I., Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis Wiley-Interscience, New York (2001) 3. Davis, M.E., and R.J. Davis, Fundamentals of Chemical Reaction Engineering McGraw-Hill, New York (2003) 4. Schmidt, L.D., The Engineering of Chemical Reactions 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, New York (2005) 5. Roberts, G.W., Chemical Reactions and Chemical Reactors Wiley (2009) 6. Helfferich, F.G., Kinetics of Multistep Reactions 2nd ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam (2004) 7. Helfferich, F.G., J. Phys. Chem. 93 6676 (1989) 8. Chern, J-M, and F.G. Helfferich, AIChE J. 36 1200 (1990) 9. Christiansen, J.A.Z., Physik. Chem. Bodenstein-Festband 69 (1931) 10. Christiansen, J.A.Z., Physik. Chem. B 28 303 (1935) 11. Christiansen, J.A., Adv. Catal. 5 311 (1953) 12. Gates, B.C., Catalytic Chemistry John Wiley & Sons, New York (1992) 13. Akiya, N., and P.E. Savage, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 40 1822 (2001) 14. Boudart, M., Kinetics of Chemical Processes Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1968) 15. Li, W., G.V. Gibbs, and S.T. Oyama, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 120 9041 (1998) 16. Li, W., and S.T. Oyama, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 120 9047 (1998)

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Chemical Engineering Education 218 E xtensive educational research has established that stu student retention and success. Baker and Siryk [1] found scale, but were also less likely to drop out of college than were students who did not have those sessions. Pascarella and Terenzini [2] found that students who persisted in their chosen interaction with faculty than did those who chose to switch or drop out. The widely cited Talking about Leaving by Elaine good advising: help was cited as contributing to one-quarter (24.0%) of all switching decisions; it was mentioned as a source of frustration by three-quarters (75.4%) of all switchers (for whom it was the third most common source of complaint) and it was an issue raised by half (52.0%) of all non-switch ers, for whom it was the second most commonly cited concern. Among all of the factors contributing to attrition, structure. [3] As the director of Undergraduate Studies of the Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department at North Carolina State University, I do a great deal of advising. My route to this position was nontraditional. After completing my Ph.D. in chemical engineering at Carnegie Mellon in 1991, I worked at Eastman Chemical Company in Kingsport, TN for nine years. During that time, I had positions in process engineer ing, plant engineering, quality management, business process redesign, and business market management. In 2000 I had the opportunity to return to NC State, my undergraduate alma mater, to assume my present position. Besides advising 216 students myself, I coordinate advising for the entire depart ment and also teach several undergraduate courses, includ ing the sophomore course on material and energy balances, a junior-level professional development seminar, and the capstone senior design course. Like all of my departmental colleagues, I had no training whatsoever in either teaching or advising prior to joining the faculty, but I found that my industrial experience was invaluable in doing both. I share my advising story not as a model that all advisors should follow, but as one example of how an advisor might connect with students. Readers who would like more in-depth background on advising skills and approaches can consult one of several excellent references. [4-7] ChE advisingADVISORS WHO ROCK: AN APPROACH TO ACADEMIC COUNSELINGLISA G. BULLARD North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 219 MY STYLE OF ADVISING If you want to know my style of advising, step into my of a desk covered with computer printouts, teetering piles of journals, and stacks of lab reports in the corner. It looks like someones home. There are two bentwood Amish rocking chairs gently inclined toward one another, resting on a warm oriental rug. There is a rustic red and white quilt on the wall above the cabinet. Bookshelves line one long wall, but in mementos from students, artwork, and collages of graduation pictures from years past. On the bottom shelf is a basket with wooden blocks and a jar with seashells to entertain young children who come with their parents for advising appointments. This is my academic home and a sanctuary for students away from home. More than one student has commented, as we rocked and talked, I feel like Im rock ing on your front porch. chairs, unsure as to whether they should sit in them or not. Once I sit down and motion them to do the same, they tenta tively sit on the edge of the chair, then ease into the molded seat and nestle back. I can see them almost perceptibly take a deep breath and relax. Its impossible to be uptight when you are rocking in a comfortable chair. When we are sitting side by side in the rocking chairs, Im on the same level with the students. Im not sitting behind my desk looking at them across a broad expansewere in this thing together. Im not judging them or telling them the answersIm listen ing. Many times people come looking for answers, when all they really need is someone with whom to talk. The rocking chairs remind me that students come one at a time, and dur ing the time I am talking with a student, he or she is the most important person in the world. Every student has a story. Sometimes the story spills out at over time. Often I meet students while they are still in high I teach many of them in the intro sophomore course, and by the time they graduate, I have had all of them in one or more of the courses I teach. They all experience the rocking chair at some point. It is a privilege and an honor for me to learn their stories, and in doing so, to become part of each story. The bulletin board behind the rocking chairs is criss-crossed with red ribbons and covered with layers of letters, cards, baby announcements, photographs, and few a poignant programs from memorial services. Its practically an archeological dig in progress, and it reminds me that although students do Although I have only been at NC State since 2000, I have 772 alumni children and friends who are working, changing jobs, requesting recommendations for graduate school, getting married, having children, and otherwise going about the task of living their lives as chemical engineers and young adults. With their many success stories in mind, I have started inviting them back to speak to current students about the challenges they have faced. Scattered on the shelves are photographs of my family and artwork that my daughter has generated over the years. The bulletin board contains some special notes in childish conscious of my role as a mentor to female studentsa model that was not available to me as an undergraduate when there were no female professors in the department. I want these young women to know that they can practice engineering and still have a family and a life outside of their profession. As someone who has taken time off to have a child, worked part-time, and chosen assignments that allowed me more students that work and life can be balanced to allow room for success in both. modern technology. When Im not sitting in a rocking chair, ing in and out. Ive never been able to follow the advice of the morning and once at the end of the day. Even in a depart ment as large as ours (421 undergraduates), effective use of e-mail can eliminate barriers to communication, especially since we are located in a new section of the campus out of job postings, AIChE student chapter meetings, undergradu ate research and scholarship opportunities, recommendation letters, and departmental details routinely zip across the lines to and from students. I want my students to be well informed and knowledgeable about campus and professional opportunities. I am especially conscious of my role as a mentor to female studentsa model that was not available to me as an undergraduate when there were no female professors in the department. I want these young women to know that they can practice engineering and still have a family and a life outside of their profession.

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Chemical Engineering Education 220 losophy is the door. Its open, and my desk chair is positioned so that I can see someone hovering around the entrance. Unless Im doing something that must be completed at that moment, which is rare, I stop, smile, and say, Come in, how can I help you? The student usually says something like, Are you busy? Even if Im in the middle of grading 40 essays for our under graduate seminar course, checking blue cards for graduation, or contacting guest speakers for senior design, I say, No, Im not busy. Please come in and sit down. We rock. They talk. I listen. Often they leave saying something like, Thanks for Thats why Im here. SUGGESTIONS FOR ADVISORS At this point the reader may be thinking, Give me a break. ate students already feel neglected, not to mention my own children. My purpose in writing this article is not to suggest that my style is the only style, or even the best style, but to most of those little personal touches and the time I spend on advising (which is, after all, my main job) are nice, but theyre not essential. Based on my experience, literature in the area of advising, and the feedback I have gotten from my students, I would offer the following suggestions on how faculty can make their advising more effective within the constraints of the other demands of the job: Organize your department advising system to improve con Depending on the size and structure of your department, consider ways to structure the advising process to allow faculty to best meet student needs. For example, I serve as the Coordinator of Advising and advise all the freshmen, double majors, and transfer studentsin general, students who require extra attention and may have unusual or challenging curricular issues. This allows each of our faculty to advise a smaller group of students (typically 25 or less) who are doing the standard cur riculum or a concentration in their area of expertise. This organizational structure improves advising consistency and more focused on other key department functions such as instruction and research. Use resources within your department to leverage advisors time with students. Our faculty call on me as a resource for information, as a referral if they feel the student needs additional attention, or as a substitute if they know they will be on travel status during advising time. I publish an annual advising handbook for both students and faculty with curricular information and frequently asked questions, and this information is also available on the departmental Web site. One of our staff members distributes hard copies of student degree audits relevant information on their advising history. Dont feel as though you have to have all the answers yourselfuse all the resources available to ensure that the time you do spend with each student is worthwhile. Learn your advisees names and use them. Our Regis tration and Records Web site has an option that allows you to access a photo of each studentyou can print out the pictures and names for easy reference. I take photos of students in my introductory class holding name tents, When you are talking with a student, try to resist the temptation to peek at your watch or glance at your com puter screen to read your latest e-mailnothing sends the message faster that I have better things to do. (I have a large clock on the wall opposite the rocking chairs that helps me be aware of the time without seeming impatient or anxious to be rid of the student). After you take care of the business of registration advising, take a moment to ask students about their summer plans, ca reer goals, or hobbies. This helps students feel that they are more than just a number, especially in a large department. You could do this by posting an article or picture on your bulletin board, having a family or vacation picture on a desk, or displaying a memento from a recent trip or conference. Finally, but most importantly, care Findings by Wilson, et al. [8] indicate that faculty who are frequently sought out as advisors outside the classroom tend to provide clear clues about their accessibility through their in-class teaching style and their attitude. You can go to teaching workshops and even advising workshops to hone your skills, but simply caring is the foundation of all student interactions. No one cares how much you know, unless they know how much you care. You could be the one to make the difference in a student leaving, staying, or staying and enjoying the ride. REFERENCES 1. Baker, R.W., and B. Siryk, Exploratory Intervention with a Scale Measuring Adjustment to College, J. Counseling Psychology 33 (1), 31 (1986) 2. Pascarella, E.T., and P.T. Terenzini, Patterns of Student-Faculty Informal Interaction beyond the Classroom and Voluntary Freshman Attrition, The J. of Higher Educ. 48 (5), 540 (Sept.-Oct. 1977) 3. Seymour, E., and N.M. Hewitt, Talking about Leaving Westview Press, Boulder, CO, p. 134 (1997) 4. Light, R.J., Making the Most of College Harvard Univ. Press, Chapters 3 and 5, Cambridge, MA, (2001) 5. Wankat, P.C., Current Advising Practice and Suggestions for Improv ing Advising, Eng. Educ. 76 213-216 (Jan. 1986) 6. Wankat, P.C., and Oreovicz, F.S., Teaching Engineering Chapter 10, 7. Wankat, P.C., and Service Sections 7.2 and 7.4, Allyn & Bacon, Boston (2002) 8. Wilson, R, J. Gaff, E. Dienst, L. Wood, and J.L. Bavry, College Profes sors and Their Impact on Students Wiley, New York (1975)















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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 221 Akron, University of .......................................................... 223 Alabama, University of ...................................................... 224 Alabama, Huntsville; University of ................................... 225 Alberta, University of .......................................................... 226 Arizona, University of ......................................................... 227 Arizona State University ..................................................... 228 Arkansas, University of ....................................................... 229 Auburn University ............................................................... 230 Brigham Young University .................................................. 325 British Columbia, University of .......................................... 231 Brown University ................................................................ 336 Bucknell University ............................................................. 325 California, Berkeley; University of ..................................... 232 California, Los Angeles; University of ............................... 233 California, Riverside; University of .................................... 234 California, Santa Barbara; University of ............................. 235 California Institute of Technology ...................................... 236 Carnegie Mellon University ................................................ 237 Case Western Reserve University ....................................... 238 Cincinnati, University of ..................................................... 239 City College of New York ................................................... 240 Colorado, University of ....................................................... 241 Colorado School of Mines ................................................... 242 Colorado State University ................................................... 243 Columbia University ........................................................... 326 Connecticut, University of .................................................. 244 Dartmouth College .............................................................. 245 Delaware, University of ...................................................... 246 Denmark, Technical University of ..................................... 247 Drexel University ................................................................ 248 Florida, University of .......................................................... 249 Florida A&M/Florida State College of Engineering ................. 326 Florida Institute of Technology ........................................... 250 Georgia Institute of Technology .......................................... 251 Houston, University of ........................................................ 252 Howard University .............................................................. 327 Idaho, University of ............................................................. 327 Illinois, Chicago; University of ........................................... 253 Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; University of ......................... 254 Illinois Institute of Technology ........................................... 255 Iowa, University of .............................................................. 256 Iowa State University ......................................................... 257 Kansas, University of .......................................................... 258 Kansas State University ...................................................... 259 Kentucky, University of ...................................................... 260 Lamar University ................................................................. 328 Laval University .................................................................. 328 Lehigh University ................................................................ 261 Louisiana State University ................................................. 262 Louisville, University of ..................................................... 329 Maine, University of ........................................................... 263 Manhattan College .............................................................. 264 Maryland, College Park; University of ............................... 265 Massachusetts, Amherst; University of ............................... 266 Massachusetts, Lowell; University of ................................. 336 Massachusetts Institute of Technology ................................ 267 McGill University ............................................................... 268 McMaster University ........................................................... 269 Michigan, University of ...................................................... 270 Michigan State University ................................................... 271 Michigan Technological University .................................... 329 Minnesota, Minneapolis; University of ............................... 272 Mississippi State University ................................................ 273 Missouri, Columbia; University of ...................................... 274 Missouri S&T ...................................................................... 275 Montana State University .................................................... 330 Nebraska, University of ....................................................... 276 New Jersey Institute of Technology .................................... 277 New Mexico, University of ................................................. 278 New Mexico State University ............................................. 279 North Carolina State University .......................................... 280 Northeastern University ...................................................... 281 Northwestern University ..................................................... 282 Notre Dame, University of .................................................. 283 Ohio State University .......................................................... 284 Oklahoma, University of ..................................................... 285 Oklahoma State University ................................................ 286 Oregon State University ...................................................... 330 Pennsylvania, University of ................................................ 287 Pennsylvania State University ............................................. 288 Petroleum Institute, The ...................................................... 289 Pittsburgh, University of ..................................................... 290 Polytechnic University ........................................................ 291 Princeton University ............................................................ 292 Purdue University ................................................................ 293 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute .......................................... 294 Rhode Island, University of ................................................ 331 Rice University .................................................................... 295 Rochester, University of ...................................................... 296 Rose-Hulman ....................................................................... 331 Rowan University ................................................................ 297 Rutgers University ............................................................... 298 Ryerson University .............................................................. 332 Singapore, National University of ....................................... 299 South Carolina, University of .............................................. 300 South Dakota School of Mines ............................................ 332 South Florida, University of ................................................ 301 Southern California, University of ...................................... 302 State University of New York ............................................. 303 Stevens Institute of Technology .......................................... 304 Syracuse University ............................................................. 333 Tennessee, Knoxville; University of ................................... 305 Tennessee Technological University ................................... 306 Texas, Austin; University of ................................................ 307 Texas A&M University, College Station ............................. 308 Texas A&M University, Kingsville ..................................... 333 Texas Tech University ......................................................... 309 Toledo, University of ........................................................... 310 Toronto, University of ......................................................... 334 Tufts University ................................................................... 311 Tulane University ................................................................ 312 Tulsa, University of ............................................................. 313 Vanderbilt University .......................................................... 314 Villanova University ........................................................... 334 Virginia, University of ......................................................... 315 Virginia Tech University ..................................................... 316 Washington, University of ................................................... 317 Washington State University ............................................... 318 Washington University ........................................................ 319 Waterloo, University of ....................................................... 320 West Virginia University ..................................................... 321 Western Michigan University .............................................. 335 Wisconsin, University of ..................................................... 322 Worchester Polytechnic University ..................................... 323 Wyoming, University of ...................................................... 335 Yale University .................................................................... 324 INDEX Graduate Education Advertisements

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Chemical Engineering Education 222 An Open Letter to SENIORS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Should you go to graduate school? We invite you to consider graduate school as an opportunity to further your professional development. Graduate work can be exciting and intellectually satisfying, and at the same time can provide you with insurance against the ever-increasing danger of technical obsolescence in our fast-paced society. An advanced degree is certainly helpful if you want to include a research component in your career and a Ph.D. is normally a prerequisite for an academic position. Although graduate school includes an in-depth research experience, it is also an integra tive period. Graduate research work under the guidance of a knowledgeable faculty member can be an important factor in What is taught in graduate school? A graduate education generally includes a coursework com school will often focus on the study of advanced-core chemi cal engineering science subjects ( e.g. transport phenomena, phase equilibria, reaction engineering). These courses build on the material learned as an undergraduate, using more sophisticated mathematics and often including a molecular perspective. Early in the graduate program, you will select a research topic and a research adviser and begin to estab lish a knowledge base in the research subject through both coursework and independent study. Graduate education thus begins with an emphasis on structured learning in courses and moves on to the creative, exciting, and open-ended process of research. In addition, graduate school is a time to expand your intellectual and social horizons through participation in the activities provided by the campus community. Perusing the graduate-school advertisements in this special compilation can be a valuable resource, not only for deter mining what is taught in graduate school, but also where it is taught and by whom it is taught. What is the nature of graduate research? Graduate research can open the door to a lifelong inquiry that may well lead you in a number of directions during your industrial setting or in the laboratories of a university. Learning how to do research is of primary importance, and the training you receive as a graduate student will give you the discipline, the independence, and (hopefully) the intellectual curiosity that will stand you in good stead throughout your career. The increasingly competitive arena of high technology and societys ever-expand researchers to fuel the engines of discovery. Where should you go to graduate school? each with its own personality and special strengths. Choos ing the one that is right for you is a highly personal decision and one that only you can make. Note, however, that there are schools that specialize in preparing students for academic with great strength or reputation in that particular area would of research, perhaps you should consider one of the larger the exposure and experience to make a wise career choice later in your education. Many factors may eventually feed into your decision of where to go to graduate school. Study the ads in this special printing and write to or view the Web pages of departments that interest you; ask for pertinent information not only about areas of study but also about fellowships that may be available, about the number of students in graduate school, about any special programs. Ask your undergraduate professors about their experiences in graduate school, and dont be shy about asking them to recommend schools to you. They should know your strengths and weaknesses by this stage in your collegiate career, and through using that knowledge they should be a valuable source of information and encouragement for you. Financial Aid Dont overlook the fact that most graduate students receive needs. This support is provided through research assistant ships, teaching assistantships, or fellowships. If you are interested in graduate school next fall, you should begin the application process early this fall since admission decisions are often made at the beginning of the new calendar year. This process includes requesting application materials, seek ing sources of fellowships, taking national entrance exams ( i.e. the Graduate Record Exam, GRE, is required by many institutions), and visiting the school. A resolution by the Council of Graduate Schoolsin which most schools are membersoutlines accepted practices for assistantships, or fellowships). You should be aware that the for a fall-term start is April 15. The resolution states that you port prior to April 15 (earlier deadlines for acceptance violate the intent of the resolution). Furthermore, an acceptance given or left in force after April 15 commits you to reject any other tion to which the commitment has been made.

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 223 Graduate Education in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Teaching and research assistantships as well as industrially sponsored fellowships available In addition to stipends, tuition and fees are waived. PhD students may get some incentive scholarships. The deadline for assistantship applications is April 15th. For Additional Information, Write Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The University of Akron Akron, OH 44325-3906 Phone (330) 972-7250 Fax (330) 972-5856 www.chemical.uakron.edu G. G. CHASE Multiphase Processes, Fluid Flow, Interfacial Phenomena, Filtration, Coalescence H. M. CHEUNG Nanocomposite Materials, Sonochemical Processing, Polymerization in Nanostruc tured Fluids, Supercritical Fluid Processing S. S. C. CHUANG Catalysis, Reaction Engi neering, Environmentally Benign Synthesis, Fuel Cell J. R. ELLIOTT Molecular Simulation, Phase Behavior, Physical Properties, Process Modeling, Supercritical Fluids E. A. EVANS Materials Processing and CVD Modeling Plasma Enhanced Deposition and Crystal Growth Modeling L.-K. JU Bioprocess Engineering, Environmental Bioengineering Department Chair L. LIU Biointerfaces, Biomaterials, Biosensors, Tissue Engineering S. T. LOPINA BioMaterial Engineering and Polymer Engineering B.Z. NEWBY Alternative Patterning, AntiFouling Coatings, Gradient Surfaces H. C. QAMMAR Nonlinear Control, Chaotic Processes, Engineering Education J. ZHENG Computational Biophysics, Biomolecular Interfaces, Biomaterials

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Chemical Engineering Education 224 Chemical & Biological Engineering A dedicated faculty with state of the art facilities offer research programs leading to Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Science degrees. Research Areas: Biological Applications of Nanomaterials, Biomaterials, Catalysis and Reactor Design, Drug Delivery Materials and Systems, Electronic Materials, Energy and CO 2 Sequestration, Fuel Cells, Interfacial Transport, Magnetic Materials, Membrane Separations and Reactors, Molecular Simulations, Nanoscale Modeling, Polymer Processing, Rheology For Information Contact: Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering The University of Alabama Box 870203 Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0203 Phone: (205) 348-6450 Email: sritchie@eng.ua.edu Web: http://che.eng.ua.edu Faculty: V. L. Acoff, Ph.D. (UAB) G. C. April, Ph.D. (Louisiana State) D. W. Arnold, PhD. (Purdue) Y. Bao, Ph.D. (Washington) C. S. Brazel, Ph.D. (Purdue) E. S. Carlson, Ph.D. (Wyoming) P. E. Clark, Ph.D. (Oklahoma State) A. Gupta, Ph.D. (Stanford) T. M. Klein, Ph.D. (NC State) A. M. Lane, Ph.D. (Massachusetts) S. M. Ritchie, Ph.D. (Kentucky) C. H. Turner, Ph.D. (NC State) M. L. Weaver, Ph.D. (Florida) J. M. Wiest, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) An equal employment/equal educational opportunity institution

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 225 C C h h e e m m i i c c a a l l C a a n n d d M M a a t t e e r r i i a a l l s s a C E E n n g g i i n n e e e e r r i i n n g g G G r r a a d d u u a a t t e e P P r r o o g g r r a a m m G h h e e m m i i c c a a l l a n n d d M M a a t t e e r r i i a a l l s s E E n n g g i i n n e e e e r r i i n n g g G r r a a d d u u a a t t e e P P r r o o g g r r a a m m R. Michael Banish ; Ph.D., University of Utah Associate Professor Crystal growth mass and thermal diffusivity measurements. Ramn L. Cerro ; Ph.D., UC Davis Professor and Chair Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics and physicochemical hydrodynamics. Chien P. Chen ; Ph.D., Michigan State Professor Lab-on-chip microfluidics, multiphase transport, spray combustion, computational fluid dynamics, and turbulence modeling of chemically reacting flows. Krishnan K. Chittur ; Ph.D., Rice Professor Biomaterials, bioproce ss monitoring, gene expression bioinforma tics, and FTIR/ATR. James E. Smith Jr ; Ph.D., South Carolina Professor Ceramic and metallic composites, catalysis and reaction engineering, fiber optic chemical sensing, combustion diagnostic of hypergolic fuels, and hydrogen storage. Katherine Taconi ; Ph.D., Mississippi State Assistant Professor Biological production of alternative energy from renewable resources. Jeffrey J. Weimer ; Ph.D., MIT Associate Professor Adhesions, biomaterials surf ace properties, thin film growth, and surface spectroscopies. David B. Williams ; Sc.D., Cambridge Professor and University President Analytical, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, applications to interfacial segregation and bonding changes, texture and phase diagram determination in metals and alloys. The Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering offers coursework and research leading to the Master of Science in Engineering degree. The Doctor of Philosophy degree is available through the Materials Science Ph.D. program, the Biotechnology Science and Engineering Program or the option in Chemical Engineering of the Mechanical Engineering Ph.D. program. The range of research interests in the chemical engineering faculty is broad It affords graduate students opportunities for advanced work in processes, reaction engineering, electrochemical systems, material processing and biotechnology. The proximity of the UAH campus to the 200+ high technology and aerospace industries of Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center provide exciting opportunities for our students. UAH The University of Alabama in Huntsville An Affirmative Action / Equal Opportunity Institution Office of Chemical and Materials Engineering 130 Engineering Building Huntsville, Alabama 35899 Ph: 256-824-6810 Fax: 256-824-6839 http://www.uah.edu http://www.che.uah.edu

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Chemical Engineering Education 226 UNIVERSITY OF ALBERT A A. Ben-Zvi PhD (Queens University) S. Bradford PhD (Iowa State University) Emeritus R.E. Burrell PhD (University of Waterloo) K. Cadien PhD (University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana) W. Chen PhD (University of Manitoba) P. Choi PhD (University of Waterloo) K.T. Chuang PhD (University of Alberta) Emeritus I. Dalla Lana PhD (University of Minnesota) Emeritus J. Derksen PhD (Eindhoven University of Technology) R.L. Eadie PhD (University of Toronto) J.A.W. Elliott PhD (University of Toronto) T.H. Etsell PhD (University of Toronto) G. Fisher PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus J.F. Forbes PhD (McMaster University) Chair A. Gerlich PhD (University of Toronto) M.R. Gray PhD (California Institute of Technology) R. Gupta PhD (University of Newcastle) R.E. Hayes PhD (University of Bath) H. Henein PhD (University of British Columbia) B. Huang PhD (University of Alberta) D.G. Ivey PhD (University of Windsor) S.M Kresta PhD (McMaster University) S.M. Kuznicki PhD (University of Utah) J.M. Lee PhD (Georgia Institute of Technology) D. Li PhD (McGill University) Q. Liu PhD (University of British Columbia) J. Luo PhD (McMaster University) D.T. Lynch PhD (University of Alberta) Dean of Engineering J.H. Masliyah PhD (University of British Columbia) A.E. Mather PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus W.C. McCaffrey PhD (McGill University) D. Mitlin PhD (University of California, Berkeley) K. Nandakumar PhD (Princeton University) Emeritus J. Nychka PhD (University of California, Santa Barbara) F. Otto PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus B. Patchett PhD (University of Birmingham) Emeritus J. Ryan PhD (University of Missouri) Emeritus S. Sanders PhD (University of Alberta) S.L. Shah PhD (University of Alberta) J.M. Shaw PhD (University of British Columbia) U. Sundararaj PhD (University of Minnesota) H. Uludag PhD (University of Toronto) L. Unsworth PhD (McMaster University) S.E. Wanke PhD (University of California, Davis) M. Wayman PhD (University of Cambridge) Emeritus M.C. Williams PhD (University of Wisconsin) Emeritus R. Wood PhD (Northwestern University) Emeritus Z. Xu PhD (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University) T. Yeung PhD (University of British Columbia) H. Zhang PhD (Princeton University) Our Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering offers students the opportunity to study and conduct leading research with world-class academics in the top program in Canada, and one of the very best in North America. Our graduate student population is culturally diverse, academically strong, innovative, creative, and is drawn to our challenging and supportive environment from all areas of the world. Degrees are offered at the MSc and PhD levels in chemical engineering materials engineering and process control All full-time graduate students in research programs receive a stipend to cover living expenses and tuition. Our graduates are sought-after professionals who will be international leaders of tomorrows chemical and materials engineering advances. Research topics include: biomaterials, biotechnology, coal combustion, colloids and interfacial phenomenon, computational chemistry, compu particle dynamics, fuel cell modeling and control, heavy oil processing and upgrading, heterogeneous catalysis, hydrogen storage materials, materials processing, microalloy steels, micromechanics, mineral processing, molecular sieves, multiphase mixing, nanostructured biomaterials, oil sands, petroleum thermodynamics, pollution control, polymers, powder metallurgy, process and performance thermodynamics, and transport phenomena. The Faculty of Engineering has added more than one million square feet of outstanding teaching research and personnel space in the past six years. We offer outstanding and unique experimental and computational facilities including access to one of the most technologically advanced nanotechnology facilities in the world the National Institute for Nanotechnology connected by pedway to the Chemical and Materials Engineering Building. Annual research funding for our Department is over $14 million Externally sponsored funding to support engineering research in the entire Faculty of Engineering has increased to over $50 million each yearthe largest amount of any Faculty of Engineering in Canada. For further information, contact: Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6 Phone: 780-492-1823 Fax: 780-492-2881 www.engineering.ualberta.ca/cme

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 227 FACUL TY / RESEARCH INTERESTS ROBERT G. ARNOLD, Professor (CalTech) Microbiological Hazardous Waste Treatment, Metals Speciation and Toxicity JAMES C. BAYGENTS, Associate Professor (Princeton) Fluid Mechanics, Transport and Colloidal Phenomena, Bioseparations ERIC A. BETTERTON, Professor, (University of Witwatersrand) Atmospheric and Environmental Chemistry PAUL BLOWERS, Associate Professor (Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis, Environmental Foresight, Green Design WENDELL ELA, Associate Professor (Stanford) Particle-Particle Interactions, Environmental Chemistry JAMES FARRELL, Professor (Stanford) Sorption/desorption of Organics in Soils JAMES A. FIELD, Professor (Wageningen University) Bioremediation, Microbiology, White Rot Fungi, Hazardous Waste ROBERTO GUZMAN, Professor (North Carolina State) ANTHONY MUSCAT Associate Professor (Stanford) Kinetics, Surface Chemistry, Surface Engineering, Semiconductor Processing, Microcontamination KIMBERLY OGDEN, Professor (Colorado) Bioreactors, Bioremediation, Organics Removal from Soils THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor and Dean (CalTech) Aerosols, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Microcontamination ARA PHILIPOSSIAN, Professor (Tufts) Chemical/Mechanical Polishing, Semiconductor Processing SRINI RAGHAVAN, Professor, (UC Berkley) Microelectromechanical Systems and Cleaning/Polishing MARK RILEY, Professor, (Rutgers University) Application of Engineering Principals to Biological Systems EDUARDO SEZ Professor (UC, Davis) Polymer Flows, Multiphase Reactors, Colloids GLENN L. SCHRADER, Professor & Head (Wisconsin) Catalysis, Environmental Sustainability, Thin Films, Kinetics FARHANG SHADMAN, Regents Professor (Berkeley) Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactive Membranes, Microcontamination REYES SIERRA, Associate Professor (Wageningen University) Environmental Biotechnology, Biotransformation of Metals, Green Engineering ARMIN SOROOSHIAN, Assistant Professor (8/09) (CalTech) Aerosol Composition and Hygroscopicity, Climate Change Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a growing modern city that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere. The Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering at the University of Arizona offers a wide range of research opportunities in all major areas of chemical engineering and environmental engineering. Our department offers a comprehensive approach to sustainability which is grounded on the principles of conser vation and responsible management of water, energy, and material resources. Research initiatives in solar and other renewable energy, desalinization, climate modeling, and sustainable nanotechnology are providing innovative solutions to the challenges of environmental areas at the boundary between chemical and environmental engineer ing, including environmentally benign semiconductor manufacturing, environmental remediation, environmental biotechnology, and novel water treatment technologies.The department offers a fully accredited undergraduate degree in chemical engineering, as well as MS and PhD degrees in both chemical and environmental engineering. Financial support is available through fellowships, government and industrial grants and contracts, teaching and research assistantships. For further information http://www.chee.arizona.edu or write Chairman, Graduate Study Committee Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering P.O. BOX 210011 The University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721Chemical and Environmental Engineering at A RIZONA THE UNIVERSITY OF TUCSON ARIZONA The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity educational institution/equal opportunity employer. Women and minorities are encouraged to apply.

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Chemical Engineering Education 228 Department of Chemical Engineering Learn and discover in a multi-disciplinary research environm ent with opportunities in advanced materials, atmospheric chemistry, biotechnology, electrochemistry and sensors, electronic materials processing, engineering education, process control separation and purification technology, thin films and flexible displays. Program Faculty Jean M. Andino, Ph.D., P.E., Caltech. Atmospheric chemistry, gas-phase kinetics and mechanisms, heterogeneous chemistry, air pollution control James R. Beckman Emeritus, Ph.D., Arizona. Unit operations, applied mathematics, energy-efficient water purification, fractiona tion, CMP reclamation Veronica A. Burrows Ph.D., Princeton. Engineering education, surfa ce science, semiconductor processing, interfacial chemical and physical processes for sensors Lenore Dai, Ph.D., Illinois Surface, interfacial, and colloidal science, nanorheology and microrheology, materials at th e nanoscale, synthesis of novel polymer composites, thermal and mechanical analyses of soft materials Jeffrey Heys Ph.D., Colorado, Boulder. Modeling of biofluid-tisue interaction, tissue and biofilm mechanics, parallel multigrid solvers Jerry Y.S. Lin Ph.D., Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Advanced materials (inorganic membranes, adsorbents and catalysts) for applications in novel chemical separation and reaction processes Robert Pfeffer, Ph.D., New York University. Dry particle coating and supercritical fluid processing to produce engineered particulates with ta ilored properties; fluidization, mixing, coating and processing of ultra-fine and nano-structured particulates; filtration of sub-micron particul ates; agglomeration, sintering and granulation of fine particles Gregory B. Raupp Ph.D., Wisconsin. Gas-solid surface reactions, in teractions between surface reactions and transport proce sses, semiconduct or materials processing, thermal and plas ma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD), flexible displays Kaushal Rege, Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Molecular and cellular engineering, engineered cancer therapeutics and diagnostics, ce llular interactions in cancer metastasis Daniel E. Rivera Ph.D., Caltech. Control systems engineering, dynamic modeling via system identification, robust control, computer-aided control system design, supply chain management Michael R. Sierks Ph.D., Iowa State. Protein engineering, biomedical engineering, enzyme kinetics, antibody engineering Bryan Vogt, Ph.D., Massachusetts Nanostructured materials, organic electronics, s upercritical fluids for materials processing, mois ture barrier technologies Joe Wang Ph.D., Technion. Biosensors, nanobiotechnology, electrochemistry, biochips Affiliate/Research Faculty John Crittenden, Ph.D., N.A.E., P.E., Michigan. Sustainability, catalysis, pollution prevention, physical chemical treatment processes modeling of fi xed-bed reactors and adsorbers, surface chemistry and thermodynamics, modeling of wastewater and water treatment processes Paul Johnson, Ph.D., Princeton. Chemical migration and fate in the environment as applied to environmental risk assessment and the development, monitoring and optimization of technologies for aquifer restoration and water resources management Bruce E. Rittmann, Ph.D., N.A.E., P.E., Stanford. Environmental biotechnology, micr obial ecology, environmental chemistry, environmental engineering Jonathan D. Posner, Ph.D., University of California-Irvine Micro/nanofluidics, fuel cells, precision biology For additional details see http://che.fulton.asu.edu/ or contact Brian Goehner at 480-965-5558 or bgoehner@asu.edu

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 229 Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 7 M.D. Ackerson R.E. Babcock R.R. Beitle E.C. Clausen J.A. Havens C.N. Hestekin J.A. Hestekin J.W. King W. R. Penney D.K. R oper T.O. Spicer G.J. Thoma R.K. Ulrich Biochemical engineering Biological and food systems Biomaterials Electronic materials processing Fate of pollutants in the environment Hazardous chemical release consequence analysis Integrated passive electronic components Membrane separations Micro channel electrophoresis Phase equilibria and process design University of Arkansas The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees. Ph.D. stipends provide $20,000, Doctoral Academy Fellowships provide up to $25,000, and Distinguished Doctoral Fellowships provide $30,000. For stipend and fellowship recipients, all tuition is waived. Applications Areas of Research Faculty For more information contact Dr. Richard Ulrich or 479-575-5645 Chemical Engineering Graduate Program Information: http://www.cheg.uark.edu/graduate.asp Graduate Program in the Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering

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Chemical Engineering Education 230 Research Areas Alternative Energy and Fuels Biochemical Engineering Biomaterials Biomedical Engineering Bioprocessing and Bioenergy Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Computer-Aided Engineering Drug Delivery Energy Conversion and Storage Environmental Biotechnology Fuel Cells Green Chemistry Materials MEMS and NEMS Nanotechnology Polymers Process Control Pulp and Paper Supercritical Fluids Surface and Interfacial Science Thermodynamics

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 231 Vancouver is the largest city in Western Canada, ranked the 3 rd most livable place in the world*. Vancouvers natural surroundings offer limitless opportunities for outdoor pursuits throughout the year hiking, canoeing, mountain biking, skiing... In 2010, the city will host the Olympic and paraolympic Winter Games. Faculty Susan A. Bal dwin (T oronto) Chad P.J. Bennington (British Columbia) Xiaotao T. Bi (British Columbia) Bruce D. Bowen (British Columbia) Richard Branion (Saskatchewan) Louise Creagh (California, Berkeley) Sheldon J.B. Duff (McGill) Naoko Ellis (British Columbia) Peter Englezos (Calgary) Norman Epstein ( New York) James Feng (Minnesota) Bhushan Gopaluni (Alberta) John R. Grace (Cambridge) Elod Gyenge (British Columbia) Savvas Hatzikiriakos (McGill) Charles Haynes (California, Berkeley) Dhanesh Kannangara (Ottawa) Richard Kerekes (McGill) Ezra Kwok ( Alberta) Anthony Lau (British Columbia) Eric Legally (California, Santa Barbara) C. Jim Lim (British Columbia) Mark D. Martinez (British Columbia) Madjid Mohseni (Toronto) Colin Oloman (British Columbia) Royann Petrell (Florida) Kenneth Pinder (Birmingham) James M. Piret (MIT) Dusko Posarac (Novi Sad) Kevin J. Smith (McMaster) Fariborz Taghipour (Toronto) A. Paul Watkinson (British Columbia) David Wilkinson (Ottawa) Currently about 120 students are enrolled in graduate studies. The program dates back to the 1920s. Nowadays the department has a strong emphasis on interdisciplinary and joint programs, in particular with the Michael Smith Laboratories, Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (PAPRICAN), Clean Energy Research Centre (CERC) and the BRIDGE program which links public health, engineering and policy research. *2006 survey, the Economist magazine The University of British Columbia is the largest public university in Western Canada and is ranked among the top 40 institutes in the world by Newsweek magazine, the Times Higher Education Supplement and Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Bi ological Engineering Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Protein Engineering Blood research Stem Cells Energy Biomass and Biofuels Bio-oil and Bio-diesel Combustion, Gasification and Pyrolysis Electrochemical Engineering Fuel Cells Hydrogen Production Natural Gas Hydrate Process Control Pulp and Paper Reaction Engineering Financial Aid Students admitted to the graduate programs leading to the M.A.Sc., M.Sc. or Ph.D. degrees receive at least a minimum level of financial support regardless of citizenship (approximately $16,500/year). Teaching assistantships are available (up to approximately $1,000 per year). All student are eligible for several merit based entrance scholarships of $5,000/year and University Graduate Scholarships of approximately $16,000/year. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE (M.A.SC.) MASTER OF ENGINEERING (M.ENG.) MASTER OF SCIENCE (M.SC.) DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (PH.D.). Chemical and Biological Engineering Building, officially opened in 2006 Faculty of Applied Science Mailing address: 2360 East Mall, Vancouver B.C., Canada V6T 1Z3 gradsec@chml.ubc.ca tel. +1 (604) 822-3457 Environment al and Green Engineering Emissions Control Green Process Engineering Life Cycle Analysis Wastewater Treatment Waste Management Aquacultural Engineering Particle T echnology Fluidization Multiphase Flow Fluid-Particle Systems Particle Processing Electrostatics Kinetics and Cat alysis Polymer Rheology www.chml.ubc.ca/progr/grad Main Areas of Research

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Chemical Engineering Education 232 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K final_2008_outlines.pdf 6/18/2008 5:53:41 PM

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 233 Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department 5531 Boelter Hall UCLA Los Angeles, CA 90095-1592T elephone at (310) 825-9063 or visit us at www.chemeng.ucla.edu CONT ACTCHEMICAL AND BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERING AT U C L A FOCUS AREAS Biomolecular and Cellular Engineering Process Systems Engi neering (Simulation, Design, Optimization, Dynamics, and Control) Semiconductor Manufacturing and Electronic MaterialsGENERAL THEMES Energy and the Environment NanoengineeringPROGRAMS FACULTY J. P. Chang (William F. Seyer Chair in Materials Electrochemistry) Y. Cohen J. Davis (Assoc. Vice Chancellor Information Technology) R.F. Hicks L. Ignarro (Nobel Laureate) J. C. Liao (Chancellors Professor) Y. Lu V.I. Manousiouthakis H.G. Monbouquette (Dept. Chair) G. Orkoulas T. Segura S.M. Senkan Y. Tang UCLAs Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department offers a program of teaching and research linking fundamental engineering science and industrial practice. Our Department has strong graduate research programs in Biomolecular Engineering, Energy and Environment, Semiconductor Manufacturing, Engineering of Materials, and Process and Control Systems Engineering. Fellowships are available for outstanding applicants interested in Ph.D. degree programs. A fellowship includes a waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend. wood Village. Students have access to the highly regarded engineering and science programs and to a variety of

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Chemical Engineering Education 234 Chemical and Environmental Engineering Apply: www.graduate.ucr.edu/Admtoc.html Web: www.engr.ucr.edu/chemenv E-mail: gradcee@engr.ucr.edu Phone: 951.827.2859 Fax: 951.827.5696 Faculty Research Areas Akua Asa-Awuku (Georgia Tech): cloud formation, secondary organic aerosols, global climate change Wilfred Chen (Caltech): biomolecular engineering, biomaterials, nanobiotechnology, drug discovery David Cocker (Caltech): atmospheric aerosol formation, gas-to-particle conversion, emissions David Cwiertny (Johns Hopkins): water quality engineering, interfacial processes and pollutant transformation Robert Haddon (Penn State): electronic structure and properties of molecules and materials, new materials, nanodevices David Kisailus (UC Santa Barbara): synthesis of novel materials using biomimetic and biospired a pproaches, nanotechnology Mark Matsumoto (UC Davis): water and wastewater treatment, hazardous waste site remediation Ashok Mulchandani (McGill): nanobiotechnology, biosensors, environmental biotechnology Nosang Myung (UCLA): synthesis of nanoengineering materials, thermoelectrics, spintronics, NEMS/MEMS, gas and biosensors Joseph Norbeck (Nebraska): synthetic sustainable transportation fuels, air quality impact of vehicle emissions Sharon Walker (Yale): microbial and nanoparticle adhesion and transport phenomena in aquatic environments Jianzhong Wu (UC Berkeley): molecular modeling and design, theory of complex fluids, DNA/RNA packaging Charles Wyman (Princeton): biological conversions of biomass to fuels and other products Yushan Yan (Caltech): nanostructured materials, zeolite thin films, fuel cells The Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering at the University of California-Riverside offers an innovative graduate program to study and conduct cutting edge multi-disciplinary researches in Chemical, Biochemical, Biological, Materials, Nanotechnology, Energy and Environmental Engineering. The combination of distinguished faculty, outstanding facilities, and diverse research topics provide exceptional opportunities for graduate education at UCR. Competitive fellowship packages are available to outstanding applicants interested in Ph.D. degree programs. The University of California, Riverside (UCR) is the fastest growing and most ethnically diverse of the 10 campuses of the University of California. UCR is located on over 1,100 acres at the foot of the Box Springs Mountains, about 50 miles east of Los Angeles. Our picturesque campus is virtually equidistant from the desert, the mountains, and the ocean. UCR provides an ideal setting for students, faculty, and staff seeking to study, work, and live in a community steeped in rich heritage that offers a dynamic mix of arts and entertainment and an opportunity for affordable living.

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 235 Award-winning faculty Bradley F. Chmelka Patrick S. Daugherty Michael F. Doherty Francis J. Doyle III Glenn H. Fredrickson, NAE Michael J. Gordon Jacob Israelachvili, NAE, NAS, FRS Edward J. Kramer, NAE L. Gary Leal, NAE Glenn E. Lucas Eric McFarland Samir Mitragotri Baron G. Peters Susannah L. Scott Dale E. Seborg M. Scott Shell Todd M. Squires Theofanis G. Theofanous, NAE Matthew V. Tirrell, NAE Joseph A. Zasadzinski Song-I Han George M. (Bud) Homsy, NAE Doctoral students in good academic standing receive financial support via teaching and research assistantships. For additional information and to complete a pre-application form, visit www.chemengr.ucsb.edu or contact chegrads@engineering.ucsb.edu Interdisciplinary research California Nanosystems Institute Center for Control Engineering and Computation Center for Polymers and Organic Solids Center for Risk Studies and Safety Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies Institute for Energy Efficiency Institute for Quantum Engineering, Science & Technology International Center for Materials Research Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics Materials Research Laboratory Research strengths Biomaterials and bioengineering Catalysis and energy Complex fluids and polymers Electronic and optical materials Fluids and transport Process systems engineering Surfaces and thin films chemical engineering

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Chemical Engineering Education 236 C o n t a c t i n f o r m a t i o n : Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering 210-41 California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91125 C A L T E C H C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g http://www.che.caltech.edu F r a n c e s H A r n o l d Protein Engineering & Directed Evolution, Biocatalysis, Synthetic Biology, Biofuels A n a n d R A s t h a g i r i Cellular & Tissue Engineering, Systems Biology, Cancer & Developmental Biology J o h n F B r a d y Complex Fluids, Brownian Motion, Suspensions M a r k E D a v i s Biomedical Engineering, Catalysis, Advanced Materials R i c h a r d C F l a g a n Aerosol Science, Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, Bioaerosols, Nanotechnology, Nucleation G e o r g e R G a v a l a s ( e m e r i t u s ) K o n s t a n t i n o s P G i a p i s Plasma Processing, Ion-Surface Interactions, Nanotechnology S o s s i n a M H a i l e Advanced Materials, Fuel Cells, Energy, Electrochemistry, Catalysis & Electrocatalysis J u l i a A K o r n f i e l d Polymer Dynamics, Crystallization of Polymers, Physical Aspects of the Design of Biomedical Polymers J o h n H S e i n f e l d Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, Global Climate D a v i d A T i r r e l l Macromolecular Chemistry, Biomaterials, Protein Engineering N i c h o l a s W T s c h o e g l ( e m e r i t u s ) Z h e n G a n g W a n g Statistical Mechanics, Polymer Science, Biophysics C a l i f o r n i a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y The Warren and Katharine Schlinger Laboratory for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering is scheduled to open Fall, 2009.

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Chemical Engineering Education 238 Faculty Members John C. Angus Harihara Baskaran Robert V. Edwards Donald L. Feke Daniel J. Lacks Uziel Landau Chung-Chiun Liu J. Adin Mann Heidi B. Martin Syed Qutubuddin R. Mohan Sankaran Robert F. Savinell Thomas Zawodzinski Interdisciplinary Research Opportunities Energy Systems Fuel Cells and Batteries Micro and Bio Fuel Cells Electrochemical Engineering Membrane Transport, Fabrication Biological Engineering Biomedical Sensors and Actuators Neural Prosthetic Devices Cell & Tissue Engineering Transport in Biological Systems Advanced Materials and Devices Diamond and Nitride Synthesis Coatings, Thin Films and Surfaces Unique Materials for Sensors Fine Particle Science and Processing Polymer Nanocomposites Electrochemical Microfabrication Processing Molecular Simulations Microplasmas and Microreactors Case Western Reserve University Advanced Study in Interdisciplinary Cutting-Edge Research Graduate Coordinator E-mail: chemeng@case.edu Department of Chemical Engineering Web: http://www.case.edu/cse/eche Case Western Reserve University 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7217 You will find Case to be an exciting environment to carry out your graduate studies. Case has a long history of scientific leadership. Our department alumni include many prominent chemical engineers, such as Herbert Dow, the founder of the Dow Chemical Company. We are located in beautiful University Circle, the cultural and medical hub of ty that is one of the most affordable major cities in the country. -The Chemical Engineering Faculty For more information on Graduate Research, Admission, and Financial Aid, contact:

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 239 Opportunities for Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at the UNIVERSITY OF C INCINNA TI M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in Chemical Engineering Engineering Research Cen ter that houses most chemical engineering research. Emerging Energy Systems Catalytic conversion of fossil and renewable resources into alternative fuels, such as hydrogen, alcohols and liquid alkanes; solar energy conversion; inorganic membranes for hydrogen separation; fuel cells, hydrogen storage nanomaterials Environmental Research Mercury and carbon dioxide capture from power plant waste streams, air separation for oxycombustion; wastewa ter treatment, removal of volatile organic vapors Molecular Engineering Application of quantum chemistry and molecular simulation tools to problems in heterogeneous catalysis, (bio)molecular separations and transport of biological and drug molecules Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Selective catalytic oxidation, environmental catalysis, zeolite catalysis, novel chemical reactors, modeling and design of chemical reactors, polymerization processes in interfaces, membrane reactors Membrane and Separation Technologies tion; biomedical, food and environmental applications of membranes; high-temperature membrane technology, natural gas processing by membranes; adsorption, chromatography, separation system synthesis, chemical reac tion-based separation processes Biotechnology Polymers Thermodynamics, polymer blends and composites, high-temperature polymers, hydrogels, polymer rheology, computational polymer science, molecular engineering and synthesis of surfactants, surfactants and interfacial phenomena Bio-Applications of Membrane Science and Technology This IGERT program provides a unique educational opportunity for U.S. Ph.D. students in areas of engineering, the National Science Foundation. The IGERT fellowship consists of an annual stipend of $30,000 for up to three years. Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology (INST) INST brings together three centers of excellencethe Center for Nanoscale Materials Science, the Center for BioMEMS and Nanobiosystems, and the Center for Nanophotonicscomposed of faculty from the Colleges of En gineering, Arts and Sciences, and Medicine. The goals of the institute are to develop a world-class infrastructure of enabling technologies, to support advanced collaborative research on nanoscale phenomena. For Admission Information Director, Graduate Studies Department Chemical and Materials Engineering PO Box 210012 University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 452 21-0012 E-mail: darla.bowen@uc.edu or vadim.guliants@uc.ed u The University of Cincinnati is committed to a policy of non-discrimination in Financial Aid Available A.P. Angelopoulos Carlos Co Junhang Dong Joel Fried Rakesh Govind Vadim Guliants Chia-chi Ho Yuen-Koh Kao Soon-Jai Khang Paul Phillips Neville Pinto Vesselin Shanov Peter Smirniotis Faculty

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Chemical Engineering Education 240 Chemical Engineering at The City College of New York CUNY (The City University of New York) A 155-year-old urban University, the oldest public University in America, on a 35-acre Gothic and modern campus in the greatest city in the worldFACUL TY RESEARCH: Alexander Couzis: Polymorph selective templated crystallization; Molecularly thin organic barrier layers; Surfactant facilitated wetting of hydro phobic surfaces; soft materials Morton Denn mechanics Lane Gilchrist: Bioengineering with cellular materials; Spectroscopy-guided molecular engineering; Structural studies of self-assembling proteins; Bioprocessing Ilona Kretzschmar: Materials science; Nanotechnology; Electronic materials Leslie Isaacs: Preparation and characterization of novel materials; Applica tion of thermo-analytic techniques in materials research +Jae Lee: Theory of reactive distilla tion; Process design and control; Sepa rations; Bioprocessing; Gas hydrates Charles Maldarelli: Interfacial applications; Surfactant adsorption, phase behavior and nanostructuring at interfaces Jeff Morris: Fluid mechanics; Fluidparticle systems +Irven Rinard: Process design meth odology; Process and energy systems engineering; Bioprocessing David Rumschitzki: Transport and reaction aspects of arterial disease; ity; Catalyst deactivation and reaction engineering Carol Steiner: Polymer solutions and hydrogels; Soft biomaterials, Controlled release technology Raymond Tu: Biomolecular engineering; Peptide design; DNA condensation; microrheology Gabriel Tardos: Powder technology; Granulation; Fluid particle systems, Elec trostatic effects; Air pollution Sheldon Weinbaum Biotransport in living tissue; Modeling of cellular mechanism of bone growth; bioheat transfer; kidney functionASSOCIA TED FACUL TY: Joel Koplik : (Physics) Fluid mechanics; Molecu lar modeling; Transport in random media Hernan Makse: (Physics) Granular mechanics Mark Shattuck: (Physics) Experimental dynamics; Experimental spatio-temporal control of patternsEMERITUS FACUL TY: Andreas Acrivos Robert Graff Robert Peffer +Reuel Shinnar Herbert Weinstein Levich Institute +Clean Fuels Institute National Academy of Sciences CONT ACT INFORMA TION: Department of Chemical Engineering City College of New York Convent Avenue at 140th Street New York, NY 10031 www-che.engr.ccny.cuny.edu chedept@ccny.cuny.edu

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 241 CHBE FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS: Kristi Anseth biomaterials, photopoly-meriza tion, tissue engineering, and drug delivery Christopher Bowman biomaterials, photopoly merization, reaction kinetics, polymer chemistry Stephanie Bryant functional tissue engineer ing, mechanical conditioning, mechano-transduc tion, photopolymerization David Clough process control Robert Davis technology, membrane fouling John Falconer heterogeneous catalysis, en vironmental catalysis, photocatalysis, zeolite membranes Steven George surface chemistry and thin interfaces Ryan Gill evolutionary and inverse metabolic engineering, genomics Douglas Gin polymer science, liquid crystal engineering, and nanomaterials chemistry Christine Hrenya Arthi Jayaraman nanomaterials, biophysics, molecular simulations and theory, statistical thermodynamics Dhinakar Kompala recombinant mammalian and microbial cell cultures, high cell density bioreactors design, bioprocess engineering Melissa Mahoney neural tissue engineer ing, pancreatic regeneration, drug delivery, biopolymers Will Medlin surface chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis, solid-state chemical sensors, computa tional chemistry Charles Musgrave theoretical studies of sur faces and reactions Richard Noble reversible chemical complex ation for separations, mass transfer, mathematical Theodore Randolph thermodynamics of pro reaction engineering Robert Sani Aaron Saunders colloidal nanocrystals, materi als science Daniel Schwartz interfacial phenomena, bioma Jeffrey Stansbury dental and biomedical poly meric materials, photopolymerization processes, network polymers, hydrogels Mark Stoykovich block copolymer self-as David Walba organic stereochemistry, photonic materials and ferroelectric liquid crystals Alan Weimer reactor engineering, advanced resource recovery For information and online application: Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering University of Colorado at Boulder, 424 UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0424 Phone (303) 492-7471 Fax (303) 492-4341 chbegrad@colorado.edu http://www.colorado.edu/che/ Image from: Casey A. Cass/University of Colorado The Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder offers an outstanding graduate program that emphasizes the doctoral degree. Our excellent national and international students take advantage of a high level of facultyCenter for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, the Center for Fundamentals and Application of Photopolymerization, the Center for Membrane Applied Science and Technology, and The Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering is one of the top research departments in the United States, based on publications and citations per faculty, and maintains sophisticated facilities to support research endeavors. The faculty have won numerous awards for research accomplishments and for teaching. Some areas of research emphasis in the department include biomaterials, biopharma and environmental applications, functional materials designed at the microand nanoscale, membranes and separations, metabolic engineering and directed evolution, nanostructured newable energy, sensors, and tissue engineering. We invite prospec tive graduate students to learn more about our department and ongoing research at www.colorado.edu/che.

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Chemical Engineering Education 242 Golden, Colorado 80401 Evolving from its origins as a school of mining founded in 1873, CSM is a unique, highlyfocused University dedicated to scholarship and research in materials, energy, and the envi ronment. The Chemical Engineering Department at CSM maintains a high-quality, active, and well-funded graduate research program. Funding sources include federal agencies such as the NSF, DOE, DARPA, ONR, NREL, NIST, NIH as well as multiple industries. Research areas within the department include: Material Science and Engineering Organic and inorganic membranes (Way) Polymeric materials (Dorgan, Wu, Liberatore) Electronic materials (Wolden, Agarwal) Theoretical and Applied Thermodynamics Molecular simulation and modeling (Ely, Wu, Sum) Natural gas hydrates (Sloan, Koh, Sum) Biomedical and Biophysics Research Biological membranes (Sum) Space and Microgravity Research Membranes on Mars (Way) Fuel Cell Research Low temperature fuel cell catalysts (Herring) High temperature fuel cell kinetics (Dean) H 2 separation and fuel cell membranes (Way, Herring) Reaction mechanisms (McKinnon, Dean, Herring) Finally, located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains and only 15 miles from downtown Denver, Golden enjoys over 300 days of sunshine per year. These factors combine to provide year-round cultural, recreational, and entertainment opportunities virtually unmatched anywhere in the United States. Faculty S. Agarwal (UCSB, 2003) A.M. Dean (Harvard, 1971) J.R. Dorgan (Berkeley, 1991) J.F. Ely (Indiana, 1971) A. Herring (Leeds, 1989) C.A. Koh (Brunel, 1990) M. Liberatore (Illinois, 2003) D.W.M. Marr (Stanford, 1993) J.T. McKinnon (MIT, 1989) R.L. Miller (CSM, 1982) K.R. Neeves (Cornell, 2006) E.D. Sloan (Clemson, 1974) A.K. Sum (Delaware, 2001) J.D. Way (Colorado, 1986) C.A. Wolden (MIT, 1995) D.T. Wu (Berkeley, 1991) COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES http://www.mines.edu/academic/chemeng/

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 243 Research The graduate program in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at Colorado State University offers students a broad range of cutting-edge research areas led by faculty who are world renowned experts in their respective elds. Opportunities for collaboration with many other department across the University are abundant, including departments in the Colleges of Engineering, Natural Sciences, and Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences. Financial Support Research Assistantships pay a competitive stipend. Students on assistantships also receive tuition support. The department has a number of research assistantships. Students select research projects in their area of interest from which a thesis or dissertation may be developed. Additional University fellowship awards are available to outstanding applicants. Fort Collins Located in Fort Collins, Colorado State University is perfectly positioned as a gateway to the Rocky Mountains. With its superb climate (over 300 days of sunshine per year), there are exceptional opportunities for outdoor pursuits including hiking, biking, skiing, and rafting. For additional information or to schedule a visit of campus: Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523-1370 Phone: (970) 491-5253 Fax: (970) 491-7369 E-mail: cbe_grad@colostate.edu Research Areas Bioanalytical Chemistry Biofuels and Biore ning Biomaterials Cell and Tissue Engineering Magnetic Resonance Imaging Membrane Science Micro uidics Polymer Science Synthetic and Systems Biology Faculty Travis S. Bailey, Ph.D., U. Minnesota Laurence A. Bel ore, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin David S. Dandy, Ph.D., Caltech J.D. (Nick) Fisk, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin Matt J. Kipper, Ph.D., Iowa State U. James C. Linden, Ph.D., Iowa State U. Christie Peebles, Ph.D., Rice U. Ashok Prasad, Ph.D., Brandeis U. Kenneth F. Reardon, Ph.D., Caltech Brad Reisfeld, Ph.D., Northwestern U. Qiang (David) Wang, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin A. Ted Watson, Ph.D., Caltech Ranil Wickramasinghe, Ph.D., U. Minnesota View faculty and student research videos, nd application information, and get other information at http://cbe.colostate.edu C h e m i c a l & B i o l o g i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 245 Graduate Study & Research in Chemical Engineering at Dartmouths Thayer School of EngineeringFor further information, please contact: Chemical Engineering Graduate Advisor Thayer School of Engineering Dartmouth College Hanover, NH 03755 http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/thayer/research/chemical.html Faculty & Research Areas Ian Baker (Oxford) Structure/property relationships of materials, electron microscopy John Collier (Dartmouth) Orthopaedic prostheses, implant/host interfaces Alvin Converse (Delaware) Kinetics & reactor design, enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose Benoit Cushman-Roisin (Florida State) Harold Frost (Harvard) Microstructural evolution, deformation, and fracture of materials Tillman Gerngross (Technical University of Vienna) Engineering of glycoproteins, fermentation technology Ursula Gibson (Cornell) Karl E. Griswold ( University of Texas at Austin) Protein Engineering Francis Kennedy (RPI) Tribology, surface mechanics Daniel R. Lynch (Princeton) Computational methods, oceanography, and water resources Lee Lynd (Dartmouth) Biomass processing, pathway engineering, reactor & process design Victor Petrenko (USSR Academy of Science) Physical chemistry of ice Erland Schulson (British Columbia) Physical metallurgy of metals and alloys Petia Vlahovska (Yale University) MD and MBA degrees. The Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College offers an ABET-accredited BE degree, as well as MS, Masters of Engineering Management, and PhD degrees. The Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Program features courses in foundational topics in chemical engineering as well as courses serving our areas of research specialization: Biotechnology and biocommodity engineering Environmental science and engineering Fluid mechanics Materials science and engineering Process design and evaluation These important research areas are representative of those found in chemical engineering departments around the world. A distinctive feature of the Thayer School is that the professors, students, and visiting scholars active in these areas have for students interested in chemical and biochemical engineering to draw from several intellectual traditions in coursework and research. Fifteen full-time faculty are active in research involving chemical engineering fundamentals.

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Chemical Engineering Education 246 RESEARCH AREA S APPLY ONLINE: www.udel.edu/gradoffice/applicant s 150 Academy Street, Colburn Laboratory, Newark, DE 19716 Phone 302.831.4061 Fax 302.831.3009 WWW. C H E .U DEL ED U Chemical Engineering at Delaware is ranked, by all metrics, in the top 10 programs in the US with world-wide reputation and reach. Built on a long and distinguished history, we are a vigorous and active leader in chemical engineering research and teaching. Our graduate students work with a talented and diverse faculty, and there is a correspondingly rich range of research and educational opportunities that are distinctive to Delaware. We currently have 24 full time faculty, over 100 graduate students, nearly $9M in annual research expenditures, and publish well over 100 scientific manuscripts and patents per year. The range of research varies tremendouslyfrom biomolecular and metabolic engineering to catalysis, energy, green engineering, nanostructured materials, complex fluids engineering and polymersadvances are being made in each area at Delaware. Finally, Delaware is one of the top chemical engineering departments in the US in terms of faculty diversity, and is among the largest producers of Chemical Engineering PhD students in the US. GRADUATE EDUCATION at Delaware offers unique opportunities for professional development, including The Teaching Fellows program Participation in national and international conferences and workshops Two annual student-run Departmental symposia The Teaching Fellows program promotes the development of the next generation of academic educators and scholars by enabling graduate students to co-teach Chemical Engineering courses with a faculty mentor. The graduate symposia are run by our graduate student organization, the Colburn Club which also organizes social activities and recruiting events within the Department. All graduate students are supported as research assistants, and are provided a comfortable stipend for living expenses. Special competitive fellowships are available to the best qualified applicants. INDUSTRIAL COLLABORATIONS are a hallmark of our Department. Many research groups collaborate with local and national industrial laboratories. This blend of academic and applied engineering research gives our students a unique perspective that is useful in academic or industrial careers. We are close to major chemical and pharmaceutical industry leaders. CENTERS AND PROGRAMS provide unique environments and experiences for graduate students. These include: Delaware Biotechnology Institute (DBI) Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST) Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics (CMET) Center for Neutron Science (CNS) Center for Composite Materials (CCM) Chemistry-Biology Interface (CBI) Institute for Multi-Scale Modeling of Biological Interactions (IMMBI) Solar Hydrogen IGERT INTERDISCIPLINARY work is done at the interfaces between major research fields, often through close collaborations among the faculty and other departments. AFTER GRADUATION our graduates find fulfilling careers in academia and industrial research, as well as in law, medicine, and business. Academia Our graduates hold positions at top-ten research institutions, as well as in many other programs world-wide. Industry Delaware students are sought after by local, regional, national and international corporations. DEPARTMENT RECOGNITION #10 (2008 U.S. News & World Report) #3 (National Research Council, 1994) 14 NSF CAREER and Presidential Young Investigator Award Winners 3 National Academy of Engineering (NAE) Members 10 Named Professors LOCATION The University of Delaware has a college-town atmosphere, yet we are centrally located between New York City and Washington, D.C., at the heart of the east coasts chemical and pharmaceutical industries. APPLICATION to the graduate program is coordinated through the Universitys Office of Graduate Studies. The application can be found at www.udel.edu/gradoffice/applicants Admissions are rolling, and the application deadline is March 15 (earlier applications are strongly encouraged.) DELAWARE Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY of DELAWARE Biomolecular, Cellular, and Protein Engineering Catalysis and Energy Metabolic Engineering Systems Biology Soft Materials, Colloids and Polymers Surface Science Nanotechnology Process Systems Engineering Green Engineering Tradition of Excellence UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE Chemical Engineering Tradition of Excellence Tradition of Excellence Browse our site www.che.udel.edu for updated news and information on our graduate program, faculty research and alumni achievements!

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 249 F a c u l t y T i m A n d e r s o n A r a v i n d A s t h a g i r i J a s o n E B u t l e r A n u j C h a u h a n O s c a r D C r i s a l l e J e n n i f e r S i n c l a i r C u r t i s R i c h a r d B D i c k i n s o n H e l e n a H a g e l i n W e a v e r G a r H o f l u n d P e n g J i a n g L e w i s E J o h n s D m i t r y K o p e l e v i c h A n t h o n y J L a d d T a n m a y L e l e R a n g a N a r a y a n a n M a r k E O r a z e m C h a n g W o n P a r k F a n R e n D i n e s h O S h a h S p y r o s S v o r o n o s Y i i d e r T s e n g S e r g e y V a s e n k o v J a s o n F W e a v e r K i r k Z i e g l e r C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a A w a r d w i n n i n g f a c u l t y C u t t i n g e d g e f a c i l i t i e s E x t e n s i v e e n g i n e e r i n g r e s o u r c e s A n h o u r f r o m t h e A t l a n t i c O c e a n a n d t h e G u l f o f M e x i c o

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 251 CONTACT INFORMATION: Dr. Amyn Teja, Associate Chair for Graduate Studies School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100 grad.info@chbe.gatech.edu 404.894.1838 404.894.2866 fax M.S. in Chemical Engineering Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering M.S. in Bioengineering Ph.D. in Bioengineering M.S. in Paper Science and Engineering Ph.D. in Paper Science and Engineering M.S. in Polymers largest programs of its kind in the United States Located in the heart of Atlanta, our students have unprecedented research, cultural, and professional opportunities ChBE faculty members have received a combined total of 67 national and international awards o l of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering is one the oldest an d t s kind in the United State s o f Atlanta, our students have un p recedented research, cultural, an d Why Georgia Tech? Cutting Edge Research uidics & MEMS I Interactions Georgia Tech has more outstanding professors than most ChE programs, which means more research options for grad students. Luz Padro (Ph.D. student, B.S. Virginia Tech) Atlanta o ers the advantages of a big city but has the spirit of a small town. Keith Reed (Ph.D. student, B.S. MIT)

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Chemical Engineering Education 252 The University of Houston is an equal opportunity institution. Adjunct Aliated + Jan. 2009 Bold denotes primary research area. For more information: Visit: www.chee.uh.edu Email: grad-che@uh.edu Write: University of Houston Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Graduate Admission S222 Engineering Building 1 Houston, TX 77204-4004 Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Graduate Program ENVIRONM E NTAL & RE ACTION ENGIN EE RING EN E RGY ENGIN EE RING C H E MICAL ENGIN EE RING BIOMOL E CULAR ENGIN EE RING N ANOM AT E RIALS Amundson Balakotaiah Harold Luss Richardson Rooks Chellam Economou Strasser Willson Annapragada Bidani Briggs Fox Vekilov Willson Doxastakis Krishnamoorti Mohanty Chellam Harold Luss Nikolaou Richardson Strasser Vekilov Advincula Donnelly Doxastakis Economou Flumerfelt Jacobson Krishnamoorti Lee Litvinov Stein + Balakotaiah Harold Jacobson Luss Nikolaou Richardson Daneshy Economides Mohanty Nikolaou Strasser C hemical and Biomolecular Engineering R esearch Faculty H OUSTON Dynamic H ub of C hemical and Biomolecular Engineering Houston is the dominant hub of the U.S. energy and chemical industries, as well as the home of NASAs Johnson Space Center and the world-renowned Texas Medical Center. e Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Department at the University of Houston oers excellent facilities, competitive nancial support, industrial internships, and an environment conducive to personal and professional growth. Houston oers the educational, cultural, business, sports, and entertainment advantages of a large and diverse metropolitan area, with signicantly lower costs than average.

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 253 MS and PhD Graduate Program The University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Chemical EngineeringUIC For more information, write to Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering University of Illinois at Chicago 810 S. Clinton St. Chicago, IL 60607-7000 (312) 996-3424 Fax (312) 996-0808 URL: http://www.uic.edu/depts/chme/ RESEARCH AREAS Transport Phenomena: Thermodynamics: extraction/retrograde condensation, Asphaltene characterization, Membrane-based separations. Kinetics and Reaction Engineering: Gas-solid reaction kinetics, Energy transfer processes, Laser diagnostics, and Combustion chemistry. Environmental technology, Surface chemistry, and optimization. Catalyst preparation and characterization, Supported metals, Chemical kinetics in automotive engine emis sions. Density fuctional theory calculations of reaction mechanisms. Biochemical Engineering: Bioinstrumentation, Bioseparations, Biodegradable polymers, Nonaqueous Enzymology, Optimization of mycobacterial fermentations. Materials: Microelectronic materials and processing, Heteroepitaxy in group IV materials, and in situ Product and Process Development and design, Computer-aided modeling and simulation, Pollution prevention. Biomedical Engineering Hydrodynamics of the human brain, Microvasculation, Fluid structure interaction in biological tissues, Targeted drug delivery and Medical imaging. Nanoscience and Engineering Molecular-based study of matter in nanoscale, Organic nanostructures, Self-assembly and Positional assembly. Properties of size-selected clusters. FACULTY Sohail Murad Professor and Head Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979 E-Mail: Murad@uic.edu John H. Kiefer Professor Emeritus Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961 E-Mail: Kiefer@uic.edu Andreas A. Linninger Associate Professor Ph.D., Vienna University of Technology, 1992 E-Mail: Linninge@uic.edu G. Ali Mansoori Professor Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969 E-Mail: Mansoori@uic.edu Randall Meyer Assistant Professor Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin, 2001 E-Mail: Rjm@uic.edu Ludwig C. Nitsche Associate Professor Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1989 E-Mail: LCN@uic.edu John Regalbuto, Associate Professor Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986 E-Mail: JRR@uic.edu Christos Takoudis Professor Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1982 E-Mail: Takoudis@uic.edu Professor Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964 E-Mail: Turian@uic.edu Lewis E. Wedgewood Associate Professor Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1988 E-Mail: Wedge@uic.edu Ying Liu, Assistant Professor Ph.D., Princeton University, 2007 E-mail: liuying@uic.edu Laszlo T. Nemeth Adjunct Professor Ph.D., University of Debrecen, Hungary, 1978 E-Mail: Lnemeth@uic.edu Anil Oroskar Adjunct Professor Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1981 E-Mail: anil@orochem.com

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Chemical Engineering Education 254 FACULTY Richard D. Braatz Multiscale Systems and Control Steve Granick Soft Materials, Nanoscience, Colloids, Imaging William S. Hammack Public Outreach and Engineering Literacy Brendan A. Harley Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Jonathan J. L. Higdon Fluid Mechanics and Computational Algorithms Paul J. A. Kenis Microchemical Systems: Microreactors, Microfuel Cells, and Microfluidic Tools Hyun Joon Kong Design of Bioinspired Materials, Engineering of Stem Cell Niches, Tissue Engineering Mary L. Kraft Surface Analysis and Biomembranes Deborah E. Leckband Bioengineering and Biophysics Jennifer A. Lewis Materials Assembly, Complex Fluids, and Mesoscale Fabrication Richard I. Masel Microchemical Systems, Micro Fuel Cells, Sensors Daniel W. Pack Biomolecular Engineering and Biotechnology Nathan D. Price Computational and Systems Biology Christopher V. Rao Computational Biology and Cellular Engineering Charles M. Schroeder Single Molecule Biology, Biophysics and Biomolecular Engineering Kenneth S. Schweizer Macromolecular, Colloidal and Complex Fluid Theory Edmund G. Seebauer Microelectronics Processing and Nanotechnology Mark A. Shannon MEMS, NEMS, and Water Purification Huimin Zhao Molecular Bioengineering and Biotechnology Charles F. Zukoski Colloid and Interfacial Science UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The combination of distinguished faculty, outstanding facilities, and a diversity of research interests results in exceptional opportunities for graduate education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department offers graduate programs leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. For more information visit www.chemeng.uiuc.edu Or write to: Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 114 Roger Adams Laboratory, Box C-3 600 South Mathews Avenue Urbana, IL 61801-3602

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 255 Where Chemical Engineering Meets the Future. Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering IITs ChBE department provides students with the opportunity to participate in innovative research while studying just minutes from downtown Chicago. Here, students are able to reach their maximum potential with hands-on experience and a strong commitment to academic excellence. Competitive professionals with Ph.D.-aspirations are strongly encouraged to apply. Energy & Sustainability Biological Engineering Advanced Materials Systems Engineering Research Areas Faculty Research Interests Javad Abbasian (Illinois Institute of Technology) Hamid Arastoopour (Illinois Institute of Technology) Donald Chmielewski (University of California LA) Ali Cinar (Texas A&M) Dimitri Gidaspow (Illinois Institute of Technology) Allan S. Myerson (University of Virginia) Satish Parulekar (Purdue University) Victor Perez-Luna (University of Washington) Jai Prakash (Case Western Reserve University) Vijay Ramani (University of Connecticut) Jay D. Schieber (University of Wisconsin) Fouad Teymour (University of Wisconsin) David C. Venerus (Penn State University) Darsh T. Wasan (UC-Berkeley) www.chbe. iit .edu

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Chemical Engineering Education 256 Graduate program for M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering FACULTY For information and application: Graduate Admissions Chemical and Biochemical Engineering 4133 Seamans Center Iowa City IA 52242-1527 1-800-553-IOWA (1-800-553-4692) chemeng@icaen.uiowa.edu www.engineering.uiowa. edu/~chemeng/ Stephen K. Hunter U. of Utah 1989 Bioarticial organs/ Microencapsulation technologies Gary A. Aurand North Carolina State U. 1996 Supercritical uids/ High pressure biochem ical reactors Alec B. Scranton Purdue U. 1990 Photopolymerization/ Reversible emulsiers/ Polymerization kinetics Greg Carmichael U. of Kentucky 1979 Global change/ Supercomputing/ Air pollution modeling Chris Coretsopoulos U. of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign 1989 Photopolymerization/ Microfabrication/ Spectroscopy David Murhammer U. of Houston 1989 Insect cell culture/ Bioreactor monitoring Tonya L. Peeples Johns Hopkins 1994 Bioremediation/ Extremophile physiol ogy and biocatalysis David Rethwisch U. of Wisconsin 1985 Membrane science/ Polymer science/ Catalysis Jennifer Fiegel Johns Hopkins 2004 Drug delivery/ Nano and microtechnology/ Aerosols Julie L.P. Jessop Michigan State U. 1999 Polymers/ Microlithography/ Spectroscopy C. Allan Guymon U. of Colorado 1997 Polymer reaction engineering/UV curable coatings/Polymer liquid crystal composites Ramaswamy Subramanian Indian Institute of Science 1992 Structural enzymol ogy/Structure function relationship in proteins Charles O. Stanier Carnegie Mellon University 2003 Air pollution chemistry, measurement, and modeling/Aerosols Aliasger K. Salem U. of Nottingham 2002 Tissue engineering/ Drug delivery/Polymeric biomaterials/Immunocancer therapy/Nano and microtechnology Venkiteswaran Subramanian Indian Institute of Science 1978 Biocatalysis/Metabolism/ Gene expression/ Fermentation/Protein purication/Biotechnology Eric E. Nuxoll U. of Minnesota 2003 Controlled release/ microfabrication/ drug delivery

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 257 Faculty Iowa State Universitys Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering offers excellent programs for graduate research and education. Our cuttingedge research crosses traditional disciplinary lines and provides exceptional opportunities for graduate students. Our diverse faculty are leaders international recognition for both research and education, our facilities (laboratories, instrumentation, and computing) are state of the art, and our students the support they need not just to succeed, but to excel. Our campus houses several interdisciplinary research centers, including the Ames Laboratory (a USDOE laboratory focused on materials research), the Plant Sciences for Combinatorial Discovery. The department offers MS and PhD degrees in chemical engineering. can be admitted to the program. We coverage and competitive stipends to all our graduate students. Robert C. Brown PhD, Michigan State University Biorenewable resources for energy Aaron R. Clapp PhD, University of Florida Colloidal and interfacial phenomena Eric W. Cochran PhD, University of Minnesota Self-assembled polymers Rodney O. Fox PhD, Kansas State University engineering Charles E. Glatz PhD, University of Wisconsin Bioprocessing and bioseparations Kurt R. Hebert PhD, University of Illinois Corrosion and electrochemical engineering James C. Hill PhD, University of Washington Andrew C. Hillier PhD, University of Minnesota Interfacial engineering and electrochemistry Laura Jarboe PhD, University of California-LA Biorenewables production by metabolic engineering Kenneth R. Jolls PhD, University of Illinois Chemical thermodynamics and separations Mark J. Kushner PhD, California Institute of Technology Computational optical and discharge physics Monica H. Lamm PhD, North Carolina State University Molecular simulations of advanced materials Surya K. Mallapragada PhD, Purdue University Tissue engineering and drug delivery Balaji Narasimhan PhD, Purdue University Biomaterials and drug delivery Jennifer O'Donnell Amphiphile self-assembly and controlled polymerizations Michael G. Olsen PhD, University of Illinois Peter J. Reilly PhD, University of Pennsylvania Enzyme engineering and bioinformatics Derrick K. Rollins PhD, Ohio State University Statistical process control Ian Schneider PhD, North Carolina State University Cell migration and mechanotransduction Brent H. Shanks PhD, California Institute of Technology Heterogeneous catalysis and biorenewables Jacqueline V. Shanks PhD, California Institute of Technology Metabolic engineering and plant biotechnology R. Dennis Vigil PhD, University of Michigan Transport phenomena and reaction engineering in multiphase systems FOR MORE INFORMATION Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50011 515 294-7643 Fax: 515 294-2689 chemengr@iastate.edu www.cbe.iastate.edu Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U.S. Vietnam Era Veteran. Any persons having inquiries concerning this may contact the Director of Equal Opportunity and Diversity, 3680 Beardshear Hall, 515 294-7612. ECM 08499

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Chemical Engineering Education 258 The University of Kansas is the largest and most comprehensive university in Kansas. It has an enrollment of more than 28,000 and almost 2,000 faculty mem bers. KU offers more than 100 bachelors, nearly 90 masters, and more than 50 doctoral programs. The main campus is in Lawrence, Kansas, with other campuses in Kansas City, Wichita, Topeka, and Overland Park, Kansas. Faculty Cory Berkland (Ph.D., Illinois) Kyle V. Camarda (Ph.D., Illinois) R.V. Chaudhari (Ph.D., Bombay University) Michael Detamore (Ph.D., Rice) Stevin H. Gehrke (Ph.D., Minnesota) Don W. Green, (Ph.D., Oklahoma) Javier Guzman (Ph.D., UC Davis) Colin S. Howat (Ph.D., Kansas) Jenn-Tai Liang (Ph.D., Texas) Trung V. Nguyen (Ph.D., Texas A&M) Karen J. Nordheden (Ph.D., Illinois) Russell D. Osterman (Ph.D., Kansas) Aaron Scurto (Ph.D., Notre Dame) Marylee Z. Southard (Ph.D., Kansas) Susan M. Williams (Ph.D., Oklahoma) Bala Subramaniam (Ph.D., Notre Dame) Shapour Vossoughi (Ph.D., Alberta, Canada) Laurence Weatherley, Chair (Ph.D., Cambridge) G. Paul Willhite (Ph.D., Northwestern) Research Catalytic Kinetics and Reaction Engineering Catalytic Materials and Membrane Processing Controlled Drug Delivery Corrosion, Fuel Cells, Batteries Electrochemical Reactors and Processes Electronic Materials Processing Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes Fluid Phase Equilibria and Process Design Liquid/Liquid Systems Molecular Product Design NanoTechnology for Biological Applications Process Control and Optimization Protein and Tissue Engineering Supercritical Fluid Applications Waste Water Treatment Graduate Programs M.S. degree with a thesis requirement in both chemical and petroleum engineering Typical completion times are 16-18 months for a M.S. degree and 4 1/2 years for a Ph.D. degree (from B.S.)KANSAS Graduate Study in Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the Financial Aid Financial aid is available in the form of research and teaching assistantships and fellowships/scholarships. A special program is described below. Madison & Lila Self Graduate Fellowship For additional information and application: http://www.unkans.edu/~selfpro/ Research Centers Tertiary Oil Recovery Program (TORP) 30 years of excellence in enhanced oil recovery research (CEBC) NSF Engineering Research Center Transportation Research Institute (TRI) Contacts Website for information and application: http://www.cpe.engr.ku.edu/ Graduate Program Chemical and Petroleum Engineering University of KansasLearned Hall 1530 W. 15 th Street, Room 4132 Lawrence, KS 66045-7609UNIVERSITY OF phone: 785-864-2900 fax: 785-864-4967 e-mail: cpe_grad@ku.edu

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 259 Faculty, Ph.D. Institute, Research Areas Jennifer L. Anthony, University of Notre Dame advanced materials, nanoporous molecular sieves, environmental separations, ionic liquids, solvent properties Vikas Berry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University bionanotechnology, nanoelectronics, sensors James H. Edgar, University of Florida crystal growth, semiconductor processing and materi als characterization Larry E. Erickson, Kansas State University environmental engineering, biochemical engineering, biological waste treatment process design and synthesis L.T. Fan, West Virginia University process systems engineering including process synthesis and cont rol, chemical reaction engineering, particle technology Larry A. Glasgow, University of Missouri transport phenomena, bubbles, nd reaction engineering, niversity of Texas polymers in membrane separations and surface science droplets and particles in turbulent flows, coagulation and flocculation Keith L Hohn, University of Minnesota catalysis a natural gas conversion, and nanoparticle catalysts Peter Pfromm, U Mary E. Rezac (head), University of Texas polymer science, membrane separation processes John R. Schlup, California Institute of Technology biobased industrial products, applied spectroscopy, thermal analysis, intelligent processing of materials Walter Walawender, Syracuse University activated carbon, biomass energy, fl uid particle systems, pyrolysis, reaction modeling and engineering Krista S. Walton, Vanderbilt University nanoporous materials, molecular modeling, adsorption separation and purification, metal-organic frameworks

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Chemical Engineering Education 260 University of Kentucky Department of Chemic al & Materials Engineering Chemical Engineering Faculty Tate Tsang, Chair University of Texas K. Anderson Carnegie-Mellon University D. Bhattacharyya Illinois Institute of Technology T. Dziubla Drexel University E. Grulke Ohio State University Z. Hilt University of Texas D. Kalika University of California, Berkeley R. Kermode Northwestern University B. Knutson Georgia Institute of Technology S. Rankin University of Minnesota A. Ray Clarkson University J. Seay Auburn University D. Silverstein Vanderbilt University J. Smart University of Texas Materials Engineering Faculty J. Balk The Johns Hopkins University Y.T. Cheng California Institute of Technology R. Eitel The Pennsylvania State University B. Hinds Northwestern University F. Yang University of Rochester T. Zh a i Un iversity of Oxf o r d Environmental Engineering Biopharmaceutical & Biocellular Engineering Materials Synthesis Advanced Separation & Supercritical Fluids Processing Membranes & Polymers Interfacial Engineering Aerosols Nanomaterials Fuel Cells & Biofuels For more information: Web: http://www.engr.uky.edu/cme Address: Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering Director of Graduate Studies, Chemical Engineering 177 F. Paul Anderson Tower University of Kentucky Lexington, KY 40506-0046 Phone: (859) 257 8028 Fax: (859) 323 1929

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 261 OUR FACULTY An application and additional information may be obtained by writing to: Dr. James T. Hsu, Chair Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering, Lehigh University 111 Research Drive, Iacocca Hall Bethlehem, PA 18015 Fax: (610) 758 5057 Email: inchegs@lehigh.edu Web: www.che.lehigh.edu Synergistic, interdisciplinary research in Biochemical Engineering Catalytic Science & Reaction Engineering Environmental Engineering Interfacial Transport Materials Synthesis Characterization & Processing Microelectronics Processing Polymer Science & Engineering Process Modeling & Control Two-Phase Flow & Heat Transfer Leading to M.S., M.E., and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engineering Philip A. Blythe fluid mechanics heat transfer applied mathematics Hugo S. Caram high temperature processes and materials environmental processes reaction engineering Manoj K. Chaudhury adhesion thin films surface chemistry Mohamed S. El Aasser polymer colloids and films emulsion copolymerization polymer synthesis and characterization Alice P. Gast complex fluids colloids proteins interfaces James F. Gilchrist particle self organization mixing microfluidics James T. Hsu bioseparation applied recombinant DNA technology Anand Jagota biomimetics mechanics adhesion biomolecule materials interactions Andrew Klein emulsion polymerization colloidal and surface effects in polymerization Mayuresh V. Kothare model predictive control constrained control microchemical systems Ian J. Laurenzi chemical kinetics in small systems biochemical informatics aggregation phenomena William L. Luyben process design and control distillation Anthony J. McHugh polymer rheology and rheo optics polymer processing and modeling membrane formation drug delivery Arup K. Sengupta use of adsorbents ion exchange reactive polymers membranes in environmental pollution Cesar A. Silebi separation of colloidal particles electrophoresis mass transfer Shivaji Sircar adsorption gas and liquid separation Mark A. Snyder inorganic nanoparticles and porous thin films membrane separations multiscale modeling Kemal Tuzla heat transfer two phase flows fluidization Israel E. Wachs materials characterization surface chemistry heterogeneous catalysis environmental catalysis

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Chemical Engineering Education 262

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 263 For information about the graduate program write to the . Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 call 207 581-2277 e-mail gradinfo@umche.maine.edu or The department has a long history of interactions with industry. Research proj ects often come from actual industrial situations. Various research programs, such as the Paper Surface Science Program, have industrial advisory boards that give students key contacts with industry. We have formed an alliance with the Institute of Molecular Biophysics (IMB) that brings to us partnerships with The Jackson Laboratory (TJL) and Maine Medical Center Research Institute sors, and molecular biophysics give students opportunities to do research at the interface between engineering and the biological sciences. DOUGLAS BOUSFIELD PhD (UC Berkeley) Fluid mechanics, printing, coating processes, micro-scale modeling ALBERT CO PhD (Wisconsin) merical methods WILLIAM DESISTO PhD (Brown) chem./bio sensors DARRELL DONAHUE PhD (North Carolina State) Biosensors in food and medical applications, risk assessment modeling, statistical process control JOSEPH GENCO PhD (Ohio State) JOHN HWALEK PhD (Illinois) Process information systems, heat transfer MICHAEL MASON PhD (UC Santa Barbara) Laser scanning confocal microscopy, time-resolved imaging of molecular nanoprobes for biological systems PAUL MILLARD PhD (Maryland) technology DAVID NEIVANDT PhD (Melbourne) Conformation of interfacial species, surface spectroscopies/mi croscopies HEMANT PENDSE PhD (Syracuse) Chair Sensor development, colloid systems, particulate and multiphase processes DOUGLAS RUTHVEN PhD ScD (Cambridge) Fundamentals of adsorption and processes ADRIAAN VAN HEININGEN PhD (McGill) Pulp and paper manufacture and production of biomaterials and biofuels M. CLAYTON WHEELER PhD (Texas-Austin) Chemical sensors, fundamental catalysis, surface science University of Maine The University The campus is situated near the Penobscot and Stillwater Rivers in the town of Orono, Maine. The campus is large enough to offer various activities and events and yet is small enough to allow for one-on-one learning with faculty. The University of Maine is known for its hockey team, but also has a number of other sports activities. Not far from campus is the Maine Coast and Acadia National Park. North and west are alpine and cross-country ski resorts, Baxter State Park, and the Allagash Water Wilderness area. Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering

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Chemical Engineering Education 264 MANHATTAN COLLEGE Manhattan College is located in Riverdale, an attractive area in the northwest section of New York City. This well-established graduate program emphasizes the application of basic principles to the solution of modern engineering problems, with new features in engineering management, sustainable and alternative energy, safety, and biochemical engineering. Financial aid is available, including industrial fellowships in a one-year program sponsored by the following companies: Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. ConocoPhillips Consolidated Edison Co. Kraft Foods Merck & Co., Inc. Panolam Industries For information and application form, write to Graduate Program Director Chemical Engineering Department Manhattan College Riverdale, NY 10471 chmldept@manhattan.edu Offering a Practice-Oriented Masters Degree Program in Chemical Engineering http://www.engineering.manhattan.edu

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 265 Located in a vibrant international community just outside of Washington, D.C. and close to major national laboratories including the NIH, the FDA, the Army Research Laboratory, and NIST, the University of Marylands Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, part of the A. James Clark School of Engineering, oers educational opportunities leading to a Doctor of Philosophy or Master of Science degree in Chemical Engineering. To learn more, e-mail chbegrad@umd.edu, call (301) 405-1935, or visit:

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Chemical Engineering Education 266 University of Massachusetts Amherst Surita R. Bhatia ( ) W. Curtis Conner, Jr. ( ) Jeffrey M. Davis ( ) James M. Douglas, Emeritus ( ) Neil S. Forbes ( ) David M. Ford ( ) Michael A. Henson ( ) George W. Huber ( ) Robert L. Laurence, Emeritus ( ) Michael F. Malone ( ) Dimitrios Maroudas ( ) Peter A. Monson ( ) Head ( ) Susan C. Roberts ( ) Lianhong Sun ( ) Phillip R. Westmoreland ( ) H. Henning Winter ( ) F ACULTY : Current areas of M.S. and Ph.D. research in the Department of Chemical Engineering receive support at a level of over $3 million per year through external research grants. Graduate students can expect to participate in projects falling into, but not limited to the following areas of faculty research. Systems Design & Control: including the design, synthesis, and control of separation and reaction-separation system s; nonlinear modeling and control of biochemical reactors; design and operat ion strategies for manufacturing pharmaceutical emulsions; nonlinear process control theory and more... Materials Science and Engineering: a broad area including the design and rials; catalytic microwave engineering; improvement of inorganic-organic func film and nanostructured materials for mi croelectronics; colloids and biomaterials; rheology and phase behavior of associative polymer solutions; biomass conversion; polymeric mate rials processing and more... Molecular, Cellular, and Metabolic Bioengineering: focused on plant metabolic engineering for production of medicinals via plant cell cultures; design and ems; targeted bacteriolytic therapy; systems biology; genetic circuit design to control biological systems and more... Molecular and Multi-scale Modeling & Simulation: another broad research field including computational quantum c molecular modeling in nanotechnology; molecular level behavior of fluids confined in porous materials; molecular-to-reactor scale modeling of transport reaction processes in nano-structured materials synthesis; modeling microscale fluid mechanics and transport phenomena; hydrodynamic stability and pattern formation; interfacial flows; and many other available opportunities. E XPERIENCE OUR PROGRAM IN C HEMICAL E NGINEERING For application forms and further information on fellowships and assistantships, academic and research programs, and student housing, see: http://www.ecs.umass.edu/che Graduate Program Director Department of Chemical Engineering 159 Goessmann Lab., 686 N. Pleasant St. University of Massachusetts Amherst MA 01003-9303 The University of Massachusetts Amherst prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, creed, sex, sexual orie ntation, age, marital status, national origin, disability or handicap, or veteran status, in any aspect of the admission or treatment of students or in emplo yment. Instructional, research, and administrative facilities are housed in close proximity to each other. In addition to space in Goessmann Lab., including the ChE Alumni Classroom used for teaching and research seminars, we have laboratories in the Conte National Center for Polymer Research. In 2004 we dedicated the new $25-million facilities of Engineering Lab II (ELab II), which includes 57,000-sq.ft of state-of-the-art laboratory faci lities and office space. Amherst is a beautiful New England college town in Western Massachusetts. Set amid farmland and rolling hills, the area offers pleasant living conditions and extensive recreational facilities, and urban pleasures are easily accessible.

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 267 MIT Chemical Engineering at With the largest research faculty in the country, the Department of Chemical Engineering at MIT offers programs of research and teaching which span the breadth of chemical engineering with unprecedented depth in fundamentals and applications. The Depart ment offers graduate programs leading to the masters and doctors degrees. Graduate students may also earn a professional masters degree through the David H. Koch School of Chemical Engineering Practice and solving industrial problems by applying chemical engineering fundamentals. In collaboration with the Sloan School of Management, the Department also offers a doctoral program in Chemical Engineering Practice, which integrates chemical engineering, research, and management. Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Biotechnology Catalysis and Chemical Kinetics Colloid Science and Separations Energy Engineering Environmental Engineering Polymers Process Systems Engineering Thermodynamics, Statistical Mechanics, and Molecular Simulation Transport ProcessesResearch in . MIT is located in Cambridge, just across the Charles River from Boston, a few minutes by subway from downtown Boston and Harvard Square. The area is world-renowned for its colleges, hospitals, research facilities, and high technology indus tries, and offers an unending variety of theaters, concerts, restaurants, museums, bookstores, sporting events, libraries, and recreational facilities. For more information, contact Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 Phone (617) 253-4579 ; FAX (617) 253-9695 ; E-Mail chemegrad@mit.edu URL http://web.mit.edu/cheme/index.html R.C. Armstrong P.I. Barton D. Blankschtein A. Chakraborty R.E. Cohen C.K. Colton C.L. Cooney W.M. Deen P.S. Doyle K.K. Gleason W.H. Green P.T. Hammond T.A. Hatton K.F. Jensen, Head R.S. Langer D.A. Lauffenburger J.C. Love N. Maheshri G.J. McRae K.J. Prather G.C. Rutledge H.H. Sawin K.A. Smith Ge. Stephanopoulos Gr. Stephanopoulos M.S. Strano J.W. Tester B.L. Trout P.S. Virk D.I.C. Wang K.D. Wittrup

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Chemical Engineering Education 268 McGill Chemical Engineering D. BERK Department Chair (Calgary) Biological and chemical treatment of wastes, crystallization of fine powders, reaction engineering [dimitrios.berk@mcgill.ca] D. G. COOPER (Toronto) Prod. of bacteriophages & bi opharmaceuticals, self-cycling ferment., bioconversion of xenobiotics [david.cooper@mcgill.ca] S. COULOMBE Canada Research Chair (McGill) Plasma processing, nanofluids, transport phenomena, optical diagnostic and process control [sylvain.coulombe@mcgill.ca] J. M. DEALY Emeritus Professor (Michigan) Polymer rheology, plastics processing [john.dealy@mcgill.ca] R. J. HILL Canada Research Chair (Cornell) Fuzzy colloids, biomimetic interfaces, hydrogels, and nanocomposite membranes [reghan.hill@mcgill.ca] E. A. V. JONES, (CalTech) Biofluid dynamics, biomechanics, tissue engineering, developmental biology & microscopy [liz.jones@mcgill.ca] M. R. KAMAL Emeritus Professor (Carnegie-Mellon) Polymer proc., charac., and recy cling [musa.kamal@mcgill.ca] R. LEASK William Dawson Scholar (Toronto) Biomedical engineering, fl uid dynamics, cardiovascular mechanics, pathobiology [richard.leask@mcgill.ca] C. A. LECLERC (Minnesota) Biorefineries, hydrogen generation, fuel processing, ethylene prod., catalysis, reaction engine ering [corey.leclerc@mcgill.ca] M. MARIC (Minnesota) Block copolymersfor nano-porous media, organic electronics, controlled release; green plasticisers [milan.maric@mcgill.ca] J.L. MEUNIER (INRS-Energie, Varennes) Plasma science & technology, de position techniques for surface modifications, nanomaterials [jean-luc.meunier@mcgill.ca] R. J. MUNZ (McGill) Thermal plasma tech, torch and reactor design, nanostructured material synthesis, environmental apps [richard.munz@mcgill.ca] S. OMANOVIC (Zagreb) Biomaterials, protein/material interactions, bio/immunosensors, (bio)electrochemistry [sasha.omanovic@mcgill.ca] T. M. QUINN (MIT) Soft tissue biophysics, mechanobiology, biomedical engineering, adherent cell culture technologies [thomas.quinn@mcgill.ca] A. D. REY James McGill Professor (California-Berkeley) Computational material sci., thermodynamics of soft matter and complex fluids, interfacial sci. and eng. [alejandro.rey@mcgill.ca] P. SERVIO Canada Research Chair (British Columbia) High-pressure phase equilibrium, crystallization, polymer coatings [phillip.servio@mcgill.ca] N. TUFENKJI Canada Research Chair (Yale) Environmental and biomedical eng., bioadhesion and biosensors, bioand nanotechnologies [nathalie.tufenkji@mcgill.ca] V. YARGEAU (Sherbrooke) Environmental control of pharmaceuticals, biodegradation of contaminants in wate r, biohydrogen [vivia ne.yargeau@mcgill.ca] For more information and graduate program applications: Visit : www.mcgill.ca/chemeng/ Write : Department of Chemical Engineering McGill University 3610 University St Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 CANADA Phone : (514) 398-4494 Fax : (514) 398-6678 E -mai l : in q uire.che g rad @ mc g ill.ca D owntown Montreal Canada McGills Ar t s Buildin g Montreal is a multilingual metropolis with a population over three million. Often called the world's second-largest Frenchspeaking city, Montreal also boasts an English-speaking population of over 400,000. McGill itself is an English-language university, though it offers you countless opportunities to explore the French language. The department offers M. Eng. and PhD degrees with funding available and top-ups for th ose who already have funding. D. BERK Department Chair (Calgary) powders, reaction engineering [dimitrios.berk@mcgill.ca] D. G. COOPER (Toronto) Prod. of bacteriophages & biopharmaceuticals, self-cycling ferment., bioconversion of xenobiotics [david.cooper@mcgill.ca] S. COULOMBE Canada Research Chair (McGill) diagnostic and process control [sylvain.coulombe@mcgill.ca] J. M. DEALY, Emeritus Professor (Michigan) Polymer rheology, plastics processing [john.dealy@mcgill.ca] R. J. HILL Canada Research Chair (Cornell) Fuzzy colloids, biomimetic interfaces, hydrogels, and nanocomposite membranes [reghan.hill@mcgill.ca] E. A. V. JONES (CalTech) developmental biology & microscopy [liz.jones@mcgill.ca] M. R. KAMAL Emeritus Professor (Carnegie-Mellon) Polymer proc., charac., and recycling [musa.kamal@mcgill.ca] R. LEASK William Dawson Scholar (Toronto) mechanics, pathobiology [richard.leask@mcgill.ca] M. MARIC (Minnesota) Block copolymersfor nano-porous media, organic electronics, controlled release; green plasticisers [milan.maric@mcgill.ca] J.L. MEUNIER (INRS-Energie, Varennes) Plasma science & technology, deposition techniques for surface R. J. MUNZ (McGill) Thermal plasma tech, torch and reactor design, nanostructured material synthesis, environmental apps [richard.munz@mcgill.ca] S. OMANOVIC (Zagreb) Biomaterials, protein/material interactions, bio/immunosensors, (bio)electrochemistry [sasha.omanovic@mcgill.ca] T. M. QUINN (MIT) Soft tissue biophysics, mechanobiology, biomedical engineering, adherent cell culture technologies [thomas.quinn@mcgill.ca] A. D. REY James McGill Professor (California-Berkeley) Computational material sci., thermodynamics of soft matter and P. SERVIO Canada Research Chair (British Columbia) High-pressure phase equilibrium, crystallization, polymer coatings [phillip.servio@mcgill.ca] N. TUFENKJI Canada Research Chair (Yale) Environmental and biomedical eng., bioadhesion and biosensors, bioand nanotechnologies [nathalie.tufenkji@mcgill.ca] V. YARGEAU (Sherbrooke) Environmental control of pharmaceuticals, biodegradation of contaminants in water, biohydrogen [viviane.yargeau@mcgill.ca]

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 269 W h y c h o o s e M c M a s t e r ? Hamilton is a city of over 500,000 situat ed in Southern Ontario. We are located about 100 km from both Niagara Falls and Toronto. McMaster University of our research effort is the extent of the interaction between faculty members Faculty are engaged in leading edge research and we have concentrated Centre for Advanced Polymer Processing & Design (CAPPA-D) McMaster Institute of Polymer Production Technology (MIPPT) McMaster Advanced Control Consortium (MACC) Graduate Secretary McMaster University CANADA F O O N L I N A P P L I C A T I O N F O M S A N D I N F O M A T I O N P L A S C O N T A C T Tissue engineering, biomedical engi neering, blood-material interactions J L B r a s h K J o n e s H S h e a r d o w n nmental engineering, C F i l i p e T H o a r e R G h o s h Fabrication, characterizati J D i c k s o n C F i l i p e R G h o s h Interfacial engineering T H o a r e R H P e l t o n S Z h u K K o s t a n s k i ( A d j u n c t ) A N H r y m a k M T h o m p s o n J V l a c h o p o u l o s S Z h u B C h a c h u a t J F M a c G r e g o r V M a h a l e c T E M a r l i n P M h a s k a r C L E S w a r t z o does not already have extern

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Chemical Engineering Education 270 Ch e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n F ac u l t y M ai n A r e as of R e s e ar c h L i f e S c i e n c e s B i ot e c h n ol ogy M a rk A B urns C ha i r M i cr o f a b r i ca t ed Ch e m i ca l A n a l ys i s O m o l o l a E ni o l a A def es o Cel l A d h es i o n a n d M i g r a t i o n Erdo g a n Gul a ri D N A a n d P ep t i d e S yn t h es i s J i ns a ng Ki m S m a r t F u n ct i o n a l P o l y m er s J o erg La ha n n S u r f a ce E n g i n eer i n g X i a o x i a Li n S ys t e m s a n d S yn t h et i c B i o l o g y J enni f er J Li nd er m a n R ec ep t o r D yn a m i cs M i c ha el M a y er B i o m e m b r a n es Hen ry Y Wa ng B i o p r o ces s E n g i n eer i n g P e ter J Wo o l f B i o m a t h e m a t i cs E n e r gy an d E n vi r on m e n t H. Sco tt F o g l e r F l o w a n d R ea ct i o n s Erdo g a n Gul a ri R ea ct i o n s a t In t er f a ces Sul jo Li ni c Ca t a l ys i s S u r f a ce Ch e m i s t r y, F u el C el l s C ha rl es W M o nro e E l ect r o ch e m i s t r y P hi l l i p E. Sa v a g e S u s t a i n a b l e P r o d u ct i o n o f E n er g y a n d Ch e m i ca l P r o d u ct s J o ha nn es W. Sc h w a n k Ca t a l ys t s F u el C el l s a n d F u el Co n v er s i o n Lev i T. T ho m ps o n Ca t a l ys t s F u el Cel l s M i cr o r ea ct o r Wa l ter J Web er J r E n vi r o n m en t a l P r o c es s D yn a m i cs a n d S ys t e m S u s t a i n a b i l i t y R a l p h T. Y a ng A d s o r p t i o n R ea ct i o n s H yd r o g en S t o r a g e C om p l e x F l u i d s an d N an os t r u c t u r e d M at e r i al s Sha ro n C Gl o tze r Co m p u t a t i o n a l Na n o s ci en ce a n d S o f t M a t er i a l s N i c ho l a s Ko to v Na n o m a t er i a l s R o na l d G. La rs o n Th eo r et i ca l Co m p u t a t i o n a l a n d E xp er i m en t a l Co m p l ex F l u i d s M i c ha el J So l o m o n E xp er i m en t a l Co m p l e x F l u i d s R o b ert M Zi ff Th eo r et i ca l a n d Co m p u t a t i o n a l Co m p l ex F l u i d s a n d Tr a n s p o r t F or m or e i n f or m at i on c on t ac t : D e p a r t m e n t o f C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n A n n A r b o r M I 4 8 1 0 9 2 1 3 6 7 3 4 7 6 3 1 1 4 8 c h e m e n g g r a d @ u m i c h e d u w w w e n g i n u m i c h e d u / d e p t / c h e m e

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 271 G r e a t Lak e s B i o e n e r g y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r e r m o ele c t r i c s P h o t o e l e c t r i c s F u el c e ll s H y d r o g e n s t o r a g e B i o r e n e w a b l e p o l y m e r s a n d c h e m i c a l s B i o f u e l s B i o c a t a l y s i s M e t a b o l i c en g i nee r i n g S y s t e m s b i o l o g y G e n o m i c s P r o t e o m i c s R N A i n t e r f e r en c e B i o c e r a m i c s T i ss u e en g i nee r i n g B i o s e n s o r s B i o e l e c t r o n i c s B i o m i m e t i c s G r e a t Lak e s B i o e n e r g y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r e r m o ele c t r i c s P h o t o e l e c t r i c s F u el c e ll s H y d r o g e n s t o r a g e B i o r e n e w a b l e p o l y m e r s a n d c h e m i c a l s B i o f u e l s B i o c a t a l y s i s E n e r g y & S u stai n a b i lit y C o m p o s i t e M a t e r i a l s & S t r u c t u r e s C e n t e r S m a r t m a t e r i a l s S t r u c t u r e d c h e m i c a l s N a n o p o r o u s m a t e ri a l s G r a i n b o u n d a r y en g i nee r i n g N a no m a t e r i a l s & T ec h no l o g y B i o t ec h n o l o g y & M e d i c i ne Chemical Engineering and Materials Science 2527 Engineering Building East Lansing, MI 48824 517-355-5135 fax 517-432-1105 grad_rec@egr.msu.edu www.chems.msu.ed u Chem i ca l Eng i neer i ng Kris Berglund D a ina Briedis Scott Calabrese Barton C h risiti n a C h an Bruce Dale La w r ence Drzal M a rt i n H a w l e y David Hodge Krishna m u rthy Jayara m a n Ilsoon Lee C a rl Lira D e nnis M iller Ramani Narayan Robert Ofoli Charles Petty S. Patrick W a lton R. M a rk W o rde n M a terials Science & Engineerin g Melissa Baumann Tho m a s B iel e r Carl Boehlert Eldon Case M a rtin C r i m p David Grummon Tim Hogan Andre Lee Ja m es Lucas D o n a l d M o r elli Jeffrey Saka m ot o K.N. Subra m anian

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Chemical Engineering Education 272 Northrup Auditorium Downtown Minneapolis as seen from campus Leadership and Innovation in Chemical Engineering and Materials Science The Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities has been renowned education for the past half-century. Our department has produced numerous legendary engineering scholars and current leaders in both academia and industry. With its pacesetting research and education program in chemical engineering encompassing reaca far-reaching marriage of the Chemical Engineering and Materials Science programs into an integrated department. For the past few decades, the chemical engineering program has been consistently ranked as the top graduate program in the country by the National Research Council and other ranking surveys. The department has been thriving on its ability to foster interdisciplinary efforts in research and education; most, if not all of our active faculty members are engaged in intraor interdepartmental research projects. The extensive collaboration among faculty members in research and education and the high level of co-advising of graduate students and research fellows serves to cross-fertilize new ideas and stimulate innovation. Our education and training are known not also for their breadth and global perspectives. The widely ranging collection of high-impact research projects in these world-renowned laboratories provides students with a unique experience, preparing them for careers that are both exciting and rewarding. Research Areas Biotechnology and Bioengineering Ceramics and Metals Coating Processes and Interfacial Engineering Crystal Growth and Design Electronic, Photonic and Magnetic Materials Energy Fluid Mechanics Polymers Reaction Engineering and Chemical Process Synthesis Theory and Computation Faculty : Eray Aydil Frank S. Bates Aditya Bhan Matteo Cococcioni Edward L. Cussler Prodromos Daoutidis H. Ted Davis Jeffrey J. Derby Kevin Dorfman Lorraine F. Francis C. Daniel Frisbie William W. Gerberich Russell J. Holmes Wei-Shou Hu Yiannis Kaznessis Efrosini Kokkoli Satish Kumar Chris Leighton Timothy P. Lodge Christopher W. Macosko Alon V. McCormick K. Andre Mkhoyan David C. Morse David J. Norris Lanny D. Schmidt David A. Shores For more information contact: Julie Prince, Program Associate 612-625-0382 prince@cems.umn.edu URL: http://www.cems.umn.edu William H. Smyrl Friedrich Srienc Robert T. Tranquillo Michael Tsapatsis Renata Wentzcovitch Downtown Saint Paul

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 273 Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering TheDaveC.SwalmSchoolofChemicalEngineering boastsanenergeticfacultyinvolvedinarobust R. Mark Bricka, Associate Professor Alternative Fuels, Gasification, Pyrolysis, Environmental Remediation, Electrokinetics, researchprogramatthe f ore f ronto f bioprocessing, sustainableenergyresearch,andothercutting-edge technologies.Theseprogramsaresupportedbyfunds obtainedfromtheDepartmentofEnergy,National ScienceFoundation,EnvironmentalProtectionAgency, andothernationalfundingagencies. TheschooloffersbothM.S.andPh.D.degreesin Chemical Extraction, Stabilization/Solidification, Waste Treatment, Heavy Metal Soils Bill B. Elmore, Associate Director and Henry Chair Renewable Fuels, Bioremediation, MicroreactorTechnologies W. Todd French, Assistant Professor Biofuels(Bioethanoland Single-Cell Oil), MicrobiallyEnhanced Oil Recovery Rafael Hernandez, Assistant Profe Integrated Remediation Technologies, Chemical/P hysical Treatment Processes, Environmental Cli Bifl dC d The school offers both M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . For more information, contact The Dave C. SwalmSchool of Chemical Engineering Mississippi State University P.O. Box 9595 C ata l ys i s, Bi o f ue l san d C o-pro d ucts Priscilla J. Hill, Associate Professor Crystallization, Process Design, Solids Processin g Adrienne R. Minerick, Assistant Professor ElectrokineticSeparations of Biofluids, Medical Diagnostic MicrodeviceDevelopment, NanoparticleSynthesis and Characterization Rudy E. Rogers, Professor GasHydrates:NaturalGasStorage,Transportation,MicrobialCatalysisinOceanSediments, 9595 Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 Phone: (662) 325-2480 Fax: (662) 325-2482 Email: gradstudies@che.msstate.edu www.che.msstate.edu . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas Hydrates: Natural Gas Storage, Transportation, Microbial Catalysis in Ocean Sediments, CO 2 Sequestering, Gas Separations Kirk H. Schulz, Professor and Vice President for Research and Economic Development Surface Science, Catalysis, Electronic Materials Hossein Toghiani, Associate Professor Composite Materials, Catalysis, Fuel Cells, Thermodynamics of Liquid Mixtures RebeccaK.Toghiani,AssociateProfess .......................... For a graduate application, contact The Office of Graduate Studies Phone (662) 325-7400 www.msstate.edu/dept/grad/application.htm Rebecca K. Toghiani, Associate Profess Thermodynamics, Separations Keisha B. Walters, Assistant Professor Polymer, Biopolymer and Surface Engin eering, Stimuli-Responsive Polymers, MicrosensorTechnologies Mark G. White, Director and Deavenport Chair Heterogeneous Catalysis, Homogeneous Cata lysis, Reaction Kinetics, Surface Chemistry

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Chemical Engineering Education 274 UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI COLUMBIA Paul C. H. Chan, PhD (CalTech) Reactor Analysis Fluid Mechanics William A. Jacoby, PhD (Colorado ) Photocatalysis Transpor t Stephen J. Lombardo, PhD Ceramic & Electronic Materials Transport Kinetics Richard H. Luecke, PhD Process Control Modeling Thomas R. Marrero, PhD (Maryland) Past-Vice President, IACChE Coal Log Transport Conducting Polymers Fuels Emission s Patrick Pinhero, PhD (Notre Dame) Nuclear Materials Science Surface Science Environmental Degradation David G. Retzloff, PhD (Pittsburgh) Reactor Analysis Materials Truman S. Storvick, PhD (Purdue) Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Thermodynamics Galen J. Suppes, PhD Renewable Energy Thermodynamic s Dabir S. Viswanath, PhD (Rochester) Applied Thermodynamics Chemical Kinetics Hirotsugu K. Yasuda, PhD (SUNY, Syracuse) Polymers Surface Science Qingsong Yu, PhD (Mizzou) Surface Science Plasma Technology The University of Missouri Columbia is one of th e most comprehensive institutions in the nation and is situated on a beautiful land grant campus halfway between St. Louis and Kansas City, near the Ozark Mountains and less than an hour fr om the recreational Lake of the Ozarks. The Department of Chemical Engineering offers MS and PhD programs in addition to its undergraduate BS degree. Program areas includ e surface science, nuclear waste, wastewater treatment, biodegradation, air po llution, supercritical processes, plasma polymerization, polymer processing, coal transportation (hydraulic), fu els (alternative, biodiese l), chemical kinetics, protein crystallization, photocatalysis, ceramic materials, and polymer composites. Faculty expertise encompasses a wide variety of specializ ations and research within the department is funded by industry, government, non-profit, and institutional grants in many research areas. For details contact: Coordinator, Academic Programs Department of Chemical Engineering W2030 Lafferre Hall Columbia, MO 65211 Tel: (573) 882-3563 Fax: (573) 884-4940 E-Mail: PreckshotR@missouri.edu See our website for more information: che.missouri.edu Scholarships are available in the form of teaching/research assistantships and fellowships.

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 275 One of the four campuses in the University of Missouri System, Missouri S&T was founded in 1870 as the University of Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy and was the rst technological institution west of the Mississippi. It became the University of Missouri-Rolla in 1964 and was renamed Missouri University of Science and Technology in 2008. Today, Missouri S&T remains one of the nations best technological universities. To fulll its mission of integrating exceptional education and research to solve problems for our state and the technological world, Missouri S&T offers a comprehensive experience that turns young men and women into leaders. The universitys distinguished faculty are dedicated to the teaching, research and creative activities that are key to a well-rounded education. Home to around 6,000 students, Missouri S&T is located in Rolla, Mo., in the heart of the Missouri Ozarks, and is centrally located 100 miles from St. Louis and Springeld. Teaching and research apprenticeships are available to M.S. and Ph.D. students. Faculty and Research Interests Neil L. Book Associate Professor, Ph.D., Colorado Computer-Aided Process Design Chemical Process Safety Engineering Data Management Daniel Forciniti Professor, Ph.D., North Carolina State Bioseparations Thermodynamics Statistical Mechanics David B. Henthorn Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Purdue Biomimetics Drug Delivery Biomaterials Kimberly H. Henthorn Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Purdue Entrainment and Conveying of Fine Particles Multiphase Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Characterization of Interparticle Forces Particles for Pulmonary Drug Delivery Applications Sunggyu KB Lee Professor, Ph.D., Case Western Supercritical Fluid Technology, Materials Processing, and Polymerization Reactive Polymer Processing Biodegradable Polymers Polymer Blends Scale-up and Pilot Plants Studies Environmental Technology A.I. Liapis Professor, Ph.D., ETH-Zurich Transport Phenomena Adsorption/Desorption Fundamentals and Processes Bioseparations Chromatographic Separations Capillary Electrochromatography Chemical Reaction Engineering Lyophilization Douglas K. Ludlow Professor and Acting Chair, Ph.D., Arizona State Surface Characterization of Adsorbents and Catalysts Applications of Fractal Geometry to Surface Morphology Parthasakha Neogi Professor, Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon Interfacial Phenomena Drug Delivery Oliver C. Sitton Associate Professor, Ph.D., Missouri S&T Bioengineering Jee-Ching Wang Associate Professor, Ph.D., Penn State Molecular Simulations of Transport in Conned Systems Molecular Simulations of Surfactant Systems Molecular Properties of Materials David J. Westenberg Associate Professor, Ph.D., University of California-Los Angeles Respiratory Enzymes Quorum Sensing Respiratory Genes Antibacterial Glass Yangchuan Xing Associate Professor, Ph.D., Yale Synthesis, Processing, and Characterization of Nanomaterials Joint Appointment Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies M ISSOURI U NIVERSITY OF S CIENCE AND T ECHNOLOGY M ISSOURI U NIVERSITY OF S CIENCE AND T ECHNOLOGY Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies 143 Schrenk Hall, 400 W. 11th St. Rolla, MO 65409-1230 chemeng.mst.edu

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Chemical Engineering Education 276 PLACE NEBRASKA COLOR AD HERE OK T O LOSE PAGE NUMBERS/FOLIO

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 277 The ProgramThe department offers graduate programs leading to both the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees. Exciting opportunities exist for interdisciplinary research. Faculty conduct research in a number of areas including: Polymer science/ engineering Membrane technology Hazardous waste treatment Particle technology Pharmaceutical engineering Nanotechnology The Faculty: P. Armenante: University of Virginia B. Baltzis: University of Minnesota R. Barat: Massachusetts Institute of Technology R. Dave: Utah State University E. Dreizin: Odessa University, Ukraine C. Gogos: Princeton University T Greenstein: New York University D. Hanesian: Cornell University K. Hyun: University of Missouri-Columbia B. Khusid: Heat and Mass Transfer Inst., Minsk USSR H. Kimmel: City University of New York D. Knox: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute N. Loney: New Jersey Institute of Technology N. Li: Stevens Institute of Technology A. Perna: University of Connecticut R. Pfeffer: (Emeritus) ; New York University L. Simon: Colorado State University K. Sirkar: University of Illinois-Urbana R. T omkins: University of London (UK) X. Wang: Virginia Tech M. Xanthos: University of Toronto (Canada) M. Y oung: Stevens Institute of Technology For further information contact: Dr. Reginald P.T. Tomkins, Department of Chemical, Biological & Pharmaceutical Engineering New Jersey Institute of Technology University Heights Newark, NJ 07102-1982 Phone: (973) 596-5656 Fax: (973) 596-8436 E-mail: tomkinsr@adm.njit.edu NJIT does not discriminate on the basis of gender, sexual orientation, race, handicap, veterans status, national or ethnic origin or age in the administration of student programs. Campus facilities are accessible to the disabled.Chemical, Biological & Pharmaceutical Engineering

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Chemical Engineering Education 278 T HE F ACES OF THE C HEMICAL E NGINEERS IN THE 21 ST C ENTURY The University of New Mexico We are the future of chemical engineering! Chemical engineers in the 21 st century are challenged with rapidly developing technologies and exciting new opportunities. Pursue y our graduate degree at UNM in a stimulating, student-centered, intellectual environment, brought together by forward-looking research. We offer full tuition, health care and competitive stipends. The ChE faculty are leaders in exploring phenomena on the meso-, micro-, and nanoscales. We offer graduate research projects in biotechnology, biomaterials and biomedical engineering, catalysis and interfacial phenomena; microengineered materials and self-assembled nanostructures; plasma processing and semiconductor fabrication; polymer theory and modeling. The department enjoys extensive in teractions and collaborations with New Mexico's federal laboratories: Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and the Air Force Research Laboratory, as well as high technology industries both locally and nationally. Albuquerque is a unique combination of old and new, the natural world and the manmade environmen t, the frontier town and the cosmopolitan city, a harmonious blend of diverse cultures and peoples. Faculty Research Areas Plamen Atanassov Electroanalytical Chemistry, Biomedical Engineering C. Jeffrey Brinker Ceramics, Sol-Gel Pr ocessing, Self-assembled Nanostructures Heather Canavan Stimulus-responsive materials, cell/surface interactions, Biomedical Engineering Joseph L. Cecchi Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, Plasma Etching and Deposition Eva Chi Protein interfacial dynamics, protein aggregation, protein misfolding diseases John G. Curro Polymer Theory, Computational Modeling Abhaya K. Datye Catalysis, Interfaces, Advanced Materials Elizabeth L. Dirk Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering Julia E. Fulghum Surface Characterization, 3-D Materials Characterization Sang M. Han Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, Plasma Etching and Deposition Ronald E. Loehman Glass-Metal and Cerami c-Metal Bonding and Interfacial Reactions Gabriel P. Lpez Chemical Sensors, Hybrid Materials, Biotechnology, Interfacial Phenomena Dimiter Petsev Complex fluids, Na noscience, Electrokinetic phenomena Timothy L. Ward Aerosol Materials Synthesis, Inorganic Membranes David G. Whitten Biosensors, Conjugated poly mer photophysics and bioactivity in films and interfacial assemblies, Multicomponent systems and their applications For more information, contact: Jeffrey Brinker, Graduate Advisor Chemical and Nuclear Engineering MSC01 1120 The University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM 87131 505 277.5431 Phone 505 277.5433 Fax chne@unm.edu www-chne.unm.edu

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 279 NEW MEXICO ST A TE UNIVERSITY PhD & MS Programs in Chemical EngineeringFaculty and Research Areas Paul K. Andersen Associate Professor, University of California, Berkeley Transport Phenomena, Electrochemistry, Environmental Engineerin g Francisco R. Del Valle College Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Food Engineering Shuguang Deng, Associate Professor, University of Cincinnati Adsorption, Nanostructured Materials, Fuel Cell Technology and Water Treatment Abbas Ghassemi, Professor and Institute for Energy and the Environment Director, New Mexico State University Process Control Charles L. Johnson, Professor, Washington University-St. Louis High Temperature Polymers Richard L. Long Professor and Associate Head Rice University Transport Phenomena, Biomedical Engineering, Separations, Kinetics Martha C. Mitchell Associate Professor and Head, University of Minnesota Molecular Modeling of Adsorption in Nanoporous Materials, Thermodynamic Analysis of Aerospace Fuels, Statistical Mechanics Stuart H. Munson-McGee Professor, University of Delaware Advanced Materials, Materials Processing David A. Rockstraw Professor, University of Oklahoma Kinetics and Reaction Engineering, Process Design LOCATION Southern New Mexico 350 days of sunshine a year For Application and Additional Information Internet http://chemeng.nmsu.edu/ Telephone (575) 646-1214 E-mail chemeng@nmsu.edu PO Box 30001, MSC 3805 Department of Chemical Engineering New Mexico State University Las Cruces, NM 88003

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Chemical Engineering Education 280

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 281

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Chemical Engineering Education 282 Chemical and Biological Engineering For information and application to the graduate program, please contact: Director of Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Northwestern University Technological Institute E136 2145 Sheridan Road Evanston, Illinois 60208-3120 Phone (847) 491-7398 or (800) 848-5135 (U.S. only) admissions-chem-biol-eng@northwestern.edu Or visit our website at www.chem-biol-eng.northwestern.edu Robert R. McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science Luis A. N. Amaral, Ph.D., Boston University, 1996 Complex systems, computational physics, biological networks Linda J. Broadbelt, Ph.D., Delaware, 1994 Reaction engineering, kinetics modeling, polymer resource recovery Wesley R. Burghardt, Ph.D., Stanford, 1990 Polymer science, rheology Kimberly A. Gray, Ph.D., Johns Hopkins, 1988 Catalysis, treatment technologies, environmental chemistry Bartosz A. Grzybowski, Ph.D., Harvard, 2000 Complex chemical systems Michael C. Jewett, Ph.D., Stanford, 2005 Synthetic biology, systems biology, metabolic engineering Harold H. Kung, Ph.D., Northwestern, 1974 Kinetics, heterogeneous catalysis Joshua N. Leonard, Ph.D., Berkeley, 2006 Cellular & biomolecular engineering for medicine, systems biology William M. Miller, Ph.D., Berkeley, 1987 Cell culture for biotechnology and medicine Justin M. Notestein, Ph.D., Berkeley, 2006 Materials design for adsorption and catalysis Monica Olvera de la Cruz, Ph.D., Cambridge, 1984 Statistical mechanics in polymer systems Julio M. Ottino, Ph.D., Minnesota, 1979 Fluid mechanics, granular materials, chaos, mixing in materials processing Gregory Ryskin, Ph.D., Caltech, 1983 Fluid mechanics, computational methods, polymeric liquids Lonnie D. Shea, Ph.D., Michigan, 1997 Tissue engineering, gene therapy Randall Q. Snurr, Ph.D., Berkeley, 1994 Adsorption and diffusion in porous media, molecular modeling John M. Torkelson, Ph.D., Minnesota, 1983 Polymer science, membranes

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 283 Graduate Studies in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The University of Notre Dame Faculty Paul W. Bohn J oan F. Brennecke H.-Chia Chang Davide A. Hill Jeffrey C. Kantor David T. Leighton, Jr. Mark J. McCready Paul J. McGinn Edward J. Maginn Alexander S. Mukasyan William F. Schneider Mark A. Stadtherr William C. Strieder Eduardo E. Wolf Y. Elaine Zhu For more information and application materials, contact us at Director of Graduate Recruiting Department of Chemical and Biomo lecular Engineering University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA On-Line Application www.nd.edu/~gradsch/applying/appintro.html http://www.nd.edu/~chegdept chegdept.1@nd.edu Phone: 1-800-528-9487 Fax: 1-574-631-8366 Research Areas Atomistic Simulation of Materials Catalyst Synthesis and Characterization Chemical Sensing CO2 Capture Combinatorial Materials Development Computational Heterogeneous Catalysis Density Functional Theory Ecological and Environmental Modeling Electrokinetics Fuel Cell TechnologiesThe University Notre Dame is an independent, national univer sity ranked among the top twenty schools in the country. It is located adjacent to the city of South Bend, Indiana, approximately 90 miles southeast of Chicago. The scenic 1,250-acre campus is home to over 10,000 students.The Department The Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering is developing the next generation of research leaders. Our program is characterized by the close interaction between faculty and students and a focus on cutting-edge, interdisciplinary research that is both academically interesting and industrially relevant.Programs and Financial Assistance The Department offers MS and PhD degree pro grams. Financially attractive fellowships and as sistantships, which include a full-tuition waiver, are available to students pursuing either degree. University of Notre Dame Genetic Diagnostics Heterogeneous Phase Change Simulation Ionic Liquids Multiphase Flow Dynamics Optoelectronic Materials Oscillatory Separations Process Systems Engineering Soft Lithography Suspension Mechanics

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Chemical Engineering Education 284 Excellent facilities and a unique combi nation of research projects at the frontiers of science and technology. Outstanding faculty and student population who are dedicated and professional. Close working relationships between graduate students and faculty. Attractive campus minutes away from downtown Columbus. For complete information, write, call, or catch us on the web at http://www.chbmeng.ohio-state.edu or write Graduate Program Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering The Ohio State University 140 West 19th Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43210-1180 Phone: (614) 292-9076 Fax: (614) 292-3769 E-mail address: che-grad@chbmeng.ohio-state.edu Bhavik R. Bakshi, MIT Industrial Ecology, Process Engineering, Analysis of Complex Systems Robert S. Brodkey, Wisconsin Experimental Measurements for Validation of Computational Fluid Mechanics and Applications to Mixing Process Applications Jeffrey J. Chalmers, Cornell Immunumagnetic Cell Separation, Effect of Hydrodynamic Forces on Cells, Inter facial Phenomena and Cells, Bioengineering, Biotechnology, Cancer Detection Stuart L. Cooper, Princeton Polymer Science and Engineering, Properties of Polyurethanes and Ionomers, Polyurethane Biomaterials, Blood-Material Interactions,Tissue Engineering Liang-Shih Fan, West Virginia Fluidization, Particle Technology, Particulates Reaction Engineering Martin Feinberg, Princeton Mathematics of Complex Chemical Systems Winston Ho, Illinois-Urbana Membrane Separations with Chemical Reaction and Fuel-Cell Fuel Processing Kurt W. Koelling, Princeton Isamu Kusaka, CalTech Statistical Mechanics and Nucleation L. James Lee, Minnesota Polymer and Composite Processing, Micro/Nano-Fabrication, BioMEMS Umit S. Ozkan, Iowa State Heterogeneous Catalysis, Kinetics, Catalytic Materials Andre F. Palmer, Johns Hopkins Michael Paulaitis, University of Illinois Molecular simulations and modeling of weak protein-protein interactions; the role of hydration in biological organization and self-assembly phenomena; multiscale modeling of biological interactions James F. Rathman, Oklahoma Colloids, Interfaces, Surfactants, Molecular Self-Assembly, Bioinformatics David L. Tomasko, Illinois-Urbana Separations, Molecular Thermodynamics and Materials Processing in Supercritical Fluids Jessica O. Winter, University of Texas at Austin Nanobiotechnology, Cell and Tissue Engineering, Neural Prosthetics Barbara E. Wyslouzil, CalTech Nucleation, Aerosol Formation, Growth and Transport, Atmospheric Aerosols, Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria Shang-Tian Yang, Purdue Biochemical Engineering, Biotechnology, and Tissue Engineering Jacques L. Zakin, New York Rheology, Drag Reduction, Surfactant Microstructures, and Heat Transfer Enhancement The Ohio State University

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 285 Faculty Members Miguel J. Bagajewicz Ph.D. California Institute of Technology, 1987 Brian P. Grady Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1994 Roger G. Harrison, Jr. Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1975 Jeffrey H. Harwell Ph.D. University of Texas, Austin, 1983 Friederike C. Jentoft Ph.D. Ludwig-MaximiliansUniversitt Mnchen, Germany, 1994 Bioengineering/Biomedical Engineering Genetic engineering, protein production, bioseparations, vascular tissue engineering, cell adhesion, biosensors, orthopedic tissue engineering. Energy and Chemicals Catalytic hydrocarbon processing, biofuels and catalytic biomass conversion, plasma processing, data reconciliation, process design retrot and optimization, molecular thermo-dynamics, computational modeling of turbulent transport and reactive ows, detergency, improved oil recovery. Materials Science and Engineering Singlewall carbon nanotube production and functionalization, surface characterization, polymer melt blowing, polymer characterization and structure-property relationships, polymer nanolayer formation and use, biomaterials. Environmental Processes Zero-discharge process engineering, soil and aquifer remediation, surfactant-based water decontamination, sustainable energy processes. Chairman, Graduate Program Committee, School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, University of Oklahoma, T-335 Sarkeys Energy Center, 100 E. Boyd St., Norman, OK 73019-1004 USA E-mail: chegrad@ou.edu, Phone: (405)-325-5811, (800) 601-9360, Fax:(405) 325-5813 Lance L. Lobban Ph.D. University of Houston, 1987 Richard G. Mallinson Ph.D. Purdue University, 1983 Peter S. McFetridge Ph.D. University of Bath, United Kingdom, 2002 M. Ulli Nollert Ph.D. Cornell University, 1987 Edgar A. ORear, III Ph.D. Rice University, 1981 Dimitrios V. Papavassiliou Ph.D. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1996 Research Areas For detailed information, visit our Web site at: http://www.cbme.ou.edu R esearch in the School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering (CBME) is characterized by INNOVATION AND IMPACT, leading to patents, technology licenses, spinoff companies and sought after graduates. The University of Oklahoma is an equal opportunity institution. Daniel E. Resasco Ph.D. Yale University, 1983 David W. Schmidtke Ph.D. University of Texas, Austin, 1980 Robert L. Shambaugh Ph.D. Case Western Reserve University, 1976 Vassilios I. Sikavitsas Ph.D. University of Buffalo, 2000 Alberto Striolo Ph.D. University of Padova, Italy, 2002 The University of For more information, e-mail, call, write or fax: Oklahoma

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Chemical Engineering Education 286 Oklahoma State UniversityWhere People Are Important Faculty Heather Fahlenkamp (Ph.D., Oklahoma State University) Gary L. Foutch (Ph.D., University of Missouri-Rolla) K.A.M. Gasem (Ph.D., Oklahoma State University) Karen A. High (Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University) Martin S. High (Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University) A.J. Johannes (Ph.D., University of Kentucky) Sundarajan V. Madihally (Ph.D., Wayne State University) Joshua D. Ramsey (Ph.D., University of Illinois) R. Russell Rhinehart (Ph.D., North Carolina State University) James E. Smay (Ph.D., University of Illinois) D. Alan Tree (Ph.D., University of Illinois) Jan Wagner (Ph.D., University of Kansas) James R. Whiteley (Ph.D., Ohio State University) Engineering offers programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. nationally competitive levels. For more information contact Dr. Khaled A.M. Gasem School of Chemical Engineering Oklahoma State University Stillwater, OK 74078-5021 gasem@okstate.edu Ion Exchange Molecular Design Nanomaterials Phase Equilibria Polymers Process Control Process Simulation Solid Freeform Fabrication Tissue Engineering Adsorption Biochemical Processes Biomaterials Colloids/Ceramics Environmental Engineering Fluid Flow/CFD Gas Processing Hazardous WastesResearch Areas Visit our web page at http://www.cheng.okstate.edu

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 287 Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Tobias Baumgart Tobias Baumgart Tobias Baumgart Tobias Baumgart Tobias Baumgart Russell J. Composto Russell J. Composto Russell J. Composto Russell J. Composto Russell J. Composto John C. Crocker John C. Crocker John C. Crocker John C. Crocker John C. Crocker Scott Scott Scott Scott Scott L. L. L. L. L. Diamond Diamond Diamond Diamond Diamond Dennis E. Discher Dennis E. Discher Dennis E. Discher Dennis E. Discher Dennis E. Discher Eduardo D. Glandt Eduardo D. Glandt Eduardo D. Glandt Eduardo D. Glandt Eduardo D. Glandt Raymond J. Gorte Raymond J. Gorte Raymond J. Gorte Raymond J. Gorte Raymond J. Gorte David J. Graves David J. Graves David J. Graves David J. Graves David J. Graves Daniel A. Hammer Daniel A. Hammer Daniel A. Hammer Daniel A. Hammer Daniel A. Hammer Matthew J. Lazzara Matthew J. Lazzara Matthew J. Lazzara Matthew J. Lazzara Matthew J. Lazzara Daeyeon Lee Daeyeon Lee Daeyeon Lee Daeyeon Lee Daeyeon Lee Ravi Radhakrishnan Ravi Radhakrishnan Ravi Radhakrishnan Ravi Radhakrishnan Ravi Radhakrishnan Casim A. Sarkar Casim A. Sarkar Casim A. Sarkar Casim A. Sarkar Casim A. Sarkar Warren D. Seider Warren D. Seider Warren D. Seider Warren D. Seider Warren D. Seider Wen K. Shieh Wen K. Shieh Wen K. Shieh Wen K. Shieh Wen K. Shieh Talid R. Sinno Talid R. Sinno Talid R. Sinno Talid R. Sinno Talid R. Sinno Kathleen J. Stebe Kathleen J. Stebe Kathleen J. Stebe Kathleen J. Stebe Kathleen J. Stebe John M. Vohs John M. Vohs John M. Vohs John M. Vohs John M. Vohs Karen I. Winey Karen I. Winey Karen I. Winey Karen I. Winey Karen I. Winey Shu Yang Shu Yang Shu Yang Shu Yang Shu Yang Director of Graduate Admissions Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering University of Pennsylvania 220 South 33rd Street, Rm. 311A Philadelphia, PA 19104-6393 chegrad@seas.upenn.edu http://www.seas.upenn.edu/cbe/grad-progs.html

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Chemical Engineering Education 288 Engineering Chemical PENN STATE S Chemical Engineering graduate degree program is located on a diverse, Big-Ten university campus in a vibrant college community. When you join our program, youll use state-of-the-art facilities such as the Materials Research Institute, the Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, and one of the foremost nanofabrication facilities in the world. We provide fellowships and research assistantships, including tuition and fees. Research at Penn State spans the spectrum of chemical engineering with focus areas in Biomolecular Engineering, Computation, and Materials Science. ANTONIOS ARM A OU PH.D., UCLA Process control and system dynamics AZIZ BEN-JE B RI A PH.D., UNIV E RSITY OF P A RIS Lung dosimetry and toxicology of inhaled pollutants; pulmonary transport ALI BORH A N PH.D., S T A NFOR D F luid dynamics, transport phenomena, hydrodynamic stability P A TRICK C IRINO PH.D., C AL TEC H Metabolic engineering, protein engineering, biocatalysis, synthetic biology W A YNE C URTIS PH.D., P U R DUE Plant cell tissue culture, secondary metabolism, bioreactor design R ON A LD DA NNER PH.D., L E HIGH Phase equilibria and diffusion in polymer-solvent and gas solid systems K RISTEN FICHTHORN PH.D., UNIV E RSITY OF MI C HIG A N Atomistic simulation, statistical mechanics, surface science, materials H ENRY FOLEY PH.D., P E NN S T A T E N anomaterials, reaction and separation, catalysis E NRIQUE GOMEZ PH.D., B E RK ELE Y O rganic photovoltaics, organicinorganic interfaces, nanostructured polymers F OR M OR E INFOR MA TION Janna Maranas, Graduate Admissions Chair 158 Fenske Laboratory Department of Chemical Engineering The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 814-863-6228 jmaranas@engr.psu.edu www.fenske.psu.edu JON G -IN HA HM PH.D., UNIV E RSITY OF CHI CA GO N anobiotechnology, synthesis and application of nanomaterials for biosensors M ICH A EL J A NIK PH.D., UNIV E RSITY OF V IRGINI A F uel cells and electrochemical systems for renewable energy sources S EON G K IM PH.D., N ORTHW E ST E RN S urface science, polymers, thin lms, nanotribology, nanomaterials C OST A S MA R A N A S PH.D., PRIN CE TON Computer-aided molecular design, design planning and scheduling, global optimization, optimization under uncertainty J A NN A MA R A N A S PH.D., PRIN CE TON Dynamics of soft materials in biology and polymer physics, molecular simulation, neutron scattering T HEMIS MA TSOUK A S PH.D., UNIV E RSITY OF MI C HIG A N Aerosol engineering, colloids, plasma processing S COTT M ILNER PH.D., H A RV A R D S tress relaxation in branched polymers, glass transitions in polymer thin lms, and polymer-solvent miscibility JOSE P H PEREZ PH.D., PE NN ST A T E T ribology, lubrication, biodiesel R O B ERT R IOUX PH.D., B E RK ELE Y H eterogeneous catalysis, nanostructure synthesis, renewable energy, atomic-level characterization DA RRELL VELE G OL PH.D., CA RN E GI E MELL ON Colloidal and nanoparticle systems, bacterial adhesion J A MES VRENT A S PH.D., UNIV E RSITY OF D ELA W A R E T ransport phenomena, applied mathematics, uid mechanics, diffusion, polymer science ANDRE W Z YDNEY PH.D., M IT Development of membrane systems for bioprocessing applications, mass transfer characteristics of articial organ systems FACUL TY

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 289 Chemical EngineeringProgram The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi The Petroleum Institute (PI) was established in 2001 with the goal of creating a world-class institution in engineering education and research in areas of importance to the energy sector. PIs sponsors and affiliates include the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company and four major international oil companies. The graduate program started in Sept 2007 and we are currently recruiting students for either academic term in the year 2008. The Institute has modern laboratories and facilities and it is now in the implementation phase of creating three major research centers on its campus. PI is affiliated with and has collaborative programs in place with the Colorado School of Mines, the University of Maryland at College Park, Technical University of Munich and Leoben and Linz Universities (Austria). Additional information about PI can be found at www.pi.ac.ae We are inviting applications for admission to the graduate program in chemical engineering from outstanding students who are highly motivated to undertake a challenging and rigorous program of study and research in all areas of chemical engineering. If you are a recent graduate from a well recognized institute and would like to pursue Master of Engineering (course based) or Master of Science (thesis based) degrees, you are encouraged to apply for admission to either the January 2009 term or the Sept 2009 term. The current Graduate Program Catalogue is available at the following URL: http://www.pi.ac.ae/PI_ACA/pgp/docs/PGP_catalog.pdf Stipend / Benefits: Exceptionally qualified students can apply for Graduate Fellowships. Stipend is competitive and commensurate with qualifications and experience, with an excellent benefits package, including a twelve-month base stipend, on-campus room and board, medical insurance, and travel funds to attend conferences and stays at PIs partner institutions. Applicant must be in excellent health and will be required to pass a pre-award physical examination. The UAE levies no income taxes. To Apply : Interested candidates are requested to submit (preferably in Word or pdf form) the following as an attachment with their email: 1. a letter of interest, which addresses the applicant's qualifications for the fellowship; 2. a current resume with detailed summary of academic achievements and credentials; 3. an official copy of academic records, and 4. at least three letters of recommendation in support of the candidates application. 5. Pre-employment form for those requesting scholarship must be completed Send all requested materials to the Recruiting Coordinator at The Petroleum Institute ( recruitingcoordinator@pi.ac.ae ).Review of applications will begin immediately and will continue until successful candidates are selected. Faculty Research Interests Dr. Bruce Palmer, Professor & (Acting) Director Gas Processing, Corrosion Dr. Nidal Hilal, Distinguished InstituteProfessor Interfacial Phenomena Dr. K. Nandakumar, GASCO Chaired Professor Computational Fluid Dynamics, Multiphase Flow Dr. Radu Vladea, Research Professor Catalytic process development, Petroleum Processing Dr. Mohammed Sassi, Associate Professor Thermal Science, Combustion and Air Pollution Dr. Naif Darwish, Associate Professor Thermodynamics, Nanofiltrationmembranes Dr. Saleh Al Hashimi, Assistant Professor Catalysis, Process Modeling Dr. Tareq Al Ameri, Assistant Professor Process Optimization Dr. Ali Almansoori, Assistant Professor Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells Dr. Sulafudin Vukusic, Assistant Professor Polymers Dr. Ahmed Abdala, Assistant Professor Polymer nanocomposites, polymer rheology

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Chemical Engineering Education 290 Chemical Engineering at the University of Pittsburgh Degree Programs: PhD and MS in Chemical Engineering MS in Petroleum Engineering Information on Fellowships and Applications: Graduate Coordinator Chemical and Petroleum Engineering 1249 Benedum Hall University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15261 412-624-9630 che.pitt.edu The University of Pittsburgh is an affirmat ive action, equal opportunity institution. RESEARCH AREAS Biotechnology Artificial Organs Biocatalysis Biomaterials Controlled Drug Delivery Metabolic Engineering Modeling & Control Nanoscale Biosensors Tissue Engineering Catalysis Surface Chemistry Catalyst Deactivation Chemical Promotion Novel Materials Organometallic Chemistry Energy and Environment Bioremediation Clean Fuels From Coal Contaminated Soil Cleanup Combustion Materials Engineering Biocompatible Polymers CO 2 as a Solvent Interfacial Behavior Polymer/Composite Modeling Polymer Processing Semiconductor Materials Multi-Scale Modeling Molecular Modeling Polymer-Fluid Interactions Process Modeling & Control Particulate Systems Transport Systems Engineering FACULTY Mohammad M. Ataai Ipsita Banerjee Eric J. Beckman William Federspiel Di Gao Steven R. Little Robert S. Parker John F. Patzer II Alan J. Russell William R. Wagner Julie L. dItri John W. Tierney Gtz Veser Irving Wender Ipsita Banerjee Shiao-Hung Chiang James T. Cobb, Jr. Robert M. Enick Gerald D. Holder Badie I. Morsi Anna C. Balazs Eric J. Beckman Robert M. Enick Di Gao George E. Klinzing J. Thomas Lindt Steven R. Little Joseph J. McCarthy Sachin Velankar Anna C. Balazs Ipsita Banerjee J. Karl Johnson Joseph J. McCarthy Robert S. Parker

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 291 FACULTY J R K i m Protein engineering, folding, aggregation, and stability R L e v i c k y Biosensors, nanobiotechnology J M i j o v i c Relaxation dynamics in synthetic and biological macromolecules S S o f o u Heterogeneous lipid membranes. Drug delivery. L S t i e l Thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids E Z i e g l e r Air pollution control engineering W Z u r a w s k y Plasma polymerization, polymer thin films Polytechnic University, located in New York City, is home to breakthrough research in chemical and biological engineering. We invite you to become a part of our prestigious tradition. Join our dynamic researchoriented faculty and conduct progressive inquiries in biological engineering, drug delivery, biointerfaces, protein engineering, polymers, and systems biology. A number of fellowships are available in our MS Chemical Engineering and PhD Chemical Engineering programs. For more information, contact: Professor Jovan Mijovic Chair, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Six MetroTech Center Brooklyn, NY 11201 Phone: 718-260-3097 Or visit us at www.poly.edu/cbe I will create new technologies to treat cancer. I am a PolyThinker.

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Chemical Engineering Education 292 Princeton University Ph.D. and M.Eng. Programs in Chemical Engineering ChE Faculty Ilhan A. Aksay Jay B. Benziger Pablo G. Debenedetti Christodoulos A. Floudas Yannis G. Kevrekidis Morton D. Kostin A. James Link Yueh-Lin (Lynn) Loo Celeste M. Nelson Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos Rodney D. Priestley Richard A. Register (Chair) William B. Russel Stanislav Y. Shvartsman Sankaran Sundaresan James Wei David W. Wood Please visit our website: http://chemeng.princeton.edu Write to: Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 or call: 1-800-238-6169 or email: chegrad@princeton.edu Applied and Computational Mathematics Computational Chemistry and Materials Systems Modeling and Optimization Biotechnology Biomaterials Biopreservation Cell Mechanics Computational Biology Protein and Enzyme Engineering Tissue Engineering Environmental and Energy Science and Technology Art and Monument Conservation Fuel Cell Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena Biological Transport Electrohydrodynamics Flow in Porous Media Granular and Multiphase Flow Polymer and Suspension Rheology Materials: Synthesis, Processing, Structure, Properties Adhesion and Interfacial Phenomena Ceramics and Glasses Colloidal Dispersions Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Organic and Polymer Electronics Polymers Process Engineering and Science Chemical Reactor Design, Stability, and Dynamics Heterogeneous Catalysis Process Control and Operations Process Synthesis and Design Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics Complex Fluids Glasses Kinetic and Nucleation Theory Liquid State Theory Molecular Simulation Affiliate Faculty Emily A. Carter (Mechanica l and Aerospace Engineering) George W. Scherer (Civil and Environmental Engineering) Salvatore Torquato (Chemistry)

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 293

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Chemical Engineering Education 294 Faculty and Research Interests Elmar R. Altwicker, altwie@rpi.edu Professor Emeritus Spouted-bed combustion; incineration; tracepollutant kinetics Georges Belfort, belfog@rpi.edu Membrane separations; adsorption; biocatalysis; MRI, interfacial phenomena B. Wayne Bequette, bequette@rpi.edu Process control; fuel cell systems; biomedical systems Henry R. Bungay III, bungah@rpi.edu, Prof.Emeritus Wastewater treatment; biochemical engineering Cynthia Collins, ccollins@rpi.edu Systems biology, protein engineering, intercellular communi cation systems, synthetic microbial ecosystems Marc-Olivier Coppens, coppens@rpi.edu Nature-inspired chemical engineering; mathematical & compu tational modeling; statistical mechanics; nanoporous materials synthesis; reaction engineering Steven M. Cramer, crames@rpi.edu Displacement, membrane, and preparative chromatography; envi ronmental research Jonathan S. Dordick, dordick@rpi.edu Biochemical engineering; biocatalysis, polymer science, bioseparations Arthur Fontijn, fontia@rpi.edu, Professor Emeritus Combustion; high-temperature kinetics; gas-phase reactions Shekhar Garde, gardes@rpi.edu Macromolecular self-assembly, computer simulations, statistical thermodynamics of liquids, hydration phenomena William N. Gill, gillw@rpi.edu Microelectronics; reverse osmosis; crystal growth; ceramic composites Ravi S. Kane, kaner@rpi.edu Polymers; biosurfaces; biomaterials; nanomaterials Pankaj Karande, karanp@rpi.edu Drug Delivery, combintorial chemistry, molecular modeling; high throughput screening Howard Littman, littmh@rpi.edu, Professor Emeritus Lealon Martin, lealon@rpi.edu Chemical and biological process modeling and design; optimiza tion; systems engineering E. Bruce Nauman, nauman@rpi.edu Polymer blends; nonlinear diffusion; devolatilization; polymer structure and properties; plastics recycling Joel L. Plawsky, plawsky@rpi.edu Electronic and photonic materials; interfacial phenomena; transport phenomena Susan Sharfstein, sharfs@rpi.edu Biochemical engineering, mammalian cell culture, recombinant protein production Peter M. Tessier, tessier@rpi.edu Protein-protein interactions, protein self-assembly and aggregation Patrick Underhill, underp@rpi.edu Transport phenomena, multi-scale model development and applica tions to colloidal, polymer, and biological systems Hendrick C. Van Ness, vanneh@rpi.edu Institute Professor Emeritus Peter C. Wayner, Jr., wayner@rpi.edu Heat transfer; interfacial phenomena; porous materials The Chemical and Biological Engineering Department at Rensselaer has long been recognized for its excellence in teaching and research. Its graduate programs lead to research-based M.S. and Ph.D. degrees and to a course-based M.E. degree. Programs are also offered in cooperation with the School of Management and Technology which lead to an M.E. in Chemical Engineering and to an MBA or the M.S. in Management. Owing to funding, consulting, and previous faculty experience, the department maintains close ties with industry. Department web site: http://www.eng.rpi.edu/dept/chem-eng/ Chemical and Biological Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Located in Troy, New York, Rensselaer is a private school with an enroll ment of some 6000 students. Situated on the Hudson River, just north of New Yorks capital city of Albany, it is a three-hour drive from New York City, Boston, and Montreal. The Adirondack Mountains of New York, the Green Mountains of Vermont, and the Berkshires of Massachusetts are ing Arts Center (New York City Ballet, Philadelphia Orchestra, and jazz festival) is nearby. Application materials and information from: Graduate Services Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, NY 12180-3590 Telephone: 518-276-6789 e-mail: grad-admissions@rpi.edu http://www.rpi.edu/dept/grad-services/

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 295 THE UNIVERSITY Rice is a leading research university small, private, and highly selective distinguished by a collaborative, highly interdisciplinary culture. State-of-the-art laboratories, internationally renowned research centers, and one of the countrys largest endowments support an ideal learning and living environment. Located only a few miles from downtown Houston, it occupies an architecturally distinctive, 300-acre campus shaded by nearly 4,000 trees. THE DEPARTMENT Offers Ph.D., M.S., and M.Ch.E. degrees. Provides 12-month stipends and tuition waivers to full-time Ph.D. students. Currently has 63 graduate students (59 Ph.D., 3 M.S. and 1 M.Ch.E) Emphasizes interdisciplinary studies and collaborations with researchers from Rice and other institutions, the Texas Medical Center, NASAs Johnson Space Center, and R&D centers of petrochemical companies. FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS Advanced Materials & Complex Fluids Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured assembling systems, hybrid biomaterials, rheology of nanostructured liquids, polymers, carbon nanotubes, interfacial phenomena, emulsions, colloids. Biosystems Engineering Cell population heterogeneity, metabolic engineering, systems biology, microbial fermentations, signal transduction and biological pattern formation, protein engineering, cellular and tissue engineering. Energy & Sustainability uid properties, enhanced oil recovery, reservoir characterization, aquifer remediation, pollution control. Sibani Lisa Biswal (Stanford, 2004) Walter Chapman (Cornell, 1988) Ramon Gonzalez (Univ. of Chile, 2001) George Hirasaki (Rice, 1967) Nikolaos Mantzaris (Minnesota, 2000) Clarence Miller (Minnesota, 1966) Matteo Pasquali (Minnesota, 2000) Marc Robert (Swiss Fed. Inst. Tech., 1980) Laura Segatori (UT Austin, 2005) Michael Wong (MIT, 2000) Kyriacos Zygourakis (Minnesota, 1981) Joint Appointments Cecilia Clementi (Intl. Sch. of Adv.Studies, 1998) Vicki Colvin (UC Berkeley, 1994) Anatoly Kolomeisky (Cornell, 1998) Antonios Mikos (Purdue, 1988) Ka-Yiu San (Caltech, 1984) Jennifer West (UT Austin, 1996) For more information Chair, Graduate Admissions Committee and graduate program Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, MS-362 applications, write to: Rice University P.O. Box 1892 Houston, TX 77251-1892 Or visit our web site at: http://www.rice.edu/chbe/

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Chemical Engineering Education 296 The University of Rochester is located in scenic upstate New York in an ideal setting to study, work, and grow intellectually. Through our M.S. and Ph.D. programs, students learn to apply key principles from chemistry, physics, and biology to address grand challenges facing society. We have outstanding laboratory research facilities, well supported infrastructure, and we offer competitive fellowship packages. Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies http://www.che.rochester.edu/Poster Chemical Engineering at The University of Rochester Graduate Studies & Research Programs Fuel Cells Solar Cells Biofuels Green Engineering Clean Energy M. ANTHAMATTEN, Ph.D., M.I.T., 2001 macromolecular self-assembly, shape memory polymers, vapor deposition, fuel cells S. H. CHEN, Ph.D., Univ. of Minnesota, 1981 polymer science, organic materials for photonics and electronics, liquid crystal and electroluminescent displays M. R. KING Ph.D., Univ. of Notre Dame, 1999 cell adhesion, fluid mechanics, stem cell and cancer therapy E. H. CHIMOWITZ Ph.D., Univ. of Connecticut, 1982 supercritical fluid adsorption, molecular simulation of transport in disordered media, statistical mechanics D. R. HARDING Ph.D., Cambridge Univ., 1986 chemical vapor deposition, mechanical and transport properties, advanced aerospace materials S. D. JACOBS Ph.D., Univ. of Rochester, 1975 optics, photonics, and optoelectronics, liquid crystals, magnetorheology J. JORNE Ph.D., Univ. of California (Berkeley), 1972 electrochemical engineering, fuel cells, microelectronics processing, electrodeposition L. J. ROTHBERG Ph.D., Harvard Univ., 1984 organic device science, light-emitting diodes, display technology, biological sensors Y. SHAPIR Ph.D., Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel) 1981 critical phenomena, transport in disordered media, scaling behavior of growing surfaces C. W. TANG Ph.D., Cornell Univ., 1975 organic electronic devices, flat-panel display technology J. H. DAVID WU Ph.D., M.I.T., 1987 bone marrow tissue engineering, stem cell and lymphocyte culture, enzymology of biomass energy process H. YANG Ph.D., Univ. of Toronto, 1998 nanostructured and mesoporous materials, magnetic nanocomposites, solids, and photonics and biophotonics M. Z. YATES Ph.D., Univ. of Texas (Austin), 1999 colloids and interfaces, supercritical fluids, microemulsions, molecular sieves, fuel cells Biomass Processing Stem Cell Engineering Drug Delivery Biosensing Biotechnology Liquid Crystals Colloids & Surfactants Functional Polymers Inorganic/Organic Hybrids Advanced Materials Thin Film Devices Photonics & Optoelectronics Nanofabrication Display Technologies Nanotechnology Tiffany Markham Graduate Program Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rochester Rochester, NY 14627 (585) 275-4913 Markham@che.rochester.edu Faculty

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 297 Faculty Robert P. Hesketh Chair University of Delaware Kevin Dahm Massachusetts Institute of Technology Stephanie Farrell New Jersey Institute of Technology Zenaida Gephardt University of Delaware Brian G. Lefebvre University of Delaware James Newell Clemson University Mariano J. Savelski University of Oklahoma C. Stewart Slater Rutgers University Dr. Brian G. Lefebvre Graduate Program Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Rowan University 201 Mullica Hill Road Glassboro, NJ 08028 Located in southern New Jersey, the nearby orchards and farms are a daily remi nder that this is the Garden State. Cultural and recreational opportunities are plentiful in the area. Philadelphia and the scenic Jersey Shore are only a short drive, a nd major metropolitan areas are within easy reach. Research Areas For additional information Membrane Separations Pharmaceutical and Food Processing Technology Biochemical Engineering Green Engineering Controlled Release Kinetic and Mechanistic Modeling of Complex Reaction Systems Reaction Engineering Novel Separation Processes Modeling and Processing of High-Performance Polymers Process Design and Optimization Particle Technology Renewable Fuels Lean Manufacturing Sustainable Design Master of Science Chemical Engineering Project Management Experience Individualized Mentoring Collaboration with Industry Multidisciplinary Research Day and Evening Classes Thesis and non-thesis options Part-time and Full-time Programs Assistantships Available The Chemical Engineering Departme nt at Rowan University is hous ed in Henry M. Rowan Hall, a state-of-the-art, 95,000 sq. ft. multidisciplinary teaching and research space. An emphasis on project management and industrially relevant res earch prepares students for successful careers in high-tech fields. The new South Jersey Technol ogy Center will providefurther opportunities for student training in emerging technologies. E-mail: lefebvre@rowan.edu Web: http://www.rowan.edu/ open/colleges/engineering / Phone: (856) 256-5310 Fax: (856) 256-5242

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Chemical Engineering Education 298 Research Areas Biotechnology Reaction Engineering Process Systems Engineering Pharmaceutical Engineering Polymers Faculty Ioannis (Yannis) Androulakis, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Purdue University Systems biology, bioinformating, data mining, complex reaction modeling, optimization, system analysis Helen M. Buettner, Associate Professor; Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1987 Applied neurobiology, cell motility, cell-substrate interactions, crystallization of pharmaceuticals Yee C. Chiew, Professor; Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1984 interfacial phenomena Alkis Constantinides, Professor; D.E.Sc., Columbia University, 1970 Biochemical engineering, optimization and control of fermentation processes, applied numeri Burton Z. Davidson, Professor; Ph.D., P.E., Northwestern University, 1963 Systems simulation and optimization, environmental engineering, health and safety engineering management Panos G. Georgopoulos, Associate Professor; Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1986 Atmospheric/environmental chemical engineering, turbulent transport, biochemodynamic modeling Benjamin J. Glasser, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Princeton, 1995 ics of transport processes Masanori Hara, Professor; Ph.D., Kyoto University, 1981 Polymer physics; polymer chemistry, polymer blends and composites, ionic polymers Marianthi G. Ierapetritou, AssociateProfessor; Ph.D., Imperial College, 1995 Process systems engineering; process design, planning, and scheduling; uncertainty and environmental considerations; nonlinear and mixed integer optimization Johannes G. Khinast, AssociateProfessor; Ph.D., Graz, 1995 systems Sobin Kim, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Columbia University Genotyping, DNA sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, DNA tagging, gene expression analysis, DNA pooling Michael T. Klein, Dean and Board of Governors Professor of Engineering; Sc.D., MIT, 1981 Kinetics, catalysis and reaction engineering; automated kinetic model Prabhas V. Moghe, Associate Professor; Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1993 Cell and tissue engineering; cell-biomaterial interactions; biomimetic materials Fernando Muzzio, Professor; Ph.D., University of Massachusetts, 1991 Henrik Pedersen, Professor; Ph.D., Yale University, 1978 Charles M. Roth, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., University of Delaware, 1994 Nucleic acid biotechnology, molecular biophysics and bioengineering, bioseparations Jerry I. Scheinbeim, Professor; Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 1975 Polymer electroprocessing, structure-electroactive properties relationships in polymeric mate rials, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, dielectric and electrostrictive properties of polymers David I. Shreiber, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania Mechanotransduction, injury biomechanics, tissue and cellular engineering, nerve regen eration M. Silvina Tomassone, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Northeastern University, 1998 Molecular dynamics, interfacial analysis, phase transitions Shaw S. Wang Professor; Ph.D., Rutgers University, 1970 Kinetics and thermodynamics of food process engineering, and studies of biochemical and biological processes. Martin L. Yarmush, Professor; Ph.D., Rockefeller University, 1979; M.D., Yale University, 1984 engineering, biotechnologyGraduate Program in Chemical & Biochemical Engineering FELLOWSHIPS, TRAINEESHIPS, AND ASSISTANTSHIPS AVAILABLE For further information contact: Graduate Program in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey School of Engineering 98 Brett Road Piscataway, NJ 08854-8058 Phone (732) 445-4950 Fax (732) 445-2421 Email: cbemail@sol.rutgers.edu http://sol.rutgers.edu

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 299 JOIN US AND DISCOVER THE DIFFERENCE FOR YOURSELF Program Features Ranked 2 nd among Asian universities and 10 th in the world for Technology in the THES-QS University Rankings 2007, we pr ovide the most comprehensive sele ction of courses and activities for a distinctive and enriching university experience. You willalso enjoy the opportunity to work with our outstanding faculty and gain international ex posure. But what ultimately makes the most difference is how we can help yo u achieve your aspirations at NUS Singapores Global University. Engineering Your Own Evolution! Reach us @ Our Graduate Programs Research-based Coursework-based Strategic Research & Educational Thrusts Biomolecular and Biomedical Engineering: Chemical Engineering Sciences: Chemical and Biological Systems Engineering: Environmentally Benign Processing & Sustainability: Functionalized and NanostructuredMaterials & Devices:

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Chemical Engineering Education 300 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND COMPUTING e Department of Chemical Engineering at USC has emerged as one of the top teaching and research programs in the Southeast. Our program ranks in the top 25 nationally in research expenditures (> $ 5 million) and annual doctoral gradu ates. e Department oers Masters and PhD degree programs in chemical engineering and biomedical engineering PhD candidates receive tuition and fee waivers, a health insurance subsidy, and highly competitive sti pends starting at $ 25,000 per year e University of South Carolina is located in Columbia, the state capital, which oers the benets of a big city with the charm and hospitality of a small town. Charlotte and Atlanta, cities that serve as Columbias international gateways, are nearby. e areas sunny and mild climate, combined with its lakes and wooded parks, provide plenty of opportunities for year-round outdoor rec reation. In addition, Columbia is only hours away from the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Atlantic Coast. Carolinas mascot, Cocky, shows o on one of our departments hydro gen fuel cell Segways at university events. FA C ULTY M.D. Amiridis Wisconsin Catalysis and Kinetics J. Blanchette Texas Biomedical Engineering, drug delivery C. Curtis Florida State Vice provost for faculty development F.A. Gadala-Maria Stanford Rheology of suspensions E.P. Gatzke Delaware Modeling Control, Optimization A. Heyden Hamburg Computational Nanoscience, Catalysis E. Jabbari Purdue Biomedical and Tissue Engineering M.A. Matthews Texas A&M Applied Thermodynamics, Supercritical Fluids M.A. Moss Kentucky Protein Biophysics, Alzheimers Disease T. Papathanasiou McGill Composite Materials H.J. Ploehn Princeton Interfacial Phenomena, Nanotechnology B.N. Popov Illinois Electrochemical Power Sources J.A. Ritter SUNY Bualo Separation and Energy Storage Processes T.G. Stanford Michigan Chemical Process Systems V. Van Brunt Tennessee Separations, Chemical Safety J.W. Van Zee Texas A&M Electrochemical Engineering, Fuel Cells J.W. Weidner NC State Electrochemical Engineering, Electrocatalysis R.E. White Cal-Berkeley Electrochemical Engineering, Modelling C.T. Williams Purdue Catalysis, Surface Spectroscopy Contact us: The Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical Engineering, Swearingen Engineering Center, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208. Phone: 800.753.0527 or 803.777.1261. Fax: 803.777.0973. E-mail: chegrad@engr.sc.edu. Visit us online at www.che.sc.edu

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 301 D r B a b u J o s e p h C h a i r : D r B a b u J o s e p h C h a i r : M o d e l i n g s i m u l a t i o n a n d c o n t r o l s e n s o r t e c h n o l o g i e s m u l t i s c a l e m o d e l i n g o f s y s t e m s e n g i n e e r i n g e d u c a t i o n D r N o r m a A A l c a n t a r : D r N o r m a A A l c a n t a r : S u r f a c e f o r c e s a n d c h e m i c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n m i c e l l a r s u r f a c t a n t s n a n o p a r t i c l e s a n d o r g a n i c / i n o r g a n i c t h i n f i l m s D r V e n k a t B h e t h a n a b o t l a : D r V e n k a t B h e t h a n a b o t l a : M o l e c u l a r d y n a m i c s s t a t i s t i c a l m e c h a n i c s m o l e c u l a r t h e r m o d y n a m i c s c h e m i c a l a n d b i o s e n s o r s D r S c o t t W C a m p b e l l : D r S c o t t W C a m p b e l l : P h a s e e q u i l i b r i a p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t y m e a s u r e m e n t a n d c o r r e l a t i o n m o n i t o r i n g a n d m o d e l i n g o f p o l l u t a n t s D r R i c h a r d G i l b e r t : D r R i c h a r d G i l b e r t : M a t e r i a l s c i e n c e b i o m e d i c a l s y s t e m s i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n e l e c t r o c h e m o t h e r a p y e l e c t r o g e n e t h e r a p y e n g i n e e r i n g e d u c a t i o n a n d d r u g d e l i v e r y D r Y o g i G o s w a m i : D r Y o g i G o s w a m i : E n e r g y c o n v e r s i o n S o l a r e n e r g y H y d r o g e n e n e r g y a n d f u e l c e l l s T h e r m o d y n a m i c s a n d h e a t t r a n s f e r H V A C D r V i n a y G u p t a : D r V i n a y G u p t a : I n t e r f a c i a l p h e n o m e n a p o l y m e r s s e l f a s s e m b l y m o l e c u l a r r e c o g n i t i o n p o l y m e r a d s o r p t i o n n a n o s c a l e / s m a r t m a t e r i a l s D r M a r k J a r o s z e s k i : D r M a r k J a r o s z e s k i : D r u g a n d g e n e d e l i v e r y e l e c t r o f u s i o n b i o m e d i c a l i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n e l e c t r o p h o r e s i s D r W i l l i a m E L e e P E : D r W i l l i a m E L e e P E : B i o m e c h a n i c s h u m a n s e n s o r y p e r c e p t i o n b i o r h e o l o g y e n v i r o n m e n t a l b i o t e c h n o l o g y D r J A L l e w e l l y n : D r J A L l e w e l l y n : A r t i f i c i a l i n t e l l i g e n c e m o d e l i n g d a t a a n a l y s i s a n d e d u c a t i o n a l c o m p u t i n g D r C a r l o s A S m i t h P D r C a r l o s A S m i t h P E : E : A u t o m a t i c p r o c e s s c o n t r o l d y n a m i c p r o c e s s m o d e l i n g p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g D r A y d i n K S u n o l P E : D r A y d i n K S u n o l P E : S y s t e m s e n g i n e e r i n g p r o c e s s a n d p r o d u c t d e s i g n g r e e n e n g i n e e r i n g s u p e r c r i t i c a l f l u i d t e c h n o l o g y D r R y a n T o o m e y : D r R y a n T o o m e y : M a t e r i a l s s c i e n c e p o l y m e r t h i n f i l m s h y d r o g e l s m o l e c u l a r l y i m p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s a n d h o l o g r a p h i c p o l y m e r i z a t i o n D r M i c h a e l V a n A u k e r : D r M i c h a e l V a n A u k e r : B i o m e d i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g b i o f l u i d i c s a r t i f i c i a l h e a r t v a l v e s c a r d i o v a s c u l a r m e c h a n i c s D r J o h n W i e n c e k : D r J o h n W i e n c e k : P r o t e i n b i o p h y s i c s n o v e l m e m b r a n e b a s e d w a t e r p u r i f i c a t i o n D r J o h n W o l a n : D r J o h n W o l a n : A d v a n c e d w i d e b a n d g a p m a t e r i a l s y s t e m s s u r f a c e s c i e n c e k i n e t i c s f u e l c e l l s a n d s o l i d s t a t e s e n s o r s F A C U L T Y F A C U L T Y A d v a n c e d M a t e r i a l s A d v a n c e d M a t e r i a l s B i o m e d i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g B i o m e d i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g M o d e l i n g M o d e l i n g S i m u l a t i o n a n d a n d C o n t r o l C o n t r o l S u p e r c r i t i c a l F l u i d s S u p e r c r i t i c a l F l u i d s N a n o t e c h n o l o g y N a n o t e c h n o l o g y P r o c e s s a n d P r o d u c t P r o c e s s a n d P r o d u c t D e s i g n D e s i g n B i o m e c h a n i c s B i o m e c h a n i c s B i o f l u i d i c s B i o f l u i d i c s D r u g D e l i v e r y D r u g D e l i v e r y For more information, visit our website at: http://che.eng.usf.edu Or write to us at: Department of Chemical & Biomedical Engineering University of South Florida 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, ENB 118 Tampa, FL 33620 Phone: (813) 974-3997 S u r r o u n d e d b y t r o p i c a l b e a c h e s a n d s c e n i c s h o r e l i n e s U S F i s i n t h e h e a r t o f b e a u t i f u l T a m p a F L W i t h h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s p r o f e s s i o n a l s p o r t s a n d p l e n t y o f n i g h t l i f e t h e B a y A r e a i s a s a f e c o m f o r t a b l e a n d e x c i t i n g p l a c e t o l i v e P i c t u r e c o u r t e s y o f P e t e r S t e w a r t a n d t h e c i t y o f T a m p a p u b l i c a r t p r o g r a m R e v : J a n 0 8 S e n s o r s S e n s o r s S u r f a c e S c i e n c e a n d S u r f a c e S c i e n c e a n d T e c h n o l o g y T e c h n o l o g y S u s t a i n a b i l i t y a n d G r e e n S u s t a i n a b i l i t y a n d G r e e n E n g i n e e r i n g E n g i n e e r i n g F u e l C e l l s F u e l C e l l s R e n e w a b l e E n e r g y R e n e w a b l e E n e r g y H y d r o g e n P r o d u c t i o n H y d r o g e n P r o d u c t i o n S t o r a g e a n d U s e S t o r a g e a n d U s e S y n f u e l s P r o d u c t i o n a n d S y n f u e l s P r o d u c t i o n a n d U s e U s e

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Chemical Engineering Education 302 Major Research Areas Advanced Computation Biochemical and Biological Engineering Energy and Environmental Research Material Properties, Com posites, and Polymers Nanotechnology Electronic and Photonic Materials We offer M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engi neering, Materials Science, and Petroleum Engineering. The Department also offers a unique M.S. in Petroleum Engineering (Smart Oilfield Technologies). All of our M.S. degrees are also available on-line through the Viterbi School of Engineerings Dist ance Education Network. U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering, Pe troleum Engineering, and Materials Science Faculty Andrea M. Armani W. Vict or Chang Iraj Ershaghi Edward Goo Kristian Jessen Rajiv Kalia Atul Konkar C. Ted Lee, Jr. Anupam Madhukar Florian Mansfeld Noah Malmstadt Steven R. Nu tt S. Joe Qin Ric hard Roberts Muhammad Sahimi Katherine Shing Theodore T. Ts otsis Priya Vashishta Pin Wang Yannis C. Yortsos Dongxiao Zhang Joint Appointments Edward D. Crandall Daniel Dapkus Martin Gundersen Michael Kassner Terence G. Langdon Aiichiro Nakano Armand R. Tanguay Mark E. Thompson Peter Will For more i nformation or to apply on-line, please visit our web site: http://chems.usc.edu For information on the on-line degr ee program, please visit the Distance Education Networks web site: http://den.usc.edu

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 303 Chemical and Biological Engineering Faculty Paschalis Alexandridis self-assembly, complex fluids, soft materials, nanomaterials, am phiphilic polymers, biopolymers Stelios T. Andreadis stem cells, cardiovascular and skin tissue engineering, wound healing, controlled protein and gene delivery Michael E. Cain cardiac electrophysiology, biomedical engineering, translational research Chong Cheng polymer and nanomaterial s ynthesis, drug delivery Jeffrey R. Errington molecular simulation, statistical thermodynamics, biopreservation Vladimir Hlavacek reaction engineering, nanopowders, explosives and detonations, analysis of chemical plants Mattheos Koffas metabolic engineering, bioi nformatics, natural products David A. Kofke molecular modeling and simulation Michael Lockett NAE member multi-phase flow and mass transfer in process equipment, distillation, air separation Carl R. F. Lund heterogeneous catalysis, chemical kinetics, reaction engineering Michael McKittrick molecularly engineered materi als, catalysis, photochemistry Sriram Neelamegham biomedical engineering, cell and mo lecular biomechanics, systems biology Johannes M. Nitsche fluid mechanics, transport phenomena, bi oactive surfaces, biological pores Sheldon Park protein engineering, direct ed evolution, structural bioinformatics, and simulations Eli Ruckenstein NAE member catalysis, surface phenomena, colloids and em ulsions, biocompatible surfaces and materials Michael E. Ryan polymer and ceramics processing, rh eology, non-Newtonian fluid mechanics Harvey G. Stenger, Jr. environmental applications of catalysis, hydroge n production, fuel cells Mark T. Swihart nanoparticle synthesis and applications, chemic al kinetics, modeling reacting flows Esther S. Takeuchi NAE member electrochemical power sources, novel ma terials, materials characterization Marina Tsianou molecularly engineered materials, self-assembly, c ontrolled crystallization, biomaterials, biomimetics E. (Manolis) S. Tzanakakis stem cells, pancreatic tissue engi neering, cardiac tissue engineer ing, biochemical engineering http://www.cbe.buffalo.edu For more information and an application, go to http://www.cbe.buffalo.edu e-mail cegrad@buffalo.edu, or write to Director of Graduate Studies, Chemical and Biological Engineering, University at Buffalo (SUNY), Buffalo, New York, 14260-4200 All Ph.D. students are fully supported as research or teaching assistants. Additional fellowships sponsored by the State University of New York, the National Science Foundation, Praxair, Inc., and other organizations are available to exceptionally well-qualified applicants. Chemical and Biological Engineering faculty participate in many interdisciplinary cen ters and initiatives including The Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences, The Center for Computational Research, The Institute for Lasers, Photonics, and Biophotonics, The Center for Spin Effects and Quantum Information in Nanostructures, The Center for Advanced Molecular Biology and Immunology, and The C enter for Advanced Technology for Biomedical Devices Integrative Research at the Leading Edge of Chemical and Biological Engineering Genetically Modified Skin Silicon Nanocrystal Simulation of Ordering of Water Molecules Genetically Modified Skin Genetically Modified Skin Silicon Nanocrystal Simulation of Ordering of Water Molecules Silicon Nanocrystal Silicon Nanocrystal Simulation of Ordering of Water Molecules Simulation of Ordering of Water Molecules Chemical Engineering Science Nanoscale Science and Engineering Biochemical & Biomedical Engineering Computational Science and Engineering

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Chemical Engineering Education 304 S T E V E N S INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY GRADUA TE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Full and part-time Day and evening programs MASTERS CHEMICAL ENGINEER PH.D. Stevens Institute of Technology does not discriminate against any person because of race, creed, color, national origin, sex, age, marital status, handicap, liability for service in the armed forces or status as a disabled or Vietnam era veteran.For application, contact: Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-216-5234 For additional information, contact: Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Department Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-216-5546 FacultyR. Besser (PhD, Stanford University)G.B. DeLancey (PhD, University of Pittsburgh)H. Du (PhD, Penn State University)B. Gallois (PhD, Carnegie-Mellon University)D.M. Kalyon (PhD, McGill University)S. Kovenklioglu (PhD, Stevens Institute of Technology) A. Lawal (PhD, McGill University)W.Y Lee (PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology)M. Libera (ScD, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology)G. Rothberg (PhD, Columbia University)K. Sheppard (PhD, University of Birmingham)Research in Micro-Chemical Systems Polymer Rheology, Processing, and Characterization Processing of Electronic and Photonic Materials Processing of Highly Filled Materials Chemical Reaction Engineering Biomaterials and Thin Films Polymer Characterization and Morphology High Temperature Gas-Solid and Solid-Solid Interactions Environmental and Thermal Barrier Coatings Biomaterials Design and Synthesis Nanobiotechnology Multidisciplinary environment, consisting of chemical and polymer engineering, chemistry, and biology Site of two major engineering research centers; Highly Filled Materials Institute; Center for Micro chemical Systems Scenic campus overlooking the Hudson River and metropolitan New York City Close to the world's center of science and cul ture At the hub of major highways, air, rail, and bus lines At the center of the country's largest concen tration of research laboratories and chemical, petroleum, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology companies

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 305 F URE University of Tennessee Recent advances in the life sciences and nanotechnology, as well as the looming energy crisis, have brought chemical engineering education to the threshold of signicant changes. The Depart ment of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (CBE) at the University of Tennessee has embraced these changes in order to meet global challenges in health care, the environment, renew able energy sources, national security and economic prosperity. Partnerships with other disciplines at UT, such as medical, life, and physical sciences, as well as the College of Business Adminis tration and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), help to create exceptional research opportunities for graduate students in CBE and place our students in a position to develop leadership roles in the vital technologies of the future. The UTK campus is located in the heart of Knoxville in beauti ful east Tennessee, minutes from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and surrounded by six lakes. Opportunities for outdoor recreation abound and are complemented by the diverse array of cultural activites aorded by our presence in the third largest city in Tennessee. Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at UT-Knoxville oers M.S. and Ph.D. degrees with nancial assistance including full tuition and competitive stipends. Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering 419 Dougherty Engineering Building Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 Phone: (865) 974-2421 Email: cheinfo@utk.edu Paul R. Bienk owski (Purdue) -Thermodynamics, environ mental biotechnology Eric T. Boder (Illinois) -Protein engineering, biosensors, immune engineering Barry Bruce (Berkeley) -Molecular chaperones, protein transport, bioenergy production Duane D. Bruns (Houston) -Process dynamics and control, chaotic processes Robert M. Counce (Tennessee) -Industrial separations, process design, green engineering Brian J. Edwards (Delaware) -Nonequilibrium thermody namics, complex uids, fuel cells Paul D. Frymier (Virginia) -Environmental biotechnology, sustainable energy production Douglas Hayes (Michigan) -Biocatalysis, bioseparations, colloid s Bamin Khomami (Illinois) -Microand nanostructured materials, complex uids, multiscale modeling David J. Keer (Minnesota) -Molecular simulation, advanced material s fuel cells Stephen J. Paddison (Calgary) -PEM fuel cells, statistical mechanics, multiscale modeling William V. Steele (Queens Belfast) -Advanced materials Tse-Wei Wang (MIT) -Modeling and control of chemical processes, algorithms for DNA prol ing Faculty and Research Interests http://www.engr.utk.edu/cbe/ THE IS NOW

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Chemical Engineering Education 306 Pedro E. Arce, Professor and Chair Ph.D., Purdue University, 1990 Electrokinetics, Nano Structured Soft Materials for Electrophoresis, Tissue Scaffolds & Drug Delivery, Non-thermal Plasma High Oxidation Processes Joseph J. Biernacki Professor Dr. Eng., Cleveland State University, 1988 Cementious Systems, Micro-flui dics, Electronic and Structural Materials Vijay Boovaragavan, Research Assistant Professor Ph.D., Central Electrochemical Re search Institute, India 2005 Modeling, Simulation and Dynamic Optimization of Electrochemical Processes, Corrosion Prevention of Electrodes Ileana C. Carpen Assistant Professor Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 2005 Microrheology of Materials, Flow Stability of Complex Fluids, Colloidal Dispersions, Transport in Biological Systems Mario Oyanader Adjunct Professor Ph.D., Florida State University, 2004 Electrokinetic Soil Cleaning, Chemical Environmental Processes, Water Resource Management Cynthia A. Rice-York, Assistant Professor Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2000 Fuel Cells, Electrocatalysis Holly A. Stretz, Assistant Professor Ph.D., Univ. of Texas at Austin, 2005 Nanocomposite Structure and Modeling, High Temperature Materials and Ablatives, Polymer Processing Venkat Subramanian, Assistant Professor Ph.D., University of South Carolina, 2001 Electrochemical Systems, Modeling and Control of Batteries and Fuel Cells in Hybrid Environments, Multiscale Simulation, Novel Symbolic Solutions Donald P. Visco, Jr., Associate Professor Ph.D., University at Buffalo, SUNY, 1999 Bioinformatics, Molecular Design, Thermodynamic Modeling Emeritus Faculty: Dr. William D. Holland Dr. Clayton P. Kerr Dr. John C. McGee Dr. David W. Yarbrough Located in one of the most beautiful geographical regions in Tennessee, Cookeville is the home of Tennessee Tech University. A warm and welcoming community surrounded by parks, lakes and mountains, Cookeville is located a little more than an hour from s: Nashville, Chattanooga, and Knoxville. F OR MORE INFORMATION contact: TTU Chemical Engineering Department P.O. Box 5013 Cookeville, TN 38505-0001 che@tntech.edu Phone (931) 372-3297 Fax (931) 372-6352 Also, visit us on the World Wide Web at: http://www.tntech.edu/che ship and research with advanced studies, offering excellent opportunities to graduate students. Our program offers an M.S. in Chemical Engineering and a Ph.D. in Engineering with a concentration in Chemical Engineering. The relatively small size of the program and friendly campus atmosphere promote close interaction among students and faculty. Research is sponsored by NSF, DOE, NASA, DOD, and state and private sources among others. Faculty members work closely with co lleagues in Electrical Engineering, Environmental and Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry, Biology, and Manufacturing and Industrial Technology at TTU, as well as maintain strong ers of Excellence and other leading institutions and national laboratories to build a unique and effective environment for graduate research, learning, and well-rounded training. TTU: A Constituent University of the Tennessee Board of Re gents/R003-000-09/An EEO/AA/Title IX/Section 504/ADA University

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 307 Address Inquiries to : a v i d A e n H a A e r R o e r o n n e a z e L d i a o n t r e r a s J a e s R e i k o s k o a s d a r J o n G k e r d t R r u e d r i d e r i s t o e r J i s o n e n n r e e a n V e n k a t G a n e s a n G e o r e G e o r i o u A d a H e e r G e o n H a n K e i t P J o n s t o n r i a n A K o r e o u a s R L o d J e n n i e r a n a r d u d d i e u i n s o n a d R P a u i o a s A P e a s a n n R e i e G a r R o e e P e t e r J R o s s k I s a a a n e z r i s t i n e i d t u k u a r a o a s r u s k e t t G r a n t i s o n V i t o r Z a v a a A A us us tin tin A r e a s o s t u d i n u d e : i o e d i a a n d i o e i a e n i n e e r i n n e r r e s o u r e s a n d s u s t a i n a i i t a n o a t e r i a s u r a e e n o e n a a n d a t a s i s P o e r s a n d o e r r o e s s i n e s o a n d o e u a r s a e o d e i n a n d s i u a t i o n a t e r i a s a n d r o e s s e s o r i r o e e t r o n i s s t e s e n i n e e r i n r o e s s o n t r o a n d o t i i z a t i o n A i r a n d a t e r q u a i t a n a e e n t O ur at

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Chemical Engineering Education 308 P. Balbuena, Ph.D. University of Texas, 1996, GPSA Professor Molecular simulation and computational chemistry J.T. Baldwin Ph.D. Texas A&M University, 1968 Process, design, integration, and control J.L. Bradshaw B.S., Texas A&M University, 1960 Process safety D.B. Bukur Ph.D. U. of Minnesota, 1974 Reaction engineering, math methods T. Cagin Ph.D. Clemson University, 1988 Computational materials science and nanotechnology; functional materials for devices and sensors; surface and interface properties of materials Z. Chen Ph.D., University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 2006 Protein engineering and biomolecular engineering Z. Cheng Ph.D., Princeton University, 1999 Nanotechnology M. El-Halwagi Ph.D ., Univ. of California, 1990 McFerrin Professor Environmental remediation & benign processing, process design, integration and control G. Froment Ph.D. University of Gent, Belgium, 1957 Kinetics, catalysis, and reaction engineering C.J. Glover, Ph.D. Rice University, 1974 Materials chemistry, synthesis, and characterization, transport, and interfacial phenomena J. Hahn Ph.D. University of Texas, 2002 Process modeling, analysis, and control; systems biology M. Hahn Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2004 Vocal fold tissue engineering; cell-biomaterial interactions K.R. Hall Ph.D., Univ. of Oklahoma, 1967, Jack E. & Frances Brown Chair Process safety, thermodynamics J.C. Holste Ph.D. Iowa State University, 1973 Thermodynamics M.T. Holtzapple Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1981 Biomedical/biochemical A. Jayaraman Ph.D. University of California, 1998 Biomedical/biochemical H.-K. Jeong Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 2004 Nanomaterials K. Kao Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, 2005 Genomics, systems biology, and biotechnology Y. Kuo Ph.D., Columbia University, 1979, Dow Professor Microelectronics C. Laird Ph.D. Carnegie Mellon University, 2006 Process systems analysis S. Mannan Ph.D. University of Oklahoma, 1986, Mike OConnor Chair I Director, Mary Kay OConnor Process Safety Center, Process safety M. Pishko C.D. Holland Professor & Head Ph.D. University of Texas at Austin,1992 Biosensors, biomaterials, drug delivery J. Seminario Ph.D. Southern Illinois University, 1988 Lanatter and Herbert Fox Professor Molecular simulation and computational chemistry D.F. Shantz Neely Faculty Fellow & Assoc. Head Ph.D. University of Delaware, 2000 Director, Materials Characterization Facility Structure-property relationships of porous materials, synthesis of new porous solids J. Silas Ph.D. University of Delaware, 2002 Biomaterials V. Ugaz K.R. Hall Professor & Assoc. Head Ph.D. Northwestern University, 1999 Microfabricated Bioseparation Systems T.K. Wood Ph.D. North Carolina State University, 1991 Mike OConnor Chair II L. Yurttas Ph.D. Texas A&M University, 1988 Curriculum Reform, Education Texas A&M University Large Graduate Program Approximately 130 Students Strong Ph.D. Program (90% Ph.D. students) Diverse Research Areas Top 10 in Research Funding Quality Living / Work Environment Financial Aid for All Doctoral Students Up to $25,000/yr plus Tuition and Fees and Medical For More Information Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering Dwight Look College of Engineering Texas A&M University College Station, Texas 77843-3122 Phone (979) 845-3361 Web site: http://www.che.tamu.edu RESEARCH AREAS Complex Fluids Biomedical and Biomolecular Environmental Materials Micro-Electronics Micro-Fluids Computational Chemical Engineering Nano-Technology Process Safety Reaction Engineering Thermo-Dynamic

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 309 TEXAS TECH BLEED PLEASE PLACE HERE. OK T O LOSE PAGE NUMBER/FOLIO

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Chemical Engineering Education 310 CHEMICAL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING ABDUL-MAJEED AZAD, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR Ph. D., University of Madras, India Nanomaterials & Ceramics Processing, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells MARIA R. COLEMAN, PROFESSOR Ph. D., University of Texas at Austin Membrane Separations, Bioseparations JOHN P. DISMUKES, PROFESSOR Ph. D., University of Illinois Materials Processing, Managing Technological Innovation ISABEL C. ESCOBAR, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR Ph. D., University of Central Flordia Membrane Fouling and Membrane Modications SALEH JABARIN, PROFESSOR Ph. D., University of Massachusetts Polymer Physical Properties, Orientation & Crystallization DONG-SHIK KIM, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR Ph. D., University of Michigan Biomaterials, Metabolic Pathways, Biomass Energy STEVEN E. LEBLANC, PROFESSOR Ph. D., University of Michigan Process Control, Chemical Engineering Education G. GLENN LIPSCOMB, PROFESSOR AND CHAIR Ph. D., University of California at Berkeley Membrane Separations, Alternative Energy, Education BRUCE E. POLING, PROFESSOR Ph. D., University of Illinois Thermodynamics and Physical Properties CONSTANCE A. SCHALL, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR Ph. D., Rutgers University Biomass conversion, Enzyme kinetics, Crystallization SASIDHAR VARANASI, PROFESSOR Ph. D., State University of New York, Buffalo Colloidal & Interfacial Phenomena, Hydrogels FACULITY The Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering at The University of Toledo offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. We are located in state of the art facilities in Nitschke Hall and our dynamic faculty offer a variety of research opportunities in contemporary areas of chemical engineering. SEND INQUIRIES TO: Graduate Studies Advisor Chemical & Environmental Engineering The University of Toledo College of Engineering 2801 W. Bancroft Street Toledo, Ohio 43606-3390 419.530.8080 www.che.utoledo.edu cheedept@eng.utoledo.edu

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 311 Department Faculty Linda Abriola, Dean of School of Engineering Ph.D. Princeton University Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos Ph.D., University of Minnesota Christos Georgakis Ph.D., University of Minnesota David L. Kaplan Ph.D., Syracuse University Kyongbum Lee Ph.D., M.I.T. Steven Matson Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania Jerry H. Meldon Ph.D., M.I.T. Blaine Pfeifer Ph.D., Stanford University Daniel R. Ryder Ph.D., Worcester Polytechnic Institute Nak-Ho Sung, Department Chair Ph.D., M.I.T. David Vinson Ph.D., Lehigh University Hyunmin Yi Ph.D., University of Maryland Research and Emeritus Faculty Gregory D. Botsaris Ph.D., M.I.T. Aurelie Edwards Ph.D., M.I.T. Howard Saltsburg Ph.D., Boston University Ken Van Wormer Ph.D., M.I.T. In 2000, Tufts became the first chemical engineering department in the nation to recognize the evolving inte rdisciplinary nature of the field by integrating biological engineering into its curriculum. Today, Tufts is nationally recognized for excellence in technological innovation, novel research, and superior faculty. Tufts offers ME, MS, and PhD degrees in chemical engineering or biotechnology engineering. Graduate students enjoy a broad arts and sciences environment with all the advantages of a research university, such as opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration with the Universitys leading medical and veterinary schools. Tufts University Chemical and Biological Engineering Science & Technology Center 4 Colby Street, Room 148 Medford, MA 02155 Phone: 617-627-3900; Fax: 617-627-3991 E-mail: chbe@tufts.edu Research Areas: Metabolic Engineering, Biotechnology Materials, Biomaterials, Colloids Process Control Reaction Kinetics, Catalysis Energy and Environmental Engineering Transport Phenomena

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Chemical Engineering Education 312 Faculty and Research AreasHenry S. Ashbaugh Classical Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics Molecular Simulation Solution Thermodynamics Multi-Scale Modeling of Self-Assembly and Nanostructured Materials Daniel C.R. DeKee Rheology of Natural and Synthetic Polymers Constitutive Equations Transport Phenomena and Applied Mathematics W T. Godbey Gene Delivery Cellular Engineering Molecular Aspects of Nonviral Transfection Biomaterials Vijay T. John Biomimetic and Nanostructured Materials Interfacial Phenom ena Polymer-Ceramic Composites Surfactant Science Victor J. Law Modeling Environmental Systems Nonlinear Optimization and Regression Transport Phenomena Numerical Methods Brian S. Mitchell Fiber Technology Materials Processing Composites Kim C. OConnor Animal-Cell Technology Organ/Tissue Regeneration Re combinant Protein Expression Kyriakos D. Papadopoulos Colloid Stability Coagulation Transport of MultiPhase Systems Through Porous Media Colloidal Interactions Noshir S. Pesika Nanomaterial Synthesis and Characterization Surface Functionalization and Rheology Bio-inspired Materials Surface Science; Electrochemistry. Lawrence R. Pratt Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics Theory of Liquids and Solutions Molecular Biology Electrochemical Capacitors and Electrical Energy Storage Systems Statistical Methods in Computational Science, Especially Molecular Simulation For Additional Information, Please Contact Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Tulane University New Orleans, LA 70118 Phone (504) 865-5772 E-mail chemeng@tulane.edu Tulane is located in a quiet, residential area of New Orleans, approximately six miles from the world-famous French Quarter. The department currently enrolls approximately 40 full-time graduate students. Graduate fellowships include a tuition waiver plus stipend. Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 313 Engineering the World The University of Tulsa The University of Tulsa is Oklahomas oldest and largest independent university. Approximately disciplines. Tulsa, Oklahoma Off-campus activities abound in Tulsa, one of the nations most livable cities. Our temperate climate, with four distinct seasons, is perfect for year-round outdoor activities. With a metropolitan popula tion of 888,000, the city of Tulsa affords opportunities for students to gain internship and work enjoy world-class ballet, symphony and theatre performances, and exhibits in the cultural communi ty. Annual events include Mayfest, Oktoberfest, the Chili Cook-off and Bluegrass Festival, the Tulsa Run, and the Jazz and Blues festivals. Chemical Engineering at TU TU enjoys a solid international reputation for expertise in the energy industry, and offers materials, environmental and biochemical programs. The department places particular emphasis on experimen tal research, and is proud of its strong contact with industry. The department offers a traditional Ph.D. program and three masters programs: Master of Science degree (thesis program) Master of Engineering degree (a professional degree that can be completed in 18 months without a thesis) Special Masters degree for nonchemical engineering undergraduates Financial aid is available, including fellowships and research assistantships. The Faculty S.A. Cremaschi Engineering complex systems, optimization under uncertainty D.W. Crunkleton Alternative energy, transport phenomena L.P. Ford Kinetics of dry etching of metals, surface science T. W. Johannes Directed evolution, biocatalysis, biosynthesis, metabolic engineering K.D. Luks Thermodynamics, phase equilibria F.S. Manning Industrial pollution control, surface processing of petroleum C.L. Patton Thermodynamics, applied mathematics G.L. Price Zeolites, heterogeneous catalysis K.L. Sublette Bioremediation, biological waste treatment, ecological risk assessment K.D. Wisecarver Further Information Graduate Program Director Chemical Engineering Department The University of Tulsa 800 South Tucker Drive Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104-3189 Phone (918) 631-2227 Fax (918) 631-3268 E-mail: chegradadvisor@utulsa.edu Graduate School application: 1-800-882-4723

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Chemical Engineering Education 314 Vanderbilt University DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERING Graduate Study Leading to a M.S. and Ph.D. Degree Graduate work in chemical engineering provides an opportu nity for study and research at the cutting edge to contribute to shaping a new model of what chemical engineering is and what chemical engineers do At Vanderbilt University we offer a broad range of research opportunities in chemical engineering. Focus areas include: Adsorption and nanoporous materials Alternative energy and biofuels Biomaterials and tissue engineering Computational molecular engineering and nanoscience Nanoparticles for d rug and gene delivery Surface modification and molecular self assembly Microelectronic and ultra high temperature materials To find out more visit: http://www.che.vanderbilt.edu/ Located in Nashville, Tennessee, which is one of the most vibrant and cosmopolitan mid sized cities in the United States, Vanderbilt is a selective, comp rehensive teaching and research university. Ten schools offer both an outstanding undergraduate and a full range of graduate and professional programs. With a pres tigious faculty of more than 2,8 00 full time and 300 part time members, Van derbilt attracts a diverse s tudent body of approxim ately 6,500 undergraduates and 5,3 00 graduate and professional students from all 50 states and over 90 foreign countries Peter T. Cummings (Ph.D., University of Melbourne) Computational nanoscience and nanoengineering; molecular modeling of fluid and amorphous systems; parallel computing; cell based models of cancer tumor growth Kenneth A. Debelak (Ph.D., University of Kentu cky) Development of plant wide control algorithms; intelligent process control; activity modeling; effect of changing particle structures in gas solid reactions; environmentally benign chemical p rocesses; mixing in bioreactors Robert D. Geil ( Ph.D., Vanderbilt University) Chemical and physical vapor deposition; reactive ion etching; thin film characterization; high k dielectrics; polymer barrier layers Scott A. Guelcher (Ph.D., Ca rnegie Mellon University) Biomaterials; bone tissue engineering; polymer synthesis and character ization; drug and gene delivery G. Kane Jennings (Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Molecular and surface engineering; polymer thin films; solar en ergy co nversion; tribology; fuel cells Paul E. Laibinis (Ph.D., Harvard University) Self assembly; surface engineering; interfaces; chemical sensor desi gn; biosurfaces; nanotechnology M. Douglas LeVan (Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley) Novel adsorbent materials; adsorption equilibria; mass transfer in nanoporous materials; adsorption and membrane processes. Clare McCabe (Ph.D., University of Sheffield) Molecular modeling of complex fluids and materials; biological self assembly; mo lecular rheology and tribology; molecu lar theory and phase equilibria Peter N. Pintauro (Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles) Electrochemical engineering; membrane development for hydrogen, methanol, and alkaline fuel cells; i on uptake and transport models for ion exchange membranes; organic electrochemical synthesis Bridget R. Rogers (Ph.D., Arizona State University) Surfaces, interfaces, and films of microelectronic and u ltra high temperature materials; d etermination of process/prop erty/ performance relationships Jamey D. Young (Ph.D., Purdue University) Metabolic engineering; systems biology; diabetes, obesity and metabolic disorders; tumor metabolism; autotrophic metabolism For more information: Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Email: chegrad@vanderbilt.edu

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 315 The educational philosophy of the department reflects a commitment to continuin g the Jeffersonian ideal of students and faculty students and faculty as equal part ners in the pursuit of knowledge. knowledge Giorgio Carta PhD University of Delaware Adsorption, ion exchange, protein chromatography, biochemical engineering Robert J. Davis PhD, Stanford University Heterogeneous catalysis, reaction kinetics, conversion of renewable resources Erik J. Fernandez PhD, University of California, Berkeley Purification and aggregation of protein therapeutics, molecular aspects of Alzheimers disease Roseanne M. Ford PhD, University of Pennsylvania Environmental remediation, microbial transport in porous media David L. Green, PhD University of Maryland, College Park Reaction engineering of nanoparticles, rheology of complex nanoparticle suspensions. John L. Hudson PhD, Northwestern University Engineering complex dynamics in reacting systems: applications to electrochemistry, biology, and medicine Donald J. Kirwan PhD, University of Delaware Mass transfer and separations, crystallization, biochemical engineering Inchan Kwon PhD, California Institute of Technology Molecular and cellular engineering in biopharmaceutical, gene delivery and stem cell research Steven McIntosh, PhD, University of Pennsylvania Solid oxide fuel cells, advanced materials, heterogeneous catalysis, electrochemistry Matthew Neurock, PhD, University of Delaware Molecular modeling, computational heterogeneous catalysis, kinetics of complex reaction systems John P. OConnell PhD, University of California, Berkeley Molecular theory, thermodynamic modeling and process simulation with applications to separations and hydrogen manufacture Michael R. Shirts PhD, Stanford University Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Graduate Admissions Dept. of Chemical Engineering P.O. Box 400741 cheadmis@virginia.edu Visit us at our website: www.che.virginia.edu Molecular modeling, thermodynamics and sta tistical mechanics of complex fluids, pharmaceutical design, nanomolecular self-assembly

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Chemical Engineering Education 316 Chemical Engineering at Virginia Tech Faculty . Luke E.K. Achenie (Carnegie Mellon) Modeling of chemical and biological systems Y.A. Liu (Princeton) Pollution prevention and computer-aided design Donald G. Baird (Wisconsin) Polymer processing, non-Newtonian fluid mechanics Eva Marand (Massachusetts) Transport through polymer membranes, advanced materials for separations David F. Cox (Florida) Catalysis, ultrahigh va cuum surface science Stephen M. Martin (Minnesota) Soft materials, self-a ssembly, interfaces Christopher J. Cornelius (Virginia Tech) Hybrid organic-inorganic materials, sol-gel chemistry, self-assembly Abby W. Morgan (Illinois) Tissue engineering, controlled release of proteins Richey M. Davis (Princeton) Colloids and polymer chemistry, nanostructured materials S. Ted Oyama (Stanford) Heterogeneous catalysis and new materials William A. Ducker (Australian Natl. Univ.) Colloidal forces, surfactant self-assembly, atomic force microscopy Padma Rajagopalan (Brown) Polymeric biomaterials, cell and tissue engineering Aaron S. Goldstein (Carnegie Mellon) Tissue engineering, interfacial phenomena in bioengineering John Y. Walz [Dept. Head] (Carnegie Mellon) Colloidal stability, interparticle forces Erdogan Kiran (Princeton) Supercritical fluids, polymer science, high pressure techniques For further information write or call the dire ctor of graduate studies or visit our webpage Department of Chemical Engineering 133 Randolph Hall, Virginia Tech Blacksburg VA 24061 Telephone: 540-231-5771 Fax: 540-231-5022 e-mail: chegrad@vt.edu http://www.che.vt.edu

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 317 with t. with Rim of is of of top is #1 to UW (CNT) & (UC C. (UC (UC R. Holt M. Switz.) Pozzo D. N. (UC T. (UC M. of of

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Chemical Engineering Education 318 Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering Masters and doctoral programs in WSUs School of Chemical Engineer ing and Bioengineering offer you a world-class environment for research and scholarship with a comprehensive graduate curriculum and highest quality faculty members to lead you. The program is closely aligned with industry and government interests that often lead to professional career opportunities. Our emphases in engineering for health and energy involve you in such projects as biotreatment of hazardous contamination, diagnostic medical devices, and conversion of biomaterials into fuels and chemicals. Facilities Facilities include the Engineering Teaching and Research Laboratory in Pullman and state-of-the-art laboratories such as the O.H. Reaugh Laboratory for Oil and Gas Processing in Pullman and the Bioproducts Science and Engineering Laboratory in Richland. Student Life Pullmans residential campus offers single and family housing for graduate students. Families with children have access to highly rated K-12 schools. Outdoor and recreational activities abound in the nearby mountains, rivers, and forests. Students may belong to the Graduate and Professional Student Association and numerous other student societies. About WSU Washington State University is a land-grant research university founded in Pullman in 1890. It enrolls more than 20,000 students at four campuses and numerous Learning Centers throughout the state. As many as 100 advanced degrees are offered from 70 graduate programs within its eight colleges. Faculty Nehal Abu-Lail Ph.D. Worcester Polytechnic Institute, microbial biolms, bacterial adhesion, emerging contaminants, environmental microbiology Haluk Beyenal, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, biolms, bioenergy and its applications, bioremediation Denny C. Davis Ph.D. Cornell University, engineering education K-college, transferable assessments for Engineering Capstone Design courses, mathematics education in high schools Wenji Dong, Ph.D. University of London, cardiac muscle biology and mechanics, protein chemistry and engineering, uorescence techniques, computer modeling Su Ha, Ph.D. University of Illinois, bio-fuels and natural gases, liquid organic fuel cells, producing electrical power using natural enzymes Cornelius Ivory, Ph.D. Princeton University, biological separations, electrophoresis and electrochromatography, fractionation of organelles from S. cerevisiae, protein transport in ion exchange resins Faculty (continued) James M. Lee, Ph.D. University of Kentucky, transgenic plant cell suspension cultures for production and secretion of biologically active mammalian proteins KNona C. Liddell, Ph.D. Iowa State University, electropolymerization and characterization of conducting polymers, electrodeposition of thin layer magnetic materials David C. Lin, Ph.D. Northwestern University, integrated mechanical properties of skeletal muscle and spinal reexes Reid Miller, Ph.D. University of California Berkeley, industrial ecology and environmental protection, international education and development programs James Petersen, Ph.D. Iowa State University, kinetics of microbial remediation of environmental contaminants, kinetics of microbial transformation of biomass to higher value fuels and chemicals Bernard J. Van Wie, Ph.D. Oklahoma University, biosensors and bioanalytical platforms, bioprocessing, co-inventor of novel centrifugal bioreactor process Anita N. Vasavada, Ph.D. Northwestern University, human movement disorders, head and neck biomechanics, whiplash injury Richard Zollars, Ph.D. University of Colorado, bioseparations, chemical engineering, interfacial phenomena, surface and colloid science Contacts School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering chedept@che.wsu.edu www.che.wsu.edu James Petersen, Director ChEBE, 509-335-4332 Cornelius Ivory, Graduate Studies Coordinator, 509-335-7716 WSU Graduate School 509-335-1446 gradsch@wsu.edu www.gradsch@wsu.edu 6/08 124034

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 319 Graduate Study in the Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering Washington University in St. LouisM.S. and Ph.D Programs Dept. of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering The department has a focus on environmental engineering science, energy systems, and chemical engineering. The department provides integrated and multidisciplinary programs of scientific education. Our mission is accomplished by: Instilling a tradition of life-long learning A curriculum of fundamental education coupled with application in an advanced focal area and strengthened by our breadth in other disciplinary areas Participation in cutting-edge research with faculty and industrial partners Access to state-of-the-art facilities and instrumentation The basic degree is an undergraduate degree in chemical engineering. Graduate degrees (Master of Science, Doctor of Science, and Doctor of Philosophy) are offered in Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering on completion of a course of study and research work. Professional Masters degrees with tracks in Energy and Environmental Management, International Development are also offered. A minor is offered to undergraduate students interested in environmental engineering and can be selected by any engineering or science student. The program is also affiliated with the Environmental Studies Program. M. Al-Dahhan Chemical Reaction Engineering, Multiphase Reactors, Mass Transfer, Process Engineering R. Axelbaum Nanoparticle Synthesis, Combustion Engineering P. Biswas Aerosol Science & Technology, Environmental & Energy Nanotechnology D. Chen Particle Measurement & Instrumentation, Aerosol Science Technology M. Dudukovic Multiphase Reaction Engineering, Tracer Meth ods, Environmental Engineering D. Giammar Aquatic Chemistry, Water Quality Engineering, Fate & Transport of Inorganic Contaminants J. Gleaves Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surface Science, Micro structured Materials R. Husar Environmental Informatics, Aerosol Pattern & Trend Analysis Y.S. Jun Aquatic Processes, Molecular issues in Chemical Kinetics C. Lo Aquatic Processes, Biomineral Structure & Reactivity at Environmental Interfaces H. Pakrasi Systems Biology P. Ramachandran Chemical Reaction Engineering, Boundary Element Methods R. Sureshkumar Complex Fluids Dynamics, Interfacial Nano structures, Multiscale Modeling & Simulations Y. Tang Metabolomics, Systems Biology J. Turne r Environmental Reaction Engineering, Air Quality Policy & Analysis, Aerosol Science & Technology Graduate Admissions Committee, Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering One Brookings Dr. Campus Box 1180 St. Louis, MO 63130-4899 www.eec.wustl.edu eec@wustl.edu 314-935-6070 Fax: 314-935-5464

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Chemical Engineering Education 320 For further information, write or phone The Associate Chair (Graduate Studies), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 Phone (519) 888-4567, ext. 32484 Fax (519) 746-4979 e-mail at gradinfo.che@uwaterloo.ca or visit our website at http://cape.uwaterloo.ca UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering The Department of Chemical Engineering is one of the largest in Canada offering a wide range of graduate programs. Full-time and part-time M.A.Sc. programs are available. Full-time and part-time coursework M.Eng. programs are available. Ph.D. programs are available in all research areas. RESEARCH GROUPS AND PROFESSORS: 1. Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering: Bill Anderson, Marc Aucoin, Pu Chen, Perry Chou, Eric Jervis, Christine Moresoli, Raymond Legge 2. Interfacial Phenomena, Colloids and Porous Media: John Chatzis, Mario Ioannidis, Pu Chen, Mark Pritzker, Rajinder Pal 3. Green Reaction Engineering: Bill Anderson, Amit Chakma, Eric Croiset, Bill Epling, Michael Fowler, Flora Ng, Garry Rempel, Qinmin Pan, Mark Pritzker. 4. Nanotechnology: Pu Chen, Frank Gu, Dale Henneke, Leonardo Simon, Michael Tam and Ting Tsui. 5. Process Control, Statistics and Optimization: Hector Budman, Peter Douglas, Tom Duever, Ali Elkamel, Alex Pen lidis, Mark Pritzker. 6. Polymer Science and Engineering: Tom Duever, Xianshe Feng, Mike Fowler, Neil McManus, Qinmin Pan, Alex Penlidis, Garry Rempel, Leonardo Simon, Joao Soares, Costas Tzoganakis. 7. Separation Processes: Amit Chakma, John Chatzis, Pu Chen, Xianshe Feng, Christine Moresoli, Flora Ng, Qinmin Pan, Mark Pritzker. Challenging Research in Novel Areas of Chemical Engineering: Our professors offer research projects in:> Nanotechnology and nano-materials > Biomaterials with applications to drug delivery and tissue Engineering > Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering > Catalysis > Composite Materials > Fuel Cells > Green Reaction Engineering > Interfacial Phenomena/Membrane Technology > Polymer engineering > Process Control and Statistics > Separation Processes FINANCIAL SUPPOR T; for graduate students is available in the form of: Research Assistantships Teaching Assistantships Entrance Scholarships ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS: Undergraduate Degree in Engineer ing or Science. FOR SCIENCE STUDENTS: No additional courses are required from applicants with an undergraduate degree in Science.

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 321 F a cul t y S ushant A g a r wal W est V irginia Uni v ersi t y B r ian J Anderson Mass a c husetts Institute of T e c hnolo g y Eung H C ho Uni v ersi t y of U tah Eu g ene V Cilent o Dean Uni v ersi t y of Cincinatti D a dy B D a d y burjo r C hair Uni v ersi t y of Delawa r e Robin S F a r mer Uni v ersi t y of Delawa r e R akesh K G upta Uni v ersi t y of Delawa r e E l liot B Kennel O hio S tate Uni v ersi t y David J K link e I I N o r th w este r n Uni v ersi t y Edwin L K ugler J o hns Ho p kins Uni v ersi t y R ui f eng Liang Institute of Chemist r y C AS Jose p h A S h a eiwitz Ca r negie Me l l o n Uni v ersi t y Alf r ed H S t i l ler Uni v ersi t y of Cincinatti C ha r ter D S t inesp r ing W est V irginia Uni v ersi t y Ri c ha r d T u r ton O r e go n S tate Uni v ersi t y R a y Y K Y ang P r incet o n Uni v ersi t y W u Zhang Uni v ersi t y of L o nd o n J o hn W Z on d lo Ca r negie Me l l o n Uni v ersi t y C o me Explo r e C hemi c al En g inee me Explo inee me Explo r ing me Explo ing me Explo MS and P hD P r og r ams Resea r c h A r eas In c lude: Bi o enginee r in g S y stems Biolo g y Biomate r ials T issue Enginee r ing Ca r b on P r o ducts f r om Coal Cata l y sis and Re a c t ion Enginee r ing E lec t r onic Mate r ials N anos t r uc t u r es F luidP a r t i c le S ciences F uel Ce l ls Molecular D y namics and M o deling Mul t iP hase F l o w N an o com p osites N anopa r t i c les N a t u r al-Gas H y d r ates P a r t i c le Coa t ing / Agglome r a t ion P hase E quilib r ia P o l y mer Rheolo g y S epa r a t ion P r o cesses Resea r c h Assistantships F e l l o wships Ba y er F e l l o wships (in c ludes inte r nships) F inancial Aid F or Appli c a t ion In f o r ma t ion W r ite P r o f essor B r ian Anderson G r a duate A dmission Committee Depa r t ment of Chemi c al Enginee r ing PO B o x 6102 W est V irginia Uni v ersi t y Morgant o wn WV 26506-6102 304-293-2111 e x 2418 c he-in f o@mail.wvu.edu h t t p: / /ww w c h e .cem r wv u .edu

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2008 323

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Chemical Engineering Education 324 Eric Altman, Ph.D. Pennsylvania Menachem Elimelech, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins Gary L. Haller, Ph.D. Northwestern Michael Loewenberg, Ph.D. Cal Tech Jodie Lutkenhaus, Ph.D. M.I.T. William Mitch, Ph.D. University of California Chinedum Osuji, Ph.D. M.I.T. Jordan Peccia, Ph.D. University of Colorado Lisa D. Pfefferle, Ph.D. Pennsylvania Daniel E. Rosner, Ph.D. Princeton Andr T aylor, Ph.D. University of Michigan Paul V an T assel, Ph.D. University of Minnesota Corey Wilson, Ph.D. Rice University Julie Zimmerman, Ph.D. University of Michigan Joint Appointments Thom as Graedel (School of Forestr y & Environmental Studies) Kurt Zilm ( Chemistry ) Mark Saltzman (Biomedical Engineering ) Biomolecular Engineering Bioseparation Processes Catalysis Chemical Reaction Engineering Combustion Environmental Engineering Microbiology Environmental Physio-chemical Processes Fine Particle Technology Interfacial and Colloidal Phenomena Membrane Separations Materials Synthesis and Processing Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials Multiphase Transport Phenomena Soft Nanomaterials Surface Science

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 325 BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITYGraduate Studies in Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Degree Programs For further information See our website at: http://www.et.byu.edu/cheme/ Contact: Graduate Coordinator Dept. of Chemical Engineering P.O. Box 24100 Brigham Young University Provo, UT 84602 (801) 422-2586 Financial Support Available BYU Study in an uplifting, intellectual, social, and spiritual environmentFaculty and Research Interests Larry L. Baxter (BYU) combustion of fossil and renewable fuels Thomas H. Fletcher (BYU) pyrolysis and combustion Hugh B. Hales (MIT) reservoir simulation John H. Harb (Illinois) coal combustion, electrochemical engineering William C. Hecker (UC Berkeley) kinetics and catalysis Thomas A. Knotts (University of Wisconsin) molecular modeling Randy S. Lewis ( MIT ) biochemical and biomedical engineering John L. Oscarson (Michigan) calorimetry and thermodynamics William G. Pitt (Wisconsin) materials science Richard L. Rowley (Michigan State) thermophysical properties Kenneth A. Solen (Wisconsin) biomedical engineering Dean R. Wheeler (Berkeley) molecular electrochemistry W. Vincent Wilding (Rice) thermodynamics, environmental engineering BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY Master of Science in Chemical Engineering Bucknell is a highly selective private institution that combines a nation ally ranked undergraduate engineer ing program with the rich learning environment of a small liberal arts college. For study at the Masters level, the department offers state-ofthe-art facilities for both experimental and computational work, and faculty dedicated to providing individualized training and collaboration in a wide array of research areas. Nestled in the heart of the scenic Susquehanna Valley in central Pennsyl vania, Lewisburg is located in an ideal environment for a variety of outdoor activities and is within a three-to-four hour drive of several metropolitan centers, including New York, Phila delphia, Baltimore, Washington, D.C., and Pittsburgh. J. Csernica Chair (PhD, M.I.T.) M.D. Gross (PhD, Pennsylvania) Electrochemistry and fuel cell, catalysis M.E. Hanyak (PhD, Pennsylvania) Process analysis, multimedia courseware design E.L. Jablonski (PhD, Iowa Stte) W.E. King (PhD, Pennsylvania) Photodynamic therapy, hemodialysis J.E. Maneval (PhD, U.C. Davis) NMR methods, membrane and novel separations M.J. Prince (PhD, U.C. Berkeley) Environmental barriers, instructional design T.M. Raymond (PhD, Carnegie Mellon) Atmospheric science, organic aerosols, air pollution M.A.S. Vigeant (PhD, Virginia) Bacterial adhesions to surfaces B.M. Vogel (PhD, Iowa State) Biomaterials, polymer chemistry K. Wakabayashi (PhD, Princeton) Polymer hybrid materials, sustainable processing For further information, contact Professor Kat Wakabayashi Chemical Engineering Department Bucknell University Lewisburg, PA 17837 Phone 570-577-1114 kat.wakabayashi@bucknell.edu http://www.bucknell.edu/graduatestudies

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Chemical Engineering Education 326 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering Faculty and Research Areas IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK Financial Assistance is Available For Further Information, go to www.cheme.columbia.edu Columbia University New York, NY 10027 (212) 854-4453 S. BANTA Protein Engineering, Metabolic Engineering M. BORDEN Colloids, Interfaces, Membranes, Biomedical Devices C. J. DURNING Polymer Physical Chemistry G. FLYNN Physical Chemistry C. C. GRYTE Polymer Science, Separation Processes, Pharmaceutical Engineering J. JU Genomics J. KOBERSTEIN Polymers, Biomaterials, Surfaces, Membranes S.K. KUMAR Polymer Science E. F. LEONARD Biomedical Engineering, Transport Phenomena V. FAYE MCNEILL Environmental Chemical Engineering, Atmospheric Chemistry, Aerosols B. OSHAUGHNESSY Polymer Physics N. SHAPLEY Complex Fluids, Biological Transport N. TURRO Supramolecular Photochemistry, Interface Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry A. C. WEST E lectrochemical Engineering, Mathematical Modeling Florida A&M University Florida State University COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MS/PhD in Chemical and Biomedical Engineering Biomass and Energy Processing Plasma Reaction Engineering Cellular and Tissue Engineering Biomedical Imaging Nanoscale Science and Engineering Polymers and Complex Fluids Multiscale Theory, Modeling and Simulation Biomass and Energy Processing Plasma Reaction Engineering Biomass and Energy Processing Biomass and Energy Processing Research Areas Faculty 850.410.6149

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 327 Mobolaji E. Aluko, Professor PhD, University of California, Santa Barbara Reactor analysis and modeling crystallization microelectronic and ceramic materials processing process control Joseph N. Cannon, Professor PhD, University of Colorado Ramesh C. Chawla, Professor and Chair PhD, Wayne State University Mass transfer and kinetics in environmental systems bioremediation incineration air and water pollution control Jason C. Ganley, Assistant Professor PhD, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Fuel cells energy research membrane science Robert J. Lutz, Visiting Professor PhD, University of Pennsylvania Biomedical engineering hemodynamics drug delivery pharmacokinetics James W. Mitchell, Packard Professor of Material Science PhD, Iowa State University, Ames Nanoscience and nanotechnology nanomaterials processing materials science nanobiomaterials John P. Tharakan, Professor PhD, University of California, San Diego Bioprocess engineering protein separations biological hazardous waste management bio-environmental engineering Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering Howard University, 2300 6 th Street NW, LKD 1009, Washington, DC 20059 Phone (202) 806-4811 Fax (202) 806-4635 http://www.howard.edu/ceacs/departments/chemical A mo dern graduate program dedicated to fundamental education and cutting-edge interdisciplinary research on an eighty-nine acre campus in the heart of the Nations capital, Washingto n, DC. Master of Science in Chemical Engineering Program For further information, contact HOWARD UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering at University of IdahoW. Admassu Synthetic Membranes for Gas Separations, Biochemical Engineering with Environmental ApplicationsE. Aston Surface Science, Thermodynamics, MicroelectronicsD.C. Drown Process Design, Computer Application Modeling, Process Economics and Optimization with Emphasis on Food Processing D. Edwards Autonomous Vehicles, Battery ResearchL.L. Edwards Computer Aided Process Design, Systems Analysis, Pulp/Paper Engineer ing, Numerical Methods and OptimizationR.A. Korus Polymers, Biochemical EngineeringJ.Y Park Chemical Reaction Analysis and Catalysis, Laboratory Reactor Develop ment, Thermal Plasma Systems S. Phongikaroon Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Spent Fuel Treatment (Idaho Falls Campus)A. Thomas Transport Phenomena, Fluid Flow, Separation MagnetohydrodynamicsV Utgikar Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Chem/Bio Remediation, Kinetics (Idaho Falls campus)M. V on Braun Hazardous Waste Site Analysis, Computer MappingFor Further Information and Application write: Graduate Advisor, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844-1021 or e-mail jrattey@uidaho.edu or jkidd@uidaho.edu Web page: www.uidaho.edu/che Phone: 208 The Department has a highly active research program covering a wide range of interests. The northern Idaho region offers a year-round complement of outdoor activities including hiking, white water rafting, skiing and camping.

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Chemical Engineering Education 328 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING For further information, please write Graduate Admissions Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Lamar University P. O. Box 10053 Beaumont, TX 77710 D. H. CHEN (Ph.D., Oklahoma State University) D. L. COCKE (Ph.D., Texas A&M University) J. L. GOSSAGE (Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology) Z.H. GUO (Ph.D., Louisiana State University) T C. HO (Ph.D., Kansas State University) J. R. HOPPER (Ph.D., Louisiana State University) K. Y LI (Ph.D., Mississippi State University) SIDNEY LIN (Ph.D., University of Houson) H. H. LOU (Ph.D., Wayne State University) P. RICHMOND ( Ph.D., Texas A&M University R. T ADMOR (Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science) Q. XU (Ph.D., Tsing Hua University) C. L. Y AWS (Ph.D., University of Houston) Master of Engineering Master of Engineering Science Master of Environmental Engineering Doctor of Engineering Ph.D. of Chemical Engineering Process Simulation, Control and Optimization Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering Air Quality Modeling, Fluidization Engineering Transport Properties, Mass Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions Computer-Aided Design, Henrys Law Constant Thermodynamic Properties, Water Solubility Air Pollution, Bioremediation, Waste Minimization Sustainability, Pollution Prevention Fuel Cell Applications Polymer Nanocomposite Fabrication and Applications FACUL TY RESEARCH AREAS LAMAR UNIVERSITY

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 329 Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Write to: Graduate Program Director Chemical Engineering Department University of Louisville Louisville, KY 40292 Inquiries can be addressed via Electronic Mail to: chemicalengineering@louisville.edu Louisville University of RESEARCH AREAS Biotechnology Polymers Rapid Prototyping Nanotechnology Advanced Materials Chemical Vapor Deposition Bioprocessing Environmental Colloidal Sciences Biosensors Bioseparations Nanochemistry Catalysis Alternative Fuels Renewable Energy Facilities include state-of-the-art Materials Characterization and Biotechnology Laboratories, Rapid Prototyping Center and Class 100/1000 Clean Room for Microelectronics Synthesis. R. Eric Berson Moises A. Carreon X. Sean Fu Kyung A. Kang Thomas L. Starr Mahendra K. Sunkara James C. Watters David W. Wheatley Gerold A. WillingFACUL TY Michigan Technological University www.mtu.edu Contact . Department of Chemical Engineering Michigan Technological University 1400 Townsend Drive Houghton, MI 49931-1295 Phone: 906/487-3132 Fax: 906/487-3213 Michigan Technological University is an equal opportunity educational institution/equal opportunity employer. Catalysis, ceramic processing, reactor design Joseph H. Holles; Assistant Professor PhD, University of Virginia, 2000 Chemical process safety Daniel A. Crowl; Professor PhD, Illinois, 1975; Herbert Henry Dow Chair of Chemical Process Safety Demixing-polymerization, polymer materials Gerard T. Caneba; Professor PhD, California-Berkeley, 1985Environmental and biochemical engineering David R. Shonnard; Professor PhD, California-Davis, 1991Environmental reaction engineering Jason M. Keith; Associate Professor PhD, University of Notre Dame, 2000Environmental thermodynamics Tony N. Rogers; Associate Professor PhD, Michigan Tech, 1994Extractive metallurgy, waste management, particle separations Carl C. Nesbitt; Associate Professor PhD, University of Nevada-Reno, 1990Materials Utilization John F. Sandell; Associate Professor PhD, Michigan Tech, 1995 Particulate processing, size reductions, solid waste S. Komar Kawatra; Chair and Professor PhD, Queensland, 1974 Polymers, composites Julia A. King; Professor PhD, Wyoming, 1989 Faith A. Morrison; Associate Professor PhD, Massachusetts-Amherst, 1988 Process and plant design Bruce A. Barna: Professor PhD, New Mexico State, 1985 Process control, neural networks, fuzzy logic control Tomas B. Co; Associate Professor PhD, Massachusetts-Amherst, 1988Reactor design, thermodynamics, materials Michael E. Mullins; Professor PhD, University of Rochester, 1983T echnical Communications M. Sean Clancey; Lecturer PhD, Michigan Technological University, 1998 education with the beautiful surroundings of the Keweenaw Peninsula. Michigan Tech is a top-sixty public na tional university, according to U.S. News and World Report MTUs enrollment is approxi mately 6,300 with 640 graduate students.

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Chemical Engineering Education 330 OSU Oregon State University School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical and Environmental Engineering For additional information, please visit www.che.oregonstate.edu or call (541) 737-4791 Department Research Areas Biomaterials Bioprocessing Education & Outreach Microelectronics Processing Microtechnology-based Energy and Chemical Systems (MECS) Distinguished Faculty Michelle Bothwell Biointerfacial Phenomena Bioengineering Ethics Chih-hung Chang Semiconductor Materials, Nanotechnology Integrated Chemical Systems Mark Dolan Biological Remediation of Groundwater Adam Higgins Cell & Tissue Preservation Goran Jovanovic Microscale Chemical & Biosensor Devices Nanotechnology Christine Kelly Biotechnology Shoichi Kimura Reaction Engineering Bioceramics Milo Koretsky Electronic Materials Processing Nanotechnology Keith Levien Process Optimization & Control Supercritical Fluids Technology Joseph McGuire Biointerfacial Phenomena, Biomaterials Jeff Nason Physical/Chemical Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment Skip Rochefort Polymer Processing, Education & Outreach Gregory Rorrer Biochemical Reaction, Engineering Lewis Semprini Biological Remediation of Groundwater Dorthe Wildenschild Transport Theory & Applications Stochastic Subsurface Hydrology Kenneth Williamson Bioengineering, Environmental Systems Brian Wood Transport Theory & Application Stochastic Subsurface Hydrology Alexandre Yokochi Advanced Materials Collaborative ResearchA diversity if faculty interests in the department, broadened and reinforced by cooperation with other engineering departments and research centers on campus such as ONAMI Research Center (Oregon Nanoscience and Microtechnologies Institute), the Center for Micro Biosphere, and the Center for Gene Research and Biotechnology, makes tailored individual programs possible. Competitive research and teach ing assistantships are available. and research. As Oregons Land, Sea, and Space Grant institution, we

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 331 U NIVERSITY OF Rhode Island Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering (M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees) Current Areas of Interest: Biochemical Engineering (Barnett, Rivero) Bionanotechnology (Bothun) Colloidal Phenomena (Bose) Corrosion (Brown) Environmental Eng. (Barnett, Gray) Fuel Cells (Knickle) Molecular Simulations (Greenfield) Pollution Prevention (Barnett) Process Simulation (Lucia) Sensors, Forensics, Thin Films (Gregory) For information and applications, apply to: Chair, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rhode Island Kingston, RI 02881 E-mail: moyer@egr.uri.edu DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FOR INFORMATION WRITE Dr. David Miller Department Graduate Advisor Chemical Engineering Department Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology Terre Haute, IN 47803-3999 M.R. Anklam, Ph.D., Princeton Polymers, Separations, Chromatography R.S. Artigue, D.E., Tulane D.G. Coronell, Ph.D., MIT Kinetics, Catalysis, Materials M.H. Hariri, Ph.D., Manchester, U.K. Petrochemicals, Safety and Loss Prevention S.J. McClellan, Ph.D., Purdue Colloidal Interfacial Phenomena D.C. Miller, Ph.D., Ohio State Process Systems Engineering S.G. Sauer, Ph.D., Rice Thermodynamics, Statistical Mechanics A. Serbezov, Ph.D., Rochester Adsorption, Process Control EMERITUS FACULTY C.F. Abegg, Ph.D., Iowa State W.B. Bowden, Ph.D., Purdue J.A. Caskey, Ph.D., Clemson S. Leipziger, Ph.D., I.I.T. N.E. Moore, Ph.D., Purdue

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Chemical Engineering Education 332 L ocated in downtown Toronto, Canadas largest city, Ryerson has 20, 000 full-time students. Graduate studies leading to M.A.Sc., M.Eng., and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering are available. Finan cial support through scholarships, research and/or teaching assistantships is available For more information, contact: Chemical Engineering Graduate Program Administrator School of Graduate Studies 350 Victoria Street Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5B 2K3 Phone: (416) 979-5000, ext. 7790 Fax: (416) 979-5153 E-mail: chemgrad@ryerson.ca Research areas includeWater/Wastewater and Food T reatment T echnologies tors Removal of heavy metals and BOD in industrial wastewater Ozonation and chemical oxidation processes for wastewater Food emulsion stability Biological processes in upgrading food wastes Environmental biotechnology of microbial food contaminants Polymer and Process Engineering Phase separation in polymer systems Modeling and simulation nology and behavior Modeling, simulation, optimal control, and optimization of chemical processes Diffusivity in polymer-solvent www.ryerson.ca/~chemgrad/ Graduate Studies in Chemical and Biological Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Degree Programs Nestled between the mysterious Badlands and two-million acres of the beautiful Black Hills, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology is located in Rapid City a vibrant community of 70,000 resi dents. Both the majestic Mount Rushmore and the emerging Crazy Horse Monument are within a forty-five minute drive of campus. Protection offered by the adjacent mountains produces unexpectedly mild winters, and cool summer evenings. The surrounding Black Hills provide students many opportunities to balance thei r academic activities with hiking, biking, skiing, snowboarding, camping, hunting, fishing, spelunking, and rock climbing. Faculty and Research Areas For more information, contact Dr. Jan A. Puszynski Phone 605-394-1230 Email: jan.puszynski@sdsmt.edu Or visit : htt p :/ / www.sdsmt.edu Ph.D. stipends up to $30,000 per year Sookie S. Bang (PhD, Univ. of California, Davis) Kenneth M. Benjamin (PhD, University of Michigan) David J. Dixon (PhD, Univ. of Texas, Austin) Patrick C. Gilcrease (PhD, Colorado State Univ.) Todd J. Menkhaus (PhD, Iowa State University) Jan A. Puszynski (PhD, Inst. of Chem. Tech., Czech. Rep) Rajesh K. Sani (PhD, Panjam University, India) Rajesh V. Shende (PhD, University of Mumbai, India) Robb M. Winter (PhD, University of Utah)

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 333 SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY B I OM E D ICA L AN D CH E M ICA L E N G INEERIN G D epartment of Biomedical and Chemical Engineering 121 Link Hall Syracuse University Syracuse, NY 13244 315-443-1931 bmce.syr.edu F ACU L TY : Gustav A. Engbretson (Chair) Rebecca A. Bader Jeremy L. Gilbert Julie M. Hasenwinkel James H. Henderson John C. Heydweiller George C. Martin Patrick T. Mather Dacheng Ren Ashok S. Sangani Lawrence L. Tavlarides RESEARC H A REAS : Polymers Tissue Engineering Biofilms Biomaterials Biofuels Biomechanics Drug Delivery Separations Surface Science Process Simulation F. T AL-SAADOONPh.D., University of Pittsburgh, P.E. J. L. CHISHOLM Ph.D., University of Oklahoma W. A. HEENAND.Ch.E., University of Detroit, P.E. S. LEE Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh FACUL TY TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITYKINGSVILLE Chemical Engineering M.S. and M.E. Natural Gas Engineering M.S. and M.E. Located in tropical South Texas, forty miles south of the urban center of Corpus Christi and thirty miles west of Padre Island National Seashore. FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE: A. A. PILEHVARI Texas A&M UniversityKingsville Campus Box 193 Kingsville, Texas 78363 (361) 593-2002 A-Pilehvari@tamuk.edu A. A. PILEHV ARIPh.D., University of T ulsa, P.E. H. A. DUARTEPh.D., T exas A&M University P. L. Mills D.Sc., Washington University in St. Louis R. W. SERTHPh.D., SUNY at Buffalo, P.E.

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Chemical Engineering Education 334 Research Areas: Chemical and Materials Process Engineering* Biomolecular and Biomedical Engineering Bioprocess Engineering Environmental Science and Engineering Informatics Pulp and Paper Surface and Interface Engineering Sustainable Energy Degrees Offered: Master of Applied Science (M.A.Sc.) Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) Ph.D. Our City: Vibrant lifestyle and home to a wealth of attractions Safe and clean, with many parks, gar dens Culturally and ethnically diverse Excellent location for networking and For More Information: Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry University of Toronto 200 College Street, Room WB212 Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 Canada Telephone: (416) 946-3987 Email: gradassist.chemeng@utoronto.ca www.chem-eng.utoronto.ca Research Areas: Chemical and Materials Process Engineering Biomolecular and Biomedical Engineering Bioprocess Engineering Environmental Science and Engineering Informatics Pulp and Paper Surface and Interface Engineering Sustainable Energy Degrees Offered: Master of Applied Science (M.A.Sc.) Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) Ph.D. Our City: Vibrant lifestyle and home to a wealth of attractions Safe and clean, with many parks, gardens Culturally and ethnically diverse Excellent location for networking and filled with work opportunities For More Information: Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry University of Toronto 200 College Street, Room WB212 Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 Canada Telephone: (416) 946-3987 Email: gradassist.c hemeng@utoronto.ca www.chem-eng.utoronto.ca Pending OCGS Approval VILLANOVA UNIVERSITY 800 LANCASTER AVENUE VILLANOVA, PA 19085-1681 The Villanova University M.Ch.E. program is designed to meet the needs of both full-time and part-time graduate students. The part-time program is designed to address the needs of both new graduates and experienced working professionals in the suburban Philadelphia region, which is rich in pharmaceutical and chemical industry. The full-time program is research-based with research projects currently available in the following areas: Biotechnology/Biochemical Engineering Supercritical Fluid Applications Reaction Analysis Model-Based Control Industrial Wastewater Treatment Processes Nanomaterial Synthesis For more information, contact: Professor Vito L. Punzi, Graduate Program Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Villanova University Villanova, PA 19085-1681 Phone 610-519-4946 Fax 610-519-7354 e-mail: vito.punzi@villanova.edu

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Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 335 FOR MORE INFORMATION : Dr. Andrew Kline Department Graduate Advisor 4601 Campus Drive, A217 Parkview Western Michigan University Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5462 andrew.kline@wmich.eduPAPER ENGINEERING, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, AND IMAGING The only graduate program in the United States combining these three disciplines. University owned industrial scale pilot plants for both printing and coat ing applications and experimentation. 100% placement rate for program graduates since 2002 in either industry or academic positions. Ongoing industrial research partnerships and graduate student internships in industry. Located in Southwest Michigan, Kalamazoo is 2.5 hours from ei ther Chicago or Detroit. Vibrant research university experi ence in a mid-sized city of 85,000 people. Visit us on the Web at: http://www.wmich.edu/pci/ WESTERN MICHIGAN UNIVERSITY RESEARCH AREAS: Paper Coating and Formulations Paper Chemistry Ink Formulations and Applications Radio Frequency ID (RFID) Tagging Unit Operations and Process Design Imaging Sciences and Analysis Materials Rheology J. Ackerman coatings nanomaterials H. Adidharma enhanced oil recovery molecular thermodynamics V. Alvarado enhanced oil recovery solute transport and disper sion reservoir engineering M.D. Argyle heterogeneous catalysis plasma reactions hydrogen generation and separation D.A. Bell coal liquefaction surface science H.G. Harris, Head enhanced oil and gas recovery coal pro cessing coalbed methane P.A. Johnson biosensors biomaterials biointerfaces nano materials N.R. Morrow interfacial phenomena wettability oil recovery M. Radosz polymers bionanomaterials energy separations M.P. Sharma production/EOR air pollution Y. Shen polymer synthesis living polymerization bio-materials FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT Coordinator for Graduate Studies Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department University of Wyoming Dept 3295 1000 E. University Ave. Laramie, WY 82071 (307) 766-2500 chpe.info@uwyo.edu wwweng.uwyo.edu/chemical/ Opportunities Extensive industrial interactions Applied and basic research projects Interdisciplinary research Vibrant interna tional network Excellent lab infra structure Non-ChE candidates encouraged The University of Wyoming is located in Laramie, Wyoming, at an elevation of 7200 ft. Laramie is about two hours north of Denver and is surrounded by state and national forests which allow for beautiful year-round outdoor activities: mountain and rock climbing, and hunting. Graduate Studies in Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

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Chemical Engineering Education 336 BR O W N U N I VER SI T Y G R AD U AT E ST U D Y I N C H E M I C AL AN D BI O C H EM I C AL EN G I N EER I N G M a j o r R e se a r ch T h e m e s B i o c h e m i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g m i c ro f l u i d i c s b i o d e t e c t i o n b i o s e n s o rs b i o t r a n s p o rt p r o c e s s e s b i o s e p a r a t i o n p r o c e s s e s d i s e a s e d i a g n o s t i c s rh e o l o g y p h y s i o l o g i c a l f l u i d m e c h a n i c s N a n o te c h n o l o g y n a n o m a t e ri a l s n a n o t o x i c o l o g y b i o l o g i c a l e n v i ro n m e n t a l a n d e n e rg y a p p l i c a t i o n s En v i r o n m e n ta l a n d e n e r g y te c h n o l o g y : e l e c t ro c h e m i c a l s e p a ra t i o n s f l u i d p a r t i c u l a t e s y s t e m s h e a v y m e t a l s r e c o v e r y / re m e d i a t i o n a d v a n c e d a d s o rp t i o n / a d s o r b e n t s VO C s v a p o r i n f i l t r a t i o n f u e l c e l l s A p ro g ra m o f g ra d u a t e st u d y i n C h e mi ca l a n d B i o ch e mi ca l E n g i n e e ri n g f o r t h e M S c. o r Ph D d e g re e T e a ch i n g a n d R e se a r ch Assi st a n t sh i p s a s w e l l a s I n d u s t ri a l a n d U n i ve rsi t y f e l l o w sh i p s a re a va i l a b l e F o r f u r t h e r i n fo r m a ti o n e m a i l : Pro f e sso r R H H u r t G ra d u a t e R e p re se n t a t i ve C h e mi ca l a n d Bi o ch e mi ca l En g i n e e ri n g Pro g ra m D i vi si o n o f E n g i n e e ri n g Br o w n U n i ve rsi t y Pro vi d e n ce R I 0 2 9 1 2 R o b e rt H u rt @b ro w n e d u P e a se vi si t h t t p : / / w w w e n g i n b r o w n e d u U N I V E R S I T Y O F M A S S A C H U S E T T S LOWELL Dr. F. Bonner (Chemical Engineering) Dr. G. J. Brown (Energy Engineering) Graduate Coordinators One University Avenue Lowell, MA 01854 College of Engineering Department of Chemical Engineering BIOPROCESS ENGINEERING BIOTECHNOLOGY COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS CONTROL ENERGY ENGINEERING ENGINEERED MATERIALS NANOMATERIALS AND CHARACTERIZATION PAPER ENGINEERING POLYMERIC MATERIALS We offer professionally oriented engineering education at the M.S., Ph.D., and D.E. levels In addition we offer specialization in