Front Cover
 Author Guidelines
 Table of Contents
 A Module to Foster Engineering...
 Introduction to Studies in Granular...
 The Hydrodynamic Stability of a...
 Lab-on-a-Chip Desing-Build Project...
 Interdisciplinary Learning for...
 The 10 Worst Teaching Mistakes...
 Pedagogical Training and Research...
 Quick and Easy Rate Equations for...
 Advisors Who Rock: An Approach...
 Index for Graduate Education...
 Back Cover

Chemical engineering education
http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
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Title: Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title: CEE
Abbreviated Title: Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher: Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date: Fall 2008
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annual[ former 1960-1961]
Subjects / Keywords: Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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Dates or Sequential Designation: 1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
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General Note: Title from cover.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Author Guidelines
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page 165
    A Module to Foster Engineering Creativity: An Interpolative Design Problem and an Extrapolative Research Project
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
    Introduction to Studies in Granular Mixing
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
    The Hydrodynamic Stability of a Fluid-Particle Flow: Instabilities in Gas-Fluidized Beds
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
    Lab-on-a-Chip Desing-Build Project with a Nanotechnology Component in a Freshman Engineering Course
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
    Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
    The 10 Worst Teaching Mistakes I: Mistakes 5-10
        Page 201
        Page 202
    Pedagogical Training and Research in Engineering Education
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
    Quick and Easy Rate Equations for Multistep Reactions
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
    Advisors Who Rock: An Approach to Academic Counseling
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
    Index for Graduate Education Advertisements
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
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        Page 336
    Back Cover
        Page 337
Full Text

Chemical engineering education

The 10 Worst Teaching Mistakes I. Mistakes 5-10 (p. 201)
Felder, Brent
Advisors Who Rock: An Appioach to Academic Counseling (p. 218)
B Bullard
"' The Hydrodynamic Stability of a Fluid-Particle Flow: Instabilities in Gas-Fluidized Beds (p. 179)
Liu, Howley, Johri, Glasser
Ca Quick and Easy Rate Equations for Multistep Reactions (p. 211)
"u Lab-on-a-Chip Design-Build Project with a Nanotechnology Component
in a Freshman Engineering Course (p. 185)
Allam, Tomasko, Trott, Schlosser, Yang, Wilson, Merrill
o A Module to Fostei Engineel ing Creativity; an Interpolative Design Problem and
C an Extrapolative Research Project (p. 166)
3 Forbes
F 2 5Introduction to Studies in Granular Mixing (p. 173)
< - Llusa, Muzzio
.o Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab
> - to Reactoi Design to Separation (p. 193)
6 E Aimstrong,Comitz, Biaglow, Lachance, Sloop
C C(
Z .r Pedagogical Training and Research in Engineering Education (p. 203)
S- Wankat
.C O 0

C -


Author Guidelines for the



The laboratory experience in chemical engineering education has long been an integral part
of our curricula. CEE encourages the submission of manuscripts describing innovations in the
laboratory ranging from large-scale unitoperations experimentsto demonstrations appropriate
for the classroom. The following guidelines are offered to assist authors in the preparation of
manuscripts that are informative to our readership. These are only suggestions, based on the
comments of previous reviewers; authors should use their own judgment in presenting their
experiences. A set of general guidelines and advice to the author can be found at ourWeb site:

c Manuscripts should describe the results of original and laboratory-tested ideas.
The ideas should be broadly applicable and described in sufficient detail to
allow and motivate others to adapt the ideas to their own curricula. It is noted
that the readership of CEE is largely faculty and instructors. Manuscripts must
contain an abstract and often include an Introduction, Laboratory Description,
Data Analysis, Summary of Experiences, Conclusions, and References.
* An Introduction should establish the context of the laboratory experi-
ence (e.g., relation to curriculum, review of literature), state the learning
objectives, and describe the rationale and approach.
* The Laboratory Description section should describe the experiment in
sufficient detail to allow the reader to judge the scope of effort required
to implement a similar experiment on his or her campus. Schematic dia-
grams or photos, cost information, and references to previous publica-
tions and Web sites, etc., are usually of benefit. Issues related to safety
should be addressed as well as any special operating procedures.
If appropriate, a Data Analysis section should be included that concisely
describes the method of data analysis. Recognizing that the audience
is primarily faculty, the description of the underlying theory should be
referenced or brief.The purpose of this section is to communicate to the
reader specific student-learning opportunities (e.g., treatment of reac-
tion-rate data in a temperature range that includes two mechanisms).
* The purpose of the Summary of Experiences section is to convey the
results of laboratory or classroom testing. The section can enumerate,
for example, best practices, pitfalls, student survey results, or anecdotal
* A concise statement of the Conclusions (as opposed to a summary) of
your experiences should be the last section of the paper prior to listing

Chemical Engineering Education
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida * Gainesville, FL 32611
PHONE and FAX: 352-392-0861
e-mail: cee@che.ufl.edu

Phillip C. Wankat

Lynn Heasley

James 0. Wilkes, U. Michigan

William J. Koros, Georgia Institute - i, . ib....'..- .

John P. O'Connell
University of Virginia
C. Stewart Slater
Rowan University
University of Colorado
Jennifer Curtis
University of Florida
Rob Davis
University of Colorado
Pablo Debenedetti
Princeton University
Dianne Dorland
Thomas F. Edgar
University of Texas at Austin
Stephanie Farrell
Rowan University
Richard M. Felder
North Carolina State University
H. Scott Fogler
University of Michigan
Jim Henry
University of Tennessee, Chattanooga
Jason Keith
Michigan Technological University
Steve LeBlanc
University of Toledo
Ron Miller
Colorado School of Mines
Susan Montgomery
University of Michigan
Lorenzo Saliceti
University of Puerto Rico
Stan Sandler
University of Delaware
Donald R. Woods
McMaster University

Chemical Engineering Education
Volume 42 Number 4 Fall 2008

201 The 10 Worst Teaching Mistakes
I. Mistakes 5-10
Richard M. Felder and Rebecca Brent

218 Advisors Who Rock: An Approach
to Academic Counseling
Lisa G. Bullard

179 The Hydrodynamic Stability of a Fluid-Particle Flow: Instabili-
ties in Gas-Fluidized Beds
Xue Liu, Maureen A. Howley, Jayati Johri,
and Benjamin J. Glasser

211 Quick and Easy Rate Equations for Multistep Reactions
Phillip E. Savage

185 Lab-on-a-Chip Design-Build Project with a Nanotechnology
Component in a Freshman Engineering Course
YosefAllam, David L. Tomasko, Bruce Trott, Phil Schlosser,
Yong Yang, Tiff tn M. Wilson, and John Merrill

166 A Module to Foster Engineering Creativity: an Interpolative
Design Problem and an Extrapolative Research Project
Neil S. Forbes

173 Introduction to Studies in Granular Mixing
Marcos Llusa and Fernando Muzzio

193 Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from Organic
Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation
Matt Armstrong, Richard L. Comitz, Andrew Biaglow,
Russ Lachance, and Joseph Sloop

203 Pedagogical Training and Research in Engineering Education
Phillip C. Wankat

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering
Division, American Societyfor Engineering Education, and is edited at the University ofFlorida. Correspondence regarding
editorial matter, circulation, and changes ofaddress should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University
of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Copyright 0 2008 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for
EngineeringEducation. The statements and opinions expressed in thisperiodical ar those ofthe writers and not necessarily
those ofthe ChE Division,ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced ifnotified within
120 days ofpublication. Writefor information on subscription costs and forback copy costs and availability. POSTMASTER:
Send address changes to Chemical Engineering Education, Chemical Engineering Department., University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Periodicals Postage Paid at Gainesville, Florida, and additional post offices (USPS 101900).

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

MR! t classroom
---- --- s_____________________________________



an Interpolative Design Problem and

an Extrapolative Research Project

University of Massachusetts, Amherst * Amherst, Massachusetts 01003

Teaching techniques that enhance creativity are as criti-
cal as teaching technical skills. Innovation, the result
of the creative process, is necessary for technological
advancement and is highly correlated with economic pros-
perity and success.1, 2] While creativity and innovation play a
role in most aspects of engineering, they are rarely discussed
explicitly in engineering courses. Engineers typically receive
instruction in scientific principles and their conceptual ap-
plication, but seldom do they receive formal instruction in
creative problem solving.[3 5] It is particularly important to
focus on creativity in introductory engineering courses to
retain independent thinkers who tend to leave university
earlier than others.[6] In addition, tools that enhance creativity
are necessary because of increased employment in the life
sciences and a general expansion in career opportunities for
chemical engineers.7 12] Creativity skills enable engineers to
learn new material faster and improve interactions with col-
leagues in other disciplines.
Throughout my teaching experience I have been asked by
many students how they can improve their creativity and prob-
lem-solving skills. From these experiences, I have noticed that
many students limit their creative potential by censoring their
ideas before fully investigating them. Encouraging students
to pursue ideas regardless of how outlandish the ideas appear
produces more vibrant, diverse, and ultimately useful output.
Formalization of this instruction process will benefit a greater
population of students than individual interactions alone.
Engineering creativity can be broken down into two dis-
tinct steps: idea generation and idea analysis. Success with
creativity dependents on the number of ideas formed and
the ability to perform these two steps be separately.[, 13-15]
Generating a large number of ideas, regardless of their qual-
ity, increases the likelihood that an innovative concept will
be discovered.[13-16] Students who struggle with open-ended
problems often try to combine idea analysis and generation.

Analysis requires contradictory thought processes that can
poison self-confidence and tolerance of risk, which are nec-
essary for idea generation. During the brainstorming step,
overly critical analysis limits the formation of the random
and disparate connections that are needed to generate long
lists of potential ideas, which often leads to abandonment of
the most tangential and innovative ideas.
Here I describe a teaching module that can be integrated
into an introductory chemical engineering course to maximize
students' creative potential. This module builds upon previous
efforts that have shown that creativity can be taught in the
classroom.11, 117 This module includes an exercise to illustrate
engineering creativity, an open-ended research project, and a
questionnaire to assess individual creativity. The material that
describes the role of creativity in engineering can typically
be described in one or two lectures.

Idea generation is a highly personal process that varies
greatly from person to person. Many techniques have been
described to explain the workings of this process,[4, 13 15,
181 including brainstorming,19, 20] synectics,[21, 22] and lateral
thinking.[23 24] Creativity in engineering is dependent on many

Neil Forbes is an assistant professor in the
Department of Chemical Engineering at the
University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He
has an adjunct appointment in the Molecular
and Cell Biology Program and at the Pioneer
Valley Life Sciences Institute. He received
his Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the
University of California, Berkeley, and was
a postdoctoral fellow in radiation oncology at
Harvard Medical School. His education inter-
ests are in introductory engineering education
and the integration of life-science
material into the chemical engineering curriculum. His research interests
include drug delivery, tumor biology, and bacterial anti-cancer therapies.

� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008
Chemical Engineering Education

factors, including innate ability, experience, and good mental
habits.l15 16] While some students have more innate ability
and experience from which to draw, many students fall into
mental traps that limit their creative potential. Reading and
exposure to experiences outside of engineering often enhances
creativity.[25] A creative environment encourages independent
thinking, self-awareness, openness to experience, and breadth
of vision.6, 18]
Wl. 11, [ini 1'lii ' to generate novel ideas, students should be
encouraged to use their own personal experiences. The most
creative ideas often come from students who can effectively
use their personal experiences and knowledge base. For ex-
ample, a foreign student in a bioprocess engineering course I
taught in 2003 had worked previously in a laboratory studying
gene therapy. She was from a tropical country and had a family
that had been painfully affected by malaria. Putting these two
experiences together, she came up with an idea to manipulate
the sickle cell gene to provide protection against malaria.
Similar ideas could not be found in the literature, and this ap-
proach has therapeutic promise. This example illustrates how
connecting personal experience (malaria) with educational
knowledge (gene therapy) can lead to innovation.

To help students with open-ended tasks I suggest that cre-
ative problems be divided into two distinct modes: extrapola-
tive and interpolative. These two modes are defined by how
the goals of the problem relate to known facts. Interpolative
creativity is the creation of connections between known facts
to arrive at clearly defined goals. Extrapolative creativity is
the creation of new ideas as an outgrowth from known facts
toward more loosely defined goals. For example, mass and
energy balance problems require interpolative creativity;
research papers predominately require extrapolative creativ-
ity; and process design requires elements of both. Typically,
engineering students prefer interpolative problems. Both
types of problems, however, require the generation of many
high-quality ideas and the confidence to generate them.
Understanding the similarity of the tools needed to address
these two modes will enhance students' ability with open-
ended problems.
Classic examples of problems that require interpolative
creativity are the mass balance problems encountered in
introductory chemical engineering courses (Figure 1). Prob-
lems of this type require small creative steps when drawing
system boundaries. For the example in Figure 1, three different
choices are possible: around unit A, around unit B, and an
overall balance. More complex problems would have more
possibilities, with some being difficult to identify on first
observation. Many students start such a problem by writing
mass balance equations around unitAbefore conceptualizing
all possible system boundaries. In doing so, they miss that an

overall balance is necessary to solve the problem. Generating
a list of possible boundaries (ideas) before analyzing them
would help students solve these problems more efficiently.
A research paper is good example of an extrapolative cre-
ativity problem that students often encounter. When assigned
extrapolative problems, students should use similar techniques
to generate ideas as they do with interpolative problems. Idea
generation is complicated for open-ended problems by the
"fear of a blank page" that leaves students not knowing where
to start. As with interpolative problems, practice generating
disparate ideas before evaluating them can help with the
extrapolative creative process. Different from interpolative
problems, loosely defined goals can make the brainstorming
space seem limitless. To overcome this apparent limitlessness,
students should be encouraged to use their previous experi-
ence and prior knowledge to redefine the goals of the assign-
ment. They should especially be encouraged to use those
experiences outside of engineering. For example, a student
struggling to find a subject for a research paper (as described
in detail below) found a clever topic by exploring his hobbies.
This student was an avid bicyclist who had recently paid too
much for a high-end bicycle. He chose to write a paper about
ways to improve the production of titanium and reduce its
cost, which turned out to be a well-defined and interesting
project that the student found highly rewarding.

What is the production rate of acetic acid?
Figure 1. Simple mass balance problem to illustrate
interpolative creativity. An equimolar stream of water
and acetic acid is fed to a liquid-liquid exchanger (A),
which partitions the acetic acid into a chloroform extract
and produces an idealized pure water stream. The acetic
acid is removed from the chloroform by distillation (B).
Three different system boundaries can be drawn: around
A, around B, and around the entire process. Without
knowing the recycle rate of chloroform an entire process
balance is necessary to calculate the production rate of
acetic acid. Identifying many possible solutions (in this
case system boundaries) is necessary to solve
interpolative problems.

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

The following interpolative exercise is a project to design
column packing material that illustrates engineering creativity.
Presenting this exercise during class complements the lectures
and provides a defined time period for students to practice
their creativity skills. The exercise is comprised of two parts
that are to be administered before and after instruction on cre-
ativity. Designing column packing is a geometric problem that
has many possible solutions, is complex enough that an opti-
mal solution cannot be ascertained on first inspection, but is
simple enough to allow students to easily analyze their ideas.
This exercise complements the extrapolative brainstorming
problems5, 13] and interpolative, brain teasersi15 17] that have
been described previously. The complexity of this problem
illustrates to students how separating brainstorming and analy-
sis can produce many distinct and effective designs.
There are currently numerous designs and shapes of column
packing commercially available (Figure 2). Most of these
designs were determined by a combination of experimenta-
tion, trial and error, and experience. 261 While the shape of
the packing materials significantly affects their behavior, the
optimal shape cannot be determined theoretically. The best
packing materials have a high surface area for mass transfer
and a low resistance to gas flow.126 271
To begin the exercise the entire column packing simulation
is described in detail. The overall goal of the process is to
design a packing material that maximizes productivity in a
packed column absorber. To make the design of packing mate-
rial a tractable creativity exercise it was reduced to two dimen-
sions. During the exercise, packing materials are designed on


1 y
Figure 2. Examples of commercially available column
packing materials.

11 X 11 grids and are filled into a theoretical 59 X 51 column
using a stochastic Visual Basic simulator (Figure 3, which is
available upon request). Packing designs must be physically
possible, single pieces: all pixels in each design must share
a border with at least one other pixel (as in Figures 2-4). The
simulator fills the column by rotating the two-dimensional
designs and placing them as close to the bottom of the column
as possible without overlapping already packed pieces (Figure
3). Once the simulator has filled the column, it calculates the
overall void fraction from the percentage of empty space
and the surface area from the length of exposed edges. For
simplicity, the gas flowrate and the overall production rate are
assumed to be directly proportional to the void fraction. The
simulator determines the performance of packing materials
by multiplying the void fraction by the surface area.
As an example of packing material simulation, a solid square
(Figure 3A) has a void fraction of 0.359, a surface area of 616,
and a productivity of 221. It is a poor performer because it does
not have much surface area. A better design would be a crossed
I-bar (Figure 3B), which has a void fraction of 0.726, a surface
area of 1,641, and a productivity of 1,192. These two examples
demonstrate why this problem is useful for demonstrating the
utility of engineering creativity. While void fraction and surface
area are coupled to each other, good designs can independently
increase both independently. In addition, the nonlinear relation-
ship between these two parameters makes theoretical prediction
of an optimum design difficult.
The exercise is broken into two parts. In the first part, prior
to instruction on creativity, students are provided with the

Figure 3. Two examples of packing materials
filling a two-dimensional column. The solid square pack-
ing (A) is a poor performer. When packed it had a void
fraction of 0.359, a surface area of 616 and an overall
productivity of 221. The I-bar packing (B) is a much
better performer. When packed it had a void fraction of
0.726, a surface area of 1,641 and an overall productivity
of 1,192. All values are dimensionless.
Chemical Engineering Education

packing simulator, and asked to create designs with the great-
est productivity that they can in 10 minutes. During this time,
students generate only a few designs with little variation. At
the end of this period, students are introduced, by lecture, to
the creativity techniques describe above, with emphasis on
the utility of generating many disparate ideas and decoupling
idea generation and analysis.
In the second part of the exercise students are provided
with a handout containing a set of 11 X 11 grids on which
to design packing materials by hand (Figure 4). Students are
asked to generate as many packing designs as possible without
analysis in 10 minutes. Their ideas for packing designs can
be entirely disparate or can build upon each other. If the ideas
build upon each other, students could provide an explanation
of how it improves on previous ideas (Figure 4). Students
are encouraged, however, to have as many disparate design
ideas as possible, so as to add new possibilities regardless
of whether productivity is improved. Creating only ideas
that obviously improve productivity could potentially limit
the creative process. After the 10-minute idea generation
period, students return to the simulator and determine the
void fraction, surface area, and productivity of each design.
This second part of the exercise is intended to illustrate the
benefit of generating a large number of potential designs
before analysis. Students will find that while many designs
perform poorly, some outlandish ideas will outperform their
best ideas from the first part of the exercise. Typically, classes
observe that students who have generated the most ideas also
have the most productive designs.

Open-ended literature research projects are an excellent
mechanism to illustrate extrapolative engineering creativity
to introductory engineering students. This section describes a
short research project in which students are asked to describe
an aspect of chemical engineering that has a significant impact
on society. Students can approach this broad assignment from
two directions; they can either 1) describe a novel technol-
ogy that could be used for societal benefit using engineering
principles, or 2) describe a societal problem that could be
addressed by novel chemical engineering methods. In other
words, focus can be on either the technology or the societal
problem. Students are encouraged to identify topics that are
interesting and personally significant to them. Identifying
novel and appropriate topics can be a daunting task for some
student and requires considerable effort and creativity. The
techniques described to enhance creativity can be especially
helpful during the initial topic-identification period of this
The final paper should 1) fully describe the technology or
societal problem, 2) describe how the technology addresses a
problem or how the problem could be addressed with technol-

ogy, 3) describe challenges that exist in the application of
the technology or the solution of the problem, and 4) cite
at least three references supporting all technical claims.
Because the focus of the assignment is on the generation
of a novel idea, the paper can be short, about 3-5 pages.
In addition, an important component of the assignment is
exploration of the scientific literature. In the process of
exploration students will learn how large or small their
chosen fields are and how difficult it can be to generate
truly novel ideas.
When first introduced, students are not given any specific
guidance to help generate ideas. Many students have difficulty
with this aspect of the assignment. Generating new technical
ideas is a skill that students are not typically exposed to in
high school education. After allowing students a few days
to independently struggle with creative idea generation, the
lectures and exercises described in the sections above are
presented. Students are then asked to return to the task of idea
generation. They are encouraged to use the literature and their
personal experiences to generate as many topics as possible
before evaluating them. Once a reasonable list is generated,
students use the literature, peer review, and their own judg-
ment to pick the best one. Students are told to rate their ideas
based on 1) novelty, 2) scientific correctness, 3) interest, 4)
potential societal benefit, 5) feasibility, and 6) testability. A
good idea will also not be too large (i.e., catalysis or energy)
that it cannot be easily summarized or be too small that not


__xxx xx_

xx xx

xx _ _x x
XX X xxx

xxxx::: xx

_x x xx _
_xx xx X

xxx xx


Reason / Improvement

Adwlo. be4er bar\ 4IeA

sate rae. Caea. area

Figure 4. Portion of student handout used to design two-
dimensional column packing material containing two
designs and brief rationales justifying them.

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

Figure 5. Results
of creativity survey
administered to
first-year chemical
engineering students
at the University of
Massachusetts in
2004 and 2005. Most
differences between
the beginning and
end of the semester
were significant (*,
P<0.05; t, P<0.01).

Student Creativity Survey

Rate the following as best as possible:
strongly strongly
agree disagree

1. I feel confident developing novel ideas and 1 2 3 4 5

2. Based on my previous educational experience, I 1 2 3 4 5
feel that I have the skills necessary to generate
novel ideas and concepts

3. When assigned an poorly defined, open-ended task 1 2 3 4 5
I eagerly start generating ideas

4. I enjoy finding solutions to difficult problems 1 2 3 4 5

5. I enjoy formulating concepts to describe how things 1 2 3 4 5

6. I have trouble generating unique ideas because I 1 2 3 4 5
don't like the quality of the ideas I generate

7. I have trouble listing more than three unique ideas 1 2 3 4 5
when faced with open-ended assignments

8. I prefer problem-solving to tackling open-ended 1 2 3 4 5

9. Based on my previous educational experience, I 1 2 3 4 5
feel better prepared to solve specific problems than
approach open-ended tasks

10. I often brainstorm when finding solutions to 1 2 3 4 5

11. When solving problems, I evaluate ideas as I 1 2 3 4 5
generate them

12. I usually generate a series of possible ideas before 1 2 3 4 5
evaluating them

0 5

O 4

' : ,'ll ,

E Beginning
* End

enough information is available. Most
students find that the challenge of
generating ideas for this assignment,
similar to the in-class exercise, helps
foster their engineering creativity and
improves the quality of their ideas.

For two sequential years (2004 and
2005), surveys were used to evaluate
student confidence with engineering
creativity in the first-year chemical
engineering course at the University
of Massachusetts (Table 1). Students
were asked to rate whether they
strongly agreed (1) or strongly dis-
agreed (5) with the twelve statements
in the survey. These surveys were
administered at the beginning of the
semester (before any discussion of
creativity) and at the end of the semes-
ter. During the semester, the materials
and exercises on engineering creativity
were presented. The questions were
designed to ascertain students' attitude
toward creativity (questions 1,4, 5, 6,
and 8), behavior when required to be
creative (questions 3, 7, 11, and 12)
and skills at being creative (questions
2, 9, and 10).
Between the beginning and end of
both investigated semesters, 10 of the
twelve student-responses changed sig-
nificantly (Figure 5). For all questions,
students responded positively about
creativity (responses less than 3). The
only questions that students disagreed
with (questions 6 and 7; responses
greater than 3) were worded negative-
ly. Comparing students' responses at
the beginning and end of the semester
gave an indication of the effectiveness
of the presented materials. Over the
course of the semester (Figure 5) stu-
dents gained confidence with generat-
ing ideas (question 1; P<0.05), felt that
they had more skills to generate ideas
(question 2; P<0.01), more eagerly
generated ideas (question 3; P<0.01),
enjoyed solving difficult problems
more (question 4; P<0.01), liked the
quality of their ideas more (question
6; P<0.05), and brainstormed more
Chemical Engineering Education

Correlation between questions at beginning of semester

Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1. Confidence
2. Skills to generate ideas 0.70 T
3. Eagerly generate ideas 0.36 T 0.28 *
4. Enjoy difficult problems 0.37 T 0.35 T 0.21
5. Enjoy how things work 0.39 T 0.37 T 0.28 T 0.71 "
6. Don't like ideas generated -0.30 T -0.27 * -0.12 -0.22 * -0.10
7. Trouble listing ideas -0.23 * -0.25 * -0.21 -0.24 * -0.15 0.36 "
8. Prefer problem solving 0.04 0.11 -0.32 T 0.34 T 0.26 * -0.08 0.09
9. Skills to solve problems 0.12 0.08 -0.30 T 0.32 T 0.27 * 0.06 0.15 0.57 -
10. Brainstorming 0.24 * 0.30 T 0.17 0.24 * 0.29 T -0.01 -0.14 0.05 0.11
11. Evaluate while generating 0.26 * 0.23 * 0.17 0.11 0.18 -0.20 -0.05 -0.01 0.00 0.34 f
12. Generate series of ideas 0.03 -0.04 0.12 0.05 0.14 0.09 -0.10 -0.07 0.01 -0.01 -0.09
Elements contain the Pearson coefficient and the significance of population correlation coefficient (*, P<0.05; t, P<0.01). The sign of the Pearson coefficient indicates
direct (+) and indirect (-) correlation.

Correlation between questions at end of semestera

Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1. Confidence
2. Skills to generate ideas 0.58 t
3. Eagerly generate ideas 0.54 f 0.42 ?
4. Enjoy difficult problems 0.42 t 0.35 t 0.47 t
5. Enjoy how things work 0.31 * 0.29* 0.45 t 0.74 f
6. Don't like ideas generated -0.43 f -0.32 * -0.33 t -0.06 0.05
7. Trouble listing ideas -0.52 - -0.34 f -0.24 -0.17 -0.09 0.59 f
8. Prefer problem solving 0.11 0.22 -0.01 0.46 t 0.43 t 0.31* 0.17
9. Skills to solve problems 0.39 f 0.42 t 0.11 0.50 t 0.43 t 0.12 -0.20 0.67 t
10. Brainstorming 0.52 - 0.39 t 0.31 * 0.46 t 0.36 t -0.13 -0.29 * 0.28 * 0.47 t
11. Evaluate while generating 0.28* 0.18 0.35 - 0.35 t 0.42 t 0.00 0.10 0.43 f 0.36 t 0.36 -
12. Generate series of ideas 0.12 0.31 * 0.10 -0.03 0.20 -0.15 -0.34 f -0.08 0.12 0.24 -0.14

Elements contain the Pearson coefficient and the significance of population correlation coefficient (*, P<0.05; t, P<0.01). The sign of the Pearson coefficient indicates
direct (+) and indirect (-) correlation. Shaded cells are significant in Table 3 and not in Table 2.

when solving problems (question 10; P<0.01). Students
reported that they enjoyed formulating concepts to describe
how things work less (question 5; P<0.01), evaluated ideas as
they generated them more (question 11; P<0.01), and gener-
ated a series of ideas less (question 12; P<0.01). These three
results may reflect increased student understanding about
the creative process. After the lectures, they may have had a
better understand about what was meant by generating ideas
before evaluating them and may be more accurately reporting
their behavior. Lastly, students reported that their preference

shifted from specific problems to open-ended tasks (question
9). This reflects that the creativity module was successful for
those two groups of students.
Pearson correlations between the questions were calculated
to determine how individual students felt about creativity
and idea generation before exposure to the creativity module
(Table 2). The sign of the Pearson correlation indicates direct
or indirect correlation between the questions. Significance
of the population correlation coefficients indicates 95% (*,
P<0.05) and 99% (1, P<0.01) confidence. Many of the initial

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

questions were tightly correlated, indicating that students who
were confident about developing ideas (question 1) felt that
they had the necessary creativity skills (question 2; Q1-Q2,
P<0.01) and enjoyed the creative process (question 4 & 5;
Q1-Q4, P<0.01; Q1-Q5, P<0.01). The correlations show that
students who don't like the ideas they generate (question
6) have trouble listing more than three ideas (question 7;
Q6-Q7, P<0.01). Question 12, which asks whether students
generate a series of ideas before evaluating them, was not
correlated with any other question, including confidence
with idea generation (question 1), liking the quality of
ideas (question 6), or feeling that they have the skills for
idea generation (question 2). This lack of correlation indi-
cates that at the beginning of the course students had not
been introduced to the concept of generating ideas before
evaluating them.
Many more of the questions were correlated at the end of
the semester than at the beginning (Table 3; shaded region).
Question pairs with increased correlation indicate changes in
student perception and understanding of the creative process.
Students reported that generating ideas before solving them
(question 12) and brainstorming (question 10) gave them skills
to generate ideas (question 2; Q2-Q12, P<0.05) and skills to
solve open-ended problems (question 9; Q9-Q10, P<0.05).
These new skills helped students have confidence to develop
new ideas (question 1; Q1-Q9, P<0.01). Using brainstorm-
ing (question 10) and enjoying idea generation (question 6)
helped students feel more comfortable with open-ended tasks
(question 8; Q6-Q8, P<0.05; Q8-Q10, P<0.05). Importantly,
students who learned to brainstorm (question 10) and generate
ideas before evaluating them (question 12) had less trouble
listing unique ideas when faced with open-ended assignments
(question 7; Q7-Q10, P<0.05; Q7-Q12, P<0.01).


The concepts introduced in this engineering creativity
module helps students become more comfortable with open-
ended problems. With these tools they learn how to approach
open-ended problems and how to separate idea generation
form analysis. The questionnaires administered in an introduc-
tory chemical engineering course confirmed that engineering
creativity can be enhanced. The surveys showed that learn-
ing how to brainstorm and generate ideas independent of
analysis reduces students' difficulty with ambiguous tasks.
The results also showed that practice with creative exercises
increases confidence with novel idea generation. Students who
brainstormed had more success with open-ended problems
and students that liked their ideas more effectively generated
many ideas. While creativity is difficult to teach explicitly,
creating a defined space for students to practice these skills
clearly enhanced their abilities.

1. Sadowski, M.A., and Connolly, PE., "Creative Thinking: The Gen-
eration of New and Occasionally Useful Ideas," Engineering Design
Graphics Journal, 63(1), 20-25 (1999)
2. Weiner, S.S., "Winning Technologies" and the Liberal Arts College,
paper presented at the Summer Meeting of the State Association
Executives Council. National Institute of Independent Colleges and
Universities, Washington, DC (1984)
3. Balabanian, N., and W.R. Lepage, Electrical Science Course for Engi-
neering College Sophomores, Development of an Integrated Program
Utilizing a Broad Range of Materials. Final Report, report: br-5-0796
4. Felder, R.M., "Creativity in Engineering Education," ( i... i -i,,.
22(3), 120-125 (1988)
5. Felder, R.M., "On Creating Creative Engineers," Eng. Educ., 77(4),
222-227 (1987)
6. Cross, K.P, On Creativity, The Center for Research and Development
in Higher Education, University of California, Berkeley, 1-4 (1967)
7. Utterback, J., Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation: How Companies
Can Seize Opportunities in the Face of Technological ( .. .. ii ,vard
Business School Press, Boston, MA (1996)
8. Rosenbloom. R., and W. Spencer, eds., Engines of Innovation: Indus-
trial Research at the End of an Era, Harvard Business School Press,
Boston, MA (1996)
9. Rosenberg, N., Exploring the Black Box: Technology, Economics and
History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England (1994)
10. Barabaschi, S., "Managing the Growth of Technical Information," in
Technology and the Wealth of Nations, N. Rosenberg, R. Landau, and
D.C. Mowery, eds., Stanford University Press, PaloAlto, CA, 407-435
11. Bhide, A., The Origin and Evolution of New Business, Oxford Univer-
sity Press, Oxford (2000)
12. Wessner, C.W, ed., Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities:
Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Informa-
tion Technologies, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC
13. Lumsdaine, E., M. Lumsdaine, and J.W. Shelnutt, Creative Problem
Solving and Engineering Design, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York
14. Wankat ,PC., and E S. Oreovicz, Teaching Engineering, McGraw-Hill,
Inc., New York (1993)
15. Christensen, J.J., "Award Lecture... Reflections on Teaching Creativity,"
Chem. Eng. Educ., 22(4), 170-176 (1988)
16. Fogler, H.S., and S.E. LeBlanc, Strategies for Creative Problem Solv-
ing, Prentice Hall PTR, Englewood Cliffs (1995)
17. Connolly, PE., and M.A. Sadowski, "Creativity Development in a
Freshman-Level Engineering Graphics Course-an Application,"
Engineering Design Graphics Journal, 63(3), 32-39 (1999)
18. Churchill, S.W., "Can We Teach Our Students to Be Innovative?,"
Chem. Eng. Educ., 36(2), 116 (2002)
19. Osborne, A.E, Your Creative Power, Scribner, New York (1948)
20. Osborne, A.E, Applied Imagination, Scribner, New York (1963)
21. Gordon, W.J.J., Synectics, the Development of Creative Capacity,
Harper and Row, Publishers, New York (1961)
22. Prince, G.M., The Practice of Creativity:A Manualfor Dynamic Group
Problem-Solving, Simon & Schuster (1972)
23. de Bono, E., Lateral Thinking, a Textbook of Creativity, Ward Lock
Educational, London (1970)
24. de Bono, E., Lateral Thinking, Harper and Row, New York (1992)
25. Prausnitz, J.M., "Toward Encouraging Creativity in Students," Chem.
Eng. Educ., 19(1), 22-25 (1985)
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neers'Handbook, 7th Ed., McGraw Hill, New York (1997)
27. King, C.J., Separation Processes, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York (1980) 1

Chemical Engineering Education

MR classroom
----- --- s___________________________________________



Rutgers University * Piscataway, NJ 08854

A common complaint of instructors in engineering and
pharmaceutical science is the lack of laboratory ex-
eriments to teach powder processing. There are, for
example, educational activities to demonstrate the effect of
different variables in the particle segregation phenomena.1, 2]
Many of these activities, however, are not designed to test par-
ticles of industrial interest. It is even more rare that segregation
measurements are part of a process development educational
activity. Developing a pharmaceutical process, for example,
involves understanding the impact of several process and
material variables (e.g., fill level of blender, speed of rotation,
drug loading method) on the characteristics of a final blend
(e.g., homogeneity and segregation of minor components,
flowability and density). In addition, the activity should also
study the correlations among the various blend properties;
for example, changes in flowability due to lubrication can
hinder the dissolution of the drug. Pharmaceutical companies
can benefit greatly from well-planned process development,
especially when the activity can first be developed in the
small scale.[3]
In this paper, a sequence of activities provides a concise
yet illustrative training exercise to introduce students (and/or

industry personnel) to some classic problems[41 in process de-
velopment for granular solids. We focus on a pharmaceutical
example where the mixing operation is expected to yield a
blend with specific drug and lubricant homogeneity. Events

Marcos Llusa joined the Chemical Engineer-
ing Department at Rutgers University under
the Fulbright program. There, he completed
his M.S. and his Ph.D., and now holds a post-
doctoral research position. He has a B.S.
- in chemical engineering from the National
University of Rio Cuarto, Argentina.

Fernando Muzzio is the director of the new
National Science Foundation Engineering
Research Center on Structured Organic Par-
ticulate Systems. The center focuses on phar-
maceutical product and process design. The
FDA and 30 companies are currently partners.
Professor Muzzio is a professor of chemical
engineering at Rutgers University. For the last
15 years, pharmaceutical product and process
design has been Professor Muzzio's main
research and educational focus.

� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

such as segregation and agglomeration of the minor compo-
nents, which can adversely affect homogeneity, are examined.
Techniques to measure both homogeneity and segregation
tendencies are discussed. The density and the flowability
of raw materials, drug preblends, and lubricated blends are
measured and correlated. The activities are designed for a
class of typically 20 students, which allows separating them
into groups that will later compare and discuss the effect of
using different operating conditions.
In the Materials and Methods section, the techniques needed
to measure each of the properties of interest are described.
The Results section presents and discusses the measurement
obtained by a group of students. A Summary and Conclusion
section provides concluding remarks.

Raw materials
The formulation contains the following components: 84%
Fast Flo lactose (Foremost Farms), 15% acetaminophen
(APAP, Mallinckrodt) and 1% magnesium stearate (Mallinck-
rodt). The mass of each component to be added to the blender
is given by the different terms on the right side of Eq. (1).

Volume= - .15+ -w.84+- w.01 (1)
PAce PLac PMg
where pAe' pLac' and pMg are the bulk densities of acet-
aminophen, lactose, and lubricant respectively, and w is the
total mass of all materials. The bulk density of materials is
measured following the procedure described in the section
"Testing bulk and tapped density.".
The process (Figure 1) entails preblending drug (APAP)
and excipient (i.e., lactose) and, in a second mixing step,
adding the lubricant (magnesium stearate) to the formulation.
Properties are measured for the raw materials, for the drug
pre-blend, and for the lubricated blend. Different groups of
students (if possible) should use different conditions for the
blender, such as fill level (40% of the total volume, 80%,
etc.) and initial layout of the minor component in
the blender (layered, one side, etc). The details to
Raw mat
perform blending and measure each blend parameters
are given in subsequent sections.
Blending APAP and lubricant (in a
V-blender or other tumbling blender)
The blender is used in two steps, first to prepare
a pre-blend of APAP and excipients, and second to
mix the lubricant with the pre-blend. Having several
groups of students gives the possibility to study the Test flow
and denst
impact of blender parameters.51] In the present case,
two teams operate the 1 cu. ft V-blender at 40% of
its total capacity (i.e., 0.4 cu. ft.), loading the APAP
either through a single side or with a layered method

(Figure 2). In the side method, all the lactose is loaded first
into the blender, then all the APAP is introduced into one of
the shells of the V-blender (Figure 1). In the layered method,
half of the lactose is added into the blender, then all the
APAP is evenly distributed in a layer, and finally, the rest of
the lactose is added on top of the APAP (Figure 2). The other
two teams operate the blender at 80% capacity (0.8 cu. ft),
using the same two loading methods for the APAP Once the
V-blender is loaded, it is operated at 30 rpm for 10 minutes.
After mixing, two groups of five samples each are collected
from each shell of the blender using a Globe-Pharma thief
(New Brunswick, NJ) or similar. A thief is an instrument to
extract samples from a powder bed. Each sample is collected
at a different depth of the shell (Figure 3) and transferred
to a glass vial to determine chemical composition using a
suitable analytical method. Additionally, a 300-gram sample
is extracted to perform density, flowability, and segregation
Next, the magnesium stearate (lubricant) is added into the
blender through the valve at the bottom (Figure 1) and mixed
for another 10 minutes at 30 RPM. Samples are collected again
from both shells with the Globe-Pharma thief and a 200-gram
sample of the blend is taken to measure density, flowability,
and the segregation of APAP and magnesium stearate. The
composition of these samples is determined with a suitable
analytical method.
Sampling the blender (Global Pharma thief or other)
Sampling is the most important task for assessing homoge-
neity. The FDA provides guidance regarding tools and meth-
odologies,[6] and more importantly, most sampling tools have
been characterized.[78] The thief sampler (Global Pharma) is
one of several sampling tools available. The thief is inserted
into the blend, and the operator opens the sampling cavities
using a handle at the other end of the sampler. Powder fills the
cavities, which are subsequently closed, trapping the powder
samples. The design of the thief allows extracting one to three
samples at a time. Samples are 0.5-1.5 grams each, depending
on the size of removable dies used.

enals Preblend APAP Lubncation

Fast Flo Lactose

j APAP preblend
Mix for 10 minutes at 30 rpm Mix for 10 minutes at 30 rpm
ability Sample with thief -Measure APAP Sample with thief -Measure APAP and
ty homogeneity MgSt homogeneity
Test density and flowabilihty Test density, flowablihty, and APAP and
MgSt segregation
Figure 1. Three stages in the mixing
process development.

Chemical Engineering Education

Determine sample concentration (NIR or other
technique) and homogeneity
There are many techniques available to determine APAP and
lubricant concentration in samples (e.g., UV, titration, conduc-
timetry, NIR). Although USP recommends a technique for a
given component, sometimes there are situations in which it
is necessary to consider alternative analytical methods. For an
educational activity, the instrumentation available in the lab
may determine the selection of the technique. The technique
used in the present study is NIR spectroscopy, a non-destruc-
tive technique[9,10] that allows a fast assessment of concentra-
tion because it does not require sample dissolution (as in UV
or conductimetry) or any other sample preparation (although it
assumes that the sample itself is homogeneous). The technique
requires developing a calibration equation using standard
samples with a known drug concentration. Chemometric
software (application of mathematical or statistical methods
to chemical data), typically provided by the NIR instrument,
facilitates the selection of the most appropriate standards to
build the calibration equation based on the spectra collected
and on the concentration of each standard.
The sample concentrations are used to estimate one of the
many indexes available to determine the homogeneity of
minor components (APAP and MgSt) in the blend. The index
most commonly used in industry is RSD (relative standard

n n

RSD= = (2) where s = 1 [ (3)
C n(n - 1)
In the previous equations, s is the standard deviation of all
sample concentrations, C is the average concentration, C
is the concentration of each individual sample, and n is the
total number of samples. The more homogeneous the mixture,
the smaller the RSD index. In general, an acceptable value
would be below 5% based on samples of ~0.5 grams that are
completely assayed by the analytical method.
Measuring segregation (Sifting Segregation Tester)
Segregation of components is one of the main rea-
sons for heterogeneity of pharmaceutical formula-

Fast Flo Lactose

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

tions. The segregation tester used here (Jenike & Johanson,
Tyngsboro, MA) determines sifting segregation, one of the
most common types of segregation for pharmaceutical mate-
rials.[11 12] When the flowing layer dilates (a powder usually
expands when flowing), smaller particles percolate through
a matrix of larger ones. The sifting mechanism is most likely
to occur for particles of different size when they flow during
filling, transfer, etc.
The tester consists of a steep angle and a shallow angle
cone (hoppers), with the steep one initially placed above the
shallow one. The upper hopper is filled with the formulation,
which is discharged into the lower hopper and then recircu-
lated into the upper hopper. This process is repeated 10 times
in order to maximize segregation. Finally, several samples
are collected at the discharge of the lower hopper and their
concentration determined with NIR.
Testing bulk and tapped density
The bulk and tapped densities are evaluated for the raw
materials, for the APAP blend, and for the lubricated blend.
The compaction ability of a powder or blend is an important
property because it correlates with its ability to flow. Ad-
ditionally, it can be used to estimate the amount of material
that will go into the dies of a tableting machine.
Bulk density is evaluated by filling a 100 ml graduated
cylinder with material and determining its net weight. In or-
der to determine the tapped density, the cylinder is "tapped"
~1000 times in a density tester (VanKel, Model 50-1200)
and the new volume for the same amount of material is
measured. The tester provides a fixed drop of one-half inch
at 300 taps/min.
Measuring flowability (prediction and flow tester)
Flowability should be assessed for the raw materials, for
the preblend of APAP, and for the lubricated blends. The
flowability of powders and blends can be assessed using
predictive correlations and direct experimental measurements.
Among the predictive correlations, there is the Carr index,13]
which uses the bulk and tapped density to estimate the flow-
ability of the blend. Flowability is classified according to
the value of the Carr compressibility index (C.I. = (tapped
density - bulk density)/tapped density * 100) as: Excellent
(0-11%), good (12-16%), fair (18-21%), poor (25-35%), and
very poor (>33%).

4 Figure 2. V-blend-
er loaded with the
layering method.

D Figure 3. Sampling

The flowability of blends can be measured using a num-
ber of devices (e.g., hoppers, flow testers). In the activities
reported here, flowability is measured using a flow tester
(PTG-S3 system). This instrument measures the time it takes
for 100 grams of material in a funnel to flow through a speci-
fied pouring nozzle. When powder flow starts, it is detected
by two IR sensors, which activate a timer. As soon as there is
no more powder flow, the funnel is closed and the timer stops.
A stirrer is sometimes needed in the funnel as some pharma-
ceutical materials will not start flowing without assistance.
The test should be repeated five times, and the deviation of
results should not exceed 5%.
The comparison of flow indexes and the direct flow mea-
surements is an interesting exercise that allows students to
understand the correlation between ability to densify and

Bulk density (B.D.) and tapped density (T.D.) for different mat
(gr./ml) and the standard deviation of the measurements (of 4 rea
Raw materials APAP preblend Lubricated
Lactose. B.D.: 0.613 (2.26 B.D.: 0.529 (3.89 B.D.: 0.645 (
%), T.D.: 0.695 (3.62 %) %), T.D.: 0.690 T.D.: 0.798 (1
APAP. B.D.: 0.355 (3.75 %), (1.19%)
T.D.: 0.588 (1.67 %)

Bulk and tapped density, and flowability of pure
materials and blends
The density measurements are used to estimate the amount
of material needed to load the blender, and to estimate the
Carr compactability index (an indication of the compress-
ibility of a powder). Bulk and tapped density measurements
are performed four times (each group takes one measurement)
using the 100 ml graduated cylinder, and the average and
standard deviation are calculated. Table 1 shows the average
and the standard deviation of the four values. As expected,
bulk densities are always lower than tapped densities, and
lubricated blends are more dense than the premix. In general,
there is more uncertainty (larger standard deviation) in the
measurement of bulk density because it is more sensitive to
the manner of loading the graduated cylinder (i.e., effect of
the operator). In the case of lubricated blends, the
I different conditions of operation (i.e., fill level
and loading of minor components) of the blender

introduce an additional source of variation for the
The flowability of raw material and blends is
predicted with the Carr index and measured using
the Flow tester PTG-S3 (Table 2). Preblends of
APAP do not flow through the tester. Lubricant
addition improves the flowability

in all cases.

tion of minoi
Table 3 shoi
centration of

APAP in preblend APAP in lubricated blend
series 1 series 2 series 3 series 4
conditions 80%, top-bot 40%, top-bot 80%, side-side 40%, side-side 80%, top-bot 40%, top-bot 80%, side-side 40%, side-side
R1 1361 1294 1230 1031 1488 1462 1439 1562
R2 1353 1361 1255 10 12 1454 1481 1409 1447
R3 1302 1477 21 85 11 34 1487 1492 1476 1505
R4 1362 1347 1281 11 93 1569 1476 1581 1520
R5 1327 1393 1294 1306 1564 1464 1761 1496
R - Average 1341 1374 1449 11 35 1512 1475 1533 1506
R- SD 026 068 412 1 21 051 0 12 1 43 042
R - RSD % 1 92 492 2846 1063 340 084 932 277
L1 1316 1307 1250 1264 1546 1511 1553 1744
L2 1277 1451 1281 1295 1473 1487 1478 1490
L3 1990 1301 1232 1295 1528 1491 1432 1547
L4 1383 1556 1346 1268 1547 1536 1582 1449
L5 1364 1276 1287 1477 1605 1488 1604 17 14
L - Average 147 138 128 132 1540 1502 1530 1589
L -SD 30 1 2 04 09 047 021 072 1 33
L- RSD % 202 88 34 67 307 1 39 474 837
Total Average 14.0 13.8 13.6 12.3 15.26 14.89 15.32 15.47
SD 2.1 0.9 2.9 1.4 0.49 0.22 1.07 1.03
RSD % 14.9 6.7 21.3 11.4 3.20 1.46 6.98 6.63

y and segrega-
r components
vs the APAP con-
samples extracted
from the right
and left shell
(R or L) of the
V-blender in
the APAP pre-
blend step and
in the lubrica-
tion step. In the
same table, the
average concen-
tration, the stan-
dard deviation
of concentration
[Eq. (3)] and the
index [Eq. (2)]
are estimated
for each shell
of the blender
and for the en-
tire blender for

Chemical Engineering Education

2.02 %)
.23 %)

Flowability Indexes (C.I.) and Measurements (PTG-S3)
Raw materials APAP preblend Lubricated blend
Lactose. C.I.: 11.8; PTG-S3: C.I.: 23.24; PTG-S3: no flow C.I.: 19.20; PTG-S3: 8.9, 12.1,
5, 5.3, 5.7, 5.7 sec. APAP C.I.: 11.1, 10.3 sec.
39.67; PTG-S3: no flow

APAP Concentration Values for the Right (R) and Left (L) Legs of the Blender

different APAP loading conditions and fill levels. In Figure 4,
the global RSD values for APAP are plotted as a function of
fill level of the blender. Four series of data can be identified
in this figure; the first two correspond to the RSD for APAP
in the preblend (one series for each APAP loading method)
and the last two correspond to the RSD for APAP, after lu-
bricating the preblends. The top-bottom loading method for
APAP always leads to more homogeneous blends (smaller
RSD values) than the side-side loading method (series 1 has
larger values than series 2 and series 3 has larger values than
series 4). Lubrication enhances APAP homogeneity (series
3 has smaller RSD values than series 1 and series 4 has
smaller values than series 2). A larger fill level always leads
to a less homogeneous mixture (i.e., larger RSD value), and
this variable has a larger impact at short mixing times (series
1 and 2) than at longer mixing times (series 3 and 4). These
variables do not have an effect on the homogeneity of the
different shells.
The APAP and lubricant segregation tendencies are de-
termined using portions of the lubricated blend. The blend
portions are processed with the segregation tester, and the
segregation index is estimated using a group of samples col-
lected at the outlet of this tester. Table 4 compares the RSD of
the initial blend and the RSD of the samples from the segrega-
tion tester for APAP and for the lubricant. The RSD of APAP
in the blender is larger than the RSD index of the segregation
samples. Not only does the blend not segregate, but, in fact,
more mixing occurs as we pass the blend through the fun-
nels of the segregation tester, yielding more homogeneous
samples. Therefore the RSD in the blender is not affected by
APAP segregation, and instead reflects the effects of fill level
and loading method.
Conversely, the RSD index for magnesium stearate in
the blender is, in general, smaller than for the segregation
samples (Table 4). This indicates that the homogeneity of
magnesium stearate becomes worse in the tester as a result
of segregation.
Summary: Main observations
The activities show that the APAP homogeneity is affected
by the loading method of APAP, the fill level of the blender,
and the lubrication of the blend. The segregation test shows
that while the APAP does not segregate, the lubricant does.
Lubrication leads to the densification and the improved flow-
ability of the blends. In order to carry out the homogeneity
test in a reasonable time frame, the sampling of the blend is
not extensive (~10 samples). Although
this does not confer a strong statisti-

cal significance to the homogeneity
results, the results obtained by different
groups are coherent and show trends
and effects of different variables (e.g.,
fill level and method of loading for

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

The main objective of this paper is to present an activity
illustrating several aspects of pharmaceutical powder process
development. The procedure to evaluate blend properties
(homogeneity, segregation, density, and flowability) is de-
scribed and the analysis of results takes inter-relations among
properties of the blend (e.g., between segregation and homo-
geneity, between flowability and density) into consideration.
If several groups of students are available, then there is the
possibility to study the effect of operating parameters of the
blender (e.g., fill level, loading method of minor components)
on blend properties.

1. Tordesillas, A., and D. Arber, "Capturing the S in segregation: A simple
model of flowing granular mixtures in rotating drums," International
J. of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 36, 861
2. Fritz, M.D., "A Demonstration of Sample Segregation," J. of Chemical
Education, 82, 255 (2005)
3. Pisano, G.P, "Knowledge, Integration, and the Locus of Learning: An
Empirical Analysis of Process Development," Strategic Management
Journal, p. 85. (1994)
4. "Guidance for Industry. PAT - A Framework for Innovative Phar-
maceutical Manufacturing and Quality Assurance," gov/Cder/guidance/6419fnl.htm>
5. Brone, D., A. Alexander, and EJ. Muzzio, "Quantitative Characteriza-
tion of Mixing of Dry Powders in V-blenders," AIChE Journal, 44(2),
6. 'The use of stratefied sampling of blend and dosage units to demonstrate
adequacy of mix for powder blends," PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol., 57,
p. 64 (2003)

*series 1: pre-blend (side-side)
* series 3: lubr (side-side)

* series 2: preblend (top-bottom)
*series 4: lubr (top-bottom)

Preblend side-side ....***** ..
20 ..*** ..
1 ............. . . ... . .. .... .

150 ...... .... � ... .. P*eblend top-bottom
...... . .. ..... ...... ......... .......... .....
. ........... ....

S....'" Lubncated side-side :
S.. ..... ....... L bri ated................... ...............................
"" Lu ed to ..........**

30 40 50 60
Fill level (%)

70 80 90

Figure 4. Effect of fill level, loading method
and lubrication on the APAP RSD.

mogeneity in the Blender and Segregation indexes for APAP and MgSt

APAP Lubricant
capacity(%) 80 40 80 40 80 40 80 40
loading method top-bot top-bot sidelside sidelside top-bot top-bot sidelside sidelside
Blender 14.86 6.70 21.30 11.36 4.03 6.57 10.01 4.35
Segregation test 3.61 7.46 5.33 3.54 9.02 17.49 9.19 9.06

Comparison of Ho

7. Muzzio, EJ., et al., "Sampling Practices in Powder Blending," Int. J.
Pharm, 155, 153-178 (1997)
8. Muzzio, EJ., C.L. Goodridge, A. Alexander, P Arratia, H. Yang, 0. Su-
dah, and G. Mergen, "Sampling and Characterization of Pharmaceutical
Powders and Granular Blends," Int. J. Pharm., 250, p. 51 (2003)
9. Duong, N.H., P. Arratia, E Muzzio, A. Lange, J. Timmermans, and S.
Reynolds, "A Homogeneity Study Using NIR Spectroscopy: Tracking
Magnesium Stearate in Bohle Bin- Blender," Drug Development and
Industrial Pharmacy, p. 679 (2000)
10. Li, W., and G.D. Worosila, "Quantitation of active pharmaceutical

ingredients and excipients in powder blends using designed multivariate
calibration models by near-infrared spectroscopy," Int. J. Pharm., 295,
p. 213 (2005)
11. Alexander, A., M. Roddy, D. Brone, J. Michaels, and E Muzzio, "A
Method to Quantitatively Describe Powder Segregation During Dis-
charge from Vessels," Pharm. Tech. Yearbook, p.6 (2000)
12. Feise, H.J., and J.W. Carson, "Review. The Evolution of Bulk Solids
Technology Since 1982," Chem. Eng. & Tech, 26(2), 121 (2003)
13. Carr, RL., "Evaluating flow properties of solids," Chem Eng., 72, 163
(1965) [

Chemical Engineering Education


The Hydrodynamic Stability of a Fluid-Particle Flow:



Rutgers University * Piscataway NJ 08854
The last few lectures of an undergraduate class in fluid
mechanics offer instructors an opportunity to teach
students some advanced topics that go beyond the
traditional course material.E11 Fluid-particle flows, where both
the fluid and particle are in motion, are prevalent in many
industries including the chemical, materials, and energy
industries. 2] In the pharmaceutical and biotechnology indus-
tries, which are hiring unprecedented numbers of chemical
engineers, nearly all manufacturing facilities involve multiple
processing steps that include fluid-particle flows. In spite of
the industrial importance of fluid-particle flows, they are
rarely covered in any depth in a fluid mechanics course.1 3
Moreover, it is difficult to find examples of fluid-particle
flows where undergraduates have the necessary background
to handle the equations and analysis that is necessary if more
than a survey of the material is to be achieved.
The hydrodynamic stability of a fluid in motion is a fun-
damental concept in fluid mechanics.P41 In an undergraduate
fluid mechanics class, students are usually introduced to hy-
drodynamic stability during discussions of the transition from
laminar to turbulent pipe flows,t51 but a detailed understanding
of hydrodynamic stability is not critical for most single-phase
flow examples. In multiphase flows, however,flow instabili-
ties, density waves, and nonuniform flows are generic. Thus
controlling and understanding flow instabilities is crucial for
numerous industries that process fluid and particles.
Here we present a fluid-particle example, a gas-fluidized
bed, that has been taught at Rutgers in the fluid mechanics
class. It relies on a student's knowledge of the Navier Stokes

equations together with Taylor series and complex numbers
to perform a fluid-particle stability analysis. At Rutgers,
students have already learned Taylor series and complex
numbers in a previous math class by the time they take the
fluid mechanics class in their junior year. The fluid- particle
flow problem presented for analysis has been simplified as a
single-phase compressible fluid acted upon by a force repre-
senting the fluid-particle drag force, and analytical solutions
can be obtained for this simplified system. Thus the model
looks like the Navier Stokes equations with an extra term. The
problem could be easily implemented in a Fluid Dynamics or
Transport Phenomena course in the chemical or mechanical
engineering curriculum or an Applied Math course in Fluid
Dynamics. In general, we would like to provide students with
a fundamental understanding of fluid-particle flows and linear
stability theory.

Xue Liu received his B.S. and M.S. from Tsinghua University, and his
Ph.D. from Rutgers University. He is currently a research associate of
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering at Rutgers University.
Benjamin J. Glasser is an associate professor of Chemical and Bio-
chemical Engineering at Rutgers University. He earned degrees in
chemical engineering from the University of the Witwatersrand (B.S.,
M.S.) and Princeton University (Ph.D.). His research interests include
gas particle flows, granular flows, multiphase reactors, and nonlinear
dynamics of transport processes.
Maureen A. Howley received her B.S. from the University of New Hamp-
shire and her Ph.D. from Rutgers University. She is currently a physics
teacher at Mounts Saint Mary Academy in Watchung, NJ.
Jayati Johri received her B.S. from the University of Texas at Austin, and
her Ph.D. from Rutgers University. She is currently a design engineer at
GE Water and Process Technologies.

� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

Figure 1. Fluidized bed.

In fluid mechanics, stable flow is best described as flow that
will be maintained in spite of small disturbances or perturba-
tions to the flow. The flow is unstable if a small disturbance
will lead to the flow to progressively depart from the initial
base state.J61 The study of hydrodynamic stability thus involves
determining when the state of fluid flow becomes unstable
to small perturbations, and how instabilities evolve in space
and time.[4, 7]
In stability theory, flow behavior is first investigated by
performing a linear stability analysis of steady state solutions
satisfying appropriate equations of motion and boundary
conditions. The stability of such a system is determined by ex-
amining its reaction to all possible infinitesimal disturbances
to basic steady flow. These results provide the groundwork
for further investigation of development of instabilities and
evolution of unstable waveforms. Since these methods of
analysis involve the linearization and numerical integration
of nonlinear partial differential equations of motion, this can
lead to many technical difficulties in all but the simplest of
flow configurations, and thus is difficult for undergraduate
students. To avoid these difficulties, the following problem
demonstrates how the stability of a two-phase flow system can
be examined using a single-phase compressible flow model,
which has been shown to capture the salient features of insta-
bility development in the physical system it represents.

The gas-fluidized bed consists of a vertical column contain-
ing particles supported by a porous bottom (distributor) plate
(Figure 1). MWkn a ga. is introduced to the column through the
distributor, the particles remain stationary until the drag force
exerted by the upward flow of gas is balanced by the weight
of the bed. At this point, the particles become mobilized, and
the bed transitions from being packed to fluidized. In some
cases, the bed can expand uniformly at points beyond the mini-
mum fluid velocity umf with relatively little particle motion
(see Figure 2a depicting uniform or particulate fluidization).

0 0 drag

buoyancy -r gravity

Gas Flow

Chemical Engineering Education

For most cases, however, uniform fluidization is restricted
to a narrow fluidization velocity range bounded by umf and
the commencement of bubbling, umb. At this point, the bed
becomes hydrodynamically unstable to small perturbations
and lends itself to the formation of vertically traveling void-
age waves that can become spatially amplified in the bed and
bring about complex and turbulent flow behavior (see Figure
2b depicting bubbling or aggregative fluidization).
In the fluidization research, instability behavior in gas-
fluidized beds has been examined by hydrodynamic stability
analysis since the early 1960s. Flow instabilities in these
systems are in the form of "traveling waves." The physical
manifestation of the traveling wave solution in a fluidized bed
takes the form of particle free voidage waves (e.g., bubbles,
slugs, and other waveforms), as well as dense particle-cluster
formations, which can move violently throughout the bed
and dramatically impact process performance and safety 21
(see Figure 2b). Since fluidized beds are of tremendous im-
portance in industry, the onset and behavior of the unstable
flow regime must be well characterized by analysis of the
equations governing fluid and particle flow.
Continuum arguments have been used to develop equations
of continuity and motion for describing the behavior of the
fluid and particle phases in a similar way to the development
of the Navier-Stokes equations for Newtonian single phase
flows.J81 The multiphase continuum approach has been used
quite successfully for predicting the onset and propagation
behavior of instabilities in gas-fluidized beds. Recently, it has
been shown that the salient features of instability develop-
ment in gas-fluidized beds predicted using the multiphase
continuum approach are also captured using a single-phase
flow model for a compressible fluid acted upon by a density
dependent force provided by the drag force.9, 10] This simpli-
fied model takes a form similar to the Navier Stokes equations
for fluid flow. While this problem is quite significant in itself
for gaining physical insight into the development of density
waves in fluidized beds, it also presents an opportunity for
chemical engineering students to develop analytical skills for
examining the hydrodynamic stability of a fluid-particle flow
using a simple flow model.

The underlying assumption of the Johri & Glasser[9,10] model
is that a nonuniform suspension of particles fluidized by a gas
can sometimes behave (in the continuum) like a Newtonian
compressible "fluid" whose motion can be related to the
solids in a fluidized bed. From this point on the term "fluid"
will be used in this context where "gas" refers to the fluidiza-
tion medium. Based on the assumption that the inertial and
viscous force terms in the gas phase equation are negligible,
these authors simplified the multiphase model to equations
of continuity and motion for a single fluid having variable
density. Continuum equations of continuity and motion for

the fluid are respectively written as10o1:

+Vjp, )= 0 (1)

P -y v. = F -V - + pg (2)

where the density of the Newtonian fluid (p) varies linearly
with the solids volume fraction 0 as p = p 9 , and p, is
the absolute particle density. The fluid velocity vector is
represented by v ; T is the fluid phase stress tensor; and g
is the gravity force vector. The density dependent force F
represents the drag force exerted on the particle assembly by
the gas flow. Eqs. (1) and (2) represent equations of continu-
ity and motion for a compressible fluid and are exactly what
students would be exposed to in a course in fluid mechanics
except for the additional density dependent force, F.
Continuum arguments provide constitutive relations for the
various terms. Johri & Glasser�10l adopted a suitable closure for
a motivated by the work of Anderson & Jackson,"111 which
takes a form analogous to that for a Newtonian fluid:

where = PI -p Vv+ of the fluid (assumed to be constant

where ,u is the viscosity of the fluid (assumed to be constant

in this analysis), and P is the pressure, which is dependent on
particle volume fraction q, or, in this case, p. This pressure
term is analogous to the pressure of an ideal gas, which is
a function of gas density. We will examine flow only in the
vertical dimension (x), in which case there is no variation in
the other two directions (y and z) thus equations 1 and 2 are
written as:

S+V - (pv) = 0 (4)

Fv v P 95)
p -+v- = +F+ x pg
9t ax ax 3 Ox2 P

where v=v and F=F . Linear forms for F and P are adopted
and these represent the simplest possible forms capable of
capturing the hydrodynamic instability:
F= Ap+B; P=Ep (6)

where A, B, and E are appropriately assigned constants
consistent with experimental evidence of gas-fluidized bed

As stated in the Introduction, hydrodynamic stability of a
system is first investigated by linear stability analysis (LSA)

Particulate Fluidization

Packed bed

Uniform Expansion

Aggregative Fluidization

Packed bed

Bubbling Slugging Clustering

Figure 2a. (left) Particulate fluidization.
Figure 2b. (above) Aggregative fluidization.

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

of steady state solutions satisfying the governing equations.
We therefore begin with a linear stability analysis of the steady
state solution. Students should perform each of the following
steps (in their entirety) either individually or in small groups
of two to three students. Discussion is strongly encouraged
during the analysis to provide the students with insight into
the system's physical behavior. Topics for discussion are
provided within the text.
Steady State Solution: Prove that the simplest solution
to the set of coupled nonlinear partial differential Eqs. (4)
and (5) represents a spatially uniform state of static "fluid"
where the density dependent force F is balanced by the gravi-
tational force of the fluid. In particular, show that under these
conditions v0=0 , p= po and F= .,,. where po0 p o0 and the
subscript '0' is used to designate conditions at steady state.
Find numerical solutions for the steady state values of 00 and
F in dilute beds having p =220 and 440 kg/m3 and dense
beds with po=1100, 1210, and 1320 kg/m3 when p=2200
kg/m3. Find the constant B which is chosen in accordance
with F, = p0g for each of these bed conditions and write
functional forms for the linear closure for F using parameter
values from Table 1.
Linearization: Impose perturbations p' and v' on the
steady state solution representing infinitesimal changes in
density and velocity:

p = Po +

V =V+V

bations in density and velocity respectively, and K is the
wavenumber of the disturbance (in one dimension x), having
real components, whose wavelength A = 27r / d . In general,
s is complex, s = T � --i, where the imaginary part is used
to determine wavespeed (c) according to the relationship
c = c / K, and the real part determines the growth or decay
rate of the wave with time. If a is positive, the perturbations
grow in time and the base state is unstable, and if a is nega-
tive, the perturbations decay and the base state is stable [see
Eq. (10)]. That is, for a positive a the base state solution will
not be observed in practice.
Computational Analysis: By combining Eqs. (7) and (8),
we can reduce the linearized PDE's to a single algebraic equa-
tion in s by performing the following steps: take the 0 / Ox
of Eq. (8); substitute into the resulting equation using the
expression for Ov' / OxOt, O3v' / Ox3 obtained from continuity
Eq. (7) and its derivatives to eliminate v'. The student should
obtain a single differential equation in the density perturba-
tion variable p':

02 ___ I
t2 P Ox2

F I 4p 03Pb

A solution for p' in the form of Eq. (10) and its derivative
forms are then introduced into Eq. (11) to obtain a quadratic
expression in s whose roots are given by

Rewrite Eqs. (4) and (5) in terms of the perturbation variables,
and perform a Taylor series expansion about the steady state
solution. Since the perturbations are assumed to be both small
and smoothly varying in space and time, their derivatives are
also small. By neglecting terms in the series involving powers
of perturbation variables greater than one, and eliminating
products of perturbation variables, the students should obtain
the following linearized equations in perturbation variables
p' and v':

+ po =0 (7)
at Ox

Po0 Ot

p, OP
0 Ox

F 4 02V=
F -g~ +/ - Ox2 = 0

P/ dP
0 dp n


F'= d[
a dp ),

We seek a solution to Eqs. (7) and (8) in the form of plane
waves since in real fluidized beds the development of the
density waves can be observed in the bed:
p' = exp(st)exp(irK) v'=1 exp(st)exp(iK) (10)

where p and 9 are (complex) amplitudes of the pertur-


l1 9pP 9p2F - g)i
4p2, 2 4 2 K3

The resulting growth rate s is thus a function of parameter val-
ues ... p , F', and P0 and the wavenumber of the disturbance
K. Moreover, s is complex indicating disturbances propagate
through the bed in the form of traveling waves. From Eq. 12,
it is clear that we have analytically solved the problem, and
numerical analysis used in most multiphase flow simulations
is avoided. This will greatly reduce the mathematical difficulty
and help students to focus on the stability theory and the prob-
lem itself instead of the numerical analysis. Note that a sign
error was made in Eq. (23) of Johri & Glasseru10l and Eq. (18)
of Johri & Glasser[91 where the last term under the square root
should be - not +. This error resulted in negative computed
wavespeeds. Johri & Glasseru10l discusses the implications
of wavespeed direction with respect to fluid flow in order to
physically justify their findings. Correct signage, however,
[as shown in Eq. (12) of this manuscript] results in computed
wavespeeds of equal magnitude to Johri & Glasser results, but
in the direction of fluid flow and physically realizable.

Since we are interested in distinguishing waves that become
amplified in the bed from those that are damped out, the student
should proceed to plot the real part of the growth rate a versus
Chemical Engineering Education

wavenumber , using parameter values from Table 1. These
values were chosen to represent glass beads a few hundred
micron in diameter fluidized by air. Here, closures for F and P
from Eq. (6) are used where Fo=A and Po=E. To examine the
density effect, the students should compare the linear stability
of steady state solutions having low fluid densities, p0=220
and 440 kg/m3 (representing dilute fluidized beds) with steady
states having high fluid densities, po=1100, 1210, and 1320
kg/m3 (representing particle dense fluidized beds). Results for
a high density fluidized bed (po=1100 kg in I are shown in
Figure 3 where the real part of the growth rate a is plotted as
a function of wavenumber r . Students should independently
generate linear stability curves for each po value condition
using Mathematica, MatLab or equivalent.
As shown in Figure 3, the curve has positive growth rate a
for a range of wavenumbers beginning at r, =0. The growth
rate then goes through a maximum at am, and then decreases
to zero at a critical wavenumber o,. Physically, this represents
the boundary between disturbances, which become amplified
as they propagate through the bed from those that are damped
out. Note that the use of linear closures results in the system
becoming more unstable as fluid density is increased, that
is, the critical wavenumber r, and maximum growth rate
am both increase with an increase in po. This is because the
inertial terms, which drive the instability, increase with an
increase in density.
Points for discussion: What do the density dependent force
terms physically represent? Use Figure 1 to illustrate that
as particles move closer together in the bed to form a more
densely packed region, the interstitial gas velocity increases
between particles resulting in an increase in particle "drag."
How significant is the effect of closure in the dilute and dense
flow regimes? How might the magnitude and direction of this
force term serve to damp out or
amplify unstable voidage waves?
Discuss the physical significance
of competing density effects with
respect to stability. Why would an
increase in the pressure gradient Str
(as opposed to pressure) serve to Di,
stabilize the bed? How might one Category
conceive of the origin and growth Q1
of low density cluster-like insta-

Parameter Values for the
Linear Closures
Po 1100kg/m3
Y 0.665 kg/(m.s)
A 14.7m/s2
E 0.03J/kg
Cb 0.173m/s
Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

In spite of the industrial importance

of fluid-particle flows, they are

rarely covered in any depth in a

fluid mechanics course.

8 -


- \



0 50 100 150 200 250

Figure 3. The real part of the growth rate o (with units
of 1/s) versus the vertical wavenumber , (with units of
1/m), computed by a linear stability analysis about the
uniform state using linear closures for F and P evaluated
at p= 1100 kg/m3.

ChE 303 Linear Stability Survey
of students in each category (total student number = 28).
-ongly Neutral Strongly
agree Agree
1 2 3 4 5
14 11 3
8 13 7
3 9 10 6
1 10 8 9
deal in the lecture.

Q2: The lecture helped me understand that just because a solution is obtained using a
momentum balance doesn't mean it will be observed in practice.
Q3: I feel I had adequate math background to understand the mathematical concepts
put across in the lecture.
Q4: I recommend teaching this material to the class next year.

QI: I learned a great

abilities versus that of bubble-like high density instabilities,
and how is this analogous to the behavior of a compressible
fluid? What would be the physical manifestation of unstable
waveforms in low density and high density flow of a com-
pressible fluid? What is the role of the density dependent
force, and what effect does its closure form have? The reader
is referred to Johnri a& Glasser[9, 10] for further discussion of
the physical situation.

The stability theory discussed in this paper has been taught
in a chemical engineering course: Transport Phenomena I,
at Rutgers University in 2005 and 2006. To spur students'
interest in the stability theory, we played experimental videos
in the beginning of the class to show the development of the
density waves, such as bubbles and slugs in fluidized beds.
Such videos are available on a CD from Rhodes.[121 Student
feedback in 2006 was obtained by issuing a questionnaire
(see Table 2, previous page), in which students had to state
to what extent they agreed with four statements on a scale
ranging from 1, "strongly disagree," to 5, "strongly agree."
Generally, we obtained positive feedback from students. A
fair number of students felt that they learned a lot from this
lecture (Qi and Q2 in Table 3), and would recommend teach-
ing this material to the class next year (Q4 in Table 3). Some
of the comments from students included "I really enjoyed this
class. It really sparked my interest in chemical engineering,"
"I think the explanations were valuable and showed a great
deal of importance," and "It was good because it connected
several courses. It is always good to see applications that
span different classes." Most students believed that they had
adequate math background to understand the mathematical
concepts put across in the lecture (Q3 in Table 3). Several
students, however, also pointed out that one lecture is not
enough to fully understand the stability theory material. Such
comments included \ kla% I there was less time for all that
material," and "It is a good beginning to understanding the
material that will grow more in depth." We will focus on this
point in future classes.

We have presented a simple example of an industrially rel-
evant fluid-particle flow problem, which introduces students to
methods of linear stability analysis involving nonlinear partial
differential equations. This example demonstrates how the
stability of a two-phase flow system can be examined using
a simplified single-phase compressible flow model, which
has been shown to capture the salient features of instability
behavior. Students are expected to perform each step of the
analysis, and points for classroom discussion have been noted
to provide physical insight into the mechanistic features as-
sociated with unstable flow behavior and the physical mani-
festation of unstable waveforms.

1. Conesa, J.A., and I. Martin-Gullon, "Courses in Fluid Mechanics and
Chemical Reaction Engineering in Europe," Chem. Eng. Educ., 34, p.
284 (2000)
2. Fan, L.S., and C. Zhu, Principles of Gas-Solid Flows, Cambridge
University Press, New York (1998)
3. Fan, L.S., "Particle Dynamics in Fluidization and Fluid-Particle Sys-
tems," Chem. Eng. Educ., 34, p. 40 (2000)
4. Drazin, P.G., and WH. Reid, Hydrodynamic Stability, Cambridge
University Press, New York (1981)
5. Churchill, S.W, "ANewApproach to Teaching Turbulent Flow," Chem.
Eng. Educ., 33, p. 142 (1999)
6. Campbell, L., and W. Garnett, The Life of James Clerk Maxwell,
Macmillan, London (1982)
7. Chandrasekhar, S., Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability, Oxford
University Press, Oxford (1961)
8. Jackson, R., The Dynamics ofFluidized Particles, Cambridge Univer-
sity Press, New York (2000)
9. Johri, J., and B.J. Glasser, "A Bifurcation Approach to Understanding
Instabilities in Gas-Fluidized Beds Using a Single Phase Compressible
Flow Model, Computers & Chem. Eng., 28, p. 2677 (2004)
10. Johri, J., and B.J. Glasser, "Connections Between Density Waves in
Fluidized Beds and Compressible Flows," AIChE Journal, 48, p. 1645
11. Anderson, T.B., and R. Jackson, "A Fluid Mechanical Description
of Fluidized Beds: Stability of the State of Uniform Fluidization,"
Industrial and Eng. ( h...... . , Fundamentals, 7, p. 527 (1968)
12. Rhodes, M., et al., Laboratory Demonstrations in Particle Technology,
CD (1999) 1

Chemical Engineering Education

--- - ^K__________________________-0



in a Freshman Engineering Course


The Ohio State University * Columbus, OH 43210
Government initiative, market-driven, and research-
driven forces have drawn international attention to
the emerging field of nanotechnology. Nanotechnol-
ogy research spans many disciplines in the sciences and en-
gineering, and encompasses advanced materials, electronics,
and sensors, as well as biomedical applications.[1] Although
some institutions offer degrees in this area, while others offer

Yosef S. Allam is a graduate teaching associate in the First-Year Engineer-
ing Program at The Ohio State University, in which he develops new cur-
riculum and helps with piloting and revising newly implemented curriculum.
He holds B.S. and M.S. degrees in industrial and systems engineering
from OSU. He is currently pursuing a Ph.D. in engineering education with
research interests in spatial visualization, curriculum development, and
fulfilling the needs of an integrated, multi-disciplinary first-year engineer-
ing environment through the use of collaborative learning, problem-based
learning (including design-build projects), classroom interaction, and
multiple representations of concepts.
David L. Tomasko is professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering,
deputy director of the Center for Affordable Nanoengineering of Polymeric
Biomedical Devices, and director of the Honors Collegium at The Ohio
State University. He has research interests in molecular thermodynamics,
supercritical fluid solutions, and polymer processing.
Bruce Trottis a lecturer in the First-Year Engineering Program at The Ohio
State University. He came to OSU in 2002 after 33 years as an engineer in
R&D organizations for high-technology companies such as Bell Labs and
Lucent Technologies. His roles included software and hardware developer,
system integration specialist, senior project manager, software develop-
ment manager, and corporate manufacturing planner.
Phil Schlosser teaches courses in the First-Year Engineering Program in
the College of Engineering at The Ohio State University. Dr. Schlosser holds
more than 20 U.S. and foreign patents for various electronic devices and
systems. In addition to his teaching activities, he has been instrumental

individual courses, as late as 2004 only Cornell University
and The Ohio State University offered a full-fledged freshman
engineering course that fulfills undergraduate engineering de-
gree requirements and includes a term-length, hands-on nano-
technology design, fabrication, and application project.
In the last decade or more, researchers have investigated and
repeatedly stressed the need to change the manner in which

in starting several electronics companies and developing and teaching
courses in innovation and entrepreneurship at The Ohio State University.
Yong Yang is a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Biomedical En-
gineering at Duke University. Prior to moving to Duke, he was a Research
Associate in The Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center (NSEC) for
Affordable Nanoengineering of Polymer Biomedical Devices (ANPBD) at
The Ohio State University. He received a Ph.D. in chemical engineering
from The Ohio State University in 2005. His research interests include stem
cell technology, polymer micro/nanotechnology, polymer nanocomposites,
and supercritical fluids technology.
Tiffany M.S. Wilson is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Chemical
and Biomolecular Engineering at The Ohio State University. She is currently
completing her dissertation work at Sandia National Laboratories in Liver-
more, California. Her research focuses on structure/property relations and
processing effects in semiconducting polymers to enable their improved
use in micro and nanosystems and detectors for ionizing radiation.
John A. Merrill is director of the First-Year Engineering Program at The
Ohio State University College of Engineering. His responsibilities include
operations, faculty recruiting, curriculum management, student retention,
and program assessment. He also works with the associate dean for Un-
dergraduate Education & Student Services in the establishment of outcome-
based assessment processes for program improvement and accreditation.
Dr. Merrill received his Ph.D. in instructional design and technology from
The Ohio State University in 1985, and has an extensive background in
public education, corporate training, and contract research.

� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

engineering is introduced to pre-engineers.[2 5] From their re-
search, they have proposed integrated curricula incorporating
an introduction to engineering, engineering graphics and com-
munication, technical writing, engineering technology tools,
engineering ethics, hands-on or active-learning experiences,
cooperative or collaborative learning, and teamwork.
During the past 10 years, The Ohio State University's Col-
lege of Engineering has established a dual offering of integrat-
ed course sequences known as Fundamentals of Engineering
(FE) and its parallel, Fundamentals of Engineering for Honors
(FEH). The goals of FE courses (ENG 181 and ENG 183) are
to provide freshman engineering students with knowledge of
engineering fundamentals and engineering graphics; skills in
engineering communication and engineering problem solv-
ing; experience in team-building; knowledge of and ability
to apply the design process; ability to make measurements;
knowledge of how things work; and experience in a hands-on
laboratory. In the second session of the FE program, ENG 183
provides a quarter-long design, fabrication, and implementa-
tion project. Students are expected to tend to such issues as
initial research, brainstorming, designing, building, testing,
and implementation. They are also expected to exercise
project management, project economics, and teamwork as
they work. Throughout the project, lab memos are assigned
on a regular basis and each team gives an oral presentation at
the conclusion of the quarter. The instructional goals of the
Fundamentals of Engineering course sequence at The Ohio
State University are discussed thoroughly by Merrill.f61
Previously implemented ENG 183 design projects include
designing and building a conveyor that sorts objects of vari-
ous dimensions and material properties, and building a model

roller coaster that meets specified design and performance
criteria. A Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) design-build project with a
nanotechnology component has been developed as a volun-
tary alternative to the ENG 183 design project. This alternate
design-build project was piloted during Winter and Spring
Quarters of 2004, with one section offered in each quarter
for a total of 127 students then expanded to 3 sections in
2005 with an enrollment of 190 students. It continues to be
offered twice annually with a total of 2 sections of enrollment
per academic year.
The premise for the Nanotechnology and Microfabrication
LOC pilot course for freshmen engineers complements the
findings of other researchers seeking to offer courses in
nanotechnology and related areas to post-secondary stu-
dents. 712] By converting knowledge from local graduate and
faculty researchers to a format accessible to freshmen, it is
hoped that first-year engineering students will acquire the
fundamentals of nanotechnology and develop an interest in
this and other areas of research. The purpose of this paper
is to share the fruits of this effort and provide a high-level
presentation of the curriculum developed and preliminary
research findings.

This new project offering represents a significant effort
to expose freshman engineering students to cutting-edge
research topics and foster an early interest in academic and
professional careers in new fields such as nanotechnology
and biomedical devices. The project also demonstrates a safe
method of incorporating more chemical- and biological-based
engineering disciplines into a freshman
laboratory course as an alternative to the
traditional electro-mechanical emphasis.

A three-pronged approach was employed
in developing the project, involving
hands-on lab activities, nanotechnol-
ogy teaching modules, and on-campus
nanotechnology research laboratory
tours hosted by faculty and researchers.
Through oral presentations and formal
written reports, students later make con-
nections and draw analogies between the
top-down microfabrication methods used
in their project and the nanotechnology
and nanofabrication technologies dis-
cussed in the teaching modules they read
and the nanotechnology research labora-
tory tours. In doing so, they recognize the
challenges associated with engineering
at the nanoscale, and hopefully get inter-
ested in doing research in this area. The
lab activities included a quarter-length

Chemical Engineering Education

Lab Topics and Activities

Lab Session Topics / Activities
1 Introduction: Nanoscale Definitions, Techniques, Devices
Hands-on experimentation and benchmarking.
2 Fluid mechanics, capillary flow, clean room practices
Advanced capabilities testing. Begin design.
3 Lab Tours or Sensor Circuit Design I
Paper chip design, operational design, calculations due.
4 Lab Tours or Sensor Circuit Design I
Final CAD design in Inventor, operational design, calculations due.
5 Sensor Circuit Design II
Dilution of concentrations and detection device calibration.
6 PDMS Chip Moklding, Prototype Chip, Sketch Designs, Manufacturing Principles
2 chips per team.
7 Chip Demolding & Assembly, Production, Economics
Initial testing.
8 Chip Fluidics Test, History of IC Talk & Relevance to Micro- & Nanote-
9 Final Chip Test
Determine unknown concentration based on calibration; competition.

design, build, and test problem using project management and
team-building skills found in the standard lab sections.
Fluorescein is a chemical used to detect an eye disorder
known as dry-eye syndrome. Typically, testing for this
condition requires expensive instruments in a doctor's of-
fice. Samples of tears are taken from the eye in micro-liter
amounts. Thus, students are told the project's objective is to
design a cheap, portable LOC to measure the concentration
of fluorescein. The benefit of this device would be to greatly
reduce the cost of equipment required (fluorimeters) as well
as to provide a product that is readily portable. Portability is
very helpful in situations where older or disabled patients find
it difficult to travel to a doctor's office. Thus, the students are
given a real-life premise for their project.
Laboratory Activities
The overall design objective given to the students is to
design, fabricate, and operate an LOC made from polydimeth-
ylsiloxane (PDMS) capable of optically detecting the presence
and quantity of an agent via detection of emissions from a
fluorescent tracer using an electronic detection device built
by the students. The LOC integrates biochemical analysis
with proper microfluidic components (such as sample dilu-
tion, pumping, mixing, metering, incubation, separation),
and detection in micron-sized channels and reservoirs into a
miniaturized device. The integration and automation involved
can improve the reproducibility of the results and eliminate
labor, time, and sample-preparation errors that occur in the
intermediate stages of an analytical procedure.
Table 1 summarizes the lab activities. The hands-on activi-
ties expose students to the design process in which, after
significant benchmarking and analysis, they design, revise,
and build a prototype based on the lessons learned earlier in
the quarter with a generic design. They also experience first-
hand the importance of proper calibration of a detection and
measurement device and use their calibration data to derive a
curve and function that is employed in testing and determining
the concentration of an unknown sample. Because the student
teams are exposed to important engineering topics such as
analysis, design, synthesis, calibration, and testing with a
microfabrication and nanotechnology focus, the hands-on
activities represent the most important focus of this project.
Chip Design and Fabrication
The four-member student teams spend the first two weeks
benchmarking a generic chip design with experiments to
determine performance on various features. In the first four
weeks, the student teams design their own chip by using
knowledge gained from the benchmarking activities to pro-
duce a chip that will outperform the generic design. Chip
design, mold fabrication, and molding processes are based
on ongoing research113 16] in the Department of Chemical and
Biomolecular Engineering.
Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

A chip is comprised of wells and channels connecting those
wells. Required components include: staging wells for sample
and solvent, flow-through detection well, and a waste well
to accept solvent wash and unused reagent from the detec-
tion well. Figure 1 shows the currently used generic chip
design. The student teams are provided with requirements
and constraints regarding channel and well sizes. Addition-
ally, capillary action is presented and capillary check valves
can be an optional component in the design.
Provided with design constraints and given two lab pe-
riods to explore the workings of a prototype device, the
students will note nuances of the generic design and its
performance and use insight gleaned from this lab to un-
derstand design considerations in building a better chip
and the importance of proper equipment and procedure.
The generic design is not a particularly good design, as
some shortcomings have intentionally been incorporated
for the students to investigate. After benchmarking, they
are encouraged to brainstorm and then narrow ideas
based on the constraints, requirements, and information
needs of the project. They are encouraged to be creative,
while keeping the overall function of the chip in mind.
The students must also be mindful that only a single
prototype iteration is possible due to time constraints.
The students sketch a design of the channels and wells of
the chip. They are also required to author an operational
design-essentially procedures on the use of the chip-as
well as provide design notes including calculations and
similar justifications for particular design characteristics.
Upon instructional team review, the student team final-
izes its design and uses Autodesk Inventor to prepare
a true-scale drawing of the microfluidic LOC within a
2" (5.08 cm) circle. Profiles of sample student designs are

Figure 1. Autodesk Inventor rendering of generic chip de-
sign: 1 - Staging wells; 2 - Channels with in-line capillary
valves; 3 - Detection well; 4 - Waste well; 5 - Team logo.

provided in Figure 2. Most student designs are improve-
ments over the generic design, as they find ways to avoid
the difficulties encountered during their investigations in
the first two labs, while providing a more aesthetically
pleasing final result.
The files are sent out for printing on transparency at
16000 DPI and the transparency is used as the photomask
for photolithographic production of a mold on a silicon
wafer. Standard photolithography procedures with SU 8-
2075 photoresist (MicroChem Co.) are used for a target
feature thickness of 150 microns.[41 This back-end process
is performed by graduate student fellows in our Nanoscale
Science and Engineering Center (NSEC). During these
background activities, which require a total of 3 weeks
(weeks 3-5 of the session), the student teams build their
detection circuits, take and report on lab tours of campus
nanotechnology research facilities - where some students
may have the opportunity to meet the graduate student
volunteers performing the back-end processing on their
chips-and experiment with their newly built detection
devices with the generic chips prepared in advance by the
instructional team.
The processed wafers are returned to the student teams in
the sixth lab session and the teams produce a polydimethyl
siloxane (PDMS) casting from the silicon wafer mold as w
a flat lid. Each of the castings is contained in a polystyrene
dish. The PDMS resin (Sylgard 185, Dow Corning) and c
agent represent a very safe crosslinking polymerization the
be carried out with straightforward safety precautions (goggle
gloves). Students are introduced to and required to read the I
rial Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for these chemicals prior t(
Details regarding mixing, degassing, and molding are provic
the lab procedures.
In the subsequent lab session (after several days curing at air
temperature), the PDMS chip is ready to demold. A small sI
is used to separate the PDMS from the sides of the Petri dis
then the student very slowly pulls the PDMS (often with the'
attached) out of the Petri dish. The wafer is carefully sept
from the PDMS and the 2" patterned area is isolated using
punch. Finally, a 2" flat lid is also punched out from the PDI
the second Petri dish.

Chip-Chip Holder Assembly
A 1:1 (full scale) outline of the chip and chip holder design is
printed out from the Inventor file to assist assembly of the chip
and chip holder. The PDMS lid is aligned on the top of the outline
printout. The center of the staging wells and waste well access ports
are marked with a small dot of a permanent marker. A leather punch
is used to punch the 1/8" diameter holes centered on the marked
spots. These access holes punched in the lid will later have plumb-
ing inserted for sample delivery and flushing. Prior to alignment
and assembly, the students clean all the chip assembly components
with an ultrasonic cleaner in a detergent solution. The pieces are
rinsed with distilled deionized water.

Figure 2. Sample student design profiles.

Figure 3. PDMS chip, PDMS lid, and chip holder
aligned and assembled over transparency.

The Plexiglas bottom of the chip holder is placed on
the outline printout and aligned precisely. The PDMS
chip is transferred onto the base, patterned channels fac-
ing up and lined up with the design on the outline. The
detection well is correctly located and the staging wells
are carefully aligned with access holes. The PDMS lid
is then aligned to the design on the outline and chip. The
Plexiglas chip holder top is then placed over the entire
assembly. It is imperative that there are no air bubbles
between the parts. Finally, the three nuts are tightened
only as much as necessary to hold the top in place and
maintain a seal. It is important not to apply too much
Chemical Engineering Education


-X5093SB {



Figure 4. Detection circuit schematic. ADC0804 is an analog-to-dig
20-pin IC. Each team constructs this circuit on a prototyping

Figure 5. Detection and calibration setup with the generic chip.

torque to the nuts to avoid deformation. The finished chip-chip
holder assembly is shown in Figure 3.
Upon assembly, the chip is tested for proper fluid flow. Glass
plumbing is inserted into the access holes at the top of the device.
Syringes are used to pump dyed water into the detection well. Then
clear deionized water is used as a flushing agent in the same fashion
it would be used with real samples. It is during this stage that the
students are expected to gain valuable experience in manipulating
samples in their chips and troubleshooting any sealing, incomplete
filling, or other operational issues.
Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

From the remainder of the seventh lab
through the open eighth lab, the student
teams are expected to refine their opera-
tion procedures and prepare for the final
test, which is held in the ninth lab.

0 D3 J
I D3o During the lab sessions in which
0- the chips are being fabricated, basic
D -01 electronics are discussed along with
0D6 1- photometric detection methods while
, D7 0- the students build and calibrate their
Do, electronic optical detection devices.
D9 The detection device consists of a
D o0 blue-light LED excitation source and
- _ green-light photosensor for detecting
emitted photons integrated with an
analog-to-digital converter. An electric
circuit, which is built on a prototyping
board (PB) and powered by a desktop
I power supply, takes the analog output of
ARY DISPLAY the photosensor and converts the signal
to an eight-bit binary value. These eight
bits are displayed on eight LEDs on the
ital converter board from least-significant bit to most-
board. significant bit. Figure 4 is the circuit
schematic of the detection device. The
detection device is then attached to the electric circuit.
Figure 5 shows a prototype of the electronic detection
device setup with the chip and agent plumbed into the
chip. After testing the flow of water through their chip
to explore pumping and capillary valving at the micron
level, the students are ready to calibrate their device. For
calibration, they are provided a 1000 PPM stock fluo-
rescein solution and are required to make 250 PPM and
500 PPM calibration solutions by dilution. The binary
output from the detector is recorded for each of four
concentrations of fluorescein (0 PPM [DI water], 250
PPM, 500 PPM, and 1000 PPPM). Between samples,
distilled deionized water is flushed using the syringe to
displace the sample from the detection well. Using these
results, they then prepare a calibration curve from which
an unknown sample concentration can be determined.
In the ninth lab session, the students perform a final
test with unknown concentrations of fluorescein solu-
tion. Five different unknowns are provided but each
team is only required to analyze three (the rest are
available for bonus points). The accuracy of properly
calibrated student devices falls in the range of �3-30%,
depending on factors such as device sealing, cleanliness,
consistently filled detection wells, consistent chip-de-
tector orientation, and general attention to detail of the
individual student teams. Certificates and small cash
awards (made available through corporate donations to

the First-Year Engineering Program) are given to the top two
teams with the best chip performance (accuracy); the team
with the best project notebook; and the team giving the best
oral presentation.

Nanotechnology Teaching Modules
Most of the lab activities are not truly nanoscale due to the
lack of access to the major research instrumentation required
(e.g., electron beam lithography) and the associated costs.
Students are, however, introduced to current and future appli-
cations of micro- and nanotechnology and the relative length
scales of macro-, micro-, and nano-systems via multimedia
presentation. This is intended to help the students to connect
to the project on the first day of class. Moreover, the students
are provided with six teaching modules of approximately six
pages in length each, to discuss and explore nanotechnology
issues related to the hands-on activities they perform in the
lab. Table 2 lists these modules by topic, author, the respective
affiliation of the author, and a brief synopsis of each. Discus-
sion questions addressing the content of these modules are
assigned for inclusion in lab memos and reports.

Nanotechnology Research Laboratory Tours
Lab tours are conducted by faculty and graduate researchers
specifically recruited to demonstrate their nanotechnology
research facilities to the freshman students. There are nine tours
scheduled over a two-week period, allowing one lab section to
work on the "Circuits I" lab while the other section tours re-
search facilities during the third- and fourth-week lab sessions.
A summary of the facilities toured and the corresponding topics
covered in the tours is provided in Table 3. These tours enhance
the students' overall experience and provide direct exposure to
ongoing nanotechnology research. Many tour guides provide
handouts and access to other information as well as visual aids
for use by the student teams in their oral presentations at the end
of the quarter. Oral presentations on their projects and lab tours
are given in the tenth and final lab. Although each lab group
only tours a single facility, the final class laboratory period is
devoted to oral presentations where each group gives an 8-
minute talk on the lab they visited, thus exposing the remainder
of the class to the lab they experienced. The oral presentations
also address the student designs and testing results and issues.
The student teams are expected to discuss the relevance of the
formal research conducted at the on-campus facilities in regards
to their own design-build projects.
Although the design and fabrication techniques employed
by the students represent the state of microscale research from
as recently as the mid- to late 1990s, it is important to show
the students how their work in microfabrication and design
is analogous to current nanotechnology research. Both the
Nanotechnology Teaching Modules and the lab tours provide
a bridge from the students' hands-on lab activities and their
associated assignments to the current research and pioneering
efforts in the field of nanotechnology.

Midterm examinations with identical test content written
by instructors uninvolved in this project were identically
proctored during the 2004 academic year. A comparison of the
mean scores of students in the pilot course vs. the remainder
of the population in the standard course yielded statistically
insignificant differences. This suggests that substituting a
nontraditional design-build lab project for the existing elec-
tro-mechanical design-build project does not adversely affect
students' learning of engineering fundamentals.
In the pilot course, the students' increases in knowledge and
understanding of nanotechnology-related concepts during the
quarter is indicated by their improved performance as they
progressed from the preliminary queries of the first lab as-
signment, through the quizzes, to the nanotechnology-related
questions on the final exam. Their enhanced grasp of nano-
technology and microfabrication concepts is also evident in
their final project documentation and oral presentations. This
suggests that first-year engineering students in an introductory
engineering course can learn nanotechnology fundamentals
and can apply basic microfabrication technology.
Although baseline results were not available for comparison,
an overwhelming majority of students surveyed in the Spring
2004 version of the pilot course indicated interest in some form
of research, although only two were actually involved at that early
point in their studies. For some, this awareness of and interest in
research may have been sparked by the students'involvement in
the nanotechnology and microfabrication course.
The students also provided generally positive responses
when asked about the connectedness of the various nano-
technology-related activities. A majority of students indicated
that they felt the combinations of nanotechnology teaching
modules, lab tours, and lab experiences provided a strong,
integrated learning experience.
There is also an ongoing longitudinal study tracking stu-
dent pursuits academically and professionally. Results of this
study will be published in the future. Anecdotally, students
have written members of the instructional team of this course
thanking them for their experiences in the design-build and
project-management activities, citing these as helpful with
later coursework and in securing summer engineering intern-
ships. Other students have stated that this course has either
fostered new interest or confirmed their existing interest in
research, nanotechnology, and chemical engineering. Still
other students have, after taking this course, applied and been
selected to participate in National Nanotechnology Initiative
(NNI) summer programs at respected institutions.

The successful implementation and standardization of the
LOC design-build project with a nanotechnology component
for first-year engineering students is promising in that it shows
Chemical Engineering Education

Nanotechnology Teaching Modules, Authors, and Affiliations
Module Topic Author Affiliation Summary
1 Top-Down vs. Derek J. Hansford Biomedical Engi- Methods, strengths, and limitations of fabricat-
Bottom-Up Nano- neering Program; ing nanometer-scale structures using Top-down
manufacturing Department of methods (lithography and patterning) compared
Materials Science & to bottom-up methods (self-assembly and selec-
Engineering tive growth); current uses of both nanomanufac-
turing techniques.
2 Molecular James F. Rathman Department of Role of intermolecular forces in molecular self-
Self-Assembly Chemical and Bio- assembly of amphiphilic molecules; formation of
molecular Engineer- 3-D structures by self-assembly in solution; sur-
ing face tension and the formation of 2-D structures
by self-assembly at interfaces.
3 Nano-Structured Sheikh A. Akbar Department of The emerging field of nano-ceramics and nano-
Ceramics for Materials Science & technology; some potential applications with an
Chemical Sensing Engineering emphasis on chemical sensors; the challenges and
opportunities in this evolving area.
4 Polymer L. James Lee Department of The emerging field of nanoscale manufacturing
Processing at the Chemical and Bio- of polymeric materials; state-of-the-art mold
Nanoscale molecular Engineer- (master) making and replication techniques; chal-
ing lenges and opportunities in this evolving area.
5 Nanofluidics A. Terrence Conlisk Department of Me- How nanofluidics differs from traditional fluid
chanical Engineering mechanics, with emphasis on fluid flow in a tube
or channel.
6 Nanotechnology Derek J. Hansford Biomedical Engi- Concepts in drug delivery, including tissue
for Drug Delivery neering Program; targeting, biomolecular markers, and reasons
Department of to use controlled release; basic concepts of
Materials Science & nanoparticles and why they are useful for drug
Engineering delivery; understanding the differences of classes
of nanoparticles.

Nanotechnology Research Facility Tours
Facility Toured Tour Topic
Ohio MicroMD Laboratory Cleanroom Facility Medical and biomedical applications; silicon, polymer characterization; photolithography;
(now Nanotech West) biohybrid processing.
Micro/Nanoscale Welding Laboratories Nanoindenter, Nd:YAG laser micromachining.
Nanoscale Metrology and Measurement Lab Laser-guided magnetic suspension stage; dynamic modeling with ATM tip-cantilever system.
Microfabrication Laboratory Replication of microstructures for microfluidics, sensing, tissue engineering, and drug deliv-
ery; structural testing; microfluidic testing; fluorescence testing with microscope.
Atomic Force Microscopy Lab Use of Atomic Force Microscopy for surface topography at the atomic length scale.
Electronics Cleanroom Manufacturing Facility Silicon processing; photolithography equipment and methods; mask aligners; spinner; ther-
mal evaporator.
Nanoelectronics and Optoelectonics Lab Dielectric deposition, hydrogen processing, and etching; electron beam evaporation; filament
evaporation; ellipsometer; photolithography; annealing, oxidation and diffusion furnaces;
pulsed laser deposition.
Semiconductor Epitaxy and Analysis Laboratory Applications in optoelectronics, photovoltaics, electronics, and integrated systems.

that traditional boundaries of electro-mechanical design-build
projects can be expanded to include new and cutting-edge
technologies only recently trickled down from the graduate
research arena to the undergraduate classroom. It is impor-
tant to expose new engineering students early to these new
technologies as there is a projected need for researchers and
professionals in the burgeoning field of nanotechnology. It is

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

yet to be confirmed, but this early exposure can potentially
foster student interest in careers in nanotechnology, thus
helping fulfill future demand for qualified scholars and profes-
sionals. The standardization (after revisions) and expansion
of this offering to more course sections illustrates that the
importance of nanotechnology in research and education can
be addressed at the early undergraduate level.

It is shown that nanotechnology can fit in an introductory
engineering program. The comparable performance of the
pilot and nonpilot students on identically proctored and inde-
pendently graded exams supports this statement. In addition,
the online journal and assessment responses from the students
in the pilot course do not stand out from comments provided
by the nonpilot students.

This project was supported financially by the National
Science Foundation (EEC- 0304469) and the First-Year
Engineering Program in the College of Engineering at The
Ohio State University. The authors also acknowledge the
contributions of Professors Derek Hansford (Biomedical
Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering) and L.
James Lee (Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering) to the
success of the project.

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Undergraduate Core Curriculum," J. Eng. Educ., 90(2) 231 (2001)
8. Choudhury, J., et al., "Initiating a Program in Nanotechnology Through
a Structured Curriculum," in Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE Interna-
tional Conference on Microelectronic Systems Education (2003)
9. Uddin, M., andA.R. Chowdhury. "Integration of Nanotechnology Into
the Undergraduate Engineering Curriculum," in International Confer-
ence on Engineering Education, Oslo, Norway (2001)
10. Hersam, M.C., M. Luna, and G. Light, "Implementation of Interdis-
ciplinary Group Learning and Peer Assessment in a Nanotechnology
Engineering Course," J. Eng. Educ., 93(1) 49 (2004)
11. Adams, J.D., B.S. Rogers, and L.J. Leifer, I,....1,,......
Nanotechnology, and the Scanning-Probe Microscope: An Innovative
Course," IEEE Transactions on Education, 47(1) 51 (2004)
12. Adams, J.D., B.S. Rogers, and L.J. Leifer, i I I.. i lu.h..I..-. trans-
fer to the undergraduate and graduate classroom as a result of a novel
Ph.D. program," IEEE Transactions on Education, 47(2) p. 227-231
13. Lai, S., S. Wang, J. Luo, L.J. Lee, S.-T. Yang, and M.J. Madou, "Design
of a Compact Disk-like Microfluidic Platform for Enzyme-Linked
Immunosorbent Assay," Analytical Chemistry, 76(7), 1832-1837
14. Madou, M.J., L.J. Lee, S. Daunert, S. Lai, and C.-H. Shih, "Design
and Fabrication of CD- like Microfluidic Platforms for Diagnostics:
Microfluidic Functions," Biomedical Microdevices, 3(3) 245 (2001)
15. Yang, Y., L.J. Lee, and K.W. Koelling, "Structure Evolution in Polymer
Blending Using Microfabricated Samples," Polymer, 45(6) 1959-1969
16. Lee, L.J., M.J. Madou, K.W. Koelling, S. Daunert, S. Lai, and C.G.
Koh, et al., "Design and Fabrication of CD-Like Microfluidic Plat-
forms for Diagnostics: Polymer-Based Microfabrication," Biomedical
Microdevices, 3(4) 339 (2001) 1

Chemical Engineering Education

MR classroom
----- --- s___________________________________________

Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students



United States Military Academy * West Point, NY

Interdisciplinary learning and curriculum integration are
two very valuable methods to develop our future lead-
ers. Klein (1990) defines interdisciplinary learning as
the synthesis of two or more disciplines, establishing a new
level of discourse and integration of knowledge. [1] Curriculum
integration implies restructuring learning activities to help
students build connections between topics.[2] Since our main
goal at the United States Military Academy is to develop

Major Matthew Armstrong teaches
CH101/102, General Chemistry, CH 364
Chemical Reaction Engineering, CH 489/
CH490 Individual Research, and also serves as
the Department S4. He received his B.S. and 'V
M.S. in chemical engineering from Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute in Troy, NY.
Major Rich Comitz
taught CH101/102
3 General Chemistry
last year. He is now
the assistant course
director for CH 3831384, Organic Chemistry I
& II, and CH 489/CH490 Individual Research.
He received his B.S. in chemistry at the United
States Military Academy, at West Point, NY, and
his M.S. in chemistry at the Florida Institute of

Dr. Andrew Biaglow teaches chemistry core and elective courses. He is

multidimensional problem solvers, it only makes sense that
we as an institution try to integrate interdisciplinary learning
into more classes. We saw a perfect opportunity to do this in
the Department of Chemistry and Life Science.
At the United States Military Academy, the Chemical
Engineering curriculum has the students enrolled in three
courses simultaneously in the Spring semester of their third
year-Organic Chemistry II, Separation Processes, and

the director of the Chemical Engineering Program, and responsible for
establishing a research program in Chemical Reaction Engineering. Dr.
Biaglowis a member of the International Zeolite Association, the American
Institute of Chemical Engineers, and the American Society of Engineering
Educators. He conducts research on reaction pathways and intermediates
in solid-catalyzed reactions. He is a member of the Materials Research
Society, New York Catalysis Club, and the American Chemical Society.
Colonel Russ Lachance is an Academy Professor supporting the Chemical
Engineering Program. His teaching responsibilities include all chemical
engineering and general chemistry courses. Col. Lachance is the Head
Academic Counselor and the ABET coordinator for the Department. He
serves on the ABET Committee and the Faculty Council, and is the Officer-
in-Charge of the Cadet Spirit Band and Spirit Group. He is also the PME2
Team Leader for Company B4.
Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Sloop teaches CH383/384, Organic Chemistry
I & II. Lieutenant Colonel Sloop's scientific interests include heterocycle
synthesis, substituent effects on reactivity in organic systems, and mag-
netochemistry. He is a member of the American Chemical Society, Phi
Lambda Upsilon, Phi Kappa Phi, Gamma Sigma Epsilon, and the Chemical
Corps regiment.

� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 19.

Chemical Reaction Engineering
(Figure 1).
In Organic Chemistry II, students
learn the theory behind organic
reactions as well as do bench-top ex- Reaction
periments that show the practical ap- Engineeri
plications of this theory. In Chemical
Reaction Engineering, the students
learn how to scale the bench-top | separation
experiments up and to design reac-
tors to perform these experiments at
industrial levels. Finally, in Separa- chemistry
tion Processes, students learn how
to take this scaled-up process and
improve the yield and purity of the Energy
final product. This juxtaposition Balance
allowed us to simultaneously study
a common reaction, the Friedel-
Crafts alkylation, in each of the
respective classes. During one of
the laboratory experiments in Organic
Chemistry II, the students performed a reaction in
which two products are formed. They were then
tasked to separate these two products, but because
of time and instrumentation constraints, were mostly
unsuccessful. For chemical engineering students, it
seems a natural progression to explore solutions to
this problem in the context of a chemical separations
issue and reactor design. Since these students often
take organic chemistry, chemical reactor design, and
chemical separations together, an interdisciplinary
project such as this provides a practical application
to bridge the theory developed in all three courses
with an experimental challenge. With our sequenc-
ing of courses we have provided our students with
an approach that closely resembles the reality of the
actual design process, to include the ability to use
chemical engineering software in an earlier stage of
the development process.
Another significant added benefit was a connec-
tion we began to draw between the engineering design
(Figure 2) and the Military Decision Making Process (
(Figure 3) taught in third-year military science cla
processes first define the problem or the mission by e?
facts, assumptions, and specified/implied/critical tas
processes then design alternatives and model or t(
alternatives so they can be analyzed and compared.
both processes enable us to arrive at a reasonable
and both are iterative in nature with feedback loops t
refine the design or plan. While this interdisciplinar
was designed to show our students the connections
organic chemistry, reaction engineering, and separal
were able to draw multiple connections across man,


ns Tpal Pr[ra

U MA Program


Sophomore Junior Senior
Figure 1. Chemical Engineering Program order of courses.

Figure 2. The engineering design process!31

of our curriculum like the case of engineering design and
military science.

The Friedel-Crafts reaction is used in laboratory synthesis
as well as in industry in the synthesis of ethylbenzene and its
derivatives as an intermediate to make styrene monomers.[3]
Therefore, this reaction was a good choice to integrate several
different courses.
Laboratory experiments conducted during the second
semester of organic chemistry generally illustrate practical
application of topics covered in lecture. A convenient Frie-

Chemical Engineering Education

The Engineering Design Process


* Mission received from higher
HQs or deduced by
commander and staff

SHigher HQs coer pan
* Higher HQs IPB
* Staff Estimates

* Restated mission
* Initia Cdr's intent, planning
guidance, and CCIR
* Updated staff estimates
* Initia I PB products

* Refined Cdr's intent and
plan ng guidance
* Enemy COAs
* COA statements and

* War-Game results
* Critera for comparison

* Decision Matrix

* Approved COA
* Refined Car's intent and
* Refined CCIR


Step 4: COA Analysis
(War Game)

Step 5: COA

Step 6: COA Approval *


Step 7: Orders


* Ca's Initial Guidance

* Restated mission
* Initial Cats intent and
planning guidance
SInitial CCIR
* Upcated staff estimates
* Initial IPB products
- Initial ISR Plan
* Preliminary movement

Updated staff estimates and
* COA statements and
* Refined Cr's intent and
planning guidance

SWar-Game results
- Decision support templates
STask crgan ization
* Mission to suborcinale units
* Recommended CCIR

* Decision Matrix

Approved COA
Refined Cr's intent
Refined CCIR
gh pay-off target st


Note 1: A star depicts commander -
activites or decisions. Ie

Note 2: Rehearsals and backbriefs _____Prepar
occur during preparation and ensure Assess
an Drderly rranslion between planning
and execution. E x c t o
Execution I
Note 3: Preparation and execution,
wthie not part of the MDMP. are
shown to high ght the importance of
continuous planning throughout the
operations process

Figure 3. The Military Decision Making Process!4'

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

del-Crafts alkylation reaction that demonstrates the util
of electrophilic aromatic substitution and carbocation re
rangement is that of p-xylene with 1-bromopropane yieldi
approximately a 1:2 ratio of n-propyl-p-xylene to isoprop
p- xylene (Figures 4 and 5).31]
Even with activated arene systems like p-xylene, carbocat
rearrangement leads to a substantial proportion of the isopro]
p-xylene. Given that the boiling point difference between
isomeric p- xylenes is only 8 �C, typical microscale distil
tion techniques and equipment are not adequate to fraction
separate the isomers. So, although the reaction is satisfact<
from a synthetic standpoint, the inability to isolate isomerica
pure products leaves students with a problem.

Chemical Reaction Engineering Design Project
In the Chemical Reaction Engineering class, the stude
were given a design project with the following specificatio
1. Volumetric flow rate vo is 52 L/min; 2. A desired prod
ratio of 50:50 n- propyl-p-xylene to
isopropyl-p-xylene at the outlet; and
3. T is 15 �C and T is 70 �C.
These requirements were dictated
in order to focus their problem-
solving efforts. The students were
directed to use ChemCad to develop
their designs, but ChemCad needs
frequency factor and activation
energy values to correctly model
the reactions mathematically. Since
these values could not be found in b.p (0C)
the literature, it was necessary to
conduct some preliminary experi-
ments to gather data that the students
could use to calculate the
frequency factor, kO, and
activation energy, E , of Temp Time [X
each parallel reaction, (K) Time [X
(K) (min) (
and the overall reac- 295.5 0
tion. Three independent 10
experiments were run at
different temperatures to
18 3
collect the data required 20
for the concentration vs. 311 0
time plot. These plots
were then used to find
reaction rate constants,
k, for each temperature
18 2
for each parallel reac- 333 0
tion. The kinetic data
was collected following 2
the same procedures 6
the students used in 10
the organic chemistry 14

laboratory earlier in the semester.
To calculate the total reaction rate constant a plot of
C bromopropane/C xyln vs. time was constructed. To understand this
leap it is necessary to derive the irreversible bimolecular-type
second order reaction performance equation: [4]
Starting with the generic second order reaction:
A + B -> products (1)

The corresponding rate equation is as follows:[4]

-r dCA dCB -ktotCAC (2)
A-- dt -- dt B (2)

It is possible to follow the derivation of this equation in
Chemical Reaction Engineering, by Octave Levenspiel, in
Chapter 3. The following is the end result of the derivations:


ln1- X
In -X
1- A

M - XA
M M1--XA)

(CBO - CAO)ktott (3)

. " *Br

A1C13 T

1 : 2
138 204 196

Figure 4. Friedel-Crafts alkylation of p-xylene.

Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Kinetic Data

ylene] [CH3CH2CH2Br]
(M) (M) CB/CA in (CB/CA)
.29 3.859 0.729 -0.315
.79 2.36 0.623 -0.473
.63 2.2 0.606 -0.501
.34 1.91 0.572 -0.559
.18 1.75 0.550 -0.598
.29 3.859 0.729 -0.315
3.8 2.369 0.623 -0.472
3.3 1.97 0.597 -0.516
3.1 1.6 0.516 -0.661
2.88 1.42 0.493 -0.707
.29 3.85 0.728 -0.3178
2.83 1.4 0.495 -0.704
2.39 0.96 0.402 -0.912
2.04 0.61 0.299 -1.21
.73 0.3 0.173 -1.75

Chemical Engineering Education

ABC13 "C


H Br-AlC13

H - Br-AlC13

@ A-

+ HBr + AIC13


Figure 5. Friedel-Crafts alkylation of p-xylene mechanism]51

where M= CBo/C , X = conversion, k = reaction rate constant,
reactant A = p-xylene, B = 1-bromopropane.
The implication of this result show that a plot of In (CB /CA)
versus time will yield a straight line if indeed the reaction is
second order, and first order with respect to each reactant.
The intercept will equal M, and the slope will be equal to

Three experiments were set up identically at temperatures
of 295.5 K, 311 K, and 333 K. To 15.0 mL of p-xylene was
added 1.00 g of AlCl . The resulting mixture was allowed to
stir while 8.0 mL of 1-bromopropane was added dropwise over
a period of 5-10 minutes. At two-minute intervals, a microliter
sample was extracted from the reaction vessel, quenched with
water, and diluted with diethyl ether. After removal of the
aqueous layer, the samples were dried over sodium sulfate.
The samples were examined in the Gas Chromatograph/MS
to determine the concentrations of reactants and products in
each sample.
The reaction progress was monitored by gas chromatog-
raphy, and the kinetic data recorded in Table 1. By plotting
the concentration data from the gas chromatograph found in
Table 1, it is possible to calculate the kot.[41
With that information and the average ratio of products at
each time step it is possible to calculate k and k with the
following two equations: [4]
ktot = k = k2 (4)

Cn - propyl

isopropyl AVE

When all of the reaction rate constants were determined it
was then possible to solve for individual frequency factors,
ko, and activation energies, Ea, using the Arrhenius relation-

k = koe E/RT (6)

Plotting In k vs. 1/T, the slope of this line is -E /R, and the
y intercept is ko, thus permitting the calculation of both ko and
Ea for each parallel reaction, and the overall reaction.
The activation energy values and frequency factors are
critical to model and scale up the reaction using ChemCad.
This entire process was expected to be executed by each
student, thus reinforcing the derivation of a concentration vs.
time model. Each student had to demonstrate mastery of this
process at a desk-side briefing to the instructor before using
ChemCad. Upon successful calculation of the reaction rate
constants, students were allowed to start the scale-up model-
ing with ChemCad.
With this data, it was now possible to establish the appropri-
ate kinetic relationships in ChemCAD. The students then used
ChemCad to search the most economically feasible reactor
design. A cursory analysis of the data yielded an appropriate
plot of 1/-rA vs. XA. Analysis of the plot makes it clear that
the best reactor design to minimize volume should be a plug
flow setup. Using Mathematica, the mean residence time and

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


For chemical engineering students, it seems a natural progression to explore solu-
tions ... in the context of a chemical separations issue and reactor design. Since these
students often take organic chemistry, chemical reactor design, and chemical separa-
tions together, an interdisciplinary project such as this provides a practical application
to bridge the theory developed in all three courses with an experimental challenge.

volume for the initial guess can be estimated. Questions left
to resolve are reactor volume, heat duty, and isothermal vs.
adiabatic operation. Students were free to explore various
reactor networks, such as parallel vs. series reactors and use of
recycle. Students were given latitude to explore other unique
strategies using ChemCad.

The chemical separations design phase of this interdisci-
plinary project was fairly open ended. The students could
use any combination of separations schemes to achieve 90%
purity of all components in the system (feed, catalyst, prod-
ucts) and then attempt to achieve a 95% n-propyl-p-xylene
product stream. This open-ended approach forced the students
to consider all aspects of a realistic separation problem that
originated in their organic chemistry lab and that they might
see in industry. At first, the students were intimidated because
a detailed solution required knowledge beyond their current
level, but they eventually enjoyed working on this problem
because it truly challenged them to think.
Like the reactor design project, our students began the
separations design project by gathering property information.
When they could not find certain property information for
some of the compounds they quickly learned how to make
reasonable approximations and assumptions. We advised the
students that a critical task in their design was to determine
the best separation technique for each of the components and
decide on the most logical sequencing of those techniques.
Based on the available property information, most student
teams chose to flash off HBr, extract AlC13 using water, and
use a series of distillation columns to purify the remaining
components. Much like a real-world design process, however,
we forced each team to consider at least two different separa-
tion sequences and compare and contrast them. In this way our
students learned a great deal about separations processes.
The separations design project also used ChemCad software
as the vehicle for the design. Most student teams attempted to
jump right into ChemCad without much preparatory analysis,
and their initial results clearly emphasized the importance of
choosing a reasonable thermodynamic model, and making some
preliminary estimates. While students will be expected to use
thermodynamic modeling in greater depth later in their cur-
riculum, this exercise served as an excellent tool to emphasize
the importance of material yet to come. As a result of creating,
manipulating and running ChemCad examples, all students in-

creased their ChemCad proficiency, which is a critical software
thread for our entire chemical engineering program.
One design team exceeded our expectations for a truly
integrated design solution. This team combined their reactor
design with their separations design in the same process flow
sheet. Although we expected separate reactor and separa-
tions designs from these third-year students in these separate
courses, this team made the logical leap and combined the
designs to achieve some additional efficiencies. Figure 7
depicts their ChemCad design flow sheet which incorporates
a recycle stream for unconverted reactants.

To analyze the results the students were given a quiz at
the beginning of the semester consisting of representative
questions from the organic chemistry, chemical reaction
engineering, and separations disciplines. The same quiz was
then re-administered at the end of the semester to see if there
was improvement, and retention of knowledge. These results
are in Table 3.
In addition to this the students were asked the following
questions regarding their individual experiences with the
design project at the end of the semester. These questions
were answered on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 represented the
most positive feedback and 5 was the least positive. These
questions are listed in Table 4 accompanied by the averaged
response. A comparison will be made of final examination
results from AY06-02 to AY07-2 in the chemical reaction
engineering course, to see the impact this had on performance.
Although the data only showed a small increase, the students
overall exhibited more confidence when approaching these
type of problems in other courses.
From the results, it is clear that the design experience had
a positive outcome in terms of mastery of the material. The
students' responses to the questions were also quite positive.
We will conduct the same approach in the years to come and
continue to gather data.

Rate Constant (k) vs. Temperature (K)

Reaction #1 isopropyll) Reaction #2 (n-propyl)
k, T k2 T
0.0296 333 0.00653 295.5
0.0050 311 0.0085 311
0.0029 295.5 0.035 333

Chemical Engineering Education

0 -



-0 6
-O 8 \-


0 T-311 K
-1 4 - A T=333K

-1 6 -

0 5 10 15 20
Time (min)

Figure 6. Concentration vs. time plot.

Figure 7. Student team's fully integrated
reactor and separations design proposal.

Quiz Results

Pre-Project: Post-Project:

Question Question Correct Incorrect Question # Correct Incorrect

What is a Friedel Crafts 1 5 6 1 7 4
Give an example of one. 2 3 8 2 9 2

Method of calc. k0 and EA. 3 2 9 3 8 3

Method of k1, k2 calc. parallel 4 0 11 4 7 4
Can ki, k2 be found graphically? 5 0 11 5 2 9

Give two ways to separate gas 6 8 3 6 10 1
and liquid phases.
Give two ways to separate two 7 8 3 7 10 1
liquid phases.

Questions Regarding Individual Experiences

Question Regarding Individual Experience Ave Response

1. Was this design project useful in terms of helping the learning process? 1.64

2. Was this design project helpful to wrap up the course material at end of semester? 1.73

3. Did this design project aid your learning in organic chemistry and separations? 2.27

4. Would you recommend this project format next year? 2.09

5. Did you like the design project? 2.55

6. Do you think the design experience helped your Term End Exam preparation? 2.09

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

This idea started out as merely a project for our Chemi-
cal Reaction Engineering course, but evolved into a novel
educational approach to chemical engineering curriculum
development using a technique closely paralleling the actual
industry design process. From our results, it is apparent that
this is indeed a valid approach. The experience allowed
the students to approach the problem as a design engineer
in industry would, as well as use the problem-solving
techniques previously discussed. Additionally, the students
were able to use the chemical engineering software ear-
lier by using the kinetic data given to them. We intend to
use this technique again, and recommend it fully to other
programs. In fact, the project is in its second iteration and
has evolved to include other factors such as cost optimiza-
tion and environmental impact. As this project becomes a

more prominent feature of our program, we will give the
students less data, requiring them to decide what informa-
tion is needed.

1. Eves, R.L., et al., "Integration of Field Studies and Undergraduate Re-
search Into an Interdisciplinary Course," J. College Science Teaching,
36(6) 22 (May/June 2007)
2. The Foundation Coalition "Curriculum Integration-Students Linking
Ideas across Disciplines," lications/brouchures/curriculum-integration.pdf>
3. CE300 Course Book, USMA (20 June 2007)
4. FM5-0, Army Planning and Orders Production (January 2005)
5. Gilbert, J.C., and S.F. Martin, Experimental Organic ( ...... ,, A
Miniscale and Microscale Approach, 4th Ed., Thomson Brooks, Cole,
CA (2006)
6. Levenspeil, 0., Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd Ed., John Wiley
and Sons Inc., New York, (1999) [

Chemical Engineering Education

Random Thoughts ...



North Carolina State University
Education Designs, Inc.

Like most faculty members, we began our academic
careers with zero prior instruction on college teach-
ing and quickly made almost every possible blunder.
We've also been peer reviewers and mentors to colleagues,
and that experience on top of our own early stumbling has
given us a good sense of the most common mistakes college
teachers make. In this column and one to follow we present
our top ten list, in roughly increasing order of badness. Doing
some of the things on the list may occasionally be justified, so
we're not telling you to avoid all of them at all costs. We are
suggesting that you avoid making a habit of any of them.
Mistake #10. When you ask a question in class, immedi-
ately call for volunteers.
You know what happens when you do that. Most of the
students avoid eye contact, and either you get a response from
one of the two or three who always volunteer or you answer
your own question. Few students even bother to think about
the question, since they know that eventually someone else
will provide the answer.
We have a suggestion for a better way to handle question-
ing, but it's the same one we'll have for Mistake #9 so let's
hold off on it for a moment.
Mistake #9. Call on students cold.
You stop in mid-lecture and point your finger abruptly: "Joe,
what's the next step?" Some students are comfortable under
that kind of pressure, but many could have trouble thinking
of their own name. If you frequently call on students without
giving them time to think ("cold-calling"), the ones who are
intimidated by it won't be following your lecture as much as
praying that you don't land on them. Even worse, as soon as
you call on someone, the others breathe a sigh of relief and
stop thinking.
Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

A better approach to questioning in class is active learn-
ing.1l Ask the question and give the students a short time to
come up with an answer, working either individually or in
small groups. Stop them when the time is up and call on a few
to report what they came up with. Then, if you haven't gotten
the complete response you're looking for, call for volunteers.
The students will have time to think about the question,
and-unlike what happens when you always jump directly
to volunteers (Mistake #10)-most will try to come up with
a response because they don't want to look bad if you call on
them. With active learning you'll also avoid the intimidation
of cold-calling (Mistake #9) and you'll get more and better
answers to your questions. Most importantly, real learning

Richard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese
Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering
at North Carolina State University. He is co-
author of Elementary Principles of Chemical -.
Processes (Wiley, 2005) and numerous
articles on chemical process engineering 9
and engineering and science education,
and regularly presents workshops on ef-
fective college teaching at campuses and
conferences around the world. Many of his
publications can be seen at edu/felder-public>.
Rebecca Brent is an education consultant
specializing in faculty development for ef-
f fective university teaching, classroom and
computer-based simulations in teacher
education, and K-12 staff development in
language arts and classroom management.
She codirects the ASEE National Effective
Teaching Institute and has published articles
S on a variety of topics including writing in un-
dergraduate courses, cooperative learning,
* public school reform, and effective university

� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008

will take place in class, something that doesn't happen much
in traditional lectures. 21
Mistake #8. Turn classes into PowerPoint shows.
It has become common for instructors to put their lecture
notes into PowerPoint and to spend their class time mainly
droning through the slides. Classes like that are generally a
waste of time for everyone.P3] If the students don't have pa-
per copies of the slides, there's no way they can keep up. If
they have the copies, they can read the slides faster than the
instructor can lecture through them, the classes are exercises
in boredom, the students have little incentive to show up,
and many don't.
Turning classes into extended slide shows is a specific
example of:
Mistake #7. Fail to provide variety in instruction.
Nonstop lecturing produces very little learning ,21 but if good
instructors never lectured they could not motivate students
by occasionally sharing their experience and wisdom. Pure
PowerPoint shows are ineffective, but so are lectures with no
visual content-schematics, diagrams, animations, photos,
video clips, etc.-for which PowerPoint is ideal. Individual
student assignments alone would not teach students the criti-
cal skills of teamwork, leadership, and conflict management
they will need to succeed as professionals, but team assign-
ments alone would not promote the equally important trait of
independent learning. Effective instruction mixes things up:
boardwork, multimedia, storytelling, discussion, activities,
individual assignments, and group work (being careful to
avoid Mistake #6). The more variety you build in, the more
effective the class is likely to be.
Mistake #6. Have students work in groups with no indi-
vidual accountability.
All students and instructors who have ever been involved
with group work know the potential downside. One or two
students do the work, the others coast along understanding
little of what their more responsible teammates did, everyone
gets the same grade, resentments and conflicts build, and the
students learn nothing about high-performance teamwork
and how to achieve it.
The way to make group work work is cooperative learn-
ing, an exhaustively researched instructional method that
effectively promotes development of both cognitive and in-
terpersonal skills. One of the defining features of this method
is individual accountability-holding each team member
accountable for the entire project and not just the part that
he or she may have focused on. References on cooperative
learning offer suggestions for achieving individual account-

ability, including giving individual exams covering the full
range of knowledge and skills required to complete the project
and assigning individual grades based in part on how well the
students met their responsibilities to their team.4, 5]
Mistake #5. Fail to establish relevance.
Students learn best when they clearly perceive the relevance
of course content to their interests and career goals. The "trust
me" approach to education ("You may have no idea now why
you need to know this stuff but trust me, in a few years you'll
see how important it is!") doesn't inspire students with a
burning desire to learn, and those who do learn tend to be
motivated only by grades.
To provide better motivation, begin the course by describ-
ing how the content relates to important technological and
social problems and to whatever you know of the students'
experience, interests, and career goals, and do the same thing
when you introduce each new topic. (If there are no such con-
nections, why is the course being taught?) Consider applying
inductive methods such as guided inquiry and problem-based
learning, which use real-world problems to provide context
for all course material.[6] You can anticipate some student
resistance to those methods, since they force students to take
unaccustomed responsibility for their own learning, but there
are effective ways to defuse resistance[71 and the methods lead
to enough additional learning to justify whatever additional
effort it may take to implement them.
Stay tuned for the final four exciting mistakes!

1. Felder, R.M., andR. Brent, "Learning by Doing,"( b..i... ...,t-
tion, 37(4), 282 (2003) pdf>
2. Prince, M., "Does Active Learning Work?A Review of the Research,"
J. Engr. Education, 93(3), 223 (2004) Papers/Prince AL.pdf>
3. Felder, R.M., and R. Brent, "Death by PowerPoint," Chem. Engr.
Education, 39(1), 28 (2005) PowerPoint.pdf>
4. Felder, R.M., and R. Brent, "Cooperative Learning," in PA. Mabrouk,
ed., Active Learning: Models from the Analytical Sciences, ACS Sym-
posium Series 970, Chapter 4. Washington, DC: American Chemical
Society (2007) pdf>
5. CATME (Comprehensive Assessment of Team Member Effectiveness),

6. Prince, M.J., and R.M. Felder, "Inductive Teaching and Learning
Methods: Definitions, Comparisons, and Research Bases," J. Engr.
Education, 95(2), 123 (2006) InductiveTeaching.pdf>
7. Felder, R.M. ,"Sermons for Grumpy Campers,"( t ..... i .. ...,....
41(3), 183 (2007) pdf> [

Chemical Engineering Education

All of the Random Thoughts columns are now available on the World Wide Web at
http://www.ncsu.edu/effective_teaching and at http://che.ufl.edu/~cee/

Ij1educational research



Purdue University * West Lafayette, IN 47907-2100
Significant changes are occurring in the ways that en-
gineering is taught and in our understanding of how
students learn. Signs of this ferment include the chang-
ing publication requirements of the Journal of Engineering
Education (JEE),[1, 2] increased interest in teaching professors
how to teach, National Academy of Engineering (NAE) studies
on engineering education in the 21st century,3, 4] the develop-
ment of the NAE Center for the Advancement of Scholarship
on Engineering Education (CASEE)E51 and its development of
the engineering education research portal AREE,[61 the avail-
ability of funds for engineering education research from NSF
including the National Engineering Education Colloquies71
that resulted in a national research agenda for engineering
education,E81 the development of numerous engineering edu-
cation research centers,s5l changes in ABET requirements,[91
the development of Departments of Engineering Education
at Purdueo101 and Virginia Tech,111 the development of an en-
gineering and science education department at Clemson,[121
the development of an engineering and technology education
department at Utah State,�13l and an increasing number of
chemical engineering departments that allow students to do
their Ph.D. research on engineering education. After a short
history of engineering education, we will discuss pedagogical
training for all professors and research training for specialists
in engineering education.

The first engineering instruction in the United States oc-
curred at the United States Military Academy at West Point,

New York, which was authorized by Congress in 1802. In
1819Alden Partridge, a graduate and former instructor at West
Point, founded the American Literary, Scientific, and Military
Academy (now Norwich University) at Norwich, Vermont.
The first civilian courses in engineering were taught at this
academy. Shortly after this, in 1824, Stephen Van Rensselaer
established the Rensselaer School (now Rensselaer Polytech-
nic Institute) at Troy, New York. The amount of engineering in
the curriculum was gradually increased until the first degrees
in civil engineering were granted in 1835.
The increasing development of canals and railroads in-
creased demand for engineers, who were seen as necessary for
economic development. This led to the opening of a number
of engineering schools; however, many of these schools closed
during the depression of the late 1830s and 1,4 \ h, wi ,igltcd
lack of support of engineering education during lean economic
periods has been repeated several times since then. After the
depression ended, the westward expansion of the United States
continued to increase the demand for engineers.

� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

Phil Wankat has a joint appointment in
Chemical Engineering and in Engineering
Education at Purdue University. He has a
B.S.ChE from Purdue, a Ph.D. from Princ-
eton, and an M.S.Ed from Purdue. He is the
Associate Editor of CEE.

In 1862, Justin Morrill of Vermont succeeded in passing
the seminal Morrill Land Grant Act that was then signed by
President Lincoln. This act allowed the federal government
to give the proceeds from the sale of federal land to the states
for support of colleges to teach "agriculture and mechanical
arts." The act had little effect during the Civil War, and by
1865 there were only approximately 20 engineering schools
in the United States, including several dormant schools in
the South. After the war, engineering education boomed and
by 1872 there were 70 engineering colleges. Some of the
land grant programs were at existing state universities (e.g.,
Minnesota, Rutgers, and Wisconsin), others were formed by
converting existing small private colleges into state universi-
ties (e.g., Auburn and Virginia Tech), while some were totally
new institutions (e.g., Purdue and Texas A&M). In 1890 the
land grant schools were stabilized by the passing of the sec-
ond Morrill Act that provided for annual appropriations.[15]
In this second law MorrillF151 also tried to prevent spending
federal funds in states where there was "a distinction of race
or color." Unfortunately, this intent to encourage integration
was unsuccessful, and after numerous compromises the act
permitted the development of separate land-grant institu-
tions for blacks (e.g., Tennessee State University and North
Carolina A&T). They were supposed to be equal, but soon
became unequal.[s15
Another pattern has been the establishment, then closure,
and occasionally reestablishment, of engineering colleges.
Examples are the programs at the College of William and
Mary, the Polytechnic College of Pennsylvania, the University
of Alabama, and Harvard t in% . it, 11 1I Money continues to
have an effect on developments in engineering education.
The urge to develop new engineering disciplines is almost
as old as the teaching of engineering. Military engineering was
naturally the subject at West Point. Both Norwich and Rensse-
laer started teaching civil engineering. Mechanical engineer-
ing followed with the U.S. Naval Academy offering steam
engineering in 1845, and the first mechanical engineering
degrees awarded by the Polytechnic College of Pennsylvania
in 1854. The Polytechnic College of Pennsylvania also insti-
tuted mining engineering in 1857 followed by the Columbia
University School of Mines in 1864. Electrical engineering,
introduced at MIT in 1882, very rapidly flourished. The first
course in chemical engineering was taught at MIT in 1888.[16]
Fledgeling chemical engineering programs formed within
chemistry departments at the University of Pennsylvania in
1892, Tulane University in 1894, the University of Michigan
and Tufts University in 1898, and the Armour Institute of
Technology (now Illinois Institute of Technology) in 1900.
Although most chemical engineering departments are now
in the college of engineering, some chemical engineering
departments retain their formal affiliation with chemistry.
The situation is similar in computer science, in which some
departments are in the college of science and some are in the

college of engineering. The first industrial engineering cur-
riculum was started in 1908 at Pennsylvania State College,
and aeronautical engineering was started at the University
of Michigan in 1914.[141 Initially, mining engineering was
an interdisciplinary combination of civil and mechanical
engineering, electrical engineering was an interdisciplinary
combination of mechanical engineering and physics, chemical
engineering was an interdisciplinary combination of mechani-
cal engineering and chemistry, and industrial engineering was
a combination of engineering and management.
Engineers have long had interest in and disagreements on
how engineering should be taught. Laboratory instruction in
engineering was started at Stevens Institute of Technology
in 1871 and summer camps were started at the University of
Michigan in 1874. In the late 1800s mechanical engineers
disagreed over whether education should be practical or
theoretical-a disagreement that continues. Shop classes (very
hands-on!) were considerably more common than labora-
tory courses at this time. Cooperative education (alternating
periods of work and study) is arguably the most important
development in higher education that was clearly first devel-
oped in engineering. Co-op was started by Herman Schneider
at the University of Cincinnati in 1906. Cooperative group
learning was also used in engineering classrooms at least as
early as 1907[141 although the principles were not codified at
that time. It is clearly difficult to develop any educational
method that is totally new.
Development of a professional society to improve engi-
neering education can be traced to 1876 when a joint com-
mittee of the American Institute of Mining Engineers and
the American Society of Civil Engineers met.[141 A later joint
committee meeting in 1882 included the American Society
of Mechanical Engineers. In 1893 the Society for the Pro-
motion of Engineering Education (SPEE) was born at the
Chicago World's Columbian Exposition. At the first meeting
of the society in 1894 President DeVolson Wood noted that
SPEE was open to both men and women. Unlike the earlier
attempts, SPEE survived and became the American Society
for Engineering Education (ASEE) in 1946. Engineering has
the proud distinction of being the first profession to form a
society devoted to professional education. 141
From the beginning SPEE published a Proceedings that
included papers and board minutes. In 1910 a regular Bul-
letin was started that became Engineering Education in 1916.
When the number of conference papers became too large for
the journal, ASEE started the Annual Conference Proceedings.
The Fi. .. ... ,r. , thi mcinl. became very large and filled two
or three large volumes every meeting. The 1996 and later
Proceedings are available on CDs at the ASEE Web site. 171
The Frontiers in Education (HE) Conferences were started
in 1971 by the Education Group of IEEE, and in 1973 the
Engineering Research and Methods (ERM) Division of ASEE
started co-sponsoring the HE conference.[181 The 1995 and

Chemical Engineering Education

later Proceedings of the Frontiers in Education Conferences
are available electronically from the FIE Clearinghouse.[191 For
many years Engineering Education tried to fulfill the roles of
a society newsletter, a semi-popular magazine, and a learned
journal. These multiple roles became increasing strained and
in 1991 publication of Engineering Education temporarily
ceased and the new magazine ASEE Prism was born. In 1993
the Journal of Engineering Education (JEE) was restarted.
JEE has had three editors (Ed Ernst, John Prados, and Jack
Lohmann) since being restarted and has successively become
more rigorous.
The training of engineering professors in pedagogy was
an early and continuing interest of SPEE and ASEE.[141 In
1901 SPEE called for teaching engineering professors how
to teach. Formal training in teaching occurred at the SPEE
summer schools from 1911 to 1915 and again from 1927
to 1933. Unfortunately, the dislocations caused by war and
depression ended these pioneering efforts. A large number of
additional summer schools, most for specific disciplines, have
been sponsored since then. The Hammond Report in 1944
reiterated the need for systematic development of teaching
skills. In 1955 the Grinter Report stated "it is essential that
those selected to teach be trained properly for this function." In
1955 the Interim Committee for Young Engineering Teachers
proposed a summer school for new faculty. This was first held
as a two-day meeting, "Principles of Learning in Engineering
Education," following the 1958 annual conference of ASEE.
Regional institutes were started in 1966 and were eventually
put under the ERM Division of ASEE. These programs con-
tinue including the highly successful ASEE National Effective
Teaching Institutes. The 1983 ASEE Quality in Engineering
Education project again called for more training of faculty
in teaching.
Although relatively small, the Chemical Engineering
Division (ChED) of ASEE has been a leader in improving
teaching. The Division started publishing its journal Chemi-
cal Engineering Education (CEE) in 1966. CEE is widely
admired as probably the best of the disciplinary journals in
engineering education. The mission of CEE is to aid in the
education of chemical engineers, which is much broader
than the current research mission of JEE. The Division has
sponsored 14 summer schools approximately every five years.
The ChED summer schools focus mainly on how to teach new
material, and it was not until 1987 that the first how-to-teach
workshop was included. Following the success of that work-
shop, regularly scheduled how-to-teach workshops have been
held at every ChED summer school since then and are now
required of new faculty, whose travel expenses are partially
supported by the summer school.
An engineering course to train ChE teaching assistants how-
to-teach was first developed by Jim Stice at the University of
Texas, who also developed an in-house teaching workshop for
new faculty.[20] The first course for Ph.D. students in engineer-

Engineering has the proud

distinction of being the first

profession to form a society

devoted to professional education.

ing who planned on academic careers was taught at Purdue
L iin.iI ,' II Since that time a large number of additional
faculty ,, iklhi, pF'1 and regular citli .i, ' to improve the
teaching of engineering have been developed, and a textbook
was published.[24]

Most engineering professors do not have training in peda-
gogy. Instead, most are superbly trained in how to do research.
If the system isn't broken, why fix it? Unfortunately, with
respect to education, the system is broken. When professors
learn through on-the-job-training (OJT), the first few classes
suffer even if the professors eventually become excellent
teachers. Since OJT does not provide a theoretical framework,
it is difficult for these professors to understand educational
research or to adopt new teaching methods. With the current
system some professors never become good teachers. Low
retention rates 251 are partially caused by the current system.
After more than 100 years of calls to improve engineering
education, why would anyone believe that a lasting reform
can happen now? As the NAE reports13, 4] note, the world has
changed. Engineering students have changed; they are much
more diverse including gender, ethnicity, age, part-time status,
and educational background than they used to be. The increase
in diversity is welcomed, but most of the students are weaker
in mathematics, particularly algebra, than they used to be.[261
In addition, the average work ethic appears to be lower. [261
Different active-learning teaching methods are needed and
fortunately are available.[24, 27 28] New technical content such
as nano-scale engineering, bioengineering, and particulate
processing, as well as increased professional content[9] such
as teamwork, ethics, work experience, and global/societal
effects, all need to be included. Employers are expecting
more of graduates. 3 271
If more content and different teaching methods are ex-
pected, what do we do less of?
Students know that they may need more than four years
to earn a degree. Faculty will need to reduce the time spent
lecturing to provide time for more effective active learning
methods.J24. 27, 28]
Faculty need to replace hand calculations with computer
methods and to remove other obsolete material such as Pon-
chon-Savarit diagrams.[29] Unfortunately, there is never agree-
ment on what material to remove, which makes all suggestions
for removal of material controversial. Although this will not

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

be a popular suggestion, I also think that we need to reduce
the amount of theory and analysis. Schools need to experiment
with unified and spiral curriculao301 as well as with curricula
with a smaller required core and more options.
The good news is we know how to teach professors how
to improve their teaching, and it is not that difficult or
expensive. Both teaching , ,ikIh, p. 22 31 32] and regular
for-credit c nI I,'-' - I are effective in increasing the teach-
ing competence of attendees. The bad news is we don't do
this routinely and professors who have been in academe for
a period of time have difficulty finding the motivation and
time to attend workshops. Stice 201 found that experienced
professors will attend summer teaching workshops if they
are paid to attend. Our experience at Purdue is similar. New
professors on the other hand (including those returning to

Teaching senior Ph.D. students
how-to-teach has the advantages that
they are used to taking courses, they
have time, and knowing how to teach
instead of learning on the job provides
them significantly more time to start
their research programs when they
become assistant professors.

academe from industry), are much more interested in learning
how-to-teach. Teaching senior Ph.D. students how-to-teach
has the advantages that they are used to taking courses, they
have time, and knowing how to teach instead of learning on
the job provides them significantly more time to start their
research programs when they become assistant professors. 231
Courses on how-to-teach also provide access to modem engi-
neering education scholarship by providing a vocabulary and
introducing engineering professors to theories of development
and learning. If the vast majority of engineering professors
are not taught the basics of pedagogy, then the researchers in
engineering education will end up talking to themselves and
there will be very little if any impact of the research on the
teaching of engineering.

Early scholarship in engineering education did not have to
be very rigorous to be accepted. Many papers were basically
"I tried this new method and the students loved it," and were
published with little or no data and often few references. After
restarting in 1993, JEE was still not very rigorous compared
to journals in education and educational psychology, but it
was generally more rigorous than the proceedings published

by ASEE and than other engineering education journals. The
new higher standards encouraged including student course
evaluations and/or surveys plus appropriate references. This
is a quality level that all engineering professors can meet if
they are pushed to do so. I will call this level the old paradigm
for quality in engineering education research. Note that during
this period engineering was typical of many other disciplines
-disciplinary educational research was not held to a very
high standard.
The watershed event in educational research occurred in
1990 with the publication of Ernest Boyer's Scholarship
Reconsidered. 331 Boyer defined four scholarships:
1. Discovery, which in engineering is the usual high-pres-
tige technical research.
2. Application, which in engineering is applied research and
is relatively high;,,, i ,,
3. In,, , ,. .. which includes interdisciplinary research
and, 1 i,,,, scholarly books, is the search for meaning
and significance in research. Unfortunately, most univer-
sity faculty have yet to recognize the importance of the
scholarship of .11t ,,1. -t in engineering education.f34'
4. Teaching, which was quickly extended to a scholarship
of teaching and learning, is scholarly study to improve
teaching and learning, not teaching itself Unlike re-
searchers in the other scholarships, however, scholars of
teaching and learning must be good teachers or they will
lose credibility.
Boyer's book had an enormous impact on the scholarship
of teaching and learning. A few universities started accepting
the scholarship of teaching and learning almost overnight, but
most universities took significantly b lng. i' I And engineering
was not an earlier adopter.[35]
There were a variety of other factors influencing engineer-
ing education research at the end of the 20th century and
the beginning of the 21st century. First, and most important,
money talks. When NSF started providing funds for engineer-
ing education research it made that research affordable and
more prestigious. Additionally, the requirement for a teach-
ing component in NSF CAREER proposals forced most new
faculty to think more seriously about teaching and educational
research. And, the requirement for broad impact statements
in regular technical proposals probably had a positive effect
despite a backlash from many researchers.
Second, ABET requirements forced many professors to
be more serious about outcomes and to pay attention to as-
sessment. ABET clearly had a positive impact despite push
back from professors who disliked ABET's methods. Third,
the NAE charted CASEE and started to consider educational
accomplishments in admission to NAE. CASEE probably
had more impact since NAE admission affects only a small
fraction of professors. Fourth, the general interest in good col-
lege teaching from government, parents, students, and college

Chemical Engineering Education

presidents impacts engineering deans, department heads, and
professors. Fifth, with more research support and more rigor-
ous judging of quality, some schools now include engineering
education research grants and papers in their promotion and
tenure decisions, although they may still be undervalued
compared to technical research. Sixth, as the faculty environ-
ment became even more pressurized, new faculty- who were
expected to "hit the ground running"-found that receiving
training in how-to-teach as Ph.D. students helped them have
more time for research during the first few years. 231
The final important factor influencing engineering education
research was the gradual development of JEE as a rigorous
research journal. As noted previously, using the old paradigm
the threshold standard in JEE was to include student course
evaluations and/or surveys plus appropriate references. This
level was a bit higher than many other engineering education
journals, but still not up to world-class standards as set by the
best journals in education and educational psychology. In 2003
JEE moved its acceptance standards for research papers to a
level of rigor on par with highly ranked educationjournals.11
The rigor required to publish research papers in JEE outstrips
the rigor of the average research paper published in other en-
gineering education journals and in conference proceedings.
Because of this JEE has had a positive effect on the quality
of research published in these other venues.
The changes in JEE have resulted in unexpected conse-
quences. First, professors not trained in educational research
have found that the research articles in the journal are a lot
more difficult and less fun to read. Unfortunately, if the aver-
age engineering professor does not read JEE or other engineer-
ing education journals, engineering education research will
probably have little impact in the classroom. Second, most
engineering professors need to collaborate with someone
with the right skill set to reach the quality level required. This
partially caused the third effect, an acceptance rate that plum-
meted to about 10 %. The other cause for the low acceptance
rate is that as a new discipline, engineering education has
a low consensus on the standards required for scholarship,
which is known to reduce journal acceptance rates."36] Unfortu-
nately, with a 10 % acceptance rate many prospective authors
will not submit to JEE, preferring to publish elsewhere. It is
now significantly harder for most ChE professors to publish
in JEE than in the most prestigious ChE journals. Fourth, the
change in rigor increased the amount of collaborative research
published in JEE. A fifth effect was that the total number of
papers has decreased in the last five years, but the number of
review papers appeared to increase. Apparently, engineering
faculty can write critical reviews even if they are not trained
in rigorous educational research methods.
Finally, there are many topics of interest to engineering
professors that cannot be published in JEE because they are
not research topics. Examples are articles on meeting ABET
assessment requirements, curriculum developments, how to

teach a particular topic, and course development. Fortunately,
chemical engineers can publish on these topics in CEE, which
is a refereed journal that does not focus totally on research.
For professors in most other engineering disciplines, ASEE
discovered that there was a large publishing hole between
the semi-popular Prism magazine and the rigorous research
published in JEE. To fill this hole ASEE started the applica-
tions-oriented electronic journal Advances in Engineering
Education in 2007. [371
Scientifically rigorous research in engineering education
meets a series of well-known criteria.1, 27 36 381 Rigorous
educational research needs to be planned in advance- trying
a new method in class, finding it seemed to work, and then
deciding to write an article is not rigorous research although
it may be valuable to other professors. Rigorous educational
research requires stating hypotheses on significant questions
in advance and then testing them during the research.
A thorough literature review is required. The research
should be grounded with a theory of learning or human
development. The research tools will consist of quantitative
(statistical) methods; qualitative methods such as survey
instruments, protocol analysis, ethnography, and interview
techniques; or mixed methods. Methods should be selected
that allow direct investigation of the hypotheses. Before
conducting the research, approval or an exemption must be
obtained from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) if stu-
dents are involved. Finally, the research will be presented to
peers through oral and/or written papers. These requirements
set the level for the new paradigm of quality in engineering
education research.
The Engineering Education Research Colloquies 71 devel-
oped a national agenda for research in engineering educa-
tion.[81 The five research areas are[81:
* Area 1-Engineering Epistemologies: Research on
what constitutes engineering .i,,i ,,, and knowledge
within social contexts now and into the future."
* Area 2-Engineering Learning Mechanisms: Research
on engineering learners'developing knowledge and
competencies in context."
* "Area 3-Engineering Learning Systems: Research on
the instructional culture, institutional infrastructure, and
epistemology of engineering educators."
* "Area 4-Engineering Diversity and Inclusiveness:
Research on how diverse human talents contribute solu-
tions to the social and global challenges and relevance
of our profession."
* "Area 5-Engineering Assessment: Research on, and the
development of, assessment methods, instruments, and
metrics to inform engineering education practice and

Although quite broad in scope, these five areas do not and
were not expected to encompass all areas of research of inter-

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

est. For example, research on the motivations of engineering
students and how they differ from the motivations of students
in other disciplines is certainly of interest.
The vast majority of engineering professors are unfamiliar
with these research areas and with the tools required for
rigorous educational research. They are unfamiliar with learn-
ing and human development theories and in many cases are
unfamiliar with teaching methods other than lecture, lab, and
design. Although they may be knowledgeable about statistical
methods, educational statistics tend to be different since many
variables cannot be controlled and correlation coefficients
(r values) of 0.5 are considered high. Qualitative methods
are probably unheard of and may not be trusted. Although
engineers have started to do assessments for ABET accredita-
tion, these assessments are fairly crude compared to rigorous
educational research.
How can an engineering professor get started in engineering
education research at the level of rigor of the new paradigm?
Perhaps the easiest approach is to find a collaborator from
Education who can provide the necessary theories and re-
search tools. By working with an expert, reading about basic
pedagogical methods, ' utking teaching workshops such as at
the ChED Summer School or the ASEE NETI, reading about
scientific research methods in education, 27 36 381 attending
workshops on rigorous engineering education research,[391
and studying articles in JEE and other journals, engineering
professors can slowly pull themselves up to a level where
they can compete for NSF grants, do rigorous research, and
publish in the highest quality journals.

Whether their degree is from an engineering education
department or a disciplinary department, Colleges of Engi-
neering must ensure that all graduates earning Ph.D. degrees
based on research in engineering education do their research
at the level of the new paradigm. Thus, they must have some
knowledge and skill with both quantitative and qualitative
research methods. Graduates who are only trained in the old
paradigm have obsolete skills and represent a tragedy for
both the graduate and for the nascent discipline of engineer-
ing education.
In a very short time (a 2002 paper on the scholarship of
teaching and learning in engineering had no mention of
Ph.D. programs in engineering education 351) three different
models have been developed for students who want to earn
a Ph.D. doing research in engineering education. The oldest
model is to do engineering education research in a disciplin-
ary department.
The Department of Industrial Engineering at the University
of Pittsburgh uses this model and produces very well qualified
graduates. A scattering of chemical engineering departments
have awarded Ph.D. degrees to students who did engineering

education research. An advantage of this model is that since
graduates have to take the required disciplinary courses and
pass the appropriate qualifying examinations, they are well
qualified to teach and collaborate with other professors in
their discipline. This model is also inexpensive and easy to
implement since it fits within an existing unit. The lack of
structure, however, can also mean a lack of quality control.
If the members of the Ph.D. research committees are not
familiar with rigorous engineering education research, they
may set the requirements for rigor too low and not require
students to take appropriate research methods courses in
education, and the resulting research may be conducted at
the level of the old paradigm. These graduates, although per-
fectly capable in teaching and curriculum development, will
not be prepared to do engineering education research at the
level of the new paradigm. This danger is much more severe
than with disciplinary research because faculty have been
trained to do disciplinary research and the level of consensus
of what is good scholarship is much higher in technical areas
than in engineering education. 361 To some extent this danger
can be alleviated by treating the research as interdisciplin-
ary and having a co-advisor from the College of Education.
Unfortunately, I have observed several cases where a recent
Ph.D. who did research in engineering education within a
disciplinary department was not trained to perform research
at the desired level of rigor.
The second model is to develop a new department such as
engineering education at Purdue101] and Virginia Tech,[111 engi-
neering and science education at Clemson,121 and engineering
and technology education at Utah State.[131 The Purdue Depart-
ment of Engineering Education (ENE) started its Ph.D. pro-

Purdue ENE Ph.D. Requirementst41'
* Admission: B.S. or M.S. in engineering, high GPA,
letters, statement of interest.
- Must have high quality students - not a consolation

* Courses:
- Grad-level technical engineering courses 15 cr.
May use transfer credit from engineering
master's program.
- ENE Intro course & ENE seminar 4 cr.
- Intro Statistics & Intro Ed Research 6 cr.
- Research Methods electives 6 cr.
- ENE electives and Grad elective 9 cr.
40 cr.
* Thesis

Figure 1. Purdue University's ENE Ph.D. requirements.

Chemical Engineering Education

How can an engineering professor get started in engineering education research at the level
of rigor of the new paradigm? Perhaps the easiest approach is to find a collaborator from
Education who can provide the necessary theories and research tools.

gram in 2005 and has two graduates (Dr. Tamara Moore who
transferred into ENE from Math Education and Dr. Euridice
Oware who transferred into ENE from Civil Engineering). The
Virginia Tech Department of Engineering Education started
its Ph.D. program in 2007. Both of these Ph.D. programs are
cross-disciplinary and require course work in ENE, another
engineering department, and the College of Education. The
Clemson Department of Engineering and Science Education
has established a Certificate in Engineering and Science Edu-
cation for graduate students and plans on starting a graduate
degree program. Although the Engineering and Technology
Education Department at Utah State University is part of the
College of Engineering, its cross-disciplinary Ph.D. is cur-
rently granted by the College of Education. The Utah State
program focuses on curriculum and instruction mainly for
technology education teachers. Utah State is in the process
of developing a Ph.D. program in engineering education that
would be granted by the College of Engineering. I believe
these departments should be within the College of Engineering
so that graduates will think of themselves as engineers and
will be able to work with other engineering professors. The
advantages of developing a separate degree-granting depart-
ment include the higher prestige of departments, the ease in
tapping sources for research and development money, and the
greater stability of departments. The main disadvantage is the
cost of developing a new administrative structure.
The third model is to develop an interdisciplinary program
in engineering education at the Ph.D. level. There are, of
course, an almost infinite variety of ways this could be done.
For example, plans at Washington State University are that
students will receive their degree from their engineering de-
partment (e.g., ChE) and will meet additional requirements
of the interdisciplinary program hosted by the Engineering
Education Research Center. [40] These requirements will prob-
ably include taking courses from the College of Education
and engineering education courses.
What courses are typically included in a Ph.D. program
in engineering education? The requirements for Purdue's
program, 411 listed in Figure 1, are fairly typical. The research
methods courses either from the College of Education or
from ENE are critically important regardless of the model
selected. In addition, research advisors must ensure that re-
search is rigorous. One of the electives in ENE that is highly
recommended is a how-to-teach course.[231 Most engineering
colleges at universities with a College of Education could
offer an interdisciplinary program similar to Figure 1 with
the development of a few specialized courses. The model
used for administering the program is less important than

the availability of required courses and of interested research
advisors who are knowledgeable in engineering and in edu-
cational research.
The new programs in engineering education may also help
engineering address one of the problems left over from its
military heritage- a culture that keeps the number of women
studying and teaching engineering low. Women have been
attracted to the Ph.D. programs in engineering education and
to the faculty in the engineering education departments. For
example, 16 of the 28 graduate students in Purdue's School
of Engineering Education are female (57 %) and 7 of the 18
faculty members are female (39 %).


After formation of engineering education departments,
we were continually asked "What will the graduates do?"
We believe there will be significant opportunities for gradu-
ates of the Ph.D. programs. If current departments expand
or new engineering education departments are formed, new
graduates will be in demand for tenure-track positions in these
departments. We also think that graduates will be attractive
candidates for both tenure-track and instructor positions in
first-year engineering programs, at undergraduate institutions,
and at community colleges. Some large disciplinary depart-
ments at research universities will also be interested in hiring
graduates, particularly those that have a disciplinary Ph.D.,
as an educational expert. In addition, graduates are likely
to be attractive candidates for non-tenure-track positions at
teaching centers, as the educational leader in engineering
research centers, and in engineering outreach to K-12. For at
least the next 10 years demand will probably be greater than
the supply of graduates.
For long-term viability of both departments and graduates,
universities need to make some modest changes. Promotion
and tenure committees will need to learn to accept engineering
education research as equivalent to technical research, and
they will need to learn to evaluate the quality of engineer-
ing education research. In addition, engineering education
researchers must do research that eventually commands the
respect of engineering faculty who do technical research.
What careers will be open for students who earn master's
degrees in engineering education? Both Virginia TechV111 and
Utah State[13] have master's programs. Based on feedback
from Purdue's industrial advisory council, we believe that
there is a large, untapped market for graduates with engi-
neering education master's degrees in the training programs

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

of large companies. If they have industrial experience, these
graduates are also expected to find professorial positions at
community colleges. Staff positions at four-year colleges
and research universities in first-year engineering programs,
technology programs, instructors for lower-division courses,
and outreach programs are also likely to hire graduates. Again,
the demand will probably be greater than the supply for quite
some time.


Engineering education requires a change in the status quo in
which new professors receive no training in how to teach. If
the attendees are motivated to learn, teaching Ph.D. students
and new professors to improve their teaching is neither dif-
ficult nor expensive. To continually improve engineering
education we also need to have professors who conduct
rigorous engineering education research. To improve the
quality of engineering education research, professors must
transform their approach to a new, scientifically rigorous
paradigm. This new paradigm requires that engineering edu-
cation researchers plan in advance, do a thorough literature
review, state and test hypotheses, use appropriate quantita-
tive and qualitative research tools, and disseminate results
to peers. An increasing number of students are doing their
Ph.D. research on engineering education. Regardless of the
type of program, it is vitally necessary that graduate students
conduct their research at the level of the new engineering
education research paradigm.


This paper is based on a presentation at Washington State
University, July 27, 2007.

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2. Lohmann, J.R., "Editor's Page: Refining our Focus," J. Eng. Educ.,
97 (1), 1 (2008)
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National Academies Press, Washington, DC (2004)
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gineer of 2020, National Academies Press, Washington, DC (2005)
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15. Lucas, C.J., American Higher Education. A History, St. Martin's Grif-
fin, New York (1994)
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tion in the United States," in Furter, WE (Ed.), History of Chemical
Engineering, Washington, D.C., American Chemical Society, Advances
in Chemistry Series, 190, 140-152 (1980)
17. Accessed March 22, 2008
18. Biedenbach, J.M., and L.P. Grayson, "Foreward," Proceedings Third
Annual Frontiers in Education Conference, p. viii, IEEE, New York
19. Accessed March 22, 2008
20. Stice, J.E., "A Model for Teaching New Teachers How to Teach, Eng.
Educ., 75 (2), 83 (Nov. 1984)
21. Wankat, PC., and E S. Oreovicz, "Teaching Prospective Faculty Mem-
bers About Teaching: A Graduate Engineering Course," Eng. Educ.,
75 (2), 84 (Nov. 1984)
22. Brawner, C.E., R.M. Felder, R. Allen, and R. Brent, "A Survey of
Faculty Teaching Practices and Involvement in Faculty Development
Activities," J. Eng. Educ., 91, 393 (2002)
23. Wankat, P.C., and ES. Oreovicz, "Teaching Prospective Engineering
Faculty How To Teach," Intl. J. Eng. Educ., 21 (5) 925 (2005)
24. Wankat, P.C., and E S. Oreovicz, Teaching Engineering, McGraw-Hill,
NY (1993) tions/TeachingEng/index.html>
25. Seymour, E., and N.M. Hewitt, Talking About Leaving: Why Under-
graduates Leave the Sciences, Westview, Boulder, CO (1997)
26. Brannan, K.P, and PC. Wankat, "Survey of First-Year Programs,"
Proceedings ASEE 2005 Annual Conference, Portland, OR (June,
2005). CD, session 1353
27. Heywood, J., Engineering Education : Research and Development in
Curriculum and Instruction, IEEE Press/Wiley, Hoboken, NJ (2005)
28. Prince, M., "Does Active Learning Work?A Review of the Research,"
J. Eng. Educ., 93, 223 (2004)
29. Wankat, PC., "What Will We Remove From the Curriculum to Make
Room for X? Bite the Bullet-Throw Out Obsolete Material," Chem.
Eng. Educ., 21 (2), 72 (Spring 1987)
30. DiBasio, D., L. Comparini, A.G. Dixon, and W.M. Clark, "A Project-
Based Spiral Curriculum for Introductory Courses in ChE. Part 3.
Evaluation," Chem. Eng. Educ., 35 (2), 140 (Spring 2001)
31. Conley, C.H., S.J. Ressler, T.A. Lenox, and J.A. Samples, "Teaching
Teachers to Teach Engineering-T4E," J. Eng. Educ., 89, 31 (2000)
32. Kennedy, D., Academic Duty, p. 75, Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge,
MA (1997)
33. Boyer, E., Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate,
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, San Francisco,
Jossey-Bass (1990)
34. Radcliffe, D.R., "Shaping the Discipline of Engineering Education,"
J. Eng. Educ., 95 (4), 263 (2006)
35. Wankat, PC., R.M. Felder, K.A. Smith, and ES. Oreovicz, "The Engi-
neering Approach to the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning," in M.
T. Huber and S. Morreale (Eds.) Disciplinary Styles in the Scholarship
of Teaching and Learning: Exploring Common Ground, American
Association for Higher Education, Washington, D.C., 217-237 (2002).

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neers Learning Educational Research Methods," J. Eng. Educ., 96 (2),
91 (2007)
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Engineering Education," J. Eng. Educ., 95 (2) 103 (2006)
40. Professor Denny Davis, private communication, July 27, 2007
41. ate/requirements> Accessed March 19, 2008 1

Chemical Engineering Education

--- - ^K__________________________-0



University of Michigan * Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136
In many different aspects of chemical engineering educa-
tion, we teach students first to analyze a general system
and then to simplify that general analysis as allowed by
the specific system being examined. For example, we show
students the general energy balance and then subsequently
show how it can be simplified when applied to special cases
(e.g., adiabatic systems, steady state systems, systems with
negligible changes in kinetic or potential energy). We show
students the equations of motion in fluid mechanics and then
subsequently show how they can be simplified for special
cases (e.g., steady flow, incompressible fluids, Newtonian flu-
ids). In the field of chemical kinetics, an opportunity exists to
apply this same educational approach when teaching students
how to develop reaction rate equations based upon application
of the quasi-stationary-state approximation (QSSA) to the
governing chemical mechanism. The purpose of this article
is to make this opportunity more widely known.
Chemical kinetics and reaction engineering textbooksi1 5]
discuss techniques for deriving closed-form analytical rate
equations from sets of elementary reaction steps. Types of
reaction systems covered include chain reactions, catalysis,
and chemical vapor deposition. The QSSA is one of the tools
discussed in texts. This approximation, which in many texts
gets the confusing and potentially misleading label of "steady-
state"* attached to it, allows one to neglect the comparatively
small net reaction rate for a reactive intermediate (RI) relative
to its very fast formation and disappearance rates. The result
is that one can take the formation and disappearance rates to
be approximately equal, and then solve algebraically for the
concentration of the reactive intermediate.
r r - r 0(1)
LetRI formation,RI disappearance RI
verysmall large large

Oftentimes, this result contains the concentrations) of other

� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008
Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

reactive intermediates, so the QSSA must be applied next to
those reactive intermediates. This procedure is repeated to get
explicit expressions for each reactive intermediate.
The application of the QSSA in textbooks almost always
involves only one or two reactive intermediates, because the
number of simultaneous equations and tediousness of the
algebra, if done manually, grow as the number of reactive
intermediates increases. Most texts, when covering multistep
reactions with two or more intermediates, teach students to
make restrictive assumptions (e.g., rate determining steps),
which simplify the algebra. The price paid for the simplified
mathematics, though, is a less general rate equation. If there is
a shift in the rate-determining step with temperature or conver-
sion, for example, the rate equation will no longer apply.
The lack of coverage of QSSA applications to larger multi-
step reaction systems in chemical engineering education need
not persist. Easy-to-use general methods exist to develop ana-
lytical rate equations for arbitrarily large multistep reactions
without making assumptions about the existence or identities
of rate-determining steps. This article describes these general
methods. One method, developed by Helfferich,16 8] applies to

Phillip Savage is a professor of chemical
engineering at the University of Michigan. He
received his B.S. from Penn State in 1982 and
his M.Ch.E. (1983) and Ph.D. (1986) degrees
from the University of Delaware, all in chemi-
cal engineering. His research and teaching
interests focus on the rates, mechanisms, and
engineering of organic chemical reactions.
Current research projects deal with renew-
able energy from biomass and environmen-
tally benign chemical synthesis.

* The QSSA has nothing to do with steady states, either mathematically
or conceptually. The QSSA deals with process rates (rates of chemical
reactions), and not rates of change (dCdt). This approximation does
i,.* ., (., ...**, . ,,,ri, ,,l,,. i, . It = O nor does it require or imply that
CRa is constant. That using the term "steady state" creates confusion
is evident in textbooks and educational articles where authors er-
roneously state that this approximation means the concentration of
the reactive intermediate (RI) is constant!

reactions wherein all reactant, final product, and free catalyst
concentrations are much greater than the concentrations of the
intermediates. A second method, based upon work published
by Christiansen,P911] relaxes the requirement that the catalyst
concentration exceed that of the reactive intermediates.

The formulas given in this article provide the rate equation
for any multistep chemical reaction mechanism that meets
the following criteria.
* The steps in the mechanism are all sequential (no branches).
* None of the steps involve more than one molecule of
reactive intermediate as reactant or more than one mol-
ecule of reactive intermediate as product (so the set of
algebraic equations from application of the QSSA can be
solved using linear algebra).
* All of the intermediates are present only in trace-level
quantities (so the QSSA can be applied to each).

Networks that meet these three criteria are said to be "simple."
Many reactions catalyzed by acid, base, organometallic
complexes, or solid surfaces meet these criteria. The catalytic
cycle in Figure 1,[121 which accounts for the synthesis of bi-
sphenol A from acetone and phenol, is one example.

We adopt the notation used in the original literature. X
designates reactive intermediates, which by definition are
present in trace level. The reaction steps are written with the
reactive intermediates (X) appearing as the explicit reactant
and product in a step. Any co-reactant (or co-product) mol-
ecules in a step appear either above (or below) the arrow for
that reaction step. We use a double subscript notation for the
rate coefficients. The first subscript identifies the reactive
intermediate involved as a reactant in that step and the second
subscript identifies the reactive intermediate that is formed.




Me A


Me P'-<

X4 X,

Figure 1. Catalytic cycle for BPA synthesis from phenol
and acetone (adapted from Ref [12]).


HC --

To illustrate this notation, consider the reaction X, + B -t> X .
The forward rate constant is k and the reverse rate constant is
k . We rewrite this step as X -s>X , with B appearing above
the arrow because it is a co-reactant. The pseudo-first-order
forward rate coefficient for this step is X , where X = k CB.
The pseudo-first-order reverse rate coefficient is X , where
X = k . The net rate of this reversible reaction step would
be written as
-rB = kljCC, - k jCxj = XC - jlCx (2)

Using pseudo-first-order rate coefficients (kX) allows all rates
to be written explicitly in terms of the concentrations of the
reactive intermediates and the reactant and product.

Helfferich developed this first method while doing process
development work for Shell Chemical. It was homogeneous
reactions of commercial significance catalyzed by transition
metals that provided motivation. In these systems, the free
catalyst concentration was large relative to the concentrations
of the catalyst-containing reactive intermediates. The rate
equation for such a simple multistep network, which converts
reactant A into end product P, is[6 8]
k-1 k-1

r = 10 10 (3)
P k 1-1 k-1 (

where rp is the rate of forming product P, H' >,l is the product
1=0 k-1
of all of the forward pseudo-first-order rate coefficients, H', X,
is the product of all of the reverse pseudo-first-order rate coef-
ficients in the multistep reaction, and the index k is the number
of steps in the sequence. If the lower limit in the product
exceeds the upper, the product is taken to be equal to unity.
The denominator in the rate equation involves a summation
over a double product. Refer to Helfferich'6 71 for a simple,
easy-to-remember way to perform these operations and gener-
ate the denominator without going through the formalism of
evaluating each term in the summation.
Figure 1 shows the multistep reaction for the acid-catalyzed
synthesis of bisphenol A from acetone (A) and phenol (P).
This six-step mechanism can be written as
H+ P P
A-X1 X2 -#X X3 -X e X BPA (4)
H20 H+

Acetone is species number zero and BPA is species number
six. For this network the relationships between the pseudo-
first-order rate coefficients and the true rate constants are

Chemical Engineering Education

X =01 k01CH+ 10 =kio TABLE 1
Form of QSSA Rate Equation for Specific Three-Step Catalyzed Reac-
>12 kC k21 tons
12 12 P 21 21tin

>23 = k23 32 k32
X34 = k34 43 = k43
\45 = k45 54 = k54 H2O

X56 = k56 P X65 = k65C H+ (5)

By applying the formula for the rate equation to
this specific example
5 5
H1 ,11 CA 11,1 CBPA
rBPA l=0 6 1-1 10 (6)

one can very quickly write the rate as

rBPA 01 X12 23 34 45 56 A 10 21 32 43 54 65 BPA
A 12 23 34 45 56 10 23 34 45 56 10 21 34 45 56 10 21 32 45 56 10 21 32 43 56 10 21 32 43 54
Replacing the \ in the rate equation with the corresponding k and any co-reactant concentration for that step, and then sim-
plifying leads to the general form of this rate equation as

kaCH+ CPA - kb H+ W BPA
rBPA - (8)
BPA kC +kd CP +kC

where the k parameters are collections of rate constants for individual steps. This final form of the general rate equation is not
very complicated even though no assumptions were made about any step being rate determining.

Rate equations for this system have been reported[12] to be irreversible and both first-order in phenol rBPA = kCH+ CA )
and second-order in phenol rBPA = kC H+ C C2 . These experimental rate equations are simply special cases of the general rate
equation above. First-order kinetics arise when the second step is rate-determining and irreversible. Second-order kinetics arise
when the final step is rate determining and irreversible. If a step is rate-determining, the pseudo-first-order rate coefficients for
that step must be very much smaller than the rate coefficients for all other steps in the sequence. That is Xjrds << all other X .
Moreover, if a step is irreversible, X = 0 for that step.
When the second step, X1 :->X2 , is rate-determining, A12 and X21 are much smaller than all other X , so denominator terms
containing either X 12 or 21 will be much smaller than denominator terms that do not contain these terms. Therefore, only the
denominator terms that omit X12 and X21 need to be retained in the rate equation. It is only the second term in the denomina-
tor that survives. Moreover, if any step is irreversible, the second term in the numerator vanishes. The rate equation for this
scenario then becomes

rBPA 01 1223344556 A 0112 A kok12 CC = K01C CC (9)
S 10 23 34 45 56 10 - k1o
which is precisely a first-order rate equation, as seen experimentally. K01 is the equilibrium constant for the first reaction step.
When the final step, X5 -> BPA, is rate determining, only the denominator terms that omit X56 and X65 need to be retained in
the rate equation. Also, as before, the contribution for the reverse reaction in the numerator vanishes when any step is irrevers-
ible. The rate equation for this scenario is

rBPA = X01 1223X34X45 56CA kolkl2k 23k34k45k56 H PCA = k56K01K12K23K4K45 H+ A (10)
S10 21 32 43 54 k1ok21k32k43k54 H0 HO20
Here we obtain the rate equation that is second order in phenol, as was seen experimentally.
Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 213

Reaction System General Rate Equation
Heterogeneous kaCA kbB) CT
Isomerization r [\CA k b B T

Enzyme Kkes _k cpc0
Catalysis r a C kbP)E
1 +kCs + kdCP

Decomposition kaC20 - b C T
koC +kd C +keC + kfC2 +kC C

This example shows that multistep reactions of commercial significance can be easily treated with this method to obtain general
reaction rate equations. The complexity in the form of the general rate equation is no more than that in Langmuir-Hinshelwood
rate equations, which have long been used in heterogeneous catalytic kinetics. Significantly, however, one can recover even
simpler rate equations (e.g., power-law) for situations where one step is rate determining or where a step or steps are irreversible.
Note that this approach of starting with the general equation and then simplifying it for special limiting cases is fully consistent
with the approach many take in chemical engineering education.
Extension to Non-Trace Intermediates
The general Helfferich method applies to simple pathways with all reactants, products, and free catalyst present in much higher
concentrations than the intermediates. But, there are some reactions where the concentration of one or more intermediates rises
above trace level, perhaps because the intermediate is a molecular product rather than being a reactive intermediate. In these
cases, the pathway can be broken at those intermediates, and each of the fragments of the overall network can then be treated
using the general method described in this article.[6]
To illustrate, consider the acid-catalyzed dehydration of cyclohexanol in supercritical water131 as shown in Figure 2. This
network is nonsimple because one of the intermediates, cyclohexene, is not at trace levels. Its concentration is comparable to that of
the reactant cyclohexanol and end product methylcyclopentene. Therefore, one cannot use the general formula to write a single rate
equation for the conversion of cyclohexanol to methyl cyclopentene. One can break the complete network into two piece-wise simple
portions, however, and apply Helfferich mathematics to each portion. These two piece-wise simple portions appear as Figure 3.
Using the general formula, one can write the rate equation for the first sequence, the conversion of cyclohexanol (A) to cy-
clohexene (B) plus water (W).

X01 x12CA X10 x21 B kolkl2C A CW CH30, - k1ok21 C CH30+ CB kolkl2C A CH30, - k1ok21C WC H30+ B
r 01 12 A (11)
r10+ 12 (kio + k2)C ko +k12

The rate equation for the second portion is, for the general case of all steps being reversible,

r2 X23 X3445 B - 32 43 54CC (12)
X34 45 32 45 32 43
Note that cyclohexene is designated as species 2 in the second sequence to maintain consistent species indexes. Methyl cyclo-
pentene (C) is species 5. Note too that for this second network, the first step (protonation) is irreversible, so X32 = 0. The rate
equation for the second portion then becomes simply
r2 = X23CB = k23CBC (13)

Akiya and Savage�131 modeled the kinetics for this system using the two rate equations above. Doing so led to a model that
contained only three parameters to be determined from experimental data; two in the first rate equation and one in the second.
A numerical modeling approach based on an explicit accounting for each step would have necessitated the inclusion of nine
different parameters. Using the Helfferich formula to develop analytical rate equations has certainly simplified the task of
parameter estimation.
The interested reader is directed to Helfferich[6 8] and the references therein for more information regarding additional exten-
sions of this general method.

The material presented thus far, when used for catalyzed reaction systems, applies when the concentration of free catalyst
is much higher than concentrations of the intermediates. Examples of this situation include acid or base catalysis and many
homogeneous transition metal catalyzed reactions. This section treats trace-level catalysis, where the free catalyst concentra-
tion is small, and a significant fraction of the total catalyst amount can be bound with intermediates. Enzyme catalysis and

Figure 2. Multistep networks for cyclo- OH kol0 OH2 k12 k23 k34 k45
hexene formation from cyclohexanol -H30 H20 H30 Ho20
(top) and methylcyclopentene forma- H20 H0 H20 H30
tion (bottom) (adapted from Ref. [13]) H20
(0) Xi (2) X3 X4 (5)

214 Chemical Engineering Education

some heterogeneously catalyzed reaction sequences (e.g.,
some isomerizations, Eley-Rideal reactions) are examples of
simple reaction systems with trace-level catalysis. Christian-
sen[9 11] developed the general treatment for systems of this
type, Helfferich[6] discusses it in some detail, and Boudart[141
provided a short overview nearly 40 years ago.
Helfferich[6] shows that the rate of conversion of re-
actant A into product P via the general linear network
cat =>Xl =... =-Xk lp-cat,is
Sk-I1 k-1

h)1,+1 i+ 1+1,1 CT
0 1=0 (14)

where D H is the Christiansen denominator for a network with
k reaction steps. The Christiansen numerator contains CT, the
total catalyst concentration (sum of the concentrations of the
free catalyst and all catalyst-containing intermediates). In
trace-level catalysis, it is often the total catalyst concentration
(amount added to the reactor) that is known. Its distribution
among the different catalyst-containing species is not easily
measured in engineering applications.
The denominator is the sum of all terms in the Christiansen
matrix, and Helfferich describes how to generate these terms.

For a generic 3-step reaction network, cat -# x1 -#> X2 '- cat,
the Christiansen matrix is 0 3

12 23 10 23 X10 21
23 01 21 01 21 32 (15)
01 12 32 12 32 10
An important property of this matrix is that the sum of the
terms in each row is proportional to the concentration of one
of the catalyst-containing species in the reaction network.[6]
The sum of the terms in the first row is proportional to the



k OH2







Figure 3. Multistep network for methylcyclopentene for-
mation from cyclohexanol (adapted from Ref. [13])



concentration of the free catalyst. The sum of the terms in the
second row is proportional to the concentration of interme-
diate X1, and so on. This relationship between the relative
abundances of the different catalyst containing species and
the relative magnitudes of the sums of the terms in each
row allows one to simplify the denominator for cases in
which one or more of the catalyst-containing species are
present in much higher (or lower) concentrations than the
others. For example, if X2 is the most abundant catalyst
species (macs), then the sum of the terms in the third row
of the matrix will be much larger than the sums of the
terms from the other rows. Therefore, one can neglect
the small contributions from the other rows, and to a very
good approximation the Christiansen denominator can be
taken to be the sum of the terms in the third row alone.
The number of denominator terms for a network with k
steps can therefore been reduced from k2 to k when there
exists a macs. Likewise, one can obtain simplification if
there exists a lacs (least abundant catalyst species). In this
case, one can neglect the small contribution made by the
sum of the terms in the matrix row corresponding to the
reactive intermediate that is the lacs.
Consider the generic three-step sequence
cat- X1 - X2 @-#ca, which has two catalyst-containing
reactive intermediates. Any number of co-reactants or co-
products can appear in any of the three steps. Numerous
catalytic systems have reaction mechanisms of this form. For
example, the solid-catalyzed isomerization A = B can occur
through a three-step sequence of adsorption of A, isomeriza-
tion on the surface, and desorption of B from a surface site (S)
back into the fluid phase. The reactive intermediates X1 and
X2 are surface bound A (A S) and B (B * S) respectively.
S-#A * Sw-B * Sw-S (16)
Some enzyme-catalyzed reactions that convert a substrate,
S, into a product, P, proceed through two different enzyme-
substrate complexes (E * S).515 Each complex is a catalyst-
containing reactive intermediate.

E (E � S)l (E � S) 2>E (17)

The heterogeneously catalyzed decomposition of ozone over
MnO2 is another example of a specific reaction that has the
same structure as the network under consideration.[15, 161
03 03
S=O * S= O * StS (18)
02 02 02
The acid-catalyzed isomerization of cyclohexene (C) to
methylcyclopentene (M),1131 which was examined previously,
is one more example.
The general form of the Christiansen rate equation for a

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

single catalytic cycle with three steps is

r >>2 > > X 01 12 X23 10 X21 X32 CT (19)
12 23 + X10 23 + 10 21 +2301 2101 + X21 32 + 01 12 + 32 12 + X32 10
To derive this rate equation manually would require algebraic manipulations with two QSSA expressions (one for each interme-
diate) and the catalyst balance (since the distribution of catalyst material amongst the different forms is not known). This task
is tedious, and a tremendous amount of algebra is required to obtain the simplified form of the rate equation above.
Table 1 (page 213) shows the general rate equation for each of the specific application systems in view. The parameters (k)
in these rate equations are collections of rate constants for individual steps. Rarely does one need to retain all of the terms in
the general rate equation. For example, in heterogeneous catalysis, such as the isomerization example, one often assumes that
one of the steps is rate determining and that all others are in quasi-equilibrium. If we assume that step 2, the surface reaction
(A * S->B * S), is rate determining (X 12 X21 << other X ), then the rate equation becomes

r (01 12 23 X 10 21 X32 ) CT (20)
X10 23 X23 01 X32 10
Replacing the pseudo-first-order rate coefficients with the rate constants and species concentrations and then simplifying,
leads to

r 12 K0 T A--CB/K whereK = KoiK12K23 and K 1 (21)
1 01 oCA + K32CB 1 1
as the rate equation. This Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson rate equation shows precisely the same dependence of the
rate on the concentrations of A and B as the general rate equation for this system in Table 1. Thus, no simplification in form
resulted from assuming the existence of a rate-determining step.

For enzyme-catalyzed reactions, step 3, product formation (E * S)2 = E , is often irreversible and rate determining (X32 0;
X23 << other X ). The rate equation for this case is

r= ( 01 12 23)CT (22)
10 21 21 01 + 01 12
Upon replacing the pseudo-first-order rate coefficients with the appropriate rate constants and concentrations, one obtains the
rate equation,
k12k23 SCOG

r= kk E K .-- (23)
klok21 + CU+Cs
k01 k21 + kl2)

which is the familiar Michaelis-Menten result. Vmax is the maximum reaction velocity (rate). Co is the total enzyme concentra-
For ozone decomposition, Oyama and coworkers[15,16] reported that all three steps are irreversible and that absorbed 0 atoms
are the lacs. Thus, all reverse rate coefficients will be zero, and the denominator will omit the terms in the second row of the
Christiansen matrix. The resulting rate equation is shown below.

S 01 12 23 T ko01 CoCT
r = k (24)
>12>23 >2k23
0 12 1 23
This example illustrates the utility of Christiansen mathematics for single catalytic cycles. The general rate equation can be
written quickly, and then rate laws for special cases (rate determining steps, irreversible steps, lacs, etc.) can be recovered by
omitting the terms that are negligible.

Chemical Engineering Education

This article outlines and illustrates methods for quickly
getting closed-form analytical rate equations for multistep net-
works using only the QSSA. These methods were developed at
an industrial R&D center to deal with practical kinetics issues
in chemical process development. Uncatalyzed reactions and
those catalyzed by acid, base, homogeneous transition metal
complexes, enzymes, and solid surfaces can all be handled
by these methods. The chief constraint is that each step must
be unimolecular in reactive intermediate. This constraint
reduces the utility of this method for chain reactions that
include branching, termination, and initiation steps and for
heterogeneous catalysis with bimolecular surface reactions.
Though components of these approaches have been in the
literature for decades, these methods do not appear in many
popular chemical reaction engineering textbooks. I have been
teaching these methods in our core chemical reaction engi-
neering graduate course, a senior/ graduate elective class on
chemical kinetics, and continuing education courses on reac-
tion kinetics. Graduate students or practicing professionals are
probably the proper audience for this material. The students
appreciate learning about this approach, which allows them
to develop a rate equation very quickly for a general case
and then simplify it to recover results for numerous special
cases. Simplifying the general equation also reinforces the
concepts of rate-determining steps, quasi-equilibrium steps,
macs, and lacs.

A more detailed tutorial on the use and teaching of these
methods is available from the author upon request. In
addition, HelfferichE61 provides a detailed treatment and
many examples.

1. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, 4th ed.,
Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2006)
2. Masel, R.I., Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis, Wiley-Interscience, New
York (2001)
3. Davis, M.E., and R.J. Davis, Fundamentals of Chemical Reaction
Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York (2003)
4. Schmidt, L.D., The ,,.. ...... .... - , . - ... ,, ...-... 2,...,.I Oxford
University Press, New York (2005)
5. Roberts, G.W., Chemical Reactions and Chemical Reactors, Wiley
6. Helfferich, EG., Kinetics of Multistep Reactions, 2nd ed., Elsevier,
Amsterdam (2004)
7. Helfferich, EG., J. Phys. Chem. 93, 6676 (1989)
8. Chern, J-M, and EG. Helfferich, AIChE J. 36, 1200 (1990)
9. Christiansen, J.A.Z., Physik. Chem. Bodenstein-Festband 69 (1931)
10. Christiansen, J.A.Z., Physik. Chem. B 28, 303 (1935)
11. Christiansen, J.A., Adv. Catal. 5, 311 (1953)
12. Gates, B.C., Catalytic ( b...... .. John Wiley & Sons, New York
13. Akiya, N., and PE. Savage, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 40, 1822 (2001)
14. Boudart, M., Kinetics of Chemical Processes, Prentice-Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ (1968)
15. Li, W., G.V. Gibbs, and S.T. Oyama, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 120, 9041
16. Li, W., and S.T. Oyama, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 120, 9047 (1998) 1

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

n M�1advising



North Carolina State University * Raleigh, NC 27695

Extensive educational research has established that stu-
dent-faculty interactions have a significant impact on
student retention and success. Baker and SirykV1 found
that first-year students who had one-hour advising sessions
not only had significantly higher scores on an adjustment
scale, but were also less likely to drop out of college than
were students who did not have those sessions. Pascarella and
Terenzinii21 found that students who persisted in their chosen
major fields of study had a significantly higher frequency of
interaction with faculty than did those who chose to switch or
drop out. The widely cited "Talking about Leaving" by Elaine
Seymour and Nancy M. Hewitt testifies to the importance of
good advising:
Failure to find adequate advice, counseling, or tutorial
help was cited as ... t, ii.,, ,,, to one-quarter (24.0%) of
all switching decisions; it was mentioned as a source of
frustration by three-quarters (75.4%) of all switchers (for
whom it was the third most common source of complaint)
and it was an issue raised by half (52.0%) of all non-switch-
ers, for whom it was the second most commonly cited
concern. Among all of the factors, ...i i ,i.,,-,,, to attrition,
student difficulties in , ii,, appropriate help is the factor
which is most clearly derived from flaws in the institutional
As the director of Undergraduate Studies of the Chemical
and Biomolecular Engineering Department at North Carolina
State University, I do a great deal of advising. My route to
this position was nontraditional. After completing my Ph.D.
in chemical engineering at Carnegie Mellon in 1991, I1 worked
at Eastman Chemical Company in Kingsport, TN for nine

years. During that time, I had positions in process engineer-
ing, plant engineering, quality management, business process
redesign, and business market management. In 2000 I1 had the
opportunity to return to NC State, my undergraduate alma
mater, to assume my present position. Besides advising 216
students myself, I coordinate advising for the entire depart-
ment and also teach several undergraduate courses, includ-
ing the sophomore course on material and energy balances,
a junior-level professional development seminar, and the
capstone senior design course. Like all of my departmental
colleagues, I had no training whatsoever in either teaching
or advising prior to joining the faculty, but I found that my
industrial experience was invaluable in doing both. I share my
advising story not as a model that all advisors should follow,
but as one example of how an advisor might connect with
students. Readers who would like more in-depth background
on advising skills and approaches can consult one of several
excellent references.[471

Lisa G. Bullard is a teaching associate
professor and director of Undergraduate
Studies in the Department of Chemical
and Biomolecular Engineering at North
Carolina State University. She received
her B.S. in chemical engineering from NC
State, her Ph.D. in chemical engineering
from Carnegie Mellon University, and
served in engineering and management
positions within Eastman Chemical Co.
from 1991-2000.

� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2008
Chemical Engineering Education

If you want to know my style of advising, step into my of-
fice. It doesn't resemble the stereotypical professor's office
-a desk covered with computer printouts, teetering piles of
journals, and stacks of lab reports in the comer. It looks like
someone's home. There are two bentwood Amish rocking
chairs gently inclined toward one another, resting on a warm
oriental rug. There is a rustic red and white quilt on the wall
above the cabinet. Bookshelves line one long wall, but in
addition to holding books, they are filled with photographs,
mementos from students, artwork, and collages of graduation
pictures from years past. On the bottom shelf is a basket
with wooden blocks and a jar with seashells to entertain
young children who come with their parents for advising
appointments. This is my academic home and a sanctuary
for students away from home. More than one student has
commented, as we rocked and talked, "I feel like I'm rock-
ing on your front porch."
At our first meeting, students are taken aback by the rocking
chairs, unsure as to whether they should sit in them or not.
Once I sit down and motion them to do the same, they tenta-
tively sit on the edge of the chair, then ease into the molded
seat and nestle back. I can see them almost perceptibly take
a deep breath and relax. It's impossible to be uptight when
you are rocking in a comfortable chair. When we are sitting
side by side in the rocking chairs, I'm on the same level with
the students. I'm not sitting behind my desk looking at them
across a broad expanse-we're in this thing together. I'm
not judging them or telling them the answers-I'm listen-
ing. Many times people come looking for answers, when all
they really need is someone with whom to talk. The rocking
chairs remind me that students come one at a time, and dur-
ing the time I am talking with a student, he or she is the most
important person in the world.
Every student has a story. Sometimes the story spills out at
the very first meeting, but in most cases, layers are revealed
over time. Often I meet students while they are still in high
school. When they arrive at NC State, I am their first advisor.
I teach many of them in the intro sophomore course, and by
the time they graduate, I have had all of them in one or more
of the courses I teach. They all experience the rocking chair at
some point. It is a privilege and an honor for me to learn their
stories, and in doing so, to become part of each story.
The bulletin board behind the rocking chairs is criss-crossed
with red ribbons and covered with layers of letters, cards, baby
announcements, photographs, and few a poignant programs
from memorial services. It's practically an archeological
dig in progress, and it reminds me that although students do
graduate (at least, that's the goal!), they never truly leave.
Although I have only been at NC State since 2000, I have
772 alumni "children" and friends who are working, changing
jobs, requesting recommendations for graduate school, getting
Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

I am especially conscious of my role

as a mentor to female students-a

model that was not available to me

as an undergraduate when there

were no female professors in the

department. I want these young

women to know that they can

practice engineering and still have

a family and a life outside of

their profession.

married, having children, and otherwise going about the task
of living their lives as chemical engineers and young adults.
With their many success stories in mind, I have started inviting
them back to speak to current students about the challenges
they have faced.
Scattered on the shelves are photographs of my family
and artwork that my daughter has generated over the years.
The bulletin board contains some special notes in childish
writing, like "GO MOM! I LOVE YOU." I am especially
conscious of my role as a mentor to female students- a model
that was not available to me as an undergraduate when there
were no female professors in the department. I want these
young women to know that they can practice engineering
and still have a family and a life outside of their profession.
As someone who has taken time off to have a child, worked
part-time, and chosen assignments that allowed me more
flexibility during various times during my career, I can assure
students that work and life can be balanced to allow room for
success in both.
On the side desk sits a computer-the office's one nod to
modem technology. When I'm not sitting in a rocking chair,
I'm at the computer keeping a steady stream of e-mails flow-
ing in and out. I've never been able to follow the advice of
efficiency experts who suggest checking e-mail only once in
the morning and once at the end of the day. Even in a depart-
ment as large as ours (421 undergraduates), effective use of
e-mail can eliminate barriers to communication, especially
since we are located in a new section of the campus out of
the mainstream of student traffic. Information about summer
job postings, AIChE student chapter meetings, undergradu-
ate research and scholarship opportunities, recommendation
letters, and departmental details routinely zip across the
lines to and from students. I want my students to be well
informed and knowledgeable about campus and professional

The final element of the office that reflects my advising phi-
losophy is the door. It's open, and my desk chair is positioned
so that I can see someone hovering around the entrance. Unless
I'm doing something that must be completed at that moment,
which is rare, I stop, smile, and say, "Come in, how can I help
you?" The student usually says something like, "Are you busy?"
Even if I'm in the middle of grading 40 essays for our under-
graduate seminar course, checking blue cards for graduation,
or contacting guest speakers for senior design, I say, "No, I'm
not busy. Please come in and sit down." We rock. They talk.
I listen. Often they leave saying something like, "Thanks for
seeing me. I always feel better after leaving your office."
That's why I'm here.

At this point the reader may be thinking, "Give me a break.
Besides the fact that I couldn't possibly fit a rocking chair
into my tiny office, I'm no Mother Teresa. And my gradu-
ate students already feel neglected, not to mention my own
children." My purpose in writing this article is not to suggest
that my style is the only style, or even the best style, but to
encourage faculty to find their own style. The rockers and
most of those little personal touches and the time I spend on
advising (which is, after all, my main job) are nice, but they're
not essential. Based on my experience, literature in the area
of advising, and the feedback I have gotten from my students,
I would offer the following suggestions on how faculty can
make their advising more effective within the constraints of
the other demands of the job:

* Organize your department advising system to improve con-
sistency and efficiency. Depending on the size and structure
of your department, consider ways to structure the advising
process to allow faculty to best meet student needs. For
example, I serve as the Coordinator of Advising and advise
all the freshmen, double majors, and transfer students-in
general, students who require "extra attention" and may
have unusual or challenging curricular issues. This allows
each of our faculty to advise a smaller group of students
(typically 25 or less) who are doing the "standard" cur-
riculum or a concentration in their area of expertise. This
organizational structure improves advising consistency and
efficiency, "giving back" time to other colleagues who are
more focused on other key department functions such as
instruction and research.
* Use resources within your department to leverage
advisors' time with students. Our faculty call on me as
a resource for information, as a referral if they feel the
student needs additional attention, or as a "substitute" if
they know they will be on travel status during advising
time. I publish an annual advising handbook for both
students and faculty with curricular information and
frequently asked questions, and this information is also
available on the departmental Web site. One of our staff
members distributes hard copies of student degree audits
at advising time and maintains a file for each student with

relevant information on their advising history. Don't feel
as though you have to have all the answers yourself-use
all the resources available to ensure that the time you do
spend with each student is worthwhile.
* Learn your advisees'names and use them. Our Regis-
tration and Records Web site has an option that allows
you to access a photo of each student-you can print out
the pictures and names for easy reference. I take photos
of students in my introductory class holding name tents,
and study them in my office. A colleague photocopies his
students' drivers licenses! Whatever works for you, use it.
* When you are talking with a student, try to resist the
temptation to peek at your watch or glance at your com-
puter screen to read your latest e-,, .,i- ..i i,,,,, sends
the message faster that "I have better .1,,,, to do." (I
have a large clock on the wall opposite the rocking chairs
that helps me be aware of the time without seeming
impatient or anxious to be rid of the student).
* After you take care of the business of; , , Ii,, ...-i., ,i ,.,
take a moment to ask students about their summer plans, ca-
reer goals, or hobbies. This helps students feel that they are
more than just a number, especially in a large department.
* Let students know that you have a life outside of the office.
You could do this by posting an article or picture on your
bulletin board, having a family or vacation picture on a desk,
or displaying a memento from a recent trip or conference.

Finally, but most importantly, care. Findings by Wilson, et
al.,48' indicate that faculty who are frequently sought out as
advisors outside the classroom tend to provide clear clues
about their accessibility through their in-class teaching style
and their attitude. You can go to teaching workshops and
even advising workshops to hone your skills, but simply
caring is the foundation of all student interactions. No one
cares how much you know, unless they know how much
you care. You could be the one to make the difference in a
student leaving, staying, or staying and enjoying the ride.
Advisors rock!

1. Baker, R.W., and B. Siryk, i .1l.., ,i..; Intervention with a Scale
Measuring Adjustment to College," J. Counseling Psychology, 33(1),
31 (1986)
2. Pascarella, E.T., and PT. Terenzini, "Patterns of Student-Faculty
Informal Interaction beyond the Classroom and Voluntary Freshman
Attrition," The J. of Higher Educ., 48(5), 540 (Sept.-Oct. 1977)
3. Seymour, E., and N.M. Hewitt, Talking about Leaving, Westview Press,
Boulder, CO, p. 134 (1997)
4. Light, R.J., Making the Most of College, Harvard Univ. Press, Chapters
3 and 5, Cambridge, MA, (2001)
5. Wankat, PC., "Current Advising Practice and Suggestions for Improv-
ing Advising," Eng. Educ., 76, 213-216 (Jan. 1986)
6. Wankat, PC., and Oreovicz, ES., Teaching Engineering, Chapter 10,
McGraw-Hill, NY (1993). Available free as pdf files on the Web at
ingEng/index. html>
7. Wankat, PC., The Effective Efficient Professor: Teaching, Scholarship,
and Service, Sections 7.2 and 7.4, Allyn & Bacon, Boston (2002)
8. Wilson, R, J. Gaff, E. Dienst, L. Wood, and J.L. Bavry, College Profes-
sors and Their Impact on Students, Wiley, New York (1975) 1

Chemical Engineering Education

INDEX * Graduate
A kron, U university of ............................ ........................ 223
Alabama, University of ..................................224
Alabama, Huntsville; University of .................................225
A lberta, U university of............................. ..................... 226
A rizona, U university of............................ ..................... 227
A rizona State U niversity....................... ...................... 228
A rkansas, U university of................................ ................... 229
A uburn U niversity....... ..... ........................................ 230
Brigham Young University..................... ......................325
British Columbia, University of ......................................231
Brow n U university ................ ........................ 336
B ucknell U niversity................................... ................... 325
California, Berkeley; University of ..................................232
California, Los Angeles; University of .............................233
California, Riverside; University of..................................234
California, Santa Barbara; University of...........................235
California Institute of Technology ....................................236
Carnegie Mellon University.................. ......................237
Case Western Reserve University ..................................238
Cincinnati, U university of .............................. ................ 239
City College of New York..................... ......................240
Colorado, U university of................................ ................ 241
Colorado School of Mines...................... ......................242
Colorado State University..................... ...................... 243
Columbia University ............ .....................326
Connecticut, University of ............... ...................244
D artm outh C college ....... ..... ......................................... 245
D elaw are, U university of ........................ ...................... 246
Denmark, Technical University of ...................................247
D rexel U university ................ ........................ 248
Florida, U university of........................................................ 249
Florida A&M/Florida State College of Engineering...............326
Florida Institute of Technology ............... ...................250
Georgia Institute of Technology.....................................251
H ouston, U university of ................................. .................. 252
H ow ard U university ....... ..... ......................................... 327
Idaho, U university of....... ..... ....................................... 327
Illinois, Chicago; University of ....................................... 253
Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; University of.......................254
Illinois Institute of Technology .............. ...................255
Iow a, U university of....... ..... ........................................ 256
Iow a State U university ........................... ........................ 257
K ansas, U university of ................................... .................. 258
Kansas State University ........................... ................... 259
K entucky, U university of ........................ ...................... 260
Lam ar U niversity....... .... .......................................... 328
L aval U university ....... ..... .......................................... 328
L high U niversity....... ..... ......................................... 26 1
Louisiana State University .............. ...................262
Louisville, University of ..................................329
Maine, University of ............ .....................263
M anhattan C college ...................................... ................... 264
Maryland, College Park; University of .............................265
Massachusetts, Amherst; University of.............................266
Massachusetts, Lowell; University of ...............................336
Massachusetts Institute of Technology..............................267
M cG ill U university ................ ....................... 268
M cM aster U niversity....... ..................... ...................... 269
M ichigan, U university of ........................ ...................... 270
M ichigan State U niversity...................... ...................... 271
Michigan Technological University..................................329
Minnesota, Minneapolis; University of.............................272
Mississippi State University................... ......................273

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

Education Advertisements

Missouri, Columbia; University of....................................274
M issouri S & T ........ .... ............................................. 275
M ontana State University...................... ...................... 330
N ebraska, U university of............................... ................. 276
New Jersey Institute of Technology..................................277
New M exico, University of ................... ...................... 278
New Mexico State University ............... ...................279
North Carolina State University.....................................280
Northeastern University ..................................281
Northwestern University ..................................282
Notre Dam e, University of .................... ...................... 283
O hio State U niversity............................ ...................... 284
O klahom a, U university of ....................... ...................... 285
Oklahoma State University .................... ...................286
O region State U niversity........................ ...................... 330
Pennsylvania, University of ............... ...................287
Pennsylvania State University........................................288
Petroleum Institute, The ..................................289
Pittsburgh, U university of ....................... ...................... 290
Polytechnic U university .......................... ...................... 291
Princeton U niversity............................... ...................... 292
Purdue U niversity............................................... .................. 293
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute......................................294
Rhode Island, University of ............... ...................331
R ice U niversity....... ..... ........................................... 295
Rochester, U university of.............................. ................. 296
R ose-H ulm an....... ..... ............................................ 33 1
R ow an U niversity....... ...... ........................................ 297
R utgers U niversity....... ...... ....................................... 298
R yerson U university ...................................... ................... 332
Singapore, National University of.....................................299
South Carolina, University of.........................................300
South Dakota School of Mines........................................332
South Florida, University of................... ...................... 301
Southern California, University of ...................................302
State University of New York .................. ...................303
Stevens Institute of Technology ............... ...................304
Syracuse U niversity..................................... ................... 333
Tennessee, Knoxville; University of .................................305
Tennessee Technological University.................................306
Texas, Austin; University of.................... ...................... 307
Texas A&M University, College Station .............................308
Texas A&M University, Kingsville....................333
Texas Tech University ..................................309
Toledo, U university of....... ..................... ......................3 10
Toronto, U university of ........................... ...................... 334
T ufts U niversity...... ...... .......................................... 3 11
Tulane U university ....... ..... ..........................................3 12
Tulsa, U university of ....... ....................... ......................3 13
Vanderbilt University ............ .....................314
Villanova U university ..... ......... ..................... 334
Virginia, U university of............................ .....................315
Virginia Tech University ..................................316
W ashington, University of...................... ...................... 317
W ashington State University.................. ...................... 318
W ashington U niversity.......................... ......................319
W aterloo, U university of ......................... ...................... 320
W est Virginia U niversity....................... ...................... 321
Western Michigan University........................................335
W isconsin, U university of ....................... ...................... 322
Worchester Polytechnic University...................................323
W yom ing, U university of.............................. ................. 335
Y ale U university ...... ...... ........................................... 324

An Open Letter to ...


Should you go to graduate school?
We invite you to consider graduate school as an opportunity
to further your professional development. Graduate work can
be exciting and intellectually satisfying, and at the same time
can provide you with insurance against the ever-increasing
danger of technical obsolescence in our fast-paced society. An
advanced degree is certainly helpful if you want to include a
research component in your career and a Ph.D. is normally a
prerequisite for an academic position. Although graduate school
includes an in-depth research experience, it is also an integra-
tive period. Graduate research work under the guidance of a
knowledgeable faculty member can be an important factor in
your growth toward confidence, independence, and maturity.
What is taught in graduate school?
A graduate education generally includes a coursework com-
ponent and a research experience. The first term of graduate
school will often focus on the study of advanced-core chemi-
cal engineering science subjects (e.g., transport phenomena,
phase equilibria, reaction engineering). These courses build
on the material learned as an undergraduate, using more
sophisticated mathematics and often including a molecular
perspective. Early in the graduate program, you will select
a research topic and a research adviser and begin to estab-
lish a knowledge base in the research subject through both
coursework and independent study. Graduate education thus
begins with an emphasis on structured learning in courses and
moves on to the creative, exciting, and open-ended process
of research. In addition, graduate school is a time to expand
your intellectual and social horizons through participation in
the activities provided by the campus community.
Perusing the graduate-school advertisements in this special
compilation can be a valuable resource, not only for deter-
mining what is taught in graduate school, but also where it is
taught and by whom it is taught.
What is the nature of graduate research?
Graduate research can open the door to a lifelong inquiry
that may well lead you in a number of directions during your
professional life, whether you pursue it within the confines of an
industrial setting or in the laboratories of a university. Learning
how to do research is of primary importance, and the training
you receive as a graduate student will give you the discipline, the
independence, and (hopefully) the intellectual curiosity that will
stand you in good stead throughout your career. The increasingly
competitive arena of high technology and society's ever-expand-
ing fields of inquiry demand, more than ever, trained and capable
researchers to fuel the engines of discovery.
Where should you go to graduate school?
There are many fine chemical engineering departments,

each with its own "personality" and special strengths. Choos-
ing the one that is "i iglu" for you is a highly personal decision
and one that only you can make. Note, however, that there
are schools that specialize in preparing students for academic
careers just as there are those that prepare students for specific
industries. Or, perhaps there is a specific area of research you
are interested in, and finding a school or a certain professor
with great strength or reputation in that particular area would
be desirable. If you are uncertain as to your eventual field
of research, perhaps you should consider one of the larger
departments that has diversified research activity, giving you
the exposure and experience to make a wise career choice
later in your education.
Many factors may eventually feed into your decision of
where to go to graduate school. Study the ads in this special
printing and write to or view the Web pages of departments
that interest you; ask for pertinent information not only about
areas of study but also about fellowships that may be available,
about the number of students in graduate school, about any
special programs. Ask your undergraduate professors about
their experiences in graduate school, and don't be shy about
asking them to recommend schools to you. They should know
your strengths and weaknesses by this stage in your collegiate
career, and through using that knowledge they should be a
valuable source of information and encouragement for you.
Financial Aid

Don't overlook the fact that most graduate students receive
financial support at a level sufficient to meet normal living
needs. This support is provided through research assistant-
ships, teaching assistantships, or fellowships. If you are
interested in graduate school next fall, you should begin the
application process early this fall since admission decisions
are often made at the beginning of the new calendar year.
This process includes requesting application materials, seek-
ing sources of fellowships, taking national entrance exams
(i.e., the Graduate Record Exam, GRE, is required by many
institutions), and visiting the school.
A resolution by the Council of Graduate Schools -in which
most schools are members-outlines accepted practices for
accepting financial support (such as graduate scholarships,
assistantships, or fellowships). You should be aware that the
agreed upon deadline for accepting offers of financial support
for a fall-term start is April 15. The resolution states that you
are under no obligation to respond to offers of financial sup-
port prior to April 15 (earlier deadlines for acceptance violate
the intent of the resolution). Furthermore, an acceptance given
or left in force after April 15 commits you to reject any other
offer without first obtaining a written release from the institu-
tion to which the commitment has been made.O

222 Chemical Engineering Education

Graduate Education in Chemical and

Teaching and
research assistantships
as well as
industrially sponsored

In addition to
tuition and fees
are waived.

PhD students
may get
some incentive

The deadline for
April 15th.


Multiphase Processes,
Fluid How, Interfacial
Phenomena, Filtration,

Nanocomposite Materials,
Sonochemical Processing,
Polymerization in Nanostruc-
tured Huids, Supercritical
Fluid Processing

Catalysis, Reaction Engi-
neering, Environmentally
Benign Synthesis,
Fuel Cell

Molecular Simulation,
Phase Behavior, Physical
Properties, Process
Modeling, Supercritical

Materials Processing and
CVD Modeling
Plasma Enhanced Deposition
and Crystal Growth

lecular Engineering

L.-K. JU
i i "Bioprocess Engineering,

For Additional Information, Write
Chairman, Graduate Committee
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
The University of Akron * Akron, OH 44325-3906
Phone (330) 972-7250 * Fax (330) 972-5856 * www.chemical.uakron.edu

Department Chair

Biomaterials, Biosensors,
Tissue Engineering

BioMaterial Engineering
and Polymer Engineering

Surface Modification,
Alternative Patterning,
AntiFouling Coatings,
Gradient Surfaces

Nonlinear Control,
Chaotic Processes,
Engineering Education

Computational Biophysics,
Biomolecular Interfaces,

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008




& Biological


A dedicated faculty with state of the art
facilities offer research programs leading to
Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Science

Research Areas:
Biological Applications of Nanomaterials,
Biomaterials, Catalysis and Reactor Design,
Drug Delivery Materials and Systems,
Electronic Materials, Energy and CO2
Sequestration, Fuel Cells, Interfacial Transport,
Magnetic Materials, Membrane Separations
and Reactors, Molecular Simulations,
Nanoscale Modeling, Polymer Processing,

For Information Contact:
Director of Graduate Studies
Department of Chemical and
Biological Engineering
The University of Alabama
Box 870203
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0203
Phone: (205) 348-6450
Email: sritchie@eng.ua.edu
Web: http://che.eng.ua.edu

An equal employment/
educational opportunity in

V. L. Acoff, Ph.D. (UAB)
G. C. April, Ph.D. (Louisiana State)
D. W. Arnold, PhD. (Purdue)
Y. Bao, Ph.D. (Washington)
C. S. Brazel, Ph.D. (Purdue)
E. S. Carlson, Ph.D. (Wyoming)
P. E. Clark, Ph.D. (Oklahoma State)
A. Gupta, Ph.D. (Stanford)
T. M. Klein, Ph.D. (NC State)
A. M. Lane, Ph.D. (Massachusetts)
S. M. Ritchie, Ph.D. (Kentucky)
C. H. Turner, Ph.D. (NC State)
- M. L. Weaver, Ph.D. (Florida)
J. M. Wiest, Ph.D. (Wisconsin)

Chemical Engineering Education


and Materials


Graduate Program

acufty anda Research

R. Michael Banish; Ph.D., University of Utah
Associate Professor
Crystal growth mass and thermal diffusivity
Ram6n L. Cerro; Ph.D., UC Davis
Professor and Chair
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics and
physicochemical hydrodynamics.
Chien P. Chen; Ph.D., Michigan State
Lab-on-chip microfluidics, multiphase transport,
spray combustion, computational fluid dynamics,
and turbulence modeling of chemically reacting
Krishnan K. Chittur; Ph.D., Rice
Biomaterials, bioprocess monitoring, gene
expression bioinformatics, and FTIR/ATR.
James E. Smith Jr; Ph.D., South Carolina
Ceramic and metallic composites, catalysis and
reaction engineering, fiber optic chemical sensing,
combustion diagnostic of hypergolic fuels, and
hydrogen storage.
Katherine Taconi; Ph.D., Mississippi State
Assistant Professor
Biological production of alternative energy from
renewable resources.
Jeffrey J. Weimer; Ph.D., MIT
Associate Professor
Adhesions, biomaterials surface properties, thin film
growth, and surface spectroscopies.
David B. Williams; Sc.D., Cambridge
Professor and University President
Analytical, transmission and scanning electron
microscopy, applications to interfacial segregation and
bonding changes, texture and phase diagram
determination in metals and alloys.

http://www. che.uah. edu

The Department of Chemical and Materials
Engineering offers coursework and research leading
to the Master of Science in Engineering degree. The
Doctor of Philosophy degree is available through
the Materials Science Ph.D.
program, the
Biotechnology Science and
Engineering Program, or
the option in Chemical
Engineering of the
Mechanical Engineering
Ph.D. program.
S The range of research
interests in the chemical
engineering faculty is broad.
It affords graduate students
opportunities for advanced
work in processes, reaction
engineering, electrochemical
systems, material processing
and biotechnology.
The proximity of the UAH
S campus to the 200+ high
technology and aerospace
industries of Huntsville and
NASA's Marshall Space
Flight Center provide exciting opportunities for
our students.

The University of Alabama in Huntsville
An Affimnnative Action Equal Opportunity Institution
Office of Chemical and Materials Engineering
130 Engineering Building
Huntsville, Alabama 35899
Ph: 256-824-6810 Fax: 256-824-6839

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008



Our Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
offers students the opportunity to study and conduct leading
research with world-class academics in the top program
in Canada, and one of the very best in North America. Our
graduate student population is culturally diverse, academically
strong, innovative, creative, and is drawn to our challenging
and supportive environment from all areas of the world.
- Degrees are offered at the MSc and PhD levels in chemical
engineering, materials engineering, and process control.
- All full-time graduate students in research programs
receive a stipend to cover living expenses and tuition.

Our graduates are sought-after professionals who will be
international leaders of tomorrow's chemical and materials
engineering advances. Research topics include:
biomaterials, biotechnology, coal combustion, colloids and
interfacial phenomenon, computational chemistry, compu-
tational fluid dynamics, computer process control, corrosion
and wear engineering, drug delivery, electrochemistry, fluid-
particle dynamics, fuel cell modeling and control, heavy
oil processing and upgrading, heterogeneous catalysis,
hydrogen storage materials, materials processing, micro-
alloy steels, micromechanics, mineral processing, molecular
sieves, multiphase mixing, nanostructured biomaterials,
oil sands, petroleum thermodynamics, pollution control,
polymers, powder metallurgy, process and performance
monitoring, rheology, surface science, system identification,
thermodynamics, and transport phenomena.

D- The Faculty of Engineering has added more than one
million square feet of outstanding teaching, research, and
personnel space in the past six years. We offer outstanding
and unique experimental and computational facilities,
including access to one of the most technologically advanced
nanotechnology facilities in the world - the National Institute
for Nanotechnology, connected by pedway to the Chemical
and Materials Engineering Building.
D- Annual research funding for our Department is over
$14 million. Externally sponsored funding to support
engineering research in the entire Faculty of Engineering has
increased to over $50 million each year-the largest amount
of any Faculty of Engineering in Canada.

For further information, contact:
Graduate Program Office
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6
Phone: 780-492-1823 Fax: 780-492-2881
www.engineering.ualberta. ca/ cme

A. Ben-Zvi, PhD (Queen's University)
S. Bradford, PhD (Iowa State University) Emeritus
R.E. Burrell, PhD (University of Waterloo)
K. Cadien, PhD (University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana)
W. Chen, PhD (University of Manitoba)
P. Choi, PhD (University of Waterloo)
K.T. Chuang, PhD (University of Alberta) Emeritus
I. Dalla Lana, PhD (University of Minnesota) Emeritus
J. Derksen, PhD (Eindhoven University of Technology)
R.L. Eadie, PhD (University of Toronto)
J.A.W. Elliott, PhD (University of Toronto)
T.H. Etsell, PhD (University of Toronto)
G. Fisher, PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus
J.E Forbes, PhD (McMaster University) Chair
A. Gerlich, PhD (University of Toronto)
M.R. Gray, PhD (California Institute of Technology)
R. Gupta, PhD (University of Newcastle)
R.E. Hayes, PhD (University of Bath)
H. Henein, PhD (University of British Columbia)
B. Huang, PhD (University of Alberta)
D.G. Ivey, PhD (University of Windsor)
S.M Kresta, PhD (McMaster University)
S.M. Kuznicki, PhD (University of Utah)
J.M. Lee, PhD (Georgia Institute of Technology)
D. Li, PhD (McGill University)
Q. Liu, PhD (University of British Columbia)
J. Luo, PhD (McMaster University)
D.T. Lynch, PhD (University of Alberta) Dean of Engineering
J.H. Masliyah, PhD (University of British Columbia)
A.E. Mather, PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus
W.C. McCaffrey, PhD (McGill University)
D. Mitlin, PhD (University of California, Berkeley)
K. Nandakumar, PhD (Princeton University) Emeritus
J. Nychka, PhD (University of California, Santa Barbara)
E Otto, PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus
B. Patchett, PhD (University of Birmingham) Emeritus
J. Ryan, PhD (University of Missouri) Emeritus
S. Sanders, PhD (University of Alberta)
S.L. Shah, PhD (University of Alberta)
J.M. Shaw, PhD (University of British Columbia)
U. Sundararaj, PhD (University of Minnesota)
H. Uludag, PhD (University of Toronto)
L. Unsworth, PhD (McMaster University)
S.E. Wanke, PhD (University of California, Davis)
M. Wayman, PhD (University of Cambridge) Emeritus
M.C. Williams, PhD (University of Wisconsin) Emeritus
R. Wood, PhD (Northwestern University) Emeritus
Z. Xu, PhD (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
T. Yeung, PhD (University of British Columbia)
H. Zhang, PhD (Princeton University)
Chemical Engineering Education

ROBERT G. ARNOLD, Professor (CalTech)
Microbiological Hazardous Waste Treatment, Metals Speciation and Toxicity
JAMES C. BAYGENTS, Associate Professor (Princeton)
Fluid Mechanics, Transport and Colloidal Phenomena, Bioseparations
ERIC A. BETTERTON, Professor, (University of Witwatersrand)
Atmospheric and Environmental ( h ..-. ,,
PAUL BLOWERS, Associate Professor (Illinois, Urbana-Champaign)
Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis, Environmental Foresight, Green Design

WENDELL ELA, Associate Professor (Stanford)
Particle-Particle Interactions, Environmental ( / ..
JAMES FARRELL, Professor (Stanford)
Sorption/desorption of Organics in Soils
JAMES A. FIELD, Professor (Wageningen University)
Bioremediation, Microbiology, White Rot Fungi, Hazardous Waste
ROBERTO GUZMAN, Professor (North Carolina State)
Affinity Protein Separations, Polymeric Surface Science
ANTHONY MUSCAT, Associate Professor (Stanford)
Kinetics, Surface ( i ...... 1,. Surface Engineering, Semiconductor
Processing, Microcontamination
KIMBERLY OGDEN, Professor (Colorado)
Bioreactors, Bioremediation, Organics Removal from Soils
THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor and Dean (CalTech)
Aerosols, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Microcontamination
ARA PHILIPOSSIAN, Professor (Tufts)
Chemical/Mechanical Polishing, Semiconductor Processing
SRINI RAGHAVAN, Professor, (UC Berkley)
Microelectromechanical Systems and ( ...... i.., ....
MARK RILEY, Professor, (Rutgers University)
Application of Engineering Principals to Biological Systems
EDUARDO SAEZ, Professor (UC, Davis)
Polymer Flows, Multiphase Reactors, Colloids
GLENN L. SCHRADER, Professor & Head (Wisconsin)
Catalysis, Environmental Sustainability, Thin Films, Kinetics
FARHANG SHADMAN, Regents' Professor (Berkeley)
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactive Membranes,

REYES SIERRA, Associate Professor (Wageningen L 1.......1
Environmental Biotechnology, Biotransformation of Metal -.....

ARMIN SOROOSHIAN, Assistant Professor (8/09) c ..I i.... I
Aerosol Composition and Hygroscopicity, Climate ( l .

For further information
or write
Chairman, Graduate Study Committee
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineel in-
P.O. BOX 210011
The University ofArizona
Tucson,AZ 85721

Chemical and Environmental






The Department of Chemical and
Environmental Engineering at the
,ik 4 University of Arizona offers a wide
range of research opportunities in all
major areas of chemical engineering
and environmental engineering. Our
sf. department offers a comprehensive
, &a approach to sustainability which is
grounded on the principles of conser-
vation and responsible management of water, energy, and material
resources. Research initiatives in solar and other renewable energy,
desalinization, climate modeling, and sustainable nanotechnology are
providing innovative solutions to the challenges of environmental
sustainability. A significant portion of research effort is devoted to
areas at the boundary between chemical and environmental engineer-
ing, including environmentally benign semiconductor manufacturing,
environmental remediation, environmental biotechnology, and novel
water treatment technologies.The department offers a fully accredited
undergraduate degree in chemical engineering, as well as MS and PhD
degrees in both chemical and environmental engineering.
Financial support is available through fellowships, government
and industrial grants and contracts, teaching and
research assistantships.

Tucson has an excellent climate and many
recreational opportunities. It is a growing modern city that
retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere.

The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity educational institution/equal opportunity employer
Women and minorities are encouraged to apply

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

ff Ira A. Fulton
School of Engineering


Department of Chemical Engineering
Learn and discover in a multi-disciplinary research environment with opportunities in advanced materials, atmospheric
chemistry, biotechnology, electrochemistry and sensors, electronic materials processing, engineering education, process control,
separation and purification technology, thin films and flexible displays.

Program Faculty
Jean M. Andino, Ph.D., P.E., Caltech.
Atmospheric chemistry, gas-phase kinetics and mechanisms,
heterogeneous chemistry, air pollution control
James R. Beckman, Emeritus, Ph.D., Arizona.
Unit operations, applied mathematics, energy-efficient water
purification, fractionation, CMP reclamation
Veronica A. Burrows, Ph.D., Princeton.
Engineering education, surface science, semiconductor
processing, interfacial chemical and physical processes for
Lenore Dai, Ph.D., Illinois
Surface, interfacial, and colloidal science, nanorheology and
microrheology, materials at the nanoscale, synthesis of novel
polymer composites, thermal and mechanical analyses of soft
Jeffrey Heys, Ph.D., Colorado, Boulder.
Modeling of biofluid-tisue interaction, tissue and biofilm
mechanics, parallel multigrid solvers
Jerry Y.S. Lin, Ph.D., Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
Advanced materials (inorganic membranes, adsorbents and
catalysts) for applications in novel chemical separation and
reaction processes
Robert Pfeffer, Ph.D., New York University.
Dry particle coating and supercritical fluid processing to produce
engineered particulates with tailored properties; fluidization,
mixing, coating and processing of ultra-fine and nano-structured
particulates; filtration of sub-micron particulates; agglomeration,
sintering and granulation of fine particles
Gregory B. Raupp, Ph.D., Wisconsin.
Gas-solid surface reactions, interactions between surface
reactions and transport processes, semiconductor materials
processing, thermal and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor
deposition (CVD), flexible displays
Kaushal Rege, Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Molecular and cellular engineering, engineered cancer
therapeutics and diagnostics, cellular interactions in cancer
For additional details see
http://che.fulton.asu.edu/ or contact Brian
Goehner at 480-965-5558 or
bhoehner( iasu.edu

Daniel E. Rivera, Ph.D., Caltech.
Control systems engineering, dynamic modeling via system
identification, robust control, computer-aided control system
design, supply chain management
Michael R. Sierks, Ph.D., Iowa State.
Protein engineering, biomedical engineering, enzyme kinetics,
antibody engineering
Bryan Vogt, Ph.D., Massachusetts
Nanostructured materials, organic electronics, supercritical fluids for
materials processing, moisture barrier technologies
Joe Wang, Ph.D., Technion.
Biosensors, nanobiotechnology, electrochemistry, biochips

Affiliate/Research Faculty
John Crittenden, Ph.D., N.A.E., P.E., Michigan.
Sustainability, catalysis, pollution prevention, physical chemical
treatment processes modeling of fixed-bed reactors and adsorbers,
surface chemistry and thermodynamics, modeling of wastewater and
water treatment processes
Paul Johnson, Ph.D., Princeton.
Chemical migration and fate in the environment as applied to
environmental risk assessment and the development, monitoring and
optimization of technologies for aquifer restoration and water
resources management
Bruce E. Rittmann, Ph.D., N.A.E., P.E., Stanford.
Environmental biotechnology, microbial ecology, environmental
chemistry, environmental engineering
Jonathan D. Posner, Ph.D., University of California-Irvine
Micro/nanofluidics, fuel cells, precision biology

Chemical Engineering Education

Graduate Program in the Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering

University of Arkansas

as- * c The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas
S- offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees.
S i Qualified applicants are eligible for financial aid. Annual departmental
_- ' , Ph.D. stipends provide $20,000, Doctoral Academy Fellowships provide
! - - up to $25,000, and Distinguished Doctoral Fellowships provide $30,000.
For stipend and fellowship recipients, all tuition is waived. Applications
"a 0rs zoo received before April 1 will be given first consideration.

Areas of Research

El Biochemical engineering
El Biological and food systems
[E Biomaterials
[E Electronic materials processing
[E Fate of pollutants in the environment
[E Hazardous chemical release consequence analysis
[E Integrated passive electronic components

El Membrane separations
El Micro channel electrophoresis
[E Supercritical fluid t. hliii lo 1'.y
El Phase equilibria and process design


M.D. Ackerson
R.E. Babcock
R.R. Beitle
E.C. Clausen
J.A. Havens
C.N. Hestekin
J.A. Hestekin
J.W. King
W.R. Penney
D.K. Roper
T.O. Spicer
G.J. Thoma
R.K. Ulrich

For more information contact
Dr. Richard Ulrich or 479-575-5645
Chemical Engineering Graduate Program Information: http://www.cheg.uark.edu/graduate.asp

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008




m Alternative Energy and Fuels
SBiochemical Engineering
m Biomedical Engineering
SBioprocessing and Bioenergy
SCatalysis and Reaction Engineering
m Computer-Aided Engineering
SDrug Delivery
SEnergy Conversion and Storage
m Environmental Biotechnology
SFuel Cells
m Green Chemistry
m Materials
m Microfibrous Materials
m Nanotechnology
m Process Control
m Pulp and Paper
SSupercritical Fluids
m Surface and Interfacial Science
m Sustainable Engineering

Director of Graduate Recruiting
Department of Chemical Engineering
Auburn, AL 36849-5127
Phone 334.844.4827
Fax 334.844.2063
Financial assistance is available to qualified applicants.

230 Chemical Engineering Education

Vancouveris thelargestcityin Western Canada, ranked The University of British Columbia is the largest public university in Western Canada
the 3rdmost hlvable placein the world* Vancouver's and is ranked among the top 40 institutes in the world by Newsweek magazine, the
natural surroundings offer limitless opportunities for Times Higher Education Supplement and Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
outdoor uy rsuit ty hrou nhout tfhe e/ar- hikiyn cnoenn~n

mountain biking, skiing In 2010, the city will host the
Olympic and paraolympic WInter Games

Chercal and BiologcalEngneerg Buling, officallyopened n2006


Susan A Baldwin (Toronto)
Chad PJ Bennington (British Columbia)
Xiaotao T Bi (British Columbia)
Bruce D Bowen (British Columbia)
Richard Branion (Saskatchewan)
Louise Creagh (California, Berkeley)
Sheldon J B Duff (McGill)
Naoko Ellis (British Columbia)
Peter Englezos (Calgary)
Norman Epstein ( New York)
James Feng (Minnesota)
Bhushan Gopaluni (Alberta)
John R Grace (Cambridge)
Elod Gyenge (British Columbia)
Savvas Hatzikiriakos (McGill)
Charles Haynes (California, Berkeley)
Dhanesh Kannangara (Ottawa)
Richard Kerekes (McGill)
Ezra Kwok (Alberta)
Anthony Lau (British Columbia)
Eric Legally (California, Santa Barbara)
C Jim Lim (British Columbia)
Mark D Martinez (British Columbia)
Madjid Mohseni (Toronto)
Colin Oloman (British Columbia)
Royann Petrell (Florida)
Kenneth Pinder (Birmingham)
James M Piret (MIT)
Dusko Posarac (Novi Sad)
Kevin J Smith (McMaster)
FariborzTaghipour (Toronto)
A Paul Watkinson (British Columbia)
David Wilkinson (Ottawa)

Faculty of Applied Science


www. chml.ubc.ca/prog r/g rad


Currently about 120 students are enrolled in graduate studies. The
program dates back to the 1920s. Nowadays the department has a
strong emphasis on interdisciplinary and joint programs, in particular
with the Michael Smith Laboratories, Pulp and Paper Research Institute
of Canada (PAPRICAN), Clean Energy Research Centre (CERC) and
the BRIDGE program which links public health, engineering and policy

Main Areas of Research

Biological Enaineerina
Biochemical Engineering *
Biomedical Engineering *
Protein Engineering * Blood
research * Stem Cells
Biomass and Biofuels * Bio-oil
and Bio-diesel * Combustion,
Gasification and Pyrolysis *
Electrochemical Engineering *
Fuel Cells * Hydrogen
Production * Natural Gas
Process Control
Pulp and Paper
Reaction Enaineerina

Environmental and Green
Emissions Control * Green
Process Engineering * Life
Cycle Analysis * Wastewater
Treatment * Waste
Management *Aquacultural
Particle Technology
Fluidization * Multiphase Flow *
Fluid-Particle Systems *
Particle Processing *
Kinetics and Catalysis
Polymer Rheoloav

Financial Aid

Students admitted to the
graduate programs leading to
the MA Sc, M Sc or Ph D
degrees receive at least a
minimum level of financial
support regardless of
citizenship (approximately
$16,500/year) Teaching
assistantships are available (up
to approximately $1,000 per
year) All student are eligible for
several merit based entrance
scholarships of $5,000/year and
University Graduate
Scholarships of approximately

Mailing address 2360 East Mall, Vancouver B C, Canada V6T 1Z3 * gradsec@chml ubc ca * tel +1 (604) 822-3457


*2006 survey, the Economist magazine

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
Electrochemical Engineering
Polymers and Complex Fluids
Microsystems Technology and Microelectronics
Molecular Simulations and Theory
Interfacial Engineering
Product Development Masters Program 9
Biochemical and Bioprocess Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Synthetic Biology



study Chemical


at the University of California, Berkeley I

The Chemical Engineering Department at
the University of California, Berkeley, one
of the preeminent departments in the
field, offers graduate programs leading to
the Doctor of Philosophy or a Master of
Science in Product Development.

For more information visit our website at:
htp / - heme - kele .e

Chemical Engineering Education



0 Biomolecular and Cellular J. P. Chang
Engineering (William E Seyer Chair in
Materials Electrochemistry)
C Process Systems Engi- P. D. Christofides
neering (Simulation, 4
Design, Optimization, -.Y. Cohen
Dynamics, and Control) , J. Davis
,r n (Assoc. Vice Chancellor
i Semiconductor Information Technology)
Manufacturing and C S R c.
Electronic Materials R.F. Hicks
E cMe s "L. Ignarro
. (Nobel Laureate)

w Nanoengineering ad V.I. Manousiouthakis
Nanoengineering H.G. Monbouquette
(Dept. Chair)
PROGRAMS G. Orkoulas
UCLA's Chemical and T. Segura
Biomolecular Engineering S.M. Senkan
Department offers a . an
program of teaching and
research linking
fundamental engineering science and industrial practice. Our Department has strong graduate research programs
in Biomolecular Engineering, Energy and Environment, Semiconductor Manufacturing, Engineering of Materials,
and Process and Control Systems Engineering.
Fellowships are available for outstanding applicants interested in Ph.D. degree programs. A fellowship includes
a waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend.
Located five miles from the Pacific Coast, UCLA's attractive 417-acre campus extends from Bel Air to West-
wood Village. Students have access to the highly regarded engineering and science programs and to a variety of
experiences in theatre, music, art, and sports on campus.

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 233

Bourns College
of Engineering

Chemical Engineering Education


chemical engineering

Award-winning faculty

Bradley F Chmelka
Patrick S. Daugherty
Michael F Doherty
Francis J. Doyle III
Glenn H. Fredrickson, NAE
Michael J. Gordon
Jacob Israelachvili, NAE, NAS, FRS
Edward J. Kramer, NAE
L. Gary Leal, NAE
Glenn E. Lucas
Eric McFarland
Samir Mitragotri
Baron G. Peters
Susannah L. Scott
Dale E. Seborg
M. Scott Shell
Todd M. Squires
Theofanis G. Theofanous, NAE
Matthew V. Tirrell, NAE
Joseph A. Zasadzinski

Song-1 Han
George M. (Bud) Homsy, NAE

SBA-16 (cubic mesoporous silica)

Interdisciplinary research

California Nanosystems Institute
Center for Control Engineering
and Computation
Center for Polymers and Organic Solids
Center for Risk Studies and Safety
Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies
Institute for Energy Efficiency
Institute for Quantum Engineering,
Science & Technology
International Center for Materials Research
Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics
Materials Research Laboratory

Interdisciplinary research and entrepreneurship are hallmarks of Engineering
at UCSanta Barbara. Many graduate students choose to be co-advised.

The UCSB campus, located on the Pacific Coast about 100 miles
northwest of Los Angeles, has more than 20,000 students.

Doctoral students in good academic standing receive financial support via teaching and research
assistantships. For additional information and to complete a pre-application form, visit
www.chemengr.ucsb.edu or contact chegrads@engineering.ucsb.edu

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

Is ,. ..




"At the Leading Edge"

The Warren and Katharine Schlinger Laboratory
for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering is scheduled to
open Fall, 2oo9.


, ,

Contact information:
Director of Graduate Studies
Chemical Engineering 210-41
California Institute
of Technology
Pasadena, CA 91125


Frances H. Arnold Protein Engineering &
Directed Evolution, Biocatalysis,
Synthetic Biology, Biofuels

Anand R. Asthagiri Cellular & Tissue
Engineering, Systems Biology, Cancer &
Developmental Biology

John F. Brady Complex Fluids,
Brownian Motion, Suspensions

Mark E. Davis Biomedical Engineering,
Catalysis, Advanced Materials

Richard C. Flagan Aerosol Science,
Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics,
Bioaerosols, Nanotechnology, Nucleation

George R. Gavalas (emeritus)

Konstantinos P. Giapis Plasma Processing,
Ion-Surface Interactions, Nanotechnology

Sossina M. Haile Advanced Materials,
Fuel Cells, Energy, Electrochemistry,
Catalysis & Electrocatalysis

Julia A. Kornfield Polymer Dynamics,
Crystallization of Polymers, Physical Aspects
of the Design of Biomedical Polymers

John H. Seinfeld Atmospheric Chemistry &
Physics, Global Climate

David A. Tirrell Macromolecular Chemistry,
Biomaterials, Protein Engineering

Nicholas W. Tschoegl (emeritus)

Zhen-Gang Wang Statistical Mechanics,
Polymer Science, Biophysics

Chemical Engineering Education


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Think you have the proper head gear?
Join our world-class crew and together we'll lay the foundation
for an exciting career in research.

( ari w , Melloi niv. . rr.ity

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1 . I.... 4,1.. .I 1. 11 \l , % 1 i. ..1.....
Contact Information
chemc-admissions+@andrewm Iu.edu

Research TiiiusL Ateas
* Complex Fluids Engineering
*r - i ,ir .

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


{;1( MI; 1N llilk

You will find Case to be an exciting environment to carry
out your graduate studies. Case has a long history of
scientific leadership. Our department alumni include many
prominent chemical engineers, such as Herbert Dow, the
founder of the Dow Chemical Company. We are located in
beautiful University Circle, the cultural and medical hub of
Cleveland, a "full service" city that is one of the most
affordable major cities in the country.
-The Chemical Engineering Faculty

Interdisciplinary Research
Energy Systems
Fuel Cells and Batteries
Micro and Bio Fuel Cells
Electrochemical Engineering
Membrane Transport, Fabrication

Biological Engineering
Biomedical Sensors and Actuators
Neural Prosthetic Devices
Cell & Tissue Engineering
Transport in Biological Systems

Advanced Materials and Devices
Diamond and Nitride Synthesis
Coatings, Thin Films and Surfaces
Unique Materials for Sensors
Fine Particle Science and Processing
Polymer Nanocomposites
Electrochemical Microfabrication
Molecular Simulations
Microplasmas and Microreactors

Faculty Members
John C. Angus
Harihara Baskaran
Robert V. Edwards
Donald L. Feke
Daniel J. Lacks
Uziel Landau
Chung-Chiun Liu
J. Adin Mann
Heidi B. Martin
Syed Qutubuddin
R. Mohan Sankaran
Robert F. Savinell
Thomas Zawodzinski

For more information on Graduate Research, Admission, and Financial Aid, contact:


Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
10900 Euclid Avenue
Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7217

E-mail: chemeng@case.edu
Web: http://www.case.edu/cse/eche

Chemical Engineering Education

Case Westem Reserve University

Advanced Study in Interdisciplinary Cutting-Edge Research

Opportunities for Graduate Study in CIL un, di Engineering at the

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in

Chemical Engineering

,- Faculty = . . .

A.P. Angelopoulos

Carlos Co

Junhang Dong

Joel Fried

Rakesh Govind

Vadim Guliants

Chia-chi Ho

Yuen-Koh Kao

Soon-Jai Khang

Paul Phillips

Neville Pinto

Vesselin Shanov

Peter Smirniotis

Financial Aid

The University of Cincinnati is
committed to a policy of
non-discrimination in
awarding financial aid.

For Admission Information
Director, Graduate Studies
Department Chemical and
Materials Engineering
PO Box 210012
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0012

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

Research Cen-
ter that houses
most chemical

E Emerging Energy Systems
Catalytic conversion of fossil and renewable resources into alternative fuels, such as hydrogen, alcohols and liquid
alkanes; solar energy conversion; inorganic membranes for hydrogen separation; fuel cells, hydrogen storage
D Environmental Research
Mercury and carbon dioxide capture from power plant waste streams, air separation for oxycombustion; wastewa-
ter treatment, removal of volatile organic vapors
D Molecular Engineering
Application of quantum chemistry and molecular simulation tools to problems in heterogeneous catalysis,
(bio)molecular separations and transport of biological and drug molecules
D Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering
Selective catalytic oxidation, environmental catalysis, zeolite catalysis, novel chemical reactors, modeling and
design of chemical reactors, polymerization processes in interfaces, membrane reactors
D Membrane and Separation Technologies
Membrane synthesis and characterization, membrane gas separation, membrane filtration processes, pervapora-
tion; biomedical, food and environmental applications of membranes; high-temperature membrane technology,
natural gas processing by membranes; adsorption, chromatography, separation system synthesis, chemical reac-
tion-based separation processes
D Biotechnology
Nano/microbiotechnology, novel bioseparation techniques, , , separation, biodegradation of toxic wastes,
controlled drug delivery, two-phase flow
D Polymers
Thermodynamics, polymer blends and composites, high-temperature polymers, hydrogels, polymer rheology,
computational polymer science, molecular engineering and synthesis of surfactants, surfactants and interfacial
D Bio-Applications of Membrane Science and Technology
This IGERT program provides a unique educational opportunity for U.S. Ph.D. students in areas of engineering,
science, medicine, or pharmacy with above focus. This program is supported by a five-year renewable grant from
the National Science Foundation. The IGERT fellowship consists of an annual stipend of $30,000 for up to three
D Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology (INST)
INST brings together three centers of excellence-the Center for Nanoscale Materials Science, the Center for
BioMEMS and Nanobiosystems, and the Center for Nanophotonics-composed of faculty from the Colleges of En-
gineering, Arts and Sciences, and Medicine. The goals of the institute are to develop a world-class infrastructure
of enabling technologies, to support advanced collaborative research on nanoscale phenomena.


Engineering at

The City College of

New York - CUNY

(The City University of New York)

A 155-year-old urban University, the oldest public
University in America, on a 35-acre Gothic and modern
campus in the greatest city in the world

Alexander Couzis: Polymorph
selective templated crystallization;
Molecularly thin organic barrier layers;
Surfactant facilitated wetting of hydro-
phobic surfaces; soft materials

�Morton Denn_<: Polymer science
and rheology; non-Newtonian fluid

Lane Gilchrist: Bioengineering with
cellular materials; Spectroscopy-guided
molecular engineering; Structural
studies of self-assembling proteins;

Ilona Kretzschmar: Materials science;
Nanotechnology; Electronic materials

Leslie Isaacs: Preparation and charac-
terization of novel materials; Applica-
tion of thermo-analytic techniques in
materials research

+Jae Lee: Theory of reactive distilla-
tion; Process design and control; Sepa-
rations; Bioprocessing; Gas hydrates

�Charles Maldarelli: Interfacial
fluid mechanics and stability; Surface
tension driven flows and microfluidic
applica- tions; Surfactant adsorption,
phase be- havior and nanostructuring at

�Jeff Morris: Fluid mechanics; Fluid-
particle systems

+Irven Rinard: Process design meth-
odology; Process and energy systems
engineering; Bioprocessing

David Rumschitzki: Transport and
reaction aspects of arterial disease;
Interfacial fluid mechanics and stabil-
ity; Catalyst deactivation and reaction


Carol Steiner: Polymer solutions and
hydrogels; Soft biomaterials, Controlled
release technology

Raymond Tu: Biomolecular engineering;
Peptide design; DNA condensation; micro-

Gabriel Tardos: Powder technology;
Granulation; Fluid particle systems, Elec-
trostatic effects; Air pollution

Sheldon Weinbaumo: Fluid mechanics,
Biotransport in living tissue; Modeling of
cellular mechanism of bone growth; bioheat
transfer; kidney function

�Joel Koplik: (Physics) Fluid mechanics; Molecu-
lar modeling; Transport in random media
�Hernan Makse: (Physics) Granular mechanics
'Mark Shattuck: (Physics) Experimental
granular rheology; Computational granular fluid
dynamics; Experimental spatio-temporal control
of patterns

'Andreas Acrivos*-<
Robert Graff
Robert Peffer
+Reuel Shinnar-
Herbert Weinstein

o Levich Institute
+Clean Fuels Institute
* National Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Engineering

Department of Chemical Engineering
City College of New York
Convent Avenue at 140th Street
New York, NY 10031

Chemical Engineering Education

lU KristiAnseth-biomaterials, photopoly-meriza-
tion, tissue engineering, and drug delivery
I[ Christopher Bowman -biomaterials, photopoly-
merization, reaction kinetics, polymer chemistry
I[ Stephanie Bryant-functional tissue engineer-
ing, mechanical conditioning, mechano-transduc-
tion, photopolymerization
I[ David Clough-process control
I[ Robert Davis -fluid mechanics of suspensions,
sedimentation, coagulation, filtration, particle
collisions in fluids, microbial suspensions, bio-
technology, membrane fouling
I[ John Falconer-heterogeneous catalysis, en-
vironmental catalysis, photocatalysis, zeolite
I[ Steven George-surface chemistry and thin
films, materials processing and environmental
I[ Ryan Gill-evolutionary and inverse metabolic
engineering, genomics
I[ Douglas Gin-polymer science, liquid crystal
engineering, and nanomaterials chemistry
I[ Christine Hrenya-gas-particle fluidization,
granular flow mechanics, turbulent flows, com-
putational fluid mechanics
I[ Arthi Jayaraman-nanomaterials, biophysics,
molecular simulations and theory, statistical
I[ Dhinakar Kompala- recombinant mammalian
and microbial cell cultures, high cell density
bioreactors design, bioprocess engineering
I[ Melissa Mahoney-neural tissue engineer-
ing, pancreatic regeneration, drug delivery,
[ Will Medlin -surface chemistry, heterogeneous
catalysis, solid-state chemical sensors, computa-
tional chemistry
I[ Charles Musgrave-theoretical studies of sur-
faces and reactions
I[ Richard Noble-reversible chemical complex-
ation for separations, mass transfer, mathematical
modeling, membranes, thin films
I[ Theodore Randolph-thermodynamics of pro-
tein solutions, lyophilization, supercritical fluid
reaction engineering
I[ Robert Sani- fluid dynamics
I[ Aaron Saunders- colloidal nanocrystals, materi-
als science
I[ Daniel Schwartz- interfacial phenomena, bioma-
terials, complex fluids, and nanoscale materials
I[ Jeffrey Stansbury-dental and biomedical poly-
meric materials, photopolymerization processes,
network polymers, hydrogels
I[ Mark Stoykovich-block copolymer self-as-
sembly and thin films
I[ David Walba- organic stereochemistry, photonic
materials and ferroelectric liquid crystals
I[ Alan Weimer-reactor engineering, advanced
ceramic materials, fluidization, environmental
resource recovery
Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


University of Colorado at Boulder

The Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at the University of Colorado
at Boulder offers an outstanding graduate program that emphasizes the doctoral degree.
Our excellent national and international students take advantage of a high level of faculty-
student interaction and benefit from access to four interdisciplinary research centers: the
Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, the Center for Fundamentals and Application
of Photopolymerization, the Center for Membrane Applied Science and Technology, and
the newly-formed Colorado Center for Biorefining and Biofuels (C2B2).
The Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering is one of the top research
departments in the United States, based on publications and citations per faculty, and
maintains sophisticated facilities to support research endeavors. The faculty have won
numerous awards for research accomplishments and for teaching.
Some areas of research emphasis in the department include biomaterials, biopharma-
ceuticals, catalysis and surface science, complex fluids and microfluidic devices, energy
and environmental applications, functional materials designed at the micro- and nanoscale,
membranes and separations, metabolic engineering and directed evolution, nanostructured
films and devices, polymer chemistry and polymer engineering, reaction engineering, re-
newable energy, sensors,
and tissue engineering.
We invite prospec- For information and online application:
tive graduate students Graduate Admissions Committee * Department of Chemical
& Biological Engineering * University of Colorado at Boulder,
to learn more about 424 UCB * Boulder, CO 80309-0424
our department and Phone (303) 492-7471 * Fax (303) 492-4341
ongoing research at chbegrad@colorado.edu
www.colorado.edu/che. http://www.colorado.edu/che/

... school of mining founded in
1873, CSM is a unique, highly-

a R u scholarship and research in
materials, energy, and the envi-

sources include federal agencies such as the NSF, DOE, DARPA, ONR,
NREL, NIST, NIH as well as multiple industries. Research areas within the
department include:

Material Science and Engineering
Organic and inorganic membranes (Way)
Polymeric materials (Dorgan, Wu, Liberatore)
Colloids and complex fluids (Marr, Wu, Liberatore)
Electronic materials (Wolden, Agarwal)

Theoretical and Applied Thermodynamics
Molecular simulation and modeling (Ely, Wu, Sum)
Natural gas hydrates (Sloan, Koh, Sum)

Biomedical and Biophysics Research
Microfluidics (Marr, Neeves), .D ,

Water mist flame suppression (McKinnon)
Fuel Cell Research
Low temperature fuel cell catalysts (Herring)
High temperature fuel cell kinetics (Dean)
H2 separation and fuel cell membranes (Way, Herring)
Reaction mechanisms (McKinnon, Dean, Herring)

Finally, located at the foot of the Rocky
Mountains and only 15 miles from downtown
Denver, Golden enjoys over 300 days of
sunshine per year. These factors combine to
provide year-round cultural, recreational, and
entertainment opportunities virtually
unmatched anywhere in the United States.

* S. Agarwal (UCSB, 2003)

* A.M. Dean (Harvard, 1971)

* J.R. Dorgan (Berkeley, 1991)

SJ.F. Ely (Indiana, 1971)

* A. Herring (Leeds, 1989)

* C.A. Koh (Brunel, 1990)

* M. Liberatore (Illinois, 2003)

* D.W.M. Marr (Stanford, 1993)

* J.T. McKinnon (MIT, 1989)

* R.L. Miller (CSM, 1982)

* K.R. Neeves (Cornell, 2006)

* E.D. Sloan (Clemson, 1974)

* A.K. Sum (Delaware, 2001)

* J.D. Way (Colorado, 1986)

* C.A. Wolden (MIT, 1995)

* D.T. Wu (Berkeley, 1991)


Chemical Engineering Education

I %

Research Areas
Bioanalytical Chemistry
Biofuels and Biorefining
Cell and Tissue Engineering
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Membrane Science
Polymer Science
Synthetic and Systems Biology

Travis S. Bailey, Ph.D., U. Minnesota
Laurence A. Belfiore, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin
David S. Dandy, Ph.D., Caltech
J.D. (Nick) Fisk, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin
Matt J. Kipper, Ph.D., Iowa State U.
James C. Linden, Ph.D., Iowa State U.
Christie Peebles, Ph.D., Rice U.
Ashok Prasad, Ph.D., Brandeis U.
Kenneth F. Reardon, Ph.D., Caltech
Brad Reisfeld, Ph.D., Northwestern U.
Qiang (David) Wang, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin
A. Ted Watson, Ph.D., Caltech
Ranil Wickramasinghe, Ph.D.,
U. Minnesota

View faculty and student research
videos, find application information,
and get other information at

The graduate program in the Department of Chemical and Biological
Engineering at Colorado State University offers students a broad range of
cutting-edge research areas led by faculty who are world renowned experts
in their respective fields. Opportunities for collaboration with many other
department across the University are abundant, including departments in
the Colleges of Engineering, Natural Sciences, and Veterinary Medicine and
Biomedical Sciences.

Financial Support
Research Assistantships pay a competitive stipend. Students on
assistantships also receive tuition support. The department has a number
of research assistantships. Students select research projects in their area of
interest from which a thesis or dissertation may be developed. Additional
University fellowship awards are available to outstanding applicants.

Fort Collins
Located in Fort Collins, Colorado State University is perfectly positioned as
a gateway to the Rocky Mountains.
With its superb climate (over 300
days of sunshine per year), there
are exceptional opportunities for
outdoor pursuits including hiking,
biking, skiing, and rafting.

For additional information or
to schedule a visit of campus:
Department of Chemical and
Biological Engineering
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523-1370
Phone: (970) 491-5253
Fax: (970) 491-7369
E-mail: cbegrad@colostate.edu

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

Unvrst .6f 66onn 6ct6cut

244 ChemicallEngineeringgEducatio

Graduate Study & Research in Chemical Engineering

Dartmouth's Thayer School of Engineering

Dartmouth and its affiliated professional schools offer PhD degrees in the full range of science disciplines as well as
MD and MBA degrees. The Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College offers an ABET-accredited BE degree,
as well as MS, Masters of Engineering Management, and PhD degrees. The Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Program features courses in foundational topics in chemical engineering as well as courses serving our areas of research
* Biotechnology and biocommodity engineering
* Environmental science and engineering
* Fluid mechanics
* Materials science and engineering
* Process design and evaluation
These important research areas are representative of those found in chemical engineering departments around the world.
A distinctive feature of the Thayer School is that the professors, students, and visiting scholars active in these areas have
backgrounds in a variety of engineering and scientific subdisciplines. This intellectual diversity reflects the reality that
boundaries between engineering and scientific subdisciplines are at best fuzzy and overlapping. It also provides opportunities
for students interested in chemical and biochemical engineering to draw from several intellectual traditions in coursework
and research. Fifteen full-time faculty are active in research involving chemical engineering fundamentals.

Faculty & Research Areas
Ian Baker (Oxford) - Structure/property relationships of materials, electron microscopy
John Collier (Dartmouth) - Orthopaedic prostheses, implant/host interfaces
Alvin Converse (Delaware) - Kinetics & reactor design, enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose
Benoit Cushman-Roisin (Florida State) - Numerical modeling of environmental fluid dynamics
Harold Frost (Harvard) - Microstructural evolution, deformation, and fracture of materials
Tillman Gerngross (Technical University of Vienna) - Engineering of glycoproteins, fermentation technology
Ursula Gibson (Cornell) - Thin film deposition, optical materials
Karl E. Griswold (University of Texas at Austin) - Protein Engineering
Francis Kennedy (RPI) D Tribology, surface mechanics
Daniel R. Lynch (Princeton) - Computational methods, oceanography, and water resources
Lee Lynd (Dartmouth) - Biomass processing, pathway engineering, reactor & process design
Victor Petrenko (USSR Academy of Science) - Physical chemistry of ice
Erland Schulson (British Columbia) - Physical metallurgy of metals and alloys
Petia Vlahovska (Yale University) - Rheology of complex fluids, biological fluid dynamics, membrane biophysics

For further information, please contact:

Chemical Engineering Graduate Advisor * Thayer School of Engineering * Dartmouth College * Hanover, NH 03755
Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 2,

S1.1 N I . E T i C F D EL . 2 E Chemical Engineering at Delaware is ranked, by
Small metrics, in the top 10 programs in the US with
SCEhemic En ineein world-wide reputation and reach. Built on a long
and distinguished history, we are a vigorous and
active leader in chemical engineering research
and teaching. Our graduate students work with
a talented and diverse faculty, and there is a
correspondingly rich range of research and educational opportunities that are distinctive to Delaware.
We currently have 24 full time faculty, over 100 graduate students, nearly $9M in annual research
expenditures, and publish well over 100 scientific manuscripts and patents per year. The range of
research varies tremendously-from biomolecular and metabolic engineering to catalysis, energy, green
engineering, nanostructured materials, complex fluids engineering and polymers-advances are being
made in each area at Delaware. Finally, Delaware is one of the top chemical engineering departments
in the US in terms of faculty diversity, and is among the largest producers of Chemical Engineering PhD
students in the US.

offers unique opportunities for
professional development, including

>> The Teaching Fellows program
> Participation in national and
international conferences and
> Two annual student-run Departmental
The Teaching Fellows program promotes
the development of the next generation
of academic educators and scholars by
enabling graduate students to co-teach
Chemical Engineering courses with a
faculty mentor.

The graduate symposia are run by our
graduate student organization, the
Colburn Club, which also organizes social
activities and recruiting events within the

All graduate students are supported as
research assistants, and are provided a
comfortable stipend for living expenses.
Special competitive fellowships are
available to the best qualified applicants.

a hallmark of our Department. Many
research groups collaborate with local
and national industrial laboratories.

This blend of academic and applied
engineering research gives our students
a unique perspective that is useful
in academic or industrial careers.
We are close to major chemical and
pharmaceutical industry leaders.

unique environments and experiences for
graduate students. These include:

> Delaware Biotechnology Institute (DBI)
> Center for Catalytic Science and
Technology (CCST)
> Center for Molecular and Engineering
Thermodynamics (CMET)
> Center for Neutron Science (CNS)
�> Co..rei 1.:.n C.:. ..c..:.:.r_ n .renn l: sliCC ti
>> C l', rn''n:[ ,. e ..:.l.:.;., ln'r l .:e IC b I I
> In stitu te i.:.. t ...Ir. i,.: 1i � t.:..]^ l.r.. - .:.1
Biological ihr.rI i .:r..:.r.: i I: :i li
>> Solar H 1,.:..;-.e. iCEPT

INTERDISCIPLINARY o.:.rL d.:.ne at the
interfaces bet een rrajor re:ear.:h field:,
often throLgh :Io:e .:.ollabo:.rati.:.n: arnono
the faculty and .:.ther departmrrnt:

AFTER GRADUATION our graduate:
find fulfillie career: in 3.:ad.erria and,
industrial re:ear.:h, a3: 11 a: in la ,
medicine, and business.

Academia-Our graduates hold positions at
top-ten research institutions, as well as
in many other programs world-wide.

Industry-Delaware students are sought
after by local, regional, national and
international corporations.


>> #10 (2008 U.S. News Et World Report)
>> #3 (National Research Council, 1994)
>> 14 NSF CAREER and Presidential Young
Investigator Award Winners
>> 3 National Academy of Engineering
(NAE) Members
>> 10 Named Professors

LOCATION The Un, er:it, o:.f Dela are has
a c:.lle e.t. . n atrMO.:.p.here. t e are
.:entrall, lc.:..:ated bet n N .:.rk City
and ' 3a:hingt.:.n. ' '. . at the heart of the
3ea:t :'3:t':t :herri.:31a and pharrrmaceutical

APPLICATION t: the graduate pr.:.oram
i .:..:.ordinated thr.:.u h th�e Lini er:ity's
Off..:e of Graduate 5tudie:
The appll,:ati,:n :an be found at
U.]^l j..l '--:l iw.].: r.l : .' lpp: l ::l' ': .
..dri::i.-n: are r.:.lling. and the
application deadline is March 15 (earlier
applications are strongly encouraged.)

Browse our site www.che.udel.edu for updated news and information on our graduate program,
faculty research and alumni achievements!

.udel.edu /gradeoffice/apphicantt


I 4.'l .l :1 I' ,,, '-'' . r--i l-:.ll:' l ii l L l:.:i i:i , 'l- ". i, Ij. , 1 'i. - 1 ,:

Fa, 2 71 ?119

Chemical Engineering Education


Blomotecuilar, Cellular. and Protein Engineering,
Caulysis and Energy
Metabolic Engineering
Systems, Biology
Soft, Atakerlats, C61JIelds and Polymers
Surface Science
Process Systems Engineering
Green Engineering



Technical University of Denmark

Do your graduate studies in Europe!

The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is a
modern, internationally oriented technological
university placed centrally in Scandinavia's Medicon
Valley - one of the worlds leading biotech clusters. It
was founded 1 77 years ago by H. C. Orsted. The
University has 6000 students preparing for their BSc
or MSc degrees, 600 PhD students and takes 400
foreign students a year on English-taught courses.
The DTU campus is located close to the city of
Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark.

Chemical Engineering focus areas of research and the research groups are:

Applied Thermodynamics, Aerosol Technology, Bio Process Engineering, Catalysis, Combustion Processes
Emission Control, Enzyme technology, Membrane Technology, Polymer Chemistry & Technology
Process Control, Product Engineering, Oil and Gas Production, Systems Engineering, Transport Phenomena

The Department of Chemical Engineering (KT) is a leading research institution. The
research results find application in biochemical processes, computer aided product
and process engineering, energy, enhanced oil recovery, environment protection
and pollution abatement, information technology, and products, formulations &

The department has excellent experimental facilities serviced by a well-equipped
workshop and well-trained technicians. The Hempel Student Innovation Laboratory
is open for students' independent experimental work. The unit operations laboratory
and pilot plants for distillation, reaction, evaporation, crystallization, etc. are used
for both education and research. Visit us at http://www.kt.dtu.dk/English.aspx.

Graduate programs at Department of Chemical Engineering:

Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Petroleum Engineering
Advanced and Applied Chemistry

The starting point for
general information
about MSc studies at
DTU is:

Stig Wedel sw@kt.dtu.dk

Erling H. Stenby ehs@kt.dtu.dk

Georgios Kontogeorgis gk@kt.dtu.dk

Visit the University at http:.','Avvw. dtdu.dk english.aspx

Department of Chemical Engineering

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

Drexel University

Department of Chemical

and Biological Engineering


Cameron F Abrams

Jason B Baxler
l II,,,. ; ,r, -,i I .

Richard A Cairncross
,1 1 I I, . . ,r , .,I . ,,,,,,. . .

Nily R Dan

Yossel A Elabd
1 ,111 I ,., H I.,I

Ehhu D Grossmann
I I , I I ..1 . .1

Kennelh K S Lau
IFI I l.l : . :: I ., I...I : n

Anihony M Lowman
1>,11l I, h.1.I . h,- II ,.-I ;ir,

Rai Mulharasan
,11 I I.. -.. I I, .. ... , r,

Giuseppe R Palmese Head

Masoud Soroush

Charles B Weinberger

Sleven P Wrenn

,,, ... .. . , .. .. , . .

Chemical Engineering Education

AwVard-winning lacuity
Ctuling-edge lacililies
Evlensive engineering resources
An hour rom Ihe Allanhic Ocean
and Ihe Gull o-i le ICO

Tim Ander�.:,n
Aravindj Aslhailin
Jac.:,n E Ei.Uller
Ani i:'ha ihan
ilicar CI 'nsalle
Jennifer Sinclair n Iuir
F'i,:harj E'P. fi,:lin .:in
Helena Hagqelin-.Ieaver
G'ar H.i:'I.ind
Peng Jianq
Lewis E J:rhn
Dmilry Ki:irpelevi;h
Anlh,:,ny J Ladd
Tanmay Lele
F'anga arayanan
Mar, E ,:,razem
i hanI.-A,:,n F'arl
Fan R:en
Dinesh 11 Shah
spyr,:,S Sv,:,r,:,n,:,S
iiiider TWeng
Serge Va.ent :,v
Jags:,n F lAieaver
K.rl Ziqeler

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


: Florida Institute of Technology

Graduate studies in Chemical Engineering

Join a small, vibrant campus on Florida's Space Coast to reach your full academic and
professional potential. Florida Tech, the only independent, scientific and technological
university in the Southeast, has grown to become a university of international standing.

P.A. Jennings, Ph.D., Department Head
J.E. Whitlow, Ph.D.
M.M. Tomadakis, Ph.D. q
M.E. Pozo de Fernandez, Ph.D.
J.R. Brenner, Ph.D.
R.G. Barile, Ph.D.
S. Dutta, Ph.D.

Research Interests
Spacecraft Technology
In-Situ Resource Utilization
Alternative Energy Sources
Materials Science
Membrane Technology
Hydrogen Technology

Research Partners 'v
Department of Energy
Department of Defense
Florida Solar Energy Center
Florida Space Grant

For more information, contact
Florida Institute of Technology
College of Engineering
Department of Chemical Engineering
150 W. University Blvd.
Melbourne, FL 32901-6975 '
(321) 674-8068 * http://che.fit.edu

Chemical Engineering Education

Georgia Hnr1tato
k Dr. Amyn Teja, Associate Chair for Graduate Studies
School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
lanta, Georgia 30332-0100
404.894.2866 fax

rm Why, Genorgia,Tgch?
0 1.. 1. ,. Tech's School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering is one the oldest and
I.., 1 programs of its kind in the United States
0 Loutad in the heart of Atlanta, our students have unprecedented research, cultural, and
professional opportunities
D ChBE faculty members have received a combined total of 67 national and international awards
* Six Members of the National Academy of Engineering
* Ten NSF CAREER Award Winners
Cutting Edge. Res ach.

* Biomedical Engineering
SBiotechnology, Bioinformatics & Bioprocessing
* Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics & Reaction Engineering
* Complex Fluids & Multiphase Flow
SEnergy Transformation & Utilization
SEnvironmental Science & Sustainable Development
M.S. inBiegieMicroelectronics, Microfluidics & MEMS
* Nanotechnology
D . in Beinrin Polymers & Materials Science
SProcess Systems Engineering
M.S . i ae S n an E rin Pulp & Paper
V Separations
Ph.D. in Paper Sciee and Eng Thermodynamics & Intermolecular

"'Atlantaoffers the av tg o a big ci but hs t
spri of a sm ltw . - KeithReed (Ph.D. stdet B.S MIT

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 251


Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering

Graduate Program

HOUSTON-Dynamic Hub of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

Houston is the dominant hub of the U.S. energy and chemical industries, as well as the
home of NASA's Johnson Space Center and the world-renowned Texas Medical Center. -

The Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Department at the University of Houstoni
offers excellent facilities, competitive financial support, industrial internships, and an
environment conducive to personal and professional growth.

Houston offers the educational, cultural, business, sports, and entertainment advantages
of a large and diverse metropolitan area, with significantly lower costs than average.

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Research Faculty

T - -1--

Daneshy* 10oos s
Mohanty & REACTION


Nikolaou Advincula*
Richardson Donnelly

c .-......-..

Strasser Annapragada*
Willson Bidani*




* Adjunct
+ Affiliated
+ Jan. 2009
Bold denotes primary research area.

For more information:
Vsit: www.chee.uh.edu
Email: grad-che@uh.edu
Write: University of Houston
Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering
Graduate Admission
S222 Engineering Building 1
Houston, TX 77204-4004

The Universty of Houston s an equal opportunity nstituton. CULLEN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

252 Chemical Engineering Education

The University of Illinois at Chicago

u I C Department of Chemical Engineering

MS and PhD -

Graduate Program


Sohail Murad, Professor and Head
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
E-Mail: Murad@uic.edu
John H. Kiefer, Professor Emeritus
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
E-Mail: Kiefer@uic.edu
Andreas A. Linninger, Associate Professor
Ph.D., Vienna University of Technology, 1992 l
E-Mail: Linninge@uic.edu
G. Ali Mansoori, Professor
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
E-Mail: Mansoori@uic.edu
Randall Meyer, Assistant Professor
Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin, 2001
E-Mail: Rjm@uic.edu
Ludwig C. Nitsche, Associate Professor
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1989
E-Mail: LCN@uic.edu
John Regalbuto, Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986
E-Mail: JRR@uic.edu RPRP AR?,CH- AREFPAS

Christos Takoudis, Professor
Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1982
E-Mail: Takoudis@uic.edu
Raffi M. Turian, Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
E-Mail: Turian@uic.edu
Lewis E. Wedgewood, Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1988
E-Mail: Wedge@uic.edu
Ying Liu, Assistant Professor
Ph.D., Princeton University, 2007
E-mail: liuying@uic.edu
Laszlo T. Nemeth, Adjunct Professor
Ph.D., University of Debrecen, Hungary, 1978
E-Mail: Lnemeth@uic.edu
Anil Oroskar, Adjunct Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1981
E-Mail: anil@orochem.com

Transport Phenomena: Transport properties of fluids, Slurry transport, Multiphase fluid flow.
Fluid mechanics of polymers, Ferro fluids and other Viscoelastic media.
Thermodynamics: Molecular simulation and Statistical mechanics of liquid mixtures, Superficial fluid
extraction/retrograde condensation, Asphaltene characterization, Membrane-based separations.
Kinetics and Reaction Engineering: Gas-solid reaction kinetics, Energy transfer processes, Laser
diagnostics, and Combustion chemistry. Environmental technology, Surface chemistry, and optimization.
Catalyst preparation and characterization, Supported metals, Chemical kinetics in automotive engine emis-
sions. Density fictional theory calculations of reaction mechanisms.
Biochemical Engineering: Bioinstrumentation, Bioseparations, Biodegradable polymers, Nonaqueous
Enzymology, Optimization of mycobacterial fermentations.
Materials: Microelectronic materials and processing, Heteroepitaxy in group IV materials, and in situ
surface spectroscopies at interfaces. Combustion synthesis of ceramics and synthesis in supercritical fluids.
Product and Process Development and design, Computer-aided modeling and simulation, Pollution
Biomedical Engineering Hydrodynamics of the human brain, Microvasculation, Fluid structure interaction
in biological tissues, Targeted drug delivery and Medical imaging.
Nanoscience and Engineering Molecular-based study of matter in nanoscale, Organic nanostructures,
Self-assembly and Positional assembly. Properties of size-selected clusters.

For more information, write to
Director of Graduate Studies * Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago * 810 S. Clinton St. * Chicago, IL 60607-7000 * (312) 996-3424 * Fax (312) 996-0808
URL: http://www.uic.edu/depts/chme/
Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008


Chemical and Biomolecular


The combination of distinguished faculty, outstanding
facilities, and a diversity of research interests results in
exceptional opportunities for graduate education at the
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The Chemical
and Biomolecular Engineering Department offers graduate
programs leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.

For more information visit www.chemeng.uiuc.edu
Or write to:
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
114 Roger Adams Laboratory, Box C-3
600 South Mathews Avenue
Urbana, IL 61801-3602

Department of Chemical
4r%^ & Biomolecular Engineering

Chemical Engineering Education

Research Areas

Energy & Sustainability
Fuel Cells & Batteries I Fluidization & Gasification I Hybrid Systems

Advanced Materials
Interfacial & Transport Phenomena I Nanotechnology

Biological Engineering
Molecular Modeling I Diabetes I Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Engineering

Systems Engineering
Complex Systems I Advanced Process Control I Process Modeling

Faculty Research Interests

Javad Abbasian (Illinois Institute of Technology) Hamid Arastoopour (lllinois Institute of Technology)
Coal gasification, high temperature gas cleaning Computational fluid dynamics of multi-phase
and process development systems, nanoparticle fluidization

Ali Cinar (TexasA&M)
Modeling, analysis and control of complex
distributed systems, batch process supervision

Dimitri Gidaspow (llinois Institute of Technology)
Hydrodynamics of multi-phase flow, coal
gasification, fuel cells

Satish Parulekar (Purdue University) Victor Perez-Luna (University of Washington)
Chemical and biochemical reaction engineering Surface chemistry, biomaterials, biosensors,
hydrogels, nanotechnology

Vijay Rama ni (university of Connecticut)
Electrochemistry, fuel cell materials

David C. Venerus (Penn State University)
Transport phenomena in complex materials,
polymer rheology and processing

Jay D. Schieber (University of Wisconsin)
Multiscale modeling of macromolecules, transport
phenomena, statistical mechanics

Darsh T. Wasan (UC-Berkeley)
Interfacial phenomena, wetting and spreading,
nanofluids, food colloids

Donald Chmielewski (University of California - LA)
Design and control of energy systems

Allan S. Myerson (University of Virginia)
Crystallization and molecular modeling for
pharmaceutical processes

Jai Prakash (Case Western Reserve University)
Electrochemical characterization of novel materials
for batteries, fuel cells

Fouad Teymour (University of Wisconsin)
Complex systems, polymer engineering


Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

Graduate program for M.S. and Ph.D. degrees

in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering


Gary A. Aurand
North Carolina State U.
Supercritical fluids/
High pressure biochem-
ical reactors

Greg Carmichael Chris
U. of Kentucky 1979 Coretsopoulos
Global change/ U. of Illinois at Urbana
Supercomputing/ Champaign 1989
Air pollution modeling Photopolymerization/

Jennifer Fiegel
Johns Hopkins 2004
Drug delivery/
Nano and

C. Allan Guymon
U. of Colorado 1997
Polymer reaction
engineering/UV curable
coatings/Polymer liquid
crystal composites

Stephen K. Hunter
U. of Utah 1989
Bioartificial organs/

David Rethwisch
U. of Wisconsin 1985
Membrane science/
Polymer science/

Julie L.P. Jessop
Michigan State U. 1999

Aliasger K. Salem
U. of Nottingham 2002
Tissue engineering/
Drug delivery/Polymeric
cancer therapy/Nano
and microtechnology

U. of Houston 1989
Insect cell culture/
Bioreactor monitoring

Alec B. Scranton
Purdue U. 1990
Reversible emulsifiers/
Polymerization kinetics

Eric E. Nuxoll
U. of Minnesota 2003
Controlled release/
drug delivery

Charles 0. Stanier
Carnegie Mellon
University 2003
Air pollution chemis-
try, measurement, and

Indian Institute of Science
Gene expression/

Tonya L. Peeples
Johns Hopkins 1994
Extremophile physiol-
ogy and biocatalysis

Indian Institute of
Science 1992
Structural enzymol-
ogy/Structure function
relationship in proteins

For information
and application:
Graduate Admissions
Chemical and
Biochemical Engineering
4133 Seamans Center
Iowa City IA 52242-1527

Chemical Engineering Education



Robert C. Brown
PhD, Michigan State University
Biorenewable resources for energy
Aaron R. Clapp
PhD, University of Florida
Colloidal and interfacial phenomena
Eric W. Cochran
PhD, University of Minnesota
Self-assembled polymers
Rodney 0. Fox
PhD, Kansas State University
Computational fluid dynamics and reaction
Charles E. Glatz
PhD, University of Wisconsin
Bioprocessing and bioseparations
Kurt R. Hebert
PhD, University of Illinois
Corrosion and electrochemical engineering
James C. Hill
PhD, University of Washington
Turbulence and computational fluid dynamics
Andrew C. Hillier
PhD, University of Minnesota
Interfacial engineering and electrochemistry
Laura Jarboe
PhD, University of California-LA
Biorenewables production by metabolic
Kenneth R. Jolls
PhD, University of Illinois
Chemical thermodynamics and separations
Mark J. Kushner
PhD, California Institute of Technology
Computational optical and discharge physics

wa State University's Department of
chemical and Biological Engineering
fers excellent programs for graduate
search and education. Our cutting-
dge research crosses traditional
sciplinary lines and provides
udents. Our diverse faculty are leaders
their fields and have won national and
international recognition for both
search and education, our facilities
laboratories, instrumentation, and
imputing) are state of the art, and our
ancial resources give graduate
udents the support they need not just
succeed, but to excel. Our campus

Monica H. Lamm
PhD, North Carolina State University
Molecular simulations of advanced materials
Surya K. Mallapragada
PhD, Purdue University
Tissue engineering and drug delivery
Balaji Narasimhan
PhD, Purdue University
Biomaterials and drug delivery
Jennifer O'Donnell
PhD, University of Delaware
Amphiphile self-assembly and controlled
Michael G. Olsen
PhD, University of Illinois
Experimental fluid mechanics and turbulence
Peter J. Reilly
PhD, University of Pennsylvania
Enzyme engineering and bioinformatics
Derrick K. Rollins
PhD, Ohio State University
Statistical process control
Ian Schneider
PhD, North Carolina State University
Cell migration and mechanotransduction
Brent H. Shanks
PhD, California Institute of Technology
Heterogeneous catalysis and biorenewables
Jacqueline V. Shanks
PhD, California Institute of Technology
Metabolic engineering and plant biotechnology.
R. Dennis Vigil
PhD, University of Michigan
Transport phenomena and reaction engineerir
in multiphase systems

houses several interdisciplinary research
centers, including the Ames Laboratory
(a USDOE laboratory focused on
materials research), the Plant Sciences
Institute, the Office of Biotechnology, the
Bioeconomy Institute, and the Institute
for Combinatorial Discovery.

The department offers MS and PhD
degrees in chemical engineering.
Students with undergraduate degrees in
chemical engineering or related fields
can be admitted to the program. We
offer full financial support with tuition
coverage and competitive stipends to all
our graduate students.

arn -- in'va 0011
515 294-7643

-- I -- I , hI

Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of
race, color, age, religion, national origin, sexual orientation,
sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U S Vietnam
Era Veteran Any persons having inquiries concerning
this may contact the Director of Equal Opportunity and
Diversity, 3680 Beardshear Hall, 515 294-7612 ECM 08499

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008 25

- Graduate Study in Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the



The University of Kansas is the largest and most comprehensive university in
Kansas. It has an enrollment of more than 28,000 and almost 2,000 faculty mem-
bers. KU offers more than 100 bachelors', nearly 90 masters', and more than 50
doctoral programs. The main campus is in Lawrence, Kansas, with other campuses
in Kansas City, Wichita, Topeka, and Overland Park, Kansas.
Graduate Programs
[1 M.S. degree with a thesis requirement in both chemical and petroleum engineering
[1 Ph.D. degree characterized by moderate and flexible course requirements and a strong research emphasis
[1 Typical completion times are 16-18 months for a M.S. degree and 4 1/2 years for a Ph.D. degree (from B.S.)

Cory Berkland (Ph.D., Illinois)
Kyle V. Camarda (Ph.D., Illinois)
R.V. Chaudhari (Ph.D., Bombay University)
Michael Detamore (Ph.D., Rice)
Stevin H. Gehrke (Ph.D., Minnesota)
Don W. Green, (Ph.D., Oklahoma)
Javier Guzman (Ph.D., UC Davis)
Colin S. Howat (Ph.D., Kansas)
Jenn-Tai Liang (Ph.D., Texas)
Trung V. Nguyen (Ph.D., Texas A&M)
Karen J. Nordheden (Ph.D., Illinois)
Russell D. Osterman (Ph.D., Kansas)
Aaron Scurto (Ph.D., Notre Dame)
Marylee Z. Southard (Ph.D., Kansas)
Susan M. Williams (Ph.D., Oklahoma)
Bala Subramaniam (Ph.D., Notre Dame)
Shapour Vossoughi (Ph.D., Alberta, Canada)
Laurence V\ iidi.k . Chair (Ph.D., Cambridge)
G. Paul Willhite (Ph.D., Northwestern)

Catalytic Kinetics and Reaction Engineering
Catalytic Materials and Membrane Processing
Controlled Drug Delivery
Corrosion, Fuel Cells, Batteries
Electrochemical Reactors and Processes
Electronic Materials Processing
Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes
Fluid Phase Equilibria and Process Design
Liquid/ Liquid Systems
Molecular Product Design
NanoTechnology for Biological Applications
Process Control and Optimization
Protein and Tissue Engineering
Supercritical Fluid Applications
Waste Water Treatment

Financial aid is available in the form of research and teaching
assistantships and fellowships/ scholarships. A special program
is described below.
Madison & Lila Self Graduate Fellowship

For additional information and application:
http: //www.unkans.edu/~selfpro/

Research Centers
Tertiary Oil Recovery Program (TORP)
30 years of excellence in enhanced oil recovery research
Center for Environmentally Beneficial Catalysis (CEBC)
NSF Engineering Research Center
Transportation Research Institute (TRI)

Website for information and application:
Graduate Program
Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Kansas-Learned Hall
1530 W. 15th Street, Room 4132
Lawrence, KS 66045-7609

phone: 785-864-2900
fax: 785-864-4967
e-mail: cpe grad@ku.edu

Chemical Engineering Education

Kansas State University

Department of Chemical Engineering

Faculty, Ph.D. Institute, Research Areas
* Jennifer L. Anthony, University ofNotre Dame, advanced materials,
nanoporous molecular sieves, environmental separations, ionic liquids,
solvent properties
* Vikas Berry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
bionanotechnology, nanoelectronics, sensors
* James H. Edgar, University of Florida, crystal growth, semiconductor
processing and materials characterization
* Larry E. Erickson, Kansas State University, environmental engineering,
biochemical engineering, biological waste treatment process design and
* L.T. Fan, West Virginia University, process systems engineering including
process synthesis and control, chemical reaction engineering, particle
* Larry A. (GI. .., University ofMissouri, transport phenomena, bubbles,
droplets and particles in turbulent flows, coagulation and flocculation
* Keith L Hohn, University ofMinnesota, catalysis and reaction engineering,
natural gas conversion, and nanoparticle catalysts
* Peter Pfromm, University of Texas, polymers in membrane separations and surface science
* Mary E. Rezac (head), University of Texas, polymer science, membrane separation processes
* John R. Schlup, California Institute of Technology, biobased industrial products, applied spectroscopy, thermal
analysis, intelligent processing of materials
* Walter Walawender, Syracuse University, activated carbon, biomass energy, fluid particle systems, pyrolysis,
reaction modeling and engineering
* Krista S. Walton, Vanderbilt University, nanoporous materials, molecular modeling, adsorption separation and
purification, metal-organic frameworks

For additional information:

Graduate Program
Kansas State University
Chemical Engineering
1005 Durland Hall
Manhattan, KS 66506-5102

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008

UK University of Kentucky
College of Engineering Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering
College of Engineering

Chemical Engineering Faculty

Tate Tsang, Chair - University of Texas
K. Anderson - Carnegie-Mellon University
D. Bhattacharyya - Illinois Institute of Technology
T. Dziubla - Drexel University
E. Grulke - Ohio State University
Z. Hilt - University of Texas
D. Kalika - University of California, Berkeley
R. Kermode Northwestern University
B. Knutson Georgia Institute of Technology
S. Rankin - University ofMinnesota
A. Ray Clarkson University
J. Seay Auburn University
D. Silverstein - Vanderbilt University
J. Smart - University of Texas

Materials Engineering Faculty

" 1 . I I J. Balk - The Johns Hopkins University
Y.T. Cheng - California Institute of Technology
R. Eitel - The Pennsylvania State University
B. Hinds Northwestern University
F. Yang University ofRochester
T. Zhai - University of Oxford

. Environmental Engineering
+ Biopharmaceutical & Biocellular Engineering
. Materials Synthesis
. Advanced Separation & Supercritical Fluids
+ Membranes & Polymers
+ Interfacial Engineering
. Aerosols
+ Nanomaterials
+ Fuel Cells & Biofuels

For more information:

Web: http://www.engr.uky.edu/cme
Address: Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering
Director of Graduate Studies, Chemical Engineering
177 F. Paul Anderson Tower University of Kentucky
Lexington, KY 40506-0046

Phone: (859)257 8028 Fax: (859) 323 1929

Chemical Engineering Education


Synergistic, interdisciplinary research in...
Biochemical Engineering * Catalytic Science & Reaction Engineering
Environmental Engineering * Interfacial Transport * Materials Synthesis
Characterization & Processing * Microelectronics Processing
Polymer Science & Engineering *Process Modeling & Control
Two-Phase Flow & Heat Transfer

Leading to M.S., M.E., and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering
and Polymer Science and Engineering


Philip A. Blythe, University of Manchester
fluid mechanics * heat transfer * applied mathematics

Hugo S. Caram, University of Minnesota
high temperature processes and materials *
environmental processes * reaction engineering

Manoj K. Chaudhury, SUNY- Buffalo
adhesion * thin films * surface chemistry

Mohamed S. EI-Aasser, McGill University
polymer colloids and films * emulsion copolymerization *
polymer synthesis and characterization

Alice P. Gast, Princeton University
complex fluids * colloids * proteins * interfaces

James F. Gilchrist, Northwestern University
particle self-organization * mixing * microfluidics

James T. Hsu, Northwestern University
bioseparation * applied recombinant DNA technology

Anand Jagota, Cornell University
biomimetics * mechanics * adhesion * biomolecule-
materials interactions

Andrew Klein, North Carolina State University
emulsion polymerization * colloidal and surface effects in

Mayuresh V. Kothare, California Institute of Technology
model predictive control * constrained control *
microchemical systems

Ian J. Laurenzi, University of Pennsylvania
chemical kinetics in small systems * biochemical
informatics * aggregation phenomena

William L. Luyben, University of Delaware
process design and control * distillation

Anthony J. McHugh, University of Delaware
polymer rheology and rheo-optics * polymer processing
and modeling * membrane formation * drug delivery

Arup K. Sengupta, University of Houston
use of adsorbents * ion exchange * reactive polymers *
membranes in environmental pollution

Cesar A. Silebi, Lehigh University
separation of colloidal particles * electrophoresis * mass

Shivaji Sircar, University of Pennsylvania
adsorption * gas and liquid separation

Mark A. Snyder, University of Delaware
inorganic nanoparticles and porous thin films *
membrane separations * multiscale modeling

Kemal Tuzla, Istanbul Technical
heat transfer * two-phase flows * fluidization

Israel E. Wachs, Stanford University
materials characterization * surface chemistry *
heterogeneous catalysis * environmental catalysis

An application and additional information may be obtained by writing to:

Dr. James T. Hsu, Chair - Graduate Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering, Lehigh University *111 Research Drive, lacocca Hall * Bethlehem, PA 18015
Fax: (610) 758-5057 *Email: inchegs@lehigh.edu * Web: www.che.lehigh.edu

/1] W~

Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 2008



Cain Department of



Baton Rouge is the state capital and home of the state's flagship institution,
LSU. Situated near the Acadian region, Baton Rouge blends the Old South
and Cajun cultures. Baton Rouge is one of the nation's busiest ports and the
city's economy rests heavily on the chemical, oil, plastics, and agricultural
industries. The great outdoors provide excellent year-round recreational
activities, especially fishing, hunting, and water sports. The proximity of
New Orleans provides for superb nightlife, especially during Mardi Gras.
The city is also only two hours away from the Mississippi Gulf Coast, and
four hours from either Gulf Shores or Houston.

* MS (thesis and non-thesis) and PhD Programs
* Approximately 50 graduate students
* Average research funding more than $2 million per year

* Departmental computing-with more than 80 PCs
* Extensive laboratory facilities, especially in reaction and environmental
engineering, transport phenomena and separations, polymer, textile and
materials processing, biochemical engineering, thermodynamics
Assistantships at $17,500 - $29,200, with full tuition waiver, waiver of
non-resident fees, and health insurance benefits.

Cain Department of Chemical Engineering
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803
Telephone: 1-800-256-2084 FAX: 225-578-1476
e-mail: gradcoor@lsu.edu


Cain Professor/Asst. Professor; PhD, University of Wisconsin
Genomics, Bioengineering, Metabolic Engineering, Biosensors

BASF Professor; PhD, University of Delaware
Heterogeneous Catalysis, High-Pressure Separations

Cain Professor/Assc. Professor; PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology
Semiconductor Processing, Microelectronic Device Fabrication

Nusloch Professor; PhD, Princeton University
Electronic Materials, Surface Chemistry, CVD

Cain Professor/Asst. Professor; PhD, Texas A&M University
Biochemical Engineering, Biomimetic Materials, Biosensors

Nusloch Professor; PhD, University of Houston
Biochemical Reaction Engineering, Applied Math

Cain Professor/Asst. Professor; PhD, North Carolina State University
Nanoporous Materials, Confined Fluids, Liquid Crystals

Anding Professor; PhD, Purdue University
Supercritical Fluid Extraction, Ultrafast Kinetics

Horton Professor; PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology
Fluid Dynamics, Reaction Engineering, Optimization

Cain Chair Professor; PhD, University of Minnesota
Process Control

Shivers Professor/Assc. Professor; PhD, Louisiana State University

Coates Professor; PhD, Louisiana State University
Chemodynamics, Hazardous Waste Transport

Lowe Professor/Assc. Professor; PhD, University of Michigan
Transport and Reaction in Porous Media

Roddy Distinguished Professor; PhD, Vanderbilt University
Environmental Transport, Separations

Haydel Professor/Assc. Professor; PhD, University of Delaware
Hazardous Waste Treatment, Drying

Harvey Professor; PhD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Combustion, Heterogeneous Reactions

Chemical Engineering Education

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