Chemical engineering education

http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular

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Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
sobekcm - AA00000383_00173
Classification:
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00173

Full Text













chemical engineering education


VOLUME 41


NUMBER 4


FALL 2007


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GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE





Featuring articles on graduate courses...



A Graduate Course in Theory and Methods of Research (p. 226)
Holes

An Introduction to the Onsager Reciprocal Relations (p. 233)
Monroe, Newman









... and articles of general interest.


Random Thoughts: Why Me, Lord? ip. 239)
Felder

Illustrating Chromatography with Colorful Proteins (p. 241)
Lefebvre. Farrell, Dominiak

An Introductory Course in Bioengineering and Biotechnology for Sophomores (p. 247)
O'Connor

Teaching Reaction Engineering Using the Attainable Region ip. 258)
Metzger. Glasser, Glasser, Hausberger. Hildebrandt

Incorporation of Data Analysis Throughout the ChE Curriculum Made Easy with DataFit (p. 253)
Brenner


--














AUTHOR GUIDELINES

This guide is offered to aid authors in preparing manuscripts for Chemical Engineering Education (CEE), a quarterlyjournal
published by the Chemical Engineering Division of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE).
CEE publishes papers in the broad field of chemical engineering education. Papers generally describe a course,a laboratory, a
ChE curriculum, research program, machine computation, special instructional programs, or give views and opinions on various
topics of interestto the profession. (Note: Articles forthe special series on outstanding ChE departments and ChE educators are
invited articles.)


SSpecific suggestions on preparing papers

TITLE* Use specific and informative titles.They should be as brief as possible, consistent with the need for defining the subject
area covered by the paper.

AUTHORSHIP Be consistent in authorship designation. Use first name, second initial, and surname. Give complete mailing
address of place where work was conducted. If current address is different, include it in a footnote on title page.

ABSTRACT: KEYWORDS Include an abstract of less than seventy-five words and a list (five or less) of keywords

TEXT. We request that manuscripts not exceed twelve double-spaced typewritten pages in length. Longer manuscripts may
be returned to the authors) for revision/shortening before being reviewed. Assume your reader is not a novice in the field. Include
only as much history as is needed to provide background for the particular material covered in your paper. Sectionalize the article
and insert brief appropriate headings.

TABLES Avoid tables and graphs that involve duplication or superfluous data. If you can use a graph, do not include a table.
If the reader needs the table, omit the graph. Substitute a few typical results for lengthy tables when practical.

NOMENCLATURE Follow nomenclature style of Chemical Abstracts; avoid trivial names. If trade names are used, define
at point of first use.Trade names should carry an initial capital only, with no accompanying footnote. Use consistent units of
measurementand give dimensions forall terms.Writeall equationsand formulas clearly,and number important equations con-
secutively.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT Include in acknowledgment only such credits as are essential.

LITERATURE CITED References should be numbered and listed on a separate page in the order occurring in the text.

COPY REQUIREMENTS Submit the manuscript electronically as a pdf, Word, or tif file that includes all graphical mate-
rial as well astablesand diagrams. Send an additional copy of the manuscript on standard letter-size paper through regular mail
channels and include original drawings (or clear prints) of graphs and diagrams on separate sheets of paper. Label ordinates and
abscissas of graphs along theaxesand outside the graph proper. Figure captions and legends will be set in type and need not be
lettered on the drawings. Numberall illustrations consecutively. Supplyall captions and legends typed on a separate page. Authors
should also include brief biographical sketches with the manuscript.


Send your electronic manuscript to
cee@che.ufl.edu
and your hard copy to
Chemical Engineering Education, c/o Chemical Engineering Department
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005













EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS:
( h. nrn al I. nima i en Education
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611
PHONE and FAX : 352-392-0861
e-mail: cee@che.ufl.edu

EDITOR
Tim Anderson

ASSOCIATE EDITOR
Phillip C. Wankat

MANAGING EDITOR
Lynn Heasley

PROBLEM EDITOR
James O. Wilkes, U. Michigan

LEARNING IN INDUSTRY EDITOR
William J. Koros, Georgia Institute of Technology

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-PUBLICATIONS BOARD

CHAIRMAN
John P. O'Connell
University of Virginia

PAST CHAIRMAN *
E. Dendy Sloan,Jr.
Colorado School of Mines

MEMBERS
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University of Colorado
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University of Texas at Austin
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North Carolina State University
H. Scott Fogler
University of Michigan
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North Carolina State University
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University of Toledo
Ronald W. Rousseau
Georgia Institute of Technology
C. Stewart Slater
Rowan University
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McMaster University


Chemical Engineering Education
Volume 41 Number 4 Fall 2007





> GRADUATE EDUCATION

226 A Graduate Course in Theory and Methods of Research
Joseph H. Holes

233 An Introduction to the Onsager Reciprocal Relations
Charles W Monroe and John Newman


> RANDOM THOUGHTS

239 Why Me, Lord?
Richard M. Felder


> LABORATORY

241 Illustrating Chromatography with Colorful Proteins
Brian G. Lefebvre, Stephanie Farrell,
and Richard S. Dominiak


> CURRICULUM

247 An Introductory Course in Bioengineering and Biotechnology for
Chemical Engineering Sophomores
Kim C. O'Connor

258 Teaching Reaction Engineering Using the Attainable Region
Matthew J. Metzger Benjamin J. Glasser
David Glasser, Brendon Hausberger
and Diane Hildebrandt


> CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS

253 Incorporation of Data Analysis Throughout the ChE Curriculum
Made Easy with DataFit
James R. Brenner


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division,American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of Florida.
Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE,
Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Copyright 0 2005
by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The statements and
opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division,
ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days of
publication. Writefor information on subscription costs andfor back copy costs and availability. POSTMAS-
TER: Send address changes to Chemical Engineering Education, Chemical Engineering Department.,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Periodicals Postage Paid at Gainesville, Florida, and
additional post offices (USPS 101900).


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007











Graduate Education


A GRADUATE COURSE IN THEORY

AND METHODS OF RESEARCH


JOSEPH H. HOLLES
Michigan Technological University Houghton, MI 49931
In today's university "typical graduate students" are be-
coming less common. Students continue to enter gradu-
ate school directly from undergraduate programs in the
traditional manner, but many do not. Alternatives include
returning to graduate school after working for a few years,
mid- or late-career professionals seeking advanced degrees,
and students with bachelor's degrees in different disciplines.
Although many positives can result from this situation it is
also not without its disadvantages. For example, a wide range
of students can also result in a wide range of student concepts
of and expectations for graduate school.
Over several years, those in the Department of Chemical
Engineering at Michigan Tech observed that graduate students
often did not posses the necessary skills to deliver proper
professional presentations. Clearly, this ability is a neces-
sity for graduate school (e.g., research group presentations,
thesis proposals, regional and national meetings, final thesis
defense). Additionally, as future workforce members with
advanced degrees, these students will be expected to give
professional presentations in their jobs. The initial approach
to address this problem was to require all incoming graduate
students to give a formal department-wide presentation during
their first year. Perhaps not unexpectedly, this approach failed
since no one was responsible for ensuring that all students


were indeed meeting this requirement. As such, another
method was developed to ensure that students were not only
gaining experience in delivering professional presentations,
but were also being educated on how to prepare and deliver
presentations. From this original focus on professional pre-
sentations, the course has evolved to include other topics of
interest to graduate students.

METHODS
The Department of Chemical Engineering at Michigan
Technological University developed a graduate course entitled
"Theory and Methods of Research." This course is required
for all chemical engineering graduate students. The class is
offered during the fall semester of the student's first year in


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 200;


Chemical Engineering Education


Joseph H. Holes is an assistant professor of
chemical engineering at Michigan Technologi-
cal University. He received his B.S. in chemical
engineering in 1990 from Iowa State University
and his M.E. and Ph.D. from the University of
Virginia in 1998 and 2000, respectively. His
research area is nanoscale materials design
and synthesis for catalytic applications with an
emphasis on structure/property relationships
and in-situ characterization.











graduate school, meets three days each week for one hour,
and is three credits. Required graduate courses account for
15 credits in our program and no course was deleted when
this course was started. Typically, seven to 13 students take
this class.
Currently, the major goals of this course are: 1) Equip
the students with the skills and experience to prepare and
present professional presentations, and 2) Educate the stu-
dents about many of the common experiences that make up
graduate school. Thus, the original concept has grown to
include equipping the students with a greater variety of oral
and written communication skills that they will require as a
graduate student.
Other institutions have taken a variety of approaches to
educating their students about the graduate experience. A
course that has many similarities with ours is Arizona State
University's "Research Methods" for first-year graduate
students.El1 Other courses that contain a smaller subset of
comparable topics include: "Introduction to Literature Re-
view and Proposal Writing" at the University of Iowa, with
a similar goal of improving oral and written communication
skillsf21; and a thermodynamics course at Mississippi State
that includes the investigation of the role of journal articles
in research.I31 More narrowly focused courses have also been
developed with an emphasis on educating engineering students
about learning processes and resources to help them in a teach-
ing career.[4 5] Additionally, a workshop was developed to fo-
cus on major communications required to obtain an advanced
degree in engineering 61; techniques for helping faculty teach


the research process
were presented1'1; and
common difficulties
facing graduate stu-
dents were discussed
along with possible
actions to deal with
them. [s]

RESULTS AND
DISCUSSION
Reference informa-
tion for the Theory
and Methods class
comes from a wide va-
riety of sources. Two
required books have
been selected: A Ph.D.
Is Not Enough by Pe-
ter J. Feibelman[91 and
Graduate Research
by Robert V. Smith.1101
These books cover
many of the topics

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


discussed in class and can continue to serve as handbooks
for the students throughout their graduate and professional
careers. In addition, all students are provided with a copy of
On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research by
the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy
of the National Research Council."11
The course is started with a lecture on "Why Graduate
School?" Since the students are already attending graduate
school, this discussion may appear to be too late, but in fact
many still have doubts. The lecture revisits several typical
reasons for attending graduate school and allows students to
voice their own reasons, reinforcing students' motivation for
taking on this challenge. Some of the benefits of graduate
school are discussed, including what graduate school can do
for the student and also what graduate school will not do. The
different components of graduate school such as class work,
seminars, teaching assistantships, and research are introduced.
This lecture also provides an opportunity to outline a few
of the career options available to students once they have
completed a graduate degree.
The second class session focuses on library usage. For this
session, the reference librarian serves as a guest lecturer. This
session acquaints students with the library and the specific
search engines and databases available to them. The librarians
also make the lecture discipline-specific by focusing on topics
relevant to chemical engineers (e.g., SciFinder Scholar). In ad-
dition, this class serves to guide the students away from URLs
as references and towards scholarly books andjournals. Atypi-
cal schedule for the entire semester is shown in Table 1.


TABLE 1
Typical Class Schedule
Week Session Topic Week Session Topic
1 1 Welcome/Introduction 8 1 Paper Writing
2 Library 2 Paper Writing
3 Why Grad School? 3 Paper Writing
2 1 Holiday 9 1 Ethics
2 Communications Basics 2 Ethics
3 No Class 3 Ethics
3 1 Presentations 10 1 Student Led Ethics Discussions
2 Presentations 2 Student Led Ethics Discussions
3 Writing Abstracts 3 Student Led Ethics Discussions
4 1 Copyright 11 1 AICHE Conference
2 Scientific Method 2 AICHE Conference
3 Scientific Method 3 AICHE Conference
5 1 1st Student Presentation 12 1 Patents
2 1st Student Presentation 2 Research Notebooks
3 1st Student Presentation 3 2nd Student Presentation
6 1 1st Student Presentation 13 1 2nd Student Presentation
2 1st Student Presentation 2 2nd Student Presentation
3 1st Student Presentation 3 2nd Student Presentation
7 1 1st Student Presentation 14 1 2nd Student Presentation
2 Proposal Writing 2 2nd Student Presentation
3 Proposal Writing 3 2nd Student Presentation










First Presentation
The work required to complete the first presentation is
broken down into four separate assignments. To initiate this
preparation, the next course topic is communication basics.
Since this topic applies to all types of communication sub-
sequently discussed in the course (outline, presentation, and
proposal), it is necessarily broad. The first communication
focus of the course is on memo writing. Students that have
had previous industrial experience can provide valuable input
at this point. They usually have examples of both good and
bad memos, and other students are very receptive to real-life
experiences of their classmates. The basics of memo writing
lead into Assignment 1 (all assignments and the skills or
concepts they reinforce are summarized in Table 2), which
is to prepare a memo discussing five research methods, in-
struments, or techniques that will be useful to the student's
graduate research. This is the first example of using the class
to encourage the students to think about their own research
and to talk to their advisors. If student-advisor pairings have
not been made, the class instructor or a common first-year
graduate student advisor may fill this role.
The list of five research methods, instruments, or techniques
serves as the basis for next three assignments. A master list
of all the topics mentioned in the memos is compiled and the
most frequently listed and widely applicable topics are noted.
Each student then selects one of these topics for their first
presentation. At this point the students prepare an outline of
the topic they have selected for their upcoming presentation
(Assignment 2). In this manner the students are required to
both learn about their topic and break down what they wish
to talk about. In addition, library skills are reinforced since
the students must use the library to obtain information for
their presentation.
Once the outline is complete, the students begin preparation
of their presentation. In parallel, the students also prepare an


abstract of their talk (Assignment
3). Preceding this assignment,
one class period is devoted to a
discussion on writing abstracts.
The focus is on abstracts most
relevant to graduate school:
journal article, presentation,
and proposal to present. In this
situation, the students prepare
an abstract for their presentation.
Since the research method, in-
strument, or technique may be of
interest to others outside of class,
the abstract is e-mailed to all the
faculty and graduate students in
the department with an invitation
for them to attend the subsequent
presentation.
228


Since the research method, instrument, or
technique may be of interest to others outside of
class, the abstract is e-mailed to all the faculty
and graduate students in the department with
an invitation for them to attend the subsequent
presentation.


Prior to the presentation, two class periods are devoted
to covering the mechanics of successful presentations. One
example that is extremely practical is by Prof. Niemants-
verdriet,E131 while a more thorough treatise on preparing
scientific presentations is found in "The Craft of Scientific
Presentations" by Alley.[14]

Assignment 4 is to prepare and deliver the presentation on
their chosen topic. In this way the students learn about the
research method, instrument, or technique and also educate
other students in the class about the topic. A major benefit of
this approach is that the students can be exposed to a number
of topics in a time-efficient manner. For this assignment, the
talks are 20 to 25 minutes long. One of the requirements for
this assignment is to include a detailed example of how the
research method, instrument, or technique is used to solve a
current research problem. Again, this requirement allows the
students to integrate their research into the coursework.

When the students deliver their presentation, their fellow
students help with the evaluation. I use an advance copy of
the presentation to prepare a short true/false and multiple-
choice quiz. This quiz is an attempt to gauge the ability of
the presenter to convey knowledge about his or her topic.
The class is free to fill in the answers to the quiz at any time
during the presentation. In addition, each student in the
class completes a peer evaluation of the presentation. Since


TABLE 2
Assignments
Number Topic Skills/Concepts Reinforced
1 Research Methods, Instruments, and Library, Written Communication, Advi-
Techniques Memo sor Discussion, Research Integration
2 Topic Selection and Outline Preparation Library
3 Abstract of Presentation Written Communication
4 Research Methods, Instruments, and Oral Presentation, Research Methods,
Techniques Presentation Research Integration
5 Written Grant Proposal Written Communication, Advisor
Discussion, Research Integration
6 Classroom Ethics Discussion Library, Scientific Method, Oral
Communication
7 Critical Review of Journal Article Oral Presentation, Library, Scientific
Method, Writing Journal Articles, Ethics,
Advisor Discussion, Research Integration

Chemical Engineering Education











different people focus on different things, many comments
develop. An instructor evaluation is also completed. All
evaluations are anonymous and are shown to the presenter as
a feedback mechanism. Peer evaluations are extremely effec-
tive as students tend to take criticism from their peers more
constructively than from the instructor. Also, by performing
a peer evaluation, class members are forced to consider what
the speaker is doing and if they could somehow do it better
in their own presentation.

Proposal Writing
The class focus then shifts from oral to written communica-
tion. For Assignment 5, the students select a source and apply
for funding to support their graduate studies. First, the students
must identify a potential funding source in discussion with
their advisors. Once that's done, the assignment is to com-
plete all necessary applications and forms-not only for the
funding agency, but also any forms required by the research
and sponsored programs office of the university. This form of
written communication was not part of the original course, but
was added as a result of student and advisor evaluations and
feedback. This topic provides an opportunity to have a guest
lecturer from outside the department. On several occasions,
a grant-writing expert from the research office has presented
this lecture. G, in i,. Science Grants by Blackburnm151 serves


as a reference for this topic. Once the students have completed
the assignment, little additional work is required to actually
submit the proposal. Student effort for the last step does not
go unrewarded since the graduate school will give students
$100 for each proposal they submit. To date, three proposals
have been submitted as a result of this assignment; none have
yet been funded, however.

Paper Writing

This topic can be covered while the students are complet-
ing their proposals and starting work on their final presenta-
tion. This set of lectures is broken into two main topics: the
mechanical and descriptive process of preparing a paper for
publication and of the sections of a paper, and a personal ap-
proach to writing papers.

The discussion is initiated by examining why papers are
written: to share research findings, to allow others to build
upon results, to gain tenure, and as evidence to funding agen-
cies of progress. This is followed by discussing the mechanics
of manuscript submission, from selecting journal to ordering
reprints. The different types of journal articles such as com-
munication, regular article, note, review, or letter are also
discussed. Discussions on journal hierarchy and thejournal's
impact factor are also included. This section is concluded


TABLE 3
Ethical Issues
Cases References
The Baltimore Case Kevles, D.J., The Baltimore Case, WW. Norton, New York
Sarasohn, J., Science on Trial, St. Martin's Press, New York
Stone, R., and E. Marshall, Science, 266 (1994) 1468
Gavaghan, H., Nature, 372 (1994) 391
Kaiser, J., and E. Marshall, Science, 272 (1996) 1864
Steele, E, Nature, 381 (1996) 719
Cold Fusion Taubes, G., Bad Science, Random House, New York
Close, E, Too Hot to Handle, Princeton University Press, Princeton
Huizenga, J., Cold Fusion: the Scientific Fiasco of the Century,
University of Rochester Press, Rochester
Cold Fusion Redux Kennedy, D., Science, 295 (2002) 1793
Seife, C., Science, 295 (2002) 1808
Bechetti, ED., Science, 295 (2002) 1850
The Undiscovered Weiss, P, Science News, 155 (1999) 372
Elements Seife, C., Science, 297 (2002) 313
Dalton, R., Nature, 420 (2002) 728
Wilson, E., Chemical & Engineering News, 80(29) (2002) 12
Schwarz/Mirken Marshall, E., Science, 292 (2002) 2411
Adam, D., Nature, 412 (2001) 669
Ritter, S., Chemical & Engineering News, 79(25) (2001) 40
Schwarz, P, C. Mirkin, and L. Villa-Komaroff, Letters to the Editor,
Chemical and Engineering News, 79(31) (2001) 8
Ritter, S., Chemical and Engineering News, 79(46) (2001) 24
J. Schon at Bell Labs Dalton, R., Nature, 420 (2002) 728
Jacoby M., Chemical & Engineering News, 80(44) (2002)31
Nature, 429 (2004) 692
"Report on the Investigation Committee on the Possibility of Scientific Misconduct In the Work of Hendrik
Schon and Coauthors" available at:

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007













The

concluding topic

for the course is

a critical review

of a journal

article (Assign-

ment 7) deliv-

ered as a class

presentation ....



The students

are free to

critique anything

about the

article,

including the

layout and the

typesetting.


by examining the sections of the paper (tide, abstract, introduction, etc.) individually and
discussing the importance and reason for each section.
Authorship issues involved with journal articles are also discussed at this point. A little
groundwork here will pay off later during the ethics discussion (viz. the J.H. Schon affair, see
Table 3, previous page). Guidelines on the responsibilities of co-authors and collaborators
by the American Chemical Society[161 and the American Physical SocietyE171 are examined
and discussed. Finally, the students are encouraged to read and follow the instructions for
authors prepared by journal editors.
In the second portion of this subject, a personal approach to paper writing is presented:
start with the experimental section, then proceed through the results, discussion, introduc-
tion, conclusions, and end with the abstract. Although this approach is not original, it is a
method the students can fall back on to avoid procrastination and writers block. The students
are also warned that all advisors may not write papers in the same manner, and they are
encouraged to learn how their advisors write papers by both reading previous work and
talking to them.

Ethics
The initial classroom lecture focuses on some of the common ethical situations in sci-
ence and engineering. These include plagiarism, data manipulation, authorship issues, and
grant and manuscript review. Data manipulation is further elaborated by breaking it down
into three categories: Trimming, Cooking, and Forging. The students then read On Being a
Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research"ll and discuss the nine hypothetical scenarios
presented within. These scenarios are excellent since they focus on many big-picture
issues such as data manipulation and conflict of interest specifically from the gradu-
ate student perspective. Each of the scenarios provides several questions to initiate the
classroom discussion. The booklet also contains an appendix with a short discussion of
how the situation presented in each scenario can be addressed or further explored. The
appendix is withheld from the students until after the discussion in order to encourage
them to come up with their own ideas. Many additional vignettes can found in The Ethi-
cal Chemist by Kovac."18I
Each student then leads a short classroom discussion (15-20 minutes) of an important cur-
rent ethics issue in science and engineering (Assignment 6). The short scenario and question
style of the National Research Council booklet serves as a template for the students preparing
the classroom discussions. Potential topics and references for the student-led discussions
are listed in Table 3. This assignment also has the students doing more literature searches,
thus reinforcing library skills. Finally, although less formal than the other two presentations,
this is another opportunity to build upon their presentation skills.
Second Presentation
The concluding topic for the course is a critical review of journal article (Assignment 7)
delivered as a class presentation (25-30 minutes). This serves as an ideal choice for a final
assignment since it incorporates a number of the topics that have been previously covered
in class. These topics include writing abstracts, writing journal articles, data presentation,
scientific method, and even ethics. The students are free to select any article of their choos-
ing for this review. It is strongly suggested that they select a manuscript relevant to their
research. Again, discussion with an advisor can help them select an appropriate article. The
students have now covered the scientific method and paper writing and thus have sufficient
knowledge to allow a fairly in-depth critical exam of the journal article. The students are
free to critique anything about the article, including the layout and the typesetting. While the
authors of the article do not have much control over these issues, the students learn a little
more about the process of publishing an article. Since the student has received feedback
on their his or her presentation, the comments from that presentation are reviewed to see
if the student has made changes and improvements.


Chemical Engineering Education









Other Topics
Several lectures are devoted to discussion of the scientific method. These lectures are
developed from the corresponding material in Feibelman[91 and Smith101 along with "The
Craft of Research" by Booth, Colomb, and Williams.[12] The scientific method includes
Observation, Hypothesis, Experimentation, and Interpretation. In practice, observation
and hypothesis are usually done in advance by the advisor and the student performs the
experimentation and interpretation steps. Thus, it is important to spend some time educat-
ing the students about the entire process. The discussion of experimentation is very open
ended since it can include a wide variety of topics including statistical analysis and design
of experiments. An outside lecture on either of these topics can be very beneficial.
Interspersed throughout the course are additional topics such as copyrights, patents, and
research notebooks. These topics are all stand-alone and can be moved around as neces-
sary to adjust the class schedule. Patent Fundamentals for Scientists and Engineers by
Gordon and Cookfair serves as a resource for the patent discussion.[19] Before discussing
research notebooks, determine if the university, college, or department has developed
a set of guidelines for notebooks. If so, these guidelines can serve as the basis for this
lecture. Finally, Kanare's book is a good reference on research notebooks."20] In addition,
the classes on copyrights and patents present additional opportunities to bring outside
speakers into the classroom. A member of the department who had recently filed a patent
application has presented this lecture. A patent lawyer or a representative from the intel-
lectual property office is also a potential guest lecturer.
Throughout this class, two additional major concepts are continually reinforced. First,
class members are reminded that as graduate students, it is necessary to talk to your
advisor and discuss what you are doing and why you are doing it. Too many students of
all backgrounds seem to maintain an undergraduate relationship with their professor and
only talk to him or her when they have a problem. Many of the exercises in this class are
specifically designed to avoid this problem by encouraging advisor/student interaction.
Second, the students need to understand what a graduate education entails. Many faculty
members would agree with the statement that it is the student's degree and not theirs. If the
students understand what they must do to attain their graduate degree and take ownership
of that degree, it will be more valuable to them. To encourage this concept, this course
attempts to cover many topics important to graduate school success that are not covered
in other formal courses.
Results
Feedback has been obtained through end-of-course evaluations by the students and in-
formally from the faculty. Feedback from both the faculty and students has been extremely
positive. Faculty member have specifically noted that students have indeed improved
their presentation skills across the board, thus meeting the original goal of this class. In
addition, they have noted that students are better able to digest literature articles and ex-
tract critical information. Finally, the faculty state that students have shown an improved
understanding of the research process, allowing them to get organized and more quickly
proceed through the background research of their projects.
In line with the course goals, the students also state that the class has improved their
presentation skills. The students also demonstrate enthusiasm for the lectures on copy-
rights, patents, and ethics. The students have indicated that the assignment they like the
most and learn the most from is the critical journal article review (Assignment 7). Most
students also cite this assignment as most useful when performing future research. The
student-led ethics discussions are also very popular due to the sometimes soap opera
nature of the events.
Student feedback was also the impetus for the addition of the Proposal Writing as-
signment in the class. The major comment from the first two student course evaluations


Too many

students of all

backgrounds

seem to maintain

an undergradu-

ate relationship

with their profes-

sor and only talk

to him or her

when they have

a problem. Many

of the exercises

in this class are

specifically de-

signed to avoid

this problem by

encouraging

advisor/student

interaction.


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007












was that a proposal writing section was needed. The faculty
has also strongly supported this additional assignment as it
allows the students to knowledgeably assist them as they
write proposals.


CONCLUSION

The original concept of effective oral communication has
served as the foundation for growth of a broad-based gradu-
ate course covering topics that are vital not only in graduate
school but also in the professional world. In addition to
communication skills, other topics vital to obtaining the full
graduate school experience can be systematically discussed
within the boundaries of this course.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Burrows, V.A., and S.P Beaudoin, "A Graduate Course in Research
Methods." Chem. Eng. Ed., 35(4), 236 (2001)
2. Jessop, J.L., "Helping Our International Students Succeed in Commu-
nication," Proceedings American Society for Engineering Education
Annual Conference, Montreal (2002)
3. Hill, PJ., "Teaching Entering Graduate Students the Role of Journal
Articles in Research," Chem. Eng. Ed., 40(4), 246 (2006)
4. Bates, R.A., and A.R. Linse, "Preparing Future Engineering Faculty
Through Active Learning," Proceedings American Society for Engi-
neering Education Annual Conference, Nashville, TN (2003)
5. Wankat, PC., and ES. Oreovicz, "An Education Course for Engineering
Graduate Students," Proceedings American Society for Engineering
Education Annual Conference, Charlotte, NC (1999)
6. Alford, E.M., and PE. Stubblefield, "Mentoring Engineering Gradu-
ate Students in Professional Communications: An Interdisciplinary


Workshop Approach," Proceedings American Societyfor Engineering
Education Annual Conference, Montreal (2002)
7. Lilja, D.J., "Suggestions for Teaching the Engineering Research Pro-
cess," Proceedings American Society of Engineering Education Annual
Conference, Milwaukee (1997)
8. Mullenax, C., "Making Lemonade-Dealing with the Unknown,
Unexpected, and Unwanted During Graduate Study," Proceedings
American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference, Salt
Lake City (2004)
9. Feibelman, PJ., A Ph.D. IsNotEnough, Perseus Books, Reading, MA
(1993)
10. Smith, R.V., Graduate Research: A Guide for Students in the Sciences,
3rd Ed., University of Washington Press, Seattle (1998)
11. Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, On Being a
Scientist; Responsible Conduct in Research, National Research Coun-
cil, Washington, DC (1995)
12. Booth, W.C., G.C. Colomb, and J.M. Williams, The Craft ofResearch,
2nd Ed., The University of Chicago Press, Chicago (2003)
13. Niemantsverdriet, H.M., "How to Give Successful Oral and Poster Pre-
sentations," [cited 2005; Available from: ]
14. Alley, M., The Craft of Scientific Presentations; Critical Steps to Suc-
ceed and Critical Errors to Avoid, Springer, New York (2003)
15. Blackburn, T.R., Getting Science Grants; Effective Strategies for
Funding Success, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco (2003)
16. "Ethical Guidelines to Publication of Chemical Research," [cited 2005;
Available from: ontentId=paragon/menu_content/newt othissite/eg_ethic2000.pdf.>]
17. "APS Guidelines for Professional Conduct," [cited 2005; Available
from: ]
18. Kovac, J., The Ethical Chemist; Professionalism and Ethics in Science,
Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2004)
19. Gordon, T.T., and A.S. Cookfair, Patent Fundamentals for Scientists
and Engineers, 2nd Ed., Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL (2000)
20. Kanare, H.M., Writing the Laboratory Notebook, American Chemical
Society, Washington, D.C. (1985) 1


Chemical Engineering Education











Graduate Education
\. _>


AN INTRODUCTION TO THE ONSAGER


RECIPROCAL RELATIONS


CHARLES W. MONROE
Imperial College London, SW72AZ, UK
JOHN NEWMAN
Environmental Energy Technologies Division,
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,
and University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1462


A n important question stimulated the fundamental de-
velopment of multicomponent transport theory: How
many independent transport properties characterize
coupled diffusion? The answer was provided by Onsager, who
used fluctuation theory to find reciprocal relations among the
transport coefficients. The Onsager reciprocal relation connects
thermodynamics, transport theory, and statistical mechanics.
To illustrate this connection, a relation is derived here for the
Soret and Dufour effects in binary ideal-gas diffusion.
Reciprocal relations may be appropriately introduced in
graduate courses on thermodynamics, transport, or statistical
mechanics. The subject can provide a capstone to a thermo-
dynamics course, where it shows how thermodynamic meth-
ods extend to transport processes. In a transport course, the
eventual development of reciprocal relations can motivate a
formulation of thermodynamically consistent multicomponent
transport laws.
Statistical mechanics is probably the most relevant field.
As well as showing the importance of fluctuation correlations
when analyzing systems near equilibrium, the reciprocal
relation introduces several elementary properties of equilib-
rium correlations. In a statistical context, the derivation also
provides a means to review topics from thermodynamics
and transport, illustrating how these seemingly disparate
fields relate.
This discussion follows the method that Onsager employed
in his seminal papers on irreversible processes.1, 2] By inspec-
tion of the system's local energy dissipation, macroscopic
flux laws are developed to relate diffusional fluxes to ther-
modynamic driving forces. Conservation laws for heat and
mass then provide a set of differential equations that describes


how macroscopic nonequilibrium states evolve. The Onsager
regression hypothesis allows this system of equations to be
applied to the time evolution of correlations between mi-
croscopic fluctuations of composition and temperature. A
reciprocal relation arises from the principle of microscopic
reversibility, which requires symmetry of equilibrium fluc-
tuation correlations. Equilibrium statistical mechanics can
then be used to express the reciprocal relation in terms of
macroscopic properties.
Flux laws that account for the Soret and Dufour effects in a
binary gas include four phenomenological properties. These
are the binary diffusivity ,, the thermal conductivity k, and
two additional coefficients for the Soret and Dufour effects.
Onsager's procedure provides a reciprocal relation among
them, showing that only three are independent.


John Newman joined the Chemical Engi-
neering faculty at the University of California,
Berkeley, in 1963, and has been a faculty se-
nior scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National
Laboratory since 1978. His research involves
modeling of electrochemical systems, includ-
ing industrial reactors, fuel cells, and batter-
ies, and investigation of transport phenomena
through simulation and experiment.


Charles Monroe is a research associate
in the Department of Chemistry at Imperial
College London. Presently, his work pertains
to the electrical and surface properties of
interfaces between immiscible electrolytic
solutions. The research is in collaboration
with Prof. Alexei Kornyshev at Imperial
and with Prof. Michael Urbakh at Tel Aviv
University.


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2007


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007










FLUX LAWS
Flux laws must satisfy several requirements. Near equilib-
rium, fluxes are linear with respect to diffusion driving forces,
and vice versa. Also, when all forces are zero, all fluxes are
zero. Proper diffusion laws should involve kinematically
independent fluxes and thermodynamically independent driv-
ing forces.
The diffusion of component i can be induced by gradients
of chemical potential g (Fickian diffusion), temperature T
(the Soret effect), or pressure p (centrifugation). A generalized
thermodynamic force which drives the flux of i is

d, =-c, Vt + SVT M- Vp (1)


where c is the concentration of i, M its molar mass, and S, its
partial molar entropy; p is the density. The term with Vp cor-
rects for the equilibrium chemical potential gradient of pure i
in a gravitational or centrifugal field; the term with VT makes
d independent of the reference state for entropy in g. Because
the Gibbs-Duhem equation requires that d = 0, the number
of independent mass-transfer driving forces is one fewer than
the number of components.
For a binary system, the entropy-continuity equation is

DS = V. + SJ, +SJ + g (2)



where t is time, S is the specific entropy, J is the molar flux
of i relative to the mass-average velocity, and g is the local
rate of entropy generation; q'is a derived quantity, obtained
by subtracting the latent heat carried by diffusing species from
the total heat flux.* This equation can be manipulated with
the material, momentum, and energy continuity equations, the
first law of thermodynamics, and vector identities to eliminate
all of the substantial derivatives. The energy dissipation per
unit volume, Tg, then takes the formt
Tg = -q'. Vln T + (, v2) -.d (3)

where v1 and v2 are the component velocities. Thus q' and
- V InT arise naturally as a flux and driving force associated
with heat transfer.
To write general flux laws for an isotropic system, the two
fluxes in Eq. (3) can be related to the two driving forces in
linear, homogeneous relations, with four phenomenological
proportionality constants (i.e., diffusion coefficients), Lqq,
Lq Lq and L,,:
q' = -LqqVlnT+ Lqdl
(4)
v1 -v2 = -LqVlnT +L,,d,

Here Llq accounts for the Soret effect, and Lq the Dufour


effect. (In an anisotropic system, each of the L would gener-
ally be a tensor.)
For a binary ideal gas at uniform pressure, Eqs. (4) be-
come
q' = -kVT- RTcTL Vy,


V1 2- V


12y2
-Lq7 In T - Vy1


where y, is the mole fraction of component i and cT = c1 + C2. In
Eqs. (5), L /T has been identified as k (the thermal conduc-
tivity), and RT Ll as /yy2 (proportional to the binary
diffusivity), so that Fourier's and Fick's laws appear when
one of the driving forces is absent. The reciprocal relation
allows a restatement of these flux laws in terms of only three
transport properties.

TRANSPORT AND MOMENTS
Later it will be important to know how conservation laws
for mass and energy control system evolution. This can be
elucidated by describing a transient macroscopic variation
within the system. General solutions of the continuum trans-
port equations for arbitrary initial variations of composition
and temperature specify how composition changes, with
the assumption in the present example that the system is at
uniform pressure.
Continuity equations govern both components and the
thermal energy. The choice of system dictates an isobaric
energy equation. Due to isotropy, it is sufficient to treat dif-
fusion in one direction. To simplify the analysis, consider a
one-dimensional slab of length L. Assume that displacements
from equilibrium are sufficiently small that the governing
equations can be expressed in forms linearized around a final
equilibrium state, denoted with a superscript co.
A difference between the two equations that express compo-
nent continuity yields a single equation in terms of (v v2), and
the sum of mole fractions, y, + y2 = 1, can be used to eliminate
derivatives of y2. Thus two transient equations of the form


1 aT
T at

ay,
at


k- a2T RL a2yl
C+x
CT ax2 ax2


y;y2Llq a2T
+ a
T" ax2


a2 y
12 ax2


govern y, and T. Here x denotes the position within the slab.
It is preferable to simplify Eqs. (6) so that they depend only

If the total heatflux is q, then q' = q Z H J, where H is thepartial
molar enthalpy of i.
f For a simple example of this procedure, see Bird, Stewart, and
I .I'.. A detailed derivation is given by Hirschfelder, Curtiss,
and Bird.'4


Chemical Engineering Education










on time. To do this Onsager examined the moments of y, and
T-that is, their distributions integrated over position. The
slab is closed and insulated; its total contents of material and
energy are constant in time. This manifests itself as a property
of the moments, such as


fi[y(t,x)- y]dx = 0 (7)
0

A similar equation holds for [T (t, x) Tj].
Fourier series obey the properties of the moments and can
be used to describe y, and T. Cosine series meet the additional
requirement that both fluxes are zero at x = 0 and L. Series
expansions of the temperature and composition distribution
are given by


T- T
T_


Yi Y = bm(t) cos m-
m=1 L

These have been written so that both a and b are dimen-
sionless.
Substitution of Eqs. (8) into Eqs. (6) yields a system of
ordinary differential equations. To separate the Fourier
components by wave number m, multiply each equation by
cos(mrx/L) and integrate with respect to x from 0 to L. The
orthogonality of the cosine function shows that different
harmonics are decoupled, and one obtains


da
dz

db
dz


k RL l b
k--a ---Rb
cC m m
TyyLm -
yly2L qam bm


where T = m2 T2 t/L2. Eqs. (9) can be solved directly, yielding
functions that describe how the amplitudes of arbitrary initial
distributions decay with time. This general formulation of the
macroscopic problem sets the stage for statistical analysis.

STATISTICAL MECHANICS
AND TIME CORRELATIONS
At macroscopic equilibrium, constant values T = T- and
y, = y- prevail throughout the slab. This view belies the
microscopic reality. As time passes, particles move randomly,
causing local variations in the temperature and composition.
Imagine taking a snapshot of the slab at equilibrium and
mapping out T and y, with position; the distributions will be
nearly, but not exactly, uniform. Such an instantaneous sample
is called afluctuation state. Equilibrium itself is an aggregate
of transient fluctuation states.


Reciprocal relations may be appropriately
introduced in graduate courses on thermody-
namics, transport, or statistical mechanics.

Onsager's regression hypothesis states that fluctuations
evolve according to the laws that govern macroscopic varia-
tions. In practice, the regression hypothesis allows am and bm
to be used as descriptors of microscopic states. For instance,
it says that Eqs. (9), which govern macroscopic variations,
also apply to transient fluctuation states.
The total set of available fluctuation states is called the en-
semble. In a fluctuating equilibrated system, the macroscopic
properties differ from those of a system with uniformly dis-
tributed intensive properties. Averages over the ensemble of
fluctuation states quantify how the macroscopic properties of
a fluctuating system differ from those of a uniform system.
Correlations measure the degree to which two attributes
of a system vary together. The ensemble average of a pair
of fluctuations, such as (ambm), indicates how am and bm are
correlated within the ensemble- that is, for a fluctuation state
selected at random, how much one expects the value of a to
correspond with that of bm. With the regression hypothesis, the
equations from transport theory can also be used to analyze
fluctuation correlations.
The average (am ( T)bm ( To)) defines the initial correla-
tion between am and bm at time r0. This quantifies the degree
to which two fluctuations are expected to be correlated for
instantaneous observations of the system. A more general
correlation involves fluctuations observed at different times.
The time correlation between a at T0 and b at a later instant
T + T,

Cab ()=(am(To)bm( o+T)) (10)

is expressed with the shorthand notation Cab (T). Note that Cab (0)
represents the initial correlation, which is also written with
the shorthand notation CO.
To apply the regression hypothesis to Eqs. (9), multiply each
successively by a (TO) and b (to), then take the ensemble
average,* yielding four differential equations for the time
correlations. Then find solutions of this system for arbitrary
initial conditions. With the simplifying notation
k-
a --- and
2cTCP 2

S1 y2 yRLl qLq ( )
ao =,a + -- (11)



t For the time being it is sufficient to note that ( ) is a linear operator.
The initial correlations section discusses the averaging operation
in more detail.


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


am (t) cos --m-
m=l1 L










the time correlations become


Caa () C a e- Lcosh(ao)- -sinh(o )]

0 qlR -a+ si ntll (0 )
C Op




-Co q- e- sinh(aOT)
bb O0Cp 0
C oC
o(X




Cbb(r) Cbe-Lcosh(aot)+ sinh(aoT)]


-Ca Lql e-a' sinh(aTt) (12)
0(o

Initial correlations decay exponentially, with decay constants
(a + ao) and (a+ a). (Thermodynamic stability requires
that both constants be positive.)

MICROSCOPIC REVERSIBILITY
AND RECIPROCAL RELATIONS
In an equilibrium ensemble, time correlations have symme-
try properties that lead to reciprocal relations. These properties
arise from the principle of microscopic reversibility.
Onsager's interpretation of this principle is that, at equilib-
rium, molecular processes occur with equal likelihood in the
forward and reverse directions. That is, the expectation that
an event observed now will be followed T later by a second
event is the same as the expectation that it was preceded T
ago by the second event, or

(am (to)bm (zo + )) = (a (o)bm (to )) (13)

This property is also called time-reversal symmetry.[s]
Because equilibrium is a stationary condition, time correla-
tions are insensitive to shifts of T0 in Eq. 10. Replacement of
T0 with T0 + T leaves correlations unchanged. Thus

(am (To)bm (To ))= (am (To + )bm (To)) (14)

which is also known as the principle of time-translational
invariance.
With Eq. (13), the principle of time-translational invariance
can be used to show


I o) I
Figure 1. Qualitative behavior of the decay of correlation
C with correlation time T.


(am (To)bm (To + ))= (a (To + )bm (0o))
or Cab ()= Cba ()


which phrases the principle of microscopic reversibility: the
expectation that a first event observed at To will be followed
T later by a second event is the same as the expectation that
the second event observed at To will be followed T later by
the first.J6'
Figure 1 presents the qualitative behavior of time correla-
tion Caa. The regression hypothesis showed that correlations
decay exponentially. The decay is symmetric in the forward
and reverse directions because of microscopic reversibility.
A reciprocal relation is obtained directly from the statement
of microscopic reversibility in Eq. (15). Equating Cab to Cba
from Eq. (12) relates the transport properties to the initial
correlations Ca Cb, and Cb (= Ca) through
Co~yy C C_ k Cb
r 1 Yiy2 c kC P Cab
q1' Cp- 2 LT + (16)
q R Cb 1q R Rc CT

This is the most general statement of the reciprocal relation
for thermal diffusion in an isotropic, isobaric, binary ideal-gas
mixture. All four of the transport coefficients are involved.
The result is independent of T; it is also independent of m,
as shown shortly.

INITIAL CORRELATIONS
To get the magnitudes of the initial correlations in terms of
macroscopic quantities, Onsager applied statistical methods to
equilibrium fluctuations, referencing Einstein's statement that
fluctuation states are equally probable.t This axiom allows
the probability density of fluctuation states in the ensemble
to be simply related to a thermodynamic potential. Once
the probability density is known, it can be used to compute
ensemble averages.


Chemical Engineering Education










Because the system in question here is adiabatic, the dis-
tribution of states within the ensemble is determined by the
entropy S. The principle of equal probability shows that the
entropy of a system with 2 available states is given by
S = k ln (17)

where kB is Boltzmann's constant. Correlations between fluc-
tuations introduce some microscopic order; therefore, when
the composition and temperature fluctuate in an adiabatic
system, the entropy does as well. If entropy itself fluctuates,
Eq. (17) suggests that the probability density of fluctuation
states within the ensemble, p, can be written as


when am (T) = bm (To) = 0.
By following the definition of the ensemble average, with
f = am (T) bm (T) and p given through Eqs. (18) and (21), one
finds that the cross-correlations are zero,


C0 = Ca =0


The other initial correlations, found with f
and f = bm (To) bm (T), are
Co Am
C0 m and
Y Y2
0 AmCp
bb R


(22)


am (T0) am (T0)
m v'm v0


(23)


p=-exp
N ^kB


(18)


where N is a normalization factor to make the sum of p over
all accessible S equal to unity.
The ensemble average of a property f, (f), is given by
integrating fp over all states (over all values of am and bm, at
every m, at a given instant). For instance,


Cb =(am(Tr)bm(To))oc J ambmp(S)damdbm (19)


To implement integration like this one, S must be stated in
terms of the fluctuation amplitudes am and bm.
In the present example of a binary ideal gas, the system
entropy can be expressed as an integral over the slab volume.
It depends on T and y, throughW


S=RcT lnT- ylny -(1- y)ln(1-y)-lnp dV (20)


For small displacements from uniform distributions, S can be
found in terms of am and bm as follows. Let S- be the system
entropy when y, and T are uniform. Express y, and T in the
integrand of Eq. (20) as linear perturbations around y1 and
T-. Then insert the Fourier series from Eqs. (8) for the linear
perturbations and perform the integration. Constant terms
contribute to S-, and linear terms vanish, leaving only qua-
dratic terms. (For large systems, terms of higher than second
order are negligibly small.) Thus

nTR j ,F-pa2 )+ I b 2
S(Tr)= S- nTR X+ a (to)+ b(To) (21)
Sm=l YR y2

where nT is the total number of gas molecules in moles. This
form of S has the correct qualitative properties; any nonzero
am (TO) or bm (T0) lowers the entropy from its maximum value


Note that they are always positive. In these expressions, Am
is a constant, which depends in a rather complicated way on
the coefficients in Eq. (21), as well as S- and the probability
normalization factor N. More significantly, Am may depend
on m-but its specific value is never needed because Eq.
(16) involves only ratios of correlations. Thus the prefactor
cancels, and the reciprocal relation is independent of the
wavenumber.
Values of the initial correlations from Eqs. (22) and (23)
can be inserted into Eq. (16), revealing that


Lq = Llq


(24)


This establishes the desired reciprocal relation. The transport
coefficients for the Soret and Dufour effects equate.
Proper application of Onsager's principles, as demonstrated
above, may not always lead to such a simple result. In general,
a reciprocal relation yields only the same number of relation-
ships among transport properties as a symmetry of the matrix
L. The symmetry expressed by Eq. (24) arose from Eq. (16)
in large part because the system is an ideal gas, for which the
fluctuation correlations have particularly simple properties.
When considering reciprocal relations for nonideal gases or
liquids, activity coefficients must be incorporated into the
constitutive laws for chemical potential. These additional
thermodynamic relations make activity-coefficient gradients
appear in Eqs. (5), and can lead the cross-correlations to be
nonzero, complicating the analysis somewhat.J81 It has not
been established conclusively that this complication leads to
transport-coefficient asymmetry.

DISCUSSION
Onsager reciprocal relations are a compelling topic for
study because of the important physical concepts involved,
the generality of their derivation, and the diverse fields which
they interrelate.


For simplicity, the possible dependence of c, and C on y, and T
have been neglected while deriving Eq. (20).


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007











In this analysis, the mass-transfer driving forces were ex-
pressed in terms of mole fractions, and the flux law for mass
transfer was expressed relative to the velocity of component
2. But Eq. (16) results if flux laws are written in terms of any
other complete set of composition variables (mass fractions,
molar concentrations, etc.), or with any other reference veloc-
ity for the fluxes (the mass-average velocity, number-average
velocity, etc.). When linearizing around a uniform state, the
same reciprocal relation is obtained no matter which variables
are considered.
To find expressions for the initial correlations, the system
was assumed to be adiabatic. For isothermal, isobaric systems
one should express the probability density of states in terms
of the Gibbs free energy; for isothermal systems with fixed
volume, one should express p in terms of the Helmholtz free
energy. This does not affect reciprocal relations for ideal-gas
mixtures, but in nonideal cases the thermodynamic potential
chosen for ensemble averaging may affect the initial cor-
relations.[8]
Another issue is that the initial correlations appear to have
the same value at every m. Since m ranges to infinity, this
seems to say that the sum of fluctuation correlations is infinite.
In fact, the summations in Eq. (21) must terminate at some
large value of m, where the wavelength of fluctuations ap-
proaches molecular dimensions. The macroscopic theoretical
result which was used to derive Eq. (21) does not properly
describe this regime.
The Onsager reciprocal relation is often cited as a general
proof of cross-coefficient symmetry in coupled transport
laws. It is important to realize that microscopic reversibility,
which implies time-correlation symmetry, does not necessar-
ily imply a consequent symmetry of macroscopic transport
properties. Given thermodynamically rigorous transport laws,
it may be correct to assert transport-coefficient symmetry in
macroscopic transport models. But no statistical proof based
on the regression hypothesis substantiates this assertion for


the equations typically used to describe simultaneous heat,
mass, momentum, and charge transport within nonideal, mul-
ticomponent solutions. This issue was first raised by Coleman
and Truesdell[91 and has stood unresolved for almost 50 years.
Recent attempts have been made to address the problem, but
at present the discrepancy remains.8 ,10 11]

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Freedom-
CAR and Vehicle Technologies of the U.S. Department of
Energy, under contract DE-AC03-76SF0098. Dr. Monroe was
also supported by the Leverhulme Trust, grant F/07058/P.

REFERENCES
1. Onsager, L., "Reciprocal Relations in Irreversible Processes. I," Physi-
cal Rev., 37(4) 405 (1931)
2. Onsager, L.,"Reciprocal Relations in Irreversible Processes. II," Physi-
cal Rev., 38(12) 2265 (1931)
3. Bird, R.B., WE. Stewart, and E.N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena,
John Wiley and Sons, 1st Ed., 350, New York (1960)
4. Hirschfelder, J.O., C.E Curtiss, and R.B. Bird, Molecular Theory of
Gases and Liquids, John Wiley and Sons, New York (1954)
5. Callen, H.B., Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics,
John Wiley and Sons, 2nd Ed., New York (1985)
6. Tolman, R.C., "The Principle of Microscopic Reversibility," Pro-
ceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of
America, 11(7) 436 (1925)
7. Einstein, A. "Theorie der Opaleszenz von homogenen Fliissigkeiten
und Fliissigkeitsgemischen in der Nihe des kritischen Zustandes,"
Annalen der Physik, 33(4) 1275 (1910)
8. Monroe, C.W, and J. Newman, "Onsager Reciprocal Relations for
Stefan-Maxwell Diffusion," Indust. and Eng. ( i....... Research,
45, 5361 (2006)
9. Coleman, B.D., and C. Truesdell, "On the Reciprocal Relations of
Onsager," J. Chem. Physics, 33(1) 28 (1960)
10. Wheeler, D.R., and J. Newman, "Molecular Dynamics Simulations of
Multicomponent Diffusion. 1. Equilibrium Method," J. Phys. Chem-
istry B, 108, 18353 (2004)
11. Monroe, C.W, D.R. Wheeler, and J. Newman, "Nonequilibrium Linear
Response Theory," unpublished work. 1


Chemical Engineering Education











Random Thoughts...









WHY ME, LORD?


RICHARD M. FIELDER
North Carolina State University


Carlie, a student in your first-semester sophomore
course, stands in front ofyour desk in obvious distress.
He starts talking about the test he just failed, and then
he tells you that he had a B average in hisfreshman year but
;il,, are falling apart this semester and he's failing most of
his courses. As he talks, he gets more agitated and seems to
befighting back tears. Then it's as if he suddenly thinks "Hey,
this is my professor-I can't lose it 1 lit in front of him." He
makes a heroic effort to pull himself ;.... .. .1. 1/.. .. -. '-, to
you for taking your time, and turns and heads for the door.
What should you do?
This is one of several scenarios in the "Crisis Clinic" seg-
ment of the teaching workshops Rebecca Brent and I give.
After presenting it, I assure the participants that it is not
hypothetical-if they haven't seen Charlie in their office yet
it's just a matter of time. I first ask them to discuss in small
groups their responses to "What should you do," and then
I tell them the step-by-step procedure I follow in situations
like that. Before I tell you, why don't you take a moment and
think about what you would do (or what you did if you've
already met Charlie).


Here's my algorithm.
1. I stop the student from leaving.
If he leaves your office, you've lost your best opportunity
to do anything useful to help. Say something like "Hang on
a minute, Charlie-I've got some time now and I'd really like
tofind out more about what 's going on. Have a seat." He will
almost certainly take you up on it. He's clearly desperate,


and if you indicate that you're willing to listen to him he'll
probably grab the offer with gratitude.
2. 1 reach into the left middle drawer of my desk, take out a
box of tissues, and put it down in front of the student without
saying a word. (That part is optional--don't do it if you're
not comfortable with it.) Then I take a seat near him and wait
until he regains control.
I'm giving two messages when I do this. First, Charlie
doesn't have to hold himself back any longer-if he wants to
let go, it's permissible. Second, he's not the first student who's
ever been in this situation in my office-I'm ready for this!
Sometimes students use the tissues, sometimes they don't.
Either way is fine-I just want them to know that they can.
3. 1 say "OK, Charlie-tell me a little about what's been
going on in your life."
There are many things I might hear. Charlie might simply
be over his head academically, or he may have gotten behind
early in the semester and can't manage to catch up, or he may
be overloaded with work and/or extracurricular activities and


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 200;


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


Richard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese
Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering
at North Carolina State University. He is co-
author of Elementary Principles of Chemical
Processes (Wiley, 2005) and numerous
articles on chemical process engineering
and engineering and science education,
and regularly presents workshops on ef-
fective college teaching at campuses and
conferences around the world. Many of his
publications can be seen at edu/felder-public>.










is too exhausted to study or to be at his best on exams, or his
learning style may be incompatible with the way his courses
are being taught, or he could be homesick or anxious about
a health problem or a death in the family or the breakup of a
relationship, or he may be worried about losing the scholar-
ship that's keeping him in college, or he may have gone into
engineering for reasons other than interest or aptitude (such
as the promise of a high starting salary or because his father
told him to become an engineer) and he actually hates it,
or he could be abusing drugs or alcohol. Another possibil-
ity is that he is clinically depressed and has stopped taking
his medications or has never been diagnosed and treated.
Whatever he says, I listen and continue to gently probe until
I believe I have the whole story, or as much of it as Charlie
is willing to share.
What I do next of course depends on what the story is. If
it looks like a straightforward academic problem, I may try
to persuade Charlie to get some tutoring in the courses he's
having trouble with (in my upper right-hand drawer I have a
list of campus resources with contact information for all the
tutoring and academic counseling programs available to engi-
neering students) or I may decide to do some tutoring myself
if I have the time and inclination. As a rule, though, when
a student falls apart to the extent described in the scenario,
something else is almost invariably going on.
In the workshop, I ask the participants to suppose that this
is the case-Charlie is clearly in a serious state of depression
or anxiety related to a current crisis in his life or to a chronic
condition. Then I ask, what don't you do at this point? How
would you answer that question?
The answer is, you don't behave like an engineer and start
to problem-solve-which is to say, you don't play therapist.
You don't say "Charlie, I think I know what's going on here.
This looks like a severe case ofparanoiac schizophrenia-I
just read about that in Psychology Today. Let me tell you what
I think you should do." Forget that! Your diagnosis could be
wrong-it's almost guaranteed to be wrong-and if Charlie
takes your advice and it seriously backfires, you don't want
to live with the consequences. So, what do you do?
4. Get Charlie into the hands of a qualified counselor.
Most universities and colleges have counseling centers,
some with counselors on call 24/7, and most smaller in-
stitutions have at least one individual available to provide
counseling. Your job is to persuade Charlie to take advantage
of this service. You have to be careful about how you do it,
though: saying "Boy, are you messed up-you'd better get
to a shrink as quickly as you can!" will probably not get you
where you want to go.


I generally approach it like this. I first repeat Charlie's
story to him to make sure I got it right, getting him to
correct me if necessary. Then I say "OK, Charlie-I un-
derstand the problem, and it's a real one. But what you
need to know is that you're not the first student on this
campus in this situation-it's far more common than you
would imagine-and we have excellent counselors here
who know good strategies for dealing with problems like
this. I'd like you to talk to one of them and find out what your
options are." Then I go to my upper right-hand drawer, pull
out the number of the Counseling Center, and try to persuade
Charlie to call right then and make an appointment-or if
the way he's been talking or acting suggests that he may
be suicidal or a threat to someone else or simply in acute
distress, I will walk with him to the Counseling Center,
continuing to talk calmly and reassuringly to him and not
leaving him until he is with a trained counselor. At that
point I'm almost finished.
Of course you can't force students into counseling-all you
can do is persuade, and some may refuse (although most of
the students I have tried to persuade have agreed to go). If
he refuses, all I can do is proceed to Step 5-unless again
I believe that Charlie is a threat to himself or to others, in
which case I will call the Counseling Center or Campus
Security and let them know what's going on so they can
do their own checking and intervene if necessary. (I have
never had to do that, but it can happen.) In any case, the
last step is:
5. Follow up.
I make a point of periodically checking in with Charlie for
at least several months after that initial meeting. "Hey, Char-
lie-how are you doing? What's happening with thatproblem
we talked about? Did you meet with the counselor-how did
it go?" Many depressed students who drop out or worse feel
isolated, sensing that no one knows or cares what's going on
with them. The knowledge that at least one of their teachers is
concerned enough to inquire about them could go a long way
toward helping them recover and start functioning effectively
in their courses again. At that point, I'm finished-regardless
of what happens to Charlie, I can rest comfortably knowing
that I have done all I can for him.* 7



Like all professors I'm occasionally forced to act as a counselor
and like most of them I was never trained for this role, so I asked
several excellent psychotherapists-Elena Felder, Grace Finkle,
Denise Moys, and Sheila Taube-to look over this column before I
sent it in. I acknowledge with gratitude their helpful comments and
suggestions.


All of the Random Thoughts columns are now available on the World Wide Web at
http://www.ncsu.edu/effective_teaching and at http://che.ufl.edu/~cee/

Chemical Engineering Education











Ij=1 laboratory














ILLUSTRATING CHROMATOGRAPHY

WITH COLORFUL PROTEINS







BRIAN G. LEFEBVRE, STEPHANIE FARRELL, AND RICHARD S. DOMINIAK
Rowan University Glassboro, NJ 08028
advances in biology are prompting new discoveries in
the biotechnology, pharmaceutical, medical technol- sor of chemical engineering at Rowan
ogy, and chemical industries. Developing commer- University. He received his B.Ch.E. from
cial-scale processes based on these advances requires that the University of Minnesota in 1997 and his
Ph.D. from the University of Delaware in
new chemical engineers clearly understand the biochemical 2002. Prior to joining Rowan, he performed
principles behind the technology, and develop a firm grasp postdoctoral research in protein structural
biology at the University of Pennsylvania.
of chemical engineering principles.[1 To deliver this knowl- His primary teaching interest is integrating
edge to students successfully, engineering educators require biochemical and biomolecular engineering
in the engineering curriculum.
additional resources to illustrate relevant biological concepts engineering c um
throughout the curriculum. Stephanie Farrell is an associate professor
In a typical bioprocess, the majority of costs are associated of chemical engineering at Rowan University.
She received her B.S. from the University of
with isolating and purifying the desired biological com- Pennsylvania, her M.S. from Stevens Institute
pound.21] In many of the later stages of purification, more than of Technology, and her Ph.D. from the New
50% use some type of chromatography. [] Exposing students Jersey Institute of Technology. She has
been recognized for her impact on chemical
to biochromatography provides an introduction to biosepara- engineering education with the 2006 Robert
tions and the underlying biochemistry concepts. As separation G. Quinn Award, the 2004 ASEE National
Outstanding Teaching Medallion, and the
processes are based on the physical and chemical properties 2002 ASEE Ray W. Fahien Award.
of the product and chief impurities, a wide range of concepts Richard S. ominiakis currently employed
Richard S. Dominiak is currently employed
can be included, such as overall cell composition, protein at Foster Wheeler. He received his B.S. in
biochemistry, recombinant protein production techniques, chemical engineering from Rowan Univer-
sity in 2006. While at Rowan University he
and bioprocess optimization. Some bioseparation techniques spent two years as a research assistant on
(adsorption, ion exchange, and chromatography), however, this topic.
are difficult to teach in a lecture-based format because they
are rate-based, time-dependent processes.[4]
The use of visually appealing materials has been shown
to motivate and captivate students in biology and chemical
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2007
Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 24










engineering settings. -12] To overcome the educational chal-
lenges presented by the technical material, an anion exchange
chromatography experiment using a pair of colorful proteins
was developed. This paper presents a detailed description of
the experiment and summarizes the effect of operating pa-
rameters on the quality of protein separation. This experiment
could be applied in three settings: core chemical engineering
courses focused on separation processes, unit operation labo-
ratory courses, and elective courses focused on biochemical
engineering or bioseparations.

ION EXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY
Chromatography was developed early in the 20th century
by M.S. Tswett, who used the technique to separate plant pig-
ments.[1315] Two recent articles have outlined the life of Tswett
and the development of chromatography, and are available
in References 16 and 17. The following quote describes the
invention of the term "chromatography" by Tswett:
"Like light rays in the spectrum, the different components
of a pigment mixture, obeying a law, are resolved on the
calcium carbonate column and then can be qualitatively
and quantitatively determined. I call such a preparation a
chromatogram and the corresponding method the chroma-
tography method."

The word "chromatography" was an appropriate choice,
as it is composed of two Greek roots-"chroma" (color)
and "graphein" (to write)-leading to a literal translation of
"color writing." Although Tswett theoretically envisioned the
concept of elution chromatography, where each compound
migrates through the column and exits the column in the liquid
phase, this was not actually used until the 1930s by others.
Tswett preferred to end his chromatographic separations with
the colored rings still on the column, and obtained pure com-
ponents by pushing the resin out of the column with a wooden
rod and slicing off individual bands with a scalpel.
Ion exchange chromatography exploits differences in elec-
trostatic interactions between the various proteins and the
resin.181 In anion exchange chromatography, the resin has a
positive charge, and proteins with a negative charge on their
surface will exhibit an attraction for the resin. To recover
bound proteins, the electrostatic interaction between resin
and proteins is disrupted, typically by increasing the salt con-
centration or changing the pH of the mobile phase. Proteins
can be separated based on the strength of their interaction
with the resin, as more weakly bound proteins can be easily
removed by increasing the salt concentration, while tightly
bound proteins require extreme salt concentrations or pH to
be removed. Using gradient elution, individual proteins can
be recovered in a relatively concentrated pool. This differs
from common migration chromatography techniques, such
as gas and reversed-phase liquid chromatography, where a
short pulse of sample is applied to the column and is diluted
as it travels through the column.


Ion exchange chromatography is generally performed in a
six-step process using three aqueous solutions: a buffer with
a low salt concentration at an appropriate pH, a buffer with a
high salt concentration at the same pH, and the protein sample
at the same pH and with a low salt concentration (Figure 1).
Broad guidelines for the duration of each step are reported
in parentheses in terms of column volumes, defined as the
product of the cross-sectional area and length of the column.
During period "A," low-salt buffer at an appropriate pH is
delivered to the column to equilibrate the resin (3-5 column
volumes). During period "B," the sample is applied to the
column (sample volume). During period "C," additional
low-salt buffer is delivered to the column to wash away any
unbound protein (1-2 column volumes). During period "D,"
the concentration of salt in the buffer is slowly incremented
to selectively elute the proteins (3-5 column volumes). Dur-
ing period "E," additional high-salt buffer is delivered to
remove tightly bound protein (1-2 column volumes). During
period "F," the column is re-equilibrated with low-salt buffer
(1-2 column volumes). A pH gradient may be used in place
of a salt gradient in ion exchange chromatography. Shaped
gradients or a series of steps may be substituted for a linear
gradient in period "D."
Anion exchange chromatography resin and chromatogra-
phy columns are available from a variety of sources. In this
paper, DEAE Sepharose Fast How resin (GE Healthcare,
catalogue# 17-0709-10, $50 for 25 mL) and 24 mL low-pres-
sure Kontes columns (Fisher, catalogue# K420401-1030,
$20.17 per column) were used. Chromatography resin was
prepared and packed into a column using the directions sup-
plied with the resin. A variety of fluid delivery systems can
be used, including pipette and gravity-fed flow, peristaltic
pumps, and complete chromatography systems such as the
Akta Basic from Amersham Biosciences (results in Figures 3
and 4, page 245). Additional information on the theory of ion
exchange chromatography and equipment needs can be found
in bioseparation or biochemical engineering textbooks.18 20]


Time or Volume

Figure 1. Outline of general gradient-based
chromatography method.


Chemical Engineering Education











COLORFUL PROTEINS

Colorful proteins with different physical properties were
selected for the experiment. In order to illustrate the chal-
lenging nature of biological separations, two proteins with
similar ionic properties were chosen. Table 1 describes the
physical properties of the two proteins.
DsRed2 is a large, tetrameric fluorescent protein that ab-
sorbs light at 558 nm and emits light at 583 nm, giving the
protein its characteristic reddish color. 221 EGFP is a smaller,
monomeric fluorescent protein that absorbs light at 488 nm
and emits light at 508 nm, giving the protein its characteristic
green color.[23] Both proteins are very bright, with extinction
coefficients over 40,000 M cm1.[23 24]
At Rowan University, these proteins have been produced
by students in Junior and Senior Clinic through recombinant
protein expression in bacteria. DsRed2 is also available from

TABLE 1
Physical Properties of the Colorful Proteins
Protein Color (i ) Molecular Weight[z21 Isoelecl
DsRed2 Pink (558 nm) 103 kDa
EGFP Green (488 nm) 27 kDa

TABLE 2
pK Values for Side Chains of Amino Acids[27]
Amino Acid pK Number in Protein
Carboxy terminal 2.34 n = 1
Aspartic acid (Asp, D) 3.86 n2
Glutamic acid (Glu, E) 4.25 n3
Cysteine (Cys, C) 8.33 n4
Tyrosine (Tyr, Y) 10 ns
Amino terminal 9.69 n6 = 1
Histidine (His, H) 6 n7
Lysine (Lys, K) 10.5 n"
Arginine (Arg, R) 12.4 n9


1 3 5 7 9 11 13
pH
Figure 2. Protein titration curves for EGFP and DsRed2.

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


commercial sources (e.g., Clontech, catalogue# 632436, $300
for 100 gg). Many variants of EGFP, which should display
similar purification behavior, are commercially available (e.g.,
Clontech, catalogue# 632369 for GFPuv, $293 for 100 gg).
Recombinant protein expression in bacteria is inexpensive, as
expression of colorful protein DNA (with E. coli BL21(DE3)
cells transformed with pET21d plasmid containing the sub-
cloned colorful protein DNA) using standard recombinant
DNA to, lliqu,. J' 1 has resulted in a protein cost of roughly
$2 per mg. The results in Figures 3 and 4 were obtained using
approximately 500 gg of each protein.

CHROMATOGRAPHY METHOD
DEVELOPMENT
Separating proteins during the gradient portion of an ion
exchange separation requires two elements. For the proteins
to bind to the charged resin, they must have an oppositely
charged patch on their surface. For the proteins
to elute at different positions in the gradient,
they must have different binding affinities for
trick Pointrz2 the resin. The net charge over the entire protein
63 can be used as an initial estimate of the surface
6.3
ionic character of the protein.
5.6
The isoelectric point is defined as the pH at
which the protein has no net charge. Above the isoelectric
point, the protein will adopt a net negative charge. The
isoelectric point and molecular weight of the protein mono-
mers were calculated from amino acid sequences using the
Web-based program ProtParam.211
In addition to the isoelectric point, it is also important to
consider the bulk protein charge over a range of pH values
when designing a separation based on ion exchange. A
protein titration curve can be constructed using a Web-
based program or by building a spreadsheet to perform the
calculation.125 26] Briefly, the bulk protein charge at a given
pH can be calculated from the pK values for the ionizable
amino acid side chains using the information in Table 2
and Eq. (1).

protein charge = -(n1 + n2 + n3 + n4 + n) +
=9 n*10-pH
n (1)
S10pH + 10-pK (1)

To match the Web-based program, pK values from Lehnin-
ger are reported. 27 Values from other biochemistry textbooks
may be substituted. Computing the protein charge over a range
of pH values leads to a protein titration curve (Figure 2). Ex-
amination of this curve can help identify a useful pH range
for separation, where the proteins will bind to the resin with
different affinities. This requires that the signs of individual
protein charges are the same, but the magnitudes are different.
For the EGFP and DsRed2 case, a pH value between 6.5 and
8.5 is appropriate for anion exchange.











QUANTIFYING CHROMATOGRAPHIC
SEPARATION
The quality of a chromatographic separation can be q
tified by a resolution calculation. This is illustrated in
(2).[18,28]

resolution= Vmab Vm
0.5(Wba + Wbb)
Vmax represents the volume at which peak i displayed m
mum signal, and Wb, represents the baseline width of pe
based on the intersection of peak tangents with the base
When the resolution is one, the peaks have an overlap of a
2%. As the resolution decreases, the peaks overlap fur
until, at a resolution of zero, the peaks elute at exactly
same position. Examples of resolution calculations car
found in the Sample Calculations section of this article
in textbooks on separation processes.[28]

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION


Table 3 summarizes the materials used in this expe
For columns with smaller diameters, less material is re
The majority of materials can be reused. As long
maximum pressure is not exceeded, the column shot
indefinitely. The resin can be cleaned according to th
ufacturer's recommendations, and proteins can be rec
and reused for many experiments. An additional
option is to produce the proteins in-house through
recombinant protein production methods, which
essentially eliminates the protein cost.


Anion exchange chromatography experiments
were developed to show that a mixture of DsRed2
and EGFP can be selectively eluted at different salt
concentrations, providing a powerful demonstra-
tion of the principles of protein binding and elution.
This style of experiment is suitable for unit opera-
tion laboratories and upper-level elective courses
with laboratory components. To illustrate the
importance of process parameters on ion exchange
chromatography performance, two proteins with
similar ionic properties were chosen. This
resulted in a challenging protein separation
that was sensitive to process conditions.
In addition to the chromatography column
and related tubing, three solutions are needed
for the experiment: a buffer with a low salt
concentration (Buffer A), a buffer at the same
pH with a high salt concentration (Buffer B),
and a separated protein sample (Sample).
Chromatography experiments were performed
at pH values between 7.5 and 8.5. Buffer A
was typically 50 mM Tris (pKa = 8.3) at the
pH of interest. Buffer B was typically 50
mM Tris, 300 mM NaCl at the pH of interest.
244


rin
qui
as
uld
oe
:ov


uan-
Eq.


Sample was typically prepared by diluting concentrated stocks
of DsRed2 and EGFP into Buffer A. For the experiments, at
a pH value of 7.5, 50 mM sodium phosphate was used as the
buffer. For experiments at pH values below 7.5 or above 9.0,
an alternative buffer should be selected, as buffer pKa should
not deviate from solution pH too significantly.


(2) Experiments were performed on an Amersham Biosci-
ences Akta Basic chromatography unit, equipped with a UV
aaxi- detector capable of monitoring three individual wavelengths.
ak i, Total protein was monitored at 280 nm, EGFP was monitored
line. at 488 nm, and DsRed2 was monitored at 561 nm. Alterna-
bout tively, the process could be monitored off-line by collecting
their, small fractions and measuring the absorbance on a visible
the spectrophotometer.
n be
and RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Six methods were evaluated for protein separation ef-
fectiveness. For each method, the separation resolution was
calculated using Eq. (2). Table 4 compares the resolution for
lent. each method, illustrating the effect of buffer pH, salt concen-
ired. tration, and gradient shape on separation quality.
the Figure 3 presents a typical chromatogram for method 4.
last The black curve is the absorbance at 280 nm, which tracks all
nan- proteins (A280). The dark gray curve is A561, which tracks


ered


TABLE 4
DsRed2 EGFP Separation Resolution
Method pH Salt Gradient Resolution
1 8.5 Linear from 20 to 300 mM NaCl 0.02
2 8.0 Linear from 20 to 300 mM NaCl 0.32
3 8.0 Steps at 80, 125, 170, 215, 300 mM 0.58
NaCI
4 8.0 Steps at 20, 50, 80, 110, 140 mM NaCl 0.48
5 7.5 Linear from 0 to 300 mM NaCl 0.51
6 7.5 Step at 135 and 150 mM, linear to 0.72
300mM
7 7.5 Steps at 30, 60, 90, 105 mM NaCl 0.66

Chemical Engineering Education


TABLE 3
Materials Required for Experiment


Item Quantity Price
Kontes 24 mL column 1 $20
DEAE Sepharose fast flow resin 25 mL $50
25 mM Tris, pH 8.0 200 mL $0.06
25 mM Tris, 200 mM NaC1, pH 8.0 100 mL $0.09
Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)
From vendor 500 pg $1,500.00
Produced in-house 500 pg $1.00
DsRed2
From vendor 500 pg $1,500.00
Produced in-house 500 pg $0.15











DsRed2, and the light gray curve is A488, which tracks EGFP.
Figure 4 presents a time-lapse image of the proteins separating
as they move through the column (also available in color as
Figure 4 in Reference 12).
Complete separation was never achieved, as the ionic prop-
erties of EGFP and DsRed2 are very similar. The quality of
separation is strongly affected by buffer pH and moderately
affected by the shape and type of gradient.

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS
To illustrate the use of Eq. (1), consider EGFP. This protein
contains one carboxy terminal (n=l ), 18Asp (n2=18), 16 Glu
(n= 16), two Cys (n4=2), 11 Tyr (n5=11), one amino terminal
(n6=l), nine His (ni=9), 20 Lys (n8=20), and six Arg (n9=6)
residues. Using Eq. (1):
1*10 pH
protein charge = -(1+ 18 + 16 + 2 +11) + 10-
10-pH +10 234
18 10 pH
10-pH +10386
At a pH of 9.5:
protein charge = -48 + 6.9x10 8 + 4. 1x10 + 9.0x105
+0.13 + 8.4 + 0.61+ 2.8x103 + 18 + 6.0
protein charge = -14.7
To illustrate the use of Eq. (2), consider the separation
shown in Figure 3. For EGFP, V,. B = 64.5 mL and wb,b
16.8 mL. For DsRed2, VA = 57.2 mL and wb = 13.5 mL.
Using Eq. (2):


r n 64.5mL 57.2mL
resolution = 16.
0.5 (16.8mL + 13.5mL)


1800

1600

1400

1200
E
a 100:

| 80.
0
S60,


0.48


52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Volume [mL]


66 68


Figure 4. Anion exchange of a mixture of EGFP and
DsRed2 using method 4 (see Table 4). Also available in
color as Figure 4 in Reference 12.

COURSE IMPLEMENTATION
In any setting, this experiment illustrates the effect of pro-
tein properties and operating conditions on separation quality.
At an introductory level, lecture material focused on protein
and chromatography resin properties could be combined with
one or two experiments to illustrate a "real" protein separation.
This type of coverage may be appropriate for a core separa-
tions course. Extended student experimentation, where stu-
dents evaluate separation quality for multiple methods, would
allow students to discover the effect of operating conditions on
separation quality. This type of coverage may be appropriate
for unit operations laboratories. In a biochemical engineering
or bioseparations elective, this experiment can be combined
with additional material to highlight the need
for multiple separation techniques in order to
-A280 [mAU]
-A561 [mAU] produce a pure protein product. The material
A488 [mAU] on isoelectric point and titration curve predic-
tion can also be used as a stand-alone item in
a variety of settings.
SUMMARY
An experiment in anion exchange chroma-
tography using a pair of colorful proteins has
been described. This material allows instruc-
tors to introduce important biochemical engi-
neering and physical biochemistry principles
into the chemical engineering curriculum. The
visual appeal and low cost of supplies will
make the experiments an effective teaching
tool in core courses focused on separation
70 72 processes. The variety of possible behavior
will make the experiments a robust addition
to unit operations laboratories or biochemical
hod 4). engineering electives.


Figure 3. Chromatogram for step gradient at pH 8.0 (meti

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007












ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors thank Elizabeth N. DiPaolo, Amanda E. Rohs,
and Kyle Smith for assistance in protein production and
module development. The authors also acknowledge fund-
ing from Rowan University through the SBR program and
the National Science Foundation through the CCLI program
(DUE-0633527).


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14. Tswett, M., Ber. Dtsch. Botan. Ges., 24, 384(1906); English translation
available in Reference 15
15. Berezkin, V.G., Ed., ( ti -...... .- I... ,, Adsorption Analysis: Selected
Works ofM.S. Tswett, Ellis Horwood (1990)
16. Ettre, L.S., "M.S. Tswett and the Invention of Chromatography," LCGC,
21, 458 (2003)
17. Ettre, L.S., "The Centenary of Chromatography," LCGC, 24, 680
(2006)
18. Garcia, A.N., M.R. Bonen, J. Ramirez-Vick, M. Sadaka, andA. Vuppu,
Bioseparation Process Science, Blackwell Science (1999)
19. Blanch, H.W., and D.S. Clark, Biochemical Engineering, Marcel
Dekker, Inc. (1999)
20. Shuler, M.L., and E Kargi, Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts,
2nd Ed., Prentice Hall, PTR (2002)
21. (last accessed 08-14-
07)
22. Living Colors' DsRed2. CLONETECHniques XVI(3), 2-3 (2001)
23. Tsien, R.Y., "The Green Fluorescent Protein," Annu. Rev. Biochem.,
67, 509 (1998)
24. Bevis, B.J., and B.S. Glick, i ...II. Maturing Variants of the Dis-
cosoma Red Fluorescent Protein (DsRed)," Nature Biotech., 20, 83
(2002)
25.
(last accessed 08-14-07)
26. compo.html> (last accessed 08-14-07)
27. Lehninger, A.L., Biochemistry, WH. Freeman (1975)
28. Wankat, PC., Separation Process Engineering, 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall
PTR (2007) O


Chemical Engineering Education











curriculum
-0


AN INTRODUCTORY COURSE IN


BIOENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY

For Chemical Engineering Sophomores


KIM C. O'CONNOR
Tulane University New Orleans, LA 70118
The evolution of biology into a molecular science is a
stimulus for curriculum reform in chemical engineer-
ing. Biologists have gained unprecedented insight into
living organisms at the molecular level, which has fueled the
recent growth of the biotechnology industry. According to
the Office of Technology Assessment of the United States
Congress, biotechnology is defined as "any technique that
uses living organisms or substances from those organisms,
to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals,
or to develop microorganisms for specific uses."'11 The bio-
technology industry has more than tripled its revenue since
1992 to $25 billion in 2003,11' and various new products
are under development: genetically modified plants with
enhanced nutritional value,[2] microarray assays of genome-
wide gene expression for personalized medical treatments,[3]
and molecular therapies that reprogram differentiated cells to
a stemlike state for the repair of tissue damaged from aging,
disease, or trauma,[4] to name a few.
Rapid advancements in biotechnology are generating many
opportunities for engineers to translate fundamental biological
discoveries into practical solutions that will benefit society.
Bioengineering applies engineering concepts and methods
to agriculture, biology, the environment, and medicine to
create useful products. Of all the engineering disciplines,
chemical engineering is the most closely aligned with the
molecular sciences and, therefore, is uniquely positioned to
lead the development of biomolecular products. This neces-
sitates training a workforce capable of applying chemical
engineering principles to molecular events in biological
systems by reforming the chemical engineering curriculum
to incorporate biology.
Curriculum reform at the undergraduate level is evident in
chemical engineering departments across the United States
and is reflected in the renaming of many departments. One
approach is to fulfill advanced chemistry requirements with
biochemistry and technical electives with molecular and
cellular biology. Instructors are incorporating biological ex-


amples into traditional courses, including material and energy
balances, thermodynamics, kinetics, and transport. Training
in bioengineering can extend outside of the classroom set-
ting through undergraduate research and internships. Some
graduate-level bioengineering courses are open to seniors, and
new bioengineering courses are being developed specifically
for undergraduates. These approaches to curriculum reform
are documented by this author and others.E571 At present,
the extent of curriculum reform is highly variable from one
department to the next, with some departments offering
comprehensive programs of muid I These strategies should
partially coalesce over time to form a more uniform approach
to curriculum reform while retaining the individual identities
of different departments.
In 2005, the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular
Engineering at Tulane University revised its core curriculum
to offer a new introductory course in bioengineering and bio-
technology for sophomores. The three-credit, lecture course is
part of the department's bioengineering program that contains
a concentration of technical electives, a combined degree pro-
gram offered in cooperation with the Department of Cell and
Molecular Biology, and related co-curricular activities. The
course emphasizes the solution of bioengineering problems
with chemical engineering concepts, teaches the underlying
fundamentals in biology, and introduces students to related


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 200;


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


Kim O'Connor is a professor in the De-
partment of Chemical and Biomolecular
Engineering at Tulane University and is
a graduate of Rice University (B.S. '82)
and the California Institute of Technology
(Ph.D. '87). Her postdoctoral training is
in molecular and cellular biology, and
her research interests are cell and tissue
engineering. Her awards include Tulane
Health Sciences Award for Leadership
and Excellence in Intercampus Collabora-
tive Research and Lee H. Johnson Award
for Teaching Excellence.










biotechnology products. As a prerequisite, this course is open
to students majoring in chemical engineering, biomedical
engineering, and engineering physics. All other students must
obtain the instructor's permission to enroll in the course. This
article provides an overview of the course, a discussion of its
impact on the curriculum, and a survey of similar courses in
other departments.

REFERENCE MATERIALS
Several reference materials are required to address the
scope of this introductory course. The assigned textbook for
the course, Biochemical Engineering by Blanch and Clark,[9]
is supplemented with material from other bioengineering
texts: Bioprocess Engineering by Shuler and Kargi,t11 Ther-
modynamics and Kinetics for the Biological Sciences by
Hammes,[111 and Receptors: Models for Binding, Ti afficnki1',,.
and Signaling by Lauffenburger and Linderman.[12] Research
articles in archival journals are the source for a variety of
in-class examples, homework problems, and test questions.
Biochemistry by Voet and VoetE131 and Molecular Biology of
the Cell by Alberts et al.[141 are excellent references for the
underlying fundamentals in biology. Students are assigned
commentaries, letters, and news articles that were published in
the journals Cell, Nature, Nature Biotechnology, and Science
to learn about biotechnology products. Barum's Biotechnol-
ogy: An IntroductionE'1 provides a historical perspective and
overview on many aspects of biotechnology.

OBJECTIVES AND TOPICS
The course is designed for students to fulfill three educa-
tional objectives: (1) apply chemical engineering concepts to
identify, formulate, and solve bioengineering problems; (2)
learn the fundamental biochemistry, molecular biology, and
cell biology underlying each problem; and (3) understand the
relevance of the acquired bioengineering skills to the develop-
ment of biotechnology products. To achieve these objectives,
this introductory course presents representative topics (Table
1) at a level appropriate for sophomores that will prepare the
students for more comprehensive courses in their junior and


senior years. There are 15 topics covered during a semester
that are arranged in five groups, with each group containing
bioengineering, biology, and biotechnology components. The
biotechnology topic in a given group is selected to demon-
strate products that can be generated using the bioengineering
and biology concepts within that group. Approximately 60
percent of the lecture time is devoted to solving bioengineer-
ing problems; the remaining 40 percent is divided between
biology fundamentals and biotechnology products.
Consider Group 4 in Table 1 as an example. Instruction for
this section is designed to address each of the three educational
objectives for the course. With respect to the bioengineering
objective, students are taught in Group 4 to apply the chemi-
cal engineering concepts of material balances, kinetics, and
mass transport to identify, formulate, and solve problems
that quantify the reversible interactions between a ligand and
its cell-surface receptor and dynamic trafficking events that
transport the ligand-receptor complex within the cell. Students
learn that bioengineers manipulate signaling and trafficking
reactions as a means to control cell behavior in a variety of
scenarios, including the development of drug therapies that
target cell surface receptors. For the biology objective, the
fundamentals of cell signaling and trafficking are presented
with the help of bioinformatics tools that provide data on
protein structure and function as described in the next section
on computer projects. Lectures describe how the binding of
ligand to its receptor triggers a cascade of signaling and traf-
ficking events that enable cells to sense and respond to envi-
ronmental cues. The CD that accompanies Molecular Biology
of the Cc //''1' mi n I Iud animation of a representative signaling
cascade to help students understand the spatial interactions
between biomolecules during signal transduction. Biotechnol-
ogy instruction for Group 4 focuses on two applications of
receptors for the development of cancer therapies. The first
is an immunotherapeutic regime in which lymphocytes from
a melanoma patient are genetically engineered to express a T
cell receptor that recognizes the cancer cells.[15] The second
application is the use of an inhibitor of the progesterone recep-
tor to prevent the development of breast tumors in women at


TABLE 1
Interrelationship Among Bioengineering, Biology, and Biotechnology Topics
Group Bioengineering Biology Biotechnology
1 Thermodynamics and kinetics of Proteins, structure-function relationships Treatment of misfolded proteins in
protein folding/denaturation Alzheimer's
2 Enzymatic reaction rates, simple Enzymes, pathways, regulation Engineering biosynthetic pathways in
pathway construction Golden Rice
3 Cell population dynamics, design of Prokaryotes, eukaryotes, organelles, Repairing damaged tissue with stem cells
batch bioreactors apoptosis/necrosis
4 Kinetics of receptor-ligand binding, Receptors, cell signaling, trafficking Receptor-mediated therapies to treat
cellular transport cancer
5 Thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA composition, structure, base-pairing Microarray assays for personalized
DNA melting/annealing medicine

'48 Chemical Engineering Education











high risk for breast cancer.[16 To address the biotechnology
objective, lectures for this section discuss the importance of
a quantitative understanding of cell signaling and trafficking
to the rational design of therapeutics.

COMPUTER PROJECTS
Biological systems are intrinsically complex, particularly at
the molecular level. Engineers and applied scientists increas-
ingly use computer technology to address this complexity
by managing and analyzing large quantities of biological
data with bioinformatics tools, and by elucidating biological
mechanisms with mathematical modeling techniques. The
new fields of bioinformatics and computational biology are
introduced to chemical engineering sophomores in the context
of data acquisition and problem solving as described in the
following paragraphs. Students learn computational skills
through demonstrations by the instructor in class, tutorials
held by a teaching assistant in a computer lab, and homework


assignments. Proficiency in this material is evaluated by in-class
computer projects and half of the four-hour final exam.
Bioinformatics tools are employed throughout the course
with the objectives to teach students about the structure and
function of proteins and genes, provide background informa-
tion about the biotechnology products discussed in the course,
serve as a reference source for data in problem solving, and
introduce the students to the rapidly developing field of
bioinformatics. A leading resource for protein information
is the Swiss-Prot protein knowledgebase, which is available
through the Expert Protein Analysis System (ExPASy) server
() of the Swiss Institute of Bioinformat-
ics.17] Students learn about several proteins through this Web
site, including the (3-amyloid precursor protein involved in
Alzheimer's disease.["1 They search the database for such
information as amino acid sequence, 3D structure, protein
function, ligand-binding site, and related biochemical path-
ways. Representative search results are shown in Table 2 for


TABLE 2
Representative Search Results from the ExPASy Protein Knowledgebase for Maize Phytoene Synthase
Category Search Result
Entry name PSY MAIZE
Primary accession # P49085
Protein name Phytoene synthase, chloroplast [precursor]
Synonym EC 2.5.1.-
From Zea mays (Maize)
Function Catalyzes reaction from prephytoene diphosphate to phytoene
Pathway Carotenoid biosynthesis
Subunit Monomer
Subcellular location Plastid; chloroplast
Sequence length 410 amino acids [unprocessed precursor]
Molecular weight 46481 Da [unprocessed precursor]
Sequence:
10 20 30 40 50 60
MAIILVRAAS PGLSAADSIS HQGTLQCSTL LKTKRPAARR WMPCSLLGLH PWEAGRPSPA
70 80 90 100 110 120
VYSSLPVNPA GEAVVSSEQK VYDVVLKQAA LLKRQLRTPV LDARPQDMDM PRNGLKEAYD
130 140 150 160 170 180
RCGEICEEYA KTFYLGTMLM TEERRRAIWA IYVWCRRTDE LVDGPNANYI TPTALDRWEK
190 200 210 220 230 240
RLEDLFTGRP YDMLDAALSD TISRFPIDIQ PFRDMIEGMR SDLRKTRYNN FDELYMYCYY
250 260 270 280 290 300
VAGTVGLMSV PVMGIATESK ATTESVYSAA LALGIANQLT NILRDVGEDA RRGRIYLPQD
310 320 330 340 350 360
ELAQAGLSDE DIFKGVVTNR WRNFMKRQIK RARMFFEEAE RGVNELSQAS RWPVWASLLL
370 380 390 400 410-
YRQILDEIEA NDYNNFTKRA YVGKGKKLLA LPVAYGKSLL LPCSLRNGQT

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 24










maize phytoene synthase, which is genetically engineered
into Golden Rice to produce 3-carotene.21 Students access the
BRENDA comprehensive enzyme database ( enzymes.org>) operated by the University of Cologne to
acquire specific activities and dissociation constants to solve
problems assigned in the course.[19] The Gene and Online
Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) databases, which
are accessed from the home page of the National Center
of Biotechnology Information (),
provide useful information about specific genes.[201 The lat-
ter catalogues all known diseases with genetic components,
such as breast cancer and the BRCA1 gene. Students search
the Gene database for DNA sequences, description of the
gene product, variants, and chromosome location. The Gene
database is preferred over the Nucleotide database on the
same Web site for this introductory course since queries return
focused results on a specific gene rather than all known DNA
sequences related to that gene.
Several of the bioengineering problems assigned in the
course require computation to solve. Students are required
to formulate mathematical models to describe biological pro-
cesses such as simple biosynthetic pathways, cell population
dynamics, and cellular trafficking. Microsoft Excel and Math-
works' Matlab are the preferred platforms for programming
and numerical integration of coupled differential equations.
For example, population balances are versatile models that
account for dynamic interactions among heterogeneous cell
populations in cell culture. Heterogeneity arises in a variety
of culture processes, including ex vivo amplification of stem
cells,[21] tissue assembly,221 and the production of biophar-
maceuticals from cell culture.[23] In one problem, students
are asked to evaluate the suppression of cell death by Bcl-2
over-expression in a cell culture producing a human-mouse
chimeric aniiuIlh id\ Solution requires the development of a
population-balance model that simultaneously describes the
kinetics of both cell growth and cell death by apoptosis and
necrosis (Figure 1). A least-squares fit of simulated-to-ex-
perimental concentrations for each cell population in culture
generates a set of kinetic rate constants with which to evaluate
suppression of cell death.

IMPACT ON CURRICULUM

Core Curriculum
Tulane has incorporated the introductory bioengineering
and biotechnology course into the core chemical engineer-
ing curriculum primarily to prepare students for employment
opportunities that increasingly require a broader range of
skills, including bioengineering. Chemical engineers are
being employed in a greater variety of industries, such as
the biotechnology, food, and pharmaceutical sectors. Of
the chemical engineers with a B.S. that were employed in
industry upon graduation, 10.3% worked for biotechnology
and pharmaceutical companies in 2001, up from 4.6% in
250


1998. -41 'n i those students who seek employment in more
traditional sectors, such as chemicals and fuels, may require
bio-based skills for their work as more companies replace
chemical and petroleum processing with biological and bio-
mimetic processing in an effort to generate environmentally
benign products. The current interest in biofuels is a salient
example of this trend."25 Last, students can no longer expect
to work at a single company throughout their professional
careers. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics at the U.S.
Department of Labor, the median number of years that wage
and salary workers have been with their current employer was
only 4.0 years as of January 2006.[26] Given this information
on employee tenure, students can expect to hold multiplejobs
in their professional careers, perhaps in different industries.
The chemical engineering curriculum should be sufficiently
broad-based to prepare students for this labor market.
The faculty in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecu-
lar Engineering at Tulane decided to interject biology into its
core curriculum with the new course described here instead
of with an existing biochemistry or biology course. In the life
sciences, students are taught to reduce living organisms to
their molecular components. The Human Genome Project271
is emblematic of this reductionist approach. Reams of nucleo-
tides have been sequenced, but far less is known about how
the genes that they encode integrate to produce a phenotype. A
hallmark of chemical engineering education is a quantitative-
systems view to problem solving that is particularly relevant
to the analysis of large volumes of biological data generated
in the advent of high-throughput technologies. In the bio-
engineering and biotechnology course, students will begin
to learn how to apply their engineering skills to reconstruct
molecular components of a biological system into a holistic
response. The selection of this course for the core chemical
engineering curriculum reflects in part the importance of a
systems approach to the understanding of how a living organ-
ism functions and responds to change.





Viable Cells

/ Early Apoptotic
Cells
Necrotic Cells


Late Apoptotic Apoptotic
Cells Bodies

Cellular Debris

Figure 1. Population dynamics of cell growth coupled
with bimodal cell death by apoptosis and necrosis.


Chemical Engineering Education










Sophomore-Level Course
The decision to offer the introductory bioengineering and
biotechnology course in the second semester of the sophomore
year was based on three factors. First, sophomores have a
good foundation to begin solving bioengineering problems
with chemical engineering skills. By the time chemical engi-
neering sophomores start the spring semester at Tulane, they
have taken differential equations, the first semester of organic
chemistry, material and energy balances, and the first semester
of thermodynamics; moreover, they are starting concurrently
the first semester of transport phenomena and second semester
of organic chemistry. Second, the sophomore-level course
gives students an opportunity to develop a depth of knowledge
in bioengineering and biotechnology in the junior and senior
years. Specifically, instructors can replace introductory topics
in their senior-level bioengineering and biotechnology courses
with more advanced material, and provide more challenging
bioengineering examples in traditional junior- and senior-
level chemical engineering courses. Third, there is sufficient
time after completion of the introductory course for chemical
engineering students-who had not previously considered a
bioengineering education-to fulfill Tulane's requirements
for interdisciplinary training in bioengineering. One caveat
with the timing is that the instructor of the introductory course
must teach kinetics in order for the sophomores to understand
some of the bioengineering topics.

Bioengineering Program
As mentioned in the introduction, the core course described
here is a fundamental component of bioengineering train-
ing within the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular
Engineering. It provides an overview of the subject and can
be followed by an in-depth study of bioengineering through
additional courses and co-curricular activities. Chemical
engineering students have the option of concentrating their
technical electives in biomolecular engineering by completing
advanced courses in four of the following areas: applied bio-
chemistry, biochemical engineering, biomedical engineering,
cell biology, gene therapy, and molecular biology. Another
option for chemical engineering students is a combined degree
program that provides a comprehensive learning experience
in the classroom and through co-curricular activities. Upon
completing the four-year program at the undergraduate level,
students earn a Bachelor of Science degree in chemical
engineering with a second major or minor in the biological
sciences from the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
For additional information on the combined degree program,
readers are referred to a separate article on the subject by this
author. 5] There are several co-curricular activities at Tulane
that reinforce and supplement bioengineering instruction,
including participation in independent research, clinical
rounds at the Tulane Health Sciences Center, public health
projects, prehospital care and ambulance service, and sum-
mer employment.
Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


Other Curricula
The impact of this sophomore-level course extends beyond
the boundaries of the chemical engineering curriculum to
other disciplines, particularly biomedical engineering and
engineering physics. The classroom can serve as a conduit
for dialog between these different groups of students that will
hopefully foster interdisciplinary exchange later in their pro-
fessional careers. Biomedical engineers can account for 5 per-
cent to 10 percent of the students enrolled in the course. They
are taught to apply the molecular perspective of a chemical
engineer to develop products for medical application. Begin-
ning in the 2007-2008 academic year, Tulane University will
offer a new bachelor of science degree program in engineering
physics that emphasizes modem physics and its application
to advanced technologies such as quantum electronics and
nanofabrication. The bioengineering and biotechnology
course described here was selected by the Department of
Physics as an elective for the engineering physics curriculum
to provide a foundation for more advanced study in such areas
as biomolecular materials and medical devices.
Student Feedback and Performance
Student evaluations of the bioengineering and biotechnol-
ogy course were obtained in 2005 and 2007. In the aftermath
of Hurricane Katrina, data were not collected in 2006. More
than 75 percent of the students on average strongly agreed or
agreed that the course objectives were satisfied. The instruc-
tor's assessment of student performance is based on scores
from tests, computer projects, presentations, and a final exam.
Student performance has been the strongest on biotechnology
questions and computer modeling problems and weakest on
the analytical solution of bioengineering problems. Student
feedback indicates that some of the most valuable aspects of
the course are the introduction to concepts and ideas presented
in upper-level courses, computer projects, example problems,
and biotechnology presentations. The students have also iden-
tified areas of weakness and proposed solutions. Some of the
students have difficulty relating the bioengineering problems
to the biotechnology products discussed in class and suggest
that the relationship be emphasized at the beginning of each
example problem. Others have requested more introductory
example problems to help them understand the more ad-
vanced problems that are solved in class. The instructor has
used student feedback to refine course content in the past and
will continue to do so in the future. Based on the profile of
previous classes, approximately 20 percent of the chemical
engineering students enrolled in this course are anticipated to
pursue a bioengineering career in graduate school, medical
school, or industry.

SURVEY
A survey was conducted of the Web sites for the 50 leading
chemical engineering departments in the United States as re-
ported in the most recent US News and World Report ranking

251












to evaluate the prevalence of bioengineering and/or biotech-
nology courses in chemical engineering curricula. All depart-
ments surveyed publish curricula and course descriptions on
their Web sites. In all cases, juniors and seniors are offered
a variety of elective and required courses in bioengineering
and/or biotechnology. At the lower levels, these courses are
far less prevalent. Less than 10 percent of the departments
offer freshman- and/or sophomore-level courses in this area,
and they are primarily introductory courses in biotechnology.
Tulane's sophomore-level course is unique in that it integrates
bioengineering and biotechnology topics, and emphasizes the
development of problem-solving and computational skills at
the sophomore level.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Course development was supported in part with a grant
from the National Science Foundation (BES-0514242) for
stem-cell research and its broader impacts, including teaching
stem-cell technology.


REFERENCES
1. Barnum, S.R., Biotechnology: An Introduction, 2nd Ed., Thomson
Brooks/Cole, Belmont, CA (2005)
2. Grusak, M.A., "Golden Rice Gets a Boost from Maize," Nat. Biotech-
nol., 23, 429 (2005)
3. Strauss, E., .... . of Hope," Cell, 127, 657 (2006)
4. Surani, M.A., and A. McLaren, "A New Route to Rejuvenation,"
Nature, 443, 284 (2006)
5. O'Connor, K.C., "Incorporating Molecular and Cellular Biology into
a ChE Degree Program," Chem. Eng. Ed., 39, 124 (2005)
6. Varma, A., "Future Directions in ChE Education: A New Path to Glory,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 37, 284 (2003)
7. Westmoreland, PR., "Chemistry and Life Sciences in a New Vision of
Chemical Engineering," Chem. Eng. Ed., 35, 248 (2001)
8. Hollar, K.A., S.H. Farrell, G.B. Hecht, and P Mosto, "Integrating Biol-
ogy and ChE at the Lower Levels," Chem. Eng. Ed., 38, 108 (2004)
9. Blanch, H.W., and D.S. Clark, Biochemical Engineering, Marcel
Dekker, New York (1996)
10. Shuler, M.L., and E Kargi, Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts,
2nd Ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2002)


11. Hammes, G.G., Thermodynamics and Kineticsfor the Biological Sci-
ences, John Wiley, New York (2000)
12. Lauffenburger, D.A., and J.J. Linderman, Receptors: Modelsfor Bind-
ing, Trafficking, and Signaling, Oxford University Press, New York
(1993)
13. Voet, D., and J.G. Voet, Biochemistry, 3rd Ed., John Wiley, New York
(2004)
14. Alberts, B., A. Johnson, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and P. Walter,
Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th Ed., Garland Science, New York
(2002)
15. Offringa, R., "Cancer Immunotherapy is More than a Numbers Game,"
Science, 314, 68 (2006)
16. Marx, J., "Squelching Progesterone's Signal May Prevent Breast
Cancer," Science, 314, 1370 (2006)
17. Swiss Prot Protein Knowledgebase, Expert Protein Analysis System,
Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Switzerland (2007); expasy.org/sprot/>
18. Helmuth, L., "NewAlzheimer's Treatments That May Ease the Mind,"
Science, 297, 1260 (2002)
19. BRENDA, Comprehensive Enzyme Information System, University
of Cologne, Germany (2007);
20. Gene and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man Databases, National
Center of Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD (2007); www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov>
21. Prudhomme, W.A., K.H. Duggar, and D.A. Lauffenburger, "Cell
Population Dynamics Model for Deconvolution of Murine Embryonic
Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Differentiation Responses to Cytokines
and Extracellular Matrix," Biotechnol. Bioeng., 88, 264 (2004)
22. Enmon, R.M., K.C. O'Connor, H. Song, D.J. Lacks, and D.K. Schwartz,
,, i..... Kinetics of Well and Poorly Differentiated Human
Prostate Cancer Cells," Biotechnol. Bioeng., 80, 580 (2002)
23. O'Connor, K.C., J.W Muhitch, D.J. Lacks, and M. Al-Rubeai, "Model-
ing Suppression of Cell Death by Bcl-2 Over-Expression in Myeloma
NSO 6A1 Cells," Biotechnol. Lett., 28, 1919 (2006)
24. 2001-2002 Initial Placement of Chemical Engineering Graduates,
AIChE Career Services (2007); reers/placementsurvey.aspx>
25. Ragauskas, A.J., C.K. Williams, B.H. Davison, G. Britovsek, J. Cairney,
C.A. Eckert, WJ. Frederick Jr., J.P Hallett, D.J. Leak, C.L. Liotta,
J.R. Mielenz, R. Murphy, R. Templer, and T. Tschaplinski, "The Path
Forward for Biofuels and Biomaterials," Science, 311, 484 (2006)
26. Employee Tenure in 2006, Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States
Department of Labor (2007); tenure.pdf>
27. Baltimore, D., "Our Genome Unveiled," Nature, 409, 814 (2001) [


Chemical Engineering Education











M,1n^ class and home problems


INCORPORATION OF DATA ANALYSIS

Throughout the ChE Curriculum

MADE EASY WITH DATAFIT


JAMES R. BRENNER
Florida Institute of Technology Melbourne, FL 32901


A t Florida Tech, we have incorporated DataFit (from
Oakdale Engineering"1) throughout the entire cur-
riculum, beginning with ChE 1102, which is an
eight-week, one-day-per-week, two-hour, one-credit-hour,
second-semester Introduction to Chemical Engineering course
in a hands-on computer classroom.[2] Our experience is that
students retain data analysis concepts when such concepts are
formally taught to them in ChE 1102 and periodically rein-
forced throughout their academic careers. This paper outlines
examples of several problems that have been included in my
senior and graduate courses, including heat of absorption of
hydrogen into a metal hydride, particle size distributions,
and reaction rate law analysis. All Excel and DataFit files
are available at:
.

THE HEAT OF ADSORPTION OF HYDROGEN
ONTO A METAL HYDRIDE
It is rare for ChE students to learn much about gas/solid
equilibrium, despite its importance in gas sensing, adsorption,
chromatography, and catalysis. A relatively simple experiment
to add to a unit operations laboratory that reinforces not only
thermodynamics, but also dynamic mass and energy balances,
is adsorption of hydrogen onto a metal hydride powder inside
a hydrogen storage bed.
The following derivation begins with the thermodynamic
relationships defining Gibbs free energy (AG) and the equi-
Vol. 41, No.4, Fall 2007


librium constant (Kq), for the reaction of H2 gas, at pressure PH,
with two vacant sites (whose concentration will be denoted
as [*]) in the metal hydride to form surface-bound hydrogen
(whose concentration will be denoted as [H*].


AG = AH TAS


-RT In K
eq


eq H2 *12
The theoretical maximum hydrogen-to-metal (H/M) ratio
is a given in a crystal structure for the metal hydride: 1:1 for
AB H (A and B are metals such as La and Ni; y = 0-6) hy-
drides. The maximum total site density for hydrogen storage,
[H/M]max, is the sum of vacant and hydrogen sites divided by
the number of metal atoms in the metal hydride. If the activity
coefficients are all unity, as would be the case if the gas phase
and surface phase are ideal, one can substitute for the number

SJames R. Brenner received his B.S. degree
lu rl from the University of Delaware and M.S. and
Ph.D. degrees from the University of Michi-
gan. Dr. Brenner is an assistant professor
at the Florida Institute of Technology, where
he teaches an Intro to ChE course, materials
science and engineering lecture and lab,
petroleum processing, materials character-
ization, and nanotechnology. His research
interests are in hydrogen purification and
sensing, electronic noses, and nanoporous
materials.
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2007


The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collections of interesting and novel prob-
lems in chemical engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by
presenting a particular principle in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel home
problem, are requested, as well as those that are more traditional in nature and that elucidate dif-
ficult concepts. Manuscripts should not exceed 14 double-spaced pages and should be accompanied
by the originals of any figures or photographs. Please submit them to Professor James O. Wilkes
(e-mail: wilkes@umich.edu), Chemical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann
Arbor, MI 48109-2136.










of surface sites that hydrogen has adsorbed, [H*], and also
apply some rules of logarithms to yield:


RT nPH, -2RTln( H
M ma.


[*])+ 2RTln[*] AH TAS= AG (3)


If fv is the fraction of vacant sites,
[*1
f -
V H
max

Division of Eq. (3) by RT yields:

AHil AS H
InPH = H --S + 21n
R T R Mmax


1000
InP = Y = A BX, where X =- (6)
T
one finds the intercept is 20 1 and the slope is -4.2 0.5,
which gives an entropy of reaction of (-156 11) kJ/K-mole
and a heat of reaction of (-35 4) kJ/mole.


(4) PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS
Students should have been exposed to both the probability
density, f(z), and cumulative density functions, F(z), of the
unit normal (or Gaussian) distribution in previous courses,
where erf is the error function:


Nonideal gas and surface behavior will change the magnitude
of the entropic term, but should not affect the enthalpic term.
It is common in hydrogen storage to plot the phase equilib-
rium relationships between hydrogen pressure 10000
in the gas phase (P) vs. the concentration of
hydrogen in a metal hydride, usually expressed
as either C for concentration or H/M atomic
ratio for the hydrogen-to-metal ratio (the latter 1000 -
of which will be used here), at constant tem-
perature (T). The adsorption isotherms shown
in Figure 1 are for a proprietary LaNis xAlx 100
hydride whose metal alloy precursor was sold E
by Ergenics31] and converted into a hydride
by myself and others.[4] For the very common 10
AB H -type hydrides (y = 0 to 6, A and B are
different metals), the maximum H/M atomic
ratio is 1.0.
Certainly DataFit is capable of fitting the 0.00
phase equilibrium relationship for Figure 1,
provided the user is capable of defining an Figure 1.
appropriate model, but a model of this com- plot, pan
plexity is beyond the scope of this paper. It is 1o
conventional in the metal hydrides community
to make what is known as a van't Hoff plot of
the natural logarithm of hydrogen pressure as
a function of reciprocal temperature at a fixed
hydrogen content in the plateau region. It is
common in LaNi -xAlx hydride literature to
choose the H/M atomic ratio = 0.3 in order to 1000-
construct this plot.[41 For LaNi xAlxH (y = 0-6)
compounds, [HM]max 1. Thus, an H/M atomic
ratio of 0.3 corresponds to f = 0.3. Thus, when
one makes the van't Hoff plot using the data in
lani5.dft (inside datafitanalysispaper2.zip>), the entropic term
and those to the right of it in Eq. (5) equal the 100
intercept of Figure 2, where the slope of Figure 2.7
2 is AH/R. When one fits this data in DataFit,
according to Eq. (6), Figure 2.
254


F(z) = f(z)dz


0.5 + 0.5erf z]


0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00
H/M --303K --334K --363K
Equilibrium pressure vs. hydrogen content (H/M atomic ratio)
metric in adsorption temperature for a LaNisA1l hydride41.


Van't Hoff plot for a LaNi ,Al1 hydride at constant H/M = 0.3.
Chemical Engineering Education


2.8 2.9 3.0
1000/Temperature (K')


21n(1- fv)- 21nf, (5)


3.1 3.2 3.3


1 -z
f (z) = exp
2 2











Based on coalescence theory, Granqvist and Buhrman
have shown that particle size distribution data should be ap-
proximated using log-normal distribution,[5] which is similar
to the normal distribution except that z = (In d In d)/ln od
where d represents the particle diameter, d is the log mean
particle diameter, and od is the geometric standard deviation
of diameters. Since the particle diameters are logarithmically
distributed, evaluation of the standard deviation without
using probits analysis is difficult. Probits analysis allows
one to transform a Gaussian distribution into a straight line
using the inverse normal distribution function. The first step
in probits analysis is the definition of a geometric standard
deviation (GSD). The GSD is the particle diameter greater
than 84.13% of the particles in the distribution divided by the
diameter greater than 50% of the particles. The particle size
distribution data set in Figure 3 was obtained by Brenner et
al.J61 for a series of Fe nanoparticles prepared by microwave
dissociation of neat Fe(CO)5 in Ar, and can be found in


0.25


0.20 .

414
0.15 -

4.1
0.10


0.05 -


o.oo 00
0.1 1 10
Particle Diameter (nm)
Figure 3. Probability density function for particle size distribution
nanoparticles prepared via microwave plasma dissociation
neat Fe(CO)5 in Ar.'"

8




.6
5 5-


4:





1 10
Particle Diameter (nm)


fenosols03final.xls and probits.dft inside the aforementioned
datafitanalysispaper2.zip.
The distribution is plotted as a probability density function,
which is constructed in Excel as follows:
1) Determine the particle diameters for each particle, and
enter them into column A in Excel.

2) Make a row across the top of the spreadsheet ranging
from -1.0 to 2.0, in 0.1 increments, in cells B1 to AE1.

3) Define Eq. (9) in cell C2, where the "1" between the
two commas is the "true" case of the logical test, and
the "0" is the "false" case of the logical test.

SIF(B$1< log($A2)< C$1,1,0) (9)


4) Copy and paste Eq. (9) in columns C. .... -, AE and
from rows 2 down to the bottom of the data set. This
operation groups the particle diameter into 30 .. ,. iIi/-
mically and evenly spaced bins ranging from 0.1 nm to
100 nm.
5) Sum each of the columns C .-,, ..J, AE
and divide each column by the total number of
particles to get a probability density function.

6) Sum up the particle counts in each column
to create a cumulative density function.

If one instead plotted the data as a cumulative
distribution function, one would see a sigmoi-
dal, or S-shaped curve. It is much easier to fit
cumulative distribution functions than their
derivatives, the probability density functions,
as the latter have substantially higher errors. In
order to plot such functions as straight lines un-
i- L less one has a program capable of plotting data
100 using probability axes (such as Kaleidagraph),
the best way to analyze this kind of problem
n ofFe is using probits analysis, which requires the
of NORMINV function in Excel:
=NORMINV(C/ 100,D,E) (10)
where C is the cumulative percentage of par-
ticles with diameters less than "d," D is the
number of probits at the mean (exactly 5 for
50%), and E is the number of probits corre-
sponding to the standard deviation (set to 1).
In theory, the number of probits should range
from 0 to 10. Given that the error in the prob-
ability densities is about 0.5%, however, the
practical linear range for the data in Figure 4
is between 2 and 8.

4 Figure 4. Cumulative probability func-
tion plotted in probit form for particle size
distribution ofFe nanoparticles prepared
100 via microwave plasma dissociation of neat
Fe(CO), in Ar!6'


Vol. 41, No.4, Fall 2007











Graphically, the probit mean of 5 should correspond to
the geometric mean of the particles (~ 4.0 nm), and the ratio
of the diameter at 6 probits (~ 6.4 nm) to the diameter at
5 probits (~ 4.0 nm) should provide the geometric standard
deviation of the data (6.4 nm/4.0 nm = ~ 1.6). If one takes
the logarithm of the diameter data, puts it in the "x" column
in DataFit, puts the number of probits in the "y" column,
performs a simple y = ax + b fit, and finally goes into the
Evaluate tab under "Results Detailed," one can evaluate the
diameter-albeit with some effort-at 5 probits (3.8 nm)
and 6 probits (6.6 nm), giving rise to a geometric standard
deviation of 1.7.

REACTION KINETICS: DEHYDROGENATION
OF METHYLCYCLOHEXANE TO
FORM TOLUENE
An example of a more advanced problem that DataFit
makes surprisingly easy is fitting of chemical reaction rate
data. Data for the dehydrogenation of methylcyclohexane
to form toluene over a 0.3 wt.% Pt/Al203 catalyst is cited in
Problem 5.19 in Fogler's reaction engineering textbook,7 8]
and in prob519b.dft. Fogler's problem suggests four possible
rate laws to use, where M denotes methylcyclohexane:


1)- r = kPIPH2

kPMPH
3)-r = kMPH2 2 4)-
(1+ KPM)2


kPM
2)-rM (1 KP)

rM kPMP-2
M (I+ KMM PH2
(1+ KP, KHP H2 )


Though physical insight is not asked for in the problem
statement, this problem provides a wonderful opportunity
to relate abstract mathematical models to adsorption equi-
libria. Unless the values of a and ( are combinations of 1
and 0, then rate law 1 is a purely empirical model. Rate law
1 also implies the adsorption of all reactants and products is
relatively weak.


12 1.3
11 -12
0o 1.1
09 1 0
-07t -10
08
"---- 0 7
007
s05- o 06
04 05
2.6- 0.4

0 0.0 X

Figure 5. Although Model 3 was a successful fit according to DataFit,
clearly the curve fit is not consistent with the data.! 8' The vertical lines
represent deviations between the experimental and calculated data.
256


The equilibrium constants in the denominators of rate
laws 2, 3, and 4 must be positive, but some students will not
recognize KM or KHl as equilibrium constants and may have
even forgotten what an equilibrium constant means. If THT
denotes tetrahydrotoluene, DHT denotes dihydrotoluene, and
* denotes a surface site, then Langmuir-Hinshelwood model
2 may be valid, given the following possible mechanism.
M+* M*
M* +2* -- THT* +2H*
THT +2* DHT +2H*
THT* +2* T* +2H*
2H* H2 2*
T* T + *
Model 2 describes a Langmuir dependence on methylcy-
clohexane only, and seems the most logical from a physical
standpoint. The denominator in Model 2 is possible if the
product of surface concentration and the equilibrium constant
for adsorbed hydrogen is negligible compared with unity. If
the reaction is surface reaction-limited, the rate-limiting step
will be the initial dehydrogenation step because the increasing
number of double bonds will allow the electrons to delocal-
ize. LeChatelier's principle leads us to believe that the rate
of dehydrogenation should be favored by high methylcyclo-
hexane pressures, and might be inhibited by both toluene and
hydrogen. Rate laws 3 and 4 both have either a zero-order or
first-order H2 dependence.
What most students will not know until the faculty member
discusses the homework solution is that, during dehydrogena-
tion reactions, a parallel reaction typically occurs in which
adsorbed toluene and/or partially hydrogenated intermediates
are polymerized to form a carbonaceous overlayer known as
coke. As this coke layer forms, the reaction rate will decrease.
Usually, coke can be hydrogenated and then desorbed if not
allowed to get very thick. As the coke layer gets thicker, it
becomes very hydrogen-deficient and almost gra-
phitic. With such insight into the catalytic chemis-
try, it becomes clear why a certain pressure of H2
is necessary to prevent catalyst deactivation.


Lacking such physical insight, both undergradu-
ate and graduate students consistently enter rate
expressions into DataFit without much thought.
Because Model 2 does not have a dependence on
the hydrogen pressure, DataFit will balk until you
supply a model definition that contains a 0*X2,
where X2 is the hydrogen pressure. With that
note, students should get the following results at
the 95% confidence intervals (Table 1). The ( pa-
rameter in Model 1 and all parameters in Models
3 and 4 are mathematically insignificant because
the errors in these parameters are larger than the
parameters themselves. Only Model 2 yields num-
bers that are mathematically significant. Of course,
Chemical Engineering Education


1 3 -











TABLE 1
Methylcyclohexane Dehydrogenation Curve Fit Parameters
Model # k K, Km a 3
1 1.1 0.1 0.18+ 0.09 -0.03+ 0.13
2 12+2 9 _+3
3 3+4 8+19
4 8X1036 1x1045 7X10361 9x104 5X1036+7X1044


Figure 6. Langmuir dependence of toluene production rate on
cyclohexane pressure without hydrogen dependence (Mode


that does not mean this is the best possible model, only the
best of the four models in Professor Fogler's problem. It is
important to point out that DataFit says all four curve fits were
"successful," but Figure 5 (for Model 3) clearly demonstrates
that a successful fit may mean absolutely nothing.

The default DataFit plot for 3-D plots such as Figure 5
are colorful, but would be far superior if proper labels were
applied. By clicking the Format button and applying some
format options, one can obtain a plot similar to Figure 6 for
Model 2. For 2-D plots, I would not ask students to spend time
modifying plot scales, labels, etc., because plots are far easier
to make in Excel and are of a higher quality. Excel, however
is sorely lacking when it comes to 3-D plots, forcing people
to use what Microsoft calls category axes -thus restricting
3-D plots in Excel to bar charts.

CONCLUSIONS
The reason that I downloaded DataFit in the first place
was not because of its excellent curve-fitting capabilities, but


because-as of 1998 when I first started using it
while in industry-DataFit was the only program
that did proper 3-D scientific plotting for less than
$500. In 1999, when Florida Tech bought a site
license for DataFit version 6.1, it cost only $750
for the entire campus (albeit a relatively small
campus), whereas a single copy cost $100. More-
over, the site license allowed students and faculty
to use DataFit at home as long as they were doing
academic work.
As reported in a companion paper,[21 11 of 12
international graduate students without previous
exposure to either Polymath or DataFit found
fitting of vapor pressure data to be easier using


DataFit. Of the first 20 undergraduates who were
exposed to DataFit for four years, all rated it as
"excellent" or "above average" in exit surveys.
Students throughout Florida Tech's College of Engineering
have also awarded me consecutive student-nominated, col-
lege-wide teaching awards. I attribute this success largely to
consistent reinforcement of data analysis skills.

REFERENCES
1. Gilmore, J., DataFit, v 6.1, Oakdale Engineering, leengr.com>
2. Brenner, J.R., "Chemical Engineering Made Easy with DataFit," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 40(1), (2006)
3. Ergenics, Inc., , (Attn.: Gary Sandrock)
Ergenics is now part of HERATechnologies. Dr. Sandrock still operates
out of the same facility, but under the company name of SunaTech.
4. Klein, J.E., and J.R. Brenner, US DOE Report WSRC-TR-98-00094,
Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (March 31, 1998)
5. Granqvist, C.G., and R.A. Buhrman, J. Appl. Phys., 47, 2200 (1976)
6. Brenner, J.R., J.B. Harkness, M.B. Knickelbein, G.K. Krumdick, and
C.L. Marshall, Nanostructured Materials, 8, 1-17 (1993)
7. Sinfelt, J.H., H. Hurwitz, and R.A. Shulman, J. Phys. Chem., 64, 1559
(1960)
8. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd Ed.,
Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ, (1999) 1


Vol. 41, No.4, Fall 2007


1.4 -
E 1.2 1.4
1. 1.2 E
0.8 1.0i
0.6 0.8
0.4 00.6 i
0.2 2 4
;o _L 0.0
"cA,, -- 0.0











M T= curriculum
-- U s__________________


TEACHING REACTION ENGINEERING


USING THE ATTAINABLE REGION










MATTHEW J. METZGER, BENJAMIN J. GLASSER
Rutgers University Piscataway, NJ 08854
DAVID GLASSER, BRENDON HAUSBERGER, AND DIANE HILDEBRANDT
University of the Witwatersrand WITS, 2050 Johannesburg, South Africa

g tin ch ia e ne tde Matthew Metzger is pursuing his Ph.D. at Rutgers University. He received
lowing question: What makes one reactor different his B.S. from Lafayette College and spent two summers working with the
from the next? The answers received will often be chemical engineering department at the University of the Witwatersrand.
unsatisfactory and vary widely in scope. Some may cite the His interests lie in applying the attainable region approach to particle
processing in the pharmaceutical field.
difference between the basic design equations, others may
point out a PFR is "longer," and still others may state that it Benjamin J. Glasser is an associate professor of chemical and bio-
chemical engineering at Rutgers University. He has earned degrees in
all depends on the particular reaction network. Though these chemical engineering from the University of the Witwatersrand (B.S.,
answers do possess a bit of truth, they do not capture the true M.S.) and Princeton University (Ph.D.). His research interests include
granular flows, gas-particle flows, multiphase reactors, and nonlinear
difference between reactors: the degree of mixing achieved, dynamics of transport processes.
This is the inherent difficulty with teaching chemical reaction
engineering. The students learn the technical skills required Diane Hildebrandt is the co-founder of COMPS at the University of
the Witwatersrand. She received her B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. from the
to perform the calculations to determine maximum yields and University of the Witwatersrand, and currently leads the academic and
shortest space-times, but very rarely are they able to grasp and consultant research teams at the university. She has published more than
50 refereed-journal articles on topics ranging from process synthesis to
thoroughly understand the theory and underlying differences thermodynamics.
between reactors." Often, too much time is devoted to tedious
Brendon Hausberger is a director at the Centre of Material and Process
and involved calculations to determine the correct answer on Synthesis (COMPS) at the University of the Witwatersrand. He received
homework instead of focusing on the concepts to enforce the his B.S. and Ph.D. from the University of the Witwatersrand, and is cur-
benefits offered by each reactor presented. rently overseeing the launch of Fischer-Tropschs plants in both China
and Australia.
Reactor network optimization is traditionally not covered
David Glasser is a director of the Centre of Material and Process Syn-
in any depth at the undergraduate level.24] The way reactor thesis at the University of the Witwatersrand. He is acknowledged as a
network optimization is traditionally taught to graduate stu- world-leading researcherin the field of reactor and process optimization,
and is a NRFA1 rated researcher. His extensive publication record and
dents often involves large numbers of coupled equations that research areas extend from reactor design and optimization to distillation
can sometimes hide the final goal of the analysis. Attempts and process optimization and intensification.

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2007
258 Chemical Engineering Education










to simplify the situation, such as Levenspiel's graphical
analysis,[4] do offer some benefit, however their applicability
is limited as they can readily only optimize simple reaction
problems. For chemical engineers, it is paramount to know
the most promising solution to a real problem in the shortest
amount of time, and rarely is this accomplished with the cur-
rent teaching methods for reactor network optimization.
Presented here is an approach that addresses the challenges
presented above. The attainable region (AR) approach is a
powerful research technique that has been applied to optimi-
zation of reactor networks.E5 7 It is also a powerful teaching
tool that focuses on the fundamental processes involved in
a system, rather than the unit operations themselves. It has
been used to introduce undergraduate and graduate students
to complex reactor network optimization in a short time, with
little to no additional calculations required.

BACKGROUND
The generic approach to complex reac- The AR a
tor design and optimization is to build on
previous experience and knowledge to test as
a new reactor configuration against the undergrads
previous champion that yielded the best industrial ai
result.'8] If a new maximum is achieved, the masters cou
reactor configuration and process settings versity ofth
are kept. If not, the previous solution is in S
in South AJ
retained and the entire process is repeated.
The biggest issue with this trial and error more recent
approach is the time it takes. Also, there tive to tradi
is no way to know if all possible com- reactor desi
binations of operational parameters and reaction en
reactors have been tested. In addition, at Rutge
calculations are normally exhausting and
general computational techniques are dif-
ficult to develop due to the specificity of
each arrangement. Over time, this mechanism has evolved
into a set of design heuristics that dominate decision processes
throughout industry. [9
Achenie and Biegleri101 model a reactor superstructure
using a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MI I IP),
which transforms the task into an optimal control problem.
Again, this approach is useful if the optimal reactor network
is known, but it does not address the issue of choosing the
optimal reactor network.
Horn"111 defines the AR as the region in the stoichiometric
subspace that could be reached by any possible reactor sys-
tem. Furthermore, if any point in this subspace were used as
the feed to another system of reactors, the output from this
system would also exist within the same AR. This framework
approaches reactor design and optimization in a simpler,
easier, and more robust manner. It offers a systematic apriori
approach to determining the ideal reactor configuration based
upon identifying all possible output concentrations from all
Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


possible reactor configurations. One of its advantages over
previous approaches is the elimination of laborious and
counter-productive trial and error calculations. The focus
is on determining all possible outlet concentrations, regard-
less of the reactor configuration, rather than on examining a
single concentration from a single reactor. Approaching the
problem from this direction ensures that all reactor systems
are included in the analysis, removing the reliance on the
user's imagination to create reactor structures. Also, for lower
dimensional problems often studied in the undergraduate
courses, the final solution can be represented in a clear and
intuitive graphical form. From this graphical representation,
the optimal process flow sheet can be read directly. In addi-
tion, once the universal region of attainable concentrations
is known, applying new objective functions on the reactor
system is effortless. No further calculations are required,
and the optimal values can be read directly from the graph.
Finally, this general tool can be applied to
any problem whose basic operation can be
sis method broken down into fundamental processes,
ented in including isothermal and nonisothermal reac-
courses, to tor network synthesis,[5 12] optimal control,[13]
combined reaction and separation,[14 16] com-
Ices, and in
ces, and in minution,17' "18 and others. Process synthesis
at the Uni- and design usefulness are aided greatly by
watersrand this alternative approach.
as well as, The AR analysis method has been pre-
an alterna- sented in undergraduate courses, to indus-
al complex trial audiences, and in master's courses
a graduate at the University of the Witwatersrand in
ring course South Africa, as well as, more recently, as
an alternative to traditional complex reactor
diversity. design in a graduate reaction engineering
course at Rutgers University. The overall
response from the audiences has been fa-
vorable, and it is the intention of the authors to discuss the
benefits this approach offers to the field of reaction engineer-
ing. To aid with teaching/learning, a detailed attainable region
Web site has been set up and the address is given at the end
of this article.
In this paper we will first introduce a moderately chal-
lenging reaction engineering problem. Next, the AR analy-
sis will be illustrated by solving the presented problem.
Finally, the teaching strategy adopted by both institutions
will be presented.

PROBLEM STATEMENT
The following liquid phase, constant density, isothermal
reaction network will be used to illustrate the AR approach.


k,
2A k D


naly
pres
uate
udien
'rses
e Wit
rica,
ly, as
tiona
gn in
rinee
rs Un










The initial characteristics of the reaction network are shown
in Table 1. The end goal of this exercise is to determine the
reactor configuration that maximizes the production of B for

TABLE 1
Reaction Network Constants and Initial Concentrations
Co Co Co C0
A B C D
1 kmol m3 0 kmol m3 0 kmol m3 0 kmol m3
k, k2 k3 k4
0.01 s' 5s 10 s' 100 m3
kmol1 s

(a) 1.2 12
1 / 10.
E 0.8 8 E
E 0.6 6 E
'0.4 4
oo
0.2 2 2
0 0 J
0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50
Space Time (s)

(b) 1.2 12
1 10 -
S0.8 8 E


0.4 4
0.2 2
- . -
0 0
0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50
Space Time (s)
Figure 1. Concentration as a function of space-time
in a PFR (a) and CSTR (b). Note that profiles for
Cc and CD are not shown.

12
S1 .X PFR
S8 (J - CSTR
0
6 !*(K)
m 4 4 -


0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
CA (kmollm3)
Figure 2. State-Space diagram. Point 0 represents the
feed point. Point X represents an arbitrary CSTR effluent
point. The diagram on the top right is a PFR representing
the PFR profile, (]). The diagram in the bottom left is a
CSTR representing the CSTR locus, (K).


a feed of pure A. These reaction kinetics were used because
they represent a reaction network without an intuitively obvi-
ous optimal structure. A PFR will maximize the amount of B
produced in the first reaction, but a CSTR will minimize the
amount of A consumed in the second reaction.

SOLUTION
Determining the candidate attainable region for this reaction
scheme involves the completion of the following simplified
steps: selecting the fundamental processes, choosing the state
variables, defining and drawing the process vectors, construct-
ing the region, interpreting the boundary as the process flow
sheet, and finding the optimum.
1. Choose the Fundamental Processes
In this particular example, the fundamental processes are
reaction and mixing. Let us first look at mixing. There are two
limits on mixing in a reactor: a plug flow reactor, in which
a slug of fluid does not experience any axial mixing along
the reactor length, and a continuously stirred tank reactor, in
which each volume element experiences complete mixing.
Before moving further into the analysis, it is useful to deter-
mine the dependence of species concentrations on space-time
in these two environments. For a PFR, this is determined by
numerically solving the mass balances in Eqs. (3)-(6), giving
the concentration profiles of CA and C, in Fig. l(a).

dCA = -kCA + kCB kC (3)
dT
dCB kCA k2CB k3CB (4)
dr
dCC
dT
dC= k4CA (6)
dr
Similarly, the set of mass balances in Eqs. (7)-(10) can be
solved to give the locus for a CSTR as T is varied, provided
in Fig. l(b).
CA C = T -k C k2C- kC) (7)

CB C = T (kCA -k2CB -k3CB) (8)
Cc k = Tk3CB) (9)
CD-C' =T(k4Ci) (10)

In Eqs. (3)-(10), C represents the concentration of species i,
C represents the feed concentration of species i, T is the space-
time of the reactor, and k represents the rate of reaction. Figure
1 only shows the profiles for CA and C, because, as will be
explained shortly, Cc and CD do not influence the determina-
tion of the AR.
II. Choose the State Variables
The state variables for this example are CA and C CB is a
state variable because it is the value that we wish to optimize.
Chemical Engineering Education










CA is a state variable because, looking at the right-hand side
of Eqs. (3)-(10), the behavior of CB is entirely dependent on
the change in CA. Note that T is not a state variable because
it is the independent variable in the system.
Now that the state variables are known, a state-space or
phase-space diagramn191 (Figure 2) can be created showing
the autonomous relation between CA and C,. First, we must
do this for the PFR using the data in Figure l(a). Figure l(a)
shows CA and C, as a function of T, so for any given T we
can determine a CA, C, pair, which allows us to plot curve (J)
(solid line) in Figure 2. For example, the point W in Figure 2
corresponds to C = 3.81x102 kmol/m3 and CB = 3.95x105
kmol/m3, and can be traced back to T = 0.25 seconds in Figure
l(a). The same can be done for the data in Figure l(b) for the
CSTR that leads to curve (K) (dashed line) in Figure 2. While
space-time is not explicitly shown in Figure 2, the relevant
space-time to achieve a given concentration can always be
obtained from Figure 1 (or an equivalent figure). A candidate
for the attainable region (ARC) is identified as the union of
the regions contained under both curves.
IlL. Define and Draw the Process Vectors
A process vector gives the instantaneous change in system
state caused by that fundamental process occurring. For ex-
ample, if only reaction is occurring, the reaction vector, r[C ,
C,], will give the instantaneous direction and magnitude of
change from the current concentration position. For mixing,
this vector gives the divergence from the current state, c,
based upon the added state, c*, or v(c, c*) = c* c. T is some
arbitrary effluent concentration from a CSTR shown strictly
for demonstration purposes.
The vectors can be graphically represented by considering
curve (K) for the CSTR in Figure 2. This is replotted in Figure
3 along with the direction of each rate vector. The CSTR rate
vector (OT) is co-linear with the feed and effluent concentra-
tions, and the mixing vector (OX) linearly connects the current
state with the added state. The resulting mixed state lies on
the mixing line and its position can be determined from the
Lever Arm Rule. One can also consider a PFR rate vector
which originates at the current concentration and is tangent
to the curve (see Figure 3).
IV. Constructing the Region
To construct the region, the process vector guidelines from
the previous step are applied to the state-space diagram (Fig-
ure 2). The idea is to draw process vectors to extend the current
ARC. We begin the analysis by examining mixing.
Starting at a generic point X on the boundary of curve (K)
in Figure 2, a straight line can be drawn to point O, which is
the feed point. This is shown by line (L) in Figure 4(a). To
achieve any concentration along line (L), you can mix the
outlet of a CSTR operating at point X with the feed at point
O. Thus, any point on curve L corresponds to a CSTR with
bypass. The Lever Arm Rule[201 can be used to determine the

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


12 CSTR locus
- CSTR Rate Vector
E -- PFR Rate Vector
S- - Mixing Rate Vector
E
d 6- N ..
Q 4 -
M 2 O
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
CA (kmol/m3)
Figure 3. Rate vectors of the fundamental processes in-
volved in the example. The CSTR rate vector points from
the feed point, 0, to the particular effluent point, T The
PFR rate vector is tangent to the current concentration.
The mixing rate vector is a straight line pointing
from the current state to the added state.


(a)
;_l 5
E



5
X
xm
w 0

(b)
C-15
l
in i
E10

a 5
xm
0 0

[c) 15
"E
-o10
E
5
m5
0-
w 0


(M)








(M) CSTR
CSTR with
Bypass
(L)


CSTR with Bypass in series with a PFR

Figure 4. Determination of the Attainable Region.
(a) Extension through mixing (dashed line); (b) Extend
with PFR in series [curve (M)]; (c) Resulting attainable re-
gion (shaded) with corresponding reactors. Note that (a)-
(c) have an equivalent x-axis. (d) Reactor configuration to
achieve any point within the attainable region in (c).










percentage of each stream to mix to obtain the desired con-
centration. Notice that when this line is drawn, the candidate
region is extended. When two states mix linearly, mixing can
extend any concave region by creating its convex hull.
Does operation in a PFR extend the region as well? The
answer is yes. Going back to process vector geometry, the
PFR process vector is tangent to the current system-state. A
line tangent to the curve at point X extends the region above
its previous maximum. The complete successive PFR profile
[curve (M) in F igL I 4 b[i I, found by numerically solving the
differential PFR balance equations in Eqs. (3)-(6) with feed
concentration of X = (C CB). The boundary of the current
candidate attainable region is now made up of curves (L) and
(M) (see Figure 4b).
The attainable region can be constructed once it has been
determined that no other processes can extend the region.
The shaded region of Figure 4(c) shows the entire AR for
this particular reaction network. The boundary of the shaded
region is made up of curves (L) and (M). Since the region
is convex, it is clear that mixing cannot extend the region.
Moreover, it is possible to show that all rate vectors on the
boundary are either tangent to the boundary or point into
the region (see AR Web site for further details). Enclosed
beneath the boundary are all possible reactor effluents given
a feed point at O.
V. Interpret the Boundary as
the Process Flow Sheet
The process flow sheet is determined by tracing a path to
the point of interest. The effluent concentration at point X is
achieved in a CSTR. If the desired effluent is to the right of
point X on the boundary [given by curve (L)], a CSTR operat-
ing at point X with feed bypass is used to reach the point (see
section III). If the desired effluent is on the boundary to the left
of point X [given by curve (M)], a CSTR operating at point X
followed by a PFR in series is required. These configurations
are pointed out in Figure 4(c). The reactor configuration in
Figure 4(d) can be used to achieve any point on the boundary
of the ARc for this reaction network.



010
5 |
LO b


0 0 ..
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
CA (kmollm3)
Figure 5. Application of constraints on the
attainable region. Point Y: maximum B produced
in reaction network. Point Z: maximum B produced
given that CA must be greater than 0.6 kmol/m3.


VI. Find the Optimum
The final step is to determine the optimum for the speci-
fied objective function. In this case, the objective function is
to maximize the production of species B given the feed of
1 kmol/m3 of A. It can easily be seen from Figure 5 (point
Y) that a maximum of 1.24 x 10 4 kmol/m3 of species B can
be achieved using a CSTR with effluent of 0.4 kmol/m3 of
species A followed by a PFR with an effluent concentration
of A of 0.18 kmol/m3. The corresponding space-times of the
CSTR and the PFR are 0.037 s and 0.031 s, respectively.
These were determined from Eqs. (3) and (4) for the CSTR
and (7) and (8) for the PFR.
With the attainable region fully determined, the optimal
value for any objective function may be determined. For
example, a plant manager dictates that the concentration of
A cannot drop below 0.6 kmol/m3, or the acidity will corrode
downstream equipment. The maximum amount of species B
that can be produced with this constraint is given by point Z in
Figure 5, which corresponds to 6.4 x 105 kmol/m3 of B. The
reactor configuration that gives this outlet concentration is a
CSTR with feed bypass. Cost, partial pressure, temperature,
and residence time are some other examples for possible ob-
jective functions. As stated at the outset of this section, these
steps are a simplified version of the rigorous procedure (see
Reference 5 for more details). A final point of note is the AR
analysis does not guarantee the determination of the complete
attainable region. The analysis is composed of guidelines for
the creation of a candidate attainable region, as no mathemati-
cally derived sufficiency conditions exist. This is the reason
for the ARc terminology. 211

TEACHING STRATEGY
AND STUDENT FEEDBACK
At the School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering
at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South
Africa, the AR is taught at both the undergraduate and master's
level. The AR is presented as a supplementary topic in the
undergraduate Reactor Design course for third- and fourth-
year chemical engineering students. After the students
have developed PFR profiles and CSTR loci for a given
feed concentration and reaction network, the "rules" are
explained (i.e., PFR rate vectors are tangent to the profile,
the region can be made convex through mixing, etc.). The
students are then challenged to find the region of optimal
production for a certain component, and are provided
with PFR profiles for various feed concentrations. At this
point, the instructor emphasizes that the geometric solution
the students are creating is essentially solving the same
equations the students were laboring through earlier in the
course. The lecturer then introduces some more complex
problems involving heat transfer and reaction to demon-
strate to the students the power of the method.
The AR is also taught in a week-long, 30-hour, Reactor
Chemical Engineering Education











Synthesis Masters of Science course. The class is composed
of people from industry and students who have just gradu-
ated. Therefore, the best teaching approach does not include
intimidating differential equations or tedious calculations.
First, the students work through the example presented in
this paper as an introduction to the AR approach. Then the
students are given PFR state-space profiles for different
feed concentrations and asked to determine the optimal
reactor configuration to achieve the maximum production
of a certain species.
More recently, the AR was taught to a graduate core Reac-
tion Engineering course of approximately 20 students at Rut-
gers University. Half of the students were full-time graduate
students and the other half were part-time professionals who
had been out of school for varying intervals. One three-hour
lecture on the example covered in this paper was given after
single reactor design, complex kinetics, and nonisothermal
reactions had been introduced, but before biological reactions
and catalysis. The technique was presented as an alternative
to the computer-intensive MINLP.
Following the lecture, homework is assigned to allow the
students to develop the AR themselves. The homework as-
signment covers a reaction network similar to the example
presented, only it lacks the reversible part of the A to B
reaction (also known as van de Vusse kinetics). The benefits
of such an assignment are: to test basic reaction engineer-
ing skills (solving PFR and CSTR balances); to develop
skills using computational programs such as POLYMATH,
MATHCAD, or MATLAB; to discover the potential benefits
of recycle, bypass, and Differential Sidestream Reactors
(DSR) in reactor configurations; and to understand the benefits
of a graphical approach to a normally calculation-intensive
problem. Finally, the students are challenged on an exam
with the in-class exercise given to the master's students in
the Witwatersrand course.
We also feel that the AR approach lends itself well to senior
design, especially in an environment where students are asked to
come up with a flow sheet for their design project. These steps
present a systematic approach to determining the optimal network
for the reaction portion of their design project. The students can
compare their initial proposals to this optimal target and decide
if there is any benefit in improving their initial designs.
Some of the comments from the students included that the
attainable region material was enjoyable, as it \a something
new" and there was a desire to see "more advanced topics
like the AR." Students were excited by the fact that they
could solve problems and come up with optimum structures
for reactions no one else had solved before, i.e., the optimum
solution was not available in any textbook or research article.
Along those lines, students also commented that they liked
the fact they were being taught material that was "hot off the
presses" and had been the subject of a Ph.D. dissertation only
a few years before.
Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


A difficulty observed in introducing the AR to under-
graduates was that some students struggled with solving new
problems. In particular, students could follow the example
that was developed in this article and compute the bound-
ary of the AR themselves for a homework problem with the
same basic structure, i.e., a CSTR followed by a PFR. If the
boundary of the AR was changed in a homework problem
to a PFR followed by a CSTR followed by a PFR, however,
then some students struggled with this. It was found that if
these students went over a number of additional AR problems
they could eventually master the material and generate ARs
independently for new cases.

CONCLUSION
Reaction engineering is a course in which students often get
bogged down with intensive calculations and lose sight of the
more important, fundamental concepts. This paper presents
the attainable region analysis method as a way to avoid this
trap, and at the same time introduce design and optimization of
complex reactor flow sheets a more difficult and industrially
relevant exercise. Contrary to traditional complex reactor de-
sign optimization, theAR approach does not require trial and
error, does ensure that all reactor configurations are evaluated,
and allows for easy application of various objective functions.
Additionally, for lower-dimensional problems, the solution
can be represented in a simple and clear graphical form.
The intention of the authors is to increase the exposure of
this technique so that its advantages for both teaching and
research can be known throughout the engineering commu-
nity. The applications do not end at reaction engineering, and
the reader is challenged to find areas of study to which this
approach does not apply.
For more details on the attainable region approach please
see thefollowing Web site: neering/proc I 4r.- *,. .'... Ii.1. hI >.

REFERENCES
1. Mendes, A.M., L.M. Madeira, ED. Magalhaes, and J.M. Sousas, "An
Integrated Chemical Reaction Engineering Lab Experiment," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 38, 228 (2004)
2. loudas, C.A., Nonlinear and Mixed-Integer Optimization: Funda-
mentals and Applications, Oxford University Press, NY (1995)
3. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd Ed.,
Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference, Upper Saddle River,
NJ (2006)
4. Levenspiel, O., Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd Ed., John Wiley
& Sons, New York (1999)
5. Hildebrandt, D., and D. Glasser, "The Attainable Region and Optimal
Reactor Structures Chem. Eng. Sci., 45, 261 (1990)
6. Biegler, L.T., I.E. Grossman, andA.W. Westerberg, Systematic Methods
of Chemical Process Design, Prentice-Hall International, Inc., Upper
Saddle River, NJ (1997)
7. Seider, WD., J.D. Seader, and D.R. Lewin, Productand ProcessDesign
Principles: Synthesis, Analysis, and Evaluation, 2nd Ed., John Wiley
& Sons, New York (2004)
8. Chitra, S.P, and R. Govind, "Synthesis of Optimal Serial Reactor
Structures for Homogeneous Reactions. Part I: Isothermal Reactors,"
American Inst. of Chem. Eng., 177 (1985)











9. Douglas, J.M., "A Hierarchical Decision Procedure for Process Syn-
thesis," AICHE Journal, 31, 353, (1985)
10. Achenie, L., and L.T. Biegler, "Algorithmic Synthesis of Chemical
Reactor Networks Using Mathematical Programming," Ind. and Eng.
Chem. Research, 25, 621, (1986)
11. Horn, E, "Attainable and Non-Attainable Regions in Chemical Reac-
tor Technique," Third European Symposium on Chemical Reaction
Engineering, 1-10 (1964)
12. Nicol, W, D. Hildenbrandt, and D. Glasser, "Process Synthesis for
Reaction Systems with Cooling via Finding the Attainable Region,"
Computers & Chem. Eng., 21, S35 (1997)
13. Godorr, S., D. Hildebrandt, D. Glasser, and C. McGregor, "Choosing
Optimal Control Policies Using the Attainable Region Approach," Ind.
and Eng. Chem. Research, 38, 639 (1999)
14. Nisoli, A., M.E Malone, and M.E Doherty, "Attainable Regions for
Reaction with Separation," AICHE Journal, 43, 374 (1997)
15. Lakshmanan, A., and L.T. Biegler, "Synthesis of Optimal Chemical
Reactor Networks with Simultaneous Mass Integration," Ind. and Eng.


Chem. Research, 35, 4523 (1996)
16. Gadewar, S.B., L. Tao, M.E Malone, and M.E Doherty, "Process
Alternatives for Coupling Reaction and Distillation," Chem. Eng.
Research and Design, 82, 140 (2004)
17. Khumalo, N., D. Glasser, D. Hildebrandt, B. Hausberger, and S.
Kauchali, "The Application of the Attainable Region Analysis to Com-
minution," Chem. Eng. Sci., 61, 5969 (2006)
18. Khumalo, N., B. Hausberger, D. Glasser, and D. Hildebrandt, "An
Experimental Validation of a Specific Energy-Based Approach for
Communition," Chem. Eng. Sci., 62(10) (2007)
19. Alligood, K.T., T.D. Sauer, and J.A. Yorke, CHAOS: An Introduction
to Dynamical Systems, Springer-Verlag, NY (1996)
20. Geankoplis, C.J., Transport Processes and Unit Operations, 3rd Ed.,
Prentice Hall PTR, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1993)
21. Feinberg, M., and D. Hildebrandt, "Optimal Reactor Design from a
Geometric Viewpoint: 1. Universal Properties of the Attainable Re-
gion," Chem. Eng. Sci., 52, 1637 (1997) [


PAID ADVERTISEMENT




The Faculty of the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Mis-
souri-Columbia seeks to intensify its focus on, and enhance its productivity in, its two
primary research areas: Materials and Energy. A key component to our strategy is to
hire up to two new colleagues who specialize in these areas. The positions are tenure
track at the assistant, associate, or full professor level.
We seek candidates with a Ph.D. degree in chemical engineering (or closely related field) and excellent qualifications in
research and scholarship. All research specialties related to Materials and/or Energy will be considered, but expertise in
the area of nanomaterials, biomaterials, plasma processing, ceramic materials or thermochemical conversion of biomass
is particularly coveted.
We have an important teaching mission here at Mizzou, and excellence in teaching at the undergraduate and graduate
levels, in both the core curriculum and in specialty areas, is a requirement. New faculty will likely participate in developing
an undergraduate option in Nuclear Engineering, so expertise in this area is also valued.
Finally, we seek colleagues with vision and leadership skills who may participate in the administration of the department,
especially those who are interested in serving as chair.
Mizzou is among the nation's most comprehensive universities. There are ample opportunities for cross-disciplinary col-
laborations with the other engineering and science departments, as well as the Agricultural, Medical, and Veterinary Schools.
Mizzou's Research Reactor Center, the largest experimental nuclear reactor in the nation, provides unique opportunities for
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Review of applications will begin immediately and continue until the positions are filled. Please include the following
items in your application package: curriculum vitae, list of publications, list of four references, and a concise summary
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Application materials may be sent to umcengrchedeptemail@missouri.edu or:
Faculty Search Committee
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Columbia, Missouri 65211
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Chemical Engineering Education












SINDEX m Graduate Education Advertisements


Akron, University of ..................................... 268
Alabama, University of .................................... 269
Alabama, Huntsville; University of ........................................ 270
Alberta, University of..................................... 271
Arizona, University of..................................... 272
A rizona State U university ....................................................... 273
Arkansas, University of .................................... 274
A uburn U university .......................... ........................ 275
Brigham Young University........................... ................... 369
British Columbia, University of........................................ 276
Brown University ..................................................................... 380
Bucknell University............................... 369
California, Berkeley; University of....................................... 277
California, Irvine; University of............................................... 278
California, Los Angeles; University of................................... 279
California, Riverside; University of....................................... 280
California, Santa Barbara; University of................................... 281
California Institute of Technology..................... ................. 282
Carnegie Mellon University ........................... ........... 283
Case Western Reserve University...................... .............284
Cincinnati, University of..................................... 285
City College of New York...................... ....................... 286
Cleveland State University.................................................. 380
Colorado, University of .................................... 287
Colorado School of Mines.................................... 288
Colorado State U university .................................................... 289
Columbia University ...................................... 370
Connecticut, University of .................. ................... 290
Dartmouth College ................................... ................... 291
Delaware, University of................................. ................... 292
Denmark, Technical University of .......................................293
D rexel U university .............................................................. 294
Florida, U university of ............................................................... 295
Florida A&M/Florida State College of Engineering ............... 370
Florida Institute of Technology .......................... .................. 296
Georgia Institute of Technology.......................................... 297
Houston, University of ................................. .............. 298
Howard University ...................................... 371
Idaho, University of................................................ 371
Illinois, Chicago; University of...................... ... ............... 299
Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; University of............................... 300
Illinois Institute of Technology......................... ................... 301
Iowa, University of......................... ... ........................ 302
Iowa State University ..................................... 303
Johns Hopkins University ............................ ................... 304
Kansas, University of ..................................... 305
Kansas State University............................................. 306
Kentucky, University of..................................... 307
Lam ar University............................................. 372
Laval University ....................... ...... .. ................... 372
Lehigh U niversity............................................. 308
Louisiana State University .................. .................. 309
Louisville, University of..................................... 373
Maine, University of.................... ....... ................. 310
M anhattan College........................................... ..................... 311
Maryland, College Park; University of ....................................380
Massachusetts, Amherst; University of ..................................... 312
Massachusetts, Lowell; University of .......................................380
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.................................313
M cG ill U niversity....................................... ................ ......... 314
M cM aster University............................................. 315
Michigan, University of..................................... 316
Michigan Technological University ......................................... 373
Minnesota, Minneapolis; University of.....................................317
Mississippi State University........................... ........... 318


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


M issouri, Columbia; University of.................... ................... 319
Missouri, Rolla; University of........................... .............320
M onash University ...................................... 374
M ontana State U university ........................................................... 374
Nebraska, University of..................................... 321
New Jersey Institute of Technology ......................................... 322
New Mexico, University of .............................. .........323
New Mexico State University ......................................324
North Carolina State University..................... ...................325
Northeastern University................. .... .................. 326
N orthw western U university ....................................................... 327
Notre Dame, University of .................. ................. 328
Ohio State University.................................... 329
Oklahoma, University of..................................... 330
Oklahoma State University ................. ................... 331
Oregon State University .................................... 375
Pennsylvania, University of................... .................. 332
Pennsylvania State University....................... .... .............. 333
Pittsburgh, University of ..................................... 334
Polytechnic University .................................... 335
Princeton University............................................. 336
Puerto Rico, University of..................................... 337
Purdue U university ............................... ........... .. 338
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute...................... .... ............... 339
Rhode Island, University of................... ...................375
Rice U niversity............................................. 340
Rochester, University of..................................... 341
Rowan University............................................. 342
Rutgers University........ ..... .................. ...................343
Ryerson University .................... .... .................. 376
Singapore, National University of........................................344
Singapore-MIT Alliance Graduate Fellowship ......................... 345
South Carolina, University of............................ ...........346
South Dakota School of Mines.............................. .........376
South Florida, University of ............................ ........... 377
Southern California, University of .................... ................... 347
State University of New York............................... ....... 348
Stevens Institute of Technology ........................... ................... 349
Syracuse U niversity.............................. ........ ........... 377
Tennessee Technological University ........................................350
Texas, Austin, University of............................ ........... 351
Texas A&M University, College Station................................... 352
Texas A&M University, Kingsville................... .................... 378
Texas Tech University .................................... 353
Toledo, University of..................................... ................... 354
Toronto, University of ..................................... 378
Tufts U niversity............................................. 355
Tulane University .................................... ................... 356
Tulsa, University of ....................................... 357
Vanderbilt University............................................. 358
Villanova University............................................. 379
Virginia, University of..................................... 359
Virginia Tech University .................................... 360
Washington, University of..................................... 361
Washington State University .................... ...................362
W ashington University .................................... 363
W aterloo, University of ..................................... 364
W est Virginia U university ....................................................... 365
W western M ichigan University....................... ..... .............. 379
W isconsin, University of ..................................... 366
Worchester Polytechnic University......................................367
Yale University........................ ........................ 368












An Open Letter to ...



SENIORS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


As a senior, you probably have some questions

about graduate school.

The following paragraphs may assist you

in finding some of the answers.


Should you go to graduate school?
We invite you to consider graduate school as an opportunity to further your professional development. Graduate
work can be exciting and intellectually satisfying, and at the same time can provide you with insurance against
the ever-increasing danger of technical obsolescence in our fast-paced society. An advanced degree is certainly
helpful if you want to include a research component in your career and a Ph.D. is normally a prerequisite for an
academic position. Although graduate school includes an in-depth research experience, it is also an integrative
period. Graduate research work under the guidance of a knowledgeable faculty member can be an important
factor in your growth toward confidence, independence, and maturity.

What is taught in graduate school?
A graduate education generally includes a coursework component and a research experience. The first term
of graduate school will often focus on the study of advanced-core chemical engineering science subjects (e.g.,
transport phenomena, phase equilibria, reaction engineering). These courses build on the material learned as an
undergraduate, using more sophisticated mathematics and often including a molecular perspective. Early in the
graduate program, you will select a research topic and a research adviser and begin to establish a knowledge base
in the research subject through both coursework and independent study. Graduate education thus begins with an
emphasis on structured learning in courses and moves on to the creative, exciting, and open-ended process of
research. In addition, graduate school is a time to expand your intellectual and social horizons through participa-
tion in the activities provided by the campus community.
We suggest that you pick up one of the fall issues of Chemical Engineering Education (CEE), whether it
be the current issue or one of our prior fall issues, and read some of the articles written by scholars at various
universities on a wide variety of subjects pertinent to graduate education. The chemical engineering professors
or the library at your university are both good sources for borrowing current and back issues of CEE.
Perusing the graduate-school advertisements in this special compilation can also be a valuable resource, not
only for determining what is taught in graduate school, but also where it is taught and by whom it is taught. We
encourage you to carefully read the information in the ads and to contact any of the departments that interest
you.

What is the nature of graduate research?
Graduate research can open the door to a lifelong inquiry that may well lead you in a number of directions dur-
ing your professional life, whether you pursue it within the confines of an industrial setting or in the laboratories
of a university. Learning how to do research is of primary importance, and the training you receive as a graduate

266 Chemical Engineering Education













student will give you the discipline, the independence, and (hopefully) the intellectual curiosity that will stand
you in good stead throughout your career. The increasingly competitive arena of high technology and society's
ever-expanding fields of inquiry demand, more than ever, trained and capable researchers to fuel the engines of
discovery.


Where should you go to graduate school?

There are many fine chemical engineering departments, each with its own "personality" and special strengths.
Choosing the one that is "right" for you is a highly personal decision and one that only you can make. Note, however,
that there are schools that specialize in preparing students for academic careers just as there are those that prepare
students for specific industries. Or, perhaps there is a specific area of research you are interested in, and finding a
school or a certain professor with great strength or reputation in that particular area would be desirable. If you are
uncertain as to your eventual field of research, perhaps you should consider one of the larger departments that has
diversified research activity, giving you the exposure and experience to make a wise career choice later in your
education. On the other hand, choosing a graduate school could be as simple as choosing some area of the country
that is near family members or friends; or you may view the benefits of a smaller, more personal, department as
more to your liking; or you might choose a school with a climate conducive to sports or leisure activities in which
you are interested.
Many factors may eventually feed into your decision of where to go to graduate school. Study the ads in this
special printing and write to or view the Web pages of departments that interest you; ask for pertinent information
not only about areas of study but also about fellowships that may be available, about the number of students in
graduate school, about any special programs. Ask your undergraduate professors about their experiences in graduate
school, and don't be shy about asking them to recommend schools to you. They should know your strengths and
weaknesses by this stage in your collegiate career, and through using that knowledge they should be a valuable
source of information and encouragement for you.


Financial Aid

Don't overlook the fact that most graduate students receive financial support at a level sufficient to meet normal
living needs. This support is provided through research assistantships, teaching assistantships, or fellowships. If you
are interested in graduate school next fall, you should begin the application process early this fall since admission
decisions are often made at the beginning of the new calendar year. This process includes requesting application
materials, seeking sources of fellowships, taking national entrance exams (i.e., the Graduate Record Exam, GRE,
is required by many institutions), and visiting the school.
A resolution by the Council of Graduate Schools-in which most schools are members-outlines accepted
practices for accepting financial support (such as graduate scholarships, assistantships, or fellowships). You should
be aware that the agreed upon deadline for accepting offers of financial support for a fall-term start is April 15. The
resolution states that you are under no obligation to respond to offers of financial support prior to April 15 (earlier
deadlines for acceptance violate the intent of the resolution). Furthermore, an acceptance given or left in force after
April 15 commits you to reject any other offer without first obtaining a written release from the institution to which
the commitment has been made.
Historically, most students have entered graduate school in the fall term, but many schools do admit students
for other starting dates. 7



We hope that this special collection of chemical engineering graduate-school information proves to be helpful
to you in making your decision about the merits of attending graduate school and assists you in selecting an
institution that meets your needs.


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 26













Graduate Education in Chemical and


Biomolecular Engineering


Teaching and
research assistantships
as well as
industrially sponsored
fellowships
available



In addition to
stipends,
tuition and fees
are waived.



PhD students
may get
some incentive
scholarships.


The deadline for
assistantship
applications
is
April 15th.


G. G. CHASE
Multiphase Processes,
Fluid How, Interfacial
Phenomena, Filtration,
Coalescence




H. M. CHEUNG
Nanocomposite Materials,
Sonochemical Processing,
Polymerization in Nanostruc-
tured Fluids, Supercritical
Fluid Processing



S. S. C. CHUANG
Catalysis, Reaction Engi-
neering, Environmentally
Benign Synthesis,
Fuel Cell




J. R. ELLIOTT
Molecular Simulation,
Phase Behavior, Physical
Properties, Process
Modeling, Supercritical
Fluids



E. A. EVANS
Materials Processing and
CVD Modeling
Plasma Enhanced Deposition
and Crystal Growth
Modeling


L.-K. JU
Bioprocess Engineering,
Environmental
Bioengineering





S. T. LOPINA
BioMaterial Engineering
and Polymer Engineering







B.Z. NEWBY
Surface Modification,
Biofilm and AntiFouling
Coatings,
Gradient Surfaces




H. C. QAMMAR
Nonlinear Control,
Chaotic Processes,
Engineering Education





J. Zheng
Computational Biophysics,
Biomolecular Interfaces,
Biomaterials


For Additional Information, Write
Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
The University of Akron Akron, OH 44325-3906
Phone (330) 972-7250 Fax (330) 972-5856 www.chemical.uakron.edu


Chemical Engineering Education









THE UNIVERSITY OF

ALABAMA


Chemical

& Biological

Engineering



A dedicated faculty with state of the art
facilities offer research programs leading to
Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Science
degrees.


Research Areas:
Biomaterials, Catalysis and Reactor Design,
Drug Delivery Materials and Systems,
Electrohydrodynamics, Electronic Materials,
Environmental Studies, Fuel Cells, Interfacial
Transport, Magnetic Materials, Membrance
Separations and Reactors, Molecular
Simulations, Nanoscale Modeling, Polymer
Processing and Rheology, Self-Assembled
Materials, Suspension Rheology

For Information Contact:
Director of Graduate Studies
Department of Chemical and
Biological Engineering
The University of Alabama
Box 870203
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0203
Phone: (205) 348-6450 An equal
educational o
Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


ChBI
employment
opportunity


Faculty:
G. C. April, Ph.D. (Louisiana State)
D. W Arnold, Ph.D. (Purdue)
C. S. Brazel, Ph.D. (Purdue)
E. S. Carlson, Ph.D. (Wyoming)
P. E. Clark, Ph.D. (Oklahoma State)
W. C. Clements, Jr., Ph.D. (Vanderbilt)
A. Gupta, Ph.D. (Stanford)
D. T. Johnson, Ph.D. (Florida)
T. M. Klein, Ph.D. (NC State)
A. M. Lane, Ph.D. (Massachusetts)
M. D. McKinley, Ph.D. (Florida)
S. M. C. Ritchie, Ph.D. (Kentucky)
C. H. Turner, Ph.D. (NC State)
J. M. Wiest, Ph.D. (Wisconsin)
M. L. Weaver, Ph.D. (Florida)
/ equal
institution












Chemical


and Materials


Engineering


Graduate Program
C*-'- --M^,


SFacufty andcResearch

R. Michael Banish; Ph.D., University of Utah
Associate Professor
Crystal growth mass and thermal diffusivity
measurements.
Ram6n L. Cerro; Ph.D., UC Davis
Professor and Chair
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics and
physicochemical hydrodynamics.
Chien P. Chen; Ph.D., Michigan State
Professor
Lab-on-chip microfluidics, multiphase transport,
spray combustion, computational fluid dynamics,
and turbulence modeling of chemically reacting
flows.
Krishnan K. Chittur; Ph.D., Rice
Professor
Biomaterials, bioprocess monitoring, gene
expression bioinformatics, and FTIR/ATR
James E. Smith Jr; Ph.D., South Carolina
Professor
Ceramic and metallic composites, catalysis and
reaction engineering, fiber optic chemical sensing,
combustion diagnostic ofhypergolic fuels, and
hydrogen storage.
Katherine Taconi; Ph.D., Mississippi State
Assistant Professor
Biological production of alternative energy from
renewable resources.
Jeffrey J. Weimer; Ph.D., MIT
Associate Professor
Adhesions, biomaterials surface properties, thin film
growth, and surface spectroscopies.
David B. Williams; Sc.D., Cambridge
Professor and University President
Analytical, transmission and scanning electron
microscopy, applications to interfacial segregation and
bonding changes, texture and phase diagram
determination in metals and alloys.

http://www.uah.edu
http://www.che.uah.edu


The Department of Chemical and Materials
Engineering offers coursework and research leading
to the Master of Science in Engineering degree. The
Doctor of Philosophy degree is available through
the Materials Science Ph.D.
program, the
Biotechnology Science and
Engineering Program, or
* the option in Chemical
Engineering of the
Mechanical Engineering
Ph.D. program.
The range of research
interests in the chemical
engineering faculty is broad.
It affords graduate students
opportunities for advanced
work in processes, reaction
engineering, electrochemical
systems, material processing
and biotechnology.
The proximity of the UAH
campus to the 200+ high
technology and aerospace
industries of Huntsville and
NASA's Marshall Space
Flight Center provide exciting opportunities for
our students.




UAH

The University of Alabama in Huntsville
An Affirmative Action / Equal Opportunity Institution
Office of Chemical and Materials Engineering
130 Engineering Building
Huntsville, Alabama 35899
Ph: 256-824-6810 Fax: 256-824-6839


Chemical Engineering Education










DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING


UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA


Our Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
offers students the opportunity to study and conduct leading
research with world-class academics in the top program
in Canada, and one of the very best in North America. Our
graduate student population is culturally diverse, academically
strong, innovative, creative, and is drawn to our challenging
and supportive environment from all areas of the world.
D Degrees are offered at the MSc and PhD levels in chemical
engineering, materials engineering, and process control.
- All full-time graduate students in research programs
receive a stipend to cover living expenses and tuition.

Our graduates are sought-after professionals who will be
international leaders of tomorrow's chemical and materials
engineering advances. Research topics include:
biomaterials, biotechnology, coal combustion, colloids and
interfacial phenomenon, computational chemistry, compu-
tational fluid dynamics, computer process control, corrosion
and wear engineering, drug delivery, electrochemistry, fluid-
particle dynamics, fuel cell modeling and control, heavy
oil processing and upgrading, heterogeneous catalysis,
hydrogen storage materials, materials processing, micro-
alloy steels, micromechanics, mineral processing, molecular
sieves, multiphase mixing, nanostructured biomaterials,
oil sands, petroleum thermodynamics, pollution control,
polymers, powder metallurgy, process and performance
monitoring, rheology, surface science, system identification,
thermodynamics, and transport phenomena.

The Faculty of Engineering has added more than one
million square feet of outstanding teaching, research, and
personnel space in the past six years. We offer outstanding
and unique experimental and computational facilities,
including access to one of the most technologically advanced
nanotechnology facilities in the world the National Institute
for Nanotechnology, connected by pedway to the Chemical
and Materials Engineering Building.
Annual research funding for our Department is over
$14 million. Externally sponsored funding to support
engineering research in the entire Faculty of Engineering has
increased to over $50 million each year- the largest amount
of any Faculty of Engineering in Canada.

For further information, contact:
Graduate Program Office
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6
Phone: 780-492-1823 Fax: 780-492-2881
www.engineering.ualberta.ca/cme
Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


A. Ben-Zvi, PhD (Queen's University)
S. Bradford, PhD (Iowa State University) Emeritus
R.E. Burrell, PhD (University of Waterloo)
K. Cadien, PhD (University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana)
W. Chen, PhD (University of Manitoba)
P. Choi, PhD (University of Waterloo)
K.T. Chuang, PhD (University of Alberta) Emeritus
I. Dalla Lana, PhD (University of Minnesota) Emeritus
J. Derksen, PhD (Eindhoven University of Technology)
R.L. Eadie, PhD (University of Toronto)
J.A.W. Elliott, PhD (University of Toronto)
T.H. Etsell, PhD (University of Toronto)
G. Fisher, PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus
J.E Forbes, PhD (McMaster University) Chair
M.R. Gray, PhD (California Institute of Technology)
R. Gupta, PhD (University of Newcastle)
R.E. Hayes, PhD (University of Bath)
H. Henein, PhD (University of British Columbia)
B. Huang, PhD (University of Alberta)
D.G. Ivey, PhD (University of Windsor)
S.M Kresta, PhD (McMaster University)
S.M. Kuznicki, PhD (University of Utah)
J.M. Lee, PhD (Georgia Institute of Technology)
D. Li, PhD (McGill University)
Q. Liu, PhD (University of British Columbia)
J. Luo, PhD (McMaster University)
D.T. Lynch, PhD (University of Alberta) Dean of Engineering
J.H. Masliyah, PhD (University of British Columbia)
A.E. Mather, PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus
W.C. McCaffrey, PhD (McGill University)
D. Mitlin, PhD (University of California, Berkeley)
K. Nandakumar, PhD (Princeton University)
J. Nychka, PhD (University of California, Santa Barbara)
E Otto, PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus
B. Patchett, PhD (University of Birmingham) Emeritus
J. Ryan, PhD (University of Missouri) Emeritus
S. Sanders, PhD (University of Alberta)
S.L. Shah, PhD (University of Alberta)
J.M. Shaw, PhD (University of British Columbia)
U. Sundararaj, PhD (University of Minnesota)
H. Uludag, PhD (University of Toronto)
L. Unsworth, PhD (McMaster University)
S.E. Wanke, PhD (University of California, Davis)
M. Wayman, PhD (University of Cambridge) Emeritus
M.C. Williams, PhD (University of Wisconsin) Emeritus
R. Wood, PhD (Northwestern University) Emeritus
Z. Xu, PhD (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
T. Yeung, PhD (University of British Columbia)
H. Zhang, PhD (Princeton University)











FAC L Y R S ARC N E E T


ROBERT G. ARNOLD, Professor (CalTech)
Microbiological Hazardous Waste Treatment, Metals Speciation and To
PAUL BLOWERS, Associate Professor (Illinois, Urbana-Champ
Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis, Surface Phenomena, Green Design
JAMES C. BAYGENTS, Associate Professor (Princeton)
Fluid Mechanics, Transport and Colloidal Phenomena, Bioseparations
WENDELL ELA, Associate Professor (Stanford)
Particle-Particle Interactions, Environmental (, ... ,,,
JAMES FARRELL, Professor (Stanford)
Sorption/desorption of Organics in Soils
JAMES A. FIELD, Professor (Wageningen University)
Bioremediation, Microbiology, White Rot Fungi, Hazardous Waste
ROBERTO GUZMAN, Professor (North Carolina State)
Affinity Protein Separations, Polymeric Surface Science
ANTHONY MUSCAT, Associate Professor (Stanford)
Kinetics, Surface ( hi.." ..., Surface Engineering, Semiconductor
Processing, Microcontamination
KIMBERLY OGDEN, Professor (Colorado)
Bioreactors, Bioremediation, Organics Removal from Soils
THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor and Dean (CalTech)
Aerosols, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Microcontamination
ARA PHILIPOSSIAN, Professor (Tufts)
Chemical/Mechanical Polishing, Semiconductor Processing
EDUARDO SAEZ, Professor (UC, Davis)
Polymer Flows, Multiphase Reactors, Colloids
GLENN L. SCHRADER, Professor & Head (Wisconsin)
Catalysis, Environmental Sustainability, Thin Films, Kinetics
FARHANG SHADMAN, Regents' Professor (Berkeley)
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactive Membranes,
Microcontamination

REYES SIERRA, Associate Professor (Wageningen University)
Environmental Biotechnology, Biotransformation of Metals, Green
Engineering



For further information

http://www.chee.arizona.edu

or write

Chairman, Graduate Study Committee
Department of Chemical and
Environmental Engineering
P.O. BOX 210011
The University ofArizona
Tucson,AZ 85721

The University of Arizona is an equal
opportunity educational institution/equal opportunity employer
Women and minorities are encouraged to apply


Chemical and Environmental

Engineering

at



THE UNIVERSITY OF
ARIZONA

TUCSON ARIZONA


The Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering
at the University of Arizona offers a wide range of research
opportunities in all major areas of chemical engineering and
environmental engineering. The department offers a fully accredited
undergraduate degree in chemical engineering, as well as MS and PhD
degrees in both chemical and environmental engineering. A significant
portion of research efforts is devoted to areas at the boundary between
chemical and environmental engineering, including environmentally
benign semiconductor manufacturing, environmental remediation,
environmental biotechnology, and novel
water treatment technologies.

Financial support is available through fellowships, government
and industrial grants and contracts, teaching and
research assistantships.

Tucson has an excellent climate and many
recreational opportunities. It is a growing modern city that
retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere.


Chemical Engineering Education










P35 k Ira A.

SFULTON
school of engineering

ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY


Department of Chemical Engineering
Learn and discover in a multi-disciplinary research environment with opportunities in advanced materials, atmospheric
chemistry, biotechnology, electrochemistry and sensors, electronic materials processing, engineering education, process control,
separation and purification technology, thin films and flexible displays.


Program Faculty
Jonathan O. Allen, Ph.D., P.E., MIT.
Atmospheric aerosol chemistry, single-particle measurement
techniques, environmental fate of organic pollutants
Jean M. Andino, Ph.D., P.E., Caltech.
Atmospheric chemistry, gas-phase kinetics and mechanisms,
heterogeneous chemistry, air pollution control
James R. Beckman, Ph.D., Arizona.
Unit operations, applied mathematics, energy-efficient water
purification, fractionation, CMP reclamation
Veronica A. Burrows, Ph.D., Princeton.
Engineering education, surface science, semiconductor
processing, interfacial chemical and physical processes for
sensors
Jeffrey Heys, Ph.D., Colorado, Boulder.
Modeling of biofluid-tisue interaction, tissue and biofilm
mechanics, parallel multigrid solvers
Jerry Y.S. Lin, Ph.D., Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
Advanced materials (inorganic membranes, adsorbents and
catalysts) for applications in novel chemical separation and
reaction processes
Gregory B. Raupp, Ph.D., Wisconsin.
Gas-solid surface reactions, interactions between surface
reactions and transport processes, semiconductor materials
processing, thermal and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor
deposition (CVD), flexible displays
Kaushal Rege, Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Molecular and cellular engineering, engineered cancer
therapeutics and diagnostics, cellular interactions in cancer
metastasis
Daniel E. Rivera, Ph.D., Caltech.
Control systems engineering, dynamic modeling via system
identification, robust control, computer-aided control system
design, supply chain management


For additional details see
http://che.fulton.asu.edu/ or contact Paul
Grillos at (480) 965-5558 or
Paul.Grillos(tasu.edu


Michael R. Sierks, Ph.D., Iowa State.
Protein engineering, biomedical engineering, enzyme kinetics,
antibody engineering
Bryan Vogt, Ph.D., Massachusetts.
Nanostructured materials, organic electronics, supercritical fluids for
materials processing, moisture barrier technologies
Joe Wang, Ph.D., Technion.
Biosensors, nanobiotechnology, electrochemistry, biochips.
















Affiliate/Research Faculty
John Crittenden, Ph.D., N.A.E., P.E., Michigan.
Sustainability, catalysis, pollution prevention, physical chemical
treatment processes modeling of fixed-bed reactors and adsorbers,
surface chemistry and thermodynamics, modeling of wastewater and
water treatment processes
Paul Johnson, Ph.D., Princeton.
Chemical migration and fate in the environment as applied to
environmental risk assessment and the development, monitoring and
optimization of technologies for aquifer restoration and water
resources management
Robert Pfeffer, Ph.D., New York University.
Dry particle coating and supercritical fluid processing to produce
engineered particulates with tailored properties; fluidization, mixing,
coating and processing of ultra-fine and nano-structured particulates;
filtration of sub-micron particulates; agglomeration, sintering and
granulation of fine particles
Bruce E. Rittmann, Ph.D., N.A.E., P.E., Stanford.
Environmental biotechnology, microbial ecology, environmental
chemistry, environmental engineering


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007










Graduate Program in the Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering


University of Arkansas


ist c%. The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas
% offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees.
f i -r Qualified applicants are eligible for financial aid. Annual departmental
S" Ph.D. stipends provide $20,000, Doctoral Academy Fellowships provide
up to $25,000, and Distinguished Doctoral Fellowships provide $30,000.
o For stipend and fellowship recipients, all tuition is waived. Applications
ars zo0 received before April 1 will be given first consideration.


Areas ofResearch

El Biochemical engineering
El Biological and food systems
[E Biomaterials
[E Electronic materials processing
[E Fate of pollutants in the environment
[E Hazardous chemical release consequence analysis


[E Integrated passive electronic components
[E Membrane separations
[E Micro channel electrophoresis
[E Supercritical fluid t hnlii ,'y
El Phase equilibria and process design


Faculty
M.D. Ackerson
R.E. Babcock
R.R. Beitle
E.C. Clausen
J.A. Havens
C.N. Hestekin
J.A. Hestekin
J.W. King
W.A. Myers
W.R. Penney
S. L. Servoss
T.O. Spicer
G.J. Thoma
R.K. Ulrich


For more information contact
Dr. Richard Ulrich or 479-575-5645
Chemical Engineering Graduate Program Information: http://www.cheg.uark.edu/graduate.asp


Chemical Engineering Education


.












AUBURN UNIVERSITY




Engineering





I Alternative Energy and Fuels
I Biochemical Engineering
I Biomaterials
I Biomedical Engineering
I Bioprocessing and Bioenergy
i Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
Computer-Aided Engineering
Drug Delivery
Energy Conversion and Storage
I Environmental Biotechnology
I Fuel Cells
M Green Chemistry
H Materials
V MEMS and NEMS
M Microfibrous Materials
NI anotechnology
I Polymers
I Process Control
I Pulp and Paper
i Supercritical Fluids
i Surface and Interfacial Science
i Sustainable Engineering
i Thermodynamics



Director of Graduate Recruiting
Department of Chemical Engineering
Auburn, AL 36849-5127
Phone 334.844.4827
Fax 334.844.2063
www. eng.auburn.edu/che
chemical@eng.auburn. edu
Financial assistance is available to qualified applicants.



Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 27.




















Vancouveris the largest cityin Western Canada, ranked The University of British Columbia is the largest public university in Western Canada
the 3 most livable place in the world* Vancouver's and is ranked among the top 40 institutes in the world by Newsweek magazine, the
natural surroundings offer limitless opportunities for Times Higher Education Supplement and Shanghai Jiao Tong University.


outdoor pursuits throughout the year- hiking, canoeing,
mountain biking, skiing In 2010, the city will host the
Olympic and paraolympic Winter Games


Department Head Ken J Smith, Assistant Profs Elod Gyenge and Naoko Els


Faculty


SusanA Baldwin (Toronto)
Chad P J Bennington (British Columbia)
Xiaotao T Bi (British Columbia)
Bruce D Bowen (British Columbia)
Richard Branlon (Saskatchewan)
Sheldon J B Duff(McGill)
Naoko Ellis (British Columbia)
Peter Englezos (Calgary)
Norman Epstein ( New York)
James Feng (Minnesota)
Bhushan Gopaluni (Alberta)
John R Grace (Cambridge)
Elod Gyenge (British Columbia)
Savvas Hatzlkirlakos (McGill)
Charles Haynes (California, Berkeley)
Dhanesh Kannangara (Ottawa)
Richard Kerekes (McGill)
Ezra Kwok (Alberta)
Anthony Lau (British Columbia)
Eric Legally (California, Santa Barbara)
C Jim Lim (British Columbia)
Mark D Martinez (British Columbia)
Madjid Mohseni (Toronto)
Colin Oloman (British Columbia)
Royann Petrell (Florida)
Kenneth Pinder (Birmingham)
James M Piret (MIT)
Kevin J Smith (McMaster)
Fariborz Taghipour (Toronto)
A Paul Watkinson (British Columbia)
David Wilkinson (Ottawa)


UBC





Faculty of Applied Science


CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING


www. chm l. u bc.ca/progr/grad


MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE (M.A.SC.)
MASTER OF ENGINEERING (M.ENG)
MASTER OF SCIENCE (M.SC.)
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (PH.D.).


Currently about 120 students are enrolled in graduate studies. The
program dates back to the 1920s. Nowadays the department has a
strong emphasis on interdisciplinary and joint programs, in particular
with the Michael Smith Laboratories, Pulp and Paper Research Institute
of Canada (PAPRICAN), Clean Energy Research Centre (CERC) and
the BRIDGE program which links public health, engineering and policy
research.


Main Areas of Research

Bioloalcal Enalneerina
Biochemical Engineering Biomedical
Engineering Protein Engineering Blood
research Stem Cells
Energy
Blomass and E-fr E :i E ,::. -. ie-i
*Combustion *L, ni" : r.h:.,.. : ,.:j 1 i i -
Electrochemic -ii .i--j I. i *, i i. l -:ll- *i :
Hydrogen Prc.j :,.- ,- i I nli n *L- nI
Hydrate
Environmental n-,,. *,-,-- E, i- ii I
Emissions Ccn-,h:,l *.li-. -, i : i i
Engineering i,1- l *: i:- -,- i -
Wastewater T,-* l.-.., l..-
Management -'.i.':i.:Ih 51
Engineering
Particle Techr..:.,:..
Fluldlzation *I I ii ,.i-,.n -I, .:. i
Fluid-Particle i..-,, ,: I .:i
Processing Ei,.:h.:ir: ,
Kinetics and C ril n :
Polymer Rhec..: ..
Process Cont, :,1
Pulp and Pap-
Reaction Ena,,i--,-, I,


Financial Aid

All students admitted to the graduate programs
leading to the M A Sc M Sc or Ph D degrees
receive at least a minimum level of financial
support regardless of citizenship This amount is
approximately $16,500/year and is intended to
be sufficient to cover expenses for the
r This financial assistance is in the
form of external fellowships or
research assistantships Teaching
assistantships are also available
(up to approximately $1,000 per
year) Entrance scholarships worth
$5,000 each are also available for
highly qualified students






The new CHBE building, openedin March2006,
Uses world-class research and teaching ac-
Sities The top 2 floors are dedicated to gradu-
i'e student offices and research labs electro-
'lemical, fuel cell, thermodynamics, polymer
geologyy biomedical research, imaging and
nsor development and fine particle, mixing
.d water treatment, bioprocessing, etc


*2006 survey the Economist magazine


Mailing address 2360 East Mall, Vancouver B C, Canada V6T 1Z3 gradsec@chml ubc ca tel +1 (604) 822-3457

Chemical Engineering Education








Biochemical E Biological Engineering
Catalysis E Reaction Engineering
Electrochemical Engineering
Environmental Engineering
Microelectronics Processing E MEMS
Polymers E Soft Materials












study Chemical


Engineering


at the University of California, Berkeley


+


The Chemical Engineering Department
at the University of California, Berkeley,
one of the preeminent departments in
the field, offers graduate programs
leading to the Master of Science and
Doctor of Philosopy.


For more information visit our website at:

hitip //cheme. berikelly- -


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007











UNIVERSITY OF


CALIFORNIA
Graduate Studies in IR
Chemical Engineering IRV
and Materials Science and Engineering
for Chemical Engineering, Engineering, and Materials Science Majors
Gffi ,. i,.. .... at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels. Research in frontier areas
in chemical engineering, biochemical engineering, biomedical engineering, and materials
science and engineering. Strong physical and life science and engineering .. 11/ on campus.
FACULTY
Nancy A. Da Silva (California Institute of Technology)
James C. Earthman (Stanford University)
Stanley B. Grant (California Institute of Technology)
Juan Hong (Purdue University)
Henry C. Lim (Northwestern University)
Martha L. Mecartney (Stanford University)
Farghalli A. Mohamed (University of California, Berkeley)
Ali Mohraz (University of Michigan)
Daniel R. Mumm (Northwestern University)
Andrew J. Putnam (University of Michigan)
Regina Ragan (California Institute of Technology)
Frank G. Shi (California Institute of Technology)
Vasan Venugopalan (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
Szu-Wen Wang (Stanford University)
Albert F. Yee (University of California, Berkeley)
Joint Appointments:
William J. Cooper (University of Miami)
Steve C. George (University of Washington)
G. Wesley Hatfield (Purdue University)
G.P. Li (University of California, Los Angeles)
Noo Li Jeon (University of Illinois)
John S. Lowengrub (New York University)
Marc Madou (Rijksuniversiteit)
Roger H. Rangel (University of California, Berkeley)
Kenneth Shea (The Pennsylvania State University)
Lizhi Sun (University of California, Los Angeles)
Adjunct Appointments
Jia Grace Lu (Harvard University)

The 1,510-acre UC Irvine campus is in Orange County, five miles from the Pacific Ocean and 40 miles south
of Los Angeles. Irvine is one of the nation's fastest growing residential, industrial, and business areas. Nearby
beaches, mountain and desert area recreational activities, and local cultural activities make Irvine a pleasant
city in which to live and study.
For further information and application forms, please visit http://www.eng.uci.edu/dept/chems/
or contact
Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
School of Engineering University of California Irvine, CA 92697-2575


* Biomedical Engineering
* Biomolecular
Engineering
* Bioreactor Engineering
* Bioremediation
* Ceramics
* Chemical and
Biological Nanosensor
* Colloid Science
* Combustion
* Complex Fluids
* Composite Materials
* Control and
Optimization
* Environmental Engineer-
ing
* Fuel Cell Systems
* Interfacial Engineering
* Materials Processing
* Mechanical Properties
* Metabolic Engineering
* Microelectronics Pro-
cessing and Modeling
* Microstructure of
Materials
* Multifunctional Materi-
als
* Nanocrystalline Materi-
als
* Nanoscale Electronic
Devices
* Nucleation, Chrystalliza-
tion and Glass Transi-
tion Process
* Polymers
* Power and Propulsion
Materials
* Protein Engineering
* Recombinant Cell Tech-
nology
* Separation Processes
* Sol-Gel Processing
* Two-Phase Flow
* Water Pollution Control


Chemical Engineering Education










CHEMICAL AND BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERING AT









FOCUS AREAS FACULTY

0 Biomolecular and Cellular J. P. Chang
Engineering (William F Seyer Chair in
P *Materials Electrochemistry)
Process Systems Engi- P. D. Christofides
neering (Simulation, 4I
Design, Optimization, Y. Cohen
Dynamics, and Control) J. Davis
rr E (Assoc. Vice Chancellor
0 Semiconductor Information Technology)
Manufacturing and
R.F Hicks
Electronic Materialsr Fi H .s
L. Ignarro
,. (Nobel Laureate)
GENERAL THEMES .J. C. Liao

a Energy and the Y. Lu
Environment U
niocnedn v f P C V.I. Manousiouthakis

(Dept. Chair)
S... - ....... er G. Orkoulas
PROGRAMS
UCLA's Chemical and T. Segura
Biomolecular Engineering S.M. Senkan
Department offers a Y. Tang
program of teaching and
research linking
fundamental engineering science and industrial practice. Our Department has strong graduate research programs
in Biomolecular Engineering, Energy and Environment, Semiconductor Manufacturing, Engineering of Materials,
and Process and Control Systems Engineering.
Fellowships are available for outstanding applicants interested in Ph.D. degree programs. A fellowship includes
a waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend.
Located five miles from the Pacific Coast, UCLA's attractive 417-acre campus extends from Bel Air to West-
wood Village. Students have access to the highly regarded engineering and science programs and to a variety of
experiences in theatre, music, art, and sports on campus.
CONTACT







Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 279








R UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

RIVERSIDE


Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

Offering degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels in frontier areas of Chemical, Biochemical,
Biomedical, Advanced Materials, and Environmental Engineering, we welcome your interest and
would be delighted to discuss the details of our graduate program and your application. We have
outstanding faculty, research facilities and well supported infrastructure, and offer competitive
fellowship packages to qualified applicants.


RESEARCH AREAS
Advanced Vehicle Technology
Advanced Water Reclamation
Aerosol Physics
Atmospheric Chemistry
Bio- and Chemical Sensors
Biomolecular Engineering
Carbon Nanotubes
Catalysis and Biocatalysis
Electrochemistry
Environmental Biotechnology
MEMS/NEMS, Bio-MEMS
Membrane Processes
Molecular Modeling
Nanostructured Materials
Site Remediation Processes
Sustainable Fuels and
Chemicals
Water/Wastewater Treatment
Zeolites Et Fuel Cells


FACULTY
Wilfred Chen, Caltech
David R. Cocker, Caltech
David Cwiertny, Johns Hopkins
Marc A. Deshusses, ETH Zurich
Robert C. Haddon, Penn State
David Kisailus, UC Santa Barbara
Mark R. Matsumoto, UC Davis
Ashok Mulchandani, McGill
Nosang V. Myung, UCLA
Joseph M. Norbeck, Nebraska
Sharon L. Walker, Yale
Jianzhong Wu, UC Berkeley
Charles E. Wyman, Princeton
Yushan Yan, Caltech


The University of California, Riverside (UCR) is the fastest growing and most ethnically diverse of the 10
campuses of the University of California. UCR is located on over 1,100 acres at the foot of the Box Springs
Mountains, about 50 miles east of Los Angeles. Our picturesque campus provides convenient access to the
vibrant and growing Inland Empire and is within easy driving distance to most of the major cultural and
recreational offerings in Southern California. In addition, it is virtually equidistant from the desert, the
mountains, and the ocean. UCR provides an ideal setting for students, faculty, and staff seeking to study,
work, and live in a community steeped in rich heritage that offers a dynamic mix of arts and entertainment and
an opportunity for affordable living.


Apply online at
http://www.araduate.ucr.edu/Admtoc.html

For further information contact the Graduate
Program Assistant at gradcee@enqr.ucr.edu

or you can write to the Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical and Environmental
Engineering, University of California
Riverside, CA 92521

http://www.engr.ucr.edu/chemenv


Chemical Engineering Education














UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

SANTA BARBARA


SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo) Environmental Fluid Dynamics, Multiphase Flows, Turbulence, Computational Fluid Dynamics
BRADLEY F CHMELKA Ph.D. (Berkeley) Molecular Materials Science, Inorganic-Organics Composites, Porous Solids, NMR, Polymers
PATRICK S. DAUGHERTY Ph.D. (UT, Austin) Protein Engineering and Design, Library Technologies
MICHAEL E DOHERTY Ph.D. (Cambridge) Design and Synthesis, Separations, Process Dynamics and Control
FRANCIS J. DOYLE III Ph.D. (Caltech) Process Control, Systems Biology, Nonlinear Dynamics
GLENN H. FREDRICKSON Ph.D. (Stanford) Statistical Mechanics, Glasses, Polymers, Composites, Alloys
MICHAEL GORDON Ph.D. (Caltech) Optical, Electrical, and Mechanical Interrogation of Nanoscale Systems, Scanning Probe
Microscopy, Near-field Optics, Plasma Physics
G.M. HOMSY Ph.D. (Illinois) Fluid Mechanics, Instabilities, Porous Media, Interfacial Flows, Convective Heat Transfer
JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph.D. (Cambridge) Colloidal and Biomolecular Interactions, Adhesion and Friction
EDWARD J. KRAMER Ph.D. (Carnegie-Mellon) Fracture and Diffusion of Polymers, Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces
L. GARY LEAL Ph.D. (Stanford) Fluid Mechanics, Physics and Rheology of Complex Fluids, including Polymers, Suspensions, and Emulsions
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Mechanics of Materials, Structural Reliability
ERIC McFARLAND Ph.D. (M.I.T.) M.D. (Harvard) Combinatorial Material Science, Environmental Catalysis, Surface Science
SAMIR MITRAGOTRI Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Drug Delivery and Biomaterials
BARON PETERS Ph.D. (Berkeley) Statistical Mechanics, Informatics, and Electronic Structure Approaches for Nucleation, Electron
Transfer, and Catalysis
SUSANNAH L. SCOTT Ph.D. (Iowa State) Catalysis, Thin Films, Environmental Reactions
DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. (Princeton) Process Control, Monitoring and Identification
M. SCOTT SHELL Ph.D. (Princeton) Molecular Simulation, Statistical Mechanics, Complex Materials, Protein Biophysics
TODD M. SQUIRES Ph.D. (Harvard) Microscale Fluid Mechanics and Transport, Complex Fluids
MATTHEW V. TIRRELL Ph.D. (Massachusetts) Polymers, Surfaces, Adhesion Biomaterials
T.G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D. (Minnesota) Multiphase Flow, RiskAssessment and Management
JOSEPH A. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D. (Minnesota) Surface and Interfacial Phenomena, Biomaterials

PROGRAMS
AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT
The Department offers M.S. and
Ph.D. degree programs. Financial
aid, including fellowships, teach-
ing assistantships, and research
assistantships, is available.

THE UNIVERSITY
One of the world's few seashore -
campuses, UCSB is located on the
Pacific Coast 100 miles northwest
of Los Angeles. The student en- -
rollment is more than 18,000. The
metropolitan Santa Barbara area
has more than 150,000 residents
and is famous for its mild, even
climate.
For additional information and __
application process,visit our
Web site at www.chemengr.
ucsb.edu
or write to:
Chair Graduate Admissions Committee Department of ( h. rn,, a ul n i n, University of California Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5080

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 26









CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
I R


CALTECH


CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING


"At the Leading Edge"


http://www.che.caltech.edu


- fr- '
a8 I*
Ig 19''3


Contact information:
Director of Graduate Studies
Chemical Engineering 2o1-41
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, CA 91125


FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS:
Frances H. Arnold Protein Engineering &
Directed Evolution, Biocatalysis,
Synthetic Biology, Biofuels
Anand R. Asthagiri Cellular & Tissue
Engineering, Systems Biology, Cancer &
Developmental Biology
John F. Brady Complex Fluids,
Brownian Motion, Suspensions
Mark E. Davis Biomedical Engineering,
Catalysis, Advanced Materials
Richard C. Flagan Aerosol Science,
Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, Bioaerosols,
Nanotechnology, Nucleation
George R. Gavalas (emeritus)
Konstantinos P. Giapis Plasma Processing, Ion-
Surface Interactions, Nanotechnology
Sossina M. Haile Advanced Materials, Fuel Cells,
Energy, Electrochemistry, Catalysis
& Electrocatalysis
Julia A. Kornfield Polymer Dynamics,
Crystallization of Polymers, Physical Aspects of the
Design of Biomedical Polymers
John H. Seinfeld Atmospheric Chemistry &
Physics, Global Climate
Christina D. Smolke Biomolecular Engineering,
Synthetic Biology, Cellular Engineering,
Metabolic Engineering
David A. Tirrell Macromolecular Chemistry,
Biomaterials, Protein Engineering
Nicholas W. Tschoegl (emeritus)
Zhen-Gang Wang Statistical Mechanics,
Polymer Science, Biophysics


Chemical Engineering Education







1T


;1I Ill ll Hl I i 1i I Illl i I ii


II 1 K


SI llr I I II II


k'irP
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Ih ;.IJ .h i..I," -r,,,I, nl- .,nI l a, IIIf .., I h. '.-l. M ,.l l,...a 1.,
Ti ikll,,,: iih .I' l'ini I Ih I il' ll l.Ill,'lI I I en...' ..I I... II,. ,ll '[ ,
I.tI l i,'; .. ,,. rl "ll. l l 1111. 111.*l i I, \r l llr l ,. lhl.. I, I.- II-

Think you have the proper head gear?
Join our world-class crew and together we'll lay the foundation
for an exciting career in research.


I I *. 1 .1 I ..
! .. I ,r...h '...4.l \1 l ....i..I.
applychemc.cmrnuedu
Contact Information
I1. II2, . .. I, . .
41..1,, ..'1


I., 10jl I.l II. I ... ...

Research Ihrust Areas
* BioengiTenng
SComplex Fluids Engineering
S '. I .. ..
* I . L _


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


1r1ir l i Melln I ll vT-il\

































Research Opportunities
Energy Systems
Fuel Cells and Batteries
Micro and Bio Fuel Cells
Electrochemical Engineering
Membrane Transport, Fabrication

Biological Engineering
Biomedical Sensors and Actuators
Neural Prosthetic Devices
Cell & Tissue Engineering
Transport in Biological Systems

Advanced Materials and Devices
Diamond and Nitride Synthesis
Coatings, Thin Films and Surfaces
Sensors
Fine Particle Science and Processing
Polymer Nanocomposites
Electrochemical Microfabrication
Molecular Simulations
Microplasmas and Microreactors


You will find Case to be an exciting environment to carry
out your graduate studies. Case has a long history of
scientific leadership. Our department alumni include
many prominent chemical engineers, such as Herbert
Dow, the founder of the Dow Chemical Company.
The Chemical Engineering Faculty


Faculty Members
John Angus
Harihara Baskaran
Robert Edwards
Donald Feke
Daniel Lacks
Uziel Landau
Chung-Chiun Liu
J. Adin Mann
Heidi Martin
Peter Pintauro
Syed Qutubuddin
Mohan Sankaran
Robert Savinell
Thomas Zawodzinski


For more information on Graduate Research, Admission, and Financial Aid, contact:


HICASE
CASE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
284


Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
10900 Euclid Avenue
Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7217


E-mail: chemeng@case.edu
Web: http://www.case.edu/cse/eche


Chemical Engineering Education


Cae ese RseveUivrst








Opportunities for Graduate Study in CI, u,, iai Engineering at the








M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in
Chemical Engineering

Faculty ........ ......


A.P. Angelopoulos

Carlos Co

Junhang Dong

Joel Fried

Rakesh Govind

Vadim Guliants

Chia-chi Ho

Yuen-Koh Kao

Soon-Jai Khang

Paul Phillips

Neville Pinto

Vesselin Shanov

Peter Smirniotis


Financial Aid

Available
The University of Cincinnati is
committed to a policy of
non-discrimination in
awarding financial aid.

For Admission Information
Director, Graduate Studies
Department Chemical and
Materials Engineering
PO Box 210012
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0012
E-mail:

or
vadim.guliants@uc.edu
Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


New
Engineering
Research Cen-
ter that houses
most chemical
engineering
research.


D Advanced Materials
Inorganic membranes, nanostructured materials, microporous and mesoporous materials, thin film
technology, fuel cell and sensor materials, complex fluids and glasses, nanoscale biomaterials syn-
thesis
D Bio-Applications of Membrane Science and Technology
The IGERT program provides a unique educational opportunityfor U.S. graduate students who are
pursuing a doctoral degree program in areas of engineering, science, medicine, or pharmacy with a
focus on Membrane Science and Technology for Biological Applications. This program is supported
by afive-year renewable grantfrom the National Science Foundation. The IGERTfellowship consists
of an annual stipend of $30,000 for up to three years.
D Biotechnology
Nano/microbiotechnology, novel bioseparation techniques, affinity separation, i., .. ,,.i,,1;. *. of
toxic wastes, controlled drug delivery, two-phase flow
D Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering
Heterogeneous catalysis, environmental catalysis, zeolite catalysis, novel chemical reactors, model-
ing and design of chemical reactors, polymerization processes in interfaces, membrane reactors
D Center for Membrane Applied Science and Technology (MAST Center)
The MAST Center at UC is part of a National Science Foundation Multi-site Industry/University
Cooperative Research Center and a leading global membrane research center focused on the devel-
opment of scientific and technical applications of biological and synthetic membranes.
D Environmental Research
Desulfurization and denitrication of flue gas, new technologies for coal combustion power plant,
wastewater treatment, removal of volatile organic vapors
D Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology (INST)
The Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology brings ... iki, three centers of excellence-the
Center for Nanoscale Materials Science, the Center for BioMEMS and Nanobiosystems, and the
Center for Nanophotonics-composed of faculty from the Colleges of Engineering, Arts and Sci-
ences, and Medicine. The goals of the institute are to develop a world-class infrastructure of enabling
technologies, to support advanced collaborative research on nanoscale materials and devices, and
to advance high-technology economic development within Ohio.
D Membrane Technology
Membranesynthesis and characterization, membrane ,, '.,;,,11.., .... i,,i,, I l irationprocesses,
pervaporation, biomedical, food and environmental applications of membranes, high-temperature
membrane technology, natural gas processing by membranes
D Polymers
Thermodynamics, polymer blends and composites, high-temperature polymers, hydrogels, polymer
rheology, computational polymer science, molecular engineering and synthesis of surfactants,
surfactants and interfacial phenomena
D Separation Technologies
Membrane separation, adsorption, chromatography, separation system synthesis, chemical reac-
tion-based separation processes, polymer crystallization and property














Chemical


Engineering at



The City College of


New York CUNY

(The City University of New York)


A 155-year-old urban University, the oldest public
University in America, on a 35-acre Gothic and modern
campus in the greatest city in the world

FACULTY RESEARCH:


Alexander Couzis: Polymorph
selective templated crystallization;
Molecularly thin organic barrier layers;
Surfactant facilitated wetting of hydro-
phobic surfaces; soft materials

Morton Denn<:: Polymer science
and rheology; non-Newtonian fluid
mechanics

Lane Gilchrist: Bioengineering with
cellular materials; Spectroscopy-guided
molecular engineering; Structural
studies of self-assembling proteins;
Bioprocessing

Ilona Kretzschmar: Materials science;
Nanotechnology; Electronic materials

Leslie Isaacs: Preparation and charac-
terization of novel materials; Applica-
tion of thermo-analytic techniques in
materials research

+Jae Lee: Theory of reactive distilla-
tion; Process design and control; Sepa-
rations; Bioprocessing; Gas hydrates

OCharles Maldarelli: Interfacial
fluid mechanics and stability; Surface
tension driven flows and microfluidic
applica- tions; Surfactant adsorption,
phase be- havior and nanostructuring at
interfaces

OJeff Morris: Fluid mechanics; Fluid-
particle systems

+Irven Rinard: Process design meth-
odology; Process and energy systems
engineering; Bioprocessing

David Rumschitzki: Transport and
reaction aspects of arterial disease;
Interfacial fluid mechanics and stabil-
ity; Catalyst deactivation and reaction
engineering
286


Carol Steiner: Polymer solutions and
hydrogels; Soft biomaterials, Controlled
release technology

Raymond Tu: Biomolecular engineering;
Peptide design; DNA condensation; micro-
rheology

Gabriel Tardos: Powder technology;
Granulation; Fluid particle systems, Elec-
trostatic effects; Air pollution

Sheldon Weinbaum*c: Fluid mechanics,
Biotransport in living tissue; Modeling of
cellular mechanism of bone growth; bioheat
transfer; kidney function


ASSOCIATED FACULTY:
Joel Koplik: (Physics) Fluid mechanics; Molecu
lar modeling; Transport in random media
"Hernan Makse: (Physics) Granular mechanics
"Mark Shattuck: (Physics) Experimental
granular rheology; Computational granular fluid
dynamics; Experimental spatio-temporal control
of patterns

EMERITUS FACULTY:
'Andreas Acrivos*c<
Robert Graff
Robert Peffer
+Reuel Shinnarm
Herbert Weinstein


o Levich Institute
+Clean Fuels Institute
National Academy of Sciences
SNational Academy of Engineering
< American Academy ofArts and Sciences



CONTACT INFORMATION:
Department of Chemical Engineering
City College of New York
Convent Avenue at 140th Street
New York, NY 10031
www-che.engr.ccny.cuny.edu
chedept@ccny.cuny.edu


Chemical Engineering Education





















CHBE FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS:
l KristiAnseth-biomaterials, photopoly-meriza-
tion, tissue engineering, and drug delivery
[ Christopher Bowman-biomaterials, pho-
topolymerization, reaction kinetics, polymer
chemistry
[ Stephanie Bryant- functional tissue engineer-
ing, mechanical conditioning, mechano-trans-
duction, photopolymerization
[ David Clough--process control
[ RobertDavis--fluid mechanics of suspensions,
sedimentation, coagulation, filtration, particle
collisions in fluids, microbial suspensions,
biotechnology, membrane fouling
[ John Falconer-heterogeneous catalysis,
environmental catalysis, photocatalysis, zeolite
membranes
[ Steven George-surface chemistry and thin
films, materials processing and environmental
interfaces
[ Ryan Gill -evolutionary and inverse metabolic
engineering, genomics
[ Douglas Gin-polymer science, liquid crystal
engineering, and nanomaterials chemistry
[ Christine Hrenya-gas-particle fluidization,
granular flow mechanics, turbulent flows, com-
putational fluid mechanics
[ Dhinakar Kompala- recombinant mammalian
and microbial cell cultures, high cell density
bioreactors design, bioprocess engineering
[ Melissa Mahoney-neural tissue engineering,
pancreatic regeneration, drug delivery, biopoly-
mers
[ Will Medlin -surface chemistry, heterogeneous
catalysis, solid-state chemical sensors, compu-
tational chemistry
[ Charles Musgrave-theoretical studies of
surfaces and reactions
[ Richard Noble- reversible chemical complex-
ation for separations, mass transfer, mathemati-
cal modeling, membranes, thin films
[ Theodore Randolph-thermodynamics of
protein solutions, lyophilization, supercritical
fluid reaction engineering
[ Robert Sani-fluid dynamics
[ Aaron Saunders-colloidal nanocrystals, ma-
terials science
[ Daniel Schwartz-interfacial phenomena,
biomaterials, complex fluids, and nanoscale
materials
E Jeffrey Stansbury--dental and biomedical
polymeric materials, photopolymerization
processes, network polymers, hydrogels, low
shrinkage/expanding polymerizations
[ Mark Stoykovich-block copolymer self-as-
sembly and thin films
[ David Walba-organic stereochemistry, pho-
tonic materials and ferroelectric liquid crystals
[ Alan Weimer-reactor engineering, advanced
ceramic materials, fluidization, environmental
resource recovery

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


Colorado


University of Colorado at Boulder


The Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at the University of Colorado
at Boulder offers an innovative graduate program and emphasizes the doctoral degree. Our
outstanding national and international students take advantage of a high level of faculty-student
collaboration and benefit from access to three interdisciplinary research centers. The department
has won numerous awards both locally and nationally.

The Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering is one of the top research departments
in the United States and maintains sophisticated facilities to support research endeavors. Although
research in the department spans many diverse fields, there is a particular emphasis on research
in biological engineering, functional materials, and renewable energy.

Biological engineering research areas span from the molecular scale metabolitess, genes, proteins)
to the cellular and multicellular scales. Functional materials research includes polymers, zeolites,
ultrathin films, catalytic materials, self-assembled monolayers, and liquid crystalline materials. The
department has strength in studying materials problems at the nanometer and sub-nanometer length
scales. Such fundamental investigations are directed toward technological applications. Finally,
renewable energy studies range from the production and utilization of hydrogen to biorefining and
biofuels research. The latter area has recently been strengthened by the formation of the Colorado
Center for Biorefining and Biofuels (C2B2); a large collaborative research center led by faculty
in the department and sup-
ported by university, state
ported by university, state For information and online application:
and industry funding. Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical
& Biological Engineering University of Colorado at Boulder,
We invite prospective 424 UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0424
graduate students to learn Phone (303) 492-7471 Fax (303) 492-4341
more about our department chbegrad@colorado.edu
and ongoing research. http://www.colorado.edu/che/















Evolving from its origins as a
school of mining founded in
1873, CSM is a unique, highly
focused University dedicated to
scholarship and research in
materials, energy, and the envi-
ronment.

The Chemical Engineering
Department at CSM maintains
a high-quality, active, and well-funded graduate research program. Funding
sources include federal agencies such as the NSF, DOE, DARPA, ONR,
NREL, NIST, NIH as well as multiple industries. Research areas within the
department include:

Material Science and Engineering
Organic and inorganic membranes (Way)
Polymeric materials (Dorgan, Wu, Liberatore)
Colloids and complex fluids (Marr, Wu, Liberatore)
Electronic materials (Wolden, Agarwal)
Microfluidics (Marr)

Theoretical and Applied Thermodynamics
Natural gas hydrates (Sloan, Koh)
Molecular simulation and modelling (Ely, Wu)

Space and Microgravity Research
Membranes on Mars (Way)
Water mist flame suppression (McKinnon)

Fuel Cell Research
H2 separation and fuel cell membranes (Way, Herring)
Low temperature fuel cell catalysts (Herring)
High temperature fuel cell kinetics (Dean)
Reaction mechanisms (McKinnon, Dean, Herring)


Finally, located at the foot of the Rocky
Mountains and only 15 miles from downtown
Denver, Golden enjoys over 300 days of
sunshine per year. These factors combine to
provide year-round cultural, recreational, and
entertainment opportunities virtually
unmatched anywhere in the United States.


Faculty
* S. Agarwal (UCSB, 2003)

SA.M. Dean (Harvard, 1971)

* J.R. Dorgan (Berkeley, 1991)

SJ.F. Ely (Indiana, 1971)

* A. Herring (Leeds, 1989)

* C.A. Koh (Brunel, 1990)

* M. Liberatore (Illinois, 2003)

* D.W.M. Marr (Stanford, 1993)

* J.T. McKinnon (MIT, 1989)

* R.L. Miller (CSM, 1982)

* E.D. Sloan (Clemson, 1974)

* J.D. Way (Colorado, 1986)

* C.A. Wolden (MIT, 1995)

* D.T. Wu (Berkeley, 1991)


http://www.mines.edu/academic/chemeng/


Chemical Engineering Education


dQc~u



















Graduate students in Chemical and Biological Engineering at
Colorado State University work closely with scientists and en-
gineers who have an international reputation for academic and
research excellence. As a member of this community, you will
have the opportunity to explore research interests, share ideas, and
discuss new scientific directions with leaders in their fields -not
M.S. and Ph.D. only in chemical engineering but also in microbiology, chem-
istry, engineering, and other sciences. The interdisciplinary
prog rams in nature otthe research carried out by the chemical and biologi-
cal engineering faculty at CSU and the culture of cooperative
chemical and biological research facilitate this access to experts across departments and
colleges. Chemical and biological engineering faculty members
engineering and students work jointly with research groups in electrical,
mechanical, and civil engineering, microbiology, environmental
RESEARCH IN . health sciences, chemistry, and veterinary medicine.
D Biochemical Engineering and Biorefining
D Biomaterials Travis S. Bailey, Ph.D.
D Biomedical Engineering University of Minnesota
I Biorefining and Biofuels Laurence A. Belfiore, Ph.D.
DI Biosensors University of Wisconsin
D Cell and Tissue Engineering David S. Dandy, Ph.D.
D Environmental Biotechnology California Institute of Technology
D Environmental Engineering Matt J. Kipper, Ph.D.
- Genomics/Proteomics/Metabolomics Iowa State University
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging
James C. Linden, Ph.D.
Membrane Technology Iowa State University
Metabolic Engineering
D Molecular Simulation Kenneth E Reardon, Ph.D.
Do Nanostructured Materials California Institute of Technology
D Polymeric Materials Brad Reisfeld, Ph.D.
I Systems Biology Northwestern University
FINANCIAL AID AVAILABLE David Wang, Ph.D.
Teaching and research assistantships paying a University of Wisconsin
monthly stipend plus tuition reimbursement.
A. Ted Watson, Ph.D.
For applications and further information, see California Institute of Technology
http://cbe.colostate.edu
or write: Ranil Wickramasinghe, Ph.D.
University of Minnesota
Graduate Advisor, Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering University of Minnesota
Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523-1370


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007











1 University of Connecticut


School of Engineering
Chemical Engineering Program
191 Auditorium Road, U-3222
Storrs, CT 06269-3222
Phone: (860) 486-4020
Fax: (860) 486-2959











Welcome to our new Department of Chemical, Materials & Biomolecular Engineering. The department was
created from the fusion of the departments of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science & Engineering.

The Chemical Engineering Program offers opportunities for cross-cutting research in nanomaterials, biomolecules,
energy and many traditional chemical engineering disciplines. Example research areas below.

Doug Cooper: Process Control Training, Tuning & Analysis, Adaptive Process Control, Intelligent Technologies
and Pattern-Based Control

Can Erkey: Fuel Cells, Supercritical Fluids

Yu Lei: Biosensors, Bioremediation, Biopolymers and their Applications, Nanomaterials and their Application in
Biosensing

Richard Parnas: Protein Based Plastics, Biofuels, Plant Design, Fiber Optic Sensors, Composites

Montgomery T. Shaw: Polymer Rheology & Processing, Phase Behavior in Polymer Solutions & Blends, Aging
of Polymeric Dielectrics

Ranjan Srivastava: Biomolecular Networks, Systems Biology, Bioinformatics & Biosensors

Yong Wang: Nanomedicines for Cancer Therapy, Nanomedicines for Diagnosis, Nanomaterials for Controlling
Cell Behaviors

Robert Weiss: Proton Exchange Membranes, Polymer Blends, Wetting of Thin Polymer Films, Electrically
Conductive Polymers, Hydrophobically Modified Hydrogels

Benjamin Wilhite: Heat Integration in Microchannel Arrays for Fuel Reforming and Fuel Cells, Multiphase Flow
in Fuel Cell Microchannels, Multifunctional Catalyst Design for Efficient Hydrogen Generation

Lei Zhu: Nano-confined Polymers using Block Copolymer as Templates Crystalline block copolymers are utilized
as templates to investigate nanoconfinement effects on polymer phase transitions in the bulk and at surfaces, Block
Copolymer/Inorganic Nanocomposites, Characterization of Polymer Membranes in PEM Fuel Cells


Chemical Engineering Education










Graduate Study & Research in Chemical Engineering
at



Dartmouth's Thayer School of Engineering

Dartmouth and its affiliated professional schools offer PhD degrees in the full range of science disciplines as well as
MD and MBA degrees. The Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College offers an ABET-accredited BE degree,
as well as MS, Masters of Engineering Management, and PhD degrees. The Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Program features courses in foundational topics in chemical engineering as well as courses serving our areas of research
specialization:
Biotechnology and biocommodity engineering
Environmental science and engineering
Fluid mechanics
Materials science and engineering
Process design and evaluation
These important research areas are representative of those found in chemical engineering departments around the world.
A distinctive feature of the Thayer School is that the professors, students, and visiting scholars active in these areas have
backgrounds in a variety of engineering and scientific subdisciplines. This intellectual diversity reflects the reality that
boundaries between engineering and scientific subdisciplines are at best fuzzy and overlapping. It also provides opportunities
for students interested in chemical and biochemical engineering to draw from several intellectual traditions in coursework
and research. Fifteen full-time faculty are active in research involving chemical engineering fundamentals.



Faculty & Research Areas
Ian Baker (Oxford) Structure/property relationships of materials, electron microscopy
John Collier (Dartmouth) Orthopaedic prostheses, implant/host interfaces
Alvin Converse (Delaware) Kinetics & reactor design, enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose
Benoit Cushman-Roisin (Florida State) Numerical modeling of environmental fluid dynamics
Harold Frost (Harvard) Microstructural evolution, deformation, and fracture of materials
Tillman Gerngross (Technical University of Vienna) Engineering of glycoproteins, fermentation technology
Ursula Gibson (Cornell) Thin film deposition, optical materials
Karl E. Griswold (University of Texas at Austin) Protein Engineering
Francis Kennedy (RPI) D Tribology, surface mechanics
Daniel R. Lynch (Princeton) Computational methods, oceanography, and water resources
Lee Lynd (Dartmouth) Biomass processing, pathway engineering, reactor & process design
Victor Petrenko (USSR Academy of Science) Physical chemistry of ice
Horst Richter (Stuttgart) Thermodynamics, multiphase flow, energy conversion, process design
Erland Schulson (British Columbia) Physical metallurgy of metals and alloys
Petia Vlahovska (Yale University) Rheology of complex fluids, biological fluid dynamics, membrane biophysics


For further information, please contact:

Chemical Engineering Graduate Advisor Thayer School of Engineering Dartmouth College Hanover, NH 03755
http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/thayer/research/chemical.html


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007









1 \ ur department has a long, distinguished history as
a vigorous and active center of research. The range
of projects varies tremendously-from biochemical
engineering to catalysis to thermodynamics-
and there are important advances being made in each
area at Delaware. A hallmark of our department has long
been interaction with industry, and many of the research
groups collaborate closely with local or other industrial
laboratories. This is useful experience for pursuit of a
career in either academic or industrial research.


FAU UNIVERSITY of



Markr aCentefor i Sse m -Biochemical & Biomedi
Chemical. .. Engineering
@6 0 OS*


A o A 0
A *t0 P e P *so
^PiTrofessr Allan T^^^^^^o3~Ri iolBu Pr3ofesr
^PiTMi~tHB^^^^^^^^ Chief EwngineeIsitute of^^

|i g C e ECatalysis & Reaction En




Ctlllid &SItefdierie
* H B. I. Ca o
Thomasl Epps, III DlM--irector of CME-H




Ass oiat*e Prollsid MiltenS ul /ivanaa s


Professor; Dean, College of Pr fessorl I
Engineering^^^^^^^g~jw^^^^^^
. o n Lau c Ali B. an Jui 0. Stle
Kelin Lee Chairpersou^BBnifl^^B




. mie .u de duiAssostant/ppofesntr
*^icj^BF^^^^^^^^^^^^Richard Wool ^^^^





Eugene Dufon st Chair of r' udel. edu g dofi e/ pp ic nt
Ch ei cafl E ni n e eri ng ^ ^ u e e d / i o f cE / a p l ica ft s I


150 Academy Street


Colburn Laboratory


Newark, DE 19716


DELAWARE


:al


Nanotechnology & Materials Design


Polymer Science & Engineering


gineering


Thermodynamics & Phase Equilibria


nce


Transport Phenomena & Separation
Science


:.



l!illu ii
IEEE j;j


Fax 302 831 1048


Phone 302 831 2543


-ntI


Chemical Engineering Education


-~ ~---










DTU


Technical University of Denmark


Do your graduate studies in Europe!


The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is a
modern, internationally oriented technological
university placed centrally in Scandinavia's Medicon
Valley one of the worlds leading biotech clusters. It
was founded 177 years ago by H. C. Orsted. The
University has 6000 students preparing for their BSc
or MSc degrees, 600 PhD students and takes 400
foreign students a year on English-taught courses.
The DTU campus is located close to the city of
Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark.


Chemical Engineering focus areas of research and the research groups are:

Applied Thermodynamics, Aerosol Technology, Bio Process Engineering, Catalysis, Combustion Processes
Emission Control, Enzyme technology, Membrane Technology, Polymer Chemistry & Technology
Process Control, Product Engineering, Oil and Gas Production, Systems Engineering, Transport Phenomena
BioEng CAPEC CHEC DPC IVC-SEP


The Department of Chemical Engineering (KT) is a leading research institution. The
research results find application in biochemical processes, computer aided product
and process engineering, energy, enhanced oil recovery, environment protection
and pollution abatement, information technology, and products, formulations &
materials.

The department has excellent experimental facilities serviced by a well-equipped
workshop and well-trained technicians. The Hempel Student Innovation Laboratory
is open for students' independent experimental work. The unit operations laboratory
and pilot plants for distillation, reaction, evaporation, crystallization, etc. are used
for both education and research. Visit us at http://www.kt.dtu.dk/English.aspx.

Graduate programs at Department of Chemical Engineering:

Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Stic
http://www.kt.dtu.dk/cbe
Petroleum Engineering Erling H.
http://www.ivc-sep. kt.dtu.dk/petroleum/
Advanced and Applied Chemistry Georgios Konto
http://www.kt.dtu.dk/aachemistry


The starting point for
general information
about MSc studies at
DTU is:
http://www.dtu.dk/msc

g Wedel sw@kt.dtu.dk

Stenby ehs@kt.dtu.dk

georgis gk@kt.dtu.dk


Visit the University at http://www.dtu.dk/english.aspx

Department of Chemical Engineering


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007

















Drexel University


Department of Chemical


and Biological Engineering


Faculty

Cameron F Abrams
1I ,, .1i ,

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Jason B Baxler




Richard A Cairncross
1,1- I h . I,r, .I r I,,,,,, .
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YosselA Elabd
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Ehlhu D Grossmann

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Kennelh KS Lau
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Anihony M Lowman
1I1- i n, in .= lhIIII. I :ir,


Ral Mulharasan
21,1- , l h ,,.,,I Ir



Giuseppe R Palmese Head
1 1- l ... I -1





Masoud Soroush
i. II, ,. ,. 11.1. ,



Charles B Weinberier

I ,i ,l i- P ,,

Sleven P Wrenn


I, ,, l. u I, ,I


Chemical Engineering Education






























6th in number of yearly ChE
PhD graduates in U S
':I EN 1.1, .1 .l.ll
Award-winnilng lacllty
Clling-edgeq lacillies
EI lensive engineering resCources
An h:our Iro:i Ihe Allanhlic I'ceall
i and Ihe utill o: Me i:co


Faculty
Tim Ander.:,n
Aravind Ailhaqlrl
Jas,:,n E Bu.ller
An.j I' hal.ihan
i.c:ar D C'risalle
Jenniler 'inc: lair C:i.i
Ri,:hard E'P l': in1:nn
Helena Haqelin-Weaver
Gar H,:lli.ind
F'eng Jiang
Lewis E J:hn~
Dmilry KIp,:,elevic:
..llga Krylli:i.ik
Anlh:ny J Ladd
Tanmay Lele
Ali.il jaraniq
Ranga 'jarayanan
Mark E ilIrazem
C hang.WA,:n Park
Fan Ren
Dinesh 1- ',hah
Spyr,:,s ',vo:iro:ini:is
Yiider Tsenq
Serge Vasenk,,v
Jasl:n F Weaver
Sirk Ziegler


rii




Ib


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


,P











Florida Institute of Technology
1959 *

Graduate studies in Chemical Engineering

Join a small, vibrant campus on Florida's Space Coast to reach your full academic and
professional potential. Florida Tech, the only independent, scientific and technological
university in the Southeast, has grown to become a university of international standing.

Faculty
P.A. Jennings, Ph.D., Department Head
J.E. Whitlow, Ph.D.
M.M. Tomadakis, Ph.D.
M.E. Pozo de Fernandez, Ph.D.
J.R. Brenner, Ph.D.
R.G. Barile, Ph.D.
S. Dutta, Ph.D.

Research Interests
Spacecraft Technology
In-Situ Resource Utilization
Alternative Energy Sources
Materials Science
Membrane Technology
Hydrogen Technology

Research Partners
NASA
Department of Energy
Department of Defense
Florida Solar Energy Center
Florida Space Grant


For more information, contact
Florida Institute of Technology
College of Engineering
Department of Chemical Engineering
150 W. University Blvd.
Melbourne, FL 32901-6975
(321) 674-8068 http://che.fit.edu

Chemical Engineering Education



















looki;n5 for fhe ri + 5 cada ,.pro a -

Yov've found it at (qleov a Tech


















.. PROGRAMS
aUd*M.S 'Eicd ~~g
.Ph.D i ...., neering
SMtMAT *, M.S. i r ineering
Usoc&atI Chair .for .Graduate Studies Ph.D. i ine r
tlCniomol ar Engineering M.S. in Psa Science and Engineering
c~ibilogy
Sm00 ta i logy Ph.D. in Paper Scy' Enginverlin.
duO M.S. in Polmer



Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 297























(HEMI(AL BIOMOLE(ULA I NINEERIN



SADUATI PRO@AM


Balakotalah
Harold
Luss
Richardson
~.


rooksK


Daneshy*
Economldes* ENVIRONMENTAL
Mohanty & REACTION
Nlkolaou ENGINEERING
Strasser


ENERGY CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING ENGINEERING


Balakotaiah
Harold
Jacobson\* NANO-MATERIALS
Luss
Nikolaou
Richardson Advlncula*
Donnelly
Doxastakls
Economou
Flumerfelt
Jacobson*
Krlshnamoortl
Lee*
Lltvlnov*


Chellam*
Economou
Strasser
Willson


Annapragada*
Bldanl*


Briggs*
Fox*
Vekllov
WIllson


BIOMOLECULAR
ENGINEERING


Doxastakis
Krishnamoorti
Mohanty

Chellam*
Harold
Luss
Nikolaou
Richardson
Strasser
Vekilov
Adjunct
Affiliated
Bold denotes pnmary
research area.


HOUSTON-
Dynamic Hub of Chemical Engineering

Houston is the dominant hub of the U.S.
energy and chemical industries, as well as the
home of NASAs Johnson Space Center and the
world-renowned Texas Medical Center.

The Chemical & Biomolecular .....
Department at the University of Houston
offers excellent facilities, competitive financial
support, industrial internships, and an
environment conducive to personal and
professional growth.

Houston offers the educational, cultural,
business, sports, and entertainment advantages
of a large and diverse metropolitan area, with
significantly lower costs than average.

For more information:
Visit www.chee.uh.edu
Email: grad-che@uh.edu
Write: University of Houston
Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering
Graduate Admission
S222 Engineering Building 1
Houston, TX 77204-4004


UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON T&
CULLEN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


Chemical Engineering Education


The Unlversly of Houston is an equal opportunity nsntunon


f













U The University of Illinois at Chicago


u I Department of Chemical Engineering


MS and PhD

Graduate Program

FACULTY

Sohail Murad, Professor and Head
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
E-Mail: Murad@uic.edu
John H. Kiefer, Professor Emeritus
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
E-Mail: Kiefer@uic.edu
Andreas A. Linninger, Associate Professor
Ph.D., Vienna University of Technology, 1992
E-Mail: Linninge@uic.edu
G. Ali Mansoori, Professor
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
E-Mail: Mansoori@uic.edu
Randall Meyer, Assistant Professor
Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin, 2001
E-Mail: Rjm@uic.edu
Ludwig C. Nitsche, Associate Professor
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1989
E-Mail: LCN@uic.edu
John Regalbuto, Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986
E-Mail: JRR@uic.edu
Stephen Szepe, Associate Professor Emeritus
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
E-Mail: SSzepe@uic.edu
T
Christos Takoudis, Professor T
Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1982
E-Mail: Takoudis@uic.edu T
Raffi M. Turian, Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964 K
E-Mail: Turian@uic.edu
C
Lewis E. Wedgewood, Associate Professor si
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1988
E-Mail: Wedge@uic.edu
Edward Funk, Adjunct Professor 1
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1970
E-Mail: Funk@uic.edu
P
Laszlo T. Nemeth, Adjunct Professor p
Ph.D., University of Debrecen, Hungary, 1978
E-Mail: Lnemeth@uic.edu
in
Anil Oroskar, Adjunct Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1981 S
E-Mail: anil@orochem.com


RESEARCH AREAS
transport Phenomena: Transport properties of fluids, Slurry transport, Multiphase fluid flow.
luid mechanics of polymers, Ferro fluids and other Viscoelastic media.
hermodynamics: Molecular simulation and Statistical mechanics of liquid mixtures, Superficial fluid
xtraction/retrograde condensation, Asphaltene characterization, Membrane-based separations.
:inetics and Reaction Engineering: Gas-solid reaction kinetics, Energy transfer processes, Laser
agnostics, and Combustion chemistry. Environmental technology, Surface chemistry, and optimization.
atalyst preparation and characterization, Supported metals, Chemical kinetics in automotive engine emis-
ons. Density fictional theory calculations of reaction mechanisms.
biochemical Engineering: Bioinstrumentation, Bioseparations, Biodegradable polymers, Nonaqueous
nzymology, Optimization of mycobacterial fermentations.
materials: Microelectronic materials and processing, Heteroepitaxy in group IV materials, and in situ
surface spectroscopies at interfaces. Combustion synthesis of ceramics and synthesis in supercritical fluids.
product and Process Development and design, Computer-aided modeling and simulation, Pollution
prevention.
biomedical Engineering Hydrodynamics of the human brain, Microvasculation, Fluid structure interaction
Biological tissues, Drug transport.
lanoscience and Engineering Molecular-based study of matter in nanoscale, Organic nanostructures,
elf-assembly and Positional assembly. Properties of size-selected clusters.


For more information, write to
Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago 810 S. Clinton St. Chicago, IL 60607-7000 (312) 996-3424 Fax (312) 996-0808
URL: http://www.uic.edu/depts/chme/

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007










AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN


Chemical and Biomolecular

Engineering

The combination of distinguished faculty, outstanding
facilities, and a diversity of research interests results in
exceptional opportunities for graduate education at the
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The Chemical
and Biomolecular Engineering Department offers graduate
programs leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.

For more information visit www.chemeng.uiuc.edu
Or write to:
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
114 Roger Adams Laboratory, Box C-3
600 South Mathews Avenue
Urbana, IL 61801-3602

Department of Chemical
4"^1 & Biomolecular Engineering
THE UNIVERSITYOF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN


Chemical Engineering Education


UNIVERSITY


OF ILLINOIS















. .


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007










Graduate program for M.S. and Ph.D. degrees

in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering


FACULTY


Gary A. Aurand
North Carolina State U.
1996
Supercritical fluids/
High pressure biochem-
ical reactors


C. Allan Guymon
U. of Colorado 1997
Polymer reaction
engineering/UV curable
coatings/Polymer liquid
crystal composites


Audrey Butler
U. of Iowa 1989
Chemical precipitation
processes













Stephen K. Hunter
U. of Utah 1989
Bioartificial organs/
Microencapsulation
technologies


Greg Carmichael
U. of Kentucky 1979
Global change/
Supercomputing/
Air pollution modeling


Chris
Coretsopoulos
U. of Illinois at Urbana-
Champaign 1989
Photopolymerization/
Microfabrication/
Spectroscopy


Julie L.P. Jessop David
Michigan State U. 1999 Murhammer
Polymers/ U. of Houston 1989
Microlithography/ Insect cell culture/
Spectroscopy Bioreactor monitoring


Jennifer Fiegel
Johns Hopkins 2004
Drug delivery/
Nano and
microtechnology/
Aerosols


Tonya L. Peeples
Johns Hopkins 1994
Bioremediation/
Extremophile physiol-
ogy and biocatalysis


David Rethwisch
U. of Wisconsin 1985
Membrane science/
Polymer science/
Catalysis


Venkiteswaran
Subramanian
Indian Institute of Science
1978
Biocatalysis/Metabolism/
Gene expression/
Fermentation/Protein
purification/Biotechnology


Aliasger K. Salem
U. of Nottingham 2002
Tissue engineering/
Drug delivery/Polymeric
biomaterials/Immuno-
cancer therapy/Nano
and microtechnology










John M. Wiencek
Case Western Reserve
1989
Protein crystallization/
Surfactant technology


Alec B. Scranton
Purdue U. 1990
Photopolymerization/
Reversible emulsifiers/
Polymerization kinetics


Charles O. Stanier
Carnegie Mellon
University 2003
Air pollution chemis-
try measurement, and
modeling/Aerosols


Ramaswamy
Subramanian
Indian Institute of
Science 1992
Structural enzymol-
ogy/Structure function
relationship in proteins

For information
and application:
THE UNIVERSITY
OF IOWA
Graduate Admissions
Chemical and
Biochemical Engineering
4133 Seamans Center
Iowa City IA 52242-1527
1-800-553-IOWA
(1-800-553-4692)
chemeng@icaen.uiowa.edu
www.engineering.uiowa.
edu/~chemeng/


Chemical Engineering Education
























i


Iowa State University's Department of
Chemical and Biological Engineering
offers excellent programs for graduate
research and education. Our cutting-
edge research crosses traditional
disciplinary lines and provides


exceptional opportunities for graduate
students. Our diverse faculty are leaders
in their fields and have won national and
international recognition for both
research and education, our facilities
S(laboratories, instrumentation, and
computing) are state of the art, and our
U" financial resources give graduate
Sl- students the support they need not just
to succeed, but to excel. Our campus




Robert C. Brown, PhD Monica H. Lamm, PhD
Michigan State University North Carolina State University
Biorenewable resources for energy Molecular simulations of advanced materials
Aaron R. Clapp, PhD Surya K. Mallapragada, PhD
University of Florida Purdue University
Colloidal and interfacial phenomena Tissue engineering and drug delivery
Eric W. Cochran, PhD Balaji Narasimhan, PhD
University of Minnesota Purdue University
Self-assembled polymers Biomaterials and drug delivery
Rodney O. Fox, PhD Michael G. Olsen, PhD
Kansas State University University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Computational fluid dynamics and reaction Experimental fluid mechanics and turbulence
engineering Peter J. Reilly, PhD
Charles E. Glatz, PhD University of Pennsylvania
University of Wisconsin Enzyme engineering and bioinformatics
Bioprocessing and bioseparations Derrick K. Rollins, PhD
Kurt R. Hebert, PhD Ohio State University
University of Illinois Statistical process control
Corrosion and electrochemical engineering Brent H. Shanks, PhD
James C. Hill, PhD California Institute of Technology
University of Washington Heterogeneous catalysis and biorenewables
Turbulence and computational fluid dynamics Jacqueline V. Shanks, PhD
Andrew C. Hillier, PhD California Institute of Technology
University of Minnesota Metabolic engineering and plant biotechnology
Interfacial engineering and electrochemistry R. Dennis Vigil, PhD
Kenneth R. Jolls, PhD University of Michigan
University of Illinois Transport phenomena and reaction engineerir
Chemical thermodynamics and separations in multiphase systems
Mark J. Kushner, PhD
California Institute of Technology
Computational optical and discharge physics


houses several interdisciplinary research
centers, including the Ames Laboratory
(a USDOE laboratory focused on
materials research), the Plant Sciences
Institute, the Office of Biotechnology, the
Office of Biorenewable Programs, and
the Institute for Combinatorial Discovery.

The department offers MS and PhD
degrees in chemical engineering.
Students with undergraduate degrees in
chemical engineering or related fields
can be admitted to the program. We
offer full financial support with tuition
coverage and competitive stipends to all
our graduate students.









J


'0


I. --a -T.at- ini ;or-it'
-i I, 5 ,r,,J1 I
515 294-7643
che,. engr I ia sae.edu
cheniengr@iastale.edu
I i ii I,


Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of
race, color, age, religion, national origin, sexual orientation,
sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U S Vietnam
Era Veteran Any persons having inquiries concerning
this may contactthe Director of Equal Opportunity and
Diversity, 3680 Beardshear Hall, 515 294-7612 ECM 07495


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 31


IOWA STAT U]Nl = I,~ : al~ 1 iIVERSiITY[][B










Graduate Study and Research in

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

at Johns Hopkins
The Johns Hopkins University's Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, estab-
lished in 1936, features a low student-to-faculty ratio that fosters a highly collaborative research ex-
perience. The faculty are internationally known for their contributions at the forefront of emerging
technologies such as nanotechnology, recombinant DNA technology, cell and tissue engineering,
computational biology, molecular bioengineering, and electronic materials as well as in core chemi-
cal engineering areas such as thermodynamics and interfacial phenomena.


Hydration Phenomena and Statistical Mechanics
of Aqueous Systems
Dilipkumar N. Asthagiri, PhD University of Delaware, Newark
Mammalian, Insect Cell, and Stem Cell Culture
Metabolic Engineering and Biotechnology
Apoptosis Glycosylation and Glycomics
Michael J. Betenbaugh, PhD University of Delaware
Molecular Thermodynamics Adsorption
Supercritical Processing Self Assembly
Marc D. Donohue, PhD University of California, Berkeley
Transport Phenomena in Micro and Nano-Fluidic Systems *
Molecular Dynamics Simulations
German M. Drazer, PhD Universidad de Cuyo and Instituto
Balseiro
Surface Forces and Adhesion
Electrochemistry Interfacial Electrostatics Nanomaterials
Joelle Fr6chette, PhD Princeton University
Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering Vascular Regeneration
Sharon Gerecht, PhD Technion-Israel Institute of Technology
Micro/Nanotechnology
Self-Assembly Surface Science of Soft Materials
Non linear Optical Spectroscopy and Biomedical Engineering
David Gracias, PhD University of California, Berkeley
Biomolecular Modeling Protein-Protein Docking
Protein-Surface Interactions
Self-Assembled Nanomaterials and Devices
Jeffrey J. Gray, PhD University of Texas at Austin
Biomaterials Synthesis
Cancer and Inflammation Targeted Drug and Nucleic
Acid Delivery
Justin S. Hanes, PhD Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Johns Hopkins Unlvemlty does not dlscrlmlnate on the bass of race, color sex,
relgon, sexual orientation, national or ethnic origin, age, dlsablhty or veteran status in any
student program or activity administered by the Unlvemity or with regard to admission or
employment Defense Department dlscrmnnaton n ROTC promgams on the basis of homo
sexualty conflicts with this unlvemty policy The unlvemlty is committed to encouraging a
change in the Defense Department policy
Questions regarding Title VI, Title IX and Section 504 should be referred to Yvonne M
Theodore, Affirmatlve Acton Officer, 205 Garland Hall (410-516-8075)


Nucleation Crystallization Ouzo Effect
Flame Generation of Ceramic Powders
Joseph L. Katz, PhD University of Chicago
Cell and Molecular Engineering Functional Genomics
Fluid Mechanics in Medical Applications Cancer Metastasis
Thrombosis and Inflammation/Bacterial Infection
Konstantinos Konstantopoulos, PhD Rice University
Molecular Bioengineering
Protein Engineering Molecular Evolution
Marc Ostermeier, PhD University of Texas at Austin
Surfactants and Interfaces
Nanoparticle Assembly Marangoni Effects
Kathleen J. Stebe, PhD The City University of New York
Cell Adhesion and Migration
Cystoskeleton Receptor-Ligand Interactions Cancer
HIV Infection Progeria New Microscopies
Denis Wirtz, PhD Stanford University


For further information contact:
Johns Hopkins University
Whiting School of Engineering
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
3400 N. Charles Street Baltimore, MD 21218-2694
410-516-7170 che@jhu.edu http://www.jhu.edu/~cheme





JOHNS




HOPKINS
Chemical Engineering Education










- Graduate Study in Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the


UNIVERSITY OF


KANSAS


The University of Kansas is the largest and most comprehensive university in
Kansas. It has an enrollment of more than 28,000 and almost 2,000faculty mem-
bers. KU offers more than 100 bachelors', nearly 90 masters', and more than 50
doctoral programs. The main campus is in Lawrence, Kansas, with other campuses
in Kansas City, Wichita, Topeka, and Overland Park, Kansas.
Graduate Programs
[1 M.S. degree with a thesis requirement in both chemical and petroleum engineering
[1 Ph.D. degree characterized by moderate and flexible course requirements and a strong research emphasis
[1 Typical completion times are 16-18 months for a M.S. degree and 4 1/2 years for a Ph.D. degree (from B.S.)


Faculty
Cory Berkland (Ph.D., Illinois)
Kyle V. Camarda (Ph.D., Illinois)
R.V. Chaudhari (Ph.D., Bombay University)
Michael Detamore (Ph.D., Rice)
Stevin H. Gehrke (Ph.D., Minnesota)
Don W. Green, (Ph.D., Oklahoma)
Javier Guzman (Ph.D., UC Davis)
Colin S. Howat (Ph.D., Kansas)
Jenn-Tai Liang (Ph.D., Texas)
Trung V. Nguyen (Ph.D., Texas A&M)
Karen J. Nordheden (Ph.D., Illinois)
Russell D. Osterman (Ph.D., Kansas)
Aaron Scurto (Ph.D., Notre Dame)
Marylee Z. Southard (Ph.D., Kansas)
Susan M. Williams (Ph.D., Oklahoma)
Bala Subramaniam (Ph.D., Notre Dame)
Shapour Vossoughi (Ph.D., Alberta, Canada)
Laurence V_ ii.,k Chair(Ph.D., Cambridge)
G. Paul Willhite (Ph.D., Northwestern)
Research
Catalytic Kinetics and Reaction Engineering
Catalytic Materials and Membrane Processing
Controlled Drug Delivery
Corrosion, Fuel Cells, Batteries
Electrochemical Reactors and Processes
Electronic Materials Processing
Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes
Fluid Phase Equilibria and Process Design
Liquid/Liquid Systems
Molecular Product Design
NanoTechnology for Biological Applications
Process Control and Optimization
Protein and Tissue Engineering
Supercritical Fluid Applications
Waste Water Treatment


FinancialAid
Financial aid is available in the form of research and teaching
assistantships and fellowships/scholarships. A special program
is described below.
Madison & Lila Self Graduate Fellowship

For additional information and application:
http: //www.unkans.edu/~selfpro/


Research Centers
Tertiary Oil Recovery Program (TORP)
30 years of excellence in enhanced oil recovery research
Center for Environmentally Beneficial Catalysis (CEBC)
NSF Engineering Research Center
Transportation Research Institute (TRI)

Contacts
Website for information and application:
http://www.cpe.engr.ku.edu/
Graduate Program
Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Kansas-Learned Hall
1530 W. 15th Street, Room 4132
Lawrence, KS 66045-7609

phone: 785-864-2900
fax: 785-864-4967
e-mail: cpe grad@ku.edu


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007








Kansas State University

Department of Chemical Engineering











Faculty, Ph.D. Institute, Research Areas .
* Jennifer L. Anthony, University ofNotre Dame, advanced materials,
nanoporous molecular sieves, environmental separations, ionic liquids,
solvent properties
* Vikas Berry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
bionanotechnology, nanoelectronics, sensors
* James H. Edgar, University ofFlorida, crystal growth, semiconductor
processing and materials characterization
* Larry E. Erickson, Kansas State University, environmental engineering,
biochemical engineering, biological waste treatment process design and
synthesis
* L.T. Fan, West Virginia University, process systems engineering including
process synthesis and control, chemical reaction engineering, particle
technology
* Larry A. Glasgow, University of Missouri, transport phenomena, bubbles,
droplets and particles in turbulent flows, coagulation and flocculation
* Keith L Hohn, University of Minnesota, catalysis and reaction engineering,
natural gas conversion, and nanoparticle catalysts
* Peter Pfromm, University of Texas, polymers in membrane separations and surface science
* Mary E. Rezac (head), University of Texas, polymer science, membrane separation processes
* John R. Schlup, California Institute of Technology, biobased industrial products, applied spectroscopy, thermal
analysis, intelligent processing of materials
* Walter Walawender, Syracuse University, activated carbon, biomass energy, fluid particle systems, pyrolysis,
reaction modeling and engineering
* Krista S. Walton, Vanderbilt University, nanoporous materials, molecular modeling, adsorption separation and
purification, metal-organic frameworks

For additional information:

Graduate Program
Kansas State University
Chemical Engineering
1005 Durland Hall
Manhattan, KS 66506-5102
785-532-5584
che@ksu.edu
www.che.ksu.edu _1


Chemical Engineering Education


i


I









UK University of Kentucky
UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY
UNIVCollege of Engineering Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering
College of Engineering




Chemical Engineering Faculty

Tate Tsang, Chair University of Texas
K. Anderson Carnegie-Mellon University
D. Bhattacharyya Illinois Institute of Technology
T. Dziubla Drexel University
E. Grulke Ohio State University
Z. Hilt University of Texas
D. Kalika University of California, Berkeley
R. Kermode Northwestern University
B. Knutson Georgia Institute of Technology
S. Rankin University of Minnesota
A. Ray Clarkson University
D. Silverstein Vanderbilt University
J. Smart University of Texas


Materials Engineering Faculty

J. Balk The Johns Hopkins University
R. Eitel The Pennsylvania State University
S5 ,B. Hinds Northwestern University
R / F. Yang University of Rochester
T. Zhai University of Oxford




.Environmental Engineering
*. Biopharmaceutical & Biocellular
Engineering
Materials Synthesis
Advanced Separation & Supercritical Fluids
Processing
Membranes & Polymers
Interfacial Engineering
Aerosols
Nanomaterials


For more information:

Web: http://www.engr.uky.edu/cme
Address: Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering
Director of Graduate Studies, Chemical Engineering
177 F. Paul Anderson Tower University of Kentucky
Lexington, KY 40506-0046

Phone: (859) 257 8028 Fax: (859) 323 1929


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007












LEHIGH UNIVERSITY



Svnergistic. interdisciplinary research in .. E.

Biochemical Engineering uftg ~o
Catalytic Science & Reaction Engineering Bm htm.du Pa ,s
Environmental Engineering
Interfacial Transport
Materials Synthesis Characterization & Processing
Microelectronics Processing
Polymer Science & Engineering
Process Modeling & Control
Two-Phase low & Heat Transfer
... leading to M.S.. M.E.. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engineering


Highly attractive financial aid packages, which provide tuition and stipend, are available.


Additional information and application may be obtained by ,i i, i, to:

Dr. James T. Hsu, Chairman Graduate Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering Lehigh University 111 Research Drive Iacocca Hall Bethlehem, PA 18015
Fax: (610) 758-5057 E-Mail: inchegs@lehigh.edu Website: www3.lehigh.edu/engineering/cheme/

308 Chemical Engineering Education


Philip A. Blythe, University of Manchester
fluid mechanics heat transfer applied mathematics

Hugo S. Caram, University of Minnesota
high temperature processes and materials environmental processes
* reaction engineering

Manoj K. Chaudhury, SUNY-Buffalo
adhesion thin films surface chemistry

Mohamed S. El-Aasser, McGill University
polymer colloids and films emulsion copolymerization polymer
synthesis and characterization

Alice P. Gast, Princeton
complex fluids colloids proteins interfaces

James E Gilchrist, Northwestern University
particle self-organization mixing microfluidics

James T. Hsu, Northwestern University
bioseparations applied recombinant DNA technology

Anand Jagota, Cornell University
biomimetics mechanics adhesion biomolecule-materials interactions

Andrew Klein, North Carolina State University
emulsion polymerization colloidal and surface effects in polymerization


Mayuresh V. Kothare, California Institute of Technology
model predictive control constrained control microchemical systems

Ian J. Laurenzi, University of Pennsylvania
chemical kinetics in small systems biochemical informatics *
aggregation phenomena

William L. Luyben, University of Delaware
process design and control distillation

Anthony J. McHugh, University of Delaware
polymer rheology and rheo-optics polymer processing and modeling
* membrane formation drug delivery

Arup K. Sengupta, University of Houston
use of adsorbents ion exchange reactive polymers membranes in
environmental pollution

Cesar A. Silebi, Lehigh University
separation of colloidal particles electrophoresis mass transfer

Shivaji Sircar, University of Pensylvania
adsorption gas and liquid separation

Kemal Tuzla, Technical University of Istanbul
heat transfer two-phase flows fluidization

Israel E. Wachs, Stanford University
materials characterization surface chemistry heterogeneous catalysis *
environmental catalysis




















LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY


Cain Department of

Chemical

En g i nee ruling


THE CITY
Baton Rouge is the state capital and home of the state's flagship institution,
LSU. Situated near the Acadian region, Baton Rouge blends the Old South
and Cajun cultures. Baton Rouge is one of the nation's busiest ports and the
city's economy rests heavily on the chemical, oil, plastics, and agricultural
industries. The great outdoors provide excellent year-round recreational
activities, especially fishing, hunting, and water sports. The proximity of
New Orleans provides for superb nightlife, especially during Mardi Gras.
The city is also only two hours away from the Mississippi Gulf Coast, and
four hours from either Gulf Shores or Houston.

THE DEPARTMENT
MS (thesis and non-thesis) and PhD Programs
Approximately 50 graduate students
Average research funding more than $2 million per year

DEPARTMENTAL FACILITIES
Departmental computing-with more than 80 PCs
Extensive laboratory facilities, especially in reaction and environmental
engineering, transport phenomena and separations, polymer, textile and
materials processing, biochemical engineering, thermodynamics
FINANCIAL AID
Assistantships at $17,500 $29,200, with full tuition waiver, waiver of
non-resident fees, and health insurance benefits.

ITO APPLY, CONTACT
GRADUATE COORDINATOR
Cain Department of Chemical Engineering
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803
Telephone: 1-800-256-2084 FAX: 225-578-1476
e-mail: gradcoor@lsu.edu
LSUIS AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY/ACCESS UNIVERSITY


FACULTY

M.G. BENTON
Cain Professor/Asst. Professor; PhD, University of Wisconsin
Genomics, Bioengineering, Metabolic Engineering, Biosensors

K.M. DOOLEY
BASF Professor; PhD, University of Delaware
Heterogeneous Catalysis, High-Pressure Separations

J.C. FLAKE
Cain Professor/Assc. Professor; PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology
Semiconductor Processing, Microelectronic Device Fabrication

G.L. GRIFFIN
Nusloch Professor; PhD, Princeton University
Electronic Materials, Surface Chemistry, CVD

J.E. HENRY
Cain Professor/Asst. Professor; PhD, Texas A&M University
Biochemical Engineering, Biomimetic Materials, Biosensors

M.A. HJORTSO
Nusloch Professor; PhD, University of Houston
Biochemical Reaction Engineering, Applied Math

F.R. HUNG
Cain Professor/Asst. Professor; PhD, North Carolina State University
Nanoporous Materials, Confined Fluids, Liquid Crystals

F.C. KNOPF
Anding Professor; PhD, Purdue University
Supercritical Fluid Extraction, Ultrafast Kinetics

R.W. PIKE
Horton Professor; PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology
Fluid Dynamics, Reaction Engineering, Optimization

J.A. ROMAGNOLI
Cain Chair Professor; PhD, University of Minnesota
Process Control

J.J. SPIVEY
Shivers Professor/Assc. Professor; PhD, Louisiana State University
Catalysis

L.J. THIBODEAUX
Coates Professor; PhD, Louisiana State University
Chemodynamics, Hazardous Waste Transport

K.E. THOMPSON
Lowe Professor/Assc. Professor; PhD, University of Michigan
Transport and Reaction in Porous Media

K.T. VALSARAJ
Roddy Distinguished Professor; PhD, Vanderbilt University
Environmental Transport, Separations

D.M. WETZEL
Haydel Professor/Assc. Professor; PhD, University of Delaware
Hazardous Waste Treatment, Drying

M.J. WORNAT
Harvey Professor; PhD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Combustion, Heterogeneous Reactions


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007













University of Maine

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering


The University The campus is situated near the Penobscot and Stillwater Rivers in the town of Orono, Maine. The campus
is large enough to offer various activities and events and yet is small enough to allow for one-on-one learning with faculty.
The University of Maine is known for its hockey team, but also has a number of other sports activities. Not far from campus
is the Maine Coast and Acadia National Park. North and west are alpine and cross-country ski resorts, Baxter State Park, and
the Allagash Water Wilderness area.


DOUGLAS BOUSFIELD PhD (UC Berkeley)
Fluid mechanics, ;111.1,,. ... ,',, processes, micro-scale model-
ing
ALBERT CO PhD (Wisconsin)
Polymeric fluid dynamics, rheology, transport phenomena, nu-
merical methods
WILLIAM DESISTO PhD (Brown)
Advance materials, thin film synthesis, porous thin film filters for
chem./bio sensors
DARRELL DONAHUE PhD (North Carolina State)
Biosensors in food and medical applications, risk assessment
modeling, statistical process control
JOSEPH GENCO PhD (Ohio State)
Oxygen ,i i,,,,f. ,i; ..., refining, pulping, pulp bleaching
JOHN HWALEK PhD (Illinois)
Process information systems, heat transfer
MICHAEL MASON PhD (UC Santa Barbara)
Laser scanning confocal microscopy, time-resolved imaging of
molecular nanoprobes for biological systems


PAUL MILLARD PhD (Maryland)
Microbial biosensors, physiological genomics, fluorescence
technology
DAVID NEIVANDT PhD (Melbourne)
Conformation of interfacial species, surface spectroscopies/mi-
croscopies
ANJA NOHE PhD (Theodor Boveri Inst.)
Protein dynamics on cell surfaces, membrane transport, image
analysis
HEMANT PENDSE PhD (Syracuse) Chair
Sensor development, colloid systems, particulate and multiphase
processes
DOUGLAS RUTHVEN PhD ScD (Cambridge)
Fundamentals of adsorption and processes
ADRIAAN VAN HEININGEN PhD (McGill)
Pulp and paper manufacture and production of biomaterials and
biofuels
M. CLAYTON WHEELER PhD (Texas-Austin)
Chemical sensors, fundamental catalysis, surface science


The department has a long history of interactions with industry. Research proj-
ects often come from actual industrial situations. Various research programs,
such as the Paper Surface Science Program, have industrial advisory boards
that give students key contacts with industry. We have formed an alliance with
the Institute of Molecular Biophysics (IMB) that brings to us partnerships with ...
The Jackson Laboratory (TJL) and Maine Medical Center Research Institute
(MMCRI). New research directions in the area of forest biorefinery, biosen-
sors, and molecular biophysics give students opportunities to do research at
the interface between engineering and the biological sciences.




For information about the graduate program write to the ...
Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering
University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469
call 207 581-2277 e-mail gradinfo@umche.maine.edu or bousfld@maine.edu visit www.umche.maine.edu
310 Chemical Engineering Education









MANHATTAN



COLLEGE
This well-established graduate program emphasizes
the application of basic principles to the solution of
modem engineering problems, with new features in
engineering management, sustainable and alternative
energy, safety, and biochemical engineering.

V

Financial aid is available,
including industrial fellowships in a one-year program
sponsored by the following companies:
Air Products & Chemicals, Inc.
BOC Group
ConocoPhillips
Consolidated Edison Co.
Kraft Foods
Merck & Co., Inc.
Panolam Industries
Pfizer, Inc.

A

For information and application form, write to
Graduate Program Director
Chemical Engineering Department
Manhattan College
Riverdale, NY 10471
chmldept@manhattan.edu
http://www.engineering.manhattan.edu


Offering a

Practice-Oriented
Master's Degree
Program

in

Chemical

Engineering


t


Manhattan College is located
in Riverdale,
an attractive area in the
northwest section of
New York City.


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007













U n v sit-yoa sa ,, -,--u e - -. -,-, t: : --

EXPERIENCE, OUR PROGRAM IN':"'' '

C H E M I C A E N G I N E E R I N G I: I. 9 .,- ,, 9 D ,, ,', -


For application forms and further information on
fellowships and assistantships, academic and
research programs, and student housing, see
http:I/www.ecs.umass.edu/che
or contact
Graduate Program Director
Department of Chemical Engineering
159 Goessmann Lab, 686 N Pleasant St
University of Massachusetts
Amherst MA 01003-9303


Facilities:
Instructional, research and administrative space are housed in
close proximity to each other In addition to space located in
Goessmann Lab which includes the ChE Alumni Classroom
used for teaching and research seminars, additional space is
located in the Conte National Center for Polymer Research In
May 2004 we proudly dedicated the brand new $25-million
facilities of Engineering Lab II (ELab II) which includes 57,000-
sq ft of state-of-the-art laboratory facilities and office space


Surita R. Bhatia (Princeton)
W. Curtis Conner, Jr. (Johns Hopkins)
Jeffrey M. Davis (Princeton)
James M. Douglas, Emeritus (Delaware)
Neil S. Forbes (Berkeley)
David M. Ford (Univ. of Pennsylvania)
Michael A. Henson (UC Santa Barbara)
George W. Huber (Wisconsin, Madison)
Robert L. Laurence Emeritus (Northwestern)
Michael F. Malone (Univ. of Massachusetts)
Dimitrios Maroudas (MIT)
Peter A. Monson (London)
T. J. "Lakis" Mountziaris, Head (Princeton)
Susan C. Roberts (Cornell)
Lianhong Sun (CalTech)
Phillip R. Westmoreland (MIT)
H. Henning Winter (Stuttgart)

Current areas of MS and PhD Research programs in the Chemical Engineering
Department currently receive research support at a level of approximately $3 mil-
lion per year through external research grants. Graduate students can expect to
participate in projects falling into, but not limited to the following areas of faculty
research.

* Systems Design & Control to include design, synthesis, and control of sepa-
ration and reaction-separation systems; process design & control for polymer
production and batch processing; nonlinear modeling and control of biochemi-
cal reactors; design and operation strategies for manufacturing pharmaceutical
emulsions; and nonlinear process control theory

* Materials Science and Engineering a broad area to include characterization
of catalytic materials; design of new catalytic materials for the polymerization
and environmental industries; microwave engineering of catalytic materials;
improvement of inorganic-organic functionalized mesoporous materials; thin
film and nanostructured materials for microelectonics; polymeric materials proc-
essing and more

* Molecular, Cellular, and Metabolic Bioengineering with a focus on plant
metabolic engineering for the production of medicinals via plant cell cultures;
design and utilization of mammalian cell in vitro systems; systems biology appli-
cations; genetic circuit design to control biological systems and more...

* Molecular and Multi-scale Modeling & Simulation another broad research
field includes computational quantum chemistry for chemical reaction kinetic
analysis; applications of molecular modeling in nanotechnology; modeling of
molecular level behavior of fluids confined in porous materials; molecular-to-
reactor scale modeling of transport reaction processes in nano-structured mate-
rials synthesis with many other opportunities available


The University of Massachusetts Amherst prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, creed, sex, sexual orientation, age, marital status,
national origin, disability or handicap, or veteran status, in any aspect of the admission or treatment of students or in employment.

12 Chemical Engineering Education
























































jst acos th Cals Riverfrom
Boson afe miue by subway
fro dontw Boto an Harvard ''
Sqae Th are is world-renowned
fo it colee, hospital, research
faiite, an hig teholg indus-
tre, an ofer an unndn variety,
of theter, cocet,
restarns, mueus boostores,
spring evns libraries and
receatonafaclites







Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


With the largest research faculty in the country, the
Department of Chemical Engineering at MIT offers
programs of research and teaching which span the
breadth of chemical engineering with unprecedented
depth infundamentals and applications. The Depart-
I, ,.. i. i graduate programs leading to the master's
and doctor's degrees. Graduate students may also
earn professional master 's, ,. % ,.,. i1, I 1, i1,.. David
H. Koch School of Chemical Engineering Practice,
a unique internship program that stresses defining
and solving industrialproblems by applying chemical
engineering fundamentals. In collaboration with the
Sloan School of Management, the Department also
offers a doctoral program in Chemical Engineering
Practice, which integrates chemical engineering,
research, and management.


R.C. Armstrong
P.I. Barton
D. Blankschtein
A. Chakraborty
R.E. Cohen
C.K. Colton
C.L. Cooney
W.M. Deen
P.S. Doyle
K.K. Gleason


W.H. Green
P.T. Hammond
T.A. Hatton
K.F Jensen, Head
R.S. Langer
D.A. Lauffenburger
J.C. Love
N. Maheshri
G.J. McRae
K.J. Prather


G.C. Rutledge
H.H. Sawin
K.A. Smith
Ge. Stephanopoulos
Gr. Stephanopoulos
M.S. Strano
J.W. Tester
B.L. Trout
P.S. Virk
D.I.C. Wang
K.D. Wittrup


For more information, contact
Chemical Engineering Graduate Office, 66-366
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139-4307
Phone (617) 253-4579; FAX (617) 253-9695; E-Mail chemegrad@mit.edu
URL http://web.mit.edu/cheme/index.html


Research in ...

Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering

Biotechnology Catalysis and Chemical Kinetics

Colloid Science and Separations

Energy Engineering Environmental Engineering

Materials Microchemical Systems, Microfluidics Nanotechnology

Polymers Process Systems Engineering

Thermodynamics, Statistical Mechanics, and Molecular Simulation

Transport Processes









McGill I Chemical Engineering


The department offers M. Eng. and
PhD degrees with funding available
and top-ups for those who already
have funding.


Downtown Montreal, Canada
Montreal is a multilingual
metropolis with a population over
three million. Often called the
world's second-largest French-
speaking city, Montreal also boasts
an English-speaking population of
over 400,000. McGill itself is an
English-language university, though
it offers you countless opportunities
to explore the French language.


McGill's Arts Building
For more information and graduate
program applications:
Visit: www.mcgill.ca/chemeng/
Write:
Department of Chemical
Engineering
McGill University
3610 University St
Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 CANADA
Phone: (514) 398-4494
Fax: (514) 398-6678
E-mail: inquire.chegrad(a)mcgill.ca


D. BERK, Department Chair (Calgary)
Biological and chemical treatment of wastes, crystallization of fine
powders, reaction engineering [dimitrios.berk@mcgill.ca]
D. G. COOPER, (Toronto)
Prod. of bacteriophages & biopharmaceuticals, self-cycling
ferment., bioconversion of xenobiotics [david.cooper@mcgill.ca]
S. COULOMBE, Canada Research Chair (McGill)
Plasma processing, nanofluids, transport phenomena, optical
diagnostic and process control [sylvain.coulombe@mcgill.ca]
J. M. DEALY, Emeritus Professor (Michigan)
Polymer rheology, plastics processing [john.dealy@mcgill.ca]
R. J. HILL, Canada Research Chair (Cornell)
Fuzzy colloids, biomimetic interfaces, hydrogels, and
nanocomposite membranes [reghan.hill@mcgill.ca]
E. A. V. JONES, (CalTech)
Biofluid dynamics, biomechanics, tissue engineering,
developmental biology & microscopy [liz.jones@mcgill.ca]
M. R. KAMAL, Emeritus Professor (Carnegie-Mellon)
Polymer proc., charac., and recycling [musa.kamal@mcgill.ca]
R. LEASK, William Dawson Scholar (Toronto)
Biomedical engineering, fluid dynamics, cardiovascular
mechanics, pathobiology [richard.leask@mcgill.ca]
C. A. LECLERC, (Minnesota)
Biorefineries, hydrogen generation, fuel processing, ethylene
prod., catalysis, reaction engineering [corey.leclerc@mcgill.ca]
M. MARIC, (Minnesota)
Block copolymersfor nano-porous media, organic electronics,
controlled release; "green" plasticisers [milan.maric @mcgill.ca]
J.- L. MEUNIER, (INRS-Energie, Varennes)
Plasma science & technology, deposition techniques for surface
modifications, nanomaterials [jean-luc.meunier@mcgill.ca]
R. J. MUNZ, (McGill)
Thermal plasma tech, torch and reactor design, nanostructured
material synthesis, environmental apps [richard.munz@mcgill.ca]
S. OMANOVIC, (Zagreb)
Biomaterials, protein/material interactions, bio/immunosensors,
(bio)electrochemistry [sasha.omanovic@mcgill.ca]
T. M. QUINN, (MIT)
Soft tissue biophysics, mechanobiology, biomedical engineering,
adherent cell culture technologies [thomas.quinn@mcgill.ca]
A. D. REY, James McGill Professor (California-Berkeley)
Computational material sci., thermodynamics of soft matter and
complex fluids, interfacial sci. and eng. [alejandro.rey@mcgill.ca]
P. SERVIO, Canada Research Chair (British Columbia)
High-pressure phase equilibrium, crystallization, polymer coatings
[phillip.servio@mcgill.ca]
N. TUFENKJI, Canada Research Chair (Yale)
Environmental and biomedical eng., bioadhesion and biosensors,
bio- and nano- technologies [nathalie.tufenkji@mcgill.ca]
V. YARGEAU, (Sherbrooke)
Environmental control of pharmaceuticals, biodegradation of
contaminants in water, biohydrogen [viviane.yargeau@mcgill.ca]


Chemical Engineering Education








McMaster
University xl
ENGINEERING W'


Why choose McMaster?
Hamilton is a city of over 500,000 situated in Southern Ontario. We are located
about 100 km from both Niagara Falls and Toronto. McMaster University
is one of Canada's top 8 research intensive universities. An important aspect
of our research effort is the extent of the interaction between faculty members
both within the department itself and with other departments at McMaster.
Faculty are engaged in leading edge research and we have concentrated
research groups that collaborate with international industrial sponsors:
* Centre for Pulp and Paper Research
* Centre for Advanced Polymer Processing& Design (CAPPA-D)
* McMaster Institute of Polymer Production Technology (MIPPT)


FOR ON-LINE APPLICATION FORMS AND INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT


Graduate Secretary
Department of Chemical Engineering
McMaster University
Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7
CANADA
Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


Phone: 905-525-9140 X 24292
Fax: 905-521-1350
Email: chemeng@mcmaster.ca
http://www.chemeng.mcmaster.ca


Graduate Studies in

Chemical Engineering


We offer a Ph. D. program and three Master's options (Thesis, Project, Internship) in the following research areas:
* Biomaterials: Tissue engineering, biomedical engineering, blood-material interactions
J.L. Brash, K. Jones, H. Sheardown,
* Bioprocessing: Membranes, environmental engineering, bioseparation
C. Filipe, R. Ghosh,
* Transport Phenomena: Heat transfer, experimental & computational fluid mechanics, membranes
J. Dickson, A. N. Hrymak, P.E. Wood
* Polymer Science: Interfacial engineering, polymerization, polymer characterization, synthesis
R. H. Pelton, S. Zhu, K. Kostanski (Adjunct)
* Polymer Engineering: Polymer processing, rheology, CAD/CAM methods, extrusion
A. N. Hrymak, R. Loutfy, M. Thompson, J. Vlachopoulos, S. Zhu
* Process Systems Engineering: Multivariate statistical methods, computer process control, optimization
J. F. MacGregor, V. Mahalec, T. E. Martin, P. Mhaskar, C. L. E. Swartz, P. Taylor,
T. Kourti (Adjunct)
We will provide financial support to any successful applicant who does not already have external support. In addition we
have a limited number of teaching and research assistantships.










SChemical Engineering at the


-, University of Michigan



Faculty

Main Areas of Research

Life Sciences Biotechnology
Mark A. Burns Microfabricated Chemical Analysis
Omolola Eniola-Adefeso -Cell Adhesion and Migration
Erdogan Gulari -DNA and Peptide Synthesis
Jinsang Kim -Smart Functional Polymers
Joerg Lahann -Surface Engineering
Xiaoxia Lin -Systems and Synthetic Biology
Jennifer J. Linderman Receptor Dynamics
Michael Mayer Biomembranes
Henry Y. Wang Bioprocess Engineering
Peter J. Woolf Biomathematics

Energy and Environment
H. Scott Fogler -Flow and Reactions
Erdogan Gulari -Reactions at Interfaces
Suljo Linic -Catalysis, Surface Chemistry, Fuel Cells
Phillip E. Savage -Sustainable Production of Energy and Chemical Products
Johannes W. Schwank -Catalysts, Fuel Cells, and Fuel Conversion
Levi T. Thompson -Catalysts, Fuel Cells, Microreactors
Walter J. Weber, Jr. -Environmental Process Dynamics and System Sustainability
Ralph T. Yang Adsorption, Reactions, Hydrogen Storage

Complex Fluids and Nanostructured Materials
Sharon C. Glotzer Computational Nanoscience and Soft Materials
Nicholas Kotov Nanomaterials
Ronald G. Larson, Chair -Theoretical, Computational, and Experimental Complex Fluids
Michael J. Solomon -Experimental Complex Fluids
Robert M. Ziff -Theoretical and Computational Complex Fluids and Transport


For more information contact:
Dr. Robert Ziff, Graduate Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Michigan MichiganEngineering
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2130
734-764-2383
chem.eng.grad @umich.edu
www.engin.umich.edu/dept/ scheme


Chemical Engineering Education









UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA

Driven to Discovers"


Leadership and Innovation in

Chemical Engineering and

Materials Science


Research Areas
Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Ceramics and Metals
C. i.. ,,, Processes and Interfacial Engineering
Crystal Growth and Design
Electronic, Photonic and it'., ",, l. Materials
Fluid Mechanics
SPolymers
Reaction Engineering and Chemical Process Synthesis
Theory and Computation


Downtown Minneapolis as seen from campus


Faculty:
Eray Aydil
Frank S. Bates
Aditya Bhan
Matteo Cococcioni
Edward L. Cussler
Prodromos Daoutidis
H. Ted Davis
Jeffrey J. Derby
Kevin Dorfman
Lorraine F Francis


C. Daniel Frisbie
William W. Gerberich
Russell J. Holmes
Wei-Shou Hu
Yiannis Kaznessis
Efrosini Kokkoli
Satish Kumar
Chris Leighton
Timothy P Lodge
Christopher W. Macosko


Alon V. McCormick
David C. Morse
David J. Norris
Lanny D. Schmidt
L. E. "Skip" Scriven
David A. Shores


William H. Smyrl
Friedrich Srienc
Robert T. Tranquillo
Michael Tsapatsis
Renata Wentzcovitch


For more information contact:
.liull I'rilinc I l'i.r.1dnt i Jf c..Cidtle
I 2-h?25-3.S2
princvC'cm.,.um n I.i (Ln
tLKL: hI ltp/jI~wa .cems.ii un.cdu


i .' ,, .... at,j ..i' / .


ol.. ...... .:41, .No. 4, Fall .. 2007


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


The Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities has been renowned
for its pioneering scholarly work and for its influence in graduate
education for the past half-century. Our department has produced
numerous legendary engineering scholars and current leaders in
both academia and industry. With its pacesetting research and
education program in chemical engineering encompassing reac-
tion engineering, multiphase flow, statistical mechanics, polymer
science and bioengineering, our department was the first to foster
a far-reaching marriage of the Chemical Engineering and Materials
Science programs into an integrated department.
For the past few decades, the chemical engineering program has
been consistently ranked as the top graduate program in the country
by the National Research Council and other ranking surveys. The
department has been thriving on its ability to foster interdisciplin-
ary efforts in research and education; most, if not all of our active
faculty members are engaged in intra- or interdepartmental research
projects. The extensive collaboration among faculty members in
research and education and the high level of co-advising of gradu-
ate students and research fellows serves to cross-fertilize new ideas
and stimulate innovation. Our education and training are known not
only for rigorously delving into specific and in-depth subjects, but
also for their breadth and global perspectives. The widely ranging
collection of high-impact research projects in these world-renowned
laboratories provides students with a unique experience, preparing
them for careers that are both exciting and rewarding.














Dave C. Swalm School of

Chemical Engineering




Mlsppi States


R. Mark Bricka, Assoc
Alternative Fuels, Gasification, Pyrolysis, Environmental Remediati
Chemical Extraction, Stabilization/Solidfication, Waste Treatment

Bill B. Elmore, Associate Professor ar
Renewable Fuels, Bioremediation, Microre

Robert H. Foglesong, Professor
Mat,

W. Todd French, Assis
Biofuels (Bioethanol and Single-Cell Oil), Microbtally Enh

Clifford E. Geo
Ethanol from Alternative Renewable Sources, Corrosion inAv

Rafael Hernandez, Assis
IntegratedRemediation Technologies, ChemicalPhysical TreatmentProces
Catalysis, Biofue
Priscilla J. Hill, Assoc
Crystallization, Process Design
Adrienne R. Minerick, Assis
Electrokinetic Separations ofBiofluids, Medical Diagnostic Microd
Nanoparticle Synthesis at
Rudy E. Rog
Gas Hydrates Natural Gas Storage, Transportation, Microbtal Catalysis i
CO, Sequesterin
Kirk H. Schulz,
Vice President for Research and Economic
Surface Science, Catalysis, E

Hossein Toghiani, Assoc
Composite Materials, Catalysis, Fuel Cells, Thermodynamics

Rebecca K. Toghiani, Assoc
Thermodyn
Keisha B. Walters, Assis
Polymer, Biopolymer and Surface Engineering, Stimul-Re
Micros

Mark G. White, Professor, Director and Dea
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Homogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics,


Mississippi State University, located in

the Golden Triangle region of Northeast
Mrississippi, is the largest ofeight public
institutions of higher learning in the state.
It is one of two land-grant institutions in
Mississippi.

Area residents enjoy numerous
university sporting and cultural events, as
well as scenic and recreational activities
S along the Natchez Trace Parkway and
Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway.




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Chemical Engineering Education












1i\/ZZ* Czesiolze Aoainpurlo
S^1 OH Rakesh K. Bajpai, PhD (IIT, Kanpur)


UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI COLUMBIA
UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI COLUMBIA


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Biochemical Engineering + Hazardous Waste
Paul C. H. Chan, PhD (CalTech)
Reactor Analysis 4 Fluid Mechanics
Eric Doskocil, PhD (Virginia)
Catalysis 4 Reaction Engineering
William A. Jacoby, PhD (Colorado)
Photocatalysis 4 Transport
Stephen J. Lombardo, PhD (California-Berkley)
Ceramic & Electronic Materials 4 Transport 4 Kinetics
Sudarshan K. Loyalka, PhD (Stanford)
Aerosol Mechanics + Kinetic Theory
Richard H. Luecke, PhD (Oklahoma)
Process Control Modeling
Thomas R. Marrero, PhD (Maryland)
Past-Vice President, IACChE
CoalLog Transport 4 Conducting Polymers 4 Fuels Emissions
David G. Retzloff, PhD (i ,i,.i;,,l,
Reactor Analysis Materials
Truman S. Storvick, PhD (Purdue)
Nuclear Waste Reprocessing 4 Thermodynamics
Galen J. Suppes, PhD (Johns Hopkins)
Biofuel Processing + Renewable Energy 4 Thermodynamics
Dabir S. Viswanath, PhD (Rochester)
Applied Thermodynamics 4 Chemical Kinetics
Hirotsugu K. Yasuda, PhD (SUNY, Syracuse)
Polymers 4 Surface Science
Oingsong Yu, PhD (Mizzou)
Surface Science 4 Plasma Technology


The University of Missouri Columbia is one of the most comprehensive institutions in the nation
and is situated on a beautiful land grant campus halfway between St. Louis and Kansas City,
near the Ozark Mountains and less than an hour from the recreational Lake of the Ozarks. The
Department of Chemical Engineering offers MS and PhD programs in addition to its
undergraduate BS degree. Program areas include surface science, nuclear waste, wastewater
treatment, biodegradation, air pollution, supercritical processes, plasma polymerization, polymer
processing, coal transportation (hydraulic), fuels (alternative, biodiesel), chemical kinetics,
protein crystallization, photocatalysis, ceramic materials, and polymer composites. Faculty
expertise encompasses a wide variety of specializations and research within the department is
funded by industry, government, non-profit, and institutional grants in many research areas.


For details contact:

Coordinator, Academic Programs
Department of Chemical Engineering
W2030 Lafferre Hall
Columbia, MO 65211

Tel: (573) 882-3563 Fax: (573) 884-4940
E-Mail: PreckshotR(),missouri.edu


See our website for more information:
che.missouri.edu


Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007


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University of Missouri-Rolla


Graduate Studies in


Chemical Engineering

Offering M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees


Established in 1870 as the University of Missouri School ofMines and
Metallurgy, UMR has evolved into Missouri's technological university.
UMR is a medium-sized campus of about 5,000 students located along
Interstate 44 approximately 100 miles from St. Louis and Springfield.
Its proximity in the Missouri Ozarks provides plenty of scenic and rec-
reational opportunities.

The University of Missouri-Rolla's mission is to educate tomorrow's
leaders in engineering and science. UMR offers a full range of experi-
ences that are vital to the kind of comprehensive education that turns
young men and women into leaders. UMR has a distinguished faculty
dedicated wholeheartedly to the teaching, research, and creative activi-
ties necessary for scholarly learning experiences and advancements to
the frontiers ofknowledge.

Teaching and Research Apprenticeships available to M.S. and
Ph.D. students.
For additional information:
Address: Graduate Studies Coordinator
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering
University of Mssouri Rolla
Rolla, MO 65409 1230

Web: http://chemeng.umr.edu/
Onhne Applicaton: http://www.umr.edu/~cisapps/gradappd.html


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Effective January 1, 2008 UMR becomes Missouri University of
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(Source: National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Statistics, FY2005, Table 64). Faculty:
Faculty:


Besides telling you we have resources for exciting, cutting-edge research, what does
this mean? It speaks to the quality, energy and ingenuity of the faculty members at UNL
who propose and receive grants from the National Institutes for Health, the National
Science Foundation, the United States Army and other granting institutions.
Read the full text of our faculty's past and current papers, competitive grant
applications and patents at http://digitalcommons.unl.edu. At UNLyou'll find
faculty who bring passion into both the research laboratory and the classroom
with exciting studies like:
Developing new regenerative medical materials and therapies using
bio- and nanotechnologies to speed the repair and regrowth of bone,
blood vessels and soft tissues in vivo
Developing cutting edge genomic techniques like ultra-fast polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) to search for emerging disease threats such as
antibiotic-resistant tuberculosis
Using proteomic instruments like a specialized mass spectrometer
designed to search for new genetically engineered protein medicines
Developing a new pliable bandage that can stop fatal bleeding from
trauma in civilian and military applications


* Partnering with international health care systems to develop abundant
supplies of hemophilia medicines from the milk of genetically engineered
livestock to treat 80% of the world's hemophilia patients
* Discovering a device to give robots a human sense of touch using
nanotechnology
* Developing a process for sustainable biofuels production


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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 321


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at New Jersey Institute of Technology
The Faculty:
P. Armenante: University of Virginia
B. Baltzis: University of Minnesota
R. Barat: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
R. Dave: Utah State University
E. Dreizin: Odessa University, Ukraine
C. Gogos: Princeton University
T. Greenstein: New York University
D. Hanesian: Cornell University
K. Hyun: University of Missouri-Columbia
B. Khusid: Heat and Mass Transfer Inst., Minsk USSR
H. Kimmel: City University of New York
D. Knox: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
N. Loney: New Jersey Institute of Technology
A. Perna: University of Connecticut
R. Pfeffer: (Emeritus); New York University
L. Simon: Colorado State University
K. Sirkar: University of Illinois-Urbana
R. Tomkins: University of London (UK)
M. Xanthos: University of Toronto (Canada)
M. Young: Stevens Institute of Technology
For further information contact:
Dr. Reginald P.T. Tomkins, Department of Chemical Engineering
New Jersey Institute of Technology
University Heights
Newark, NJ 07102-1982
Phone: (973) 596-5656 Fax: (973) 596-8436
E-mail: tomkinsr@adm.njit.edu



NJIT
New Jersey Institute of Technology
NJIT does not discriminate on the basis of gender, sexual orientation, race, handicap, veteran's status, national or
ethnic origin or age in the administration of student programs Campus facilities are accessible to the disabled


Chemical Engineering Education




Full Text



PAGE 1

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 225 Chemical Engineering Education Volume 41 Number 4 Fall 2007 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Eng i neering Division, American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of Florida. Co r respondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Copyright 2005 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies r e placed if notified within 120 days of pu b lication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and availability. POSTMAS TER: Send address changes to Chemical Engineering Education, Chemical Engineering Department., University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Periodicals Postage Paid at Gainesville, Florida, and additional post offices (USPS 101900). PUBLICATIONS BOARD EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS: Chemical Engineering Education Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 PHONE and FAX : 352-392-0861 EDITOR Tim Anderson ASSOCIATE EDITOR Phillip C. Wankat MANAGING EDITOR Lynn Heasley PROBLEM EDITOR James O. Wilkes, U. Michigan LEARNING IN INDUSTRY EDITOR William J. Koros, Georgia Institute of Technology EDITORIAL ASSISTANT Nicholas Rosinia CHAIRMAN John P. OConnell University of Virginia PAST CHAIRMAN E. Dendy Sloan, Jr. Colorado School of Mines MEMBERS Kristi Anseth University of Colorado Thomas F. Edgar University of Texas at Austin Richard M. Felder North Carolina State University H. Scott Fogler University of Michigan Carol K. Hall North Carolina State University Steve LeBlanc University of Toledo Ronald W. Rousseau Georgia Institute of Technology C. Stewart Slater Rowan University Donald R. Woods McMaster University GRADUATE EDUCATION 226 A Graduate Course in Theory and Methods of Research Joseph H. Holles 233 An Introduction to the Onsager Reciprocal Relations Charles W. Monroe and John Newman RANDOM THOUGHTS 239 Why Me, Lord? Richard M. Felder LABORATORY 241 Illustrating Chromatography with Colorful Proteins Brian G. Lefebvre, Stephanie Farrell, and Richard S. Dominiak CURRICULUM 247 An Introductory Course in Bioengineering and Biotechnology for Chemical Engineering Sophomores Kim C. OConnor 258 Teaching Reaction Engineering Using the Attainable Region Matthew J. Metzger, Benjamin J. Glasser, David Glasser, Brendon Hausberger, and Diane Hildebrandt CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS 253 Incorporation of Data Analysis Throughout the ChE Curriculum Made Easy with DataFit James R. Brenner

PAGE 2

Chemical Engineering Education 226 I n todays university typical graduate students are be coming less common. Students continue to enter gradu ate school directly from undergraduate programs in the traditional manner, but many do not. Alternatives include returning to graduate school after working for a few years, midor late-career professionals seeking advanced degrees, and students with bachelors degrees in different disciplines. Although many positives can result from this situation it is also not without its disadvantages. For example, a wide range of students can also result in a wide range of student concepts of and expectations for graduate school. Over several years, those in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Michigan Tech observed that graduate students often did not posses the necessary skills to deliver proper professional presentations. Clearly, this ability is a neces sity for graduate school ( e.g. research group presentations, defense). Additionally, as future workforce members with advanced degrees, these students will be expected to give professional presentations in their jobs. The initial approach to address this problem was to require all incoming graduate students to give a formal department-wide presentation during since no one was responsible for ensuring that all students were indeed meeting this requirement. As such, another method was developed to ensure that students were not only gaining experience in delivering professional presentations, but were also being educated on how to prepare and deliver presentations. From this original focus on professional pre sentations, the course has evolved to include other topics of interest to graduate students. METHODS The Department of Chemical Engineering at Michigan Technological University developed a graduate course entitled Theory and Methods of Research. This course is required for all chemical engineering graduate students. The class is A GRADUA TE COURSE IN THEORY AND METHODS OF RESEARCH JOSEPH H. HOLLES Michigan Technological University Houghton, MI 49931 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2007

PAGE 3

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 227 graduate school, meets three days each week for one hour, and is three credits. Required graduate courses account for 15 credits in our program and no course was deleted when this course was started. Typically, seven to 13 students take this class. Currently, the major goals of this course are: 1) Equip the students with the skills and experience to prepare and present professional presentations, and 2) Educate the stu dents about many of the common experiences that make up graduate school. Thus, the original concept has grown to include equipping the students with a greater variety of oral and written communication skills that they will require as a graduate student. Other institutions have taken a variety of approaches to educating their students about the graduate experience. A course that has many similarities with ours is Arizona State students. [1] Other courses that contain a smaller subset of comparable topics include: Introduction to Literature Re view and Proposal Writing at the University of Iowa, with a similar goal of improving oral and written communication skills [2] ; and a thermodynamics course at Mississippi State that includes the investigation of the role of journal articles in research. [3] More narrowly focused courses have also been developed with an emphasis on educating engineering students about learning processes and resources to help them in a teach ing career. [4, 5] Additionally, a workshop was developed to fo cus on major communications required to obtain an advanced degree in engineering [6] ; techniques for helping faculty teach the research process were presented [7] ; and common difficulties facing graduate stu dents were discussed along with possible actions to deal with them. [8] RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Reference informa tion for the Theory and Methods class comes from a wide va riety of sources. Two required books have been selected: A Ph.D. Is Not Enough by Pe ter J. Feibelman [9] and Graduate Research by Robert V. Smith. [10] These books cover many of the topics discussed in class and can continue to serve as handbooks for the students throughout their graduate and professional careers. In addition, all students are provided with a copy of On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research by the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy of the National Research Council. [11] The course is started with a lecture on Why Graduate School? Since the students are already attending graduate school, this discussion may appear to be too late, but in fact many still have doubts. The lecture revisits several typical reasons for attending graduate school and allows students to voice their own reasons, reinforcing students motivation for school are discussed, including what graduate school can do for the student and also what graduate school will not do. The different components of graduate school such as class work, seminars, teaching assistantships, and research are introduced. This lecture also provides an opportunity to outline a few of the career options available to students once they have completed a graduate degree. The second class session focuses on library usage. For this session, the reference librarian serves as a guest lecturer. This search engines and databases available to them. The librarians relevant to chemical engineers ( e.g., SciFinder Scholar ). In ad dition, this class serves to guide the students away from URLs as references and towards scholarly books and journals. A typi cal schedule for the entire semester is shown in Table 1. T ABLE 1 Typical Class Schedule Week Session Topic Week Session Topic 1 1 2 3 Welcome/Introduction Library Why Grad School? 8 1 2 3 Paper Writing Paper Writing Paper Writing 2 1 2 3 Holiday Communications Basics No Class 9 1 2 3 Ethics Ethics Ethics 3 1 2 3 Presentations Presentations Writing Abstracts 10 1 2 3 Student Led Ethics Discussions Student Led Ethics Discussions Student Led Ethics Discussions 4 1 2 3 Copyright 11 1 2 3 AICHE Conference AICHE Conference AICHE Conference 5 1 2 3 1st Student Presentation 1st Student Presentation 1st Student Presentation 12 1 2 3 Patents Research Notebooks 2nd Student Presentation 6 1 2 3 1st Student Presentation 1st Student Presentation 1st Student Presentation 13 1 2 3 2nd Student Presentation 2nd Student Presentation 2nd Student Presentation 7 1 2 3 1st Student Presentation Proposal Writing Proposal Writing 14 1 2 3 2nd Student Presentation 2nd Student Presentation 2nd Student Presentation

PAGE 4

Chemical Engineering Education 228 broken down into four separate assignments. To initiate this preparation, the next course topic is communication basics. Since this topic applies to all types of communication sub sequently discussed in the course (outline, presentation, and focus of the course is on memo writing. Students that have had previous industrial experience can provide valuable input at this point. They usually have examples of both good and bad memos, and other students are very receptive to real-life experiences of their classmates. The basics of memo writing lead into Assignment 1 (all assignments and the skills or concepts they reinforce are summarized in Table 2), which struments, or techniques that will be useful to the students to encourage the students to think about their own research and to talk to their advisors. If student-advisor pairings have serves as the basis for next three assignments. A master list of all the topics mentioned in the memos is compiled and the most frequently listed and widely applicable topics are noted. presentation. At this point the students prepare an outline of the topic they have selected for their upcoming presentation (Assignment 2). In this manner the students are required to both learn about their topic and break down what they wish to talk about. In addition, library skills are reinforced since the students must use the library to obtain information for their presentation. Once the outline is complete, the students begin preparation of their presentation. In parallel, the students also prepare an abstract of their talk (Assignment 3). Preceding this assignment, one class period is devoted to a discussion on writing abstracts. The focus is on abstracts most relevant to graduate school: journal article, presentation, and proposal to present. In this situation, the students prepare an abstract for their presentation. Since the research method, in strument, or technique may be of interest to others outside of class, the abstract is e-mailed to all the faculty and graduate students in the department with an invitation for them to attend the subsequent presentation. Prior to the presentation, two class periods are devoted to covering the mechanics of successful presentations. One example that is extremely practical is by Prof. Niemants verdriet, [13] while a more thorough treatise on preparing Presentations by Alley. [14] Assignment 4 is to prepare and deliver the presentation on their chosen topic. In this way the students learn about the research method, instrument, or technique and also educate this approach is that the students can be exposed to a number talks are 20 to 25 minutes long. One of the requirements for this assignment is to include a detailed example of how the research method, instrument, or technique is used to solve a current research problem. Again, this requirement allows the students to integrate their research into the coursework. When the students deliver their presentation, their fellow students help with the evaluation. I use an advance copy of the presentation to prepare a short true/false and multiplechoice quiz. This quiz is an attempt to gauge the ability of the presenter to convey knowledge about his or her topic. during the presentation. In addition, each student in the class completes a peer evaluation of the presentation. Since T ABLE 2 Assignments Number Topic Skills/Concepts Reinforced 1 Research Methods, Instruments, and Techniques Memo Library, Written Communication, Advi sor Discussion, Research Integration 2 Topic Selection and Outline Preparation Library 3 Abstract of Presentation Written Communication 4 Research Methods, Instruments, and Techniques Presentation Oral Presentation, Research Methods, Research Integration 5 Written Grant Proposal Written Communication, Advisor Discussion, Research Integration 6 Classroom Ethics Discussion Communication 7 Critical Review of Journal Article Method, Writing Journal Articles, Ethics, Advisor Discussion, Research Integration Since the research method, instrument, or technique may be of interest to others outside of class, the abstract is e-mailed to all the faculty and graduate students in the department with an invitation for them to attend the subsequent presentation.

PAGE 5

Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 229 different people focus on different things, many comments develop. An instructor evaluation is also completed. All evaluations are anonymous and are shown to the presenter as a feedback mechanism. Peer evaluations are extremely effec tive as students tend to take criticism from their peers more constructively than from the instructor. Also, by performing a peer evaluation, class members are forced to consider what the speaker is doing and if they could somehow do it better in their own presentation. The class focus then shifts from oral to written communica tion. For Assignment 5, the students select a source and apply for funding to support their graduate studies. First, the students must identify a potential funding source in discussion with their advisors. Once thats done, the assignment is to com plete all necessary applications and formsnot only for the funding agency, but also any forms required by the research written communication was not part of the original course, but was added as a result of student and advisor evaluations and feedback. This topic provides an opportunity to have a guest lecturer from outside the department. On several occasions, this lecture. Getting Science Grants by Blackburn [15] serves as a reference for this topic. Once the students have completed the assignment, little additional work is required to actually submit the proposal. Student effort for the last step does not go unrewarded since the graduate school will give students $100 for each proposal they submit. To date, three proposals have been submitted as a result of this assignment; none have yet been funded, however. This topic can be covered while the students are complet tion. This set of lectures is broken into two main topics: the mechanical and descriptive process of preparing a paper for publication and of the sections of a paper, and a personal ap proach to writing papers. The discussion is initiated by examining why papers are upon results, to gain tenure, and as evidence to funding agen cies of progress. This is followed by discussing the mechanics of manuscript submission, from selecting a journal to ordering reprints. The different types of journal articles such as com munication, regular article, note, review, or letter are also discussed. Discussions on journal hierarchy and the journals impact factor are also included. This section is concluded T ABLE 3 Ethical Issues Cases References The Baltimore Case Kevles, D.J., The Baltimore Case W.W. Norton, New York Sarasohn, J., Science on Trial St. Martins Press, New York Stone, R., and E. Marshall, Science 266 (1994) 1468 Gavaghan, H., Nature 372 (1994) 391 Kaiser, J., and E. Marshall, Science 272 (1996) 1864 Steele, F., Nature, 381 (1996) 719 Cold Fusion Taubes, G., Bad Science Random House, New York Close, F., Too Hot to Handle Princeton University Press, Princeton Huizenga, J., University of Rochester Press, Rochester Cold Fusion Redux Kennedy, D., Science 295 (2002) 1793 Seife, C., Science 295 (2002) 1808 Bechetti, F.D., Science 295 (2002) 1850 The Undiscovered Elements Weiss, P., Science News 155 (1999) 372 Seife, C., Science 297 (2002) 313 Dalton, R., Nature 420 (2002) 728 Wilson, E., Chemical & Engineering News 80 (29) (2002) 12 Schwarz/Mirken Marshall, E., Science 292 (2002) 2411 Adam, D., Nature 412 (2001) 669 Ritter, S., Chemical & Engineering News 79 (25) (2001) 40 Schwarz, P., C. Mirkin, and L. Villa-Komaroff, Letters to the Editor, Chemical and Engineering News 79 (31) (2001) 8 Ritter, S., Chemical and Engineering News 79 (46) (2001) 24 J. Schon at Bell Labs Dalton, R., Nature 420 (2002) 728 Jacoby, M., Chemical & Engineering News 80 (44) (2002) 31 Nature, 429 (2004) 692 Schon and Coauthors available at:

PAGE 6

Chemical Engineering Education 230 by examining the sections of the paper (title, abstract, introduction, etc.) individually and discussing the importance and reason for each section. Authorship issues involved with journal articles are also discussed at this point. A little groundwork here will pay off later during the ethics discussion (viz. the J.H. Schon affair, see Table 3, previous page). Guidelines on the responsibilities of co-authors and collaborators by the American Chemical Society [16] and the American Physical Society [17] are examined and discussed. Finally, the students are encouraged to read and follow the instructions for authors prepared by journal editors. In the second portion of this subject, a personal approach to paper writing is presented: start with the experimental section, then proceed through the results, discussion, introduc tion, conclusions, and end with the abstract. Although this approach is not original, it is a method the students can fall back on to avoid procrastination and writers block. The students are also warned that all advisors may not write papers in the same manner, and they are encouraged to learn how their advisors write papers by both reading previous work and talking to them. The initial classroom lecture focuses on some of the common ethical situations in sci ence and engineering. These include plagiarism, data manipulation, authorship issues, and grant and manuscript review. Data manipulation is further elaborated by breaking it down into three categories: Trimming, Cooking, and Forging. The students then read On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research [11] and discuss the nine hypothetical scenarios presented within. These scenarios are excellent since they focus on many big-picture ate student perspective. Each of the scenarios provides several questions to initiate the classroom discussion. The booklet also contains an appendix with a short discussion of how the situation presented in each scenario can be addressed or further explored. The appendix is withheld from the students until after the discussion in order to encourage them to come up with their own ideas. Many additional vignettes can found in The Ethi cal Chemist by Kovac. [18] Each student then leads a short classroom discussion (15-20 minutes) of an important cur rent ethics issue in science and engineering (Assignment 6). The short scenario and question style of the National Research Council booklet serves as a template for the students preparing the classroom discussions. Potential topics and references for the student-led discussions are listed in Table 3. This assignment also has the students doing more literature searches, thus reinforcing library skills. Finally, although less formal than the other two presentations, this is another opportunity to build upon their presentation skills. The concluding topic for the course is a critical review of a journal article (Assignment 7) assignment since it incorporates a number of the topics that have been previously covered in class. These topics include writing abstracts, writing journal articles, data presentation, ing for this review. It is strongly suggested that they select a manuscript relevant to their research. Again, discussion with an advisor can help them select an appropriate article. The knowledge to allow a fairly in-depth critical exam of the journal article. The students are free to critique anything about the article, including the layout and the typesetting. While the authors of the article do not have much control over these issues, the students learn a little more about the process of publishing an article. Since the student has received feedback on their his or her presentation, the comments from that presentation are reviewed to see if the student has made changes and improvements. Th e concluding topic for the course is a critical review of a journal article (Assign ment 7) deliv ered as a class presentation . . The students are free to critique anything about the article, including the layout and the typesetting.

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 231 developed from the corresponding material in Feibelman [9] and Smith [10] along with The Craft of Research by Booth, Colomb, and Williams. [12] Observation, Hypothesis, Experimentation, and Interpretation. In practice, observation and hypothesis are usually done in advance by the advisor and the student performs the experimentation and interpretation steps. Thus, it is important to spend some time educat ing the students about the entire process. The discussion of experimentation is very open ended since it can include a wide variety of topics including statistical analysis and design Interspersed throughout the course are additional topics such as copyrights, patents, and research notebooks. These topics are all stand-alone and can be moved around as neces sary to adjust the class schedule. Patent Fundamentals for Scientists and Engineers by Gordon and Cookfair serves as a resource for the patent discussion. [19] Before discussing research notebooks, determine if the university, college, or department has developed a set of guidelines for notebooks. If so, these guidelines can serve as the basis for this lecture. Finally, Kanares book is a good reference on research notebooks. [20] In addition, the classes on copyrights and patents present additional opportunities to bring outside application has presented this lecture. A patent lawyer or a representative from the intel Throughout this class, two additional major concepts are continually reinforced. First, class members are reminded that as graduate students, it is necessary to talk to your advisor and discuss what you are doing and why you are doing it. Too many students of all backgrounds seem to maintain an undergraduate relationship with their professor and only talk to him or her when they have a problem. Many of the exercises in this class are Second, the students need to understand what a graduate education entails. Many faculty members would agree with the statement that it is the students degree and not theirs. If the students understand what they must do to attain their graduate degree and take ownership of that degree, it will be more valuable to them. To encourage this concept, this course attempts to cover many topics important to graduate school success that are not covered in other formal courses. Feedback has been obtained through end-of-course evaluations by the students and in formally from the faculty. Feedback from both the faculty and students has been extremely their presentation skills across the board, thus meeting the original goal of this class. In addition, they have noted that students are better able to digest literature articles and ex tract critical information. Finally, the faculty state that students have shown an improved understanding of the research process, allowing them to get organized and more quickly proceed through the background research of their projects. In line with the course goals, the students also state that the class has improved their presentation skills. The students also demonstrate enthusiasm for the lectures on copy rights, patents, and ethics. The students have indicated that the assignment they like the most and learn the most from is the critical journal article review (Assignment 7). Most students also cite this assignment as most useful when performing future research. The student-led ethics discussions are also very popular due to the sometimes soap opera nature of the events. Student feedback was also the impetus for the addition of the Proposal Writing as Too many students of all backgrounds seem to maintain an undergradu ate relationship with their profes sor and only talk to him or her when they have a problem. Many of the exercises in this class are signed to avoid this problem by encouraging advisor/student interaction

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Chemical Engineering Education 232 was that a proposal writing section was needed. The faculty has also strongly supported this additional assignment as it allows the students to knowledgeably assist them as they write proposals. CONCLUSION The original concept of effective oral communication has served as the foundation for growth of a broad-based gradu ate course covering topics that are vital not only in graduate school but also in the professional world. In addition to communication skills, other topics vital to obtaining the full graduate school experience can be systematically discussed within the boundaries of this course. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Burrows, V.A., and S.P. Beaudoin, A Graduate Course in Research Methods. Chem. Eng. Ed. 35 (4), 236 (2001) 2. Jessop, J.L., Helping Our International Students Succeed in Commu nication, Proceedings American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference Montreal (2002) 3. Hill, P.J., Teaching Entering Graduate Students the Role of Journal Articles in Research, Chem. Eng. Ed. 40 (4), 246 (2006) 4. Bates, R.A., and A.R. Linse, Preparing Future Engineering Faculty Through Active Learning, Proceedings American Society for Engi neering Education Annual Conference Nashville, TN (2003) 5. Wankat, P.C., and F.S. Oreovicz, An Education Course for Engineering Graduate Students, Proceedings American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference Charlotte, NC (1999) ate Students in Professional Communications: An Interdisciplinary Workshop Approach, Proceedings American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference Montreal (2002) 7. Lilja, D.J., Suggestions for Teaching the Engineering Research Pro cess, Proceedings American Society of Engineering Education Annual Conference Milwaukee (1997) 8. Mullenax, C., Making LemonadeDealing with the Unknown, Unexpected, and Unwanted During Graduate Study, Proceedings American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference Salt Lake City (2004) 9. Feibelman, P.J., A Ph.D. Is Not Enough Perseus Books, Reading, MA (1993) 10. Smith, R.V., Graduate Research: A Guide for Students in the Sciences 3rd Ed., University of Washington Press, Seattle (1998) 11. Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, On Being a Scientist; Responsible Conduct in Research National Research Coun cil, Washington, DC (1995) 12. Booth, W.C., G.C. Colomb, and J.M. Williams, The Craft of Research 2nd Ed., The University of Chicago Press, Chicago (2003) 13. Niemantsverdriet, H.M., How to Give Successful Oral and Poster Pre sentations, [cited 2005; Available from: ] 14. Alley, M., ceed and Critical Errors to Avoid Springer, New York (2003) 15. Blackburn, T.R., Getting Science Grants; Effective Strategies for Funding Success Jossey-Bass, San Francisco (2003) 16. Ethical Guidelines to Publication of Chemical Research, [cited 2005; Available from: ] 17. APS Guidelines for Professional Conduct, [cited 2005; Available from: ] 18. Kovac, J., The Ethical Chemist; Professionalism and Ethics in Science Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2004) 19. Gordon, T.T., and A.S. Cookfair, Patent Fundamentals for Scientists and Engineers 2nd Ed., Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL (2000) 20. Kanare, H.M., Writing the Laboratory Notebook American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. (1985)

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 233 A n important question stimulated the fundamental de velopment of multicomponent transport theory: How many independent transport properties characterize coupled diffusion? The answer was provided by Onsager, who thermodynamics, transport theory, and statistical mechanics. To illustrate this connection, a relation is derived here for the Soret and Dufour effects in binary ideal-gas diffusion. Reciprocal relations may be appropriately introduced in graduate courses on thermodynamics, transport, or statistical mechanics. The subject can provide a capstone to a thermo dynamics course, where it shows how thermodynamic meth ods extend to transport processes. In a transport course, the eventual development of reciprocal relations can motivate a formulation of thermodynamically consistent multicomponent transport laws. when analyzing systems near equilibrium, the reciprocal relation introduces several elementary properties of equilib rium correlations. In a statistical context, the derivation also provides a means to review topics from thermodynamics and transport, illustrating how these seemingly disparate This discussion follows the method that Onsager employed in his seminal papers on irreversible processes. [1, 2] By inspec tion of the systems local energy dissipation, macroscopic modynamic driving forces. Conservation laws for heat and mass then provide a set of differential equations that describes how macroscopic nonequilibrium states evolve. The Onsager regression hypothesis allows this system of equations to be applied to the time evolution of correlations between mireciprocal relation arises from the principle of microscopic tuation correlations. Equilibrium statistical mechanics can then be used to express the reciprocal relation in terms of macroscopic properties. Flux laws that account for the Soret and Dufour effects in a binary gas include four phenomenological properties. These are the binary diffusivity D 12 the thermal conductivity k, and Onsagers procedure provides a reciprocal relation among them, showing that only three are independent. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE ONSAGER RECIPROCAL RELA TIONSCHARLES W. MONROE Imperial College London, SW72AZ, UK JOHN NEWMAN Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1462 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2007

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Chemical Engineering Education 234 FLUX LA WS Flux laws must satisfy several requirements. Near equilib zero. Proper diffusion laws should involve kinematically ing forces. The diffusion of component i can be induced by gradients i (Fickian diffusion), temperature T (the Soret effect), or pressure p (centrifugation). A generalized d ii i i i cS T M p 1 where c i is the concentration of i, M i its molar mass, and S i its partial molar entropy; is the density. The term with p cor rects for the equilibrium chemical potential gradient of pure i T makes d i i Because i d i = 0, the number of independent mass-transfer driving forces is one fewer than the number of components. For a binary system, the entropy-continuity equation is DS Dt T SS g 2 q JJ 11 22 where t is time, S J i of i relative to the mass-average velocity, and g is the local rate of entropy generation; q is a derived quantity, obtained by subtracting the latent heat carried by diffusing species from This equation can be manipulated with the material, momentum, and energy continuity equations, the all of the substantial derivatives. The energy dissipation per unit volume, Tg, then takes the form Tg T 3 qv vd 'l n 12 1 where v 1 and v 2 are the component velocities. Thus q and with heat transfer. linear, homogeneous relations, with four phenomenological proportionality constants ( i.e. qq L q1 L 1q and L 11 : LT L LT L qq q q q d vv l n ln 11 12 1 1 1 d d 1 4 Here L 1q accounts for the Soret effect, and L q1 the Dufour effect. (In an anisotropic system, each of the L ij would gener ally be a tensor.) For a binary ideal gas at uniform pressure, Eqs. (4) be come kT RT cL y LT Tq q q vv ln 11 12 1 1 D 2 2 12 1 yy y 5 where y i is the mole fraction of component i and c T = c 1 + c 2 In Eqs. (5), L qq tivity), and RT L 11 as D 12 /y 1 y 2 (proportional to the binary diffusivity), so that Fouriers and Ficks laws appear when one of the driving forces is absent. The reciprocal relation transport properties. TRANSPORT AND MOMENTS Later it will be important to know how conservation laws for mass and energy control system evolution. This can be elucidated by describing a transient macroscopic variation within the system. General solutions of the continuum trans port equations for arbitrary initial variations of composition and temperature specify how composition changes, with the assumption in the present example that the system is at uniform pressure. Continuity equations govern both components and the thermal energy. The choice of system dictates an isobaric fusion in one direction. To simplify the analysis, consider a one-dimensional slab of length L. Assume that displacements A difference between the two equations that express compo nent continuity yields a single equation in terms of ( v 1 v 2 ), and the sum of mole fractions, y 1 + y 2 = 1, can be used to eliminate derivatives of y 2 Thus two transient equations of the form 1 2 2 2 1 2 T T t k cC T T x RL C y x T p q1 p y t yyL T T x y x 6 1 2 1q 12 1 2 2 2 1 2 D govern y 1 and T. Here x denotes the position within the slab. It is preferable to simplify Eqs. (6) so that they depend only q then q = q i H i J i where H i is the partial molar enthalpy of i. For a simple example of this procedure, see Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot. [3] A detailed derivation is given by Hirschfelder, Curtiss, and Bird. [4]

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 235 on time. To do this Onsager examined the moments of y 1 and Tthat is, their distributions integrated over position. The slab is closed and insulated; its total contents of material and energy are constant in time. This manifests itself as a property of the moments, such as yt xy dx 7 L 1 1 0 0 ]. Fourier series obey the properties of the moments and can be used to describe y 1 and T. Cosine series meet the additional expansions of the temperature and composition distribution are given by TT T at mx L yy bt m m m co s co s 1 11 m mx L 8 m 1 These have been written so that both a m and b m are dimen sionless. Substitution of Eqs. (8) into Eqs. (6) yields a system of ordinary differential equations. To separate the Fourier components by wave number m, multiply each equation by orthogonality of the cosine function shows that different harmonics are decoupled, and one obtains da d k cC a RL C b db d yy m T p m q p m m 1 2 1 L La b 9 q m1 2 m 1 D 2 2 t/L 2 Eqs. (9) can be solved directly, yielding functions that describe how the amplitudes of arbitrary initial distributions decay with time. This general formulation of the macroscopic problem sets the stage for statistical analysis. ST A TISTICAL MECHANICS AND TIME CORRELA TIONS At macroscopic equilibrium, constant values T = T and y 1 = y 1 prevail throughout the slab. This view belies the microscopic reality. As time passes, particles move randomly, causing local variations in the temperature and composition. Imagine taking a snapshot of the slab at equilibrium and mapping out T and y 1 with position; the distributions will be nearly, but not exactly, uniform. Such an instantaneous sample is called a Equilibrium itself is an aggregate Onsagers regression hypothesis states that evolve according to the laws that govern macroscopic varia tions In practice, the regression hypothesis allows a m and b m to be used as descriptors of microscopic states. For instance, it says that Eqs. (9), which govern macroscopic variations, en semble properties differ from those of a system with uniformly dis tributed intensive properties. Averages over the ensemble of Correlations measure the degree to which two attributes of a system vary together. The ensemble average of a pair ab mm indicates how a m and b m are selected at random, how much one expects the value of a m to correspond with that of b m With the regression hypothesis, the equations from transport theory can also be used to analyze The average ab mm 00 initial correla tion between a m and b m 0 instantaneous observations of the system. A more general The time correlation between a m 0 and b m at a later instant 0 Ca b 1 0 ab mm 00 is expressed with the shorthand notation C ab ab (0) represents the initial correlation, which is also written with the shorthand notation C ab 0 To apply the regression hypothesis to Eqs. (9), multiply each successively by a m 0 ) and b m 0 ), then take the ensemble average, yielding four differential equations for the time initial conditions. With the simplifying notation k cC and yyR L T p 0 1 2 22 12 2 D 1 11 11 q q p L C is a linear operator. The initial correlations section discusses the averaging operation in more detail. Reciprocal relations may be appropriately introduced in graduate courses on thermody namics, transport, or statistical mechanics.

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Chemical Engineering Education 236 the time correlations become C= Ce aa aa 0 0 0 0 cosh si nh C LR C e C= C ab q p ba ba 0 1 0 0 si nh 0 0 0 0 0 0 e C L bb q cosh si nh 1 1 0 0 0 R C e C= Ce p ab ab si nh co s h hs in h 0 0 0 0 1 C Ly y aa q 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 e C= Ce bb bb si nh cosh 0 0 0 1 0 si nh si C Ly y e ba q 1 2 n nh 0 12 Initial correlations decay exponentially, with decay constants + 0 + 0 ). (Thermodynamic stability requires that both constants be positive.) MICROSCOPIC REVERSIBILITY AND RECIPROCAL RELA TIONS In an equilibrium ensemble, time correlations have symme try properties that lead to reciprocal relations. These properties arise from the principle of microscopic reversibility Onsagers interpretation of this principle is that, at equilib rium, molecular processes occur with equal likelihood in the forward and reverse directions That is, the expectation that ago by the second event, or ab ab mm mm 00 00 13 This property is also called time-reversal symmetry [5] Because equilibrium is a stationary condition, time correla 0 in Eq. 10. Replacement of 0 0 ab ab mm m m 00 0 0 14 which is also known as the principle of time-translational invariance With Eq. (13), the principle of time-translational invariance can be used to show ab ab or C mm m m a 00 0 0 b b b a C 15 which phrases the principle of microscopic reversibility: the 0 will be followed 0 [6] Figure 1 presents the qualitative behavior of time correla tion C aa The regression hypothesis showed that correlations decay exponentially. The decay is symmetric in the forward and reverse directions because of microscopic reversibility. A reciprocal relation is obtained directly from the statement of microscopic reversibility in Eq. (15). Equating C ab to C ba from Eq. (12) relates the transport properties to the initial correlations C aa 0 C bb 0 and C ab 0 (= C ba 0 ) through L Cy y R C C L C q p 1 2 aa 0 bb 0 q p 12 1 1 D R R k Rc C C T ab 0 bb 0 16 This is the most general statement of the reciprocal relation for thermal diffusion in an isotropic, isobaric, binary ideal-gas as shown shortly. INITIAL CORRELA TIONS To get the magnitudes of the initial correlations in terms of macroscopic quantities, Onsager applied statistical methods to [7] This axiom allows to be simply related to a thermodynamic potential. Once the probability density is known, it can be used to compute ensemble averages. Figure 1. Qualitative behavior of the decay of correlation C aa with correlation time

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 237 Because the system in question here is adiabatic, the dis tribution of states within the ensemble is determined by the entropy S. The principle of equal probability shows that the Sk B ln 17 where k B tuations introduce some microscopic order; therefore, when states within the ensemble, p can be written as p 1 18 N S k B ex p where N is a normalization factor to make the sum of p over all accessible S equal to unity. The ensemble average of a property f, f is given by integrating f p over all states (over all values of a m and b m at every m, at a given instant). For instance, Ca b a bS da db ab 0 mm mm mm 00 19 p To implement integrations like this one, S must be stated in m and b m In the present example of a binary ideal gas, the system entropy can be expressed as an integral over the slab volume. It depends on T and y 1 through SR c C R Ty yy yp T p ln ln ln ln 11 1 1 11 dV 20 For small displacements from uniform distributions, S can be found in terms of a m and b m as follows. Let S be the system entropy when y 1 and T are uniform. Express y 1 and T in the integrand of Eq. (20) as linear perturbations around y 1 and T Then insert the Fourier series from Eqs. (8) for the linear perturbations and perform the integration. Constant terms contribute to S and linear terms vanish, leaving only qua dratic terms. (For large systems, terms of higher than second order are negligibly small.) Thus SS nR 4 C R a yy b T p m 1 2 m 2 0 2 0 0 1 m 1 21 where n T is the total number of gas molecules in moles. This form of S has the correct qualitative properties; any nonzero a m 0 ) or b m 0 ) lowers the entropy from its maximum value when a m 0 ) = b m 0 ) = 0. f = a m 0 ) b m 0 ) and p given through Eqs. (18) and (21), one CC ab 0 ba 0 0 2 2 The other initial correlations, found with f = a m 0 ) a m 0 ) and f = b m 0 ) b m 0 ), are C A yy and C AC R aa 0 m 1 2 bb 0 mp 23 Note that they are always positive. In these expressions, A m is a constant, which depends in a rather complicated way on and the probability m may depend (16) involves only ratios of correlations. Thus the prefactor cancels, and the reciprocal relation is independent of the wavenumber. Values of the initial correlations from Eqs. (22) and (23) can be inserted into Eq. (16), revealing that LL qq 11 24 This establishes the desired reciprocal relation. The transport Proper application of Onsagers principles, as demonstrated above, may not always lead to such a simple result. In general, a reciprocal relation yields only the same number of relation ships among transport properties as a symmetry of the matrix L The symmetry expressed by Eq. (24) arose from Eq. (16) in large part because the system is an ideal gas, for which the When considering reciprocal relations for nonideal gases or constitutive laws for chemical potential. These additional appear in Eqs. (5), and can lead the cross-correlations to be nonzero, complicating the analysis somewhat. [8] It has not been established conclusively that this complication leads to DISCUSSION Onsager reciprocal relations are a compelling topic for study because of the important physical concepts involved, they interrelate. For simplicity, the possible dependences of c T and C p on y 1 and T have been neglected while deriving Eq. (20).

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Chemical Engineering Education 238 In this analysis, the mass-transfer driving forces were ex transfer was expressed relative to the velocity of component other complete set of composition variables (mass fractions, molar concentrations, etc.), or with any other reference veloc velocity, etc.). When linearizing around a uniform state, the same reciprocal relation is obtained no matter which variables are considered. was assumed to be adiabatic. For isothermal, isobaric systems one should express the probability density of states in terms volume, one should express p in terms of the Helmholtz free energy. This does not affect reciprocal relations for ideal-gas mixtures, but in nonideal cases the thermodynamic potential chosen for ensemble averaging may affect the initial cor relations. [8] Another issue is that the initial correlations appear to have In fact, the summations in Eq. (21) must terminate at some proaches molecular dimensions. The macroscopic theoretical result which was used to derive Eq. (21) does not properly describe this regime. The Onsager reciprocal relation is often cited as a general laws. It is important to realize that microscopic reversibility, which implies time-correlation symmetry, does not necessar ily imply a consequent symmetry of macroscopic transport properties. Given thermodynamically rigorous transport laws, macroscopic transport models. But no statistical proof based on the regression hypothesis substantiates this assertion for the equations typically used to describe simultaneous heat, mass, momentum, and charge transport within nonideal, mul and Truesdell [9] and has stood unresolved for almost 50 years. Recent attempts have been made to address the problem, but at present the discrepancy remains. [8, 10, 11] ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for CAR and Vehicle Technologies of the U.S. Department of Energy, under contract DE-AC03-76SF0098. Dr. Monroe was also supported by the Leverhulme Trust, grant F/07058/P. REFERENCES 1. Onsager, L., Reciprocal Relations in Irreversible Processes. I, Physi cal Rev. 37 (4) 405 (1931) 2. Onsager, L.,Reciprocal Relations in Irreversible Processes. II, Physi cal Rev. 38 (12) 2265 (1931) 3. Bird, R.B., W.E. Stewart, and E.N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena John Wiley and Sons, 1st Ed., 350, New York (1960) 4. Hirschfelder, J.O., C.F. Curtiss, and R.B. Bird, Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids John Wiley and Sons, New York (1954) 5. Callen, H.B., Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics John Wiley and Sons, 2nd Ed., New York (1985) 6. Tolman, R.C., The Principle of Microscopic Reversibility, Pro ceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 11 (7) 436 (1925) 7. Einstein, A. Theorie der Opaleszenz von homogenen Flssigkeiten und Flssigkeitsgemischen in der Nhe des kritischen Zustandes, Annalen der Physik 33 (4) 1275 (1910) 8. Monroe, C.W., and J. Newman, Onsager Reciprocal Relations for Stefan-Maxwell Diffusion, Indust. and Eng. Chemistry Research 45, 5361 (2006) 9. Coleman, B.D., and C. Truesdell, On the Reciprocal Relations of Onsager, J. Chem. Physics 33 (1) 28 (1960) 10. Wheeler, D.R., and J. Newman, Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Multicomponent Diffusion. 1. Equilibrium Method, J. Phys. Chem istry B 108, 18353 (2004) 11. Monroe, C.W., D.R. Wheeler, and J. Newman, Nonequilibrium Linear Response Theory, unpublished work.

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 239 C course, stands in front of your desk in obvious distress. He starts talking about the test he just failed, and then he tells you that he had a B average in his freshman year but things are falling apart this semester and hes failing most of his courses. As he talks, he gets more agitated and seems to this is my professorI cant lose it right in front of him. He makes a heroic effort to pull himself together, apologizes to you for taking your time, and turns and heads for the door. What should you do? This is one of several scenarios in the Crisis Clinic seg ment of the teaching workshops Rebecca Brent and I give. After presenting it, I assure the participants that it is not groups their responses to What should you do, and then I tell them the step-by-step procedure I follow in situations like that. Before I tell you, why dont you take a moment and think about what you would do (or what you did if youve already met Charlie). * Heres my algorithm. 1. I stop the student from leaving. to do anything useful to help. Say something like a minute, CharlieIve got some time now and Id really like He will almost certainly take you up on it. Hes clearly desperate, and if you indicate that youre willing to listen to him hell probably grab the offer with gratitude. 2. I reach into the left middle drawer of my desk, take out a box of tissues, and put it down in front of the student without saying a word. (That part is optionaldont do it if youre not comfortable with it.) Then I take a seat near him and wait until he regains control. Im giving two messages when I do this. First, Charlie doesnt have to hold himself back any longerif he wants to Sometimes students use the tissues, sometimes they dont. 3. going on in your life. There are many things I might hear. Charlie might simply be over his head academically, or he may have gotten behind early in the semester and cant manage to catch up, or he may be overloaded with work and/or extracurricular activities and Random Thoughts . .WHY ME, LORD?RICHARD M. FELDER North Carolina State University Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2007

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Chemical Engineering Education 240 is too exhausted to study or to be at his best on exams, or his learning style may be incompatible with the way his courses are being taught, or he could be homesick or anxious about a health problem or a death in the family or the breakup of a relationship, or he may be worried about losing the scholar ship thats keeping him in college, or he may have gone into engineering for reasons other than interest or aptitude (such as the promise of a high starting salary or because his father told him to become an engineer) and he actually hates it, or he could be abusing drugs or alcohol. Another possibil ity is that he is clinically depressed and has stopped taking his medications or has never been diagnosed and treated. Whatever he says, I listen and continue to gently probe until I believe I have the whole story, or as much of it as Charlie is willing to share. What I do next of course depends on what the story is. If it looks like a straightforward academic problem, I may try to persuade Charlie to get some tutoring in the courses hes having trouble with (in my upper right-hand drawer I have a list of campus resources with contact information for all the tutoring and academic counseling programs available to engi neering students) or I may decide to do some tutoring myself if I have the time and inclination. As a rule, though, when a student falls apart to the extent described in the scenario, something else is almost invariably going on. In the workshop, I ask the participants to suppose that this is the caseCharlie is clearly in a serious state of depression or anxiety related to a current crisis in his life or to a chronic condition. Then I ask, what dont you do at this point? How would you answer that question? The answer is, you dont behave like an engineer and start to problem-solvewhich is to say, you dont play therapist. You dont say This looks like a severe case of paranoiac schizophreniaI just read about that in Psychology Today Let me tell you what I think you should do. wrongits almost guaranteed to be wrongand if Charlie to live with the consequences. So, what do you do? 4. Most universities and colleges have counseling centers, some with counselors on call 24/7, and most smaller in stitutions have at least one individual available to provide counseling. Your job is to persuade Charlie to take advantage of this service. You have to be careful about how you do it, though: saying to a shrink as quickly as you can! will probably not get you where you want to go. story to him to make sure I got it right, getting him to correct me if necessary. Then I say derstand the problem, and its a real one. But what you campus in this situationits far more common than you would imagineand we have excellent counselors here who know good strategies for dealing with problems like options are. Then I go to my upper right-hand drawer, pull out the number of the Counseling Center, and try to persuade Charlie to call right then and make an appointmentor if the way hes been talking or acting suggests that he may be suicidal or a threat to someone else or simply in acute distress, I will walk with him to the Counseling Center, continuing to talk calmly and reassuringly to him and not leaving him until he is with a trained counselor. At that Of course you cant force students into counselingall you can do is persuade, and some may refuse (although most of the students I have tried to persuade have agreed to go). If he refuses, all I can do is proceed to Step 5unless again I believe that Charlie is a threat to himself or to others, in which case I will call the Counseling Center or Campus Security and let them know whats going on so they can do their own checking and intervene if necessary. (I have never had to do that, but it can happen.) In any case, the last step is: 5. Follow up. I make a point of periodically checking in with Charlie for at least several months after that initial meeting. liehow are you doing? Whats happening with that problem we talked about? Did you meet with the counselorhow did it go? Many depressed students who drop out or worse feel isolated, sensing that no one knows or cares whats going on with them. The knowledge that at least one of their teachers is concerned enough to inquire about them could go a long way toward helping them recover and start functioning effectively of what happens to Charlie, I can rest comfortably knowing that I have done all I can for him.* Like all professors Im occasionally forced to act as a counselor and like most of them I was never trained for this role, so I asked several excellent psychotherapistsElena Felder, Grace Finkle, Denise Moys, and Sheila Taubeto look over this column before I sent it in. I acknowledge with gratitude their helpful comments and suggestions. All of the Random Thoughts columns are now available on the World Wide Web at

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 241 A dvances in biology are prompting new discoveries in the biotechnology, pharmaceutical, medical technol ogy, and chemical industries. Developing commer cial-scale processes based on these advances requires that new chemical engineers clearly understand the biochemical of chemical engineering principles. [1] To deliver this knowl edge to students successfully, engineering educators require additional resources to illustrate relevant biological concepts throughout the curriculum. In a typical bioprocess, the majority of costs are associated with isolating and purifying the desired biological com pound. [2] 50% use some type of chromatography. [3] Exposing students to biochromatography provides an introduction to biosepara tions and the underlying biochemistry concepts. As separation processes are based on the physical and chemical properties of the product and chief impurities, a wide range of concepts can be included, such as overall cell composition, protein biochemistry, recombinant protein production techniques, and bioprocess optimization. Some bioseparation techniques (adsorption, ion exchange, and chromatography), however, are rate-based, time-dependent processes. [4] The use of visually appealing materials has been shown to motivate and captivate students in biology and chemical ILLUSTRA TING CHROMA TOGRAPHY WITH COLORFUL PROTEINSBRIAN G. LEFEBVRE, STEPHANIE FARRELL, AND RICHARD S. DOMINIAK Rowan University Glassboro, NJ 08028 ChE Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2007

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Chemical Engineering Education 242 engineering settings. [5-12] To overcome the educational chal lenges presented by the technical material, an anion exchange chromatography experiment using a pair of colorful proteins was developed. This paper presents a detailed description of the experiment and summarizes the effect of operating pa rameters on the quality of protein separation. This experiment could be applied in three settings: core chemical engineering courses focused on separation processes, unit operation labo ratory courses, and elective courses focused on biochemical engineering or bioseparations. ION EXCHANGE CHROMA TOGRAPHY Chromatography was developed early in the 20 th century by M.S. Tswett, who used the technique to separate plant pig ments. [13-15] Two recent articles have outlined the life of Tswett and the development of chromatography, and are available in References 16 and 17. The following quote describes the invention of the term chromatography by Tswett: of a pigment mixture, obeying a law, are resolved on the calcium carbonate column and then can be qualitatively and quantitatively determined. I call such a preparation a chromatogram and the corresponding method the chroma tography method. The word chromatography was an appropriate choice, as it is composed of two Greek rootschroma (color) and graphein (to write)leading to a literal translation of color writing. Although Tswett theoretically envisioned the concept of elution chromatography, where each compound migrates through the column and exits the column in the liquid phase, this was not actually used until the 1930s by others. Tswett preferred to end his chromatographic separations with the colored rings still on the column, and obtained pure com ponents by pushing the resin out of the column with a wooden rod and slicing off individual bands with a scalpel. Ion exchange chromatography exploits differences in elec trostatic interactions between the various proteins and the resin. [18] In anion exchange chromatography, the resin has a positive charge, and proteins with a negative charge on their surface will exhibit an attraction for the resin. To recover bound proteins, the electrostatic interaction between resin and proteins is disrupted, typically by increasing the salt con centration or changing the pH of the mobile phase. Proteins can be separated based on the strength of their interaction with the resin, as more weakly bound proteins can be easily removed by increasing the salt concentration, while tightly bound proteins require extreme salt concentrations or pH to be removed. Using gradient elution, individual proteins can be recovered in a relatively concentrated pool. This differs from common migration chromatography techniques, such as gas and reversed-phase liquid chromatography, where a short pulse of sample is applied to the column and is diluted as it travels through the column. Ion exchange chromatography is generally performed in a six-step process using three aqueous solutions: a buffer with a low salt concentration at an appropriate pH, a buffer with a high salt concentration at the same pH, and the protein sample at the same pH and with a low salt concentration (Figure 1). Broad guidelines for the duration of each step are reported product of the cross-sectional area and length of the column. During period A, low-salt buffer at an appropriate pH is delivered to the column to equilibrate the resin (3-5 column volumes). During period B, the sample is applied to the column (sample volume). During period C, additional low-salt buffer is delivered to the column to wash away any unbound protein (1-2 column volumes). During period D, the concentration of salt in the buffer is slowly incremented to selectively elute the proteins (3-5 column volumes). Dur ing period E, additional high-salt buffer is delivered to remove tightly bound protein (1-2 column volumes). During period F, the column is re-equilibrated with low-salt buffer (1-2 column volumes). A pH gradient may be used in place of a salt gradient in ion exchange chromatography. Shaped gradients or a series of steps may be substituted for a linear gradient in period D. Anion exchange chromatography resin and chromatogra phy columns are available from a variety of sources. In this paper, DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow resin (GE Healthcare, catalogue# 17-0709-10, $50 for 25 mL) and 24 mL low-pres sure Kontes columns (Fisher, catalogue# K420401-1030, $20.17 per column) were used. Chromatography resin was prepared and packed into a column using the directions sup pumps, and complete chromatography systems such as the Akta Basic from Amersham Biosciences (results in Figures 3 and 4, page 245). Additional information on the theory of ion exchange chromatography and equipment needs can be found in bioseparation or biochemical engineering textbooks. [18-20] Figure 1. Outline of general gradient-based chromatography method.

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 243 COLORFUL PROTEINS Colorful proteins with different physical properties were selected for the experiment. In order to illustrate the chal lenging nature of biological separations, two proteins with similar ionic properties were chosen. Table 1 describes the physical properties of the two proteins. sorbs light at 558 nm and emits light at 583 nm, giving the protein its characteristic reddish color. [22] EGFP is a smaller, and emits light at 508 nm, giving the protein its characteristic green color. [23] Both proteins are very bright, with extinction -1 cm -1 [23,24] At Rowan University, these proteins have been produced by students in Junior and Senior Clinic through recombinant protein expression in bacteria. DsRed2 is also available from commercial sources ( e.g., Clontech, catalogue# 632436, $300 e.g., Recombinant protein expression in bacteria is inexpensive, as expression of colorful protein DNA (with E. coli BL21(DE3) cells transformed with pET21d plasmid containing the sub cloned colorful protein DNA) using standard recombinant DNA techniques [7,8] has resulted in a protein cost of roughly $2 per mg. The results in Figures 3 and 4 were obtained using CHROMA TOGRAPHY METHOD DEVELOPMENT Separating proteins during the gradient portion of an ion exchange separation requires two elements. For the proteins to bind to the charged resin, they must have an oppositely charged patch on their surface. For the proteins to elute at different positions in the gradient, the resin. The net charge over the entire protein can be used as an initial estimate of the surface ionic character of the protein. which the protein has no net charge. Above the isoelectric point, the protein will adopt a net negative charge. The isoelectric point and molecular weight of the protein mono mers were calculated from amino acid sequences using the Web-based program ProtParam. [21] In addition to the isoelectric point, it is also important to consider the bulk protein charge over a range of pH values when designing a separation based on ion exchange. A protein titration curve can be constructed using a Webbased program or by building a spreadsheet to perform the calculation. [25, 26] pH can be calculated from the pK values for the ionizable amino acid side chains using the information in Table 2 and Eq. (1). pr otein cha rg e ( ) nn nn n n i pH 12 34 5 10 10 pH pK i i i 10 1 1 9 () To match the Web-based program, pK values from Lehnin ger are reported. [27] Values from other biochemistry textbooks may be substituted. Computing the protein charge over a range of pH values leads to a protein titration curve (Figure 2). Ex amination of this curve can help identify a useful pH range for separation, where the proteins will bind to the resin with protein charges are the same, but the magnitudes are different. For the EGFP and DsRed2 case, a pH value between 6.5 and 8.5 is appropriate for anion exchange. T ABLE 1 Physical Properties of the Colorful Proteins Protein max ) Molecular Weight [21] Isoelectric Point [21] DsRed2 Pink (558 nm) 103 kDa 6.3 EGFP Green (488 nm) 27 kDa 5.6 T ABLE 2 pK Values for Side Chains of Amino Acids [27] Amino Acid pK Number in Protein Carboxy terminal 2.34 n 1 = 1 Aspartic acid (Asp, D) 3.86 n 2 Glutamic acid (Glu, E) 4.25 n 3 Cysteine (Cys, C) 8.33 n 4 Tyrosine (Tyr, Y) 10 n 5 Amino terminal 9.69 n 6 = 1 Histidine (His, H) 6 n 7 Lysine (Lys, K) 10.5 n 8 Arginine (Arg, R) 12.4 n 9 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 135791113 pH Charge DsRed2 EGFP Figure 2. Protein titration curves for EGFP and DsRed2.

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Chemical Engineering Education 244 QUANTIFYING CHROMA TOGRAPHIC SEP ARA TION The quality of a chromatographic separation can be quan (2). [18,28] re so lution VV ww b a ba bb max, max, ,, .( ) () 05 2 V max,i represents the volume at which peak i displayed maxi mum signal, and w b,i represents the baseline width of peak i, based on the intersection of peak tangents with the baseline. When the resolution is one, the peaks have an overlap of about 2%. As the resolution decreases, the peaks overlap further, until, at a resolution of zero, the peaks elute at exactly the same position. Examples of resolution calculations can be found in the Sample Calculations section of this article and in textbooks on separation processes. [28] EXPERIMENT AL INVESTIGA TION Table 3 summarizes the materials used in this experiment. For columns with smaller diameters, less material is required. The majority of materials can be reused. As long as the maximum pressure is not exceeded, the column should last ufacturers recommendations, and proteins can be recovered and reused for many experiments. An additional option is to produce the proteins in-house through recombinant protein production methods, which essentially eliminates the protein cost. Anion exchange chromatography experiments were developed to show that a mixture of DsRed2 and EGFP can be selectively eluted at different salt concentrations, providing a powerful demonstra tion of the principles of protein binding and elution. This style of experiment is suitable for unit opera tion laboratories and upper-level elective courses with laboratory components. To illustrate the importance of process parameters on ion exchange chromatography performance, two proteins with similar ionic properties were chosen. This resulted in a challenging protein separation that was sensitive to process conditions. In addition to the chromatography column and related tubing, three solutions are needed for the experiment: a buffer with a low salt concentration (Buffer A), a buffer at the same pH with a high salt concentration (Buffer B), and a separated protein sample (Sample). Chromatography experiments were performed at pH values between 7.5 and 8.5. Buffer A was typically 50 mM Tris (pKa = 8.3) at the pH of interest. Buffer B was typically 50 mM Tris, 300 mM NaCl at the pH of interest. Sample was typically prepared by diluting concentrated stocks of DsRed2 and EGFP into Buffer A. For the experiments, at a pH value of 7.5, 50 mM sodium phosphate was used as the buffer. For experiments at pH values below 7.5 or above 9.0, an alternative buffer should be selected, as buffer pKa should Experiments were performed on an Amersham Biosci ences Akta Basic chromatography unit, equipped with a UV detector capable of monitoring three individual wavelengths. Total protein was monitored at 280 nm, EGFP was monitored at 488 nm, and DsRed2 was monitored at 561 nm. Alterna tively, the process could be monitored off-line by collecting small fractions and measuring the absorbance on a visible spectrophotometer. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Six methods were evaluated for protein separation ef fectiveness. For each method, the separation resolution was calculated using Eq. (2). Table 4 compares the resolution for each method, illustrating the effect of buffer pH, salt concen tration, and gradient shape on separation quality. Figure 3 presents a typical chromatogram for method 4. The black curve is the absorbance at 280 nm, which tracks all proteins (A280). The dark gray curve is A561, which tracks T ABLE 3 Materials Required for Experiment Item Quantity Price Kontes 24 mL column 1 $20 25 mL $50 25 mM Tris, pH 8.0 200 mL $0.06 25 mM Tris, 200 mM NaCl, pH 8.0 100 mL $0.09 From vendor Produced in-house $1,500.00 $1.00 DsRed2 From vendor Produced in-house $1,500.00 $0.15 T ABLE 4 DsRed2 EGFP Separation Resolution Method pH Salt Gradient Resolution 1 8.5 Linear from 20 to 300 mM NaCl 0.02 2 8.0 Linear from 20 to 300 mM NaCl 0.32 3 8.0 Steps at 80, 125, 170, 215, 300 mM NaCl 0.58 4 8.0 Steps at 20, 50, 80, 110, 140 mM NaCl 0.48 5 7.5 Linear from 0 to 300 mM NaCl 0.51 6 7.5 Step at 135 and 150 mM, linear to 300mM 0.72 7 7.5 Steps at 30, 60, 90, 105 mM NaCl 0.66

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 245 DsRed2, and the light gray curve is A488, which tracks EGFP. Figure 4 presents a time-lapse image of the proteins separating as they move through the column (also available in color as Figure 4 in Reference 12). Complete separation was never achieved, as the ionic prop erties of EGFP and DsRed2 are very similar. The quality of separation is strongly affected by buffer pH and moderately affected by the shape and type of gradient. SAMPLE CALCULA TIONS To illustrate the use of Eq. (1), consider EGFP. This protein contains one carboxy terminal (n 1 =1), 18 Asp (n 2 =18), 16 Glu (n 3 =16), two Cys (n 4 =2), 11 Tyr (n5=11), one amino terminal (n 6 =1), nine His (n 7 =9), 20 Lys (n 8 =20), and six Arg (n 9 =6) residues. Using Eq. (1): pr otein cha rg e ( ) 11 81 62 11 11 0 10 pH pH 10 18 10 10 10 23 4 38 6 . ... pH pH At a pH of 9.5: pr otein cha rg e 48 69 10 41 10 90 10 8 5 .. xx x 5 3 01 38 40 61 28 10 18 60 .. .. x pr otein cha ar ge 14 7 To illustrate the use of Eq. (2), consider the separation shown in Figure 3. For EGFP, V max,B = 64.5 mL and w b,b = 16.8 mL. For DsRed2, V max,A = 57.2 mL and w b,a = 13.5 mL. Using Eq. (2): re so lution 64 55 72 05 16 81 35 .. .. mL mL mL mL 0 04 8 COURSE IMPLEMENT A TION In any setting, this experiment illustrates the effect of pro tein properties and operating conditions on separation quality. At an introductory level, lecture material focused on protein and chromatography resin properties could be combined with one or two experiments to illustrate a real protein separation. This type of coverage may be appropriate for a core separa tions course. Extended student experimentation, where stu dents evaluate separation quality for multiple methods, would allow students to discover the effect of operating conditions on separation quality. This type of coverage may be appropriate for unit operations laboratories. In a biochemical engineering or bioseparations elective, this experiment can be combined with additional material to highlight the need for multiple separation techniques in order to produce a pure protein product. The material on isoelectric point and titration curve predic tion can also be used as a stand-alone item in a variety of settings. SUMMARY An experiment in anion exchange chroma tography using a pair of colorful proteins has been described. This material allows instruc tors to introduce important biochemical engi neering and physical biochemistry principles into the chemical engineering curriculum. The visual appeal and low cost of supplies will make the experiments an effective teaching tool in core courses focused on separation processes. The variety of possible behavior will make the experiments a robust addition to unit operations laboratories or biochemical engineering electives. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 5254565860626466687072 Volume [mL] Absorbance [mAU] A280 [mAU] A561 [mAU] A488 [mAU] Figure 3. Chromatogram for step gradient at pH 8.0 (method 4). Figure 4. Anion exchange of a mixture of EGFP and DsRed2 using method 4 (see Table 4). Also available in color as Figure 4 in Reference 12.

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Chemical Engineering Education 246ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank Elizabeth N. DiPaolo, Amanda E. Rohs, and Kyle Smith for assistance in protein production and module development. The authors also acknowledge fund ing from Rowan University through the SBR program and the National Science Foundation through the CCLI program (DUE-0633527). REFERENCES 1 Lenhoff, A.M., A Natural Interaction: Chemical Engineering and Molecular Biophysics, AIChE Journal 49 806 (2003) 2. Lightfoot, E.N., and J.S. Moscariello, Bioseparations, Biotechnology and Bioengineering 87 260 (2004) The Right Step at the Right Time, Bio/technology 4 954 (1986) 4. Wankat, P., Teaching Separations: Why, What, When, and How, Chem. Eng. Ed. 35 168 (2001) 5. Ward, W.W., G.C. Swiatek, and D.G. Gonzalez, Green Fluorescent Protein in Biotechnology Education, Methods Enzymol ., 305 672 (2000) 6. Bes, M.T., J. Sancho, M.L. Peleaot, M. Medina, C. Gomez-Moreno, Understanding Protein Isolation Principles, Biochem. Mol. Biol. Ed. 31 119 (2003) 7. Sommer, C.A., F.H. Silva, and M.R.M. Novo, Teaching Molecular Biology to Undergraduate Biology Students, Biochem. Mol. Biol. Ed. 32 7 (2004) 8. Larkin, P.D., and Y. Hartberg, Development of a Green Fluorescent Protein-Based Laboratory Curriculum, Biochem. Mol. Biol. Ed ., 33 41 (2005) 9. Hesketh, R.P., C.S. Slater, S. Farrell, and M. Carney, Fluidized Bed Polymer Coating Experiment, Chem. Eng. Ed. 36 138 (2002) 10. Burrows, V.A., Experiments and Other Learning Activities Using Natural Dye Materials, Chem. Eng. Ed. 38 132 (2004) 11. Komives, C., S. Rech, and M. McNeil, Laboratory Experiment on Gene Subcloning for Chemical Engineering Students, Chem. Eng. Ed. 38 212 (2004) 12. Lefebvre, B.G., and S. Farrell, Illustrating Bioseparations with Color ful Proteins, Proceedings of the 2005 ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition Portland, OR, Jun. (2005), available at (last accessed 08-1407) 22. Living Colors TM DsRed2. CLONETECHniques XVI (3), 2-3 (2001) 23. Tsien, R.Y., The Green Fluorescent Protein, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67 509 (1998) 24. Bevis, B.J., and B.S. Glick, Rapidly Maturing Variants of the Dis cosoma Red Fluorescent Protein (DsRed), Nature Biotech. 20 83 (2002) 25. (last accessed 08-14-07) 26. (last accessed 08-14-07) 27. Lehninger, A.L., Biochemistry W.H. Freeman (1975) 28. Wankat, P.C., Separation Process Engineering 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall PTR (2007)

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 247 T he evolution of biology into a molecular science is a stimulus for curriculum reform in chemical engineer ing. Biologists have gained unprecedented insight into living organisms at the molecular level, which has fueled the recent growth of the biotechnology industry. According to uses living organisms or substances from those organisms, to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals, [1] The bio technology industry has more than tripled its revenue since 1992 to $25 billion in 2003, [1] and various new products enhanced nutritional value, [2] microarray assays of genomewide gene expression for personalized medical treatments, [3] and molecular therapies that reprogram differentiated cells to a stemlike state for the repair of tissue damaged from aging, disease, or trauma, [4] to name a few. Rapid advancements in biotechnology are generating many opportunities for engineers to translate fundamental biological Bioengineering applies engineering concepts and methods to agriculture, biology, the environment, and medicine to create useful products. Of all the engineering disciplines, chemical engineering is the most closely aligned with the molecular sciences and, therefore, is uniquely positioned to lead the development of biomolecular products. This neces sitates training a workforce capable of applying chemical engineering principles to molecular events in biological systems by reforming the chemical engineering curriculum to incorporate biology. Curriculum reform at the undergraduate level is evident in chemical engineering departments across the United States biochemistry and technical electives with molecular and cellular biology. Instructors are incorporating biological ex amples into traditional courses, including material and energy balances, thermodynamics, kinetics, and transport. Training in bioengineering can extend outside of the classroom set ting through undergraduate research and internships. Some graduate-level bioengineering courses are open to seniors, and for undergraduates. These approaches to curriculum reform are documented by this author and others. [5-7] At present, the extent of curriculum reform is highly variable from one department to the next, with some departments offering comprehensive programs of study. [5, 8] These strategies should partially coalesce over time to form a more uniform approach to curriculum reform while retaining the individual identities of different departments. In 2005, the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at Tulane University revised its core curriculum to offer a new introductory course in bioengineering and bio technology for sophomores. The three-credit, lecture course is part of the departments bioengineering program that contains a concentration of technical electives, a combined degree pro gram offered in cooperation with the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, and related co-curricular activities. The course emphasizes the solution of bioengineering problems with chemical engineering concepts, teaches the underlying fundamentals in biology, and introduces students to related AN INTRODUCTORY COURSE IN BIOENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY ChE KIM C. OCONNOR Tulane University New Orleans, LA 70118 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2007

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Chemical Engineering Education 248 biotechnology products. As a prerequisite, this course is open to students majoring in chemical engineering, biomedical engineering, and engineering physics. All other students must obtain the instructors permission to enroll in the course. This article provides an overview of the course, a discussion of its impact on the curriculum, and a survey of similar courses in other departments. REFERENCE MA TERIALS Several reference materials are required to address the scope of this introductory course. The assigned textbook for the course, Biochemical Engineering by Blanch and Clark, [9] is supplemented with material from other bioengineering texts: Bioprocess Engineering by Shuler and Kargi, [10] Ther modynamics and Kinetics for the Biological Sciences by Hammes, [11] and and Signaling by Lauffenburger and Linderman. [12] Research articles in archival journals are the source for a variety of in-class examples, homework problems, and test questions. Biochemistry by Voet and Voet [13] and Molecular Biology of the Cell by Alberts et al. [14] are excellent references for the underlying fundamentals in biology. Students are assigned commentaries, letters, and news articles that were published in the journals Cell, Nature, Nature Biotechnology, and Science to learn about biotechnology products. Barnums Biotechnol ogy: An Introduction [1] provides a historical perspective and overview on many aspects of biotechnology.OBJECTIVES AND TOPICS tional objectives: (1) apply chemical engineering concepts to identify, formulate, and solve bioengineering problems; (2) learn the fundamental biochemistry, molecular biology, and cell biology underlying each problem; and (3) understand the relevance of the acquired bioengineering skills to the develop ment of biotechnology products. To achieve these objectives, this introductory course presents representative topics (Table 1) at a level appropriate for sophomores that will prepare the students for more comprehensive courses in their junior and senior years. There are 15 topics covered during a semester bioengineering, biology, and biotechnology components. The biotechnology topic in a given group is selected to demon strate products that can be generated using the bioengineering and biology concepts within that group. Approximately 60 percent of the lecture time is devoted to solving bioengineer ing problems; the remaining 40 percent is divided between biology fundamentals and biotechnology products. Consider Group 4 in Table 1 as an example. Instruction for this section is designed to address each of the three educational objectives for the course. With respect to the bioengineering objective, students are taught in Group 4 to apply the chemi cal engineering concepts of material balances, kinetics, and mass transport to identify, formulate, and solve problems that quantify the reversible interactions between a ligand and transport the ligand-receptor complex within the cell. Students reactions as a means to control cell behavior in a variety of scenarios, including the development of drug therapies that target cell surface receptors. For the biology objective, the with the help of bioinformatics tools that provide data on protein structure and function as described in the next section on computer projects. Lectures describe how the binding of ligand to its receptor triggers a cascade of signaling and traf ronmental cues. The CD that accompanies Molecular Biology of the Cell [14] includes animation of a representative signaling cascade to help students understand the spatial interactions between biomolecules during signal transduction. Biotechnol ogy instruction for Group 4 focuses on two applications of is an immunotherapeutic regime in which lymphocytes from a melanoma patient are genetically engineered to express a T cell receptor that recognizes the cancer cells. [15] The second application is the use of an inhibitor of the progesterone recep tor to prevent the development of breast tumors in women at TABLE 1 Interrelationship Among Bioengineering, Biology, and Biotechnology Topics Group Bioengineering Biology Biotechnology 1 Thermodynamics and kinetics of protein folding/denaturation Proteins, structure-function relationships Treatment of misfolded proteins in Alzheimers 2 Enzymatic reaction rates, simple pathway construction Enzymes, pathways, regulation Engineering biosynthetic pathways in Golden Rice 3 Cell population dynamics, design of batch bioreactors Prokaryotes, eukaryotes, organelles, apoptosis/necrosis Repairing damaged tissue with stem cells 4 Kinetics of receptor-ligand binding, cellular transport Receptor-mediated therapies to treat cancer 5 Thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA melting/annealing DNA composition, structure, base-pairing Microarray assays for personalized medicine

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 249 high risk for breast cancer. [16] To address the biotechnology objective, lectures for this section discuss the importance of to the rational design of therapeutics. COMPUTER PROJECTS Biological systems are intrinsically complex, particularly at the molecular level. Engineers and applied scientists increas ingly use computer technology to address this complexity by managing and analyzing large quantities of biological data with bioinformatics tools, and by elucidating biological mechanisms with mathematical modeling techniques. The introduced to chemical engineering sophomores in the context of data acquisition and problem solving as described in the following paragraphs. Students learn computational skills through demonstrations by the instructor in class, tutorials held by a teaching assistant in a computer lab, and homework Bioinformatics tools are employed throughout the course with the objectives to teach students about the structure and function of proteins and genes, provide background informa tion about the biotechnology products discussed in the course, serve as a reference source for data in problem solving, and bioinformatics. A leading resource for protein information is the Swiss-Prot protein knowledgebase, which is available through the Expert Protein Analysis System (ExPASy) server () of the Swiss Institute of Bioinformat ics. [17] Students learn about several proteins through this Web Alzheimers disease. [18] They search the database for such information as amino acid sequence, 3D structure, protein function, ligand-binding site, and related biochemical path ways. Representative search results are shown in Table 2 for TABLE 2 Representative Search Results from the ExPASy Protein Knowledgebase for Maize Phytoene Synthase Category Search Result Entry name PSY_MAIZE Primary accession # P49085 Protein name Phytoene synthase, chloroplast [precursor] Synonym EC 2.5.1.From Zea mays (Maize) Function Catalyzes reaction from prephytoene diphosphate to phytoene Pathway Carotenoid biosynthesis Subunit Monomer Subcellular location Plastid; chloroplast Sequence length 410 amino acids [unprocessed precursor] Molecular weight 46481 Da [unprocessed precursor] Sequence: 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 MAIILVRAAS PGLSAADSIS HQGTLQCSTL LKTKRPAARR WMPCSLLGLH PWEAGRPSPA 7 0 8 0 9 0 10 0 11 0 12 0 VYSSLPVNPA GEAVVSSEQK VYDVVLKQAA LLKRQLRTPV LDARPQDMDM PRNGLKEAYD 13 0 14 0 15 0 16 0 17 0 18 0 RCGEICEEYA KTFYLGTMLM TEERRRAIWA IYVWCRRTDE LVDGPNANYI TPTALDRWEK 19 0 20 0 21 0 22 0 23 0 24 0 RLEDLFTGRP YDMLDAALSD TISRFPIDIQ PFRDMIEGMR SDLRKTRYNN FDELYMYCYY 25 0 26 0 27 0 28 0 29 0 30 0 VAGTVGLMSV PVMGIATESK ATTESVYSAA LALGIANQLT NILRDVGEDA RRGRIYLPQD 31 0 32 0 33 0 34 0 35 0 36 0 ELAQAGLSDE DIFKGVVTNR WRNFMKRQIK RARMFFEEAE RGVNELSQAS RWPVWASLLL 37 0 38 0 39 0 40 0 41 0 YRQILDEIEA NDYNNFTKRA YVGKGKKLLA LPVAYGKSLL LPCSLRNGQT

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Chemical Engineering Education 250 maize phytoene synthase, which is genetically engineered [2] Students access the BRENDA comprehensive enzyme database () operated by the University of Cologne to problems assigned in the course. [19] The Gene and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) databases, which are accessed from the home page of the National Center of Biotechnology Information (), [20] The lat ter catalogues all known diseases with genetic components, such as breast cancer and the BRCA1 gene. Students search the Gene database for DNA sequences, description of the gene product, variants, and chromosome location. The Gene database is preferred over the Nucleotide database on the same Web site for this introductory course since queries return sequences related to that gene. Several of the bioengineering problems assigned in the course require computation to solve. Students are required to formulate mathematical models to describe biological pro cesses such as simple biosynthetic pathways, cell population works Matlab are the preferred platforms for programming and numerical integration of coupled differential equations. For example, population balances are versatile models that account for dynamic interactions among heterogeneous cell populations in cell culture. Heterogeneity arises in a variety cells, [21] tissue assembly, [22] and the production of biophar maceuticals from cell culture. [23] In one problem, students are asked to evaluate the suppression of cell death by Bcl-2 over-expression in a cell culture producing a human-mouse chimeric antibody. [23] Solution requires the development of a population-balance model that simultaneously describes the kinetics of both cell growth and cell death by apoptosis and perimental concentrations for each cell population in culture generates a set of kinetic rate constants with which to evaluate suppression of cell death. IMP ACT ON CURRICULUM Tulane has incorporated the introductory bioengineering and biotechnology course into the core chemical engineer ing curriculum primarily to prepare students for employment opportunities that increasingly require a broader range of skills, including bioengineering. Chemical engineers are being employed in a greater variety of industries, such as the biotechnology, food, and pharmaceutical sectors. Of the chemical engineers with a B.S. that were employed in industry upon graduation, 10.3% worked for biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies in 2001, up from 4.6% in 1998. [24] Even those students who seek employment in more traditional sectors, such as chemicals and fuels, may require bio-based skills for their work as more companies replace chemical and petroleum processing with biological and bio mimetic processing in an effort to generate environmentally benign products. The current interest in biofuels is a salient example of this trend. [25] Last, students can no longer expect to work at a single company throughout their professional careers. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics at the U.S. Department of Labor, the median number of years that wage and salary workers have been with their current employer was only 4.0 years as of January 2006. [26] Given this information on employee tenure, students can expect to hold multiple jobs in their professional careers, perhaps in different industries. broad-based to prepare students for this labor market. The faculty in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecu lar Engineering at Tulane decided to interject biology into its core curriculum with the new course described here instead of with an existing biochemistry or biology course. In the life sciences, students are taught to reduce living organisms to their molecular components. The Human Genome Project [27] is emblematic of this reductionist approach. Reams of nucleo tides have been sequenced, but far less is known about how the genes that they encode integrate to produce a phenotype. A hallmark of chemical engineering education is a quantitativesystems view to problem solving that is particularly relevant to the analysis of large volumes of biological data generated in the advent of high-throughput technologies. In the bio engineering and biotechnology course, students will begin to learn how to apply their engineering skills to reconstruct molecular components of a biological system into a holistic response. The selection of this course for the core chemical systems approach to the understanding of how a living organ ism functions and responds to change. Figure 1 V i a b le C e l l s Ne c r o t ic Ce lls E a r l y A p opt ot ic Ce lls L a te A p o p to ti c Ce lls Ce ll u l a r De br is Ap op t o t i c B odi e s V i a b le C e l l s Ne c r o t ic Ce lls E a r l y A p opt ot ic Ce lls L a te A p o p to ti c Ce lls Ce ll u l a r De br is Ap op t o t i c B odi e s Figure 1. Population dynamics of cell growth coupled with bimodal cell death by apoptosis and necrosis.

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 251 The decision to offer the introductory bioengineering and biotechnology course in the second semester of the sophomore year was based on three factors. First, sophomores have a good foundation to begin solving bioengineering problems with chemical engineering skills. By the time chemical engi neering sophomores start the spring semester at Tulane, they of thermodynamics; moreover, they are starting concurrently of organic chemistry. Second, the sophomore-level course gives students an opportunity to develop a depth of knowledge in bioengineering and biotechnology in the junior and senior in their senior-level bioengineering and biotechnology courses with more advanced material, and provide more challenging bioengineering examples in traditional juniorand seniortime after completion of the introductory course for chemical engineering studentswho had not previously considered a for interdisciplinary training in bioengineering. One caveat with the timing is that the instructor of the introductory course must teach kinetics in order for the sophomores to understand some of the bioengineering topics. As mentioned in the introduction, the core course described here is a fundamental component of bioengineering train ing within the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. It provides an overview of the subject and can be followed by an in-depth study of bioengineering through additional courses and co-curricular activities. Chemical engineering students have the option of concentrating their technical electives in biomolecular engineering by completing advanced courses in four of the following areas: applied bio chemistry, biochemical engineering, biomedical engineering, cell biology, gene therapy, and molecular biology. Another option for chemical engineering students is a combined degree program that provides a comprehensive learning experience in the classroom and through co-curricular activities. Upon completing the four-year program at the undergraduate level, students earn a Bachelor of Science degree in chemical engineering with a second major or minor in the biological sciences from the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. For additional information on the combined degree program, readers are referred to a separate article on the subject by this author. [5] There are several co-curricular activities at Tulane that reinforce and supplement bioengineering instruction, including participation in independent research, clinical rounds at the Tulane Health Sciences Center, public health projects, prehospital care and ambulance service, and sum mer employment. The impact of this sophomore-level course extends beyond the boundaries of the chemical engineering curriculum to other disciplines, particularly biomedical engineering and engineering physics. The classroom can serve as a conduit for dialog between these different groups of students that will hopefully foster interdisciplinary exchange later in their pro fessional careers. Biomedical engineers can account for 5 per cent to 10 percent of the students enrolled in the course. They are taught to apply the molecular perspective of a chemical engineer to develop products for medical application. Begin ning in the 2007-2008 academic year, Tulane University will offer a new bachelor of science degree program in engineering physics that emphasizes modern physics and its application to advanced technologies such as quantum electronics and nanofabrication. The bioengineering and biotechnology course described here was selected by the Department of Physics as an elective for the engineering physics curriculum to provide a foundation for more advanced study in such areas as biomolecular materials and medical devices. Student evaluations of the bioengineering and biotechnol ogy course were obtained in 2005 and 2007. In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, data were not collected in 2006. More than 75 percent of the students on average strongly agreed or tors assessment of student performance is based on scores Student performance has been the strongest on biotechnology questions and computer modeling problems and weakest on the analytical solution of bioengineering problems. Student feedback indicates that some of the most valuable aspects of the course are the introduction to concepts and ideas presented in upper-level courses, computer projects, example problems, and biotechnology presentations. The students have also iden to the biotechnology products discussed in class and suggest that the relationship be emphasized at the beginning of each example problem. Others have requested more introductory example problems to help them understand the more ad vanced problems that are solved in class. The instructor has previous classes, approximately 20 percent of the chemical engineering students enrolled in this course are anticipated to pursue a bioengineering career in graduate school, medical school, or industry. SURVEY A survey was conducted of the Web sites for the 50 leading chemical engineering departments in the United States as re ported in the most recent US News and World Report ranking

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Chemical Engineering Education 252 to evaluate the prevalence of bioengineering and/or biotech nology courses in chemical engineering curricula. All depart ments surveyed publish curricula and course descriptions on their Web sites. In all cases, juniors and seniors are offered a variety of elective and required courses in bioengineering and/or biotechnology. At the lower levels, these courses are far less prevalent. Less than 10 percent of the departments offer freshmanand/or sophomore-level courses in this area, and they are primarily introductory courses in biotechnology. Tulanes sophomore-level course is unique in that it integrates bioengineering and biotechnology topics, and emphasizes the development of problem-solving and computational skills at the sophomore level. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Course development was supported in part with a grant from the National Science Foundation (BES-0514242) for stem-cell research and its broader impacts, including teaching stem-cell technology. REFERENCES 1. Barnum, S.R., Biotechnology: An Introduction 2nd Ed., Thomson Brooks/Cole, Belmont, CA (2005) 2. Grusak, M.A., Golden Rice Gets a Boost from Maize, Nat. Biotech nol ., 23 429 (2005) 3. Strauss, E., Arrays of Hope, Cell 127 657 (2006) 4. Surani, M.A., and A. McLaren, A New Route to Rejuvenation, Nature 443 284 (2006) 5. OConnor, K.C., Incorporating Molecular and Cellular Biology into a ChE Degree Program, Chem. Eng. Ed ., 39 124 (2005) 6. Varma, A., Future Directions in ChE Education: A New Path to Glory, Chem. Eng. Ed ., 37 284 (2003) 7. Westmoreland, P.R., Chemistry and Life Sciences in a New Vision of Chemical Engineering, Chem. Eng. Ed. 35 248 (2001) 8. Hollar, K.A., S.H. Farrell, G.B. Hecht, and P. Mosto, Integrating Biol ogy and ChE at the Lower Levels, Chem. Eng. Ed ., 38 108 (2004) 9. Blanch, H.W., and D.S. Clark, Biochemical Engineering Marcel Dekker, New York (1996) 10. Shuler, M.L., and F. Kargi, Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2002) 11. Hammes, G.G., Thermodynamics and Kinetics for the Biological Sci ences John Wiley, New York (2000) 12. Lauffenburger, D.A., and J.J. Linderman, Receptors: Models for Bind Oxford University Press, New York (1993) 13. Voet, D., and J.G. Voet, Biochemistry 3rd Ed., John Wiley, New York (2004) 14. Alberts, B., A. Johnson, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and P. Walter, Molecular Biology of the Cell 4th Ed., Garland Science, New York (2002) 15. Offringa, R., Cancer Immunotherapy is More than a Numbers Game, Science 314 68 (2006) 16. Marx, J., Squelching Progesterones Signal May Prevent Breast Cancer, Science 314 1370 (2006) 17. Swiss Prot Protein Knowledgebase, Expert Protein Analysis System, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Switzerland (2007); 18. Helmuth, L., New Alzheimers Treatments That May Ease the Mind, Science 297 1260 (2002) 19. BRENDA, Comprehensive Enzyme Information System, University of Cologne, Germany (2007); 20. Gene and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man Databases, National Center of Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD (2007); 21. Prudhomme, W.A., K.H. Duggar, and D.A. Lauffenburger, Cell Population Dynamics Model for Deconvolution of Murine Embryonic Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Differentiation Responses to Cytokines and Extracellular Matrix, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 88 264 (2004) 22. Enmon, R.M., K.C. OConnor, H. Song, D.J. Lacks, and D.K. Schwartz, Aggregation Kinetics of Well and Poorly Differentiated Human Prostate Cancer Cells, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 80 580 (2002) 23. OConnor, K.C., J.W. Muhitch, D.J. Lacks, and M. Al-Rubeai, Model ing Suppression of Cell Death by Bcl-2 Over-Expression in Myeloma NS0 6A1 Cells, Biotechnol. Lett. 28 1919 (2006) 24. 2001-2002 Initial Placement of Chemical Engineering Graduates, AIChE Career Services (2007); 25. Ragauskas, A.J., C.K. Williams, B.H. Davison, G. Britovsek, J. Cairney, C.A. Eckert, W.J. Frederick Jr., J.P. Hallett, D.J. Leak, C.L. Liotta, J.R. Mielenz, R. Murphy, R. Templer, and T. Tschaplinski, The Path Forward for Biofuels and Biomaterials, Science 311 484 (2006) 26. Employee Tenure in 2006, Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Department of Labor (2007); 27. Baltimore, D., Our Genome Unveiled, Nature 409 814 (2001)

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Vol. 41, No.4, Fall 2007 253 A t Florida Tech, we have incorporated DataFit (from Oakdale Engineering [1] ) throughout the entire cur riculum, beginning with ChE 1102, which is an eight-week, one-day-per-week, two-hour, one-credit-hour, second-semester Introduction to Chemical Engineering course in a hands-on computer classroom. [2] Our experience is that students retain data analysis concepts when such concepts are formally taught to them in ChE 1102 and periodically rein forced throughout their academic careers. This paper outlines examples of several problems that have been included in my senior and graduate courses, including heat of absorption of hydrogen into a metal hydride, particle size distributions, are available at: THE HEA T OF ADSORPTION OF HYDROGEN ONTO A MET AL HYDRIDE It is rare for ChE students to learn much about gas/solid equilibrium, despite its importance in gas sensing, adsorption, chromatography, and catalysis. A relatively simple experiment to add to a unit operations laboratory that reinforces not only thermodynamics, but also dynamic mass and energy balances, is adsorption of hydrogen onto a metal hydride powder inside a hydrogen storage bed. The following derivation begins with the thermodynamic librium constant (K eq ), for the reaction of H 2 gas, at pressure P H 2 with two vacant sites (whose concentration will be denoted as [*]) in the metal hydride to form surface-bound hydrogen (whose concentration will be denoted as [H*]. GH TS RT K K H P eq eq H ln () * () 1 2 2 2 2 The theoretical maximum hydrogen-to-metal (H/M) ratio is a given in a crystal structure for the metal hydride: 1:1 for AB 5 H y (A and B are metals such as La and Ni; y = 0) hy drides. The maximum total site density for hydrogen storage, [H/M] max is the sum of vacant and hydrogen sites divided by the number of metal atoms in the metal hydride. If the activity and surface phase are ideal, one can substitute for the number INCORPORA TION OF DA T A ANALYSIS MADE EASY WITH DA T AFIT The object of this column is to enhance our readers collections of interesting and novel prob lems in chemical engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a particular principle in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel home problem, are requested, as well as those that are more traditional in nature and that elucidate dif (e-mail: wilkes@umich.edu), Chemical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136. ChE JAMES R. BRENNER Florida Institute of Technology Melbourne, FL 32901 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2007

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Chemical Engineering Education 254 of surface sites that hydrogen has adsorbed, [H*], and also apply some rules of logarithms to yield: RT PR T H M RT H ln ln (* )l n* ma x 2 2 2 H HT SG () 3 If f V is the fraction of vacant sites, f H M V () ma x 4 Division of Eq. (3) by RT yields: ln ln ma x P H RT S R H M H 2 1 2 2 21 2 5 ln ln () ff V V Nonideal gas and surface behavior will change the magnitude of the entropic term, but should not affect the enthalpic term. It is common in hydrogen storage to plot the phase equilib rium relationships between hydrogen pressure in the gas phase (P) vs. the concentration of hydrogen in a metal hydride, usually expressed as either C for concentration or H/M atomic ratio for the hydrogen-to-metal ratio (the latter of which will be used here), at constant tem perature (T). The adsorption isotherms shown in Figure 1 are for a proprietary LaNi 5-x Al x hydride whose metal alloy precursor was sold by Ergenics [3] and converted into a hydride by myself and others. [4] For the very common AB 5 H y -type hydrides (y = 0 to 6, A and B are different metals), the maximum H/M atomic ratio is 1.0. phase equilibrium relationship for Figure 1, appropriate model, but a model of this com plexity is beyond the scope of this paper. It is conventional in the metal hydrides community to make what is known as a vant Hoff plot of the natural logarithm of hydrogen pressure as hydrogen content in the plateau region. It is common in LaNi 5-x Al x hydride literature to choose the H/M atomic ratio = 0.3 in order to construct this plot. [4] For LaNi 5-x Al x H y (y = 0-6) compounds, [H/M] max 1. Thus, an H/M atomic ratio of 0.3 corresponds to f V = 0.3. Thus, when one makes the vant Hoff plot using the data in and those to the right of it in Eq. (5) equal the intercept of Figure 2, where the slope of Figure according to Eq. (6), ln ( ) PY AB Xw he re X T 1000 6 PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS Students should have been exposed to both the probability density, f(z), and cumulative density functions, F(z), of the unit normal (or Gaussian) distribution in previous courses, where erf is the error function: fz z Fz fz dz 1 2 2 7 0 2 ex p ( ) .. ( ) 50 5 8 er fz z 1 10 10 0 10 00 100 00 0. 00 0. 10 0 2 0 0. 30 0. 40 0. 50 0. 60 0 70 0. 80 0. 90 1.0 0 H/M Pressure (torr) 3 03 K 3 34 K 3 63 K 100 1 000 10 000 2. 7 2 8 2 9 3 0 3. 1 3 2 3. 3 10 00/ Tem p e r at ur e ( K -1 ) Pressure (tor r ) Figure 1. Equilibrium pressure vs. hydrogen content (H/M atomic ratio) plot, parametric in adsorption temperature for a LaNi 5-x Al x hydride [4] Figure 2. Vant Hoff plot for a LaNi 5-x Al x hydride at constant H/M = 0.3.

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Vol. 41, No.4, Fall 2007 255 Based on coalescence theory, Granqvist and Buhrman have shown that particle size distribution data should be ap proximated using log-normal distribution, [5] which is similar to the normal distribution except that z = (ln d i d where d i represents the particle diameter, d is the log mean d is the geometric standard deviation of diameters. Since the particle diameters are logarithmically distributed, evaluation of the standard deviation without one to transform a Gaussian distribution into a straight line deviation (GSD). The GSD is the particle diameter greater than 84.13% of the particles in the distribution divided by the diameter greater than 50% of the particles. The particle size distribution data set in Figure 3 was obtained by Brenner et al. [6] for a series of Fe nanoparticles prepared by microwave dissociation of neat Fe(CO) 5 in Ar, and can be found in The distribution is plotted as a probability density function, which is constructed in Excel as follows: 1) Determine the particle diameters for each particle, and enter them into column A in Excel. 2) Make a row across the top of the spreadsheet ranging from .0 to 2.0, in 0.1 increments, in cells B1 to AE1. IF BA C $l og $$ ,, () 12 11 0 9 4) Copy and paste Eq. (9) in columns C through AE and from rows 2 down to the bottom of the data set. This operation groups the particle diameter into 30 logarith mically and evenly spaced bins ranging from 0.1 nm to 100 nm. 5) Sum each of the columns C through AE and divide each column by the total number of particles to get a probability density function. 6) Sum up the particle counts in each column to create a cumulative density function. If one instead plotted the data as a cumulative distribution function, one would see a sigmoi cumulative distribution functions than their derivatives, the probability density functions, as the latter have substantially higher errors. In order to plot such functions as straight lines un less one has a program capable of plotting data using probability axes (such as Kaleidagraph), the best way to analyze this kind of problem is using probits analysis, which requires the NORMINV function in Excel: NOR MINV CD E (/ ,, ) ( ) 100 10 where C is the cumulative percentage of par ticles with diameters less than d, D is the number of probits at the mean (exactly 5 for 50%), and E is the number of probits corre sponding to the standard deviation (set to 1). In theory, the number of probits should range from 0 to 10. Given that the error in the prob ability densities is about 0.5%, however, the practical linear range for the data in Figure 4 is between 2 and 8. 0.0 0 0.0 5 0.1 0 0.1 5 0.2 0 0.2 5 0.1 1 1 0 100 Par t icle D i am et er ( n m ) Probability Density Figure 3. Probability density function for particle size distribution of Fe nanoparticles prepared via microwave plasma dissociation of neat Fe(CO) 5 in Ar. [6] Figure 4. Cumulative probability func tion plotted in probit form for particle size distribution of Fe nanoparticles prepared via microwave plasma dissociation of neat Fe(CO) 5 in Ar. [6] 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 1 0 Part icle D i amet er ( n m) Number of Probits 1 0 0

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Chemical Engineering Education 256 Graphically, the probit mean of 5 should correspond to the logarithm of the diameter data, puts it in the x column in DataFit, puts the number of probits in the y column, Evaluate tab under Results Detailed, one can evaluate the diameteralbeit with some effortat 5 probits (3.8 nm) and 6 probits (6.6 nm), giving rise to a geometric standard deviation of 1.7. REACTION KINETICS: DEHYDROGENA TION OF METHYLCYCLOHEXANE TO FORM T OLUENE An example of a more advanced problem that DataFit data. Data for the dehydrogenation of methylcyclohexane to form toluene over a 0.3 wt.% Pt/Al 2 O 3 catalyst is cited in Problem 5.19 in Foglers reaction engineering textbook, [7, 8] and in prob519b.dft. Foglers problem suggests four possible rate laws to use, where M denotes methylcyclohexane: 1 2 1 3 2 2 ) ) () ) rk PP r kP KP r kP P MM H M M MM M MH 1 1 4 1 2 2 22 KP r kP P KP KP MM M MH MM HH ) ( ) Though physical insight is not asked for in the problem statement, this problem provides a wonderful opportunity to relate abstract mathematical models to adsorption equi and 0, then rate law 1 is a purely empirical model. Rate law 1 also implies the adsorption of all reactants and products is relatively weak. The equilibrium constants in the denominators of rate laws 2, 3, and 4 must be positive, but some students will not recognize K M or K H 2 as equilibrium constants and may have even forgotten what an equilibrium constant means. If THT denotes tetrahydrotoluene, DHT denotes dihydrotoluene, and denotes a surface site, then Langmuir-Hinshelwood model 2 may be valid, given the following possible mechanism. MM MT HT H TH TD HT H TH T ** ** ** ** ** ** 2 2 2 2 2 TH HH TT ** ** ** 2 22 2 Model 2 describes a Langmuir dependence on methylcy clohexane only, and seems the most logical from a physical standpoint. The denominator in Model 2 is possible if the product of surface concentration and the equilibrium constant for adsorbed hydrogen is negligible compared with unity. If the reaction is surface reaction-limited, the rate-limiting step will be the initial dehydrogenation step because the increasing number of double bonds will allow the electrons to delocal ize. LeChateliers principle leads us to believe that the rate of dehydrogenation should be favored by high methylcyclo hexane pressures, and might be inhibited by both toluene and hydrogen. Rate laws 3 and 4 both have either a zero-order or 2 dependence. What most students will not know until the faculty member discusses the homework solution is that, during dehydrogena tion reactions, a parallel reaction typically occurs in which adsorbed toluene and/or partially hydrogenated intermediates are polymerized to form a carbonaceous overlayer known as coke. As this coke layer forms, the reaction rate will decrease. Usually, coke can be hydrogenated and then desorbed if not allowed to get very thick. As the coke layer gets thicker, it phitic. With such insight into the catalytic chemis try, it becomes clear why a certain pressure of H 2 is necessary to prevent catalyst deactivation. Lacking such physical insight, both undergradu ate and graduate students consistently enter rate expressions into DataFit without much thought. Because Model 2 does not have a dependence on the hydrogen pressure, DataFit will balk until you where X2 is the hydrogen pressure. With that note, students should get the following results at rameter in Model 1 and all parameters in Models the errors in these parameters are larger than the parameters themselves. Only Model 2 yields num Figure 5. Although Model 3 was a successful t according to DataFit, clearly the curve t is not consistent with the data. [7, 8] The vertical lines represent deviations between the experimental and calculated data.

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Vol. 41, No.4, Fall 2007 257 that does not mean this is the best possible model, only the best of the four models in Professor Foglers problem. It is successful, but Figure 5 (for Model 3) clearly demonstrates The default DataFit plot for 3-D plots such as Figure 5 are colorful, but would be far superior if proper labels were applied. By clicking the Format button and applying some format options, one can obtain a plot similar to Figure 6 for Model 2. For 2-D plots, I would not ask students to spend time modifying plot scales, labels, etc., because plots are far easier to make in Excel and are of a higher quality. Excel, however is sorely lacking when it comes to 3-D plots, forcing people to use what Microsoft calls category axesthus restricting 3-D plots in Excel to bar charts. CONCLUSIONS while in industryDataFit was the only program $500. In 1999, when Florida Tech bought a site license for DataFit version 6.1, it cost only $750 for the entire campus (albeit a relatively small campus), whereas a single copy cost $100. More over, the site license allowed students and faculty to use DataFit at home as long as they were doing academic work. As reported in a companion paper, [2] 11 of 12 international graduate students without previous exposure to either Polymath or DataFit found exposed to DataFit for four years, all rated it as excellent or above average in exit surveys. Students throughout Florida Techs College of Engineering have also awarded me consecutive student-nominated, col lege-wide teaching awards. I attribute this success largely to consistent reinforcement of data analysis skills. REFERENCES 1. Gilmore, J., DataFit, v 6.1, Oakdale Engineering, 2. Brenner, J.R., Chemical Engineering Made Easy with DataFit, Chem. Eng. Ed. 40 (1), (2006) 3. Ergenics, Inc., , (Attn.: Gary Sandrock) Ergenics is now part of HERA Technologies. Dr. Sandrock still operates out of the same facility, but under the company name of SunaTech. 4. Klein, J.E., and J.R. Brenner, US DOE Report WSRC-TR-98-00094, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (March 31, 1998) 5. Granqvist, C.G., and R.A. Buhrman, J. Appl. Phys., 47 2200 (1976) 6. Brenner, J.R., J.B. Harkness, M.B. Knickelbein, G.K. Krumdick, and C.L. Marshall, Nanostructured Materials, 8 1-17 (1993) 7. Sinfelt, J.H., H. Hurwitz, and R.A. Shulman, J. Phys. Chem., 64 1559 (1960) 8. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering 3rd Ed., Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ, (1999) T ABLE 1 Methylcyclohexane Dehydrogenation Curve Fit Parameters Model # k K M K H2 1 2 3 4 8 10 36 45 7 10 36 44 5 10 36 10 44 Figure 6. Langmuir dependence of toluene production rate on methyl cyclohexane pressure without hydrogen dependence (Model 2).

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Chemical Engineering Education 258 A sk a graduating chemical engineering student the fol lowing question: What makes one reactor different from the next? The answers received will often be unsatisfactory and vary widely in scope. Some may cite the difference between the basic design equations, others may point out a PFR is longer, and still others may state that it all depends on the particular reaction network. Though these answers do possess a bit of truth, they do not capture the true difference between reactors: the degree of mixing achieved. engineering. The students learn the technical skills required to perform the calculations to determine maximum yields and shortest space-times, but very rarely are they able to grasp and thoroughly understand the theory and underlying differences between reactors. [1] Often, too much time is devoted to tedious and involved calculations to determine the correct answer on homework instead of focusing on the concepts to enforce the Reactor network optimization is traditionally not covered in any depth at the undergraduate level. [2-4] The way reactor network optimization is traditionally taught to graduate stu dents often involves large numbers of coupled equations that TEACHING REACTION ENGINEERING USING THE ATT AINABLE REGIONMATTHEW J. METZGER, BENJAMIN J. GLASSER Rutgers University Piscataway, NJ 08854DAVID GLASSER, BRENDON HAUSBERGER, AND DIANE HILDEBRANDT University of the Witwatersrand WITS, 2050 Johannesburg, South Africa Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2007 ChE

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 259 to simplify the situation, such as Levenspiels graphical analysis, [4] is limited as they can readily only optimize simple reaction problems. For chemical engineers, it is paramount to know the most promising solution to a real problem in the shortest amount of time, and rarely is this accomplished with the cur rent teaching methods for reactor network optimization. Presented here is an approach that addresses the challenges presented above. The attainable region (AR) approach is a powerful research technique that has been applied to optimi zation of reactor networks. [5-7] It is also a powerful teaching tool that focuses on the fundamental processes involved in a system, rather than the unit operations themselves. It has been used to introduce undergraduate and graduate students to complex reactor network optimization in a short time, with little to no additional calculations required. BACKGROUND The generic approach to complex reac tor design and optimization is to build on previous experience and knowledge to test previous champion that yielded the best result. [8] If a new maximum is achieved, the are kept. If not, the previous solution is retained and the entire process is repeated. The biggest issue with this trial and error approach is the time it takes. Also, there is no way to know if all possible com binations of operational parameters and reactors have been tested. In addition, calculations are normally exhausting and general computational techniques are dif each arrangement. Over time, this mechanism has evolved into a set of design heuristics that dominate decision processes throughout industry. [9] Achenie and Biegler [10] model a reactor superstructure using a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), which transforms the task into an optimal control problem. Again, this approach is useful if the optimal reactor network is known, but it does not address the issue of choosing the optimal reactor network. Horn [11] subspace that could be reached by any possible reactor sys tem. Furthermore, if any point in this subspace were used as the feed to another system of reactors, the output from this system would also exist within the same AR. This framework approaches reactor design and optimization in a simpler, easier, and more robust manner. It offers a systematic a priori upon identifying all possible output concentrations from all previous approaches is the elimination of laborious and counter-productive trial and error calculations. The focus is on determining all possible outlet concentrations, regard single concentration from a single reactor. Approaching the problem from this direction ensures that all reactor systems are included in the analysis, removing the reliance on the users imagination to create reactor structures. Also, for lower dimensional problems often studied in the undergraduate intuitive graphical form. From this graphical representation, tion, once the universal region of attainable concentrations is known, applying new objective functions on the reactor system is effortless. No further calculations are required, and the optimal values can be read directly from the graph. Finally, this general tool can be applied to any problem whose basic operation can be broken down into fundamental processes, including isothermal and nonisothermal reac tor network synthesis, [5, 12] optimal control, [13] combined reaction and separation, [14-16] com minution, [17, 18] and others. Process synthesis and design usefulness are aided greatly by this alternative approach. The AR analysis method has been pre sented in undergraduate courses, to indus trial audiences, and in masters courses at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa, as well as, more recently, as an alternative to traditional complex reactor design in a graduate reaction engineering course at Rutgers University. The overall response from the audiences has been fa vorable, and it is the intention of the authors to discuss the ing. To aid with teaching/learning, a detailed attainable region Web site has been set up and the address is given at the end of this article. lenging reaction engineering problem. Next, the AR analy sis will be illustrated by solving the presented problem. Finally, the teaching strategy adopted by both institutions will be presented.PROBLEM ST A TEMENT The following liquid phase, constant density, isothermal reaction network will be used to illustrate the AR approach. AB C AD k k k k 2 1 3 4 1 2 2 () () The AR analysis method has been presented in undergraduate courses, to industrial audiences, and in masters courses at the Uni versity of the Witwatersrand in South Africa, as well as, more recently, as an alterna tive to traditional complex reactor design in a graduate reaction engineering course at Rutgers University.

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Chemical Engineering Education 260 The initial characteristics of the reaction network are shown in Table 1. The end goal of this exercise is to determine the a feed of pure A. These reaction kinetics were used because they represent a reaction network without an intuitively obvi ous optimal structure. A PFR will maximize the amount of B amount of A consumed in the second reaction. SOLUTION Determining the candidate attainable region for this reaction steps: selecting the fundamental processes, choosing the state In this particular example, the fundamental processes are the reactor length, and a continuously stirred tank reactor, in which each volume element experiences complete mixing. Before moving further into the analysis, it is useful to deter mine the dependence of species concentrations on space-time in these two environments. For a PFR, this is determined by numerically solving the mass balances in Eqs. (3)-(6), giving A and C B in Fig. 1(a). dC d kC kC kC dC d kC kC k A AB A B AB 1 2 4 2 12 3 3 () C C dC d kC dC d kC B C B D A () () () 4 5 6 3 4 2 Similarly, the set of mass balances in Eqs. (7)-(10) can be in Fig. 1(b). CC kC kC kC CC kC k AA AB A BB A 0 1 2 4 2 0 1 7 () 2 23 0 3 0 4 8 9 Ck C CC kC CC kC BB CC B DD A () () 2 2 10 () In Eqs. (3)-(10), C i represents the concentration of species i, C i 0 time of the reactor, and k j represents the rate of reaction j. Figure A and C B because, as will be explained shortly, C C and C D tion of the AR. The state variables for this example are C A and C B C B is a state variable because it is the value that we wish to optimize. T ABLE 1 Reaction Network Constants and Initial Concentrations C A 0 C B 0 C C 0 C D 0 1 kmol m -3 0 kmol m -3 0 kmol m -3 0 kmol m -3 k 1 k 2 k 3 k 4 0.01 s -1 5 s -1 10 s -1 100 m 3 kmol -1 s -1 Figure 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 0.000.250.500.751.001.251.50 Space Time (s) C A (kmol/m 3 ) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 C B 10 5 (kmol/m 3 ) ` 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 0.000.250.500.751.001.251.50 Space Time (s) C A (kmol/m 3 ) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 C B 10 5 (kmol/m 3 ) ` (a) (b) Figure 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91 C A (kmol/m 3 ) C B 10 5 (kmol/m 3 ) PFR CSTR X O (J) (K) (W) Figure 1 Concentration as a function of space-time in a PFR (a) and CSTR (b). Note that proles for C C and C D are not shown. Figure 2. State-Space diagram. Point O represents the feed point. Point X represents an arbitrary CSTR efuent point. The diagram on the top right is a PFR representing the PFR prole, (J). The diagram in the bottom left is a CSTR representing the CSTR locus, (K).

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 261 C A is a state variable because, looking at the right-hand side of Eqs. (3)-(10), the behavior of C B is entirely dependent on the change in C A it is the independent variable in the system. Now that the state variables are known, a state-space or phase-space diagram [19] (Figure 2) can be created showing the autonomous relation between C A and C B First, we must do this for the PFR using the data in Figure 1(a). Figure 1(a) shows C A and C B can determine a C A C B pair, which allows us to plot curve (J) (solid line) in Figure 2. For example, the point W in Figure 2 corresponds to C A = 3.81 -2 kmol/m 3 and C B = 3.95 -5 kmol/m 3 1(a). The same can be done for the data in Figure 1(b) for the CSTR that leads to curve (K) (dashed line) in Figure 2. While space-time is not explicitly shown in Figure 2, the relevant space-time to achieve a given concentration can always be for the attainable region (AR C the regions contained under both curves. A process vector gives the instantaneous change in system state caused by that fundamental process occurring. For ex ample, if only reaction is occurring, the reaction vector, r [C A C B ], will give the instantaneous direction and magnitude of change from the current concentration position. For mixing, this vector gives the divergence from the current state, c based upon the added state, c *, or v ( c c *) = c c T is some for demonstration purposes. The vectors can be graphically represented by considering curve (K) for the CSTR in Figure 2. This is replotted in Figure 3 along with the direction of each rate vector. The CSTR rate tions, and the mixing vector (OX) linearly connects the current state with the added state. The resulting mixed state lies on the mixing line and its position can be determined from the Lever Arm Rule. One can also consider a PFR rate vector which originates at the current concentration and is tangent to the curve (see Figure 3). To construct the region, the process vector guidelines from the previous step are applied to the state-space diagram (Fig ure 2). The idea is to draw process vectors to extend the current AR C We begin the analysis by examining mixing. Starting at a generic point X on the boundary of curve (K) in Figure 2, a straight line can be drawn to point O, which is the feed point. This is shown by line (L) in Figure 4(a). To achieve any concentration along line (L), you can mix the outlet of a CSTR operating at point X with the feed at point O. Thus, any point on curve L corresponds to a CSTR with bypass. The Lever Arm Rule [20] can be used to determine the Figure 3 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 00.20.40.60.81 C A (kmol/m 3 ) C B 10 5 (kmol/m 3 ) CSTR locus CSTR Rate Vector PFR Rate Vector Mixing Rate Vector X T O Figure 3. Rate vectors of the fundamental processes in volved in the example. The CSTR rate vector points from the feed point, O, to the particular efuent point, T. The PFR rate vector is tangent to the current concentration. The mixing rate vector is a straight line pointing from the current state to the added state. 0 5 10 15 C B 10 5 (kmol/m 3 ) PFR CSTR Mixing 0 5 10 15 C B 10 5 (kmol/m 3 ) 0 5 10 15 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91 C A (kmol/m 3 ) C B 10 5 (kmol/m 3 ) (d) CSTR with B yp ass in series with a PFR (K) (J) ( L ) (M) (b) O X O (K) ( J ) (a) X (L) (c) CSTR with B yp ass CSTR PFR O X Figure 4 ( L ) (M) Figure 4. Determination of the Attainable Region. (a) Extension through mixing (dashed line); (b) Extend with PFR in series [curve (M)]; (c) Resulting attainable re gion (shaded) with corresponding reactors. Note that (a)(c) have an equivalent x-axis. (d) Reactor conguration to achieve any point within the attainable region in (c).

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Chemical Engineering Education 262 percentage of each stream to mix to obtain the desired con centration. Notice that when this line is drawn, the candidate region is extended. When two states mix linearly, mixing can extend any concave region by creating its convex hull. Does operation in a PFR extend the region as well? The answer is yes. Going back to process vector geometry, the PFR process vector is tangent to the current system-state. A line tangent to the curve at point X extends the region above [curve (M) in Figure 4(b)] is found by numerically solving the differential PFR balance equations in Eqs. (3)-(6) with feed concentration of X = (C A C B ). The boundary of the current candidate attainable region is now made up of curves (L) and (M) (see Figure 4b). The attainable region can be constructed once it has been determined that no other processes can extend the region. The shaded region of Figure 4(c) shows the entire AR for this particular reaction network. The boundary of the shaded region is made up of curves (L) and (M). Since the region is convex, it is clear that mixing cannot extend the region. Moreover, it is possible to show that all rate vectors on the boundary are either tangent to the boundary or point into the region (see AR Web site for further details). Enclosed a feed point at O. point X on the boundary [given by curve (L)], a CSTR operat ing at point X with feed bypass is used to reach the point (see of point X [given by curve (M)], a CSTR operating at point X Figure 4(d) can be used to achieve any point on the boundary of the AR C for this reaction network. to maximize the production of species B given the feed of 1 kmol/m 3 of A. It can easily be seen from Figure 5 (point Y) that a maximum of 1.24 10 -4 kmol/m 3 of species B can 3 of of A of 0.18 kmol/m 3 The corresponding space-times of the CSTR and the PFR are 0.037 s and 0.031 s, respectively. These were determined from Eqs. (3) and (4) for the CSTR and (7) and (8) for the PFR. With the attainable region fully determined, the optimal value for any objective function may be determined. For example, a plant manager dictates that the concentration of A cannot drop below 0.6 kmol/m 3 or the acidity will corrode downstream equipment. The maximum amount of species B that can be produced with this constraint is given by point Z in Figure 5, which corresponds to 6.4 10 -5 kmol/m 3 of B. The CSTR with feed bypass. Cost, partial pressure, temperature, and residence time are some other examples for possible ob jective functions. As stated at the outset of this section, these analysis does not guarantee the determination of the complete attainable region. The analysis is composed of guidelines for the creation of a candidate attainable region, as no mathemati for the AR C terminology. [21] TEACHING STRA TEGY AND STUDENT FEEDBACK At the School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, the AR is taught at both the undergraduate and masters level. The AR is presented as a supplementary topic in the undergraduate Reactor Design course for thirdand fourthyear chemical engineering students. After the students feed concentration and reaction network, the rules are explained ( i.e., the region can be made convex through mixing, etc.). The production for a certain component, and are provided point, the instructor emphasizes that the geometric solution the students are creating is essentially solving the same equations the students were laboring through earlier in the course. The lecturer then introduces some more complex problems involving heat transfer and reaction to demon strate to the students the power of the method. The AR is also taught in a week-long, 30-hour, Reactor Figure 5 0 5 10 15 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91 C A (kmol/m 3 ) C B 10 5 (kmol/m 3 ) Z Y X Figure 5. Application of constraints on the attainable region. Point Y: maximum B produced in reaction network. Point Z: maximum B produced given that C A must be greater than 0.6 kmol/m 3

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 263 Synthesis Masters of Science course. The class is composed of people from industry and students who have just gradu ated. Therefore, the best teaching approach does not include intimidating differential equations or tedious calculations. First, the students work through the example presented in this paper as an introduction to the AR approach. Then the feed concentrations and asked to determine the optimal of a certain species. More recently, the AR was taught to a graduate core Reac tion Engineering course of approximately 20 students at Rut gers University. Half of the students were full-time graduate students and the other half were part-time professionals who had been out of school for varying intervals. One three-hour lecture on the example covered in this paper was given after single reactor design, complex kinetics, and nonisothermal reactions had been introduced, but before biological reactions and catalysis. The technique was presented as an alternative to the computer-intensive MINLP. Following the lecture, homework is assigned to allow the students to develop the AR themselves. The homework as signment covers a reaction network similar to the example presented, only it lacks the reversible part of the A to B of such an assignment are: to test basic reaction engineer ing skills (solving PFR and CSTR balances); to develop skills using computational programs such as POLYMATH, of recycle, bypass, and Differential Sidestream Reactors of a graphical approach to a normally calculation-intensive problem. Finally, the students are challenged on an exam with the in-class exercise given to the masters students in the Witwatersrand course. We also feel that the AR approach lends itself well to senior design, especially in an environment where students are asked to present a systematic approach to determining the optimal network for the reaction portion of their design project. The students can compare their initial proposals to this optimal target and decide Some of the comments from the students included that the attainable region material was enjoyable, as it was something new and there was a desire to see more advanced topics like the AR. Students were excited by the fact that they could solve problems and come up with optimum structures for reactions no one else had solved before, i.e., the optimum solution was not available in any textbook or research article. Along those lines, students also commented that they liked the fact they were being taught material that was hot off the presses and had been the subject of a Ph.D. dissertation only a few years before. graduates was that some students struggled with solving new problems. In particular, students could follow the example that was developed in this article and compute the bound ary of the AR themselves for a homework problem with the same basic structure, i.e., a CSTR followed by a PFR. If the boundary of the AR was changed in a homework problem to a PFR followed by a CSTR followed by a PFR, however, then some students struggled with this. It was found that if these students went over a number of additional AR problems they could eventually master the material and generate ARs independently for new cases. CONCLUSION Reaction engineering is a course in which students often get bogged down with intensive calculations and lose sight of the more important, fundamental concepts. This paper presents the attainable region analysis method as a way to avoid this trap, and at the same time introduce design and optimization of relevant exercise. Contrary to traditional complex reactor de sign optimization, the AR approach does not require trial and and allows for easy application of various objective functions. Additionally, for lower-dimensional problems, the solution can be represented in a simple and clear graphical form. The intention of the authors is to increase the exposure of this technique so that its advantages for both teaching and research can be known throughout the engineering commu nity. The applications do not end at reaction engineering, and approach does not apply. For more details on the attainable region approach please see the following Web site: . REFERENCES 1. Mendes, A.M., L.M. Madeira, F.D. Magalhaes, and J.M. Sousas, An Integrated Chemical Reaction Engineering Lab Experiment, Chem. Eng. Ed. 38 228 (2004) 2. Floudas, C.A., Nonlinear and Mixed-Integer Optimization: Funda mentals and Applications Oxford University Press, NY (1995) 3. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd Ed., Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2006) 4. Levenspiel, O., Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York (1999) 5. Hildebrandt, D., and D. Glasser, The Attainable Region and Optimal Reactor Structures Chem. Eng. Sci. 45 261 (1990) 6. Biegler, L.T., I.E. Grossman, and A.W. Westerberg, Systematic Methods of Chemical Process Design Prentice-Hall International, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ (1997) 7. Seider, W.D., J.D. Seader, and D.R. Lewin, Product and Process Design Principles: Synthesis, Analysis, and Evaluation 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York (2004) 8. Chitra, S.P., and R. Govind, Synthesis of Optimal Serial Reactor Structures for Homogeneous Reactions. Part I: Isothermal Reactors, American Inst. of Chem. Eng. 177 (1985)

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Chemical Engineering Education 264 Chem. Research 35 4523 (1996) 16. Gadewar, S.B., L. Tao, M.F. Malone, and M.F. Doherty, Process Alternatives for Coupling Reaction and Distillation, Chem. Eng. Research and Design 82 140 (2004) 17. Khumalo, N., D. Glasser, D. Hildebrandt, B. Hausberger, and S. Kauchali, The Application of the Attainable Region Analysis to Com minution, Chem. Eng. Sci. 61 5969 (2006) 18. Khumalo, N., B. Hausberger, D. Glasser, and D. Hildebrandt, An Communition, Chem. Eng. Sci. 62 (10) (2007) 19. Alligood, K.T., T.D. Sauer, and J.A. Yorke, CHAOS: An Introduction to Dynamical Systems Springer-Verlag, NY (1996) 20. Geankoplis, C.J., Transport Processes and Unit Operations 3rd Ed., Prentice Hall PTR, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1993) 21. Feinberg, M., and D. Hildebrandt, Optimal Reactor Design from a Geometric Viewpoint: 1. Universal Properties of the Attainable Re gion, Chem. Eng. Sci. 52 1637 (1997) 9. Douglas, J.M., A Hierarchical Decision Procedure for Process Syn thesis, AICHE Journal 31 353, (1985) 10. Achenie, L., and L.T. Biegler, Algorithmic Synthesis of Chemical Reactor Networks Using Mathematical Programming, Ind. and Eng. Chem. Research 25 621, (1986) 11. Horn, F., Attainable and Non-Attainable Regions in Chemical Reac tor Technique, Third European Symposium on Chemical Reaction Engineering 1-10 (1964) 12. Nicol, W., D. Hildenbrandt, and D. Glasser, Process Synthesis for Reaction Systems with Cooling via Finding the Attainable Region, Computers & Chem. Eng. 21 S35 (1997) 13. Godorr, S., D. Hildebrandt, D. Glasser, and C. McGregor, Choosing Optimal Control Policies Using the Attainable Region Approach, Ind. and Eng. Chem. Research 38 639 (1999) 14. Nisoli, A., M.F. Malone, and M.F. Doherty, Attainable Regions for Reaction with Separation, AICHE Journal 43 374 (1997) 15. Lakshmanan, A., and L.T. Biegler, Synthesis of Optimal Chemical Reactor Networks with Simultaneous Mass Integration, Ind. and Eng. The Faculty of the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Mis souri-Columbia seeks to intensify its focus on, and enhance its productivity in, its two primary research areas: Materials and Energy. A key component to our strategy is to hire up to two new colleagues who specialize in these areas. The positions are tenure track at the assistant, associate, or full professor level. research and scholarship. All research specialties related to Materials and/or Energy will be considered, but expertise in the area of nanomaterials, biomaterials, plasma processing, ceramic materials or thermochemical conversion of biomass is particularly coveted. We have an important teaching mission here at Mizzou, and excellence in teaching at the undergraduate and graduate levels, in both the core curriculum and in specialty areas, is a requirement. New faculty will likely participate in developing an undergraduate option in Nuclear Engineering, so expertise in this area is also valued. Finally, we seek colleagues with vision and leadership skills who may participate in the administration of the department, especially those who are interested in serving as chair. Mizzou is among the nations most comprehensive universities. There are ample opportunities for cross-disciplinary col laborations with the other engineering and science departments, as well as the Agricultural, Medical, and Veterinary Schools. Mizzous Research Reactor Center, the largest experimental nuclear reactor in the nation, provides unique opportunities for innovation. For additional information about our department, please visit http://che.missouri.edu. The lifestyle we enjoy here in Columbia, the quintessential midwestern college town, is the envy of all in the region. For information about the unique cultural and recreational activities in the Columbia, Missouri area, please visit http://www.gocolumbiamo.com/. items in your application package: curriculum vitae, list of publications, list of four references, and a concise summary of your teaching and research plans. Application materials may be sent to umcengrchedeptemail@missouri.edu or: Faculty Search Committee Department of Chemical Engineering W2033 Lafferre Hall Columbia, Missouri 65211 modations, please contact us at the address listed above or call (573) 882-3563. Applicants should be prepared to prove eligibility to be employed in the position in accordance with all applicable laws. PAID ADVERTISEMENT



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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 265 Akron, University of ................................................................... 268 Alabama, University of .............................................................. 269 Alabama, Huntsville; University of ........................................... 270 Alberta, University of .................................................................. 271 Arizona, University of ................................................................. 272 Arizona State University ............................................................. 273 Arkansas, University of ............................................................... 274 Auburn University ....................................................................... 275 Brigham Young University .......................................................... 369 British Columbia, University of .................................................. 276 Brown University 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Chemical Engineering Education 266 An Open Letter to SENIORS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Should you go to graduate school? We invite you to consider graduate school as an opportunity to further your professional development. Graduate work can be exciting and intellectually satisfying, and at the same time can provide you with insurance against the ever-increasing danger of technical obsolescence in our fast-paced society. An advanced degree is certainly helpful if you want to include a research component in your career and a Ph.D. is normally a prerequisite for an academic position. Although graduate school includes an in-depth research experience, it is also an integrative period. Graduate research work under the guidance of a knowledgeable faculty member can be an important What is taught in graduate school? of graduate school will often focus on the study of advanced-core chemical engineering science subjects ( e.g. transport phenomena, phase equilibria, reaction engineering). These courses build on the material learned as an undergraduate, using more sophisticated mathematics and often including a molecular perspective. Early in the graduate program, you will select a research topic and a research adviser and begin to establish a knowledge base in the research subject through both coursework and independent study. Graduate education thus begins with an emphasis on structured learning in courses and moves on to the creative, exciting, and open-ended process of research. In addition, graduate school is a time to expand your intellectual and social horizons through participa tion in the activities provided by the campus community. We suggest that you pick up one of the fall issues of Chemical Engineering Education (CEE), whether it be the current issue or one of our prior fall issues, and read some of the articles written by scholars at various universities on a wide variety of subjects pertinent to graduate education. The chemical engineering professors or the library at your university are both good sources for borrowing current and back issues of CEE Perusing the graduate-school advertisements in this special compilation can also be a valuable resource, not only for determining what is taught in graduate school, but also where it is taught and by whom it is taught. We encourage you to carefully read the information in the ads and to contact any of the departments that interest you. What is the nature of graduate research? Graduate research can open the door to a lifelong inquiry that may well lead you in a number of directions dur of a university. Learning how to do research is of primary importance, and the training you receive as a graduate As a senior, you probably have some questions about graduate school. The following paragraphs may assist you

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 267 student will give you the discipline, the independence, and (hopefully) the intellectual curiosity that will stand you in good stead throughout your career. The increasingly competitive arena of high technology and societys discovery. Where should you go to graduate school? that there are schools that specialize in preparing students for academic careers just as there are those that prepare school or a certain professor with great strength or reputation in that particular area would be desirable. If you are education. On the other hand, choosing a graduate school could be as simple as choosing some area of the country more to your liking; or you might choose a school with a climate conducive to sports or leisure activities in which you are interested. Many factors may eventually feed into your decision of where to go to graduate school. Study the ads in this special printing and write to or view the Web pages of departments that interest you; ask for pertinent information not only about areas of study but also about fellowships that may be available, about the number of students in graduate school, about any special programs. Ask your undergraduate professors about their experiences in graduate school, and dont be shy about asking them to recommend schools to you. They should know your strengths and weaknesses by this stage in your collegiate career, and through using that knowledge they should be a valuable source of information and encouragement for you. Financial Aid living needs. This support is provided through research assistantships, teaching assistantships, or fellowships. If you are interested in graduate school next fall, you should begin the application process early this fall since admission decisions are often made at the beginning of the new calendar year. This process includes requesting application materials, seeking sources of fellowships, taking national entrance exams ( i.e. the Graduate Record Exam, GRE, is required by many institutions), and visiting the school. A resolution by the Council of Graduate Schoolsin which most schools are membersoutlines accepted deadlines for acceptance violate the intent of the resolution). Furthermore, an acceptance given or left in force after the commitment has been made. Historically, most students have entered graduate school in the fall term, but many schools do admit students for other starting dates. We hope that this special collection of chemical engineering graduate-school information proves to be helpful to you in making your decision about the merits of attending graduate school and assists you in selecting an institution that meets your needs.

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Chemical Engineering Education 268 Graduate Education in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Teaching and research assistantships as well as industrially sponsored fellowships available In addition to stipends, tuition and fees are waived. PhD students may get some incentive scholarships. The deadline for assistantship applications is April 15th. For Additional Information, WriteChairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The University of Akron Akron, OH 44325-3906 Phone (330) 972-7250 Fax (330) 972-5856 www.chemical.uakron.edu G. G. CHASE Multiphase Processes, Fluid Flow, Interfacial Phenomena, Filtration, CoalescenceH. M. CHEUNG Nanocomposite Materials, Sonochemical Processing, Polymerization in Nanostruc tured Fluids, Supercritical Fluid ProcessingS. S. C. CHUANG Catalysis, Reaction Engi neering, Environmentally Benign Synthesis, Fuel CellJ. R. ELLIOTT Molecular Simulation, Phase Behavior, Physical Properties, Process Modeling, Supercritical FluidsE. A. EVANS Materials Processing and CVD Modeling Plasma Enhanced Deposition and Crystal Growth Modeling L.-K. JU Bioprocess Engineering, Environmental BioengineeringS. T. LOPINA BioMaterial Engineering and Polymer EngineeringB.Z. NEWBY Coatings, Gradient SurfacesH. C. QAMMAR Nonlinear Control, Chaotic Processes, Engineering EducationJ. Zheng Computational Biophysics, Biomolecular Interfaces, Biomaterials

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 269 Faculty: G. C. April, Ph.D. (Louisiana State) D. W. Arnold, Ph.D. (Purdue) C. S. Brazel, Ph.D. (Purdue) E. S. Carlson, Ph.D. (Wyoming) P. E. Clark, Ph.D. (Oklahoma State) W. C. Clements, Jr., Ph.D. (Vanderbilt) A. Gupta, Ph.D. (Stanford) D. T. Johnson, Ph.D. (Florida) T. M. Klein, Ph.D. (NC State) A. M. Lane, Ph.D. (Massachusetts) M. D. McKinley, Ph.D. (Florida) S. M. C. Ritchie, Ph.D. (Kentucky) C. H. Turner, Ph.D. (NC State) J. M. Wiest, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) M. L. Weaver, Ph.D. (Florida) Research Areas: Biomaterials, Catalysis and Reactor Design, Drug Delivery Materials and Systems, Electrohydrodynamics, Electronic Materials, Environmental Studies, Fuel Cells, Interfacial Transport, Magnetic Materials, Membrance Separations and Reactors, Molecular Simulations, Nanoscale Modeling, Polymer Processing and Rheology, Self-Assembled Materials, Suspension Rheology A dedicated faculty with state of the art facilities offer research programs leading to Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Science degrees. For Information Contact: Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering The University of Alabama Box 870203 Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0203 Phone: (205) 348-6450 An equal employment / equal educational opportunity institution Chemical & Biological Engineering

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Chemical Engineering Education 270 C C h h e e m m i i c c a a l l C a a n n d d M M a a t t e e r r i i a a l l s s a C E E n n g g i i n n e e e e r r i i n n g g G G r r a a d d u u a a t t e e P P r r o o g g r r a a m m G h h e e m m i i c c a a l l a n n d d M M a a t t e e r r i i a a l l s s E E n n g g i i n n e e e e r r i i n n g g G r r a a d d u u a a t t e e P P r r o o g g r r a a m m R. Michael Banish ; Ph.D., University of Utah Associate Professor Crystal growth mass and thermal diffusivity measurements. Ramn L. Cerro ; Ph.D., UC Davis Professor and Chair Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics and physicochemical hydrodynamics. Chien P. Chen ; Ph.D., Michigan State Professor Lab-on-chip microfluidics, multiphase transport, spray combustion, computational fluid dynamics, and turbulence modeling of chemically reacting flows. Krishnan K. Chittur ; Ph.D., Rice Professor Biomaterials, bioproce ss monitoring, gene expression bioinforma tics, and FTIR/ATR. James E. Smith Jr ; Ph.D., South Carolina Professor Ceramic and metallic composites, catalysis and reaction engineering, fiber optic chemical sensing, combustion diagnostic of hypergolic fuels, and hydrogen storage. Katherine Taconi ; Ph.D., Mississippi State Assistant Professor Biological production of alternative energy from renewable resources. Jeffrey J. Weimer ; Ph.D., MIT Associate Professor Adhesions, biomaterials surf ace properties, thin film growth, and surface spectroscopies. David B. Williams ; Sc.D., Cambridge Professor and University President Analytical, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, applications to interfacial segregation and bonding changes, texture and phase diagram determination in metals and alloys. The Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering offers coursework and research leading to the Master of Science in Engineering degree. The Doctor of Philosophy degree is available through the Materials Science Ph.D. program, the Biotechnology Science and Engineering Program or the option in Chemical Engineering of the Mechanical Engineering Ph.D. program. The range of research interests in the chemical engineering faculty is broad It affords graduate students opportunities for advanced work in processes, reaction engineering, electrochemical systems, material processing and biotechnology. The proximity of the UAH campus to the 200+ high technology and aerospace industries of Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center provide exciting opportunities for our students. UAH The University of Alabama in Huntsville An Affirmative Action / Equal Opportunity Institution Office of Chemical and Materials Engineering 130 Engineering Building Huntsville, Alabama 35899 Ph: 256-824-6810 Fax: 256-824-6839 http://www.uah.edu http://www.che.uah.edu

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 271 UNIVERSITY OF ALBERT A A. Ben-Zvi PhD (Queens University) S. Bradford PhD (Iowa State University) Emeritus R.E. Burrell PhD (University of Waterloo) K. Cadien PhD (University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana) W. Chen PhD (University of Manitoba) P. Choi PhD (University of Waterloo) K.T. Chuang PhD (University of Alberta) Emeritus I. Dalla Lana PhD (University of Minnesota) Emeritus J. Derksen PhD (Eindhoven University of Technology) R.L. Eadie PhD (University of Toronto) J.A.W. Elliott PhD (University of Toronto) T.H. Etsell PhD (University of Toronto) G. Fisher PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus J.F. Forbes PhD (McMaster University) Chair M.R. Gray PhD (California Institute of Technology) R. Gupta PhD (University of Newcastle) R.E. Hayes PhD (University of Bath) H. Henein PhD (University of British Columbia) B. Huang PhD (University of Alberta) D.G. Ivey PhD (University of Windsor) S.M Kresta PhD (McMaster University) S.M. Kuznicki PhD (University of Utah) J.M. Lee PhD (Georgia Institute of Technology) D. Li PhD (McGill University) Q. Liu PhD (University of British Columbia) J. Luo PhD (McMaster University) D.T. Lynch PhD (University of Alberta) Dean of Engineering J.H. Masliyah PhD (University of British Columbia) A.E. Mather PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus W.C. McCaffrey PhD (McGill University) D. Mitlin PhD (University of California, Berkeley) K. Nandakumar PhD (Princeton University) J. Nychka PhD (University of California, Santa Barbara) F. Otto PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus B. Patchett PhD (University of Birmingham) Emeritus J. Ryan PhD (University of Missouri) Emeritus S. Sanders PhD (University of Alberta) S.L. Shah PhD (University of Alberta) J.M. Shaw PhD (University of British Columbia) U. Sundararaj PhD (University of Minnesota) H. Uludag PhD (University of Toronto) L. Unsworth PhD (McMaster University) S.E. Wanke PhD (University of California, Davis) M. Wayman PhD (University of Cambridge) Emeritus M.C. Williams PhD (University of Wisconsin) Emeritus R. Wood PhD (Northwestern University) Emeritus Z. Xu PhD (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University) T. Yeung PhD (University of British Columbia) H. Zhang PhD (Princeton University) Our Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering offers students the opportunity to study and conduct leading research with world-class academics in the top program in Canada, and one of the very best in North America. Our graduate student population is culturally diverse, academically strong, innovative, creative, and is drawn to our challenging and supportive environment from all areas of the world. Degrees are offered at the MSc and PhD levels in chemical engineering materials engineering and process control All full-time graduate students in research programs receive a stipend to cover living expenses and tuition. Our graduates are sought-after professionals who will be international leaders of tomorrows chemical and materials engineering advances. Research topics include: biomaterials, biotechnology, coal combustion, colloids and interfacial phenomenon, computational chemistry, compu particle dynamics, fuel cell modeling and control, heavy oil processing and upgrading, heterogeneous catalysis, hydrogen storage materials, materials processing, microalloy steels, micromechanics, mineral processing, molecular sieves, multiphase mixing, nanostructured biomaterials, oil sands, petroleum thermodynamics, pollution control, polymers, powder metallurgy, process and performance thermodynamics, and transport phenomena. The Faculty of Engineering has added more than one million square feet of outstanding teaching research and personnel space in the past six years. We offer outstanding and unique experimental and computational facilities including access to one of the most technologically advanced nanotechnology facilities in the world the National Institute for Nanotechnology connected by pedway to the Chemical and Materials Engineering Building. Annual research funding for our Department is over $14 million Externally sponsored funding to support engineering research in the entire Faculty of Engineering has increased to over $50 million each yearthe largest amount of any Faculty of Engineering in Canada. For further information, contact: Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6 Phone: 780-492-1823 Fax: 780-492-2881 www.engineering.ualberta.ca/cme

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Chemical Engineering Education 272 FACUL TY / RESEARCH INTERESTS ROBERT G. ARNOLD, Professor (CalTech) Microbiological Hazardous Waste Treatment, Metals Speciation and ToxicityPAUL BLOWERS, Associate Professor (Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis, Surface Phenomena, Green DesignJAMES C. BAYGENTS, Associate Professor (Princeton) Fluid Mechanics, Transport and Colloidal Phenomena, BioseparationsWENDELL ELA, Associate Professor (Stanford) Particle-Particle Interactions, Environmental ChemistryJAMES FARRELL, Professor (Stanford) Sorption/desorption of Organics in SoilsJAMES A. FIELD, Professor (Wageningen University) Bioremediation, Microbiology, White Rot Fungi, Hazardous WasteROBERTO GUZMAN, Professor (North Carolina State) ANTHONY MUSCAT Associate Professor (Stanford) Kinetics, Surface Chemistry, Surface Engineering, Semiconductor Processing, MicrocontaminationKIMBERLY OGDEN, Professor (Colorado) Bioreactors, Bioremediation, Organics Removal from SoilsTHOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor and Dean (CalTech) Aerosols, Hazardous Waste Incineration, MicrocontaminationARA PHILIPOSSIAN, Professor (Tufts) Chemical/Mechanical Polishing, Semiconductor ProcessingEDUARDO SEZ Professor (UC, Davis) Polymer Flows, Multiphase Reactors, ColloidsGLENN L. SCHRADER, Professor & Head (Wisconsin) Catalysis, Environmental Sustainability, Thin Films, KineticsFARHANG SHADMAN, Regents Professor (Berkeley) Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactive Membranes, MicrocontaminationREYES SIERRA, Associate Professor (Wageningen University) Environmental Biotechnology, Biotransformation of Metals, Green Engineering Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a growing modern city that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere. The Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering at the University of Arizona offers a wide range of research opportunities in all major areas of chemical engineering and environmental engineering. The department offers a fully accredited undergraduate degree in chemical engineering, as well as MS and PhD portion of research efforts is devoted to areas at the boundary between chemical and environmental engineering, including environmentally benign semiconductor manufacturing, environmental remediation, environmental biotechnology, and novel water treatment technologies. Financial support is available through fellowships, government and industrial grants and contracts, teaching and research assistantships. For further information http://www.chee.arizona.edu or write Chairman, Graduate Study Committee Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering P.O. BOX 210011 The University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721 The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity educational institution/equal opportunity employer. Women and minorities are encouraged to apply. Chemical and Environmental Engineering at A RIZONA THE UNIVERSITY OF TUCSON ARIZONA

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 273 Department of Chemical Engineering Learn and disco v er in a m u lti-di sciplinar y res ear ch env i ronm ent with opportun iti es in advan ced m a terials, atm o spheric chemistr y biotechnolog y electr ochemistr y and s e nsors, electronic mater i als processing, eng i neering education p r ocess contro l separat i on and p u rific a tion t echn o log y thin film s and f l ex ible dis p la y s Program Fa culty Jonathan O. Allen P h .D P E. M I T. Atm o s pheric a e r o s o l chem is tr y, s i ngle-p a rti c le m e as urem ent techn i ques, environmental f a te o f organic po llutants Je an M Andino, P h .D P E. C a lt ech. Atm o s pheric ch e m is tr y gas phas e kin e ti cs and m echan is m s heterog e neous chemistr y air po llution contro l James R. B eck man P h .D ., A r i z ona. Unit oper a tions appli e d m a th em ati c s energ y e ffi cien t wat e r purific ation fr ac tiona t i on, CM P recl am ation Veron i ca A Bu rro w s P h .D P r ince ton. Engineering edu cation, surfa ce s c i e nc e, se mi c o nduc t o r proces s i ng, int e r f aci al chem ic al a nd ph y s i c a l pro c es s e s for sensors Jeffrey Hey s P h .D ., Colorado Boulder. Modeling of bio f luid-tisue in ter a ction t i ssue and biofilm m echanics, par a l l el m u ltigrid sol v ers Jerry Y.S. Lin Ph.D., W o rc este r Pol y te chnic Ins titut e Advanced mater i als ( i norganic m e mbranes, adsorbents and cat al ys ts ) for ap plic ations in nov el chem ic al s e p a ration and reac tion p r oces s e s Grego r y B Rau p p P h .D ., W i s c ons in. Gas-solid surfac e re ac tions, in ter actions between surface reactions and tr ansport proce sses semicondu ct or materials processing, ther mal and plas mae nhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD), fl exibl e displ a y s Kaushal Re ge Ph.D., R e nssela e r Pol y te chnic Ins titut e M o lecul a r and c e llul a r engin eeri ng, eng i ne ered c a ncer therap eutics and diagnostics ce llular inter a ctions in cancer m e tastasis Daniel E. Rivera P h .D C a lt ec h. Control s y s t ems engineering, dy na mi c mo d e l i n g vi a sy st e m identif ic ation ro bust contro l, co m puter-aided co ntrol s y s t em design, supply chain manag e men t Mich ae l R. S i er k s P h .D ., Iow a S t ate Protein engineer ing, b i omedical engineering, en zy m e k i netics, antibod y engin e ering Bry a n Vogt P h D ., M a s s achus e t ts Nanostructured m a teria l s, org a nic electronics, s upercritical fluids for materials processing, mois ture b a rrier technolog ies Joe Wang P h .D ., Te chnion Biosensors, nan obiotechnolog y electroch e mistr y bio c hips. Affiliate/Re search Faculty John Cr itte nde n, P h .D ., N A E. P E M i ch igan S u s t ainabil i t y c a ta l y s i s pol lutio n preven tion ph ys ic al chem i cal treatment pro ces ses modeling of fi xed-bed reacto r s and adsorbers, s u rface chem is tr y and therm o d y n a m i cs m odel i ng of was t ewater a nd water tre a tm ent processes P a ul Johnson, P h .D ., P r ince ton. Chem ical m i grat ion and fa te in th e env i ronm ent a s appli e d to e nvironme n tal risk a sse ssme n t a n d the dev e lopment, monitor i ng and optimization of technolog ies for aquifer restor ation and w a ter resources manag e ment Rob ert Pf effer P h .D ., N e w Y o rk U n ivers i t y Dr y p a rticle co ating and supercr i tical flu i d pro ces sing to produ ce engineered particulates with tailor ed properties; flui dization, mixing, coating and processing of ultra-f i ne and nano-s t ru ctured par ticu l at es ; filtr ation of subm i cron part icu l a t es; agglom era t i on, sint ering and granulation of fine par ticles For ad di ti on al det a i l s see http://che. f ulton. asu edu/ or con t act Pa ul Grillo s at (480) 9 6 5 55 58 o r Pa ul.Grillo s@a s u.edu Br uc e E. Rittmann, P h .D ., N A E. P E. S t anfor d Environmental b i otechnolog y micr obial ecolog y environmental chemistr y envir onmental engin e ering

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Chemical Engineering Education 274 M.D. Ackerson R.E. Babcock R.R. Beitle E.C. Clausen J.A. Havens C.N. Hestekin J.A. Hestekin J.W. King W.A. Myers W.R. Penney S. L. Servoss T.O. Spicer G.J. Thoma R.K. Ulrich Biochemical engineering Biological and food systems Biomaterials Electronic materials processing Fate of pollutants in the environment Hazardous chemical release consequence analysis Integrated passive electronic components Membrane separations Micro channel electrophoresis Phase equilibria and process designUniversity of Arkansas The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees. Ph.D. stipends provide $20,000, Doctoral Academy Fellowships provide up to $25,000, and Distinguished Doctoral Fellowships provide $30,000. For stipend and fellowship recipients, all tuition is waived. Applications Areas of Research Faculty For more information contact Dr. Richard Ulrich or 479-575-5645 Chemical Engineering Graduate Program Information: http://www.cheg.uark.edu/graduate.asp Graduate Program in the Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 275 Faculty Chemical Engineering A U B U R N U N I V E R S I T Y Auburn University is an equal opportunity educational institution/employer. Director of Graduate Recruiting Department of Chemical Engineering Auburn, AL 36849-5127 Phone 334.844.4827 Fax 334.844.2063 www.eng.auburn.edu/che chemical@eng.auburn.edu Financial assistance is available to qualied applicants. Research Areas www.eng.auburn.edu

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Chemical Engineering Education 276 Vancouver is the largest city in Western Canada, ranked the 3 rd most livable place in the world*. Vancouvers natural surroundings offer limitless opportunities for outdoor pursuits throughout the year hiking, canoeing, mountain biking, skiing... In 2010, the city will host the Olympic and paraolympic Winter Games. Faculty Susan A. Bal dwin (T oronto) Chad P.J. Bennington (British Columbia) Xiaotao T. Bi (British Columbia) Bruce D. Bowen (British Columbia) Richard Branion (Saskatchewan) Sheldon J.B. Duff (McGill) Naoko Ellis (British Columbia) Peter Englezos (Calgary) Norman Epstein ( New York) James Feng (Minnesota) Bhushan Gopaluni (Alberta) John R. Grace (Cambridge) Elod Gyenge (British Columbia) Savvas Hatzikiriakos (McGill) Charles Haynes (California, Berkeley) Dhanesh Kannangara (Ottawa) Richard Kerekes (McGill) Ezra Kwok ( Alberta) Anthony Lau (British Columbia) Eric Legally (California, Santa Barbara) C. Jim Lim (British Columbia) Mark D. Martinez (British Columbia) Madjid Mohseni (Toronto) Colin Oloman (British Columbia) Royann Petrell (Florida) Kenneth Pinder (Birmingham) James M. Piret (MIT) Kevin J. Smith (McMaster) Fariborz Taghipour (Toronto) A. Paul Watkinson (British Columbia) David Wilkinson (Ottawa) Currently about 120 students are enrolled in graduate studies. The program dates back to the 1920s. Nowadays the department has a strong emphasis on interdisciplinary and joint programs, in particular with the Michael Smith Laboratories, Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (PAPRICAN), Clean Energy Research Centre (CERC) and the BRIDGE program which links public health, engineering and policy research. *2006 survey, the Economist magazine The University of British Columbia is the largest public university in Western Canada and is ranked among the top 40 institutes in the world by Newsweek magazine, the Times Higher Education Supplement and Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Main Areas of Research Bi ological Engineering Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Protein Engineering Blood research Stem Cells Energy Biomass and Biofuels Bio-oil and Bio-diesel Combustion, Gasification and Pyrolysis Electrochemical Engineering Fuel Cells Hydrogen Production Natural Gas Hydrate Environment al and Green Engineering Emissions Control Green Process Engineering Life Cycle Analysis Wastewater Treatment Waste Management Aquacultural Engineering Particle T echnology Fluidization Multiphase Flow Fluid-Particle Systems Particle Processing Electrost atics Kinetics and Cat alysis Polymer Rheology Process Control Pulp and Paper Reaction Engineering Financial Aid All students admitted to the graduate programs leading to the M.A.Sc., M.Sc. or Ph.D. degrees receive at least a minimum level of financial support regardless of citizenship. This amount is approximately $16,500/year and is intended to be sufficient to cover expenses for the year. This financial assistance is in the form of external fellowships or research assistantships. Teaching assistantships are also available (up to approximately $1,000 per year). Entrance scholarships worth $5,000 each are also available for highly qualified students. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE (M.A.SC.) MASTER OF ENGINEERING (M.ENG.) MASTER OF SCIENCE (M.SC.) DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (PH.D.). www.chml.ubc.ca/progr/grad Department Head Kevin J. Smith; Assistant Profs Elod Gyenge and Naoko Ellis The new CHBE building, opened in March 2006, houses world-class research and teaching activities. The top 2 floors are dedicated to graduate student offices and research labs electrochemical, fuel cell, thermodynamics, polymer rheology, biomedical research, imaging and sensor development and fine particle, mixing and water treatment, bioprocessing, etc. Faculty of Applied Science Mailing address: 2360 East Mall, Vancouver B.C., Canada V6T 1Z3 gradsec@chml.ubc.ca tel. +1 (604) 822-3457

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 277 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K final.pdf 7/23/2007 12:50:30 PM

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Chemical Engineering Education 278 Biomedical Engineering Biomolecular Engineering Bioreactor Engineering Bioremediation Ceramics Chemical and Biological Nanosensor Colloid Science Combustion Complex Fluids Composite Materials Control and Optimization Environmental Engineer ing Fuel Cell Systems Interfacial Engineering Materials Processing Mechanical Properties Metabolic Engineering Microelectronics Pro cessing and Modeling Microstructure of Materials Multifunctional Materi als Nanocrystalline Materi als Nanoscale Electronic Devices Nucleation, Chrystalliza tion and Glass Transi tion Process Polymers Power and Propulsion Materials Protein Engineering Recombinant Cell Tech nology Separation Processes Sol-Gel Processing Two-Phase Flow Water Pollution Control UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIAIRVINE Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering for Chemical Engineering, Engineering, and Materials Science Majors FACULTYNancy A. Da Silva (California Institute of Technology) James C. Earthman (Stanford University) Stanley B. Grant (California Institute of Technology) Juan Hong (Purdue University) Henry C. Lim (Northwestern University) Martha L. Mecartney (Stanford University) Farghalli A. Mohamed (University of California, Berkeley) Ali Mohraz (University of Michigan) Daniel R. Mumm (Northwestern University) Andrew J. Putnam (University of Michigan) Regina Ragan (California Institute of Technology) Frank G. Shi (California Institute of Technology) Vasan Venugopalan (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Szu-Wen Wang (Stanford University) Albert F. Yee (University of California, Berkeley) Joint Appointments:William J. Cooper (University of Miami) Steve C. George (University of Washington) (Purdue University) G.P. Li (University of California, Los Angeles) Noo Li Jeon (University of Illinois) John S. Lowengrub (New York University) Marc Madou (Rijksuniversiteit) Roger H. Rangel (University of California, Berkeley) Kenneth Shea (The Pennsylvania State University) Lizhi Sun (University of California, Los Angeles) Adjunct AppointmentsJia Grace Lu (Harvard University) of Los Angeles. Irvine is one of the nations fastest growing residential, industrial, and business areas. Nearby beaches, mountain and desert area recreational activities, and local cultural activities make Irvine a pleasant city in which to live and study. Offering degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels. Research in frontier areas in chemical engineering, biochemical engineering, biomedical engineering, and materials science and engineering. Strong physical and life science and engineering groups on campus. For further information and application forms, please visit http://www.eng.uci.edu/dept/chems/ or contact Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science School of Engineering University of California Irvine, CA 92697-2575

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 279 Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department 5531 Boelter Hall UCLA Los Angeles, CA 90095-1592T elephone at (310) 825-9063 or visit us at www.chemeng.ucla.edu CONT ACTCHEMICAL AND BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERING AT U C L A FOCUS AREAS Biomolecular and Cellular Engineering Process Systems Engi neering (Simulation, Design, Optimization, Dynamics, and Control) Semiconductor Manufacturing and Electronic Materials GENERAL THEMES Energy and the Environment Nanoengineering PROGRAMS FACULTYJ. P. Chang (William F. Seyer Chair in Materials Electrochemistry) Y. Cohen J. Davis (Assoc. Vice Chancellor Information Technology)R.F. Hicks L. Ignarro (Nobel Laureate)J. C. Liao Y. Lu V.I. Manousiouthakis H.G. Monbouquette (Dept. Chair)G. Orkoulas T. Segura S.M. Senkan Y. Tang UCLAs Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department offers a program of teaching and research linking fundamental engineering science and industrial practice. Our Department has strong graduate research programs in Biomolecular Engineering, Energy and Environment, Semiconductor Manufacturing, Engineering of Materials, and Process and Control Systems Engineering. Fellowships are available for outstanding applicants interested in Ph.D. degree programs. A fellowship includes a waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend. wood Village. Students have access to the highly regarded engineering and science programs and to a variety of

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Chemical Engineering Education 280 Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering FACULTY Wilfred Chen, Caltech David R. Cocker, Caltech David Cwiertny, Johns Hopkins Marc A. Deshusses, ETH Zurich Robert C. Haddon, Penn State David Kisailus, UC Santa Barbara Mark R. Matsumoto, UC Davis Ashok Mulchandani, McGill Nosang V. Myung, UCLA Joseph M. Norbeck, Nebraska Sharon L. Walker, Yale Jianzhong Wu, UC Berkeley Charles E. Wyman, Princeton Yushan Yan Caltech The University of California, Riverside (UCR) is the fastest growing and most ethnically diverse of the 10 campuses of the University of California. UCR is located on over 1,100 acres at the foot of the Box Springs Mountains, about 50 miles east of Los Angeles. Our pi cturesque campus provides convenient access to the vibrant and growing Inland Empire and is within easy driving distance to most of the major cultural and recreational offerings in Southern Ca lifornia. In addition, it is virtua lly equidistant from the desert, the mountains, and the ocean. UCR provides an ideal setting for students, faculty, and staff seeking to study, work, and live in a community steeped in rich heritage that offers a dynamic mix of arts and entertainment and an opportunity for affordable living. Offering degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels in frontier areas of Chemical, Biochemical, Biomedical, Advanced Materials, and Environmenta l Engineering, we welcome your interest and would be delighted to discuss the details of our graduate program and your application. We have outstanding faculty, research facilities and well supported infrastructure, and offer competitive fellowshi p p acka g es to q ualified a pp licants. Apply online at http://www.graduate.ucr.edu/Admtoc.html For further information contact the Graduate Program Assistant at gradcee@engr.ucr.edu or you can write to the Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California Riverside, CA 92521 htt p ://www.en g r.ucr.edu/chemenv RESEARCH AREAS Advanced Vehicle Technology Advanced Water Reclamation Aerosol Physics Atmospheric Chemistry Bioand Chemical Sensors Biomolecular Engineering Carbon Nanotubes Catalysis and Biocatalysis Electrochemistry Environmental Biotechnology MEMS/NEMS, Bio-MEMS Membrane Processes Molecular Modeling Nanostructured Materials Site Remediation Processes Sustainable Fuels and Chemicals Water/Wastewater Treatment Zeolites & Fuel Cells Protein expression on cell surface

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 281 SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. ( Waterloo ) Environmental Fluid Dynamics, Multiphase Flows, Turbulence, Computational Fluid DynamicsBRADLEY F. CHMELKA Ph.D. ( Berkeley ) Molecular Materials Science, Inorganic-Organics Composites, Porous Solids, NMR, PolymersPATRICK S. DAUGHERTY Ph.D. ( UT, Austin ) Protein Engineering and Design, Library TechnologiesMICHAEL F. DOHERTY Ph.D. ( Cambridge ) Design and Synthesis, Separations, Process Dynamics and ControlFRANCIS J. DOYLE III Ph.D. ( Caltech ) Process Control, Systems Biology, Nonlinear DynamicsGLENN H. FREDRICKSON Ph.D. ( Stanford ) Statistical Mechanics, Glasses, Polymers, Composites, AlloysMICHAEL GORDON Ph.D. ( Caltech ) Optical, Electrical, and Mechanical Interrogation of Nanoscale Systems, Scanning Probe G.M. HOMSY Ph.D. ( Illinois ) Fluid Mechanics, Instabilities, Porous Media, Interfacial Flows, Convective Heat TransferJACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph.D. ( Cambridge ) Colloidal and Biomolecular Interactions, Adhesion and FrictionEDWARD J. KRAMER Ph.D. ( Carnegie-Mellon ) Fracture and Diffusion of Polymers, Polymer Surfaces and InterfacesL. GARY LEAL Ph.D. ( Stanford ) Fluid Mechanics, Physics and Rheology of Complex Fluids, including Polymers, Suspensions, and EmulsionsGLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. ( M.I.T. ) Mechanics of Materials, Structural ReliabilityERIC McFARLAND Ph.D. ( M.I.T. ) M.D. ( Harvard ) Combinatorial Material Science, Environmental Catalysis, Surface ScienceSAMIR MITRAGOTRI Ph.D. ( M.I.T .) Drug Delivery and BiomaterialsBARON PETERS Ph.D. ( Berkeley) Statistical Mechanics, Informatics, and Electronic Structure Approaches for Nucleation, Electron Transfer, and CatalysisSUSANNAH L. SCOTT Ph.D. ( Iowa State ) Catalysis, Thin Films, Environmental ReactionsDALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. ( Princeton ) M. SCOTT SHELL Ph.D. ( Princeton ) Molecular Simulation, Statistical Mechanics, Complex Materials, Protein BiophysicsTODD M. SQUIRES Ph.D. ( Harvard ) Microscale Fluid Mechanics and Transport, Complex FluidsMATTHEW V. TIRRELL Ph.D. ( Massachusetts ) Polymers, Surfaces, Adhesion BiomaterialsT.G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D. ( Minnesota ) Multiphase Flow, Risk Assessment and ManagementJOSEPH A. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D. ( Minnesota ) Surface and Interfacial Phenomena, Biomaterials FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIASANTA BARBARA Chair Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of California Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5080 For additional information and application process,visit our Web site at www.chemengr. ucsb.edu or write to: PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT The Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. degree programs. Financial aid, including fellowships, teach ing assistantships, and research assistantships, is available. THE UNIVERSITY One of the worlds few seashore campuses, UCSB is located on the of Los Angeles. The student en rollment is more than 18,000. The metropolitan Santa Barbara area has more than 150,000 residents and is famous for its mild, even climate.

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Chemical Engineering Education 282 Contact information: Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering 210-41 California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91125 C A L T E C H C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g http://www.che.caltech.edu Faculty Research areas: F r a n c e s H A r n o l d Protein Engineering & Directed Evolution, Biocatalysis, Synthetic Biology, Biofuels A n a n d R A s t h a g i r i Cellular & Tissue Engineering, Systems Biology, Cancer & Developmental Biology J o h n F B r a d y Complex Fluids, Brownian Motion, Suspensions M a r k E D a v i s Biomedical Engineering, Catalysis, Adva nced Materials R i c h a r d C F l a g a n Aerosol Science, Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, Bioaerosols, Nanotechnology, Nucleation G e o r g e R G a v a l a s ( e m e r i t u s ) K o n s t a n t i n o s P G i a p i s Plasma Processing, IonSurface Interactions, Nanotechnology S o s s i n a M H a i l e Advanced Materials, Fuel Cells, Energy, Electrochemistry, Catalysis & Electrocatalysis J u l i a A K o r n f i e l d Polymer Dynamics, Crystallization of Polymers, Physical Aspects of the Design of Biomedical Polymers J o h n H S e i n f e l d Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, Global Climate C h r i s t i n a D S m o l k e Biomolecular Engineering, Synthetic Biology, Cellular Engineering, Metabolic Engineering D a v i d A T i r r e l l Macromolecular Chemistry, Biomaterials, Protein Engineering N i c h o l a s W T s c h o e g l ( e m e r i t u s ) Z h e n G a n g W a n g Statistical Mechanics, Polymer Science, Biophysics C a l i f o r n i a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 283

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Chemical Engineering Education 284 Faculty Members John Angus Harihara Baskaran Robert Edwards Donald Feke Daniel Lacks Uziel Landau Chung-Chiun Liu J. Adin Mann Heidi Martin Peter Pintauro Syed Qutubuddin Mohan Sankaran Robert Savinell Thomas Zawodzinski Research Opportunities Energy Systems Fuel Cells and Batteries Micro and Bio Fuel Cells Electrochemical Engineering Membrane Transport, Fabrication Biological Engineering Biomedical Sensors and Actuators Neural Prosthetic Devices Cell & Tissue Engineering Transport in Biological Systems Advanced Materials and Devices Diamond and Nitride Synthesis Coatings, Thin Films and Surfaces Sensors Fine Particle Science and Processing Polymer Nanocomposites Electrochemical Microfabrication Molecular Simulations Microplasmas and Microreactors Case Western Reserve University Advanced Study in Cutting-Edge Research Graduate Coordinator E-mail: chemeng@case.edu Department of Chemical Engineering Web: http://www.case.edu/cse/eche Case Western Reserve University 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7217 You will find Case to be an exciting environment to carry out your graduate studies. Case has a long history of scientific leadership. Our department alumni include many prominent chemical engineers, such as Herbert Dow, the founder of the Dow Chemical Company. The Chemical Engineering Faculty For more information on Graduate Research, Admission, and Financial Aid, contact:

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 285 Opportunities for Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at the UNIVERSITY OF C INCINNA TI M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in Chemical Engineering New Engineering Research Cen ter that houses most chemical engineering research. Advanced Materials thesis Bio-Applications of Membrane Science and Technology The IGERT program provides a unique educational opportunity for U.S. graduate students who are pursuing a doctoral degree program in areas of engineering, science, medicine, or pharmacy with a focus on Membrane Science and Technology for Biological Applications. This program is supported of an annual stipend of $30,000 for up to three years. Biotechnology Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Heterogeneous catalysis, environmental catalysis, zeolite catalysis, novel chemical reactors, model ing and design of chemical reactors, polymerization processes in interfaces, membrane reactors Center for Membrane Applied Science and Technology (MAST Center) The MAST Center at UC is part of a National Science Foundation Multi-site Industry/University Cooperative Research Center and a leading global membrane research center focused on the devel Environmental Research wastewater treatment, removal of volatile organic vapors Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology (INST) The Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology brings together three centers of excellencethe Center for Nanoscale Materials Science, the Center for BioMEMS and Nanobiosystems, and the Center for Nanophotonicscomposed of faculty from the Colleges of Engineering, Arts and Sci ences, and Medicine. The goals of the institute are to develop a world-class infrastructure of enabling technologies, to support advanced collaborative research on nanoscale materials and devices, and to advance high-technology economic development within Ohio. Membrane Technology pervaporation, biomedical, food and environmental applications of membranes, high-temperature membrane technology, natural gas processing by membranes Polymers Thermodynamics, polymer blends and composites, high-temperature polymers, hydrogels, polymer rheology, computational polymer science, molecular engineering and synthesis of surfactants, surfactants and interfacial phenomena Separation Technologies Membrane separation, adsorption, chromatography, separation system synthesis, chemical reac tion-based separation processes, polymer crystallization and propertyFor Admission Information Director, Graduate Studies Department Chemical and Materials Engineering PO Box 210012 University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 452 21-0012 E-mail: magnolia.clement @uc.edu or vadim.guliants@uc.ed u The University of Cincinnati is committed to a policy of non-discrimination in Financial Aid Available A.P. Angelopoulos Carlos Co Junhang Dong Joel Fried Rakesh Govind Vadim Guliants Chia-chi Ho Yuen-Koh Kao Soon-Jai Khang Paul Phillips Neville Pinto Vesselin Shanov Peter Smirniotis Faculty

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Chemical Engineering Education 286 Chemical Engineering at The City College of New York CUNY (The City University of New York) A 155-year-old urban University, the oldest public University in America, on a 35-acre Gothic and modern campus in the greatest city in the worldFACUL TY RESEARCH:Alexander Couzis: Polymorph selective templated crystallization; Molecularly thin organic barrier layers; Surfactant facilitated wetting of hydro phobic surfaces; soft materials Morton Denn mechanics Lane Gilchrist: Bioengineering with cellular materials; Spectroscopy-guided molecular engineering; Structural studies of self-assembling proteins; Bioprocessing Ilona Kretzschmar: Materials science; Nanotechnology; Electronic materials Leslie Isaacs: Preparation and characterization of novel materials; Applica tion of thermo-analytic techniques in materials research +Jae Lee: Theory of reactive distilla tion; Process design and control; Sepa rations; Bioprocessing; Gas hydrates Charles Maldarelli: Interfacial applications; Surfactant adsorption, phase behavior and nanostructuring at interfaces Jeff Morris: Fluid mechanics; Fluidparticle systems +Irven Rinard: Process design meth odology; Process and energy systems engineering; Bioprocessing David Rumschitzki: Transport and reaction aspects of arterial disease; ity; Catalyst deactivation and reaction engineering Carol Steiner: Polymer solutions and hydrogels; Soft biomaterials, Controlled release technology Raymond Tu: Biomolecular engineering; Peptide design; DNA condensation; microrheology Gabriel Tardos: Powder technology; Granulation; Fluid particle systems, Elec trostatic effects; Air pollution Sheldon Weinbaum Biotransport in living tissue; Modeling of cellular mechanism of bone growth; bioheat transfer; kidney functionASSOCIA TED FACUL TY: Joel Koplik : (Physics) Fluid mechanics; Molecu lar modeling; Transport in random media Hernan Makse: (Physics) Granular mechanics Mark Shattuck: (Physics) Experimental dynamics; Experimental spatio-temporal control of patternsEMERITUS FACUL TY: Andreas Acrivos Robert Graff Robert Peffer +Reuel Shinnar Herbert Weinstein Levich Institute +Clean Fuels Institute National Academy of Sciences CONT ACT INFORMA TION: Department of Chemical Engineering City College of New York Convent Avenue at 140th Street New York, NY 10031 www-che.engr.ccny.cuny.edu chedept@ccny.cuny.edu

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 287 CHBE FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS: Kristi Anseth biomaterials, photopoly-meriza tion, tissue engineering, and drug delivery Christopher Bowman biomaterials, pho topolymerization, reaction kinetics, polymer chemistry Stephanie Bryant functional tissue engineer ing, mechanical conditioning, mechano-trans duction, photopolymerization David Clough process control Robert Davis collisions in fluids, microbial suspensions, biotechnology, membrane fouling John Falconer heterogeneous catalysis, environmental catalysis, photocatalysis, zeolite membranes Steven George surface chemistry and thin interfaces Ryan Gill evolutionary and inverse metabolic engineering, genomics Douglas Gin polymer science, liquid crystal engineering, and nanomaterials chemistry Christine Hrenya Dhinakar Kompala recombinant mammalian and microbial cell cultures, high cell density bioreactors design, bioprocess engineering Melissa Mahoney neural tissue engineering, pancreatic regeneration, drug delivery, biopoly mers Will Medlin surface chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis, solid-state chemical sensors, compu tational chemistry Charles Musgrave theoretical studies of surfaces and reactions Richard Noble reversible chemical complex ation for separations, mass transfer, mathemati Theodore Randolph thermodynamics of protein solutions, lyophilization, supercritical Robert Sani Aaron Saunders colloidal nanocrystals, ma terials science Daniel Schwartz interfacial phenomena, materials Jeffrey Stansbury dental and biomedical polymeric materials, photopolymerization processes, network polymers, hydrogels, low shrinkage/expanding polymerizations Mark Stoykovich block copolymer self-as David Walba organic stereochemistry, pho tonic materials and ferroelectric liquid crystals Alan Weimer reactor engineering, advanced resource recoveryFor information and online application: Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering University of Colorado at Boulder, 424 UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0424 Phone (303) 492-7471 Fax (303) 492-4341 chbegrad@colorado.edu http://www.colorado.edu/che/ Image from: Casey A. Cass/University of ColoradoThe Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder offers an innovative graduate program and emphasizes the doctoral degree. Our outstanding national and international students take advantage of a high level of faculty-student has won numerous awards both locally and nationally. The Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering is one of the top research departments in the United States and maintains sophisticated facilities to support research endeavors. Although in biological engineering, functional materials, and renewable energy. Biological engineering research areas span from the molecular scale (metabolites, genes, proteins) to the cellular and multicellular scales. Functional materials research includes polymers, zeolites, department has strength in studying materials problems at the nanometer and sub-nanometer length scales. Such fundamental investigations are directed toward technological applications. Finally, biofuels research. The latter area has recently been strengthened by the formation of the Colorado in the department and sup ported by university, state and industry funding. We invite prospective graduate students to learn more about our department and ongoing research.

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Chemical Engineering Education 288 Golden, Colorado 80401 Evolving fr om its origins as a school of mining founded in 1873, CSM is a unique, highlyfocused University dedicated to scholarship and r esear ch in materials, energy and the envi r onment. The Chemical Engineering Department at CSM maintains a high-quality active, and well-funded graduate r esear ch pr ogram. Funding sour ces include federal agencies such as the NSF DOE, DARP A, ONR, NREL, NIST NIH as well as multiple industries. Resear ch ar eas within the department include: Material Science and Engineering Organic and inorganic membranes (W ay) Polymeric materials (Dorgan, W u, Liberator e) W u, Liberator e) Electr onic materials (W olden, Agarwal) Micr Theor etical and Applied Thermodynamics Natural gas hydrates (Sloan, Koh) Molecular simulation and modelling (Ely W u) Space and Micr ogravity Resear ch Membranes on Mars (W ay) W ession (McKinnon) Fuel Cell Resear ch H 2 separation and fuel cell membranes (W ay Herring) Low temperatur e fuel cell catalysts (Herring) High temperatur e fuel cell kinetics (Dean) Reaction mechanisms (McKinnon, Dean, Herring) Finally located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains and only 15 miles fr om downtown Denver Golden enjoys over 300 days of sunshine per year These factors combine to pr ovide year -r ound cultural, r ecr eational, and entertainment opportunities virtually unmatched anywher e in the United States. Faculty S. Agarwal (UCSB, 2003) A.M. Dean (Harvar d, 1971) J.R. Dorgan (Berkeley 1991) J.F Ely (Indiana, 1971) A. Herring (Leeds, 1989) C.A. Koh (Brunel, 1990) M. Liberator e (Illinois, 2003) D.W .M. Marr (Stanfor d, 1993) J.T McKinnon (MIT 1989) R.L. Miller (CSM, 1982) E.D. Sloan (Clemson, 1974) J.D. W ay (Colorado, 1986) C.A. W olden (MIT 1995) D.T W u (Berkeley 1991) COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES http://www .mines.edu/academic/chemeng/

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 289 Graduate students in Chemical and Biological Engineering at Colorado State University work closely with scientists and en gineers who have an international reputation for academic and research excellence. As a member of this community, you will have the oportunity to explore research interests, share ideas, and only in chemical engineering but also in microbiology, chem istry, engineering, and other sciences. The interdisciplinary nature of the research carried out by the chemical and biologi cal engineering faculty at CSU and the culture of cooperative research facilitate this access to experts across departments and colleges. Chemical and biological engineering faculty members and students work jointly with research groups in electrical, mechanical, and civil engineering, microbiology, environmental health sciences, chemistry, and veterinary medicine.M.S. and Ph.D. programs in chemical and biological engineeringRESEARCH IN . Biomaterials Biomedical Engineering Biosensors Cell and Tissue Engineering Environmental Biotechnology Environmental Engineering Genomics/Proteomics/Metabolomics Magnetic Resonance Imaging Membrane Technology Metabolic Engineering Molecular Simulation Nanostructured Materials Polymeric Materials Systems BiologyFINANCIAL AID A V AILABLE Teaching and research assistantships paying a monthly stipend plus tuition reimbursement. For applications and further information, see http://cbe.colostate.edu or write: Graduate Advisor, Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523-1370 Travis S. Bailey, Ph.D. University of Minnesota University of Wisconsin David S. Dandy, Ph.D California Institute of Technology Matt J. Kipper, Ph.D. Iowa State University James C. Linden, Ph.D. Iowa State University Kenneth F. Reardon, Ph.D. California Institute of Technology Brad Reisfeld, Ph.D. Northwestern University David Wang, Ph.D. University of Wisconsin A. Ted Watson, Ph.D. California Institute of Technology Ranil Wickramasinghe, Ph.D. University of Minnesota

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Chemical Engineering Education 290 School of Engineering Chemical E n gineering Program 191 Auditorium Road, U-3222 Storrs, CT 06269-3222 Phone: (860) 486-4020 Fax: (860) 486-2959 Welco m e to ou r n e w De par t ment of Che m ical, Materi als & Biom ol ecular Engine ering T h e de part m e nt was creat ed fr om t h e f u si o n of t h e depa rt m e nt s of C h em i cal Eng i neeri n g a n d M a t e ri al s Sci e nc e & E n gi nee r i n g. Th e Ch em ical Eng i n eeri n g Pro g ram o ffers op portun ities fo r cro s s-cu ttin g research in n a n o m aterials, b i o m o l ecu les, ener gy a n d m a ny t r a d i t i onal c h em i cal engi ne eri n g disciplines. E x am ple research areas below. Doug Cooper: Pro cess Con t ro l Trai n i ng Tun i ng & An alysis, Ad ap tiv e Pro cess C o n t ro l, In tellig en t Tech no log i es an d Pattern -Based C o n t ro l Can Erke y: F u el C e l l s S upe rcri t i cal Fl ui ds Yu Lei: B i ose n so rs, B i o r em edi a t i on, B i o pol ym ers and t h ei r A p pl i cat i ons, Na nom at eri a l s an d t h ei r Ap pl i cat i on i n B i osensi ng Richar d P a rnas: P r ot ei n B a sed Pl ast i c s, B i of uel s Pl ant D e si gn Fi ber O p t i c Sen s o r s, C o m posi t e s Montgomery T. Shaw: Po ly m e r Rh eo logy & Pr o cessing, Ph ase Beh a v i o r in Po lym e r So lu tion s & Bl en ds, A g i n g of Polym e ric Dielectrics Ranjan Srivas tava: B i om ol ecul a r Net w or ks Sy st em s B i ology B i oi n f o r m a t i c s & B i osens o rs Yo ng W a n g : Nano m e d i cin e s fo r Can c er Th erap y, Nan o med i ci n e s fo r Diagn o sis, Nan o m aterials for Con t ro lling Cell Beh a v i ors Robert Weiss: Pro t o n Ex ch an g e Mem b ran e s, Po lym e r Ble n d s Wettin g of Th in Po lym e r Fil m s, Electrically Co ndu ctiv e Poly m e r s H ydr op hob ically Mo d i f i ed H y d r o g e ls Benjamin Wil h ite: Heat I n t e grat i o n i n M i cr ocha n n el A rra y s fo r F u el R e f o rm i ng a n d F u el C e l l s M u l t i pha se Fl ow in Fu el Cell Micro c h a n n e ls, Mu ltifu n c ti o n a l Cataly st Desig n fo r Efficient Hydrog en Gen e ration Lei Z hu: Nano -con fin e d Po l y m e rs u s ing Bl o c k Copo ly m e r as Tem p lates Crystallin e b l ock co po lym e rs are u tilized as tem p lates to inve stigate na noc onfi nem e nt effects on po lym e r phase tra n sitions in t h e bul k a n d at s u rfaces, Bl ock C o p o l y m e r/ Ino r ga ni c Nan o c o m posi t e s, C h ar act eri zat i on of Pol y m e r M e m b ra nes i n P E M Fuel C e l l s

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 291 Graduate Study & Research in Chemical Engineering at Dartmouths Thayer School of Engineering For further information, please contact: Chemical Engineering Graduate Advisor Thayer School of Engineering Dartmouth College Hanover, NH 03755 http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/thayer/research/chemical.html Faculty & Research AreasIan Baker (Oxford) Structure/property relationships of materials, electron microscopyJohn Collier (Dartmouth) Orthopaedic prostheses, implant/host interfacesAlvin Converse (Delaware) Kinetics & reactor design, enzymatic hydrolysis of celluloseBenoit Cushman-Roisin (Florida State) Harold Frost (Harvard) Microstructural evolution, deformation, and fracture of materialsTillman Gerngross (Technical University of Vienna) Engineering of glycoproteins, fermentation technology Ursula Gibson (Cornell) Karl E. Griswold ( University of Texas at Austin) Protein EngineeringFrancis Kennedy (RPI) Tribology, surface mechanicsDaniel R. Lynch (Princeton) Computational methods, oceanography, and water resourcesLee Lynd (Dartmouth) Biomass processing, pathway engineering, reactor & process designVictor Petrenko (USSR Academy of Science) Physical chemistry of iceHorst Richter ( Stuttgart ) Erland Schulson (British Columbia) Physical metallurgy of metals and alloysPetia Vlahovska (Yale University) MD and MBA degrees. The Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College offers an ABET-accredited BE degree, as well as MS, Masters of Engineering Management, and PhD degrees. The Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Program features courses in foundational topics in chemical engineering as well as courses serving our areas of research specialization: Biotechnology and biocommodity engineering Environmental science and engineering Fluid mechanics Materials science and engineering Process design and evaluation These important research areas are representative of those found in chemical engineering departments around the world. A distinctive feature of the Thayer School is that the professors, students, and visiting scholars active in these areas have for students interested in chemical and biochemical engineering to draw from several intellectual traditions in coursework and research. Fifteen full-time faculty are active in research involving chemical engineering fundamentals.

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Chemical Engineering Education 292 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Graduate Program ur department has a long, distinguished history as a vigorous and active center of research. The range of projects varies tremendouslyfrom biochemical engineering to catalysis to thermodynamicsand there are important advances being made in each area at Delaware. A hallmark of our department has long been interaction with industry, and many of the research groups collaborate closely with local or other industrial laboratories. This is useful experience for pursuit of a career in either academic or industrial research. O 150 Academy Street Colburn Laboratory Newark, DE 19716 Phone 302 831 2543 Fax 302 831 1048 Contact UNIVERSITY of DELAWARE Maciek Antoniewicz Assistant Professor Mark Barteau Robert L. Pigford Chair of Chemical Engineering Antony Beris Arthur B. Metzner Professor Douglas Buttrey Professor Jingguang Chen Professor; Director of CCST Prasad Dhurjati Professor Thomas Epps, III Assistant Professor Eric Furst Associate Professor Eric Kaler Elizabeth Inez Kelley Professor; Dean, College of Engineering Jochen Lauterbach Professor Kelvin Lee Gore Professor Bramie Lenhoff Gore Professor Raul Lobo Professor Terry Papoutsakis Eugene DuPont Chair of Chemical Engineering Babatunde Ogunnaike William L. Friend Professor; Center for Systems Biology Christopher Roberts Assistant Professor Anne Robinson Associate Professor T.W. Fraser Russell Allan P. Colburn Professor; Chief Engineer, Institute of Energy Conversion Stanley Sandler H.B. duPont Chair of Chemical Engineering; Director of CMET Annette Shine Associate Professor Millicent Sullivan Assistant Professor Dionisios Vlachos Professor Norman Wagner Alvin B. and Julia O. Stiles Professor; Department Chairperson Brian Willis Assistant Professor Richard Wool Professor FACULT Y Biochemical & Biomedical Engineering Computational Biology/ Bioinformatics Metabolic Engineering Proteins: adsorption, aggregation and folding Intracellular processing Biopolymers Functional genomics Molecular level processes Catalysis & Reaction Engineering Surface science Novel catalytic materials Reaction pathways and kinetics Reaction simulation Reaction engineering Microchemical systems Combinatorial catalysis Colloid & Interface Science Surfactant-based complex fluids Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics Colloid phase behavior Rheology Protein interactions Self-assembly and nanocomposites Computer simulation Nanotechnology & Materials Design Electronic materials Microporous and mesoporous materials Composite materials Multiscale simulation Polymer Science & Engineering Polymer processing Rheology and rheological modeling Non-equilibrium thermodynamics Molecular simulation Diffusion in polymers Conducting polymers Thermodynamics & Phase Equilibria Predicting phase equilibria Molecular thermodynamics and simulations Statistical mechanics of mixtures Transport Phenomena & Separation Science Flow and mass transfer in separation processes Rheology Computational fluid dynamics RESEARCH AREA S Apply on-line: www.udel.edu/gradoffice/applicant s www.che.udel.ed u

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 295 F a c u l t y T i m A n d e r s o n A r a v i n d A s t h a g i r i J a s o n E B u t l e r A n u j C h a u h a n O s c a r D C r i s a l l e J e n n i f e r S i n c l a i r C u r t i s R i c h a r d B D i c k i n s o n H e l e n a H a g e l i n W e a v e r G a r H o f l u n d P e n g J i a n g L e w i s E J o h n s D m i t r y K o p e l e v i c h O l g a K r y l i o u k A n t h o n y J L a d d T a n m a y L e l e A t u l N a r a n g R a n g a N a r a y a n a n M a r k E O r a z e m C h a n g W o n P a r k F a n R e n D i n e s h O S h a h S p y r o s S v o r o n o s Y i i d e r T s e n g S e r g e y V a s e n k o v J a s o n F W e a v e r K i r k Z i e g l e r C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a 6 t h i n n u m b e r o f y e a r l y C h E P h D g r a d u a t e s i n U S * C & E N J u l y 2 4 2 0 0 6 A w a r d w i n n i n g f a c u l t y C u t t i n g e d g e f a c i l i t i e s E x t e n s i v e e n g i n e e r i n g r e s o u r c e s A n h o u r f r o m t h e A t l a n t i c O c e a n a n d t h e G u l f o f M e x i c o

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Chemical Engineering Education 298 Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Graduate Program The University of Houston is an equal opportunity institution. ENVIRONM E NTAL & RE ACTION ENGIN EE RING EN E RGY ENGIN EE RING C H E MICAL ENGIN EE RING BIOMOL E CULAR ENGIN EE RING N ANOM AT E RIALS Balakotaiah Harold Luss Richardson Rooks Chellam Economou Strasser Willson Annapragada Bidani Briggs Fox Vekilov Willson Doxastakis Krishnamoorti Mohanty Chellam Harold Luss Nikolaou Richardson Strasser Vekilov Advincula Donnelly Doxastakis Economou Flumerfelt Jacobson Krishnamoorti Lee Litvinov Balakotaiah Harold Jacobson Luss Nikolaou Richardson Daneshy Economides Mohanty Nikolaou Strasser Adjunct Affiliated Bold denotes primary research area. HOU S TO N Dynamic Hub of Chemical Engineering Houston is the dominant hub of the U.S. energy and chemical industries, as well as the home of NASAs Johnson Space Center and the world-renowned Texas Medical Center. The Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Department at the University of Houston offers excellent facilities, competitive nancial support, industrial internships, and an environment conducive to personal and professional growth. Houston offers the educational, cultural, business, sports, and entertainment advantages of a large and diverse metropolitan area, with signicantly lower costs than average. For more information: Visit: www.chee.uh.edu Email: grad-che@uh.edu Write: University of Houston Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Graduate Admission S222 Engineering Building 1 Houston, TX 77204-4004

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 299 MS and PhD Graduate ProgramThe University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Chemical EngineeringUIC For more information, write to Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering University of Illinois at Chicago 810 S. Clinton St. Chicago, IL 60607-7000 (312) 996-3424 Fax (312) 996-0808 URL: http://www.uic.edu/depts/chme/ RESEARCH AREASTransport Phenomena: Thermodynamics: extraction/retrograde condensation, Asphaltene characterization, Membrane-based separations.Kinetics and Reaction Engineering: Gas-solid reaction kinetics, Energy transfer processes, Laser diagnostics, and Combustion chemistry. Environmental technology, Surface chemistry, and optimization. Catalyst preparation and characterization, Supported metals, Chemical kinetics in automotive engine emis sions. Density fuctional theory calculations of reaction mechanisms. Biochemical Engineering: Bioinstrumentation, Bioseparations, Biodegradable polymers, Nonaqueous Enzymology, Optimization of mycobacterial fermentations. Materials: Microelectronic materials and processing, Heteroepitaxy in group IV materials, and in situ Product and Process Development and design, Computer-aided modeling and simulation, Pollution prevention. Biomedical Engineering Hydrodynamics of the human brain, Microvasculation, Fluid structure interaction in biological tissues, Drug transport. Nanoscience and Engineering Molecular-based study of matter in nanoscale, Organic nanostructures, Self-assembly and Positional assembly. Properties of size-selected clusters. FACULTY Sohail Murad Professor and Head Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979 E-Mail: Murad@uic.edu John H. Kiefer Professor Emeritus Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961 E-Mail: Kiefer@uic.edu Andreas A. Linninger Associate Professor Ph.D., Vienna University of Technology, 1992 E-Mail: Linninge@uic.edu G. Ali Mansoori Professor Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969 E-Mail: Mansoori@uic.edu Randall Meyer Assistant Professor Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin, 2001 E-Mail: Rjm@uic.edu Ludwig C. Nitsche Associate Professor Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1989 E-Mail: LCN@uic.edu John Regalbuto, Associate Professor Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986 E-Mail: JRR@uic.edu Stephen Szepe Associate Professor Emeritus Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966 E-Mail: SSzepe@uic.edu Christos Takoudis Professor Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1982 E-Mail: Takoudis@uic.edu Professor Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964 E-Mail: Turian@uic.edu Lewis E. Wedgewood Associate Professor Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1988 E-Mail: Wedge@uic.edu Edward Funk Adjunct Professor Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1970 E-Mail: Funk@uic.edu Laszlo T. Nemeth Adjunct Professor Ph.D., University of Debrecen, Hungary, 1978 E-Mail: Lnemeth@uic.edu Anil Oroskar Adjunct Professor Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1981 E-Mail: anil@orochem.com

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Chemical Engineering Education 300 FACULTY Richard C. Alkire Electrochemical Engineering Richard D. Braatz Multiscale Systems and Control Steve Granick Soft Materials, Nanoscience, Colloids, Imaging William S. Hammack Public Outreach and Engineering Literacy Brendan A. Harley Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Jonathan J. L. Higdon Fluid Mechanics and Computational Algorithms Paul J. A. Kenis Microchemical Systems: Microreactors, Microfuel Cells, and Microfluidic Tools Hyun Joon Kong Design of Bioinspired Materials, Engineering of Stem Cell Niches, Tissue Engineering Mary L. Kraft Surface Analysis and Biomembranes Deborah E. Leckband Bioengineering and Biophysics Jennifer A. Lewis Materials Assembly, Complex Fluids, and Mesoscale Fabrication Richard I. Masel Microchemical Systems, Micro Fuel Cells, Sensors Daniel W. Pack Biomolecular Engineering and Biotechnology Nathan D. Price Computational and Systems Biology Christopher V. Rao Computational Biology and Cellular Engineering Charles M. Schroeder Single Molecule Biology, Biophysics and Biomolecular Engineering Kenneth S. Schweizer Macromolecular, Colloidal and Complex Fluid Theory Edmund G. Seebauer Microelectronics Processing and Nanotechnology Huimin Zhao Molecular Bioengineering and Biotechnology Charles F. Zukoski Colloid and Interfacial Science UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The combination of distinguished faculty, outstanding facilities, and a diversity of research interests results in exceptional opportunities for graduate education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department offers graduate programs leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. For more information visit www.chemeng.uiuc.edu Or write to: Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 114 Roger Adams Laboratory, Box C-3 600 South Mathews Avenue Urbana, IL 61801-3602

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 301

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Chemical Engineering Education 302 Graduate program for M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering FACULTY For information and application: Graduate Admissions Chemical and Biochemical Engineering 4133 Seamans Center Iowa City IA 52242-1527 1-800-553-IOWA (1-800-553-4692) chemeng@icaen.uiowa.edu www.engineering.uiowa. edu/~chemeng/ Stephen K. Hunter U. of Utah 1989 Bioarticial organs/ Microencapsulation technologies Gary A. Aurand North Carolina State U. 1996 Supercritical uids/ High pressure biochem ical reactors Alec B. Scranton Purdue U. 1990 Photopolymerization/ Reversible emulsiers/ Polymerization kinetics Greg Carmichael U. of Kentucky 1979 Global change/ Supercomputing/ Air pollution modeling Audrey Butler U. of Iowa 1989 Chemical precipitation processes Chris Coretsopoulos U. of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign 1989 Photopolymerization/ Microfabrication/ Spectroscopy David Murhammer U. of Houston 1989 Insect cell culture/ Bioreactor monitoring Tonya L. Peeples Johns Hopkins 1994 Bioremediation/ Extremophile physiol ogy and biocatalysis David Rethwisch U. of Wisconsin 1985 Membrane science/ Polymer science/ Catalysis Jennifer Fiegel Johns Hopkins 2004 Drug delivery/ Nano and microtechnology/ Aerosols Julie L.P. Jessop Michigan State U. 1999 Polymers/ Microlithography/ Spectroscopy C. Allan Guymon U. of Colorado 1997 Polymer reaction engineering/UV curable coatings/Polymer liquid crystal composites Ramaswamy Subramanian Indian Institute of Science 1992 Structural enzymol ogy/Structure function relationship in proteins John M. Wiencek Case Western Reserve 1989 Protein crystallization/ Surfactant technology Charles O. Stanier Carnegie Mellon University 2003 Air pollution chemistry, measurement, and modeling/Aerosols Aliasger K. Salem U. of Nottingham 2002 Tissue engineering/ Drug delivery/Polymeric biomaterials/Immunocancer therapy/Nano and microtechnology Venkiteswaran Subramanian Indian Institute of Science 1978 Biocatalysis/Metabolism/ Gene expression/ Fermentation/Protein purication/Biotechnology

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 303 Faculty Iowa State Universitys Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering offers excellent programs for graduate research and education. Our cuttingedge research crosses traditional disciplinary lines and provides exceptional opportunities for graduate students. Our diverse faculty are leaders international recognition for both research and education, our facilities (laboratories, instrumentation, and computing) are state of the art, and our students the support they need not just to succeed, but to excel. Our campus houses several interdisciplinary research centers, including the Ames Laboratory (a USDOE laboratory focused on materials research), the Plant Sciences the Institute for Combinatorial Discovery. The department offers MS and PhD degrees in chemical engineering. can be admitted to the program. We coverage and competitive stipends to all our graduate students. Robert C. Brown, PhD Michigan State University Biorenewable resources for energy Aaron R. Clapp, PhD University of Florida Colloidal and interfacial phenomena Eric W. Cochran, PhD University of Minnesota Self-assembled polymers Rodney O. Fox, PhD Kansas State University engineering Charles E. Glatz, PhD University of Wisconsin Bioprocessing and bioseparations Kurt R. Hebert, PhD University of Illinois Corrosion and electrochemical engineering James C. Hill, PhD University of Washington Andrew C. Hillier, PhD University of Minnesota Interfacial engineering and electrochemistry Kenneth R. Jolls, PhD University of Illinois Chemical thermodynamics and separations Mark J. Kushner, PhD California Institute of Technology Computational optical and discharge physics Monica H. Lamm, PhD North Carolina State University Molecular simulations of advanced materials Surya K. Mallapragada, PhD Purdue University Tissue engineering and drug delivery Balaji Narasimhan, PhD Purdue University Biomaterials and drug delivery Michael G. Olsen, PhD University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Peter J. Reilly, PhD University of Pennsylvania Enzyme engineering and bioinformatics Derrick K. Rollins, PhD Ohio State University Statistical process control Brent H. Shanks, PhD California Institute of Technology Heterogeneous catalysis and biorenewables Jacqueline V. Shanks, PhD California Institute of Technology Metabolic engineering and plant biotechnology R. Dennis Vigil, PhD University of Michigan Transport phenomena and reaction engineering in multiphase systems FOR MORE INFORMATION Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50011 515 294-7643 Fax: 515 294-2689 chemengr@iastate.edu www.cbe.iastate.edu Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U.S. Vietnam Era Veteran. Any persons having inquiries concerning this may contact the Director of Equal Opportunity and Diversity, 3680 Beardshear Hall, 515 294-7612. ECM 07495

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Chemical Engineering Education 304 Graduate Study and Research in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at Johns Hopkins The Johns Hopkins Universitys Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, estab lished in 1936, features a low student-to-faculty ratio that fosters a highly collaborative research ex perience. The faculty are internationally known for their contributions at the forefront of emerging technologies such as nanotechnology, recombinant DNA technology, cell and tissue engineering, computational biology, molecular bioengineering, and electronic materials as well as in core chemi cal engineering areas such as thermodynamics and interfacial phenomena.Hydration Phenomena and Statistical Mechanics of Aqueous Systems Dilipkumar N. Asthagiri, PhD University of Delaware, Newark Mammalian, Insect Cell, and Stem Cell Culture Metabolic Engineering and Biotechnology Apoptosis Glycosylation and Glycomics Michael J. Betenbaugh, PhD University of Delaware Molecular Thermodynamics Adsorption Supercritical Processing Self Assembly Marc D. Donohue, PhD University of California, Berkeley Transport Phenomena in Micro and Nano-Fluidic Systems Molecular Dynamics Simulations German M. Drazer, PhD Universidad de Cuyo and Instituto Balseiro Surface Forces and Adhesion Electrochemistry Interfacial Electrostatics Nanomaterials Jolle Frchette, PhD Princeton UniversityStem Cells and Tissue Engineering Vascular Regeneration Sharon Gerecht, PhD Technion-Israel Institute of Technology Micro/Nanotechnology Self-Assembly Surface Science of Soft Materials Non linear Optical Spectroscopy and Biomedical Engineering David Gracias, PhD University of California, BerkeleyBiomolecular Modeling Protein-Protein Docking Protein-Surface Interactions Self-Assembled Nanomaterials and Devices Jeffrey J. Gray, PhD University of Texas at AustinBiomaterials Synthesis Acid Delivery Justin S. Hanes, PhD Massachusetts Institute of Technology Nucleation Crystallization Ouzo Effect Flame Generation of Ceramic Powders Joseph L. Katz, PhD University of Chicago Cell and Molecular Engineering Functional Genomics Fluid Mechanics in Medical Applications Cancer Metastasis Konstantinos Konstantopoulos, PhD Rice University Molecular Bioengineering Protein Engineering Molecular Evolution Marc Ostermeier, PhD University of Texas at AustinSurfactants and Interfaces Nanoparticle Assembly Marangoni Effects Kathleen J. Stebe, PhD The City University of New York Cell Adhesion and Migration Cystoskeleton Receptor-Ligand Interactions Cancer HIV Infection Progeria New Microscopies Denis Wirtz, PhD Stanford University For further information contact: Johns Hopkins University Whiting School of Engineering Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering 3400 N. Charles Street Baltimore, MD 21218-2694 410-516-7170 che@jhu.edu http://www.jhu.edu/~cheme The Johns Hopkins University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, sex, religion, sexual orientation, national or ethnic origin, age, disability or veteran status in any student program or activity administered by the University or with regard to admission or employment. Defense Department discrimination in ROTC programs on the basis of homo change in the Defense Department policy. Questions regarding Title VI, Title IX and Section 504 should be referred to Yvonne M.

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 305 The University of Kansas is the largest and most comprehensive university in Kansas. It has an enrollment of more than 28,000 and almost 2,000 faculty mem bers. KU offers more than 100 bachelors, nearly 90 masters, and more than 50 doctoral programs. The main campus is in Lawrence, Kansas, with other campuses in Kansas City, Wichita, Topeka, and Overland Park, Kansas. Faculty Cory Berkland (Ph.D., Illinois) Kyle V. Camarda (Ph.D., Illinois) R.V. Chaudhari (Ph.D., Bombay University) Michael Detamore (Ph.D., Rice) Stevin H. Gehrke (Ph.D., Minnesota) Don W. Green, (Ph.D., Oklahoma) Javier Guzman (Ph.D., UC Davis) Colin S. Howat (Ph.D., Kansas) Jenn-Tai Liang (Ph.D., Texas) Trung V. Nguyen (Ph.D., Texas A&M) Karen J. Nordheden (Ph.D., Illinois) Russell D. Osterman (Ph.D., Kansas) Aaron Scurto (Ph.D., Notre Dame) Marylee Z. Southard (Ph.D., Kansas) Susan M. Williams (Ph.D., Oklahoma) Bala Subramaniam (Ph.D., Notre Dame) Shapour Vossoughi (Ph.D., Alberta, Canada) Laurence Weatherley, Chair (Ph.D., Cambridge) G. Paul Willhite (Ph.D., Northwestern) Research Catalytic Kinetics and Reaction Engineering Catalytic Materials and Membrane Processing Controlled Drug Delivery Corrosion, Fuel Cells, Batteries Electrochemical Reactors and Processes Electronic Materials Processing Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes Fluid Phase Equilibria and Process Design Liquid/Liquid Systems Molecular Product Design NanoTechnology for Biological Applications Process Control and Optimization Protein and Tissue Engineering Supercritical Fluid Applications Waste Water Treatment Graduate Programs M.S. degree with a thesis requirement in both chemical and petroleum engineering Typical completion times are 16-18 months for a M.S. degree and 4 1/2 years for a Ph.D. degree (from B.S.) KANSAS Graduate Study in Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the Financial Aid Financial aid is available in the form of research and teaching assistantships and fellowships/scholarships. A special program is described below. Madison & Lila Self Graduate Fellowship For additional information and application: http://www.unkans.edu/~selfpro/ Research Centers Tertiary Oil Recovery Program (TORP) 30 years of excellence in enhanced oil recovery research (CEBC) NSF Engineering Research Center Transportation Research Institute (TRI) Contacts Website for information and application: http://www.cpe.engr.ku.edu/ Graduate Program Chemical and Petroleum Engineering University of KansasLearned Hall 1530 W. 15 th Street, Room 4132 Lawrence, KS 66045-7609 UNIVERSITY OF phone: 785-864-2900 fax: 785-864-4967 e-mail: cpe_grad@ku.edu

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Chemical Engineering Education 306 Faculty, Ph.D. Institute, Research Areas Jennifer L. Anthony, University of Notre Dame advanced materials, nanoporous molecular sieves, environmental separations, ionic liquids, solvent properties Vikas Berry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University bionanotechnology, nanoelectronics, sensors James H. Edgar, University of Florida crystal growth, semiconductor processing and materi als characterization Larry E. Erickson, Kansas State University environmental engineering, biochemical engineering, biological waste treatment process design and synthesis L.T. Fan, West Virginia University process systems engineering including process synthesis and cont rol, chemical reaction engineering, particle technology Larry A. Glasgow, University of Missouri transport phenomena, bubbles, droplets and particles in turbulent flows, coagulation and flocculation Keith L Hohn, University of Minnesota catalysis a nd reaction engineering, niversity of Texas polymers in membrane separations and surface science natural gas conversion, and nanoparticle catalysts Peter Pfromm, U Mary E. Rezac (head), University of Texas polymer science, membrane separation processes John R. Schlup, California Institute of Technology biobased industrial products, applied spectroscopy, thermal analysis, intelligent processing of materials Walter Walawender, Syracuse University activated carbon, biomass energy, fl uid particle systems, pyrolysis, reaction modeling and engineering Krista S. Walton, Vanderbilt University nanoporous materials, molecular modeling, adsorption separation and purification, metal-organic frameworks

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 307

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Chemical Engineering Education 308 Synergistic, interdisciplinary research in . Biochemical Engineering Catalytic Science & Reaction Engineering Environmental Engineering Interfacial Transport Materials Synthesis Characterization & Processing Microelectronics Processing Polymer Science & Engineering Process Modeling & Control Two-Phase Flow & Heat Transfer . leading to M.S., M.E., and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engineering Philip A. Blythe, University of Manchester Hugo S. Caram, University of Minnesota high temperature processes and materials environmental processes reaction engineeringManoj K. Chaudhury, SUNY-Buffalo Mohamed S. El-Aasser, McGill University synthesis and characterizationAlice P. Gast, Princeton James F. Gilchrist, Northwestern University James T. Hsu, Northwestern University bioseparations applied recombinant DNA technologyAnand Jagota, Cornell University biomimetics mechanics adhesion biomolecule-materials interactionsAndrew Klein, North Carolina State University emulsion polymerization colloidal and surface effects in polymerizationMayuresh V. Kothare, California Institute of Technology model predictive control constrained control microchemical systemsIan J. Laurenzi, University of Pennsylvania chemical kinetics in small systems biochemical informatics aggregation phenomenaWilliam L. Luyben, University of Delaware process design and control distillationAnthony J. McHugh, University of Delaware polymer rheology and rheo-optics polymer processing and modeling membrane formation drug deliveryArup K. Sengupta, University of Houston use of adsorbents ion exchange reactive polymers membranes in environmental pollutionCesar A. Silebi, Lehigh University separation of colloidal particles electrophoresis mass transferShivaji Sircar, University of Pensylvania adsorption gas and liquid separationKemal Tuzla, Technical University of Istanbul Israel E. Wachs, Stanford University materials characterization surface chemistry heterogeneous catalysis environmental catalysis Additional information and application may be obtained by writing to: Dr. James T. Hsu, Chairman Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering Lehigh University 111 Research Drive Iacocca Hall Bethlehem, PA 18015 Fax: (610) 758-5057 E-Mail: inchegs@lehigh.edu Website: www3.lehigh.edu/engineering/cheme/LEHIGH UNIVERSITY

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 309

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Chemical Engineering Education 310 For information about the graduate program write to the . Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 call 207 581-2277 e-mail gradinfo@umche.maine.edu or The department has a long history of interactions with industry. Research proj ects often come from actual industrial situations. Various research programs, such as the Paper Surface Science Program, have industrial advisory boards that give students key contacts with industry. We have formed an alliance with the Institute of Molecular Biophysics (IMB) that brings to us partnerships with The Jackson Laboratory (TJL) and Maine Medical Center Research Institute sors, and molecular biophysics give students opportunities to do research at the interface between engineering and the biological sciences. DOUGLAS BOUSFIELD PhD (UC Berkeley) Fluid mechanics, printing, coating processes, micro-scale model ingALBERT CO PhD (Wisconsin) merical methodsWILLIAM DESISTO PhD (Brown) chem./bio sensorsDARRELL DONAHUE PhD (North Carolina State) Biosensors in food and medical applications, risk assessment modeling, statistical process controlJOSEPH GENCO PhD (Ohio State) JOHN HWALEK PhD (Illinois) Process information systems, heat transferMICHAEL MASON PhD (UC Santa Barbara) Laser scanning confocal microscopy, time-resolved imaging of molecular nanoprobes for biological systemsPAUL MILLARD PhD (Maryland) technologyDAVID NEIVANDT PhD (Melbourne) Conformation of interfacial species, surface spectroscopies/mi croscopiesANJA NOHE PhD (Theodor Boveri Inst.) Protein dynamics on cell surfaces, membrane transport, image analysisHEMANT PENDSE PhD (Syracuse) Chair Sensor development, colloid systems, particulate and multiphase processesDOUGLAS RUTHVEN PhD ScD (Cambridge) Fundamentals of adsorption and processesADRIAAN VAN HEININGEN PhD (McGill) Pulp and paper manufacture and production of biomaterials and biofuelsM. CLAYTON WHEELER PhD (Texas-Austin) Chemical sensors, fundamental catalysis, surface scienceUniversity of MaineThe University The campus is situated near the Penobscot and Stillwater Rivers in the town of Orono, Maine. The campus is large enough to offer various activities and events and yet is small enough to allow for one-on-one learning with faculty. The University of Maine is known for its hockey team, but also has a number of other sports activities. Not far from campus is the Maine Coast and Acadia National Park. North and west are alpine and cross-country ski resorts, Baxter State Park, and the Allagash Water Wilderness area. Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 311 MANHATTAN COLLEGE Manhattan College is located in Riverdale, an attractive area in the northwest section of New York City. This well-established graduate program emphasizes the application of basic principles to the solution of modern engineering problems, with new features in engineering management, sustainable and alternative energy, safety, and biochemical engineering. Financial aid is available, including industrial fellowships in a one-year program sponsored by the following companies:Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. BOC Group ConocoPhillips Consolidated Edison Co. Kraft Foods Merck & Co., Inc. Panolam Industries For information and application form, write to Graduate Program Director Chemical Engineering Department Manhattan College Riverdale, NY 10471 chmldept@manhattan.edu Offering a Practice-Oriented Masters Degree Program in Chemical Engineering http://www.engineering.manhattan.edu

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Chemical Engineering Education 312 University of Massachusetts Amherst Surita R. Bhatia W. Curtis Conner, Jr. Jeffrey M. Davis James M. Douglas, Emeritus Neil S. Forbes David M. Ford Michael A. Henson George W. Huber Robert L. Laurence Emeritus Michael F. Malone Dimitrios Maroudas Peter A. Monson Susan C. Roberts Lianhong Sun Phillip R. Westmoreland H. Henning Winter F ACULTY : E XPERIENCE OUR PROGRAM IN C HEMICAL E NGINEERING For application forms and further information on fellowships and assistantships, academic and research programs, and student housing, see: http://www.ecs.umass.edu/che Graduate Program Director Department of Chemical Engineering 159 Goessmann Lab., 686 N. Pleasant St. University of Massachusetts Amherst MA 01003-9303 The University of Massachusetts Amherst prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, creed, sex, sexual orie ntation, age, marital status, national origin, disability or handicap, or veteran status, in any aspect of the admission or treatment of students or in emplo yment. Instructional, research and administrative space are housed in close proximity to each other. In addition to space located in Goessmann Lab. which includes the ChE Alumni Classroom used for teaching and research seminars, additional space is located in the Conte National Center for Polymer Research. In May 2004 we proudly dedicated the brand new $25-million facilities of Engineering Lab II (ELab II) which includes 57,000sq.ft of state-of-the-art laboratory facilities and office space. Amherst is a beautiful New England college town in Western Massachusetts. Set amid farmland and rolling hills, the area offers pleasant living conditions and extensive recreational facilities, and urban pleasures are easily accessible.

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 313 MITChemical Engineering at With the largest research faculty in the country, the Department of Chemical Engineering at MIT offers programs of research and teaching which span the breadth of chemical engineering with unprecedented depth in fundamentals and applications. The Depart ment offers graduate programs leading to the masters and doctors degrees. Graduate students may also earn a professional masters degree through the David H. Koch School of Chemical Engineering Practice and solving industrial problems by applying chemical engineering fundamentals. In collaboration with the Sloan School of Management, the Department also offers a doctoral program in Chemical Engineering Practice, which integrates chemical engineering, research, and management. Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Biotechnology Catalysis and Chemical Kinetics Colloid Science and Separations Energy Engineering Environmental Engineering Polymers Process Systems Engineering Thermodynamics, Statistical Mechanics, and Molecular Simulation Transport Processes Research in . MIT is located in Cambridge, just across the Charles River from Boston, a few minutes by subway from downtown Boston and Harvard Square. The area is world-renowned for its colleges, hospitals, research facilities, and high technology indus tries, and offers an unending variety of theaters, concerts, restaurants, museums, bookstores, sporting events, libraries, and recreational facilities. For more information, contact Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 Phone (617) 253-4579 ; FAX (617) 253-9695 ; E-Mail chemegrad@mit.edu URL http://web.mit.edu/cheme/index.htmlR.C. Armstrong P.I. Barton D. Blankschtein A. Chakraborty R.E. Cohen C.K. Colton C.L. Cooney W.M. Deen P.S. Doyle K.K. Gleason W.H. Green P.T. Hammond T.A. Hatton K.F. Jensen, Head R.S. Langer D.A. Lauffenburger J.C. Love N. Maheshri G.J. McRae K.J. Prather G.C. Rutledge H.H. Sawin K.A. Smith Ge. Stephanopoulos Gr. Stephanopoulos M.S. Strano J.W. Tester B.L. Trout P.S. Virk D.I.C. Wang K.D. Wittrup

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Chemical Engineering Education 314 McGill Chemical Engineering D. BERK Department Chair (Calgary) Biological and chemical treatment of wastes, crystallization of fine powders, reaction engineering [dimitrios.berk@mcgill.ca] D. G. COOPER (Toronto) Prod. of bacteriophages & bi opharmaceuticals, self-cycling ferment., bioconversion of xenobiotics [david.cooper@mcgill.ca] S. COULOMBE Canada Research Chair (McGill) Plasma processing, nanofluids, transport phenomena, optical diagnostic and process control [sylvain.coulombe@mcgill.ca] J. M. DEALY Emeritus Professor (Michigan) Polymer rheology, plastics processing [john.dealy@mcgill.ca] R. J. HILL Canada Research Chair (Cornell) Fuzzy colloids, biomimetic interfaces, hydrogels, and nanocomposite membranes [reghan.hill@mcgill.ca] E. A. V. JONES, (CalTech) Biofluid dynamics, biomechanics, tissue engineering, developmental biology & microscopy [liz.jones@mcgill.ca] M. R. KAMAL Emeritus Professor (Carnegie-Mellon) Polymer proc., charac., and recy cling [musa.kamal@mcgill.ca] R. LEASK William Dawson Scholar (Toronto) Biomedical engineering, fl uid dynamics, cardiovascular mechanics, pathobiology [richard.leask@mcgill.ca] C. A. LECLERC (Minnesota) Biorefineries, hydrogen generation, fuel processing, ethylene prod., catalysis, reaction engine ering [corey.leclerc@mcgill.ca] M. MARIC (Minnesota) Block copolymersfor nano-porous media, organic electronics, controlled release; green plasticisers [milan.maric@mcgill.ca] J.L. MEUNIER (INRS-Energie, Varennes) Plasma science & technology, de position techniques for surface modifications, nanomaterials [jean-luc.meunier@mcgill.ca] R. J. MUNZ (McGill) Thermal plasma tech, torch and reactor design, nanostructured material synthesis, environmental apps [richard.munz@mcgill.ca] S. OMANOVIC (Zagreb) Biomaterials, protein/material interactions, bio/immunosensors, (bio)electrochemistry [sasha.omanovic@mcgill.ca] T. M. QUINN (MIT) Soft tissue biophysics, mechanobiology, biomedical engineering, adherent cell culture technologies [thomas.quinn@mcgill.ca] A. D. REY James McGill Professor (California-Berkeley) Computational material sci., thermodynamics of soft matter and complex fluids, interfacial sci. and eng. [alejandro.rey@mcgill.ca] P. SERVIO Canada Research Chair (British Columbia) High-pressure phase equilibrium, crystallization, polymer coatings [phillip.servio@mcgill.ca] N. TUFENKJI Canada Research Chair (Yale) Environmental and biomedical eng., bioadhesion and biosensors, bioand nanotechnologies [nathalie.tufenkji@mcgill.ca] V. YARGEAU (Sherbrooke) Environmental control of pharmaceuticals, biodegradation of contaminants in wate r, biohydrogen [vivia ne.yargeau@mcgill.ca] For more information and graduate program applications: Visit : www.mcgill.ca/chemeng/ Write : Department of Chemical Engineering McGill University 3610 University St Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 CANADA Phone : (514) 398-4494 Fax : (514) 398-6678 E -mai l : in q uire.che g rad @ mc g ill.ca D owntown Montreal Canada McGills Ar t s Buildin g Montreal is a multilingual metropolis with a population over three million. Often called the world's second-largest Frenchspeaking city, Montreal also boasts an English-speaking population of over 400,000. McGill itself is an English-language university, though it offers you countless opportunities to explore the French language. The department offers M. Eng. and PhD degrees with funding available and top-ups for th ose who already have funding.

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 315 W h y c h o o s e M c M a s t e r ? Hamilton is a city of over 500,000 situat ed in Southern Ontario. We are located about 100 km from both Niagara Falls and Toronto. McMaster University of our research effort is the extent of the interaction between faculty members Faculty are engaged in leading edge research and we have concentrated Centre for Advanced Polymer Processing & Design (CAPPA-D) McMaster Institute of Polymer Production Technology (MIPPT) Graduate Secretary McMaster University CANADA F O O N L I N A P P L I C A T I O N F O M S A N D I N F O M A T I O N P L A S C O N T A C T Tissue engineering, biomedical engi neering, blood-material interactions J L B r a s h K J o n e s H S h e a r d o w n Membranes, environmental en C F i l i p e R G h o s h utational fluid mechanics, membranes J D i c k s o n A N H r y m a k P E W o o d Interfacial engineering R H P e l t o n S Z h u K K o s t a n s k i ( A d j u n c t ) A N H r y m a k R L o u t f y M T h o m p s o n J V l a c h o p o u l o s S Z h u J F M a c G r e g o r V M a h a l e c T E M a r l i n P M h a s k a r C L E S w a r t z P T a y l o r T K o u r t i ( A d j u n c t ) o does not already have extern

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Chemical Engineering Education 316 Ch e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n F ac u l t y M ai n A r e as of R e s e ar c h L i f e S c i e n c e s B i ot e c h n ol ogy M a rk A B urns M i cr o f a b r i ca t ed Ch e m i ca l A n a l ys i s O m o l o l a E ni o l a A def es o Cel l A d h es i o n a n d M i g r a t i o n Erdo g a n Gul a ri D N A a n d P ep t i d e S yn t h es i s J i ns a ng Ki m S m a r t F u n ct i o n a l P o l y m er s J o erg La ha n n S u r f a ce E n g i n eer i n g X i a o x i a Li n S ys t e m s a n d S yn t h et i c B i o l o g y J enni f er J Li nd er m a n R ec ep t o r D yn a m i cs M i c ha el M a y er B i o m e m b r a n es Hen ry Y Wa ng B i o p r o ces s E n g i n eer i n g P e ter J Wo o l f B i o m a t h e m a t i cs E n e r gy an d E n vi r on m e n t H. Sco tt F o g l e r F l o w a n d R ea ct i o n s Erdo g a n Gul a ri R ea ct i o n s a t In t er f a ces Sul jo Li ni c Ca t a l ys i s S u r f a ce Ch e m i s t r y, F u el C el l s P hi l l i p E. Sa v a g e S u s t a i n a b l e P r o d u ct i o n o f E n er g y a n d Ch e m i ca l P r o d u ct s J o ha nn es W. Sc h w a n k Ca t a l ys t s F u el C el l s a n d F u el Co n v er s i o n Lev i T. T ho m ps o n Ca t a l ys t s F u el Cel l s M i cr o r ea ct o r s Wa l ter J Web er J r E n vi r o n m en t a l P r o c es s D yn a m i cs a n d S ys t e m S u s t a i n a b i l i t y R a l p h T. Y a ng A d s o r p t i o n R ea ct i o n s H yd r o g en S t o r a g e C om p l e x F l u i d s an d N an os t r u c t u r e d M at e r i al s Sha ro n C Gl o tze r Co m p u t a t i o n a l Na n o s ci en ce a n d S o f t M a t er i a l s N i c ho l a s Ko to v Na n o m a t er i a l s R o na l d G. La rs o n, C ha i r Th eo r et i ca l Co m p u t a t i o n a l a n d E xp er i m en t a l Co m p l ex F l u i d s M i c ha el J So l o m o n E xp er i m en t a l Co m p l e x F l u i d s R o b ert M Zi ff Th eo r et i ca l a n d Co m p u t a t i o n a l Co m p l ex F l u i d s a n d Tr a n s p o r t F o r m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a c t : D r R o b e r t Z i f f G r a d u a t e C h a i r m a n D e p a r t m e n t o f C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n A n n A r b o r M I 4 8 1 0 9 2 1 3 0 7 3 4 7 6 4 2 3 8 3 c h e m e n g g r a d @ u m i c h e d u w w w e n g i n u m i c h e d u / d e p t / c h e m e

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 317 Northrup Auditorium Downtown Minneapolis as seen from campus Leadership and Innovation in Chemical Engineering and Materials Science The Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities has been renowned education for the past half-century. Our department has produced numerous legendary engineering scholars and current leaders in both academia and industry. With its pacesetting research and education program in chemical engineering encompassing reaca far-reaching marriage of the Chemical Engineering and Materials Science programs into an integrated department. For the past few decades, the chemical engineering program has been consistently ranked as the top graduate program in the country by the National Research Council and other ranking surveys. The department has been thriving on its ability to foster interdisciplinary efforts in research and education; most, if not all of our active faculty members are engaged in intraor interdepartmental research projects. The extensive collaboration among faculty members in research and education and the high level of co-advising of graduate students and research fellows serves to cross-fertilize new ideas and stimulate innovation. Our education and training are known not also for their breadth and global perspectives. The widely ranging collection of high-impact research projects in these world-renowned laboratories provides students with a unique experience, preparing them for careers that are both exciting and rewarding. Research Areas Biotechnology and Bioengineering Ceramics and Metals Coating Processes and Interfacial Engineering Crystal Growth and Design Electronic, Photonic and Magnetic Materials Fluid Mechanics Polymers Reaction Engineering and Chemical Process Synthesis Theory and Computation Faculty : Eray Aydil Frank S. Bates Aditya Bhan Matteo Cococcioni Edward L. Cussler Prodromos Daoutidis H. Ted Davis Jeffrey J. Derby Kevin Dorfman Lorraine F. Francis C. Daniel Frisbie William W. Gerberich Russell J. Holmes Wei-Shou Hu Yiannis Kaznessis Efrosini Kokkoli Satish Kumar Chris Leighton Timothy P. Lodge Christopher W. Macosko Alon V. McCormick David C. Morse David J. Norris Lanny D. Schmidt David A. Shores For more information contact: Julie Prince, Program Associate 612-625-0382 prince@cems.umn.edu URL: http://www.cems.umn.edu William H. Smyrl Friedrich Srienc Robert T. Tranquillo Michael Tsapatsis Renata Wentzcovitch Downtown Saint Paul

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Chemical Engineering Education 318 Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering Mississippi State University, located in the Golden Triangle region of Northeast Miiiiithltfihtbli Mi ss i ss ippi i s th e l ar g es t o f e ight p u bli c institutions of higher learning in the state. It is one of two land-grant institutions in Mississippi. Area residents enjoy numerous university sporting and cultural events, as well as scenic and recreational activities alon g the Natchez Trace Parkwa y and Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. TheDaveC.SwalmSchoolofChemicalEngineering boastsanenergeticfacultyinvolvedinarobust R. Mark Bricka, Associate Professor Alternative Fuels, Gasification, Pyrolysis, Environmental Remediation, Electrokinetics, Chemical Extraction, Stabilization/Solidification, Waste Treatment, Heavy Metal Soils researchprogramatthe f ore f ronto f bioprocessing, sustainableenergyresearch,andothercutting edge technologies.Theseprogramsaresupportedbyfunds obtainedfromtheDepartmentofEnergy,National ScienceFoundation,EnvironmentalProtectionAgency, andothernationalfundingagencies. The school offers both M.S and Ph.D. degrees in Bill B. Elmore, Associate Professor and Henry Chair Renewable Fuels, Bioremediation, MicroreactorTechnologies Robert H. Foglesong, Professor and President Mathematical Modeling W. Todd French, Assistant Professor Biofuels(Bioethanoland Single-Cell Oil), MicrobiallyEnhanced Oil Recovery Clifford E. George, Professor EthanolfromAlternativeRenewableSourcesCorrosioninAviationFuelSystems The school offers both M.S and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . For more information, contact The Dave C. SwalmSchool of Chemical Engineering Mississippi State University P.O. Box 9595 Ethanol from Alternative Renewable Sources Corrosion in Aviation Fuel Systems Rafael Hernandez, Assistant Profe Integrated Remediation Technologies, Chemical/P hysical Treatment Processes, Environmental Catalysis, Biofuelsand Co-products Priscilla J. Hill, Associate Professor Crystallization, Process Design, Solids Processin g Adrienne R. Minerick, Assistant Professor ElectrokineticSeparations of Biofluids, Medical Diagnostic MicrodeviceDevelopment, Nanoparticle SynthesisandCharacterization 9595 330 Circle Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 Phone: (662) 325 2480 Fax: (662) 325 2482 Email: gradstudies@che.msstate.edu www.che.msstate.edu . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nanoparticle Synthesis and Characterization Rudy E. Rogers, Professor Gas Hydrates: Natural Gas Storage, Transportati on, Microbial Catalysis in Ocean Sediments, CO 2 Sequestering, Gas Separations Kirk H. Schulz, Professor and Vice President for Research and Economic Developm Surface Science, Catalysis, Electronic Materials Hossein Toghiani, Associate Professor CitMtilCtliFlCllThdifLiidMit Mississippi State University is an equal opportunity institution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . For a graduate application, contact The Office of Graduate Studies Phone (662) 325 7404 www.msstate.edu/dept/grad/application.htm C ompos it e M a t er i a l s, C a t a l ys i s, F ue l C e ll s, Th ermo d ynam i cs o f Li qu id Mi x t ures Rebecca K. Toghiani, Associate Profess Thermodynamics, Separations Keisha B. Walters, Assistant Professor Polymer, Biopolymer and Surface Engin eering, Stimuli-Responsive Polymers, MicrosensorTechnologies Mark G. White, Professor, Director and Deavenport Chair Heterogeneous Catalysis, Homogeneous Cata lysis, Reaction Kinetics, Surface Chemistry

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 319 UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI COLUMBIA Rakesh K. Bajpai, PhD (IIT, Kanpur) Biochemical Engineering Hazardous Waste Paul C. H. Chan, PhD (CalTech ) Reactor Analysis Fluid Mechanic s Eric Doskocil, PhD (Virginia) Catalysis Reaction Engineering William A. Jacoby, PhD (Colorado ) Photocatalysis Transpor t Stephen J. Lombardo, PhD (California Berkley) Ceramic & Electronic Materials Transport Kinetics Sudarshan K. Loyalka, PhD (Stanford) Aerosol Mechanics Kinetic Theory Richard H. Luecke, PhD (Oklahoma) Process Control Modeling Thomas R. Marrero, PhD (Maryland) Past-Vice President, IACChE Coal Log Transport Conducting Polymers Fuels Emission s David G. Retzloff, PhD (Pittsburgh) Reactor Analysis Materials Truman S. Storvick, PhD (Purdue) Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Thermodynamics Galen J. Suppes, PhD (Johns Hopkins) Biofuel Processing Renewable Energy Thermodynamic s Dabir S. Viswanath, PhD (Rochester) Applied Thermodynamics Chemical Kinetics Hirotsugu K. Yasuda, PhD (SUNY, Syracuse) Polymers Surface Science Qingsong Yu, PhD (Mizzou) Surface Science Plasma Technology The University of Missouri Columbia is one of th e most comprehensive institutions in the nation and is situated on a beautiful land grant campus halfway between St. Louis and Kansas City, near the Ozark Mountains and less than an hour fr om the recreational Lake of the Ozarks. The Department of Chemical Engineering offers MS and PhD programs in addition to its undergraduate BS degree. Program areas includ e surface science, nuclear waste, wastewater treatment, biodegradation, air po llution, supercritical processes, plasma polymerization, polymer processing, coal transportation (hydraulic), fu els (alternative, biodiese l), chemical kinetics, protein crystallization, photocatalysis, ceramic materials, and polymer composites. Faculty expertise encompasses a wide variety of specializ ations and research within the department is funded by industry, government, non-profit, and institutional grants in many research areas. For details contact: Coordinator, Academic Programs Department of Chemical Engineering W2030 Lafferre Hall Columbia, MO 65211 Tel: (573) 882-3563 Fax: (573) 884-4940 E-Mail: PreckshotR@missouri.edu See our website for more information: che.missouri.edu Scholarships are available in the form of teaching/research assistantships and fellowships.

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Chemical Engineering Education 320 University of Missouri-Rolla Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Offering M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Established in 1870 as the University of Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy, UMR has evolved into Missouris technological university. UMR is a medium-sized campus of about 5,000 students located along Its proximity in the Missouri Ozarks provides plenty of scenic and rec reational opportunities. The University of Missouri-Rollas mission is to educate tomorrows leaders in engineering and science. UMR offers a full range of experi ences that are vital to the kind of comprehensive education that turns young men and women into leaders. UMR has a distinguished faculty dedicated wholeheartedly to the teaching, research, and creative activi ties necessary for scholarly learning experiences and advancements to the frontiers of knowledge. Teaching and Research Apprenticeships available to M.S. and Ph.D. students. For additional information: Address: Graduate Studies Coordinator Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering University of Missouri-Rolla Rolla, MO 65409-1230 Web: http://chemeng.umr.edu/ Online Application: http://www.umr.edu/~cisapps/gradappd.html Neil L. Book Associate Professor, Ph.D., Colorado Computer-Aided Process Design; Chemical Process Safety; Engineering Data ManagementDaniel Forciniti Professor, Ph.D., North Carolina State Bioseparations; Thermodynamics; Statistical MechanicsDavid B. Henthorn Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Purdue Biomimetics; Drug Delivery; BiomaterialsKimberly H. Henthorn Assistant Professor Ph.D., Purdue Entrainment and Conveying of Fine Particles; Multiphase Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); Characterization of Interparticle Forces; Particles for Pulmonary Drug Delivery ApplicationsSunggyu KB Lee Professor Ph.D., Case Western Supercritcal Fluid Technology, Materials Processing, and Polymerization; Reactive Polymer Processing; Biodegradable Polymers; Polymer Blends; Scale-Up and Pilot Plant Studies; Environmental TechnologyA.I. Liapis Professor, Ph.D., ETH-Zurich Transport Phenomena; Adsorption/Desorption; Fundamentals and Processes; Bioseparations; Chromatographic Separations; Capillary Electrochromatogra phy; Chemical Reaction Engineering; LyophilizationDouglas K. Ludlow Professor, Ph.D., Arizona State Surface Characterization of Adsorbents and Catalysts, Applications of Fractal Geometry to Surface MorphologyParthasakha Neogi Professor, Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon Interfacial Phenomena; Drug DeliveryJudy A. Raper Professor and Chair, Ph.D., University of New South Wales Particle Technology; Characterization of Fractal Aggregates; Measurement of Surface Roughness and Fractal Dimension of Dry Powder Pharmaceutical Aerosols; Fly Ash Characterization and Utilization; Waste MinimizationOliver C. Sitton Associate Professor, Ph.D., University of Missouri-Rolla BioengineeringJee-Ching Wang Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Penn State tions of Surfactant Systems, Molecular Properties of MaterialsYangchuan Xing Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Yale Synthesis, Processing, and Characterization of NanomaterialsCraig D. Adams* Professor, Ph.D., University of Kansas Effects and Control of Antibiotics and Other Organic Compounds in Water; Oxidative and Adsorption Technology for Water Treatment; Kinetic Modeling of Chemical Reactions in Aqueous SystemsDavid J. Westenberg* Associate Professor, Ph.D., University of California-Los Angeles Respiratory Enzymes; Quorum Sensing; Respiratory Genes; Antibacterial Glass *Joint Appointment Science and Technology (Missouri S&T).

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Chemical Engineering Education 322 The ProgramThe department offers graduate programs leading to both the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees. Exciting opportunities exist for interdisciplinary research. Faculty conduct research in a number of areas including: Polymer science/ engineering Membrane technology Hazardous waste treatment Particle technology Pharmaceutical engineering Nanotechnology The Faculty: P. Armenante: University of Virginia B. Baltzis: University of Minnesota R. Barat: Massachusetts Institute of Technology R. Dave: Utah State University E. Dreizin: Odessa University, Ukraine C. Gogos: Princeton University T Greenstein: New York University D. Hanesian: Cornell University K. Hyun: University of Missouri-Columbia B. Khusid: Heat and Mass Transfer Inst., Minsk USSR H. Kimmel: City University of New York D. Knox: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute N. Loney: New Jersey Institute of Technology A. Perna: University of Connecticut R. Pfeffer: (Emeritus) ; New York University L. Simon: Colorado State University K. Sirkar: University of Illinois-Urbana R. T omkins: University of London (UK) M. Xanthos: University of Toronto (Canada) M. Y oung: Stevens Institute of Technology For further information contact: Dr. Reginald P.T. Tomkins, Department of Chemical Engineering New Jersey Institute of Technology University Heights Newark, NJ 07102-1982 Phone: (973) 596-5656 Fax: (973) 596-8436 E-mail: tomkinsr@adm.njit.edu NJIT does not discriminate on the basis of gender, sexual orientation, race, handicap, veterans status, national or ethnic origin or age in the administration of student programs. Campus facilities are accessible to the disabled. at New Jersey Institute of Technology

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 323 T HE F ACES OF THE C HEMICAL E NGINEERS IN THE 21 ST C ENTURY The University of New Mexico We are the future of chemical engineering! Chemical engineers in the 21 st century are challenged with rapidly developing technologies and exciting new opportunities. Pursue y our graduate degree at UNM in a stimulating, student-centered, intellectual environment, brought together by forward-looking research. We offer full tuition, health care and competitive stipends. The ChE faculty are leaders in exploring phenomena on the meso-, micro-, and nanoscales. We offer graduate research projects in biotechnology, biomaterials and biomedical engineering, catalysis and interfacial phenomena; microengineered materials and self-assembled nanostructures; plasma processing and semiconductor fabrication; polymer theory and modeling. The department enjoys extensive in teractions and collaborations with New Mexico's federal laboratories: Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and the Air Force Research Laboratory, as well as high technology industries both locally and nationally. Albuquerque is a unique combination of old and new, the natural world and the manmade environmen t, the frontier town and the cosmopolitan city, a harmonious blend of diverse cultures and peoples. Faculty Research Areas Plamen Atanassov Electroanalytical Chemistry, Biomedical Engineering C. Jeffrey Brinker Ceramics, Sol-Gel Pr ocessing, Self-assembled Nanostructures Heather Canavan Stimulus-responsive materials, cell/surface interactions, Biomedical Engineering Joseph L. Cecchi Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, Plasma Etching and Deposition Eva Chi Protein interfacial dynamics, protein aggregation, protein misfolding diseases John G. Curro Polymer Theory, Computational Modeling Abhaya K. Datye Catalysis, Interfaces, Advanced Materials Elizabeth L. Dirk Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering Julia E. Fulghum Surface Characterization, 3-D Materials Characterization Sang M. Han Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, Plasma Etching and Deposition Ronald E. Loehman Glass-Metal and Cerami c-Metal Bonding and Interfacial Reactions Gabriel P. Lpez Chemical Sensors, Hybrid Materials, Biotechnology, Interfacial Phenomena Dimiter Petsev Complex fluids, Na noscience, Electrokinetic phenomena Timothy L. Ward Aerosol Materials Synthesis, Inorganic Membranes David G. Whitten Biosensors, Conjugated poly mer photophysics and bioactivity in films and interfacial assemblies, Multicomponent systems and their applications For more information, contact: Jeffrey Brinker, Graduate Advisor Chemical and Nuclear Engineering MSC01 1120 The University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM 87131 505 277.5431 Phone 505 277.5433 Fax chne@unm.edu www-chne.unm.edu

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Chemical Engineering Education 324 NEW MEXICO ST A TE UNIVERSITY PhD & MS Programs in Chemical EngineeringFaculty and Research Areas Paul K. Andersen Associate Professor, University of California, Berkeley Transport Phenomena, Electrochemistry, Environmental Engineerin g Francisco R. Del Valle College Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Food Engineering Shuguang Deng, Associate Professor, University of Cincinnati Adsorption, Nanostructured Materials, Fuel Cell Technology and Water Treatment Abbas Ghassemi, Professor and Institute for Energy and the Environment Director, New Mexico State University Process Control Charles L. Johnson, Professor, Washington University-St. Louis High Temperature Polymers Richard L. Long Professor and Associate Head Rice University Transport Phenomena, Biomedical Engineering, Separations, Kinetics Martha C. Mitchell Associate Professor and Head, University of Minnesota Molecular Modeling of Adsorption in Nanoporous Materials, Thermodynamic Analysis of Aerospace Fuels, Statistical Mechanics Stuart H. Munson-McGee Professor, University of Delaware Advanced Materials, Materials Processing David A. Rockstraw Professor, University of Oklahoma Kinetics and Reaction Engineering, Process Design LOCATION Southern New Mexico 350 days of sunshine a year For Application and Additional Information Internet http://chemeng.nmsu.edu/ E-mail chemeng@nmsu.edu PO Box 30001, MSC 3805 Department of Chemical Engineering New Mexico State University Las Cruces, NM 88003

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Chemical Engineering Education 326

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 327 Chemical and Biological Engineering atNorthwestern UniversityLuis A.N. Amaral Ph.D., Boston University, 1996 Complex systems, computational physics, biological networks Linda J. Broadbelt PhD., Delaware, 1994 Reaction engineering, kinetics modeling, polymer resource recovery Wesley R. Burghardt Ph.D., Stanford, 1990 Polymer science, rheology Kimberly A. Gray Ph.D., Johns Hopkins, 1988 Catalysis, treatment technologies, environmental chemistry Bartosz A. Grzybowski Ph.D., Harvard, 2000 Complex chemical systems Harold H. Kung Ph.D., Northwestern, 1974 Kinetics, heterogeneous catalysis William M. Miller Ph.D., Berkeley, 1987 Cell culture for biotechnology and medicine Justin M. Notestein Ph.D., Berkeley, 2006 Materials design for adsorption and catalysis Monica Olvera de la Cruz Ph.D., Cambridge, 1984 Statistical mechanics in polymer systems Julio M. Ottino Ph.D., Minnesota, 1979 Fluid mechanics, granular materials, chaos, mixing in materials processing Gregory Ryskin Ph.D., Caltech, 1983 Fluid mechanics, computational methods, polymeric liquids Lonnie D. Shea Ph.D., Michigan, 1997 Tissue engineering, gene therapy Randall Q. Snurr Ph.D., Berkeley, 1994 Adsorption and diffusion in porous media, molecular modeling John M. Torkelson Ph.D., Minnestota, 1983 Polymer science, membranes For information and application to the graduate program, write Director of Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois 60208-3120 Phone: (847) 491-7398 or (800) 848-5135 (U.S. only) E-mail: admissions-chem-biol-eng@northwestern.edu Or visit our website at www.chem-biol-eng.northwestern.edu

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Chemical Engineering Education 328 Graduate Studies in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The University of Notre Dame Faculty Paul W. Bohn J oan F. Brennecke H.-Chia Chang Davide A. Hill Jeffrey C. Kantor David T. Leighton, Jr. Mark J. McCready Paul J. McGinn Edward J. Maginn Alexander S. Mukasyan William F. Schneider Mark A. Stadtherr William C. Strieder Eduardo E. Wolf Y. Elaine Zhu For more information and application materials, contact us at Director of Graduate Recruiting Department of Chemical and Biomo lecular Engineering University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA On-Line Application www.nd.edu/~gradsch/applying/appintro.html http://www.nd.edu/~chegdept chegdept.1@nd.edu Phone: 1-800-528-9487 Fax: 1-574-631-8366Research Areas Atomistic Simulation of Materials Catalyst Synthesis and Characterization Chemical Sensing CO2 Capture Combinatorial Materials Development Computational Heterogeneous Catalysis Density Functional Theory Ecological and Environmental Modeling Electrokinetics Fuel Cell Technologies The University Notre Dame is an independent, national univer sity ranked among the top twenty schools in the country. It is located adjacent to the city of South Bend, Indiana, approximately 90 miles southeast of Chicago. The scenic 1,250-acre campus is home to over 10,000 students. The Department The Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering is developing the next generation of research leaders. Our program is characterized by the close interaction between faculty and students and a focus on cutting-edge, interdisciplinary research that is both academically interesting and industrially relevant. Programs and Financial Assistance The Department offers MS and PhD degree pro grams. Financially attractive fellowships and as sistantships, which include a full-tuition waiver, are available to students pursuing either degree. University of Notre Dame Genetic Diagnostics Heterogeneous Phase Change Simulation Ionic Liquids Multiphase Flow Dynamics Optoelectronic Materials Oscillatory Separations Process Systems Engineering Soft Lithography Suspension Mechanics

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 329 Excellent facilities and a unique combi nation of research projects at the frontiers of science and technology. Outstanding faculty and student population who are dedicated and professional. Close working relationships between graduate students and faculty. Attractive campus minutes away from downtown Columbus. For complete information, write, call, or catch us on the web at http://www.chbmeng.ohio-state.edu or write Graduate Program Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering The Ohio State University 140 West 19th Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43210-1180 Phone: (614) 292-9076 Fax: (614) 292-3769 E-mail address: che-grad@chbmeng.ohio-state.edu Bhavik R. Bakshi, MIT Industrial Ecology, Process Engineering, Analysis of Complex Systems Robert S. Brodkey, Wisconsin Experimental Measurements for Validation of Computational Fluid Mechanics and Applications to Mixing Process Applications Jeffrey J. Chalmers, Cornell Immunumagnetic Cell Separation, Effect of Hydrodynamic Forces on Cells, Inter facial Phenomena and Cells, Bioengineering, Biotechnology, Cancer Detection Stuart L. Cooper, Princeton Polymer Science and Engineering, Properties of Polyurethanes and Ionomers, Polyurethane Biomaterials, Blood-Material Interactions,Tissue Engineering Liang-Shih Fan, West Virginia Fluidization, Particle Technology, Particulates Reaction Engineering Martin Feinberg, Princeton Mathematics of Complex Chemical Systems Winston Ho, Illinois-Urbana Membrane Separations with Chemical Reaction and Fuel-Cell Fuel Processing Kurt W. Koelling, Princeton Isamu Kusaka, CalTech Statistical Mechanics and Nucleation L. James Lee, Minnesota Polymer and Composite Processing, Micro/Nano-Fabrication, BioMEMS Umit S. Ozkan, Iowa State Heterogeneous Catalysis, Kinetics, Catalytic Materials Andre F. Palmer, Johns Hopkins Michael Paulaitis, University of Illinois Molecular simulations and modeling of weak protein-protein interactions; the role of hydration in biological organization and self-assembly phenomena; multiscale modeling of biological interactions James F. Rathman, Oklahoma Colloids, Interfaces, Surfactants, Molecular Self-Assembly, Bioinformatics David L. Tomasko, Illinois-Urbana Separations, Molecular Thermodynamics and Materials Processing in Supercritical Fluids Jessica O. Winter, University of Texas at Austin Nanobiotechnology, Cell and Tissue Engineering, Neural Prosthetics Barbara E. Wyslouzil, CalTech Nucleation, Aerosol Formation, Growth and Transport, Atmospheric Aerosols, Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria Shang-Tian Yang, Purdue Biochemical Engineering, Biotechnology, and Tissue Engineering Jacques L. Zakin, New York Rheology, Drag Reduction, Surfactant Microstructures, and Heat Transfer Enhancement The Ohio State University

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 331 Oklahoma State UniversityWhere People Are Important Faculty Heather Fahlenkamp (Ph.D., Oklahoma State University) Gary L. Foutch (Ph.D., University of Missouri-Rolla) K.A.M. Gasem (Ph.D., Oklahoma State University) Karen A. High (Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University) Martin S. High (Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University) A.J. Johannes (Ph.D., University of Kentucky) Sundarajan V. Madihally (Ph.D., Wayne State University) R. Russell Rhinehart (Ph.D., North Carolina State University) James E. Smay (Ph.D., University of Illinois) D. Alan Tree (Ph.D., University of Illinois) Jan Wagner (Ph.D., University of Kansas) James R. Whiteley (Ph.D., Ohio State University) Engineering offers programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. nationally competitive levels. For more information contact Dr. Khaled A.M. Gasem School of Chemical Engineering Oklahoma State University Stillwater, OK 74078-5021 gasem@okstate.edu Ion Exchange Molecular Design Nanomaterials Phase Equilibria Polymers Process Control Process Simulation Solid Freeform Fabrication Tissue Engineering Adsorption Biochemical Processes Biomaterials Colloids/Ceramics Environmental Engineering Fluid Flow/CFD Gas Processing Hazardous WastesResearch Areas Visit our web page at http://www.cheng.okstate.edu

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Chemical Engineering Education 332 University of Pennsylvania Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Tobias Tobias Tobias Tobias Tobias Baumgart Baumgart Baumgart Baumgart Baumgart Physical chemistry and mechanics of biological membranes, cell/surface interactions Russell Russell Russell Russell Russell J. J. J. J. J. Composto Composto Composto Composto Composto Polymeric materials science, surface and interface studies John John John John John C. C. C. C. C. Crocker Crocker Crocker Crocker Crocker Single-molecule biophysics, cell mechanics, soft glasses Scott Scott Scott Scott Scott L. L. L. L. L. Diamond Diamond Diamond Diamond Diamond Protein and gene delivery, mechanobiology, blood systems biology, drug discovery Dennis Dennis Dennis Dennis Dennis E. E. E. E. E. Discher Discher Discher Discher Discher Polymersomes, protein folding, stem cell rheology, gene and drug delivery Eduardo Eduardo Eduardo Eduardo Eduardo D. D. D. D. D. Glandt Glandt Glandt Glandt Glandt Classical and statistical thermodynamics, random media Raymond Raymond Raymond Raymond Raymond J. J. J. J. J. Gorte Gorte Gorte Gorte Gorte Heterogeneous catalysis, supported metals, oxide catalysis, electrodes for solid-oxide fuel cells David David David David David J. J. J. J. J. Graves Graves Graves Graves Graves Biochemical and biomedical engineering, biotechnology Daniel Daniel Daniel Daniel Daniel A. A. A. A. A. Hammer Hammer Hammer Hammer Hammer Cellular bioengineering, biointerfacial phenomena, adhesion Matthew Matthew Matthew Matthew Matthew J. J. J. J. J. Lazzara Lazzara Lazzara Lazzara Lazzara Cellular engineering, cell signaling, molecular therapeutics Ravi Ravi Ravi Ravi Ravi Radhakrishnan Radhakrishnan Radhakrishnan Radhakrishnan Radhakrishnan Statistical mechanics, quantum chemistry, biomolecular and cellular signaling Casim Casim Casim Casim Casim A. A. A. A. A. Sarkar Sarkar Sarkar Sarkar Sarkar Biomolecular engineering, cellular engineering, biotechnology Warren Warren Warren Warren Warren D. D. D. D. D. Seider Seider Seider Seider Seider Process analysis, simulation, design, and control Wen Wen Wen Wen Wen K. K. K. K. K. Shieh Shieh Shieh Shieh Shieh Bioenvironmental engineering, environmental systems modeling Talid Talid Talid Talid Talid R. R. R. R. R. Sinno Sinno Sinno Sinno Sinno Transport and reaction, statistical mechanical modeling John John John John John M. M. M. M. M. Vohs Vohs Vohs Vohs Vohs Surface science, catalysis, electronic materials processing Karen Karen Karen Karen Karen I. I. I. I. I. Winey Winey Winey Winey Winey Polymer morphology, processing, and property interrelationships Shu Shu Shu Shu Shu Yang Yang Yang Yang Yang Synthesis, characterization and fabrication of functional polymers, and organic/inorganic hybrids For additional information, write: Director of Graduate Admissions Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering University of Pennsylvania 220 South 33rd Street, Rm. 311A Philadelphia, PA 19104-6393 chegrad@seas.upenn.edu http://www.seas.upenn.edu/cbe/ in chemical and biomolecular engineering provides flexibility while emphasizing the fundamental nature of chemical and physical processes. Students may focus their studies in any of the research areas of the department. The full resources of this Ivy League university, including the Wharton School of Business and one of the countrys foremost medical centers, are available to students in the program. The cultural advantages, historical assets, and recreational facilities of a great city are within walking distance of the university.

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 333 University of Pennsylvania Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Tobias Tobias Tobias Tobias Tobias Baumgart Baumgart Baumgart Baumgart Baumgart Physical chemistry and mechanics of biological membranes, cell/surface interactions Russell Russell Russell Russell Russell J. J. J. J. J. Composto Composto Composto Composto Composto Polymeric materials science, surface and interface studies John John John John John C. C. C. C. C. Crocker Crocker Crocker Crocker Crocker Single-molecule biophysics, cell mechanics, soft glasses Scott Scott Scott Scott Scott L. L. L. L. L. Diamond Diamond Diamond Diamond Diamond Protein and gene delivery, mechanobiology, blood systems biology, drug discovery Dennis Dennis Dennis Dennis Dennis E. E. E. E. E. Discher Discher Discher Discher Discher Polymersomes, protein folding, stem cell rheology, gene and drug delivery Eduardo Eduardo Eduardo Eduardo Eduardo D. D. D. D. D. Glandt Glandt Glandt Glandt Glandt Classical and statistical thermodynamics, random media Raymond Raymond Raymond Raymond Raymond J. J. J. J. J. Gorte Gorte Gorte Gorte Gorte Heterogeneous catalysis, supported metals, oxide catalysis, electrodes for solid-oxide fuel cells David David David David David J. J. J. J. J. Graves Graves Graves Graves Graves Biochemical and biomedical engineering, biotechnology Daniel Daniel Daniel Daniel Daniel A. A. A. A. A. Hammer Hammer Hammer Hammer Hammer Cellular bioengineering, biointerfacial phenomena, adhesion Matthew Matthew Matthew Matthew Matthew J. J. J. J. J. Lazzara Lazzara Lazzara Lazzara Lazzara Cellular engineering, cell signaling, molecular therapeutics Ravi Ravi Ravi Ravi Ravi Radhakrishnan Radhakrishnan Radhakrishnan Radhakrishnan Radhakrishnan Statistical mechanics, quantum chemistry, biomolecular and cellular signaling Casim Casim Casim Casim Casim A. A. A. A. A. Sarkar Sarkar Sarkar Sarkar Sarkar Biomolecular engineering, cellular engineering, biotechnology Warren Warren Warren Warren Warren D. D. D. D. D. Seider Seider Seider Seider Seider Process analysis, simulation, design, and control Wen Wen Wen Wen Wen K. K. K. K. K. Shieh Shieh Shieh Shieh Shieh Bioenvironmental engineering, environmental systems modeling Talid Talid Talid Talid Talid R. R. R. R. R. Sinno Sinno Sinno Sinno Sinno Transport and reaction, statistical mechanical modeling John John John John John M. M. M. M. M. Vohs Vohs Vohs Vohs Vohs Surface science, catalysis, electronic materials processing Karen Karen Karen Karen Karen I. I. I. I. I. Winey Winey Winey Winey Winey Polymer morphology, processing, and property interrelationships Shu Shu Shu Shu Shu Yang Yang Yang Yang Yang Synthesis, characterization and fabrication of functional polymers, and organic/inorganic hybrids For additional information, write: Director of Graduate Admissions Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering University of Pennsylvania 220 South 33rd Street, Rm. 311A Philadelphia, PA 19104-6393 chegrad@seas.upenn.edu http://www.seas.upenn.edu/cbe/ in chemical and biomolecular engineering provides flexibility while emphasizing the fundamental nature of chemical and physical processes. Students may focus their studies in any of the research areas of the department. The full resources of this Ivy League university, including the Wharton School of Business and one of the countrys foremost medical centers, are available to students in the program. The cultural advantages, historical assets, and recreational facilities of a great city are within walking distance of the university. Pursue your Chemical Engineering Degree in a diverse Big-T en University located in a vibrant college community. Individuals with a B.S. degree in related areas are encouraged to apply. For more information, contact: Chairperson, Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering The Pennsylvania State University 158 Fenske Laboratory University Park PA 16802-4400 http://fenske.che.psu.edu/ Anto nios A rm aou (Univ of CA at Los Angeles) Process Control, System Dynam icsAziz Ben-Jebria (Univ. of Paris) Respiratory Fluid Flow and Uptake, Inhalation ToxicologyAli Borhan (Stanford) Fluid Dynamics, Transport Phenomena Patrick Cirino (Calif. Inst. of Technology) Biocatalysis, metabolic engineering, protein engineering and directed evolutionWayne R. Curtis (Purdue) Plant BiotechnologyRonald P. Danner (Lehigh) Polymers, Phase Equilibria, Diffusion Kristen Fichthorn (Michigan) Statistical Mechanics, Fluid-Solid Interfaces, Molecu lar SimulationHenry C. Foley (Penn State) Nanoporous Materials, Heterogeneous Catalysis, Adsorp tion and PermeationJong-in Hahm (University of Chicago) Nano-BiotechnologyMichael Janik (Univ. of Virginia) Fuel Cells, Electrochemistry, Alternative Energy SystemsSeong Han Kim (Northwestern) Nano-Tribology and Nano-MaterialsCostas D. Maranas (Princeton) Computational Chemistry, Bioinformatics, Supply Chain OptimizationJanna Maranas (Princeton) Molecular Simulation, Polymers, Thermodynamics, Network GlassesThemis Matsoukas (Michigan) Aerosol Processes, Colloidal Particles, Ceramic PowdersJoseph M. Perez (Penn State) Tribology, Lubrication James S. Ultman (Delaware) Physiological Transport Processes, Respiratory Mass TransferDarrell V elegol (Carnegie Mellon) Colloidal and Nanoparticle Systems, Bacterial AdhesionJames S. V rentas (Delaware) Transport Phenomena, Applied Mathematics, Diffu sion in Polymers, Rheology Andrew Zydney (Massachusett s I nstitute of Technology) Biomedical Engineer ing, Bioseparations, and Membrane Processes Chemical Engineering PENN S TATE

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Chemical Engineering Education 334 Chemical Engineering at the University of Pittsburgh Degree Programs: PhD and MS in Chemical Engineering MS in Petroleum Engineering Information on Fellowships and Applications: Graduate Coordinator Chemical and Petroleum Engineering 1249 Benedum Hall University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15261 412-624-9630 che.pitt.edu The University of Pittsburgh is an affirmat ive action, equal opportunity institution. RESEARCH AREAS Biotechnology Artificial Organs Biocatalysis Biomaterials Controlled Drug Delivery Metabolic Engineering Modeling & Control Nanoscale Biosensors Tissue Engineering Catalysis Surface Chemistry Catalyst Deactivation Chemical Promotion Novel Materials Organometallic Chemistry Energy and Environment Bioremediation Clean Fuels From Coal Contaminated Soil Cleanup Stack Gas Cleanup Materials Engineering Biocompatible Polymers CO 2 as a Solvent Interfacial Behavior Polymer/Composite Modeling Polymer Processing Semiconductor Materials Multi-Scale Modeling Molecular Modeling Polymer-Fluid Interactions Process Modeling & Control Particulate Systems Transport FACULTY Mohammad M. Ataai Eric J. Beckman William Federspiel Di Gao Steven R. Little Robert S. Parker John F. Patzer II Alan J. Russell William R. Wagner Julie L. dItri John W. Tierney Gtz Veser Irving Wender Shiao-Hung Chiang James T. Cobb, Jr. Robert M. Enick Gerald D. Holder Badie I. Morsi Anna C. Balazs Eric J. Beckman Robert M. Enick Di Gao George E. Klinzing J. Thomas Lindt Steven R. Little Joseph J. McCarthy Sachin Velankar Anna C. Balazs J. Karl Johnson Joseph J. McCarthy Robert S. Parker

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Chemical Engineering Education 336 Princeton University Ph.D. and M.Eng. Programs in Chemical Engineering ChEFaculty IlhanA. Aksay Jay B. Benziger Pablo G. Debenedetti ChristodoulosA. Floudas YannisG. Kevrekidis Morton D. Kostin A. James Link Yueh-Lin (Lynn) Loo Celeste M. Nelson AthanassiosZ. Panagiotopoulos Richard A. Register William B. Russel StanislavY. Shvartsman SankaranSundaresan James Wei David W. Wood T. Kyle Vanderlick(Chair) Please visit our website: http://chemeng.princeton.edu Write to: Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 or call: 1-800-238-6169 or email: chegrad@princeton.edu Applied and Computational Mathematics Computational Chemistry and Materials Systems Modeling and Optimization Biotechnology Biomaterials Biopreservation Cell Mechanics Computational Biology Protein and Enzyme Engineering Tissue Engineering Environmental and Energy Science and Technology Art and Monument Conservation Fuel Cell Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena Biological Transport Electrohydrodynamics Flow in Porous Media Granular and Multiphase Flow Polymer and Suspension Rheology Materials: Synthesis, Processing, Structure, Properties Adhesion and Interfacial Phenomena Ceramics and Glasses Colloidal Dispersions Nanoscienceand Nanotechnology Organic and Polymer Electronics Polymers Process Engineering and Science Chemical Reactor Design, Stability, and Dynamics Heterogeneous Catalysis Process Control and Operations Process Synthesis and Design Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics Complex Fluids Glasses Kinetic and Nucleation Theory Liquid State Theory Molecular Simulation Affiliate Faculty Emily A. Carter (Mechanica l and Aerospace Engineering) George W. Scherer (Civil and Environmental Engineering) Salvatore Torquato(Chemistry)

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Chemical Engineering Education 338

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 339 Faculty and Research InterestsElmar R. Altwicker, altwie@rpi.edu Professor Emeritus Spouted-bed combustion; incinera tion; trace-pollutant kineticsGeorges Belfort, belfog@rpi.edu Membrane separations; adsorption; biocatalysis; MRI, interfacial phenomenaB. Wayne Bequette, bequette@rpi.edu Process control; fuel cell systems; biomedical systemsHenry R. Bungay III, bungah@rpi.edu, Prof.Emeritus Wastewater treatment; biochemical engineeringMarc-Olivier Coppens, Nature-inspired chemical engineering; nano-biotechnol ogy; mathematical & computational modeling; statistical mechanics; nanoporous materials synthesis; reaction engineeringSteven M. Cramer, crames@rpi.edu Displacement, membrane, and preparative chromatogra phy; environmental researchJonathan S. Dordick, dordick@rpi.edu Biochemical engineering; biocatalysis, polymer science, bioseparationsArthur Fontijn, fontia@rpi.edu, Professor Emeritus Combustion; high-temperature kinetics; gas-phase reactionsShekhar Garde, gardes@rpi.edu Macromolecular self-assembly, computer simulations, sta tistical thermodynamics of liquids, hydration phenomenaWilliam N. Gill, gillw@rpi.edu Microelectronics; reverse osmosis; crystal growth; ceramic compositesRavi S. Kane, kaner@rpi.edu Polymers; biosurfaces; biomaterials; nanomaterialsPankaj Karande, Drug Delivery, combintorial chemistry, molecular model ingHoward Littman, littmh@rpi.edu, Professor Emeritus transportLealon Martin, lealon@rpi.edu Chemical and biological process modeling and design; optimization; systems engineeringE. Bruce Nauman, nauman@rpi.edu Polymer blends; nonlinear diffusion; devolatilization; polymer structure and properties; plastics recyclingJoel L. Plawsky, plawsky@rpi.edu Electronic and photonic materials; interfacial phenom ena; transport phenomenaSusan Sharfstein, sharfs@rpi.edu Biochemical engineering, mammalian cell culture, recombinant protein productionPeter M. Tessier, tessier@rpi.edu Protein-protein interactions, protein self-assembly and aggregationHendrick C. Van Ness, vanneh@rpi.edu Institute Professor EmeritusPeter C. Wayner, Jr., wayner@rpi.edu Heat transfer; interfacial phenomena; porous materials The Chemical and Biological Engineering Department at Rensselaer has long been recognized for its excellence in teaching and research. Its graduate programs lead to research-based M.S. and Ph.D. degrees and to a course-based M.E. degree. Programs are also offered in cooperation with the School of Management and Technology which lead to an M.E. in Chemical Engineering and to an MBA or the M.S. in Management. Owing to funding, consulting, and previous faculty experi ence, the department maintains close ties with industry. Department web site: http://www.eng.rpi.edu/dept/chem-eng/ Chemical and Biological Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Located in Troy, New York, Rensselaer is a private school with an enrollment of some 6000 students. Situated on the Hudson River, just north of New Yorks capital city of Albany, it is a three-hour drive from New York City, Boston, and Montreal. The Adirondack Mountains of New York, the Green Mountains of Vermont, and the Berkshires of Massachusetts are readily accessible. Saratoga, Philadelphia Orchestra, and jazz festival) is nearby. Application materials and information from: Graduate Services Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, NY 12180-3590 Telephone: 518-276-6789 e-mail: grad-admissions@rpi.edu http://www.rpi.edu/dept/grad-services/

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Chemical Engineering Education 340 THE UNIVERSITY Rice is a leading research university small, private, and highly selective distinguished by a collaborative, highly interdisciplinary culture. State-of-the-art laboratories, internationally renowned research centers, and one of the countrys largest endowments support an ideal learning and living environment. Located only a few miles from downtown Houston, it occupies an architecturally distinctive, 300-acre campus shaded by nearly 4,000 trees. THE DEPARTMENT Offers Ph.D., M.S., and M.Ch.E. degrees. Provides 12-month stipends and tuition waivers to full-time Ph.D. students. Currently has 63 graduate students (59 Ph.D., 3 M.S. and 1 M.Ch.E) Emphasizes interdisciplinary studies and collaborations with researchers from Rice and other institutions, the Texas Medical Center, NASAs Johnson Space Center, and R&D centers of petrochemical companies. FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS Advanced Materials & Complex Fluids Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured assembling systems, hybrid biomaterials, rheology of nanostructured liquids, polymers, carbon nanotubes, interfacial phenomena, emulsions, colloids. Biosystems Engineering Cell population heterogeneity, metabolic engineering, systems biology, microbial fermentations, signal transduction and biological pattern formation, protein engineering, cellular and tissue engineering. Energy & Sustainability uid properties, enhanced oil recovery, reservoir characterization, aquifer remediation, pollution control. Sibani Lisa Biswal (Stanford, 2004) Walter Chapman (Cornell, 1988) Ramon Gonzalez (Univ. of Chile, 2001) George Hirasaki (Rice, 1967) Nikolaos Mantzaris (Minnesota, 2000) Clarence Miller (Minnesota, 1966) Matteo Pasquali (Minnesota, 2000) Marc Robert (Swiss Fed. Inst. Tech., 1980) Laura Segatori (UT Austin, 2005) Michael Wong (MIT, 2000) Kyriacos Zygourakis (Minnesota, 1981) Joint Appointments Cecilia Clementi (Intl. Sch. of Adv.Studies, 1998) Vicki Colvin (UC Berkeley, 1994) Anatoly Kolomeisky (Cornell, 1998) Antonios Mikos (Purdue, 1988) Ka-Yiu San (Caltech, 1984) Jennifer West (UT Austin, 1996) For more information Chair, Graduate Admissions Committee and graduate program Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, MS-362 applications, write to: Rice University P.O. Box 1892 Houston, TX 77251-1892 Or visit our web site at: http://www.rice.edu/chbe/

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 341 The University of Rochester is located in scenic upstate New York in an ideal setting to study, work, and grow intellectually. Through our M.S. and Ph.D. programs, students learn to apply key principles from chemistry, physics, and biology to address grand challenges facing society. We have outstanding laboratory research facilities, well supported infrastructure, and we offer competitive fellowship packages. Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies http://www.che.rochester.edu/Poster Chemical Engineering at The University of Rochester Graduate Studies & Research Programs Fuel Cells Solar Cells Biofuels Green Engineering Clean Energy M. ANTHAMATTEN, Ph.D., M.I.T., 2001 macromolecular self-assembly, shape memory polymers, vapor deposition, fuel cells S. H. CHEN, Ph.D., Univ. of Minnesota, 1981 polymer science, organic materials for photonics and electronics, liquid crystal and electroluminescent displays M. R. KING Ph.D., Univ. of Notre Dame, 1999 cell adhesion, fluid mechanics, stem cell and cancer therapy E. H. CHIMOWITZ Ph.D., Univ. of Connecticut, 1982 supercritical fluid adsorption, molecular simulation of transport in disordered media, statistical mechanics D. R. HARDING Ph.D., Cambridge Univ., 1986 chemical vapor deposition, mechanical and transport properties, advanced aerospace materials S. D. JACOBS Ph.D., Univ. of Rochester, 1975 optics, photonics, and optoelectronics, liquid crystals, magnetorheology J. JORNE Ph.D., Univ. of California (Berkeley), 1972 electrochemical engineering, fuel cells, microelectronics processing, electrodeposition L. J. ROTHBERG Ph.D., Harvard Univ., 1984 organic device science, light-emitting diodes, display technology, biological sensors Y. SHAPIR Ph.D., Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel) 1981 critical phenomena, transport in disordered media, scaling behavior of growing surfaces C. W. TANG Ph.D., Cornell Univ., 1975 organic electronic devices, flat-panel display technology J. H. DAVID WU Ph.D., M.I.T., 1987 bone marrow tissue engineering, stem cell and lymphocyte culture, enzymology of biomass energy process H. YANG Ph.D., Univ. of Toronto, 1998 nanostructured and mesoporous materials, magnetic nanocomposites, solids, and photonics and biophotonics M. Z. YATES Ph.D., Univ. of Texas (Austin), 1999 colloids and interfaces, supercritical fluids, microemulsions, molecular sieves, fuel cells Biomass Processing Stem Cell Engineering Drug Delivery Biosensing Biotechnology Liquid Crystals Colloids & Surfactants Functional Polymers Inorganic/Organic Hybrids Advanced Materials Thin Film Devices Photonics & Optoelectronics Nanofabrication Display Technologies Nanotechnology Tiffany Markham Graduate Program Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rochester Rochester, NY 14627 (585) 275-4913 Markham@che.rochester.edu Faculty

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Chemical Engineering Education 342 Faculty Chair Dr. Mariano J. Savelski Graduate Student Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering Rowan University 201 Mullica Hill Road Glassboro, NJ 08028 Located in southern New Jersey, the nearby orchards and farms are a daily remi nder that this is the Garden State. Cultural and recreational opportunities are plentiful in the area. Philadelphia and the scenic Jersey Shore are only a short drive, a nd major metropolitan areas are within easy reach. Research Areas For additional information Membrane Separations Pharmaceutical and Food Processing Technology Biochemical Engineering Controlled Release Kinetic and Mechanistic Modeling of Complex Reaction Systems Reaction Engineering Novel Separation Processes Modeling and Processing of High-Performance Polymers Process Design and Optimization Particle Technology Renewable Fuels Lean Manufacturing Sustainable Design Master of Science Chemical Engineering Project Management Experience Individualized Mentoring Collaboration with Industry Multidisciplinary Research Day and Evening Classes Thesis and Non-thesisOptions Part-time and Full-time Programs Assistantships Available The Chemical Engineering Departme nt at Rowan University is hous ed in Henry M. Rowan Hall, a state-of-the-art, 95,000 sq. ft. multidisciplinary teaching and research space. An emphasis on project management and industrially relevant res earch prepares students for successful careers in high-tech fields. The new South Jersey Technol ogy Center will providefurther opportunities for student training in emerging technologies. E-mail: savelski@rowan.edu Web: http://engineering.eng.rowan.edu Phone: (856) 256-5310 Fax: (856) 256-5242

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 343 Research Areas Biotechnology Reaction Engineering Process Systems Engineering Pharmaceutical Engineering Polymers Faculty Ioannis (Yannis) Androulakis, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Purdue University Systems biology, bioinformating, data mining, complex reaction modeling, optimization, system analysis Helen M. Buettner, Associate Professor; Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1987 Applied neurobiology, cell motility, cell-substrate interactions, crystallization of pharmaceuticals Yee C. Chiew, Professor; Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1984 interfacial phenomena Alkis Constantinides, Professor; D.E.Sc., Columbia University, 1970 Biochemical engineering, optimization and control of fermentation processes, applied numeri Burton Z. Davidson, Professor; Ph.D., P.E., Northwestern University, 1963 Systems simulation and optimization, environmental engineering, health and safety engineering management Panos G. Georgopoulos, Associate Professor; Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1986 Atmospheric/environmental chemical engineering, turbulent transport, biochemodynamic modeling Benjamin J. Glasser, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Princeton, 1995 ics of transport processes Masanori Hara, Professor; Ph.D., Kyoto University, 1981 Marianthi G. Ierapetritou, AssociateProfessor; Ph.D., Imperial College, 1995 Johannes G. Khinast, AssociateProfessor; Ph.D., Graz, 1995 systems Sobin Kim, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Columbia University Genotyping, DNA sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, DNA tagging, gene expression analysis, DNA pooling Michael T. Klein, Dean and Board of Governors Professor of Engineering; Sc.D., MIT, 1981 Prabhas V. Moghe, Associate Professor; Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1993 Fernando Muzzio, Professor; Ph.D., University of Massachusetts, 1991 Henrik Pedersen, Professor; Ph.D., Yale University, 1978 Charles M. Roth, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., University of Delaware, 1994 Nucleic acid biotechnology, molecular biophysics and bioengineering, bioseparations Jerry I. Scheinbeim, Professor; Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 1975 Polymer electroprocessing, structure-electroactive properties relationships in polymeric mate rials, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, dielectric and electrostrictive properties of polymers David I. Shreiber, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania Mechanotransduction, injury biomechanics, tissue and cellular engineering, nerve regen eration M. Silvina Tomassone, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Northeastern University, 1998 Molecular dynamics, interfacial analysis, phase transitions Shaw S. Wang Professor; Ph.D., Rutgers University, 1970 Kinetics and thermodynamics of food process engineering, and studies of biochemical and biological processes. Martin L. Yarmush, Professor; Ph.D., Rockefeller University, 1979; M.D., Yale University, 1984 engineering, biotechnology Graduate Program inChemical & Biochemical Engineering FELLOWSHIPS, TRAINEESHIPS, AND ASSISTANTSHIPS AVAILABLE For further information contact: Graduate Program in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey School of Engineering 98 Brett Road Piscataway, NJ 08854-8058 Phone (732) 445-4950 Fax (732) 445-2421 Email: cbemail@sol.rutgers.edu http://sol.rutgers.edu

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Chemical Engineering Education 344 Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Our Graduate Programs PhD and MEng NUS-UIUC Joint PhD Singapore-MIT Alliance Dual MSc(MIT, NUS) & PhD MSc(Chemical Engineering) MSc(Safety, Health & Environmental Technology) Strategic Research & Educational Thrusts Biomolecular and Biomedical Engineering Chemical Engineering Sciences Chemical and Biological Systems Engineering Environmentally Benign Processing & Sustainability Functionalized and NanostructuredMaterials & Devices Program Features Research activities in a broad spectrum of fundamental, applied and emerging areas. Active research collaboration with the industry, national research centers and institutes with emphasis on chemical and process engineering, biotechnology, environmental scienc e/technology, microelectronics and materials science. Top-notch facilities for carrying out cutting-edge research Strong international research collaboration with over 20 universities in America, Europe and Asia Over 200 research scholars (85% pursuing PhD) from countries such as USA, Germany, Japan, China, India, Vietnam and other countries in the region. Joint graduate programs with UIUC, MIT and IIT Bombay Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering as a profession and Singap ore as a nation mirror each other in many ways. Both are dynamic, trend-setting and constantly evolving. And bot h represent an exciting and ever-changing interplay of complementary interpretations of the life around us, with the fusion of chemical/biological sciences and engineering sciences in the case of the former rivaling the symbiosis bet ween the East and the West in our culturally vibrant island nation. Our Department is a microcosm of what surrounds us locally as well as globally. Culturally, the Department is an amalgam of the East and the West. Intellectually, we span the many facets of the frontiers of our profession.We draw the best students from Singapore and the region to our undergraduate programs and compete successfully with overseas institutions for highly competent graduate students. We combine strengths with the finest institutions around the world through our international initiatives in education andresearch.Our faculty members come from world-class universities.Our facilities are enviable by anyones standards.A nd our vision and ideas are as exciting as any you will find elsewhere. Come join us and be a pa rt of the future today! Engineering Your Own Evolution! Reach us @ Email: chbe_grad_programs@nus.edu.sg http://www.ChBE.nus.edu.sg Fax: +65 6779-1936 Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering National University of Singapore 4 Engineering Drive 4, Singapore 117576

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 345 S i n g a p o r e M I T A l l i a n c e G r a d u a t e F e l l o w s h i p C h e m i c a l a n d P h a r m a c e u t i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g A c u t t i n g e d g e c u r r i c u l u m i n t h e f i e l d s o f m o l e c u l a r e n g i n e e r i n g a n d p r o c e s s s c i e n c e f o c u s e d o n t h e p h a r m a c e u t i c a l i n d u s t r y S i n g a p o r e M I T A l l i a n c e ( S M A ) i s a p a r t n e r s h i p b e t w e e n t h e M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y i n t h e U S a n d t h e N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y o f S i n g a p o r e ( N U S ) a n d t h e N a n y a n g T e c h n o l o g i c a l U n i v e r s i t y ( N T U ) i n S i n g a p o r e S M A o f f e r s D U A L D E G R E E S : e i t h e r a M I T P r a c t i c e S c h o o l M a s t e r s d e g r e e a n d a M a s t e r s d e g r e e f r o m N U S / N T U ; o r t h e M I T P r a c t i c e S c h o o l M a s t e r s a n d a P h D f r o m N U S / N T U ; o r a P h D D E G R E E f r o m e i t h e r N U S o r N T U j o i n t l y s u p e r v i s e d w i t h M I T f a c u l t y m e m b e r s S M A G r a d u a t e F e l l o w s h i p B e n e f i t s : F u l l s u p p o r t f o r t u i t i o n a n d f e e s a t M I T a n d e i t h e r N U S o r N T U C o m p e t i t i v e m o n t h l y s t i p e n d a n d l i v i n g a l l o w a n c e R o u n d t r i p a i r f a r e b e t w e e n S i n g a p o r e a n d B o s t o n A d d i t i o n a l l i v i n g a l l o w a n c e d u r i n g r e s i d e n c y a t M I T I n t e r n a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e D e g r e e A w a r d : A n M I T M a s t e r s i n C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g P r a c t i c e ( M S C E P ) a n d a n N U S S M ( D u a l M a s t e r s ) ; o r A n M I T M S C E P a n d a n N U S P h D ; o r A n N U S o r N T U P h D d e g r e e w i t h S M A C e r t i f i c a t e A d m i s s i o n R e q u i r e m e n t s : B a c h e l o r D e g r e e i n C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g o r r e l a t e d a r e a s 1 s t o r 2 n d U p p e r C l a s s D e g r e e w i t h H o n o u r s o r i t s e q u i v a l e n t G o o d T O E F L a n d G R E s c o r e s A P P L Y F O R T H E J U L Y 2 0 0 8 I N T A K E F R O M S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 7 O N W A R D S C h e m i c a l a n d P h a r m a c e u t i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g ( C P E ) p r o g r a m m e c o m p r i s e s i n n o v a t i v e c o u r s e s o f s t u d y t h a t i n t e g r a t e a m o l e c u l a r l e v e l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f b i o l o g i c a l a n d c h e m i c a l p h e n o m e n a w i t h a d v a n c e s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g f o r t h e p h a r m a c e u t i c a l a n d f i n e c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r i e s S t u d e n t s w i l l b e e x p o s e d t o s t a t e o f t h e a r t c o n c e p t s i n b i o p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g b i o c a t a l y s i s b i o c h e m i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g n a n o s t r u c t u r e d c a t a l y s t d e s i g n a n d o r g a n i c s y n t h e s i s m o l e c u l a r e n g i n e e r i n g m o l e c u l a r p r i n c i p l e s o f c o l l o i d a l a n d i n t e r f a c i a l e n g i n e e r i n g a n d m e t a b o l i c e n g i n e e r i n g O t h e r S M A p r o g r a m m e s o f f e r e d : A d v a n c e d M a t e r i a l s f o r M i c r o a n d N a n o S y s t e m s ( A M M & N S ) C o m p u t a t i o n a l E n g i n e e r i n g ( C E ) M a n u f a c t u r i n g S y s t e m s a n d T e c h n o l o g y ( M S T ) C o m p u t a t i o n a n d S y s t e m s B i o l o g y ( C S B ) T o a p p l y p l e a s e v i s i t : h t t p : / / w e b m i t e d u / s m a / s t u d e n t s / a d m i s s i o n s / i n d e x h t m F o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s p l e a s e v i s i t : h t t p : / / w e b m i t e d u / s m a / s t u d e n t s / p r o g r a m m e s / i n d e x h t m F o r e n q u i r e s e m a i l u s a t : s m a r t @ n u s e d u s g o r c o n t a c t u s a t : ( 6 5 ) 6 5 1 6 4 7 8 7 S A p p l i c a t i o n D e a d l i n e : J a n u a r y 2 0 0 8 P h o t o o f M I T D o m e t a k e n b y M s J o c e l y n S S a l e s

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Chemical Engineering Education 346 The Department of Chemical Engineering at USC has emerged as one of the top teaching and research programs in the Southeast. Our program ranks in the top twenty nationally in research expenditures (> $4 million) and annual doctoral graduates (10-12 per year). The Depart ment offers Masters and PhD degree programs in chemical engineering and biomedical engineering PhD candidates re ceive tuition and fee waivers, a health insur ance subsidy, and highly competitive stipends start ing at $22,000 per year Department of Chemical Engineering Adsorption Technology Batteries and Fuel Cells Biomedical Engineering Biomaterials Colloids and Interfaces Composite Materials Corrosion Engineering Electrochemistry Heterogeneous Catalysis Nanotechnology Numerical Methods Research Programs Pollution Prevention Process Control Rheology Separations Sol-Gel Processing Solvent Extraction Surface Science Supercritical Fluids Thermodynamics Waste Management Waste Processing The University of South Carolina is located in Columbia, the state capital. Columbia is conveniently of a big city with the charm and hospitality of a small town. The areas sunny and mild climate, combined with its lakes and wooded parks, provide plenty of opportunities for yearround outdoor recreation. In addition, Columbia is only hours away from the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Atlantic Coast. Charlotte and Atlantacities that serve as Columbias international gateways are nearby. For further information: The Graduate Director, Department of Chemical Engineering, Swearingen Engineering Center, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 Phone: 1-800-763-0527 Fax: 1-803-777-0973 Web page: www.che.sc.edu FacultyM.D. Amiridis, WisconsinJ. Blanchette, TexasJ. Delhommelle, ParisF.A. Gadala-Maria, StanfordE.P. Gatzke Delaware A. Heyden, HamburgE. Jabbari, PurdueM.A. Matthews Texas A&MM.A. Moss, KentuckyT. Papathanasiou McGillH.J. Ploehn PrincetonB.N. Popov, IllinoisJ.A. Ritter, SUNY BuffaloT.G. Stanford MichiganV. Van Brunt, TennesseeJ. W. Van Zee, Texas A&MJ.W. Weidner NC StateR.E. White, Cal-BerkeleyC.T. Williams Purdue

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 347 M a j o r R e s e ar c h A r e a s A dv an c e d C om pu t a t i o n B i o c h e m i c a l an d B i o l o g i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g E n e r gy an d E n v i r o n m e n t a l R e s e ar c h M at e r i a l P r op e r t i e s Com pos i t e s an d P o l y m e r s N a n o t e c h n o l o gy E l e c t r o n i c an d P h o t o n i c M a t e r i a l s W e o f f e r M S. and P h D de g r e e s i n C h e m i c a l E ng i ne e r i ng M a t e r i a l s Sc i e n c e and P e t r o l e um E ng i n e e r i ng. T he D e pa r t m e n t a l s o of f e r s a un i qu e M S i n P e t r ol e um E ng i n e e r i ng ( Sm a r t O i l f i e l d T e c hno l og i e s ) A l l o f ou r M S. d e gr e e s a r e a l s o a v ai l ab l e on l i n e t hr oug h t h e V i t e r bi S c hoo l o f E ng i n e e r i ng s D i s t anc e E du c a t i on N e t w or k U n i v e r s i ty o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a M or k F a m i l y D e pa r t m e nt o f C he m i c a l E ng i ne e r i ng a nd M a t e r i a l s S c i e n c e G r a d u at e S t u d y i n C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g, M a t e r i a l s S c i e n c e a n d P e t r o l e u m E n g i n e e r i n g F a c u l t y W V i c t or C ha n g I r a j E r s ha g h i E dw a r d G oo K r i s t i a n J e s s e n R a j i v K a l i a A t ul K onka r C T e d L e e J r A nu p a m M a dhuka r F l or i a n M a n s f e l d N oa h M a l m s t a d t S t e ve n R N u t t S J oe Q i n R i c h a r d R ob e r t s M u ha m m a d S a h i m i K a t he r i n e S h i n g T he odor e T T s o t s i s P r i ya V a s hi s h t a P i n W a n g Y a nn i s C Y or t s o s Jo i n t A p p oi n t m e n t s J ohn W ( B i l l ) C os t e r t on E dw a r d D C r a nd a l l D a n i e l D a p ku s M a r t i n G unde r s e n M i c ha e l K a s s ne r T e r e n c e G L a n g d on A i i c h i r o N a k a no A r m a nd R T a n g u a y M a r k E T hom p s on P e t e r W i l l F or m o r e i n f or m at i on or t o app l y on l i n e p l e as e v i s i t our w e b s i t e : h t t p : / / c h e m s u s c e d u F or i n f or m at i on on t h e on l i n e d e gr e e pr og r a m pl e a s e v i s i t t h e D i s t an c e E du c a t i on N e t w or k s w e b s i t e : h t t p : / / d e n u s c e d u

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Chemical Engineering Education 348 Faculty Paschalis Alexandridis Stelios T. Andreadis Michael E. Cain ChongCheng Jeffrey R. Errington Vladimir Hlavacek Mattheos Koffas David A. Kofke Carl R. F. Lund Michael McKittrick Sriram Neelamegham Johannes M. Nitsche Sheldon Park Eli Ruckenstein Michael E. Ryan Harvey G. Stenger, Jr. Mark T. Swihart Marina Tsianou E. (Manolis) S. Tzanakakis Adjunct Faculty Athos Petrou Frederick Sachs CarelJan van Oss All Ph.D. students are fully supported as research or teaching assistants. Additional fellowships sponsored by Praxair, Inc., The National Science Foundation, the State University of New York, and other organizations are available to exceptionally well-qualified applicants. Chemical and Biological Engineering faculty participate in many interdisciplinary cen ters and initiatives including The Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences, The Center for Computationa l Research, The Institute for Lasers, Photonics, and Biophotonics, The Center for Spin Effects and Quantum Information in Nanostructures, The Center for Advanced Molecular Biology and Immunology, and The C enter for Advanced Technology for Biomedical Devices

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 349 S T E V E N S INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY GRADUA TE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERINGFull and part-time Day and evening programs MASTERS CHEMICAL ENGINEER PH.D.Stevens Institute of Technology does not discriminate against any person because of race, creed, color, national origin, sex, age, marital status, handicap, liability for service in the armed forces or status as a disabled or Vietnam era veteran. For application, contact: Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-216-5234 For additional information, contact: Chemical, Biomedical, and Materials Engineering Department Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-216-5546 FacultyR. Besser (PhD, Stanford University)G.B. DeLancey (PhD, University of Pittsburgh)H. Du (PhD, Penn State University)B. Gallois (PhD, Carnegie-Mellon University)V Hazelwood (PhD, Stevens Institute of Technology)D.M. Kalyon (PhD, McGill University) S. Kovenklioglu (PhD, Stevens Institute of Technology) A. Lawal (PhD, McGill University)W.Y Lee (PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology)M. Libera (ScD, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology)A. Ritter (Ph.D. University of Rochester)G. Rothberg (PhD, Columbia University) K. Sheppard (PhD, University of Birmingham)H. Wang (PhD, University of Twente)X. Y u (PhD, Case Western) Research in Micro-Chemical Systems Polymer Rheology, Processing, and Characterization Processing of Electronic and Photonic Materials Processing of Highly Filled Materials Chemical Reaction Engineering Biomaterials and Thin Films Polymer Characterization and Morphology High Temperature Gas-Solid and Solid-Solid Interactions Environmental and Thermal Barrier Coatings Biomaterials Design, Tissue Engineering, and Cell Signaling Neural and Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering and Nanobiotechnology Multidisciplinary environment, consisting of chemical and polymer engineering, chemistry, and biology Site of two major engineering research centers; Highly Filled Materials Institute; Center for Micro chemical Systems Scenic campus overlooking the Hudson River and metropolitan New York City Close to the world's center of science and cul ture At the hub of major highways, air, rail, and bus lines At the center of the country's largest concen tration of research laboratories and chemical, petroleum, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology companies

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Chemical Engineering Education 350 Pedro E. Arce, Professor and Chair Ph.D., Purdue University, 1990 Electrokinetics, Nano Structured Soft Materials for Electrophoresis, Tissue Scaffolds & Drug Delivery, Non-thermal Plasma High Oxidation Processes Joseph J. Biernacki Professor Dr. Eng., Cleveland State University, 1988 Cementious Systems, Micro-flui dics, Electronic and Structural Materials Ileana C. Carpen Assistant Professor Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 2005 Microrheology of Materials, Flow Stability of Complex Fluids, Colloidal Dispersions, Transport in Biological Systems Mario Oyanader Adjunct Professor Ph.D., Florida State University, 2004 Electrokinetic Soil Cleaning, Chemical Environmental Processes, Water Resource Management Holly A. Stretz, Assistant Professor Ph.D., Univ. of Texas at Austin, 2005 Nanocomposite Structure and Modeling, High Temperature Materials and Ablatives, Polymer Processing Venkat Subramanian, Assistant Professor Ph.D., University of South Carolina, 2001 Electrochemical Systems, Modeling and Control of Batteries and Fuel Cells in Hybrid Environments, Multiscale Simulation, Novel Symbolic Solutions Donald P. Visco, Jr., Associate Professor Ph.D., University at Buffalo, SUNY, 1999 Bioinformatics, Molecular Design, Thermodynamic Modeling Chunsheng Wang, Assistant Professor Ph.D., Zhejiang University, 1995 Fuel Cells, Energy Storage Systems, Hydrogen Storage Processes and Materials, Nanomaterials Emeritus Faculty: Dr. William D. Holland Dr. Clayton P. Kerr Dr. John C. McGee Dr. David W. Yarbrough Located in one of the most beautifu l geographical regions in Tennessee, Cookeville is the home of Tennessee T ech University. A warm and welcoming community surrounded by parks, lakes and mountains, Cookeville is located a little more than an hour from three Chattanooga, and Knoxville. F OR MORE INFORMATION contact: TTU Chemical Engineering Department Box 5013 che@tntech.edu Phone (931) 372.3297 Fax (931) 372.6352 TTUs Chemical Engineering Department blends scholarship and research with adv anced studies, offering excellent opportunities to graduat e students. Our program offers an M.S. in Chemical Engineering and a Ph.D. in Engineering with a concentration in Chemical Engineering. The relatively small size of the program and friendly campus atmosphere promote close interaction among students and faculty. Research is sponsored by NSF, DOE, NASA, DOD, and state and private sources among others. Faculty members work closely with colleagues in Electrical Engineering, Environmental and Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry, Biology, and Manufacturing and Industrial Technology at TTU, as well as maintain strong collaboration with TTUs Centers of Excellence and other leading institutions and national laboratories to build a unique and effective environment for graduate research, learning, and well-rounded training. constituent university of th e Tennessee Board of Regents

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 351

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Chemical Engineering Education 352 R.G. Anthony Ph.D. University of Texas, 1966 C.D. Holland Professor Environmental remediation & benign processing kinetics, catalysis & reaction engineeringJ. Appleby Ph.D. Cambridge University, 1965 ElectrochemistryP. Balbuena, Ph.D. University of Texas, 1996, GPSA Professor Molecular simulation and computational chemistryJ.T. Baldwin Ph.D. Texas A&M University, 1968 Process, design, integration, and controlM.A. Bevan Ph.D. Carnegie Mellon University, 1999 Colloidal ScienceJ.L. Bradshaw B.S., Texas A&M University, 1960 Process safetyD.B. Bukur Ph.D. U. of Minnesota, 1974 Reaction engineering, math methodsJ.A. Bullin Ph.D. U. of Houston, 1972 Professor EmeritusT. Cagin Ph.D. Clemson University, 1988 Z. Cheng Ph.D., Princeton University, 1999 NanotechnologyR. Darby Ph.D. Rice University, 1972, Professor Emeritus Rheology, polymersR.R. Davison Ph.D. Texas A&M U., 1962, Professor Emeritus Asphalt characterizationL.D. Durbin Ph.D. Rice University, 1961 Professor EmeritusM. El-Halwagi Ph.D ., Univ. of California, 1990, McFerrin Professor Environmental remediation & benign processing, process design, integration, & controlP.T. Eubank Ph.D. Northwestern University, 196 1 Professor Emeritus ThermodynamicsG. Froment Ph.D. University of Gent, Belgium, 1957 Kinetics, catalysis, and reaction engineeringC.J. Glover, Ph.D. Rice University, 1974 Materials chemistry, synthesis, and characterization, transport and interfacial phenomenaJ. Hahn Ph.D. University of Texas, 2002 M. Hahn Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2004 K.R. Hall Ph.D., Univ. of Oklahoma, 1967, Jack E. & Frances Brown Chair Process safety, thermodynamicsC.D. Holland Ph.D. Texas A&M Univ., 1953 Professor Emeritus Separation processes, distillation, unsteady-state processesJ.C. Holste Ph.D. Iowa State University, 1973 ThermodynamicsM.T. Holtzapple Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1981 Biomedical/biochemicalA. Jayaraman Ph.D. University of California, 1998 Biomedical/biochemicalH.-K. Jeong Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 2004 NanomaterialsY. Kuo Ph.D., Columbia University, 1979, Dow Professor MicroelectronicsC. Laird Ph.D. Carnegie Mellon University, 2006 Process systems analysisS. Mannan Ph.D. University of Oklahoma, 1986, Mike OConnor Chair I Director, Mary Kay OConnor Process Safety Center. Process safetyM. Pishko Unocal Professor & Head Ph.D. University of Texas at Austin,1992 Biosensors, biomaterials, drug deliveryJ. Seminario Ph.D. Southern Illinois University, 1988 Lanatter and Herbert Fox Professor Molecular simulation and computational chemistryD.F. Shantz Assoc. Head Ph.D. University of Delaware, 2000 Director, Materials Characterization Facility Structure-property relationships of porous materials, synthesis of new porous solidsJ. Silas Ph.D. University of Delaware, 2002 BiomaterialsV. Ugaz Assoc. Head Ph.D. Northwestern University, 1999 Microfabricated Bioseparation SystemsT.K. Wood Ph.D. North Carolina State University, 1991 Mike OConnor Chair II L. Yurttas Ph.D. Texas A&M University, 1988 Curriculum Reform, Education Texas A&M University Large Graduate Program Approximately 130 Graduate Students Strong Ph.D. Program (80% PhD students) Diverse Research Areas Top 10 in Research Funding Quality Living / Work Environment Financial Aid for All Doctoral Students Up to $25,000/yr plus Tuition and Fees and Medical For More Information Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering Dwight Look College of Engineering Texas A&M University College Station, Texas 77843-3122 Phone (979) 845-3361 Website http://www.cheweb.tamu.edu RESEARCH AREAS Complex Fluids Biomedical and Biomolecular Environmental Materials Micro-Electronics Micro-Fluids Computational Chemical Engineering Nano-Technology Process Safety Process Systems Reaction Engineering Thermo-Dynamic

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 353 FACULTY GRADUATE PROGRAM IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Dr. Ted Wiesner Associate Professor; PhD: Georgia Tech Research: Capturing the energy generated by the human body to power implanted medical devices; Robust control of rate-adaptive cardiac pacemakers; Wastewater treatment for long-duration manned spaceflight; Computer-based training for engineers. Dr. Brandon Weeks Assistant Professor; PhD: Cambridge University, UK Research: Nanoscale phenomena in energetic materials including crystal growth, nanolithography, thermody namics and kinetics.; Atomic Force Microscopy and small angle x-ray scattering; Scanning probe instrument design and microscale sensors. Dr. Mark Vaughn Associate Professor; PhD: Texas A & M University Research: Nitric oxide in the microcirculation; Membrane transport of small molecules; Transport and reaction in concentrated disperse system. Dr. Sindee Simon Professor; PhD: Princeton University Research: The physics of the glass transition and structural recovery; Melting and Tg at the nanoscale; Cure and properties of thermosetting resins; Measurement of the viscoelastic bulk modulus; Dilatometry and calorimetry. Dr. Jim Riggs Professor; PhD: University of California at Berkeley Research: Process control; Process optimization; Mercury distribution in the human body. Dr. Greg McKenna Professor; PhD: University of Utah Research: Small molecule interactions with glassy polymers; Torsion and normal force measurements; Nanorheol ogy and nanomechanics; Melt and solution rheometry; Residual stresses in composite materials. Dr. Uzi Mann Professor; PhD: University of Wisconsin Research: Particulate technology and processes; Chemical reaction engineering; Chemical process analysis modeling and design; Formulation and synthesis of hollow micro and submicro particles; Biodiesel. Dr. Jeremy Leggoe Associate Professor; PhD: University of West. Australia Research: Modeling aerosol dispersion in the urban environment; Characterizing heterogeneity in multiphase materials; Modeling failure in multiphase materials; Predicting the ultimate strength of thermoplastic elastomers; Constitutive modeling of thermoplastic elastomers. Dr. Rajesh Khare Assistant Professor; PhD: University of Delaware Research: Nanofluidic devices for DNA separation and sequencing; Lubrication in human joints; Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations; Multiscale modeling methods; Properties of supercooled liquids and glassy polymers; Dr. Naz Karim Chairman & Professor; PhD: University of Manchester, UK Research: Control and optimization of chemical and bio processes; Bio-fuels production using recombinant microorganisms; Metabolic engineering; glyco-proteins in CHO cell culture; Diabetic and cardiovascular diseases; Vaccine production for flu viruses. Dr. Karlene Hoo Professor; PhD: University of Notre Dame Research: Integration of process design with operability; Hemodynamics of venous vein and valve; Embedded control; Intelligent control; Systems engineering. Dr. Micah Green Assistant Professor; PhD: MIT Research: Rheology, phase behavior, and applications of carbon nanotubes; multiscale modeling of complex fluids and biological materials. Dr. Lenore Dai Assistant Professor; PhD: University of Illinois Research: Fundamentals of Pickering emulsions; Self-assembly of nanoparticles; Dynamics of solid particles at liquid/liquid interfaces; Dynamic wetting; Synthesis and characteriza tion of polymer composites. Texas Techs Chemical Engineering Graduate Program offers an outstanding balance between theory and experiment and between research and practice. The Faculty represents a broad range of backgrounds that bring industrial, national laboratory and academic experiences to the future graduate student. External funding supports a diverse research portfolio including Polymer Science, Rheology and Materials Science, Process Control and Optimization, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Molecular Modeling, Reaction Engineering, Bioengineering and Nano Biotechnology. Key Features: We have fourteen faculty members with significant industrial experience and national recognition within their fields of exper tise. There is a Process Control and Optimization Consortium with participation from eight key chemical industries. In 2005 the Department spent over $2.127 million in research expenditure to support graduate research projects. Based on an NSF published report, the Department ranks 46th among all the chemical engineering departments in the country based on research expenditure. Department has an NSF-funded Nanotechnology Interdisciplinary Research Team (NIRT) studying dynamic heterogeneity and the behavior of glass-forming materials at the nanoscale. More than 27,000 students attend classes in Lubbock on a 1,839 acre campus. Texas Tech University offers many cultural and entertainment programs, including nationally ranked football and basketball teams. Lubbock is a growing metropolitan city of more than 200,000 people and is located on top of the caprock on the South Plains of Texas. The city offers an upscale lifestyle that blends well with old fashioned Texas hospitality and Southwestern food and culture. Admissions: Prospective students should provide official transcripts, official GRE General Test (verbal, quantitative written) scores, and should have a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering or equivalent. Students are urged to apply by the end of January for enrollment in the coming fall semester. Prospective students should apply online by filling out the forms at the website: http://www.depts.ttu.edu/gradschool/prospect.php Contact Information Dr. M. Nazmul Karim Professor, Chair, and Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering Texas Tech University P. O. Box: 43121 Lubbock, TX 79409-3121 e-mail: naz.karim@ttu.edu Department of Chemical Engineering www.depts.ttu.edu/che Tel: (806) 742-3553 Fax: (806) 742-3552 UNIVERSITY

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Chemical Engineering Education 354 CHEMICAL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING ABDUL-MAJEED AZAD, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR Ph. D., University of Madras, India Nanomaterials & Ceramics Processing, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells MARIA R. COLEMAN, PROFESSOR Ph. D., University of Texas at Austin Membrane Separations, Bioseparations JOHN P. DISMUKES, PROFESSOR Ph. D., University of Illinois Materials Processing, Managing Technological Innovation ISABEL C. ESCOBAR, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR Ph. D., University of Central Flordia Membrane Fouling and Membrane Modications SALEH JABARIN, PROFESSOR Ph. D., University of Massachusetts Polymer Physical Properties, Orientation & Crystallization DONG-SHIK KIM, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR Ph. D., University of Michigan Biomaterials, Metabolic Pathways, Biomass Energy STEVEN E. LEBLANC, PROFESSOR Ph. D., University of Michigan Process Control, Chemical Engineering Education G. GLENN LIPSCOMB, PROFESSOR AND CHAIR Ph. D., University of California at Berkeley Membrane Separations, Alternative Energy, Education BRUCE E. POLING, PROFESSOR Ph. D., University of Illinois Thermodynamics and Physical Properties CONSTANCE A. SCHALL, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR Ph. D., Rutgers University Biomass conversion, Enzyme kinetics, Crystallization SASIDHAR VARANASI, PROFESSOR Ph. D., State University of New York, Buffalo Colloidal & Interfacial Phenomena, Hydrogels FACULITY The Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering at The University of Toledo offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. We are located in state of the art facilities in Nitschke Hall and our dynamic faculty offer a variety of research opportunities in contemporary areas of chemical engineering. SEND INQUIRIES TO: Graduate Studies Advisor Chemical & Environmental Engineering The University of Toledo College of Engineering 2801 W. Bancroft Street Toledo, Ohio 43606-3390 419.530.8080 www.che.utoledo.edu cheedept@eng.utoledo.edu

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 355 Full-time Faculty Linda Abriola, Dean of School of Engineering Ph.D. Princeton University Christos Georgakis Ph.D., University of Minnesota Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos Ph.D., University of Minnesota David L. Kaplan Ph.D., Syracuse University Kyongbum Lee Ph.D., M.I.T. Jerry H. Meldon Ph.D., M.I.T. Blaine Pfeifer Ph.D., Stanford University Daniel R. Ryder Ph.D., Worcester Polytechnic Institute Nak-Ho Sung, Department Chair Ph.D., M.I.T. Hyunmin Yi Ph.D., University of Maryland Research and Emeritus Faculty Gregory D. Botsaris Ph.D., M.I.T. Aurelie Edwards Ph.D., M.I.T. Howard Saltsburg Ph.D., Boston University Ken Van Wormer Ph.D., M.I.T. In 2000, Tufts became the first chemical engineering department in the nation to recognize the evolving inte rdisciplinary nature of the field by integrating biological engineering into its curriculum. Today, Tufts is nationally recognized for excellence in technological innovation, novel research, and superior faculty. Tufts offers ME, MS, and PhD degrees in chemical engineering or biotechnology engineering. Graduate students enjoy a broad arts and sciences environment with all the advantages of a research university, such as opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration with the Universitys leading medical and veterinary schools. Tufts University Chemical and Biological Engineering Science & Technology Center 4 Colby Street, Room 148 Medford, MA 02155 Phone: 617-627-3900; Fax: 617-627-3991 E-mail: chbe@tufts.edu Research Areas: Metabolic Engineering, Biotechnology Materials, Biomaterials, Colloids Process Control Reaction Kinetics, Catalysis Energy and Environmental Engineering Transport Phenomena

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Chemical Engineering Education 356 Faculty and Research Areas Henry S. Ashbaugh Classical Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics Molecular Simulation Solution Thermodynamics Multi-Scale Modeling of Self-Assembly and Nanostructured Materials Daniel C.R. DeKee Rheology of Natural and Synthetic Polymers Constitutive Equations Transport Phenomena and Applied Mathematics W T. Godbey Gene Delivery Cellular Engineering Molecular Aspects of Nonviral Transfection Biomaterials Vijay T. John Biomimetic and Nanostructured Materials Interfacial Phenom ena Polymer-Ceramic Composites Surfactant Science Victor J. Law Modeling Environmental Systems Nonlinear Optimization and Regression Transport Phenomena Numerical Methods Brian S. Mitchell Fiber Technology Materials Processing Composites Kim C. OConnor Animal-Cell Technology Organ/Tissue Regeneration Re combinant Protein Expression Kyriakos D. Papadopoulos Colloid Stability Coagulation Transport of MultiPhase Systems Through Porous Media Colloidal Interactions For Additional Information, Please ContactGraduate Advisor Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Tulane University New Orleans, LA 70118Phone (504) 865-5772 E-mail chemeng@tulane.edu Tulane is located in a quiet, residential area of New Orleans, approximately six miles from the world-famous French Quarter. The department currently enrolls approximately 40 full-time graduate students. Graduate fellowships include a tuition waiver plus stipend. Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 357 Engineering the WorldThe University of Tulsa The University of Tulsa is Oklahomas oldest and largest independent university. Approximately disciplines. Tulsa, Oklahoma Off-campus activities abound in Tulsa, one of the nations most livable cities. Our temperate climate, with four distinct seasons, is perfect for year-round outdoor activities. With a metropolitan popula tion of 888,000, the city of Tulsa affords opportunities for students to gain internship and work enjoy world-class ballet, symphony and theatre performances, and exhibits in the cultural communi ty. Annual events include Mayfest, Oktoberfest, the Chili Cook-off and Bluegrass Festival, the Tulsa Run, and the Jazz and Blues festivals. Chemical Engineering at TU TU enjoys a solid international reputation for expertise in the energy industry, and offers materials, environmental and biochemical programs. The department places particular emphasis on experimen tal research, and is proud of its strong contact with industry. The department offers a traditional Ph.D. program and three masters programs: Master of Science degree (thesis program) Master of Engineering degree (a professional degree that can be completed in 18 months without a thesis) Special Masters degree for nonchemical engineering undergraduates Financial aid is available, including fellowships and research assistantships. The Faculty D.W. Crunkleton Fuel cells, sensors, nanotechnology L.P. Ford Kinetics of dry etching of metals, surface science K.D. Luks Thermodynamics, phase equilibria F.S. Manning Industrial pollution control, surface processing of petroleum C.L. Patton Thermodynamics, applied mathematics G.L. Price Zeolites, heterogeneous catalysis K.L. Sublette Bioremediation, biological waste treatment, ecological risk assessment K.D. Wisecarver Further Information Graduate Program Director Chemical Engineering Department The University of Tulsa 600 South College Avenue Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104-3189 Phone (918) 631-2227 Fax (918) 631-3268 E-mail: chegradadvisor@utulsa.edu Graduate School application: 1-800-882-4723

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Chemical Engineering Education 358 V a n d e rb i l t U n i ve r s i t y D EP A R T M EN T O F C H EM I C A L EN GI N EER I N G G r a d u a t e S t u d y L e a d i n g t o a M S a n d P h D D e g r e e G r a d u a t e w o r k i n c h e m i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g p r o v i d e s a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s t u d y a n d r e s e a r c h a t t h e c u t t i n g e d g e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o s h a p i n g a n e w m o d e l o f w h a t c h e m i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g i s a n d w h a t c h e m i c a l e n g i n e e r s d o A t V a n d e r b i l t U n i v e r s i t y w e o f f e r a b r o a d r a n g e o f r e s e a r c h o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n c h e m i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g F o c u s a r e a s i n c l u d e : A d s o r p t i o n a n d n a n o p o r o u s m a t e r i a l s A l t e r n a t i v e e n e r g y a n d b i o f u e l s B i o m a t e r i a l s a n d t i s s u e e n g i n e e r i n g C o m p u t a t i o n a l m o l e c u l a r e n g i n e e r i n g a n d n a n o s c i e n c e N a n o p a r t i c l e s f o r d r u g a n d g e n e d e l i v e r y S u r f a c e m o d i f i c a t i o n a n d m o l e c u l a r s e l f a s s e m b l y M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c a n d u l t r a h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e m a t e r i a l s T o f i n d o u t m o r e v i s i t : h t t p : / / w w w c h e v a n d e r b il t e d u / L o c a t e d i n N a s h v i l l e T e n n e s s e e w h i c h i s o n e o f t h e m o s t v i b r a n t a n d c o s m o p o l i t a n m i d s i z e d c i t i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s V a n d e r b i l t i s a s e l e c t i v e c o m p r e h e n s i v e t e a c h i n g a n d r e s e a r c h u n i v e r s i t y T e n s c h o o l s o f f e r b o t h a n o u t s t a n d i n g u n d e r g r a d u a t e a n d a f u l l r a n g e o f g r a d u a t e a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l p r o g r a m s W i t h a p r e s t i g i o u s f a c u l t y o f m o r e t h a n 2 2 0 0 f u l l t i m e a n d 3 0 0 p a r t t i m e m e m b e r s V a n d e r b i l t a t t r a c t s a d i v e r s e s t u d e n t b o d y o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 2 0 0 u n d e r g r a d u a t e s a n d 4 8 0 0 g r a d u a t e a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t u d e n t s f r o m a l l 5 0 s t a t e s a n d o v e r 9 0 f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s P e t e r T C u m m i n g s ( P h D U n i v e r s i t y o f M e l b o u r n e ) C o m p u t a t i o n a l n a n o s c i e n c e a n d n a n o e n g i n e e r i n g ; m o l e c u l a r m o d e l i n g o f f l u i d a n d a m o r p h o u s s y s t e m s ; p a r a l l e l c o m p u t i n g ; c e l l b a s e d m o d e l s o f c a n c e r t u m o r g r o w t h K e n n e t h A D e b e l a k ( P h D U n i v e r s i t y o f K e n t u c k y ) D e v e l o p m e n t o f p l a n t w i d e c o n t r o l a l g o r i t h m s ; i n t e l l i g e n t p r o c e s s c o n t r o l ; a c t i v i t y m o d e l i n g ; e f f e c t o f c h a n g i n g p a r t i c l e s t r u c t u r e s i n g a s s o l i d r e a c t i o n s ; e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y b e n i g n c h e m i c a l p r o c e s s e s ; m i x i n g i n b i o r e a c t o r s S c o t t A G u e l c h e r ( P h D C a r n e g i e M e l l o n U n i v e r s i t y ) B i o m a t e r i a l s ; b o n e t i s s u e e n g i n e e r i n g ; p o l y m e r s y n t h e s i s a n d c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n ; d r u g a n d g e n e d e l i v e r y G K a n e J e n n i n g s ( P h D M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y ) M o l e c u l a r a n d s u r f a c e e n g i n e e r i n g ; p o l y m e r t h i n f i l m s ; s o l a r e n e r g y c o n v e r s i o n ; t r i b o l o g y ; f u e l c e l l s P a u l E L a i b i n i s ( P h D H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y ) S e l f a s s e m b l y ; s u r f a c e e n g i n e e r i n g ; i n t e r f a c e s ; c h e m i c a l s e n s o r d e s i g n ; b i o s u r f a c e s ; n a n o t e c h n o l o g y Y o n g s h e n g L e n g ( P h D T s i n g h u a U n i v e r s i t y ) M o l e c u l a r m o d e l i n g o f s e l f a s s e m b l y a t o r g a n o m e t a l l i c i n t e r f a c e s ; n a n o t r i b o l o g y M D o u g l a s L e V a n ( P h D U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a B e r k e l e y ) N o v e l a d s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l s ; a d s o r p t i o n e q u i l i b r i a ; m a s s t r a n s f e r i n n a n o p o r o u s m a t e r i a l s ; a d s o r p t i o n a n d m e m b r a n e p r o c e s s e s C l a r e M c C a b e ( P h D U n i v e r s i t y o f S h e f f i e l d ) M o l e c u l a r m o d e l i n g o f c o m p l e x f l u i d s a n d m a t e r i a l s ; b i o l o g i c a l s e l f a s s e m b l y ; m o l e c u l a r r h e o l o g y a n d t r i b o l o g y ; m o l e c u l a r t h e o r y a n d p h a s e e q u i l i b r i a A l e s P r o k o p ( P h D C z e c h o s l o v a k A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e s ) B i o t e c h n o l o g y ; b i o e n g i n e e r i n g ; d r u g a n d g e n e d e l i v e r y b y m e a n s o f s e l f a s s e m b l e d n a n o p a r t i c l e s ; p h a r m a c o k i n e t i c s o f d r u g d e l i v e r y B r i d g e t R R o g e r s ( P h D A r i z o n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ) S u r f a c e s i n t e r f a c e s a n d f i l m s o f m i c r o e l e c t r o n i c a n d u l t r a h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e m a t e r i a l s ; d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p r o c e s s / p r o p e r t y / p e r f o r m a n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s K a r l B S c h n e l l e J r ( P h D C a r n e g i e M e l l o n U n i v e r s i t y ) T u r b u l e n t t r a n s p o r t i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ; s o l u t i o n t h e r m o d y n a m i c s ; s u p e r c r i t i c a l e x t r a c t i o n a p p l i e d t o s o i l r e m e d i a t i o n F o r m o r e i n fo r m a t i o n : D ir e c t o r o f G r a d u a t e S t u d ie s D e p a r t m e n t o f C h e m ic a l E n g i n e e r in g V a n d e r b il t U n i v e r s i t y V U S t a t io n B 3 5 1 6 0 4 N a s h v il le T N 3 7 2 3 5 1 6 0 4 E m a il: c h e g r a d @ v a n d e r b i lt e d u

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 359 The educational philosophy of the department reflects a commitment to continuin g the Jeffersonian ideal of students and faculty students and faculty as equal part ners in the pursuit of knowledge. knowledge Giorgio Carta PhD University of Delaware Adsorption, ion exchange, biocatalysis, environmentally benign processing Robert J. Davis PhD, Stanford University Heterogeneous catalysis, characterization of metal clusters, reaction kinetics Erik J. Fernandez PhD, University of California, Berkeley Purifi cation of biological molecules, protein structure, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy Roseanne M. Ford PhD, University of Pennsylvania Environmental remediation, microbial transport in porous media David L. Green, PhD University of Maryland, College Park Reaction engineering of nanoparticles, rheology of complex nanoparticle suspensions. John L. Hudson PhD, Northwestern University Reaction system dynamics, chaos and pattern formation, electrochemistry Donald J. Kirwan PhD, University of Delaware Mass transfer and separations, crystallization, biochemical engineering Inchan Kwon PhD, California Institute of Technology (Joining the department in August 2008 ) Molecular and cellular engineering in biopharmaceutical, gene delivery and stem cell research Cato Laurencin, MD, Harvard Medical School, PhD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Biomaterials, tissue engineering, nanotechnology Steven McIntosh, PhD, University of Pennsylvania Solid oxide fuel cells, advanced materials, thin films Matthew Neurock, PhD, University of Delaware Molecular modeling, computational heterogeneous catalysis, kinetics of complex reaction systems John P. OConnell PhD, University of California, Berkeley Molecular theory and simulation with applications to physical and biological systems Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Graduate Admissions Dept. of Chemical Engineering P.O. Box 400741 cheadmis@virginia.edu

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Chemical Engineering Education 360 Faculty . Luke E.K. Achenie (Carnegie Mellon) Modeling of chemical and biological systems Donald G. Baird David F. Cox (Florida) Richey M. Davis (Princeton) Stephen M. Martin (Minnesota) Soft Materials, self-assembly, interfaces Aaron S. Goldstein (Carnegie Mellon) Chemical Engineering at Virginia Tech Research Centers and Focus Areas School of Biomedical Engineering and Science Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute Macromolecular Science and Engineering Program Biotechnology and Tissue Engineering Surface Chemistry and Catalysis Colloid and Surface Science Computer-aided Design Nanotechnology and Biomedical Devices Supercritical Fluids and High Pressure Processing Computational Science and Engineering Erdogan Kiran (Princeton) Y. A. Liu (Princeton) Eva Marand (Massachusetts) separations S. Ted Oyama (Stanford) Amadeu K. Sum (Delaware) John Y. Walz [Dept. Head] (Carnegie Mellon) Colloidal stability, interparticle forces Department of Chemical Engineering 133 Randolph Hall, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 Gateways of Opportunity

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 361 with t. with Rim of is of of top is #1 to UW (CNT) & (UC C. (UC (UC R. Holt M. Switz.) Pozzo D. N. (UC T. (UC M. of of

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Chemical Engineering Education 362 Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering Masters and doctoral programs in WSUs School of Chemical Engineer ing and Bioengineering offer you a world-class environment for research and scholarship with a comprehensive graduate curriculum and highest quality faculty members to lead you. The program is closely aligned with industry and government interests that often lead to professional career opportunities. Our emphases in bioengineering, environmental restoration, and hydro carbon processing involve you in such projects as biotreatment of hazard ous contamination, diagnostic medical devices, and conversion of natural gas to useful products. Our Center for Multiphase Environmental Research provides interdisciplinary opportunities to solve complex environmental problems at the interface of air, water, and earth. Facilities Facilities include the Engineering Teaching and Research Laboratory in Pullman, a state-of-the-art building that houses the O.H. Reaugh Advanced Processing Lab. Other venues are the Spokane Intercollegiate Research and Technology Institute and WSU Tri-Cities access to Hanford resources, such as the Environmental Molecular Science Lab and the Hanford Library. Financial Assistance All full-time ChemE graduate students at WSU receive nancial support to help cover costs of education, living, and insurance. Student Life Pullmans residential campus offers single and family housing for graduate students. Families with children have access to highly rated K-12 schools. Outdoor and recreational activities abound in the nearby mountains, rivers, and forests. Students may belong to the Graduate and Professional Student Association and numerous other student societies. About WSU Washington State University is a landgrant research university founded in Pullman in 1890. It enrolls more than 20,000 students at four campuses and numerous Learning Centers throughout the state. As many as 100 advanced degrees are offered from 70 graduate programs within its eight colleges. Faculty Nehal Abul-Lail, Ph.D. Worcester Polytechnic Institute, single-molecule spectroscopy of proteins and lateral force microscopy studies of polymers and lubricants H aluk Beyenal, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, biolms, microbial fuel cells, microsensors, and bioremediation S u Ha, Ph.D. Illinois, electrochemical systems for energy conversion and storage, including Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells, bio fuel cells, fuel reforming for hydrgen production, catalysis Cornelius Ivory Ph.D. Princeton, bioprocessing, separations, modeling James Lee Ph.D Kentucky, bioprocessing, mixing KNona Liddell Ph.D. Iowa State, hazardous wastes, materials, electrochemistry, kinetics, chemical equilibria James Petersen Ph.D. Iowa State, bioremediation, bioprocessing, subsurface reactive ow and transport, optimization Bernie Van Wie Ph.D. Oklahoma, bioprocessing, biomedical engineering Richard Zollars Ph.D. Colorado, colloidal and interfacial phenomena, separations Contacts School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering chedept@che.wsu.edu www.che.wsu.edu Richard Zollars, Interim Director ChEBE, 509-335-4332 Bernie Van Wie, Graduate Studies Coordinator, 509-335-4103 WSU Graduate School 509-335-1446 gradsch@wsu.edu www.gradsch@wsu.edu 7/06 114486

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 363 Washington University in St. LouisM.S. and Ph.D Programs Dept. of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering The department has a focus on environmental engineering science, energy systems, and chemical engineering. The department provides integrated and multidisciplinary programs of scientific education. Our mission is accomplished by: Instilling a tradition of life-long learning A curriculum of fundamental education coupled with application in an advanced focal area and strengthened by our breadth in other disciplinary areas Participation in cutting-edge research with faculty and industrial partners Access to state-of-the-art facilities and instrumentation The basic degree is an undergraduate degree in chemical engineering. Graduate degrees (Master of Science, Doctor of Science, and Doctor of Philosophy) are offered in both chemical engineering and environmental engineering science on completion of a course of study and research work. A joint degree program with the School of Law allows interested students to obtain both a J.D. and M.S. in environmental engineering science. A minor is offered to undergraduate students interested in environmental engineering and can be selected by any engineering or science student. The program is also affiliated with the Environmental Studies Program. M. Al-Dahhan Chemical Reaction Engineering, Multiphase Reactors, Mass Transfer, Process Engineering L. Angenent Biological Waste Conversion, Bioareosol Control, Environmental Engineering R. Axelbaum Nanoparticle Synthesis, Combustion Engineer ing P. Biswas Aerosol Science & Technology, Environmental & Energy Nanotechnology D. Chen Particle Measurement & Instrumentation, Aerosol Science Technology M. Dudukovic Multiphase Reaction Engineering, Tracer Meth ods, Environmental Engineering D. Giammar Aquatic Chemistry, Water Quality Engineering, Fate & Transport of Inorganic Contaminants J. Gleaves Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surface Science, Micro structured Materials R. Husar Environmental Informatics, Aerosol Pattern & Trend Analysis Y.S. Jun Aquatic Processes, Molecular issues in Chemical Kinetics C. Lo Aquatic Processes, Biomineral Structure & Reactivity at Environmental Interfaces P. Ramachandran Chemical Reaction Engineering, Boundary Element Methods R. Sureshkumar Complex Fluids Dynamics, Interfacial Nano structures, Multiscale Modeling & Simulations J. Turne r Environmental Reaction Engineering, Air Quality Policy & Analysis, Aerosol Science & Technology Graduate Admissions Committee, Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering One Brookings Dr. Campus Box 1180 St. Louis, MO 63130-4899 www.eec.wustl.edu eec@wustl.edu 314-935-6070 Fax: 314-935-5464

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Chemical Engineering Education 364 For further information, write or phone The Associate Chair (Graduate Studies), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 Phone (519) 888-4567, ext. 32484 Fax (519) 746-4979 e-mail at gradinfo.che@uwaterloo.ca or visit our website at http://cape.uwaterloo.ca UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering The Department of Chemical Engineering is one of the largest in Canada offering a wide range of graduate programs. Full-time and part-time M.A.Sc. programs are available. Full-time and part-time coursework M.Eng. programs are available. Ph.D. programs are available in all research areas. RESEARCH GROUPS AND PROFESSORS: 1. Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering: Bill Anderson, Marc Aucoin, Pu Chen, Perry Chou, Eric Jervis, Christine Moresoli, Raymond Legge 2. Interfacial Phenomena, Colloids and Porous Media: John Chatzis, Mario Ioannidis, Pu Chen, Mark Pritzker, Rajinder Pal 3. Green Reaction Engineering: Bill Anderson, Amit Chakma, Eric Croiset, Bill Epling, Michael Fowler, Flora Ng, Garry Rempel, Qinmin Pan, Mark Pritzker. 4. Nanotechnology: Pu Chen, Dale Henneke, Leonardo Simon and Michael Tam. 5. Process Control, Statistics and Optimization: Hector Budman, Peter Douglas, Tom Duever, Ali Elkamel, Alex Pen lidis, Mark Pritzker. 6. Polymer Science and Engineering: Tom Duever, Xianshe Feng, Mike Fowler, Neil McManus, Qinmin Pan, Alex Penlidis, Garry Rempel, Leonardo Simon, Joao Soares, Costas Tzoganakis. 7. Separation Processes: Amit Chakma, John Chatzis, Pu Chen, Xianshe Feng, Christine Moresoli, Flora Ng, Qinmin Pan, Mark Pritzker.Challenging Research in Novel Areas of Chemical Engineering: Our professors offer research projects in:> Nanotechnology and nano-materials > Biomaterials with applications to drug delivery and tissue Engineering > Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering > Catalysis > Composite Materials > Fuel Cells > Green Reaction Engineering > Interfacial Phenomena/Membrane Technology > Polymer engineering > Process Control and Statistics > Separation Processes FINANCIAL SUPPOR T; for graduate students is available in the form of: Research Assistantships Teaching Assistantships Entrance Scholarships ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS: Undergraduate Degree in Engineer ing or Science. FOR SCIENCE STUDENTS: No additional courses are required from applicants with an undergraduate degree in Science.

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 365 Bioengineering Systems Biology Carbon Products From Coal Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Electronic Materials Fluid Particle Sciences Molecular Dynamics and Modeling Multi Phase Flow Nanocomposites, Nanoparticles Natural Gas Hydrates Particle Coating /Agglomeration Phase Equilibria Polymer Rheology Separation Processes Sushant Agarwal West Virginia University Brian J. Anderson Massachusetts Institute of Technology Eung H. Cho University of Utah Eugene V. Cilento, Dean University of Cincinnati Dady B. Dadyburjor, Chair University of Delaware Rakesh K. Gupta University of Delaware Elliot B. Kennel Ohio State University David. J. Klinke, II Northwestern University Edwin L. Kugler Johns Hopkins University R uifeng Liang Institute of Chemistry, CAS Joseph A. Shaeiwitz Carnegie Mellon University Alfred H. Stiller University of Cincinnati Char ter D. Stinespring W est V ir ginia University Richard Turton Oregon State University Ray Y.K. Yang Princeton University Wu Zhang University of London John W. Zondlo Carnegie Mellon University MS and PhD Pr ograms Come Explor e Chemical Engineering F a c u l t y Pr ofessor Rakesh Gupta Graduate Admission Committee Department of Chemical Engineering PO Box 6102 West Virginia University Morgantown, WV 26506-6102 304-293-2111 ex 2418 che-info@mail.wvu.edu F o r A p p l i c a t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n W r i t e h t t p : / / w w w c h e c e m r w v u e d u R e s e a r c h A r e a s I n c l u d e : Resear ch Assistantships Fellowships NEWBayer Fellowships (include inter nship) F i n a n c i a l A i d

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Chemical Engineering Education 366 NICHOLAS L. ABBOTT Biotechnology, interfacial phenomena, colloid chemistry, soft materials, nanotechnology JUAN J. DE PABLO Molecular thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, polymer physics, nanotechnology, protein biophysics, protein and cell stabilization JAMES A. DUMESIC Kinetics and catalysis, surface chemistry, energy from renewable resources MICHAEL D. GRAHAM (Chairman) computational mathematics DANIEL J. KLINGENBERG Colloid THOMAS F. KUECH Semiconductor and advanced materials processing, solid-state, electronic, and nanostructured materials, interface science DAVID M. LYNN Polymer synthesis, biomaterials, functional materials, gene and drug delivery, controlled release, highthroughput synthesis/screening CHRISTOS T. MARAVELIAS Process modeling and optimization, supply chain optimization, new product development, systems biology, scheduling MANOS MAVRIKAKIS Thermodynamics, kinetics and catalysis, surface science, computational chemistry, electronic materials, fuel cells, hydrogen economy REGINA M. MURPHY Biomedical engineering, protein-protein interactions, targeted drug delivery A tradition of excellence in Chemical Engineering PAUL F. NEALEY Polymers, directed assembly, nanofabrication, cell-substrate interactions SEAN P. PALECEK Stem cell engineering, biosensors, cell adhesion, genomics BRIAN F. PFLEGER Synthetic biology, biotechnology, protein engineering, sustainable chemical production JAMES B. RAWLINGS Chemical reaction engineering, process modeling, dynamics, and control, statistical and computational methods in systems biology JENNIFER L. REED Systems biology, metabolic model development and analysis, metabolic engineering THATCHER W. ROOT Green chemistry, renewable resources, catalysis, solid-state NMR www.che.wisc.edu WISCONSIN For more information, please contact: Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering University of WisconsinMadison 1415 Engineering Drive Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1607 U.S.A. Michael Forster Rothbart, UW-Madison University Communications ERIC V. SHUSTA Drug delivery, protein engineering, biopharmaceutical design ROSS E. SWANEY Process design, synthesis, modeling, and optimization JOHN YIN Systems biology, molecular

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 367

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Chemical Engineering Education 368 Eric Altman, Ph.D. Pennsylvania Menachem Elimelech, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins Gary L. Haller, Ph.D. Northwestern Michael Loewenberg, Ph.D. Cal Tech William Mitch, Ph.D. University of California Chinedum Osuji, Ph.D. M.I.T. Jordan Peccia, Ph.D. University of Colorado Lisa D. Pfefferle, Ph.D. Pennsylvania Daniel E. Rosner, Ph.D. Princeton Paul V an T assel, Ph.D. University of Minnesota Julie Zimmerman, Ph.D. University of Michigan Joint Appointments Thom as Graedel (School of Forestr y & Environmental Studies) Kurt Zilm ( Chemistry ) Mark Saltzman (Biomedical Engineering )Y ale University P. O. Box 208286 New Haven, CT 06520-8286 Phone: (203) 432-2222 FAX: (203) 432-4387 http://www.eng.yale.edu/content/DPchemical engineering.asp Biomolecular Engineering Bioseparation Processes Catalysis Chemical Reaction Engineering Combustion Environmental Engineering Microbiology Environmental Physio-chemical Processes Fine Particle Technology Interfacial and Colloidal Phenomena Membrane Separations Materials Synthesis and Processing Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials Multiphase Transport Phenomena Soft Nanomaterials Surface Science

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 369 BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Degree Programs For further information See our website at: http://www.et.byu.edu/cheme/ Contact: Graduate Coordinator Dept. of Chemical Engineering P.O. Box 24100 Brigham Young University Provo, UT 84602 (801) 422-2586 Financial Support Available BYU Study in an uplifting, intellectual, social, and spiritual environment Faculty and Research InterestsCalvin H. Bartholomew (Stanford) kinetics and catalysis Larry L. Baxter (BYU) combustion of fossil and renewable fuels Thomas H. Fletcher (BYU) pyrolysis and combustion Hugh B. Hales (MIT) reservoir simulation John H. Harb (Illinois) coal combustion, electrochemical engineering William C. Hecker (UC Berkeley) kinetics and catalysis Thomas A. Knotts (University of Wisconsin) molecular modeling Randy S. Lewis ( MIT ) biochemical and biomedical engineering John L. Oscarson (Michigan) calorimetry and thermodynamics William G. Pitt (Wisconsin) materials science Richard L. Rowley (Michigan State) thermophysical properties Kenneth A. Solen (Wisconsin) biomedical engineering Ronald E. Terry (BYU) engineering education, reservoir engineering W. Vincent Wilding (Rice) thermodynamics, environmental engineering BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY Master of Science in Chemical Engineering Bucknell is a highly selective private institution that combines a nation ally ranked undergraduate engineer ing program with the rich learning environment of a small liberal arts college. For study at the Masters level, the department offers state-ofthe-art facilities for both experimental and computational work, and faculty dedicated to providing individualized training and collaboration in a wide array of research areas. Nestled in the heart of the scenic Susquehanna Valley in central Pennsyl vania, Lewisburg is located in an ideal environment for a variety of outdoor activities and is within a three-to-four hour drive of several metropolitan centers, including New York, Phila delphia, Baltimore, Washington, D.C., and Pittsburgh. J. Csernica Chair (PhD, M.I.T.) D.P. Cavanagh (PhD, Northwestern) Interfacial dynamics, biotransportM.E. Hanyak (PhD, Pennsylvania) Process analysis, multimedia courseware designE.L. Jablonski (PhD, Iowa Stte) W.E. King (PhD, Pennsylvania) Photodynamic therapy, hemodialysisJ.E. Maneval (PhD, U.C. Davis) NMR methods, membrane and novel separationsM.J. Prince (PhD, U.C. Berkeley) Biochemical systems, environmental barriersT.M. Raymond (PhD, Carnegie Mellon) Atmospheric physics and chemistry, organic aerosols, indoor air pollutionW.J. Snyde r (PhD, Penn State) Polymer degradation, kinetics, drag reductionM.A.S. Vigeant (PhD, Virginia) Bacterial adhesions to surfaces For further information, contact Dr. Margot Vigeant Chemical Engineering Department Bucknell University Lewisburg, PA 17837 Phone 570-577-1114 mvigeant@bucknell.edu http://www.bucknell.edu/graduatestudies/

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Chemical Engineering Education 370 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITYGraduate Programs in Chemical EngineeringFaculty and Research Areas IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK Financial Assistance is AvailableFor Further Information, go towww.cheme.columbia.edu Columbia University New York, NY 10027 (212) 854-4453 S. BANTA Protein Engineering, Metabolic Engineering M. BORDEN Colloids, Interfaces, Membranes, Biomedical Devices C. J. DURNING Polymer Physical Chemistry G. FLYNN Physical Chemistry C. C. GRYTE Polymer Science, Separation Processes, Pharmaceutical Engineering J. JU Genomics J. KOBERSTEIN Polymers, Biomaterials, Surfaces, Membranes S.K. KUMAR Polymer Science E. F. LEONARD Biomedical Engineering, Transport Phenomena V. FAYE MCNEILL Environmental Chemical Engineering, Atmospheric Chemistry, Aerosols B. OSHAUGHNESSY Polymer Physics N. SHAPLEY Complex Fluids, Biological Transport N. TURRO Supramolecular Photochemistry, Interface Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry A. C. WEST E lectrochemical Engineering, Mathematical Modeling

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 371 Mobolaji E. Aluko, Professor PhD, University of California, Santa Barbara Reactor analysis and modeling crystallization microelectronic and ceramic materials processing process controlJoseph N. Cannon, Professor PhD, University of Colorado Ramesh C. Chawla, Professor and Chair PhD, Wayne State University Mass transfer and kinetics in environmental systems bioremediation incineration air and water pollution controlWilliams E. Collins, Associate Professor PhD, University of Wisconsin-Madison Polymer deformation, rheology, and surface science biomaterials bioseparations materials scienceJason C. Ganley, Assistant Professor PhD, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Fuel cells energy research membrane scienceRobert J. Lutz, Visiting Professor PhD, University of Pennsylvania Biomedical engineering hemodynamics drug delivery pharmacokineticsJames W. Mitchell, Packard Professor of Material Science PhD, Iowa State University, Ames Nanoscience and nanotechnology nanomaterials processing materials science nanobiomaterialsJohn P. Tharakan, Professor PhD, University of California, San Diego Bioprocess engineering protein separations biological hazardous waste management bio-environmental engineering Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering Howard University, 2300 6 th Street NW, LKD 1009, Washington, DC 20059 Phone (202) 806-6624 Fax (202) 806-4635 http://www.howard.edu/ceacs/departments/chemical A mo dern graduate program dedicated to fundamental education and cutting-edge interdisciplinary research on an eighty-nine acre campus in the heart of the Nations capital, Washingto n, DC. Master of Science in Chemical Engineering Program For further information, contact HOWARD UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering at University of IdahoW. Admassu Synthetic Membranes for Gas Separations, Biochemical Engineering with Environmental ApplicationsE. Aston Surface Science, Thermodynamics, MicroelectronicsD.C. Drown Process Design, Computer Application Modeling, Process Economics and Optimization with Emphasis on Food ProcessingL.L. Edwards Computer Aided Process Design, Systems Analysis, Pulp/Paper Engineering, Numerical Methods and OptimizationR.A. Korus Polymers, Biochemical EngineeringJ.Y Park Chemical Reaction Analysis and Catalysis, Laboratory Reactor Development, Thermal Plasma SystemsA. Thomas Transport Phenomena, Fluid Flow, Separation MagnetohydrodynamicsV Utgikar Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Chem/Bio Remediation, Kinetics (Idaho Falls campus)M. V on Braun Hazardous Waste Site Analysis, Computer MappingFor Further Information and Application write: Graduate Advisor, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844-1021 or e-mail jrattey@uidaho.edu or jkidd@uidaho.edu Web page: www.uidaho.edu/che Phone: 208 The Department has a highly active research program covering a wide range of interests. The northern Idaho region offers a year-round complement of outdoor activities including hiking, white water rafting, skiing and camping.

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Chemical Engineering Education 372 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING For further information, please write Graduate Admissions Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Lamar University P. O. Box 10053 Beaumont, TX 77710 D. H. CHEN (Ph.D., Oklahoma State University) D. L. COCKE (Ph.D., Texas A&M University) J. L. GOSSAGE (Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology) T C. HO (Ph.D., Kansas State University) J. R. HOPPER (Ph.D., Louisiana State University) K. Y LI (Ph.D., Mississippi State University) SIDNEY LIN (Ph.D., University of Houson) H. H. LOU (Ph.D., Wayne State University) P. RICHMOND ( Ph.D., Texas A&M University R. T ADMOR (Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science) Q. XU (Ph.D., Tsing Hua University) C. L. Y AWS (Ph.D., University of Houston) Master of Engineering Master of Engineering Science Master of Environmental Engineering Doctor of Engineering Ph.D. of Chemical Engineering Process Simulation, Control and Optimization Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering Air Modeling Transport Properties, Mass Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions Computer-Aided Design, Henrys Law Constant Thermodynamic Properties, Water Solubility Air Pollution, Bioremediation, Waste Minimization Sustainability, Pollution Prevention Fuel Cell Applications FACUL TY RESEARCH AREAS LAMAR UNIVERSITY

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 373 Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Write to: Graduate Program Director Chemical Engineering Department University of Louisville Louisville, KY 40292 Inquiries can be addressed via Electronic Mail to: chemicalengineering@louisville.edu Louisville University of RESEARCH AREAS Biotechnology Polymers Rapid Prototyping Nanotechnology Advanced Materials Chemical Vapor Deposition Bioprocessing Environmental Colloidal Sciences Biosensors Bioseparations Nanochemistry Catalysis Alternative Fuels Renewable Energy Facilities include state-of-the-art Materials Characterization and Biotechnology Laboratories and Rapid Prototyping Center. R. Eric Berson Moises A. Carreon Walden L. S. Laukhuf Kyung A. Kang Thomas L. Starr Mahendra K. Sunkara James C. Watters Gerold A. WillingFACUL TY Michigan Technological University www.mtu.edu Contact . Department of Chemical Engineering Michigan Technological University 1400 Townsend Drive Houghton, MI 49931-1295 Phone: 906/487-3132 Fax: 906/487-3213 Michigan Technological University is an equal opportunity educational institution/equal opportunity employer. Catalysis, ceramic processing, reactor design Joseph H. Holles; Assistant Professor PhD, University of Virginia, 2000 Chemical process safety Daniel A. Crowl; Professor PhD, Illinois, 1975; Herbert Henry Dow Chair of Chemical Process Safety Demixing-polymerization, polymer materials Gerard T. Caneba; Associate Professor PhD, California-Berkeley, 1985Environmental and biochemical engineering David R. Shonnard; Professor PhD, California-Davis, 1991Environmental reaction engineering Jason M. Keith; Associate Professor PhD, University of Notre Dame, 2000Environmental thermodynamics Tony N. Rogers; Associate Professor PhD, Michigan Tech, 1994Extractive metallurgy, waste management, particle separations Carl C. Nesbitt; Associate Professor PhD, University of Nevada-Reno, 1990Materials Utilization John F. Sandell; Associate Professor PhD, Michigan Tech, 1995 Particulate processing, size reductions, solid waste S. Komar Kawatra; Interim Chair and Professor PhD, Queensland, 1974 Polymers, composites Julia A. King; Professor PhD, Wyoming, 1989 Faith A. Morrison; Associate Professor PhD, Massachusetts-Amherst, 1988 Process and plant design Bruce A. Barna: Professor PhD, New Mexico State, 1985 Process control, neural networks, fuzzy logic control Tomas B. Co; Associate Professor PhD, Massachusetts-Amherst, 1988Reactor design, thermodynamics, materials Michael E. Mullins; Professor PhD, University of Rochester, 1983T echnical Communications M. Sean Clancey; Lecturer PhD, Michigan Technological University, 1998 education with the beautiful surroundings of the Keweenaw Peninsula. Michigan Tech is a top-sixty public na tional university, according to U.S. News and World Report MTUs enrollment is approxi mately 6,300 with 640 graduate students.

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Chemical Engineering Education 374 FOR FURTHER INFORMA TION CONT ACT Academic Programs Administrator, Department of Chemical Engineering Monash University, PO Box 36, Wellington Road MONASH UNIVERSITY VIC 3800 AUSTRALIA Tel: 61 3 9905 1872 Fax: 61 3 9905 5686 Web site: http://www.eng.monash.edu.au/chemeng/ e-mail: lilyanne.price@eng.monash.edu.au Monash offers programs of study and research leading to MSc and PhD in chemical engineering. At with industry through the Australian Pulp and Paper Institute and the Cooperative Research Centers for Functional Communication Surfaces, and Greenhouse Gas Technologies. Our research in biotechnology has been strengthened through our recent involvement with the Australian National Centre for Advanced Cell Engineering and the Commonwealth Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology, both housed at Monash University. W.J.Batchelor D.J.Brennan X.D.Chen G.Forde G.Garnier K.Hapgood A. Hoadley R. Jagadeeshan R.E.Johnston (emeritus) F.Lawson (honorary) C-Z.Li J.F.Mathews (honorary) K.L.Nguyen I.H.Parker O.E.Potter (emeritus) I.G.Prince M.J.Rhodes (Chair) C.Selomulya W. Shen T.Sridhar C.Tiu P.H.T.Uhlherr (honorary) H.Wang P.A.Webley F A C U L T Y Biochemical Engineering Fuel Cell Engineering Brown Coal Utilisation Paper Making Heterogeneous Catalysis RESEARCH AREAS Particle Technology Biotechnology Pulp Technology NanoTechnology Chemical Reaction Engineering Adsorption Engineering Rheology Process Design and Economics Fluidisation Engineering Melbourne, Australia

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 375 OSU Oregon State University School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical and Environmental Engineering For additional information, please visit www.che.oregonstate.edu or call (541) 737-4791 Department Research Areas Biomaterials Bioprocessing Education & Outreach Microelectronics Processing Microtechnology-based Energy and Chemical Systems (MECS) Distinguished Faculty Michelle Bothwell Biointerfacial Phenomena Bioengineering Ethics Chih-hung Chang Semiconductor Materials, Nanotechnology Integrated Chemical Systems Mark Dolan Biological Remediation of Groundwater Goran Jovanovic Microscale Chemical & Biosensor Devices Nanotechnology Christine Kelly Biotechnology Shoichi Kimura Reaction Engineering Bioceramics Milo Koretsky Electronic Materials Processing Nanotechnology Keith Levien Process Optimization & Control Supercritical Fluids Technology Joseph McGuire Biointerfacial Phenomena, Biomaterials Jeff Nason Physical/Chemical Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment Skip Rochefort Polymer Processing, Education & Outreach Gregory Rorrer Biochemical Reaction, Engineering Lewis Semprini Biological Remediation of Groundwater Dorthe Wildenschild Transport Theory & Applications in Engineering Systems Stochastic Subsurface Hydrology Kenneth Williamson Bioengineering, Environmental Systems Brian Wood Transport Theory & Application in Engineering Systems Stochastic Subsurface Hydrology Alexandre Yokochi Advanced Materials Collaborative ResearchA diversity if faculty interests in the department, broadened and reinforced by cooperation with other engineering departments and Nanoscience and Microtechnologies Institute), the Center for Micro tailored individual programs possible. Competitive research and teach ing assistantships are available. and research. As Oregons Land, Sea, and Space Grant institution, we U N I V E R S I T Y O F R h od e I s l an d G r ad u at e S t u d y i n C h e m i c al E n gi n e e r i n g ( M S an d P h D D e gr e e s ) C u r r e n t A r e a s o f I n t e r e s t : B i oc he m i c a l E ngi ne e r i ng ( B a r ne t t R i ve r o ) B i ona not e c hnol ogy ( B ot hun) C ol l oi da l P he nom e na ( B os e ) C or r os i on ( B r ow n) E nvi r onm e nt a l E ng. ( B a r ne t t G r a y ) F ue l C e l l s ( K ni c kl e ) M ol e c ul a r S i m ul a t i ons ( G r e e nf i e l d ) P ol l ut i on P r e ve nt i on ( B a r ne t t ) P r oc e s s S i m ul a t i on ( L uc i a ) T hi n F i l m s ( G r e gor y ) F o r i n f o r m a t i o n a n d a p p l i c a t i o n s a p p l y t o : C h a i r G r a d u a t e C o m m i t t e e D e p a r t m e n t o f C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g U n i v e r s i t y o f R h o d e I s l a n d K i n g s t o n R I 0 2 8 8 1 E m a i l : s i l v i a @ e g r u r i e d u

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Chemical Engineering Education 376 L ocated in downtown Toronto, Canadas largest city, Ryerson has 20, 000 full-time students. Graduate studies leading to M.A.Sc., M.Eng., and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering are available. Finan cial support through scholarships, research and/or teaching assistantships is available For more information, contact: Chemical Engineering Graduate Program Administrator School of Graduate Studies 350 Victoria Street Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5B 2K3 Phone: (416) 979-5000, ext. 7790 Fax: (416) 979-5153 E-mail: chemgrad@ryerson.ca Research areas includeWater/Wastewater and Food T reatment T echnologies tors Removal of heavy metals and BOD in industrial wastewater Ozonation and chemical oxidation processes for wastewater Food emulsion stability Biological processes in upgrading food wastes Environmental biotechnology of microbial food contaminants Polymer and Process Engineering Phase separation in polymer systems Modeling and simulation nology and behavior Modeling, simulation, optimal control, and optimization of chemical processes Diffusivity in polymer-solvent www.ryerson.ca/~chemgrad/ Graduate Studies in Chemical and Biological Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Degree Programs Nestled between the mysterious Badlands and two-million acres of the beautiful Black Hills, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology is located in Rapid City a vibrant community of 70,000 resi dents. Both the majestic Mount Rushmore and the emerging Crazy Horse Monument are within a forty-five minute drive of campus. Protection offered by the adjacent mountains produces unexpectedly mild winters, and cool summer evenings. The surrounding Black Hills provide students many opportunities to balance thei r academic activities with hiking, biking, skiing, snowboarding, camping, hunting, fishing, spelunking, and rock climbing. Faculty and Research Areas For more information, contact Dr. Jan A. Puszynski Phone 605-394-1230 Email: jan.puszynski@sdsmt.edu Or visit : htt p :/ / www.sdsmt.edu Ph.D. stipends up to $30,000 per year Robb M. Winter (PhD, University of Utah) Rajesh K. Sani (PhD, Panjam University, India) Patrick C. Gilcrease (PhD, Colorado State Univ.) Todd J. Menkhaus (PhD, Iowa State University) Jan A. Puszynski (PhD, Inst. of Chem. Tech., Czech. Rep) David J. Dixon (PhD, Univ. of Texas, Austin) Kenneth M. Benjamin (PhD, University of Michigan) Sookie S. Bang (PhD, Univ. of California, Davis)

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 377 Contact: Graduate Program Coordinator Chemical Engineering University of South Florida 4202 E. Fowler Ave., ENB118 Tampa, FL 33620 (813) 974-3997 http://che.eng.usf.edu vgupta@eng.usf.edu Programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemical or Biomedical Engineering Faculty: N. Alcantar V.R. Bhethanabotla S.W. Campbell R.A. Gilbert V.K. Gupta D.Y. Goswami B. Joseph W.E. Lee III J.A. Llewellyn F. Moussy C.A. Smith A.K. Sunol R.G. Toomey M.D. VanAuker J.T. Wolan V o l 4 1 N o 4 F a l l 2 0 0 7 1 S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y B i o m e d i c a l a n d C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g G u s t a v A E n g b r e t s o n D e p a r t m e n t o f B i o m e d i c a l a n d C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g 1 2 1 L i n k H a l l S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y S y r a c u s e N Y 1 3 2 4 4 3 1 5 4 4 3 1 9 3 1 h t t p : / / b m c e s y r e d u E x p a n d Y o u r W o r l d . J e r e m y L G i l b e r t J u l i e M H a s e n w i n k e l J o h n C H e y d w e i l l e r F a c u l t y K a r e n M H i i e m a e D a c h e n g R e n A s h o k S S a n g a n i R o b e r t L S m i t h G u s t a v A E n g b r e t s o n ( C h a i r ) P a t r i c k T M a t h e r G e o r g e C M a r t i n L a w r e n c e L T a v l a r i d e s

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Chemical Engineering Education 378 D EPARTMENT OF C HEMICAL E NGINEERING AND A PPLIED C HEMISTRY Research Areas: Chemical and Materials Process Engineering Biomolecular and Biomedical Engineering Bioprocess Engineering Environmental Science and Engineering Informatics Pulp and Paper Surface and Interface Engineering Sustainable Energy Degrees Offered: Master of Applied Science (M.A.Sc.) Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) Ph.D. Our City: Vibrant lifestyle and home to a wealth of attractions, including theatres, museums, and professional sports Safe and clean, with many parks, gardens, waterfront boardwalks and beaches Culturally and ethnically diverse Excellent location for networking and filled with work opportunities For More Information: Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry University of Toronto 200 College Street, Room WB212 Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 Canada Telephone: (416) 978-7137 Email: graduate@chem-eng.utoronto.ca Website: www.chem-eng.utoronto.ca F. T AL-SAADOONPh.D., University of Pittsburgh, P.E. J. L. CHISHOLM Ph.D., University of Oklahoma W. A. HEENAND.Ch.E., University of Detroit, P.E. S. LEE Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh FACUL TY TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITYKINGSVILLE Chemical Engineering M.S. and M.E. Natural Gas Engineering M.S. and M.E. Located in tropical South Texas, forty miles south of the urban center of Corpus Christi and thirty miles west of Padre Island National Seashore. FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE: A. A. PILEHVARI Texas A&M UniversityKingsville Campus Box 193 Kingsville, Texas 78363 (361) 593-2002 A-Pilehvari@tamuk.edu A. A. PILEHV ARIPh.D., University of T ulsa, P.E. H. A. DUARTEPh.D., T exas A&M University P. L. Mills D.Sc., Washington University in St. Louis R. W. SERTHPh.D., SUNY at Buffalo, P.E.

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Vol. 41, No. 4, Fall 2007 379 VILLANOVA UNIVERSITY 800 LANCASTER AVENUE VILLANOVA, PA 19085-1681 The Villanova University M.Ch.E. program is designed to meet the needs of both full-time and part-time graduate students. The part-time program is designed to address the needs of both new graduates and experienced working professionals in the suburban Philadelphia region, which is rich in pharmaceutical and chemical industry. The full-time program is research-based with research projects currently available in the following areas: Biotechnology/Biochemical Engineering Supercritical Fluid Applications Reaction Analysis Model-Based Control Industrial Wastewater Treatment Processes Nanomaterial Synthesis For more information, contact: Professor Vito L. Punzi, Graduate Program Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Villanova University Villanova, PA 19085-1681 Phone 610-519-4946 Fax 610-519-7354 e-mail: vito.punzi@villanova.edu FOR MORE INFORMATION : Dr. Andrew Kline Department Graduate Advisor 4601 Campus Drive, A217 Parkview Western Michigan University Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5462 andrew.kline@wmich.eduPAPER ENGINEERING, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, AND IMAGING The only graduate program in the United States combining these three disciplines. University owned industrial scale pilot plants for both printing and coat ing applications and experimentation. 100% placement rate for program graduates since 2002 in either industry or academic positions. Ongoing industrial research partnerships and graduate student internships in industry. Located in Southwest Michigan, Kalamazoo is 2.5 hours from ei ther Chicago or Detroit. Vibrant research university experi ence in a mid-sized city of 85,000 people. Visit us on the Web at: http://www.wmich.edu/pci/ WESTERN MICHIGAN UNIVERSITYRESEARCH AREAS: Paper Coating and Formulations Paper Chemistry Ink Formulations and Applications Radio Frequency ID (RFID) Tagging Unit Operations and Process Design Imaging Sciences and Analysis Materials Rheology

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Chemical Engineering Education 380 BR O W N U N I VER SI T Y G R AD U AT E ST U D Y I N C H E M I C AL AN D BI O C H EM I C AL EN G I N EER I N G M a j o r R e se a r ch T h e m e s B i o c h e m i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g m i c ro f l u i d i c s b i o d e t e c t i o n b i o s e n s o rs b i o t r a n s p o rt p r o c e s s e s b i o s e p a r a t i o n p r o c e s s e s d i s e a s e d i a g n o s t i c s rh e o l o g y p h y s i o l o g i c a l f l u i d m e c h a n i c s N a n o te c h n o l o g y n a n o m a t e ri a l s n a n o t o x i c o l o g y b i o l o g i c a l e n v i ro n m e n t a l a n d e n e rg y a p p l i c a t i o n s En v i r o n m e n ta l a n d e n e r g y te c h n o l o g y : e l e c t ro c h e m i c a l s e p a ra t i o n s f l u i d p a r t i c u l a t e s y s t e m s h e a v y m e t a l s r e c o v e r y / re m e d i a t i o n a d v a n c e d a d s o rp t i o n / a d s o r b e n t s VO C s v a p o r i n f i l t r a t i o n f u e l c e l l s A p ro g ra m o f g ra d u a t e st u d y i n C h e mi ca l a n d B i o ch e mi ca l E n g i n e e ri n g f o r t h e M S c. o r Ph D d e g re e T e a ch i n g a n d R e se a r ch Assi st a n t sh i p s a s w e l l a s I n d u s t ri a l a n d U n i ve rsi t y f e l l o w sh i p s a re a va i l a b l e F o r f u r t h e r i n fo r m a ti o n e m a i l : Pro f e sso r R H H u r t G ra d u a t e R e p re se n t a t i ve C h e mi ca l a n d Bi o ch e mi ca l En g i n e e ri n g Pro g ra m D i vi si o n o f E n g i n e e ri n g Br o w n U n i ve rsi t y Pro vi d e n ce R I 0 2 9 1 2 R o b e rt H u rt @b ro w n e d u P e a se vi si t h t t p : / / w w w e n g i n b r o w n e d u Located just outside of Washington, D.C. and close to major national laboratories including the NIH, the FDA, the Naval Research Laboratory, and NIST, the University of Marylands Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, part of the A. James Clark School of Engineering, oers educational opportunities leading to a Doctor of Philosophy or Master of Science degree in Chemical Engineering. Our faculty research interests cover a wide array of subject matter including biochemical, computational, and environmental chemical engineering; systems engineering, systems biology, polymer science and engineering, alternative fuels, nanotechnology, aerosol and particulate science and technology, complex uids, thermodynamic properties and simulation, semiconductor materials, and uid mechanics and mixing. To learn more, e-mail chbegrad@umd.edu, call (301) 405-1935, or visit: U N I V E R S I T Y O F M A S S A C H U S E T T S LOWELL Dr. F. Bonner (Chemical Engineering) Dr. G. J. Brown (Energy Engineering) Graduate Coordinators One University Avenue Lowell, MA 01854College of Engineering Department of Chemical Engineering BIOPROCESS ENGINEERING BIOTECHNOLOGY COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS CONTROL ENERGY ENGINEERING ENGINEERED MATERIALS NANOMATERIALS AND CHARACTERIZATION PAPER ENGINEERING POLYMERIC MATERIALS We offer professionally oriented engineering education at the M.S., Ph.D., and D.E. levels In addition we offer specialization in