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 Front Cover
 Author Guidelines
 Table of Contents
 A Graduate Course in Theory and...
 An Introduction to the Onsager...
 Why me, Lord? Richard M. Felde...
 Illustrating Chromatography with...
 An Introductory Course in Bioengineering...
 Incorporation of Data Analysis...
 Teaching Reaction Engineering Using...
 Index for Graduate Education...
 Back Cover




















Chemical engineering education
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Title: Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title: CEE
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Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
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Creator: American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
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Publication Date: Fall 2007
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Subjects / Keywords: Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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Citation/Reference: Chemical abstracts
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Author Guidelines
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page 225
    A Graduate Course in Theory and Methods of Research, Joseph H. Holles
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
    An Introduction to the Onsager Reciprocal Relations, Charles W. Monroe and John Newman
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
    Why me, Lord? Richard M. Felder
        Page 239
        Page 240
    Illustrating Chromatography with Colorful Proteins, Brian G. Lefebvre, Stephanie Farrell, and Richard S. Dominiak
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
    An Introductory Course in Bioengineering and Biotechnology for Chemical Engineering Sophomores, Kim C. O'Connor
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
    Incorporation of Data Analysis throughout the ChE Curriculum Made Easy with DataFit, James R. Brenner
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
    Teaching Reaction Engineering Using the Attainable Region, Matthew J. Metzger, Benjamin J. Glasser, David Glasser, Brendon Hausberger, and Diane Hildebrandt
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
    Index for Graduate Education Advertisements
        Page 265
        Page 266
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    Back Cover
        Page 381
Full Text













chemical engineering education


VOLUME 41


NUMBER 4


FALL 2007


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GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE





Featuring articles on graduate courses...



A Graduate Course in Theory and Methods of Research (p. 226)
Holes

An Introduction to the Onsager Reciprocal Relations (p. 233)
Monroe, Newman









... and articles of general interest.


Random Thoughts: Why Me, Lord? ip. 239)
Felder

Illustrating Chromatography with Colorful Proteins (p. 241)
Lefebvre. Farrell, Dominiak

An Introductory Course in Bioengineering and Biotechnology for Sophomores (p. 247)
O'Connor

Teaching Reaction Engineering Using the Attainable Region ip. 258)
Metzger. Glasser, Glasser, Hausberger. Hildebrandt

Incorporation of Data Analysis Throughout the ChE Curriculum Made Easy with DataFit (p. 253)
Brenner


--














AUTHOR GUIDELINES

This guide is offered to aid authors in preparing manuscripts for Chemical Engineering Education (CEE), a quarterlyjournal
published by the Chemical Engineering Division of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE).
CEE publishes papers in the broad field of chemical engineering education. Papers generally describe a course,a laboratory, a
ChE curriculum, research program, machine computation, special instructional programs, or give views and opinions on various
topics of interestto the profession. (Note: Articles forthe special series on outstanding ChE departments and ChE educators are
invited articles.)


SSpecific suggestions on preparing papers

TITLE* Use specific and informative titles.They should be as brief as possible, consistent with the need for defining the subject
area covered by the paper.

AUTHORSHIP Be consistent in authorship designation. Use first name, second initial, and surname. Give complete mailing
address of place where work was conducted. If current address is different, include it in a footnote on title page.

ABSTRACT: KEYWORDS * Include an abstract of less than seventy-five words and a list (five or less) of keywords

TEXT. We request that manuscripts not exceed twelve double-spaced typewritten pages in length. Longer manuscripts may
be returned to the authors) for revision/shortening before being reviewed. Assume your reader is not a novice in the field. Include
only as much history as is needed to provide background for the particular material covered in your paper. Sectionalize the article
and insert brief appropriate headings.

TABLES Avoid tables and graphs that involve duplication or superfluous data. If you can use a graph, do not include a table.
If the reader needs the table, omit the graph. Substitute a few typical results for lengthy tables when practical.

NOMENCLATURE * Follow nomenclature style of Chemical Abstracts; avoid trivial names. If trade names are used, define
at point of first use.Trade names should carry an initial capital only, with no accompanying footnote. Use consistent units of
measurementand give dimensions forall terms.Writeall equationsand formulas clearly,and number important equations con-
secutively.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT * Include in acknowledgment only such credits as are essential.

LITERATURE CITED * References should be numbered and listed on a separate page in the order occurring in the text.

COPY REQUIREMENTS * Submit the manuscript electronically as a pdf, Word, or tif file that includes all graphical mate-
rial as well astablesand diagrams. Send an additional copy of the manuscript on standard letter-size paper through regular mail
channels and include original drawings (or clear prints) of graphs and diagrams on separate sheets of paper. Label ordinates and
abscissas of graphs along theaxesand outside the graph proper. Figure captions and legends will be set in type and need not be
lettered on the drawings. Numberall illustrations consecutively. Supplyall captions and legends typed on a separate page. Authors
should also include brief biographical sketches with the manuscript.


Send your electronic manuscript to
cee@che.ufl.edu
and your hard copy to
Chemical Engineering Education, c/o Chemical Engineering Department
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005













EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS:
( h. nrn al I. nima � i en � Education
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida * Gainesville, FL 32611
PHONE and FAX : 352-392-0861
e-mail: cee@che.ufl.edu

EDITOR
Tim Anderson

ASSOCIATE EDITOR
Phillip C. Wankat

MANAGING EDITOR
Lynn Heasley

PROBLEM EDITOR
James O. Wilkes, U. Michigan

LEARNING IN INDUSTRY EDITOR
William J. Koros, Georgia Institute of Technology

EDITORIAL ASSISTANT
Nicholas Rosinia




-PUBLICATIONS BOARD

* CHAIRMAN
John P. O'Connell
University of Virginia

PAST CHAIRMAN *
E. Dendy Sloan,Jr.
Colorado School of Mines

* MEMBERS
KristiAnseth
University of Colorado
Thomas F. Edgar
University of Texas at Austin
Richard M. Felder
North Carolina State University
H. Scott Fogler
University of Michigan
Carol K. Hall
North Carolina State University
Steve LeBlanc
University of Toledo
Ronald W. Rousseau
Georgia Institute of Technology
C. Stewart Slater
Rowan University
Donald R. Woods
McMaster University


Chemical Engineering Education
Volume 41 Number 4 Fall 2007





> GRADUATE EDUCATION

226 A Graduate Course in Theory and Methods of Research
Joseph H. Holes

233 An Introduction to the Onsager Reciprocal Relations
Charles W Monroe and John Newman


> RANDOM THOUGHTS

239 Why Me, Lord?
Richard M. Felder


> LABORATORY

241 Illustrating Chromatography with Colorful Proteins
Brian G. Lefebvre, Stephanie Farrell,
and Richard S. Dominiak


> CURRICULUM

247 An Introductory Course in Bioengineering and Biotechnology for
Chemical Engineering Sophomores
Kim C. O'Connor

258 Teaching Reaction Engineering Using the Attainable Region
Matthew J. Metzger Benjamin J. Glasser
David Glasser, Brendon Hausberger
and Diane Hildebrandt


> CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS

253 Incorporation of Data Analysis Throughout the ChE Curriculum
Made Easy with DataFit
James R. Brenner


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division,American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of Florida.
Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE,
Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Copyright 0 2005
by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The statements and
opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division,
ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days of
publication. Writefor information on subscription costs andfor back copy costs and availability. POSTMAS-
TER: Send address changes to Chemical Engineering Education, Chemical Engineering Department.,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Periodicals Postage Paid at Gainesville, Florida, and
additional post offices (USPS 101900).


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007











Graduate Education


A GRADUATE COURSE IN THEORY

AND METHODS OF RESEARCH


JOSEPH H. HOLLES
Michigan Technological University * Houghton, MI 49931
In today's university "typical graduate students" are be-
coming less common. Students continue to enter gradu-
ate school directly from undergraduate programs in the
traditional manner, but many do not. Alternatives include
returning to graduate school after working for a few years,
mid- or late-career professionals seeking advanced degrees,
and students with bachelor's degrees in different disciplines.
Although many positives can result from this situation it is
also not without its disadvantages. For example, a wide range
of students can also result in a wide range of student concepts
of and expectations for graduate school.
Over several years, those in the Department of Chemical
Engineering at Michigan Tech observed that graduate students
often did not posses the necessary skills to deliver proper
professional presentations. Clearly, this ability is a neces-
sity for graduate school (e.g., research group presentations,
thesis proposals, regional and national meetings, final thesis
defense). Additionally, as future workforce members with
advanced degrees, these students will be expected to give
professional presentations in their jobs. The initial approach
to address this problem was to require all incoming graduate
students to give a formal department-wide presentation during
their first year. Perhaps not unexpectedly, this approach failed
since no one was responsible for ensuring that all students


were indeed meeting this requirement. As such, another
method was developed to ensure that students were not only
gaining experience in delivering professional presentations,
but were also being educated on how to prepare and deliver
presentations. From this original focus on professional pre-
sentations, the course has evolved to include other topics of
interest to graduate students.

METHODS
The Department of Chemical Engineering at Michigan
Technological University developed a graduate course entitled
"Theory and Methods of Research." This course is required
for all chemical engineering graduate students. The class is
offered during the fall semester of the student's first year in


� Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 200;


Chemical Engineering Education


Joseph H. Holes is an assistant professor of
chemical engineering at Michigan Technologi-
cal University. He received his B.S. in chemical
engineering in 1990 from Iowa State University
and his M.E. and Ph.D. from the University of
Virginia in 1998 and 2000, respectively. His
research area is nanoscale materials design
and synthesis for catalytic applications with an
emphasis on structure/property relationships
and in-situ characterization.











graduate school, meets three days each week for one hour,
and is three credits. Required graduate courses account for
15 credits in our program and no course was deleted when
this course was started. Typically, seven to 13 students take
this class.
Currently, the major goals of this course are: 1) Equip
the students with the skills and experience to prepare and
present professional presentations, and 2) Educate the stu-
dents about many of the common experiences that make up
graduate school. Thus, the original concept has grown to
include equipping the students with a greater variety of oral
and written communication skills that they will require as a
graduate student.
Other institutions have taken a variety of approaches to
educating their students about the graduate experience. A
course that has many similarities with ours is Arizona State
University's "Research Methods" for first-year graduate
students.El1 Other courses that contain a smaller subset of
comparable topics include: "Introduction to Literature Re-
view and Proposal Writing" at the University of Iowa, with
a similar goal of improving oral and written communication
skillsf21; and a thermodynamics course at Mississippi State
that includes the investigation of the role of journal articles
in research.I31 More narrowly focused courses have also been
developed with an emphasis on educating engineering students
about learning processes and resources to help them in a teach-
ing career.[4 5] Additionally, a workshop was developed to fo-
cus on major communications required to obtain an advanced
degree in engineering 61; techniques for helping faculty teach


the research process
were presented1'1; and
common difficulties
facing graduate stu-
dents were discussed
along with possible
actions to deal with
them. [s]

RESULTS AND
DISCUSSION
Reference informa-
tion for the Theory
and Methods class
comes from a wide va-
riety of sources. Two
required books have
been selected: A Ph.D.
Is Not Enough by Pe-
ter J. Feibelman[91 and
Graduate Research
by Robert V. Smith.1101
These books cover
many of the topics

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


discussed in class and can continue to serve as handbooks
for the students throughout their graduate and professional
careers. In addition, all students are provided with a copy of
On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research by
the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy
of the National Research Council."11
The course is started with a lecture on "Why Graduate
School?" Since the students are already attending graduate
school, this discussion may appear to be too late, but in fact
many still have doubts. The lecture revisits several typical
reasons for attending graduate school and allows students to
voice their own reasons, reinforcing students' motivation for
taking on this challenge. Some of the benefits of graduate
school are discussed, including what graduate school can do
for the student and also what graduate school will not do. The
different components of graduate school such as class work,
seminars, teaching assistantships, and research are introduced.
This lecture also provides an opportunity to outline a few
of the career options available to students once they have
completed a graduate degree.
The second class session focuses on library usage. For this
session, the reference librarian serves as a guest lecturer. This
session acquaints students with the library and the specific
search engines and databases available to them. The librarians
also make the lecture discipline-specific by focusing on topics
relevant to chemical engineers (e.g., SciFinder Scholar). In ad-
dition, this class serves to guide the students away from URLs
as references and towards scholarly books andjournals. Atypi-
cal schedule for the entire semester is shown in Table 1.


TABLE 1
Typical Class Schedule
Week Session Topic Week Session Topic
1 1 Welcome/Introduction 8 1 Paper Writing
2 Library 2 Paper Writing
3 Why Grad School? 3 Paper Writing
2 1 Holiday 9 1 Ethics
2 Communications Basics 2 Ethics
3 No Class 3 Ethics
3 1 Presentations 10 1 Student Led Ethics Discussions
2 Presentations 2 Student Led Ethics Discussions
3 Writing Abstracts 3 Student Led Ethics Discussions
4 1 Copyright 11 1 AICHE Conference
2 Scientific Method 2 AICHE Conference
3 Scientific Method 3 AICHE Conference
5 1 1st Student Presentation 12 1 Patents
2 1st Student Presentation 2 Research Notebooks
3 1st Student Presentation 3 2nd Student Presentation
6 1 1st Student Presentation 13 1 2nd Student Presentation
2 1st Student Presentation 2 2nd Student Presentation
3 1st Student Presentation 3 2nd Student Presentation
7 1 1st Student Presentation 14 1 2nd Student Presentation
2 Proposal Writing 2 2nd Student Presentation
3 Proposal Writing 3 2nd Student Presentation










First Presentation
The work required to complete the first presentation is
broken down into four separate assignments. To initiate this
preparation, the next course topic is communication basics.
Since this topic applies to all types of communication sub-
sequently discussed in the course (outline, presentation, and
proposal), it is necessarily broad. The first communication
focus of the course is on memo writing. Students that have
had previous industrial experience can provide valuable input
at this point. They usually have examples of both good and
bad memos, and other students are very receptive to real-life
experiences of their classmates. The basics of memo writing
lead into Assignment 1 (all assignments and the skills or
concepts they reinforce are summarized in Table 2), which
is to prepare a memo discussing five research methods, in-
struments, or techniques that will be useful to the student's
graduate research. This is the first example of using the class
to encourage the students to think about their own research
and to talk to their advisors. If student-advisor pairings have
not been made, the class instructor or a common first-year
graduate student advisor may fill this role.
The list of five research methods, instruments, or techniques
serves as the basis for next three assignments. A master list
of all the topics mentioned in the memos is compiled and the
most frequently listed and widely applicable topics are noted.
Each student then selects one of these topics for their first
presentation. At this point the students prepare an outline of
the topic they have selected for their upcoming presentation
(Assignment 2). In this manner the students are required to
both learn about their topic and break down what they wish
to talk about. In addition, library skills are reinforced since
the students must use the library to obtain information for
their presentation.
Once the outline is complete, the students begin preparation
of their presentation. In parallel, the students also prepare an


abstract of their talk (Assignment
3). Preceding this assignment,
one class period is devoted to a
discussion on writing abstracts.
The focus is on abstracts most
relevant to graduate school:
journal article, presentation,
and proposal to present. In this
situation, the students prepare
an abstract for their presentation.
Since the research method, in-
strument, or technique may be of
interest to others outside of class,
the abstract is e-mailed to all the
faculty and graduate students in
the department with an invitation
for them to attend the subsequent
presentation.
228


Since the research method, instrument, or
technique may be of interest to others outside of
class, the abstract is e-mailed to all the faculty
and graduate students in the department with
an invitation for them to attend the subsequent
presentation.


Prior to the presentation, two class periods are devoted
to covering the mechanics of successful presentations. One
example that is extremely practical is by Prof. Niemants-
verdriet,E131 while a more thorough treatise on preparing
scientific presentations is found in "The Craft of Scientific
Presentations" by Alley.[14]

Assignment 4 is to prepare and deliver the presentation on
their chosen topic. In this way the students learn about the
research method, instrument, or technique and also educate
other students in the class about the topic. A major benefit of
this approach is that the students can be exposed to a number
of topics in a time-efficient manner. For this assignment, the
talks are 20 to 25 minutes long. One of the requirements for
this assignment is to include a detailed example of how the
research method, instrument, or technique is used to solve a
current research problem. Again, this requirement allows the
students to integrate their research into the coursework.

When the students deliver their presentation, their fellow
students help with the evaluation. I use an advance copy of
the presentation to prepare a short true/false and multiple-
choice quiz. This quiz is an attempt to gauge the ability of
the presenter to convey knowledge about his or her topic.
The class is free to fill in the answers to the quiz at any time
during the presentation. In addition, each student in the
class completes a peer evaluation of the presentation. Since


TABLE 2
Assignments
Number Topic Skills/Concepts Reinforced
1 Research Methods, Instruments, and Library, Written Communication, Advi-
Techniques Memo sor Discussion, Research Integration
2 Topic Selection and Outline Preparation Library
3 Abstract of Presentation Written Communication
4 Research Methods, Instruments, and Oral Presentation, Research Methods,
Techniques Presentation Research Integration
5 Written Grant Proposal Written Communication, Advisor
Discussion, Research Integration
6 Classroom Ethics Discussion Library, Scientific Method, Oral
Communication
7 Critical Review of Journal Article Oral Presentation, Library, Scientific
Method, Writing Journal Articles, Ethics,
Advisor Discussion, Research Integration

Chemical Engineering Education











different people focus on different things, many comments
develop. An instructor evaluation is also completed. All
evaluations are anonymous and are shown to the presenter as
a feedback mechanism. Peer evaluations are extremely effec-
tive as students tend to take criticism from their peers more
constructively than from the instructor. Also, by performing
a peer evaluation, class members are forced to consider what
the speaker is doing and if they could somehow do it better
in their own presentation.

Proposal Writing
The class focus then shifts from oral to written communica-
tion. For Assignment 5, the students select a source and apply
for funding to support their graduate studies. First, the students
must identify a potential funding source in discussion with
their advisors. Once that's done, the assignment is to com-
plete all necessary applications and forms-not only for the
funding agency, but also any forms required by the research
and sponsored programs office of the university. This form of
written communication was not part of the original course, but
was added as a result of student and advisor evaluations and
feedback. This topic provides an opportunity to have a guest
lecturer from outside the department. On several occasions,
a grant-writing expert from the research office has presented
this lecture. G, in i,. Science Grants by Blackburnm151 serves


as a reference for this topic. Once the students have completed
the assignment, little additional work is required to actually
submit the proposal. Student effort for the last step does not
go unrewarded since the graduate school will give students
$100 for each proposal they submit. To date, three proposals
have been submitted as a result of this assignment; none have
yet been funded, however.

Paper Writing

This topic can be covered while the students are complet-
ing their proposals and starting work on their final presenta-
tion. This set of lectures is broken into two main topics: the
mechanical and descriptive process of preparing a paper for
publication and of the sections of a paper, and a personal ap-
proach to writing papers.

The discussion is initiated by examining why papers are
written: to share research findings, to allow others to build
upon results, to gain tenure, and as evidence to funding agen-
cies of progress. This is followed by discussing the mechanics
of manuscript submission, from selecting journal to ordering
reprints. The different types of journal articles such as com-
munication, regular article, note, review, or letter are also
discussed. Discussions on journal hierarchy and thejournal's
impact factor are also included. This section is concluded


TABLE 3
Ethical Issues
Cases References
The Baltimore Case Kevles, D.J., The Baltimore Case, WW. Norton, New York
Sarasohn, J., Science on Trial, St. Martin's Press, New York
Stone, R., and E. Marshall, Science, 266 (1994) 1468
Gavaghan, H., Nature, 372 (1994) 391
Kaiser, J., and E. Marshall, Science, 272 (1996) 1864
Steele, E, Nature, 381 (1996) 719
Cold Fusion Taubes, G., Bad Science, Random House, New York
Close, E, Too Hot to Handle, Princeton University Press, Princeton
Huizenga, J., Cold Fusion: the Scientific Fiasco of the Century,
University of Rochester Press, Rochester
Cold Fusion Redux Kennedy, D., Science, 295 (2002) 1793
Seife, C., Science, 295 (2002) 1808
Bechetti, ED., Science, 295 (2002) 1850
The Undiscovered Weiss, P, Science News, 155 (1999) 372
Elements Seife, C., Science, 297 (2002) 313
Dalton, R., Nature, 420 (2002) 728
Wilson, E., Chemical & Engineering News, 80(29) (2002) 12
Schwarz/Mirken Marshall, E., Science, 292 (2002) 2411
Adam, D., Nature, 412 (2001) 669
Ritter, S., Chemical & Engineering News, 79(25) (2001) 40
Schwarz, P, C. Mirkin, and L. Villa-Komaroff, Letters to the Editor,
Chemical and Engineering News, 79(31) (2001) 8
Ritter, S., Chemical and Engineering News, 79(46) (2001) 24
J. Schon at Bell Labs Dalton, R., Nature, 420 (2002) 728
Jacoby M., Chemical & Engineering News, 80(44) (2002)31
Nature, 429 (2004) 692
"Report on the Investigation Committee on the Possibility of Scientific Misconduct In the Work of Hendrik
Schon and Coauthors" available at:

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007













The

concluding topic

for the course is

a critical review

of a journal

article (Assign-

ment 7) deliv-

ered as a class

presentation ....



The students

are free to

critique anything

about the

article,

including the

layout and the

typesetting.


by examining the sections of the paper (tide, abstract, introduction, etc.) individually and
discussing the importance and reason for each section.
Authorship issues involved with journal articles are also discussed at this point. A little
groundwork here will pay off later during the ethics discussion (viz. the J.H. Schon affair, see
Table 3, previous page). Guidelines on the responsibilities of co-authors and collaborators
by the American Chemical Society[161 and the American Physical SocietyE171 are examined
and discussed. Finally, the students are encouraged to read and follow the instructions for
authors prepared by journal editors.
In the second portion of this subject, a personal approach to paper writing is presented:
start with the experimental section, then proceed through the results, discussion, introduc-
tion, conclusions, and end with the abstract. Although this approach is not original, it is a
method the students can fall back on to avoid procrastination and writers block. The students
are also warned that all advisors may not write papers in the same manner, and they are
encouraged to learn how their advisors write papers by both reading previous work and
talking to them.

Ethics
The initial classroom lecture focuses on some of the common ethical situations in sci-
ence and engineering. These include plagiarism, data manipulation, authorship issues, and
grant and manuscript review. Data manipulation is further elaborated by breaking it down
into three categories: Trimming, Cooking, and Forging. The students then read On Being a
Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research"ll and discuss the nine hypothetical scenarios
presented within. These scenarios are excellent since they focus on many big-picture
issues such as data manipulation and conflict of interest specifically from the gradu-
ate student perspective. Each of the scenarios provides several questions to initiate the
classroom discussion. The booklet also contains an appendix with a short discussion of
how the situation presented in each scenario can be addressed or further explored. The
appendix is withheld from the students until after the discussion in order to encourage
them to come up with their own ideas. Many additional vignettes can found in The Ethi-
cal Chemist by Kovac."18I
Each student then leads a short classroom discussion (15-20 minutes) of an important cur-
rent ethics issue in science and engineering (Assignment 6). The short scenario and question
style of the National Research Council booklet serves as a template for the students preparing
the classroom discussions. Potential topics and references for the student-led discussions
are listed in Table 3. This assignment also has the students doing more literature searches,
thus reinforcing library skills. Finally, although less formal than the other two presentations,
this is another opportunity to build upon their presentation skills.
Second Presentation
The concluding topic for the course is a critical review of journal article (Assignment 7)
delivered as a class presentation (25-30 minutes). This serves as an ideal choice for a final
assignment since it incorporates a number of the topics that have been previously covered
in class. These topics include writing abstracts, writing journal articles, data presentation,
scientific method, and even ethics. The students are free to select any article of their choos-
ing for this review. It is strongly suggested that they select a manuscript relevant to their
research. Again, discussion with an advisor can help them select an appropriate article. The
students have now covered the scientific method and paper writing and thus have sufficient
knowledge to allow a fairly in-depth critical exam of the journal article. The students are
free to critique anything about the article, including the layout and the typesetting. While the
authors of the article do not have much control over these issues, the students learn a little
more about the process of publishing an article. Since the student has received feedback
on their his or her presentation, the comments from that presentation are reviewed to see
if the student has made changes and improvements.


Chemical Engineering Education









Other Topics
Several lectures are devoted to discussion of the scientific method. These lectures are
developed from the corresponding material in Feibelman[91 and Smith101 along with "The
Craft of Research" by Booth, Colomb, and Williams.[12] The scientific method includes
Observation, Hypothesis, Experimentation, and Interpretation. In practice, observation
and hypothesis are usually done in advance by the advisor and the student performs the
experimentation and interpretation steps. Thus, it is important to spend some time educat-
ing the students about the entire process. The discussion of experimentation is very open
ended since it can include a wide variety of topics including statistical analysis and design
of experiments. An outside lecture on either of these topics can be very beneficial.
Interspersed throughout the course are additional topics such as copyrights, patents, and
research notebooks. These topics are all stand-alone and can be moved around as neces-
sary to adjust the class schedule. Patent Fundamentals for Scientists and Engineers by
Gordon and Cookfair serves as a resource for the patent discussion.[19] Before discussing
research notebooks, determine if the university, college, or department has developed
a set of guidelines for notebooks. If so, these guidelines can serve as the basis for this
lecture. Finally, Kanare's book is a good reference on research notebooks."20] In addition,
the classes on copyrights and patents present additional opportunities to bring outside
speakers into the classroom. A member of the department who had recently filed a patent
application has presented this lecture. A patent lawyer or a representative from the intel-
lectual property office is also a potential guest lecturer.
Throughout this class, two additional major concepts are continually reinforced. First,
class members are reminded that as graduate students, it is necessary to talk to your
advisor and discuss what you are doing and why you are doing it. Too many students of
all backgrounds seem to maintain an undergraduate relationship with their professor and
only talk to him or her when they have a problem. Many of the exercises in this class are
specifically designed to avoid this problem by encouraging advisor/student interaction.
Second, the students need to understand what a graduate education entails. Many faculty
members would agree with the statement that it is the student's degree and not theirs. If the
students understand what they must do to attain their graduate degree and take ownership
of that degree, it will be more valuable to them. To encourage this concept, this course
attempts to cover many topics important to graduate school success that are not covered
in other formal courses.
Results
Feedback has been obtained through end-of-course evaluations by the students and in-
formally from the faculty. Feedback from both the faculty and students has been extremely
positive. Faculty member have specifically noted that students have indeed improved
their presentation skills across the board, thus meeting the original goal of this class. In
addition, they have noted that students are better able to digest literature articles and ex-
tract critical information. Finally, the faculty state that students have shown an improved
understanding of the research process, allowing them to get organized and more quickly
proceed through the background research of their projects.
In line with the course goals, the students also state that the class has improved their
presentation skills. The students also demonstrate enthusiasm for the lectures on copy-
rights, patents, and ethics. The students have indicated that the assignment they like the
most and learn the most from is the critical journal article review (Assignment 7). Most
students also cite this assignment as most useful when performing future research. The
student-led ethics discussions are also very popular due to the sometimes soap opera
nature of the events.
Student feedback was also the impetus for the addition of the Proposal Writing as-
signment in the class. The major comment from the first two student course evaluations


Too many

students of all

backgrounds

seem to maintain

an undergradu-

ate relationship

with their profes-

sor and only talk

to him or her

when they have

a problem. Many

of the exercises

in this class are

specifically de-

signed to avoid

this problem by

encouraging

advisor/student

interaction.


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007












was that a proposal writing section was needed. The faculty
has also strongly supported this additional assignment as it
allows the students to knowledgeably assist them as they
write proposals.


CONCLUSION

The original concept of effective oral communication has
served as the foundation for growth of a broad-based gradu-
ate course covering topics that are vital not only in graduate
school but also in the professional world. In addition to
communication skills, other topics vital to obtaining the full
graduate school experience can be systematically discussed
within the boundaries of this course.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Burrows, V.A., and S.P Beaudoin, "A Graduate Course in Research
Methods." Chem. Eng. Ed., 35(4), 236 (2001)
2. Jessop, J.L., "Helping Our International Students Succeed in Commu-
nication," Proceedings American Society for Engineering Education
Annual Conference, Montreal (2002)
3. Hill, PJ., "Teaching Entering Graduate Students the Role of Journal
Articles in Research," Chem. Eng. Ed., 40(4), 246 (2006)
4. Bates, R.A., and A.R. Linse, "Preparing Future Engineering Faculty
Through Active Learning," Proceedings American Society for Engi-
neering Education Annual Conference, Nashville, TN (2003)
5. Wankat, PC., and ES. Oreovicz, "An Education Course for Engineering
Graduate Students," Proceedings American Society for Engineering
Education Annual Conference, Charlotte, NC (1999)
6. Alford, E.M., and PE. Stubblefield, "Mentoring Engineering Gradu-
ate Students in Professional Communications: An Interdisciplinary


Workshop Approach," Proceedings American Societyfor Engineering
Education Annual Conference, Montreal (2002)
7. Lilja, D.J., "Suggestions for Teaching the Engineering Research Pro-
cess," Proceedings American Society of Engineering Education Annual
Conference, Milwaukee (1997)
8. Mullenax, C., "Making Lemonade-Dealing with the Unknown,
Unexpected, and Unwanted During Graduate Study," Proceedings
American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference, Salt
Lake City (2004)
9. Feibelman, PJ., A Ph.D. IsNotEnough, Perseus Books, Reading, MA
(1993)
10. Smith, R.V., Graduate Research: A Guide for Students in the Sciences,
3rd Ed., University of Washington Press, Seattle (1998)
11. Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, On Being a
Scientist; Responsible Conduct in Research, National Research Coun-
cil, Washington, DC (1995)
12. Booth, W.C., G.C. Colomb, and J.M. Williams, The Craft ofResearch,
2nd Ed., The University of Chicago Press, Chicago (2003)
13. Niemantsverdriet, H.M., "How to Give Successful Oral and Poster Pre-
sentations," [cited 2005; Available from: ]
14. Alley, M., The Craft of Scientific Presentations; Critical Steps to Suc-
ceed and Critical Errors to Avoid, Springer, New York (2003)
15. Blackburn, T.R., Getting Science Grants; Effective Strategies for
Funding Success, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco (2003)
16. "Ethical Guidelines to Publication of Chemical Research," [cited 2005;
Available from: ontentId=paragon/menu_content/newt othissite/eg_ethic2000.pdf.>]
17. "APS Guidelines for Professional Conduct," [cited 2005; Available
from: ]
18. Kovac, J., The Ethical Chemist; Professionalism and Ethics in Science,
Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2004)
19. Gordon, T.T., and A.S. Cookfair, Patent Fundamentals for Scientists
and Engineers, 2nd Ed., Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL (2000)
20. Kanare, H.M., Writing the Laboratory Notebook, American Chemical
Society, Washington, D.C. (1985) 1


Chemical Engineering Education











Graduate Education
\. _>


AN INTRODUCTION TO THE ONSAGER


RECIPROCAL RELATIONS


CHARLES W. MONROE
Imperial College London, SW72AZ, UK
JOHN NEWMAN
Environmental Energy Technologies Division,
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,
and University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1462


A n important question stimulated the fundamental de-
velopment of multicomponent transport theory: How
many independent transport properties characterize
coupled diffusion? The answer was provided by Onsager, who
used fluctuation theory to find reciprocal relations among the
transport coefficients. The Onsager reciprocal relation connects
thermodynamics, transport theory, and statistical mechanics.
To illustrate this connection, a relation is derived here for the
Soret and Dufour effects in binary ideal-gas diffusion.
Reciprocal relations may be appropriately introduced in
graduate courses on thermodynamics, transport, or statistical
mechanics. The subject can provide a capstone to a thermo-
dynamics course, where it shows how thermodynamic meth-
ods extend to transport processes. In a transport course, the
eventual development of reciprocal relations can motivate a
formulation of thermodynamically consistent multicomponent
transport laws.
Statistical mechanics is probably the most relevant field.
As well as showing the importance of fluctuation correlations
when analyzing systems near equilibrium, the reciprocal
relation introduces several elementary properties of equilib-
rium correlations. In a statistical context, the derivation also
provides a means to review topics from thermodynamics
and transport, illustrating how these seemingly disparate
fields relate.
This discussion follows the method that Onsager employed
in his seminal papers on irreversible processes.1, 2] By inspec-
tion of the system's local energy dissipation, macroscopic
flux laws are developed to relate diffusional fluxes to ther-
modynamic driving forces. Conservation laws for heat and
mass then provide a set of differential equations that describes


how macroscopic nonequilibrium states evolve. The Onsager
regression hypothesis allows this system of equations to be
applied to the time evolution of correlations between mi-
croscopic fluctuations of composition and temperature. A
reciprocal relation arises from the principle of microscopic
reversibility, which requires symmetry of equilibrium fluc-
tuation correlations. Equilibrium statistical mechanics can
then be used to express the reciprocal relation in terms of
macroscopic properties.
Flux laws that account for the Soret and Dufour effects in a
binary gas include four phenomenological properties. These
are the binary diffusivity ,, the thermal conductivity k, and
two additional coefficients for the Soret and Dufour effects.
Onsager's procedure provides a reciprocal relation among
them, showing that only three are independent.


John Newman joined the Chemical Engi-
neering faculty at the University of California,
Berkeley, in 1963, and has been a faculty se-
nior scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National
Laboratory since 1978. His research involves
modeling of electrochemical systems, includ-
ing industrial reactors, fuel cells, and batter-
ies, and investigation of transport phenomena
through simulation and experiment.


Charles Monroe is a research associate
in the Department of Chemistry at Imperial
College London. Presently, his work pertains
to the electrical and surface properties of
interfaces between immiscible electrolytic
solutions. The research is in collaboration
with Prof. Alexei Kornyshev at Imperial
and with Prof. Michael Urbakh at Tel Aviv
University.


� Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2007


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007










FLUX LAWS
Flux laws must satisfy several requirements. Near equilib-
rium, fluxes are linear with respect to diffusion driving forces,
and vice versa. Also, when all forces are zero, all fluxes are
zero. Proper diffusion laws should involve kinematically
independent fluxes and thermodynamically independent driv-
ing forces.
The diffusion of component i can be induced by gradients
of chemical potential g (Fickian diffusion), temperature T
(the Soret effect), or pressure p (centrifugation). A generalized
thermodynamic force which drives the flux of i is

d, =-c, Vt + SVT M- Vp (1)


where c is the concentration of i, M its molar mass, and S, its
partial molar entropy; p is the density. The term with Vp cor-
rects for the equilibrium chemical potential gradient of pure i
in a gravitational or centrifugal field; the term with VT makes
d independent of the reference state for entropy in g. Because
the Gibbs-Duhem equation requires that d = 0, the number
of independent mass-transfer driving forces is one fewer than
the number of components.
For a binary system, the entropy-continuity equation is

DS = V. + SJ, +SJ + g (2)



where t is time, S is the specific entropy, J is the molar flux
of i relative to the mass-average velocity, and g is the local
rate of entropy generation; q'is a derived quantity, obtained
by subtracting the latent heat carried by diffusing species from
the total heat flux.* This equation can be manipulated with
the material, momentum, and energy continuity equations, the
first law of thermodynamics, and vector identities to eliminate
all of the substantial derivatives. The energy dissipation per
unit volume, Tg, then takes the formt
Tg = -q'. Vln T + (, - v2) -.d (3)

where v1 and v2 are the component velocities. Thus q' and
- V InT arise naturally as a flux and driving force associated
with heat transfer.
To write general flux laws for an isotropic system, the two
fluxes in Eq. (3) can be related to the two driving forces in
linear, homogeneous relations, with four phenomenological
proportionality constants (i.e., diffusion coefficients), Lqq,
Lq , Lq , and L,,:
q' = -LqqVlnT+ Lqdl
(4)
v1 -v2 = -LqVlnT +L,,d,

Here Llq accounts for the Soret effect, and Lq , the Dufour


effect. (In an anisotropic system, each of the L would gener-
ally be a tensor.)
For a binary ideal gas at uniform pressure, Eqs. (4) be-
come
q' = -kVT- RTcTL Vy,


V1 2- V


12y2
-Lq7 In T - - Vy1


where y, is the mole fraction of component i and cT = c1 + C2. In
Eqs. (5), L /T has been identified as k (the thermal conduc-
tivity), and RT Ll as /yy2 (proportional to the binary
diffusivity), so that Fourier's and Fick's laws appear when
one of the driving forces is absent. The reciprocal relation
allows a restatement of these flux laws in terms of only three
transport properties.

TRANSPORT AND MOMENTS
Later it will be important to know how conservation laws
for mass and energy control system evolution. This can be
elucidated by describing a transient macroscopic variation
within the system. General solutions of the continuum trans-
port equations for arbitrary initial variations of composition
and temperature specify how composition changes, with
the assumption in the present example that the system is at
uniform pressure.
Continuity equations govern both components and the
thermal energy. The choice of system dictates an isobaric
energy equation. Due to isotropy, it is sufficient to treat dif-
fusion in one direction. To simplify the analysis, consider a
one-dimensional slab of length L. Assume that displacements
from equilibrium are sufficiently small that the governing
equations can be expressed in forms linearized around a final
equilibrium state, denoted with a superscript co.
A difference between the two equations that express compo-
nent continuity yields a single equation in terms of (v - v2), and
the sum of mole fractions, y, + y2 = 1, can be used to eliminate
derivatives of y2. Thus two transient equations of the form


1 aT
T at

ay,
at


k- a2T RL a2yl
C+x
CT ax2 ax2


y;y2Llq a2T
+ a
T" ax2


a2 y
12 ax2


govern y, and T. Here x denotes the position within the slab.
It is preferable to simplify Eqs. (6) so that they depend only

* If the total heatflux is q, then q' = q - Z H J, where H is thepartial
molar enthalpy of i.
f For a simple example of this procedure, see Bird, Stewart, and
I . .I'.. A detailed derivation is given by Hirschfelder, Curtiss,
and Bird.'4


Chemical Engineering Education










on time. To do this Onsager examined the moments of y, and
T-that is, their distributions integrated over position. The
slab is closed and insulated; its total contents of material and
energy are constant in time. This manifests itself as a property
of the moments, such as


fi[y(t,x)- y]dx = 0 (7)
0

A similar equation holds for [T (t, x) - Tj].
Fourier series obey the properties of the moments and can
be used to describe y, and T. Cosine series meet the additional
requirement that both fluxes are zero at x = 0 and L. Series
expansions of the temperature and composition distribution
are given by


T- T
T_


Yi - Y = bm(t) cos m-
m=1 L

These have been written so that both a and b are dimen-
sionless.
Substitution of Eqs. (8) into Eqs. (6) yields a system of
ordinary differential equations. To separate the Fourier
components by wave number m, multiply each equation by
cos(mrx/L) and integrate with respect to x from 0 to L. The
orthogonality of the cosine function shows that different
harmonics are decoupled, and one obtains


da
dz

db
dz


k - RL l b
k--a ---Rb
cC m m
TyyLm -
yly2L qam bm


where T = m2 T2 t/L2. Eqs. (9) can be solved directly, yielding
functions that describe how the amplitudes of arbitrary initial
distributions decay with time. This general formulation of the
macroscopic problem sets the stage for statistical analysis.

STATISTICAL MECHANICS
AND TIME CORRELATIONS
At macroscopic equilibrium, constant values T = T- and
y, = y- prevail throughout the slab. This view belies the
microscopic reality. As time passes, particles move randomly,
causing local variations in the temperature and composition.
Imagine taking a snapshot of the slab at equilibrium and
mapping out T and y, with position; the distributions will be
nearly, but not exactly, uniform. Such an instantaneous sample
is called afluctuation state. Equilibrium itself is an aggregate
of transient fluctuation states.


Reciprocal relations may be appropriately
introduced in graduate courses on thermody-
namics, transport, or statistical mechanics.

Onsager's regression hypothesis states that fluctuations
evolve according to the laws that govern macroscopic varia-
tions. In practice, the regression hypothesis allows am and bm
to be used as descriptors of microscopic states. For instance,
it says that Eqs. (9), which govern macroscopic variations,
also apply to transient fluctuation states.
The total set of available fluctuation states is called the en-
semble. In a fluctuating equilibrated system, the macroscopic
properties differ from those of a system with uniformly dis-
tributed intensive properties. Averages over the ensemble of
fluctuation states quantify how the macroscopic properties of
a fluctuating system differ from those of a uniform system.
Correlations measure the degree to which two attributes
of a system vary together. The ensemble average of a pair
of fluctuations, such as (ambm), indicates how am and bm are
correlated within the ensemble- that is, for a fluctuation state
selected at random, how much one expects the value of a to
correspond with that of bm. With the regression hypothesis, the
equations from transport theory can also be used to analyze
fluctuation correlations.
The average (am ( T)bm ( To)) defines the initial correla-
tion between am and bm at time r0. This quantifies the degree
to which two fluctuations are expected to be correlated for
instantaneous observations of the system. A more general
correlation involves fluctuations observed at different times.
The time correlation between a at T0 and b at a later instant
T + T,

Cab ()=(am(To)bm( o+T)) (10)

is expressed with the shorthand notation Cab (T). Note that Cab (0)
represents the initial correlation, which is also written with
the shorthand notation CO.
To apply the regression hypothesis to Eqs. (9), multiply each
successively by a (TO) and b (to), then take the ensemble
average,* yielding four differential equations for the time
correlations. Then find solutions of this system for arbitrary
initial conditions. With the simplifying notation
k-
a --- and
2cTCP 2

S1 y2 yRLl qLq ( )
ao =,a + -- (11)



t For the time being it is sufficient to note that ( ) is a linear operator.
The initial correlations section discusses the averaging operation
in more detail.


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


am (t) cos --m-
m=l1 L










the time correlations become


Caa () C a e- Lcosh(ao)- - -sinh(o )]

0 qlR -a+ si ntll (0 , )
C Op




-Co q- e- sinh(aOT)
bb O0Cp 0
C oC
o(X




Cbb(r) Cbe-Lcosh(aot)+ sinh(aoT)]


-Ca Lql e-a' sinh(aTt) (12)
0(o

Initial correlations decay exponentially, with decay constants
(a + ao) and (a+ - a). (Thermodynamic stability requires
that both constants be positive.)

MICROSCOPIC REVERSIBILITY
AND RECIPROCAL RELATIONS
In an equilibrium ensemble, time correlations have symme-
try properties that lead to reciprocal relations. These properties
arise from the principle of microscopic reversibility.
Onsager's interpretation of this principle is that, at equilib-
rium, molecular processes occur with equal likelihood in the
forward and reverse directions. That is, the expectation that
an event observed now will be followed T later by a second
event is the same as the expectation that it was preceded T
ago by the second event, or

(am (to)bm (zo + )) = (a (o)bm (to - )) (13)

This property is also called time-reversal symmetry.[s]
Because equilibrium is a stationary condition, time correla-
tions are insensitive to shifts of T0 in Eq. 10. Replacement of
T0 with T0 + T leaves correlations unchanged. Thus

(am (To)bm (To - ))= (am (To + )bm (To)) (14)

which is also known as the principle of time-translational
invariance.
With Eq. (13), the principle of time-translational invariance
can be used to show


I o) I
Figure 1. Qualitative behavior of the decay of correlation
C with correlation time T.


(am (To)bm (To + ))= (a (To + )bm (0o))
or Cab ()= Cba ()


which phrases the principle of microscopic reversibility: the
expectation that a first event observed at To will be followed
T later by a second event is the same as the expectation that
the second event observed at To will be followed T later by
the first.J6'
Figure 1 presents the qualitative behavior of time correla-
tion Caa. The regression hypothesis showed that correlations
decay exponentially. The decay is symmetric in the forward
and reverse directions because of microscopic reversibility.
A reciprocal relation is obtained directly from the statement
of microscopic reversibility in Eq. (15). Equating Cab to Cba
from Eq. (12) relates the transport properties to the initial
correlations Ca� Cb, and Cb (= Ca) through
Co~yy C , C_ k Cb
r 1 Yiy2 c kC P Cab
q1' Cp- 2 LT + (16)
q R Cb 1q R Rc CT

This is the most general statement of the reciprocal relation
for thermal diffusion in an isotropic, isobaric, binary ideal-gas
mixture. All four of the transport coefficients are involved.
The result is independent of T; it is also independent of m,
as shown shortly.

INITIAL CORRELATIONS
To get the magnitudes of the initial correlations in terms of
macroscopic quantities, Onsager applied statistical methods to
equilibrium fluctuations, referencing Einstein's statement that
fluctuation states are equally probable.t This axiom allows
the probability density of fluctuation states in the ensemble
to be simply related to a thermodynamic potential. Once
the probability density is known, it can be used to compute
ensemble averages.


Chemical Engineering Education










Because the system in question here is adiabatic, the dis-
tribution of states within the ensemble is determined by the
entropy S. The principle of equal probability shows that the
entropy of a system with �2 available states is given by
S = k ln (17)

where kB is Boltzmann's constant. Correlations between fluc-
tuations introduce some microscopic order; therefore, when
the composition and temperature fluctuate in an adiabatic
system, the entropy does as well. If entropy itself fluctuates,
Eq. (17) suggests that the probability density of fluctuation
states within the ensemble, p, can be written as


when am (T) = bm (To) = 0.
By following the definition of the ensemble average, with
f = am (T) bm (T) and p given through Eqs. (18) and (21), one
finds that the cross-correlations are zero,


C0 = Ca =0


The other initial correlations, found with f
and f = bm (To) bm (T), are
Co Am
C0 m and
Y Y2
0 AmCp
bb R


(22)


am (T0) am (T0)
m v'm v0


(23)


p=-exp
N ^kB


(18)


where N is a normalization factor to make the sum of p over
all accessible S equal to unity.
The ensemble average of a property f, (f), is given by
integrating fp over all states (over all values of am and bm, at
every m, at a given instant). For instance,


Cb =(am(Tr)bm(To))oc J ambmp(S)damdbm (19)


To implement integration like this one, S must be stated in
terms of the fluctuation amplitudes am and bm.
In the present example of a binary ideal gas, the system
entropy can be expressed as an integral over the slab volume.
It depends on T and y, throughW


S=RcT lnT- ylny -(1- y)ln(1-y)-lnp dV (20)


For small displacements from uniform distributions, S can be
found in terms of am and bm as follows. Let S- be the system
entropy when y, and T are uniform. Express y, and T in the
integrand of Eq. (20) as linear perturbations around y1 and
T-. Then insert the Fourier series from Eqs. (8) for the linear
perturbations and perform the integration. Constant terms
contribute to S-, and linear terms vanish, leaving only qua-
dratic terms. (For large systems, terms of higher than second
order are negligibly small.) Thus

nTR j ,F-pa2 )+ I b 2
S(Tr)= S- nTR X+ a (to)+ b(To) (21)
Sm=l YR y2

where nT is the total number of gas molecules in moles. This
form of S has the correct qualitative properties; any nonzero
am (TO) or bm (T0) lowers the entropy from its maximum value


Note that they are always positive. In these expressions, Am
is a constant, which depends in a rather complicated way on
the coefficients in Eq. (21), as well as S- and the probability
normalization factor N. More significantly, Am may depend
on m-but its specific value is never needed because Eq.
(16) involves only ratios of correlations. Thus the prefactor
cancels, and the reciprocal relation is independent of the
wavenumber.
Values of the initial correlations from Eqs. (22) and (23)
can be inserted into Eq. (16), revealing that


Lq = Llq


(24)


This establishes the desired reciprocal relation. The transport
coefficients for the Soret and Dufour effects equate.
Proper application of Onsager's principles, as demonstrated
above, may not always lead to such a simple result. In general,
a reciprocal relation yields only the same number of relation-
ships among transport properties as a symmetry of the matrix
L. The symmetry expressed by Eq. (24) arose from Eq. (16)
in large part because the system is an ideal gas, for which the
fluctuation correlations have particularly simple properties.
When considering reciprocal relations for nonideal gases or
liquids, activity coefficients must be incorporated into the
constitutive laws for chemical potential. These additional
thermodynamic relations make activity-coefficient gradients
appear in Eqs. (5), and can lead the cross-correlations to be
nonzero, complicating the analysis somewhat.J81 It has not
been established conclusively that this complication leads to
transport-coefficient asymmetry.

DISCUSSION
Onsager reciprocal relations are a compelling topic for
study because of the important physical concepts involved,
the generality of their derivation, and the diverse fields which
they interrelate.


� For simplicity, the possible dependence of c, and C on y, and T
have been neglected while deriving Eq. (20).


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007











In this analysis, the mass-transfer driving forces were ex-
pressed in terms of mole fractions, and the flux law for mass
transfer was expressed relative to the velocity of component
2. But Eq. (16) results if flux laws are written in terms of any
other complete set of composition variables (mass fractions,
molar concentrations, etc.), or with any other reference veloc-
ity for the fluxes (the mass-average velocity, number-average
velocity, etc.). When linearizing around a uniform state, the
same reciprocal relation is obtained no matter which variables
are considered.
To find expressions for the initial correlations, the system
was assumed to be adiabatic. For isothermal, isobaric systems
one should express the probability density of states in terms
of the Gibbs free energy; for isothermal systems with fixed
volume, one should express p in terms of the Helmholtz free
energy. This does not affect reciprocal relations for ideal-gas
mixtures, but in nonideal cases the thermodynamic potential
chosen for ensemble averaging may affect the initial cor-
relations.[8]
Another issue is that the initial correlations appear to have
the same value at every m. Since m ranges to infinity, this
seems to say that the sum of fluctuation correlations is infinite.
In fact, the summations in Eq. (21) must terminate at some
large value of m, where the wavelength of fluctuations ap-
proaches molecular dimensions. The macroscopic theoretical
result which was used to derive Eq. (21) does not properly
describe this regime.
The Onsager reciprocal relation is often cited as a general
proof of cross-coefficient symmetry in coupled transport
laws. It is important to realize that microscopic reversibility,
which implies time-correlation symmetry, does not necessar-
ily imply a consequent symmetry of macroscopic transport
properties. Given thermodynamically rigorous transport laws,
it may be correct to assert transport-coefficient symmetry in
macroscopic transport models. But no statistical proof based
on the regression hypothesis substantiates this assertion for


the equations typically used to describe simultaneous heat,
mass, momentum, and charge transport within nonideal, mul-
ticomponent solutions. This issue was first raised by Coleman
and Truesdell[91 and has stood unresolved for almost 50 years.
Recent attempts have been made to address the problem, but
at present the discrepancy remains.8 ,10 11]

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Freedom-
CAR and Vehicle Technologies of the U.S. Department of
Energy, under contract DE-AC03-76SF0098. Dr. Monroe was
also supported by the Leverhulme Trust, grant F/07058/P.

REFERENCES
1. Onsager, L., "Reciprocal Relations in Irreversible Processes. I," Physi-
cal Rev., 37(4) 405 (1931)
2. Onsager, L.,"Reciprocal Relations in Irreversible Processes. II," Physi-
cal Rev., 38(12) 2265 (1931)
3. Bird, R.B., WE. Stewart, and E.N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena,
John Wiley and Sons, 1st Ed., 350, New York (1960)
4. Hirschfelder, J.O., C.E Curtiss, and R.B. Bird, Molecular Theory of
Gases and Liquids, John Wiley and Sons, New York (1954)
5. Callen, H.B., Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics,
John Wiley and Sons, 2nd Ed., New York (1985)
6. Tolman, R.C., "The Principle of Microscopic Reversibility," Pro-
ceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of
America, 11(7) 436 (1925)
7. Einstein, A. "Theorie der Opaleszenz von homogenen Fliissigkeiten
und Fliissigkeitsgemischen in der Nihe des kritischen Zustandes,"
Annalen der Physik, 33(4) 1275 (1910)
8. Monroe, C.W, and J. Newman, "Onsager Reciprocal Relations for
Stefan-Maxwell Diffusion," Indust. and Eng. ( i....... Research,
45, 5361 (2006)
9. Coleman, B.D., and C. Truesdell, "On the Reciprocal Relations of
Onsager," J. Chem. Physics, 33(1) 28 (1960)
10. Wheeler, D.R., and J. Newman, "Molecular Dynamics Simulations of
Multicomponent Diffusion. 1. Equilibrium Method," J. Phys. Chem-
istry B, 108, 18353 (2004)
11. Monroe, C.W, D.R. Wheeler, and J. Newman, "Nonequilibrium Linear
Response Theory," unpublished work. 1


Chemical Engineering Education











Random Thoughts...









WHY ME, LORD?


RICHARD M. FIELDER
North Carolina State University


Carlie, a student in your first-semester sophomore
course, stands in front ofyour desk in obvious distress.
He starts talking about the test he just failed, and then
he tells you that he had a B average in hisfreshman year but
;il,, . , are falling apart this semester and he's failing most of
his courses. As he talks, he gets more agitated and seems to
befighting back tears. Then it's as if he suddenly thinks "Hey,
this is my professor-I can't lose it 1 . lit in front of him." He
makes a heroic effort to pull himself ;.... . .. .1. 1/.. .. -. '-, to
you for taking your time, and turns and heads for the door.
What should you do?
This is one of several scenarios in the "Crisis Clinic" seg-
ment of the teaching workshops Rebecca Brent and I give.
After presenting it, I assure the participants that it is not
hypothetical-if they haven't seen Charlie in their office yet
it's just a matter of time. I first ask them to discuss in small
groups their responses to "What should you do," and then
I tell them the step-by-step procedure I follow in situations
like that. Before I tell you, why don't you take a moment and
think about what you would do (or what you did if you've
already met Charlie).


Here's my algorithm.
1. I stop the student from leaving.
If he leaves your office, you've lost your best opportunity
to do anything useful to help. Say something like "Hang on
a minute, Charlie-I've got some time now and I'd really like
tofind out more about what 's going on. Have a seat." He will
almost certainly take you up on it. He's clearly desperate,


and if you indicate that you're willing to listen to him he'll
probably grab the offer with gratitude.
2. 1 reach into the left middle drawer of my desk, take out a
box of tissues, and put it down in front of the student without
saying a word. (That part is optional--don't do it if you're
not comfortable with it.) Then I take a seat near him and wait
until he regains control.
I'm giving two messages when I do this. First, Charlie
doesn't have to hold himself back any longer-if he wants to
let go, it's permissible. Second, he's not the first student who's
ever been in this situation in my office-I'm ready for this!
Sometimes students use the tissues, sometimes they don't.
Either way is fine-I just want them to know that they can.
3. 1 say "OK, Charlie-tell me a little about what's been
going on in your life."
There are many things I might hear. Charlie might simply
be over his head academically, or he may have gotten behind
early in the semester and can't manage to catch up, or he may
be overloaded with work and/or extracurricular activities and


� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 200;


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


Richard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese
Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering
at North Carolina State University. He is co-
author of Elementary Principles of Chemical
Processes (Wiley, 2005) and numerous
articles on chemical process engineering
and engineering and science education,
and regularly presents workshops on ef-
fective college teaching at campuses and
conferences around the world. Many of his
publications can be seen at edu/felder-public>.










is too exhausted to study or to be at his best on exams, or his
learning style may be incompatible with the way his courses
are being taught, or he could be homesick or anxious about
a health problem or a death in the family or the breakup of a
relationship, or he may be worried about losing the scholar-
ship that's keeping him in college, or he may have gone into
engineering for reasons other than interest or aptitude (such
as the promise of a high starting salary or because his father
told him to become an engineer) and he actually hates it,
or he could be abusing drugs or alcohol. Another possibil-
ity is that he is clinically depressed and has stopped taking
his medications or has never been diagnosed and treated.
Whatever he says, I listen and continue to gently probe until
I believe I have the whole story, or as much of it as Charlie
is willing to share.
What I do next of course depends on what the story is. If
it looks like a straightforward academic problem, I may try
to persuade Charlie to get some tutoring in the courses he's
having trouble with (in my upper right-hand drawer I have a
list of campus resources with contact information for all the
tutoring and academic counseling programs available to engi-
neering students) or I may decide to do some tutoring myself
if I have the time and inclination. As a rule, though, when
a student falls apart to the extent described in the scenario,
something else is almost invariably going on.
In the workshop, I ask the participants to suppose that this
is the case-Charlie is clearly in a serious state of depression
or anxiety related to a current crisis in his life or to a chronic
condition. Then I ask, what don't you do at this point? How
would you answer that question?
The answer is, you don't behave like an engineer and start
to problem-solve-which is to say, you don't play therapist.
You don't say "Charlie, I think I know what's going on here.
This looks like a severe case ofparanoiac schizophrenia-I
just read about that in Psychology Today. Let me tell you what
I think you should do." Forget that! Your diagnosis could be
wrong-it's almost guaranteed to be wrong-and if Charlie
takes your advice and it seriously backfires, you don't want
to live with the consequences. So, what do you do?
4. Get Charlie into the hands of a qualified counselor.
Most universities and colleges have counseling centers,
some with counselors on call 24/7, and most smaller in-
stitutions have at least one individual available to provide
counseling. Your job is to persuade Charlie to take advantage
of this service. You have to be careful about how you do it,
though: saying "Boy, are you messed up-you'd better get
to a shrink as quickly as you can!" will probably not get you
where you want to go.


I generally approach it like this. I first repeat Charlie's
story to him to make sure I got it right, getting him to
correct me if necessary. Then I say "OK, Charlie-I un-
derstand the problem, and it's a real one. But what you
need to know is that you're not the first student on this
campus in this situation-it's far more common than you
would imagine-and we have excellent counselors here
who know good strategies for dealing with problems like
this. I'd like you to talk to one of them and find out what your
options are." Then I go to my upper right-hand drawer, pull
out the number of the Counseling Center, and try to persuade
Charlie to call right then and make an appointment-or if
the way he's been talking or acting suggests that he may
be suicidal or a threat to someone else or simply in acute
distress, I will walk with him to the Counseling Center,
continuing to talk calmly and reassuringly to him and not
leaving him until he is with a trained counselor. At that
point I'm almost finished.
Of course you can't force students into counseling-all you
can do is persuade, and some may refuse (although most of
the students I have tried to persuade have agreed to go). If
he refuses, all I can do is proceed to Step 5-unless again
I believe that Charlie is a threat to himself or to others, in
which case I will call the Counseling Center or Campus
Security and let them know what's going on so they can
do their own checking and intervene if necessary. (I have
never had to do that, but it can happen.) In any case, the
last step is:
5. Follow up.
I make a point of periodically checking in with Charlie for
at least several months after that initial meeting. "Hey, Char-
lie-how are you doing? What's happening with thatproblem
we talked about? Did you meet with the counselor-how did
it go?" Many depressed students who drop out or worse feel
isolated, sensing that no one knows or cares what's going on
with them. The knowledge that at least one of their teachers is
concerned enough to inquire about them could go a long way
toward helping them recover and start functioning effectively
in their courses again. At that point, I'm finished-regardless
of what happens to Charlie, I can rest comfortably knowing
that I have done all I can for him.* 7



* Like all professors I'm occasionally forced to act as a counselor
and like most of them I was never trained for this role, so I asked
several excellent psychotherapists-Elena Felder, Grace Finkle,
Denise Moys, and Sheila Taube-to look over this column before I
sent it in. I acknowledge with gratitude their helpful comments and
suggestions.


All of the Random Thoughts columns are now available on the World Wide Web at
http://www.ncsu.edu/effective_teaching and at http://che.ufl.edu/~cee/

Chemical Engineering Education











Ij=1 laboratory














ILLUSTRATING CHROMATOGRAPHY

WITH COLORFUL PROTEINS







BRIAN G. LEFEBVRE, STEPHANIE FARRELL, AND RICHARD S. DOMINIAK
Rowan University * Glassboro, NJ 08028
advances in biology are prompting new discoveries in
the biotechnology, pharmaceutical, medical technol- sor of chemical engineering at Rowan
ogy, and chemical industries. Developing commer- University. He received his B.Ch.E. from
cial-scale processes based on these advances requires that the University of Minnesota in 1997 and his
Ph.D. from the University of Delaware in
new chemical engineers clearly understand the biochemical 2002. Prior to joining Rowan, he performed
principles behind the technology, and develop a firm grasp postdoctoral research in protein structural
biology at the University of Pennsylvania.
of chemical engineering principles.[1 To deliver this knowl- His primary teaching interest is integrating
edge to students successfully, engineering educators require biochemical and biomolecular engineering
in the engineering curriculum.
additional resources to illustrate relevant biological concepts engineering c um
throughout the curriculum. Stephanie Farrell is an associate professor
In a typical bioprocess, the majority of costs are associated of chemical engineering at Rowan University.
She received her B.S. from the University of
with isolating and purifying the desired biological com- Pennsylvania, her M.S. from Stevens Institute
pound.21] In many of the later stages of purification, more than of Technology, and her Ph.D. from the New
50% use some type of chromatography. [] Exposing students Jersey Institute of Technology. She has
been recognized for her impact on chemical
to biochromatography provides an introduction to biosepara- engineering education with the 2006 Robert
tions and the underlying biochemistry concepts. As separation G. Quinn Award, the 2004 ASEE National
Outstanding Teaching Medallion, and the
processes are based on the physical and chemical properties 2002 ASEE Ray W. Fahien Award.
of the product and chief impurities, a wide range of concepts Richard S. ominiakis currently employed
Richard S. Dominiak is currently employed
can be included, such as overall cell composition, protein at Foster Wheeler. He received his B.S. in
biochemistry, recombinant protein production techniques, chemical engineering from Rowan Univer-
sity in 2006. While at Rowan University he
and bioprocess optimization. Some bioseparation techniques spent two years as a research assistant on
(adsorption, ion exchange, and chromatography), however, this topic.
are difficult to teach in a lecture-based format because they
are rate-based, time-dependent processes.[4]
The use of visually appealing materials has been shown
to motivate and captivate students in biology and chemical
� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2007
Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 24










engineering settings. -12] To overcome the educational chal-
lenges presented by the technical material, an anion exchange
chromatography experiment using a pair of colorful proteins
was developed. This paper presents a detailed description of
the experiment and summarizes the effect of operating pa-
rameters on the quality of protein separation. This experiment
could be applied in three settings: core chemical engineering
courses focused on separation processes, unit operation labo-
ratory courses, and elective courses focused on biochemical
engineering or bioseparations.

ION EXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY
Chromatography was developed early in the 20th century
by M.S. Tswett, who used the technique to separate plant pig-
ments.[1315] Two recent articles have outlined the life of Tswett
and the development of chromatography, and are available
in References 16 and 17. The following quote describes the
invention of the term "chromatography" by Tswett:
"Like light rays in the spectrum, the different components
of a pigment mixture, obeying a law, are resolved on the
calcium carbonate column and then can be qualitatively
and quantitatively determined. I call such a preparation a
chromatogram and the corresponding method the chroma-
tography method."

The word "chromatography" was an appropriate choice,
as it is composed of two Greek roots-"chroma" (color)
and "graphein" (to write)-leading to a literal translation of
"color writing." Although Tswett theoretically envisioned the
concept of elution chromatography, where each compound
migrates through the column and exits the column in the liquid
phase, this was not actually used until the 1930s by others.
Tswett preferred to end his chromatographic separations with
the colored rings still on the column, and obtained pure com-
ponents by pushing the resin out of the column with a wooden
rod and slicing off individual bands with a scalpel.
Ion exchange chromatography exploits differences in elec-
trostatic interactions between the various proteins and the
resin.181 In anion exchange chromatography, the resin has a
positive charge, and proteins with a negative charge on their
surface will exhibit an attraction for the resin. To recover
bound proteins, the electrostatic interaction between resin
and proteins is disrupted, typically by increasing the salt con-
centration or changing the pH of the mobile phase. Proteins
can be separated based on the strength of their interaction
with the resin, as more weakly bound proteins can be easily
removed by increasing the salt concentration, while tightly
bound proteins require extreme salt concentrations or pH to
be removed. Using gradient elution, individual proteins can
be recovered in a relatively concentrated pool. This differs
from common migration chromatography techniques, such
as gas and reversed-phase liquid chromatography, where a
short pulse of sample is applied to the column and is diluted
as it travels through the column.


Ion exchange chromatography is generally performed in a
six-step process using three aqueous solutions: a buffer with
a low salt concentration at an appropriate pH, a buffer with a
high salt concentration at the same pH, and the protein sample
at the same pH and with a low salt concentration (Figure 1).
Broad guidelines for the duration of each step are reported
in parentheses in terms of column volumes, defined as the
product of the cross-sectional area and length of the column.
During period "A," low-salt buffer at an appropriate pH is
delivered to the column to equilibrate the resin (3-5 column
volumes). During period "B," the sample is applied to the
column (sample volume). During period "C," additional
low-salt buffer is delivered to the column to wash away any
unbound protein (1-2 column volumes). During period "D,"
the concentration of salt in the buffer is slowly incremented
to selectively elute the proteins (3-5 column volumes). Dur-
ing period "E," additional high-salt buffer is delivered to
remove tightly bound protein (1-2 column volumes). During
period "F," the column is re-equilibrated with low-salt buffer
(1-2 column volumes). A pH gradient may be used in place
of a salt gradient in ion exchange chromatography. Shaped
gradients or a series of steps may be substituted for a linear
gradient in period "D."
Anion exchange chromatography resin and chromatogra-
phy columns are available from a variety of sources. In this
paper, DEAE Sepharose Fast How resin (GE Healthcare,
catalogue# 17-0709-10, $50 for 25 mL) and 24 mL low-pres-
sure Kontes columns (Fisher, catalogue# K420401-1030,
$20.17 per column) were used. Chromatography resin was
prepared and packed into a column using the directions sup-
plied with the resin. A variety of fluid delivery systems can
be used, including pipette and gravity-fed flow, peristaltic
pumps, and complete chromatography systems such as the
Akta Basic from Amersham Biosciences (results in Figures 3
and 4, page 245). Additional information on the theory of ion
exchange chromatography and equipment needs can be found
in bioseparation or biochemical engineering textbooks.18 20]


Time or Volume

Figure 1. Outline of general gradient-based
chromatography method.


Chemical Engineering Education











COLORFUL PROTEINS

Colorful proteins with different physical properties were
selected for the experiment. In order to illustrate the chal-
lenging nature of biological separations, two proteins with
similar ionic properties were chosen. Table 1 describes the
physical properties of the two proteins.
DsRed2 is a large, tetrameric fluorescent protein that ab-
sorbs light at 558 nm and emits light at 583 nm, giving the
protein its characteristic reddish color. 221 EGFP is a smaller,
monomeric fluorescent protein that absorbs light at 488 nm
and emits light at 508 nm, giving the protein its characteristic
green color.[23] Both proteins are very bright, with extinction
coefficients over 40,000 M cm1.[23 24]
At Rowan University, these proteins have been produced
by students in Junior and Senior Clinic through recombinant
protein expression in bacteria. DsRed2 is also available from

TABLE 1
Physical Properties of the Colorful Proteins
Protein Color (i ) Molecular Weight[z21 Isoelecl
DsRed2 Pink (558 nm) 103 kDa
EGFP Green (488 nm) 27 kDa

TABLE 2
pK Values for Side Chains of Amino Acids[27]
Amino Acid pK Number in Protein
Carboxy terminal 2.34 n = 1
Aspartic acid (Asp, D) 3.86 n2
Glutamic acid (Glu, E) 4.25 n3
Cysteine (Cys, C) 8.33 n4
Tyrosine (Tyr, Y) 10 ns
Amino terminal 9.69 n6 = 1
Histidine (His, H) 6 n7
Lysine (Lys, K) 10.5 n"
Arginine (Arg, R) 12.4 n9


1 3 5 7 9 11 13
pH
Figure 2. Protein titration curves for EGFP and DsRed2.

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


commercial sources (e.g., Clontech, catalogue# 632436, $300
for 100 gg). Many variants of EGFP, which should display
similar purification behavior, are commercially available (e.g.,
Clontech, catalogue# 632369 for GFPuv, $293 for 100 gg).
Recombinant protein expression in bacteria is inexpensive, as
expression of colorful protein DNA (with E. coli BL21(DE3)
cells transformed with pET21d plasmid containing the sub-
cloned colorful protein DNA) using standard recombinant
DNA to, lliqu,. J' 1 has resulted in a protein cost of roughly
$2 per mg. The results in Figures 3 and 4 were obtained using
approximately 500 gg of each protein.

CHROMATOGRAPHY METHOD
DEVELOPMENT
Separating proteins during the gradient portion of an ion
exchange separation requires two elements. For the proteins
to bind to the charged resin, they must have an oppositely
charged patch on their surface. For the proteins
to elute at different positions in the gradient,
they must have different binding affinities for
trick Pointrz2 the resin. The net charge over the entire protein
63 can be used as an initial estimate of the surface
6.3
ionic character of the protein.
5.6
The isoelectric point is defined as the pH at
which the protein has no net charge. Above the isoelectric
point, the protein will adopt a net negative charge. The
isoelectric point and molecular weight of the protein mono-
mers were calculated from amino acid sequences using the
Web-based program ProtParam.211
In addition to the isoelectric point, it is also important to
consider the bulk protein charge over a range of pH values
when designing a separation based on ion exchange. A
protein titration curve can be constructed using a Web-
based program or by building a spreadsheet to perform the
calculation.125 26] Briefly, the bulk protein charge at a given
pH can be calculated from the pK values for the ionizable
amino acid side chains using the information in Table 2
and Eq. (1).

protein charge = -(n1 + n2 + n3 + n4 + n) +
=9 n*10-pH
n (1)
S10pH + 10-pK (1)

To match the Web-based program, pK values from Lehnin-
ger are reported. 27 Values from other biochemistry textbooks
may be substituted. Computing the protein charge over a range
of pH values leads to a protein titration curve (Figure 2). Ex-
amination of this curve can help identify a useful pH range
for separation, where the proteins will bind to the resin with
different affinities. This requires that the signs of individual
protein charges are the same, but the magnitudes are different.
For the EGFP and DsRed2 case, a pH value between 6.5 and
8.5 is appropriate for anion exchange.











QUANTIFYING CHROMATOGRAPHIC
SEPARATION
The quality of a chromatographic separation can be q
tified by a resolution calculation. This is illustrated in
(2).[18,28]

resolution= Vmab Vm
0.5(Wba + Wbb)
Vmax represents the volume at which peak i displayed m
mum signal, and Wb, represents the baseline width of pe
based on the intersection of peak tangents with the base
When the resolution is one, the peaks have an overlap of a
2%. As the resolution decreases, the peaks overlap fur
until, at a resolution of zero, the peaks elute at exactly
same position. Examples of resolution calculations car
found in the Sample Calculations section of this article
in textbooks on separation processes.[28]

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION


Table 3 summarizes the materials used in this expe
For columns with smaller diameters, less material is re
The majority of materials can be reused. As long
maximum pressure is not exceeded, the column shot
indefinitely. The resin can be cleaned according to th
ufacturer's recommendations, and proteins can be rec
and reused for many experiments. An additional
option is to produce the proteins in-house through
recombinant protein production methods, which
essentially eliminates the protein cost.


Anion exchange chromatography experiments
were developed to show that a mixture of DsRed2
and EGFP can be selectively eluted at different salt
concentrations, providing a powerful demonstra-
tion of the principles of protein binding and elution.
This style of experiment is suitable for unit opera-
tion laboratories and upper-level elective courses
with laboratory components. To illustrate the
importance of process parameters on ion exchange
chromatography performance, two proteins with
similar ionic properties were chosen. This
resulted in a challenging protein separation
that was sensitive to process conditions.
In addition to the chromatography column
and related tubing, three solutions are needed
for the experiment: a buffer with a low salt
concentration (Buffer A), a buffer at the same
pH with a high salt concentration (Buffer B),
and a separated protein sample (Sample).
Chromatography experiments were performed
at pH values between 7.5 and 8.5. Buffer A
was typically 50 mM Tris (pKa = 8.3) at the
pH of interest. Buffer B was typically 50
mM Tris, 300 mM NaCl at the pH of interest.
244


rin
qui
as
uld
oe
:ov


uan-
Eq.


Sample was typically prepared by diluting concentrated stocks
of DsRed2 and EGFP into Buffer A. For the experiments, at
a pH value of 7.5, 50 mM sodium phosphate was used as the
buffer. For experiments at pH values below 7.5 or above 9.0,
an alternative buffer should be selected, as buffer pKa should
not deviate from solution pH too significantly.


(2) Experiments were performed on an Amersham Biosci-
ences Akta Basic chromatography unit, equipped with a UV
aaxi- detector capable of monitoring three individual wavelengths.
ak i, Total protein was monitored at 280 nm, EGFP was monitored
line. at 488 nm, and DsRed2 was monitored at 561 nm. Alterna-
bout tively, the process could be monitored off-line by collecting
their, small fractions and measuring the absorbance on a visible
the spectrophotometer.
n be
and RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Six methods were evaluated for protein separation ef-
fectiveness. For each method, the separation resolution was
calculated using Eq. (2). Table 4 compares the resolution for
lent. each method, illustrating the effect of buffer pH, salt concen-
ired. tration, and gradient shape on separation quality.
the Figure 3 presents a typical chromatogram for method 4.
last The black curve is the absorbance at 280 nm, which tracks all
nan- proteins (A280). The dark gray curve is A561, which tracks


ered


TABLE 4
DsRed2 - EGFP Separation Resolution
Method pH Salt Gradient Resolution
1 8.5 Linear from 20 to 300 mM NaCl 0.02
2 8.0 Linear from 20 to 300 mM NaCl 0.32
3 8.0 Steps at 80, 125, 170, 215, 300 mM 0.58
NaCI
4 8.0 Steps at 20, 50, 80, 110, 140 mM NaCl 0.48
5 7.5 Linear from 0 to 300 mM NaCl 0.51
6 7.5 Step at 135 and 150 mM, linear to 0.72
300mM
7 7.5 Steps at 30, 60, 90, 105 mM NaCl 0.66

Chemical Engineering Education


TABLE 3
Materials Required for Experiment


Item Quantity Price
Kontes 24 mL column 1 $20
DEAE Sepharose fast flow resin 25 mL $50
25 mM Tris, pH 8.0 200 mL $0.06
25 mM Tris, 200 mM NaC1, pH 8.0 100 mL $0.09
Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)
From vendor 500 pg $1,500.00
Produced in-house 500 pg $1.00
DsRed2
From vendor 500 pg $1,500.00
Produced in-house 500 pg $0.15











DsRed2, and the light gray curve is A488, which tracks EGFP.
Figure 4 presents a time-lapse image of the proteins separating
as they move through the column (also available in color as
Figure 4 in Reference 12).
Complete separation was never achieved, as the ionic prop-
erties of EGFP and DsRed2 are very similar. The quality of
separation is strongly affected by buffer pH and moderately
affected by the shape and type of gradient.

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS
To illustrate the use of Eq. (1), consider EGFP. This protein
contains one carboxy terminal (n=l ), 18Asp (n2=18), 16 Glu
(n= 16), two Cys (n4=2), 11 Tyr (n5=11), one amino terminal
(n6=l), nine His (ni=9), 20 Lys (n8=20), and six Arg (n9=6)
residues. Using Eq. (1):
1*10 pH
protein charge = -(1+ 18 + 16 + 2 +11) + 10-
10-pH +10 234
18 * 10 pH
10-pH +10386
At a pH of 9.5:
protein charge = -48 + 6.9x10 8 + 4. 1x10 + 9.0x105
+0.13 + 8.4 + 0.61+ 2.8x103 + 18 + 6.0
protein charge = -14.7
To illustrate the use of Eq. (2), consider the separation
shown in Figure 3. For EGFP, V,. B = 64.5 mL and wb,b
16.8 mL. For DsRed2, VA = 57.2 mL and wb = 13.5 mL.
Using Eq. (2):


r n 64.5mL - 57.2mL
resolution = 16.
0.5 (16.8mL + 13.5mL)


1800

1600

1400

1200
E
a 100:

| 80.
0
S60,


0.48


52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Volume [mL]


66 68


Figure 4. Anion exchange of a mixture of EGFP and
DsRed2 using method 4 (see Table 4). Also available in
color as Figure 4 in Reference 12.

COURSE IMPLEMENTATION
In any setting, this experiment illustrates the effect of pro-
tein properties and operating conditions on separation quality.
At an introductory level, lecture material focused on protein
and chromatography resin properties could be combined with
one or two experiments to illustrate a "real" protein separation.
This type of coverage may be appropriate for a core separa-
tions course. Extended student experimentation, where stu-
dents evaluate separation quality for multiple methods, would
allow students to discover the effect of operating conditions on
separation quality. This type of coverage may be appropriate
for unit operations laboratories. In a biochemical engineering
or bioseparations elective, this experiment can be combined
with additional material to highlight the need
for multiple separation techniques in order to
-A280 [mAU]
-A561 [mAU] produce a pure protein product. The material
A488 [mAU] on isoelectric point and titration curve predic-
tion can also be used as a stand-alone item in
a variety of settings.
SUMMARY
An experiment in anion exchange chroma-
tography using a pair of colorful proteins has
been described. This material allows instruc-
tors to introduce important biochemical engi-
neering and physical biochemistry principles
into the chemical engineering curriculum. The
visual appeal and low cost of supplies will
make the experiments an effective teaching
tool in core courses focused on separation
70 72 processes. The variety of possible behavior
will make the experiments a robust addition
to unit operations laboratories or biochemical
hod 4). engineering electives.


Figure 3. Chromatogram for step gradient at pH 8.0 (meti

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007












ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors thank Elizabeth N. DiPaolo, Amanda E. Rohs,
and Kyle Smith for assistance in protein production and
module development. The authors also acknowledge fund-
ing from Rowan University through the SBR program and
the National Science Foundation through the CCLI program
(DUE-0633527).


REFERENCES
1 Lenhoff, A.M., "A Natural Interaction: Chemical Engineering and
Molecular Biophysics," AIChE Journal, 49, 806 (2003)
2. Lightfoot, E.N., and J.S. Moscariello, "Bioseparations," Biotechnology
and Bioengineering, 87, 260 (2004)
3. Bonnerjea, J., S. Oh, M. Hoare, and P Dunnill, "Protein Purification:
The Right Step at the Right Time," Bio/technology, 4, 954 (1986)
4. Wankat, P, "Teaching Separations: Why, What, When, and How,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 35, 168 (2001)
5. Ward, W., G.C. Swiatek, and D.G. Gonzalez, "Green Fluorescent
Protein in Biotechnology Education," Methods Enzymol., 305, 672
(2000)
6. Bes, M.T., J. Sancho, M.L. Peleaot, M. Medina, C. Gomez-Moreno,
and M.E Fillat, "Purification of Colored Photosynthetic Proteins for
Understanding Protein Isolation Principles," Biochem. Mol. Biol. Ed.,
31, 119 (2003)
7. Sommer, C.A., EH. Silva, and M.R.M. Novo, "Teaching Molecular
Biology to Undergraduate Biology Students," Biochem. Mol. Biol. Ed.,
32, 7 (2004)
8. Larkin, PD., and Y. Hartberg, "Development of a Green Fluorescent
Protein-Based Laboratory Curriculum," Biochem. Mol. Biol. Ed., 33,
41(2005)
9. Hesketh, R.P, C.S. Slater, S. Farrell, and M. Carney, "Fluidized Bed
Polymer Coating Experiment," Chem. Eng. Ed., 36, 138 (2002)
10. Burrows, V.A., "Experiments and Other Learning Activities Using
Natural Dye Materials," Chem. Eng. Ed., 38, 132 (2004)
11. Komives, C., S. Rech, and M. McNeil, "Laboratory Experiment on


Gene Subcloning for Chemical Engineering Students," Chem. Eng.
Ed., 38, 212 (2004)
12. Lefebvre, B.G., and S. Farrell, "Illustrating Bioseparations with Color-
ful Proteins," Proceedings of the 2005 ASEE Annual Conference and
Exposition, Portland, OR, Jun. (2005), available at uky.edu/~aseeched/papers/2005/2513-Lefebvre.pdf> (last accessed
08-14-07)
13. Tswett, M., Ber. Dtsch. Botan. Ges., 24, 316(1906); English translation
available in Reference 15
14. Tswett, M., Ber. Dtsch. Botan. Ges., 24, 384(1906); English translation
available in Reference 15
15. Berezkin, V.G., Ed., ( ti -...... .- I... ,, Adsorption Analysis: Selected
Works ofM.S. Tswett, Ellis Horwood (1990)
16. Ettre, L.S., "M.S. Tswett and the Invention of Chromatography," LCGC,
21, 458 (2003)
17. Ettre, L.S., "The Centenary of Chromatography," LCGC, 24, 680
(2006)
18. Garcia, A.N., M.R. Bonen, J. Ramirez-Vick, M. Sadaka, andA. Vuppu,
Bioseparation Process Science, Blackwell Science (1999)
19. Blanch, H.W., and D.S. Clark, Biochemical Engineering, Marcel
Dekker, Inc. (1999)
20. Shuler, M.L., and E Kargi, Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts,
2nd Ed., Prentice Hall, PTR (2002)
21. (last accessed 08-14-
07)
22. Living Colors' DsRed2. CLONETECHniques XVI(3), 2-3 (2001)
23. Tsien, R.Y., "The Green Fluorescent Protein," Annu. Rev. Biochem.,
67, 509 (1998)
24. Bevis, B.J., and B.S. Glick, i ...II. Maturing Variants of the Dis-
cosoma Red Fluorescent Protein (DsRed)," Nature Biotech., 20, 83
(2002)
25.
(last accessed 08-14-07)
26. compo.html> (last accessed 08-14-07)
27. Lehninger, A.L., Biochemistry, WH. Freeman (1975)
28. Wankat, PC., Separation Process Engineering, 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall
PTR (2007) O


Chemical Engineering Education











curriculum
-0


AN INTRODUCTORY COURSE IN


BIOENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY

For Chemical Engineering Sophomores


KIM C. O'CONNOR
Tulane University * New Orleans, LA 70118
The evolution of biology into a molecular science is a
stimulus for curriculum reform in chemical engineer-
ing. Biologists have gained unprecedented insight into
living organisms at the molecular level, which has fueled the
recent growth of the biotechnology industry. According to
the Office of Technology Assessment of the United States
Congress, biotechnology is defined as "any technique that
uses living organisms or substances from those organisms,
to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals,
or to develop microorganisms for specific uses."'11 The bio-
technology industry has more than tripled its revenue since
1992 to $25 billion in 2003,11' and various new products
are under development: genetically modified plants with
enhanced nutritional value,[2] microarray assays of genome-
wide gene expression for personalized medical treatments,[3]
and molecular therapies that reprogram differentiated cells to
a stemlike state for the repair of tissue damaged from aging,
disease, or trauma,[4] to name a few.
Rapid advancements in biotechnology are generating many
opportunities for engineers to translate fundamental biological
discoveries into practical solutions that will benefit society.
Bioengineering applies engineering concepts and methods
to agriculture, biology, the environment, and medicine to
create useful products. Of all the engineering disciplines,
chemical engineering is the most closely aligned with the
molecular sciences and, therefore, is uniquely positioned to
lead the development of biomolecular products. This neces-
sitates training a workforce capable of applying chemical
engineering principles to molecular events in biological
systems by reforming the chemical engineering curriculum
to incorporate biology.
Curriculum reform at the undergraduate level is evident in
chemical engineering departments across the United States
and is reflected in the renaming of many departments. One
approach is to fulfill advanced chemistry requirements with
biochemistry and technical electives with molecular and
cellular biology. Instructors are incorporating biological ex-


amples into traditional courses, including material and energy
balances, thermodynamics, kinetics, and transport. Training
in bioengineering can extend outside of the classroom set-
ting through undergraduate research and internships. Some
graduate-level bioengineering courses are open to seniors, and
new bioengineering courses are being developed specifically
for undergraduates. These approaches to curriculum reform
are documented by this author and others.E571 At present,
the extent of curriculum reform is highly variable from one
department to the next, with some departments offering
comprehensive programs of muid ' I These strategies should
partially coalesce over time to form a more uniform approach
to curriculum reform while retaining the individual identities
of different departments.
In 2005, the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular
Engineering at Tulane University revised its core curriculum
to offer a new introductory course in bioengineering and bio-
technology for sophomores. The three-credit, lecture course is
part of the department's bioengineering program that contains
a concentration of technical electives, a combined degree pro-
gram offered in cooperation with the Department of Cell and
Molecular Biology, and related co-curricular activities. The
course emphasizes the solution of bioengineering problems
with chemical engineering concepts, teaches the underlying
fundamentals in biology, and introduces students to related


� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 200;


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


Kim O'Connor is a professor in the De-
partment of Chemical and Biomolecular
Engineering at Tulane University and is
a graduate of Rice University (B.S. '82)
and the California Institute of Technology
(Ph.D. '87). Her postdoctoral training is
in molecular and cellular biology, and
her research interests are cell and tissue
engineering. Her awards include Tulane
Health Sciences Award for Leadership
and Excellence in Intercampus Collabora-
tive Research and Lee H. Johnson Award
for Teaching Excellence.










biotechnology products. As a prerequisite, this course is open
to students majoring in chemical engineering, biomedical
engineering, and engineering physics. All other students must
obtain the instructor's permission to enroll in the course. This
article provides an overview of the course, a discussion of its
impact on the curriculum, and a survey of similar courses in
other departments.

REFERENCE MATERIALS
Several reference materials are required to address the
scope of this introductory course. The assigned textbook for
the course, Biochemical Engineering by Blanch and Clark,[9]
is supplemented with material from other bioengineering
texts: Bioprocess Engineering by Shuler and Kargi,t11 Ther-
modynamics and Kinetics for the Biological Sciences by
Hammes,[111 and Receptors: Models for Binding, Ti afficnki1',,.
and Signaling by Lauffenburger and Linderman.[12] Research
articles in archival journals are the source for a variety of
in-class examples, homework problems, and test questions.
Biochemistry by Voet and VoetE131 and Molecular Biology of
the Cell by Alberts et al.[141 are excellent references for the
underlying fundamentals in biology. Students are assigned
commentaries, letters, and news articles that were published in
the journals Cell, Nature, Nature Biotechnology, and Science
to learn about biotechnology products. Barum's Biotechnol-
ogy: An IntroductionE'1 provides a historical perspective and
overview on many aspects of biotechnology.

OBJECTIVES AND TOPICS
The course is designed for students to fulfill three educa-
tional objectives: (1) apply chemical engineering concepts to
identify, formulate, and solve bioengineering problems; (2)
learn the fundamental biochemistry, molecular biology, and
cell biology underlying each problem; and (3) understand the
relevance of the acquired bioengineering skills to the develop-
ment of biotechnology products. To achieve these objectives,
this introductory course presents representative topics (Table
1) at a level appropriate for sophomores that will prepare the
students for more comprehensive courses in their junior and


senior years. There are 15 topics covered during a semester
that are arranged in five groups, with each group containing
bioengineering, biology, and biotechnology components. The
biotechnology topic in a given group is selected to demon-
strate products that can be generated using the bioengineering
and biology concepts within that group. Approximately 60
percent of the lecture time is devoted to solving bioengineer-
ing problems; the remaining 40 percent is divided between
biology fundamentals and biotechnology products.
Consider Group 4 in Table 1 as an example. Instruction for
this section is designed to address each of the three educational
objectives for the course. With respect to the bioengineering
objective, students are taught in Group 4 to apply the chemi-
cal engineering concepts of material balances, kinetics, and
mass transport to identify, formulate, and solve problems
that quantify the reversible interactions between a ligand and
its cell-surface receptor and dynamic trafficking events that
transport the ligand-receptor complex within the cell. Students
learn that bioengineers manipulate signaling and trafficking
reactions as a means to control cell behavior in a variety of
scenarios, including the development of drug therapies that
target cell surface receptors. For the biology objective, the
fundamentals of cell signaling and trafficking are presented
with the help of bioinformatics tools that provide data on
protein structure and function as described in the next section
on computer projects. Lectures describe how the binding of
ligand to its receptor triggers a cascade of signaling and traf-
ficking events that enable cells to sense and respond to envi-
ronmental cues. The CD that accompanies Molecular Biology
of the Cc //''1' mi n I Iud animation of a representative signaling
cascade to help students understand the spatial interactions
between biomolecules during signal transduction. Biotechnol-
ogy instruction for Group 4 focuses on two applications of
receptors for the development of cancer therapies. The first
is an immunotherapeutic regime in which lymphocytes from
a melanoma patient are genetically engineered to express a T
cell receptor that recognizes the cancer cells.[15] The second
application is the use of an inhibitor of the progesterone recep-
tor to prevent the development of breast tumors in women at


TABLE 1
Interrelationship Among Bioengineering, Biology, and Biotechnology Topics
Group Bioengineering Biology Biotechnology
1 Thermodynamics and kinetics of Proteins, structure-function relationships Treatment of misfolded proteins in
protein folding/denaturation Alzheimer's
2 Enzymatic reaction rates, simple Enzymes, pathways, regulation Engineering biosynthetic pathways in
pathway construction Golden Rice
3 Cell population dynamics, design of Prokaryotes, eukaryotes, organelles, Repairing damaged tissue with stem cells
batch bioreactors apoptosis/necrosis
4 Kinetics of receptor-ligand binding, Receptors, cell signaling, trafficking Receptor-mediated therapies to treat
cellular transport cancer
5 Thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA composition, structure, base-pairing Microarray assays for personalized
DNA melting/annealing medicine

'48 Chemical Engineering Education











high risk for breast cancer.[16 To address the biotechnology
objective, lectures for this section discuss the importance of
a quantitative understanding of cell signaling and trafficking
to the rational design of therapeutics.

COMPUTER PROJECTS
Biological systems are intrinsically complex, particularly at
the molecular level. Engineers and applied scientists increas-
ingly use computer technology to address this complexity
by managing and analyzing large quantities of biological
data with bioinformatics tools, and by elucidating biological
mechanisms with mathematical modeling techniques. The
new fields of bioinformatics and computational biology are
introduced to chemical engineering sophomores in the context
of data acquisition and problem solving as described in the
following paragraphs. Students learn computational skills
through demonstrations by the instructor in class, tutorials
held by a teaching assistant in a computer lab, and homework


assignments. Proficiency in this material is evaluated by in-class
computer projects and half of the four-hour final exam.
Bioinformatics tools are employed throughout the course
with the objectives to teach students about the structure and
function of proteins and genes, provide background informa-
tion about the biotechnology products discussed in the course,
serve as a reference source for data in problem solving, and
introduce the students to the rapidly developing field of
bioinformatics. A leading resource for protein information
is the Swiss-Prot protein knowledgebase, which is available
through the Expert Protein Analysis System (ExPASy) server
() of the Swiss Institute of Bioinformat-
ics.17] Students learn about several proteins through this Web
site, including the (3-amyloid precursor protein involved in
Alzheimer's disease.["1 They search the database for such
information as amino acid sequence, 3D structure, protein
function, ligand-binding site, and related biochemical path-
ways. Representative search results are shown in Table 2 for


TABLE 2
Representative Search Results from the ExPASy Protein Knowledgebase for Maize Phytoene Synthase
Category Search Result
Entry name PSY MAIZE
Primary accession # P49085
Protein name Phytoene synthase, chloroplast [precursor]
Synonym EC 2.5.1.-
From Zea mays (Maize)
Function Catalyzes reaction from prephytoene diphosphate to phytoene
Pathway Carotenoid biosynthesis
Subunit Monomer
Subcellular location Plastid; chloroplast
Sequence length 410 amino acids [unprocessed precursor]
Molecular weight 46481 Da [unprocessed precursor]
Sequence:
10 20 30 40 50 60
MAIILVRAAS PGLSAADSIS HQGTLQCSTL LKTKRPAARR WMPCSLLGLH PWEAGRPSPA
70 80 90 100 110 120
VYSSLPVNPA GEAVVSSEQK VYDVVLKQAA LLKRQLRTPV LDARPQDMDM PRNGLKEAYD
130 140 150 160 170 180
RCGEICEEYA KTFYLGTMLM TEERRRAIWA IYVWCRRTDE LVDGPNANYI TPTALDRWEK
190 200 210 220 230 240
RLEDLFTGRP YDMLDAALSD TISRFPIDIQ PFRDMIEGMR SDLRKTRYNN FDELYMYCYY
250 260 270 280 290 300
VAGTVGLMSV PVMGIATESK ATTESVYSAA LALGIANQLT NILRDVGEDA RRGRIYLPQD
310 320 330 340 350 360
ELAQAGLSDE DIFKGVVTNR WRNFMKRQIK RARMFFEEAE RGVNELSQAS RWPVWASLLL
370 380 390 400 410-
YRQILDEIEA NDYNNFTKRA YVGKGKKLLA LPVAYGKSLL LPCSLRNGQT

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 24










maize phytoene synthase, which is genetically engineered
into Golden Rice to produce 3-carotene.21 Students access the
BRENDA comprehensive enzyme database ( enzymes.org>) operated by the University of Cologne to
acquire specific activities and dissociation constants to solve
problems assigned in the course.[19] The Gene and Online
Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) databases, which
are accessed from the home page of the National Center
of Biotechnology Information (),
provide useful information about specific genes.[201 The lat-
ter catalogues all known diseases with genetic components,
such as breast cancer and the BRCA1 gene. Students search
the Gene database for DNA sequences, description of the
gene product, variants, and chromosome location. The Gene
database is preferred over the Nucleotide database on the
same Web site for this introductory course since queries return
focused results on a specific gene rather than all known DNA
sequences related to that gene.
Several of the bioengineering problems assigned in the
course require computation to solve. Students are required
to formulate mathematical models to describe biological pro-
cesses such as simple biosynthetic pathways, cell population
dynamics, and cellular trafficking. Microsoft Excel and Math-
works' Matlab are the preferred platforms for programming
and numerical integration of coupled differential equations.
For example, population balances are versatile models that
account for dynamic interactions among heterogeneous cell
populations in cell culture. Heterogeneity arises in a variety
of culture processes, including ex vivo amplification of stem
cells,[21] tissue assembly,221 and the production of biophar-
maceuticals from cell culture.[23] In one problem, students
are asked to evaluate the suppression of cell death by Bcl-2
over-expression in a cell culture producing a human-mouse
chimeric aniiuIlh id\ Solution requires the development of a
population-balance model that simultaneously describes the
kinetics of both cell growth and cell death by apoptosis and
necrosis (Figure 1). A least-squares fit of simulated-to-ex-
perimental concentrations for each cell population in culture
generates a set of kinetic rate constants with which to evaluate
suppression of cell death.

IMPACT ON CURRICULUM

Core Curriculum
Tulane has incorporated the introductory bioengineering
and biotechnology course into the core chemical engineer-
ing curriculum primarily to prepare students for employment
opportunities that increasingly require a broader range of
skills, including bioengineering. Chemical engineers are
being employed in a greater variety of industries, such as
the biotechnology, food, and pharmaceutical sectors. Of
the chemical engineers with a B.S. that were employed in
industry upon graduation, 10.3% worked for biotechnology
and pharmaceutical companies in 2001, up from 4.6% in
250


1998. -41 'n i those students who seek employment in more
traditional sectors, such as chemicals and fuels, may require
bio-based skills for their work as more companies replace
chemical and petroleum processing with biological and bio-
mimetic processing in an effort to generate environmentally
benign products. The current interest in biofuels is a salient
example of this trend."25 Last, students can no longer expect
to work at a single company throughout their professional
careers. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics at the U.S.
Department of Labor, the median number of years that wage
and salary workers have been with their current employer was
only 4.0 years as of January 2006.[26] Given this information
on employee tenure, students can expect to hold multiplejobs
in their professional careers, perhaps in different industries.
The chemical engineering curriculum should be sufficiently
broad-based to prepare students for this labor market.
The faculty in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecu-
lar Engineering at Tulane decided to interject biology into its
core curriculum with the new course described here instead
of with an existing biochemistry or biology course. In the life
sciences, students are taught to reduce living organisms to
their molecular components. The Human Genome Project271
is emblematic of this reductionist approach. Reams of nucleo-
tides have been sequenced, but far less is known about how
the genes that they encode integrate to produce a phenotype. A
hallmark of chemical engineering education is a quantitative-
systems view to problem solving that is particularly relevant
to the analysis of large volumes of biological data generated
in the advent of high-throughput technologies. In the bio-
engineering and biotechnology course, students will begin
to learn how to apply their engineering skills to reconstruct
molecular components of a biological system into a holistic
response. The selection of this course for the core chemical
engineering curriculum reflects in part the importance of a
systems approach to the understanding of how a living organ-
ism functions and responds to change.





Viable Cells

/ Early Apoptotic
Cells
Necrotic Cells


Late Apoptotic Apoptotic
Cells Bodies

Cellular Debris

Figure 1. Population dynamics of cell growth coupled
with bimodal cell death by apoptosis and necrosis.


Chemical Engineering Education










Sophomore-Level Course
The decision to offer the introductory bioengineering and
biotechnology course in the second semester of the sophomore
year was based on three factors. First, sophomores have a
good foundation to begin solving bioengineering problems
with chemical engineering skills. By the time chemical engi-
neering sophomores start the spring semester at Tulane, they
have taken differential equations, the first semester of organic
chemistry, material and energy balances, and the first semester
of thermodynamics; moreover, they are starting concurrently
the first semester of transport phenomena and second semester
of organic chemistry. Second, the sophomore-level course
gives students an opportunity to develop a depth of knowledge
in bioengineering and biotechnology in the junior and senior
years. Specifically, instructors can replace introductory topics
in their senior-level bioengineering and biotechnology courses
with more advanced material, and provide more challenging
bioengineering examples in traditional junior- and senior-
level chemical engineering courses. Third, there is sufficient
time after completion of the introductory course for chemical
engineering students-who had not previously considered a
bioengineering education-to fulfill Tulane's requirements
for interdisciplinary training in bioengineering. One caveat
with the timing is that the instructor of the introductory course
must teach kinetics in order for the sophomores to understand
some of the bioengineering topics.

Bioengineering Program
As mentioned in the introduction, the core course described
here is a fundamental component of bioengineering train-
ing within the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular
Engineering. It provides an overview of the subject and can
be followed by an in-depth study of bioengineering through
additional courses and co-curricular activities. Chemical
engineering students have the option of concentrating their
technical electives in biomolecular engineering by completing
advanced courses in four of the following areas: applied bio-
chemistry, biochemical engineering, biomedical engineering,
cell biology, gene therapy, and molecular biology. Another
option for chemical engineering students is a combined degree
program that provides a comprehensive learning experience
in the classroom and through co-curricular activities. Upon
completing the four-year program at the undergraduate level,
students earn a Bachelor of Science degree in chemical
engineering with a second major or minor in the biological
sciences from the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
For additional information on the combined degree program,
readers are referred to a separate article on the subject by this
author. 5] There are several co-curricular activities at Tulane
that reinforce and supplement bioengineering instruction,
including participation in independent research, clinical
rounds at the Tulane Health Sciences Center, public health
projects, prehospital care and ambulance service, and sum-
mer employment.
Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


Other Curricula
The impact of this sophomore-level course extends beyond
the boundaries of the chemical engineering curriculum to
other disciplines, particularly biomedical engineering and
engineering physics. The classroom can serve as a conduit
for dialog between these different groups of students that will
hopefully foster interdisciplinary exchange later in their pro-
fessional careers. Biomedical engineers can account for 5 per-
cent to 10 percent of the students enrolled in the course. They
are taught to apply the molecular perspective of a chemical
engineer to develop products for medical application. Begin-
ning in the 2007-2008 academic year, Tulane University will
offer a new bachelor of science degree program in engineering
physics that emphasizes modem physics and its application
to advanced technologies such as quantum electronics and
nanofabrication. The bioengineering and biotechnology
course described here was selected by the Department of
Physics as an elective for the engineering physics curriculum
to provide a foundation for more advanced study in such areas
as biomolecular materials and medical devices.
Student Feedback and Performance
Student evaluations of the bioengineering and biotechnol-
ogy course were obtained in 2005 and 2007. In the aftermath
of Hurricane Katrina, data were not collected in 2006. More
than 75 percent of the students on average strongly agreed or
agreed that the course objectives were satisfied. The instruc-
tor's assessment of student performance is based on scores
from tests, computer projects, presentations, and a final exam.
Student performance has been the strongest on biotechnology
questions and computer modeling problems and weakest on
the analytical solution of bioengineering problems. Student
feedback indicates that some of the most valuable aspects of
the course are the introduction to concepts and ideas presented
in upper-level courses, computer projects, example problems,
and biotechnology presentations. The students have also iden-
tified areas of weakness and proposed solutions. Some of the
students have difficulty relating the bioengineering problems
to the biotechnology products discussed in class and suggest
that the relationship be emphasized at the beginning of each
example problem. Others have requested more introductory
example problems to help them understand the more ad-
vanced problems that are solved in class. The instructor has
used student feedback to refine course content in the past and
will continue to do so in the future. Based on the profile of
previous classes, approximately 20 percent of the chemical
engineering students enrolled in this course are anticipated to
pursue a bioengineering career in graduate school, medical
school, or industry.

SURVEY
A survey was conducted of the Web sites for the 50 leading
chemical engineering departments in the United States as re-
ported in the most recent US News and World Report ranking

251












to evaluate the prevalence of bioengineering and/or biotech-
nology courses in chemical engineering curricula. All depart-
ments surveyed publish curricula and course descriptions on
their Web sites. In all cases, juniors and seniors are offered
a variety of elective and required courses in bioengineering
and/or biotechnology. At the lower levels, these courses are
far less prevalent. Less than 10 percent of the departments
offer freshman- and/or sophomore-level courses in this area,
and they are primarily introductory courses in biotechnology.
Tulane's sophomore-level course is unique in that it integrates
bioengineering and biotechnology topics, and emphasizes the
development of problem-solving and computational skills at
the sophomore level.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Course development was supported in part with a grant
from the National Science Foundation (BES-0514242) for
stem-cell research and its broader impacts, including teaching
stem-cell technology.


REFERENCES
1. Barnum, S.R., Biotechnology: An Introduction, 2nd Ed., Thomson
Brooks/Cole, Belmont, CA (2005)
2. Grusak, M.A., "Golden Rice Gets a Boost from Maize," Nat. Biotech-
nol., 23, 429 (2005)
3. Strauss, E., .... . . of Hope," Cell, 127, 657 (2006)
4. Surani, M.A., and A. McLaren, "A New Route to Rejuvenation,"
Nature, 443, 284 (2006)
5. O'Connor, K.C., "Incorporating Molecular and Cellular Biology into
a ChE Degree Program," Chem. Eng. Ed., 39, 124 (2005)
6. Varma, A., "Future Directions in ChE Education: A New Path to Glory,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 37, 284 (2003)
7. Westmoreland, PR., "Chemistry and Life Sciences in a New Vision of
Chemical Engineering," Chem. Eng. Ed., 35, 248 (2001)
8. Hollar, K.A., S.H. Farrell, G.B. Hecht, and P Mosto, "Integrating Biol-
ogy and ChE at the Lower Levels," Chem. Eng. Ed., 38, 108 (2004)
9. Blanch, H.W., and D.S. Clark, Biochemical Engineering, Marcel
Dekker, New York (1996)
10. Shuler, M.L., and E Kargi, Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts,
2nd Ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2002)


11. Hammes, G.G., Thermodynamics and Kineticsfor the Biological Sci-
ences, John Wiley, New York (2000)
12. Lauffenburger, D.A., and J.J. Linderman, Receptors: Modelsfor Bind-
ing, Trafficking, and Signaling, Oxford University Press, New York
(1993)
13. Voet, D., and J.G. Voet, Biochemistry, 3rd Ed., John Wiley, New York
(2004)
14. Alberts, B., A. Johnson, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and P. Walter,
Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th Ed., Garland Science, New York
(2002)
15. Offringa, R., "Cancer Immunotherapy is More than a Numbers Game,"
Science, 314, 68 (2006)
16. Marx, J., "Squelching Progesterone's Signal May Prevent Breast
Cancer," Science, 314, 1370 (2006)
17. Swiss Prot Protein Knowledgebase, Expert Protein Analysis System,
Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Switzerland (2007); expasy.org/sprot/>
18. Helmuth, L., "NewAlzheimer's Treatments That May Ease the Mind,"
Science, 297, 1260 (2002)
19. BRENDA, Comprehensive Enzyme Information System, University
of Cologne, Germany (2007);
20. Gene and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man Databases, National
Center of Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD (2007); www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov>
21. Prudhomme, W.A., K.H. Duggar, and D.A. Lauffenburger, "Cell
Population Dynamics Model for Deconvolution of Murine Embryonic
Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Differentiation Responses to Cytokines
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27. Baltimore, D., "Our Genome Unveiled," Nature, 409, 814 (2001) [


Chemical Engineering Education











M,1n^ class and home problems


INCORPORATION OF DATA ANALYSIS

Throughout the ChE Curriculum

MADE EASY WITH DATAFIT


JAMES R. BRENNER
Florida Institute of Technology * Melbourne, FL 32901


A t Florida Tech, we have incorporated DataFit (from
Oakdale Engineering"1) throughout the entire cur-
riculum, beginning with ChE 1102, which is an
eight-week, one-day-per-week, two-hour, one-credit-hour,
second-semester Introduction to Chemical Engineering course
in a hands-on computer classroom.[2] Our experience is that
students retain data analysis concepts when such concepts are
formally taught to them in ChE 1102 and periodically rein-
forced throughout their academic careers. This paper outlines
examples of several problems that have been included in my
senior and graduate courses, including heat of absorption of
hydrogen into a metal hydride, particle size distributions,
and reaction rate law analysis. All Excel and DataFit files
are available at:
.

THE HEAT OF ADSORPTION OF HYDROGEN
ONTO A METAL HYDRIDE
It is rare for ChE students to learn much about gas/solid
equilibrium, despite its importance in gas sensing, adsorption,
chromatography, and catalysis. A relatively simple experiment
to add to a unit operations laboratory that reinforces not only
thermodynamics, but also dynamic mass and energy balances,
is adsorption of hydrogen onto a metal hydride powder inside
a hydrogen storage bed.
The following derivation begins with the thermodynamic
relationships defining Gibbs free energy (AG) and the equi-
Vol. 41, No.4, Fall 2007


librium constant (Kq), for the reaction of H2 gas, at pressure PH,
with two vacant sites (whose concentration will be denoted
as [*]) in the metal hydride to form surface-bound hydrogen
(whose concentration will be denoted as [H*].


AG = AH - TAS


-RT In K
eq


eq H2 *12
The theoretical maximum hydrogen-to-metal (H/M) ratio
is a given in a crystal structure for the metal hydride: 1:1 for
AB H (A and B are metals such as La and Ni; y = 0-6) hy-
drides. The maximum total site density for hydrogen storage,
[H/M]max, is the sum of vacant and hydrogen sites divided by
the number of metal atoms in the metal hydride. If the activity
coefficients are all unity, as would be the case if the gas phase
and surface phase are ideal, one can substitute for the number

SJames R. Brenner received his B.S. degree
lu rl from the University of Delaware and M.S. and
Ph.D. degrees from the University of Michi-
gan. Dr. Brenner is an assistant professor
at the Florida Institute of Technology, where
he teaches an Intro to ChE course, materials
science and engineering lecture and lab,
petroleum processing, materials character-
ization, and nanotechnology. His research
interests are in hydrogen purification and
sensing, electronic noses, and nanoporous
materials.
� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2007


The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collections of interesting and novel prob-
lems in chemical engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by
presenting a particular principle in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel home
problem, are requested, as well as those that are more traditional in nature and that elucidate dif-
ficult concepts. Manuscripts should not exceed 14 double-spaced pages and should be accompanied
by the originals of any figures or photographs. Please submit them to Professor James O. Wilkes
(e-mail: wilkes@umich.edu), Chemical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann
Arbor, MI 48109-2136.










of surface sites that hydrogen has adsorbed, [H*], and also
apply some rules of logarithms to yield:


RT nPH, -2RTln( H
M ma.


[*])+ 2RTln[*] AH TAS= AG (3)


If fv is the fraction of vacant sites,
[*1
f -
V H
max

Division of Eq. (3) by RT yields:

, AHil AS , H
InPH = - H --S + 21n
R T R Mmax


1000
InP = Y = A - BX, where X =- (6)
T
one finds the intercept is 20 � 1 and the slope is -4.2 � 0.5,
which gives an entropy of reaction of (-156 � 11) kJ/K-mole
and a heat of reaction of (-35 � 4) kJ/mole.


(4) PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS
Students should have been exposed to both the probability
density, f(z), and cumulative density functions, F(z), of the
unit normal (or Gaussian) distribution in previous courses,
where erf is the error function:


Nonideal gas and surface behavior will change the magnitude
of the entropic term, but should not affect the enthalpic term.
It is common in hydrogen storage to plot the phase equilib-
rium relationships between hydrogen pressure 10000
in the gas phase (P) vs. the concentration of
hydrogen in a metal hydride, usually expressed
as either C for concentration or H/M atomic
ratio for the hydrogen-to-metal ratio (the latter 1000 -
of which will be used here), at constant tem-
perature (T). The adsorption isotherms shown
in Figure 1 are for a proprietary LaNis xAlx 100
hydride whose metal alloy precursor was sold E
by Ergenics31] and converted into a hydride
by myself and others.[4] For the very common 10
AB H -type hydrides (y = 0 to 6, A and B are
different metals), the maximum H/M atomic
ratio is 1.0.
Certainly DataFit is capable of fitting the 0.00
phase equilibrium relationship for Figure 1,
provided the user is capable of defining an Figure 1.
appropriate model, but a model of this com- plot, pan
plexity is beyond the scope of this paper. It is 1o
conventional in the metal hydrides community
to make what is known as a van't Hoff plot of
the natural logarithm of hydrogen pressure as
a function of reciprocal temperature at a fixed
hydrogen content in the plateau region. It is
common in LaNi -xAlx hydride literature to
choose the H/M atomic ratio = 0.3 in order to 1000-
construct this plot.[41 For LaNi xAlxH (y = 0-6)
compounds, [HM]max 1. Thus, an H/M atomic
ratio of 0.3 corresponds to f = 0.3. Thus, when
one makes the van't Hoff plot using the data in
lani5.dft (inside datafitanalysispaper2.zip>), the entropic term
and those to the right of it in Eq. (5) equal the 100
intercept of Figure 2, where the slope of Figure 2.7
2 is AH/R. When one fits this data in DataFit,
according to Eq. (6), Figure 2.
254


F(z) = f(z)dz


0.5 + 0.5erf z]


0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00
H/M --303K --334K --363K
Equilibrium pressure vs. hydrogen content (H/M atomic ratio)
metric in adsorption temperature for a LaNisA1l hydride41.


Van't Hoff plot for a LaNi ,Al1 hydride at constant H/M = 0.3.
Chemical Engineering Education


2.8 2.9 3.0
1000/Temperature (K')


21n(1- fv)- 21nf, (5)


3.1 3.2 3.3


1 -z
f (z) = exp
2 2











Based on coalescence theory, Granqvist and Buhrman
have shown that particle size distribution data should be ap-
proximated using log-normal distribution,[5] which is similar
to the normal distribution except that z = (In d - In d)/ln od
where d represents the particle diameter, d is the log mean
particle diameter, and od is the geometric standard deviation
of diameters. Since the particle diameters are logarithmically
distributed, evaluation of the standard deviation without
using probits analysis is difficult. Probits analysis allows
one to transform a Gaussian distribution into a straight line
using the inverse normal distribution function. The first step
in probits analysis is the definition of a geometric standard
deviation (GSD). The GSD is the particle diameter greater
than 84.13% of the particles in the distribution divided by the
diameter greater than 50% of the particles. The particle size
distribution data set in Figure 3 was obtained by Brenner et
al.J61 for a series of Fe nanoparticles prepared by microwave
dissociation of neat Fe(CO)5 in Ar, and can be found in


0.25


0.20 .

414
0.15 -

4.1
0.10


0.05 -


o.oo 00
0.1 1 10
Particle Diameter (nm)
Figure 3. Probability density function for particle size distribution
nanoparticles prepared via microwave plasma dissociation
neat Fe(CO)5 in Ar.'"

8




.6
5 5-


4:





1 10
Particle Diameter (nm)


fenosols03final.xls and probits.dft inside the aforementioned
datafitanalysispaper2.zip.
The distribution is plotted as a probability density function,
which is constructed in Excel as follows:
1) Determine the particle diameters for each particle, and
enter them into column A in Excel.

2) Make a row across the top of the spreadsheet ranging
from -1.0 to 2.0, in 0.1 increments, in cells B1 to AE1.

3) Define Eq. (9) in cell C2, where the "1" between the
two commas is the "true" case of the logical test, and
the "0" is the "false" case of the logical test.

SIF(B$1< log($A2)< C$1,1,0) (9)


4) Copy and paste Eq. (9) in columns C. .... -, , AE and
from rows 2 down to the bottom of the data set. This
operation groups the particle diameter into 30 .. ,. iIi/-
mically and evenly spaced bins ranging from 0.1 nm to
100 nm.
5) Sum each of the columns C .-,, ..J, AE
and divide each column by the total number of
particles to get a probability density function.

6) Sum up the particle counts in each column
to create a cumulative density function.

If one instead plotted the data as a cumulative
distribution function, one would see a sigmoi-
dal, or S-shaped curve. It is much easier to fit
cumulative distribution functions than their
derivatives, the probability density functions,
as the latter have substantially higher errors. In
order to plot such functions as straight lines un-
i- L - less one has a program capable of plotting data
100 using probability axes (such as Kaleidagraph),
the best way to analyze this kind of problem
n ofFe is using probits analysis, which requires the
of NORMINV function in Excel:
=NORMINV(C/ 100,D,E) (10)
where C is the cumulative percentage of par-
ticles with diameters less than "d," D is the
number of probits at the mean (exactly 5 for
50%), and E is the number of probits corre-
sponding to the standard deviation (set to 1).
In theory, the number of probits should range
from 0 to 10. Given that the error in the prob-
ability densities is about 0.5%, however, the
practical linear range for the data in Figure 4
is between 2 and 8.

4 Figure 4. Cumulative probability func-
tion plotted in probit form for particle size
distribution ofFe nanoparticles prepared
100 via microwave plasma dissociation of neat
Fe(CO), in Ar!6'


Vol. 41, No.4, Fall 2007











Graphically, the probit mean of 5 should correspond to
the geometric mean of the particles (~ 4.0 nm), and the ratio
of the diameter at 6 probits (~ 6.4 nm) to the diameter at
5 probits (~ 4.0 nm) should provide the geometric standard
deviation of the data (6.4 nm/4.0 nm = ~ 1.6). If one takes
the logarithm of the diameter data, puts it in the "x" column
in DataFit, puts the number of probits in the "y" column,
performs a simple y = ax + b fit, and finally goes into the
Evaluate tab under "Results Detailed," one can evaluate the
diameter-albeit with some effort-at 5 probits (3.8 nm)
and 6 probits (6.6 nm), giving rise to a geometric standard
deviation of 1.7.

REACTION KINETICS: DEHYDROGENATION
OF METHYLCYCLOHEXANE TO
FORM TOLUENE
An example of a more advanced problem that DataFit
makes surprisingly easy is fitting of chemical reaction rate
data. Data for the dehydrogenation of methylcyclohexane
to form toluene over a 0.3 wt.% Pt/Al203 catalyst is cited in
Problem 5.19 in Fogler's reaction engineering textbook,7 8]
and in prob519b.dft. Fogler's problem suggests four possible
rate laws to use, where M denotes methylcyclohexane:


1)- r = kPIPH2

kPMPH
3)-r = kMPH2 2 4)-
(1+ KPM)2


kPM
2)-rM (1 KP)

rM kPMP-2
M (I+ KMM PH2
(1+ KP, KHP H2 )


Though physical insight is not asked for in the problem
statement, this problem provides a wonderful opportunity
to relate abstract mathematical models to adsorption equi-
libria. Unless the values of a and ( are combinations of 1
and 0, then rate law 1 is a purely empirical model. Rate law
1 also implies the adsorption of all reactants and products is
relatively weak.


12 1.3
11 -12
0o 1.1
09 1 0
-07t -10
08
- - "---- 0 7
007
s05- - o 06
04 - 05
2.6- 0.4

0 0.0 X

Figure 5. Although Model 3 was a successful fit according to DataFit,
clearly the curve fit is not consistent with the data.! 8' The vertical lines
represent deviations between the experimental and calculated data.
256


The equilibrium constants in the denominators of rate
laws 2, 3, and 4 must be positive, but some students will not
recognize KM or KHl as equilibrium constants and may have
even forgotten what an equilibrium constant means. If THT
denotes tetrahydrotoluene, DHT denotes dihydrotoluene, and
* denotes a surface site, then Langmuir-Hinshelwood model
2 may be valid, given the following possible mechanism.
M+* M*
M* +2* -- THT* +2H*
THT * +2* DHT * +2H*
THT* +2* T* +2H*
2H* H2 2*
T* T + *
Model 2 describes a Langmuir dependence on methylcy-
clohexane only, and seems the most logical from a physical
standpoint. The denominator in Model 2 is possible if the
product of surface concentration and the equilibrium constant
for adsorbed hydrogen is negligible compared with unity. If
the reaction is surface reaction-limited, the rate-limiting step
will be the initial dehydrogenation step because the increasing
number of double bonds will allow the electrons to delocal-
ize. LeChatelier's principle leads us to believe that the rate
of dehydrogenation should be favored by high methylcyclo-
hexane pressures, and might be inhibited by both toluene and
hydrogen. Rate laws 3 and 4 both have either a zero-order or
first-order H2 dependence.
What most students will not know until the faculty member
discusses the homework solution is that, during dehydrogena-
tion reactions, a parallel reaction typically occurs in which
adsorbed toluene and/or partially hydrogenated intermediates
are polymerized to form a carbonaceous overlayer known as
coke. As this coke layer forms, the reaction rate will decrease.
Usually, coke can be hydrogenated and then desorbed if not
allowed to get very thick. As the coke layer gets thicker, it
becomes very hydrogen-deficient and almost gra-
phitic. With such insight into the catalytic chemis-
try, it becomes clear why a certain pressure of H2
is necessary to prevent catalyst deactivation.


Lacking such physical insight, both undergradu-
ate and graduate students consistently enter rate
expressions into DataFit without much thought.
Because Model 2 does not have a dependence on
the hydrogen pressure, DataFit will balk until you
supply a model definition that contains a 0*X2,
where X2 is the hydrogen pressure. With that
note, students should get the following results at
the 95% confidence intervals (Table 1). The ( pa-
rameter in Model 1 and all parameters in Models
3 and 4 are mathematically insignificant because
the errors in these parameters are larger than the
parameters themselves. Only Model 2 yields num-
bers that are mathematically significant. Of course,
Chemical Engineering Education


1 3 -











TABLE 1
Methylcyclohexane Dehydrogenation Curve Fit Parameters
Model # k K, Km a 3
1 1.1 0.1 - - 0.18+ 0.09 -0.03+ 0.13
2 12+2 9 _+3
3 3+4 8+19
4 8X1036 1x1045 7X10361 9x104 5X1036+7X1044


Figure 6. Langmuir dependence of toluene production rate on
cyclohexane pressure without hydrogen dependence (Mode


that does not mean this is the best possible model, only the
best of the four models in Professor Fogler's problem. It is
important to point out that DataFit says all four curve fits were
"successful," but Figure 5 (for Model 3) clearly demonstrates
that a successful fit may mean absolutely nothing.

The default DataFit plot for 3-D plots such as Figure 5
are colorful, but would be far superior if proper labels were
applied. By clicking the Format button and applying some
format options, one can obtain a plot similar to Figure 6 for
Model 2. For 2-D plots, I would not ask students to spend time
modifying plot scales, labels, etc., because plots are far easier
to make in Excel and are of a higher quality. Excel, however
is sorely lacking when it comes to 3-D plots, forcing people
to use what Microsoft calls category axes -thus restricting
3-D plots in Excel to bar charts.

CONCLUSIONS
The reason that I downloaded DataFit in the first place
was not because of its excellent curve-fitting capabilities, but


because-as of 1998 when I first started using it
while in industry-DataFit was the only program
that did proper 3-D scientific plotting for less than
$500. In 1999, when Florida Tech bought a site
license for DataFit version 6.1, it cost only $750
for the entire campus (albeit a relatively small
campus), whereas a single copy cost $100. More-
over, the site license allowed students and faculty
to use DataFit at home as long as they were doing
academic work.
As reported in a companion paper,[21 11 of 12
international graduate students without previous
exposure to either Polymath or DataFit found
fitting of vapor pressure data to be easier using


DataFit. Of the first 20 undergraduates who were
exposed to DataFit for four years, all rated it as
"excellent" or "above average" in exit surveys.
Students throughout Florida Tech's College of Engineering
have also awarded me consecutive student-nominated, col-
lege-wide teaching awards. I attribute this success largely to
consistent reinforcement of data analysis skills.

REFERENCES
1. Gilmore, J., DataFit, v 6.1, Oakdale Engineering, leengr.com>
2. Brenner, J.R., "Chemical Engineering Made Easy with DataFit," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 40(1), (2006)
3. Ergenics, Inc., , (Attn.: Gary Sandrock)
Ergenics is now part of HERATechnologies. Dr. Sandrock still operates
out of the same facility, but under the company name of SunaTech.
4. Klein, J.E., and J.R. Brenner, US DOE Report WSRC-TR-98-00094,
Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (March 31, 1998)
5. Granqvist, C.G., and R.A. Buhrman, J. Appl. Phys., 47, 2200 (1976)
6. Brenner, J.R., J.B. Harkness, M.B. Knickelbein, G.K. Krumdick, and
C.L. Marshall, Nanostructured Materials, 8, 1-17 (1993)
7. Sinfelt, J.H., H. Hurwitz, and R.A. Shulman, J. Phys. Chem., 64, 1559
(1960)
8. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd Ed.,
Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ, (1999) 1


Vol. 41, No.4, Fall 2007


1.4 -
E 1.2 - - 1.4
1. - - 1.2 E
0.8 - - 1.0i
0.6 - 0.8
0.4 00.6 i
0.2 - - 2 4
;o _ _L . 0.0
"cA,, -- 0.0











M T= curriculum
-- U s__________________


TEACHING REACTION ENGINEERING


USING THE ATTAINABLE REGION










MATTHEW J. METZGER, BENJAMIN J. GLASSER
Rutgers University * Piscataway, NJ 08854
DAVID GLASSER, BRENDON HAUSBERGER, AND DIANE HILDEBRANDT
University of the Witwatersrand * WITS, 2050 Johannesburg, South Africa

g tin ch ia e ne tde Matthew Metzger is pursuing his Ph.D. at Rutgers University. He received
lowing question: What makes one reactor different his B.S. from Lafayette College and spent two summers working with the
from the next? The answers received will often be chemical engineering department at the University of the Witwatersrand.
unsatisfactory and vary widely in scope. Some may cite the His interests lie in applying the attainable region approach to particle
processing in the pharmaceutical field.
difference between the basic design equations, others may
point out a PFR is "longer," and still others may state that it Benjamin J. Glasser is an associate professor of chemical and bio-
chemical engineering at Rutgers University. He has earned degrees in
all depends on the particular reaction network. Though these chemical engineering from the University of the Witwatersrand (B.S.,
answers do possess a bit of truth, they do not capture the true M.S.) and Princeton University (Ph.D.). His research interests include
granular flows, gas-particle flows, multiphase reactors, and nonlinear
difference between reactors: the degree of mixing achieved, dynamics of transport processes.
This is the inherent difficulty with teaching chemical reaction
engineering. The students learn the technical skills required Diane Hildebrandt is the co-founder of COMPS at the University of
the Witwatersrand. She received her B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. from the
to perform the calculations to determine maximum yields and University of the Witwatersrand, and currently leads the academic and
shortest space-times, but very rarely are they able to grasp and consultant research teams at the university. She has published more than
50 refereed-journal articles on topics ranging from process synthesis to
thoroughly understand the theory and underlying differences thermodynamics.
between reactors." Often, too much time is devoted to tedious
. Brendon Hausberger is a director at the Centre of Material and Process
and involved calculations to determine the correct answer on Synthesis (COMPS) at the University of the Witwatersrand. He received
homework instead of focusing on the concepts to enforce the his B.S. and Ph.D. from the University of the Witwatersrand, and is cur-
benefits offered by each reactor presented. rently overseeing the launch of Fischer-Tropschs plants in both China
and Australia.
Reactor network optimization is traditionally not covered
David Glasser is a director of the Centre of Material and Process Syn-
in any depth at the undergraduate level.24] The way reactor thesis at the University of the Witwatersrand. He is acknowledged as a
network optimization is traditionally taught to graduate stu- world-leading researcherin the field of reactor and process optimization,
and is a NRFA1 rated researcher. His extensive publication record and
dents often involves large numbers of coupled equations that research areas extend from reactor design and optimization to distillation
can sometimes hide the final goal of the analysis. Attempts and process optimization and intensification.

� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2007
258 Chemical Engineering Education










to simplify the situation, such as Levenspiel's graphical
analysis,[4] do offer some benefit, however their applicability
is limited as they can readily only optimize simple reaction
problems. For chemical engineers, it is paramount to know
the most promising solution to a real problem in the shortest
amount of time, and rarely is this accomplished with the cur-
rent teaching methods for reactor network optimization.
Presented here is an approach that addresses the challenges
presented above. The attainable region (AR) approach is a
powerful research technique that has been applied to optimi-
zation of reactor networks.E5 7 It is also a powerful teaching
tool that focuses on the fundamental processes involved in
a system, rather than the unit operations themselves. It has
been used to introduce undergraduate and graduate students
to complex reactor network optimization in a short time, with
little to no additional calculations required.

BACKGROUND
The generic approach to complex reac- The AR a
tor design and optimization is to build on
previous experience and knowledge to test as
a new reactor configuration against the undergrads
previous champion that yielded the best industrial ai
result.'8] If a new maximum is achieved, the masters cou
reactor configuration and process settings versity ofth
are kept. If not, the previous solution is in S
in South AJ
retained and the entire process is repeated.
The biggest issue with this trial and error more recent
approach is the time it takes. Also, there tive to tradi
is no way to know if all possible com- reactor desi
binations of operational parameters and reaction en
reactors have been tested. In addition, at Rutge
calculations are normally exhausting and
general computational techniques are dif-
ficult to develop due to the specificity of
each arrangement. Over time, this mechanism has evolved
into a set of design heuristics that dominate decision processes
throughout industry. [9
Achenie and Biegleri101 model a reactor superstructure
using a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MI I IP),
which transforms the task into an optimal control problem.
Again, this approach is useful if the optimal reactor network
is known, but it does not address the issue of choosing the
optimal reactor network.
Horn"111 defines the AR as the region in the stoichiometric
subspace that could be reached by any possible reactor sys-
tem. Furthermore, if any point in this subspace were used as
the feed to another system of reactors, the output from this
system would also exist within the same AR. This framework
approaches reactor design and optimization in a simpler,
easier, and more robust manner. It offers a systematic apriori
approach to determining the ideal reactor configuration based
upon identifying all possible output concentrations from all
Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


possible reactor configurations. One of its advantages over
previous approaches is the elimination of laborious and
counter-productive trial and error calculations. The focus
is on determining all possible outlet concentrations, regard-
less of the reactor configuration, rather than on examining a
single concentration from a single reactor. Approaching the
problem from this direction ensures that all reactor systems
are included in the analysis, removing the reliance on the
user's imagination to create reactor structures. Also, for lower
dimensional problems often studied in the undergraduate
courses, the final solution can be represented in a clear and
intuitive graphical form. From this graphical representation,
the optimal process flow sheet can be read directly. In addi-
tion, once the universal region of attainable concentrations
is known, applying new objective functions on the reactor
system is effortless. No further calculations are required,
and the optimal values can be read directly from the graph.
Finally, this general tool can be applied to
any problem whose basic operation can be
sis method broken down into fundamental processes,
ented in including isothermal and nonisothermal reac-
courses, to tor network synthesis,[5 12] optimal control,[13]
combined reaction and separation,[14 16] com-
Ices, and in
ces, and in minution,17' "18 and others. Process synthesis
at the Uni- and design usefulness are aided greatly by
watersrand this alternative approach.
as well as, The AR analysis method has been pre-
an alterna- sented in undergraduate courses, to indus-
al complex trial audiences, and in master's courses
a graduate at the University of the Witwatersrand in
ring course South Africa, as well as, more recently, as
an alternative to traditional complex reactor
diversity. design in a graduate reaction engineering
course at Rutgers University. The overall
response from the audiences has been fa-
vorable, and it is the intention of the authors to discuss the
benefits this approach offers to the field of reaction engineer-
ing. To aid with teaching/learning, a detailed attainable region
Web site has been set up and the address is given at the end
of this article.
In this paper we will first introduce a moderately chal-
lenging reaction engineering problem. Next, the AR analy-
sis will be illustrated by solving the presented problem.
Finally, the teaching strategy adopted by both institutions
will be presented.

PROBLEM STATEMENT
The following liquid phase, constant density, isothermal
reaction network will be used to illustrate the AR approach.


k,
2A k D


naly
pres
uate
udien
'rses
e Wit
rica,
ly, as
tiona
gn in
rinee
rs Un










The initial characteristics of the reaction network are shown
in Table 1. The end goal of this exercise is to determine the
reactor configuration that maximizes the production of B for

TABLE 1
Reaction Network Constants and Initial Concentrations
Co Co Co C0
A B C D
1 kmol m3 0 kmol m3 0 kmol m3 0 kmol m3
k, k2 k3 k4
0.01 s' 5s ' 10 s' 100 m3
kmol1 s

(a) 1.2 12
1 / 10.
E 0.8 8 E
E 0.6 6 E
'0.4 - 4
oo
0.2 2 2
0 0 J
0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50
Space Time (s)

(b) 1.2 12
1 - 10 -
S0.8 ' 8 E


0.4 - 4
0.2 - , 2
- - - . . -
0 0
0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50
Space Time (s)
Figure 1. Concentration as a function of space-time
in a PFR (a) and CSTR (b). Note that profiles for
Cc and CD are not shown.

12
S1 .X PFR
S8 (J - - - CSTR
0
6 !*(K)
m 4 - 4 -


0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
CA (kmollm3)
Figure 2. State-Space diagram. Point 0 represents the
feed point. Point X represents an arbitrary CSTR effluent
point. The diagram on the top right is a PFR representing
the PFR profile, (]). The diagram in the bottom left is a
CSTR representing the CSTR locus, (K).


a feed of pure A. These reaction kinetics were used because
they represent a reaction network without an intuitively obvi-
ous optimal structure. A PFR will maximize the amount of B
produced in the first reaction, but a CSTR will minimize the
amount of A consumed in the second reaction.

SOLUTION
Determining the candidate attainable region for this reaction
scheme involves the completion of the following simplified
steps: selecting the fundamental processes, choosing the state
variables, defining and drawing the process vectors, construct-
ing the region, interpreting the boundary as the process flow
sheet, and finding the optimum.
1. Choose the Fundamental Processes
In this particular example, the fundamental processes are
reaction and mixing. Let us first look at mixing. There are two
limits on mixing in a reactor: a plug flow reactor, in which
a slug of fluid does not experience any axial mixing along
the reactor length, and a continuously stirred tank reactor, in
which each volume element experiences complete mixing.
Before moving further into the analysis, it is useful to deter-
mine the dependence of species concentrations on space-time
in these two environments. For a PFR, this is determined by
numerically solving the mass balances in Eqs. (3)-(6), giving
the concentration profiles of CA and C, in Fig. l(a).

dCA = -kCA + kCB - kC (3)
dT
dCB kCA - k2CB - k3CB (4)
dr
dCC
dT
dC= k4CA (6)
dr
Similarly, the set of mass balances in Eqs. (7)-(10) can be
solved to give the locus for a CSTR as T is varied, provided
in Fig. l(b).
CA - C = T -k C k2C- kC) (7)

CB C = T (kCA -k2CB -k3CB) (8)
Cc - k = Tk3CB) (9)
CD-C' =T(k4Ci) (10)

In Eqs. (3)-(10), C represents the concentration of species i,
C represents the feed concentration of species i, T is the space-
time of the reactor, and k represents the rate of reaction. Figure
1 only shows the profiles for CA and C, because, as will be
explained shortly, Cc and CD do not influence the determina-
tion of the AR.
II. Choose the State Variables
The state variables for this example are CA and C . CB is a
state variable because it is the value that we wish to optimize.
Chemical Engineering Education










CA is a state variable because, looking at the right-hand side
of Eqs. (3)-(10), the behavior of CB is entirely dependent on
the change in CA. Note that T is not a state variable because
it is the independent variable in the system.
Now that the state variables are known, a state-space or
phase-space diagramn191 (Figure 2) can be created showing
the autonomous relation between CA and C,. First, we must
do this for the PFR using the data in Figure l(a). Figure l(a)
shows CA and C, as a function of T, so for any given T we
can determine a CA, C, pair, which allows us to plot curve (J)
(solid line) in Figure 2. For example, the point W in Figure 2
corresponds to C = 3.81x102 kmol/m3 and CB = 3.95x105
kmol/m3, and can be traced back to T = 0.25 seconds in Figure
l(a). The same can be done for the data in Figure l(b) for the
CSTR that leads to curve (K) (dashed line) in Figure 2. While
space-time is not explicitly shown in Figure 2, the relevant
space-time to achieve a given concentration can always be
obtained from Figure 1 (or an equivalent figure). A candidate
for the attainable region (ARC) is identified as the union of
the regions contained under both curves.
IlL. Define and Draw the Process Vectors
A process vector gives the instantaneous change in system
state caused by that fundamental process occurring. For ex-
ample, if only reaction is occurring, the reaction vector, r[C ,
C,], will give the instantaneous direction and magnitude of
change from the current concentration position. For mixing,
this vector gives the divergence from the current state, c,
based upon the added state, c*, or v(c, c*) = c* - c. T is some
arbitrary effluent concentration from a CSTR shown strictly
for demonstration purposes.
The vectors can be graphically represented by considering
curve (K) for the CSTR in Figure 2. This is replotted in Figure
3 along with the direction of each rate vector. The CSTR rate
vector (OT) is co-linear with the feed and effluent concentra-
tions, and the mixing vector (OX) linearly connects the current
state with the added state. The resulting mixed state lies on
the mixing line and its position can be determined from the
Lever Arm Rule. One can also consider a PFR rate vector
which originates at the current concentration and is tangent
to the curve (see Figure 3).
IV. Constructing the Region
To construct the region, the process vector guidelines from
the previous step are applied to the state-space diagram (Fig-
ure 2). The idea is to draw process vectors to extend the current
ARC. We begin the analysis by examining mixing.
Starting at a generic point X on the boundary of curve (K)
in Figure 2, a straight line can be drawn to point O, which is
the feed point. This is shown by line (L) in Figure 4(a). To
achieve any concentration along line (L), you can mix the
outlet of a CSTR operating at point X with the feed at point
O. Thus, any point on curve L corresponds to a CSTR with
bypass. The Lever Arm Rule[201 can be used to determine the

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


12 - CSTR locus
- - - CSTR Rate Vector
E -- PFR Rate Vector
S- . , - - Mixing Rate Vector
E
d 6- N ..
Q 4 -
M 2 - - " O
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
CA (kmol/m3)
Figure 3. Rate vectors of the fundamental processes in-
volved in the example. The CSTR rate vector points from
the feed point, 0, to the particular effluent point, T The
PFR rate vector is tangent to the current concentration.
The mixing rate vector is a straight line pointing
from the current state to the added state.


(a)
�;_l 5
E



5
X
xm
w 0

(b)
C-15
l
in i
E10

a 5
xm
0 0

[c) 15
"E
-o10
E
5
m5
0-
w 0


(M)








(M) CSTR
- CSTR with
Bypass
- (L)


CSTR with Bypass in series with a PFR

Figure 4. Determination of the Attainable Region.
(a) Extension through mixing (dashed line); (b) Extend
with PFR in series [curve (M)]; (c) Resulting attainable re-
gion (shaded) with corresponding reactors. Note that (a)-
(c) have an equivalent x-axis. (d) Reactor configuration to
achieve any point within the attainable region in (c).










percentage of each stream to mix to obtain the desired con-
centration. Notice that when this line is drawn, the candidate
region is extended. When two states mix linearly, mixing can
extend any concave region by creating its convex hull.
Does operation in a PFR extend the region as well? The
answer is yes. Going back to process vector geometry, the
PFR process vector is tangent to the current system-state. A
line tangent to the curve at point X extends the region above
its previous maximum. The complete successive PFR profile
[curve (M) in F igL I 4 b[i I, found by numerically solving the
differential PFR balance equations in Eqs. (3)-(6) with feed
concentration of X = (C , CB). The boundary of the current
candidate attainable region is now made up of curves (L) and
(M) (see Figure 4b).
The attainable region can be constructed once it has been
determined that no other processes can extend the region.
The shaded region of Figure 4(c) shows the entire AR for
this particular reaction network. The boundary of the shaded
region is made up of curves (L) and (M). Since the region
is convex, it is clear that mixing cannot extend the region.
Moreover, it is possible to show that all rate vectors on the
boundary are either tangent to the boundary or point into
the region (see AR Web site for further details). Enclosed
beneath the boundary are all possible reactor effluents given
a feed point at O.
V. Interpret the Boundary as
the Process Flow Sheet
The process flow sheet is determined by tracing a path to
the point of interest. The effluent concentration at point X is
achieved in a CSTR. If the desired effluent is to the right of
point X on the boundary [given by curve (L)], a CSTR operat-
ing at point X with feed bypass is used to reach the point (see
section III). If the desired effluent is on the boundary to the left
of point X [given by curve (M)], a CSTR operating at point X
followed by a PFR in series is required. These configurations
are pointed out in Figure 4(c). The reactor configuration in
Figure 4(d) can be used to achieve any point on the boundary
of the ARc for this reaction network.



010
5 |
LO b


0 0 ..
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
CA (kmollm3)
Figure 5. Application of constraints on the
attainable region. Point Y: maximum B produced
in reaction network. Point Z: maximum B produced
given that CA must be greater than 0.6 kmol/m3.


VI. Find the Optimum
The final step is to determine the optimum for the speci-
fied objective function. In this case, the objective function is
to maximize the production of species B given the feed of
1 kmol/m3 of A. It can easily be seen from Figure 5 (point
Y) that a maximum of 1.24 x 10 4 kmol/m3 of species B can
be achieved using a CSTR with effluent of 0.4 kmol/m3 of
species A followed by a PFR with an effluent concentration
of A of 0.18 kmol/m3. The corresponding space-times of the
CSTR and the PFR are 0.037 s and 0.031 s, respectively.
These were determined from Eqs. (3) and (4) for the CSTR
and (7) and (8) for the PFR.
With the attainable region fully determined, the optimal
value for any objective function may be determined. For
example, a plant manager dictates that the concentration of
A cannot drop below 0.6 kmol/m3, or the acidity will corrode
downstream equipment. The maximum amount of species B
that can be produced with this constraint is given by point Z in
Figure 5, which corresponds to 6.4 x 105 kmol/m3 of B. The
reactor configuration that gives this outlet concentration is a
CSTR with feed bypass. Cost, partial pressure, temperature,
and residence time are some other examples for possible ob-
jective functions. As stated at the outset of this section, these
steps are a simplified version of the rigorous procedure (see
Reference 5 for more details). A final point of note is the AR
analysis does not guarantee the determination of the complete
attainable region. The analysis is composed of guidelines for
the creation of a candidate attainable region, as no mathemati-
cally derived sufficiency conditions exist. This is the reason
for the ARc terminology. 211

TEACHING STRATEGY
AND STUDENT FEEDBACK
At the School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering
at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South
Africa, the AR is taught at both the undergraduate and master's
level. The AR is presented as a supplementary topic in the
undergraduate Reactor Design course for third- and fourth-
year chemical engineering students. After the students
have developed PFR profiles and CSTR loci for a given
feed concentration and reaction network, the "rules" are
explained (i.e., PFR rate vectors are tangent to the profile,
the region can be made convex through mixing, etc.). The
students are then challenged to find the region of optimal
production for a certain component, and are provided
with PFR profiles for various feed concentrations. At this
point, the instructor emphasizes that the geometric solution
the students are creating is essentially solving the same
equations the students were laboring through earlier in the
course. The lecturer then introduces some more complex
problems involving heat transfer and reaction to demon-
strate to the students the power of the method.
The AR is also taught in a week-long, 30-hour, Reactor
Chemical Engineering Education











Synthesis Masters of Science course. The class is composed
of people from industry and students who have just gradu-
ated. Therefore, the best teaching approach does not include
intimidating differential equations or tedious calculations.
First, the students work through the example presented in
this paper as an introduction to the AR approach. Then the
students are given PFR state-space profiles for different
feed concentrations and asked to determine the optimal
reactor configuration to achieve the maximum production
of a certain species.
More recently, the AR was taught to a graduate core Reac-
tion Engineering course of approximately 20 students at Rut-
gers University. Half of the students were full-time graduate
students and the other half were part-time professionals who
had been out of school for varying intervals. One three-hour
lecture on the example covered in this paper was given after
single reactor design, complex kinetics, and nonisothermal
reactions had been introduced, but before biological reactions
and catalysis. The technique was presented as an alternative
to the computer-intensive MINLP.
Following the lecture, homework is assigned to allow the
students to develop the AR themselves. The homework as-
signment covers a reaction network similar to the example
presented, only it lacks the reversible part of the A to B
reaction (also known as van de Vusse kinetics). The benefits
of such an assignment are: to test basic reaction engineer-
ing skills (solving PFR and CSTR balances); to develop
skills using computational programs such as POLYMATH,
MATHCAD, or MATLAB; to discover the potential benefits
of recycle, bypass, and Differential Sidestream Reactors
(DSR) in reactor configurations; and to understand the benefits
of a graphical approach to a normally calculation-intensive
problem. Finally, the students are challenged on an exam
with the in-class exercise given to the master's students in
the Witwatersrand course.
We also feel that the AR approach lends itself well to senior
design, especially in an environment where students are asked to
come up with a flow sheet for their design project. These steps
present a systematic approach to determining the optimal network
for the reaction portion of their design project. The students can
compare their initial proposals to this optimal target and decide
if there is any benefit in improving their initial designs.
Some of the comments from the students included that the
attainable region material was enjoyable, as it \a . something
new" and there was a desire to see "more advanced topics
like the AR." Students were excited by the fact that they
could solve problems and come up with optimum structures
for reactions no one else had solved before, i.e., the optimum
solution was not available in any textbook or research article.
Along those lines, students also commented that they liked
the fact they were being taught material that was "hot off the
presses" and had been the subject of a Ph.D. dissertation only
a few years before.
Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


A difficulty observed in introducing the AR to under-
graduates was that some students struggled with solving new
problems. In particular, students could follow the example
that was developed in this article and compute the bound-
ary of the AR themselves for a homework problem with the
same basic structure, i.e., a CSTR followed by a PFR. If the
boundary of the AR was changed in a homework problem
to a PFR followed by a CSTR followed by a PFR, however,
then some students struggled with this. It was found that if
these students went over a number of additional AR problems
they could eventually master the material and generate ARs
independently for new cases.

CONCLUSION
Reaction engineering is a course in which students often get
bogged down with intensive calculations and lose sight of the
more important, fundamental concepts. This paper presents
the attainable region analysis method as a way to avoid this
trap, and at the same time introduce design and optimization of
complex reactor flow sheets - a more difficult and industrially
relevant exercise. Contrary to traditional complex reactor de-
sign optimization, theAR approach does not require trial and
error, does ensure that all reactor configurations are evaluated,
and allows for easy application of various objective functions.
Additionally, for lower-dimensional problems, the solution
can be represented in a simple and clear graphical form.
The intention of the authors is to increase the exposure of
this technique so that its advantages for both teaching and
research can be known throughout the engineering commu-
nity. The applications do not end at reaction engineering, and
the reader is challenged to find areas of study to which this
approach does not apply.
For more details on the attainable region approach please
see thefollowing Web site: neering/proc . I 4r.- *,. .'... Ii.1. hI >.

REFERENCES
1. Mendes, A.M., L.M. Madeira, ED. Magalhaes, and J.M. Sousas, "An
Integrated Chemical Reaction Engineering Lab Experiment," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 38, 228 (2004)
2. loudas, C.A., Nonlinear and Mixed-Integer Optimization: Funda-
mentals and Applications, Oxford University Press, NY (1995)
3. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd Ed.,
Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference, Upper Saddle River,
NJ (2006)
4. Levenspiel, O., Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd Ed., John Wiley
& Sons, New York (1999)
5. Hildebrandt, D., and D. Glasser, "The Attainable Region and Optimal
Reactor Structures " Chem. Eng. Sci., 45, 261 (1990)
6. Biegler, L.T., I.E. Grossman, andA.W. Westerberg, Systematic Methods
of Chemical Process Design, Prentice-Hall International, Inc., Upper
Saddle River, NJ (1997)
7. Seider, WD., J.D. Seader, and D.R. Lewin, Productand ProcessDesign
Principles: Synthesis, Analysis, and Evaluation, 2nd Ed., John Wiley
& Sons, New York (2004)
8. Chitra, S.P, and R. Govind, "Synthesis of Optimal Serial Reactor
Structures for Homogeneous Reactions. Part I: Isothermal Reactors,"
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9. Douglas, J.M., "A Hierarchical Decision Procedure for Process Syn-
thesis," AICHE Journal, 31, 353, (1985)
10. Achenie, L., and L.T. Biegler, "Algorithmic Synthesis of Chemical
Reactor Networks Using Mathematical Programming," Ind. and Eng.
Chem. Research, 25, 621, (1986)
11. Horn, E, "Attainable and Non-Attainable Regions in Chemical Reac-
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Engineering, 1-10 (1964)
12. Nicol, W, D. Hildenbrandt, and D. Glasser, "Process Synthesis for
Reaction Systems with Cooling via Finding the Attainable Region,"
Computers & Chem. Eng., 21, S35 (1997)
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Optimal Control Policies Using the Attainable Region Approach," Ind.
and Eng. Chem. Research, 38, 639 (1999)
14. Nisoli, A., M.E Malone, and M.E Doherty, "Attainable Regions for
Reaction with Separation," AICHE Journal, 43, 374 (1997)
15. Lakshmanan, A., and L.T. Biegler, "Synthesis of Optimal Chemical
Reactor Networks with Simultaneous Mass Integration," Ind. and Eng.


Chem. Research, 35, 4523 (1996)
16. Gadewar, S.B., L. Tao, M.E Malone, and M.E Doherty, "Process
Alternatives for Coupling Reaction and Distillation," Chem. Eng.
Research and Design, 82, 140 (2004)
17. Khumalo, N., D. Glasser, D. Hildebrandt, B. Hausberger, and S.
Kauchali, "The Application of the Attainable Region Analysis to Com-
minution," Chem. Eng. Sci., 61, 5969 (2006)
18. Khumalo, N., B. Hausberger, D. Glasser, and D. Hildebrandt, "An
Experimental Validation of a Specific Energy-Based Approach for
Communition," Chem. Eng. Sci., 62(10) (2007)
19. Alligood, K.T., T.D. Sauer, and J.A. Yorke, CHAOS: An Introduction
to Dynamical Systems, Springer-Verlag, NY (1996)
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Prentice Hall PTR, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1993)
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gion," Chem. Eng. Sci., 52, 1637 (1997) [


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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


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Oregon State University .................................... 375
Pennsylvania, University of................... .................. 332
Pennsylvania State University....................... . .... .............. 333
Pittsburgh, University of ..................................... 334
Polytechnic University .................................... 335
Princeton University............................................. 336
Puerto Rico, University of..................................... 337
Purdue U university ............................... ........... .. 338
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute...................... .... ............... 339
Rhode Island, University of................... ...................375
Rice U niversity............................................. 340
Rochester, University of..................................... 341
Rowan University............................................. 342
Rutgers University........ ..... .................. ...................343
Ryerson University .................... .... .................. 376
Singapore, National University of........................................344
Singapore-MIT Alliance Graduate Fellowship ......................... 345
South Carolina, University of............................ ...........346
South Dakota School of Mines.............................. .........376
South Florida, University of ............................ ........... 377
Southern California, University of .................... ................... 347
State University of New York............................... ....... 348
Stevens Institute of Technology ........................... ................... 349
Syracuse U niversity.............................. ........ ........... 377
Tennessee Technological University ........................................350
Texas, Austin, University of............................ ........... 351
Texas A&M University, College Station................................... 352
Texas A&M University, Kingsville................... .................... 378
Texas Tech University .................................... 353
Toledo, University of..................................... ................... 354
Toronto, University of ..................................... 378
Tufts U niversity............................................. 355
Tulane University .................................... ................... 356
Tulsa, University of ....................................... 357
Vanderbilt University............................................. 358
Villanova University............................................. 379
Virginia, University of..................................... 359
Virginia Tech University .................................... 360
Washington, University of..................................... 361
Washington State University .................... ...................362
W ashington University .................................... 363
W aterloo, University of ..................................... 364
W est Virginia U university ....................................................... 365
W western M ichigan University....................... ..... .............. 379
W isconsin, University of ..................................... 366
Worchester Polytechnic University......................................367
Yale University........................ ........................ . 368












An Open Letter to ...



SENIORS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


As a senior, you probably have some questions

about graduate school.

The following paragraphs may assist you

in finding some of the answers.


Should you go to graduate school?
We invite you to consider graduate school as an opportunity to further your professional development. Graduate
work can be exciting and intellectually satisfying, and at the same time can provide you with insurance against
the ever-increasing danger of technical obsolescence in our fast-paced society. An advanced degree is certainly
helpful if you want to include a research component in your career and a Ph.D. is normally a prerequisite for an
academic position. Although graduate school includes an in-depth research experience, it is also an integrative
period. Graduate research work under the guidance of a knowledgeable faculty member can be an important
factor in your growth toward confidence, independence, and maturity.

What is taught in graduate school?
A graduate education generally includes a coursework component and a research experience. The first term
of graduate school will often focus on the study of advanced-core chemical engineering science subjects (e.g.,
transport phenomena, phase equilibria, reaction engineering). These courses build on the material learned as an
undergraduate, using more sophisticated mathematics and often including a molecular perspective. Early in the
graduate program, you will select a research topic and a research adviser and begin to establish a knowledge base
in the research subject through both coursework and independent study. Graduate education thus begins with an
emphasis on structured learning in courses and moves on to the creative, exciting, and open-ended process of
research. In addition, graduate school is a time to expand your intellectual and social horizons through participa-
tion in the activities provided by the campus community.
We suggest that you pick up one of the fall issues of Chemical Engineering Education (CEE), whether it
be the current issue or one of our prior fall issues, and read some of the articles written by scholars at various
universities on a wide variety of subjects pertinent to graduate education. The chemical engineering professors
or the library at your university are both good sources for borrowing current and back issues of CEE.
Perusing the graduate-school advertisements in this special compilation can also be a valuable resource, not
only for determining what is taught in graduate school, but also where it is taught and by whom it is taught. We
encourage you to carefully read the information in the ads and to contact any of the departments that interest
you.

What is the nature of graduate research?
Graduate research can open the door to a lifelong inquiry that may well lead you in a number of directions dur-
ing your professional life, whether you pursue it within the confines of an industrial setting or in the laboratories
of a university. Learning how to do research is of primary importance, and the training you receive as a graduate

266 Chemical Engineering Education













student will give you the discipline, the independence, and (hopefully) the intellectual curiosity that will stand
you in good stead throughout your career. The increasingly competitive arena of high technology and society's
ever-expanding fields of inquiry demand, more than ever, trained and capable researchers to fuel the engines of
discovery.


Where should you go to graduate school?

There are many fine chemical engineering departments, each with its own "personality" and special strengths.
Choosing the one that is "right" for you is a highly personal decision and one that only you can make. Note, however,
that there are schools that specialize in preparing students for academic careers just as there are those that prepare
students for specific industries. Or, perhaps there is a specific area of research you are interested in, and finding a
school or a certain professor with great strength or reputation in that particular area would be desirable. If you are
uncertain as to your eventual field of research, perhaps you should consider one of the larger departments that has
diversified research activity, giving you the exposure and experience to make a wise career choice later in your
education. On the other hand, choosing a graduate school could be as simple as choosing some area of the country
that is near family members or friends; or you may view the benefits of a smaller, more personal, department as
more to your liking; or you might choose a school with a climate conducive to sports or leisure activities in which
you are interested.
Many factors may eventually feed into your decision of where to go to graduate school. Study the ads in this
special printing and write to or view the Web pages of departments that interest you; ask for pertinent information
not only about areas of study but also about fellowships that may be available, about the number of students in
graduate school, about any special programs. Ask your undergraduate professors about their experiences in graduate
school, and don't be shy about asking them to recommend schools to you. They should know your strengths and
weaknesses by this stage in your collegiate career, and through using that knowledge they should be a valuable
source of information and encouragement for you.


Financial Aid

Don't overlook the fact that most graduate students receive financial support at a level sufficient to meet normal
living needs. This support is provided through research assistantships, teaching assistantships, or fellowships. If you
are interested in graduate school next fall, you should begin the application process early this fall since admission
decisions are often made at the beginning of the new calendar year. This process includes requesting application
materials, seeking sources of fellowships, taking national entrance exams (i.e., the Graduate Record Exam, GRE,
is required by many institutions), and visiting the school.
A resolution by the Council of Graduate Schools-in which most schools are members-outlines accepted
practices for accepting financial support (such as graduate scholarships, assistantships, or fellowships). You should
be aware that the agreed upon deadline for accepting offers of financial support for a fall-term start is April 15. The
resolution states that you are under no obligation to respond to offers of financial support prior to April 15 (earlier
deadlines for acceptance violate the intent of the resolution). Furthermore, an acceptance given or left in force after
April 15 commits you to reject any other offer without first obtaining a written release from the institution to which
the commitment has been made.
Historically, most students have entered graduate school in the fall term, but many schools do admit students
for other starting dates. 7



We hope that this special collection of chemical engineering graduate-school information proves to be helpful
to you in making your decision about the merits of attending graduate school and assists you in selecting an
institution that meets your needs.


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 26













Graduate Education in Chemical and


Biomolecular Engineering


Teaching and
research assistantships
as well as
industrially sponsored
fellowships
available



In addition to
stipends,
tuition and fees
are waived.



PhD students
may get
some incentive
scholarships.


The deadline for
assistantship
applications
is
April 15th.


G. G. CHASE
Multiphase Processes,
Fluid How, Interfacial
Phenomena, Filtration,
Coalescence




H. M. CHEUNG
Nanocomposite Materials,
Sonochemical Processing,
Polymerization in Nanostruc-
tured Fluids, Supercritical
Fluid Processing



S. S. C. CHUANG
Catalysis, Reaction Engi-
neering, Environmentally
Benign Synthesis,
Fuel Cell




J. R. ELLIOTT
Molecular Simulation,
Phase Behavior, Physical
Properties, Process
Modeling, Supercritical
Fluids



E. A. EVANS
Materials Processing and
CVD Modeling
Plasma Enhanced Deposition
and Crystal Growth
Modeling


L.-K. JU
Bioprocess Engineering,
Environmental
Bioengineering





S. T. LOPINA
BioMaterial Engineering
and Polymer Engineering







B.Z. NEWBY
Surface Modification,
Biofilm and AntiFouling
Coatings,
Gradient Surfaces




H. C. QAMMAR
Nonlinear Control,
Chaotic Processes,
Engineering Education





J. Zheng
Computational Biophysics,
Biomolecular Interfaces,
Biomaterials


For Additional Information, Write
Chairman, Graduate Committee * Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
The University of Akron * Akron, OH 44325-3906
Phone (330) 972-7250 * Fax (330) 972-5856 * www.chemical.uakron.edu


Chemical Engineering Education









THE UNIVERSITY OF

ALABAMA


Chemical

& Biological

Engineering



A dedicated faculty with state of the art
facilities offer research programs leading to
Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Science
degrees.


Research Areas:
Biomaterials, Catalysis and Reactor Design,
Drug Delivery Materials and Systems,
Electrohydrodynamics, Electronic Materials,
Environmental Studies, Fuel Cells, Interfacial
Transport, Magnetic Materials, Membrance
Separations and Reactors, Molecular
Simulations, Nanoscale Modeling, Polymer
Processing and Rheology, Self-Assembled
Materials, Suspension Rheology

For Information Contact:
Director of Graduate Studies
Department of Chemical and
Biological Engineering
The University of Alabama
Box 870203
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0203
Phone: (205) 348-6450 An equal
educational o
Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


ChBI
employment
opportunity


Faculty:
G. C. April, Ph.D. (Louisiana State)
D. W Arnold, Ph.D. (Purdue)
C. S. Brazel, Ph.D. (Purdue)
E. S. Carlson, Ph.D. (Wyoming)
P. E. Clark, Ph.D. (Oklahoma State)
W. C. Clements, Jr., Ph.D. (Vanderbilt)
A. Gupta, Ph.D. (Stanford)
D. T. Johnson, Ph.D. (Florida)
T. M. Klein, Ph.D. (NC State)
A. M. Lane, Ph.D. (Massachusetts)
M. D. McKinley, Ph.D. (Florida)
S. M. C. Ritchie, Ph.D. (Kentucky)
C. H. Turner, Ph.D. (NC State)
J. M. Wiest, Ph.D. (Wisconsin)
M. L. Weaver, Ph.D. (Florida)
/ equal
institution












Chemical


and Materials


Engineering


Graduate Program
C*-'- --M^,


SFacufty andcResearch

R. Michael Banish; Ph.D., University of Utah
Associate Professor
Crystal growth mass and thermal diffusivity
measurements.
Ram6n L. Cerro; Ph.D., UC Davis
Professor and Chair
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics and
physicochemical hydrodynamics.
Chien P. Chen; Ph.D., Michigan State
Professor
Lab-on-chip microfluidics, multiphase transport,
spray combustion, computational fluid dynamics,
and turbulence modeling of chemically reacting
flows.
Krishnan K. Chittur; Ph.D., Rice
Professor
Biomaterials, bioprocess monitoring, gene
expression bioinformatics, and FTIR/ATR
James E. Smith Jr; Ph.D., South Carolina
Professor
Ceramic and metallic composites, catalysis and
reaction engineering, fiber optic chemical sensing,
combustion diagnostic ofhypergolic fuels, and
hydrogen storage.
Katherine Taconi; Ph.D., Mississippi State
Assistant Professor
Biological production of alternative energy from
renewable resources.
Jeffrey J. Weimer; Ph.D., MIT
Associate Professor
Adhesions, biomaterials surface properties, thin film
growth, and surface spectroscopies.
David B. Williams; Sc.D., Cambridge
Professor and University President
Analytical, transmission and scanning electron
microscopy, applications to interfacial segregation and
bonding changes, texture and phase diagram
determination in metals and alloys.

http://www.uah.edu
http://www.che.uah.edu


The Department of Chemical and Materials
Engineering offers coursework and research leading
to the Master of Science in Engineering degree. The
Doctor of Philosophy degree is available through
the Materials Science Ph.D.
program, the
Biotechnology Science and
Engineering Program, or
* the option in Chemical
Engineering of the
Mechanical Engineering
Ph.D. program.
The range of research
interests in the chemical
engineering faculty is broad.
It affords graduate students
opportunities for advanced
work in processes, reaction
engineering, electrochemical
systems, material processing
and biotechnology.
The proximity of the UAH
campus to the 200+ high
technology and aerospace
industries of Huntsville and
NASA's Marshall Space
Flight Center provide exciting opportunities for
our students.




UAH

The University of Alabama in Huntsville
An Affirmative Action / Equal Opportunity Institution
Office of Chemical and Materials Engineering
130 Engineering Building
Huntsville, Alabama 35899
Ph: 256-824-6810 Fax: 256-824-6839


Chemical Engineering Education










DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING


UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA


Our Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
offers students the opportunity to study and conduct leading
research with world-class academics in the top program
in Canada, and one of the very best in North America. Our
graduate student population is culturally diverse, academically
strong, innovative, creative, and is drawn to our challenging
and supportive environment from all areas of the world.
D Degrees are offered at the MSc and PhD levels in chemical
engineering, materials engineering, and process control.
- All full-time graduate students in research programs
receive a stipend to cover living expenses and tuition.

Our graduates are sought-after professionals who will be
international leaders of tomorrow's chemical and materials
engineering advances. Research topics include:
biomaterials, biotechnology, coal combustion, colloids and
interfacial phenomenon, computational chemistry, compu-
tational fluid dynamics, computer process control, corrosion
and wear engineering, drug delivery, electrochemistry, fluid-
particle dynamics, fuel cell modeling and control, heavy
oil processing and upgrading, heterogeneous catalysis,
hydrogen storage materials, materials processing, micro-
alloy steels, micromechanics, mineral processing, molecular
sieves, multiphase mixing, nanostructured biomaterials,
oil sands, petroleum thermodynamics, pollution control,
polymers, powder metallurgy, process and performance
monitoring, rheology, surface science, system identification,
thermodynamics, and transport phenomena.

- The Faculty of Engineering has added more than one
million square feet of outstanding teaching, research, and
personnel space in the past six years. We offer outstanding
and unique experimental and computational facilities,
including access to one of the most technologically advanced
nanotechnology facilities in the world - the National Institute
for Nanotechnology, connected by pedway to the Chemical
and Materials Engineering Building.
- Annual research funding for our Department is over
$14 million. Externally sponsored funding to support
engineering research in the entire Faculty of Engineering has
increased to over $50 million each year- the largest amount
of any Faculty of Engineering in Canada.

For further information, contact:
Graduate Program Office
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6
Phone: 780-492-1823 Fax: 780-492-2881
www.engineering.ualberta.ca/cme
Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


A. Ben-Zvi, PhD (Queen's University)
S. Bradford, PhD (Iowa State University) Emeritus
R.E. Burrell, PhD (University of Waterloo)
K. Cadien, PhD (University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana)
W. Chen, PhD (University of Manitoba)
P. Choi, PhD (University of Waterloo)
K.T. Chuang, PhD (University of Alberta) Emeritus
I. Dalla Lana, PhD (University of Minnesota) Emeritus
J. Derksen, PhD (Eindhoven University of Technology)
R.L. Eadie, PhD (University of Toronto)
J.A.W. Elliott, PhD (University of Toronto)
T.H. Etsell, PhD (University of Toronto)
G. Fisher, PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus
J.E Forbes, PhD (McMaster University) Chair
M.R. Gray, PhD (California Institute of Technology)
R. Gupta, PhD (University of Newcastle)
R.E. Hayes, PhD (University of Bath)
H. Henein, PhD (University of British Columbia)
B. Huang, PhD (University of Alberta)
D.G. Ivey, PhD (University of Windsor)
S.M Kresta, PhD (McMaster University)
S.M. Kuznicki, PhD (University of Utah)
J.M. Lee, PhD (Georgia Institute of Technology)
D. Li, PhD (McGill University)
Q. Liu, PhD (University of British Columbia)
J. Luo, PhD (McMaster University)
D.T. Lynch, PhD (University of Alberta) Dean of Engineering
J.H. Masliyah, PhD (University of British Columbia)
A.E. Mather, PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus
W.C. McCaffrey, PhD (McGill University)
D. Mitlin, PhD (University of California, Berkeley)
K. Nandakumar, PhD (Princeton University)
J. Nychka, PhD (University of California, Santa Barbara)
E Otto, PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus
B. Patchett, PhD (University of Birmingham) Emeritus
J. Ryan, PhD (University of Missouri) Emeritus
S. Sanders, PhD (University of Alberta)
S.L. Shah, PhD (University of Alberta)
J.M. Shaw, PhD (University of British Columbia)
U. Sundararaj, PhD (University of Minnesota)
H. Uludag, PhD (University of Toronto)
L. Unsworth, PhD (McMaster University)
S.E. Wanke, PhD (University of California, Davis)
M. Wayman, PhD (University of Cambridge) Emeritus
M.C. Williams, PhD (University of Wisconsin) Emeritus
R. Wood, PhD (Northwestern University) Emeritus
Z. Xu, PhD (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
T. Yeung, PhD (University of British Columbia)
H. Zhang, PhD (Princeton University)











FAC L Y R S ARC N E E T


ROBERT G. ARNOLD, Professor (CalTech)
Microbiological Hazardous Waste Treatment, Metals Speciation and To
PAUL BLOWERS, Associate Professor (Illinois, Urbana-Champ
Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis, Surface Phenomena, Green Design
JAMES C. BAYGENTS, Associate Professor (Princeton)
Fluid Mechanics, Transport and Colloidal Phenomena, Bioseparations
WENDELL ELA, Associate Professor (Stanford)
Particle-Particle Interactions, Environmental (, ... ,,,
JAMES FARRELL, Professor (Stanford)
Sorption/desorption of Organics in Soils
JAMES A. FIELD, Professor (Wageningen University)
Bioremediation, Microbiology, White Rot Fungi, Hazardous Waste
ROBERTO GUZMAN, Professor (North Carolina State)
Affinity Protein Separations, Polymeric Surface Science
ANTHONY MUSCAT, Associate Professor (Stanford)
Kinetics, Surface ( hi.." ..., . Surface Engineering, Semiconductor
Processing, Microcontamination
KIMBERLY OGDEN, Professor (Colorado)
Bioreactors, Bioremediation, Organics Removal from Soils
THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor and Dean (CalTech)
Aerosols, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Microcontamination
ARA PHILIPOSSIAN, Professor (Tufts)
Chemical/Mechanical Polishing, Semiconductor Processing
EDUARDO SAEZ, Professor (UC, Davis)
Polymer Flows, Multiphase Reactors, Colloids
GLENN L. SCHRADER, Professor & Head (Wisconsin)
Catalysis, Environmental Sustainability, Thin Films, Kinetics
FARHANG SHADMAN, Regents' Professor (Berkeley)
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactive Membranes,
Microcontamination

REYES SIERRA, Associate Professor (Wageningen University)
Environmental Biotechnology, Biotransformation of Metals, Green
Engineering



For further information

http://www.chee.arizona.edu

or write

Chairman, Graduate Study Committee
Department of Chemical and
Environmental Engineering
P.O. BOX 210011
The University ofArizona
Tucson,AZ 85721

The University of Arizona is an equal
opportunity educational institution/equal opportunity employer
Women and minorities are encouraged to apply


Chemical and Environmental

Engineering

at



THE UNIVERSITY OF
ARIZONA

TUCSON ARIZONA


The Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering
at the University of Arizona offers a wide range of research
opportunities in all major areas of chemical engineering and
environmental engineering. The department offers a fully accredited
undergraduate degree in chemical engineering, as well as MS and PhD
degrees in both chemical and environmental engineering. A significant
portion of research efforts is devoted to areas at the boundary between
chemical and environmental engineering, including environmentally
benign semiconductor manufacturing, environmental remediation,
environmental biotechnology, and novel
water treatment technologies.

Financial support is available through fellowships, government
and industrial grants and contracts, teaching and
research assistantships.

Tucson has an excellent climate and many
recreational opportunities. It is a growing modern city that
retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere.


Chemical Engineering Education










P35 k Ira A.

SFULTON
school of engineering

ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY


Department of Chemical Engineering
Learn and discover in a multi-disciplinary research environment with opportunities in advanced materials, atmospheric
chemistry, biotechnology, electrochemistry and sensors, electronic materials processing, engineering education, process control,
separation and purification technology, thin films and flexible displays.


Program Faculty
Jonathan O. Allen, Ph.D., P.E., MIT.
Atmospheric aerosol chemistry, single-particle measurement
techniques, environmental fate of organic pollutants
Jean M. Andino, Ph.D., P.E., Caltech.
Atmospheric chemistry, gas-phase kinetics and mechanisms,
heterogeneous chemistry, air pollution control
James R. Beckman, Ph.D., Arizona.
Unit operations, applied mathematics, energy-efficient water
purification, fractionation, CMP reclamation
Veronica A. Burrows, Ph.D., Princeton.
Engineering education, surface science, semiconductor
processing, interfacial chemical and physical processes for
sensors
Jeffrey Heys, Ph.D., Colorado, Boulder.
Modeling of biofluid-tisue interaction, tissue and biofilm
mechanics, parallel multigrid solvers
Jerry Y.S. Lin, Ph.D., Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
Advanced materials (inorganic membranes, adsorbents and
catalysts) for applications in novel chemical separation and
reaction processes
Gregory B. Raupp, Ph.D., Wisconsin.
Gas-solid surface reactions, interactions between surface
reactions and transport processes, semiconductor materials
processing, thermal and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor
deposition (CVD), flexible displays
Kaushal Rege, Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Molecular and cellular engineering, engineered cancer
therapeutics and diagnostics, cellular interactions in cancer
metastasis
Daniel E. Rivera, Ph.D., Caltech.
Control systems engineering, dynamic modeling via system
identification, robust control, computer-aided control system
design, supply chain management


For additional details see
http://che.fulton.asu.edu/ or contact Paul
Grillos at (480) 965-5558 or
Paul.Grillos(tasu.edu


Michael R. Sierks, Ph.D., Iowa State.
Protein engineering, biomedical engineering, enzyme kinetics,
antibody engineering
Bryan Vogt, Ph.D., Massachusetts.
Nanostructured materials, organic electronics, supercritical fluids for
materials processing, moisture barrier technologies
Joe Wang, Ph.D., Technion.
Biosensors, nanobiotechnology, electrochemistry, biochips.
















Affiliate/Research Faculty
John Crittenden, Ph.D., N.A.E., P.E., Michigan.
Sustainability, catalysis, pollution prevention, physical chemical
treatment processes modeling of fixed-bed reactors and adsorbers,
surface chemistry and thermodynamics, modeling of wastewater and
water treatment processes
Paul Johnson, Ph.D., Princeton.
Chemical migration and fate in the environment as applied to
environmental risk assessment and the development, monitoring and
optimization of technologies for aquifer restoration and water
resources management
Robert Pfeffer, Ph.D., New York University.
Dry particle coating and supercritical fluid processing to produce
engineered particulates with tailored properties; fluidization, mixing,
coating and processing of ultra-fine and nano-structured particulates;
filtration of sub-micron particulates; agglomeration, sintering and
granulation of fine particles
Bruce E. Rittmann, Ph.D., N.A.E., P.E., Stanford.
Environmental biotechnology, microbial ecology, environmental
chemistry, environmental engineering


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007










Graduate Program in the Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering


University of Arkansas


ist * c%. The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas
% offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees.
f i -r . Qualified applicants are eligible for financial aid. Annual departmental
S" Ph.D. stipends provide $20,000, Doctoral Academy Fellowships provide
up to $25,000, and Distinguished Doctoral Fellowships provide $30,000.
" - o For stipend and fellowship recipients, all tuition is waived. Applications
ars * zo0 received before April 1 will be given first consideration.


Areas ofResearch

El Biochemical engineering
El Biological and food systems
[E Biomaterials
[E Electronic materials processing
[E Fate of pollutants in the environment
[E Hazardous chemical release consequence analysis


[E Integrated passive electronic components
[E Membrane separations
[E Micro channel electrophoresis
[E Supercritical fluid t hnlii , ,'y
El Phase equilibria and process design


Faculty
M.D. Ackerson
R.E. Babcock
R.R. Beitle
E.C. Clausen
J.A. Havens
C.N. Hestekin
J.A. Hestekin
J.W. King
W.A. Myers
W.R. Penney
S. L. Servoss
T.O. Spicer
G.J. Thoma
R.K. Ulrich


For more information contact
Dr. Richard Ulrich or 479-575-5645
Chemical Engineering Graduate Program Information: http://www.cheg.uark.edu/graduate.asp


Chemical Engineering Education


.












AUBURN UNIVERSITY




Engineering





I Alternative Energy and Fuels
I Biochemical Engineering
I Biomaterials
I Biomedical Engineering
I Bioprocessing and Bioenergy
i Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
Computer-Aided Engineering
Drug Delivery
Energy Conversion and Storage
I Environmental Biotechnology
I Fuel Cells
M Green Chemistry
H Materials
V MEMS and NEMS
M Microfibrous Materials
NI anotechnology
I Polymers
I Process Control
I Pulp and Paper
i Supercritical Fluids
i Surface and Interfacial Science
i Sustainable Engineering
i Thermodynamics



Director of Graduate Recruiting
Department of Chemical Engineering
Auburn, AL 36849-5127
Phone 334.844.4827
Fax 334.844.2063
www. eng.auburn.edu/che
chemical@eng.auburn. edu
Financial assistance is available to qualified applicants.



Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 27.




















Vancouveris the largest cityin Western Canada, ranked The University of British Columbia is the largest public university in Western Canada
the 3 most livable place in the world* Vancouver's and is ranked among the top 40 institutes in the world by Newsweek magazine, the
natural surroundings offer limitless opportunities for Times Higher Education Supplement and Shanghai Jiao Tong University.


outdoor pursuits throughout the year- hiking, canoeing,
mountain biking, skiing In 2010, the city will host the
Olympic and paraolympic Winter Games


Department Head Ken J Smith, Assistant Profs Elod Gyenge and Naoko Els


Faculty


SusanA Baldwin (Toronto)
Chad P J Bennington (British Columbia)
Xiaotao T Bi (British Columbia)
Bruce D Bowen (British Columbia)
Richard Branlon (Saskatchewan)
Sheldon J B Duff(McGill)
Naoko Ellis (British Columbia)
Peter Englezos (Calgary)
Norman Epstein ( New York)
James Feng (Minnesota)
Bhushan Gopaluni (Alberta)
John R Grace (Cambridge)
Elod Gyenge (British Columbia)
Savvas Hatzlkirlakos (McGill)
Charles Haynes (California, Berkeley)
Dhanesh Kannangara (Ottawa)
Richard Kerekes (McGill)
Ezra Kwok (Alberta)
Anthony Lau (British Columbia)
Eric Legally (California, Santa Barbara)
C Jim Lim (British Columbia)
Mark D Martinez (British Columbia)
Madjid Mohseni (Toronto)
Colin Oloman (British Columbia)
Royann Petrell (Florida)
Kenneth Pinder (Birmingham)
James M Piret (MIT)
Kevin J Smith (McMaster)
Fariborz Taghipour (Toronto)
A Paul Watkinson (British Columbia)
David Wilkinson (Ottawa)


UBC





Faculty of Applied Science


CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING


www. chm l. u bc.ca/progr/grad


MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE (M.A.SC.)
MASTER OF ENGINEERING (M.ENG)
MASTER OF SCIENCE (M.SC.)
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (PH.D.).


Currently about 120 students are enrolled in graduate studies. The
program dates back to the 1920s. Nowadays the department has a
strong emphasis on interdisciplinary and joint programs, in particular
with the Michael Smith Laboratories, Pulp and Paper Research Institute
of Canada (PAPRICAN), Clean Energy Research Centre (CERC) and
the BRIDGE program which links public health, engineering and policy
research.


Main Areas of Research

Bioloalcal Enalneerina
Biochemical Engineering * Biomedical
Engineering * Protein Engineering * Blood
research * Stem Cells
Energy
Blomass and E-fr . E - :i E ,::. -. ie-i
*Combustion *L, ni" : r.h:.,.. - : ,.:j 1 i i -
Electrochemic -ii .i--j I. i *, i i. l -:ll- *i :
Hydrogen Prc.j :,.- ,- * i I nli n *L- nI
Hydrate
Environmental n-,,. *,-,-- E, i- - ii . I
Emissions Ccn-,h:,l * *.li-. , -, i : i i
Engineering * i,1- l *: i:- -,- i -
Wastewater T,-* l.-.., * l..-
Management * -'.i.':i.:Ih 51
Engineering
Particle Techr..:.,:..
Fluldlzation *I I ii ,.i-,.n - -I, .:. i
Fluid-Particle - i.�.-,, , * ,: I .:i
Processing * Ei,.:h.:ir: ,
Kinetics and C ril n :
Polymer Rhec..: ..
Process Cont, :,1
Pulp and Pap-
Reaction Ena,,i--,-, , I,


Financial Aid

All students admitted to the graduate programs
leading to the M A Sc , M Sc or Ph D degrees
receive at least a minimum level of financial
support regardless of citizenship This amount is
approximately $16,500/year and is intended to
be sufficient to cover expenses for the
- r This financial assistance is in the
- form of external fellowships or
research assistantships Teaching
assistantships are also available
(up to approximately $1,000 per
year) Entrance scholarships worth
$5,000 each are also available for
highly qualified students






The new CHBE building, openedin March2006,
Uses world-class research and teaching ac-
Sities The top 2 floors are dedicated to gradu-
i'e student offices and research labs - electro-
'lemical, fuel cell, thermodynamics, polymer
geologyy biomedical research, imaging and
. nsor development and fine particle, mixing
. .d water treatment, bioprocessing, etc


*2006 survey the Economist magazine


Mailing address 2360 East Mall, Vancouver B C, Canada V6T 1Z3 * gradsec@chml ubc ca * tel +1 (604) 822-3457

Chemical Engineering Education








Biochemical E Biological Engineering
Catalysis E Reaction Engineering
Electrochemical Engineering
Environmental Engineering
Microelectronics Processing E MEMS
Polymers E Soft Materials












study Chemical


Engineering


at the University of California, Berkeley


+


The Chemical Engineering Department
at the University of California, Berkeley,
one of the preeminent departments in
the field, offers graduate programs
leading to the Master of Science and
Doctor of Philosopy.


For more information visit our website at:

hitip //cheme. berikelly- -


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007











UNIVERSITY OF


CALIFORNIA
Graduate Studies in IR
Chemical Engineering IRV
and Materials Science and Engineering
for Chemical Engineering, Engineering, and Materials Science Majors
Gffi ,. i,.. , .... , at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels. Research in frontier areas
in chemical engineering, biochemical engineering, biomedical engineering, and materials
science and engineering. Strong physical and life science and engineering .. . 11/ on campus.
FACULTY
Nancy A. Da Silva (California Institute of Technology)
James C. Earthman (Stanford University)
Stanley B. Grant (California Institute of Technology)
Juan Hong (Purdue University)
Henry C. Lim (Northwestern University)
Martha L. Mecartney (Stanford University)
Farghalli A. Mohamed (University of California, Berkeley)
Ali Mohraz (University of Michigan)
Daniel R. Mumm (Northwestern University)
Andrew J. Putnam (University of Michigan)
Regina Ragan (California Institute of Technology)
Frank G. Shi (California Institute of Technology)
Vasan Venugopalan (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
Szu-Wen Wang (Stanford University)
Albert F. Yee (University of California, Berkeley)
Joint Appointments:
William J. Cooper (University of Miami)
Steve C. George (University of Washington)
G. Wesley Hatfield (Purdue University)
G.P. Li (University of California, Los Angeles)
Noo Li Jeon (University of Illinois)
John S. Lowengrub (New York University)
Marc Madou (Rijksuniversiteit)
Roger H. Rangel (University of California, Berkeley)
Kenneth Shea (The Pennsylvania State University)
Lizhi Sun (University of California, Los Angeles)
Adjunct Appointments
Jia Grace Lu (Harvard University)

The 1,510-acre UC Irvine campus is in Orange County, five miles from the Pacific Ocean and 40 miles south
of Los Angeles. Irvine is one of the nation's fastest growing residential, industrial, and business areas. Nearby
beaches, mountain and desert area recreational activities, and local cultural activities make Irvine a pleasant
city in which to live and study.
For further information and application forms, please visit http://www.eng.uci.edu/dept/chems/
or contact
Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
School of Engineering * University of California * Irvine, CA 92697-2575


* Biomedical Engineering
* Biomolecular
Engineering
* Bioreactor Engineering
* Bioremediation
* Ceramics
* Chemical and
Biological Nanosensor
* Colloid Science
* Combustion
* Complex Fluids
* Composite Materials
* Control and
Optimization
* Environmental Engineer-
ing
* Fuel Cell Systems
* Interfacial Engineering
* Materials Processing
* Mechanical Properties
* Metabolic Engineering
* Microelectronics Pro-
cessing and Modeling
* Microstructure of
Materials
* Multifunctional Materi-
als
* Nanocrystalline Materi-
als
* Nanoscale Electronic
Devices
* Nucleation, Chrystalliza-
tion and Glass Transi-
tion Process
* Polymers
* Power and Propulsion
Materials
* Protein Engineering
* Recombinant Cell Tech-
nology
* Separation Processes
* Sol-Gel Processing
* Two-Phase Flow
* Water Pollution Control


Chemical Engineering Education










CHEMICAL AND BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERING AT









FOCUS AREAS FACULTY

0 Biomolecular and Cellular J. P. Chang
Engineering (William F Seyer Chair in
P *Materials Electrochemistry)
� Process Systems Engi- P. D. Christofides
neering (Simulation, 4I
Design, Optimization, Y. Cohen
Dynamics, and Control) ' ' , J. Davis
rr E (Assoc. Vice Chancellor
0 Semiconductor Information Technology)
Manufacturing and
R.F Hicks
Electronic Materialsr Fi H .s
L. Ignarro
,. . . (Nobel Laureate)
GENERAL THEMES .J. C. Liao

a Energy and the . Y. Lu
Environment U
niocnedn v " f ' P C V.I. Manousiouthakis

(Dept. Chair)
S... - - ....... . ' er G. Orkoulas
PROGRAMS
UCLA's Chemical and T. Segura
Biomolecular Engineering S.M. Senkan
Department offers a Y. Tang
program of teaching and
research linking
fundamental engineering science and industrial practice. Our Department has strong graduate research programs
in Biomolecular Engineering, Energy and Environment, Semiconductor Manufacturing, Engineering of Materials,
and Process and Control Systems Engineering.
Fellowships are available for outstanding applicants interested in Ph.D. degree programs. A fellowship includes
a waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend.
Located five miles from the Pacific Coast, UCLA's attractive 417-acre campus extends from Bel Air to West-
wood Village. Students have access to the highly regarded engineering and science programs and to a variety of
experiences in theatre, music, art, and sports on campus.
CONTACT







Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 279








R UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

RIVERSIDE


Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

Offering degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels in frontier areas of Chemical, Biochemical,
Biomedical, Advanced Materials, and Environmental Engineering, we welcome your interest and
would be delighted to discuss the details of our graduate program and your application. We have
outstanding faculty, research facilities and well supported infrastructure, and offer competitive
fellowship packages to qualified applicants.


RESEARCH AREAS
Advanced Vehicle Technology
Advanced Water Reclamation
Aerosol Physics
Atmospheric Chemistry
Bio- and Chemical Sensors
Biomolecular Engineering
Carbon Nanotubes
Catalysis and Biocatalysis
Electrochemistry
Environmental Biotechnology
MEMS/NEMS, Bio-MEMS
Membrane Processes
Molecular Modeling
Nanostructured Materials
Site Remediation Processes
Sustainable Fuels and
Chemicals
Water/Wastewater Treatment
Zeolites Et Fuel Cells


FACULTY
Wilfred Chen, Caltech
David R. Cocker, Caltech
David Cwiertny, Johns Hopkins
Marc A. Deshusses, ETH Zurich
Robert C. Haddon, Penn State
David Kisailus, UC Santa Barbara
Mark R. Matsumoto, UC Davis
Ashok Mulchandani, McGill
Nosang V. Myung, UCLA
Joseph M. Norbeck, Nebraska
Sharon L. Walker, Yale
Jianzhong Wu, UC Berkeley
Charles E. Wyman, Princeton
Yushan Yan, Caltech


The University of California, Riverside (UCR) is the fastest growing and most ethnically diverse of the 10
campuses of the University of California. UCR is located on over 1,100 acres at the foot of the Box Springs
Mountains, about 50 miles east of Los Angeles. Our picturesque campus provides convenient access to the
vibrant and growing Inland Empire and is within easy driving distance to most of the major cultural and
recreational offerings in Southern California. In addition, it is virtually equidistant from the desert, the
mountains, and the ocean. UCR provides an ideal setting for students, faculty, and staff seeking to study,
work, and live in a community steeped in rich heritage that offers a dynamic mix of arts and entertainment and
an opportunity for affordable living.


Apply online at
http://www.araduate.ucr.edu/Admtoc.html

For further information contact the Graduate
Program Assistant at gradcee@enqr.ucr.edu

or you can write to the Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical and Environmental
Engineering, University of California
Riverside, CA 92521

http://www.engr.ucr.edu/chemenv


Chemical Engineering Education














UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

SANTA BARBARA


SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo) * Environmental Fluid Dynamics, Multiphase Flows, Turbulence, Computational Fluid Dynamics
BRADLEY F CHMELKA Ph.D. (Berkeley) * Molecular Materials Science, Inorganic-Organics Composites, Porous Solids, NMR, Polymers
PATRICK S. DAUGHERTY Ph.D. (UT, Austin) * Protein Engineering and Design, Library Technologies
MICHAEL E DOHERTY Ph.D. (Cambridge) * Design and Synthesis, Separations, Process Dynamics and Control
FRANCIS J. DOYLE III Ph.D. (Caltech) * Process Control, Systems Biology, Nonlinear Dynamics
GLENN H. FREDRICKSON Ph.D. (Stanford) * Statistical Mechanics, Glasses, Polymers, Composites, Alloys
MICHAEL GORDON Ph.D. (Caltech) * Optical, Electrical, and Mechanical Interrogation of Nanoscale Systems, Scanning Probe
Microscopy, Near-field Optics, Plasma Physics
G.M. HOMSY Ph.D. (Illinois) * Fluid Mechanics, Instabilities, Porous Media, Interfacial Flows, Convective Heat Transfer
JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph.D. (Cambridge) * Colloidal and Biomolecular Interactions, Adhesion and Friction
EDWARD J. KRAMER Ph.D. (Carnegie-Mellon) * Fracture and Diffusion of Polymers, Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces
L. GARY LEAL Ph.D. (Stanford) * Fluid Mechanics, Physics and Rheology of Complex Fluids, including Polymers, Suspensions, and Emulsions
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.) * Mechanics of Materials, Structural Reliability
ERIC McFARLAND Ph.D. (M.I.T.) M.D. (Harvard) * Combinatorial Material Science, Environmental Catalysis, Surface Science
SAMIR MITRAGOTRI Ph.D. (M.I.T.) * Drug Delivery and Biomaterials
BARON PETERS Ph.D. (Berkeley) * Statistical Mechanics, Informatics, and Electronic Structure Approaches for Nucleation, Electron
Transfer, and Catalysis
SUSANNAH L. SCOTT Ph.D. (Iowa State) * Catalysis, Thin Films, Environmental Reactions
DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. (Princeton) * Process Control, Monitoring and Identification
M. SCOTT SHELL Ph.D. (Princeton) * Molecular Simulation, Statistical Mechanics, Complex Materials, Protein Biophysics
TODD M. SQUIRES Ph.D. (Harvard) * Microscale Fluid Mechanics and Transport, Complex Fluids
MATTHEW V. TIRRELL Ph.D. (Massachusetts) * Polymers, Surfaces, Adhesion Biomaterials
T.G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D. (Minnesota) * Multiphase Flow, RiskAssessment and Management
JOSEPH A. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D. (Minnesota) * Surface and Interfacial Phenomena, Biomaterials

PROGRAMS
AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT
The Department offers M.S. and
Ph.D. degree programs. Financial
aid, including fellowships, teach-
ing assistantships, and research
assistantships, is available.

THE UNIVERSITY
One of the world's few seashore -
campuses, UCSB is located on the
Pacific Coast 100 miles northwest
of Los Angeles. The student en- -
rollment is more than 18,000. The
metropolitan Santa Barbara area
has more than 150,000 residents
and is famous for its mild, even
climate.
For additional information and __
application process,visit our
Web site at www.chemengr.
ucsb.edu
or write to:
Chair * Graduate Admissions Committee * Department of ( h. rn,, a ul . �n i n,� University of California * Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5080

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 26









CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
I R


CALTECH


CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING


"At the Leading Edge"


http://www.che.caltech.edu


- � fr- ' '
a8 I*
Ig 19''3


Contact information:
Director of Graduate Studies
Chemical Engineering 2o1-41
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, CA 91125


FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS:
Frances H. Arnold Protein Engineering &
Directed Evolution, Biocatalysis,
Synthetic Biology, Biofuels
Anand R. Asthagiri Cellular & Tissue
Engineering, Systems Biology, Cancer &
Developmental Biology
John F. Brady Complex Fluids,
Brownian Motion, Suspensions
Mark E. Davis Biomedical Engineering,
Catalysis, Advanced Materials
Richard C. Flagan Aerosol Science,
Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, Bioaerosols,
Nanotechnology, Nucleation
George R. Gavalas (emeritus)
Konstantinos P. Giapis Plasma Processing, Ion-
Surface Interactions, Nanotechnology
Sossina M. Haile Advanced Materials, Fuel Cells,
Energy, Electrochemistry, Catalysis
& Electrocatalysis
Julia A. Kornfield Polymer Dynamics,
Crystallization of Polymers, Physical Aspects of the
Design of Biomedical Polymers
John H. Seinfeld Atmospheric Chemistry &
Physics, Global Climate
Christina D. Smolke Biomolecular Engineering,
Synthetic Biology, Cellular Engineering,
Metabolic Engineering
David A. Tirrell Macromolecular Chemistry,
Biomaterials, Protein Engineering
Nicholas W. Tschoegl (emeritus)
Zhen-Gang Wang Statistical Mechanics,
Polymer Science, Biophysics


Chemical Engineering Education







1T


;1I Ill ll Hl I i 1i I Illl i - I ii


II 1 K


SI llr I I II II


k'irP
lii


III


IA


V\


Ih , ;.IJ .h i..I," -r,,,I, nl- .,nI l a, IIIf .., I , h. '.-l. M ,.l l,...a 1.,
Ti ikll,,,: iih .I' l'ini I Ih I il' ll l.Ill,'lI " I I en...' ..I I... II,. ,ll '[ ,
I.tI ' " l i,'; .. ,,. . rl - . "ll. l l . 1111. . 111.*l i I, , \r . l llr l ,. lhl.. . I, I.- II-

Think you have the proper head gear?
Join our world-class crew and together we'll lay the foundation
for an exciting career in research.


I ' I *. 1 .1 I ..
! ! .. . I ,r...h '...4.l \1 l ....i..I.
applychemc.cmrnuedu
Contact Information
I1. . II2, . . . .. I, . . . .
41..1,, ..'1


I., 10jl I.l II. . I ... ...

Research Ihrust Areas
* BioengiTenng
SComplex Fluids Engineering
S � . '. I .. ..
* * I * � . . - . L . _


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


1r1ir l i Melln I ll vT-il\

































Research Opportunities
Energy Systems
Fuel Cells and Batteries
Micro and Bio Fuel Cells
Electrochemical Engineering
Membrane Transport, Fabrication

Biological Engineering
Biomedical Sensors and Actuators
Neural Prosthetic Devices
Cell & Tissue Engineering
Transport in Biological Systems

Advanced Materials and Devices
Diamond and Nitride Synthesis
Coatings, Thin Films and Surfaces
Sensors
Fine Particle Science and Processing
Polymer Nanocomposites
Electrochemical Microfabrication
Molecular Simulations
Microplasmas and Microreactors


You will find Case to be an exciting environment to carry
out your graduate studies. Case has a long history of
scientific leadership. Our department alumni include
many prominent chemical engineers, such as Herbert
Dow, the founder of the Dow Chemical Company.
- The Chemical Engineering Faculty


Faculty Members
John Angus
Harihara Baskaran
Robert Edwards
Donald Feke
Daniel Lacks
Uziel Landau
Chung-Chiun Liu
J. Adin Mann
Heidi Martin
Peter Pintauro
Syed Qutubuddin
Mohan Sankaran
Robert Savinell
Thomas Zawodzinski


For more information on Graduate Research, Admission, and Financial Aid, contact:


HICASE
CASE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
284


Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
10900 Euclid Avenue
Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7217


E-mail: chemeng@case.edu
Web: http://www.case.edu/cse/eche


Chemical Engineering Education


Cae ese RseveUivrst








Opportunities for Graduate Study in CI, u,, iai Engineering at the








M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in
Chemical Engineering

Faculty ........ . ......


A.P. Angelopoulos

Carlos Co

Junhang Dong

Joel Fried

Rakesh Govind

Vadim Guliants

Chia-chi Ho

Yuen-Koh Kao

Soon-Jai Khang

Paul Phillips

Neville Pinto

Vesselin Shanov

Peter Smirniotis


Financial Aid

Available
The University of Cincinnati is
committed to a policy of
non-discrimination in
awarding financial aid.

For Admission Information
Director, Graduate Studies
Department Chemical and
Materials Engineering
PO Box 210012
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0012
E-mail:

or
vadim.guliants@uc.edu
Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


New
Engineering
Research Cen-
ter that houses
most chemical
engineering
research.


D Advanced Materials
Inorganic membranes, nanostructured materials, microporous and mesoporous materials, thin film
technology, fuel cell and sensor materials, complex fluids and glasses, nanoscale biomaterials syn-
thesis
D Bio-Applications of Membrane Science and Technology
The IGERT program provides a unique educational opportunityfor U.S. graduate students who are
pursuing a doctoral degree program in areas of engineering, science, medicine, or pharmacy with a
focus on Membrane Science and Technology for Biological Applications. This program is supported
by afive-year renewable grantfrom the National Science Foundation. The IGERTfellowship consists
of an annual stipend of $30,000 for up to three years.
D Biotechnology
Nano/microbiotechnology, novel bioseparation techniques, affinity separation, i., .. ,,.i,,1;. *. of
toxic wastes, controlled drug delivery, two-phase flow
D Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering
Heterogeneous catalysis, environmental catalysis, zeolite catalysis, novel chemical reactors, model-
ing and design of chemical reactors, polymerization processes in interfaces, membrane reactors
D Center for Membrane Applied Science and Technology (MAST Center)
The MAST Center at UC is part of a National Science Foundation Multi-site Industry/University
Cooperative Research Center and a leading global membrane research center focused on the devel-
opment of scientific and technical applications of biological and synthetic membranes.
D Environmental Research
Desulfurization and denitrication of flue gas, new technologies for coal combustion power plant,
wastewater treatment, removal of volatile organic vapors
D Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology (INST)
The Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology brings ... iki, , three centers of excellence-the
Center for Nanoscale Materials Science, the Center for BioMEMS and Nanobiosystems, and the
Center for Nanophotonics-composed of faculty from the Colleges of Engineering, Arts and Sci-
ences, and Medicine. The goals of the institute are to develop a world-class infrastructure of enabling
technologies, to support advanced collaborative research on nanoscale materials and devices, and
to advance high-technology economic development within Ohio.
D Membrane Technology
Membranesynthesis and characterization, membrane ,, '.,;,,11.., .... i,,i,, I , l irationprocesses,
pervaporation, biomedical, food and environmental applications of membranes, high-temperature
membrane technology, natural gas processing by membranes
D Polymers
Thermodynamics, polymer blends and composites, high-temperature polymers, hydrogels, polymer
rheology, computational polymer science, molecular engineering and synthesis of surfactants,
surfactants and interfacial phenomena
D Separation Technologies
Membrane separation, adsorption, chromatography, separation system synthesis, chemical reac-
tion-based separation processes, polymer crystallization and property














Chemical


Engineering at



The City College of


New York - CUNY

(The City University of New York)


A 155-year-old urban University, the oldest public
University in America, on a 35-acre Gothic and modern
campus in the greatest city in the world

FACULTY RESEARCH:


Alexander Couzis: Polymorph
selective templated crystallization;
Molecularly thin organic barrier layers;
Surfactant facilitated wetting of hydro-
phobic surfaces; soft materials

�Morton Denn<:: Polymer science
and rheology; non-Newtonian fluid
mechanics

Lane Gilchrist: Bioengineering with
cellular materials; Spectroscopy-guided
molecular engineering; Structural
studies of self-assembling proteins;
Bioprocessing

Ilona Kretzschmar: Materials science;
Nanotechnology; Electronic materials

Leslie Isaacs: Preparation and charac-
terization of novel materials; Applica-
tion of thermo-analytic techniques in
materials research

+Jae Lee: Theory of reactive distilla-
tion; Process design and control; Sepa-
rations; Bioprocessing; Gas hydrates

OCharles Maldarelli: Interfacial
fluid mechanics and stability; Surface
tension driven flows and microfluidic
applica- tions; Surfactant adsorption,
phase be- havior and nanostructuring at
interfaces

OJeff Morris: Fluid mechanics; Fluid-
particle systems

+Irven Rinard: Process design meth-
odology; Process and energy systems
engineering; Bioprocessing

David Rumschitzki: Transport and
reaction aspects of arterial disease;
Interfacial fluid mechanics and stabil-
ity; Catalyst deactivation and reaction
engineering
286


Carol Steiner: Polymer solutions and
hydrogels; Soft biomaterials, Controlled
release technology

Raymond Tu: Biomolecular engineering;
Peptide design; DNA condensation; micro-
rheology

Gabriel Tardos: Powder technology;
Granulation; Fluid particle systems, Elec-
trostatic effects; Air pollution

Sheldon Weinbaum*c: Fluid mechanics,
Biotransport in living tissue; Modeling of
cellular mechanism of bone growth; bioheat
transfer; kidney function


ASSOCIATED FACULTY:
�Joel Koplik: (Physics) Fluid mechanics; Molecu
lar modeling; Transport in random media
"Hernan Makse: (Physics) Granular mechanics
"Mark Shattuck: (Physics) Experimental
granular rheology; Computational granular fluid
dynamics; Experimental spatio-temporal control
of patterns

EMERITUS FACULTY:
'Andreas Acrivos*c<
Robert Graff
Robert Peffer
+Reuel Shinnarm
Herbert Weinstein


o Levich Institute
+Clean Fuels Institute
* National Academy of Sciences
SNational Academy of Engineering
< American Academy ofArts and Sciences



CONTACT INFORMATION:
Department of Chemical Engineering
City College of New York
Convent Avenue at 140th Street
New York, NY 10031
www-che.engr.ccny.cuny.edu
chedept@ccny.cuny.edu


Chemical Engineering Education





















CHBE FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS:
l KristiAnseth-biomaterials, photopoly-meriza-
tion, tissue engineering, and drug delivery
[ Christopher Bowman-biomaterials, pho-
topolymerization, reaction kinetics, polymer
chemistry
[ Stephanie Bryant- functional tissue engineer-
ing, mechanical conditioning, mechano-trans-
duction, photopolymerization
[ David Clough--process control
[ RobertDavis--fluid mechanics of suspensions,
sedimentation, coagulation, filtration, particle
collisions in fluids, microbial suspensions,
biotechnology, membrane fouling
[ John Falconer-heterogeneous catalysis,
environmental catalysis, photocatalysis, zeolite
membranes
[ Steven George-surface chemistry and thin
films, materials processing and environmental
interfaces
[ Ryan Gill -evolutionary and inverse metabolic
engineering, genomics
[ Douglas Gin-polymer science, liquid crystal
engineering, and nanomaterials chemistry
[ Christine Hrenya-gas-particle fluidization,
granular flow mechanics, turbulent flows, com-
putational fluid mechanics
[ Dhinakar Kompala- recombinant mammalian
and microbial cell cultures, high cell density
bioreactors design, bioprocess engineering
[ Melissa Mahoney-neural tissue engineering,
pancreatic regeneration, drug delivery, biopoly-
mers
[ Will Medlin -surface chemistry, heterogeneous
catalysis, solid-state chemical sensors, compu-
tational chemistry
[ Charles Musgrave-theoretical studies of
surfaces and reactions
[ Richard Noble- reversible chemical complex-
ation for separations, mass transfer, mathemati-
cal modeling, membranes, thin films
[ Theodore Randolph-thermodynamics of
protein solutions, lyophilization, supercritical
fluid reaction engineering
[ Robert Sani-fluid dynamics
[ Aaron Saunders-colloidal nanocrystals, ma-
terials science
[ Daniel Schwartz-interfacial phenomena,
biomaterials, complex fluids, and nanoscale
materials
E Jeffrey Stansbury--dental and biomedical
polymeric materials, photopolymerization
processes, network polymers, hydrogels, low
shrinkage/expanding polymerizations
[ Mark Stoykovich-block copolymer self-as-
sembly and thin films
[ David Walba-organic stereochemistry, pho-
tonic materials and ferroelectric liquid crystals
[ Alan Weimer-reactor engineering, advanced
ceramic materials, fluidization, environmental
resource recovery

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


Colorado


University of Colorado at Boulder


The Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at the University of Colorado
at Boulder offers an innovative graduate program and emphasizes the doctoral degree. Our
outstanding national and international students take advantage of a high level of faculty-student
collaboration and benefit from access to three interdisciplinary research centers. The department
has won numerous awards both locally and nationally.

The Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering is one of the top research departments
in the United States and maintains sophisticated facilities to support research endeavors. Although
research in the department spans many diverse fields, there is a particular emphasis on research
in biological engineering, functional materials, and renewable energy.

Biological engineering research areas span from the molecular scale metabolitess, genes, proteins)
to the cellular and multicellular scales. Functional materials research includes polymers, zeolites,
ultrathin films, catalytic materials, self-assembled monolayers, and liquid crystalline materials. The
department has strength in studying materials problems at the nanometer and sub-nanometer length
scales. Such fundamental investigations are directed toward technological applications. Finally,
renewable energy studies range from the production and utilization of hydrogen to biorefining and
biofuels research. The latter area has recently been strengthened by the formation of the Colorado
Center for Biorefining and Biofuels (C2B2); a large collaborative research center led by faculty
in the department and sup-
ported by university, state
ported by university, state For information and online application:
and industry funding. Graduate Admissions Committee * Department of Chemical
& Biological Engineering * University of Colorado at Boulder,
We invite prospective 424 UCB * Boulder, CO 80309-0424
graduate students to learn Phone (303) 492-7471 * Fax (303) 492-4341
more about our department chbegrad@colorado.edu
and ongoing research. http://www.colorado.edu/che/















Evolving from its origins as a
school of mining founded in
1873, CSM is a unique, highly
focused University dedicated to
scholarship and research in
materials, energy, and the envi-
ronment.

The Chemical Engineering
Department at CSM maintains
a high-quality, active, and well-funded graduate research program. Funding
sources include federal agencies such as the NSF, DOE, DARPA, ONR,
NREL, NIST, NIH as well as multiple industries. Research areas within the
department include:

Material Science and Engineering
Organic and inorganic membranes (Way)
Polymeric materials (Dorgan, Wu, Liberatore)
Colloids and complex fluids (Marr, Wu, Liberatore)
Electronic materials (Wolden, Agarwal)
Microfluidics (Marr)

Theoretical and Applied Thermodynamics
Natural gas hydrates (Sloan, Koh)
Molecular simulation and modelling (Ely, Wu)

Space and Microgravity Research
Membranes on Mars (Way)
Water mist flame suppression (McKinnon)

Fuel Cell Research
H2 separation and fuel cell membranes (Way, Herring)
Low temperature fuel cell catalysts (Herring)
High temperature fuel cell kinetics (Dean)
Reaction mechanisms (McKinnon, Dean, Herring)


Finally, located at the foot of the Rocky
Mountains and only 15 miles from downtown
Denver, Golden enjoys over 300 days of
sunshine per year. These factors combine to
provide year-round cultural, recreational, and
entertainment opportunities virtually
unmatched anywhere in the United States.


Faculty
* S. Agarwal (UCSB, 2003)

SA.M. Dean (Harvard, 1971)

* J.R. Dorgan (Berkeley, 1991)

SJ.F. Ely (Indiana, 1971)

* A. Herring (Leeds, 1989)

* C.A. Koh (Brunel, 1990)

* M. Liberatore (Illinois, 2003)

* D.W.M. Marr (Stanford, 1993)

* J.T. McKinnon (MIT, 1989)

* R.L. Miller (CSM, 1982)

* E.D. Sloan (Clemson, 1974)

* J.D. Way (Colorado, 1986)

* C.A. Wolden (MIT, 1995)

* D.T. Wu (Berkeley, 1991)


http://www.mines.edu/academic/chemeng/


Chemical Engineering Education


�dQc~u



















Graduate students in Chemical and Biological Engineering at
Colorado State University work closely with scientists and en-
gineers who have an international reputation for academic and
research excellence. As a member of this community, you will
have the opportunity to explore research interests, share ideas, and
discuss new scientific directions with leaders in their fields -not
M.S. and Ph.D. only in chemical engineering but also in microbiology, chem-
istry, engineering, and other sciences. The interdisciplinary
prog rams in nature otthe research carried out by the chemical and biologi-
cal engineering faculty at CSU and the culture of cooperative
chemical and biological research facilitate this access to experts across departments and
colleges. Chemical and biological engineering faculty members
engineering and students work jointly with research groups in electrical,
mechanical, and civil engineering, microbiology, environmental
RESEARCH IN . . . health sciences, chemistry, and veterinary medicine.
D Biochemical Engineering and Biorefining
D Biomaterials Travis S. Bailey, Ph.D.
D Biomedical Engineering University of Minnesota
I Biorefining and Biofuels Laurence A. Belfiore, Ph.D.
DI Biosensors University of Wisconsin
D Cell and Tissue Engineering David S. Dandy, Ph.D.
D Environmental Biotechnology California Institute of Technology
D Environmental Engineering Matt J. Kipper, Ph.D.
- Genomics/Proteomics/Metabolomics Iowa State University
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging
James C. Linden, Ph.D.
- Membrane Technology Iowa State University
- Metabolic Engineering
D Molecular Simulation Kenneth E Reardon, Ph.D.
Do Nanostructured Materials California Institute of Technology
D Polymeric Materials Brad Reisfeld, Ph.D.
I Systems Biology Northwestern University
FINANCIAL AID AVAILABLE David Wang, Ph.D.
Teaching and research assistantships paying a University of Wisconsin
monthly stipend plus tuition reimbursement.
A. Ted Watson, Ph.D.
For applications and further information, see California Institute of Technology
http://cbe.colostate.edu
or write: Ranil Wickramasinghe, Ph.D.
University of Minnesota
Graduate Advisor, Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering University of Minnesota
Colorado State University * Fort Collins, CO 80523-1370


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007











1 University of Connecticut


School of Engineering
Chemical Engineering Program
191 Auditorium Road, U-3222
Storrs, CT 06269-3222
Phone: (860) 486-4020
Fax: (860) 486-2959











Welcome to our new Department of Chemical, Materials & Biomolecular Engineering. The department was
created from the fusion of the departments of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science & Engineering.

The Chemical Engineering Program offers opportunities for cross-cutting research in nanomaterials, biomolecules,
energy and many traditional chemical engineering disciplines. Example research areas below.

Doug Cooper: Process Control Training, Tuning & Analysis, Adaptive Process Control, Intelligent Technologies
and Pattern-Based Control

Can Erkey: Fuel Cells, Supercritical Fluids

Yu Lei: Biosensors, Bioremediation, Biopolymers and their Applications, Nanomaterials and their Application in
Biosensing

Richard Parnas: Protein Based Plastics, Biofuels, Plant Design, Fiber Optic Sensors, Composites

Montgomery T. Shaw: Polymer Rheology & Processing, Phase Behavior in Polymer Solutions & Blends, Aging
of Polymeric Dielectrics

Ranjan Srivastava: Biomolecular Networks, Systems Biology, Bioinformatics & Biosensors

Yong Wang: Nanomedicines for Cancer Therapy, Nanomedicines for Diagnosis, Nanomaterials for Controlling
Cell Behaviors

Robert Weiss: Proton Exchange Membranes, Polymer Blends, Wetting of Thin Polymer Films, Electrically
Conductive Polymers, Hydrophobically Modified Hydrogels

Benjamin Wilhite: Heat Integration in Microchannel Arrays for Fuel Reforming and Fuel Cells, Multiphase Flow
in Fuel Cell Microchannels, Multifunctional Catalyst Design for Efficient Hydrogen Generation

Lei Zhu: Nano-confined Polymers using Block Copolymer as Templates Crystalline block copolymers are utilized
as templates to investigate nanoconfinement effects on polymer phase transitions in the bulk and at surfaces, Block
Copolymer/Inorganic Nanocomposites, Characterization of Polymer Membranes in PEM Fuel Cells


Chemical Engineering Education










Graduate Study & Research in Chemical Engineering
at



Dartmouth's Thayer School of Engineering

Dartmouth and its affiliated professional schools offer PhD degrees in the full range of science disciplines as well as
MD and MBA degrees. The Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College offers an ABET-accredited BE degree,
as well as MS, Masters of Engineering Management, and PhD degrees. The Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Program features courses in foundational topics in chemical engineering as well as courses serving our areas of research
specialization:
* Biotechnology and biocommodity engineering
* Environmental science and engineering
* Fluid mechanics
* Materials science and engineering
* Process design and evaluation
These important research areas are representative of those found in chemical engineering departments around the world.
A distinctive feature of the Thayer School is that the professors, students, and visiting scholars active in these areas have
backgrounds in a variety of engineering and scientific subdisciplines. This intellectual diversity reflects the reality that
boundaries between engineering and scientific subdisciplines are at best fuzzy and overlapping. It also provides opportunities
for students interested in chemical and biochemical engineering to draw from several intellectual traditions in coursework
and research. Fifteen full-time faculty are active in research involving chemical engineering fundamentals.



Faculty & Research Areas
Ian Baker (Oxford) - Structure/property relationships of materials, electron microscopy
John Collier (Dartmouth) - Orthopaedic prostheses, implant/host interfaces
Alvin Converse (Delaware) - Kinetics & reactor design, enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose
Benoit Cushman-Roisin (Florida State) - Numerical modeling of environmental fluid dynamics
Harold Frost (Harvard) - Microstructural evolution, deformation, and fracture of materials
Tillman Gerngross (Technical University of Vienna) - Engineering of glycoproteins, fermentation technology
Ursula Gibson (Cornell) - Thin film deposition, optical materials
Karl E. Griswold (University of Texas at Austin) - Protein Engineering
Francis Kennedy (RPI) D Tribology, surface mechanics
Daniel R. Lynch (Princeton) - Computational methods, oceanography, and water resources
Lee Lynd (Dartmouth) - Biomass processing, pathway engineering, reactor & process design
Victor Petrenko (USSR Academy of Science) - Physical chemistry of ice
Horst Richter (Stuttgart) - Thermodynamics, multiphase flow, energy conversion, process design
Erland Schulson (British Columbia) - Physical metallurgy of metals and alloys
Petia Vlahovska (Yale University) - Rheology of complex fluids, biological fluid dynamics, membrane biophysics


For further information, please contact:

Chemical Engineering Graduate Advisor * Thayer School of Engineering * Dartmouth College * Hanover, NH 03755
http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/thayer/research/chemical.html


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007









1 \ ur department has a long, distinguished history as
a vigorous and active center of research. The range
of projects varies tremendously-from biochemical
engineering to catalysis to thermodynamics-
and there are important advances being made in each
area at Delaware. A hallmark of our department has long
been interaction with industry, and many of the research
groups collaborate closely with local or other industrial
laboratories. This is useful experience for pursuit of a
career in either academic or industrial research.


FAU UNIVERSITY of



Markr aCentefor i Sse m -Biochemical & Biomedi
Chemical. . .. Engineering
@6 . 0 OS*


A o . A 0
* A *t0 . * P e P * *so
^PiTrofessr Allan T^^^^^^o3~Ri iolBu Pr3ofesr
^PiTMi~tHB^^^^^^^^ Chief EwngineeIsitute of^^

|i g C e ECatalysis & Reaction En




Ctlllid &SItefdierie
* * H B. I. Ca o
Thomasl Epps, III DlM--irector of CME-H




Ass oiat*e . Prollsid MiltenS ul /ivanaa s


Professor; Dean, College of Pr fessorl I
Engineering^^^^^^^g~jw^^^^^^
. o . n Lau c Ali B. an Jui 0. Stle
Kelin Lee Chairpersou^BBnifl^^B




. mie . .u de duiAssostant/ppofesntr
*^icj^BF^^^^^^^^^^^^Richard Wool ^^^^





Eugene Dufon st Chair of r' . udel. edu g dofi e/ pp ic nt
Ch ei cafl E ni n e eri ng ^ ^ * " ' u e e d / i o f cE / a p l ica ft s I


150 Academy Street


Colburn Laboratory


Newark, DE 19716


DELAWARE


:al


Nanotechnology & Materials Design


Polymer Science & Engineering


gineering


Thermodynamics & Phase Equilibria


nce


Transport Phenomena & Separation
Science


:.



l!illu ii
IEEE j;j


Fax 302 831 1048


Phone 302 831 2543


-ntI


Chemical Engineering Education


-~ ~---










DTU


Technical University of Denmark


Do your graduate studies in Europe!


The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is a
modern, internationally oriented technological
university placed centrally in Scandinavia's Medicon
Valley - one of the worlds leading biotech clusters. It
was founded 177 years ago by H. C. Orsted. The
University has 6000 students preparing for their BSc
or MSc degrees, 600 PhD students and takes 400
foreign students a year on English-taught courses.
The DTU campus is located close to the city of
Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark.


Chemical Engineering focus areas of research and the research groups are:

Applied Thermodynamics, Aerosol Technology, Bio Process Engineering, Catalysis, Combustion Processes
Emission Control, Enzyme technology, Membrane Technology, Polymer Chemistry & Technology
Process Control, Product Engineering, Oil and Gas Production, Systems Engineering, Transport Phenomena
BioEng CAPEC CHEC DPC IVC-SEP


The Department of Chemical Engineering (KT) is a leading research institution. The
research results find application in biochemical processes, computer aided product
and process engineering, energy, enhanced oil recovery, environment protection
and pollution abatement, information technology, and products, formulations &
materials.

The department has excellent experimental facilities serviced by a well-equipped
workshop and well-trained technicians. The Hempel Student Innovation Laboratory
is open for students' independent experimental work. The unit operations laboratory
and pilot plants for distillation, reaction, evaporation, crystallization, etc. are used
for both education and research. Visit us at http://www.kt.dtu.dk/English.aspx.

Graduate programs at Department of Chemical Engineering:

Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Stic
http://www.kt.dtu.dk/cbe
Petroleum Engineering Erling H.
http://www.ivc-sep. kt.dtu.dk/petroleum/
Advanced and Applied Chemistry Georgios Konto
http://www.kt.dtu.dk/aachemistry


The starting point for
general information
about MSc studies at
DTU is:
http://www.dtu.dk/msc

g Wedel sw@kt.dtu.dk

Stenby ehs@kt.dtu.dk

georgis gk@kt.dtu.dk


Visit the University at http://www.dtu.dk/english.aspx

Department of Chemical Engineering


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007

















Drexel University


Department of Chemical


and Biological Engineering


Faculty

Cameron F Abrams
� 1I ,, .1i , ,

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Jason B Baxler




Richard A Cairncross
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Nily R Dan




YosselA Elabd
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Ehlhu D Grossmann

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Kennelh KS Lau
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Anihony M Lowman
1I1- i n, in .= lhIIII. , I :ir,


Ral Mulharasan
21,1- - , , l h ,,.,,I Ir



Giuseppe R Palmese Head
1 1- l ... . I - -1





Masoud Soroush
i. II, ,. ,. , 11.1. ,



Charles B Weinberier

I ,i ,l i- . P , , ,,

Sleven P Wrenn


I, , ,, . l. u I, ,I


Chemical Engineering Education






























6th in number of yearly ChE
PhD graduates in U S
':I EN 1.1, .1 .l.ll
Award-winnilng lacllty
Clling-edgeq lacillies
EI lensive engineering resCources
An h:our Iro:i Ihe Allanhlic I'ceall
i and Ihe utill o: Me i:co


Faculty
Tim Ander.:,n
Aravind Ailhaqlrl
Jas,:,n E Bu.ller
An.j I' hal.ihan
i.c:ar D C'risalle
Jenniler 'inc: lair C:i.i
Ri,:hard E'P l': in1:nn
Helena Haqelin-Weaver
Gar H,:lli.ind
F'eng Jiang
Lewis E J:hn~
Dmilry KIp,:,elevic:
..llga Krylli:i.ik
Anlh:ny J Ladd
Tanmay Lele
Ali.il jaraniq
Ranga 'jarayanan
Mark E ilIrazem
C hang.WA,:n Park
Fan Ren
Dinesh 1- ',hah
Spyr,:,s ',vo:iro:ini:is
Yiider Tsenq
Serge Vasenk,,v
Jasl:n F Weaver
Sirk Ziegler


rii




Ib


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


,P











Florida Institute of Technology
1959 *

Graduate studies in Chemical Engineering

Join a small, vibrant campus on Florida's Space Coast to reach your full academic and
professional potential. Florida Tech, the only independent, scientific and technological
university in the Southeast, has grown to become a university of international standing.

Faculty
P.A. Jennings, Ph.D., Department Head
J.E. Whitlow, Ph.D.
M.M. Tomadakis, Ph.D.
M.E. Pozo de Fernandez, Ph.D.
J.R. Brenner, Ph.D.
R.G. Barile, Ph.D.
S. Dutta, Ph.D.

Research Interests
Spacecraft Technology
In-Situ Resource Utilization
Alternative Energy Sources
Materials Science
Membrane Technology
Hydrogen Technology

Research Partners
NASA
Department of Energy
Department of Defense
Florida Solar Energy Center
Florida Space Grant


For more information, contact
Florida Institute of Technology
College of Engineering
Department of Chemical Engineering
150 W. University Blvd.
Melbourne, FL 32901-6975
(321) 674-8068 * http://che.fit.edu

Chemical Engineering Education



















looki;n5 for fhe� ri + 5 cada ,.pro a -

Yov've found it at (qleov a Tech �


















.. PROGRAMS
�aUd*M.S 'Eicd ~~g
* ' .Ph.D i ...., neering
SMtMAT *, � � M.S. i r ineering
Usoc&atI Chair .for .Graduate Studies * Ph.D. i ine r
tlCniomol ar Engineering * M.S. in Psa Science and Engineering
c~ibilogy
Sm00 ta i logy Ph.D. in Paper Scy' Enginverlin.
duO * M.S. in Polmer



Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 297























(HEMI(AL BIOMOLE(ULA I NINEERIN



SADUATI PRO@AM


Balakotalah
Harold
Luss
Richardson
* ~.


rooksK


Daneshy*
Economldes* ENVIRONMENTAL
Mohanty & REACTION
Nlkolaou ENGINEERING
Strasser


ENERGY CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING ENGINEERING


Balakotaiah
Harold
Jacobson\* NANO-MATERIALS
Luss
Nikolaou
Richardson Advlncula*
Donnelly
Doxastakls
Economou
Flumerfelt
Jacobson*
Krlshnamoortl
Lee*
Lltvlnov*


Chellam*
Economou
Strasser
Willson


Annapragada*
Bldanl*


Briggs*
Fox*
Vekllov
WIllson


BIOMOLECULAR
ENGINEERING


Doxastakis
Krishnamoorti
Mohanty

Chellam*
Harold
Luss
Nikolaou
Richardson
Strasser
Vekilov
* Adjunct
* Affiliated
Bold denotes pnmary
research area.


HOUSTON-
Dynamic Hub of Chemical Engineering

Houston is the dominant hub of the U.S.
energy and chemical industries, as well as the
home of NASAs Johnson Space Center and the
world-renowned Texas Medical Center.

The Chemical & Biomolecular .....
Department at the University of Houston
offers excellent facilities, competitive financial
support, industrial internships, and an
environment conducive to personal and
professional growth.

Houston offers the educational, cultural,
business, sports, and entertainment advantages
of a large and diverse metropolitan area, with
significantly lower costs than average.

For more information:
Visit www.chee.uh.edu
Email: grad-che@uh.edu
Write: University of Houston
Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering
Graduate Admission
S222 Engineering Building 1
Houston, TX 77204-4004


UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON T&
CULLEN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


Chemical Engineering Education


The Unlversly of Houston is an equal opportunity nsntunon


f













U The University of Illinois at Chicago


u I Department of Chemical Engineering


MS and PhD

Graduate Program

FACULTY

Sohail Murad, Professor and Head
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
E-Mail: Murad@uic.edu
John H. Kiefer, Professor Emeritus
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
E-Mail: Kiefer@uic.edu
Andreas A. Linninger, Associate Professor
Ph.D., Vienna University of Technology, 1992
E-Mail: Linninge@uic.edu
G. Ali Mansoori, Professor
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
E-Mail: Mansoori@uic.edu
Randall Meyer, Assistant Professor
Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin, 2001
E-Mail: Rjm@uic.edu
Ludwig C. Nitsche, Associate Professor
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1989
E-Mail: LCN@uic.edu
John Regalbuto, Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986
E-Mail: JRR@uic.edu
Stephen Szepe, Associate Professor Emeritus
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
E-Mail: SSzepe@uic.edu
T
Christos Takoudis, Professor T
Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1982
E-Mail: Takoudis@uic.edu T
Raffi M. Turian, Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964 K
E-Mail: Turian@uic.edu
C
Lewis E. Wedgewood, Associate Professor si
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1988
E-Mail: Wedge@uic.edu
Edward Funk, Adjunct Professor 1
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1970
E-Mail: Funk@uic.edu
P
Laszlo T. Nemeth, Adjunct Professor p
Ph.D., University of Debrecen, Hungary, 1978
E-Mail: Lnemeth@uic.edu
in
Anil Oroskar, Adjunct Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1981 S
E-Mail: anil@orochem.com


RESEARCH AREAS
transport Phenomena: Transport properties of fluids, Slurry transport, Multiphase fluid flow.
luid mechanics of polymers, Ferro fluids and other Viscoelastic media.
hermodynamics: Molecular simulation and Statistical mechanics of liquid mixtures, Superficial fluid
xtraction/retrograde condensation, Asphaltene characterization, Membrane-based separations.
:inetics and Reaction Engineering: Gas-solid reaction kinetics, Energy transfer processes, Laser
agnostics, and Combustion chemistry. Environmental technology, Surface chemistry, and optimization.
atalyst preparation and characterization, Supported metals, Chemical kinetics in automotive engine emis-
ons. Density fictional theory calculations of reaction mechanisms.
biochemical Engineering: Bioinstrumentation, Bioseparations, Biodegradable polymers, Nonaqueous
nzymology, Optimization of mycobacterial fermentations.
materials: Microelectronic materials and processing, Heteroepitaxy in group IV materials, and in situ
surface spectroscopies at interfaces. Combustion synthesis of ceramics and synthesis in supercritical fluids.
product and Process Development and design, Computer-aided modeling and simulation, Pollution
prevention.
biomedical Engineering Hydrodynamics of the human brain, Microvasculation, Fluid structure interaction
Biological tissues, Drug transport.
lanoscience and Engineering Molecular-based study of matter in nanoscale, Organic nanostructures,
elf-assembly and Positional assembly. Properties of size-selected clusters.


For more information, write to
Director of Graduate Studies * Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago * 810 S. Clinton St. * Chicago, IL 60607-7000 * (312) 996-3424 * Fax (312) 996-0808
URL: http://www.uic.edu/depts/chme/

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007










AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN


Chemical and Biomolecular

Engineering

The combination of distinguished faculty, outstanding
facilities, and a diversity of research interests results in
exceptional opportunities for graduate education at the
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The Chemical
and Biomolecular Engineering Department offers graduate
programs leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.

For more information visit www.chemeng.uiuc.edu
Or write to:
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
114 Roger Adams Laboratory, Box C-3
600 South Mathews Avenue
Urbana, IL 61801-3602

Department of Chemical
4"^1 & Biomolecular Engineering
- THE UNIVERSITYOF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN


Chemical Engineering Education


UNIVERSITY


OF ILLINOIS















. .


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007










Graduate program for M.S. and Ph.D. degrees

in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering


FACULTY


Gary A. Aurand
North Carolina State U.
1996
Supercritical fluids/
High pressure biochem-
ical reactors


C. Allan Guymon
U. of Colorado 1997
Polymer reaction
engineering/UV curable
coatings/Polymer liquid
crystal composites


Audrey Butler
U. of Iowa 1989
Chemical precipitation
processes













Stephen K. Hunter
U. of Utah 1989
Bioartificial organs/
Microencapsulation
technologies


Greg Carmichael
U. of Kentucky 1979
Global change/
Supercomputing/
Air pollution modeling


Chris
Coretsopoulos
U. of Illinois at Urbana-
Champaign 1989
Photopolymerization/
Microfabrication/
Spectroscopy


Julie L.P. Jessop David
Michigan State U. 1999 Murhammer
Polymers/ U. of Houston 1989
Microlithography/ Insect cell culture/
Spectroscopy Bioreactor monitoring


Jennifer Fiegel
Johns Hopkins 2004
Drug delivery/
Nano and
microtechnology/
Aerosols


Tonya L. Peeples
Johns Hopkins 1994
Bioremediation/
Extremophile physiol-
ogy and biocatalysis


David Rethwisch
U. of Wisconsin 1985
Membrane science/
Polymer science/
Catalysis


Venkiteswaran
Subramanian
Indian Institute of Science
1978
Biocatalysis/Metabolism/
Gene expression/
Fermentation/Protein
purification/Biotechnology


Aliasger K. Salem
U. of Nottingham 2002
Tissue engineering/
Drug delivery/Polymeric
biomaterials/Immuno-
cancer therapy/Nano
and microtechnology










John M. Wiencek
Case Western Reserve
1989
Protein crystallization/
Surfactant technology


Alec B. Scranton
Purdue U. 1990
Photopolymerization/
Reversible emulsifiers/
Polymerization kinetics


Charles O. Stanier
Carnegie Mellon
University 2003
Air pollution chemis-
try measurement, and
modeling/Aerosols


Ramaswamy
Subramanian
Indian Institute of
Science 1992
Structural enzymol-
ogy/Structure function
relationship in proteins

For information
and application:
THE UNIVERSITY
OF IOWA
Graduate Admissions
Chemical and
Biochemical Engineering
4133 Seamans Center
Iowa City IA 52242-1527
1-800-553-IOWA
(1-800-553-4692)
chemeng@icaen.uiowa.edu
www.engineering.uiowa.
edu/~chemeng/


Chemical Engineering Education
























i


Iowa State University's Department of
Chemical and Biological Engineering
offers excellent programs for graduate
research and education. Our cutting-
edge research crosses traditional
disciplinary lines and provides


exceptional opportunities for graduate
students. Our diverse faculty are leaders
in their fields and have won national and
international recognition for both
research and education, our facilities
S(laboratories, instrumentation, and
computing) are state of the art, and our
U" financial resources give graduate
Sl- students the support they need not just
to succeed, but to excel. Our campus




Robert C. Brown, PhD Monica H. Lamm, PhD
Michigan State University North Carolina State University
Biorenewable resources for energy Molecular simulations of advanced materials
Aaron R. Clapp, PhD Surya K. Mallapragada, PhD
University of Florida Purdue University
Colloidal and interfacial phenomena Tissue engineering and drug delivery
Eric W. Cochran, PhD Balaji Narasimhan, PhD
University of Minnesota Purdue University
Self-assembled polymers Biomaterials and drug delivery
Rodney O. Fox, PhD Michael G. Olsen, PhD
Kansas State University University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Computational fluid dynamics and reaction Experimental fluid mechanics and turbulence
engineering Peter J. Reilly, PhD
Charles E. Glatz, PhD University of Pennsylvania
University of Wisconsin Enzyme engineering and bioinformatics
Bioprocessing and bioseparations Derrick K. Rollins, PhD
Kurt R. Hebert, PhD Ohio State University
University of Illinois Statistical process control
Corrosion and electrochemical engineering Brent H. Shanks, PhD
James C. Hill, PhD California Institute of Technology
University of Washington Heterogeneous catalysis and biorenewables
Turbulence and computational fluid dynamics Jacqueline V. Shanks, PhD
Andrew C. Hillier, PhD California Institute of Technology
University of Minnesota Metabolic engineering and plant biotechnology
Interfacial engineering and electrochemistry R. Dennis Vigil, PhD
Kenneth R. Jolls, PhD University of Michigan
University of Illinois Transport phenomena and reaction engineerir
Chemical thermodynamics and separations in multiphase systems
Mark J. Kushner, PhD
California Institute of Technology
Computational optical and discharge physics


houses several interdisciplinary research
centers, including the Ames Laboratory
(a USDOE laboratory focused on
materials research), the Plant Sciences
Institute, the Office of Biotechnology, the
Office of Biorenewable Programs, and
the Institute for Combinatorial Discovery.

The department offers MS and PhD
degrees in chemical engineering.
Students with undergraduate degrees in
chemical engineering or related fields
can be admitted to the program. We
offer full financial support with tuition
coverage and competitive stipends to all
our graduate students.









J


'0


I. --a -T.at- ini ;or-it'
-i I, 5 . ,r,,J1 I
515 294-7643
che,. engr I ia - sae.edu
cheniengr@iastale.edu
I _ i ii I,


Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of
race, color, age, religion, national origin, sexual orientation,
sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U S Vietnam
Era Veteran Any persons having inquiries concerning
this may contactthe Director of Equal Opportunity and
Diversity, 3680 Beardshear Hall, 515 294-7612 ECM 07495


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 31


IOWA STAT U]Nl = I,~ : al~ 1 iIVERSiITY[][B










Graduate Study and Research in

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

at Johns Hopkins
The Johns Hopkins University's Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, estab-
lished in 1936, features a low student-to-faculty ratio that fosters a highly collaborative research ex-
perience. The faculty are internationally known for their contributions at the forefront of emerging
technologies such as nanotechnology, recombinant DNA technology, cell and tissue engineering,
computational biology, molecular bioengineering, and electronic materials as well as in core chemi-
cal engineering areas such as thermodynamics and interfacial phenomena.


Hydration Phenomena and Statistical Mechanics
of Aqueous Systems
Dilipkumar N. Asthagiri, PhD * University of Delaware, Newark
Mammalian, Insect Cell, and Stem Cell Culture
Metabolic Engineering and Biotechnology
Apoptosis * Glycosylation and Glycomics
Michael J. Betenbaugh, PhD * University of Delaware
Molecular Thermodynamics * Adsorption
Supercritical Processing * Self Assembly
Marc D. Donohue, PhD * University of California, Berkeley
Transport Phenomena in Micro and Nano-Fluidic Systems *
Molecular Dynamics Simulations
German M. Drazer, PhD * Universidad de Cuyo and Instituto
Balseiro
Surface Forces and Adhesion
Electrochemistry * Interfacial Electrostatics * Nanomaterials
Joelle Fr6chette, PhD * Princeton University
Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering * Vascular Regeneration
Sharon Gerecht, PhD * Technion-Israel Institute of Technology
Micro/Nanotechnology
Self-Assembly * Surface Science of Soft Materials
Non linear Optical Spectroscopy and Biomedical Engineering
David Gracias, PhD * University of California, Berkeley
Biomolecular Modeling * Protein-Protein Docking
Protein-Surface Interactions
Self-Assembled Nanomaterials and Devices
Jeffrey J. Gray, PhD * University of Texas at Austin
Biomaterials Synthesis
Cancer and Inflammation * Targeted Drug and Nucleic
Acid Delivery
Justin S. Hanes, PhD * Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Johns Hopkins Unlvemlty does not dlscrlmlnate on the bass of race, color sex,
relgon, sexual orientation, national or ethnic origin, age, dlsablhty or veteran status in any
student program or activity administered by the Unlvemity or with regard to admission or
employment Defense Department dlscrmnnaton n ROTC promgams on the basis of homo
sexualty conflicts with this unlvemty policy The unlvemlty is committed to encouraging a
change in the Defense Department policy
Questions regarding Title VI, Title IX and Section 504 should be referred to Yvonne M
Theodore, Affirmatlve Acton Officer, 205 Garland Hall (410-516-8075)


Nucleation * Crystallization * Ouzo Effect
Flame Generation of Ceramic Powders
Joseph L. Katz, PhD * University of Chicago
Cell and Molecular Engineering * Functional Genomics
Fluid Mechanics in Medical Applications * Cancer Metastasis
Thrombosis and Inflammation/Bacterial Infection
Konstantinos Konstantopoulos, PhD * Rice University
Molecular Bioengineering
Protein Engineering * Molecular Evolution
Marc Ostermeier, PhD * University of Texas at Austin
Surfactants and Interfaces
Nanoparticle Assembly * Marangoni Effects
Kathleen J. Stebe, PhD * The City University of New York
Cell Adhesion and Migration
Cystoskeleton Receptor-Ligand Interactions * Cancer
HIV Infection * Progeria * New Microscopies
Denis Wirtz, PhD * Stanford University


For further information contact:
Johns Hopkins University
Whiting School of Engineering
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
3400 N. Charles Street * Baltimore, MD 21218-2694
410-516-7170 * che@jhu.edu * http://www.jhu.edu/~cheme





JOHNS




HOPKINS
Chemical Engineering Education










- Graduate Study in Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the


UNIVERSITY OF


KANSAS


The University of Kansas is the largest and most comprehensive university in
Kansas. It has an enrollment of more than 28,000 and almost 2,000faculty mem-
bers. KU offers more than 100 bachelors', nearly 90 masters', and more than 50
doctoral programs. The main campus is in Lawrence, Kansas, with other campuses
in Kansas City, Wichita, Topeka, and Overland Park, Kansas.
Graduate Programs
[1 M.S. degree with a thesis requirement in both chemical and petroleum engineering
[1 Ph.D. degree characterized by moderate and flexible course requirements and a strong research emphasis
[1 Typical completion times are 16-18 months for a M.S. degree and 4 1/2 years for a Ph.D. degree (from B.S.)


Faculty
Cory Berkland (Ph.D., Illinois)
Kyle V. Camarda (Ph.D., Illinois)
R.V. Chaudhari (Ph.D., Bombay University)
Michael Detamore (Ph.D., Rice)
Stevin H. Gehrke (Ph.D., Minnesota)
Don W. Green, (Ph.D., Oklahoma)
Javier Guzman (Ph.D., UC Davis)
Colin S. Howat (Ph.D., Kansas)
Jenn-Tai Liang (Ph.D., Texas)
Trung V. Nguyen (Ph.D., Texas A&M)
Karen J. Nordheden (Ph.D., Illinois)
Russell D. Osterman (Ph.D., Kansas)
Aaron Scurto (Ph.D., Notre Dame)
Marylee Z. Southard (Ph.D., Kansas)
Susan M. Williams (Ph.D., Oklahoma)
Bala Subramaniam (Ph.D., Notre Dame)
Shapour Vossoughi (Ph.D., Alberta, Canada)
Laurence V_ ii.,k . Chair(Ph.D., Cambridge)
G. Paul Willhite (Ph.D., Northwestern)
Research
Catalytic Kinetics and Reaction Engineering
Catalytic Materials and Membrane Processing
Controlled Drug Delivery
Corrosion, Fuel Cells, Batteries
Electrochemical Reactors and Processes
Electronic Materials Processing
Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes
Fluid Phase Equilibria and Process Design
Liquid/Liquid Systems
Molecular Product Design
NanoTechnology for Biological Applications
Process Control and Optimization
Protein and Tissue Engineering
Supercritical Fluid Applications
Waste Water Treatment


FinancialAid
Financial aid is available in the form of research and teaching
assistantships and fellowships/scholarships. A special program
is described below.
Madison & Lila Self Graduate Fellowship

For additional information and application:
http: //www.unkans.edu/~selfpro/


Research Centers
Tertiary Oil Recovery Program (TORP)
30 years of excellence in enhanced oil recovery research
Center for Environmentally Beneficial Catalysis (CEBC)
NSF Engineering Research Center
Transportation Research Institute (TRI)

Contacts
Website for information and application:
http://www.cpe.engr.ku.edu/
Graduate Program
Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Kansas-Learned Hall
1530 W. 15th Street, Room 4132
Lawrence, KS 66045-7609

phone: 785-864-2900
fax: 785-864-4967
e-mail: cpe grad@ku.edu


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007








Kansas State University

Department of Chemical Engineering











Faculty, Ph.D. Institute, Research Areas .
* Jennifer L. Anthony, University ofNotre Dame, advanced materials,
nanoporous molecular sieves, environmental separations, ionic liquids,
solvent properties
* Vikas Berry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
bionanotechnology, nanoelectronics, sensors
* James H. Edgar, University ofFlorida, crystal growth, semiconductor
processing and materials characterization
* Larry E. Erickson, Kansas State University, environmental engineering,
biochemical engineering, biological waste treatment process design and
synthesis
* L.T. Fan, West Virginia University, process systems engineering including
process synthesis and control, chemical reaction engineering, particle
technology
* Larry A. Glasgow, University of Missouri, transport phenomena, bubbles,
droplets and particles in turbulent flows, coagulation and flocculation
* Keith L Hohn, University of Minnesota, catalysis and reaction engineering,
natural gas conversion, and nanoparticle catalysts
* Peter Pfromm, University of Texas, polymers in membrane separations and surface science
* Mary E. Rezac (head), University of Texas, polymer science, membrane separation processes
* John R. Schlup, California Institute of Technology, biobased industrial products, applied spectroscopy, thermal
analysis, intelligent processing of materials
* Walter Walawender, Syracuse University, activated carbon, biomass energy, fluid particle systems, pyrolysis,
reaction modeling and engineering
* Krista S. Walton, Vanderbilt University, nanoporous materials, molecular modeling, adsorption separation and
purification, metal-organic frameworks

For additional information:

Graduate Program
Kansas State University
Chemical Engineering
1005 Durland Hall
Manhattan, KS 66506-5102
785-532-5584
che@ksu.edu
www.che.ksu.edu _1


Chemical Engineering Education


i


I









UK University of Kentucky
UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY
UNIVCollege of Engineering Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering
College of Engineering




Chemical Engineering Faculty

Tate Tsang, Chair - University of Texas
K. Anderson - Carnegie-Mellon University
D. Bhattacharyya - Illinois Institute of Technology
T. Dziubla - Drexel University
E. Grulke - Ohio State University
Z. Hilt - University of Texas
D. Kalika - University of California, Berkeley
R. Kermode Northwestern University
B. Knutson Georgia Institute of Technology
S. Rankin - University of Minnesota
A. Ray - Clarkson University
D. Silverstein - Vanderbilt University
J. Smart - University of Texas


Materials Engineering Faculty

J. Balk � The Johns Hopkins University
R. Eitel � The Pennsylvania State University
S5 � ' ,B. Hinds � Northwestern University
R / F. Yang � University of Rochester
T. Zhai � University of Oxford




.Environmental Engineering
*. Biopharmaceutical & Biocellular
Engineering
. Materials Synthesis
. Advanced Separation & Supercritical Fluids
Processing
� Membranes & Polymers
. Interfacial Engineering
. Aerosols
. Nanomaterials


For more information:

Web: http://www.engr.uky.edu/cme
Address: Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering
Director of Graduate Studies, Chemical Engineering
177 F. Paul Anderson Tower - University of Kentucky
Lexington, KY 40506-0046

Phone: (859) 257 8028 Fax: (859) 323 1929


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007












LEHIGH UNIVERSITY



Svnergistic. interdisciplinary research in .. E.

* Biochemical Engineering uftg ~o
* Catalytic Science & Reaction Engineering Bm htm.du Pa ,s
* Environmental Engineering
* Interfacial Transport
* Materials Synthesis Characterization & Processing
* Microelectronics Processing
* Polymer Science & Engineering
* Process Modeling & Control
* Two-Phase low & Heat Transfer
... leading to M.S.. M.E.. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engineering


Highly attractive financial aid packages, which provide tuition and stipend, are available.


Additional information and application may be obtained by ,i i, i, to:

Dr. James T. Hsu, Chairman * Graduate Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering * Lehigh University * 111 Research Drive * Iacocca Hall * Bethlehem, PA 18015
Fax: (610) 758-5057 * E-Mail: inchegs@lehigh.edu * Website: www3.lehigh.edu/engineering/cheme/

308 Chemical Engineering Education


Philip A. Blythe, University of Manchester
fluid mechanics * heat transfer * applied mathematics

Hugo S. Caram, University of Minnesota
high temperature processes and materials * environmental processes
* reaction engineering

Manoj K. Chaudhury, SUNY-Buffalo
adhesion * thin films * surface chemistry

Mohamed S. El-Aasser, McGill University
polymer colloids and films * emulsion copolymerization * polymer
synthesis and characterization

Alice P. Gast, Princeton
complex fluids * colloids * proteins * interfaces

James E Gilchrist, Northwestern University
particle self-organization * mixing * microfluidics

James T. Hsu, Northwestern University
bioseparations * applied recombinant DNA technology

Anand Jagota, Cornell University
biomimetics * mechanics * adhesion * biomolecule-materials interactions

Andrew Klein, North Carolina State University
emulsion polymerization * colloidal and surface effects in polymerization


Mayuresh V. Kothare, California Institute of Technology
model predictive control * constrained control * microchemical systems

Ian J. Laurenzi, University of Pennsylvania
chemical kinetics in small systems * biochemical informatics *
aggregation phenomena

William L. Luyben, University of Delaware
process design and control * distillation

Anthony J. McHugh, University of Delaware
polymer rheology and rheo-optics * polymer processing and modeling
* membrane formation * drug delivery

Arup K. Sengupta, University of Houston
use of adsorbents * ion exchange * reactive polymers * membranes in
environmental pollution

Cesar A. Silebi, Lehigh University
separation of colloidal particles * electrophoresis * mass transfer

Shivaji Sircar, University of Pensylvania
adsorption * gas and liquid separation

Kemal Tuzla, Technical University of Istanbul
heat transfer * two-phase flows * fluidization

Israel E. Wachs, Stanford University
materials characterization * surface chemistry * heterogeneous catalysis *
environmental catalysis




















LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY


Cain Department of

Chemical

En g i nee ruling


THE CITY
Baton Rouge is the state capital and home of the state's flagship institution,
LSU. Situated near the Acadian region, Baton Rouge blends the Old South
and Cajun cultures. Baton Rouge is one of the nation's busiest ports and the
city's economy rests heavily on the chemical, oil, plastics, and agricultural
industries. The great outdoors provide excellent year-round recreational
activities, especially fishing, hunting, and water sports. The proximity of
New Orleans provides for superb nightlife, especially during Mardi Gras.
The city is also only two hours away from the Mississippi Gulf Coast, and
four hours from either Gulf Shores or Houston.

THE DEPARTMENT
* MS (thesis and non-thesis) and PhD Programs
* Approximately 50 graduate students
* Average research funding more than $2 million per year

DEPARTMENTAL FACILITIES
* Departmental computing-with more than 80 PCs
* Extensive laboratory facilities, especially in reaction and environmental
engineering, transport phenomena and separations, polymer, textile and
materials processing, biochemical engineering, thermodynamics
FINANCIAL AID
Assistantships at $17,500 - $29,200, with full tuition waiver, waiver of
non-resident fees, and health insurance benefits.

ITO APPLY, CONTACT
GRADUATE COORDINATOR
Cain Department of Chemical Engineering
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803
Telephone: 1-800-256-2084 FAX: 225-578-1476
e-mail: gradcoor@lsu.edu
LSUIS AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY/ACCESS UNIVERSITY


FACULTY

M.G. BENTON
Cain Professor/Asst. Professor; PhD, University of Wisconsin
Genomics, Bioengineering, Metabolic Engineering, Biosensors

K.M. DOOLEY
BASF Professor; PhD, University of Delaware
Heterogeneous Catalysis, High-Pressure Separations

J.C. FLAKE
Cain Professor/Assc. Professor; PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology
Semiconductor Processing, Microelectronic Device Fabrication

G.L. GRIFFIN
Nusloch Professor; PhD, Princeton University
Electronic Materials, Surface Chemistry, CVD

J.E. HENRY
Cain Professor/Asst. Professor; PhD, Texas A&M University
Biochemical Engineering, Biomimetic Materials, Biosensors

M.A. HJORTSO
Nusloch Professor; PhD, University of Houston
Biochemical Reaction Engineering, Applied Math

F.R. HUNG
Cain Professor/Asst. Professor; PhD, North Carolina State University
Nanoporous Materials, Confined Fluids, Liquid Crystals

F.C. KNOPF
Anding Professor; PhD, Purdue University
Supercritical Fluid Extraction, Ultrafast Kinetics

R.W. PIKE
Horton Professor; PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology
Fluid Dynamics, Reaction Engineering, Optimization

J.A. ROMAGNOLI
Cain Chair Professor; PhD, University of Minnesota
Process Control

J.J. SPIVEY
Shivers Professor/Assc. Professor; PhD, Louisiana State University
Catalysis

L.J. THIBODEAUX
Coates Professor; PhD, Louisiana State University
Chemodynamics, Hazardous Waste Transport

K.E. THOMPSON
Lowe Professor/Assc. Professor; PhD, University of Michigan
Transport and Reaction in Porous Media

K.T. VALSARAJ
Roddy Distinguished Professor; PhD, Vanderbilt University
Environmental Transport, Separations

D.M. WETZEL
Haydel Professor/Assc. Professor; PhD, University of Delaware
Hazardous Waste Treatment, Drying

M.J. WORNAT
Harvey Professor; PhD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Combustion, Heterogeneous Reactions


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007













University of Maine

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering


The University - The campus is situated near the Penobscot and Stillwater Rivers in the town of Orono, Maine. The campus
is large enough to offer various activities and events and yet is small enough to allow for one-on-one learning with faculty.
The University of Maine is known for its hockey team, but also has a number of other sports activities. Not far from campus
is the Maine Coast and Acadia National Park. North and west are alpine and cross-country ski resorts, Baxter State Park, and
the Allagash Water Wilderness area.


DOUGLAS BOUSFIELD PhD (UC Berkeley)
Fluid mechanics, ;111.1,,. . ... ,',, processes, micro-scale model-
ing
ALBERT CO PhD (Wisconsin)
Polymeric fluid dynamics, rheology, transport phenomena, nu-
merical methods
WILLIAM DESISTO PhD (Brown)
Advance materials, thin film synthesis, porous thin film filters for
chem./bio sensors
DARRELL DONAHUE PhD (North Carolina State)
Biosensors in food and medical applications, risk assessment
modeling, statistical process control
JOSEPH GENCO PhD (Ohio State)
Oxygen ,i i,,,,f. ,i; ..., refining, pulping, pulp bleaching
JOHN HWALEK PhD (Illinois)
Process information systems, heat transfer
MICHAEL MASON PhD (UC Santa Barbara)
Laser scanning confocal microscopy, time-resolved imaging of
molecular nanoprobes for biological systems


PAUL MILLARD PhD (Maryland)
Microbial biosensors, physiological genomics, fluorescence
technology
DAVID NEIVANDT PhD (Melbourne)
Conformation of interfacial species, surface spectroscopies/mi-
croscopies
ANJA NOHE PhD (Theodor Boveri Inst.)
Protein dynamics on cell surfaces, membrane transport, image
analysis
HEMANT PENDSE PhD (Syracuse) Chair
Sensor development, colloid systems, particulate and multiphase
processes
DOUGLAS RUTHVEN PhD ScD (Cambridge)
Fundamentals of adsorption and processes
ADRIAAN VAN HEININGEN PhD (McGill)
Pulp and paper manufacture and production of biomaterials and
biofuels
M. CLAYTON WHEELER PhD (Texas-Austin)
Chemical sensors, fundamental catalysis, surface science


The department has a long history of interactions with industry. Research proj-
ects often come from actual industrial situations. Various research programs,
such as the Paper Surface Science Program, have industrial advisory boards
that give students key contacts with industry. We have formed an alliance with
the Institute of Molecular Biophysics (IMB) that brings to us partnerships with ...
The Jackson Laboratory (TJL) and Maine Medical Center Research Institute
(MMCRI). New research directions in the area of forest biorefinery, biosen-
sors, and molecular biophysics give students opportunities to do research at
the interface between engineering and the biological sciences.




For information about the graduate program write to the ...
Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering
University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469
call 207 581-2277 * e-mail gradinfo@umche.maine.edu or bousfld@maine.edu * visit www.umche.maine.edu
310 Chemical Engineering Education









MANHATTAN



COLLEGE
This well-established graduate program emphasizes
the application of basic principles to the solution of
modem engineering problems, with new features in
engineering management, sustainable and alternative
energy, safety, and biochemical engineering.

V

Financial aid is available,
including industrial fellowships in a one-year program
sponsored by the following companies:
Air Products & Chemicals, Inc.
BOC Group
ConocoPhillips
Consolidated Edison Co.
Kraft Foods
Merck & Co., Inc.
Panolam Industries
Pfizer, Inc.

A

For information and application form, write to
Graduate Program Director
Chemical Engineering Department
Manhattan College
Riverdale, NY 10471
chmldept@manhattan.edu
http://www.engineering.manhattan.edu


Offering a

Practice-Oriented
Master's Degree
Program

in

Chemical

Engineering


t


Manhattan College is located
in Riverdale,
an attractive area in the
northwest section of
New York City.


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007













U n v sit-yoa sa ,, -,--u e - - -. -,-, - t: : --

EXPERIENCE, OUR PROGRAM IN':"'' , '

C H E M I C A E N G I N E E R I N G I: I. 9 .,- - ,, - 9 , _ - , D ,, - ,', -


For application forms and further information on
fellowships and assistantships, academic and
research programs, and student housing, see
http:I/www.ecs.umass.edu/che
or contact
Graduate Program Director
Department of Chemical Engineering
159 Goessmann Lab, 686 N Pleasant St
University of Massachusetts
Amherst MA 01003-9303


Facilities:
Instructional, research and administrative space are housed in
close proximity to each other In addition to space located in
Goessmann Lab which includes the ChE Alumni Classroom
used for teaching and research seminars, additional space is
located in the Conte National Center for Polymer Research In
May 2004 we proudly dedicated the brand new $25-million
facilities of Engineering Lab II (ELab II) which includes 57,000-
sq ft of state-of-the-art laboratory facilities and office space


Surita R. Bhatia (Princeton)
W. Curtis Conner, Jr. (Johns Hopkins)
Jeffrey M. Davis (Princeton)
James M. Douglas, Emeritus (Delaware)
Neil S. Forbes (Berkeley)
David M. Ford (Univ. of Pennsylvania)
Michael A. Henson (UC Santa Barbara)
George W. Huber (Wisconsin, Madison)
Robert L. Laurence Emeritus (Northwestern)
Michael F. Malone (Univ. of Massachusetts)
Dimitrios Maroudas (MIT)
Peter A. Monson (London)
T. J. "Lakis" Mountziaris, Head (Princeton)
Susan C. Roberts (Cornell)
Lianhong Sun (CalTech)
Phillip R. Westmoreland (MIT)
H. Henning Winter (Stuttgart)

Current areas of MS and PhD Research programs in the Chemical Engineering
Department currently receive research support at a level of approximately $3 mil-
lion per year through external research grants. Graduate students can expect to
participate in projects falling into, but not limited to the following areas of faculty
research.

* Systems Design & Control to include design, synthesis, and control of sepa-
ration and reaction-separation systems; process design & control for polymer
production and batch processing; nonlinear modeling and control of biochemi-
cal reactors; design and operation strategies for manufacturing pharmaceutical
emulsions; and nonlinear process control theory

* Materials Science and Engineering a broad area to include characterization
of catalytic materials; design of new catalytic materials for the polymerization
and environmental industries; microwave engineering of catalytic materials;
improvement of inorganic-organic functionalized mesoporous materials; thin
film and nanostructured materials for microelectonics; polymeric materials proc-
essing and more

* Molecular, Cellular, and Metabolic Bioengineering with a focus on plant
metabolic engineering for the production of medicinals via plant cell cultures;
design and utilization of mammalian cell in vitro systems; systems biology appli-
cations; genetic circuit design to control biological systems and more...

* Molecular and Multi-scale Modeling & Simulation another broad research
field includes computational quantum chemistry for chemical reaction kinetic
analysis; applications of molecular modeling in nanotechnology; modeling of
molecular level behavior of fluids confined in porous materials; molecular-to-
reactor scale modeling of transport reaction processes in nano-structured mate-
rials synthesis with many other opportunities available


The University of Massachusetts Amherst prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, creed, sex, sexual orientation, age, marital status,
national origin, disability or handicap, or veteran status, in any aspect of the admission or treatment of students or in employment.

12 Chemical Engineering Education
























































jst acos th Cals Riverfrom
Boson afe miue by subway
fro dontw Boto an Harvard ''
Sqae Th are is world-renowned
fo it colee, hospital, research
faiite, an hig teholg indus-
tre, an ofer an unndn variety,
of theter, cocet,
restarns, mueus boostores,
spring evns libraries and
receatonafaclites







Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


With the largest research faculty in the country, the
Department of Chemical Engineering at MIT offers
programs of research and teaching which span the
breadth of chemical engineering with unprecedented
depth infundamentals and applications. The Depart-
I, ,.. i. ' i , graduate programs leading to the master's
and doctor's degrees. Graduate students may also
earn professional master 's, ,. % ,.,. i1, . , I 1, i1,.. David
H. Koch School of Chemical Engineering Practice,
a unique internship program that stresses defining
and solving industrialproblems by applying chemical
engineering fundamentals. In collaboration with the
Sloan School of Management, the Department also
offers a doctoral program in Chemical Engineering
Practice, which integrates chemical engineering,
research, and management.


R.C. Armstrong
P.I. Barton
D. Blankschtein
A. Chakraborty
R.E. Cohen
C.K. Colton
C.L. Cooney
W.M. Deen
P.S. Doyle
K.K. Gleason


W.H. Green
P.T. Hammond
T.A. Hatton
K.F Jensen, Head
R.S. Langer
D.A. Lauffenburger
J.C. Love
N. Maheshri
G.J. McRae
K.J. Prather


G.C. Rutledge
H.H. Sawin
K.A. Smith
Ge. Stephanopoulos
Gr. Stephanopoulos
M.S. Strano
J.W. Tester
B.L. Trout
P.S. Virk
D.I.C. Wang
K.D. Wittrup


For more information, contact
Chemical Engineering Graduate Office, 66-366
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139-4307
Phone * (617) 253-4579; FAX * (617) 253-9695; E-Mail chemegrad@mit.edu
URL * http://web.mit.edu/cheme/index.html


Research in ...

Biochemical Engineering * Biomedical Engineering

Biotechnology * Catalysis and Chemical Kinetics

Colloid Science and Separations

Energy Engineering * Environmental Engineering

Materials * Microchemical Systems, Microfluidics * Nanotechnology

Polymers * Process Systems Engineering

Thermodynamics, Statistical Mechanics, and Molecular Simulation

Transport Processes









McGill I Chemical Engineering


The department offers M. Eng. and
PhD degrees with funding available
and top-ups for those who already
have funding.


Downtown Montreal, Canada
Montreal is a multilingual
metropolis with a population over
three million. Often called the
world's second-largest French-
speaking city, Montreal also boasts
an English-speaking population of
over 400,000. McGill itself is an
English-language university, though
it offers you countless opportunities
to explore the French language.


McGill's Arts Building
For more information and graduate
program applications:
Visit: www.mcgill.ca/chemeng/
Write:
Department of Chemical
Engineering
McGill University
3610 University St
Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 CANADA
Phone: (514) 398-4494
Fax: (514) 398-6678
E-mail: inquire.chegrad(a)mcgill.ca


D. BERK, Department Chair (Calgary)
Biological and chemical treatment of wastes, crystallization of fine
powders, reaction engineering [dimitrios.berk@mcgill.ca]
D. G. COOPER, (Toronto)
Prod. of bacteriophages & biopharmaceuticals, self-cycling
ferment., bioconversion of xenobiotics [david.cooper@mcgill.ca]
S. COULOMBE, Canada Research Chair (McGill)
Plasma processing, nanofluids, transport phenomena, optical
diagnostic and process control [sylvain.coulombe@mcgill.ca]
J. M. DEALY, Emeritus Professor (Michigan)
Polymer rheology, plastics processing [john.dealy@mcgill.ca]
R. J. HILL, Canada Research Chair (Cornell)
Fuzzy colloids, biomimetic interfaces, hydrogels, and
nanocomposite membranes [reghan.hill@mcgill.ca]
E. A. V. JONES, (CalTech)
Biofluid dynamics, biomechanics, tissue engineering,
developmental biology & microscopy [liz.jones@mcgill.ca]
M. R. KAMAL, Emeritus Professor (Carnegie-Mellon)
Polymer proc., charac., and recycling [musa.kamal@mcgill.ca]
R. LEASK, William Dawson Scholar (Toronto)
Biomedical engineering, fluid dynamics, cardiovascular
mechanics, pathobiology [richard.leask@mcgill.ca]
C. A. LECLERC, (Minnesota)
Biorefineries, hydrogen generation, fuel processing, ethylene
prod., catalysis, reaction engineering [corey.leclerc@mcgill.ca]
M. MARIC, (Minnesota)
Block copolymersfor nano-porous media, organic electronics,
controlled release; "green" plasticisers [milan.maric @mcgill.ca]
J.- L. MEUNIER, (INRS-Energie, Varennes)
Plasma science & technology, deposition techniques for surface
modifications, nanomaterials [jean-luc.meunier@mcgill.ca]
R. J. MUNZ, (McGill)
Thermal plasma tech, torch and reactor design, nanostructured
material synthesis, environmental apps [richard.munz@mcgill.ca]
S. OMANOVIC, (Zagreb)
Biomaterials, protein/material interactions, bio/immunosensors,
(bio)electrochemistry [sasha.omanovic@mcgill.ca]
T. M. QUINN, (MIT)
Soft tissue biophysics, mechanobiology, biomedical engineering,
adherent cell culture technologies [thomas.quinn@mcgill.ca]
A. D. REY, James McGill Professor (California-Berkeley)
Computational material sci., thermodynamics of soft matter and
complex fluids, interfacial sci. and eng. [alejandro.rey@mcgill.ca]
P. SERVIO, Canada Research Chair (British Columbia)
High-pressure phase equilibrium, crystallization, polymer coatings
[phillip.servio@mcgill.ca]
N. TUFENKJI, Canada Research Chair (Yale)
Environmental and biomedical eng., bioadhesion and biosensors,
bio- and nano- technologies [nathalie.tufenkji@mcgill.ca]
V. YARGEAU, (Sherbrooke)
Environmental control of pharmaceuticals, biodegradation of
contaminants in water, biohydrogen [viviane.yargeau@mcgill.ca]


Chemical Engineering Education








McMaster
University xl
ENGINEERING W'


Why choose McMaster?
Hamilton is a city of over 500,000 situated in Southern Ontario. We are located
about 100 km from both Niagara Falls and Toronto. McMaster University
is one of Canada's top 8 research intensive universities. An important aspect
of our research effort is the extent of the interaction between faculty members
both within the department itself and with other departments at McMaster.
Faculty are engaged in leading edge research and we have concentrated
research groups that collaborate with international industrial sponsors:
* Centre for Pulp and Paper Research
* Centre for Advanced Polymer Processing& Design (CAPPA-D)
* McMaster Institute of Polymer Production Technology (MIPPT)


FOR ON-LINE APPLICATION FORMS AND INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT


Graduate Secretary
Department of Chemical Engineering
McMaster University
Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7
CANADA
Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


Phone: 905-525-9140 X 24292
Fax: 905-521-1350
Email: chemeng@mcmaster.ca
http://www.chemeng.mcmaster.ca


Graduate Studies in

Chemical Engineering


We offer a Ph. D. program and three Master's options (Thesis, Project, Internship) in the following research areas:
* Biomaterials: Tissue engineering, biomedical engineering, blood-material interactions
J.L. Brash, K. Jones, H. Sheardown,
* Bioprocessing: Membranes, environmental engineering, bioseparation
C. Filipe, R. Ghosh,
* Transport Phenomena: Heat transfer, experimental & computational fluid mechanics, membranes
J. Dickson, A. N. Hrymak, P.E. Wood
* Polymer Science: Interfacial engineering, polymerization, polymer characterization, synthesis
R. H. Pelton, S. Zhu, K. Kostanski (Adjunct)
* Polymer Engineering: Polymer processing, rheology, CAD/CAM methods, extrusion
A. N. Hrymak, R. Loutfy, M. Thompson, J. Vlachopoulos, S. Zhu
* Process Systems Engineering: Multivariate statistical methods, computer process control, optimization
J. F. MacGregor, V. Mahalec, T. E. Martin, P. Mhaskar, C. L. E. Swartz, P. Taylor,
T. Kourti (Adjunct)
We will provide financial support to any successful applicant who does not already have external support. In addition we
have a limited number of teaching and research assistantships.










SChemical Engineering at the


-, University of Michigan



Faculty

Main Areas of Research

Life Sciences Biotechnology
Mark A. Burns Microfabricated Chemical Analysis
Omolola Eniola-Adefeso -Cell Adhesion and Migration
Erdogan Gulari -DNA and Peptide Synthesis
Jinsang Kim -Smart Functional Polymers
Joerg Lahann -Surface Engineering
Xiaoxia Lin -Systems and Synthetic Biology
Jennifer J. Linderman Receptor Dynamics
Michael Mayer Biomembranes
Henry Y. Wang Bioprocess Engineering
Peter J. Woolf Biomathematics

Energy and Environment
H. Scott Fogler -Flow and Reactions
Erdogan Gulari -Reactions at Interfaces
Suljo Linic -Catalysis, Surface Chemistry, Fuel Cells
Phillip E. Savage -Sustainable Production of Energy and Chemical Products
Johannes W. Schwank -Catalysts, Fuel Cells, and Fuel Conversion
Levi T. Thompson -Catalysts, Fuel Cells, Microreactors
Walter J. Weber, Jr. -Environmental Process Dynamics and System Sustainability
Ralph T. Yang Adsorption, Reactions, Hydrogen Storage

Complex Fluids and Nanostructured Materials
Sharon C. Glotzer Computational Nanoscience and Soft Materials
Nicholas Kotov - Nanomaterials
Ronald G. Larson, Chair -Theoretical, Computational, and Experimental Complex Fluids
Michael J. Solomon -Experimental Complex Fluids
Robert M. Ziff -Theoretical and Computational Complex Fluids and Transport


For more information contact:
Dr. Robert Ziff, Graduate Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Michigan MichiganEngineering
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2130
734-764-2383
chem.eng.grad @umich.edu
www.engin.umich.edu/dept/ scheme


Chemical Engineering Education









UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA

Driven to Discovers"


Leadership and Innovation in

Chemical Engineering and

Materials Science


Research Areas
* Biotechnology and Bioengineering
* Ceramics and Metals
* C. i.. ,,, Processes and Interfacial Engineering
* Crystal Growth and Design
* Electronic, Photonic and it'., ",, l. Materials
* Fluid Mechanics
SPolymers
* Reaction Engineering and Chemical Process Synthesis
* Theory and Computation


Downtown Minneapolis as seen from campus


Faculty:
Eray Aydil
Frank S. Bates
Aditya Bhan
Matteo Cococcioni
Edward L. Cussler
Prodromos Daoutidis
H. Ted Davis
Jeffrey J. Derby
Kevin Dorfman
Lorraine F Francis


C. Daniel Frisbie
William W. Gerberich
Russell J. Holmes
Wei-Shou Hu
Yiannis Kaznessis
Efrosini Kokkoli
Satish Kumar
Chris Leighton
Timothy P Lodge
Christopher W. Macosko


Alon V. McCormick
David C. Morse
David J. Norris
Lanny D. Schmidt
L. E. "Skip" Scriven
David A. Shores


William H. Smyrl
Friedrich Srienc
Robert T. Tranquillo
Michael Tsapatsis
Renata Wentzcovitch


For more information contact:
.liull I'rilinc . I l'i.r.1dnt i Jf . c..Cidtle
I 2-h?25-3.S2
princvC'cm.,.um n I.i (Ln
tLKL: hI ltp/jI~wa .cems.ii un.cdu


i .' . ,, .... . " - at,j ..i' . / .


ol.. ...... . .:41, .No. 4, Fall .. 2007


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


The Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities has been renowned
for its pioneering scholarly work and for its influence in graduate
education for the past half-century. Our department has produced
numerous legendary engineering scholars and current leaders in
both academia and industry. With its pacesetting research and
education program in chemical engineering encompassing reac-
tion engineering, multiphase flow, statistical mechanics, polymer
science and bioengineering, our department was the first to foster
a far-reaching marriage of the Chemical Engineering and Materials
Science programs into an integrated department.
For the past few decades, the chemical engineering program has
been consistently ranked as the top graduate program in the country
by the National Research Council and other ranking surveys. The
department has been thriving on its ability to foster interdisciplin-
ary efforts in research and education; most, if not all of our active
faculty members are engaged in intra- or interdepartmental research
projects. The extensive collaboration among faculty members in
research and education and the high level of co-advising of gradu-
ate students and research fellows serves to cross-fertilize new ideas
and stimulate innovation. Our education and training are known not
only for rigorously delving into specific and in-depth subjects, but
also for their breadth and global perspectives. The widely ranging
collection of high-impact research projects in these world-renowned
laboratories provides students with a unique experience, preparing
them for careers that are both exciting and rewarding.














Dave C. Swalm School of

Chemical Engineering




Mlsppi States


R. Mark Bricka, Assoc
Alternative Fuels, Gasification, Pyrolysis, Environmental Remediati
Chemical Extraction, Stabilization/Solidfication, Waste Treatment

Bill B. Elmore, Associate Professor ar
Renewable Fuels, Bioremediation, Microre

Robert H. Foglesong, Professor
Mat,

W. Todd French, Assis
Biofuels (Bioethanol and Single-Cell Oil), Microbtally Enh

Clifford E. Geo
Ethanol from Alternative Renewable Sources, Corrosion inAv

Rafael Hernandez, Assis
IntegratedRemediation Technologies, ChemicalPhysical TreatmentProces
Catalysis, Biofue
Priscilla J. Hill, Assoc
Crystallization, Process Design
Adrienne R. Minerick, Assis
Electrokinetic Separations ofBiofluids, Medical Diagnostic Microd
Nanoparticle Synthesis at
Rudy E. Rog
Gas Hydrates Natural Gas Storage, Transportation, Microbtal Catalysis i
CO, Sequesterin
Kirk H. Schulz,
Vice President for Research and Economic
Surface Science, Catalysis, E

Hossein Toghiani, Assoc
Composite Materials, Catalysis, Fuel Cells, Thermodynamics

Rebecca K. Toghiani, Assoc
Thermodyn
Keisha B. Walters, Assis
Polymer, Biopolymer and Surface Engineering, Stimul-Re
Micros

Mark G. White, Professor, Director and Dea
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Homogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics,


Mississippi State University, located in

the Golden Triangle region of Northeast
Mrississippi, is the largest ofeight public
institutions of higher learning in the state.
It is one of two land-grant institutions in
Mississippi.

Area residents enjoy numerous
university sporting and cultural events, as
well as scenic and recreational activities
S - along the Natchez Trace Parkway and
Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway.




iate Professor
on, Electroknetics,
SHeavy Metal Soils

nd Henry Chair
actor Technologies

and President M a P d
ematcal Modelng

tant Professor
anced Oil Recovery * - -

rge, Professor
nation Fuel Systems -

tant Professor
sses, Environmental
'ls and Co-products
iate Professor
,SolidsProcessing
tant Professor
evice Development,
nd Charactertzat/on

ers, Professor
n Ocean Sediments,
g, Gas Separations
Professor and
Development
lectronic Materials

iate Professor
ofLtquidMixtures

iate Professor
namics, Separations
tant Professor
sponsive Polymers,
ensor Technologies

davenport Chair
Surface Chemistry

Chemical Engineering Education












1i\/ZZ* Czesiolze Aoainpurlo
S^1 OH Rakesh K. Bajpai, PhD (IIT, Kanpur)


UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI - COLUMBIA
UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI - COLUMBIA


S, , ,. ,
. . .- " -".. . . ..... ... .. ..'.. .... ..


Biochemical Engineering + Hazardous Waste
Paul C. H. Chan, PhD (CalTech)
Reactor Analysis 4 Fluid Mechanics
Eric Doskocil, PhD (Virginia)
Catalysis 4 Reaction Engineering
William A. Jacoby, PhD (Colorado)
Photocatalysis 4 Transport
Stephen J. Lombardo, PhD (California-Berkley)
Ceramic & Electronic Materials 4 Transport 4 Kinetics
Sudarshan K. Loyalka, PhD (Stanford)
Aerosol Mechanics + Kinetic Theory
Richard H. Luecke, PhD (Oklahoma)
Process Control * Modeling
Thomas R. Marrero, PhD (Maryland)
Past-Vice President, IACChE
CoalLog Transport 4 Conducting Polymers 4 Fuels Emissions
David G. Retzloff, PhD (i ,i,.i;,,l,
Reactor Analysis * Materials
Truman S. Storvick, PhD (Purdue)
Nuclear Waste Reprocessing 4 Thermodynamics
Galen J. Suppes, PhD (Johns Hopkins)
Biofuel Processing + Renewable Energy 4 Thermodynamics
Dabir S. Viswanath, PhD (Rochester)
Applied Thermodynamics 4 Chemical Kinetics
Hirotsugu K. Yasuda, PhD (SUNY, Syracuse)
Polymers 4 Surface Science
Oingsong Yu, PhD (Mizzou)
Surface Science 4 Plasma Technology


The University of Missouri - Columbia is one of the most comprehensive institutions in the nation
and is situated on a beautiful land grant campus halfway between St. Louis and Kansas City,
near the Ozark Mountains and less than an hour from the recreational Lake of the Ozarks. The
Department of Chemical Engineering offers MS and PhD programs in addition to its
undergraduate BS degree. Program areas include surface science, nuclear waste, wastewater
treatment, biodegradation, air pollution, supercritical processes, plasma polymerization, polymer
processing, coal transportation (hydraulic), fuels (alternative, biodiesel), chemical kinetics,
protein crystallization, photocatalysis, ceramic materials, and polymer composites. Faculty
expertise encompasses a wide variety of specializations and research within the department is
funded by industry, government, non-profit, and institutional grants in many research areas.


For details contact:

Coordinator, Academic Programs
Department of Chemical Engineering
W2030 Lafferre Hall
Columbia, MO 65211

Tel: (573) 882-3563 * Fax: (573) 884-4940
E-Mail: PreckshotR(),missouri.edu


See our website for more information:
che.missouri.edu


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


;te '6'
















University of Missouri-Rolla


Graduate Studies in


Chemical Engineering

Offering M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees


Established in 1870 as the University of Missouri School ofMines and
Metallurgy, UMR has evolved into Missouri's technological university.
UMR is a medium-sized campus of about 5,000 students located along
Interstate 44 approximately 100 miles from St. Louis and Springfield.
Its proximity in the Missouri Ozarks provides plenty of scenic and rec-
reational opportunities.

The University of Missouri-Rolla's mission is to educate tomorrow's
leaders in engineering and science. UMR offers a full range of experi-
ences that are vital to the kind of comprehensive education that turns
young men and women into leaders. UMR has a distinguished faculty
dedicated wholeheartedly to the teaching, research, and creative activi-
ties necessary for scholarly learning experiences and advancements to
the frontiers ofknowledge.

Teaching and Research Apprenticeships available to M.S. and
Ph.D. students.
For additional information:
Address: Graduate Studies Coordinator
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering
University of Mssouri Rolla
Rolla, MO 65409 1230

Web: http://chemeng.umr.edu/
Onhne Applicaton: http://www.umr.edu/~cisapps/gradappd.html


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Effective January 1, 2008 UMR becomes Missouri University of
Science and Technology (Missouri S&T).
Sciece adTchnoogy(Misour S&IT).'


!0 Chemical Engineering Education




































(Source: National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Statistics, FY2005, Table 64). Faculty:
Faculty:


Besides telling you we have resources for exciting, cutting-edge research, what does
this mean? It speaks to the quality, energy and ingenuity of the faculty members at UNL
who propose and receive grants from the National Institutes for Health, the National
Science Foundation, the United States Army and other granting institutions.
Read the full text of our faculty's past and current papers, competitive grant
applications and patents at http://digitalcommons.unl.edu. At UNLyou'll find
faculty who bring passion into both the research laboratory and the classroom
with exciting studies like:
* Developing new regenerative medical materials and therapies using
bio- and nanotechnologies to speed the repair and regrowth of bone,
blood vessels and soft tissues in vivo
* Developing cutting edge genomic techniques like ultra-fast polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) to search for emerging disease threats such as
antibiotic-resistant tuberculosis
* Using proteomic instruments like a specialized mass spectrometer
designed to search for new genetically engineered protein medicines
* Developing a new pliable bandage that can stop fatal bleeding from
trauma in civilian and military applications


* Partnering with international health care systems to develop abundant
supplies of hemophilia medicines from the milk of genetically engineered
livestock to treat 80% of the world's hemophilia patients
* Discovering a device to give robots a human sense of touch using
nanotechnology
* Developing a process for sustainable biofuels production


V\ilh.irr, '..- l.,-1idl_ I Ph , - i .
H ..ss.-iri I n .u .-.i .1n.i P I C
A i ., - i.lrr Iniji
Professors
.uci,- Hirnir i. PI D
G',i t.i . L.l,- ,, PI, DL
I ..:I,.,,, 1 r? l. ,,i l,,-, i P't o
i. . , s.'.,,1 .Itr Pli
Dll.nir Tirin PI, D1
H ,-rnll d '. I ,,-liI PI I D)
Associate Protessols
L ,,,- L ,l 1 , , ,,,,,,l . F I D

K..,n '..]. -.)rr PIh D
Research Associte
Pi roessors


'. .,-1 r.1.i i- l...-1,1I i:% p~ D
,:,,,,,,, 5,,, i .l I 1 P Ii D
Senior Lectuiei



U LinTcol

Lincoln


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 321


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* .* 7 T her*T--

Pro*Igra*m^






deres Exitn
interdisiplinary research.



Faculty^ ^c c^








reseac in a nme
of area ...
SPolymer scienc^^e/
engineering
^^^^^" nMembrane T^^*T^^







^^^^^Bijengineering^^^^^^^
^^^ " Nanot|T|WhTollogy ^^^


L 1L[Cw- LL'a


at New Jersey Institute of Technology
The Faculty:
P. Armenante: University of Virginia
B. Baltzis: University of Minnesota
R. Barat: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
R. Dave: Utah State University
E. Dreizin: Odessa University, Ukraine
C. Gogos: Princeton University
T. Greenstein: New York University
D. Hanesian: Cornell University
K. Hyun: University of Missouri-Columbia
B. Khusid: Heat and Mass Transfer Inst., Minsk USSR
H. Kimmel: City University of New York
D. Knox: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
N. Loney: New Jersey Institute of Technology
A. Perna: University of Connecticut
R. Pfeffer: (Emeritus); New York University
L. Simon: Colorado State University
K. Sirkar: University of Illinois-Urbana
R. Tomkins: University of London (UK)
M. Xanthos: University of Toronto (Canada)
M. Young: Stevens Institute of Technology
For further information contact:
Dr. Reginald P.T. Tomkins, Department of Chemical Engineering
New Jersey Institute of Technology
University Heights
Newark, NJ 07102-1982
Phone: (973) 596-5656 Fax: (973) 596-8436
E-mail: tomkinsr@adm.njit.edu



NJIT
New Jersey Institute of Technology
NJIT does not discriminate on the basis of gender, sexual orientation, race, handicap, veteran's status, national or
ethnic origin or age in the administration of student programs Campus facilities are accessible to the disabled


Chemical Engineering Education




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