Chemical engineering education

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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
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v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
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American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
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Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]

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Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )

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Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
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Title from cover.
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Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
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ddc - 660/.2/071
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Full Text









chemical engineering education


VOLUME 40


* NUMBER 4


* FALL 2006


GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE



Featuring articles on graduate courses...
Teaching Entering Graduate Students the Role of Journal Articles in Research (p. 246)
Hill
Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source: an Illustration of ChE Thermodynamic Concepts (p. 259)
Mohan, May, Assaf -Anid, Castaldi
Multidisciplinary Graduate Curriculum on Integrative Biointerfacial Engineering (p. 251)
Moghe, Roth
Incorporating Computational Chemistry into the ChE Curriculum (p. 268)
Wilcox


... and articles of general interest.

Random Thoughts: What's in a Name? (p. 28 1) .................................... Felder
Biomolecular Modeling in a Process Dynamics and Control Course (p. 297)......................... Gray
Research Proposal in Biochem. and Biolog. Engineering (p. 323) ..... Harrison, Nollert, Schmidtke, Sikavitsas
Using Visualitation and Computation in the Analysis of Separation Processes (p. 313). ....... Joo, Choudhary
An International Comparison of Final-Year Design Project Curricula (p. 275)............. Kentish, Shallcross
Biomedical and Biochemical Engineering for K-12 students (p. 283)..................... Madihally, Maase
Pressure For Fun: IncreasingStudents'Excitemeni and Interest in Mechanical Parts (p. 291) ... Scarbrough, Case
Computer-Facilitated Mathematical Methods in ChE Similarity Solution (p. 307).............. Subramanian


5-Year Index 2002-2006
Page 328


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Colorado School of Mines
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University of Virginia

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University of Colorado
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Princeton University
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Rowan University
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University of Texas at Austin
Richard M. Felder
North Carolina State University
Bruce A. Finlayson
University of Washington
H. Scott Fogler
University of Michigan
Carol K. Hall
North Carolina State University
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Georgia Institute of Technology
Steve LeBlanc
University of Toledo
Ronald W. Rousseau
Georgia Institute of Technology
Stanley I. Sander
University of Delaware
C. Stewart Slater
Rowan University.
Donald R. Woods
McMaster University


Chemical Engineering Education
Volume 40 Number 4 Fall 2006


> GRADUATE EDUCATION
246 Teaching Entering Graduate Students the Role of Journal Articles in
Research
Priscilla J. Hill
251 Multidisciplinary Graduate Curriculum on Integrative Biointerfacial
Engineering
Prabhas V Moghe and Charles M. Roth
259 Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source: an Illustration of ChE
Thermodynamic Concepts
Marguerite A. Mohan, Nicole May, Nada M. Assaf-Anid,
Marco J. Castaldi
268 Incorporating Computational Chemistry into the ChE Curriculum
Jennifer Wilcox

> CLASSROOM
291 Pressure For Fun: A Course Module for Increasing ChE
Students'Excitement and Interest in Mechanical Parts
Will J. Scarbrough, Jennifer M. Case
323 The Research Proposal in Biochemical and Biological Engineering
Courses
Roger G. Harrison, Matthias U. Nollert, David W Schmidtke,
Vassilios I. Sikavitsas

> RANDOM THOUGHTS
281 What's in a Name?
Richard M. Felder

> OUTREACH
283 Biomedical and Biochemical Engineering for K-12 students
Sundararajan V Madihally, Eric L. Maase

> CURRICULUM
275 An International Comparison of Final-Year Design Project Curricula
Sandra E. Kentish, David C. Shallcross
297 Biomolecular Modeling in a Process Dynamics and Control Course
Jeffrey J. Gray
313 Using Visualization and Computation in the Analysis of Separation
Processes
Yong Lak Joo, Devashish Choudhary

> CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS
307 Computer-Facilitated Mathematical Methods in ChE: Similarity Solution
Venkat R. Subramanian


327 Teaching Tip
328 5-Year Index: 2002-2006


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering
Division, American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of Florida. Correspondence regarding
editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University
of Florida, Gainesville. FL 32611-6005. Copyright 2005 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for
Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily
those of the ChE Division,ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within
120 days of publication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and availability. POSTMASTER:
Send address changes to Chemical Engineering Education, Chemical Engineering Department., University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Periodicals Postage Paid at Gainesville, Florida and additional post offices (USPS 101900).


Summer 2006










QGraduate Education









Teaching Entering Graduate Students

THE ROLE OF JOURNAL ARTICLES

IN RESEARCH








PRISCILLA J. HILL
Mississippi State University Mississippi State, MS 39762


Students entering graduate school have a variety of
backgrounds. While some have actively participated in
research as an undergraduate, many have no research
experience at all. Although they may have read assigned
technical articles, few are in the habit of searching journal
articles for information or reading articles critically. These
skills, however, are essential to being successful as a gradu-
ate student. Liljar" states that good researchers must perform
literature searches to determine what is already known, and to
avoid repeating existing work. Included in this approach is the
need to develop skills to critically evaluate research articles.
Lilja further states that these are skills that must be taught.
Although technical articles have long been used in graduate
courses to convey technical information, they aren't always
used to develop critical-thinking and technical-writing skills.
To develop critical-thinking skills, several educators have
required students to summarize the main points of journal
articles, and critically evaluate the research.'-41 Others have
required undergraduate students to list the sections of a journal
article to develop technical writing skills.'51
A similar view is taken at Michigan Technological Uni-
versity, where chemical engineering graduate students are
required to take a course entitled, "Theory and Methods of
Research."'61 The purpose of this course is to provide formal
training in skills that students need to be successful in graduate


school. This includes a wide range of subjects from how to
present professionally to guidelines on research notebooks.
One major goal of the course is to improve paper writing,
taught through lectures on the subject and writing assign-
ments. These lectures discuss the purpose of journal articles,
types of journal articles, and the journal submission process.
Later in the semester, students are required to review a journal
article of their choice and present their critique.
One chemical engineering textbook on reaction engineering
includes "journal article critiques"'7' as exercises at the end
of selected chapters. These exercises use chapter concepts to
test claims made in selected papers. Each exercise presents
the point being questioned, and gives hints on how to test the
claim. The goal of these exercises is to teach students how to
critically evaluate what they read.

Priscilla J. Hill is currently an assistant
professor at Mississippi State Univer-
sity. Her research interests include solids
processing, crystallization, and particle
technology. She received her B.S. and
M.S. degrees from Clemson University
and her Ph.D. degree from the University of
Massachusetts at Amherst. She has taught
design and thermodynamics courses at the
undergraduate level and a graduate course
on thermodynamics.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2006
Chemical Engineering Education










Graduate Education


At the University of Michigan, students in the graduate
chemical reaction engineering course are required to analyze
and critique a related journal article.181 This consists of a de-
tailed analysis in which students are encouraged to critically
evaluate the assumptions, methods, and conclusions in the
article. They are asked to determine if there is another ex-
planation for the paper's results. The students are also given
evaluation guidelines used by reviewers of AIChE Journal and
Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers.
At the University of Massachusetts in
Amherst, students in a graduate-level
chemical engineering kinetics class91 T
were required to present or discuss as- class di
signed technical articles in class. On
the day of presentation, a student was method
selected at random to summarize the beca
key points of the paper, while the other encouraj
students joined the discussion. At the partici
beginning of the semester, students and re
were given guidelines as to what ques-
tions they should ask about each article has
they read. that tc
The goal is to teach entering graduate iS Z
students the role of journal articles in effectil
research. This includes teaching students active
to search journal articles when looking is invol
for information, to critically evaluate


journal articles, to summarize the key
points of an article, and to evaluate the
applicability of the research. These methods are implemented
by classroom discussion of technical articles.

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES
The objective of journal-related instruction is to better
prepare students for research. Meeting this objective consists
of two parts:
1) Giving students a better understanding of the role of
technical articles in research
2) Introducing students to the paper submission and
review process
Although students will learn this information during their
research projects, it is often helpful for students to hear this in-
formation from two different sources. In addition, it begins the
transition from an undergraduate student to a researcher.

IMPLEMENTATION
Throughout the semester, 10 papers are distributed to the
class for reading. At the beginning of the semester, the class
is told that they are expected to read the assigned technical
Fall 2006


articles and be prepared to discuss each paper. An in-class
discussion session of approximately 15 minutes is set aside
for each paper. The instructor moderates the discussion and
asks questions to encourage class participation. This participa-
tion includes a discussion of the paper's technical points and
other issues, such as the type of paper. The class discussion
method is chosen because it encourages active participation,
and research has shown that teaching is more effective when
active learning is involved.'0- ll


This approach was implemented in a
graduate-level thermodynamics course at
Mississippi State University. The graduate
thermodynamics class was chosen because
it is one of the core courses entering students
take during the first semester. During the
fall semesters of 2003 and 2004, there were
10 and 12 students, respectively. Generally,
graduate classes are small enough to allow all
students to participate in the discussion.

Although all papers assigned relate to ther-
modynamics, they are also chosen to provide
students with a sample of various types of
papers and journals. For example, the papers
assigned for the fall 2004 semester are given
in References 12-21. They ranged from tra-
ditional papers on fundamental concepts to
papers on recent developments. While most
of the papers were published within the last
five years, one11" was published in 1914 and


anotheri8l in 1958.
Since most entering graduate students are unsure what to
look for when reading a paper, they are instructed to address
the following items.
C Fundamental issue addressed: What concerns are the
authors addressing? What problem is being solved?
C Motivation, perspective: Why are the authors writing
this paper? How does this paper fit into other work
in the area? Is there a need jfr this research? Is the
research novel?
C Main ideas: What are the key points? What are the
assumptions, methods used, limitations, and applica-
tions? For example, is the work limited to a certain
pressure range or a certain class of compounds?
C Relation to course: How does this paper fit into the
course?

The discussion is conducted in a manner to elicit volunteer
responses. Since part of the grade depends on discussion, a
record is kept of participation. The discussion is largely guided


he
scussion
is chosen
ruse it
ges active
ipation,
'search
,hown
'aching
nore
ve when
learning
ved.110, 11]































by the questions given above. The purpose of the assignment is
to give students practice reading technical articles, particularly
to aid students in developing the ability to understand the main
points in technical articles outside their research area.

CLASS DISCUSSIONS

At the beginning of the semester, the instructor explains that
graduate students should become more familiar with journal
articles. Students usually agree that their undergraduate work
relied heavily on textbooks and handbooks, and rarely in-
volved searching journal articles for information. The purpose
of the explanation is to help students understand the reason
for reading assignments.

To aid students in understanding the role of technical papers,
many concepts can be discussed in addition to the items given
in the student guidelines. Topics discussed in class include
the following.
C It is emphasized that the purpose of journal articles
is to disseminate research results in a timely manner,
to bring attention to research needs, or to encour-
age research in certain areas. The paper on applying
thermodynamics to biotechnology"l71 is used to demon-
strate the last two items.
C Discussion of journal types includes journals written
for various audiences. Class examples include scien-
tific periodicals such as Scientific Americani"6 for the
scientific layman, Chemical Engineering Progressfor
the practicing chemical engineer, and other journals,
e.g., Chemical Engineering Science,"' 11 211 Industrial
and Engineering Chemistry,'""and Industrial and
Engineering Chemistry Research2o for researchers.
Other examples include disciplinary journals such as
Chemical Engineering Science2, 15, 211 and Pure and
Applied Chemistry"71 for chemical engineers and
chemists, respectively. Further examples such as Fluid
Phase Equilibria,14' 19 demonstrate journals that are
highly specialized.


C The students are told that research articles can be
categorized as theoretical, computational, experimen-
tal, or as a combination of these types. One paper is
included to show how experimental papers may present
new techniques or devices.212"Discussion also mentions
other types of articles, such as published plenary lec-
tures and review articles. Also discussed is how articles
are categorized by length as letters or full research
articles.

C Classroom discussion on article structure emphasizes
the purpose of each section in the paper, showing how
sections of a paper vary depending on article type.

C The students are told that although acceptance criteria
varies among journals, they share many common
criteria, including determining whether a paper is ap-
propriate for the journal, presents new material, and
is well-written. Each publication has its own specific
submission guidelines.
C The mechanics of journal submission are also dis-
cussed, and students are encouraged to check the
submission and acceptance dates on published articles.

ASSESSMENT AND DISCUSSION

The first time this teaching method was implemented, no
formal assessment was used. In 2004, an anonymous assess-
ment was performed by using brief surveys on the first day of
class and at the end of the semester. The purpose of the first
survey was to determine the students' knowledge entering
the class, while the second survey determined how much the
students learned from class discussions. The final survey had
additional questions to determine the students' perception of
what they had learned through the discussions.

The initial survey at the beginning of the semester followed
the suggestions of Angelo and Cross1221 for a background
knowledge probe and a misconception/preconception check
on the purpose of technical articles and procedure for pub-
lication. Some of the survey questions were drawn from
Chemical Engineering Education


SGraduate Education


TABLE 1
Importance of Reading Technical Articles
Question 1 2 3 4 5 Initial Final
Survey Survey
1. What sources do you use books mainly books mainly articles 2.92 3.20
for technical information? only books and articles only
articles
2. What sources do you books mainly books mainly articles 3.83 4.3
use for current technical only books and articles only
information? articles
3. Rank the importance of not slightly useful very crucial 4.75 4.8
reading technical articles neces- useful useful
for conducting research. sary





























misconceptions expressed the first time this approach was
taught in 2003. This survey provided a baseline comparison
with the second survey.
As shown in Table 1, the first set of questions addressed the
importance of reading technical articles. The students were
instructed to answer the questions using a rating of one to five,
as defined in the table. The initial and final survey columns
are the average ratings for each question. A comparison of
the final survey results with the initial survey results shows
more students became convinced technical articles are the
main source for current information. Since students were
already aware that reading technical articles is important, this
question showed little change.
Other questions asked required short answers. The purpose
of using a short-answer format was to avoid leading students
to any particular response. The following five questions were
asked in this format.
1. Why do graduate students and faculty read technical
papers? The responses to this question were mostly
the same on initial and final surveys. The response
"to get current information came from at least half
the class. This is probably because most students al-
ready realized that articles are a good source of cur-
rent information. One change between surveys was
that on the initial survey 42% of students responded
"to find out what has been done or "avoid repeating
work," while on the final survey 70% of the students
gave these responses.

2. Why are technical articles published? Most students
responded either "to disseminate research results" or
"to disseminate research results quickly." The main
difference between the two surveys was in the second
response; the number of students citing this reason
increased fiom 25% to 40%.

3. Why is a literature review included in an article?
Most students-more than 50%-already realized that
the literature review is used to provide background. In
the initial survey, 33% of the students stated that the
purpose of the review was to give credit to previous
Fall 2006


researchers, but this response dropped to 10% in the
final survey.
4. What are the criteria for getting a technical article
accepted? The response of "the work being novel
or creative" increased from 17 to 50 percent during
the semester. Also, while one-third of the students re-
sponded "don't know" on the initial survey, only one
student responded "don't know" on the final survey.

5. How long does it take for a journal article to be
reviewed? The initial survey showed that 42% of the
students wrote "don't know" for this question, but
none of the students used this response on the final
survey. In general, on the initial survey most students
thought reviews would be received in less than 6
months, while the times became slightly longer on
second survey.

Student perception of the technical article reading assign-
ment was assessed in the final survey using the questions
shown in Table 2. For these questions, the students were asked
how much they agreed with the statements by rating their
agreement on a scale from I (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly
agree). In general, students thought the technical reading
assignments and class discussions helped their understand-
ing of how to read technical articles and get a journal article
published. Furthermore, most of the students recommended
this exercise be repeated in future classes.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

Class discussion of journal articles required little additional
time to implement. Faculty members commonly use technical
papers to provide more information on technical concepts.
Although discussing the role of technical papers in research
required some time, it provided graduate students with a bet-
ter understanding of why they should read recent literature.
Having reading assignments and class discussions account
for 10 percent of the course grade motivated the students to
read the assignments. In addition, class participation seemed
to encourage the students to be prepared.
249


Graduate Education


TABLE 2
Students' Perception of the Technical Reading Assignments (Rated fom I-strongly disagree to 5-strongly agree)
Statement Average Rating
1. During this course, my ability to read technical articles improved. 4.22
2. I have a better understanding of the role of technical articles in research. 3.89
3. As a result of the discussions, I have a better understanding of the types of journals and articles. 4.11
4. I have a better understanding of the acceptance criteria and procedure for getting a journal article 3.67
published.
5. I would recommend that the professor repeat the technical article reading assignments and discussions 4.39
the next time the course is taught.












Graduate Education


The survey assessment was supplemented by faculty obser-
vation during class discussion. It was clear from the students'
comments and questions that they had read the papers and
were able to comprehend the main points. They even com-
mented on some differences in the types of articles. Some
of the concepts, however, were new to them. For example,
many of the students had not submitted a paper to a journal
at this time, so they were not aware of the review and publi-
cation timeline. Most students also didn't know that papers
frequently list the date the manuscript was received and the
date it was accepted.

The response from the students was that they liked reading
the papers and discussing them in class. Many of the students
regularly contributed to the discussions. Since this assessment
has only been performed once with a class of 12 students, it
has not been well tested. Future work will include repeating
this technique and its assessment.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Parts of this paper were originally published in the 2005
ASEE Southeastern Section Conference Proceedings.

REFERENCES
1. Lilja, D.J., "Suggestions for Teaching the Engineering Research Pro-
cess," ASEE Annual Conference Proceedings, Session 0575 (1997)
2. Gleichsner, J.A., "Using Journal Articles to Integrate Critical Thinking
with Computer and Writing Skills," NACTA J., 38(3), 12 (1994)
3. Gleichsner, J.A., "Using Journal Articles to Integrate Critical Thinking
with Computer and Writing Skills," NACTA J., 38(4), 34 (1994)
4. Ludlow, D.K., "Using Critical Evaluation and Peer-Review Writing
Assignments in a Chemical Process Safety Course," 2001 ASEEAnnual
Conference Proceedings, Session 3213 (2001)
5. Tilstra, L., "Using Journal Articles to Teach Writing Skills for Labora-


tory Reports in General Chemistry," J. Cliemr. Educ., 78. 762 (2001)
6. Holles, J.H., "Theory and Methods of Research (or, How to Be a Gradu-
ate Student)," 2005 ASEE Annual Conference Proceedings (2005)
7. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, 4th Ed.,
Prentice Hall, PTR, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (2006)
8. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, 1st Ed.,
Prentice Hall, PTR, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1986)
9. Westmoreland, P.R., personal communication (2003)
10. Felder, R.M., and R. Brent, "FAQs," Chem. Eng. Ed., 33, 32 (1999)
11. Wankat, P.C., The Effective, Efficient Professor: Teaching, Scholarship.
and Service, Allyn and Bacon, Boston (2002)
12. Jaksland, C.A., R. Gani. and K. Lien, "Separation Process Design and
Synthesis Based on Thermodynamic Insights," Chem. Eng. Sci., 50,
511 (1995)
13. Bridgman, P.W., "A Complete Collection of Thermodynamic Formu-
las," Phys. Rev., 3, 273 (1914)
14. Raabe, G., and J. Kohler, "Phase Equilibria in the System Nitrogen-
Ethane and Their Prediction Using Cubic Equations of State with
Different Types of Mixing Rules," Fluid Phase Equil., 222-223, 3-9
(2004)
15. Aslam, N., and A.K. Sunol, "Reliable Computation of Binary Homo-
geneous Azeotropes of Multicomponent Mixtures at Higher Pressures
Through Equations of State," Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 599 (2004)
16. Barker, J.A., and D. Henderson, "The Fluid Phases of Matter," Sci.
Am., 245, 130 (1981)
17. Prausnitz, J.M., "Molecular Thermodynamics for Some Applications
in Biotechnology," Pure Appl. Chem., 75, 859 (2003)
18. Curl, R.F. Jr., and K.S. Pitzer, "Volumetric and Thermodynamic Proper-
ties of Fluids-Enthalpy, Free Energy, and Entropy," Ind. Eng. Chem.,
50, 265 (1958)
19. Gmehling, J., "Potential of Thermodynamic Tools (Group Contribu-
tion Methods, Factual Data Banks) for the Development of Chemical
Processes," Fluid Phase Equil., 210, 161 (2003)
20. Givand, J., B.-K. Chang, A.S. Teja, and R.W. Rousseau, "Distribution
of Isomorphic Amino Acids Between a Crystal Phase and an Aqueous
Solution," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 41, 1873 (2002)
21. Loffelmann, M., and A. Mersmann, "How to Measure Supersaturation,"
Chem. Eng. Sci., 57, 4301 (2002)
22. Angelo,T.A., andK.P. Cross, ClassroomAssessmentTechniques:AHand-
bookfor College Teachers, 2nd Ed., Jossey-Bass, San Francisco (1993) 0


Chemical Engineering Education


250










Graduate Education
s__________._______________________^


MULTIDISCIPLINARY GRADUATE

CURRICULUM ON INTEGRATIVE

BIOINTERFACIAL ENGINEERING


PRABHAS V. MOGHE AND CHARLES M. ROTH
Rutgers University Piscataway, NJ 08854
Biointerfaces arise at contacts between biologically de-
rived systems-living and nonliving-and synthetic
systems, typically comprised of synthetically designed
materials. Many new technologies in cell-based diagnostics
and therapies, tissue engineering, biomolecular therapies,
and biosensors are critically dependent on advances in bio-
interactive surfaces."[ 12 22J Rapid advances have taken place in
identifying new biological molecules and in the initial design
of diverse materials capable of biomimicry and scale-specific
bio-recognition.421 Consequently, the field of biomaterials is
poised for a major impact on our society. In contrast to the
traditional development of the materials and biology fields,
which largely occurred independently, the next generation of
bio-inspired and bio-interactive materials will be systemati-
cally developed through the integration of these disciplines,
with strong links to traditional molecular/cellular biology,
structural biochemistry, and nano/microsystems materials
sciences and engineering.'2." "37] To realize these opportunities,
a structured framework is needed for cooperative graduate
learning and research scholarship that cuts across engineer-
ing, physical, and life sciences while focusing on mainstream
"biointerfacial" problems and opportunities. Based on the edu-
cational core of a new National Science Foundation-supported
IGERT initiative at Rutgers, we propose a new Integrative
Fall 2006


CoprTight ChE Division ofASEE 2006


Prabhas V. Moghe received his B.S. and
the University of Bombay and University of
Minnesota, respectively. He is currently an
associate professor in the Departments of
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
*and Biomedical Engineering at Rutgers Uni-
versity. Dr. Moghe directs the NSF-funded
IGERT training program on biointerfaces
(). His research is
focused on cell-interactive biomaterials and
bioactive nanosystems, with applications
to vascular and skin therapies and tissue
engineering.


Charles M. Roth received his B.S. and Ph.D.
degrees in chemical engineering from the
University of Pennsylvania and University
of Delaware, respectively. He is currently
an associate professor in the Departments
of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
and Biomedical Engineering at Rutgers.
Dr. Roth is one of the leading core faculty
for the Rutgers IGERT on biointerfaces. His
research is focused on molecular systems
bioengineering, with major emphasis on
nucleic acids technologies and applications
to liver therapies and cancer.










CGraduate Education

Biointerfacial Engineering (IBE) curriculum that involves
a three-pronged focus on molecular/cellular engineering;
micro/nanoscale biomaterials; and tools to quantitatively
probe biointerfaces (see Figure 1). While such a curriculum
can be best rooted within a bioengineering core (designated
bio-x-engineering), the integrative curriculum is designed to
effectively resonate among a diverse range of nonengineers.
In the following section we review the core curriculum and
the best instructional practices of the IBE curriculum.

TECHNOLOGICAL CONTEXT FOR
CURRICULUM: RESEARCH PROGRAMS
ON BIOINTERFACES
The curriculum on biointerfaces can be designed to ar-
ticulate with the specific areas of research expertise of each
graduate institution. The research thrusts are an important
prerequisite, as they provide the technological context and
research infrastructure for the courses. Three major thrusts
were identified at Rutgers: (1) living cell biointerfaces, i.e.,
engineered cellular/intracellular systems that elucidate/affect


Figure 1. A triad of graduate courses has been designed to cap
approaches related to biointerfacial problems involving living
micro- and nanoscale biofunctional materials; and biosystems
biosensing, and actuation. The schematic backdrop illustrates
in terms of (a) the biointerfacial confluence of cells, biomolecu
disciplinary research thrusts denoted as IRT's. Emerging oppor
scientists to address biointerfacial problems at the nao


biointerfacial phenomena; (2) biologically interactive na-
noscale and microscale interfaces; and (3) systems or devices
built from designed biointerfaces.
Thrust 1 involves studies at the interfaces that occur be-
tween living cells and biomaterials, between living cells
and supported biomolecules ligandss), and intracellular in-
terfaces between cytoskeletal proteins and signaling targets
within living cells. Such interfaces are fundamental to any
cell-based diagnostic, therapeutic, or model systems used to
study stem-cell development, pathology, and bio-inspired
devices. The interpretation and modeling of cellular dynamics
on more complex ligand substrates is also an area that often
falls outside the expertise of cell biologists, but is central to
the integrated curriculum proposed here. A recent report in
the Annals ofBiomedical Engineering describes a curriculum
concentrating on cellular engineering120" that embraces many
of these principles.
Thrust 2 involves investigation of inorganic and polymeric
substrates from micron-sized cell interfaces to nano-sized
peptide/protein interfaces. Such interfaces are widely emerg-
ing in biophotonics,
bioMEMs, single-cell
studies, and therapeutic
Approaches to tissue
Engineered cellularlintracellular regeneration and drug
systems that elucidateleffect delivery. For exam-
bjomterfaclal phenomena b
bnteraca phenomena ple, interfaces created

by micropatterning
proteins on synthetic
polymeric substrates
can be fabricated us-
ing microlithographic
ENGINEE or microcontact print-
u ing technologies, then
analyzed using micro-
scopic, spectroscopic,
and cellular approaches.
The capabilities of mi-
crofabrication-the
ial physicochemical
in characterization-and
biological studies fall
Fanucade outside the expertise
of any single discipline
and, therefore, consti-
ture the synthetic and analytical tute a major area in the
engineered cells on: substrates; integrated training ap-
and processes for cell signaling, preach we envision.
the landscape of the curriculum prach we envision.
les, and materials; and (b) inter- Thrust 3 involves
-tunities allow engineers and life studies of systems or
7o- through microscales. processes involving
Chemical Engineering Education


Molecular & Cellular
Bioengineering


IIRT73
SystemrnsDewce Level
Integration of biointerfaces


LA
0
1E==


SBiofncnimal MkrosMale andH
BiRT o] Interfaces













biomaterial substrates designed to elicit systematic responses
from living cells or biomolecular moieties (e.g., oligonucle-
otides, peptides/proteins), called bio-responsive interfaces;
substrates designed to detect and sense biomolecules and cells,
called biosensors; and substrates engineered to be physiologic,
three-dimensional,E191 and/or actuated through the media-
tion of biologic mechanisms or motors. Such interfaces are
fundamental to the development of therapeutic implantable
biomaterials, implantable biosensors, and biomicro-electro-
mechanical systems (BioMEMS).

COURSE LEVEL AND PREREQUISITES
The biointerfacial engineering curriculum is aimed at
second-year or higher graduate students in chemical and
biomolecular engineering, biomedical engineering, allied en-
gineering disciplines (mechanical and materials engineering),
and physical and life sciences. At Rutgers, nearly 60 graduate
students (50% chemical and bio-engineers; 10% mechani-
cal and materials engineers; 25% molecular bioscientists;


and 10% physical scien-
tists) participated in these
courses in academic year
2005-6. Because students
enter the curriculum from
diverse backgrounds, pre-
requisites are expressed
topically rather than by
specific course numbers,
and consultation with
course instructors and/or
IGERT administration is
encouraged. Prerequisites
include undergraduate life
sciences courses (general
biology, cell biology/bio-
chemistry/molecular biol-
ogy) as well as structured
undergraduate courses in
the physical and quanti-
tative sciences, such as
physical chemistry and
advanced calculus. The
curriculum builds later-
ally on graduate core en-
gineering courses such as
transport phenomena, an-
alytical methods in chemi-
cal and bioengineering,
and thermodynamics and
kinetics. The curriculum
does not typically add any
Fall 2006


TABLE 1
Course Syllabus for Integrative Biointerfaces Curriculum
Course and underlying Syllabi of course modules
integrative philosophy
IC 1: Molecular and Module 1: Genes-sequence and function technologies and data-
Cellular Bioengineer- bases: gene expression profiling; genetic engineering
ing (integrated across Module 2: Proteins-structure and function; molecular recogni-
scales of bio-organiza- tion; protein adsorption; nanopatterning of proteins; proteomic
tion) technologies
Module 3: Biochemical Networks-gene expression data mining;
metabolic flux analysis; signal transduction and gene network
modeling
Module 4: Cells-growth and differentiation; cell-material
responses; expression-phenotype relationships; actuated cell
responses; stem cells
IC2: Microscale and Module 1: Microlithography and microfabrication
Nanoscale Biointer- Module 2: Nanoscale processing and fabrication
faces (integrated across Module 3: Soft tissue- nanostructures, microstructures, macro-
scales) structures
Module 4: Hard tissue-nanostructures, microstructures, and
functional components
Module 5: Nanostructures and microstructures of biosensors,
bioseparations, implantable devices, bioMEMs
IC3: Biointerfacial Module 1: Chemical surface characterization; electron spectros-
Characterization copy
(integrated across Module 2: Physical surface characterization-topography, surface
biointerfacial phases: energetic, microscopy, spectroscopies (surface Raman; single
chemical, physical, molecule; FTIR); nanoparticle sizing and morphology
biological) Module 3: Biological Surface Characterization -proteins at inter-
faces and protein arrays; cell dynamics at interfaces (adhesion;
migration; endocytosis; growth/differentiation); biofunctional-
ized substrates; gene micro-arrays
Module 4: Integrative design, applications, and case


Graduate Education )

further to the courseload beyond the expected graduate elec-
tives for a Ph.D. degree. For example, the Rutgers Chemical
and Biochemical Engineering graduate program requires 15
elective credits (beyond 15 core credits), for which any or
all of the three integrative courses (IC) described below may
be used. Further, engineering graduate programs that have
recently instituted a life science course requirement can eas-
ily adopt any IC courses. Similarly, biomedical engineering
graduate programs, such as those at Rutgers, require three
bioengineering electives (9 credits), which can be readily met
through the IC courses.

CURRICULUM COMPOSITION
The proposed curriculum involves a triad of courses,
denoted as ICI, IC2, and IC3 (see Table 1). We utilize an
integrative philosophy to develop curricular themes. For
example, we designed courses that integrate biointerfaces
across the range of organization of biological components
of the interfaces (e.g., genes, proteins, cells: see IC1), or size











Graduate Education


scales (e.g., nano-micro-macroscales: see IC2), or the two
phases that constitute a typical biointerface (e.g., the gene
element, plus the siliconwafer, that form a class of gene-chips:
see IC3). In the future, other integrative philosophies can be
envisioned as well (e.g., integration across time scales for
dynamic interfaces).

INTEGRATIVE TREATMENT OF
THE CURRICULUM
A variety of fundamental tools and phenomena are in-
troduced in each of the three courses within the context of
significant technological problems. In order to provide a
cohesive framework in the overall curriculum, many key
problems are dissected within all three courses. Naturally,
each course treats the problem differently, as illustrated in
Table 2. For example, the problem of tissue-specific target-
ing of drug nanoparticles is discussed in ICI at the level of
receptor-ligand binding, and in the theory and analysis of
binding affinity; IC2 treats the nanofabrication of particles and
biofunctionalization; while IC3 treats the experimental tools
for nanoparticle characterization. These tools include the use
of dynamic laser scattering and zeta potential measurements to
characterize nanoparticle charge and sizing, and quartz-crystal
microbalance and surface plasmon resonance techniques to
evaluate ligand-receptor affinity. Other cross-cutting topics
are summarized in Table 2.


BEST PRACTICES
In developing the new curriculum, an overarching goal
has been integration of the graduate students' research and
learning experiences, i.e., to help usher the frontiers of bio-
interfacial science and engineering into the classroom. The
instructors have identified several instructional approaches
that have proven to be particularly effective in merging active
learning with emerging scientific advances and technological
applications. These approaches include the selected inclusion
of faculty experts as guest lecturers, extensive incorporation
of readings from current research literature, and demonstra-
tions of techniques and instrumentation at laboratories around
campus. Additionally, mid-course corrections in response to
student feedback have occurred.

Use of the Current Biointerfacial
Research Literature

For all three courses, each major topic was contextualized
through extensive use of recent, leading publications in the
field. The manuscripts were assigned prior to respective lec-
tures, and significant portions of class were allotted to critical
review and discussion. In IC3, following each lecture students
were assigned homework based on the key publication. The
homework involved writing a short essay highlighting key
principles, insights obtained, and shortcomings of biointer-
facial characterization techniques treated in each reading.


Chemical Engineering Education


TABLE 2
Breakdown of Topics Treated Across the Triad of Integrative Courses
CROSS-CUTTING PROBLEMS SPECIFIC TOPICS AND REFERENCES
ICl IC2 IC3
High-Content Living Cell Assays Signal transduction; cell Cell microreactorsl 32 Cell adhesion and motility
cycle and proliferation; characterization['4. n. 45.471
differentiation; metabolic
engineeringI', 30, 4
DNA and Protein Microarrays Applications of microar- Photolithography; Chemical, physical, and
rays; interpretation of surface attachment and functional characteriza-
data3, '231 functionalization125, 341 tioni31.491
Discovery and Applications of Novel Protein molecular recog- Micro/nano-scale or- Single molecule and
Biological Transformations nition and function151 ganic substratesI 311 FRET imaging'21. 3I func-
tion'ls
Targeted Biofunctionalized and Drug Ligand-receptor binding Fabrication of Size; charge; biofunc-
Carriers and intracellular traffick- micro- and nanoscale tional characterization:
ing'291 inorganic and organic fluorescence spectros-
substrates1 '15 17' 221 copy[18 28,33.351
Regenerative Biomaterials Scaffolds Protein adsorption and Fabrication of nano- Molecular modeling;
biocompatability'46' and microporous scaf- conformation; topography
folds and fibers611 241 and microstructure
characterization127 .41431
Multicellular Tissue Assembly Cell-cell and cell-matrix Cell-matrix assembly Cellular phenotypic and
and Engineering communication, 26 391 and patterning 'I signaling within tissue
assemblies"91











Graduate Education


Retrospectively, students have reported this exercise was
critical to understanding the key elements of each technique
within an application area. As described below, student feed-
back to the use of scientific literature has been consistently
enthusiastic.
Tracking Student Learning and
Integrative Outcomes
Careful attention has been given to choosing student as-
sessment vehicles that both support the research-centric
and integrative goals of the new curriculum and address the
divergence in student backgrounds and preparation (i.e., the
enrollment across engineering, physical sciences, and life
sciences graduate programs). All three courses used a three-
fold combination of short (homework) assignments, mid-term
and/or final exams, and class projects-thereby providing
students with different ways to demonstrate mastery of the
material. Class projects, in particular, have proven to be a
valuable mechanism for promoting integration of classroom
learning and student research, and promoting cross-disciplin-
ary interactions.
In all three courses, students were assigned one or more
integrative project reports to prepare over the course of the
semester. Students presented their findings orally to the
entire class and also submitted their slides and/or a paper
to the instructor. Students were challenged to select topics
that related to their own thesis research, and to consult the
course instructors should they need help in doing so. Several
strategies were adopted to encourage cross-disciplinary dialog
and learning during the course projects. For example, the IC 1
course projects allowed pairs of students to work on such
reports, with the teams composed of students from different
graduate disciplines. In IC2, Rutgers graduate students from
remote fields were asked to review and comment on student
projects. The instructor for IC3 encouraged each student to
select another student from an orthogonal field to be a con-
sultant on his or her project.
Student Early Assessment and
Curriculum Refinement
Given the diverse backgrounds of students, a first-day sur-
vey administered by the instructors has proven invaluable in
assessing the knowledge base of each student population, and
appropriately customizing the focus of the modules within
each course. For instance, in IC 1, which has now been offered
twice, the student body was further along in research and more
familiar with tissue engineering and other bioengineering top-
ics. The second year's class was, on average, still formulating
research projects and had a preponderance of students with
bioinformatics backgrounds. Mid-course surveys also proved
helpful in refining the course delivery. For example, students


asked for additional background information, such as further
definitions of specific terms and references to foundational
papers. These modifications were readily implemented as
postings on the course Web sites.
Curriculum Assessment
Given the interdisciplinary nature and lack of precedent for
such a curriculum, continuing assessment is necessary to as-
sure that it meets its goals and the needs of constituents. The
ultimate goal of the curriculum is to provide students with
knowledge that will increase the quality and productivity of
their research. While the current curriculum form has been
at Rutgers since 2003, a more comprehensive quantitative
assessment of this outcome will have to wait for curricular
knowledge to be translated to research output. Comments on
course assessments suggest that students feel more knowl-
edgeable and empowered in the areas of this interdisciplinary
curriculum.
The curriculum serves as an effective platform for evalu-
ating the success of students from diverse backgrounds. To
gather additional data on possible differences in student per-
formance, based on disciplinary background and/or IGERT
participation, all students in IC3 were asked to evaluate each
other's oral course project presentations using a structured
questionnaire designed by the instructor. Evaluation criteria
included not only presentation quality (clarity, organization,
etc.), but also the appropriateness of the characterization
methods chosen and the degree to which the chosen re-
search problem was significantly biointerfacial. As rated by
their peers, IGERT Fellows and non-IGERT students fared
comparably, on average, indicating that the student learning
outcomes were not systematically biased by their training
program affiliation. Likewise, engineers, biologists, and
chemists all fared similarly, with some students from each
discipline giving stronger presentations than others from the
same discipline.
An excellent source of data about student feedback on
courses is the "Student Instructional Ratings Survey" (SIRS)
program that is administered by the Rutgers Center for Ad-
vancement of Teaching. All courses at Rutgers are evaluated
using a standard 10-question survey with a one- to five-point
rating scale. The survey is reproduced, along with actual rat-
ings for the first offering of the three IC courses, as Table 3
(next page). Additionally, three open-ended questions were
posed to acquire qualitative feedback (not shown for brev-
ity). To put the curriculum feedback in context, we calculated
an average "bio-x-eng" response by using the SIRS data for
"mean of responses from all courses this level" from the
biomedical engineering and chemical and biochemical engi-
neering graduate programs at Rutgers for the two academic
semesters the IC courses were offered.


Fall 2006











Graduate Education


Generalizable Positive Comments
Students complimented the teaching quality of all three
courses, which is consistent with the high numerical scores for
each of the three lead instructors in Questions 1-5. Students
noted the care given to the choice of topics (both breadth and
relevance) and to the organization and delivery of the course
material. Many comments addressed the ways in which all
three courses incorporated current research literature into the
course curriculum. Students appreciated the time devoted to
discussion of the papers, and how these discussions, together
with written assignments, helped students develop "alternative
way(s) to look at data and critically review papers." Finally,
students appreciated the attempts to tie course content and
assignments to the biointerfacial aspects of their graduate
dissertation research. The projects/presentations assigned in
all three courses were useful in terms of "covering topics of
interest instead of recycling research or spending too much
time out of research." As expressed by another student, in-
structor and peer feedback from classroom presentations of
final projects "will be important in directing and focusing the
research in a biointerfacial twist."
Student Constructive Criticisms
Students in IC 1, which did not use guest lecturers, expressed
interest in having a few guest lecturers. Conversely, students
in IC2 and IC3 felt that courses might be improved by fewer
guest lecturers and/or better quality control. In IC2, students


were primarily concerned that they sometimes could not
deduce the relevance of a certain lecture, i.e., its relationship
to the overall curriculum. Other constructive criticism and
suggestions of the students focused on not decreasing-and
perhaps increasing-the frequency of short assignments and
other ongoing student assessments. In IC2, there was concern
about the difficulty of knowing what to study and having too
much weight attributed to a final exam. In IC1, there was
input that optional short exercises, calculations, and readings
could be provided to address respective gaps in students'
backgrounds. Finally, some students suggested the creation
of a textbook for IC3, and a more modular organization of
topics as in IC 1.

CURRICULUM EVOLUTION AND
INSTITUTIONALIZATION
The Rutgers curriculum on biointerfacial engineering was
first structured around the core graduate training pathway of
the IGERT program (). We expect
the curriculum to evolve in response to the emerging areas
of biomaterials and biointerfaces. The dynamic participation
of a large number of research-active institutional faculty with
access to state-of-the-art research infrastructure and tools
will be integral to ensuring the timely evolution of the cur-
riculum. The biointerfacial engineering area also resonates
particularly well with the field of biomaterials science and


TABLE 3
Rutgers Student Instructional Rating Survey (SIRS)
N=15 N=13 N=16
Questions
ICi IC2 IC3 bio-x-
eng
1. The instructor was prepared for class and 4.75 4.67 4.75 4.32
presented the material in an organized manner
2. The instructor responded effectively to 4.63 4.60 4.67 4.30
student comments and questions
3. The instructor generated interest in the 4.44 4.73 4.67 4.09
course material
4. The instructor had a positive attitude toward 4.63 4.53 4.58 4.40
assisting all students in understanding course
material
5. The instructor assigned grades fairly 4.38 4.20 4.38 4.22
6. The instructional methods encouraged 4.31 4.00 4.50 3.98
student learning
7. 1 learned a great deal in this course 4.50 4.27 4.58 3.97
8. I had a strong prior interest in the subject 4.56 4.53 4.42 3.73
matter and wanted to take this course
9. I rate the teaching effectiveness of the 4.44 4.33 4.77 4.10
instructor as
10. I rate the overall quality of the course as 4.25 4.13 4.77 4.08


engineering. Given the close
ties of our IGERT to the New
Jersey Center for Biomateri-
als ( org>), we expect to offer the
IC courses along with core
biomaterials-related courses
as part of a comprehensive
certificate program at Rut-
gers on biointerfaces and
biomaterials. The certificate
program, to be established
fall 2006, indicates success-
ful institutionalization of
the curriculum and will help
sustain an identity for the
curriculum.

CONCLUSIONS
Anew graduate curriculum
on integrative biointerfacial
engineering was developed.
This curriculum treats the

Chemical Engineering Education












Graduate Education


synthesis, analysis, and design of biological interfaces in terms
of the constituent components biologicss, materials, systems),
and with an eye to emerging technological applications such
as tissue engineering, biotechnology, nanobiomaterials, and
biomedicine. Each course within the curriculum is designed
based on a fundamental integrating philosophy. The node
for the curriculum lies within bio-x-engineering, while the
breadth of the curriculum enables life scientists, physical
scientists, and other bio-engineers to participate fully within
the curriculum. Various instructional strategies were adopted
to more fully integrate the multiple disciplines represented
in the field. Based on student perception during early student
assessment, the curriculum is equivalently amenable to stu-
dents from a wide range of disciplines, effectively structured
and rigorous, dynamic in embodying state-of-the-art research
advances, and fills a major void in the graduate education of
engineers and scientists. Graduate curriculum on integrative
biosciences and bioengineering would resonate well in other
American and international universities, particularly those
with significant research strengths in molecular biosciences,
advanced materials, and engineering sciences.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the
National Science Foundation Integrative Graduate Educa-
tion and Research Traineeship (IGERT) DGE 0333196 (PI:
P. Moghe), and from Rutgers University. The authors are
indebted to Professor Kathryn Uhrich for her active participa-
tion and significant contribution to curriculum development.
Dr. Linda J. Anthony provided excellence assistance with the
management of the educational program. P. Moghe expresses
gratitude for the contributions of many faculty colleagues
at Rutgers and UMDNJ including Yves Chabal, David Sh-
reiber, Theodore Madey, Gary Brewer, William Welsh, Jack
Ricci, Adrian Mann, Richard Riman, Sobin Kim, and Edward
Castner, among several others, whose instructional help has
strengthened the quality of the curriculum.

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R. Langer, "Multi-Pulse Drug Delivery from a Resorbable Polymeric
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of Egfr Signalling on the Surface of Living Cells," Nat. Cell Biol., 2,


168 (2000)
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Hepatocellular Morphogenesis and Function Via Ligand-Presenting
Hydrogels with Graded Mechanical Compliance," Biotechnol Bioeng.,
89, 297 (2005)
40. Semler, E.J., and P.V. Moghe, "Engineering Hepatocyte Functional
Fate Through Growth Factor Dynamics: The Role of Cell Morphologic
Priming," Biotechnol. Bioeng., 75, 510 (2001)
41. Smith, J.R., V. Kholodovych, D. Knight, J. Kohn, and W.J. Welsh,
"Predicting Fibrinogen Adsorption to Polymeric Surfaces in Silico: A
Combined Method Approach," Polymer, 46, 4296 (2005)
42. Stevens, M.M., and J.H. George, "Exploring and Engineering the Cell
Surface Interface," Science, 310, 1135 (2005)
43. Sun, Y., W.J. Welsh, and R.A. Latour, "Prediction of the Orientations
of Adsorbed Protein Using an Empirical Energy Function with Implict
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Chemical Engineering Education










Graduate Education )












BIOMASS AS

A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SOURCE:

an Illustration of ChE Thermodynamic Concepts









MARGUERITE A. MOHAN, NICOLE MAY, NADA M. ASSAF-ANID, AND MARCO J. CASTALDI*
Manhattan College Riverdale, NY

A s discussed in an earlier paper,m the overall objective
discussed in an earlier paper the overall objective Nada M. Assaf-Anid is an associate professor and chairperson of the
of the thermodynamics course sequence at Manhat- Chemical Engineering Department at Manhattan College. She earned
tan College is to allow students to become confident her B.S. and M.S. in chemical engineering from the Royal Institute of
about their understanding of theoretical material and familiar Technologyin Stockholm, Sweden, and her Ph.D. in environmental engi-
neering from the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. Her research and
enough with mathematical manipulations to properly and ac- teaching interests are in separations, biochemical engineering, hazardous
curately set up solutions to problems involving thermodynam- chemicals remediation, thermodynamics, and water purification. She is
director of the ASEE Chemical Engineering Division and director of the
ics. Toward the end of the semester, students have a chance to Environmental Division of AIChE.
explore and propose feasible solutions for what-if scenarios Marguerite A. Mohan is currently working towards her M.S. in chemical
to contemporary problems such as Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether engineering at Manhattan College, where she previously obtained a B.S.
(MTBE) contamination of groundwater,r" biofuels,121 and in chemical engineering. After completing her graduate degree, she will
be employed full time by Merck & Co., Inc., as a staff chemical engineer.
thermodynamics of power plants.[3] The desired outcome is to Marguerite's research interests include chemical thermodynamics and
develop the students' engineering judgment and capabilities nanoscale science.
along with their mathematical skills in solving complicated Nicole May is currently pursuing her M.S. in chemical engineering at
equations with many inputs. This major assignment introduces Manhattan College. She also holds a B.S. in chemical engineering from
Manhattan College. Her interests include engineering education, bioreac-
the students to a practical and current problem they can tackle tion engineering, and environmental conservation.
somewhat intuitively, rather than by a direct application of Marco J. Castaldi is an assistant professor in the Earth and Environmental
formulas as presented by Cengel.t4t The only requirement Engineering Department at Columbia University. He received his B.S. ChE
for a solution is the use of computer programming, possibly from Manhattan College, and M.S. and Ph.D. ChE from the University of
California, Los Angeles. Prior to joining Columbia University, he worked
a spreadsheet, and the thermodynamic principles taught in in industry for seven years researching and developing novel catalytic
class (e.g., phase equilibria, solubility, fugacity). Such an reactors. His teaching interests lie in thermodynamics, combustion phe-
nomena, and reaction engineering. His research is focused on beneficial
open-ended approach is common in engineering education and uses of CO2 in catalytic and combustion environments, waste-to-energy
processes, and novel extraction techniques for methane hydrates.
* Columbia University Earth and Environmental Engineering Department
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2006


Fall 2006











Graduate Education


has been used in thermodynamics
courses151 because it resembles
problem-solving situations en-
countered in industry.161

The objectives of this paper are Bioreactor
to present an open-ended prob-
lem given as a final project to a
graduate process thermodynamics
class, describe how one student
tackled it, and demonstrate how it
was a useful addition to the ther-
Liquid
modynamics concepts taught in Draw Off
the class. Portions of the problem
may be suitable in an undergradu-
ate thermodynamics, modeling,[3]
or design class,[71 if presented in
a less open-ended manner or as a Fi
continuing problem integrated in
a series of courses using the approach of Shaeiwitz.11 The
problem given to students, with three references on anaerobic
digestion,19-l1 is shown below. Students were instructed on
literature research methods using online libraries and Internet
sites, such as About.com,1121 to assist them in finding back-
ground information. Topics and information searched ranged
from gasification of biomass for distributed energy production
systems, to physical property data needed to perform calcula-
tions, to ideas for possible solutions.


TABLE 1
Overview of Course Syllabus
(The chapters refer to the class textbook1131)
Week Subject
1 Review of classical thermodynamics
2 Review of classical thermodynamics (cont'd)
3 Ch. 2, prepare for exam #1
4 Ch. 3, exam #1 (classical thermo and Ch. 2)
5 Ch. 4 (parts)
6 Ch. 5 (parts), review exam #1
7 Ch. 6 (parts); computer assignment discussed
8 Ch. 7 (parts)
9 Ch. 7 (parts), exam #2 (Ch. 3, 4, 5, 6)
10 Ch. 8, Ch. 9 (parts)
11 Review exam #2, Ch 9 (parts)
12 Ch. 10 (parts), Ch. 11 (parts), Ch. 12 (parts)
13 Statistical thermodynamics, computer assignment
due, review
14 Final exam


gure 1. Schematic of system components.


PROBLEM STATEMENT
As shown in Table 1, the students had about six weeks to
complete the project and were expected to work indepen-
dently. By the time the computer assignment was issued, the
students were exposed to solution equilibrium theory, which
begins with Chapter 6.
The demand for power, especially electricity, has driven
many engineers to propose possible ways to generate power.
Of course, that power generation must be compatible with
environmental regulations and must be fueled by available
resources. One novel power-generation system uses a bioreac-
tor to decompose various types of biomass anaerobically. The
off-gas from that process will generate methane (CH ), which
can be used as fuel. However, carbon dioxide (CO2) is also
generated. In this gas mixture of CH4 and CO2, the latter is
considered a diluent and effectively lowers the energy content
of the gas stream. One could separate out the CO, from the
stream, but the energy requirements are prohibitively high.

The total power that can be obtained from the system is
governed by volumetric flow rate and energy content. It has
been proposed to accelerate the decomposition of the biomass
to generate more CH4, or at least a higher flow rate of the
CH4/CO2 mixture. One way to do this is to "feed" the bacteria
that is decomposing the biomass a warm stream of CO2 and
hydrogen (H2). In addition, this CO2 can serve as a carbon
source for the bacteria. This allows the bacteria population to
increase and the decomposition of the biomass to occur faster.
The supply of CO2 and H2 is secured by another reactor placed
upstream to convert some of the bioreactor product stream
(CH4 and C02) to H2, carbon monoxide (CO), and CO2. This
second reactor is a catalytic, reforming reaction that uses a
Chemical Engineering Education











Graduate Education


small amount of air. Lastly, it is known
that the bacteria will have some waste
byproducts as a result of their digestive
process. Some of those byproducts could
harm the bacteria if they accumulate to
dangerous levels.
As an engineer on this job, you need to
provide a full understanding of the bio-
reactor. That is, what types of byproducts
will be formed by the bacteria and how
will those byproducts distribute them-
selves between liquid and gas phases. In
addition, you also need to determine the
preferred concentrations of carbon in the
bioreactor feed stream as a function of
residence time in the bioreactor, to ensure
that adequate carbon is dissolved in the
liquid phase for the bacteria to access.
In addition to the statement, a concep-
tual schematic (Figure 1) was provided to
show the overall system. Finally, a survey
was distributed to students assessing
how this type of a project impacts their
understanding of the subject and overall
learning experience.

BACKGROUND AND THEORY
Anaerobic digestion, or methane
fermentation, is the process by which
microorganisms convert biomass to
methane in the absence of oxygen. Of-
ten, a water layer serves as a blanket to
exclude oxygen and promote growth of
the appropriate anaerobes. "41 With higher
(gross) heating values ranging from 15.7
to 29.5 MJ/m3(n), the gas produced by
the anaerobic digestion of biomass, called
biogas, is a medium-energy fuel that may
be used for heating and power.E"4'

Methane fermentation is a three-step
process that utilizes three main categories
of bacteria: fermentative, acetogenic, and
methanogenic."41 "I5 In the first step, the
fermentative bacteria convert complex
polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids
present in biomass to lower molecular
weight fragments, such as carbon dioxide
and hydrogen,"4'1 according to the main
reactions shown.1141


Reactions
C6Hl,06 +6H,O -- 6CO, + 12H,
C6H1,06, -> 2CH3COCO; + 2H+ + 2H,


AG '(kJ)
-26 (Rxnl)


-112


C6H,,06 + 2HO- CHCHCO +H + +3CO, + 5H, -192
C6H,06 -> CHCH,CHCO, + H+ + 2CO, + 2H, -264


(Rxn 2)
(Rxn 3)
(Rxn 4)


In the second step, hydrogen-producing acetogenic bacteria catabolize the
longer chain organic compounds formed in the first step to yield acetate, carbon
dioxide, and hydrogen. Also, some carbon dioxide and hydrogen are converted to
acetate by the acetogens, according to the main acetogenic reactions considered
below 141:


Reactions


CH3COCO2 + HO -> CH3CO; +CO, + H,
2CO, +4H, CH3CO; + H+ +2H,O
2HCO- + 4H, +H+ -4 CH3CO, + 4H,O


AG o(kJ)
-52 (Rxn5)
-95 (Rxn6)
-105 (Rxn 7)


C6H1,06 + 4H,0 -> 2CHCO, + 2HCO + 4HW + 4H, -206
C6H,06 + 2HO -> 2CH3CO; + 2HW + 2CO, + 4H, -216
C6HI,06 -> 3CHCO; + 3H -311


(Rxn 8)
(Rxn 9)
(Rxn 10)


In the third and final stage of the fermentation process, methanogenic bacteria
convert acetate to methane and carbon dioxide by decarboxylation, and the latter
to additional methane upon reaction with hydrogen, according to Reference 14:
Reactions AG o(kJ)


CH CO- + H+ -> CH4 + CO,
CO + 4H ---> CH4 + 2H,O
HCO0 + H+ + 4H, CH, + 3H,O


-36 (Rxn 11)


-131
-136


(Rxn 12)
(Rxn 13)


In the three stages described above, CH4, H,, and CO, are in the gaseous state.
In addition, the standard physiological conditions are atmospheric pressure, unit
activity, and a temperature of 25 C at a pH of 7.0."141
As evidenced by the reactions, there are a number of intermediate acids gen-
erated. Since all reactions do not go to completion, a certain amount of these
compounds builds up within the bioreactor, changing the solution pH, poisoning
the bacteria, or inhibiting the digestion rates. Since the bioreactor usually takes
days to digest the initial charge of biomass, an equilibrium is established between
the vapor and liquid phases in which the compounds partition.
The information presented thus far on biochemical reactions taking place in the
bioreactor can now be applied to solve the problem at hand. One unique feature
of this type of problem is the dynamic nature of the system. That is, starting the
system with an initial charge results in changing stream composition while steady
state is achieved. This requires students to develop a solution that is iterative in
nature and exposes them to realistic processes in industry, where thought must be
given to system startup and shutdown, as well as adjustments that must be made
on the way to a targeted operational condition. As was previously discussed, the


Fall 2006










Graduate Education
v .___________ __ ___ ________________.________,_____________


problem statement is open-ended; therefore, there are several
possible approaches and solutions.

ONE STUDENT'S SOLUTION
A computer solution was created in Mathematica to perform
the calculations described in the Background and Theory
section, and can be obtained, in Mathematica format, upon
request.
Traditional Bioreactor
The objective of this project was to determine if it is
possible to increase the total power that may be harnessed
from a traditional bioreactor system. Therefore, the logical
starting point is to calculate the amount of power actually
generated from a traditional system, which consists solely
of a batch bioreactor set to operate in the mesophilic 30 C
- 38 C temperature range, at a pH within the range 6.6 7.4
to maintain the proper alkalinity. Furthermore, a high-rate
digestion is assumed, and an appropriate residence time of
10 days is specified. The volume of the reactor is estimated
using values from the literature,M and it is assumed that ap-
proximately two-thirds of the total volume is charged with an
initial amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). The MSW
is simplified to a 50% (by weight) glucose suspension in
water, and its volume, along with the density of the waste (a
weighted density of water and glucose), allows the calculation
of the total amount of MSW in the reactor or the total amount
of glucose initially charged (So). Once the initial amount of
glucose is calculated, three sets of reactions (Rxn 1-13) are
assumed to occur, and the resulting biogas (vapor product
stream) may be evaluated. Its composition (which is directly
proportional to the power generated) is noted. This will serve
as the control to which all subsequent biogas compositions
will be compared.
Catalytic Reforming Reactor
The next aspect of the solution is the introduction of addi-
tional equipment (the catalytic reforming reactor and the shift
reactor) that, along with the bioreactor, constitute a modified
system that may be used to meet the objective of increasing
the total power harnessed as specified in the problem state-
ment. The product stream from the bioreactor is split: 90%
is sent to a power generation plant, and the remaining 10% is
routed to a catalytic reforming reactor which is brought online
to generate hydrogen that will be fed continuously to the
bioreactor. Hydrogen is used by the bacteria in the bioreactor
as an electron donor for methanogenesis. In most cases, the
hydrogen is the limiting reactant. Therefore, feeding hydrogen
to the bioreactor may help to accelerate the decomposition
of the biomass and generate a higher flow rate of methane
and carbon dioxide. This was one of the major outcomes of
the investigation. That is, once the student developed the
262


computer routine that accurately predicted the performance
of the system, it was discovered that under several scenarios
the hydrogen fed back to the bioreactor was completely
consumed long before the other substrates. This result brings
into question the entire concept of feeding a warm stream of
hydrogen to accelerate the digestion process.
In addition to the 10% split, an air stream is fed to the
catalytic reforming reactor. The air stream provides the
oxygen necessary for a partial oxidation reaction, which will
produce (among other things) the desired hydrogen. In order
to maximize the concentration of hydrogen in the catalytic
reforming reactor's product stream, the equivalence ratio (()
of the system is varied, and the effect on product composition
observed. The equivalence ratio is defined as:

= (F / A)ctual (1)
(F / A)stoichiometric
where
F/A = the fuel (CH4) to air (02,) ratio
After testing various equivalence ratios, an 4 = 3.0 is cho-
sen, and a partial oxidation reaction follows:
4CH, (g) + 2.670, (g) + 10.ON, (g) --- 0.449CO, (g) +
3.55CO(g) + 0.901H20(g) + 7.21H2 (g) + 10.0N2 (g)
(Rxn 14)
The stoichiometry of the above partial oxidation reaction
was obtained through the use of the thermodynamic equilib-
rium software, GasEQ."7I At the adiabatic flame temperature
(1020 K), Rxn (14) has an equilibrium conversion, Xeq of
0.9969.
Shift Reactor
The effluent of the catalytic reforming reactor contains
a significant amount of CO, which is toxic to the bacteria
within the bioreactor. In order to avoid feeding this CO to
the bioreactor, a shift reactor is added to the process after
the catalytic reactor, and before the bioreactor, to convert, or
shift, the CO to CO, according to:


CO(g) + HO : CO, + H,(g)


(Rxn 15)


The benefits of shifting the CO to CO, are two-fold. First,
it removes the entire amount of poisonous CO from the
bioreactor feed stream. Second, it provides the bacteria with
the other species necessary for methane production-carbon
dioxide (the first species being hydrogen).
Modified Bioreactor
The next step in the solution involves returning to the
bioreactor (which will now be referred to as the modified
bioreactor). This bioreactor operates as a semi-batch reactor
since the waste that is decomposed by the bacteria is charged
Chemical Engineering Education











Graduate Education


in as necessary (this is dictated by the residence time), while
the stream of hydrogen and carbon dioxide produced from
the other reactors (catalytic reforming and shift) is fed
continuously.
The same assumptions as in the traditional system regard-
ing the MSW are made, and once the total amount of glucose
initially charged is calculated, it is further assumed that at
the end of the charge life all of the glucose will have decom-
posed, reaching a final concentration of S 1 = 0. Assuming
a residence time of 10 days, which is typical for high-rate
anaerobic digestion, and assuming that glucose decomposes
at a constant rate throughout the 10-day period, the rate of
glucose decomposition may be calculated and compared to
the continuous flow of H, and CO2 that is fed to the bioreactor,
since both will be on a time basis.
The initial charge of MSW is allowed to start decompos-
ing before the external H, and CO, stream is fed into the
bioreactor, and for a duration that is sufficient to allow all
of the fermentative and most of the acetogenic reactions to
occur. As this decomposition approaches the end of the ace-
togenic stage and the beginning of the methanogenic stage,
the continuous feed of H, and CO, is introduced. The benefits
of introducing this external feed stream into the bioreactor
are three-fold: first, the H, and CO, provide an immediate
electron and carbon source for the bacteria; second, the gas
stream increases the contact area between the bacteria and
the available food sources; and third, since the external feed
stream is at an elevated temperature, it enhances the digestion
rate within the bioreactor.
As this stream feeds into the bioreactor, the solubilities of its
components in water must be considered. Most of those (N,,
H2, and the acid vapors) are gaseous and insoluble in water.
The solubility of CO, is of particular interest, however, as it is
dictated by the carbonate system. When CO, enters an aqueous
solution, the following dissolution and dissociation occur:
KH K K
CO,(g) CO, (aq) => H,CO3 (aq) HCO3 (aq) (Rxnl6)
The initial concentration of the CO, entering the bioreactor
is used along with Henry's constant, K to find the concentra-
tion of CO,(aq). The latter is then used in combination with
K to find the concentration of carbonic acid H 2CO The
concentration of HCO ,3 along with Ka and the pH of the
system, are used to find the concentration of the bicarbonate
ion HCO,-. Once the concentrations of CO2(aq), H2CO3, and
HCO3 have been calculated, the remaining concentration of
the CO,(g) is tabulated.
Acid Phase Distribution

As the remaining acetogenic and methanogenic reactions
take place, CH4 and CO2 are continually produced, while
Fall 2006


most of the other components are consumed. The exceptions
to this are the acid byproducts-acetic, butyric, and propionic
acids-produced in the fermentation and acetogenic reactions,
and if their levels in the liquid continue to increase, the alkalin-
ity of the bioreactor will change. As a result, the pH may drop
outside of the allowable range for methane fermentation. In
order to find the distribution of acids between the liquid and
vapor phases, chemical thermodynamic concepts are applied
using the assumptions summarized in Table 2 (next page). The
first concept used is the equilibrium criterion:
f. = f\ (2)

The fugacity of component i in a liquid solution is related to
the mole fraction, xi, according to the following equation

f. = xy (T,P,x )f (T, P) (3)
where y, = the activity coefficient

f = the fugacity at some arbitrary condition known as
the standard state

In this solution, the standard state is assumed to be that of
the pure substance and the fugacity of the standard state is
defined as:


V dp
fo(T,P) = P,'"'(T) -e9,at'


The Poynting pressure correction factor and the fugacity
coefficient, are assumed to be negligible (i.e., they equal
unity). Another term in the standard state fugacity is the vapor
pressure for the pure liquid, Pa (T), which can be calculated
using the Antoine Equation. The final term needed for the
liquid phase fugacity is the liquid mole fraction. In this system,
the only nongaseous components formed from the bioreactor
reactions are water and organic acids, which are assumed to
be produced as byproducts in a supernatant layer that is
separate from the sludge. Thus, the original liquid mole frac-
tion is known, and the liquid phase fugacity for each compo-
nent may be calculated.
Once the standard state fugacity is known, the next step in
obtaining the liquid phase fugacity is to calculate the activity
coefficient, y,, which is a function of composition, tempera-
ture, and pressure as seen in Eq. (3). Unless the pressure is
very high, however, its effect on the activity coefficient may
be neglected, as is done in this solution, and the van Laar
equation used to calculate the activity coefficients.
The fugacity of component i in a gas mixture may be related
to the fugacity of pure gaseous i at the same temperature and
pressure by the following relationship,




















































































Figure 2. Flow rates (in ibmol/min) of major components using modified system.
Chemical Engineering Education


Graduate Education



TABLE 2
Summary of Thermodynamic Model Assumptions
Liquid Phase Assumptions Justification
1) The Standard State is that of the Pure Substance -
2) Poynting Pressure Correction Accounts for situations where the actual system P pa,'. Since it is an exponential function
of P, it is small at low Ps. The bioreactor is operated at low Ps, therefore the Poynting
-*- V-dP correction factor is assumed to be a negligible term which was confirmed by preliminary
R-T calculations.
Factor = 1 e is negligible
3) The saturation fugacity coefficient q sa,= 1 Corrects for deviations of the saturated vapor from ideal gas behavior. ip' differs con-
siderably from I as T,,ea, is approached. Since the T of the system is not near any of the
components critical Ts, it is assumed that this term equals unity.
4) The activity coefficient, y,, is not a function of P The activity coefficient becomes a function of P at very high pressures. Since the system P
is low, this term is primarily a function of T and composition.
5) The activity coefficient is calculated from the The van Laar equation is typically used for binary systems. When it is employed, however,
van Laar Equation the concentrations of all other components are so small that a binary system can be as-
sumed.
Vapor Phase Assumptions Justification
1) Lewis Fugacity Rule applies (f= y f ) The LFR assumes that at a fixed T and P, the fugacity coefficient of species i is indepen-
dent of the composition of the mixture and is independent of the nature of other compo-
nents in the mixture. The LFR relies on the assumption that Amagat's rule is valid over the
entire range of pressures from 0 system P. The LFR is a good approximation at sufficiently
low Ps where the gas phase is ideal, as is the case in this system.
2) The pure fugacity coefficient, (p re, and mole For a pure, ideal gas, the fugacity is equal to the pressure (i.e., the fugacity coefficient and
fraction, y., = 1 mole fraction are both 1). It is assumed that the system follows ideal-gas behavior because
it is at low pressure, therefore the coefficient is set to unity. The mole fraction is unity
because the species is pure.


6305 m3
T = 86 F O
P = 14.7 psia






Liquid Draw C
FAcids= 1.13


F[=] Ibmol/min











Graduate Education

TABLE 3
Mathematica Model: Traditional vs. Modified Bioreactor
Traditional BR Modified BR Single Pass
CH, Produced. Ibmol/min 7.65 8.16
CH, Sacrificed. Ibmol/min -0.765
CH, Sent to Power Plant, 7.65 7.40
Ibmol/min
Biogas CH4/CO, 0.89/1 0.72/1


f" .,(T,P, yi) -
RTIn fM T, P y) o (vi v)dP (5)


To more easily solve for the vapor phase fugacity, either
an equation of state or the principle of corresponding states
with a simplifying assumption such as the Lewis Fugacity
Rule may be used. According to this rule, the fugacity coef-
ficient of i is independent of the composition of the mixture
and of the nature of the other components of the mixture, at
constant temperature and pressure. As a result, the fugacity
of component i in a vapor mixture is expressed as:

fv,(T,P,y,)= y,-fpu,(T,P) = y,-(P-) (6)


where Y = the vapor phase fugacity coefficient of component
i th i t


1 111 6ilL .,U L IlllALUl-.
The pure phase fugacity is determined
of state such as the van der Waals equati
van der Waals equation, shown below, is
trivial equation of state, it provides a reas
of volumetric behavior of the vapor phase:
a, + P 1in I
i = e where =

(7)

In this solution, YO was calculated and w

Once all of the terms in both the liquid
fugacities have been tabulated, the criteria
may be written as:


RT VdP
x, -1. (T, P, x ).P,s' (T)-.- .e Py =

Eq. (8) is used to solve for the compos
phase and allows the calculation of the c
liquid phase in equilibrium with this vapor

RESULTS
While not all students followed the above
results obtained from the students were gen
Fall 2006


in that most of them analyzed the entire system. Figure 2 de-
picts the flow rates (in lbmol/min) of the most important com-
ponents as they move through the modified system in a single
pass, and Table 3 illustrates how the external feed stream
of H, and CO, (i.e., the modified system) affects the power
generated and summarizes the comparison of the traditional
and modified systems. The results shown in Table 3 indicate
that the current modified system does meet the objective of
accelerating the decomposition of the biomass by producing
more methane: 8.16 lbmol/min vs. 7.65 lbmol/min produced
from the modified bioreactor and the traditional bioreactor,
respectively. Although the quantity of the methane produced
increases in the modified system, the quality of the biogas
(defined as CH4 to CO, ratio) decreases from 0.89/1 to 0.72/1
in the traditional and modified system, respectively.


COURSE ASSESSMENT
using an equation Once the projects were submitted, the students were asked
on. Although the to assess the overall success of the assignment. The student
the simplest non- answers to questions 2 and 3 indicate that they overwhelm-
onable estimation ingly found the project to have enhanced their understanding
of thermodynamics (n = 8). In Table 4 (next page), a score
of 5 indicates agreement with the statement, and 1 indicates
-- + b -- disagreement.
P R-T
In addition to the four questions listed in Table 4, students
were asked for their comments on two other topics. When
'as close to unity. answering the question, "What sources (e.g., World Wide
Web, online libraries, handbooks, publications) were useful
and vapor phase in obtaining thermodynamic data, bioreactor information,
>n for equilibrium etc.?," students listed a variety of sources including the Web
(more specifically and Web sites linked to
chemical engineering departments at large universities, e.g.,
Texas A&M). Students also indicated the use of the Manhattan
y, P',I (8) College and Columbia University online libraries, Vapor/Liq-
uid Equilibrium Data handbooks, the research articles handed
ition of the vapor out with the assignment, and microbiology and bioreaction
composition of the engineering textbooks. In their answer to the question, "Did
you program the solution yourself or use a computer program
in your solution? If computer program was used, which one
and why?," students reported using a variety of program-
development, the ming tools including Mathematica (especially for its useful
rally satisfactory, indexing feature and for repetitive and iterative calculations),
265




































Excel (for both programming and graphing), and the Pro/II
Simulation Package.

CONCLUSIONS

This paper presented the results of one student's work
for a class-required computer project. Model results valida-
tion- using Pro/II and an experimental anaerobic bioreactor
-is the subject of another study in preparation. The require-
ment given to the students was to only use the thermodynamic
concepts learned during the semester to analyze and propose
a feasible solution to a current environmental or industrially
significant problem. The outcome of such an exercise allows
students to apply sometimes-abstract thermodynamic con-
cepts to an important problem while training them to focus
on the big picture: how to find a solution to the problem.
An additional benefit is that students obtain an appreciation
for what commercially available thermodynamic packages
involve, as well as their capabilities, since students find the
need to obtain property information not found in literature.
Also, the exercise gives students a sense of accomplishment in
that they applied the principles of thermodynamics to analyze
and propose feasible, realistic solutions to problems they may
encounter during their careers.

Lastly, as the need for renewable energy sources grows,
research and development will require a workforce that is
well educated and trained to develop the technologies neces-
sary for a sustainable future. The example presented in this
paper demonstrates that such training is possible through an
in-depth approach to a societal problem. It also sets the stage
for further development of the chemical engineering curricu-
lum at Manhattan College to include grounding in alternative


energy sources and sustainability following the call of J.W.
Sutherland, et al.,"19 of Michigan Technological University
for the need for "globally aware students."
NOMENCLATURE

M' Fugacity of component, i, in the liquid mixture

fv
M' Fugacity of component, i, in the vapor mixture.

x Liquid phase mole fraction of species, i.
y (T, P, x) Activity coefficient of species, i ,as a function
of temperature, pressure and liquid phase
mole fraction.


f (T,P)

p a, (T)





V
Y,
P
4


Pure component fugacity of, i, in the liquid
phase.

Vapor pressure of species, i, as a function of
temperature.

Fugacity coefficient of the saturated vapor of
species, i.
Molar volume of the liquid (condensed) phase.
Gas phase mole fraction of species, i.
Total pressure of the system.
Fugacity coefficient of species, i.
Equivalence ratio.


REFERENCES
1. Castaldi, M., L. Dorazio, and N. Assaf-Anid, "Relating Abstract
Concepts of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics to Current, Real
World Problems," Chem. Eng. Ed., 38(4) 268 (2004)
2. Kauser, J., K. Hollar, F. Lau, E. Constans, P. Von Lockette, and L.
Head, "Getting Students to Think About Alternate Energy Sources,"
ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Vive L'ingenieur; 4593-4600
(2002)
Chemical Engineering Education


(Graduate Education


TABLE 4
Course Assessment
Question 5 4 3 2 1
1. Overall, do you feel that the class lectures 12.5% 75% 12.5% - -
and homework provided you with the neces-
sary background for developing a solution to
the computer project?
2. Did the computer project give you a better 12.5% 75% 12.5% --- --
understanding of thermodynamic principles
such as fugacity, solubility, and multi-phase
equilibrium, and how they are used in practi-
cal situations?
3. Was the computer project a relevant, 75% 25% - -
practical, and open-ended application of the
principles taught in the class?
4. Did the computer project enhance your 12.5% 12.5% 50.0% 12.5% 12.5%
research skills?













Graduate Education )


3. Farley, E.T., and D.L. Ernest, "Application of Power Generation Mod-
eling and Simulation to Enhance Student Interest in Thermodynam-
ics," Modeling and Simulation. Proceedings of the Annual Pittsburgh
Conference. 21(3), 1275 (1990)
4. Cengel, Y.A., "Intuitive and Unified Approach to Teaching Thermody-
namics," Proceedings of the ASME Advanced Energy Systems Division,
36,251 (1996)
5. Lombardo, S.. "Open-Ended Estimation Design Project for Thermo-
dynamics Students," Chem. Eng. Ed. 34(2), 154 (2000)
6. Tsatsaronis, G., M. Moran, and A. Bejan. "Education in Thermo-
dynamics and Energy Systems," American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, Advanced Energy Systems Division (Publication) AES, 20
644 (1990)
7. Reistad, G.M., R.A. Gaggioli, A. Bejan, and G. Tsatsaronis, "Ther-
modynamics and Energy Systems-Fundamentals. Education, and
Computer-Aided Analysis," American Society of Mechanical Engi-
neers, Advanced Energy Systems Division (Publication) AES. 24. 103
(1991)
8. Shaeiwitz, J.A.. "Teaching Design by Integration Throughout the
Curriculum and Assessing the Curriculum Using Design Projects,"
International Journal ofEng. Ed., 17, 479 (2001)
9. Garcia-Ochoa, F., V.E. Santos, L. Naval. E. Guardiola, and B. Lopez,
"Kinetic Model for Anaerobic Digestion of Livestock Manure." Enz.vyme
and Microbial Technology, 25. 55 (1999)


10. Jagadish, K.S., H.N. Chanakya, P. Rajabapaiah. and V. Anand, "Plug
Flow Digesters for Biogas Generation from Leaf Biomass." Biomass
and Bioenergy. 14(5/6), 415 (1998)
11. Castelblanque, J., and F. Salimbeni, "Application of Membrane Sys-
tems for COD Removal and Reuse of Waste Water from Anaerobic
Digesters," Desalination, 126, 293 (1999)
12. "Chemical Engineering" section, About.com, com>
13. Prausnitz, J., R.N. Lichtenthaler, and E. Gomes de Azevedo, Molecular
Thernmodynanics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria, Prentice Hall International
Series. Upper Saddle River, NJ (1999)
14. Klass, D.L.. Biomass for Renewable Energy, Fuels, and Chemical,
Academic Press. New York, 452 (1998)
15. Madigan, M.T., J. Martinko, and J. Parker, Brock Biology of Microor-
ganisms, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2000)
16. Muller, E.A., "Thermodynamics Problem with Two Conflicting Solu-
tions," Chem. Eng. Ed., 34(4), (2000)
17. Morley. C.,
18. Sutherland, J.W., V. Kumar, J.C. Crittenden, M.H. Durfee, J.K. Gersh-
enson, H. Gorman, D.R. Hokanson, N.J. Hutzler, D.J. Michalek, J.R.
Mihelcic, D.R. Shonnard, B.D. Solomon, and S. Sorby, "An Educa-
tion Program in Support of a Sustainable Future," American Society
of Mechanical Engineers, Manufacturing Engineering Division, 14,
611 (2003) 1


Fall 2006










Graduate Education












Incorporating

COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY

into the ChE Curriculum







JENNIFER WILCOX
Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester, MA 01609


In many engineering curricula it is difficult to cover the
fundamental concepts that are required to provide all
students with an optimum base for the solution develop-
ment of new problems and applications. Although this task
is daunting, replacing the learning and understanding of
fundamental concepts with starting parameters and a list of
equations to use as tools is not a solution. Such an approach
subsequently limits the capabilities and potential accomplish-
ments of the students.
This trap is easy to fall into, however, since it is nearly im-
possible to cover all of the fundamentals in addition to the ap-
plications. Yet a failure to emphasize these basics could mean
putting emerging chemical engineers at a disadvantage against
chemists or physicists, who may be able to develop new ideas
more readily because their training through education has
taught them to derive the equations they are using. Engineers
are typically admired for their ingenuity and creativity, but
with a curriculum that does not obligate them to derive and
to consistently ask "why" and "from where," engineers will
soon lose the merits for which they are so well known.
Within a graduate-level chemical engineering course, fun-
damental chemical principles combined with computational
chemistry software were used as a tool to bridge the gap that
often exists between chemistry and applications within the
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2006


field of chemical engineering. In the case of reactor design
problems in which rate expressions must be known, activa-
tion energies and rate constants are typically provided as
input parameters for a particular design equation. Since more
sophisticated methods for approximating rate constants are
not taught in traditional chemical engineering courses, the
development of a rate expression was chosen as one of the
main objectives of this computational chemistry course. The
theoretical calculation of a rate expression involves many
tasks, including the development of a quantum mechanical-
based potential energy surface (PES) and the understanding
of reaction kinetic tools such as transition state theory. Similar
methodologies have emerged recently in the literature for as-
similation into graduate chemistry coursework.r' 2] The current
methodology, however, is different from its typical inclusion


Chemical Engineering Education


Jennifer Wilcox is an assistant pro-
fessor in the Chemical Engineering
Department at Worcester Polytechnic
Institute. She received her B.S. de-
gree from Wellesley College in math-
ematics and her M.A. and Ph.D. from
the University of Arizona in chemical
engineering.











Graduate Education


within a chemistry course since it has been incorporated into
a chemical engineering curriculum, where it serves to couple
fundamental chemical principles to applications in chemical
engineering through a combination of ab initio theory and
reaction kinetics. During the fall 2005 semester this course
was offered for the first time in the Chemical Engineering
Department at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. A six-week
assignment termed, "Learning through a Reaction Example,"
served as the main driving force throughout the course and
was reflected both in lecture material and student exercises.
The course methodology carried out to accomplish the goal
of bridging the gap between fundamental principles in
chemistry to applications in chemical engineering is self-
contained, in that it can be adopted by any instructor wishing
to achieve this goal through offering a similar class within
his/her department.

COURSE OVERVIEW
The course spanned 14 weeks and was held for 1.5 hours
twice a week; homework was assigned on a weekly basis.
The course was divided into the following sections with less
than half taking place outside the computer lab:

> Principles by which ab initio-based methods
and basis sets are comprised. Background of
key features and concepts of quantum mechanics
(QM) were taught. Homework assignments in-
cluded the following: methods used in solving ap-
proximations to the SWE, e.g., variational meth-
ods and perturbation theory; classical problems
from QM, e.g., particle in a 1-D box; harmonic
oscillator; and the hydrogen atom. Homework
assignments throughout this aspect of the course
required a background in calculus and differential
equations. A brief review of complex numbers and
differential-equation solution types was given.
These topics comprised four weeks of the course,
culminating with a closed-book, in-class exam.

> "Learning Through a Reaction Example." This
assignment included five weekly projects and a
take-home exam that required students to compile
the individual components into the form of scien-
tific papers (so that students could gain familiarity
with writing in a scientific manner). An additional
manuscript is being submitted for publication that
describes further details and results of this assign-
ment, purely through the students' perspective.r"
In addition, students reflect on each of these
four sections of the course in detail, determining
which exercises were more beneficial than others
Fall 2006


and why. Throughout the "Learning Through
a Reaction Example" topic, a combination of
lecture and interactive learning through computa-
tional in-class lab exercises was used, i.e., using
the Gaussian98 software package for electronic
energy predictions. Extraction of these energies
combined with reaction kinetic tools such as po-
tential energy surface development and transition
state theory (TST) led to the development of rate
expressions. To ensure mastery of the software, an
in-class, computer-based exam was given seven
weeks into the course, i.e., three weeks after the
software was introduced.

> Final project. During the last four weeks of the
course, students were asked to choose a topic for a
final project. It was required that the final project
relate to a student's research project, i.e., within
their senior thesis, M.S. thesis, or Ph.D. disserta-
tion. The goal of this final project was to apply the
computational and kinetic tools learned through-
out the course to an aspect within their chemical
engineering research. In some cases, the research
area of focus required an advanced background in
molecular modeling that the course was not able
to provide in just 14 weeks, and in these cases the
students gained mastery of the literature available
on the computational chemical aspect of their
research. Additionally, the students used what was
learned from the course to provide insight into the
chemical mechanisms that may play a role in the
explanation of experimentally observed phenom-
ena. The goal of this final exercise was to provide
a way to evaluate students' understanding of the
material, with a measure of the course success
dependent upon whether a student was able to ef-
fectively apply knowledge gained from the course
to their research in a novel way. Some examples
of this application include:
Electrochemical water-gas shift reactions on plati-
num and ruthenium catalysts
Application: fuel cell chemistry
Adsorption mechanisms of MTBE, chloroform, and
1,4-dioxane with cations
Application: separation of contaminants from
groundwater using zeolites
Mechanism development of sulfur's role in poison-
ing palladium
Application: hydrogen separation using palladium
membranes










Graduate Education


With regard to several of the student projects -such as the
one involving the application of ab initio theory for modeling
complicated catalytic processes such as those involved in fuel
cell research-the student completed the final project with an
understanding of the computational literature in this field and
a visual interpretation of the mechanisms involved within the
complexities of the process, which will likely benefit him by
providing focused direction when deciding which experiments
to carry out in the lab. This theoretical understanding became
the goal of this student's project since heterogeneous modeling
was outside the scope of the course. With respect to the sec-
ond project listed above, the student used ab initio energetic
predictions along with electrostatic potential and molecular
orbital maps to understand the reactivity between groundwater
contaminants and zeolite exchange ions. This student has since
had a paper accepted and has presented her research at the
International Conference in Engineering Education in Puerto
Rico in July 2006.141 Therefore the measure of success spans
a wide range, whether it is based on the direct inclusion of ab
initio-based calculations in a student's work or based on an
appreciation and understanding of the ab initio language to a
level that allows for material retention from a peer-reviewed
article within the student's specific research area.
If one wished to integrate molecular modeling and compu-
tational chemistry techniques into a graduate curriculum to
supplement the chemical engineering background tradition-
ally acquired, carrying out this reaction assignment would
ensure student mastery of the computational tools necessary
for incorporating a molecular perspective into their graduate
research. Therefore, it is this aspect of the course that will be
described in detail within this article.

COURSE SPECIFICS

In the "Learning Through a Reaction Example" assign-
ment, elementary gas-phase reactions were considered for a
complete thermodynamic and kinetic analysis. The goal was
to produce a high-level potential energy surface based upon
ab initio energetic, and to derive accurate rate expressions for
the reaction using transition state theory. Computational-based
ab initio techniques were employed to solve approximations
to the Schrodinger wave equation (SWE), which describes
the location and energetic associated with the electrons in
a given system. The "level of theory" chosen to investigate
the species within a given reaction requires two components,
i.e., a mathematical method to solve the approximation to the
SWE and a wave function (spatial description of the electrons
in space).

This computational chemistry course was highly techno-
logically based with approximately two-thirds of the classes


involving active learning through the use of computers. Stu-
dents used the software package Gaussian981'1 to calculate
the electronic energies from approximations to the SWE. To
visualize vibrational frequencies, chemical bonding, electron
density maps, and molecular orbital maps, gOpenMol soft-
ware was employed. In a traditional course in introductory
chemistry these topics are covered in detail, but oftentimes
teaching students about them is difficult due to the underlying
abstract quantum chemistry involved. Using the visualiza-
tion software, the students were responsible for developing
electron density and molecular orbital maps to gain under-
standing into the chemical reactivity of various species.
Straightforward molecules such as water and methane were
introduced, and in additional assignments students explored
molecules of increasing interatomic bonding complexity
such as cyclohexane and 1,4-dioxane. For the development
of the quantum mechanical-based potential energy surfaces,
MATLAB software was used. A Sun Microsystems Sun Fire
V20z server with a dual AMD Opteron 64 bit processor and
4 gigabytes of memory with a 73 gigabyte hard disk was
devoted specifically for the course. The software program
WebMO 4.1 was used as an interface to submit jobs to Gauss-
ian98 through the Sun server. Students were able to submit
their calculations to the server such that the local desktop
computers could remain active throughout each class period;
this also provided students with the flexibility to work on
homework assignments and submit jobs from any computer
with Internet capabilities.

DESCRIPTION OF REACTION ASSIGNMENT
One of the following elementary gas phase reactions was
assigned to each pair of students in the class.
H + Cl, HC + H (1)


D2 +C1- DCl+D

H, +F F HF+H

D, + F -DF + D

F, + H HF + F


Two students investigating the same reaction were doing
so for validation of the molecular results generated with each
investigation being performed at a unique level of theory, i.e.,
method and basis set combination.
Step One: Students were asked to retrieve experimentally
based chemical properties of the species within their assigned
reaction in addition to experimental thermochemical and
kinetic data for the total reaction. The chemical properties
included equilibrium bond distances, vibrational frequencies,
Chemical Engineering Education











Graduate Education


dipole moments, and rotational constants. Seeking these
experimental data required students to gain familiarity with
standard references such as JANAF'6l tables, the Handbook
of Chemistry and Physics,17' and Herzberg spectroscopy
texts.8E' The experimental thermochemical data included
reaction enthalpies, entropies, Gibbs free energies, and
equilibrium constants using the NIST Chemistry Web-
Book.[91 To locate experimental kinetic data for the reaction,
students were encouraged to perform literature searches
in addition to accessing the data available in the NIST
kinetic database.191
Step Two: Within this step of the assignment students per-
formed geometry optimization and spectroscopic calculations
on their assigned reaction species. They were required to
perform the calculations at varying levels of theory, includ-
ing the density functional method, i.e., Becke-3-parameter-
Yee-Lang-Parr (B3LYP), as well as Hartree-Fock, and the
second order perturbation method-Moller-Plesset (MP2).
Additionally, higher electron-correlated methods such as
quadratic configuration interaction (QCI) and coupled cluster


(CC) techniques were also explored. Both Pople and Dunning
basis sets were considered with each of these calculational
methods. The complexity of the basis sets assigned ranged
from minimal-such as the double-zeta Pople basis set,
6-31G-to more extensive, including both diffuse and po-
larization functions-such as the triple-zeta Pople basis set,
6-311++G**. Students were assigned nine levels of theory
for the energetic and spectroscopic predictions, and asked to
consider three additional others.
Step Three: Within this step students compared their theoreti-
cal predictions to the experimental data that was compiled in
step one of the assignment. It is this aspect of the assignment
that allows the students to be in control of their learning; they
are able to see how well a chosen level of theory agrees to
experiment. There is flexibility as well since the students are
asked to choose three levels of theory to consider in addition
to those assigned. An example of equilibrium geometry and
spectroscopic predictions for Reaction (2) is shown in Table 1.
Thermochemical predictions, including reaction enthalpies,
entropies, and Gibbs free energies, at varying levels of theory,


TABLE 1
Comparison of Chemical Properties of Species from D2 + Cl DCI + D
Bond Vibrational Dipole Rotational
Theory Length Frequency Moment Constant
(A,) (cm-') (Debye) (cm1')
DCI D, DCI D, DCI DC1 D,
B3LYP/LANL2DZ 1.3149 0.7435 1943 3153 1.80 5.11 30.28
HF/6-31G 1.2953 0.7297 2097 3289 1.87 5.27 31.44
HF/STO-6G 1.3112 0.7105 2097 3886 1.77 5.14 33.16
MP2/6-31G 1.3174 0.7376 1970 3206 1.88 5.10 30.77
MP2/6-311+G 1.3269 0.7376 1943 3149 1.89 5.02 30.77
MP2/6-311+G(d,p) 1.2731 0.7383 2214 3206 1.44 5.46 30.71
MP2/6-31+G* 1.2810 0.7375 2177 3206 1.53 5.39 30.77
MP2/6-311(3df,3pd) 1.272 0.7367 2190 3195 1.17 5.47 30.84
QCISD/6-31G 1.3262 0.7462 1901 3089 1.88 5.03 30.06
QCISD/6-311+G 1.3262 0.7465 1875 3018 1.71 5.03 30.04
QCISD/6-311+G** 1.2758 0.7435 2183 3126 1.33 5.43 30.28
QCISD/6-311++G** 1.2762 0.7435 2181 3126 1.32 5.43 30.29
CCSD/6-31G 1.3261 0.7462 1901 3089 1.88 5.03 30.06
CCSD/6-311+G 1.3365 0.7465 1876 3018 1.89 4.95 30.04
CCSD/cc-pVDZ 1.2905 0.7609 2144 3100 1.16 5.31 28.91
CCSD(T)/6-311G** 1.2772 0.7435 2174 3127 1.46 5.42 30.28
CCD/aug-cc-pVDZ 1.2897 0.7610 2151 3084 1.16 5.32 28.90
CCD/cc-pVTZ 1.2748 0.7421 2172 3127 1.18 5.44 30.39
Experimental' 1.2746 0.7420 2145 3116 5.44 30.44
t RefJ7 141


Fall 2006











SGraduate Education


are presented for Reaction (5) in Table 2. In most cases, the
students would choose more than three additional levels of
theory for investigation in an effort to obtain a theoretical
prediction with minimal deviation from experiment. Within
this step of the assignment students learned how the addition
of polarization and diffuse functions to a basis set can influ-
ence the theoretical predictions. Of course, lecture material
included a discussion of the details of methods and basis sets;
however, the interactive experience of testing, checking, and


0.7 075 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1
H.H


Figure 1. PES for the reaction H2 + F--- HF + H generated
at the QCISD/6-311 G(3df,3pd) level of theory.


comparing to experiment was far more valuable, allowing
these concepts to sink in to a deeper level of understanding
from the student perspective. Class at this time included dis-
cussions concerning the difference in accuracy of the various
levels of theory and the reasons associated with why some
levels work better than others. Additionally, discussions also
included why at times some levels of theory work, but not
necessarily for the right reasons, i.e., cancellations in error
could provide a reasonable heat of reaction prediction in
one case, but may deviate from experiment in terms of the
predicted equilibrium geometry. The goal of matching the ex-
perimental data provided a motivation for the students to push
forward through obstacles that are typical of a traditional lec-
ture-formatted curriculum. For example, traditional teaching
methods such as Microsoft Office PowerPoint presentations
or conventional rote lectures tend to neglect participation of
the students, consequently allowing their minds to wander,
losing the ability to grasp the material at hand. Providing a
motivated student with an objective and the responsibility
for his or her own learning through a series of interactive
exercises ensures active participation, which undoubtedly
enhances the likelihood of material retention.
Step Four: This step involves the development of a high-
level potential energy surface (PES). For a student to proceed
with this step, two criteria must be met, i.e., students must
first choose a level of theory that accurately predicts the heat
of reaction and equilibrium constant. Once a student obtains
a level of theory which predicts a heat of reaction to within
2 kcal/mol to experiment and an equilibrium constant to


TABLE 2
Thermochemistry Comparison for F + H -HF + F
Theory H S G Keq
(kcal/mol) (cal/mol*K) (kcal/mol)
B3LYP/LANL2DZ -91.61 1.841 -92.16 3.87(+67)
HF/6-31G -121.20 1.904 -121.7 2.01(+89)
MP2/6-31G -82.76 1.677 -83.26 1.16(+61)
MP2/6-311+G -91.99 1.586 -92.46 6.48(+67)
MP2/6-311+G(d,p) -103.8 1.787 -104.3 3.44(+76)
QCISD/6-31G -84.52 1.578 -84.99 2.14(+62)
QCISD/6-311+G -94.24 1.510 -94.69 2.82(+69)
CCSD/6-31G -84.65 1.577 -85.12 2.68(+62)
CCSD/6-311+G -94.44 1.513 -94.89 3.91(+69)
CCSD/aug-cc-pVDZ -104.4 1.798 -104.9 9.08(+76)
CCSD(T)/6-311G** -98.96 1.607 -99.44 8.56(+72)
QCISD(T)/6-311G** -98.92 1.612 -99.40 7.92(+72)
Experimental -98.27 3.596 -99.34 7.20(+72)
tNumbers in parenthesis denote powers of 10.
1 Re [6, 9, 15]


within an order of magnitude of
experiment, he or she can proceed
to develop a PES at this chosen
level of theory. A PES generated
from the class for Reaction (3) at
the QCISD/6-311G(3df,3pd) level
of theory is presented in Figure 1.
The software program MATLAB
was employed for the PES plots.
Most of the surfaces generated
in the class consisted of approxi-
mately 200 single-point energies.
Since the reactions assigned were
all elementary gas-phase reactions
involving, at most, three atoms,
the largest transition structures
were three-atom complexes. It
was assumed that each activated
complex was linear so that two
degrees of freedom could be con-
sidered along two dimensions of the
three-dimensional PES plot, with
Chemical Engineering Education


------I -











Graduate Education


the third dimension serving as the potential energy. From-
the PES plots students extracted the relative geometry of
the reaction's activated complex. As a further check that this
activated complex corresponded to a true transition structure,
a frequency calculation was performed to ensure the existence
of one negative frequency along the reaction coordinate.
Oftentimes this additional calculation would provide more
accurate coordinates of the transition structure, ensuring ac-
curacy in the barrier-height calculation.
Step Five: The last step of the assignment involved the cal-
culation of rate expression parameters, i.e., the rate constant,
using the hard-sphere collision model (HSCM) for an upper
bound and transition state theory (TST) for a more accurate
rate prediction. In determining the rate constant for each
reaction, the value predicted by transition state theory,'1" Eq.
(6), was modified with the tunneling correction of WignerE"I
given by Eq. (7), so that the final rate constant value was
given by Eq. (8),

kTST kbT QTs e RT (6)
h QQ,2


k- 1 7hcv )
S 24 kbT


k kTT -kT cm
mol -s


where v represents the single negative frequency value of
the transition structure and the partition function, QTta =
QtransQrotQvibQelec Two lectures and one homework assignment
were dedicated to providing the students with an introductory
background in statistical mechanics so that they could under-
stand the assumptions that are made in Gaussian to obtain the
partition function data. Three to four lectures were dedicated
to reaction kinetics in which the HSCM and TST were taught.
Students were required to work through two
TST problems in a homework assignment
before applying the knowledge to their reac-
tion example. Further details of TST can be
found in standard kinetic texts, which served Temp Range
(K)
as references for the course.112 31 In addition, (K)
the barrier heights required for Eq. (6) were 291-1192
extracted from the previously developed 1000-1500
high-level PES. The barrier height was calcu- 600-1000
lated by taking the energy difference between 200-1000
the thermal-corrected (including zero-point 298.15-2500
energies) transition structure and the sum of
the thermal-corrected reactant species. 298.15-2500
The calculation of the rate constant based in pae
TNumbers in paren
upon the hard-sphere collision model was
Fall 2006


performed using Eq. (9),

kC N 8Te cm3
7k12 mol.s


where the barrier height, E is the same as for kTSI, ,t1 is the
reduced mass, and 12 is the collision diameter. Since Ea is
already known, and t, can be determined with a simple cal-
culation, the only difficulty was in determining the collision
diameter. Here, the lack of experimental data required the
use of estimation techniques to find an approximate value of
o. The primary technique utilized was a traditional approach
based on the critical properties of the species in the reaction as
shown in Eq. (10), in which V and Z are the critical volume
and critical compressibility parameters, respectively.
1 6
0= 0.1866VcjZc A (10)

An example of the predicted reverse rate expressions for
Reaction (1) calculated at the CCSD/6-311G(3df,3pd) level
of theory compared to literature predictions and experiment
is presented in Table 3. Figure 2 (next page) is a graphical
representation of the rate prediction for the forward direction
of Reaction (1), showing that this high level of theory with
a modest kinetic tool such as TST provided a fairly accurate
kinetic prediction.

CONCLUSIONS

A graduate-level chemical engineering course in com-
putational chemistry was developed that served to provide
chemical engineering students with an introduction to a
molecular approach in understanding chemical reactivity.
Often there exists a disconnect between the topics in an ap-
plied engineering discipline and the fundamental chemical
and physical principles on which applications are based. This
course served as a means to provide students with additional

TABLE 3
comparison of Arrhenius Parameters for the Reaction,
HCI + H -- Cl + H2
A' Ea Reference
(cmn/mol*sec) (kcal/mol)
2.999(13) 5.10 Adusei and Fontijn1"6
3.114(13) 4.84 Allison, et al.1"7
2.318(13) 4.25 Allison, et al.171
7.94(12) 4.39 Lendvay, et al.u1'
5.015(13) 4.39 Present work (TST)
CCSD/6-311G(3df, 3pd)
6.134(14) 4.67 Present work (HSCM)
thesis denote powers of 10.
















... TST {CCSDI6-311G(3df,3pd)}
34 FHSCM {CCSD/6-31 1G(3df,3pd)
3* Allison et al. [17]
32 + Kumaranetal. [19]
*. \ Miller and Gordon [21]
30 X Westenberg and de Hass [22]



) 26 -

S 24

22

20 *
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004
1/T (K"1)

Figure 2. Rate-constant comparison for the reaction,
Cl + H2 HCI + H.

tools to supplement their graduate research projects. This
connection was established through the development of a
reaction assignment which led students through a series of
steps ranging from an introduction to quantum mechanics to
the development of a potential energy surface, from which
barrier heights were extracted for predicted rate expression
calculations. This series of steps ensured students compre-
hension of the concepts covered, which was evident based
upon final projects that required the students to implement
these tools of computational chemistry into their individual
research projects.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author acknowledges graduate students Erdem Sasmaz,
Bihter Padak, and Saurabh Vilekar, and undergraduate student
Nicole Labbe for use of their reaction results in this work. In
addition, the suggestions and careful reading of this manu-
script by Caitlin A. Callaghan are appreciated. Finally, WPI s
Unix administrator, Mark Taylor is recognized for assisting in
the administration of the course-designated server.

REFERENCES
1. Leach, A.G., and E. Goldstein, "Energy Contour Plots: Slices through
the Potential Energy Surface That Simplify Quantum Mechanical
Studies of Reacting Systems," J. Chem. Educ., 83, 451 (2006)
2. Galano, A., J.R. Alvarez-Idaboy, and A. Vivier-Bunge, "Computational
Quantum Chemistry: A Reliable Tool in the Understanding of Gas-
Phase Reactions," J. Chem. Educ., 83, 481 (2006)
3. Labbe, N., S. Vilekar, E. Sasmaz, B. Padak, N. Pomerantz, J.-R.
Pascault, P. Vallieres, G. Withington, C. Callaghan, and J. Wilcox,
"The Connection Between Computational Chemistry and Chemical


Engineering: A Students Perspective," in progress
4. Labbe, N., J. Wilcox, and R.W. Thompson, "An ab initio Investigation
of Cyclohexane and Zeolite Interactions," Proceedings of the 2006
International Conference in Engineering Education (2006)
5. Frisch, M.J., G.W. Trucks, H.B. Schlegel, G.E. Scuseria, M.A. Robb,
J.R. Cheeseman, V.G. Zakrzewski, J.A. Montgomery Jr., R.E. Strat-
mann, J.C. Burant, S. Dapprich, J.M. Millam, A.D. Daniels, K.N.
Kudin, M.C. Strain, 0. Farkas, J. Tomasi, V. Barone, M. Cossi, R.
Cammi, B. Mennucci, C. Pomelli, C. Adamo, S. Clifford, J. Ochter-
ski, G.A. Petersson, P.Y. Ayala, Q. Cui, K. Morokuma, P. Salvador,
J.J. Dannenberg, D.K. Malick, A.D. Rabuck, K. Raghavachari, J.B.
Foresman, J. Cioslowski, J.V. Ortiz, A.G. Baboul, B.B. Stefanov, G.
Liu, A. Liashenko, P. Piskorz, I. Komaromi, R. Gomperts, R.L. Martin,
D.J. Fox, T. Keith, M.A. Al-Laham, C.Y. Peng, A. Nanayakkara, M.
Challacombe, P.M.W. Gill, B. Johnson, W. Chen, M.W. Wong, J.L.
Andres, C. Gonzalez, M. Head-Gordon, E.S. Replogle, and J.A. Pople,
Gaussian 98, Gaussian, Inc., Pittsburgh (1998)
6. Chase, M.W. Jr., NIST-JANAF Themochemical Tables, 4th Ed., J. Phys.
Chem. Ref Data, Monograph 9, 1-1951 (1998)
7. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 58th Ed. CRC Press,
Cleveland, Ohio (1978)
8. Huber, K.P., and G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Struc-
ture. IV Constants of Diatomic Molecules, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
(1979)
9. NIST Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database,
NIST Standard Reference Database Number 101, Release 12, Aug.
2005, Editor: Russell D. Johnson III,
10. Eyring, H., "The Activated Complex in Chemical Reactions," J. Chem.
Phys. 3, 107 (1935)
11. Wigner, E., "Crossing of Potential Thresholds in Chemical Reactions,"
Z. Phys. Chem. B., 19, 203 (1932)
12. Simons, J., An Introduction to Theoretical Chemistry, Cambridge
University Press (2003)
13. Steinfeld, J.I., and J.S. Francisco, Chemical Kinetics and Dynamics,
Prentice Hall (1999)
14. Shimanouchi, T., Tables of Molecular Vibrational Frequencies, Con-
solidated Volume 1, 39 (1972)
15. Cox, J.D., D.D Wagman., and V.A. Medvedev, CODATA Key Values
for Thermodynamics, Hemisphere, New York (1989)
16. Adusei, G.Y. and A. Fontijn, "A High-Temperature Photochemistry
Study of the H + HCI +-+ H, + Cl Reaction from 298 to 1192 K," J.
Phys. Chem. 97, 1409 (1993)
17. Allison, T.C., G.C. Lynch, D.G. Truhlar, and M.S. Gordon, "An Im-
proved Potential Energy Surface for the H,CI System and Its Use for
Calculations of Rate Coefficients and Kinetic Isotope Effects," J. Phys.
Chem., 100, 13575 (1996)
18. Lendvay, G., B. Laszlo, and T. Berces, "Theoretical study ofX + H, --
XH + H and Reverse Reactions (X = F, Cl, Br, I) using a new empirical
potential energy surface," Chem. Phys. Lett., 137, 175 (1987)
19. Kumaran, S.S., K.P. Lim, and J.V. Michael, "Thermal Rate Constants
for the CI+H, and Cl+D, Reactions Between 296 and 3000 K," J. Chem.
Phys., 101, 9487 (1994)
20. Westenberg, A.A., and N. de Haas, "Atom-Molecule Kinetics using
ESR Detection. IV. Results for Cl + H, +-* HCI + H in Both Directions,"
J. Chem. Phys., 48, 4405 (1968)
21. Miller, J.C., and R.J. Gordon, "Kinetics of the Cl-H, system. I. Detailed
balance in the Cl+H, reaction," J. Chem. Phys., 75, 5305 (1981) J


Chemical Engineering Education


Graduate Education










Bma curriculum














An International Comparison of

FINAL-YEAR

DESIGN PROJECT CURRICULA










SANDRA E. KENTISH AND DAVID C. SHALLCROSS
University of Melbourne Victoria, Australia 3010
The final-year design project has been an essential part
of the chemical engineering undergraduate curriculum David Shallcross is an associate professor
S. in the Department of Chemical and Biomo-
for many decades. Some would argue that the structure lecular Engineering at the University of Mel-
of this subject has changed little.m As will be shown in this bourne. He is founding chair of the Institution
paper, however, there is considerable evidence of a substantial of Chemical Engineers' Education Subject
Group and is editor of the international jour-
shift in the teaching of the design project to better reflect the nal Education for Chemical Engineers. He
demands of both a changing discipline and the wider expecta- is the author of three books and is active in
of future employers. promoting the profession within the second-
tions of future employers. ary-school community.
This paper reviews design project teaching at 15 chemical
engineering departments across Australia, Singapore, and
the United Kingdom. Information on Australian courses was Sandra Kentish (Ph.D.) is a senior lecturer
obtained during a design project workshop organized by the within the Department of Chemical and Bio-
molecular Engineering at the University
Australian-based Education Subject Group of the Institution of Melbourne and the coordinator of their
of Chemical Engineers, and sponsored by Aker Kvaerner Aus- capstone Design Project subject. She joined
the department in 2000, after working within
tralia. The workshop was held Feb. 14-15, 2005. Information the chemical industry for nine years. Her
regarding the courses in Singapore and the UK was obtained research interests are focused in two areas:
during a study tour by one of the authors in July 2005. membrane separations and sonoprocess-
ing (the use of ultrasound in the chemical
Historically, the capstone design project was developed industry). r -
to draw together the design techniques developed during
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2006
Fall 2006 27:











the chemical engineering course into a single, integrated
project. Reference to the instructions for the 1974 Institu-
tion of Chemical Engineers design projects21 indicates that
the requirements were for process selection and descrip-
tion, material and energy balances, process and mechanical
design, and costing. There was a requirement to complete a
Hazard and Operability study, but generally the emphasis on
health, safety, and the environment was minimal. The learn-
ing outcomes were clearly intellectual ability and practical
design skills. Transferable skills such as teamwork, oral com-
munication, and open-ended problem-solving ability were
not considered relevant. By 1991,13] the scope of the project
brief had broadened with inclusion of topics such as market
assessment, energy efficiency, and environmental impact.
At this stage, however, there was still no evidence of generic
skill development.
More recently, emphasis within chemical engineering edu-
cation has shifted to focus on learning outcomes beyond only
a technical nature. Transferable skills that will assist graduates
in a range of employment roles are gaining importance.[4-7]
Evidence from the institutions considered here shows that the
final-year design project is evolving as a crucial mechanism for
developing these skills because of its position at the tail end of
the course and the minimal demands for technical knowledge
transfer. Indeed, the design project acts as the "exit transition"
subject at most institutions, bridging the gap from university
study to a real-world position.


The greater computing and
word processing power available
to today's students and the ready
access to electronic literature
resources has enabled the design
project scope to expand. Larger
and/or more diverse projects
are being undertaken focusing
on broader learning outcomes
such as sustainability, process
safety, and the use of design
standards and regulations. Pro-
cess simulation can be practiced
and practical computing skills
developed.
A common feature of chemical
engineering courses considered
here is that they are accredited
by the UK-based professional
body, Institution of Chemical
Engineers (IChemE).171 The
IChemE promotes the concept
of a design portfolio, in which a
number of design exercises are
completed over the curriculum.
There was certainly evidence
276


of a trend in this direction, with many institutions running
product design projects in separate subjects, as well as design
exercises in the earlier years of study. This paper, however,
focuses in particular on the final project at the M.Eng. level,
which is the fourth year of continuous study at almost all in-
stitutions (the fifth year at Scottish universities). The IChemE
accreditation guide'71 indicates that at this M.Eng. level:
.. the course shall include a major design exercise demon-
strating that issues of complexity have been appropriately
addressed. The major project is normally undertaken in
the final year and is normally weighted at 20 credit points
minimum (This equates to 16.6% of the final-year credit).
The major project at M.Eng. level can be up to 50% of the
final-year credit.
Table 1 shows that among the departments considered, the
design project had a credit range between 12.5 and 40% of
the final year. In most cases, the project ran across either a
single semester or the full year. Some English institutions,
however, undertook the design project in the penultimate
year of an M.Eng. course to accommodate B.Eng. students
into a common program.
It should be noted that within the UK system, a degree of
uniformity between departments is provided by the use of
external examiners. All design project briefs, assessments,
and samples of final project submissions are reviewed by a
senior academic from another institution. Within Australia, a


TABLE 1
Chemical Engineering Departments Considered in this Study
and the Format of Their Capstone Design Projects
Country Percent Timing of No. of Written
of Final- Project Submissions
Year
Credit
Curtin University Australia 25.0 Final Semester 12
James Cook University Australia 25.0 Full Final Year 5
Monash University Australia 25.0 Final Semester 1
RMIT University Australia 25.0 Final Semester 4
University of Adelaide Australia 25.0 Final Semester 1
University of Melbourne Australia 18.75 Final Semester 2
University of New South Australia 18.75 Penultimate 7
Wales Semester
University of Newcastle Australia 25.0 Full Final Year 3
University of Queensland Australia 25.0 Final Semester 5
University of Sydney Australia 33.3 Full Final Year 5
National University of Singapore 12.5 Final Semester 3
Singapore
University College London UK 37.5 Full Third Year 8
University of Birmingham UK 40.0 Full Third Year 8
University of Nottingham UK 42.0 Full Year 1
University of Edinburgh UK 33.0 Full Year 1
Chemical Engineering Education










similar degree of uniformity is engendered by the availability
of an Australia-wide design project student prize (the Aker
Kvaerner award) and several regional prizes. For example, the
Aker Kvaemer Prize guidelines currently restrict assessment
components for safety and environmental considerations to
between 10 and 20% of the final grade and process economics
to five to 10% of the total grade.

PROJECT STRUCTURE
Five of the 15 institutions offered only a single project topic
per year, arguing this reduced staff workload. Others offered
a range of project topics. In the "variations on a theme" ap-
proach, a single process was considered, but variations in
things such as raw material purity or plant location were used
to differentiate team projects. This approach was used by
three institutions in order to reduce the opportunity for collu-
sion between classmates, while also limiting staff workload.
Only at the University of Melbourne was plagiarism software
implemented as a tool for monitoring both collusion and
plagiarism from the Internet. When introduced in 2004, this
proved very effective. Substantial plagiarism was detected in
one student's work, and appropriate action was taken.
At virtually all institutions, the students were initially pre-
sented with a design brief of between one and three pages
outlining the design problem. This brief often contained basic


technical and/or costing data. In most cases, the students were
first expected to use this information to complete a feasibility
study; that is, to assess alternate process routes and develop a
process flowsheet to determine market demand and optimum
plant capacity, and to identify potential environmental and
safety issues. This was followed by more detailed equipment
design work, the development of process control strategies,
and a process and instrumentation diagram. At the feasibility
study stage or at the conclusion of more detailed work, an
assessment of the process economics was required. In most
cases, students were expected to argue a business case to
"management" as to whether the facility should proceed.
In all cases, project work was supported by a lecture pro-
gram that provided instruction in design methodology. This
lecture program was often structured to cover subject material
missed in other areas. Thus, for example, it was recognized
that the design of process utilities such as steam and cooling
water systems needed to be covered within this program.
The number of assessable written reports required from
each student or team varied significantly (see Table 1), from
a single submission at the end of a yearlong project to weekly
submissions for a 12-week program.

TEAMWORK AND PEER ASSESSMENT


The design project was conducted as a team exercise at
all institutions. Generally, broader
process issues such as economics,
environmental impact, and health


Capstone Design Project at the Institutions Studied
Class Group Team Team Peer
Size Size Allocation Leaders Assessment
12-25 5-6 random rotated no
25-35 4-5 by project preference elected by team no
25-40 2-3 and random rotated weekly no
then
10-12
40 5 mix of abilities/gender no no
45 5 by several factors yes yes
50 6 random no
58 5-6 academic merit no yes
60 4 students can exclude no no
others
70 3-4 by academic merit and no yes
project preference
60-70 4-5 random no
70-80 4 self-selection rotated weekly no
80-100 5 random rotated no
100 6-10 mix of abilities/ethnic- no yes
ity/background
80-120 4 self-selection no yes
200-300 7 self-selection elected by team no

Fall 2006


and safety were assessed as team-
based tasks, with process design
remaining an individual activity.
It was common for the individual-
based tasks to equate to slightly
more than 50% of the total grade.
As shown in Table 2, the size of
the teams varied, with typically
four or five students on a team. In
institutions with larger class sizes,
students were allowed to select
their own team members. This was
generally because of the logistics
involved in a central team-selection
process when the number of stu-
dents is large. A significant propor-
tion of design project coordinators
with smaller class sizes, however,
spent considerable effort to develop
team membership. Interestingly,
there was a range of ways to do this.
Some selected students of common
academic ability to be in the same
team, while others deliberately
placed students of varying academic
277


TABLE 2
Basis for Team Assignments in the









ability within one team. The University of Queensland is
considering the use of specific assessment of team skills
from previous years as a basis for team membership in the
final-year project.
Many institutions provided explicit workshops or training
sessions to develop teamwork skills. For example, the Uni-
versity of Sydney had fortnightly sessions on team building
with group leaders. University College London (UCL) had
a two-day workshop on effective teamwork a year before
the capstone design project, and followed up with a one-day
refresher course at the project's start. Similarly, many institu-
tions defined a formal role for team leaders. Rotating the posi-
tion of team leader allowed leadership skills to be developed
among the majority of students.
Some campuses had interdisciplinary
teams, which is more representative of
actual industrial environments. For ex-
ample, both the University of Queensland While t
and the National University of Singapore was 4
included an environmental engineering well esi
student in each team, while the Uni- as p
versity of New South Wales included the De
industrial chemists. The University of .
Birmingham had an optional project it was s
that integrated civil engineers, while disapj
Sydney had a multidisciplinary project to the
for highly academic students only that that on.
integrated civil and mechanical engineer- of the in
ing students. used this
While teamwork was clearly well
established as part of the design project,
it was somewhat disappointing to the peer as;
authors that only a third of the institu-
tions used this opportunity to introduce
peer assessment. Between the institutions
that did, a considerable range of methods was used to man-
age the process. In some cases, peer assessment marks were
determined collaboratively by all team members in an open
forum. In others, submission of peer assessment ratings was
anonymous, so that students could not discover how their team
members rated them. The University of New South Wales
presented a relatively sophisticated peer assessment method
designed to improve the consistency of assessors.E8] While
this method would provide high accuracy and a lack of bias,
it could be time consuming in large classes.

INDUSTRIAL INVOLVEMENT

All institutions actively involved engineers with a design or
processing background in the design project curriculum. Some
institutions, notably Melbourne and Birmingham, maintained
part-time adjunct professor-type positions for engineers with
engineering design experience, typically one day a week. In
278


the two cases where the design task was specified by such
design engineers, the hazard analysis was considered at an
earlier stage as a more integral part of the design process than
in other cases. Many other institutions relied on corporate
engineers to assist with setting a valid technical scenario, and
in many cases personnel from these companies provided a
consultant role. In most cases, the academic in charge of the
project also had extensive industrial expertise.

PROCESS SIMULATION AND COMPUTING
TECHNOLOGY
All institutions incorporated the use of simulation packages
such as HYSYS and ASPEN PLUS to assist in design. In most
cases, their use was actively encouraged.
In some cases, the design project brief was
even manipulated to ensure that simulation
work was possible. Others, however, felt that the
use of simulation packages could detract
early from the design exercise because proper
lished implementation required significant time
of input. They also argued that there was a
Project, tendency for students to accept simulation
output without question, and the educa-
ewhat tional value was therefore limited. An em-
nting phasis on proper justification of simulation
thors output was essential, and was usually the
third basis for assessment. Justification by both
tutions shortcut hand calculations and reference
ortunity to literature data was encouraged. The use
of dynamic simulation for process control
ruce and hazard assessment by RMIT University
Sent. was noteworthy.
Also of note was the extensive use of
Web-based learning. A significant pro-
portion maintained subject Web pages as
a major mechanism for relaying information to students.
These subject sites also often used online discussion forums
as a means of bringing common questions into the open and
creating inter-student debate. Electronic library resources
such as Proquest, SciFinder Scholar, and Knovel were also
utilized. A range of smaller, discrete computer programs was
also used to support student learning, such as Microsoft Visio
for engineering drawings.

ORAL PRESENTATION
Now considered an important transferable skill, oral pre-
sentation served as an assessment component in nine of the
15 curricula. In some cases, these presentations were made
directly to engineers and management of the company whose
operations had formed the basis of the design task. Presen-
tations could be individual- or team-based, and sometimes
involved the use of posters to support oral commentary.


Chemical Engineering Education


eat
cle
tab
art
gn
om
poil
au
ly
isti
opp
rod
sest










TABLE 3
Bio-Based Design Project Topics Used at the Institutions Studied
Enzymatic production of glucose and galactose from cheese whey waste
Lactic acid production
Plasmid DNA-based AIDS vaccine
Bio-ethanol from waste paper
Production of tissue plasminogen activator
Penicillin production


SUSTAINABILITY
The IChemE now prescribes that graduates must "be aware
of the priorities and role of sustainable development." There
was little evidence, however, that sustainability was being
given a focus in the capstone design project. RMIT University
was the only institution formally requiring a sustainability
report as part of the project, relying on the IChemE Sustain-
ability Metrics19] as a template for students. No more than five
other institutions discussed sustainability during the course.
This is clearly an area that could be improved, and many
design teaching staff indicated that they would be enhancing
their approach to this crucial issue in the years to come.

BIO-FOCUSED PROJECTS

Internationally, there is a shift within many chemical
engineering undergraduate degree programs from projects
based on the traditional petrochemical, chemical, and mineral
industries into biomolecular and biochemical engineering
fields. We are currently undergoing such a shift within the
University of Melbourne with a four-year degree in chemical
and biomolecular engineering commencing in February 2005.
It is imperative that the design project can accommodate this
shift to a "bio" focus while retaining the generic skill develop-
ment discussed above.
In many respects, University College London was the
leader in developing a bio-focus with the development of
a biochemical stream alongside their standard course years
ago. This proved so popular, however, that a separate de-
partment had to be formed. This meant that the chemical
engineering department no longer had a need for a bio-based
design project. Birmingham University ran three projects
simultaneously, one of which was a bio-based project. This
project was taken mainly by M.Sc. students, but had IChemE
accreditation. They found that a design team with a mix of
scientists and engineers worked well. They have found some
issues with a full-year bio-based project, however, because
of the limited nature of these processes, and were intend-
ing to move to a series of shorter, more intense campaigns.
Some of these would be focused more on product design
than process design.
Typical bio-based projects that had been undertaken at

Fall 2006


different universities are listed in Table 3. In such bio-based
programs the process volume is much smaller (20kg versus
20,000 tonne per year). The downstream separation processes,
however, can be more complicated, with 10-15 separation
steps being usual. Detailed design tasks can include expanded
bed columns and membrane filtration rigs. Production of mi-
crobiological quality steam or ultra-pure water may also be
required. The regulatory environment of bioprocessing must
also gain an increased focus. Students need to be exposed to
relevant food and drug quality-assurance programs such as
Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP),1101 as well as Hazard
Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)."1 Conversely,
these projects will be more limited in their use of process
simulation packages. There are a number of bioprocess model-
ing computer packages on the market (Aspen Batch Plus and
Intelligen SuperPro), but these can be limited in their ability
to accurately predict unit operation scale-up.['2'

CONCLUSIONS
The design project workshop and subsequent study tour
raised a number of other issues common to many institutions
that cannot be covered in-depth in this analysis. These issues
included the high workload required from teaching staff
to provide a worthwhile design exercise, and the similarly
high workload taken on by some students in completing the
project. Student stress was a significant issue at a number
of institutions, and it was felt that this resulted principally
from the open-ended nature of the design study. Many staff
members also commented on the difficulty of obtaining ac-
curate and up-to-date equipment cost data from the public
domain.
The above discussion, however, shows that institutions
in the United Kingdom, Singapore, and Australia are now
using the capstone design project as a major vehicle for the
teaching of transferable skills such as time management, open-
ended problem solving, teamwork, and oral presentation.
This final-year program has a significant role in "exit transi-
tion," or preparing the student for a role in the workplace.
While the curricula in most cases is very well developed,
the incorporation of more peer assessment and a greater
emphasis on sustainability would enhance further teaching
in this subject.


279











ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Information was provided by staff at Curtin, James Cook,
Monash, and RMIT Universities, the Universities of Ad-
elaide, New South Wales, Newcastle, Queensland, Sydney,
Birmingham, Nottingham, and Edinburgh, University Col-
lege London, and the National University of Singapore. This
input is gratefully acknowledged. Financial support for travel
to Singapore and the United Kingdom was provided by the
University of Melbourne through a Universitas 21 Fellowship,
and this support is also appreciated.


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Ketone From 2-Butanol: AWorked Solution to a Problem In Chemical
Engineering Design," Institution of Chemical Engineers in association
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3. Ray, M.S., and M. Sneesby, Chemical Engineering Design Project:


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Engineers,
10. Welbourn, J., "Good Manufacturing Practice in Pharmaceutical Pro-
duction, An Engineering Guide," IChemE, Rugby, UK, Bennett B., G.
Cole (Eds) (2003)
11. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point, U.S. Food and Drug
Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/haccp.html>
12. Shanklin, T., K. Roper, P. Yegneswaran, and M. Marten, "Selection of
Bioprocess Simulation Software for Industrial Applications," Biotech-
nology and Bioengineering, 72(4) 483 (2001) J


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Johns Hopkins University
The Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at
Johns Hopkins University invites applications for a full-time lec-
turer. This is a career-oriented, renewable appointment. Responsi-
bilities include:
Teach 3 courses each semester (currently with labs).
Manage curriculum issues, including degree requirement
updates and course development.
Coordinate advising for undergraduate Chemical and
Biomolecular Engineering majors.
Organize prospective freshmen activities, including open
houses and welcome letters, and serve as liaison to the
Admissions office.
Oversee and train graduate TAs and graders.
Maintain retention and growth statistics.
Applicants must have a Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering or a closely
related field, and demonstrated excellence in teaching. Applications
must include a letter of application, curriculum vitae, and a statement
of teaching philosophy. Applicants should arrange for three reference
letters to be sent directly to the address below. All material should
arrive by Nov. 30, 2006.
Lecturer Search Committee
Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department
Johns Hopkins University
3400 N. Charles St, 221 MD HALL
Baltimore, MD 21218
410-516-7170
tpaulhal@jhu.edu
Johns Hopkins University is an EEO/AA employer. Women and
minorities are strongly encouraged to apply.


Chemical Engineering Education











Random Thoughts...








WHAT'S IN A NAME?





RICHARD M. FIELDER
North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695


The monthly Chemical Engineering Department faculty
meeting is in full swing. They spent the usual half hour
di discussing the latest catastrophic budget shortfall and
the urgent need to bring in more grants and more graduate
students with NSF fellowships, and then they moved on to the
upcoming ABET visit. A prolonged argument broke out about
whether teaching students the Gibbs-Duhem equation counts
as preparing them to be ethical and professionally respon-
sible lifelong learners who understand contemporary issues
and can work in multidisciplinary teams to solve global and
societal problems. The argument ended unresolved. Chuck,
the department chair, relayed a message from the department
administrative assistant that unless the professors started
cleaning up their messes in the faculty lounge they could start
making their own coffee. Once the ensuing panic subsided,
the meeting turned to New Business, and the critical issue on
everyone's mind was brought up first.
Chuck: "OK, folks, let's take up Diane's proposition
to change our name to the Department of Chemical
and Biomolecular Engineering. Diane, want to say
something about it?"
Diane: "Sure. Everyone knows that biotech is the
future, and the ones who know it best are the stu-
dents...the freshmen are going more and more for
departments that do biology, and graduate students
all want to work for faculty doing bio research.
Most Chem. E. departments have already put bio-
something in their names and if we don't we're
gonna lose out."

Ch: "Makes sense to me. OK, if no one else has
anything to say, let's vote on it. All in favor of our
becoming the Department of Chemical and Biomo-
lecular Engineering, say..."
Carl: "Hold on, Chuck. If you just say biomolecular
engineering, people will think we're only about
Fall 2006


DNA and all that stuff, which is yesterday's news.
Sam and I do a lot of biocatalysis and biosepara-
tions, which are much sexier than all that gene
stuff, but the students won't know we do those
things here unless we make it explicit."
Ch: "You mean..."

Sam: "Yeah, let's be the Department of Chemical,
Biocatalytic, and Bioseparations Engineering."
D: "Wait just a minute, buster-genes are a whole
lot sexier than enzymes and chromatography, and
we've got twice the grant support you guys do!"

S: "Oh, yeah-well who's got more CAREER
awards, and what's more..."
Ch: "All right, all right-calm down. Tell you
what-we'll just make the tent bigger and call it
the Department of Chemical, Biomolecular, Bio-
catalytic, and Bioseparations Engineering. How's
that?"
C: "Make it Biocatalytic, Biomolecular, Biosepara-
tions, and Chemical -alphabetical order."
D: "That's the dumbest suggestion I ever..."
Ch: "OK, all in favor say..."

Richard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese
Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering
at North Carolina State University. He is co-
author of Elementary Principles of Chemical
Processes (Wiley, 2005) and numerous
articles on chemical process engineering
and engineering and science education,
and regularly presents workshops on ef-
fective college teaching at campuses and
conferences around the world. Many of his
publications can be seen at edulfelder-public>.

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2006










Morrie: "Hey, what am I, chopped liver? I don't like
to brag, but have you forgotten that I'm heading
a $3 million artificial organ program with five
graduate students..."

S: "Can you believe the guy who deals in artificial
organs just asked if he's chopped liver?"

M: [Glares at Sam] "...five graduate students and
two postdocs, and what about our cooperative
agreement with St. Swithens Hospital? Biomedi-
cal engineering is every bit as important as those
other bios around here...besides, we heal people
and save lives-let's see somebody here top that
for sexy."

Ch: "OK, OK.. .I guess we can't include three of our
four bio areas and leave out the fourth.. .so, all
in favor of renaming ourselves the Department
of Biocatalytic, Biomolecular, Bioseparations,
Chemical, and Biomedical Engineering say..."

M: "Ahem..."

Ch: "Right, right-the Department of Biocatalytic,
Biomedical, Biomolecular, Bioseparations, and
Chemical Engineering..."

Ned: "Look, you want to talk about sexy areas, you
can't dream of leaving out nanotechnology-it's
the hottest field in science.. .you just put nano in
your proposal title and you can start looking for
your check by return mail-we'll pull the students
in here like a vacuum cleaner."

Ch: "I see your point-I guess if we don't have
nanotechnology in our name Berkeley grads
won't look twice at us. OK, so all for the Depart-
ment of Biocatalytic, Biomedical, Biomolecular,
Bioseparations, Chemical, and Nanotechnological
Engineering say..."

N: "My mother always said to let the smallest one
go first and you don't get much smaller than 10 9
meters, so it should be the Department of Nano-
technological..."

Ch: "Enough already-don't push your luck! Now,
all in favor of..."

Ernie: "Whoa, Chuck-have you forgotten Mother
Earth?"

Ch: "Say what?"


E: "Saving lives may be important, but nothing is
more important than saving the planet, and the
environmental engineering program in this depart-
ment is second to none in its dedication to..."

Ch: "Yeah, yeah... and what could be sexier than sav-
ing Mother Earth?"
E: "Just what I was going to say."

Ch: "OK, but this is it, gang. My final offer to you
is the Department of Biocatalytic, Biomedical,
Biomolecular, Bioseparations, Chemical, Environ-
mental, and Nanotechnological Engineering -take
it or leave it. All in favor say..."

D: "You know, that's kind of an awkward name."

Ch: "Oh really-I hadn't noticed. So are you offer-
ing to drop Biomolecular to help us solve this
problem?"

D: "Of course not-you can't begin to count the
graduate students you'd lose by dropping Bio-
molecular. I was thinking, though-nobody here
really does anything you could call chemical
engineering, do they?"

E: "Hey, she's right.. .and we got rid of the last of our
unit operations equipment in the undergraduate
lab to make room for Ned's scanning electron mi-
croscopy experiment and Morrie's heart catheter-
ization demo."

M: "Besides... students don't seem to have much use
for chemical engineering anymore."

S: "That's for sure-the latest Roper poll had chemi-
cal engineering and pig-lagoon maintenance tied
for 247th place in job desirability rankings."
Ch: "Well, I guess that settles it. All in favor of be-
coming the Department of Biocatalytic, Biomedi-
cal, Biomolecular, Bioseparations, Environmental,
and Nanotechnological Engineering say aye."

All: "Aye!"
Ch: "Done! I'll have Patsy order our new letterhead
stationery immediately."
C: "Hey Chuck, dropping chemical won't cause a
problem with ABET, will it?"

Ch: "Nah. As long as we can find someplace to slip in
the Gibbs-Duhem equation, we're cool." 1


All of the Random Thoughts columns are now available on the World Wide Web at
http://www.ncsu.edu/effective_teaching and at http://che.ufl.edu/~cee/

Chemical Engineering Education










1 =1 outreach


BIOMEDICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL


ENGINEERING FOR K-12 STUDENTS


SUNDARARAJAN V. MADIHALLY AND ERIC L. MAASE
Oklahoma State University Stillwater, OK 74078
One problem facing the United States is a declining
number of students interested in an engineering
major.11 Between 1992 and 2002, the percentage of
high school students expressing an interest in engineering de-
creased significantly.'2' In addition, U.S. students demonstrate
a lack of preparedness in math and science.3' To address these
issues, a number of programs have been initiated throughout
the country in which high school teachers are retrained, or
students are exposed to science and engineering through
summer outreach programs. [4-7
The College of Engineering, Architecture, and Technology
(CEAT) at Oklahoma State University (OSU) has developed
a multidisciplinary, weeklong, resident summer academy for
high school students called REACH (Reaching Engineer-
ing and Architectural Career Heights). The primary goal of
REACH is to provide factual, experiential information to all
participants, increasing their knowledge in the various fields
of engineering, architecture, and technology. Another goal
involves increasing the number of students from underrep-
resented groups studying these disciplines. The academy is
designed to help students make individual career decisions,
with the intention of attracting them to engineering careers.
Participants are primarily junior or senior high school stu-
dents. In the 2005 program, nearly 70% of the 30 students (18

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2006
Fall 2006


female and 12 male) were from groups under-represented in
engineering, architecture, and technology (such as females,
Hispanics, and Native Americans).
Each academy begins with a recreational activity such as
rock climbing or camping so that participants get to know each
other. Afterwards, participants get exposure to engineering


Eric L. Maase is an adjunct lecturer of
chemical engineering at Oklahoma State
University. He received his B.S. in chemi-
cal engineering from the University of
Maryland, his M.S. in chemical and petro-
leum engineering from Colorado School of
Mines, and his Ph.D. from Oklahoma State
University in 2004. His research interests
are teaching methods, computer model-
ing, thermodynamics, and bio-related
engineering.
Sundararajan V. Madihally is an assis-
tant professor of chemical engineering at
Oklahoma State University. He received
his B.E. from Bangalore University, and his
Ph.D. from Wayne State University, both in
chemical engineering. He held a research
fellow position at Massachusetts General
Hospital/Harvard Medical School/Shriners
Hospital for Children. His research interests
include stem-cell-based tissue engineer- .-
ing and the development of therapies for
traumatic conditions.










disciplines including civil and environmental; architectural, electrical, and computer; technology; biosystems and agricultural;
mechanical and aerospace; industrial; and chemical and biomedical/biochemical. These disciplines are taught using a modular
approach by instructors from each specialty. Hands-on projects are tailored to high school students. During the week participants
are also exposed to the engineering industry through a plant tour. At the conclusion of the week, students give a presentation
describing their experience at the academy in front of their peers,
parents, and teachers.


TABLE I
Bioengineering Module Schedule
Initial Survey
9:00 -10:00 Overview and Introduction
10:00 -11:40 Experimentation
10:20 -10:50 Lab Tour I
10:50 -11:20 Lab Tour II (15 students)
11:45 1:15 Lunch break_
1:30 1:45 Wrap up the experiment
1:45 2:00 Prepare for the presentation
2:00 2:45 Presentations (5 min each group)
2:45 3:15 Summarize/questions
Final Survey

2005 BioModule REACH Pre-S

Name: What is your long term c
Please provide appropriate replies to each of the following questions.
1. Have you thought of going to medical school? Y

2. Have you thought of becoming an engineer with focus on biotechono

3. What is the confidence in saying you know Basic Biology and Molecu
0 10% 0 30% 0 50% 060% 0 70% 0 90%
Courses taken:

4. What is the confidence in saying you know Biochemistry and Biotech
0 10% 0 30% 0 50% 0 60% 0 70% 0 90%
Courses taken:

5. What is the confidence in saying you know Humnan Physiology Immu
0 10% 0 30% 0 50% 0 60% 0 70% 0 90%
Courses taken

6. What is the confidence in saying you know Fluid Mechanics, Statics,
0 10 0 3% 0 3 0 50% 0 60% 0 70% 0 90%
Courses taken

7. How much do you know about the corn syrup added in the many ofth
0 10% 0 30% 0 50% 0 60% 0 70% 0 90%

8. How much do you know about enzymes and degradation?
O 10% 0 30% 0 50% 0 60% 0 70% 0 909

9. Do you know any prosthetic devices that one of your friends or relate

10. Do youknow anew field calledTissue Engineering? YES or 1


This paper focuses on use of a new module at the 2005 academy,
in which students were introduced to biomedical and biochemical
engineering. This was the last module in the series. The primary
goal was to expose students to various activities in bioengineer-
ing. Additional goals included teaching students good research
methodology and presentation skills. The activities for the day and
scheduled events for the module (Table 1) included an introductory
presentation, a laboratory tour, and experimental work. In these ac-
tivities, both deductive and inductive learning styles were used8-'-1
to maximize teaching effectiveness and successful completion of
the module goals.

STUDENT PRE-ASSESSMENT
After being informed about the scheduled events for the module
and their activities for the day, students
survey were asked to complete a one-page sur-
vey (Figure 1). Of 10 questions on the
career goal? survey, two were about interest in a bio-
engineering career or attending medical
Fs or NO school. The eight remaining questions
required students to self-assess their
logy? YES or NO confidence levels of knowledge in vari-
ous topics: biological (basic biology and
dar Biology? molecular biology); medical (biochem-
0 100% 0 Don't know istry and biotechnology, human physi-
ology, immunology, and genetics); and
engineering (fluid mechanics, statics,
nology7 and electrical circuits). Results of the
O 100% 0 Don't know
first two questions showed that 19 of the
students expressed interest in medical
ology, Genetics? school and 10 in a bio-based engineer-
S100% 0 Don't know ing. In the self-assessed confidence level
in biological, medical, and engineering
topics (Figure 2), average values varied
andElectrical Circuits? from 36% (25%) to 56% (26%). The

0 100% 0 Don't know only significant difference in confidence
levels between male and female students
was in the engineering sciences. In the
e juices you drnk? more specific bio-related engineering
0 100% 0 Don't know questions on the uses of corn syrup
and enzyme-dependent degradation of
biopolymers, the average confidence
0 100% ODon'tknow level was 33%. In questions on the
yes use List. awareness of prosthetic devices and tissue
engineering, 12 students could name vari-
NO Ous prosthetic devices and nine had some
knowledge of tissue engineering.


Figure 1. Pre-assessment survey form.


Chemical Engineering Education










PRESENTING AN OVERVIEW AND
INTRODUCTION TO BIOENGINEERING
After completion of the survey, the next event initially ap-
peared as an introductory presentation. But its intent instead
was as a tool to initiate conversation with the students.1"4
The presentation began with a discussion of five major top-
ics in bioengineering, i.e., physiologic systems modeling,
prosthetic devices, tissue engineering, drug delivery, and
biotechnology. Using an interactive presentation approach,
instructors drew attention to practical applications students
could have observed in society and asked students to pro-
vide their knowledge and awareness of the topics. Further,
students were encouraged to ask questions. This approach
was beneficial in that instructors were able to make students
comfortable while providing new information on biomaterials
and bioengineering.
The discussion on modeling physiological factors included
two examples. The first involved measuring lung volumes
and modeling thoracic forces. The example was Lance
Armstrong's success in Tour de France competitions, thereby
connecting students with a real-life event. The other example
involved modeling the dialysis process, and students were
informed they would see an entire dialysis unit during the
laboratory tour.
In discussing prosthetic devices, the need for artificial organs
was introduced by a chart describing the deficit of available
donors. To encourage participation, students were asked about
their knowledge of individuals with artificial limbs, hearing
aids, pacemakers, and contact lenses (the most likely device
with which an audience member would have direct experi-
ence). Further, they were asked, "How do they work?," and
"What is the need?" This
was done to overcome 100%
possible student reluc-
90%
tance to participating in a
the discussion. The final c 80% -
portion on prosthetic de- .
U 70%
vices dealt with artificial ID
heart valves, covering the 60%
progression of research 50%
and use from mechanical "
valves to bioprosthetic 40% -
valves, and the difference 30% -
with tissue-engineered Q-:
valves. a 20% -
The basic concepts in W 10% -
tissue engineering were < 0%


then introduced using
examples of currently
available artificial skin
products and their manu-
facturers. After exposing


students to other identifiable products, the question posed
was: "How do we engineer such products?" In order to show
the engineering principles, controlled drug delivery devices
were considered. Questions such as: "What happens when a
person takes Tylenol?," and "Why does that person need to
take pills repeatedly?," served as a basis for pondering better
drug-delivery methods. Further, figures of nicotine patches
initiated a discussion on the importance of biological factors
(half-life, absorption, and metabolism) vs. physiochemical
factors (dose, solubility/reactivity/pH, stability) in drug de-
livery. In addition, characteristics of traditional oral dosing
(cyclic concentrations) and more desirable constant (continu-
ous) drug delivery concepts allowed a short discussion of
chemical diffusion.
Drug delivery served as a link to discussing digestive
physiology and enzymes. To introduce this topic, randomly
selected students were asked to read the content list on several
empty soft drink containers. The most common ingredient,
high-fructose corn syrup, was identified on all containers. Stu-
dents were asked about the need for corn syrup, creating some
discussion on the sweetness, solubility, and production cost
of the syrup. This led to discussion on reactor design and the
chemical process for obtaining corn syrup. A comprehensive
engineering process diagram for complete corn wet milling
was presented,151 emphasizing the importance of acid hydro-
lysis or enzymatic degradation. The discussion concluded by
introducing a specific experiment students would conduct
examining enzyme (and acid) degradation of starch.

HANDS-ON EXPERIMENT
For a hands-on experiment, students were asked to study
enzyme-mediated or acid hydrolysis of potato starch. Students


Figure 2. Student pre-assessment: science and engineering knowledge by gender.


Fall 2006




































Figure 3. Different groups pulverizing potatoes.


were split into groups of five. Each group was pre-selected to
be from differing high schools, and balanced by gender with
three females and two males. The low-budget experiment is
straightforward, as students either mash cooked potatoes or
cut raw potatoes to place in a water bath. Enzyme (a-Amy-
lase) or acid is added, and the solution is mixed, maintaining
a constant temperature. In presence of the enzyme or acid,
starch hydrolyzes to smaller sugars. The presence and amount
of starch in a sample can be measured using the iodine-clock
reaction-in which the abundant presence of starch is indi-
cated by the fast appearance of blue color; reduced presence
delays the appearance of blue color; and complete degradation
of starch into glucose is indicated by the loss of blue color.
Digestion and saliva reactions having already been discussed
in the overview, the background consisted of a short (one-
slide) presentation on the importance of carbohydrates (e.g.,
immediate source of energy for the body), and various sources
of carbohydrates, including rice, corn, wheat, and potatoes.
Other information included types of sugars (granulated sugar,
maple sugar, honey, and molasses), and more specifically,
simple sugars (fructose and fruit sugar) and double sugars
(sugar cane, sugar beet, maltose or malt sugar, and lactose
or milk sugar).

The experiment was conducted so that students had to take
an active role in developing and clarifying experimental pro-
cedures.I161 A brief experimental protocol, with instructions
regarding volumes of water, directions to use the enzyme or
acid, and the solution temperature, was provided to students.
286


The detailed protocols with complete instructions
were deliberately not given while critical direc-
tions were provided. Furthermore, although each
team had the same experimental task, each group
was given a unique experimental condition, so
that the influence of temperature, mixing, and
substrate-size on reaction rate could be discussed.
Variables included the amount of potato used,
whether it was baked or unbaked, mashed or
cut, the temperature (30 C, 50 C, or 70 C),
and either enzyme or hydrochloric acid. Potatoes
were purchased from a local supermarket, while
a-Amylase (enzyme) was purchased from Sigma
S Aldrich Co. An iodide-clock reaction kit was
from Universe of Science, Inc. Experiments were
conducted in 500 mL or 1000 mL conical flasks
and each group was equipped with a hotplate/
magnetic stirrer, thermometer, and pH strips. Each
group was told to record initial potato weight and
solution pH, and to take samples at regular inter-
vals to measure starch content. Baked potatoes
needed to be mashed, and unbaked potatoes cut
into small pieces using a kitchen knife.
Students enjoyed this part of the work as an
easy means of team participation (Figure 3). Each
group had 20 minutes to get experiments under way before
laboratory tours began.

LABORATORY TOUR
Each experimental group was split, with half of the class
(15 students) accompanying an instructor on a laboratory tour
while the other half stayed to continue experimentation. After
the first tour, the students exchanged places. Each laboratory
tour was scheduled for 30 minutes.

In the laboratory tour, students were taken to an undergradu-
ate instructional laboratory containing various unit operations.
While emphasis was given to a packed bed reactor containing
a resin enzyme, other equipment included a heat exchanger
skid, bioreactor assembly, dialysis, absorption column, and
a two-phase flow pipe assembly. A demonstration running a
two-phase flow of water and air was conducted, including
discussion of computer interfaces and control valves. Students
liked the demonstrations, and asked a number of questions
regarding the computer interface.

ORAL PRESENTATIONS

After a lunch break, during which experiments continued, the
students returned to conclude their experiments. Each group
was asked to present the experimental observations/outcomes
as a team. They were given 10 minutes preparation time.
During this recess, they were told the presentation should
be a group effort, all members should be respectful to other
Chemical Engineering Education










group members, and the audience should ask questions. Each
group was allowed five minutes to present its report, including
question-and-answer sessions.

In the first group, the two male members monopolized
the presentation, with the three female members only par-
ticipating during the question-and-answer portion. The initial
group also provided no introductions of group members or
motivation(s) for experimental work. Prior to the beginning
of second presentation, instructors gave immediate feedback
on presentation strategy and reminded the students about the
required equal participation from all group members. This
method of immediate feedback to influence presentation be-
havior was followed for all presentations. Further, instructors
solicited additional critiques from the audience so the entire
class could become a source of feedback on presentation style
and effectiveness. The instructors ensured their remarks were
neither admonishing nor overly negative.

Subsequent group presentations continued to improve.
The second group correctly followed initial instructions by
introducing all team members, and allowing them to actively
participate. Presentations from each group improved overall,
but students had difficulty adequately reporting experimental
results. Furthermore, none of the teams mentioned conclu-
sions and recommendations for future investigations. Inter-
estingly, one group that performed the experiment similar to
another group reported that significantly more starch remained
in their solution, but failed to make any comparison with the
other team. Neither group initiated any discussion or ques-
tions of the results. Instructors had to ask students for possible
explanations of the differences between each outcome.

EFFECTIVE PRESENTATIONS,
EXPERIMENTAL PRACTICE AND
PROCEDURE, AND CRITICAL THINKING
After the presentations, an overview of what needed to be
included in the presentation was discussed. Some of the points
addressed included:
C Why did you do this experiment?
C What was your experimental set-up?
C What were your results?
C What conclusions can be drawn?
C What future plans would you suggest?

The students were commended for excellent performance
in explaining their setups so the discussion would be viewed
positively rather than as criticism. Using the completed
experiments as a guide and while their own presentations
were still fresh, a discussion on the attributes of an effective
presentation was initiated. Using questions stated above, the
instructors introduced a general presentation format including
introduction, methodology, results, conclusions, and recom-
Fall 2006


mendation sections. Although this presentation outline is
not robust, it does incorporate many features of an effective
presentation.I"7 The students seemed to enjoy participating
in a discussion of effective presentations from the unique
perspective of devil's advocate, with a recent presentation
from which to consider specific needs, individual shortcom-
ings, and desirable improvements.
The instructors also opened a general discussion on ap-
propriate experimental practices and procedures. Specific
questions included were:

C Why did the pH drop in the experiments where acid was
used?

C What happened to the pH of the solution?

C What happened to the temperature?

C Did it take a long time at the end of the experiment?

C Did you keep track of time it has been sitting in the
container?

C Did the viscosity of the slurry create mixing problems?
C What happened when you added potatoes to a pre-mea-
sured volume of water?

C What problems arose?

These questions allowed discussion of the criteria neces-
sary for good experimental procedures, the problems that
may occur in experimental setups, and necessary data to
provide adequate and sufficient information for experimental
analysis. In addition, there was an opportunity to emphasize
the ethical aspect of reporting. One of the teams had forgot-
ten to include a magnetic stirring rod, and thus their solution
was not well mixed, resulting in less degradation of starch
than expected. They were honest about it, and the other
teams thought that was a humorous mistake. This allowed
a discussion of how no experiment is really a failure, every
experiment provides information, and, in this specific case,
mixing matters a great deal.
Other aspects of the experiment encouraged critical think-
ing. Some students spilled excess water from their beakers
because they did not account for additional volume when
adding potatoes. In other experiments, uniform heat distri-
bution was an issue. These complications were built into
experimental protocols, and the students needed to identify,
overcome, and otherwise consider these issues to accomplish
their experimental work.
Together with the hands-on experiment, students were
shown a 5 liter bioreactor with a jacketed heater and control-
lable agitator during the laboratory tour. Explanations were
given about how bioreactors work. Reexamining these factors
after their experiments emphasized the differences and simi-
larities between the two setups, and the need for engineering
design of equipment.
287










9 PROBLEMS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

g At the end of the module, a general discussion was initiated
7 _asking students to comment on their experiences during the
module. Principal comments included:
a) Confitsion from switching of operators taking care of
5 experiments
4
b) Need for proper equipment to mash potatoes or cut
3 them into smallpieces
2 ^c) Desire to have an experiment where the product is a
1 take-home substance (not some form of potatoes that
0 are discarded)
Medical School Bioengineering d) Better experimental information and more specific
experimental protocols
Had Not Considered / Encouraged to Pursue
e) A prize for the best performance to motivate their work
Considered and More Encouraged
With each suggestion, the instructors provided immediate
Figure 4. Module effect on students' perceptions feedback and an explanation of the current module structure
of available career options. in order to elicit further group discussion. For example, team
splitting can cause confusion due to lack of communication,
but may not necessarily be a problem. It is very
common in industrial practice to have three
2005- ioodule REACH Outoe-Sucontinuous shifts, and personnel must effec-
Name: What is your long term career goal? tively communicate between shifts. One way
Please provide appropriate rep lies to each of the following questions. to promote communication may be to include
a 10-minute break between the tours with
1. Didthe module encourage you to conrier attendig medical school? YES or NO specific instructions given to update group
members regarding experimental status.
2. Are you more interested in becoming an engineerfocusrig on biotechnology? YES or NO
In order to save time, one could use a
3. Whtisyour confidence level insayigyou utmdrstandthe importance of comsyrup? household food processor to mash or chop
O 10% O30% O 50% O 60% o O 70% O 90% O 100% O Don't know
the potatoes. The incomplete nature of the

4. What isyour levelofunderstandingofthe concepts behindcontrolleddrugdelivery systems? experimental protocols has already been
O 10% O o% 0 50% 0606/a 0 70% 0 90% O 100% O Don't know mentioned, and the students were provided
some reasoning for the lack of information.
5. What is your confidence level in saying you understand the needforprosthetic devices? Their reactions were noted on this approach
O 10% 0 30% 0 50% 06M0 0 70% 090% 0 100% ODon'tknow in future classes.

The suggestion of a prize for the best group
6. Whatisyour confidence level in sayigyou undrstanddlhow to properlypresent experimentaldata? was interesting, as the students had been
O 10% 030% 0 50% 060% 0 70% O 90% O 100% O Don't know conditioned over the previous week by many
of the REACH faculty to expect such forms
7. How much ddyou like the introductory lecture? of praise. While considering the suggestion,
0 10% 030% 0 50% 0 60% 0 70% 0 90% 0 100% O Don'tknow the current module seems best served by not
including prizes as a form of reward. Overall,
8 Howmuchdidyouenjoythelaboratorytouranddidyou learn anything? the students enjoyed the desired give-and-
O % O 20% 0 40% 0 60% 0 70% O s0% 0 90% 0 10% take interaction encouraged by the instruc-
tors, and were open in their suggestions for
9. How much didyou like the experiment? YES or NO
improvements.
00% 020%/o 0 40% 0 60% 0 70% O 80% 0 90% O 100%
OUTCOME ASSESSMENT
10 Please name the topic you most enjoyedin this module.
To understand the effectiveness of the mod-
ule on student learning, an outcome assess-
Figure 5. Post-assessment survey form. ment was provided (Figure 5), similar to the
88 Chemical Engineering Education










pre-assessment survey. To measure the main objectives of the
module, i.e., the influence on students' perspectives of careers
in bioengineering and medical engineering/science, the first
two questions in the pre-assessment were repeated. Out of 30
students, a large number (-2/3) had already expressed interest
in attending medical school (pre-assessment data). Therefore,
no specific conclusions could be drawn regarding an increase
in the student desire, awareness of medical school, or career
options (Figure 4). By comparison, an increase in student
awareness of bioengineering as a career was observed, as four
students indicated a new interest in the bioengineering field.
This suggested that the module was successful in introducing
bioengineering.
Students were also asked to rank their confidence in the
importance of corn syrup, for which the overall confidence
doubled (Figure 6) with a large group of students indicating
more than a 70% confidence level. When asked about their
confidence in drug delivery and prosthetic devices, the aver-
age was 63% ( 13%) and 76% ( 20%), respec-
tively, for each category. Further, students indicated
a 74% ( 22%) confidence level in experimental data ,
presentation. Without a pre-assessment question re-
garding their abilities in data presentation, however, Cat
the effectiveness of this aspect of the module could Gen
not be assessed, although one student did mention Pros
that this portion of the module was his/her favorite Arti
experience. Exp
The final assessment questions gauged overall Lab
interest in the introductory presentation materials, No
l ft t n ht dA


conclusions regarding differences between male and female
responses is indeterminate given the small sample population,
the overall nature of students' responses indicated both signifi-
cant interest and engagement with instructors and presented
materials. Further, a larger number of female students than
male students indicated the experimental portion was the most
enjoyable topic. The trend was opposite the previous response
to the specific question, in which male students ranked their
enjoyment of the experiment at 54% compared to female
students at an average of 47%.

SUMMARY

The module introduced K-12 students to the field through
interactive presentations, discussions, experimental proce-
dure (hands-on work), and a tour of working engineering
laboratories. The presentation was designed to encourage
students' questions while presenting five major aspects of
the bioengineering field. Within each primary topic were


TABLE 2
What was the topic you most enjoyed?" by category and gender
egory M F Total %
eral Lecture 2 1 3 10
thetic Devices 2 4 6 20
ficial Organs 4 3 7 23
eriment 2 6 8 27
Tour 1 1 2 7
Response 1 3 4 13


1IUU1 o. l y LUr, -n s11 -lJ
on experiment, for which re-
sponses were -50% ( 28%). 12 -
A follow-up, open-ended ques-
tion asked for students' favorite 10 -
experience during the day, with
responses grouped into six gen- 0
eral categories (Table 2). Sur- c o
prisingly, nearly 53% indicated -"
the lecture materials as their *
favorite events (one student 6
noted that the afternoon lecture o
on effective presentations was
the most interesting, and said E 4
it included information that Z
he/she had never been shown
or heard previously).
The introductory materials
are likely the most interesting, -
simply due to the interactive
nature of the presentations in
relation to identifiable products
and aspects of importance in
students' lives. While drawing Fig
Fall 2006


6Q e e- 8Q e
CD CD Cm CD CD C=
C- S Mo t RL co

Student Response


CD CD
Co M D


lure 6. Student responses to "Importance of Corn Syrup."
289











secondary investigations that delved into both scientific and
engineering aspects. All topics incorporated design aspects to
draw on personal experiences with bioengineering products,
processes, and research. Students enjoyed the presentation
style and topics, and were able to connect much of the mate-
rial to their own experiences and knowledge. Based on the
immediate responses, the overall module was successful in
influencing their interest in bio-based engineering. To better
understand the effectiveness of the module, however, long-
term follow-up studies are needed examining the students'
career choices. The assessments also need to be redesigned
to more effectively measure module features and goals.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We would like to thank Oklahoma State Regents for Higher
Education, Conoco-Phillips, NASA, and OSU CEAT for
financial support and Eileen Nelson for help with the survey
analysis and manuscript preparation.


REFERENCES
1. The Science and Engineering Workforce: Realizing America's Potential,
National Science Board, August (2003)
2. Learning for the Future: Changing the Culture of Math and Science
Education to Ensure a Competitive Workforce, Committee for Eco-
nomic Development, May (2003)
3. "Bayer Facts of Science Education IX: Americans' Views on the Role
of Science and Technology in U.S. National Defense" (2003)
4. Olds, S.A., D.E. Kanter, A. Knudson, and S.B. Mehta, "Designing
an Outreach Project that Trains Both Future Faculty and Future
Engineers," Proceedings of the American Society for Engineering
Education, Nashville (2003)


5. Knight, M., and C. Cunningham, "Draw an Engineer Test (DAET):
Development of a Tool to Investigate Students' Ideas about Engineers
and Engineering," Proceedings of the American Society for Engineering
Education, Salt Lake City (2004)
6. Chandler, J.R., and A. Dean-Fontenot, "TTU College of Engineering
Pre-College Engineering Academy Teacher Training Program,"
Proceedings of the American Society for Engineering Education, Salt
Lake City (2004)
7. Douglas, J., E. Iversen, and C. Kalyandurg, "Engineering in the K-12
Classroom: An Analysis of Current Practices & Guidelines for the
Future," ASEE Engineering K12 Center, November (2004)
8. Kolb, D.A., Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learn-
ing and Development, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1984)
9. Honey, P., and A. Mumford, "The Manual of Learning Styles," Maid-
enhead, Homey (1986)
10. Bransford, J., A. Brown, and R. Cooking, How People Learn: Brain,
Mind, Experience, and School, National Academy Press, Washington
D.C. (1999)
11. Donovan, M.S., J.D. Bransford, and J.W. Pellegrino, "How People
Learn: Bridging Research and Practice," National Research Council
(1999)
12. Felder, R., and L. Silverman, "Learning and Teaching Styles In Engi-
neering Education," Eng. Ed., 78(7), 674 (1988)
13. Felder. R., and R. Brent, "Understanding Student Differences," J. Engr.
Ed., 94(1), 57 (2005)
14. Baker, A., P. Jensen, and D. Kolb, Conversational Learning: An Expe-
riential Approach to Knowledge Creation. Quorum Books, Westport,
CT (2002)
15. "Chapter 9, Introduction to AP42, Volume I, Stationary Point and Area
Sources," US EPA, 5th Ed. (1995)

16. Watai, L., A. Brodersen, and S. Brophy, "Designing Effective Engi-
neering Laboratories: Application of Challenge-Based Instruction,
Asynchronous Learning Methods, and Computer-Supported Instru-
mentation," American Society for Engineering Education Annual
Conference & Exposition, Salt Lake City (2004)
17. Hendricks, W., Secrets of Power Presentations, Career Press, Franklin
Lakes, NJ (1996) 0


Chemical Engineering Education


290










jfL_ classroom


PRESSURE FOR FUN:

A Course Module for Increasing ChE Students'

Excitement and Interest in Mechanical Parts



WILL J. SCARBROUGH AND JENNIFER M. CASE
University of Cape Town Rondebosch, South Africa 7701


Chemical engineering as a profession grew in the late
19th century out of collaboration between chemists
and mechanical engineers working to develop large-
scale industrial processes. To this day chemical engineers
working in the process industries are closely involved not
only with particular chemical processes and unit operations
such as reactors and separators that can accomplish these
processes-but also with mechanical devices such as pumps
and valves that enable the transport of materials. We have
found, however, that skill or even familiarity with mechani-
cal components is often undeveloped in first-year chemical
engineering students, even though they are often the best and
brightest science and mathematics students at the high school
level. The first- and second-year curriculum is often theory
intensive, and the practical exposure that does take place is
more in the traditional science subjects, complemented by
some experimental work using basic pilot-scale unit opera-
tions. By the time they reach their senior year, we find many
students, although academically relatively successful, still
struggle to connect reality to theory. In addition, a large seg-
ment of the class is relatively intimidated by the prospect of
working in a plant environment.
In the Department of Chemical Engineering at the Univer-
sity of Cape Town (UCT) we have been considering for some
time how best to modify our curriculum to afford first-year
students better exposure to mechanical aspects of chemical
engineering. It was fortuitous that the opportunity arose to
design-specifically for chemical engineering students-a
five-week module that would form part of the mandatory
first-year mechanical drawing course. Previously this part of
the course dealt with the interpretation of chemical engineer-
ing flow diagrams, but recently it was decided to move this
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2006
Fall 2006


material to the second year to integrate it more closely with
core chemical engineering courses.
In discussion among a group of academic staff, we decided
that our objectives for this module would not be primarily
focused on detailed content knowledge, but rather on changing
students' attitudes toward this aspect of chemical engineering.
These were the objectives for the new module:
> Get students excited about mechanical things.
> Develop students' ability and confidence to explain how
things work (and the desire to learn more).


Will J. Scarbrough is currently a postgradu-
ate in the Engineering Education Research
Group within the Department of Chemical
Engineering at the University of Cape Town.
He was appointed as lecturer/course orga-
nizer for the duration of this module. Previous
experience includes work in inspiration and
excitement through the robotics programs
of F.I.R.S. T., a nonprofit based in the United
States. He received his A.B. in engineering
sciences with a minor in education from
Dartmouth College in 1998. His research
interests include science and technology education, inspiration, and
classroom knowledge networks.
Jennifer M. Case is a senior lecturer in the
Department of Chemical Engineering at the
University of Cape Town, with a research
focus on educational development. Her
early career experience was in teaching high
school mathematics and science, and she
subsequently completed an M.Ed. in science
education at the University of Leeds and a
Ph.D. at Monash University. Her research
interests are in student learning, with a focus
on improving the success of students from
nontraditional backgrounds. She lectures in
the junior undergraduate program.










Help students start building a sense of "mechanical
intuition."
Provide familiarity with equipment diagrams and hard-
ware.
Develop students'ability to link the "real world" and
theory.

This is a rather different set of objectives compared to what
chemical engineering lecturers usually design courses around.
How do you explicitly design a course module for excitement?
This paper describes how we went about meeting this cur-
riculum development challenge. The new course module ran
for the first time in 2004, and is now an established feature
of the first-year B.Sc. (chemical engineering) program at
UCT. In this paper we focus on the process of setting up and
evaluating the course during its first year.

APPROACH TO COURSE DESIGN
We found a useful rationale for running this type of course
in the classic work by Woolnough"l1 regarding practical work
in school science. He argued against the widely held belief
that practical work should be done for the sake of theory, and
that conceptual understanding will be an automatic outcome
of successful practical work. Instead, he suggested that practi-
cal work is better understood as having its own end, either to
develop skills, to develop the ability to conduct investigations,
or to simply get a feel for important physical phenomena. The
module we developed fits clearly in the latter category, with
the chief aim being to allow students physical interaction with
the mechanical aspects of chemical engineering.
In recent times a number of innovative courses have been
reported on that offer such hands-on experiences to first-year
chemical engineering students. For example, Barritt, et al., 121
describes a highly successful multidisciplinary project that
involved small groups of students in the design, manufacture,
and operation of a pilot-scale water treatment plant. Moor, et
al.,[31 also ran a multidisciplinary project for first-year engi-
neering students, this time involving the design of a reverse
osmosis system, with the collection and interpretation of
experimental data from an existing rig. Willey, et al.,[41 de-
signed a first-year project that involves experimentation with
a sequential batch-processing system. Most of the courses
reported in past literature, such as those described here,
incorporate relatively sophisticated design projects that run
over a long duration. Our aims were more limited as we had
a large class and a short period of time. We therefore decided
to focus on our primary objectives, which were centered on
changing students' attitudes toward working with mechani-
cal artifacts.
To meet these objectives, we adopted a particular teaching
approach that included small class size, group work, and
excellently trained facilitation. Additionally, the activities
were planned to give students a sense of accomplishment and
292


encourage experiential learning and unsolicited experimen-
tation. In traditional terms, this resulted in a combination of
practice and some tutorial in one class period, without the use
of a lecture period. Assessment was based on a combination
of individual and group assignments, and contributed 10%
toward the final mark for the mechanical engineering course
in which this module was located.
By concentrating on the primary objectives of the course,
content topics that suited these objectives could be chosen and
a rapid movement between topics undertaken if necessary.
We chose to use valves, pumps, pressure, and flow regimes
in our activities. The intended objectives, however, remained
focused on excitement and learning how to explain, rather
than on content.
Class and Group Size
The class of nearly 100 students was split into five groups
of approximately 20 students, and each group was allocated
a weekly 85-minute session over the duration of the five-
week course module. Each session was attended by two or
three tutors and the course organizer. Each class made use of
student teams ranging in size from two to four members. In
most cases students continued with the same team for two
successive classes. An introductory chemical engineering
course running concurrently had given the students sufficient
group-work practice, so this aspect posed no difficulty by the
time they began this module in the second semester of their
first year.
Facilitation by Tutors
One vital component of the course was facilitation by tutors.
Students were asked to operate unlike they had in any previous
school or university situation. Such unfamiliar expectations
occasionally caused students to balk at requests. Additionally,
with little experience in a potentially intimidating situation,
students often had no idea where to begin or how to proceed
after achieving a portion of the activity. Our solution was to
handpick tutors and train them in facilitation (also known
as coaching). The primary role of the tutors was to closely
observe student teams and offer guidance when necessary.
The tutors were mainly graduate students who were selected
based on previous experience with tutoring and an observed
ability to patiently facilitate the group process. Tutors were
given a short manual on facilitation and practiced a short role-
play illustrating typical situations. Detailed tutor notes were
provided for each class including a time schedule, jobs for
specific tutors, likely problems student teams would encoun-
ter, and topic-specific reference material for tutors to use as
prompts while facilitating. One example is the specific list of
difficulties when taking apart and re-assembling a hand pump.
Before each week's class, the tutors met to go over the activity,
practice it themselves, and discuss the reference materials for
the topic and facilitation tactics for the activity.
The environment within the classroom was also an impor-
Chemical Engineering Education










tant consideration. From the initial description of the module
to the manner of facilitation, students were told they had
freedom to experiment, try things out, or "fiddle." The class
organizer and tutors made a careful effort throughout the
module to create an environment "safe" for experimentation,
in particular for the students most nervous about physical
parts and equipment.

THE ACTIVITIES

Each week students were presented with a different activity,
with the final "challenge" taking place over two weeks. The
assessment was integrated throughout the module.


Industry Parts

The introductory class consisted simply of pairs of students
taking apart large-scale components from industry and attempting
to intuitively figure out the item's main purpose and interpret the
mechanical design. Students were allowed the time to construct
their own ideas. An important element was giving each student
practical experience with physical parts. Most of the parts were
nothing more complicated than valves, yet the novelty of valves
weighing 20 kg was clearly demonstrated with an initial com-
ment, "This is a pump, right?" After the activity, a handout with
information on each type of valve was given. During class we
tried not to criticize or correct students' ideas, but instead encour-


A'r in ms rsAn -Vo be removec4
kc rejltit sqt-ep c U~clZ until
wa ter en+ers -Ve c9 i-cder-

Figure 1. Explanation of hand pump by student pair.
The illustrated mechanism is an example of a reciprocrating pump,
a type that is also used to extract H,O and oil from under the ground.


age each pair to complete
the line of thinking them-
selves. For assessment
purposes, each student
was required to submit
rough notes and a written
explanation of how the
mechanical part worked.

Hand Pump
At the start of the sec-
ond class each pair of
students was given a
cheap, transparent pump
and bottle: the kind
often used for liquid
hand soap. Starting with
observation, continu-
ing with disassembly
and reassembly of the
pump, and ending with
directed experiments,
pairs needed to discern
the working principles
of the pump. Each pair
was instructed to create
a one-page diagram ex-
planation of the physics
principles underlying
the pump's operation,
and how those prin-
ciples are utilized by
the mechanical parts.
This report counted as
30% of the assessment
mark for the module.
An example of a par-
ticularly good student
response is reproduced
in Figure 1.


Fall 2006


DiagrTam ?. Pump Cycle Step 1


Diagram_1: Importacnt Features


4 Ball rYoves up dciue
to d Lapkce0-:ent of
cvmp-eld c r
voave-iopenS
Piston compresses
sprii-g
Cylinder volurne dec r e~
0 cau,'in9 i-iberr pre&ssurep
to rure
L eAernol aIbrvQcaph e
pressure
S-cllrymoves down
due to ccoi,-:emS'cn
Svolre closes


Diagram 4n Pump Cycle step-


Diagram 3


Reapply forc.-









I Valve Zc-o ;e- -
nor"nevw" -flui cian
enter +he cjlinimder





























































Figure 3. Students participating in "The Challenge."

Within this class and the whole module, students were
faced with the need to come up with their own answers. When
students asked questions about the pump, tutors-rather than
provide the answer immediately-encouraged students to "try
it and see what happens." Similar to other activities in this
module, free experimentation was required to discover the
workings of the mechanism.
Creating a detailed explanation of a relatively simple pump
allowed students to build confidence by being able to complete

294


Figure 2. "The Challenge"
rig setup.




a task to a reasonable degree
of satisfaction. Only in written
feedback afterward were stu-
dent misconceptions noted.


victor for 10mm tubing Mechanical Drawings
16mm tubing to 1/2" thread In a reverse from previous
10mm tubing to 1/2" thread exercises, the next class began
or tubing with sets of mechanical draw-
amp ings for six types of pumps.
Each group of three or four
students had a limited amount
of time to work backwards
from the drawings for two
types of pumps to discover
how the pumps operate. The
previous hands-on experience
with a reciprocating piston
pump (the hand pump) provid-
ed a base for interpretation of
the pump drawings. Partway
through the class, students
were rearranged into new
groups, such that no one in the new group had encountered
the same pumps. Then, in a very restricted time, each student
was required to explain the pumps they knew to others.


THE CHALLENGE
The final project was a bit of a competition and a fun way
to complete the experience. We named it "The Challenge."
For both the fourth and final classes, a custom-designed but
inexpensive rig was provided for each team of three to four
students. A diagram of the rig is shown in Figure 2. For the
first day, students were required to complete a preparation
worksheet and then experiment with the rig to demonstrate
concepts relating to pressure, head, laminar and turbulent
flow, and Reynold's number.

For "The Challenge," students worked to control the motion
of a bead in a system of pipes using pressure changes (Figure
3). Students had to experiment with the equipment to learn the
effect of closing and opening particular valves. The activities
were carefully designed to be initially difficult, but easily ac-
complished through effort, teamwork, and practice.

Many unplanned learning points arose as a result of the
physical activities. For example, as dye flowed through the
system of pipes, with water and dye flowing from the lower
left to the upper left of a "D" shape, a trickle of dye left the

Chemical Engineering Education


Key
16mm ID clear tubing
o o 10mm ID clear reinforced tubing
--- 5mm black irrigation tubing
adaptor from 5mm tube to large tube
Ball, gate or globe valve

T connector for 16mm tubing


1 T conne
adaptor
adaptor
clamp fi
hose cl
' i -syringe










main flow to slowly swirl in the loop on the right of the "D."
A student remarked that they had no idea any water would
leave the main flow.
The final competition was run as a sporting event with
team names, an elimination tree structure, stopwatches to
record times, and a prize for the winning team. A video cam-
era captured the event and projected it onto the big screen
behind the two competing teams. The other students cheered
as their classmates competed (shown in Figure 4). For as-
sessment purposes each team was required to submit a brief
report on "The Challenge," and this counted as 30% of the
module grade.

EVALUATION OF THE MODULE
From simple observation of students during the module, it
appeared that they had gained both confidence and interest
in finding out how mechanical things work. In particular, we
noticed students' enthusiasm with the activities and high levels
of verbal interaction within student teams as they sought to
explain what they had deduced. We needed, however, to find
a way to more systematically gauge the success of the activity
in meeting its objectives, and therefore administered a short
Likert-type survey to all students before and after the module.
Five statements were provided, and students were asked to in-
dicate their response on a scale of (5) strongly agree, (4) agree,
(3) uncertain, (2) disagree, or (1) strongly disagree. Ninety-two
completed question-


"intuition," began with the greatest "disagree" of all questions
at 15%. After the module this was reduced to 3%, although
this question retained the largest number of "uncertain" re-
sponses, with 27%-indicating students who did not have the
confidence to claim mechanical intuition in the other ques-
tions. The combined responses "agree" and "strongly agree"
to "intuition" moved from 42% to 73%. Student interest in
how things work, Question 3, started high and had nowhere
to go; this group of students began and remained a curious


Figure 4. The winning group celebrates.


naires were returned.
Table 1 (next page)
shows the change
in the mode (most
frequently reported
response) for each
statement. A more
complete indication
of the range of re-
sponses is given in
Figure 5.
The largest change
observed was ques-
tion 1, "explain";
most students (51%)
began not knowing
if they could explain
how a mechanical
object works to some-
one else or not. The
responses "agree"
and "strongly agree"
moved from 38%
before the module
to 97% after the
module. Question 2,
Fall 2006


Box & Whisker Plot: Response
--r ----- _.


Before After
Question 1 'explain'


Before After
Question: 2'intutlon'


Before After
Question: 3'find our


stronglyagree -

ag ree

uncertain

dsagree

stronglydsagree
Median
Before After Before After m 25%-75%
QuesUtio 4'exmtcd QuOstion: 5'theo M-Max
Figure 5. Box and Whisker plot of survey respMin- ax


Figure 5. Box and Whisker plot of survey responses, N = 92.


































bunch. Question 4, "excited," saw only a small decrease
(3%) in those "uncertain" about working with mechanical
things. Nevertheless, the combined responses "agree" and
"strongly agree" moved from 67% to 78%. For the final ques-
tion, "theory," the combined responses "agree" and "strongly
agree" moved from 64% to 86%.


CONCLUSION
In this paper we have reported on the development and
evaluation of a new module in our chemical engineering
undergraduate program, which has the primary objective of
getting students excited and confident about working with
mechanical artifacts. It has been shown that the module
successfully increased students' confidence and perceptions
in their ability to work with and explain mechanical things.
It was also great fun for the students, tutors, and the course
organizer. The module is now fully established in the program,
and makes an important contribution to the development of
degree outcomes.

It was a fairly radical move to design a course module
around attitudinal objectives (excitement, etc.) rather than


the more conventional content-based design. Even with the
current focus on outcomes-based design, this is still often
a neglected aspect of curriculum development in chemical
engineering. We hope that the descriptions of the activities
given in this article will encourage others to try them out with
their first-year students.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The tutor Ryan A. Stevenson was invaluable for his help
in brainstorming creative ideas for this module. The support
and encouragement of other colleagues in the Department of
Chemical Engineering at UCT is also acknowledged.

REFERENCES
1. Woolnough, B.E., "Exercises, Investigations, and Experiences," Phy.
Ed. 18, 60-63 (1983)
2. Barritt, A., J. Drwiega, R. Carter, D. Mazyck, and A. Chauhan, "A
Freshman Design Experience: Multidisciplinary Design of a Potable
Water Treatment Plant," Chem. Eng. Ed., 39(4), 296 (2005)
3. Moor, S.S., E.P. Saliklis, S.R. Hummel, and Y.C. Yu, "A Press RO Sys-
tem: An Interdisciplinary Project for First-Year Engineering Students,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 37(1), 38 (2003)
4. Willey, R.J., J.A. Wilson, W.E. Jones, and J.H. Hills "Sequential Batch
Processing Experiment for First-Year Chemical Engineering Students,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 33(3), 216 (1999) 0


Chemical Engineering Education


TABLE 1
Modal Responses by Students, Before and After Module, N=92
# Question Reference Mode Mode A
in text Before After
1 I can explain how a mechanical "explain" uncertain agree T
object works to someone else.
2 I have an intuition that allows "intuition" uncertain agree T
me to understand mechanical
things.
3 I am interested in finding out "find out" strongly strongly o
how things work. agree agree
4 I am excited to do a practical "excited" agree strongly T
or job that involves mechanical agree
things.
5 I can connect chemical engi- "theory" agree agree o
neering theory to an image
in my mind of what actually
happens.










Wla curriculum


BIOMOLECULAR MODELING

in a Process Dynamics and Control Course


JEFFREY J. GRAY
Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD 21218
The field of chemical engineering has always been
dynamic and evolving, from the field of applied in-
dustrial chemistry at the beginning of the last century,
through the revolutionary reformulation of unit operations
and engineering science in the 1960s, to the extensive use
of computing and the incorporation of biology over the last
two decades.11 This latter change is now maturing. Chemical
engineering departments around the world are changing their
names and refocusing their missions to include the fundamen-
tal science of biology.

BRINGING IN BIOLOGY
There are significant reasons biology is needed in engineer-
ing curricula. Most prominently, the human genome was
declared finished (at least within a reasonable tolerance) in
2001,[2 3] and thus the full "parts list" of this organism and
many others is now available. High-throughput and systems
biology tools are extending this "parts list" to provide com-
plex views of biological systems at the molecular and cellular
level.14.5] Concurrently, the pharmaceutical industry is creating
new drugs and products using new biotechnology (cell culture,
protein engineering, genetics). These advances rely on tools
from the fields of micro- and nanotechnology, and allow us to
measure and affect processes on the biological-length scales
(Angstroms to microns). Biological systems are complex,
robust, specific, and tightly regulated. Many engineers are
interested in mimicking these qualities in designed materials,
processes, devices, and systems. In addition, we are poised
to discover new insights into biology by bringing chemical
engineering perspectives to the field.


Changes at JHU
At Johns Hopkins University (JHU), the Department of
Chemical Engineering has long had a significant focus on
biologically relevant problems, due in part to the proximity
and diffusion of ideas from our prominent medical school
and biomedical engineering department. Of our 12 full-time
faculty, six have research programs primarily focused on
biological problems (protein engineering, cell engineer-
ing, drug delivery, etc.), and most of the remaining six
have projects with biological implications or applications
(nanofluidics and nanodevices, self-assembly). Therefore,
as discussions within the chemical engineering community
began to suggest that renaming departments could be useful
to the field, we immediately implemented such a change at
Hopkins. Our department officially became the Department
of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (ChemBE) in fall
2002. We also recognized that to be a department including
biomolecular engineering, it is necessary to train students,
both undergraduate and graduate, in this field. In practice,
many Hopkins students were already receiving such training,

Jeffrey Gray is an assistant professor of
chemical and biomolecular engineering at
the Johns Hopkins University. He has won
a Beckman Young Investigator award and
the 2006 Johns Hopkins Alumni Association
Excellence in Teaching Award. His research
interests are in protein docking, therapeutic
antibodies, protein-surface interactions, and
allostery.


Copyright ChE Diision of ASEE 2006


Fall 2006










as research ideas naturally diffuse into traditional
courses and new electives. We resolved to criti-
cally examine our undergraduate curriculum and
revise course requirements and topics within all
core courses to realign the undergraduate cur-
riculum with our new mission.
The context and purpose for these new courses
can best be summed up by the new JHU ChemBE
mission statement:
Our mission is to define and educate a new
archetype of innovative and fundamentally
grounded engineer at the undergraduate
and graduate levels through the fusion of
fundamental chemical engineering prin-
ciples and emerging disciplines. We will
nurture a passion for technological innova-


tion, scientific discovery, and leadership in existing
and newly created fields that cuts across traditional
boundaries. We will be known for developing lead-
ers in our increasingly technological society who are
unafraid to explore uncharted engineering, scientific,
and medical frontiers that will benefit humanity.

The Department of Chemical and Biomolecular
Engineering offers courses and training toward a B.S.
degree in chemical and biomolecular engineering.
This discipline is dedicated to solving problems and
generating valuable products from chemical and bio-
logical transformations at the molecular scale. The
undergraduate program emphasizes the molecular
science aspects of biology and chemistry along with
engineering concepts essential to developing com-
mercial products and processes. By selecting an ap-
propriate concentration or by free electives, students
can prepare for a professional career path or for
further study in chemical, biomolecular, or a related
engineering field as well as medical, law, or business
school. In the tradition of JHU, many undergraduates
are also involved in research-working closely with
faculty and graduate students in research groups.

Changes in the Needs of a Dynamics and Control
Course
With the departmental decision to change the undergradu-
ate curriculum, I contemplated questions about the process
control course. What skills and abilities of "dynamics and
control" are also applicable to biomolecular and nanoscale
systems? What new skills and abilities must be taught? How
are biological dynamical systems similar to and different
from traditional chemical process systems? How will our new
graduates differ from their predecessors? Similar questions
were discussed at a recent series of national workshops.M6'
As additional background has been added to the curriculum,
some have even suggested that dynamics and control be
298


BOX 1
Specific Course Objectives
1. Create dynamic models for chemical and biological processes, including
single-variable and multivariable, linear and nonlinear systems.
2. Integrate dynamic models to determine system behavior over time using
Laplace methods, state space methods, or numerical methods.
3. Design control schemes to control system behavior.
4. Analyze dynamics and control with frequency approaches.
5. Analyze nonlinear dynamics with phase portraits and numerical methods.
6. Meet environmental and safety objectives through process control.
7. Use computational tools for system analysis.
8. Operate an industrial control system on a lab-scale process.
9. Collaborate in small working teams on research, analysis, and design.
10. Present work orally and in written reports.


BOX 2
Topics Covered
1. Motivation for modeling and control
2. Modeling and system representations
3. State space models and linearization
4. Introduction to MATLAB
5. Pharmacokinetic modeling, biomolecular modeling, and
the Central Dogma
6. Laplace transforms
7. Transfer functions
8. First, second, and higher-order systems
9. Poles and zeros, time delay
10. Empirical model formulation
11. Control of gene expression, lac operon
12. Feedback control
13. PID controllers
14. Closed-loop transfer function and stability
15. Large-scale biosimulation (guest lecture)
16. Controller tuning in industry (guest lecture)
17. Frequency response
18. Bode and Nyquist approaches, robustness
19. Introduction to nonlinear dynamics
20. Lotka-Volterra model, limit cycles, chaos
21. Current topics in the literature

eliminated.171 The specialty, however, is important in biology
because biological processes are dynamic, nonequilibrium,
and tightly integrated and regulated as a system.7]'
There are several main ways in which biological systems
differ from traditional chemical process systems. First, chemi-
cal process systems are human-created with known parts
and components. Biological systems evolve without human
design, and they involve many parts and components that we
are still discovering. Indeed, the fact that we are rapidly dis-
Chemical Engineering Education










In traditional process dynamics and control courses, students learn about

sensors, transducers, and actuators. In the new ChemBE curriculum, students

must also examine the structures of biomolecular control components.


covering these parts and their functions now (via the genome
project and various micro- and nanoscale analyses) is one of
the main reasons this topic is important today. In the study of
dynamics of biological systems, the task is often to reverse
engineer the workings of the system, whereas in a chemical
process the task is to build a model from the components and
parts of a known process.1l'
Secondly, biological systems are almost always nonlinear.
Enzymatic reactions and active transport channels follow
Michaelis-Menten kinetics, allosteric proteins have multistate
behavior, and intracellular and tissue transport can be super- or
sub-diffusive due to the structured environment. Biological
systems are often complex, involving multiple length scales
from the atomic and molecular through the tissue, organ-
ism, and even ecosystem level. The range of time scales is
equally broad, from the fluctuations of protein molecules over
nanoseconds to ecological changes over decades. Biological
systems incorporate multiple regulatory loops including feed-
back, feedforward, and more complex control schemes.
These issues are not limited to biological systems: real
chemical processes also exhibit the challenges of interplay
between multiple length and time scales, nonlinear underly-
ing equations, and multiple interacting control loops. Newer
textbooks treat these subjects judiciously in later chapters."-"
The utility of these topics to both biological and chemical
process systems provides additional motivation to include
these ideas in a new dynamics and control class.
Recent chemical engineering textbooks have begun to
include biological problems and examples. For example,
Bequette's text includes modules on a biochemical reactor and
pharmacokinetic models for diabetic patients.'9J Ogunnaike
and Ray also include problems from pharmacokinetics, bio-
technology, tissue engineering, and physiology (see problems
in chapter 6 on dynamics of higher-order systems). 110 Seborg,
Edgar, and Mellichamp now include a section on fed-batch
bioreactors.11I
In this article, I detail the ways in which I have modified
the traditional process dynamics and control course to create
a new course, "Modeling, Dynamics, and Control of Chemi-
cal and Biological Processes." The course is semester long,
(13 weeks) with two 1.5-hour lectures and one hour-long
discussion per week. It is typically taken during the senior
year. It is required for ChemBE majors, and typically 25% of
the students are nonmajors or part-time students from local
industry. Below, I discuss the changing nature of students
Fall 2006


observed in the new chemical and biomolecular engineering
program, and detail the revisions in the syllabus, the new
modules in the course, and the modifications of traditional
modules. Student learning in the course is assessed through
homework, exams, and a short presentation. The usefulness
of course changes is assessed through a survey of alumni. I
conclude with my opinions on the material that remains omit-
ted and prospects for the future of this course in the chemical
engineering curriculum.

STUDENTS
The chemical and biomolecular engineering students at JHU
reflect the changing interests of the new generation entering
the field, perhaps to an extreme given Hopkins' reputation
in life sciences. These interests are reflected in previous
courses taken by the students. Figure 1 (next page) shows
the percentage of students enrolled in the dynamics class
who had taken biology subjects. ChemBE majors are listed
separately (nonmajors include biomedical engineering stu-
dents who have taken an engineering "Molecules and Cells"
course). Biochemistry became a mandatory course for the
graduating class of 2007, but the classes before that showed
interest in the subject, and in 2005 77% of the students had
taken biochemistry. This background allows me to move more
quickly through the Central Dogma of Biology and assume
some knowledge from the students about the role of DNA,
RNA, and proteins in the cell.
Hopkins students are highly involved in research. In fall
2005, 65% of students participated in research at some time
during their tenure at Hopkins and, of those, 55% were
involved in biologically related research. This background
elevated the level of discussion on current engineering topics
as well as on the basic elements of biological systems, and what
those components do. In applying these course modifications
at other schools, it may be necessary to take into account the
background of the students.

SYLLABUS AND OBJECTIVES
Boxes 1 and 2 show the course objectives and the list of
topics covered in the course from the syllabus. In a broad
sense, the course is structured similarly to a traditional process
control course: the first third of the course covers dynamics,
and the second third feedback control. Both of these parts
are infused with biological examples and systems, includ-
ing a couple of special lectures. The last third of the course
includes a new section on nonlinear dynamics, and a week
299










to review current modeling and control literature. Students
are graded on the traditional tests and homework, and in ad-
dition they perform an experimental lab exercise and present
a literature article to the class. Box 3 shows the biologically
related learning objectives and those from the novel nonlinear
dynamics segment.
Traditional components
Many portions of a traditional chemical process control
course have been retained. In particular, the philosophies of
model building, Laplace approaches, transfer functions, block
diagrams, feedback control, and frequency response methods
are essential. Many traditional concepts can be reinforced
through biological examples from recent literature, e.g., Mark
Marten's lab has recently characterized experimental fre-
quency responses of fungal cell cultures.""2' Some of the more
advanced and specialized treatments for process analysis,
however, have been trimmed to make additional time for new
concepts. Topics now minimized include in-depth treatments
of model identification, discrete control, control methodologies
such as ratio control and cascade control, and, regretfully, modem
control approaches such as model-based controllers.

MAJOR REVISIONS
The major subject material additions to the course are as
follows.

Central Dogma
The Central Dogma of Biology concerns the flow of infor-
mation in a cell. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is transcribed
by the polymerase into ribonucleic acid (RNA), and RNA
is translated by the ribosome into protein. Proteins perform
functions within the cell. Therefore, control in a cell can be
exerted at any of these levels-interfering with transcription,
translation, or the protein function directly. These systems can
be modeled as a set of chemical reactions in a cascade, for ex-
ample, r rantlaon(t) = k ranslationC oee(t-0)C nRNA(t-6) expresses
the rate of translation of mRNA into protein, given the concentra-
tion of the polymerase and the mRNA transcript, and assuming
a transcription time delay of 0. These concepts are accessible to
students with training in kinetics and reactor design.

Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Approaches
Organism models have been built using so-called phar-
macokinetic approaches. In this approach, each tissue in the
body (e.g., brain, liver, muscle) is modeled as a one-, two-, or
three-compartment chamber. The compartments are assumed
to be either diffusion-limited or reaction-limited, and are
modeled accordingly as an ideal system. The bloodstream is
modeled as a single (or double) well-mixed compartment that
connects the other organs together. The set of compartments
can be distilled into a system of coupled ordinary differential
equations. These models are most often used to characterize
the movement of a drug or specific set of molecules around
the body.113141
300


Population Balances
Molecular, cellular, and ecological systems can be con-
sidered by writing population balances, or balances on the
number of cells, molecules, or organisms in the system:
dN/dt = bN-dN+F, where N is the number of units in the
system, b and d are birth and death rates, and F represents
additional fluxes in or out of the system. These types of models
can describe the number of molecules inside a cellular organ-
elle, the number of cells in a culture or tissue, or the number of
organisms in an ecosystem, for example. Such equations are
intuitive for a chemical engineering student with training in
mass and energy balances, and they quickly allow the student
to work problems with these applications. An example study
in literature is the measurement of leukocyte birth and death
rates using tracing with the BrdU label.151
Control of Gene Expression
One of the most fundamental ways in which a cell exhibits
control is by changing which genes are expressed, thus what
proteins exist to carry out function.1"6' Gene expression is
controlled by transcription factors -proteins that bind to the
DNA and either recruit the polymerase or prevent the poly-
merase from initiating a transcript. The transcription factors
themselves are often switches activated by the presence of a
small molecule or a covalent modification. For example, the
bacterial lac operon system regulates cell metabolism to use
either glucose or lactose as a carbon source."61 When lactose
is present, allolactose (a lactose derivative) binds the lac re-
pressor, which can then dissociate from the DNA, allowing
transcription of the genes encoding the proteins necessary for
metabolizing lactose. In the presence of the more efficient
glucose feed, however, additional proteins are regulated via
the level of cyclic AMP to ensure metabolic energy is not
wasted producing lactose-metabolizing machinery. Keasling's
group has constructed a straightforward dynamic model of the
system,"7' and their article makes an excellent demonstration
of a nonlinear, multivariable system that can be simulated
using concepts, skills, and tools that students learn in the first
third of a dynamics and control course.
Furthermore, this segment allows me to introduce a descrip-
tion of the biomolecules involved in the process. In traditional
process dynamics and control courses, students learn about
sensors, transducers, and actuators. In the new ChemBE cur-
riculum, students must also examine the structures of biomo-
lecular control components. PowerPoint slides available from
publisher W.H. Freeman8IJ (Chapter 31) show the structures
of molecules involved in control loops in both prokaryotic
and eukaryotic cells, from the small molecule effectors, to
allosteric proteins and transcription factors, to the ribosome,
polymerase, and histones. With this biomolecular background,
students were challenged in a homework assignment to imag-
ine other nanoscopic implementations of a control scheme. In
addition, they could predict the effect of perturbations to the
existing biological system (see Box 4, page 304).
Chemical Engineering Education










Large-Scale Biosimulation
The scope and impact of biosimulation is demonstrated by
examining recent simulations by a biotechnology startup com-
pany that has published details on its models. Entelos (Daly
City, CA) employs chemical engineers along with biologists,
biochemists, and computer scientists to create realistic disease
models. We review the idea of taking a model to the extreme
using a case study of Entelos arthritis model that simulates a
rheumatoid joint. The model has hundreds of state variables
and captures cell population dynamics, biochemical mediator
production, cell contact of synovial fibroblasts, macrophages,
T-cells, and chondrocytes. Ultimately, the model predicts
cartilage degradation."9' With this example,
we can discuss issues of numerical accuracy, 100%
experimental validation, and uncertainty.

Additional Dynamical Analysis Topics 90% -
Several fundamental skills underlie biologi- 80% -
cal dynamics problems and need extra empha-
sis in our course. Fortunately, some of these 70% -
same concepts, such as state-space representa-
tion, multivariable systems, and treatment of 60%-
coupled nonlinear evolution equations, have
50% -

Figure 1: Biology-course background of 40%
students in the dynamics and control class
(ChemBE 409) and for ChemBE majors 30% -
only. The number of students surveyed in
the course each year was 21, 29, and 31 20% -
in Fall 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively.
The number of ChemBE graduates was 12, 10%-
15, 14, 20, and 15 for the classes of 2002-
2006. Students were not surveyed about 0% -
their academic background in Spring
2002-2003, and data for majors are from
student transcripts.


Fall 2006


become more important in industrial process control and
are more emphasized in recent textbook treatments. While
Laplace approaches create elegant analytic treatments, tools
such as MATLAB and Mathematica make it easy to represent
vectors and create state-space representations. In particular,
Bequette s recent textbook'91 incorporates the state-space
viewpoint from the beginning, introducing eigenvalue/eigen-
vector treatments immediately and later developing Laplace
treatments. With computational tools it is a straightforward
generalization to include multiple variables for inputs and
outputs in a dynamic model. These approaches culminate in
a unit on nonlinear dynamics at the end of the semester.


BOX 3
Nontraditional Learning Objectives
Basics of Modeling:
1. Derive population model equations for cells, molecules, or organisms.
2. Describe the approach of pharmacokinetic modeling.
3. Derive dynamic equations for compartment-based models of living organisms.
Biomolecular Control Systems:
4. Describe the lac operon as a model biomolecular control system, using standard biochemical
terms properly (operator, inducer, repressor, promoter, gene, constitutive, induced).
5. Identify standard control features in biomolecular control systems.
6. Describe post-translational control strategies and eukaryotic strategies such as chromatin packing.
7. Describe the Central Dogma of Biology and identify steps where control can be achieved.
8. Imagine new complex control arrangements using biomolecular components.
9. Create complex dynamic models for biomolecular systems.
Introduction to Nonlinear Dynamics:
10. Analytically solve for a trajectory given initial conditions and a linear system.
11. Sketch a phase portrait for a linear system or for some nonlinear systems.
12. Identify attractors, repellors, centers, and saddles from the eigenvalues of a system near a fixed
point.
13. Identify or define limit cycles and describe qualitative features of chaotic trajectories.
14. Integrate a nonlinear system using a numerical tool.











BOX 4
Sample Homework and Exam Problems in (passive diffusion of metabolite)
Biomolecular Modeling and Control

Population balances and compartment models M M,
Develop a very simple dynamic model for an E. coli cell consuming (receptor
a metabolite. Ultimately, we would like to know the instantaneous detects Mo M P
rate of hydrolysis of the metabolite in response to dynamic changes and signals -E
in the metabolite concentration outside of the cell. The hydrolysis production
occurs via an enzyme that is itself regulated (through molecular of E)
mechanisms in the cell) by the external metabolite concentration.
Assume the concentration of the metabolite outside of the cell, M,,, can be manipulated dynamically. The metabolite diffuses passive-
ly into the cell. Inside the cell, an enzyme hydrolyzes the metabolite (concentration M) into a product. The enzyme (concentration E)
is expressed in response to the presence of the metabolite: a receptor on the outside of the cell detects the external concentration of
metabolite and signals this information to the transcription and translation machinery; for simplicity, ignore those intermediate steps
and assume that the rate of enzyme production in the cell is instantaneously proportional to the concentration of the metabolite out-
side the cell. The enzyme cannot diffuse through the cell membrane and it degrades naturally with a rate of r, = kdE. The metabolite
kME
hydrolysis obeys Michaelis-Menten kinetics, r = --- .
Km,+M
a. Identify the state variable(s). input and output variable(s), and parameterss.
b. Derive model differential equations to describe this system. Define any physical parameters you need as necessary.
c. Put your model in deviation variable form and linearize if necessary. You might want to replace combinations of constants
with new parameters (ca, P, etc.) to make your mathematics convenient, particularly as you proceed to (d).
d. Find a transfer function from the input to output variable(s).

Pharmacokinetics

a. Sketch a process flow diagram for a pharmacokinetic model that includes a one-compartment pancreas and a two-compart-
ment brain, connected by the bloodstream.
b. Formulate model equations for the concentrations of a molecule in the brain. Assume the flux between the two compartments
is membrane-limited and passive, i.e., n = -h(C,-C,,/R). Also, assume the molecule is degraded in the inner compartment with
first-order rate constant kd'.
c. Identify input and output variables and parameters for the most general model. Is your system under-, over-, or exactly deter-
mined?
Control of gene expression (adapted from Berg"6")
A common genetic manipulation employed by cell biologists is to delete a particular gene. What would be the effect of deleting the
following genes in the lac repressor system?
a. lacY b. lacZ c. lad
Nonlinear dynamics (adapted from Beltrami210,3U)
Consider this coupled system of ODEs:

x, =9x, 1- 2x,x,
9,

2 =6x, 1 X xx,

This model captures the dynamics of two competing populations of bacteria. The two state variables represent the population densi-
ties of each species, the terms in parentheses cap the growth due to limitations in the environment, and the xx, terms represent the
negative effects of competition between the species.
a. Show that the point [ 5 2 ]' is a fixed point.
b. Linearize the system around [ 5 2 i] and find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Is this point stable or unstable? Is the local
behavior oscillatory?
c. Sketch the phase portrait for this system, including the four fixed points, nullclines, and representative trajectories. Note that
since the variables represent population densities, values less than zero are not meaningful and can be omitted from the dia-
gram.
d. Briefly interpret the physical meaning of the phase portrait.

302 Chemical Engineering Education










BOX 5
Selected Literature Articles, Including Biological Dynai
Suitable for Review in an Undergraduate Course

"Robust control of initiation of prokaryotic chromosome replication: essential
for a minimal cell," S.T. Browning, M. Castellanos, and M.L. Shuler. Biotech
575 (2004)
"Containing pandemic influenza at the source." I.M. Longini Jr.. et al., Scien
(2005)
"A computational study of feedback effects on signal dynamics in a mitogen-
kinase (MAPK) pathway model," A.R. Asthagiri and D.A. Lauffenburger, Bi
17, 227, (2001)
"A mathematical model of caspase function in apoptosis." M. Fussenegger, J.
Varner, Nat. Biotechnol.. 18, 768 (2000)
"Robust perfect adaptation in bacterial chemotaxis through integral feedback
Y. Huang, M.I. Simon and J. Doyle. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.. 97(9), 4649 (2000


Nonlinear Dynamics
Since biological systems are often highly nonlinear and
can exhibit multiple steady-state and non-steady-state be-
havior, I have incorporated a unit on nonlinear dynamics. We
begin with a set of nonlinear, multivariable, dynamic equa-
tions, such as x, =x,;x, =-x, -sinx, which represents
large motions of a forced pendulum. Approaches to these
problems are covered in Beltrami's short treatise120" and in
a later chapter in Coughanowr's text."211 We discuss the idea
of multiple steady states and how a complete analysis must
capture a system's behavior throughout the phase space. We
then discuss fixed points (steady states), eigenvalues (poles),
and eigenvectors, relating them to concepts introduced in the
Laplace framework. We proceed to sketching phase portraits
of attractors, repellors, saddles, and centers. Finally, we dis-
cuss means of constructing a complete nonlinear phase portrait
using nullclines and linear analysis of all fixed points. 201 The
Lotka-Volterra problem,1221 which is usually associated with
predator-prey ecological phenomena but was, in fact, first
derived to analyze chemical kinetics, provides an excellent
and tractable in-class problem for students to work in small
groups. Discussion leads naturally to concepts of robustness
(or the lack thereof in the Lotka-Volterra system) and the idea
of a limit cycle. In discussing limit cycles, we review oscil-
lating chemical systems such as the Belousov-Zhabotinsky
reaction,123.241 for which chemical kinetic models have been
constructed."251 Finally, in a homework assignment, students
integrate the Lorenz equations to plot trajectories for a strange
attractor based on the Rayleigh instability of a liquid heated
from below.1261 In the final class discussion we contrast this
system's dynamics with that of less strange attractors, and we
identify the defining characteristics of chaos (i.e., sensitivity
to initial conditions, trajectory returning infinitely often albeit
erratically to the neighborhood of each point on the attrac-
tor, fractal microstructure, and noisy power spectra). With a
background in dynamics developed throughout the semester,
students have an appreciation for the oddities of a chaotic
system and a strange attractor, and are able to speculate how
Fall 2006


a chaotic dynamical system might be
controlled.
mics,
Literature Review
l considerations Student understanding of modeling,
i. Bioeng.. 88(5). dynamics, and control concepts in the
application to biological systems can be
immediately assessed by an oral literature
activated protein review. In small groups of two to three
otechnol. Prog.. people, students review a current paper in
scientific literature on the subject of mod-
E. Bailey and J. eling, dynamics, and control of a chemi-

control," T.M. Yi. cal or biological process. The goals are:
) (1) to apply knowledge of modeling and
control to current applications, particularly
in biomolecular and cellular applications
for which the course has relatively few homework problems
during the semester; (2) to gain experience extracting relevant
information from primary literature; (3) to synthesize the
topics covered during the semester; and (4) to practice oral
presentation skills. Talks present the basic concepts of the
article, particularly the modeling and control aspects. Stu-
dents need to rephrase the work into standard control terms
(control objective, inputs, outputs, state variables, feedback,
feedforward, stability, robustness, etc.). Short presentations
and written summaries include basic background of the ap-



Class discussion, however, often
clarified points and helped students

recognize the motivations and

strategies employed by

each paper's authors.



plication, some details on the model or controller formulation,
and some of the results. The ambitious groups replicate some
of the work, a simplified model, or a simple extension using
MATLAB. I provide the students a list of articles in literature
(see Box 5), but students are allowed to chose articles that
interest them, and occasionally they contribute something
from a lab where they work. Overall, students demonstrate
ease in explaining the biological context of the problems and
the dynamic behavior or control systems studied. Occasion-
ally students needed help identifying proper state variables
and system inputs and outputs, and some complex models in
the literature were challenging for undergraduates to fully
appreciate. Class discussion, however, often clarified points
and helped students recognize the motivations and strategies
employed by each paper's authors. Students complete peer-
assessments of the members of their team,t271 and I evaluate










their talks, focusing on how well students learn the concepts
of dynamics and control (see Box 6).
Guest Lectures
To further broaden the perspectives heard in-class, I typi-
cally include two guest lectures per semester. One is given by
Red Bradley and Lochlann Kehoe of GSE Systems, a local
control systems company. These engineers give an industrial
perspective on the challenges and complexities of modeling
and controlling real chemical process systems. The second
guest lecture is given by someone involved in biological
modeling, and differs each year. Two recent speakers were
Prof. Kenneth Kauffman of the University of California at
Davis who discussed optimal control in cellular systems,i281
and Dr. Saroja Ramanujan of Entelos, Inc., who discussed
large-scale biosimulation of arthritis.l191 Guest lectures include
a question-and-answer period, and student comprehension of
the main topics is evaluated through short-answer, closed-
book exam questions.

ASSESSMENT
Students complete a mid-semester survey and an end-of-
semester course evaluation, both of which include questions
about the usefulness of the biological content in the course.
Opinions are mixed, as some students enjoy the new perspec-
tives while others are clearly uncomfortable with the biologi-
cal topics (data not shown). Resistance has decreased in recent
years, probably due to a combination of changed expectations
and improved teaching of the material due to past feedback.
To assess the long-term effectiveness of the class, alumni
from the first three offerings of the course were surveyed
online. Respondents included students from the graduating
classes of 2003 through 2005 currently in industry, graduate
school in ChE or ChemBE, graduate school in other fields,
or professional school. The survey and responses are shown


in Box 7. Overwhelmingly, the alumni felt that the addition
of biological material helped make the course more practical,
and prepared them for their future careers. They also felt that
the course did not suffer from lack of traditional content; this
view was shared by an alum working in the process control
industry and another in a graduate process control research
group. Anecdotally, one alumnus reported that he had vigor-
ously opposed the integration of biology into the curriculum
in his end-of-semester course evaluation and senior exit
interview, but that he had experienced a complete change of
heart and now is thankful for his biologically related training.
Another alumnus, now a graduate student in biological and
environmental engineering, noted that the study of the lac
operon was specifically useful to converse with biologists and
understand gene regulation. Interestingly, 62% reported that
knowledge of biology is essential to their current positions,
and only one respondent reported that biology is not at all
needed in his or her current position.

OUTSTANDING TOPICS

Much of dynamic biological phenomena requires math-
ematical treatments that are significantly different from
traditional, lumped-parameter, continuous, or deterministic
treatments. In particular, many molecular systems are
known to be stochastic and require treatments such as
Fokker-Planck and Langevin equations.1291 Recently, one
institution has developed a Web module to teach stochas-
tic modeling using batch reactor models and oscillating
reactions.13t1 I have, so far, been unable to introduce this
material, but perhaps as students enter with more biology
background the time devoted to introducing biological
concepts can be redirected toward these novel treatments.
One possibility to free up additional time might be teach-
ing dynamics entirely in state-space form and removing


BOX 6
Literature Review Evaluation of Team Oral Presentations

Assessment Questions
(50%) Have the students demonstrated understanding of the major concepts of modeling, dynamics and control (modeling, solution
of dynamic equations, nonlinearities, control, feedback, stability, robustness, validation, phase behavior, etc. as
appropriate for the article)?
(10%) Have the students demonstrated an understanding of computational tools?
(20%) Have the students demonstrated excellent communication skills?
(10%) Have the students demonstrated an ability to work together in teams?
(10%) Are the students aware of contemporary issues, the impact of the work, and any professional or ethical responsibilities?
Components
Technical Content (65%):
Introduction (15%): Problem and goals explained clearly to audience
Model description (15%): Origin of model explained and significant assumptions detailed, model explained clearly to
audience
Results (15%): Most significant results shared clearly, results teach something to the audience, control schemes are useful
Other Design Criteria / Broader Impacts (5%): Safety, environmental, economic, biological criteria; relate work to current
knowledge in field
Reasonable responses to questions (15%)
Presentation (35%, roughly 5 points each): Overall flow and pace, organized presentation, clear and interesting slides, time limit met,
reasonable energy level, participation by all group members, creativity, clear one-page summary sheet
Chemical Engineering Education











Laplace treatments, but this could prove challenging with
the absence of appropriate textbooks.

CONCLUSIONS
This paper surveys a radical revision of a chemical engineer-
ing process control course to include new material appropriate
for chemical and biomolecular engineers. The revised cur-
riculum has excited students and provided strong preparation
for graduate school, professional school, or industry. I hope
this description of our remolded dynamics and control class
will be useful, inspiring, and perhaps help others to determine
the next step in the chemical engineering curricular evolution.
Brown has remarked that the transformation of a curriculum


can take a decade.I 61 The shift in the chemical engineering
curriculum has just begun, and we will see more changes in
the next few years.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The teaching assistants for this course over the last several
years, Tom Mansell, Aroop Sircar, Jullian Jones, and Robert
Plemons, added their perspective on biomolecular engineering
to help formulate problems and topics. I also thank former
department chair Michael Betenbaugh for encouraging me to
experiment with the content of this course. Kenneth Kauffman
generously provided insightful comments on the manuscript
and guidance on course assessment.


BOX 7
Assessment Results From Alumni Survey
Sixteen alumni responded (out of 55). Respondents came from the classes of 2003 (5), 2004 (7). and 2005 (3).
Largest responses indicated in bold.

"Rate your agreement with the following state- N/A 1-strongly 2-dis- 3-neutral 4-agree 5-strongly Response
ments." disagree agree agree Average
1. I am comfortable with my process dynam- 0% (0) 0% (0) 6% (1) 12% (2) 50% (8) 31% (5) 4.06
ics, modeling, and control background from the
Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Depart-
ment at JHU.
2. I1 feel this course has prepared me for the chal- 6% (1) 0% (0) 6% (1) 19% (3) 38% (6) 31% (5) 4.00
lenges I have encountered with modeling, dynam-
ics, and control after leaving JHU.
3. I1 feel this course shortchanged me by omitting 19% (3) 19% (3) 44% (7) 6% (1) 12% (2) 0% (0) 2.15
key concepts from classical dynamics and control.
4. The integration of biology helped to make the 6%(1) 0% (0) 6%(1) 12% (2) 31%(5) 44% (7) 4.20
concepts of the course more practical.
5. The integration of biology helped to make the 6% (1) 0% (0) 12% (2) 12% (2) 44% (7) 25% (4) 3.87
concepts of the course more intuitive.
6. The integration of biology helped prepare 6% (1) 6%(1) 0%(0) 12%(2) 31%(5) 44% (7) 4.13
me for my career or education after my B.S. in
ChemBE.
7. I1 have developed an appreciation for the 6% (1) 0% (0) 6% (1) 0% (01 62% (10) 25% (4) 4.13
challenges of analyzing complex dynamics and
regulation in biological and chemical systems.
8. I1 feel I lack a sufficient foundation from JHU in 6% (1) 25% (4) 38% (6) 6% (1) 19% (3) 6% (1) 2.40
dynamics, modeling, and control to be successful
at the types of tasks required of me in my current
position.

8 12.
7
6- What is your current position? 10 How important is biology



2 6-
1 4-
0 t I I .
Industry Graduate Graduate Professional Other 2 .
school in ChE school in school
or ChemBE other field (medical, 0
business, Not at all Peripherally Routine Essential
law, etc) relevant

Fall 2006 30.











Additional course material can be accessed at edu/courses/540.409>.


REFERENCES
1. Kim, I., "A Rich and Diverse History," Chem. Eng. Prog., 98, 2S-9S
(2002)
2. Lander, E.S., L.M. Linton, B. Birren, C. Nusbaum, M.C. Zody, and
J. Baldwin, et al., "Initial Sequencing and Analysis of the Human
Genome," Nature, 409, 860 (2001)
3. Venter, J.C., M.D. Adams, E.W. Myers, P.W. Li, R.J. Mural, and G.G.
Sutton, et al., "The Sequence of the Human Genome," Science, 291,
1304 (2001)
4. Henry, C.M., "Systems Biology," Chem. and Eng. News, 81, 45
(2003)
5. Kitano, H., "Systems Biology: A Brief Overview," Science, 295, 1662
(2002)
6. Brown, R.A., "Frontiers in Chemical Engineering Education" (Web
site), (2002-2006)
7. Edgar, T.F, "ChE Curriculum of the Future: Re-Evaluating the Process
Control Course," Chem. Eng. Ed., 37, inside cover (2003)
8. Csete, M.E., and J.C. Doyle, "Reverse Engineering of Biological
Complexity," Science, 295, 1664 (2002)
9. Bequette, W.B., Process Control: Modeling, Design, and Simulation,
Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2003)
10. Ogunnaike, B.A., and W.H. Ray, Process Dynamics, Modeling, and
Control, Oxford University Press, New York (1994)
11. Seborg, D.E., T.F. Edgar, and D.A. Mellichamp, Process Dynamics
and Control, 2nd Ed., Wiley (2004)
12. Bhargava, S., K.S. Wenger, K. Rane, V. Rising, and M.R. Marten,
"Effect of Cycle Time on Fungal Morphology, Broth Rheology, and
Recombinant Enzyme Productivity during Pulsed Addition of Limiting
Carbon Source," Biotech. Bioeng., 89, 524 (2005)
13. Gerlowski, L.E., and R.K. Jain, "Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic
Modeling: Principles and Applications," J. Pharm Sci, 72, 1103 (1983)
14. Saltzman, W.M., Drug Delivery: Engineering Principles for Drug
Therapy, Oxford University Press, New York (2001)
15. Mohri, H., S. Bonhoeffer, S. Monard, A.S. Perelson, and D.D. Ho,
"Rapid Turnover ofT Lymphocytes in SIV-infected Rhesus Macaques,"
Science. 279, 1223 (1998)
16. Berg, J.M., J.L. Tymoczko, and L. Stryer, Biochemistry, 5th Ed., W.H.


Freeman, New York (2002)
17. Wong, P., S. Gladney, and J.D. Keasling, "Mathematical Model of the
lac operon: Inducer Exclusion, Catabolite Repression, and Diauxic
Growth on Glucose and Lactose," Biotechnol Prog, 13, 132 (1997)
18. Clarke, N.D., J.M. Berg, J.L. Tymoczko, and L. Stryer, Web Content to
Accompany Biochemistry, 5th Ed. (Web site), com/biochem5> (2002)
19. Rullmann, J.A., C. H. Struemper, N.A. Defranoux, S. Ramanujan,
C.M.L. Meeuwisse, and A.V. Elsas, "Systems Biology for Battling
Rheumatoid Arthritis: Application of the Entelos PhysioLab Platform,"
IEE Proceedings-Systems Biology, 152, 256 (2005)
20. Beltrami, E.J., Mathematics for Dynamic Modeling, 2nd Ed., Academic
Press, Boston (1998)
21. Coughanowr, D.R., Process Systems Analysis and Control, 2nd Ed.,
McGraw Hill, Boston (1991)
22. Krebs, C.J., Ecology, 5th Ed., Pearson, Boston (2002)
23. Belousov, B.P., "The Oscillating Reaction and its Mechanism," Khimiya
i Zhizn, 7, 65 (1982)
24. Zaikin, A.N., and A.M. Zhabotinsky, "Concentration Wave Propagation
in Two-Dimensional Liquid-Phase Self-Oscillating System," Nature,
225, 535 (1970)
25. Field, R.J., and R.M. Noyes, "Oscillations in Chemical Systems IV.
Limit Cycle Behavior in a Model of a Real Chemical Reaction," J.
Chem. Phys., 60, 1877 (1973)
26. Lorenz, E.N., "Deterministic Nonperiodic Flow," J. Atmos. Sci., 20,
130 (1963)
27. Kaufman, D.B., R.M. Felder, and H. Fuller, "Accounting for Indi-
vidual Effort in Cooperative Learning Teams," J. of Eng. Ed., 89, 133
(2000)
28. Kauffman, K.J., E.M. Pridgen, F.J. Doyle III, P.S. Dhurjati, and A.S.
Robinson, "Decreased Protein Expression and Intermittent Recoveries
in BiP Levels Result from Cellular Stress During Heterologous Protein
Expression in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae," Biotech. Prog., 18, 942
(2002)
29. Rao, C.V., D.M. Wolf, and A.P. Arkin, "Control, Exploitation, and
Tolerance of Intracellular Noise," Nature, 231(7), 420 (2002)
30. Kraft, M., S. Mosbach, and W. Wanger, "Teaching Stochastic Model-
ing to Chemical Engineers Using a Web Module," Chem. Eng. Ed.,
39 (2005)
31. Beltrami, E.J., Mathematical Models for Society and Biology, Academic
Press, San Diego (2002) Li


Chemical Engineering Education










[M] B class and home problems


Computer-Facilitated

Mathematical Methods in ChE


SIMILARITY SOLUTION






VENKAT R. SUBRAMANIAN
Tennessee Technological University Cookeville, TN 38505


High-performance computers coupled with highly ef-
ficient numerical schemes and user-friendly software
packages have helped instructors teach numerical
solutions and analysis of various nonlinear models more
efficiently in the classroom. One of the main objectives of a
model is to provide insight about a system of interest. Ana-
lytical solutions provide very good physical insight, as they
are explicit in the system parameters. Having taught applied
math to both senior undergraduate and first-year graduate
students for five years, this author feels that students do not
appreciate the value of analytical solutions because (1) they
wrongly believe numerical methods are best used to solve
complex problems with high-speed computers, and (2) they
are not comfortable or confident doing the complicated
integrals, rigorous algebra, and transformations involved in
obtaining analytical solutions. Such solutions, however, can
be gained using various computer techniques. For example,
computer algebra systems such as Maple,11' Mathematica,j21
MATLAB,'3' and REDUCE,I4' can be used to perform the
tedious algebra, manipulations, complicated integrals, vari-
able transformations, and differentiations, etc., involved in
applying mathematical methods.


The goal of this paper is to show how Maple can be used
to facilitate similarity transformation techniques for solv-
ing chemical engineering problems. The utility of Maple in
performing the math, solving the equations, and plotting the
results will be demonstrated. For an understanding of the
physics in the problems solved, readers are advised to refer to
the cited references. For the sake of readers not familiar with
Maple, a brief introduction about Maple is given.


Venkat Subramanian is an assistant
professor in the Department of Chemical
Engineering at Tennessee Technological
University. He received a B.S. degree in
chemical and electrochemical engineering
from Central Electrochemical Research
Institute in India, and his Ph.D. in chemical
engineering from the University of South
Carolina. His research interests include
modeling, control and simulation of electro-
chemical systems including batteries, fuel
cells, hybrids, and multiscale simulation. He
is the principal investigator of the Modeling,
Analysis, and Process-Control Laboratory for Electrochemical Systems
(MAPLE lab, ).


CoprTight ChE Division of ASEE 2006


Fall 2006


The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collections of interesting and novel prob-
lems in chemical engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by
presenting a particular principle in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel home
problem, are requested, as well as those that are more traditional in nature and that elucidate dif-
ficult concepts. Manuscripts should not exceed 14 double-spaced pages and should be accompanied
by the originals of any figures or photographs. Please submit them to Professor James 0. Wilkes
(e-mail: wilkes@umich.edu), Chemical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann
Arbor, MI 48109-2136.











MAPLE
Maple"i is a computer-algebra system capable of perform-
ing symbolic calculations. Although Maple can be used for
performing number crunching or numerical calculations just
like FORTRAN, the main advantage of Maple is its symbolic
capability and user-friendly graphical interface. In a Maple
program, commands are entered after a ">". Maple prints the
results if a ";" is used at the end of the statement. This helps
in fixing mistakes in the program after a particular step, as the
results are shown after every step or command. For brevity,
in this paper most of the Maple commands are ended with
a colon (:). In general, while Maple is very useful in doing
transformations, the user might have to manipulate resulting
expressions from a Maple command to obtain the equation
in the simplest or desired form. Often, these manipulations
can be done in Maple itself by "seeing" the resulting expres-
sions. Hence, first-time users should use a ";" instead of a
":" at the end of each statement to view the results after each
command/statement. Many of the mistakes made by students
are identified and rectified easily if they replace ":" with ";" in
all of the statements. Maple can be used to perform all steps
from setting up an equation to analyzing the final plots on
the same sheet. All the mathematical steps and manipulations
involved can be performed in the same program or file. For
clarity between the Maple commands and output, all the text
describing the process or Maple commands is given within
brackets, "[ ]".

SIMILARITY TRANSFORMATION FOR
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
Similarity transformation is a powerful technique for
treating partial differential equations arising from heat,
mass, momentum transfer, or other phenomena, because it
reduces the order of the governing differential equation (from
partial to ordinary). Depending on the governing equation,
boundary conditions, domain, and complexity, the similarity
transformation technique might yield a closed-form solu-
tion, a series solution, or a numerical solution. One of the
major difficulties students encounter is that they find it very
difficult to convert the governing equation from the original
independent variables to a similarity variable. The following
examples illustrate the use of computers and software in
teaching/obtaining similarity solutions for various chemi-
cal engineering problems.


D Example 1
Diffusion/Heat Transfer in Semi-infinite Domains

Consider the transient heat-conduction problem in a slab.',21]
The governing equation and initial/boundary conditions are
expressed in Eq. (1).


Ou 02U
at ~ x2
u(x,0) 0 (1)
u(0, t) = 1 and u(oo, t) = 0
where u is the temperature, x is the distance from the surface of
the slab, t is the time, and a is the thermal diffusivity. Eq. (1) is
solved by using the transformation = x / (2, Vt). The origi-
nal partial differential equation is converted to an ordinary
differential equation in the similarity variable, q. The bound-
ary conditions for U (u in the similarity variable), are:
U(0) = 1
U(oo) = 0 (2)
The steps involved in the similarity transformation method
are illustrated below:
Typically, Maple programs are started with a "restart" com-
mand to clear all the variables. Next, the "with(student)"
package is called to facilitate variable transformations:
>restart: with(student):
>eq:=diff(u(x,t),t)-alpha*diff(u(x,t),x$2);

eq:= u(x, t) -a 9u(x, t)
at Cx

[First, u(x,t) is transformed to U(Tq(x,t)). Then, the governing
equation is converted to the similarity variable:]
>eq1 :=changevar(u(x,t)=U(eta(x,t)),eq):eq2:=expand
(simplify(subs(eta(x,t)=x/2/(alpha*t)A(1 /2),eq 1))):
eq2:=expand(eq2*t):eq2:=subs (x=eta*2*(alpha*t)A(1 /
2),eq2):eq2:=convert(eq2,diff):
[The final form of the governing equation is:]
>eq2:=expand(-2*eq2);

eq2:= dU() q+I- U (q)
di| 2 d7
[The given boundary conditions are used to solve the govern-
ing equation:]
>bcl:=U(0)=1l
bcl: =U(0)=1
>bc2:=U(infinity)=0;
bc2: =U(o) = 0
>U:=rhs(dsolve({eq2,bcl ,bc2},U(eta))):
>U:=convert(U,erfc);
U: = erfc (TI)
>u:=subs(eta=x/2/(alpha*t)^(1/2),U);
u := erfc 2 o

[The solution is plotted in Figure 1, which shows how the
temperature, u, penetrates to progressively greater distances
as the time, t, increases:]
>plot3d(subs(alpha=0.001 ,u),x=1 ..0,t=500..O,axes=bo
xed,labels=[x, t,"u"],orientation=[-60,60]);
Chemical Engineering Education



























Figure 1. Dimensionless temperature distribution
in a semi-infinite domain.

Example 2
Plane Flow Past a Flat Plate-Blasius Equation

The velocity distribution in the boundary layer of a plane laminar
flow past a flat plate is given by Eq. (3):
+u v 0
Ox -y
0x Dy


Ou u OU 02u
U----V-=---
Ox Oy 9y2
u(0,y) = 1
u(x,0)= 0 and u(x,cc)= 1
v(x,0)= 0
For this problem, first the velocities, u and v, should be convey
stream functions defined by u = O9 / Dy and v = -Dp / Ox
stream function, by default, satisfies the continuity equation
1). The second equation yields the governing equation fi
stream function, p. Next, the stream function is express
S=x f (rq), where T = y/Vx is the similarity variable
boundary conditions for u and v yield the boundary conditions
and finally for f(rl). Once the function f(TI) is obtained (numerii
both stream functions and velocity expressions can be express
terms of f and i|. The steps involved in this example are more t(
compared to the previous example. All the complicated steps in,
can be facilitated using Maple:
>restart:with(student):with(plots):
Warning, the name changecoords has been redefined
[The governing equation is entered:]
>eq:=u(x,y)*diff(u(x,y),x)+v(x,y)*diff(u(x,y),y)- diff(u(x,y)


eq:= u(x,y) u (x,y) + v(x, y) u (x, y) u (xy)
Fall 20y 06
Fall 2006


08-6
06
u
04

(12


1 f()- D(f)(T)Tq

(3) 2
> u(eta):= d iff(p si(x ,y),y):
u(eta):=changevar(psi(x,y)=x^A(l/2)*f(et
a(x,y)),u(eta)): u(eta):=expand(s u bs(eta(x,y)=
y/x^A(1/2),u(eta))): u(eta):=subs(y=eta*x^A(1/
rted to 2),u(eta));
. The u():= D(f)(q)
n (Eq.
or the [D(f)(T) in Maple represents the derivative of f with
;ed as respect to rT. Next, the boundary conditions are ex-
*. The pressed in terms of f:]
for p, >bcl :=subs(eta=0,v(eta))=0;
allyy, bcl 1 f(0)
bcl:sed 0
sed in 2 F


>bcl:=-bcl *2*xA(1/2);

>bc2:=subs(eta=0,u(eta))=0;


bcl := f(0)= 0

bc2:= D(f)(0)= 0


>bc3:=subs(eta=infinity,u(eta))=1;
bc3:= D(f)(oo)= 1
[The length of the domain is taken to be five (to replace
infinity). This number is found by trial and error. Increas-


[Next, Stream functions
(u = 9l / 9y and v = -Oi / Ox)
are introduced]
>va rs:={u(x,y)=d iff(psi(x,y),y),v(x,y)=-
diff(psi(x,y),x)}: eq:=subs(vars,eq);

eq:= a '(xy) 92-^(xy)
9y Ox 9y

x,y) (x,y2 (x,y)

[Next, the transformation
S= Txf(), where q = y /
is used to obtain the equation for f:]
>eq:=changevar(psi(x,y)=xA(1 /2)*f(eta(x,y)),eq):
eq 1:=(simplify(subs(eta(x,y)=y/xA(1/2),eq))):
eq 1 :=subs(y=eta*x^A(1/2),eq 1 ):eq 1 :=si
mplify(eq 1*x):eq2:=convert(-eq1 ,diff);

eq2 := I (d ) f() + d f (T)
2 dri' d41
[Next, the velocity variables, u and v (i.e., derivatives
of the stream function), are expressed in terms of f and
the similarity variable i:]
>v(eta):=-
diff(psi(x,y),x):v(eta):=changevar(psi(x,y)=x^A(1 /
2)*f(eta(x,y)), v(eta)):v(eta):=expand(subs(eta(x
,y)=y/x^A(1/2),v(eta))):v(eta):= subs(y=eta*x^A(1 /
2),v(eta)):v(eta): =facto r(v(eta));









ing the length beyond five does not change the results.]
>bc3:=subs(infinity=5,bc3);
bc3:= D(f)(5)= I
[For this problem, analytical solutions are not possible (al-
though approximate solutions are possible). For this example,
numerical solution for the Blasius equation is obtained as:]
>sol:=dsolve({eq2,bcl ,bc2,bc3},f(eta),type=numeric);
sol:= proc (x bvp) ... end proc
[The solution is plotted in Figure 2, which shows how the
function, f (related to the stream function), varies with the
similarity variable, TI, from zero to five]
>odeplot(sol,[eta,f(eta)],0..5,thickness=3,axes=boxed);
[Next, velocity profiles are obtained:]
>u(eta):=convert(u(eta),diff);v(eta):=convert(v(eta),diff);
d
u(q):= f( Tl)


( 1 d:=
2 Vx
[Figure 3 shows how the x component of velocity increases
from zero, at the wall, and levels off at its main stream value
for larger values of Tj from zero to five]
>odeplot(sol,[eta,u(eta)],0..5,thickness=3,axes=boxed
,labels=[eta ,u]);
[Since v is a function of x, v*x!/2 is plotted. Figure 4 shows
the y component of velocity (multiplied by x1/2) increases
from zero at the wall, and levels off at its main stream value
for larger values of iT from zero to five]
>odeplot(sol,[eta,v(eta)*x (1 /
2)],0..5 ,th ickness=3 ,axes=boxed,lab
els=[eta,"v*xA(1/2)"]);
[The solution at T) = 0 is obtained as:]
>sol(0);
d d
vT=0.,f(Tj)=0., df(l)=0., df( ()=0.336152378983949952
dil dq2


[Stress is related to the Reynolds number (re) and the velocity
gradient at y = 0:]
>S:=re*diff(u(x,y),y);

S := re u (x, y)
y )9y
[The velocity gradient in terms of the stream function is:]
>subs(u(x,y)=diff(psi(x,y),y),S);

re 2 (x,y)

[The second derivative of the stream function (d) is expressed
in terms of f and q:]
>d:=diff(psi(x,y),y$ 2):d:=changevar(psi(x,y)=xA(1 /
2)*f(eta(x,y)), d):d:=expand(subs(eta(x,y)=y/x^A(1 /2),d)):
d:=subs(y=eta*x^A(1 /2),d ):d:=convert(d,diff);
d
2 )
d:

>S:=re*d:
[The second derivative of f is found from the numerical
solution:]
>eqd3:=sol(0)[4];

eqd3:= d 2 f(r) = 0.336152378983949952

[Hence, the stress-Reynolds number relationship becomes:]
>S:=subs(diff(f(eta),' $ '(eta,2))=rhs(eqd3),S);
S 0.336152378983949952 re





( Example 3
Graetz Problem in Rectangular Coordinates
Consider the Graetz problem in rectangular coordinates (to
simplify the mathematical complexity involved with cylindri-
cal geometry).'' The governing equation and initial/boundary
conditions are:
0u 02U
(1-x 2) --
9z 9x\
u(x,0) = 1 (4)

u(0, z)=0 and u(, z) = 0
Ox
For this problem, a similarity transformation cannot be used
to reduce the partial differential equation to one ordinary dif-
ferential equation (boundary value problem in rT). To obtain
solutions very close to z = 0, Eq. (4) is converted to the new
coordinates defined by T = x / (2z) and z = z (note, some
textbooks use z = z, as the second coordinate, but for simplic-
ity it is left as z in this paper). In the new coordinates, q and
z, u is obtained using a perturbation technique by expressing
Chemical Engineering Education


Figure 2. Function f as a function of the similarity variable, 9.
310










1

0-8
-

06-

0.4-

02-

0-


0 1 2 3 4


Figure 3. The x-component velocity as a
function of the similarity variable, 11.


0.0-
0-fi
06

V",1,2) 04.


02

0


0 1 2 3 4 5


Figure 4. The y-component velocity as a
function of the similarity variable, q.
k
u as u ZI Zkf (f). The boundary conditions for f (in the
similarity variable Tr ) are:
fo (0) = 1; fk (0) = 1, k = 1, 2, 3...
fo (oc)= 0;f, (ooc) 0, k = 1,2,3... (5)
The steps involved in the similarity transformation method
are performed in Maple.
>restart:with(student):
>eq:=(1 -xA2)*diff(u(x,z),z)-diff(u(x,z),x$2);

eq:= (1 X u(x,z) u(x,z)

[First, the governing equation is converted to similarity
variables (1 and z):]
>eq1 :=changevar(u(x,z)=U(eta(x,z),z),eq):
eq2:=expand(simplify(subs(eta(x,z)=x/2/(z)A(1 /
2),eq 1 ))):eq2:=expand(eq2*z):eq2:=subs(x=e
ta*2*(z)A(1/2),eq2):eq2 :=convert(eq2,diff):
eq2:=expand(-4*eq2);


Fall 2006


eq2:= 2 VU(q,z) T-4z (U(nz) -8zn3 0U(Tz)]
9r Oz 98O

+16z 2 U(,z) 2 U(,z)

[For illustration, only terms up to z2 are considered in the
perturbation series:]
>N:=2;vars:={U(eta,z)=sum(zAk*f[k](eta), k=0..N)};
N:= 2
vars := {U (, z) = fo (i) + zf, (r) + z2f2 ()}
[The governing equations for the dependent variables are
obtained as:]
>eq3:=expand(subs(vars,eq2)):for i from 0 to 2 do
Eq[i]:=coeff(eq3,z,i);od;

Eq: 2 d fo(l)+ 2fo(,)



d2

Eq2:=2i f2(d) -8f2( n)-8p- fl(3f)


+1612f1 ()+ [ d 2 f2 (l)

[The first three terms are obtained by solving these differential
equations with the given boundary conditions (note that the
boundary condition at x = 1 is solved approximately as U =
0 at i] = -j:]
>sol[0]:=dsolve({Eq[0],f[0](0)=0,f[0](infinity)=1 });assign
(sol[0] ):
solo: = fo(q) = erf(qi)
>sol[1 ]:=dsolve({Eq[1 ]});


sol, :=.f, (T)=(1 + 2rT)_C2




e+ 1 32T'4 fd Cl+- 1)e(-1 )
+(+2 (1+2T12)2 3 )


[The constants have to be zero to satisfy the boundary condi-
tions:]
>assign(sol[1 ]):_C1 :=0:_C2:=0:f[1 ](eta):=eval(f[1 ](eta));

1 (-3T- 4 )e(
3 is ne
[Similarly, f, is obtained:]










>sol[2]:=dsolve(Eq[2]):assign(sol[2]):_C3:=0:_C4:=0:
f[2](eta):=eval(f[2](eta));

1 (-285 570]3 -384<5 -160q7 )e ()
180

[Once the functions (the f's) are obtained, the Sherwood
number can be obtained:141]
>u:=subs(vars,U(eta,z)):u:=subs(eta=x/2/sqrt(z),u);


fxz 1 2l 2 z32)
u := erf, +-
2z 3 V


2 285x
z
1 280


285x3
4z(3/2)


12x' 5x7 e-z
Z(5/2) 4z(7/2) e


[The dimensionless temperature distribution is plotted in
Figure 5, which shows that temperature increases from the
center of the slab to the surface value along the x-coordinate.
The increase in temperature is more rapid at the entrance and
temperature increases are more gradual for higher values of
z from 0 to 0.05, the distance along the flow.]
>plot3d(u,x=1 ..0,z=0.05..0,axes=boxed,labels=[x,z,
"u"],orientatio n=[1 20,60]);

SUMMARY
This paper illustrates that mathematical methods for
nontrivial problems in chemical engineering can be taught
efficiently in a class using computers and user-friendly
software.
The similarity solution approach is a very powerful tech-
nique for obtaining closed-form solutions for problems in


heat, mass, momentum transfer, and other disciplines in
chemical engineering. A traditional approach to teaching this
technique would involve complicated variable transformations
and integrals done by hand. In this paper, it was shown how
an analytical technique could be facilitated using computers
and software. While Maple has been used in this paper, Math-
ematica, MATLAB, REDUCE, or other symbolic software
packages can be used to obtain similar results. In addition to
teaching numerical simulation, computers and software pack-
ages can be used to teach traditional mathematical methods
for a wide variety of problems. Mathematical methods, such
as separation of variables, Laplace transform, perturbation,
conformal mapping, Green's function, analytical method of
lines, and series solutions for nonlinear problems (multiple
steady states) can be facilitated using Maple. Readers can
contact the author for further details or copies of related Maple
programs. Some of these methods are illustrated in a book to
be published in the future.191

REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5. Carslaw, H.S., and J.C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids, Oxford
University Press, London (1973)
6. Crank, J.. Mathematics of Diffusion, Oxford University Press, New
York (1975)
7. Slattery, J., Advanced Transport Phenomena, Cambridge University
Press, New York (1999)
8. Villedsen, J., and M.L. Michelsen, Solution of Differential Equation
Models by Polynomial Approximation, Prentice-Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ (1978)
9. White, R.E., and V.R. Subramanian, Computational Methods in
Chemical Engineering with Maple Applications, Springer-Verlag (to
be submitted in 2006). 0


Figure 5. Dimensionless temperature distribution in rectangular
coordinates, governed by the Graetz equation.
Chemical Engineering Education










S=I curriculum


USING VISUALIZATION

AND COMPUTATION

in the Analysis of Separation Processes


YONG LAK JOO AND DEVASHISH CHOUDHARY
Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853


ATLABI11 is best described as easy-to-use math-
ematical software that allows powerful graphical
presentation and numerical analysis. At Cornell
University, MATLAB has been used intensively as a teaching
aid in undergraduate courses. For example, every engineering
freshman is required to take a computer programming course
(COMS100) that includes basic programming concepts and
problem analysis using MATLAB. Students in chemical engi-
neering take an engineering distribution course on computers
and programming (ENGRD211), which deals extensively with
MS Excel and MATLAB. They also develop user-friendly
computer programs using MATLAB to solve homework in
many chemical engineering core courses, including heat and
mass transfer. This early integration of MATLAB provides
an excellent background for use in the second semester of the
junior year, allowing these students to be comfortable with
MATLAB in the separations course. In addition, MATLAB
can be a very useful teaching aid in a separations course, as its
powerful graphical presentation and numerical analysis tools
can be utilized both in an interactive, step-by-step, graphical
display of conventional methods, and also in solving systems
of equations for complex separation processes. The ability to
integrate powerful computer software into the course rests
on the availability of appropriate computing equipment.
Our department's undergraduate computing laboratory is an
excellent facility for such activities, and is equipped with 42
Windows-based PCs with a site license for MATLAB.

THE COURSE
Although typical chemical engineering curricula recognize
the importance of recent trends in emerging technologies,
it is always a challenge to convey them without sacrificing
Fall 2006


fundamentals.1'2 ChemE332 at Cornell is a three-credit course
for chemical engineering juniors covering separation methods.
The emphasis of the course had formerly been placed on
traditional, equilibrium-based methods that involve using
manual graphical techniques, including McCabe-Thiele,
Ponchon-Savarit, and Hunter-Nash.[3-1 As computers became
readily available, however, the graphical approaches were
supplemented with assignments to write Fortran code and/or
use spreadsheets for distillation columns?"i Modem tools,

Yong Lak Joo has been an assistant pro-
fessor of chemical and biomolecular engi-
neenng at Cornell University since 2001. He
received his B.S. in chemical engineering
from Seoul National University in Korea, and
his M.S. and Ph.D. in chemical engineer-
ing from Stanford University. His research
interests are in the area of non-Newtonian
fluid mechanics and advanced materials
processing, with particular emphasis on
molecular modeling and complex flow
simulation of polymeric liquids.


Devashish Choudhary was born in New
Delhi, India. He majored in chemical
engineering at the Indian Institute of Tech-
nology, Bombay. In 2004, he received
his Ph.D. from the School of Chemical
and Biomolecular Engineering at Cornell
University. During his Ph.D., he worked
on order-property relationships in semi-
conducting materials. Currently, he works
at Inte/l Corp.


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2006










such as the easy-to-use mathematical software MATLABi1'
and Mathematica,1121 can be used to write simple codes that
allow undergraduates to calculate and display accurate graphi-
cal solutions interactively, and thus make learning graphical
methods more enjoyable and effective. We introduced in-
class visualization of conventional graphical methods using
a simple MATLAB code. The interactive nature of MATLAB
allowed "what if" analysesrll' in which the effect of changing
parameter values such as relative volatility, reflux ratio, feed
condition, and stage efficiency are graphically displayed. By
spending less time on the details of solving problems graphi-
cally or by trial and error, we can spend more time discussing
the conceptual and quantitative descriptions of processes,
recent trends, and design aspects. With condensed lectures
on equilibrium-based processes, ChemE332 in spring 2001
was reconstructed to reinforce rate-based processes such as
membrane and sorption separations. Furthermore, emerging
processes in bioseparations, such as electrophoresis and is-
sues in choosing and designing separation processes, were
integrated in the course without sacrificing conventional
separations. More than half of the total lectures in ChemE332
are currently spent on rate-based methods, bioseparations, and
the design of separation processes.


Obtain equilibrium data

SThermodynamic Input----------------
Constant relative volatility/ Raoult's law/ Actual
data
--.-----------------------.-------------------------------


Step 1: Display y vs. x diagram (eq. curve)

-----... Design Input ........
Reflux ratio & feed condition
or
S Reflux ratio & boilup ratio
or
Boilup ratio & feed condition
.. ... ------------------------------- -------
Step 2: Display operating lines and feed line

Step 3: Determine theoretical equilibrium stages, N,

Horizontal line to equilibrium curve
Vertical drop to operating line

-------------I Design Input ------------
Murphree vapor efficiency,_ m .

*_ Step 4: Display new stepping based on Emv

Determine actual stages N. and overall efficiency Eo


Figure 1. Flowchart of Example 1: McCabe-Thiele
method for binary distillation.


Despite the advantage of helping students visualize the
separation, graphical methods no longer represent the mod-
em practice of chemical engineering.171 Modem practice for
designing and simulating separations involves commercial
process simulators such as AspenPlus, ChemCad, Hysys,
and Prosim."41 To be prepared for commercial practice, stu-
dents need experience simulating and designing separation
processes using these methods. Unfortunately, students often
treat these commercial simulators as black boxes, and tend to
believe the results they obtain without further checking.i, 14J
The exact methods used in these simulators involve solving
systems of nonlinear equations and large matrices. Although
there is a limit for complicated systems, these exact methods
are now tractable due to user-friendly routines and software
for numerical analysis. To avoid the potential creation of yet
another "black box" using MATLAB, students can be asked to
implement specific parts of the code such as a thermodynamic
model, matrix solving, and time integration scheme.
In this paper we demonstrate that using easy-to-develop
mathematical solutions for visualization and numerical
computation can make conventional graphical approaches
more enjoyable and effective, providing students better un-
derstanding of more complex problems. Visualization and
interactive display of graphical methods in distillation,
solution procedures for complex processes such as mul-
ticomponent distillation, and thermal swing adsorption
can promote understanding of how these separation
processes work. Although we present the examples in
distillation and adsorption, this approach can also be
extended to many other separation processes such as
absorption, stripping, and extraction. We present four
examples used in the separations course. In the first
two examples, the step-by-step, interactive display of
conventional graphical methods for binary distillation
were facilitated by MATLAB, while systems of nonlin-
ear equations were rigorously solved using MATLAB
in the last two examples on multicomponent distillation
and adsorption.

Example 1
Visualization of McCabe-Thiele Method and
Stage Efficiency in Binary Distillation
We used MATLAB to visualize the McCabe-Thiele
graphical equilibrium-stage method and estimation of
stage efficiency in a distillation process for a binary mix-
ture of A and B. As described in Table 1, the code consists
of (i) constructing and displaying the equilibrium curve,
(ii) drawing operating lines and feed line, (iii) displaying
the equilibrium stages, and (iv) illustrating stage and over-
all efficiency. We use the commands "plot" and "movie"
in MATLABrIl to visualize and animate the diagrams (see
Table 1). The code was used for interactive display of the
method in lectures and homework assignments.
Chemical Engineering Education











Interactive Display in Lectures
Before the McCabe-Thiele graphical method was dem-
onstrated by step-by-step display, a lecture was given on
the concept and a handout on the detailed description of the
options and functions of the MATLAB code for the method
was distributed. In-class visualization of the graphical method
and stage efficiency consists of four steps, and the overall
flowchart of the example is illustrated in Figure 1.
Step 1. We show how the equilibrium curves can be
constructed. Three ways of determining the equilibrium re-
lationship between liquid and vapor phases are implemented
in the code: using (i) a constant volatility for mixtures with
a similar heat of vaporization, (ii) a simple thermodynamic
model such as Raoult's law4' in which the Antoine equation
is used to provide the vapor pressure information, and (iii)
actual data. For the Antoine equation, the function "fzero" in
MATLAB'll is used to find a temperature at which the sum
of partial pressures of two components equals the total pres-
sure (i.e., P." + P," = Po, ) for a liquid composition xA and xB
(see Table 1).
Step 2. We show how to draw operating lines. Once any
two of three parameters (e.g., the reflux ratio, R; boilup ratio,
VB; and feed condition, q) are specified, the operating lines
and the feed line are uniquely determined. We
also explain the relation between the slope of
the q-line and the state of the feed (subcooled,
saturated liquid, partially vaporized, saturated
vapor, and superheated). while x >= x-
ynew=y
Step 3. We demonstrate how to determine if iflag==0
theoretical stages. Once the equilibrium curve, xnew=yni
operating lines, and feed line are drawn, the elseififlag-
t=fzero('a
equilibrium composition at each stage is deter- xnew=yni
mined by the McCabe-Thiele method. Starting else
from the distillate xD (or bottoms product x,), xnew=int
drawing a horizontal line from (xD, xD) on the e([xxne'
y = x line to the equilibrium curve, followed by hold on
dropping a vertical line to the operating line, is Frames(:.i):
repeated until x reaches xB. When actual data is pause
used for the equilibrium curve, the MATLAB i=i+l;
x=xnew
interpolation function called "interp 1" is used if x >= x_c
to find the intersection points along the equi- %if x >= z
librium curve (see Table 1).11 The transfer in y=LoverV
the operating line from the rectifying section elover
to stripping section is typically made when the end
liquid composition, x, passes the intersection plot([xnew,
of the two operating lines and feed line. The hold on
interactive nature of MATLAB allows "what Frames(:,i)
pause
if" analysest'9, in which parameter values such if x >= x_B
as relative volatility, reflux ratio, and feed con- nstage=n
edition may be changed, and their effects on the else
distillation column are graphically displayed nstage=n
during the presentation. end


Step 4. The actual stages, based on the Murphree vapor
efficiency, EMv, for each stage, are displayed on top of theoreti-
cal stages to demonstrate the effect of stage efficiency on the
actual number of stages. In the current example, we note that a
single Murphree vapor efficiency, EMV, is used throughout the
entire distillation column for simplicity and symmetry in the
feed stage. The overall efficiency, Eo, is then determined by
the ratio of the number of the theoretical equilibrium stages to
that of the actual stages, i.e., Eo= Nt/N,. Some snapshots of the
McCabe-Thiele method and stage efficiency for distillation
of acetone and toluene that are displayed in class are shown
in Figure 2 (page 318).

Homework Assignments

After the graphical method by MATLAB code was in-
troduced, a couple of problems associated with using and
modifying the MATLAB code were given as homework. For
example, students were asked to determine various feed condi-
tions such as subcooled, partially vaporized, and superheated
using the thermodynamic properties of benzene and toluene,
and then determine the number of equilibrium stages and
boilup ratio at a given feed composition and reflux ratio (see
Table 2, page 318). The effect of feed conditions on column
performance is demonstrated by entering different q values

TABLE 1
Portion of a MATLAB Code for Example 1


315


% using constant alpha for eq. relation


ew/(a-ynew*(a-l)):
:=1 % using Antoine Eq. (2) for eq. relation
ntoine2'.tmid,optimset('disp'.'iter'),ynew,al,b l,c l.a2,b2,c2,Ptotal);
ew*Ptotal/pvapor(al .bl .cl,t);
% using actual data for eq. relation
erp 1 (ydata.xdata.ynew):

w],[y,ynew],'r','LineWidth',2) % a. Draw a horizontal line to the eq. curve

=getframe;





/_D*x+x D/(R+I) % using the op. line for rectifying section


% using the op. line for stripping section


/_B*x-x B/V B


x],[ynew,y],'r','LineWidth',2) % b. Draw a vertical line to the op. line

=getframe;

% calculating # of stages
stage+1

stage+x/x_B

% c. Repeat a and b until x reaches x_B


B


c loop for stepping


Fall 2006











S ...in the MATLAB code and dis-
playing the stage-stepping inter-
09- 9 a actively. In the second problem,
o8 o 08 ,' students were asked to modify
0 and extend the MATLAB code
to determine the actual number
0 /of stages based on the stage ef-
o5s /-' o5 ficiency. This was demonstrated
04 0.4 and displayed in the lecture, but
this time the students were asked
0 3 to reconstruct what they had
0D2 02 seen in class and use it to solve
0 a homework problem. About
85% of the students were able
o 01 02 0.3 04 05 0.6 0.7 08 09 1 0 01 02 03 0.4 0.5 06 07 08 09 1 to modify the code correctly to
(c x determine the actual number
08 of stages.


08 08
0.7 0-7
0.7 _7 Figure 2. Snapshots of graphi-
0o6 0 6 cal output in Example 1: Mc-
S0.5 Cabe-Thiele method for binary
S,' distillation of acetone and tolu-
04 04 / ene: a) equilibrium curve from
03 Raoult's law; b) operating lines
0 2 and feed line for zA = 0.5, xD
0.2 02 0.95, x, = 0.05, q = 0.5, R = 2; c)
o oi' theoretical equilibrium stages;
and d) actual stages (shown in
0 o.1 02 03 4 0o5 06 0.7 0.8 0-9 1 0 01 0o2 03 04 0o5 06 07 08 09 dashed line) with E =0.7 for
the entire distillation column.


TABLE 2
An Example of MATLAB Homework Problem To Link the Effect of Feed Conditions
to the Number of Theoretical Stages and Boilup Ratio

4. A mixture of 50 mol% benzene and toluene is to be separated by distillation at atmospheric pressure into products of 95% purity using a reflux ratio
L/D=3.0 in the rectifying section. The feed has a boiling point of 92 C and a dew point of 98 C at a pressure of I atm. Determine the q value if (i) the
feed is vapor at 150 C; (ii) the feed is liquid and at 20 C; (iii) if the feed is a mixture of two-thirds vapor and one-third liquid.

Component AH'"P (cal/g mol) C (cal/g mol C)
Liquid Vapor
Benzene 7,360 33 23
Toluene 7,960 40 33

Assume a relative volatility of 2.5 and use a simple MATLAB code (feed.m) that is available at the ChemE 332 Web page to determine the number of
theoretical stages and the boilup ratio in the stripping section for three different feed conditions. Submit the printouts (graphs). Each graph should have
your name and the output (number of stages and boilup ratio) printed on the upper left comer. To do this, the MATLAB code has the following gtext
command that writes the specified string at a location clicked with the mouse in the graphics window:
gtext({'number of stages:,' num2str(nstage)})
gtext({'boilup ratio:,' num2str(V_B)})
gtext({'run by,' yourname})
First, the code asks you your name and input conditions including the q value. After running the code, go to the graph and click a location (total three
times) to print out the number of stages, boilup ratio, and your name on the graph.

316 Chemical Engineering Education











Example 2
Visualization of Enthalpy Method in
Binary Distillation[6]

The McCabe-Thiele method uses an energy balance
only at the feed tray, whereas the Ponchon-Savarit graph-
ical method uses a rigorous energy balance throughout
the distillation column.'4-6] Although the Ponchon-Savarit
method for distillation has largely been supplemented by
rigorous computer-aided methods, the concept of using
a diagram for the separating agent (heat in distillation)
and difference points is very important and useful in un-
derstanding similar graphical approaches in other separa-
tion processes, such as the Maloney-Schubert graphical
method[4' in extraction that uses the analogous Janecke
diagram for the separating agent (the solvent).
We used recitation sessions as well as lectures to in-
troduce and demonstrate the Ponchon-Savarit graphical
method. A handout on the method using the MATLAB
code was distributed first, and the graphical method was
demonstrated using step-by-step display. The visualiza-
tion of the Ponchon-Savarit method consists of determin-
ing difference points and displaying rays and equilibrium
tie lines on the enthalpy diagram. (
The flowchart of the Ponchon-Sa- 20 -
varit method for binary distillation
is shown in Figure 3. We again used
15000-
the commands "plot" and "mov-
ie" in MATLAB to visualize and
graphically display the diagrams,"' 10000
and some snapshots of the method =
for distillation of acetone and water
S5000r
mixtures are shown in Figure 4,
right, as well as in Figure 5 (next
page). The operating lines obtained 0",,
under the assumption of constant
molal overflow are shown by the
dashed lines in the y vs. x diagram 0 01 02 0
for comparison in the figure. The
students were asked to run the same
20000
code as the lecture to solve similar
homework problems by varying de-
sign inputs such as feed conditions. 1500
In the future, we will ask students
to modify the MATLAB code for
the Ponchon-Savarit method for a

Figure 4. Graphical output for 00ooo
Example 2: a) enthalpy-composi-
tion diagram from enthalpy data;
and b) difference points (open 0 -.....
circles) and feed line for z, = 0.5,
xD= 0.90, xB= 0.0216, q = 0.5, 5
and R = 0.288. The y-x composi- 0 01 02 0
tion diagram is also shown at the
Fall 2006


Obtain equilibrium and enthalpy data

------ Thermodynamic Input
Actual equilibrium & enthalpy data
\t L------ ------- -----------------------------

Step 1: Display y vs. x and enthalpy

.Design Input ...........
Reflux ratio & feed condition
Distillate, bottoms compositions
< t L~----.--------------------------------------- ___

Step 2: Determine and display difference and feed points

On enthalpy diagram
Display rays that pass difference point and liquid
(vapor) composition
Display equilibrium tie line to determine the
corresponding vapor (liquid) composition.


Step 3: Determine the number of equilibrium stages

Figure 3. Flowchart of Example 2: Ponchon-Savarit method for
binary distillation.


Ponchon-Savar Method vs x dagram

09 'F _^ /


3 04 05 06 07 08 09 1
Composrion x or y

Ponrhon-Savantr Method


01 02 03 04 0.5 06 07
X


01

3 0,4 05 06 07 08 09 1 0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 1
Composition, x or y x










distillation such that the extraction process can be solved,
analyzed, and displayed interactively.

Example 3
Direct Solving Exact Methods for
Multicomponent Distillation['41
Despite its practical importance, multicomponent distil-
lation has not been thoroughly discussed in first courses
on separations. This is mainly because analysis of multi-
component separations requires solving material balances,
enthalpy balances, and equilibrium relations at each stage,
and solution procedures can be difficult and tedious. Hence,
only an approximate method commonly referred to as Fen-
ske-Underwood-Gilliland (FUG) has been used to make
preliminary designs and optimize simple distillation.[41 Al-
ternatively, commercial simulators have been introduced to
solve multicomponent separations in detail, but students often
treat these commercial process
simulators as black boxes.7141 a Ponchon-
We used MATLAB to solve the 20000
nonlinear algebraic equations for
multicomponent distillation in 15000
this example. More specifically,
user-friendly routines in MAT-
LAB were used to employ the 1
equation-tearing, bubble-point
method in solving the governing 5000
equations. This numerical method
consists of calculating equilibrium
compositions and enthalpies, -__-------
solving the modified material
balance equations, and updating -5000
solutions using Newton's method 0 01 02 03 04
( Compo
(see Table 3). As indicated in the )
flowchart of the procedure in 20000 Ponchon-
Figure 6 (page 322), the system of
equations was solved for composi-
tions at each stage by the matrix ,1000
solver "sparse" in MATLAB.,"'
The Newton's method was used to 10000
update the guess of tearing vari-
ables, temperature, and vapor rate j ,' ".
at each stage. A function "froot.m" o 0 ,'
was created which solves nonlin- -
ear equations using a Newton's 0 -
method to update the temperature
and vapor rate at each stage. Once
temperature, enthalpy, and com- -o0 01
0 0.1 02 03 0.4
positions are obtained, the heat Compos
duties can be determined.
Figure 5. Snapshots o
Homework Assignments binary distillation of ace
Using the developed MATLAB in the rectifying section;
code, students were asked to solve The operating lines ob
shown by the dashed
318


a multicomponent distillation of hydrocarbons and compare
the results with those obtained from the commercial pro-
cess simulator, AspenPlus (see Table 4, page 322). Again,
a handout that describes the method used in the code was
distributed and explained in a recitation session before the
homework was distributed. As depicted in Figure 7 (page
323), a simple thermodynamic model (Raoult's law in which
the Antoine equation has been used to provide the vapor pres-
sure information) overpredicts the volatility of "light non-key
(LNK)" component (ethane) and underpredicts that of "heavy
non-key (HNK)" components (pentane and hexane) in the
multicomponent distillation of hydrocarbons. As a result, the
compositions of the "light key (LK)" component (propane) in
the distillate and the "heavy key (HK)" component (butane)
in the bottoms are slightly lower than the values obtained
from Aspen simulation with more accurate thermodynamics
models such as Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation.


05 06 07 08 09 1 0 01 02 0,3 04 05 06 07 08 09 1
ition, x or y

f graphical output of Example 2: Pochon-Savarit method for
tone and water: a) rays (solid) and equilibrium lines (dashed)
and b) rays and equilibrium tie lines in the rectifying section.
trainedd under the assumption of constant molal overflow are
'd lines in the y vs. x diagram at the right for comparison.
Chemical Engineering Education


/ i
, '











Example 4
Direct Time Integration of Thermal
Swing Adsorption[41
Adsorption is one of the most difficult separation processes
to teach since it is rate-based, which requires a mass transfer
analysis, and is usually operated as a time dependent process.
As a result, adsorption with very simple isotherms, such as
an irreversible isotherm, has been analyzed in most separa-
tion texts.13 41 After we introduced the concept of adsorption
isotherms and a breakthrough curve in fixed-bed adsorption,
we used MATLAB to develop a numerical model for rate-
based, time-dependent adsorption processes such as thermal
swing adsorption. In thermal swing adsorption, one bed is
adsorbing the solute at ambient temperature, while the other


bed is desorbing the adsorbate at a higher temperature. A
numerical solution for the regeneration (desorption) step
can be obtained using a procedure discussed by Wong and
NiedzwieckiP'l (see Figure 8, page 324). Again, a handout
that describes the method used in the MATLAB code was
distributed in the lecture. In the absence of axial dispersion
and a constant fluid velocity, the partial differential equations
can be solved using the five-point, biased upwind, finite dif-
ference approximation derived from Taylor's series expan-
sion. The time integration of the sets of ordinary differential
equations was carried out using a simple Euler method with
a small step size. Regeneration-loading profiles in thermal
swing adsorption at two different regeneration air interstitial
velocities, v = 30 m/min and v = 60 m/min, are shown in
Figure 9 (page 324), and the effect of air flow on the heating


TABLE 3
Portion of a MATLAB Tutorial Handout for Example 3

If we assume that phase equilibrium is achieved at each stage. the governing equations for a distillation process for n components consisting of N stages
can be written as4i
L,x, V y, Fz -(L +Uj)x (V, +W )y,0 (1)
y K ,x, (2:

x, 1 y, -1 (3
L,b,h-,+V H1 ,H +F,hr,-(L-+U,)h -(V +W,)H -Q 0 (4

where L,. V. F. U, and W are liquid. vapor, feed. liquid side stream. and vapor side stream rates at stage j. respectively. h, H and Q, are liquid and
vapor enthalpies, and heat transfer at stage j, respectively. We utilize the equation-tearing, bubble-point method in solving the governing Eq. (1 )-(4)
which consists of: i) calculating equilibrium compositions and enthalpy: ii) solving the modified material balance equations; and iii) updating solutions
using the Newton's method.
i) Equilibrinum Compositions and Enthalpy Calculations
For simplicity, the Antoine equation is used to evaluate K-values and enthalpy of each component. One of tear variables, temperature is assumed and the
volatility of each component is determined by K = y/x, = P '/P Meanwhile, the enthalpy of each species can be determined from'4' h,., h,' + AH"'
T 4
where the ideal gas species molar enthalpy h, = C:, dT a I(T T' )/k and C,, a, +a.,T+ aT'- + a, T' is the heat capacity at

constant pressure. At low pressures, the enthalpy of vaporization is given in terms of vapor pressure by classical thermodynamics 14
d In P,' B
.AH -. RT d RT (5
dT (T-C )

ii) Modified Material Balance Equations
By rearranging the governing equations Eq. (1)-(3) for each stage, the following systems of equations for component i at stage j are obtained:'4
B C 0 ... 0 x, D
A, B, C, : x, D,
0 A. 0 = (6
B"_, C",B x, D,_
0 ... 0 A, B, x, D\
where x =[x, x,. x, .. x. ] is the liquid composition vector at stage j. and the components of the tridiagonal matrix in each stage are
AV,-+ (F,,, +W+U,)-V. 2
B =- -V + (F,-W,- U) -V UI +(V,+W )K I j

C, V ,,IK ,


and the right-hand-side vector at each stage D = -F,z,.


l I < j

The system of equations Eq. (6) is solved for x, by the sparse matrix solver "sparse" in MATLABI'1 ... [instructions continue].

Fall 2006 31












TABLE 4
An Example of MATLAB Homework Problem Paired With a Problem Using Aspen Plus
to Solve a Multicomponent Distillation of Hydrocarbons.

1. Multicomponent Distillation using Aspen Plus
Distillation column specifications are given as below:

Feed (saturated liquid at 250 psia and 213 F)
Component Lbmol/h
Ethane 3.0
Propane 20.0
n-Butane 37.0
n-Pentane 35.0
n-Hexane 5.0

Column pressure = 250 psia
Partial condenser and partial reboiler
Distillate rate = 23.0 lbmol/h
Reflux rate = 150.0 lbmol/h
Number of equilibrium plates (exclusive of condenser and reboiler) = 15
Feed is sent to middle stage
E-mail the following to the TA:
1) a printout of your Aspen process with your NetID as the column name as well as a stream table showing the results using the conditions
described in the exercise including stage temperatures, vapor and liquid flow rates, and reboiler and condenser duties.
2) a graph of liquid composition of each component vs. stage number
3) a graph of vapor composition of each component vs. stage number
2. Multicomponent Distillation using MATLAB
Repeat Problem 1 using simple MATLAB codes (problem2.m and froot.m) available at the ChemE 332 Web site. The code utilizes the equa-
tion-tearing, bubble-point method in solving the MESH equations as described in the handout. For simplicity, the Antoine equation is used to
evaluate K-values and enthalpy of each component. The file froot.m is a function routine which solves nonlinear equations using a Newton's
method. See the handout for details. When the code is run, you are asked to input the conditions described in the problem. Submit the follow-
ing printouts
1) a graph of liquid composition of each component vs. stage number
2) a graph of vapor composition of each component vs. stage number
Compare your results with those obtained in Problem 1.


Initial guesses for tear variables, T, and V, TABLE 5
------- ........... Design Input Responses of the Students
Antoine equation : Reflux ratio & feed stage Responses to:
Enthalpy equation Distillate, bottoms compositions "How valuable were the lectures and homework assignments based
-- -- -- -- -- on MATLAB?"
Calculate enthalpy (h,, H,) and volatility (K,,)
% responses
-------------------------- 1 = taught me little 3.0
Sparse matrix solver- 2 = taught me some 4.2
3 = educational 16.3
4 = very educational 57.7
Solve tri-diagonal matrix for x, 5 = extremely educational 17.8

Newton's method Some comments from the students
"The mix of conventional method and animation helps us to under-
Compute new T,, Q,, V, and L, stand the concept from the front."
"I like how much of it is graphic. This makes the learning more
intuitive."
Converging criteria "I hate graphical methods, but using MATLAB is okay."
"Some MATLAB homework problems were too easy because I just
Iterate until T, is converged punched in numbers"
"No more MATLAB, please.


4 Figure 6. Flowchart of Example 3: multicomponent distil-
Display vapor and liquid composition profiles nation.

20 Chemical Engineering Education










and cooling cycle in thermal swing adsorption was discussed
in detail. Students were asked to use the MATLAB code to
determine the regeneration characteristics in thermal swing
adsorption at various operating conditions, such as air flow.
In the future, the students will be asked to extend the code
to solve similar rate-based sorption processes such as ion
exchange and chromatography.

PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS OF STUDENT
ACTIVITIES AND RESPONSES OF STUDENTS
The pedagogical aspects of student activities have evolved
over the years. The incorporation of interactive display of
graphical methods was done in lectures to effectively dem-
onstrate the effect of design parameters on the distillation


column. Then, students were asked to run the same code
used in lecture to solve similar problems by varying design
inputs such as feed conditions. We started asking the students
to modify the MATLAB codes to extend its capabilities and
analyze the results. A tutorial on how to develop a MAT-
LAB code was instituted in the recitation sessions to make
this transition smoother. We conducted a survey on using
MATLAB in lectures and homework assignments as a part of
mid-term evaluation, and results are summarized in Table 5.
The wording of questions and responses in the table is taken
verbatim from the survey. The survey also provided a space
for written comments. As indicated in Table 5, the use of
MATLAB was generally accepted as a useful aid in teaching
separations. In the future, we would like to allow
the students to play more active roles in solving
various separation problems using MATLAB. In
particular, students will be asked to modify the
tom MATLAB codes and extend them to work out many
other separation processes such as absorption, strip-
ping, and extraction.

\ CONCLUSIONS
We have demonstrated that simple mathemati-
cC2 cal software, MATLAB, can be integrated into a
C3
C4 separations course as a useful and effective teaching
C6 aid for visualization and numerical computation of
many separation processes. The benefits of using
MATLAB are the following:
Step-by-step and interactive display can make
conventional graphical approaches more enjoy-
able to students and more effective in classroom.
Visualization of the graphical methods has been
further extended to the study of packed-column
18 analysis.
By spending less time on the details of solving
problems graphically and by trial-and-error,
bottom we were able to spend more time discussing the
conceptual and quantitative description of pro-
cesses, and incorporate recent trends and design
aspects in the separations course.
User-friendly routines of MATLAB can be used
to solve systems of nonlinear equations and
perform numerical time integration, which, in
-X-c03 turn, provides students with a better understand-
-+-c4 ing of complex separation processes such as
C5s multicomponent distillation and thermal swing
C6 adsorption.
/.

Figure 7. Vapor composition of each compo-
nent at each stage in Example 3: multicompo-
nent distillation of hydrocarbons, a) obtained
using direct matrix solver in MATLAB with a
simple thermodynamic model (Raoult's law),
18 and b) obtained from Aspen Plus with the
Soave-Redlich-Kwong model. Operating condi-
tions are listed in Table 4.


Fall 2006














SDesign & Thermodynamic Input
1E Specification of fixed-bed adsorber
Breakthrough curve


Discretize the spatial derivatives


Explicit Euler Method


Perform Numerical Time Integration




Obtain Loading and Concentration Profiles


Display Loading and Concentration

Figure 8. Flowchart of Example 4: Thermal Swing Adsorption.


2 3 4 5 6
Distance through the bed, z


2 3 4
Distance through the bed, z


5 6


Obtain Initial Loading and Concentration


REFERENCES
1. Pratap, R., Getting Started with MATLAB, A Quick Introduction for
Scientists and Engineers, Oxford University Press (2002)
2. Chickering, A.W., and Z.F. Gamson, "Appendix A: Seven Principles
for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education, New Directions for
Teaching and Learning," 47, 63 (1991)
3. McCabe, W. L., J.C. Smith, and P. Harriott, Unit Operations of Chemi-
cal Engineering, 6th Ed., McGraw Hill (2001)
4. Seader, J.D., and E.J. Henley, Separation Process Principles, John
Wiley & Sons (1998)
5. Humphrey, J.L., and G.E. Keller II, Separation Process Technology,
McGraw-Hill, New York (1997)
6. King, C.J., Separation Processes, McGraw Hill (1980)
7. Wankat, P.C., "Teaching Separations: Why, What, When, and How,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 35, 168 (2001)
8. Golnaraghi, M., P. Clancy, and K.E. Gubbins, "Improvements in the
Teaching of Staged Operations," Chem. Eng. Ed., 19, 132 (1985)
9. Jolls, K.R., M. Nelson, and D. Lumba, "Teaching Staged-Process
Design Through Interactive Computer Graphics," Chem. Eng. Ed.,
28, 110(1994)
10. Burns, M.A., and J.C. Sung, "Design of Separation Units Using
Spreadsheets," Chem. Eng. Ed., 30, 62 (1996)
11. Hinestroza, J.P., and K. Papadopoulos, "Using Spreadsheets and Visual
Basic Applications," Chem. Eng. Ed., 37, 316 (2003)
12. Dorgan, J.R., and J.T. McKinon, "Mathematica in the ChE Curriculum,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 30, 136 (1996)
13. Rives, C., and D. Lacks, "Teaching Process Control with a Numerical
Approach Based on Spreadsheets," Chem. Eng. Ed., 36, 242 (2002)
14. Wankat, P.C., "Integrating the Use of Commercial Simulators into
Lecture Courses," J. Eng. Ed., 91, 19 (2002)
15. Wong, YW., and J.L. Niedzwiecki, "Simplified Model For Multicomponent
Fixed Bed Adsorption," AlChE Symposium Series, 78, 120-127 (1982) 0

Figure 9. Regeneration loading profiles in Example 4:
Thermal Swing Adsorption with regeneration air interstitial
velocity a) v = 30 m/min, and b) v = 60 m/min.
Chemical Engineering Education


* 5 point, biased upwind
Finite Difference


Both display of conventional graphical methods
and solving of complex systems of nonlinear
equations can be achieved using MATLAB,
which eliminates the requirement of multiple nu-
merical tools in the course such as spreadsheet,
for graphical methods, and computer languages,
for numerical computation.
The aforementioned integration of graphical dis-
play and computational approaches into various sepa-
ration processes together with the implementation of
emerging separation technologies and design aspects
can provide students with the ability to choose an
appropriate separation technology for a particular ap-
plication, and to analyze the performance of modem
separation processes. The MATLAB source codes
and handouts for the examples can be downloaded
from the home page of the Analysis of Separation
Processes Course, Chemical Engineering 332 at
Cornell University ( edu/courses/cheme332>).
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors thank the students and teaching assis-
tants of ChemE332 for their feedback on the methods
described in this paper. We also thank Professor T.
Michael Duncan for insightful suggestions.










j c = classroom


THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL

in Biochemical and Biological

Engineering Courses



ROGER G. HARRISON, MATTHIAS U. NOLLERT, DAVID W. SCHMIDTKE, AND VASSILIOS I. SIKAVITSAS
University of Oklahoma Norman, OK 73019-1004
T he advancement of the U.S. economy is critically de-
pendent on new developments in science and engineer- Roger G. Harrison is an associate professor in the School of Chemical,
ing technology. Undergraduate students in engineering Biological, and Materials Engineering at the University of Oklahoma.
His research focuses on the expression and purification of recombinant
are typically well trained in solving well-defined problems. proteins, and the design of proteins for oncologic and cardiovascu-
They receive very little training past reading a textbook, lar applications. He is the lead author, with three coauthors, of the
textbook Bioseparations Science and Engineering (Oxford University
however, in the creative activities involved in development Press, 2003). He received his B.S. in chemical engineering from the
of new technology. University of Oklahoma and his M.S. and Ph.D. from the University of
Wisconsin-Madison. After his Ph.D., he also worked in R&D at Upjohn
One way to help students think creatively about develop- Company and Phillips Petroleum Company.
ing new technology is to incorporate a research proposal MatthiasU. Nollert is an associate professor in the School of Chemical,
into the coursework. Although numerous efforts have been Biological, and Materials Engineering at the University of Oklahoma.
made to incorporate more writing into engineering and sci- His research in the area of biomedical engineering seeks to understand
the role of fluid mechanics in modulating the biology of blood cells and
ence courses,"1-4 little has been reported about using research the cells of the blood vessel wall. He received his B.S. in chemical
proposals in undergraduate courses. In an undergraduate engineering from the University of Virginia and his Ph.D. from Cornell
course for chemistry majors at Brooklyn College entitled University. He was a postdoctoral fellow at Rice University.
"Introduction to Research," students were required to select David W. Schmidtke is an assistant professor in the School of
a research project provided by the instructor.151 Students then Chemical, Biological, and Materials Engineering at the University of
Oklahoma. His research interests are in the areas of biosensors and
wrote a rough draft of the proposal. After receiving feedback cell adhesion. He received his B.S. in chemical engineering from the
from the instructor, they wrote a final draft. In a Youngstown University of Wisconsin-Madison and his M.S. and Ph.D. from the
University of Texas at Austin. He was a postdoctoral fellow at the
State University course entitled "Chemistry Research," stu- University of Pennsylvania.
dents were required to select a research proposal topic, write
a rough draft of the proposal, and then write a final draft after Vassilios I. Sikavitsas is an assistant professor in the School of
a rough draft of the proposal, and then write a final draft after Chemical, Biological, and Materials Engineering at the University of
receiving feedback from the professor.161 For both proposals, Oklahoma. His research interests include the use of molecular and cell
the time allotted for writing (five weeks at Brooklyn College biology approaches together with engineering principles in developing
cellular and tissue engineering strategies for organ regeneration and
and three weeks at Youngstown State) seems too short for assessment of human health risk. He received his B.S. in chemical
undergraduates, given the challenging nature of writing a engineering from Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, and his
M.S. and Ph.D. from the State University of New York at Buffalo. He
research proposal, was a postdoctoral fellow at Rice University.
This paper presents our experiences incorporating a research
proposal in four biochemical or biological engineering courses O CopTright ChE Division of ASEE 2006
Fall 2006 32










for graduate students and upper-level undergraduates at the
University of Oklahoma (OU). Biochemical and biological
engineering are broad fields undergoing rapid development
and have many opportunities for students to write research
proposals on the advancement of science and engineering.
We found that the great majority of students could write
proposals on biochemical and bioengineering topics without
major problems. Writing the proposal in stages over at least
half the semester-with feedback provided by the instructor
after each stage-was helpful to the students. Our findings
are supported by our own observations and an anonymous
survey of the students.

RESEARCH PROPOSAL
A research proposal was required in each of the following
courses, with the number of students indicated in parentheses:
Biochemical Engineering (25), Biosensors (9), Cellular As-
pects in Tissue Regeneration (9), and Tissue Engineering (15).
Each of these courses is an upper-level engineering course for
juniors, seniors, and graduate students. Students devoted at
least half the semester to developing their research proposals
in these courses. While the requirement to do a research paper
did not cause a reduction in course material covered in lecture,
there was a reduction in homework required compared to what
it would have been had a research proposal not been required,
especially near deadlines for the research proposal.
The proposals ranged from a series of graded writing assign-
ments (objectives, rough or first draft, and final draft in Bio-
chemical Engineering and in Tissue Engineering; objectives
and final draft in Biosensors), to one writing assignment for
the entire proposal (Cellular Aspects in Tissue Regeneration).
For one of the proposals (Cellular Aspects in Tissue Regenera-
tion), the students were required to give a presentation, and
feedback from that presentation was incorporated into the
final written proposal. A sample outline of requirements and


the general grading
guidelines for the
research proposal in
Biochemical Engi-
neering are given in
the Appendix.
The selection of
the research topic
and development of
the objectives and
significance by each
student were very
important to success-
ful proposals. Exam-
ples of statements of
objectives and sig-
nificance from our
own research were


handed out to students as guides. Students were allowed to
choose a proposal topic in which they had an interest, based
on their own research and/or prior courses in the biological
sciences or bioengineering. (Nearly all of the students in the
courses were either graduate students in the area of bioen-
gineering or were undergraduates who were in one of the
bio elective patterns-biotechnology or pre-med.) In some
cases, students read ahead in the textbook about topics of
interest. Each student met with the instructor to discuss the
appropriateness of his or her chosen topic. It was sometimes
necessary for a topic to be modified based on the instructor's
experience and knowledge of the topic.
Students were given guidance about how to search the lit-
erature. In one course, Biochemical Engineering, a university
librarian came to class and gave a presentation on the various
resources available for searching literature, including the use
of search programs and interlibrary loan.

OBSERVATIONS AND OUTCOMES
Our main observations were the following:
1. Writing a research proposal was a challenge for
students in these four courses. It was the first time any
of them had been required to write a proposal, with the
exception of a few students who had written a proposal
in one of the four courses in a prior semester. For
many of them, it was the first time that they had been
required to do reading outside of the assigned text-
books. In addition, we observed that students tended
to underestimate the difficulty of writing a proposal,
especially in coming up with new ideas to research.
2. What separates this assignment from a traditional term
paper is that, besides needing to understand the lit-
erature, the student also has to develop his or her new
ideas for research. Challenging students to develop
new ideas and to express them in writing is what we
see as the major reason to use this assignment.


Chemical Engineering Education


TABLE 1
Summary of an Anonymous Survey of Students
About the Research Proposal in Bioengineering Courses
Percent of Respondents
Statement Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree
The research proposal was a good way to learn 64 29 7 0
about a topic in bioengineering in depth.
The research proposal involved more creativity 21 43 36 0
than any other assignment I have had while at OU.
The research proposal gave me a better apprecia- 14 58 21 7
tion about how new technology is created.
The research proposal was one of the most chal- 21 43 29 7
lenging assignments I have had at OU.
Writing a research proposal in this course helped
with another course/courses taken afterwards 36 64 0 0
and/or a research project.










3. Breaking the requirements down into segments (such
as a sunmmnary with specific aims, a rough draft, and
a final draft) due on different dates helped make the
assignment more manageable for the students. Giving
students written or oral feedback about each segment
helped students improve on the next segment due.
By the final draft, a great majority of students were able
to produce a proposal without major problems. We found
that roughly one-fifth of the students wrote proposals that
presented new and unusual ideas, were well explained, and
could serve as the basis of a proposal to a federal granting
agency. Undergraduate students performed about the same as
graduate students on the proposals.
Our observations, based on talking to students about their
proposals and reading students' proposals, were confirmed
by an anonymous survey of the participating students. Sur-
vey results are summarized in Table 1 and selected student
comments are given in Table 2. By a large margin, students
thought that the research proposal was a good way to learn
about a topic in depth. A majority of the students either agreed
or strongly agreed that the research proposal involved more
creativity than any other assignment they had completed at
OU, gave them a better appreciation of how new technology
is created, and was one of the most challenging assignments
they had at OU. All of the students either agreed or strongly
agreed that writing a research proposal in the course helped
with another course taken afterward and/or helped with a
research project. The student comments shown in Table 2
reinforce the survey results in Table 1. A couple of the com-
ments support breaking down the assignments into segments;


these comments were given in response to a final question in
the survey about ways students thought the research proposal
assignment could be improved.
The writing of research proposals by students addresses
ABET criterion 3(i): "... a recognition of the need for and
ability to engage in lifelong learning." Writing a research
proposal helps students to learn in a structured way how to
create new technology, which will serve them in the future as
they are confronted with new problems and challenges.
Besides being used as part of a biochemical or biological
engineering course, a research proposal could be used as the
requirement to fulfill an undergraduate research course (for
example at OU, the courses Honors Research, Undergraduate
Research Experience, or Senior Research). A research pro-
posal could also be required in other upper-level engineering
courses on topics where technology is advancing rapidly.

CONCLUSIONS

We conclude that requiring a research proposal provides an
excellent learning experience for upper-level undergraduates
and graduate students in biochemical and biological engineer-
ing courses, especially when the proposal writing is divided
into stages over at least half the semester. Writing a research
proposal requires a higher level of thinking than a normal
term paper, where the student is typically required to review
the technical literature on a given topic. By proposing new
research, the student is required to think more about existing
research and consider how to advance science and technol-
ogy in the field.


TABLE 2
Selected Comments From an Anonymous Survey of Students About the Research Proposal in Bioengineering Courses
"The proposal requires background research that enhances and reinforces the concepts being conveyed in the coursework."
"It increased my knowledge about the subject. and it was stimulating trying to produce something 'new' from the course."
"The research proposal helped us learn things that were beyond what could be covered in class. It was a good opportunity to see how the
general concepts of bioengineering apply to different areas."
"Having to plan and design experiments was very challenging in terms of creativity. The research proposals were out of our area of research;
thus, we had to be very creative in developing concepts and ideas for the project."
"I had to pull knowledge from quite a few areas and tie them together. It gave a stronger appreciation for those areas in which my knowledge
is weak, and forced me to do a fair amount of literature review for those areas."
"I would say it is the most challenging assignment I had at OU after the capstone project."
"It helped me in writing my thesis."
"The assignment helped me formulate cohesive scientific thoughts, and helped me learn to focus my arguments for my dissertation writing.
The most important aspect of the assignment was the focus on taking a scientific idea through the research design paradigm. Learning to write
clearly, concisely, and scientifically is an essential skill and should always be practiced."
"It has helped me in writing research proposals in my own research and for my general examination."
"I strongly believe that a complete and full workup of a rough draft (i.e., what a student 'thinks' is a final version of the paper) should be
turned in at least three to four weeks prior to the end of the semester. This way the professor can be critical of the writing, and the student
would still have time to learn about what was written incorrectly and how to remedy that. The specific aims should be submitted within four
weeks of the beginning of the course, in my opinion."
"Actually, I thought that it was a great experience. While doing it, I thought that it was more time consuming than it was worth. However, in
retrospect I think that it was extremely valuable."
"I like the way there were several deadlines along the way before the final proposal was due."
Fall 2006










REFERENCES
1. Plumb. C., and C. Scott, "Outcomes Assessment of Engineering Writing
at the University of Washington," J. Eng. Ed.. 91. 333 (2002)
2. Boyd, G., and M.F. Hassett, "Developing Critical Writing Skills in
Engineering and Technology Students," J. Eng. Ed., 89, 409 (2000)
3. Newell, J.A., D.K. Ludlow, and P.K. Sternberg, "Development of Oral
and Written Communication Skills Across an Integrated Laboratory
Sequence," Chem. Eng. Ed., 31, 116 (1997)
4. VanOrden, N., "Is Writing an Effective Way to Learn Chemical Con-
cepts?" J. Chem. Ed., 67, 583 (1990)
5. Williams, E.T., and Bramwell, F.B., "Introduction to Research," J.
Chem. Ed., 66, 565 (1989)
6. Schildcrout, S.M., "Learning Chemistry Research Outside the Labora-
tory: Novel Graduate and Undergraduate Courses in Research Meth-
odology," J. Chem. Educ., 79, 1340 (2002)
APPENDIX
Sample Outline of Requirements for the Research
Proposal in Biochemical Engineering
Each student is required to write a research proposal on
a topic associated with the production and processing of
bioproducts. Specific topics include, but are not limited to,
fundamental studies of:
Molecular and Cellular Engineering. This expanding area
of engineering research encompasses pure and mixed culture
processes, modeling, optimization, and control of cell and
metabolite production, development of new biochemical reac-
tors, biocatalysis, and conversion of synthetic gas and other
chemical feedstocks to value-added products via biological
means. New techniques in the monitoring and control of
molecular and cellular engineering are also of interest.
Downstream Processing. The capability to purify bioprod-
ucts in a cost-effective manner on a commercial scale is an
important technical goal in bioprocessing of substances of
biological origin. New processes and a major enhancement
of existing processes are needed to accomplish necessary
purification.

Guidelines
1. Objectives and significance: Write one to two pages
giving the objectives of your proposal and the expected
significance. Innovative or original aspects of the objec-
tives should be discussed. Also, on a separate page, give
the complete citations, including the titles, of five or six
literature references that relate to your proposal.
2. Each proposal (initial draft and final draft) must include:
A. Project Summary limit one page
B. Project Description limit 10 pages
C. References no page limit
3. The project description should be a clear statement of the
work to be undertaken and should include the following: ob-
jectives for the period of the proposed work and expected
significance and relation to the present state of knowl-
edge in the field. The statement should outline the general
plan of work, including the broad design of activities to
be undertaken, and an adequate description of experi-


mental methods and procedures. Typical section headings
of the project description are as follows: Objectives,
Significance, and Impact; Background; General Plan of
Work; and Experimental Methods and Procedures.
4. Specifications for margins, spacing and font size: 2.5
cm margins on top, bottom, and on each side; double
spaced; and 12-pointfont size.
5. Web site references should be limited to business and
government Web sites only. All other reference citations
should be to peer-reviewed articles in published journals.
6. For the revised proposal, any changes made to the initial
proposal should be underlined or highlighted.

Grading/Schedule
The grade for the research proposal will be based on the
following criteria:
1. Approach. Are the conceptual fi-amework, design, meth-
ods, and analyses adequately developed, well-integrated,
and appropriate to the objectives of the project?
2. Innovation. Does the project employ novel concepts, ap-
proaches, or methods? Are the objectives original and in-
novative? Does the project challenge existing paradigms
or develop new methodologies or technologies?
3. Utility or relevance of the research. This criterion is
used to assess the likelihood that the research can con-
tribute to the achievement of a goal that is extrinsic or
in addition to that of the research field itself and thereby
serve as the basis for new or improved technology or as-
sist in the solution of societal problems.
Grade Credit and Schedule:
Selection of proposal topic (due after three weeks) 0%
Objectives and significance (due after six weeks) 5%
Initial draft (due after 10 weeks) 20%
Revised draft (due after 15 weeks) 15%
Total for the proposal 40%

General Grading Guidelines for the Research
Proposal in Biochemical Engineering
The one- to two-page statement of objectives and signifi-
cance was graded based on the degree to which the objectives
were specifically stated. The statement of significance should
describe what is innovative about the proposal.
The initial and revised drafts of the proposal were graded
based on a careful reading by the instructor, with comments
and questions written where appropriate in the margins. The
questions and/or problems about the proposal led to a rating
of the proposal into one of three categories: minor, moderate,
or major questions/problems. In addition, the objectives and
significance section of the proposal was checked to see if any
deficiencies noted in the earlier objectives and significance
assignment were corrected. Numerical grades were assigned
based on the degree to which questions and/or problems
were minimal and the objectives and significance were
well stated. 1


Chemical Engineering Education










B teaching tips


This one-page column will present practical teaching tips in sufficient detail that ChE educators can
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the column should be approximately 450 words. If graphics are included, the length needs to be
reduced. Tips that are too long will be edited to fit on one page. Please submit a Word file to Phil
Wankat , subject: CEE Teaching Tip.



MAKE YOUR TEACHING ASSISTANT

A CO-INSTRUCTOR


BARATH BABURAo, SARAVANAN SWAMINATHAN, AND DONALD P. Visco, JR.
Tennessee Technological University Cookeville, TN 38505


Most engineering graduate students across the country
are not trained in teaching. When training occurs,
one of three models is normally usedt:
1) Enrollment in formal degree or certificate engineering
education programs
2) Formalized future faculty preparatory programs such
as the Preparing Future Faculty (PFF) program
3) Informal (share a course with a graduate student) or
formal (with course credit) training in pedagogy
The Department of Chemical Engineering at Tennessee
Technological University recently adopted a procedure
similar to the third type that fully integrates a teaching assis-
tant (TA) into a senior-level Process Dynamics and Control
course. Training occurs throughout the semester and the TA
is involved in a meaningful way in all aspects of the course.
Implementation was done with two graduate students as co-
instructors (CI) supervised by a full-time faculty member
(FM). In presenting this model below, however, we use just
a single CI for clarity.

PROCEDURE
The CI was chosen based on interest in an academic career
and past experience with the course material. Prior to the
beginning of the semester, the FM discussed the CI's in-
volvement with the course from developing the syllabus and
delivering the material, to preparing and grading homework
and examinations. The FM also provided reading materials
on important pedagogy tentatively planned for the class,
such as active learning or team-based approaches. A weekly
meeting was arranged to discuss all relevant aspects of the
course, such as feedback on the previous week's class, plans
for the upcoming week, etc. In addition, the FM and the CI
met 10 minutes prior to each class in order to briefly review
Fall 2006


the day's plan as well as discuss any unforeseen issues that
have arisen.
During the first few class periods the FM provided a course
overview and discussed the role of the CI. The CI was trained
to design the teaching methods, homework questions, quiz-
zes, laboratory, examinations, and the evaluation of the final
project and presentation. The CI was given the freedom to
use the previous year's course material or design new mate-
rial. When the CI taught the class (which happened more
than half the time), the FM observed the CI's performance
and vice-versa.

RESULTS
An individual assessment form for the CI was developed
under the supervision of the FM. This 18-question form
covered six areas: lectures, labs, organization, student inter-
action, in-class activities, and assignments/testing. Overall,
the students rated the CI as "above average." The best area
was "Student Interaction." Student comments indicated that
it was easier to approach a graduate student than a faculty
member. Additionally, graduate students are likely to keep
similar hours to that of undergraduate students, making them
more accessible.
Overall, the CI's involvement in every aspect of the course
proved to be effective training. The FM often had an advisory
role. Based on the feedback, the students generally agreed
that the CI's involvement was a positive experience for all
involved.

REFERENCE
1. Wankat, P.C., and F.S. Oreovicz, "Teaching Prospective Engineering
Faculty How To Teach," Intl. J. Engr. Educ., 21(5), 925 (2005) 0

Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2006















Volumes 36 through 40
(Note: Author Index begins on page 338)


TITLE INDEX
Note: Titles in italics are books reviews.


A
Active Learning and Critical Thinking, Using Small
Blocks of Tim es for ................................................. 38(2),150
Active Learning That Addresses Four Types of Student
Motivation, Survivor Classroom: A Method of.......... 39(3),228
Adsorption Laboratory Experiment, A Fluidized Bed....... 38(1),14
Agitation and Aeration: an Automated
Didactic Experiment................................................ 38(2),100
Agitation Experiment with Multiple Aspects, An............ 40(3),159
Analogies: Those Little Tricks That Help Students to
Understand Basic Concepts in Chemical Engineering 39(4)302
Applied Probability and Statistics, An Undergraduate
C ourse in .......................................... ..................... 36(2),170
ASEE Annual Meeting Program, 2002......................... 36(2),128
ASEE Annual Meeting Program, 2003......................... 37(2),120
Aspects of Engineering Practice Examining Value and
Behaviors in Organizations...................................... 36(4),316
Aspen Plus in the ChE Curriculum: Suitable Course
Content and Teaching Methodology.......................... 39(1),68
Assessing the Incorporation of Green Engineering into
a Design-Oriented Heat Transfer Course................. 39(4),320
Assessing Learning Outcomes, Rubric Development and
Inter-Rater Reliability Issues in................................ 36(3),212
Assessment of a Simple Viscosity Experiment for High
School Science Classes, Demonstration and........... 40(3),211
Assessment of Teaching and Learning, Using Test
R results for................................................................ 36(3),188
Assessment of Undergraduate Research Evaluating
Multidisciplinary Team Projects, Rubric
D evelopm ent for......................................................... 38(1),68
Automated Distillation Column for the Unit Operations
Laboratory, An ......................................................... 39(2),104
Automotive Applications, Design of a Fuel Processor
System for Generating Hydrogen for...................... 40(3),239

Award Lectures
Equations (of Change), Don't Change, The: But
the Profession of Engineering Does .................... 37(4),242
Membrane Science and Technology in the 21st
C century ................................. ................................ 38(2),94
Future Directions in ChE Education: A New
Path to G lory .......................................................... 37(4),284
Azeotropic System in a Laboratorial Distillation Column,
Validating The Equilibrium Stage Model for an......... 40(3),195


B
Batch Fermentation Experiment for L-Lysine
Production in the Senior Laboratory, A................... 37(4),262
(BLEVE), Boiling-Liquid Expanding-Vapor Explosion:


An Introduction to Consequence and Vulnerability
A analysis ................................................................... 36(3),206
Beer, Teaching Product Design Through the
Investigation of Commercial ................................... 36(2),108
Binary Molecular Diffusion Experiments,
Inexpensive and Sim ple............................................. 36(1),68
Biochemical and Biological Engineering Courses, The
Research Proposal in ............. ............................... 40(4),323
Biochemical Engineering Taught in the Context of
Drug Discovery to Manufacturing........................... 39(3).208
Biodiesel Production Using Acid-Catalyzed
Transesterification of Yellow Grease, Plant
D esign Project: ........................................................ 40(3),215
Biointerfacial Engineering, Multidisciplinary Graduate
Curriculum on Integrative ....................................... 40(4),251
Biological Systems in the Process Dynamics and
Control Curriculum, Integrating ........................... 40(3),181
Biology and ChE at the Lower Levels, Integrating ......... 38(2),108
Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source: An Illustration
of ChE Thermodynamic Concepts.......................... 40(4),259
Biomedical and Biochemical Engineering for K-12
Students ................................................................... 40(4),283
Biomolecular Modeling in a Process Dynamics and
C control C ourse......................................................... 40(4),297
Bioprocess Engineering, A Course In: Engaging the
Imagination of Students Using Experiences Outside
the C classroom ........................................................... 37(3),180
Bioreactor, Mass Transfer and Cell Growth Kinetics
in a .......................................................................... 36 (3),2 16
Block-Scheduled Curriculum, Pillars of Chemical
Engineering, A ......................................................... 38(4),292
Brine-Water Mixing Tank Experiment, Teaching
Semiphysical Modeling to ChE Students Using a...... 39(4),308
Building Molecular Biology Laboratory Skills in
C hE Students ........................................................... 39(2),134
Building Multivariable Process Control Intuition
Using Control Station" ..................... ................... 37(2),100



Carbon Cycle, Earth's: Chemical Engineering Course
M aterial..................................................................... 36(4),296
Career, Factors Influencing the Selection of Chemical
Engineering as a....................................................... 37(4),268
Cars Accelerate Learning, Fast: High-Performance
E engines ..................................... ........................... 37(3),208
Catalytic Reactor, Experiments with a Fixed-Bed............. 36(1),34
Cell Growth Kinetics in a Bioreactor, Mass Transfer
and ............... ................................................ 36(3),216
Chemical Engineering Education











Cellular Biology into a ChE Degree Program.
Incorporating M olecular and.................................... 39(2), 124
CFD Tools, Teaching Nonideal Reactors with.............. 38(2),154
ChE Principles, A Respiration Experiment to Introduce 38(3),182
Chem-E-Car Competition, Engineering Analysis in the....40(1),66
Chem-E-Car Down Under ............................................ 36(4),288
Chemical Product Engineering. A Graduate-Level-
Equivalent Curriculum in ......................................... 39(4).264
Chemical Reaction Engineering Lab Experiment.
A n Integrated ........................................................... 38(3),228
Chemical Thermodynamic Concepts to Real-World
Problems, Relating Abstract.................................... 38(4),268
Chemistry into the ChE Curriculum, Incorporating
Com putational ......................................................... 40(4),268
Classroom Demonstration of Natural Convection,
A Sim ple .................................................................. 39(2),138
Choosing and Evaluating Equations of State for
Thermophysical Properties...................................... 37(3),236
Coffee on Demand: A Two-Hour Design Problem............ 36(1 ),54
Coherence in Technical Writing, Improving................. 38(2),116
Collaborative Learning and Cyber-Cooperation in
M ultidisciplinary Projects........................................ 37(2), 114
Combining Modern Learning Pedagogies in Fluid
Mechanics and Heat Transfer .................................. 39(4),280
Combustion Principles for Engineering Freshman,
The Potato Cannon: Determination of..................... 39(2).156
Commercial Simulator to Teach Sorption Separations.
U sing A ...................................... .............................. 40(3),165
Common Plumbing and Control Errors in
Plantwide Flow Sheets............................................. 39(3),202
Community-Based Presentations in the Unit Ops
L laboratory ............................................................... 39(2),160
Communication Skills in Engineering Students, An
Innovative Method For Developing ........................ 38(4),302
Compact Heat Exchangers, A Project to Design
and B uild ..................................................................... 39 (1 ),38
Compendium of Open-Ended Membrane Problems
in the Curriculum A .................................................. 37(1 ).46
Compressible Flow Analysis Discharging Vessels .......... 38(3),190
Computation in the Analysis of Separation Processes,
Using Visualization and........................................... 40(4),313
Computational Fluid Dynamics, Incorporating Nonideal
Reactors in a Junior-Level Course........................... 38(2),136
Computer Evaluation of Exchange Factors
in Therm al Radiation ............................................... 38(2),126
Computer-Facilitated Mathematical Methods in ChE
Sim ilarity Solution..................................................... 40(4),307
Computer Programming to Teach Numerical Methods,
Increasing Time Spent on Course Objectives by
U sing ........................................................................ 37(3),2 14
Computer Science or Spreadsheet Engineering: An
Excel/VBA-Based Programming and Problem-
Solving C ourse ........................................................ 39(2),142
Computing Experience, Enhancing the Undergraduate... 40(3),231
ConcepTests and Instant Feedback in Thermodynamics,
U se o f........................................ ..... ............................ 3 8 (1 ),64
Conceptual Understanding in Chemical Engineering........ 36(1),42
Condensation, Solvent Recovery by: An Application of
Phase Equilibrium and Sensitivity Analysis............ 38(3),216
Conducting the Engineer s Approach to Problem Solving,
Fall 2006


Discussion of the Method: ....................................... 38(3),203
Consequence and Vulnerability Analysis, Boiling-Liquid
Expanding-Vapor Explosion (BLEVE) ................... 36(3),206
Construction and Visualization of VLE Envelopes in
M athcad ................................................ .................. 37(1),20
Consulting, The Vagaries of ............................................. 36(l),74
Control Station". Building Multivariable Process Control
Intuition U sing ...................................................... 37(2),100
Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical
M odeling .................................... ................................ 36(1),26
Cooperative Work That Gets Sophomores on Board.......39(2),128
Copper Rotating-Disc Electrode, Reduction of
D issolved Oxygen at a................................................ 39(1),14
Coupled Transport and Rate Processes, Teaching ........... 38(4),254
Course-Level Strategy for Continuous Improvement, A. 39(3),186
Course Project, Partnering With Industry for a
M eaningful................................................................ 40(1),32
Cross-Disciplinary Projects in a ChE Undergraduate
Curriculum, Development of.................................... 38(4),296
Curriculum: Suitable Course Content and Teaching
Methodology, Aspen Plus in the ChE........................ 39(1),68
Cyber-Cooperation in Multidisciplinary Projects,
Collaborative Learning and ..................................... 37(2),114

Class and Home Problems
A Simple Open-Ended Vapor Diffusion Experiment.. 38(2),122
An Open-Ended Mass Balance Problem................... 39(1),22
Boiling-Liquid Expanding-Vapor Explosion
(BLEVE) An Introducton to Consequence and
Vulnerability Analysis ........................................... 36(3),206
Computer-Facilitated Mathematical Methods in
ChE Similarity Solution........................................ 40(4),309
Cooperative Work That Gets Sophomores on Board.. 39(2),128
Data Analysis Made Easy With DataFit .................... 40(1),60
Fuel Processor System for Generating Hydrogen for
Automotive Applications ...................................... 40(3),239
Gas Permeation Computations with Mathematica .....40(2),140
'Greening' a Design-Oriented Heat Transfer Course. 39(3),216
Incorporating Green Engineering into a Material
and Energy Balance Course..................................... 38(1),48
Scaled Sketches for Visualizing Surface Tension....... 39(4),328
Solvent Recovery by Condensation: An Application of
Phase Equilibrium and Sensitivity Analysis............ 38(3),216
The Sherry Solera: An Application of Partial
Difference Equations .................... ....................... 36(1),48

D
Data Analysis Made Easy With Datafit........................... 40(1),60
Decision Analysis for Equipment Selection ................. 39(2),100
Demonstration and Assessment of a Simple Viscosity
Experiment for High School Science Classes ............ 40(3),211
Design Experience: Multidisciplinary Design of a
Potable Water Treatment Plant, A Freshman ........... 39(4),296
Design in Chemical Engineering at Rose-Hulman
Institute of Technology, Freshman .......................... 38(3),222
Design of a Fuel Processor System for Generating
Hydrogen for Automotive Applications .................. 40(3),239
Design Problem, A Two-Hour: Coffee on Demand ........... 36(1),54
Design Project: Biodiesel Production Using Acid-
Catalyzed Transesterification of Yellow Grease,











P lant ........................................ ................................. 40 (3),2 15
Design Project Curricula, An International Comparison
of Final-Year.............................. ........................ 40(4),275
Design Projects of the Future.......................................... 40(2),88
Design Projects, Web-Based Delivery of ChE...............39(3),194
Design Through the Investigation of Commercial
Beer, Teaching Product............................................ 36(2),108
Determining Self-Similarity Transient Heat Transfer
with Constant Flux, A Method for............................. 39(1),42
Determining the Flow Characteristics of a Power
L aw L iquid ................................................................ 36(4),304
Developing Metacognitive Engineering Teams............ 38(4),316
Development and Implementation of an Educational
Sim ulator: Glucosim ................................................ 37(4),300
Development of Cross-Disciplinary Projects In a
ChE Undergraduate Curriculum.............................. 38(4),296
Differential Equations, Scaling of: "Analysis of the
Fourth K ind,"........................................................... 36(3),232
Diffusion Experiments, Inexpensive and Simple
Binary M olecular....................................................... 36(1),68
Diffusivities in the Classroom, Using Molecular-Level
Simulations to Determine........................................ 37(2), 156
Discharging Vessels, Compressible Flow Analysis ......... 38(3),190
Discussion of the Method: Conducting the
Engineer's Approach to Problem Solving................ 38(3),203
Dissolved Oxygen at a Copper Rotating-Disc
Electrode, Reduction of ............................................. 39(1),14
Distillation Case Study, Using Mathematica to Teach
Process U nits, A ....................................................... 39(2),116
Division Program, Chemical Engineering.....................36(2), 128

Departmental Articles
California Berkeley, University of............................37(3),162
Colum bia University....................... ........................ 40(1),8
Illinois Institute of Technology..................................... 39(1),2
Kansas State U niversity................................................ 36(1),2
Maryland Baltimore County, University of ............... 37(2),82
Oklahoma, University of......................................... 38(3),162
Rice U niversity............................ ......................... 38(2),88
Rowan University........................ ........................ 39(2),82
Sherbrooke, University of........................................ 40(3),146
Tulane University ....................................... 36(2),88;40(2),80
Vanderbilt University........................... ..................... 37(1),2
W ashington University ............................................ 39(3),170

Doctoral Student's Perspective, Teaching and Mentoring
Training Programs at Michigan State
U university: A ............................................................ 38(4),250
Drawing the Connections Between Engineering
Science and Engineering Practice............................ 39(2),110
Drug Delivery for Chemical Engineers, An
Introduction to ......................................................... 36(3), 198
Drug Discovery to Manufacturing, Biochemical
Engineering Taught in the Context of...................... 39(3),208
Durbin-Watson Statistics to Time-Series-Based
Regression Models, On the Application of................ 38(1),22
Dust Explosion Apparatus Suitable for Use in Lecture
Dem onstrations, A ................................................... 38(3),188
Dynamic Simulation to Converge Complex
Process Flow Sheets, Use of.....................................38(2),142


E
Earth's Carbon Cycle Chemical Engineering Course
M material, T he............................................................. 36(4),296
Economic Risk Analysis: Using Analytical and Monte
Carlo Techniques ....................................................... 36(2),94
Economics and Business Strategies, A Lesson in
Engineering: Gas Station Pricing Game.................. 36(4),278

Educator Articles
Davis, Robert H.; University of Colorado................. 37(2),88
Doherty, Mike; UC Santa Barbara............................ 38(3)168
Doraiswamy, L.K.; Iowa State University............... 36(3),178
Eckert, Chuck; Georgia Institute of Technology ............ 38(1),2
Gast, Alice; Massachusetts Institute of Technology .....39(2),88
Hesketh, Robert; Rowan University.............................37(1),8
King, C. Judson; UC Berkeley ................................ 39(3),178
LeBlanc, Steve; University of Toledo ....................... 36(2),82
Montgomery, Susan; University of Michigan ............ 40(3),154
Rhinehart, R. Russell; Oklahoma State University ........ 39(1),8
Seider, Warren; University of Pennsylvania................ 36(1),8
Shuler, Michael L.; Cornell University ..................... 38(2),82
Schulz, Kirk; Mississippi State University.................. 40(1),2
Stuve, Eric M.; University of Washington................. 40(2),74

Electrochemical Method, Metal Recovery from
W astew ater w ith an.................................................. 36(2),144
Electrodialysis, Exploring the Potential of ......................37(1),52
Electrolyte Thermodynamics, Teaching .............................38(1),26
Energy Balances on the Human Body: A Hands-On
Exploration of Heat, Work, and Power.......................39(1),30
Energy Consumption vs. Energy Requirement............. 40(2),132
Energy Source: An Illustration of ChE Thermodynamic
Concepts, Biomass as a Sustainable.........................40(4),259
Enhancing the Undergraduate Computing Experience....40(3),231
Engineering Analysis in the Chem-E-Car Competition.....40(1 ),66
Engineering Science and Engineering Practice, Drawing
the Connections Between ........................................ 39(2),110
Engines, High-Performance: Fast Cars Accelerate
Learning .................................................................. 37(3),208
Environmental Engineers Through Development of a
New Course, Introducing Molecular Biology to........ 36(4),258
Environmental Impact Assessment: Teaching the
Principles and Practices by Means of a Role-Playing
C ase Study ................................................................. 39(1),76
Equations (of Change) Don't Change, But the
Profession of Engineering Does.............................. 37(4),242
Equations of State at the Graduate Level,
M olecular-Based...................................................... 39(4),250
Equations of State for Thermophysical Properties,
Choosing and Evaluating......................................... 37(3),236
Equilibrium Stage Model for an Azeotropic Systems
in an Laboratorial Distillation Column, Validating
th e ......................................... .......... ......................... 4 0 (3 ),19 5
Equipment Selection, Decision Analysis for ................ 39(2),100
Evolutionary Operation Method to Optimize Gas
Absorber Operation, Using the: A Statistical
Method for Process Improvement ........................... 38(3),204
Examining Value and Behaviors in Organizations:
Aspects of Engineering Practice...............................36(4),316
Excel/VBA-Based Programming and Problem Solving
Chemical Engineering Education











Course, Computer Science or Spreadsheet
Engineering: A n................................ .................. 39(2),142
Exceptions to the Le Chatelier Principle ...................... 37(4),290
Excitement and Interest in Mechanical Parts, Pressure
for Fun: A Course Module for Increasing ChE
Students' ...................................... ......................... 40(4),29 1
Exercise for Practicing Programming in the ChE
Curriculum Calculation of Thermodynamic
Properties Using the Redlich-Kwong Equation of
State ................................................. .................... 37(2),14 8
Experiment, Agitation and Aeration
an Autom ated Didactic ............................................ 38(2),100
Experiment, A Nonlinear, Multi-Input, Multi-Output
Process Control Laboratory......................................... 40(1)54
Experiment, A Quadruple-Tank Process Control............. 38(3),174
Experiment, A Simple Open-Ended Vapor Diffusion...... 38(2),122
Experiment for Transport Phenomena, An
Easy Heat and M ass Transfer.................................... 36(1),56
Experiment with Multiple Aspects, An Agitation............ 40(3),159
Experimental Air-Pressure Tank Systems for Process
Control Education...................................................... 40(1),24
Experimental Design, Personalized, Interactive,
Take-Home Examinations for Students Studying....... 37(2).136
Experimental Design into the Unit Operations
Laboratory, Incorporating..................... ................ 37(3), 196
Experimental Investigation and Process Design in a
Senior Laboratory Experiment ................................ 40(3),225
Experimental Projects for the Process Control
L laboratory ............................................................... 36(3),182
Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling:
C cooking Potatoes......................................................... 36(1 ),56
Experiments Across the Atlantic, Performing Process
C control ...................................... ............................. 39(3),232
Experiments, Inexpensive and Simple Binary
M olecular D iffusion................................................. 36(1 ),68
Experiments and Other Learning Activities
Using Natural Dye M aterials................................... 38(2),132
Experiments with a Fixed-Bed Catalytic Reactor.............. 36(1),34
Explicit Models, Sensitivity Analysis in ChE Education:
Part 1. Introduction and Application to ................... 37(3),222

F
Factors Influencing the Selection of Chemical
Engineering as a Career............................................ 37(4).268
First-Semester Course Focusing on Connection,
Communication, and Preparation, A Successful
Introduction to ChE".......................... .................. 39(3),222
Fixed-Bed Catalytic Reactor, Experiments with a.............36(1),34
Flexible Pilot-Scale Setup for Real-Time Studies in
Process Systems Engineering, A................................ 40(1),40
Flow Characteristics of a Power Law Liquid,
D eterm ining the ....................................................... 36(4).304
Fluid Mechanics, Water Day: An Experiential
L ecture for ............................................................... 37(3), 170
Fluid-Mixing Laboratory for ChE Undergraduates......... 37(4),296
Fluidized Bed Adsorption Laboratory Experiment............ 38(1),14
Fluidized Bed Polymer Coating Experiment................ 36(2), 138
For the Sake of Argument: If the Conventional Lecture
Is Dead Why is it Alive and Thriving............................. 40(2)
Free Convection, A Computational Model for Teaching. 38(4),272

Fall 2006


French Fry-Shaped Potatoes, Optimum Cooking of: A
Classroom Study of Heat and Mass Transfer ............. 37(2),142
Freshman Design Experience: Multidisciplinary
Design of a Potable Water Treatment Plant, A ........... 39(4),296
Freshman Design in Chemical Engineering at Rose-
Hulman Institute of Technology .............................. 38(3),222
Frontiers of Chemical Engineering: a Chemical
Engineering Freshman Seminar................................. 37(1),24
FTIR Spectroscopy: An Experiment for the
Undergraduate Laboratory, Kinetics of Hydrolysis
of Acetic Anhydride by In-Situ.................................. 39(1),56
Fuel Processor System for Generating Hydrogen for
Automotive Applications. Design of a .................... 40(3),239
Fuel Cell: An Ideal ChE Undergraduate Experiment......... 38(1),38
Future Directions in ChE Education: A New Path to
G lory ................... ................................................ 37(4),284


Gas Permeation Computations with Mathematica...........40(2),140
Gas Separation Membrane Experiments, A Simple
A analysis for................................................................ 37(1),74
Gas Separation Using Polymers, Tools for Teaching.........37(1),60
Gas Station Pricing Game: A Lesson in Engineering
Economics and Business Strategies......................... 36(4),278
Gasification Senior Design Project That Integrates
Laboratory Experiments and Computer Simulation,
A T ire ...................................................................... 40(3),203
Gene Subcloning for Chemical Engineering Students,
Laboratory Experiment on....................................... 38(3),212
Gibbs Energy Considerations Reduce the Role of
Rachford-Rice Analysis, Computing Phase Equilibria: 36(1 ),76
Gillespie Algorithm and MATLAB. Introducing the
Stochastic Simulation of Chemical Reactions
U sing the.................................................................... 37(1),14
Glucosim: Development and Implementation of an
Educational Sim ulator ............................................ 37(4),300
Graduate Course on Multi-Scale Modeling
of Soft M atter. A ...................................................... 38(4),242
Graduate Courses, Reflections on Project-Based
L earning in............................................................... 38(4),262
Graduate Curriculum on Integrative Biointerfacial
Engineering, M ultidisciplinary ................................. 40(4),251
Graduate Education: A Novel Approach for Describing
Micromixing Effects in Homogeneous Reactors........ 36(4),250
Graduate Education: Introducing Molecular Biology
to Environmental Engineers Through
Development of a New Course................................ 36(4),258
Graduate-Level Course in Tissue Engineering,
Teaching A ...................................... ...................... 39(4),272
Graduate-Level-Equivalent Curriculum in Chemical
Product Engineering, A............................................ 39(4),264
Graduate Level, Molecular-Based Equations of State
at the ........................................................................ 39(4 ),250
Graduate Programs, Productivity and Quality Indicators
for Highly Ranked ChE ............................................. 37(2),94
Graduate Students the Role of Journal Articles in
Research, Teaching Entering................................... 40(4),246
Graduate Thermodynamics Course in Chemical
Engineering Departments Across the United States,
A Survey of the.......................... ........................ 39(4),258
331











"Greening" a Design-Oriented Heat Transfer Course ..... 39(3),216
Green Engineering into a Design-Oriented Heat
Transfer Course, Assessing the Incorporation of........ 39(4),320
Green Engineering into a Material and Energy Balance
Course, Incorporating ................................................ 38(1),48
Group Learning, Introduction to Synthesis, Resourcefulness, and
Effective Communication in
Biochemical Engineering ....................................... 37(3),174
Group Work, Teaching Engineering in a Modern
Classroom Setting: Making Room for .................... 39(2),164


Hands-On Laboratory in the Fundamentals of
Semiconductor Manufacturing, A.... .............. .... 36(1),14
Heat Transfer Visualization Tools, Java-Based............. 38(4),282
Heat and Mass Transfer Experiment for Transport
Phenomena, An Easy......................... .............. 36(1),56
Heat and Mass Transfer, Optimum Cooking of French Fry-Shaped
Potatoes: A Classroom Study of ...............................37(2),142
Heat Transfer Analysis and the Path Forward in a
Student Project on the Splenda Sucralose Process..... 39(4),316
Heat Transfer Course, Assessing the Incorporation of
Green Engineering into a Design-Oriented ............. 39(4),320
Heat Transfer Course, "Greening" a Design-Oriented .... 39(3),216
Heat Transfer Problems, Spreadsheet Solutions to
Two-Dimensional .... ................................. 36(2),160
Heat, Work, and Power; Energy Balances on the Human
Body: A Hands-On Exploration of ........................... 39(1),30
High School Science Classes, Demonstration and
Assessment of a Simple Viscosity Experiment for..... 40(3),211
High-Performance Engines: Fast Cars Accelerate
Learning..................................... ........... 37(3),208
High-Performance Learning Environments............ .... 38(4),286
High School Outreach into ChE Courses, Incorporating. 37(3),184
Holistic Unit Operations Laboratory, A................... 36(2),150
Homogeneous Reactors, A Novel Approach for
Describing Micromixing Effects in......................... 36(4),250
Hydrogen for Automotive Applications, Design of a
Fuel Processor System for Generating .................... 40(3),239
Hydrolysis of Acetic Anhydride by In-Situ FTIR
Spectroscopy: An Experiment for the
Undergraduate Laboratory, Kinetics of ......................39(1),56
Hyper-TVT: Development and Implementation of an
Interactive Learning Environment........................... 40(3),175

I
Improving Coherence in Technical Writing................... 38(2)116
Improving "Thought with Hands", On ......................... 36(4),292
Incorporating Computational Chemistry into the ChE
C urriculum ................................................................ 40(4),268
Incorporating Experimental Design into the Unit
Operations Laboratory............................................. 37(3), 196
Incorporating Green Engineering into a Material and
Energy Balance Course.............................................. 38(1),48
Incorporating High School Outreach into ChE Courses.. 37(3),184
Incorporating Molecular and Cellular Biology into
a ChE Degree Program ............................................. 39(2),124
Incorporating Nonideal Reactors in a Junior-Level
Course Using Computational Fluid Dynamics...........38(2),136
Industrial Training in Chemical Engineering Education,
332


T he R ole of............................................................... 40(3),189
Industry for a Meaningful Course Project, Partnering
W ith ................................................. ...................... 40(1),32
Innovative, Can We Teach Our Students to be.............. 36(2),116
Innovative Method for Developing Communication
Skills in Engineering Students, An.......................... 38(4),302
Instant Messaging: Expanding Your Office Hours .......... 39(3),183
Integrating Biological Systems in the Process
Dynamics and Control Curriculum.......................... 40(3),181
Integrating Biology and ChE at the Lower Levels .......... 38(2),108
Integrated Chemical Reaction Engineering Lab
Experim ent, A n........................................................ 38(3),228
Integrating Kinetics Characterization and Materials
Processing in the Lab Experience............................ 36(3),226
Integration Technique to Trace Phase Equilibria
Curves, U se of an..................................................... 36(2),134
Interactive Learning Environment, Hyper-TVT:
Development and Implementation of an ................. 40(3),175
International Comparison of Final-Year Design Project
C urricula, A n ............................................................ 40(4),275
Internet Resources for Chemical Engineers.................. 36(2),100
Inter-Rater Reliability Issue in Assessing Learning
Outcomes, Rubric Development and ...................... 36(3),212
Introducing the Stochastic Simulation of Chemical
Reactions Using the Gillespie Algorithm and
M A T L A B ................................................. ................... 37(1),14
"Introduction to ChE" First-Semester Course Focusing
on Connection, Communication, and Preparation,
A Successful ............................................................ 39(3),222
Introduction to Drug Delivery for Chemical
Engineers, A n........................................................... 36(3),198
Introductory ChE Courses, Portfolio Assessment in........ 36(4),310
Introductory Chemical Reaction Engineering Course,
Micromixing Experiments in the............................... 39(2),94
Investigation into the Propagation of Baker's Yeast: A
Laboratory Experiment in Biochemical Engineering. 38(3),196


I
Java-Based Heat Transfer Visualization Tools.............. 38(4),282
Journal Articles in Research, Teaching Entering
Graduate Students the Role of................................. 40(4),246


K
K-12 Students, Biomedical and Biochemical Engineering
fo r.......................................... .............. ..................... 4 0 (4 ),2 83
Kinetics and Reactor Design, Modeling of Chemical........37(1),44
Kinetics Experiment for the Unit Operations Laboratory,
A .............................................................................. 39 (3),238
Kinetics of Hydrolysis of Acetic Anhydride by In-Situ
FTIR Spectroscopy: An Experiment for the
Undergraduate Laboratory....................................... 39(1)56


L
L-Lysine Production in the Senior Laboratory, A Batch
Fermentation Experiment for................................... 37(4),262
Lab-Based Unit Ops in Microelectronics Processing......37(3),188
Laboratory Exercise, Using a Commercial
Movie for an Educational Experience; Alternative: ... 37(2),154
Lab Experience, Integrating Kinetics Characterization and
Chemical Engineering Education











M materials Processing in the...................................... 36(3),226
Lab Experiment, An Integrated Chemical Reaction
Engineering.............................................................. 38(3),228
Laboratory, A Batch Fermentation Experiment for
L-Lysine Production in the Senior........................... 37(4),262
Laboratory Experiment, Experimental Investigation and
Process Design in a Senior ....................................... 40(3),225
Laboratory in the Fundamentals of Semiconductor
M manufacturing, A Hands-On...................................... 36(1),14
Laboratory Experiment on Gene Subcloning for
Chemical Engineering Students............................... 38(3),212
Laboratory Experiment, Pem Fuel-Cell Test Station and 38(3),236
Laboratory Skills in ChE Students, Building
M olecular Biology................................................... 39(2), 134
Laboratory to Supplement Courses in Process Control, A. 36(1),20
Laboratory Structure Encouraging Realistic Communication
and Creative Experiment Planning.......................... 37(3),202
Learning Environments, High-Performance................. 38(4),286
Learning Pedagogies in Fluid Mechanics and Heat
Transfer, Com bining................................................. 39(4),280
Learning Through Simulation: Student Engagement.......39(4),288
Lecture Demonstrations, A Dust Explosion Apparatus
Suitable for U se in ...................... ....................... 38(3), 188

Letters to the Editor............. 36(1),59;37(1),45;(2),124;(3),207

Le Chatelier Principle, Exceptions to the ..................... 37(4).290
Liquid Diffusion Coefficients, Mass Transfer
Experiment: Determination of..................................36(2),156
Lower Levels, Integrating Biology and ChE at the ..........38(2)108


M
Making Room for Group Work: Teaching Engineering
in a Modern Classroom Setting ............................ 39(2),164
Manufacturing, Biochemical Engineering Taught in the
Context of Drug Discovery and............................... 39(3),208
Mathematica, Gas Permeation Computations with.......... 40(2),140
Mass Balance Problem, An Open-Ended........................ 39(1),22
Mass Transfer and Cell Growth Kinetics in a
B ioreactor .................................. .............................. 36(3),2 16
Mass Transfer Experiment: Determination of Liquid
Diffusion Coefficients.............................................. 36(2).156
Mass Transfer Experiment for Transport Phenomena,
A n E asy H eat and ........................................................ 36(1),56
Materials Processing in the Lab Experience, Integrating
Kinetics Characterization and.................................. 36(3),226
MathCad, Construction and Visualization of VLE
E nvelopes in ............................................................... 37(1),20
MathCad in Undergraduate Reaction Engineering,
Numerical Problem Solving Using.........................40(1),14
Mathematica to Teach Process Units: A Distillation
C ase Study, U sing.................................................... 39(2),116
Mathematical Methods in ChE Similarity Solution,
Com puter-Facilitated.................... ........................ 40(4),307
Mathematical Modeling: Cooking
Potatoes, Experimentation and.................................. 36(1),26
Mathematical Modeling and Process Control of
Distributed Parameter Systems: The
One-Dimensional Heated Rod ................................ 37(2), 126
MATLAB, Introducing the Stochastic Simulation of
Fall 2006


Chem. Reactions Using the Gillespie Algorithm and... 37(1),14
McCabe-Thiele Modeling Specific Roles in the Learning
Process, Process Simulation and ..............................37(2),132
Mechanical Testing of Common-Use Polymeric
Materials with an In-House-Built Apparatus............. 40(1),46
Membrane Science and Technology in the 21st Century... 38(2),94
Mentoring Training Programs at Michigan State
University: A Doctoral Student's Perspective,
Teaching and............................................................ 38(4),250
Metacognitive Engineering Teams, Developing........... 38(4),316
Micromixing Experiments in the Introductory
Chemical Reaction Engineering Course.................... 39(2),94
Mixing Writing with First-Year Engineering: An
U nstable Solution .................................................... 37(4),248
Mechanical Parts, Pressure for Fun: A Course Module
for Increasing ChE Students' Excitement and
Interest in ................... ............................................ 40(4),291

Membranes in ChE Education
Analysis of Membrane Processes in the Introduction-
to-C hE C ourse........................................................ 37(1),33
Compendium of Open-Ended Membrane Problems
in the Curriculum .................................................. 37(1),46
Exploring the Potential of Electrodialysis................. 37(1),52
Membrane Projects with an Industrial Focus in the
C urriculum ............................................................ 37(1),68
Press Ro System: An Interdisciplinary Reverse Osmosis
Project for First-Year Engineering Students ............ 37(1),38
Simple Analysis for Gas Separation Membrane
Experim ents, A ...................................................... 37(1),74
Tools for Teaching Gas Separation Using Polymers .... 37(1),60

Membrane Science and Technology in the 21st
C century ............................................. ..................... 38(2),94
Membrane Problems in the Curriculum, A
Compendium of Open-Ended.................................... 37(1),46
Metal Recovery from Wastewater with an
Electrochemical M ethod.......................................... 36(2),144
Method for Determining Self-Similarity Transient
Heat Transfer with Constant Flux, A......................... 39(1),42
Micromixing Effects in Homogeneous Reactors, A Novel
Approach for Describing ......................................... 36(4),250
Modeling of Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Design ....... 37(1 ),44
Modeling in a Process Dynamics and Control Course,
B iom olecular ............................................................ 40(4),297
Modern Classroom Setting, Making Room for Group
Work: Teaching Engineering in a ............................ 39(2),164
Mole Balances Systematically, Put Your Intuition to
R est: W rite ........................................ .................... 38(4),308
Molecular and Cellular Biology into a ChE Degree
Program Incorporating............................................. 39(2),124
Molecular-Based Equations of State at the
G graduate Level ......................................................... 39(4),250
Molecular Diffusion Experiments, Inexpensive and
Sim ple B inary ............................................................. 36(1),68
Molecular-Level Simulations to Determine Diffusivities
in the Classroom Using............................................ 37(2),156
Molecular Biology to Environmental Engineers Through
Development of a New Course, Introducing........... 36(4),258
Monte Carlo Techniques:
333










Economic Risk Analysis, Using Analytical and........... 36(2),94
Movie for an Educational Experience: An Alternative Laboratory
Exercise, Using a Commercial................................ 37(2),154
Multidisciplinary Design of a Potable Water Treatment
Plant, A Freshman Design Experience: ................... 39(4),296
Multidisciplinary Graduate Curriculum on Integrative
Biointerfacial Engineering....................................... 40(4),251
Multidisciplinary Projects, Collaborative Learning
and Cyber-Cooperation in........................................ 37(2),114
Multidisciplinary Team Projects, Evaluating: Rubric
Development for Assessment of Undergraduate
R esearch............................................ ...................... 38(1),68
Multi-Scale Modeling of Soft Matter, A
Graduate Course on ...................... ........................ 38(4),242


N
Nanostructured Materials Synthesis of Zeolites............. 38(1),34
Natural Convection, A Simple Classroom
D em onstration of .......................................................... 39(2),138
Natural Dye Materials, Experiments and Other
Learning A activities ....................... ........................ 38(2),132

Next Millennium in Chemical Engineering
Crystal Engineering: From Molecules To Products.... 40(2),116
Different Chemical Industry, A................................ 40(2),114
Inside the Cell: A New Paradigm for Unit Operations
and U nit Processes ............................................. 40(2),126
Next Millennium in Chemical Engineering, The ......... 40(2),99
Teaching Engineering in the 21st Century with a 12th-
Century Teaching Model: How Bright is That...... 40(2),110
Vision of the Curriculum of the Future, A............... 40(2),104

Nonideal Reactors in a Junior-Level Course Using
Computational Fluid Dynamics, Incorporating .......... 38(2),136
Nonlinear, Multi-Input, Multi-Output Process Control
Laboratory Experiment, A ......................................... 40(1 ),54
Numerical Methods, Increasing Time Spent on Course
Objectives by Using Computer Programming to
Teach ........................................................................ 37(3),2 14
Numerical Problem Solving Using MathCad in
Undergraduate Reaction Engineering........................ 40(1),14
Numerical Problems, A Separation Processes Course
Using Written-Answer Questions to Complement.....36(2), 130



Office Hours, Instant Messaging: Expanding Your ......... 39(3),183
On Improving "Thought with Hands"........................... 36(4),292
On the Application of Durbin-Watson Statistics to
Time-Series-Based Regression Models..................... 38(1),22
One-Dimensional Heated Rod: Mathematical Modeling
and Process Control of Distributed
Parameter System s ............................................... 37(2),126
Open-Ended Mass Balance Problem, An........................ 39(1),22
Optimum Cooking of French Fry-Shaped Potatoes: A
Classroom Study of Heat and Mass Transfer.............37(2),142
P
Paradox of Papermaking, The....................................... 39(2),146
Partial Difference Equations, The
Sherry Solera: An Application of .............................. 36(1),48


Particle Demonstrations for the Classroom and Lab ...... 37(4),274
Particle Technology, Novel Concepts for Teaching......... 36(4),272
Partnering with Industry for a Meaningful
Course Project............................................................ 40(1),32
Performing Process Control Experiments Across
the A tlantic................................................................ 39(3),232
Pem Fuel-Cell Test Station and Laboratory Experiment. 38(3),236
Personalized, Interactive, Take-Home Examinations
for Students Studying Experimental Design ........... 37(2),136
Plantwide Flow Sheets, Common Plumbing and
Control Errors in...................................................... 39(3),202
Potato Cannon: Determination of Combustion
Principles for Engineering Freshman, The.............. 39(2),156
Product Design Through the Investigation of
Commercial Beer, Teaching..................................... 36(2),108
Phase Equilibria, How Gibbs Energy
Considerations Reduce the Role of
Rachford-Rice Analysis: Computing:........................ 36(1),76
Phase Equilibria Curves, Use of an Integration
Technique to Trace................................................... 36(2),134
Phase Equilibrium and Sensitivity Analysis, Solvent
Recovery by Condensation: An Application of .......... 38(3),216
Phase Equilibrium More User-Friendly, Making............. 36(4),284
Pillars of Chemical Engineering: A
Block-Scheduled Curriculum.................................. 38(4),292
Pilot-Scale Setup for Real-Time Studies in Process
Systems Engineering, A Flexible............................... 40(1),40
Plant Design Project: Biodiesel Production Using Acid-
Catalyzed Transesterification of Yellow Grease......... 40(3),215
Polymer Coating Experiment, Fluidized Bed............... 36(2),138
Polymeric Materials with an In-House-Built Apparatus,
Mechanical Testing of Common-Use........................ 40(1 ),46
Portfolio Assessment in Introductory ChE Courses......... 36(4),310
Potable Water Treatment Plant, A Freshman Design
Experience: Multidisciplinary Design of a.............. 39(4),296
Power, Energy Balances on the Human Body: A
Hands-On Exploration of Heat, Work, and................ 39(1 ),30
Power Law Liquid, Determining the Flow
Characteristics of a .................................................. 36(4),304
Press RO System: An Interdisciplinary Reverse Osmosis
Project for First-Year Engineering Students...............37(1),38
Pressure for Fun: A Course Module for Increasing ChE
Students' Excitement and Interest in Mechanical
P arts ..................................................... ..................... 40 (4 ),29 1
Problem, And Open-Ended Mass Balance...................... 39(1),22
Problem-Solving Skills, Assessing: Part 2.......................36(1),60
Process Control of Distributed Parameter Systems Case
Study: The One-Dimensional Heated Rod,
Mathematical Modeling and.................................... 37(2),126
Process Control Education, Experimental Air-
Pressure Tank Systems for.......................................... 40(1),24
Process Control Experiment, A Quadruple-Tank............. 38(3),174
Process Control, A Laboratory to Supplement Courses in. 36(1),20
Process Control Intuition Using Control Stations,
Building M ultivariable ........................................... 37(2),100
Process Control Laboratory Experience, Simulation and
Experiment in an Introductory................................. 37(4),306
Process Control Laboratory Experiment, A Nonlinear,
M ulti-Input, M ulti-Output ......................................... 40(1 ),54
Process Control Laboratory, Experimental Projects

Chemical Engineering Education











for the...................................................................... 36(3),182
Process Control with a Numerical Approach Based on
Spreadsheets, Teaching............................................. 36(3),242
Process Design in a Senior Laboratory Experiment,
Experimental Investigation and............................... 40(3),225
Process Dynamics and Control Course, Biomolecular
M odeling in a............................................................ 40(4),297
Process Dynamics and Control Curriculum, Integrating
Biological System s in the ........................................ 40(3),181
Process Flow Sheets, Use of Dynamic Simulation
to Converge Complex........................................... 38(2),142
Process Security in ChE Education................................. 39(1),48
Process Simulation and McCabe-Thiele: Modeling
Specific Roles in the Learning Process.................... 37(2),132
Process Simulation Used Effectively in ChE
C ourses?, Is............................................................... 36(3),192
Process Systems Engineering, A Flexible Pilot-Scale
Setup for Real-Time Studies in.................................. 40(1 ),40
Productivity and Quality Indicators for Highly Ranked
ChE Graduate Programs............................................ 37(2),94
Profession of Engineering Does, Equations (of Change)
Don't Change but the.......................... .................. 37(4),242
Professor, Returning as a .............................................. 37(4),310
Project-Based Learning in Graduate Courses,
R elections on .......................................................... 38(4),262
Project to Design and Build Compact Heat
Exchangers, A ............................ ............................ 39(1),38
Project on the Splenda Sucralose Process, Heat Transfer
Analysis and the Path Forward in a Student ........... 39(4),316
Project, VCM Process Design: An ABET 2000 Fully
C om pliant ............................... ............................... 39(1),62
Propagation of Baker's Yeast: A Laboratory Experiment in
Biochemical Engineering, Investigation into the ....... 38(3),196
Put Your Intuition to Rest: Write Mole
Balances Systematically ......... ............................. 38(4),308


Q
Quadruple-Tank Process Control Experiment, A............. 38(3),174

R
Rachford-Rice Analysis, Computing Phase Equilibria: How Gibbs
Energy Considerations Reduce the Role of ................36(1),76
Rate Processes, Teaching Coupled Transport and ........... 38(4),254
Reaction Engineering, Numerical Problem Solving
Using MathCad in Undergraduate............................. 40(1),14
Reactor Design, Modeling of Chemical Kinetics............ 37(1),44
Real-Time Studies in Process Systems Engineering, A
Flexible Pilot-Scale Setup for.................................... 40(1),40
Real-World Problems, Relating Abstract Chemical
Thermodynamic Concepts to................................... 38(4),268
Recommendation Letters, Value of Good..................... 37(2), 122
Redlich-Kwong Equation of State: An Exercise for
Practicing Proramming in the ChE Curriculum, Calculation
of Thermodynamic Properties Using the ................ 37(2),148
Reduction of Dissolved Oxygen at a Copper
Rotating-Disc Electrode ............................................ 39(1),14
Reflections on Project-Based Learning in
Graduate Courses........... .......................... .......... 38(4),262
Regression Models, On the Applications of Durbin-Watson


Fall 2006


Statistics to Times-Series-Based................................ 38(1),22
Relating Abstract Chemical Thermodynamic Concepts
to Real-World Problems .......................................... 38(4),268
Research Proposal in Biochemical and Biological
Engineering Courses, The.................... 40(4),323
Research, Teaching Entering Graduate Students the Role
of Journal Articles in................................................ 40(4),246
Respiration Experiment to Introduce ChE Principles, A. 38(3), 182
Returning as a Professor ............................................... 37(4),310
Reverse Osmosis Project for First-Year Engineering
Students, Press RO System :........................................ 37(1),38
Risk Analysis: Using Analytical and Monte
Carlo Techniques, Economic......................................36(2),94
Role of Industrial Training in Chemical Engineering
Education, The......................................................... 40(3),189
Role-Playing Case Study, Environmental Impact
Assessment: Teaching the Principles and Practices
by M means of a ..................... ..................................... 39(1)76
Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Freshman
Design in Chemical Engineering at......................... 38(3),222
Rubric Development and Inter-Rater Reliability Issues
in Assessing Learning Outcomes............................. 36(3),212
Rubric Development for Assessment of Undergraduate
Research Evaluating Multidisciplinary Team
P projects ................................... ................................ 38(1),68

Random Thoughts
Changing Times and Paradigms................................ 38(1),32
Death By PowerPoint .................... ...................... 39(1),28
Educator For All Seasons, An.................................. 38(4),280
Effective, Efficient Professor, The........................... 36(2),114
FAQs. V. Designing Fair Tests................................. 36(3),204
FAQs. VI. Evaluating Teaching and Converting
the M asses .......................................................... 37(2),106
Fond Farewell, A................................. .................. 39(4),279
How to Evaluate Teaching........................................38(3),200
How to Survive Engineering School......................... 37(1),30
How to Teach (Almost) Anybody (Almost)
A anything ............................................................... 40(3)173
Incontrovertible Logic of the Academy, The.............. 37(3),220
Learning By Doing .................................................. 37(4),282
Screens Down, Everyone: Effective Uses of Portable
Computers in Lecture Classes ............................ 39(3),200
So You Want to Win a CAREER Award.................... 36(1),32
Speaking of Education-III....................................... 36(4),282
Speaking of Everything-II.......................................... 39(2),93
The W ay to Bet .......................................................... 40(1),32
We Hold These Truths To Be Self-Evident.............. 38(2),114
W hat's in a N am e .................................................. 40(4),281
Whole New Mind For a Flat World, A ...................... 40(2),96

S
Scaled Sketches for Visualizing Surface Tension............ 39(4),328
Scaling of Differential Equations: "Analysis of the
Fourth K ind"................ .............................. ......... 36(3),232
Self-Similarity Transient Heat Transfer with Constant
Flux, A Method for Determining............................... 39(1),42
Semiconductor Manufacturing, A Hands-On Laboratory
in the Fundam entals of .............................................. 36(1),14
Semiphysical Modeling to ChE Students Using a
335










Brine-Water Mixing Tank Experiment, Teaching.......39(4),308
Sensitivity Analysis in ChE Education: Part 1. Intro. and
Application to Explicit M odels................................ 37(3),111
Sensitivity Analysis in ChE Education: Part 2.
Application to Implicit Models................................ 37(4),254
Sensitivity Analysis, Solvent Recovery by Condensation:
An Application of Phase Equilibrium and................38(3),216
Separation Processes Course: Using Written-Answer
Questions to Complement Numerical Problems ........ 36(2),130
Separation Processes, Using Visualization and
Computation in the Analysis of ................................40(4),313
Senior Design Project That Integrates Laboratory
Experiments and Computer Simulation, A Tire
G asification.............................................................. 40(3),203
Sherry Solera: An Application of Partial Difference
Equations, The ........................................................... 36(1),48
Similarity Solution, Computer-Facilitated Mathematical
M ethods in ChE ....................................................... 40(4),307
Simple Classroom Demonstration of Natural
Convection, A .......................................................... 39(2),138
Simple Open-Ended Vapor Diffusion Experiment, A...... 38(2),122
Simulation and Experiment in an Introductory Process
Control Laboratory Experience............................... 37(4),306
Simulation: Student Engagement, Learning Through...... 39(4),288
Soft Matter, A Graduate Course on Multi-Scale
M odeling of .............................................................. 38(4),242
Software Tools for ChE Education Students'
Evaluations, U se of.................................................. 36(3),236
Solids Product Engineering Design Project, A............. 37(2),108
Solvent Recovery by Condensation: An Application
of Phase Equilibrium and Sensitivity Analysis...........38(3),216
Sorption Separations, Using a Commercial Simulator
to Teach .................................................................... 40(3),165
Splenda Sucralose Process, Heat Transfer Analysis and
the Path Forward in a Student Project on the ............. 39(4),316
Spreadsheet Engineering, An Excel/VBA-Based
Programming and Problem Solving Course:
Com puter Science or ................................................ 39(2),142
Spreadsheet Solutions to Two-Dimensional Heat
Transfer Problem s.................................................... 36(2),160
Spreadsheets, Teaching Process Control with a Numerical
Approach Based on.................................................. 36(3),242
Spreadsheets and Visual Basic Applications as Teaching
Aids for a Unit Ops Course, Using.......................... 37(4),316
Statistics, An Undergraduate Course in Applied
Probability and......................................................... 36(2),170
Stochastic Modeling of Thermal Death Kinetics of a
Cell Population Revisited........................................ 37(3),228
Stochastic Modeling, Using a Web Module to Teach...... 39(3),244
Stochastic Simulation of Chemical Reactions Using the
Gillespie Algorithm and MATLAB, Introducing the.... 37(1),14
Student Motivation, Survivor Classroom: A Method of
Active Learning That Addresses Four Types of ......... 39(3),228
Students, Teaching ChE to Business and Science............ 36(3),222
Students' Evaluations, Use of Software Tools for ChE
E education ................................................................. 36(3),236
Successful "Introduction to ChE" First-Semester Course
Focusing on Connection, Communication,
and Preparation, A...................... ......................... 39(3),222
Summer School


Course in Bioprocess Engineering Engaging the
Imagination of Students Using Experiences
Outside the Classroom, A................................... 37(3),180
Incorporating Experimental Design into the Unit
Operations Laboratory........................................ 37(3),196
Incorporating High School Outreach into ChE
C ourses ............................................................... 37(3), 184
Increasing Time Spent on Course Objectives by
Using Computer Programming to Teach
Numerical M ethods............................................ 37(3),214
Introduction to Biochemical Engineering: Synthesis,
Resourcefulness, and Effective Communication
in Group Learning.............................................. 37(3),174
Lab-Based Unit Operations in Microelectronics
Processing........................................................... 37(3),188
Passing it On: A Laboratory Structure Encouraging
Realistic Communication and Creative
Experiment Planning.......................................... 37(3),202
Water Day: An Experiential Lecture for Fluid
M echanics............................. ........................ 37(3),170

Survivor Classroom: A Method of Active Learning
That Addresses Four Types of Student Motivation .... 39(3),228
Survey of the Graduate Thermodynamics Course in
Chemical Engineering Departments Across the
United States, A ......................... ........................ 39(4),258


I
Tank Systems for Process Control Education,
Experimental Air-Pressure......................................... 40(1),24
Teach Our Students to be Innovative? Can We............. 36(2),116
Teaching ChE to Business and Science Students............. 36(3),222
Teaching Coupled Transport and Rate Processes ............ 38(4),254
Teaching Electrolyte Thermodynamics .......................... 38(1),26
Teaching Engineering Courses with Workbooks............ 38(1),74
Teaching Entering Graduate Students the Role of Journal
Articles in Research................................................. 40(4),246
Teaching Free Convection, a Computational Model for.. 38(4),272
Teaching a Graduate-Level Course in Tissue
E ngineering............................................................... 39(4),272
Teaching and Mentoring Training Programs at
Michigan State University: A Doctoral
Student's Perspective............................................... 38(4),250
Teaching Nonideal Reactors with CFD Tools............... 38(2),154
Teaching Particle Technology, Novel Concepts for......... 36(4),272
Teaching Process Control with a Numerical Approach
Based on Spreadsheets............................................. 36(3),242
Teaching Semiphysical Modeling to ChE Students
Using a Brine-Water Mixing Tank Experiment..........39(4),308
Teaching Tips: Elevator Talks.............................................. 40(3)
Teaching Tips............................................... 38(2),121 40(4),327
Teaching Turbulent Thermal Convection, A New
A approach to .............................................................. 36(4),264
Technical Writing, Improving Coherence in................. 38(2),116
Technical Writing, Top Ten Ways to Improve ................ 38(1),54
Test Results for Assessment of Teaching and Learning,
U sing .......................................................................... 36(3),188
Test Station and Laboratory Experiment, Pem Fuel-Cell 38(3),236
Thermal Convection, A New Approach to Teaching

Chemical Engineering Education











Turbulent......................................... ...................... 36(4),264
Thermal Death Kinetics of a Cell Population Revisited,
Stochastic M odeling of........................................... 37(3),228
Thermal Radiation, Computer Evaluation
of Exchange Factors ................................................ 38(2),126
Thermodynamic Concepts, Biomass as a Sustainable
Energy Source: An Illustration of ChE.................... 40(4),259
Thermodynamic Properties Using the Redlich-Kwong Eq.
of State, An Exercise for Practicing Programming in
ChE Curriculum Calculation of ............................... 37(2),148
Thermodynamics Course in Chemical Engineering
Departments Across the United States, A Survey
of the G graduate ................................. .................... 39(4),258
Thermodynamics, Teaching Electrolyte .... .................. 38(1),26
Thermodynamics, Use of ConcepTests and Instant
Feedback in..................................... ........................ 38(1),64
Thermophysical Properties, Choosing and Evaluating
Equations of State for.............................................. 37(3),236
Tire Gasification Senior Design Project That Integrates
Laboratory Experiments and Computer
Sim ulation, A ........................................................... 40(3),203
Tissue Engineering, Teaching a Graduate-Level
C ourse in ................................................................... 39(4 ),272
Tools for Teaching Gas Separation Using Polymers.......... 37(1 ),60
Top Ten Ways to Improve Technical Writing ................. 38(1 ),54
Transesterification of Yellow Grease, Plant Design
Project: Biodiesel Production Using Acid-Catalyzed. 40(3),215
Transport Phenomena, An Easy Heat and Mass
Transfer Experiment for ........................................ 36(1),56
Troubleshooting Skills in the Unit Operations
Laboratory, Developing........................................... 36(2),122
Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer Problems,
Spreadsheet Solutions to............................................. 36(2).160


uI
Undergraduate Curriculum, Development of Cross-
Disciplinary Projects in a ChE.............................. 38(4),296
Unit Ops Course, Using Spreadsheets and Visual Basic
Applications as Teaching Aids for a.... ................. 37(4),316
Unit Operations Laboratory, A Holistic ......... ............ 36(2),150
Unit Operations Laboratory, A Kinetics Experiment
for the................................... ................................. 39(3),238
Unit Operations Laboratory, A Virtual..... .................. 36(2),166
Unit Operations Laboratory, An Automated Distillation
C olum n for the............................................................ 39(2),104
Unit Operations Laboratory, Developing
Troubleshooting Skills in the....... ......................... 36(2),122
Unit Operations Laboratory, Incorporating Experimental
D esign into the......................................................... 37(3),196
Unit Ops in Microelectronics Processing, Lab-Based.....37(3),188
Unit Ops Laboratory, Community-Based Presentations
in the ........................................................................ 39 (2 ),160
UOP-Chulalongkorn University Industrial-University
Joint Program ...................................... .................... 38(1),60
Use of ConcepTests and Instant Feedback in
Therm odynam ics ....................................................... 38(1),64
Using a Commercial Simulator to Teach Sorption
Separations................................................................ 40(3),165
Using a Web Module to Teach Stochastic Modeling.......39(3),244
Using Mathematica to Teach Process Units: A
Fall 2006


D istillation Case Study ............................................ 39(2),116
Using Small Blocks of Time for Active Learning
and Critical Thinking............................. ...............38(2),150
Using Spreadsheets and Visual Basic Applications as
Teaching Aids for a Unit Ops Course...................... 37(4),316
Using Test Results for Assessment of Teaching
and Learning ............................................................. 36(3),188
Using the Evolutionary Operation Method to Optimize
Gas Absorber Operation: A Statistical Method for
Process Improvement ............................................... 38(3),204
Using Visualization and Computation in the Analysis
of Separation Processes ........................................... 40(4),313



Validating The Equilibrium Stage Model for an
Azeotropic System in a Laboratorial Distillation
C olum n ............................................... ..................... 40(3),195
Value of Good Recommendation Letters...................... 37(2),122
Vapor Diffusion Experiment, A Simple Open-Ended......38(2),122
VCM Process Design: An ABET 2000 Fully
C om pliant Project................................................... 39(1),62
Virtual Laboratory, Web-Based VR-Form.................... 36(2),102
Virtual Unit Operations Laboratory, A.......................... 36(2),166
Viscosity Experiment for High School Science Classes,
Demonstration and Assessment of a Simple............ 40(3),211
Visual Basic Applications as Teaching Aids for a Unit
Ops Course, Using Spreadsheets and...................... 37(4),316
Visualizing Surface Tension.......................................... 39(4),328
Visualization Tools, Java-Based Heat Transfer............. 38(4),282
VLE Envelopes in Mathcad, Construction and
V isualization of.......................................................... 37(1),20
Vulnerability Analysis, (BLEVE) Boiling-Liquid
Expanding-Vapor Explosion: An Introduction to
Consequence and ........................ ....................... 36(3),206


w
Wastewater with an Electrochemical Method, Metal
Recovery from ......................................................... 36(2),144
Water Day: An Experiential Lecture for Fluid Mech.......37(3),170
Web-Based Delivery of ChE Design Projects............... 39(3),194
Web-Based VR-Form Virtual Laboratory.......... ........ 36(2),102
Web Module to Teach Stochastic Modeling, Using a......39(3),244
Work, and Power, Energy Balances on the Human Body:
A Hands-On Exploration of Heat .............................. 39(1),30
Writing with First-Year Engineering: An Unstable
Solution, M ixing...................................................... 37(4),248
Written-Answer Questions to Complement Numerical
Problems Case Study: A Separation Processes
C ourse ................... ................................................ 36(2),130


Y
Yellow Grease, Plant Design Project: Biodiesel
Production Using Acid-Catalyzed
Transesterification of ..................... ....................... 40(3),215


z
Zeolites, Nanostructured Materials Synthesis of............... 38(1),34












Author Index


A
Abbas, Abderrahim .................. 36(3),236
Abraham, Martin A. ................. 34(2),272
Abu-Khalaf, Aziz M................. 36(2),122
Adhangale, Parag ..................... 37(2),156
Akers, William H. ..................... 39(4),316
Albarran, Carlos Ponce de Leon.... 39(1)14
Al-Bastaki, Nader .................... 36(3),236
Almeida, Paulo Ignacio F ........... 38(2),100
Alves, Manuel A. ...................... 38(2),154
Ang, Siong ............................... 36(3),182
April, G .C..................................... 38(1),8
Ang, Siong ............................... 38(3),174
Arce, Pedro E........................... 38(4),286
Armstrong, Robert C................ 40(2),104
Arnold, D.W ................................. 38(1),8
Ascanio, Gabriel ...................... 37(4),296
Assaf-Anid, Nada M.. 38(4),268;40(4),259

B
Baber, Tylisha M...................... 38(4),250
Badino Jr., Alberto C................ 38(2),100
Balakotaiah, Vemuri................. 36(4),250
Balcarcel, R. Robert................... 37(1),24
Barna, Bruce A........................... 36(2),94
Barritt, Amber M...................... 39(4),296
Bayles, Taryn ................ 37(2),82;(3),184
Beene, Jason D......................... 38(2),136
Bennewitz, Marlene Roeckel von38(4),302
Benyahia, Farid.......................... 39(1),62
Bernardo, Fernando P.............. 39(2),116
Besser, Ronald S. ...................... 36(2),160
BeviA, Francisco Ruiz.............. 36(2),156
Bhatia, Surita R ........................ 36(4),310
Biernacki, Joseph J................... 39(3),186
Binous, Housam....................... 40(2),140
Birol, Gulnur............................ 37(4),300
Blau, Gary................................ 37(4),310
Blaylock, Wayne ...................... 38(2),122
Bonet, Josep............................. 36(2),150
Bowman, Christopher ................ 37(2),88
Bowman, Frank M ..................... 37(1),24
Braatz, Richard D........ 36(3),182;38(3)174
Brauner, Neima........................ 37(2),148
Brazel, C .S. ................................... 38(1),8
Brenner, James R. ........................ 40(1)60
Brent, Rebecca.......... 36(3),204;37(2),106;
......(4),282;38(3),200;39(1),28;(3),200;
............................... ......... 40(3),173;
Briedis, Daina .......................... 38(4),250
Brown, Gary............................. 39(4),280
Bruce, David A............ 39(2),104;(3),238
Bullard, Lisa G......................... 39(3),194
Burkey, Daniel ......................... 39(3),183
Burmester, Jeffrey A. ................ 40(3),211
Burrows, Veronica.................... 38(2),132
Butler, Justin T. ......................... 39(2),104


C
Caicedo, A. Argoti.................... 37(3),228
Carmona, Ximena Garcia............ 38(4),302
Carney, Michael ... ............... 36(2),18
Carter. Rufus ...... ................... 39(4),296
Case, Jennifer M ........ 36(1),42;39(4),288;
............................................... 4 0(4 ),29 1
Caspary, David W..................... 37(4),262
Castaldi, Marco J ..... 38(4),268;40(3),203;
................................................... (4 ),2 5 9
Cecchi, Joseph L ........... ........ 37(3),208
Center, Alfred M. ...................... 36(4),278
Chakraborty, Saikat.... 36(4),250;37(3),162
Chang, Chih-Hung ................... 37(3),188
Chang, Jane P. ........................... 36(1),14
Chauhan, Anuj.......................... 39(4),296
Chen, Bei.................................... 38(1),34
Chen, Wei-Yin................ 37(1),20;(3)228
Chen, Xiao Dong ......... 36(1),26;38(3),196
Chi, Yawu................................... 38(1),34
Chin, Der-Tau........................... 36(2),144
Chou, S.T .................................. 37(3),228
Choudhary, Devashish ............. 40(4),313
Chuang, Steven S.C. ................... 38(1),34
Churchill, Stuart W...... 36(2), 116;36(4),264
Cilliers, Jan .............................. 39(2),100
Qinar, A li.................................. 37(4),300
Ciric, Am y................................ 39(2),164

Cohen, Claude............................ 38(2),82
Coker, A. Kayode....................... 37(1 ),44
Coker, David T ........................... 37(1),60
Colina, Coray M......... 37(3),236;39(4),250
Colton, Clark K ........................ 39(3),232
Cooper, Douglas J .................... 37(2),100
Coronell, Dan........................... 39(2),142
Corti, David S. .......................... 37(4),290
Crittenden, Barry........................ 39(1),76
Crowe, Cameron M............ 36(1),48;(1),60
Cruz, Antonio J.G. .................... 38(2),100
Cussler, Edward L.................... 40(2),114
Cutlip, Michael B..................... 37(2),148

D
da Silva, Dulce Cristina Martins. 40(3),195
Dahm, Kevin D ........... 36(3),192;(3)212;
.........37(1),68;(2),132;38(1),68;(4),316
.......................... ................... 39 (2),94
Dale, Frances F......................... 40(3),211
Davis, Richard A............. 37(1),74;39(1)38
Demirel, Yasar............... 38(1),74;(4),254
Detamore, Michael................... 39(4),272
DiBiasio, David........................ 37(4),248
Dickson, James M...................... 36(1),60
Dickson, Jasper L....................... 37(1),20
Doherty, Mike .............38(4),308;40(2),116
Donoso, Carmen Gloria........... 38(4),302


Dorazio, Lucas ......................... 38(4),268
Doskocil, Eric J ........................ 37(3),196
Dougherty, Danielle ................. 37(2),100
Doyle III, Francis J. .................. 40(3),181
Dranoff, Joshua S..................... 36(3),216
Drwiega, Jack........................... 39(4),296
Duarte, Belmiro........................ 40(3),195
Dube, Sanjay K ........................ 39(4),258
Dueben, Rebecca...................... 39(4),280
Durand, Alain........................... 39(4),264


E
Edgar, Thomas F. ..................... 40(3),231
England, Richard........................ 39(1),76
Erkey, Can.................................. 39(1),56
Erzen, Fetanet Ceylan.............. 37(4),300
Espino, Ramon L. ..................... 36(4),316
Evans, Geoffery M................... 38(3),190


F
Fahidy, Thomas Z ....... 36(2),170;38(1),22
Falconer, John L......................... 38(1),64
Fan, L.T.................................... 40(2),132
Farrell, Stephanie.......... 36(2),108;(2),138;
..(3),198;37(1),52,68;38(2),108;(3),182
................................................. 3 9 (1),30
Farriol, Xavier.......................... 36(2),150
Favre, Eric................................ 39(4),264
Felder, Richard M .......... 36(1),32;(2),114;
..........(3),204;(4),282;37(1),30;(2),106;
..........(3),220;(4),282;38(1),32;(2),114;
.............(3),200;(4),280;39(1)28;(2),82;
............(3),200;(4),279;40(1),38;(2),96;
......................... (2),110;(3),173;(4)281
Fenton, James M ........................ 38(1),38
Fenton, Suzanne S...................... 38(1),38
Fernmindez-Torres, Maria J .......... 39(4)302
Ferri, James K .......................... 37(3),202
Fisher, David W ........................ 37(4),262
Fleming, Patrick J. .................... 36(2),166
Fletcher, Nathan W..................... 40(1),40
Floyd-Smith, Tamara M........... 40(3),211
Flynn, Ann Marie........... 39(3),216;(4),316
Fogler, H. Scott.......................... 40(2),99
Font, Josep ............................... 36(2),150
Ford, Laura P............................ 37(3),170
Forrester, Stephanie E .............. 38(3),190
Foutch, Gary L ......................... 37(2),122
Fowler, Michael ....................... 38(3),236
Franks, George V...................... 37(4),274
Franses, Elias I......................... 37(4),290
Fraser, Duncan M......... 36(1),42;39(4),288
Franzen, Stefan ........................ 38(4),242
Freeman, Benny D ..................... 37(1),60
Frey, Douglas ............................. 37(2),82
Friedly, John C. ........................... 38(1 ),54
Chemical Engineering Education











G
Gadewar, Sagar B. .................... 38(4),308
Gatzke, Edward P ...................... 40(1),24
Ghannam, Mamdouh................ 40(3),189
Glasser, Benjamin L................... 38(1),14
Glennon, Brian......................... 38(4),296
Gray, Jeffrey J. .......................... 40(4),297
Goldstein, Aaron S ................... 38(4),272
Goiter, Paul .............................. 39(4),280
GonzAilez-Fernmndez, Camino....... 37(1),14
Good, Theresa............................ 37(2),82
Gooding, Charles H. ...... 39(2),104;(2),128
Goodson, Mike......................... 39(3),232
Gorowara, Rajeev L................. 36(3),226
Gubbins, Keith E........ 37(3),236;38(4),242
................................ ......... 39(4),250
Gupta, Santosh K ..................... 36(4),304

H
Haji, Shaker................................ 39(1),56
Han, Sang M. .............................37(3),208
Hardin, Matt............................. 38(3),196
Harrison, Roger G.................... 40(4),323
Hart, John A. IV ......................... 37(1),20
Harvey, Roberta ....................... 38(4),316
H ayati, I.................................... 37(2),108
Hecht, Gregory B ..................... 38(2),108
Henda, Redhouane................... 38(2),126
Henderson, Tom....................... 39(4),280
Henson, Michael A................... 40(3),181
Hernandez, Rafael.................... 40(3),215
Hesketh, Robert P.......... 36(2),138;(3),192;
.36(3),198;37(1),52:37(1),68;38(3),182
..................... 38(1),48;39(1)30;(2),94
Hickner, Michael A .................... 36(2),94
Hill, Priscilla J.......................... 40(4),246
Hillier, James R........................ 36(4),304
Hile, Lloyd ............................... 38(2),121
Hinestroza, Juan P. ................... 37(4),316
Holland, Charles E ..................... 40(1),24
Hollar, Kathryn A..................... 38(2),108
Hounslow, M.J. ......................... 37(2),108
Howe-Grant, Mary E. ............... 38(3),168
Hrenya, Christine M................... 40(2),99
Huang, Yinlun............................ 39(1),48
Hubbe, Marty ........................... 39(2),146
Hudson, Mary Beth.................... 40(1),32
Hummel, Scott R........................ 37(1),38
Hung, Francisco....................... 38(4),242

I
Ibrahim, Tableb H. ...................... 36(1),68
Iveson, Simon M........ 36(2),130;37(4),274

J
Jacoby, William A .................... 37(2),136
Jeffreys, Trent........................... 40(3),215
Jennings, G. Kane ...................... 37(1),24


Jim6nez, Laureano ................... 36(2),150
Johnston, Barry S..................... 39(3),232
Jones, Paul................................ 40(3),211
Joo, Yong Lak .......................... 40(4),313
Joseph, Babu .............................. 36(1),20


K
Kear, G areth............................... 39(1),14
Keffer, D .J................................ 37(2),156
Keith, Jason.............................. 38(4),282
Kentish, Sandra E..................... 40(4),275
Khilar, K .C............................... 36(4),292
Kim ura, Sho............................. 37(3),188
Koch, Margaret ........................ 36(4),304
Kolavennu, Panini K................ 40(3),239
Komives, Claire ........ ............ 38(3),212
Kopplin, Lisa L ........................ 36(4),304
Koretsky, Milo D. ..................... 37(3),188
Kourti, Theodora........................ 36(1),60
Kraft, Markus.............. 39(3),232;(3),244
Krantz, William B ...................... 38(2),94
Kuhnell, David R. ..................... 39(3),238
Kulprathipanja, Ann....................38(l),60
Kulprathipanja, Santi ................. 38(1),60
Kunz, H. Russell.........................38(1),38
Kwon, Kyung C ........... 36(1),68;40(3),211


L
Labadie, Joseph A .......................36(1),76
Lacks, Daniel J......................... 36(3),242
LaClair, Darcy.......................... 37(3),180
Lam, Alfred .............................. 38(3),236
Lane, A .M .................................... 38(1),8
Law, Victor J. ............................ 39(2),160
Lawrence, Benjamin J............... 38(2)136
Lebduska, Lisa ......................... 37(4),248
Lee-Desautels, Rhonda .............. 40(1 ),32
Lee-Parsons, Carolyn W.T. ......... 39(3),208
Legros, Robert.......................... 37(4),296
LeVan, M. Douglas ...................... 37(1 ),2
Lewis, Randy S............ 38(2),136;40(1),66
Li, Grace X.M.......................... 38(3),196
Lin, Jung-Chou .......................... 38(1),38
Linder, Cedric .......................... 39(4),288
Lipscomb, G. Glenn....... 36(2),82;37(1),46
Liu, X ue ..................................... 38(1),14
Lobban, Lance L ...................... 38(3),162
Lombardo, Stephen J. ............... 38(2),150
Long, Christopher E................... 40(1),24
Loney, Norman W .................... 37(2),126
Lou, Helen H...............................39(1),48
Luks, Kraemer D........................ 36(1),76
Luyben, William L..... 38(2),142;39(3),202

M
Maase, Eric L ........................... 40(4),283
Macedo, Eugenia A.................... 38(1),26
Machniewski, Piotr M.............. 38(3),190


Madiera, Luis M............. 38(2),154;(3),228
Madihally, Sundararajan............ 38(2),136;
.................................... 40(1),66;(4),283
Magalhaes, Fernao D... 38(3),228;40(1),46
Malone, Mike........................... 38(4),308
Marchal-Heussler, Laurent.......... 39(4),264
Mardones, Olga Mora.............. 38(4),302
Mar Olaya, Maria del............... 36(2),156
Marten, Mark ............................. 37(2),82
Martinez-Urreaga, Joaqufn ........... 37(1),14
Marwaha, Anirudha.................. 40(3),215
Mason, Sarah L ........................ 39(4),328
May, Nicole.............................. 40(4),259
Mazyck, David......................... 39(4),296
Mazzotti, Marco....................... 40(3),175
McCarthy, Joseph J .................. 38(4),292
McCullough Roy L .................. 36(3),226
McDonald, Christopher I ........... 39(3),238
McNeil, Melanie A..... 38(3),212;39(2),134
McNeill, Vivian Faye............... 39(3),232
Mendes, Ad6lio M.................... 38(3),228
Mendes, Joaquim G. ................... 40(1),46
Miaoliang, Zhu......................... 36(2),102
Michaud, Dennis J. ................... 36(3),226
Midoux, Noel........................... 39(4),264
M ira, Jose................................... 37(1),14
Misovich, Michael J................. 36(4),284
Missen, Ronald W.......... 37(3),222;(4),254
.................. .......................... 3 8 (3 ),2 16
Mitchell, Brian S...................... 39(2),160
Moghe, Prabhas V. ................... 40(4),251
Mohan, Marguerite A............... 40(4),259
Monroe, Charles......................... 39(1),42
Moor, S. Scott .......................... 36(1),54;
................................... 37(1),38; (3),202
Moreira, Antonio........................ 37(2),82
Morrison, Faith ......................... 39(2)110
Mosbach, Sebastian.................. 39(3),244
Moshfeghian, Aliakbar............... 40(1),66
Mosto, Patricia......................... 38(2),108
Moura, Maria Jose ................... 40(3),195
Muske, Kenneth R .... .37(4),306;40(3),225

N
Naraghi, Mohammad H ........... 39(3),216
Newman, John............................ 39(1),42
Newell, Heidi L............ 36(3),212;38(1),68
.................... .......... .................. (4 ),3 16
Newell, James A............ 36(2),108;(3),212;
....................38(1),68;(4),316;39(3),228
Newman, Austin....................... 37(2),156
Niehues, Patricia K. .................. 39(3),194
Ng, Ka M ................................. 36(3),222
Nguyen, Anh V......................... 38(3),190
Nollert, Matthias U...... 36(1),56;40(4),323

o
O'Connor, Kim ........................ 39(2),124
O'Donnell, Brendan R ............... 36(2),94


Fall 2006











Oerther, Daniel B ..................... 36(4),258
Oh, Dong Hee (Lindsey)............. 39(4),316
Olivera-Fuentes, Claudio G ....... 39(4),250
O'Rear, Edgar A....................... 38(3),162
Ortiz. Elizabeth Parra............... 38(4),302
Ostafin, Agnes E....................... 37(3),180

P
Palanki, Srinivas ...................... 40(3),239
Panjapornpon, Chanin................ 40(1),40
Papadopoulos, Kyriakos .. 36(2),88;(4),316
Park, YoonKook......................... 36(1),68
Parker, Robert S......... 38(4),292;40(3),181
Parulekar, Satish J........ 38(4),262;40(1),14
Patel, Dhermesh V.................... 37(2),108
Paulaitis, Michael E ................. 36(2),166
Payne, Gregory ......................... 37(2),82
Pedrosa, Cristiana ..................... 40(1),46
Peeples, Tonya L. ..................... 37(3),174
Pena, J.A .................................. 36(3),206
Peretti, Steven W. .................... 39(3),194
Perkins, Douglas M.................. 39(2),104
Peukert, Wolfgang.................... 36(4),272
Pierson, Hazel M...................... 39(2),156
Piluso, Christina......................... 39(1),48
Pinheiro, Maria Nazare Coelho... 40(3),195
Pinho, Simao P. ......................... 38(1),26
Pitt, Martin J ..................... 37(2),108,154
Plouffe, P.B. ............................... 37(3),162
Prabhakar, Rajeev ...................... 37(1),60
Price, Douglas M. ..................... 39(2),156

R
Rao, Govind............................... 37(2),82
Rasteiro, Maria G...................... 39(2)116
Rech, Sabine ........... 38(3),212;39(2),134
Reijenga, Jetse C. .................... 37(2),114
Reilly, Peter J ....................... 36(3),178
Rhodes, Martin......................... 36(4),288
Rice, Robert ............................ 37(2),100
Rice, Richard W. ..................... 39(3),238
Rivera, Daniel E........................ 39(4)302
Rives, Christopher.................... 36(3),242
Roberts, Susan.......................... 39(3),222
Robinson, Janet E..................... 37(2),154
Robinson, Ken K...................... 36(3),216
Rochefort, Skip ....................... 37(3),188
Rockstraw, David A. .................. 39(1),68
Rodrigues, Alfrio .... ............ 38(2),154
Rogers, Bridget R....... ......... 37(1),24
Roizard, Christine .................... 39(4),264
Rojas, Orlando ........................ 39(2),146
Rollins Sr., Derrick K.............. 40(4),291
Ross, Julia M................. 37(2),82;(3),184
Roth, Charles M....................... 40(4),251
Ruiz, Joaquin.............................. 39(1),22
Rusli, Effendi..... 38(3)174 Russell, John J.
37(3),208
Russum, James P. .................... 36(2),134


s
Saddawi, Salma.......................... 36(1),34
Saliklis, Edmond P. ................... 37(1),38
Salman, Agba D. ....................... 37(2),108
Sandall, Orville C....................... 37(1),74
Santoro, Marina....................... 40(3),175
Saraiva, Pedro M...................... 39(2)116
Sauer, Sharon G. ....................... 38(3),222
Savage, Phillip E. ....................... 37(2),94
Savelski, Mariano J.......36(2),108;(3),192;
....37(1),68;38(3),182;39(1)30;39(2),94
Sayari, Abdelhamid.................... 38(1),34
Scarbrough, Will J.................... 40(4),291
Schmedlen, Rachael................. 39(4),272
Schmid, Hans-Joachim ............ 36(4),272
Schmidt, Hartley T. .................. 37(3),180
Schmidtke, David W. ............... 40(4),323
Schmitz, Roger A............. 36(1),34;(4),296
Schowalter, W.R....................... 37(4),242
Schreiber, Loren B ................... 38(4),286
Schulp, John R. ........................ 40(2),132
Schultz, Jerome........................ 40(2),126
Scuderi, Phillip......................... 39(4),280
Selmer, Anders......................... 39(3),232
Sen, Siddhartha........................ 39(3),232
Shacham, Mordechai................ 37(2),148
Shaefer, Stacey......................... 39(3),216
Shaeiwitz, Joseph A. .................. 40(2),88
Shallcross, David C.... 37(4),268;40(4),275
Shambaugh, Robert L ............... 38(3)162
Shaner, Cyndie ......................... 37(3),188
Shanley, Ed S. ........................... 38(3),188
Sheardown, Heather................... 36(1),60
Shonnard, David R................... 37(4),262
Shulman, Stacey................... 37(3),162
Sides, Paul J. ............................. 36(3),232
Siepe, Hendry........................... 37(2),114
Sikavitsas, Vassilios I. .............. 40(4),323
Silverstein, David L. ................ 37(3),214
Simmons, Christy M. ................. 36(1),68
Simon, Laurent......................... 37(2),126
Sin, Aaron ................................ 36(4),278
Slater, C. Stewart .......... 36(2),138;37(1),8;
............................ 37(1),52,68;38(1),48
Sloan, Dendy........................... 38(3),203
Smart, Jimmy L.......... 37(2),142;38(3),204
Smith, William R. .......... 37(3),222;(4),254
Soroush, Masoud........................ 40(1),40
Sotudeh-Gharebaagh, Rahmat .... 36(2),100
Sousa, Jos6 M........................... 38(3),228
Spencer, Jordan L.... ............ 40(3),159
Srinivasagupta, Deepak.............. 36(1),20
Stoynova, Ludmila................... 39(2),134
Streicher, Samantha ................. 39(4),288
Subramanian, Venkat R............ 40(4),307
Sureshkumar, G.K.......36(4),292;38(2),116
Svrcek, William.......................... 40(1),54
T
Tanguy, Philippe A..................... 37(4),296


T llez, C .................................... 36(3),206
Telotte, John C. ......................... 40(3),239
Thomas, Mathew...................... 40(3),215
Thomson, William J. .............. 39(4),280
Ting, Dale............................... 36(4),304
Tomas, Christopher.................. 36(3),216
Tummala, Seshu....................... 36(3),216
Turton, Richard.......................... 40(2),88

II
Uygun, Korkut ........................... 39(1),48

Y
van der Lee, James..................... 40(1),54
Vahdat, N ader.............................. 40(3),211
Van Wie, Bernie ....................... 39(4),280
Varma, Arvind .......................... 37(4),284
Visco Jr., Donald P..... 36(2),134;39(4),258

w
Wagner, Wolfgang.................... 39(3),244
Walsh, Frank .............................. 39(1),14
Wang, Chi-Hwa........................ 37(2),114
Wankat, Phillip.....37(4),310;38(1),2;40(3);
............. .... .............. ........ 40 (3),165 ;
Weiss, Alvin H .......................... 36(1),74
Weiss, Brian............................. 40(3),203
West, Kate............................... 39(4),288
Wheeler, Dean R. .................... 39(2),138
Wheelock, Thomas D............. 36(3),178
White, Shannon H. ................... 39(3),194
Whitmire, David ...................... 38(2),122
W iest, J.M ................................... 38(1),8
Wilcox, Jennifer....................... 40(4),268
Wilkens, Bob........................... 39(2),164
Willey, Ronald............ 38(3),188;39(3),183
Winter, H. Henning.................. 36(3),188
Wood, Philip E.......................... 36(1),60
Woods, Donald R. .......... 36(1),60;40(2)
Worden, R. Mark...................... 38(4),250
Wright, Pamela ....................... 38(1),14

Y
Yabo, Dong ............................. 36(2),102
Ying, Chao-Ming ....................... 36(1),20
Young, Brent .............................. 40(1),54
Young, Ralph ............................. 40(1),32

z
Zhang, Tengyan........................ 40(2),132
Zheng, Haishan ........................ 38(4),282
Zydney, Andrew L. ..................... 37(1),33
Zygourakis, Kyriacos................. 38(2),88


Chemical Engineering Education








CEE's Annual

Fall

Graduate School

Information

Section



Published in February, May, August, and November of each year for the past 40 years,
Chemical Engineering Education (CEE)
is the premier archival journal for chemical engineering educators.
The schools listed in the following section
have all demonstrated their support of CEE
by purchasing advertising
in our annual Fall Graduate School Information issue.
The fall advertising issue serves as the journal's primary means of revenue,
enabling its ongoing service to the field.
We are exceedingly grateful to all of our faithful advertisers.


To sign up to advertise your school's chemical engineering graduate program in the 2007-2008 Fall Graduate School
Information issue, please fill out the information below and fax or mail this page to our editorial office at (352) 392-0861,
Chemical Engineering Education, c/o Chemical Engineering Dept., University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005
Deadline for advertising is July 1 of each year. If questions, write cee@che.ufl.edu.
School:
Contact person:
Address:


Fax number: Telephone number:
e-mail:
Fall 2006 341










I N D E X U Graduate Education Advertisements


Akron. University of .................................. ....................... 343
Alabama, University of ............................ ......................... 344
Alabama Huntsville, University of .......................................... 345
Arizona, University of ................................. ...................... 346
Arkansas, University of ..................................... .................... 347
Auburn University ......................... ............................................ 348
Bucknell University.............................................. ................. 432
California, Berkeley; University of.......................................... 349
California, Davis; University of.................... ...................... 350
California, Irvine: University of ..................... ...................... 351
California. Riverside: University of .......................................... 352
California, Santa Barbara; University of .................................. 353
California Institute of Technology................... ...................... 354
Carnegie-Mellon University......................... ...................... 355
Case Western Reserve University............................................. 356
City College of New York........................... ....................... 357
Cleveland State University.......................... ....................... 438
Colorado School of M ines............................ ...................... 358
Colorado State University ............................ ...................... 359
Columbia University ............. .......................................... 432
Cornell University ............. ............................................. 360
Dartmouth College ................... ............................................ 361
Delaware, University of ............................... ...................... 362
Denmark, Technical University of ........................ ................. 363
Drexel University ............. ............................................. 364
Florida, University of ........................................ ...................... 365
Florida Institute of Technology ..................... ...................... 366
Georgia Institute of Technology ..................... ........................ 367
Houston, University of ................................. ...................... 368
Illinois, Chicago; University of ................................................. 369
Illinois. Urbana-Champaign, University of.............................. 370
Illinois Institute of Technology................................................. 371
Iowa, University of........................................................... 372
Iowa State University ....... ........................ ........................ 373
Kansas, University of ................... ......................................... 374
Kansas State University................................ ....................... 375
Kentucky, University of...................................... ................... 376
Lamar University............ ............................................. 433
Laval University ............... .............................................. 377
Lehigh University................... .............................................. 378
Louisiana State University .......................... ...................... 379
M aine, University of.............. .......................................... 380
M anhattan College.............................................. ................... 381
Maryland, Baltimore County; University of ............................. 382
Massachusetts, Amherst: University of .................................... 383
Massachusetts, Lowell; University of ....................................... 438
M assachusetts Institute of Technology..................................... 384
McGill University............ ............................................. 385
McMaster University............................... ........................ 386
M ichigan, University of..................................... ...................... 387
M innesota, University of ............................. ....................... 388
M issouri, Columbia; University of........................................... 389


M issouri, Rolla: U university of...................... ........................ 390
M onash University ............. .............................................. 433
Montana, University of................................ ....................... 434
New M exico, University of ......................... ....................... 391
New Mexico State University ...................... ...................... 392
North Carolina State University.................... .......................393
North Dakota, University of ......................... .......................434
Northeastern University.......................................................... 394
Northwestern University ............................. ....................... 395
Notre Dame, University of ......................... ........................ 396
Ohio State University ...................................................... 397
O klahom a, U university of .......................................................... 398
Oklahom a State U university .......................... ....................... 399
Pennsylvania State University.................... ........................ 400
Polytechnic U university ...................................... .................... 40 1
Princeton University................... .......................................... 402
Purdue U niversity................... ............................................. 403
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute............................................ 404
Rice U niversity................... ................................................ 405
R ochester, U university of ........................................................... 406
Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology...................................... 435
Row an U university ................... .............................................. 407
Ryerson University .................................... ....................... 435
Singapore. National University of..........................................408
Singapore-MIT Alliance Graduate Fellowship .........................409
South Carolina. University of........................ ...................... 410
South Florida. University of......................... ...................... 436
Southern California, University of ........................................... 411
State University of New York....................... ...................... 412
Stevens Institute .................. ........................... 413
Tennessee, University of ........................................................414
Tennessee Technological University .........................................415
Texas at Austin. University of ..................... ........................ 416
Texas A&M University ............................... 417
Texas A&M Kingsville....................................... ...................... 436
Texas Tech University ........................................................418
Toledo, U university of.................................. ........................ 419
Tufts U niversity................... .............................................. 420
Tulane University ............. ............................................. 421
Tulsa, U university of................... ............................................ 422
Vanderbilt University................................... ...................... 423
Villanova U niversity....................... ........................................... 437
Virginia, University of........................... .... ....................... 424
V irginia Tech ................... .................................................. 425
W ashington, University of .......................... ........................ 426
W ashington State University ....................... ........................ 427
Washington University ...................................... .......................428
Waterloo, University of ......................................................... 437
West Virginia University .............................. .......................429
Wisconsin, University of........................................................ 430
Wyoming, University of ............................. .........................438
Yale University ........... ............................................... 431


Chemical Engineering Education




Full Text

















PAGE 1

Fall 2006 341 CEE s Annual Fall Graduate School Information Section Published in February, May, August, and November of each year for the past 40 years, Chemical Engineering Education (CEE) is the premier archival journal for chemical engineering educators. The schools listed in the following section have all demonstrated their support of CEE by purchasing advertising in our annual Fall Graduate School Information issue. The fall advertising issue serves as the journals primary means of nancial revenue, enabling its ongoing operation. Subsidized subscription prices of $25 a year for chemical engineering departments and for ASEE and AIChE members are made possible by such nancial support. We are exceedingly grateful to all of our faithful advertisers. To sign up to advertise your schools chemical engineering graduate program in the 2007-2008 Fall Graduate School Information issue, please ll out the information below and fax or mail this page to our editorial ofce at (352) 392-0861, Chemical Engineering Education, c/o Chemical Engineering Dept., University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005 Deadline for advertising is July 1 of each year. If questions, write cee@che.u.edu. School: Contact person: Address: Fax number: Telephone number: e-mail:

PAGE 2

Chemical Engineering Education 342 Akron, University of ................................................................... 343 Alabama, University of .............................................................. 344 Alabama Huntsville, University of ............................................. 345 Arizona, University of ................................................................. 346 Arkansas, University of ............................................................... 347 Auburn University ....................................................................... 348 Bucknell University ..................................................................... 432 California, Berkeley; University of ............................................. 349 California, Davis; University of .................................................. 350 California, Irvine; University of .................................................. 351 California, Riverside; University of ............................................ 352 California, Santa Barbara; University of ..................................... 353 California Institute of Technology ............................................... 354 Carnegie-Mellon University ........................................................ 355 Case Western Reserve University ................................................ 356 City College of New York ........................................................... 357 Cleveland State University .......................................................... 438 Colorado School of Mines ........................................................... 358 Colorado State University ........................................................... 359 Columbia University ................................................................... 432 Cornell University ....................................................................... 360 Dartmouth College ...................................................................... 361 Delaware, University of ............................................................... 362 Denmark, Technical University of .............................................. 363 Drexel University ........................................................................ 364 Florida, University of .................................................................. 365 Florida Institute of Technology ................................................... 366 Georgia Institute of Technology .................................................. 367 Houston, University of ................................................................ 368 Illinois, Chicago; University of ................................................... 369 Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, University of ................................. 370 Illinois Institute of Technology .................................................... 371 Iowa, University of ...................................................................... 372 Iowa State University ................................................................. 373 Kansas, University of .................................................................. 374 Kansas State University ............................................................... 375 Kentucky, University of ............................................................... 376 Lamar University ......................................................................... 433 Laval University .......................................................................... 377 Lehigh University ........................................................................ 378 Louisiana State University ......................................................... 379 Maine, University of .................................................................... 380 Manhattan College ....................................................................... 381 Maryland, Baltimore County; University of ............................... 382 Massachusetts, Amherst; University of ....................................... 383 Massachusetts, Lowell; University of ......................................... 438 Massachusetts Institute of Technology ........................................ 384 McGill University ........................................................................ 385 McMaster University ................................................................... 386 Michigan, University of ............................................................... 387 Minnesota, University of ............................................................. 388 Missouri, Columbia; University of .............................................. 389 Missouri, Rolla; University of ..................................................... 390 Monash University ...................................................................... 433 Montana, University of ................................................................ 434 New Mexico, University of ......................................................... 391 New Mexico State University ..................................................... 392 North Carolina State University .................................................. 393 North Dakota, University of ........................................................ 434 Northeastern University ............................................................... 394 Northwestern University ............................................................. 395 Notre Dame, University of .......................................................... 396 Ohio State University .................................................................. 397 Oklahoma, University of ............................................................. 398 Oklahoma State University ......................................................... 399 Pennsylvania State University ..................................................... 400 Polytechnic University ................................................................ 401 Princeton University .................................................................... 402 Purdue University ........................................................................ 403 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute .................................................. 404 Rice University ............................................................................ 405 Rochester, University of .............................................................. 406 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology ......................................... 435 Rowan University ........................................................................ 407 Ryerson University ...................................................................... 435 Singapore, National University of ............................................... 408 Singapore-MIT Alliance Graduate Fellowship ........................... 409 South Carolina, University of ...................................................... 410 South Florida, University of ........................................................ 436 Southern California, University of .............................................. 411 State University of New York ...................................................... 412 Stevens Institute .......................................................................... 413 Tennessee, University of ............................................................. 414 Tennessee Technological University ........................................... 415 Texas at Austin, University of ..................................................... 416 Texas A&M University ................................................................ 417 Texas A&M Kingsville ................................................................ 436 Texas Tech University ................................................................. 418 Toledo, University of ................................................................... 419 Tufts University ........................................................................... 420 Tulane University ........................................................................ 421 Tulsa, University of ..................................................................... 422 Vanderbilt University ................................................................... 423 Villanova University .................................................................... 437 Virginia, University of ................................................................. 424 Virginia Tech ............................................................................... 425 Washington, University of ........................................................... 426 Washington State University ....................................................... 427 Washington University ................................................................ 428 Waterloo, University of ............................................................... 437 West Virginia University ............................................................. 429 Wisconsin, University of ............................................................. 430 Wyoming, University of .............................................................. 438 Yale University ............................................................................ 431 I N D E X Graduate Education Advertisements

PAGE 3

Fall 2006 343 Graduate Education in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Teaching and research assistantships as well as industrially sponsored fellowships available In addition to stipends, tuition and fees are waived. PhD students may get some incentive scholarships. The deadline for assistantship applications is April 15th. For Additional Information, Write Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The University of Akron Akron, OH 44325-3906 Phone (330) 972-7250 Fax (330) 972-5856 www.chemical.uakron.edu G. G. CHASE Multiphase Processes, Fluid Flow, Interfacial Phenomena, Filtration, Coalescence H. M. CHEUNG Nanocomposite Materials, Sonochemical Processing, Polymerization in Nanostruc tured Fluids, Supercritical Fluid Processing S. S. C. CHUANG Catalysis, Reaction Engi neering, Environmentally Benign Synthesis, Fuel Cell J. R. ELLIOTT Molecular Simulation, Phase Behavior, Physical Properties, Process Modeling, Supercritical Fluids E. A. EVANS Materials Processing and CVD Modeling Plasma Enhanced Deposition and Crystal Growth Modeling L.-K. JU Bioprocess Engineering, Environmental Bioengineering S. T. LOPINA BioMaterial Engineering and Polymer Engineering B.Z. NEWBY Coatings, Gradient Surfaces H. C. QAMMAR Nonlinear Control, Chaotic Processes, Engineering Education P. WANG Biocatalysis and Biomaterials (Adjunct)

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Chemical Engineering Education 344 Faculty: G. C. April, Ph.D. (Louisiana State) D. W. Arnold, Ph.D. (Purdue) C. S. Brazel, Ph.D. (Purdue) E. S. Carlson, Ph.D. (Wyoming) P. E. Clark, Ph.D. (Oklahoma State) W. C. Clements, Jr., Ph.D. (Vanderbilt) A. Gupta, Ph.D. (Stanford) D. T. Johnson, Ph.D. (Florida) T. M. Klein, Ph.D. (NC State) A. M. Lane, Ph.D. (Massachusetts) M. D. McKinley, Ph.D. (Florida) S. M. C. Ritchie, Ph.D. (Kentucky) C. H. Turner, Ph.D. (NC State) J. M. Wiest, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) M. L. Weaver, Ph.D. (Florida) Research Areas: Biomaterials, Catalysis and Reactor Design, Drug Delivery Materials and Systems, Electrohydrodynamics, Electronic Materials, Environmental Studies, Fuel Cells, Interfacial Transport, Magnetic Materials, Membrance Separations and Reactors, Molecular Simulations, Nanoscale Modeling, Polymer Processing and Rheology, Self-Assembled Materials, Suspension Rheology A dedicated faculty with state of the art facilities offer research programs leading to Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Science degrees. For Information Contact: Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering The University of Alabama Box 870203 Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0203 Phone: (205) 348-6450 An equal employment / equal educational opportunity institution Chemical & Biological Engineering

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Fall 2006 345 C C h h e e m m i i c c a a l l a a n n d d M M a a t t e e r r i i a a l l s s E E n n g g i i n n e e e e r r i i n n g g G G r r a a d d u u a a t t e e P P r r o o g g r r a a m m R. Michael Banish ; Ph.D., University of Utah Associate Professor Crystal growth mass and thermal diffusivity measurements. Ramn L. Cerro ; Ph.D., UC Davis Professor and Chair Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics and physicochemical hydrodynamics. Chien P. Chen ; Ph.D., Michigan State Professor Lab-on-chip microfluidics, multiphase transport, spray combustion, computational fluid dynamics, and turbulence modeling of chemically reacting flows. Krishnan K. Chittur ; Ph.D., Rice University Professor Biomaterials, bioproce ss monitoring, gene expression bioinforma tics, and FTIR/ATR. James E. Smith Jr ; Ph.D., South Carolina Professor Ceramic and metallic composites, catalysis and reaction engineering, fiber optic chemical sensing, combustion diagnostic of hypergolic fuels, and hydrogen storage. Katherine Taconi ; Ph.D., Mississippi State Assistant Professor Biological production of alternative energy from renewable resources. Jeffrey J. Weimer ; Ph.D., MIT Associate Professor Adhesions, biomaterials surf ace properties, thin film growth, and surface spectroscopies. The Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering offers coursework and research leading to the Master of Science in Engineering degree. The Doctor of Philosophy degree is available through the Materials Science Ph.D. program, the Biotechnology Science and Engineering Program or the option in Chemical Engineering of the Mechanical Engineering Ph.D. program. The range of research interests in the chemical engineering faculty is broad It affords graduate students opportunities for advanced work in processes, reaction engineering, electrochemical systems, material processing and biotechnology. The proximity of the UAH campus to the 200+ high technology and aerospace industries of Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center provide exciting opportunities for our students. UAH The University of Alabama in Huntsville An Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Institution Office of Chemical and Materials Engineering 130 Engineering Building Huntsville, Alabama 35899 Ph: 256-824-6810 Fax: 256-824-6839 http://www.uah.edu http://chemeng.uah.edu

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Chemical Engineering Education 346 FACULTY / RESEARCH INTERESTS ROBERT G. ARNOLD, Professor (CalTech) Microbiological Hazardous Waste Treatment, Metals Speciation and Toxicity PAUL BLOWERS, Associate Professor (Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis, Surface Phenomena, Green Design JAMES C. BAYGENTS, Associate Professor (Princeton) Fluid Mechanics, Transport and Colloidal Phenomena, Bioseparations WENDELL ELA, Associate Professor (Stanford) Particle-Particle Interactions, Environmental Chemistry JAMES FARRELL, Professor (Stanford) Sorption/desorption of Organics in Soils JAMES A. FIELD, Professor (Wageningen University) Bioremediation, Microbiology, White Rot Fungi, Hazardous Waste ROBERTO GUZMAN, Professor (North Carolina State) ANTHONY MUSCAT Associate Professor (Stanford) Kinetics, Surface Chemistry, Surface Engineering, Semiconductor Processing, Microcontamination KIMBERLY OGDEN, Professor (Colorado) Bioreactors, Bioremediation, Organics Removal from Soils THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor and Dean (CalTech) Aerosols, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Microcontamination ARA PHILIPOSSIAN, Professor (Tufts) Chemical/Mechanical Polishing, Semiconductor Processing EDUARDO SEZ Professor (UC, Davis) Polymer Flows, Multiphase Reactors, Colloids GLENN L. SCHRADER, Professor & Head (Wisconsin) Catalysis, Environmental Sustainability, Thin Films, Kinetics FARHANG SHADMAN, Regents Professor (Berkeley) Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactive Membranes, Microcontamination REYES SIERRA, Associate Professor (Wageningen University) Environmental Biotechnology, Biotransformation of Metals, Green Engineering Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a growing modern city that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere. The Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering at the University of Arizona offers a wide range of research opportunities in all major areas of chemical engineering and environmental engineering. The department offers a fully accredited undergraduate degree in chemical engineering, as well as MS and PhD portion of research efforts is devoted to areas at the boundary between chemical and environmental engineering, including environmentally benign semiconductor manufacturing, environmental remediation, environmental biotechnology, and novel water treatment technologies. Financial support is available through fellowships, government and industrial grants and contracts, teaching and research assistantships. For further information http://www.chee.arizona.edu or write Chairman, Graduate Study Committee Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering P.O. BOX 210011 The University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721 The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity educational institution/equal opportunity employer. Women and minorities are encouraged to apply.Chemical and Environmental Engineering at A RIZONA THE UNIVERSITY OF TUCSON ARIZONA

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Fall 2006 347 M.D. Ackerson R.E. Babcock R.R. Beitle E.C. Clausen R.A. Cross J.A. Havens C.N. Hestekin J.A. Hestekin J.W. King W.A. Myers W.R. Penney T.O. Spicer G.J. Thoma J.L. Turpin R.K. Ulrich Biochemical engineering Biological and food systems Biomaterials Electronic materials processing Fate of pollutants in the environment Hazardous chemical release consequence analysis Integrated passive electronic components Membrane separations Micro channel electrophoresis Mixing in chemical processes Phase equilibria and process design University of Arkansas The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees. Ph.D. stipends provide $20,000, Doctoral Academy Fellowships provide up to $25,000, and Distinguished Doctoral Fellowships provide $30,000. For stipend and fellowship recipients, all tuition is waived. Applications Graduate Program in the Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical EngineeringAreas of Research FacultyFor more information contact Dr. Richard Ulrich or 479-575-5645 Chemical Engineering Graduate Program Information: http://www.cheg.uark.edu/graduate.asp

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Chemical Engineering Education 348 Faculty Chemical Engineering A U B U R N U N I V E R S I T Y Auburn University is an equal opportunity educational institution/employer. Director of Graduate Recruiting Department of Chemical Engineering Auburn, AL 36849-5127 Phone 334.844.4827 Fax 334.844.2063 www.eng.auburn.edu/che chemical@eng.auburn.edu Financial assistance is available to qualied applicants. Research Areas www.eng.auburn.edu

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Fall 2006 349 U N I V E R S I T Y O F C A L I F O R N I A B E R K E L E Y P hot o H e r e T h e C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a B e r k e l e y o n e o f t h e p r e e m i n e n t d e p a r t m e n t s i n t h e f i e l d o f f e r s g r a d u a t e p r o g r a m s l e a d i n g t o t h e M a s t e r o f S c i e n c e a n d D o c t o r o f P h i l o s o p h y S t u d e n t s a l s o h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e m a n y c u l t u r a l o f f e r i n g s o f t h e S a n F r a n c i s c o B a y A r e a a n d t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f C a l i f o r n i a s n o r t h e r n c o a s t a n d m o u n t a i n s F A C U L T Y R E S E A R C H I N T E R E S T S B I O C H E M I C A L & B I O L O G I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G B l a n ch C h u C l a r k, K e a sl i n g M u l l e r P r a u s n i t z, R a d ke & S ch a f f e r C A T A L Y S I S & R E A C T I O N E N G I N E E R I N G B e l l I g l e si a K a t z & R e i m e r E L E C T R O C H E M I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G C a i r n s, N e w m a n & R e i m e r E N V I R O N M E N T A L E N G I N E E R I N G B e l l G r a ve s, I g l e si a K e a sl i n g N e w m a n & P r a u s n i t z M I C R O E L E C T R O N I C S P R O C E S S I N G & M E M S G r a ve s, M a b o u d i a n R e i m e r & S e g a l m a n P O L Y M E R S & S O F T M A T E R I A L S B a l sa r a C h u F r ch e t M u l l e r P r a u sn i t z, R a d ke R e i m e r & S e g a l m a n F A C U L T Y N i t as h P. Bal s a ra A l ex an d er K at z A l ex i s T Bel l J ay D K eas l i n g H a rv ey W Bl an ch Ro y a M a b o u d i an E l t o n J Cai rn s Su s an J Mu l l er J h i h W ei Ch u J o h n S. N e w man D o u g l as S. Cl ark J o h n M. Pr au s n i t z J ean M. J F et Cl ay t o n J Rad k e D av i d B. G r av es D av i d V Sch affe r E n ri q u e Ig l es i a Rach el A S eg al man A D J U N C T F A C U L T Y A n d reas A cri v o s Mo s h e St ern b erg Bri an L Mai o r el l a St acey I. Z o n es L E C T U R E R S A rn o l d L G ro s s b erg Pau l B Pl o u ffe P. H en ri k W al l man P D P E X E C U T I V E D I R E C T O R K ei t h A l ex an d er Ch ai r: J effr ey A Rei m er S t a r t i n g i n F a l l 2 0 0 6 t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g w i l l i n i t i a t e a n i n n o v a t i v e n e w P r o d u c t D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m ( P D P ) a i m i n g t o e x p o s e g r a d u a t e s o f c h e m i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g a n d r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s i n t h e c o m p l e x p r o c e s s o f t r a n s f o r m i n g t e c h n i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s i n t o c o m m e r c i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l p r o d u c t s P D P s t u d e n t s w i l l g a i n e x p o s u r e t o r e a l w o r l d p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t p r a c t i c e i n a r a n g e o f c h e m i c a l p r o c e s s i n t e n s i v e i n d u s t r i e s i n c l u d i n g b i o t e c h n o l o g y m i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s n a n o s c i e n c e a n d c o n s u m e r p r o d u c t s P h D c e r t i f i c a t e a n d M a s t e r s d e g r e e p r o g r a m s w i l l b e o f f e r e d F o r m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n c a l l P D P E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r K e i t h A l e x a n d e r a t ( 5 1 0 ) 6 4 2 4 5 2 6 o r g o t o : h t t p : / / c h e m e b e r k e l e y e d u / P D P / o v e r v i e w h t m l F O R F U R T H E R I N F O R M A T I O N P L E A S E VI S I T O U R W E B S I T E : htt p:/ / c he m e.b er ke le y .e du

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Chemical Engineering Education 350 Mark Asta Professor Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1993 Computational materials science, surface and interface science, phase transformations, computer assisted materials design David E. Block Associate Professor Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1992 Industrial fermentation, bioprocess optimiza Roger B. Boulton, Professor and Endowed Chair Ph.D., University of Melbourne, 1976 Wine technology, fermentatiion kinetics, biochemical Nigel D. Browning Professor Ph.D., University of Cambridge, U.K., 1992 Materials structure-property relationships at atomic-scale, atomic resolution and sensitivity imaging, electron microscopy Stephanie R. Dungan, Professor Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1992 Thermodynamics and transport in micellar and microemulsions systems, surfactant interactions with biological and food macromolecules Nael El-Farra, Assistant Professor Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles 2004 Process systems engineering, with emphasis on process control, dynamics and design, computational modeling, simulation Roland Faller, Associate Professor Ph.D., Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, 2000 Molecular modeling of soft-condensed matter Bruce C. Gates, Distinguished Professor Ph.D., University of Washington, Seattle, 1966 Catalysis, surface chemistry, catalytic materials, nanomaterials, kinetics, chemical reaction engineering Jeffery C. Gibeling, Professor Ph.D., Stanford University, 1979 Deformation, fracture and fatigue of metals, layered composites and bone Joanna R. Groza, Professor Ph.D., Polytechnic Institute, Bucharest, 1972 Plasma activated sintering, processing of nanostructured materials, and microstructure characterization Brian G. Higgins, Professor Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1980 Fluid mechanics and interfacial phenomena, sol gel David G. Howitt, Professor Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1976 Forensic and failure analysis, electron microscopy, ignition and combustion processes in materials Alan P. Jackman, Professor Emeritus Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1968 Biochemical engineering, bioreactor design and kinetics, plant cell cultures, environmental engineering, modeling transport in the environment, environmental sorption process, bioremediation Sangtae Kim, Assistant Professor Ph.D., University of Houston, 1999 Transport kinetics in advanced oxides, solid oxide fuel cell, gas separation, membrane reactors Tonya L. Kuhl, Associate Professor Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara, 1996 Biomaterials, membrane Enrique J. Lavernia, Professor Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1986 Synthesis of structural materials and composites, nanostructured materials and composites, thermal spray processing Marjorie L. Longo, Associate Professor Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara, 1993 Hydrophobic protein design for active control, surfactant microstructure, and interaction of proteins and DNA with biological membranes Karen A. McDonald, Professor Ph.D., University of Maryland, College Park, 1985 Biochemical engineering, plant cell cultures, cyanobacterial cultures Amiya K. Mukherjee, Distinguished Professor D.Phil., University of Oxford, 1962 Mechanical behavior, creep, superplasticity, nanocrystalline metals and ceramics Zuhair A. Munir, Distinguished Professor Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1963 Synthesis and processing of ma Alexandra Navrotsky, Distinguished Professor and Endowed Chair Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1967 Thermodynamics of solid materials, nanomaterials, phase equilibria and metastability, high-temperature calorimetry Ahmet N. Palazoglu, Professor Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1984 Process control, process design, automatic control, control systems Ronald J. Phillips, Professor Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1989 Transport processes in bioseparations, Newtonian and non-Newtonian suspension mechanics Robert L. Powell, Professor and Chair Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1978 Rheology, suspension mechanics, magnetic resonance imaging of suspensions Subhash H. Risbud, Professor Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1976 Semiconductor quantum dots, high T c superconducting ceramics, polymer composites for optics Dewey D.Y. Ryu, Professor Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1967 Biochemical engineering, biomolecular process engineering and biotechnology Julie M. Schoenung, Associate Professor Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1987 Materials systems analysis, pollution prevention and waste minimization, process economics Sabyasachi Sen Associate Professor Ph.D., Stanford University, 1996 Structure-property relationship, glass, nanocrystal line, glass-ceramic, high temperature liquids, quantum dots, spectroscopy, computer modeling James F. Shackelford, Professor Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1971 Structure of materials, biomaterials, nondestructive testing of engineering materials J.M. Smith, Professor Emeritus Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1943 Chemical kinetics and reactor design Pieter Stroeve, Professor Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1973 Membrane separations, self-assembly, Yayoi Takamura, Assistant Professor Ph.D., Stanford University, 2004 deposition, new magnetic and electronic materials for spintronic applications, nanoscale patterning techniques Stephen Whitaker, Professor Emeritus Ph.D., University of Delaware, 1959 Multiphase transport phenomena Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science For information about our program, look up our web site at http://www.chms.ucdavis.edu. or contact us via e-mail at chmsgradasst@ucdavis.edu The multifaceted graduate study experience in the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science allows students to choose research projects and thesis advisers from any of our faculty with expertise in chemical engineering, biochemical engineering, and materials science and engineering. support for students to complete a substantive research project within 2 years for the M.S. and 4 years for the Ph.D. Davis is a small, bike-friendly university town located 17 miles west of Sacramento and 72 miles northeast of San Francisco, within driving distance of a multitude of recreational activities. We also enjoy close collaborations with national laboratories, including LBL, LLNL, and Sandia.

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Fall 2006 351 Biomedical Engineering Biomolecular Engineering Bioreactor Engineering Bioremediation Ceramics Chemical and Biological Nanosensor Colloid Science Combustion Complex Fluids Composite Materials Control and Optimization Environmental Engineer ing Fuel Cell Systems Interfacial Engineering Materials Processing Mechanical Properties Metabolic Engineering Microelectronics Pro cessing and Modeling Microstructure of Materials Multifunctional Materi als Nanocrystalline Materi als Nanoscale Electronic Devices Nucleation, Chrystalliza tion and Glass Transi tion Process Polymers Power and Propulsion Materials Protein Engineering Recombinant Cell Tech nology Separation Processes Sol-Gel Processing Two-Phase Flow Water Pollution ControlUNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIAIRVINEGraduate Studies in Chemical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering for Chemical Engineering, Engineering, and Materials Science Majors FACULTY Nancy A. Da Silva (California Institute of Technology) James C. Earthman (Stanford University) Stanley B. Grant (California Institute of Technology) Juan Hong (Purdue University) Henry C. Lim (Northwestern University) Martha L. Mecartney (Stanford University) Farghalli A. Mohamed (University of California, Berkeley) Ali Mohraz (University of Michigan) Daniel R. Mumm (Northwestern University) Andrew J. Putnam (University of Michigan) Regina Ragan (California Institute of Technology) Frank G. Shi (California Institute of Technology) Vasan Venugopalan (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Szu-Wen Wang (Stanford University) Albert F. Yee (University of California, Berkeley) Joint Appointments: Nancy L. Allbritton (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Steve C. George (University of Washington) (Purdue University) Noo Li Jeon (University of Illinois) Marc Madou (Rijksuniversiteit) Roger H. Rangel (University of California, Berkeley) Kenneth Shea (The Pennsylvania State University) Lizhi Sun (University of California, Los Angeles) Adjunct Appointments Jia Grace Lu (Harvard University) of Los Angeles. Irvine is one of the nations fastest growing residential, industrial, and business areas. Nearby beaches, mountain and desert area recreational activities, and local cultural activities make Irvine a pleasant city in which to live and study. Offering degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels. Research in frontier areas in chemical engineering, biochemical engineering, biomedical engineering, and materials science and engineering. Strong physical and life science and engineering groups on campus. For further information and application forms, please visit http://www.eng.uci.edu/dept/chems/ or contactDepartment of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science School of Engineering University of California Irvine, CA 92697-2575

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Chemical Engineering Education 352 CAL RIVERSIDE

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Fall 2006 353 SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. ( Waterloo ) Environmental Fluid Dynamics, Multiphase Flows, Turbulence, Computational Fluid Dynamics BRADLEY F. CHMELKA Ph.D. ( Berkeley ) Molecular Materials Science, Inorganic-Organics Composites, Porous Solids, NMR, Polymers PATRICK S. DAUGHERTY Ph.D. ( UT, Austin ) Protein Engineering and Design, Library Technologies MICHAEL F. DOHERTY Ph.D. ( Cambridge ) Design and Synthesis, Separations, Process Dynamics and Control FRANCIS J. DOYLE III Ph.D. ( Caltech ) Process Control, Systems Biology, Nonlinear Dynamics GLENN H. FREDRICKSON Ph.D. ( Stanford ) Statistical Mechanics, Glasses, Polymers, Composites, Alloys G.M. HOMSY Ph.D. ( Illinois ) Fluid Mechanics, Instabilities, Porous Media, Interfacial Flows, Convective Heat Transfer JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph.D. ( Cambridge ) Colloidal and Biomolecular Interactions, Adhesion and Friction EDWARD J. KRAMER Ph.D. ( Carnegie-Mellon ) Fracture and Diffusion of Polymers, Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces L. GARY LEAL Ph.D. ( Stanford ) Fluid Mechanics, Physics and Rheology of Complex Fluids, including Polymers, Suspensions, and Emulsions GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. ( M.I.T. ) Mechanics of Materials, Structural Reliability ERIC McFARLAND Ph.D. ( M.I.T. ) M.D. ( Harvard ) Combinatorial Material Science, Environmental Catalysis, Surface Science SAMIR MITRAGOTRI Ph.D. ( M.I.T .) Drug Delivery and Biomaterials SUSANNAH L. SCOTT Ph.D. ( Iowa State ) Catalysis, Thin Films, Environmental Reactions DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. ( Princeton ) M. SCOTT SHELL Ph.D. ( Princeton ) Molecular Simulation, Statistical Mechanics, Complex Materials, Protein Biophysics TODD M. SQUIRES Ph.D. ( Harvard ) Complex Fluids, and Biomechanics MATTHEW V. TIRRELL Ph.D. ( Massachusetts ) Polymers, Surfaces, Adhesion Biomaterials T.G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D. ( Minnesota ) Multiphase Flow, Risk Assessment and Management JOSEPH A. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D. ( Minnesota ) Surface and Interfacial Phenomena, Biomaterials FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIASANTA BARBARA Chair Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of California Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5080 For additional information and application process,visit our Web site at www.chemengr. ucsb.edu or write to: PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT The Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. degree programs. Financial aid, including fellowships, teach ing assistantships, and research assistantships, is available. THE UNIVERSITY One of the worlds few seashore campuses, UCSB is located on the of Los Angeles. The student en rollment is more than 18,000. The metropolitan Santa Barbara area has more than 150,000 residents and is famous for its mild, even climate.

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Chemical Engineering Education 354 Contact information: Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering 210-41 California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91125 C A L T E C H C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g http://www.che.caltech.edu Faculty Research areas: F r a n c e s H A r n o l d Protein Engineering & Directed Evolution, Biocatalysis, Synthetic Biology A n a n d R A s t h a g i r i Cellular & Tissue Engineering, Systems & Sy nthetic Biology, Cancer & Developmental Biology J o h n F B r a d y Complex Fluids, Brownian Motion, Suspensions M a r k E D a v i s Biomedical Engineering, Catalysis, Adva nced Materials R i c h a r d C F l a g a n Aerosol Science, Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, Nanotechnology G e o r g e R G a v a l a s ( e m e r i t u s ) K o n s t a n t i n o s P G i a p i s Plasma Processing, IonSurface Interaction Dynamics, Nanoparticle Synthesis, Nanotube Mechanics & Nanofluidics S o s s i n a M H a i l e Advanced Materials, Energy, Reactors, Kinetics & Catalysis J u l i a A K o r n f i e l d Polymer Dynamics, Crystallization of Polymers, Physical Aspects of the Design of Biomedical Polymers J o h n H S e i n f e l d Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, Global Climate C h r i s t i n a D S m o l k e Biomolecular Engineering, Synthetic Biology, Cellular Engineering, Metabolic Engineering D a v i d A T i r r e l l Macromolecular Chemistry, Biomaterials, Protein Engineering N i c h o l a s W T s c h o e g l ( e m e r i t u s ) Z h e n G a n g W a n g Statistical Mechanics, Polymer Science, Biophysics C a l i f o r n i a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y

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Fall 2006 355 Theverdictisin. Chemical Engineering at Carnegie Mellon offers superior graduate programs in bioengineering, complex fluids engineering, envirochemical engineering, process systems engineering, and solid state materials. Combine world-class education with worldrenowned faculty and the evidence is clear. When it comes to your future, you be the judge. For information beyond a reasonable doubt, visit: www.cheme.cmu.edu Carnegie Mellon University Department of Chemical Engineering Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 Department Home Page www.cheme.cmu.edu Online Graduate Application apply.cheme.cmu.edu Contact Information cheme-admissions+@andrew.cmu.edu 412.268.2230 Graduate Degree Programs Doctorate Course Option Master Thesis Option Master Research Thrust Areas Bioengineering Complex Fluids Engineering Envirochemical Engineering Process Systems Engineering Solid State Materials

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Chemical Engineering Education 356 Faculty Members John Anderson John Angus Harihara Baskaran Robert Edwards Donald Feke Daniel Lacks Uziel Landau Chung-Chiun Liu J. Adin Mann Heidi Martin Peter Pintauro Syed Qutubuddin Mohan Sankaran Robert Savinell Thomas Zawodzinski Research Opportunities Energy Systems Fuel Cells and Batteries Micro and Bio Fuel Cells Electrochemical Engineering Membrane Transport, Fabrication Biological Engineering Biomedical Sensor s and Actuators Neural Prosthetic Devices Cell & Tissue Engineering Transport in Biological Systems Advanced Materials and Devices Diamond and Nitride Synthesis Coatings, Thin Films and Surfaces Sensors Fine Particle Science and Processing Polymer Nanocomposites Electrochemical Microfabrication Molecular Simulations Microplasmas and Microreactors Case Western Reserve University Advanced Study in Cutting-Edge Research Graduate Coordinator E-mail: chemeng@case.edu Department of Chemical Engineering Web: http://www.case.edu/cse/eche Case Western Reserve University 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7217 You will find Case to be an exciting en vironment to carry out your graduate studies. Case has a long history of scientific leadership. Our department alumni include many prominent chemical engineers, such as Herbert Dow, the founder of t he Dow Chemical Company. The Chemical Engineering Faculty For more information on Graduate Research, Admission, and Financial Aid, contact:

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Fall 2006 357 Chemical Engineering at The City College of New York CUNY (The City University of New York) A 155-year-old urban University, the oldest public University in America, on a 35-acre Gothic and modern campus in the greatest city in the worldFACULTY RESEARCH: Alexander Couzis: Polymorph selective templated crystallization; Molecularly thin organic barrier layers; Surfactant facilitated wetting of hydro phobic surfaces; soft materials Morton Denn mechanics Lane Gilchrist: Bioengineering with cellular materials; Spectroscopy-guided molecular engineering; Structural studies of self-assembling proteins; Bioprocessing Ilona Kretzschmar: Materials science; Nanotechnology; Electronic materials Leslie Isaacs: Preparation and characterization of novel materials; Applica tion of thermo-analytic techniques in materials research +Jae Lee: Theory of reactive distilla tion; Process design and control; Sepa rations; Bioprocessing; Gas hydrates Charles Maldarelli: Interfacial applications; Surfactant adsorption, phase behavior and nanostructuring at interfaces Jeff Morris: Fluid mechanics; Fluidparticle systems +Irven Rinard: Process design meth odology; Process and energy systems engineering; Bioprocessing David Rumschitzki: Transport and reaction aspects of arterial disease; ity; Catalyst deactivation and reaction engineering +Reuel Shinnar design methods; Chemical reactor control; Process economics; Energy and environ ment systems Carol Steiner: Polymer solutions and hydrogels; Soft biomaterials, Controlled release technology Raymond Tu: Biomolecular engineering; Peptide design; DNA condensation; microrheology Gabriel Tardos: Powder technology; Granulation; Fluid particle systems, Elec trostatic effects; Air pollution Sheldon Weinbaum Biotransport in living tissue; Modeling of cellular mechanism of bone growth; bioheat transfer; kidney functionASSOCIATED FACULTY : Joel Koplik : (Physics) Fluid mechanics; Molecu lar modeling; Transport in random media Hernan Makse: (Physics) Granular mechanics Mark Shattuck: (Physics) Experimental dynamics; Experimental spatio-temporal control of patternsEMERITUS FACULTY : Andreas Acrivos Robert Graff Robert Peffer Herbert Weinstein Levich Institute +Clean Fuels Institute National Academy of Sciences CONTACT INFORMATION: Department of Chemical Engineering City College of New York Convent Avenue at 140th Street New York, NY 10031 www-che.engr.ccny.cuny.edu cheihr@aol.com

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Chemical Engineering Education 358 Golden, Colorado 80401 Evolving fr om its origins as a school of mining founded in 1873, CSM is a unique, highlyfocused University dedicated to scholarship and r esear ch in materials, energy and the envi r onment. The Chemical Engineering Department at CSM maintains a high-quality active, and well-funded graduate r esear ch pr ogram. Funding sour ces include federal agencies such as the NSF DOE, DARP A, ONR, NREL, NIST NIH as well as multiple industries. Resear ch ar eas within the department include: Material Science and Engineering Organic and inorganic membranes (W ay) Polymeric materials (Dorgan, W u, Liberator e) W u, Liberator e) Electr onic materials (W olden, Agarwal) Micr Theor etical and Applied Thermodynamics Natural gas hydrates (Sloan, Koh) Molecular simulation and modelling (Ely W u) Space and Micr ogravity Resear ch Membranes on Mars (W ay) W ession (McKinnon) Fuel Cell Resear ch H 2 separation and fuel cell membranes (W ay Herring) Low temperatur e fuel cell catalysts (Herring) High temperatur e fuel cell kinetics (Dean) Reaction mechanisms (McKinnon, Dean, Herring) Finally located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains and only 15 miles fr om downtown Denver Golden enjoys over 300 days of sunshine per year These factors combine to pr ovide year -r ound cultural, r ecr eational, and entertainment opportunities virtually unmatched anywher e in the United States. Faculty S. Agarwal (UCSB, 2003) A.M. Dean (Harvar d, 1971) J.R. Dorgan (Berkeley 1991) J.F Ely (Indiana, 1971) A. Herring (Leeds, 1989) C.A. Koh (Brunel, 1990) M. Liberator e (Illinois, 2003) D.W .M. Marr (Stanfor d, 1993) J.T McKinnon (MIT 1989) R.L. Miller (CSM, 1982) E.D. Sloan (Clemson, 1974) J.D. W ay (Colorado, 1986) C.A. W olden (MIT 1995) D.T W u (Berkeley 1991) COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES http://www .mines.edu/academic/chemeng/

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Fall 2006 359 Graduate students in Chemical and Biological Engineering at Colorado State University work closely with scientists and en gineers who have an international reputation for academic and research excellence. As a member of this community, you will have the oportunity to explore research interests, share ideas, and only in chemical engineering but also in microbiology, chemistry, engineering, and other sciences. The interdisciplinary nature of the research carried out by the chemical engineering faculty at CSU and the culture of cooperative research facilitate this access to experts across departments and colleges. Chemical engineering faculty members and students work jointly with research groups in electrical, mechanical, and civil engineering, microbiology, environmental health sciences, chemistry, and veterinary medicine.M.S. and Ph.D. programs in chemical and biological engineering RESEARCH IN . Biomaterials Biomedical Engineering Biosensors Cell and Tissue Engineering Environmental Biotechnology Environmental Engineering Genomics/Proteomics/Metabolomics Magnetic Resonance Imaging Membrane Technology Metabolic Engineering Molecular Simulation Nanostructured Materials Polymeric Materials Systems BiologyFINANCIAL AID AVAILABLE Teaching and research assistantships paying a monthly stipend plus tuition reimbursement. For applications and further information, see http://cbe.colostate.edu or write: Graduate Advisor, Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523-1370 Travis S. Bailey, Ph.D. University of Minnesota University of Wisconsin David S. Dandy, Ph.D California Institute of Technology Matt J. Kipper, Ph.D. Iowa State University James C. Linden, Ph.D. Iowa State University Kenneth F. Reardon, Ph.D. California Institute of Technology Brad Reisfeld, Ph.D. Northwestern University David Wang, Ph.D. University of Wisconsin A. Ted Watson, Ph.D. California Institute of Technology Ranil Wickramasinghe, Ph.D. University of Minnesota

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Chemical Engineering Education 360 Situated in the scenic Finger Lakes region of New York State, the Cornell campus is one of the most beautiful in the country. Students boating, wine-tasting, and many other activi ties. For further information, write: Director of Graduate Studies, School of Chemical Engineering, Cornell University, 120 Olin Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-5201, e-mail: DGS@CHEME.CORNELL.EDU, or visit our World Wide Web server at: http://www.cheme.cornell.edu to design research programs that take full advantage of Cornells unique interdisciplinary environment and enable them to pursue individualized plans of study. Cornell graduate programs may draw upon the resources of many excellent depart ments and research centers such as the Biotechnology Center, the Cornell Center for Materials Research, the Cornell Nanofabrication Facility, the Cornell Supercomputing Facility, and the Nanobiotechnology Center Degrees granted include Master of Engineering, Master of Science, and Doctor of Phi losophy. All Ph.D. students are fully funded with tuition coverage and attractive stipends. A. Brad Anton Lynden A. Archer Paulette Clancy Claude Cohen Lance Collins Matthew P. DeLisa T. Michael Duncan James R. Engstrom Fernando A. Escobedo Emmanuel P. Giannelis Yong Lak Joo Brian Kirby Donald L. Koch Kelvin H. Lee Leonard W. Lion Christopher K. Ober William L. Olbricht David Putnam Michael L. Shuler Paul H. Steen Abraham D. Stoock Jeffrey D. Varner Larry Walker Ulrich Wiesner member, National Academy of Engineering member, American Academy of Arts & Science Distinguished Faculty Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Research Areas Biomolecular Engineering Complex Fluids and Polymers Electronic Materials and Microchemical Systems Energy and Sustainable Environment

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Fall 2006 361 Graduate Study & Research in Chemical Engineering at Dartmouths Thayer School of EngineeringFor further information, please contact: Chemical Engineering Graduate Advisor Thayer School of Engineering Dartmouth College Hanover, NH 03755 http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/thayer/research/chemical.html Faculty & Research Areas Ian Baker (Oxford) Structure/property relationships of materials, electron microscopy John Collier (Dartmouth) Orthopaedic prostheses, implant/host interfaces Alvin Converse (Delaware) Kinetics & reactor design, enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose Benoit Cushman-Roisin (Florida State) Harold Frost (Harvard) Microstructural evolution, deformation, and fracture of materials Tillman Gerngross (Technical University of Vienna) Engineering of glycoproteins, fermentation technology Ursula Gibson (Cornell) Karl E. Griswold ( University of Texas at Austin) Protein Engineering Francis Kennedy (RPI) Tribology, surface mechanics Daniel R. Lynch (Princeton) Computational methods, oceanography, and water resources Lee Lynd (Dartmouth) Biomass processing, pathway engineering, reactor & process design Victor Petrenko (USSR Academy of Science) Physical chemistry of ice Horst Richter ( Stuttgart ) Erland Schulson (British Columbia) Physical metallurgy of metals and alloys Petia Vlahovska (Yale University) MD and MBA degrees. The Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College offers an ABET-accredited BE degree, as well as MS, Masters of Engineering Management, and PhD degrees. The Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Program features courses in foundational topics in chemical engineering as well as courses serving our areas of research specialization: Biotechnology and biocommodity engineering Environmental science and engineering Fluid mechanics Materials science and engineering Process design and evaluation These important research areas are representative of those found in chemical engineering departments around the world. A distinctive feature of the Thayer School is that the professors, students, and visiting scholars active in these areas have for students interested in chemical and biochemical engineering to draw from several intellectual traditions in coursework and research. Fifteen full-time faculty are active in research involving chemical engineering fundamentals.

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Chemical Engineering Education 362 O S 3

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Fall 2006 363 D o y o u r g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s i n E u r o p e T h e T e c h n i c a l U n i v e r s i t y o f D e n m a r k ( D T U ) i s a m o d e r n i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l u n i v e r s i t y I t w a s f o u n d e d 1 7 7 y e a r s a g o b y H C r s t e d T h e U n i v e r s i t y h a s 6 0 0 0 s t u d e n t s p r e p a r i n g f o r B a c h e l o r a n d M a s t e r s d e g r e e s 6 0 0 P h D s t u d e n t s a n d t a k e s 4 0 0 f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s a y e a r o n E n g l i s h t a u g h t c o u r s e s T h e D T U c a m p u s i s l o c a t e d a f e w k i l o m e t e r s n o r t h b u t w i t h i n e a s y r e a c h o f t h e c i t y o f C o p e n h a g e n t h e c a p i t a l o f D e n m a r k V i s i t t h e u n i v e r s i t y a t h t t p : / / w w w d t u d k / E n g l i s h a s p x C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g f o c u s a r e a s o f r e s e a r c h a n d t h e r e s e a r c h g r o u p s a r e : A e r o s o l T e c h n o l o g y C o m b u s t i o n P r o c e s s e s C a t a l y s i s A e r o s o l / I C A T B i o P r o c e s s E n g i n e e r i n g P r o c e s s C o n t r o l S y s t e m s E n g i n e e r i n g C A P E C C h e m i c a l P r o d u c t E n g i n e e r i n g C o m b u s t i o n P r o c e s s e s E m i s s i o n C o n t r o l C H E C P o l y m e r C h e m i s t r y & T e c h n o l o g y T r a n s p o r t P h e n o m e n a D P C A p p l i e d T h e r m o d y n a m i c s O i l a n d G a s P r o d u c t i o n I V C S E P M e m b r a n e T e c h n o l o g y M e m b r a n e G r o u p T h e D e p a r t m e n t o f C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g ( K T ) i s a l e a d i n g r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t i o n T h e r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s f i n d a p p l i c a t i o n i n b i o c h e m i c a l p r o c e s s e s c o m p u t e r a i d e d p r o d u c t a n d p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g e n e r g y e n h a n c e d o i l r e c o v e r y e n v i r o n m e n t p r o t e c t i o n a n d p o l l u t i o n a b a t e m e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y a n d p r o d u c t s f o r m u l a t i o n s & m a t e r i a l s T h e d e p a r t m e n t h a s e x c e l l e n t e x p e r i m e n t a l f a c i l i t i e s s e r v i c e d b y a w e l l e q u i p p e d w o r k s h o p a n d w e l l t r a i n e d t e c h n i c i a n s T h e u n i t o p e r a t i o n s l a b o r a t o r y a n d p i l o t p l a n t s f o r d i s t i l l a t i o n r e a c t i o n e v a p o r a t i o n d r y i n g c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n e t c a r e u s e d f o r b o t h e d u c a t i o n a n d r e s e a r c h V i s i t u s a t h t t p : / / w w w k t d t u d k / E n g l i s h a s p x G r a d u a t e p r o g r a m s a t D e p a r t m e n t o f C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g : C h e m i c a l a n d B i o c h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g h t t p : / / w w w k t d t u d k / E n g l i s h / U d d a n n e l s e / U d d a n n e l s e r / C B E r e t n i n g D T U K a s p x S t i g W e d e l s w @ k t d t u d k P e t r o l e u m E n g i n e e r i n g h t t p : / / w w w i v c s e p k t d t u d k / p e t r o l e u m / E r l i n g H S t e n b y e h s @ k t d t u d k P o l y m e r E n g i n e e r i n g h t t p : / / w w w d t u d k / C e n t r e / D P C / E d u / M S c P o l y m e r E n g a s p x O l e H a s s a g e r o h @ k t d t u d k A d v a n c e d a n d A p p l i e d C h e m i s t r y h t t p : / / w w w d t u d k / E n g l i s h / e d u c a t i o n / m s c / p r o s p e c t i v e / a a c h e m a s p x G e o r g i o s K o n t o g e o r g i s g k @ k t d t u d k T h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s : h t t p : / / w w w d t u d k / E n g l i s h / e d u c a t i o n / m s c a s p x

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Chemical Engineering Education 364

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Fall 2006 365 F a c u l t y T i m A n d e r s o n A r a v i n d A s t h a g i r i J a s o n E B u t l e r A n u j C h a u h a n O s c a r D C r i s a l l e J e n n i f e r S i n c l a i r C u r t i s R i c h a r d B D i c k i n s o n H e l e n a H a g e l i n W e a v e r G a r H o f l u n d P e n g J i a n g L e w i s E J o h n s D m i t r y K o p e l e v i c h O l g a K r y l i o u k A n t h o n y J L a d d T a n m a y L e l e A t u l N a r a n g R a n g a N a r a y a n a n M a r k E O r a z e m C h a n g W o n P a r k F a n R e n D i n e s h O S h a h S p y r o s S v o r o n o s Y i i d e r T s e n g S e r g e y V a s e n k o v J a s o n F W e a v e r K i r k Z i e g l e r C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a 6 t h i n n u m b e r o f y e a r l y C h E P h D g r a d u a t e s i n U S * C & E N F e b r u a r y 7 2 0 0 5 A w a r d w i n n i n g f a c u l t y C u t t i n g e d g e f a c i l i t i e s E x t e n s i v e e n g i n e e r i n g r e s o u r c e s A n h o u r f r o m t h e A t l a n t i c O c e a n a n d t h e G u l f o f M e x i c o

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Chemical Engineering Education 366 Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Join a small, vibrant campus on Floridas Space Coast to reach your full academic and professional potential. Florida Tech, the only independent become a university of international standing. Graduate Student Assistantships and Tuition Remission Available Faculty P.A. Jennings, Ph.D. J.R. Brenner, Ph.D. M.E. Pozo de Fernandez, Ph.D. R.G. Barile, Ph.D. S. Dutta, Ph.D. M.M. Tomadakis, Ph.D. J.E. Whitlow, Ph.D. Research Partners NASA Department of Energy Florida Solar Energy Center Florida Institute of Phosphate Research Florida Space Grant For more information, contact Florida Institute of Technology College of Engineering Dept. of Chemical Engineering 150 West University Boulevard Melbourne, Florida 32901-6975 (321) 674-8068 Research Interests Spacecraft Technology Alternative Energy Sources Materials Science Membrane Technology ISRU Hydrogen Technology

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Fall 2006 367 this is Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering

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Chemical Engineering Education 368 Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Graduate Program The University of Houston is an equal opportunity institution. ENVIRONM E NTAL & RE ACTION ENGIN EE RING EN E RGY ENGIN EE RING C H E MICAL ENGIN EE RING BIOMOL E CULAR ENGIN EE RING N ANOM AT E RIALS Amundson Balakotaiah Harold Luss Richardson Rooks Chellam Economou Strasser Willson Annapragada Bidani Briggs Fox Vekilov Willson Doxastakis Krishnamoorti Mohanty Chellam Harold Luss Nikolaou Richardson Strasser Vekilov Advincula Donnelly Doxastakis Economou Flumerfelt Jacobson Krishnamoorti Lee Litvinov Balakotaiah Harold Jacobson Luss Nikolaou Richardson Daneshy Economides Mohanty Nikolaou Strasser Adjunct Affiliated Bold denotes primary research area. HOU S TO N Dynamic Hub of Chemical Engineering Houston is the dominant hub of the U.S. energy and chemical industries, as well as the home of NASAs Johnson Space Center and the world-renowned Texas Medical Center. The Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Department at the University of Houston offers excellent facilities, competitive nancial support, industrial internships, and an environment conducive to personal and professional growth. Houston offers the educational, cultural, business, sports, and entertainment advantages of a large and diverse metropolitan area, with signicantly lower costs than average. For more information: Visit: www.chee.uh.edu Email: grad-che@uh.edu Write: University of Houston Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Graduate Admission S222 Engineering Building 1 Houston, TX 77204-4004

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Fall 2006 369 MS and PhD Graduate Program The University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Chemical Engineering UIC For more information, write to Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering University of Illinois at Chicago 810 S. Clinton St. Chicago, IL 60607-7000 (312) 996-3424 Fax (312) 996-0808 URL: http://www.uic.edu/depts/chme/ RESEARCH AREAS Transport Phenomena: Thermodynamics: extraction/retrograde condensation, Asphaltene characterization, Membrane-based separations. Kinetics and Reaction Engineering: Gas-solid reaction kinetics, Energy transfer processes, Laser diagnostics, and Combustion chemistry. Environmental technology, Surface chemistry, and optimization. Catalyst preparation and characterization, Supported metals, Chemical kinetics in automotive engine emis sions. Density fuctional theory calculations of reaction mechanisms. Biochemical Engineering: Bioinstrumentation, Bioseparations, Biodegradable polymers, Nonaqueous Enzymology, Optimization of mycobacterial fermentations. Materials: Microelectronic materials and processing, Heteroepitaxy in group IV materials, and in situ Product and Process Development and design, Computer-aided modeling and simulation, Pollution prevention. Biomedical Engineering Hydrodynamics of the human brain, Microvasculation, Fluid structure interaction in biological tissues, Drug transport. Nanoscience and Engineering Molecular-based study of matter in nanoscale, Organic nanostructures, Self-assembly and Positional assembly. Properties of size-selected clusters. FACULTY Sohail Murad Professor and Head Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979 E-Mail: Murad@uic.edu John H. Kiefer Professor Emeritus Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961 E-Mail: Kiefer@uic.edu Andreas A. Linninger Associate Professor Ph.D., Vienna University of Technology, 1992 E-Mail: Linninge@uic.edu G. Ali Mansoori Professor Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969 E-Mail: Mansoori@uic.edu Randall Meyer Assistant Professor Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin, 2001 E-Mail: Rjm@uic.edu Ludwig C. Nitsche Associate Professor Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1989 E-Mail: LCN@uic.edu John Regalbuto, Associate Professor Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986 E-Mail: JRR@uic.edu Stephen Szepe Associate Professor Emeritus Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966 E-Mail: SSzepe@uic.edu Christos Takoudis Professor Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1982 E-Mail: Takoudis@uic.edu Professor Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964 E-Mail: Turian@uic.edu Lewis E. Wedgewood Associate Professor Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1988 E-Mail: Wedge@uic.edu Edward Funk Adjunct Professor Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1970 E-Mail: Funk@uic.edu Laszlo T. Nemeth Adjunct Professor Ph.D., University of Debrecen, Hungary, 1978 E-Mail: Lnemeth@uic.edu Anil Oroskar Adjunct Professor Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1981 E-Mail: anil@orochem.com

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Chemical Engineering Education 370

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Fall 2006 371 APPLICATION INFORMATION Coordinator, Academic Affairs Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering Illinois Institute of Technology 10 W. 33rd Street Chicago, Illinois 60616 USA tel. 312.567.3040 fax. 312.567.8874 chee@iit.edu www.chee.iit.edu FACULTY Doctorate and masters degrees in Biological, Chemical and Environmental Engineering Areas of Study Core Competencies Research Centers Learn more Learn more about specific faculty research interests, department activities and student life by visiting by visiting www.chee.iit.edu www.chee.iit.edu

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Chemical Engineering Education 372 Graduate program for M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering FACULTY For information and application: Graduate Admissions Chemical and Biochemical Engineering 4133 Seamans Center Iowa City IA 52242-1527 1-800-553-IOWA (1-800-553-4692) chemeng@icaen.uiowa.edu www.engineering.uiowa.edu/ ~chemeng/ Stephen K. Hunter U. of Utah 1989 Bioartificial organs/ Microencapsulation technologies Gary A. Aurand North Carolina State U. 1996 Supercritical fluids/ High pressure biochemical reactors Alec B. Scranton Purdue U. 1990 Photopolymerization/ Reversible emulsifiers/ Polymerization kinetics Greg Carmichael U. of Kentucky 1979 Global change/ Supercomputing/ Air pollution modeling Audrey Butler U. of Iowa 1989 Chemical precipitation processes Chris Coretsopoulos U. of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign 1989 Photopolymerization/ Microfabrication/ Spectroscopy David Murhammer U. of Houston 1989 Insect cell culture/ Bioreactor monitoring Tonya L. Peeples Johns Hopkins 1994 Bioremediation/ Extremophile physiology and biocatalysis David Rethwisch U. of Wisconsin 1985 Membrane science/ Polymer science/ Catalysis Vicki H. Grassian U. of California-Berkeley 1987 Surface chemistry/ Heterogeneous processes Julie L.P. Jessop Michigan State U. 1999 Polymers/ Microlithography/ Spectroscopy C. Allan Guymon U. of Colorado 1997 Polymer reaction engineering/UV curable coatings/Polymer liquid crystal composites Ramaswamy Subramanian Indian Institute of Science 1992 Structural enzymology/Structure function relationship in proteins John M. Wiencek Case Western Reserve 1989 Protein crystallization/ Surfactant technology Charles O. Stanier Carnegie Mellon University 2003 Air pollution chemistry, measurement, and modeling/Aerosols Aliasger K. Salem U. of Nottingham 2002 Tissue engineering/ Drug delivery/Polymeric biomaterials/Immunocancer therapy/Nano and microtechnology Venkiteswaran Subramanian Indian Institute of Science 1978 Biocatalysis/Metabolism/ Gene expression/ Fermentation/Protein purification/Biotechnology

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Fall 2006 373 Faculty Iowa State Universitys Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering offers excellent programs for graduate research and education. Our cuttingedge research crosses traditional disciplinary lines and provides exceptional opportunities for graduate students. Our diverse faculty are leaders international recognition for both research and education, our facilities (laboratories, instrumentation, and computing) are state of the art, and our students the support they need not just to succeed, but to excel. Our campus houses several interdisciplinary research centers, including the Ames Laboratory (a USDOE laboratory focused on materials research), the Plant Sciences Institute for Combinatorial Discovery. The department offers MS and PhD degrees in chemical engineering. can be admitted to the program. We coverage and competitive stipends to all our graduate students. Robert C. Brown, PhD Michigan State University Biorenewable resources for energy Aaron R. Clapp, PhD University of Florida Colloidal and interfacial phenomena Eric W. Cochran, PhD University of Minnesota Self-assembled polymers Rodney O. Fox, PhD Kansas State University engineering Charles E. Glatz, PhD University of Wisconsin Bioprocessing and bioseparations Kurt R. Hebert, PhD University of Illinois Corrosion and electrochemical engineering James C. Hill, PhD University of Washington Andrew C. Hillier, PhD University of Minnesota Interfacial engineering and electrochemistry Kenneth R. Jolls, PhD University of Illinois Chemical thermodynamics and separations Mark J. Kushner, PhD California Institute of Technology Computational optical and discharge physics Monica H. Lamm, PhD North Carolina State University Molecular simulations of advanced materials Surya K. Mallapragada, PhD Purdue University Tissue engineering and drug delivery Balaji Narasimhan, PhD Purdue University Biomaterials and drug delivery Marc D. Porter, PhD Ohio State University Analytical surface chemistry and miniaturization Peter J. Reilly, PhD University of Pennsylvania Enzyme engineering and bioinformatics Derrick K. Rollins, PhD Ohio State University Statistical process control Glenn L. Schrader, PhD University of Wisconsin Heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis Brent H. Shanks, PhD California Institute of Technology Heterogeneous catalysis and biorenewables Jacqueline V. Shanks, PhD California Institute of Technology Metabolic engineering and plant biotechnology R. Dennis Vigil, PhD University of Michigan Transport phenomena and reaction engineering in multiphase systems FOR MORE INFORMATION Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50011 515 294-7643 Fax: 515 294-2689 chemengr@iastate.edu www.cbe.iastate.edu Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U.S. Vietnam Era Veteran. Any persons having inquiries concerning this may contact the Director of Equal Opportunity and Diversity, 3680 Beardshear Hall, 515 294-7612. ECM 07000

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Chemical Engineering Education 374 The University of Kansas is the largest and most comprehensive university in Kansas. It has an enrollment of more than 28,000 and almost 2,000 faculty mem bers. KU offers more than 100 bachelors, nearly 90 masters, and more than 50 doctoral programs. The main campus is in Lawrence, Kansas, with other campuses in Kansas City, Wichita, Topeka, and Overland Park, Kansas. Faculty Cory Berkland (Ph.D., Illinois) Kyle V. Camarda (Ph.D., Illinois) Michael Detamore (Ph.D., Rice) Stevin H. Gehrke (Ph.D., Minnesota) Don W. Green, (Ph.D., Oklahoma) Javier Guzman (Ph.D., UC Davis) Colin S. Howat (Ph.D., Kansas) Jennifer Laurence (Ph.D., Purdue) Jenn-Tai Liang (Ph.D., Texas) Trung V. Nguyen (Ph.D., Texas A&M) Karen J. Nordheden (Ph.D., Illinois) Russell D. Osterman (Ph.D., Kansas) Aaron Scurto (Ph.D., Notre Dame) Marylee Z. Southard (Ph.D., Kansas) Susan M. Williams (Ph.D., Oklahoma) Bala Subramaniam (Ph.D., Notre Dame) Shapour Vossoughi (Ph.D., Alberta, Canada) Laurence Weatherley, Chair (Ph.D., Cambridge) G. Paul Willhite (Ph.D., Northwestern) R.V. Chaudhari (Ph.D., Bombay University) Research Catalytic Kinetics and Reaction Engineering Catalytic Materials and Membrane Processing Controlled Drug Delivery Corrosion, Fuel Cells, Batteries Electrochemical Reactors and Processes Electronic Materials Processing Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes Fluid Phase Equilibria and Process Design Liquid/Liquid Systems Molecular Product Design NanoTechnology for Biological Applications Process Control and Optimization Protein and Tissue Engineering Supercritical Fluid Applications Waste Water Treatment Graduate Programs M.S. degree with a thesis requirement in both chemical and petroleum engineering Typical completion times are 16-18 months for a M.S. degree and 4 1/2 years for a Ph.D. degree (from B.S.) KANSAS Graduate Study in Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the Financial Aid Financial aid is available in the form of research and teaching assistantships and fellowships/scholarships. A special program is described below. Madison & Lila Self Graduate Fellowship For additional information and application: http://www.unkans.edu/~selfpro/ Research Centers Tertiary Oil Recovery Program (TORP) 30 years of excellence in enhanced oil recovery research (CEBC) New NSF Engineering Research Center Contacts Website for information and application: http://www.cpe.engr.ku.edu/ Graduate Program Chemical and Petroleum Engineering 1530 W. 15 th Street, Room 4132 Lawrence, KS 66045-7609UNIVERSITY OF phone: 785-864-2900 fax: 785-864-4967 e-mail: jenhaaga@ku.edu

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Fall 2006 375 Graduate Studies in Ch emical Engineering at Kansas State University Faculty, Ph.D. Institute, Research Areas Jennifer L. Anthony, University of Norte Dame advanced materials, molecular sieves, environmental applications, ionic liquids James H. Edgar, University of Florida semiconductor processing and characterization Larry E. Erickson, Kansas State University environmental engineering, biochemical engineering, biological waste treatment process design and synthesis L.T. Fan, West Virginia University process systems engineering including process synthesis and cont rol, chemical reaction engineering, particle technology Larry A. Glasgow, University of Missouri transport phenomena, bubbles, droplets and particles in turbulent flows, coagulation and flocculation Keith L Hohn, University of Minnesota catalysis and reaction engineering, niversity of Texas polymers in membrane separations and brane biological systems, logy biobased industrial products, applied spectroscopy, thermal purification, metal-organic frameworks t our e.ksu.edu ineering anhattan, KS 66506-5102 natural gas conversion, and nanoparticle catalysts Peter Pfromm, U surface science Mary E. Rezac (head), University of Texas polymer science, mem separation processes and their applications to environmental control, and novel materials John R. Schlup, California Institute of Techno analysis, intelligent processing of materials Walter Walawender, Syracuse Univ ersity activated carbon, biomass energy, fl uid particle systems, pyrolysis, reaction modeling and engineering Krista S. Walton, Vanderbilt University nanoporous materials, molecular modeling, adsorption separation and al information visi For addition website at: www.ch or write to Graduate Program Kansas State University epartment of Chemical Eng D M

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Chemical Engineering Education 376 University of KentuckyDepartment of Chemical & Materials Engineering The Chemical Engineering Faculty Tate Tsang, Chair University of Texas K. Anderson Carnegie-Mellon University D. Bhattacharyya Illinois Institute of Technology T. Dziubla Drexel University E. Grulke Ohio State University Z. Hilt University of Texas D. Kalika University of California, Berkeley R. Kermode Northwestern University B. Knutson Georgia Institute of Technology S. Rankin University of Minnesota A. Ray Clarkson University Paducah, KY, Program P. Dunbar University of Tennessee R. Lee-Desautels Ohio State University D. Silverstein Vanderbilt University J. Smart University of Texas For more information: Web: http://www.engr.uky.edu/cme E-mail: cme-admit@engr.uky.edu Address: Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering Director of Graduate Studies, Chemical Engineering 177 Anderson Hall University of Kentucky Lexington, KY 40506-0046 Phone (859) 257-8028 Fax (859) 323-1929 Catalysis Environmental Engineering Biopharmaceutical & Biocellular Engineering Materials Synthesis Advanced Separation & Supercritical Fluids Processing Membranes & Polymers Aerosols Nanomaterials & Bionano Technology

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Fall 2006 377

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Chemical Engineering Education 378 Synergistic, interdisciplinary research in . Biochemical Engineering Catalytic Science & Reaction Engineering Environmental Engineering Interfacial Transport Materials Synthesis Characterization & Processing Microelectronics Processing Polymer Science & Engineering Process Modeling & Control Two-Phase Flow & Heat Transfer . leading to M.S., M.E., and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engineering Philip A. Blythe, University of Manchester Hugo S. Caram, University of Minnesota high temperature processes and materials environmental processes reaction engineering Manoj K. Chaudhury, SUNY-Buffalo Mohamed S. El-Aasser, McGill University synthesis and characterization Alice P. Gast, Princeton James F. Gilchrist, Northwestern University James T. Hsu, Northwestern University bioseparations applied recombinant DNA technology Anand Jagota, Cornell University biomimetics mechanics adhesion biomolecule-materials interactions Andrew Klein, North Carolina State University emulsion polymerization colloidal and surface effects in polymerization Mayuresh V. Kothare, California Institute of Technology model predictive control constrained control microchemical systems Ian J. Laurenzi, University of Pennsylvania chemical kinetics in small systems biochemical informatics aggregation phenomena William L. Luyben, University of Delaware process design and control distillation Anthony J. McHugh, University of Delaware polymer rheology and rheo-optics polymer processing and modeling membrane formation drug delivery Padma Rajagopalan, Brown University cellular engineering biomaterial design cell-biomaterial interactions Arup K. Sengupta, University of Houston use of adsorbents ion exchange reactive polymers membranes in environmental pollution Cesar A. Silebi, Lehigh University separation of colloidal particles electrophoresis mass transfer Shivaji Sircar, University of Pensylvania adsorption gas and liquid separation Kemal Tuzla, Technical University of Istanbul Israel E. Wachs, Stanford University materials characterization surface chemistry heterogeneous catalysis environmental catalysis Additional information and application may be obtained by writing to: Dr. James T. Hsu, Chairman Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering Lehigh University 111 Research Drive Iacocca Hall Bethlehem, PA 18015 Fax: (610) 758-5057 E-Mail: inchegs@lehigh.edu Website: www3.lehigh.edu/engineering/cheme/ LEHIGH UNIVERSITY

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Fall 2006 379

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Chemical Engineering Education 380 For information about the graduate program write to the . Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 call 207 581-2277 e-mail gradinfo@umche.maine.edu or The department has a long history of interactions with industry. Research proj ects often come from actual industrial situations. Various research programs, such as the Paper Surface Science Program, have industrial advisory boards that give students key contacts with industry. We have formed an alliance with the Institute of Molecular Biophysics (IMB) that brings to us partnerships with The Jackson Laboratory (TJL) and Maine Medical Center Research Institute sors, and molecular biophysics give students opportunities to do research at the interface between engineering and the biological sciences. DOUGLAS BOUSFIELD PhD (UC Berkeley) Fluid mechanics, printing, coating processes, micro-scale model ing ALBERT CO PhD (Wisconsin) merical methods WILLIAM DESISTO PhD (Brown) chem./bio sensors DARRELL DONAHUE PhD (North Carolina State) Biosensors in food and medical applications, risk assessment modeling, statistical process control JOSEPH GENCO PhD (Ohio State) JOHN HWALEK PhD (Illinois) Process information systems, heat transfer MICHAEL MASON PhD (UC Santa Barbara) Laser scanning confocal microscopy, time-resolved imaging of molecular nanoprobes for biological systems PAUL MILLARD PhD (Maryland) technology DAVID NEIVANDT PhD (Melbourne) Conformation of interfacial species, surface spectroscopies/mi croscopies ANJA NOHE PhD (Theodor Boveri Inst.) Protein dynamics on cell surfaces, membrane transport, image analysis HEMANT PENDSE PhD (Syracuse) Chair Sensor development, colloid systems, particulate and multiphase processes DOUGLAS RUTHVEN PhD ScD (Cambridge) Fundamentals of adsorption and processes ADRIAAN VAN HEININGEN PhD (McGill) Pulp and paper manufacture and production of biomaterials and biofuels M. CLAYTON WHEELER PhD (Texas-Austin) Chemical sensors, fundamental catalysis, surface science University of Maine The University The campus is situated near the Penobscot and Stillwater Rivers in the town of Orono, Maine. The campus is large enough to offer various activities and events and yet is small enough to allow for one-on-one learning with faculty. The University of Maine is known for its hockey team, but also has a number of other sports activities. Not far from campus is the Maine Coast and Acadia National Park. North and west are alpine and cross-country ski resorts, Baxter State Park, and the Allagash Water Wilderness area. Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering

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Fall 2006 381 MANHATTAN COLLEGE Manhattan College is located in Riverdale, an attractive area in the northwest section of New York City. This well-established graduate program emphasizes the application of basic principles to the solution of modern engineering problems, with new features in engineering management, sustainable and alternative energy, safety, and biochemical engineering. Financial aid is available, including industrial fellowships in a one-year program sponsored by the following companies: Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. BOC Group ConocoPhillips Consolidated Edison Co. Kraft Foods Merck & Co., Inc. Panolam Industries For information and application form, write to Graduate Program Director Chemical Engineering Department Manhattan College Riverdale, NY 10471 chmldept@manhattan.edu Offering a Practice-Oriented Masters Degree Program in Chemical Engineering http://www.engineering.manhattan.edu

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Chemical Engineering Education 382 386 Chemical Engineering Education EMPHASIS The Department of Chemical and Biochemi cal Engineering at UMBC offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. Our research is heavily focused in biochemical, biomedi cal, and bioprocess engineering and covers a wide range of areas including fermentation, cell culture, downstream processing, drug delivery, protein engineering, and bio-optics. Unique programs in the regulatory-engineer ing interface of bioprocessing are offered as well. FACILITIES The Department offers state-of-the-art facili ties for faculty and graduate student research. These modern facilities have been developed primarily in the last six years and comprise 6,000 square feet of laboratory space in the Technology Research Center plus 7,000 square feet of departmental laboratories in the new Engineering and Computer Science building. LOCATION UMBC is located in the Baltimore-Washing ton corridor and within easy access to both metropolitan areas. A number of government research facilities such as NIH, FDA, USDA, NSA, and a large number of biotechnology companies are located nearby and provide excellent opportunities for research interac tions. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Graduate Program Coordinator Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering University of Maryland Baltimore County 1000 Hilltop Circle Baltimore, Maryland 21250 Phone: (410) 455-3400 FAX: (410) 455-1049 UMBC Graduate Study in BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING For Engineering and Science Majors FACULTY T. BAYLES, Ph.D. Pittsburgh Engineering education; k-12 Outreach M. CASTELLANOS, Ph.D. Cornell Mathematical modeling of biological systems; Biocomplexity; Molecu lar systems engineering D. D. FREY, Ph.D. California-Berkeley Biochemical separations; Chromatography of biopolymers T. GOOD, Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Madison Cellular Engineering; Protein Aggregation; In Vitro Models of Disease J. LEACH, Ph.D. University of Texas at Austin Biomaterials; Cell and Tissue Engineering M. R. MARTEN, Ph.D. Purdue Proteome analysis; Cellular, bioprocess, and biomedical engineering. A. R. MOREIRA, Ph.D. Pennsylvania rDNA fermentation; Regulatory issues; Scale-up; Downstream process ing G. F. PAYNE, Ph.D.* Michigan Biomolecular engineering; Biopolymers; Renewable resources. G. RAO, Ph.D. Drexel Fluorescence-based sensors and instrumentation; Fermentation and cell culture. J. M. ROSS, Ph.D. Rice Cellular and biomedical engineering; Cell adhesion; Tissue engineering Joint appointment with the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute University of Maryland Baltimore County

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Fall 2006 383 University of Massachusetts Amherst Surita R. Bhatia W. Curtis Conner, Jr. Jeffrey M. Davis James M. Douglas, Emeritus Neil S. Forbes David M. Ford Michael A. Henson George W. Huber Robert L. Laurence Emeritus Michael F. Malone Dimitrios Maroudas Peter A. Monson Susan C. Roberts Lianhong Sun Phillip R. Westmoreland H. Henning Winter F ACULTY : E XPERIENCE OUR PROGRAM IN C HEMICAL E NGINEERING For application forms and further information on fellowships and assistantships, academic and research programs, and student housing, see: http://www.ecs.umass.edu/che Graduate Program Director Department of Chemical Engineering 159 Goessmann Lab., 686 N. Pleasant St. University of Massachusetts Amherst MA 01003-9303 The University of Massachusetts Amherst prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, creed, sex, sexual orie ntation, age, marital status, national origin, disability or handicap, or veteran status, in any aspect of the admission or treatment of students or in emplo yment. Instructional, research and administrative space are housed in close proximity to each other. In addition to space located in Goessmann Lab. which includes the ChE Alumni Classroom used for teaching and research seminars, additional space is located in the Conte National Center for Polymer Research. In May 2004 we proudly dedicated the brand new $25-million facilities of Engineering Lab II (ELab II) which includes 57,000sq.ft of state-of-the-art laboratory facilities and office space. Amherst is a beautiful New England college town in Western Massachusetts. Set amid farmland and rolling hills, the area offers pleasant living conditions and extensive recreational facilities, and urban pleasures are easily accessible.

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Chemical Engineering Education 384 MIT Chemical Engineering at With the largest research faculty in the country, the Department of Chemical Engineering at MIT offers programs of research and teaching which span the breadth of chemical engineering with unprecedented depth in fundamentals and applications. The Depart ment offers graduate programs leading to the masters and doctors degrees. Graduate students may also earn a professional masters degree through the David H. Koch School of Chemical Engineering Practice and solving industrial problems by applying chemical engineering fundamentals. In collaboration with the Sloan School of Management, the Department also offers a doctoral program in Chemical Engineering Practice, which integrates chemical engineering, research, and management. Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Biotechnology Catalysis and Chemical Kinetics Colloid Science and Separations Energy Engineering Environmental Engineering Polymers Process Systems Engineering Thermodynamics, Statistical Mechanics, and Molecular Simulation Transport ProcessesResearch in . MIT is located in Cambridge, just across the Charles River from Boston, a few minutes by subway from downtown Boston and Harvard Square. The area is world-renowned for its colleges, hospitals, research facilities, and high technology indus tries, and offers an unending variety of theaters, concerts, restaurants, museums, bookstores, sporting events, libraries, and recreational facilities. For more information, contact Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 Phone (617) 253-4579 ; FAX (617) 253-9695 ; E-Mail chemegrad@mit.edu URL http://web.mit.edu/cheme/index.html R.C. Armstrong, Head P.I. Barton D. Blankschtein A. Chakraborty R.E. Cohen C.K. Colton C.L. Cooney W.M. Deen P.S. Doyle K.K. Gleason W.H. Green P.T. Hammond T.A. Hatton K.F. Jensen R.S. Langer D.A. Lauffenburger N. Maheshri G.J. McRae K.J. Prather G.C. Rutledge H.H. Sawin K.A. Smith Ge. Stephanopoulos Gr. Stephanopoulos J.W. Tester B.L. Trout P.S. Virk D.I.C. Wang K.D. Wittrup

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Fall 2006 385 McGill Chemical Engineering D. BERK Department Chair (Calgary) Biological and chemical treatment of wastes, crystallization of fine powders, reaction engineering [dimitrios.berk@mcgill.ca] D. G. COOPER (Toronto) Prod. of bacteriophages & biopharmaceuticals, self-cycling ferment., bioconversion of xenobiotics [david.cooper@mcgill.ca] S. COULOMBE Canada Research Chair (McGill) Plasma processing, nanofluids, transport phenomena, optical diagnostic and process control [sylvain.coulombe@mcgill.ca] J. M. DEALY Emeritus Professor (Michigan) Polymer rheology, plastics processing [john.dealy@mcgill.ca] R. J. HILL Canada Research Chair (Cornell) Fuzzy colloids, biomimetic interfaces, hydrogels, and nanocomposite membranes [reghan.hill@mcgill.ca] E. A. V. JONES, (CalTech) Biofluid dynamics, biomechanics, tissue engineering, developmental biology & microscopy [liz.jones@mcgill.ca] M. R. KAMAL Emeritus Professor (Carnegie-Mellon) Polymer proc., charac., and recy cling [musa.kamal@mcgill.ca] R. LEASK William Dawson Scholar (Toronto) Biomedical engineering, fluid dynamics, cardiovascular mechanics, pathobiology [richard.leask@mcgill.ca] C. A. LECLERC (Minnesota) Catalysis, hydrogen generation, biorefineries, fuel processing, reaction engineering [cor ey.leclerc@mcgill.ca] M. MARIC (Minnesota) Block copolymers, polymer blends and colloids, polymer processing [milan.maric@mcgill.ca] J.L. MEUNIER (INRS-Energie, Varennes) Plasma science & technology, deposition techniques for surf.ace modifications, nanomaterials [jean-luc.meunier@mcgill.ca] R. J. MUNZ (McGill) Thermal plasma tech, torch and reactor design, nanostructured material synthesis, environmental apps [richard.munz@mcgill.ca] S. OMANOVIC (Zagreb) (Bio)electrocatalysis, biomaterials, corrosion, regenerative lowtemperature fuel cells [sasha.omanovic@mcgill.ca] A. D. REY James McGill Professor (California-Berkeley) Computational material sci., thermodynamics of soft matter and complex fluids, interfacial sci. and eng. [alejandro.rey@mcgill.ca] P. SERVIO Canada Research Chair (British Columbia) High-pressure phase equilibrium, crystallization, polymer coatings [phillip.servio@mcgill.ca] N. TUFENKJI Canada Research Chair (Yale) Environmental engineering, bioadhesion and biosensors, bioand nanotechnologies [nathalie.tufenkji@mcgill.ca] V. YARGEAU (Sherbrooke) Biological and chemical treatment of wastewater, pharmaceuticals degradation, biohydrogen [viviane.yargeau@mcgill.ca] For more information and graduate program applications: Visit : www.mcgill.ca/chemeng/ Write : Department of Chemical Engineering McGill University 3610 University St Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 CANADA Phone : (514) 398-4494 Fax : (514) 398-6678 E -mai l : in q uire.che g rad @ mc g ill.ca D owntown Montreal Canada McGills Ar t s Buildin g Montreal is a multilingual metropolis with a population over three million. Often called the world's second-largest Frenchspeaking city, Montreal also boasts an English-speaking population of over 400,000. McGill itself is an English-language university, though it offers you countless opportunities to explore the French language. The department offers M. Eng. and PhD degrees with funding available and top-ups for th ose who already have funding.

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Chemical Engineering Education 386 W h y c h o o s e M c M a s t e r ? Hamilton is a city of over 400,000 situated in Southern Ontario. We are located about 100 km from both Niagara Falls and research effort is the extent of the interaction between facu are engaged in leading edge Centre for Advanced Polymer Processing & Design (CAPPA-D) McMaster Institute of Polymer Production Technology (MIPPT) McMaster Advanced Control Consortium (MACC) Graduate Secretary McMaster University CANADA F O O N L I N A P P L I C A T I O N F O M S A N D I N F O M A T I O N P L A S C O N T A C T Tissue engineering, biomedical engi neering, blood-material interactions J L B r a s h K J o n e s H S h e a r d o w n Membranes, environmental en C F i l i p e R G h o s h utational fluid mechanics, membranes J D i c k s o n A N H r y m a k P E W o o d A E H a m i e l e c ( E m e r i t u s ) R H P e l t o n S Z h u K K o s t a n s k i ( A d j u n c t ) A E H a m i e l e c ( E m e r i t u s ) A N H r y m a k M T h o m p s o n J V l a c h o p o u l o s S Z h u J F M a c G r e g o r T E M a r l i n P M h a s k a r C L E S w a r t z P T a y l o r T K o u r t i ( A d j u n c t ) o does not already have extern

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Fall 2006 387 Ch e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n F ac u l t y M ai n A r e as of R e s e ar c h L i f e S c i e n c e s B i ot e c h n ol ogy M a rk A B urns M i cr o f a b r i ca t ed Ch e m i ca l A n a l ys i s O m o l o l a E ni o l a A def es o Cel l A d h es i o n a n d M i g r a t i o n Erdo g a n Gul a ri D N A a n d P ep t i d e S yn t h es i s J i ns a ng Ki m S m a r t F u n ct i o n a l P o l y m er s J o erg La ha n n S u r f a ce E n g i n eer i n g X i a o x i a Li n S ys t e m s a n d S yn t h et i c B i o l o g y J enni f er J Li nd er m a n R ec ep t o r D yn a m i cs M i c ha el M a y er B i o m e m b r a n es Hen ry Y Wa ng B i o p r o ces s E n g i n eer i n g P e ter J Wo o l f B i o m a t h e m a t i cs E n e r gy an d E n vi r on m e n t H. Sco tt F o g l e r F l o w a n d R ea ct i o n s Erdo g a n Gul a ri R ea ct i o n s a t In t er f a ces Sul jo Li ni c Ca t a l ys i s S u r f a ce Ch e m i s t r y, F u el C el l s P hi l l i p E. Sa v a g e S u s t a i n a b l e P r o d u ct i o n o f E n er g y a n d Ch e m i ca l P r o d u ct s J o ha nn es W. Sc h w a n k Ca t a l ys t s F u el C el l s a n d F u el Co n v er s i o n Lev i T. T ho m ps o n Ca t a l ys t s F u el Cel l s M i cr o r ea ct o r s Wa l ter J Web er J r E n vi r o n m en t a l P r o c es s D yn a m i cs a n d S ys t e m S u s t a i n a b i l i t y R a l p h T. Y a ng A d s o r p t i o n R ea ct i o n s H yd r o g en S t o r a g e C om p l e x F l u i d s an d N an os t r u c t u r e d M at e r i al s Sha ro n C Gl o tze r Co m p u t a t i o n a l Na n o s ci en ce a n d S o f t M a t er i a l s N i c ho l a s Ko to v Na n o m a t er i a l s R o na l d G. La rs o n, C ha i r Th eo r et i ca l Co m p u t a t i o n a l a n d E xp er i m en t a l Co m p l ex F l u i d s M i c ha el J So l o m o n E xp er i m en t a l Co m p l e x F l u i d s R o b ert M Zi ff Th eo r et i ca l a n d Co m p u t a t i o n a l Co m p l ex F l u i d s a n d Tr a n s p o r t F o r m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a c t : D r R o b e r t Z i f f G r a d u a t e C h a i r m a n D e p a r t m e n t o f C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n A n n A r b o r M I 4 8 1 0 9 2 1 3 0 7 3 4 7 6 4 2 3 8 3 c h e m e n g g r a d @ u m i c h e d u w w w e n g i n u m i c h e d u / d e p t / c h e m e

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Chemical Engineering Education 388 Eray Aydil Reaction engineering of electronic materials, thin Frank S. Bates Thermodynamics and dynamics of polymers and polymer mixtures C. Barry Carter Defects and interfaces in semiconductors, metals and reactions TEM, AFM, and SEM Matteo Cococcioni Theory and computation, materials design, nanopar ticles, transition metal compounds, and molecular chemistry for renewable energies. Edward L. Cussler Mass transfer, novel separation processes Prodromos Daoutidis Nonlinear process control, process analysis and design H. Ted Davis Colloid and interface science, statistical mechanics Jeffrey J. Derby High performance computing, materials processing Kevin D. Dorfman biophysics Lorraine F. Francis Coatings, ceramic and composite processing C. Daniel Frisbie Molecular materials and interfaces, organic semiconductors, molecular electronics, atomic force microscopy William W. Gerberich Fracture micromechanics and deformation nanomechanics Russel J. Holmes Electrical and optical properties of organic/molecular materials, organic semiconductor devices and optoelec tronics, exciton-microcavity physics, nanophotonics Wei-Shou Hu Biochemical engineering Yiannis Kaznessis Computational bioengineering, bioinformatics, statistical mechanics Efrosini Kokkoli Bioengineering, biomimetic surface science, biopolymers, biomaterials, targeted drug delivery, colloidal interac tions Satish Kumar Chris Leighton materials and heterostructures Timothy P. Lodge Polymer structure and dynamics, polymer characterization Christopher W. Macosko Rheology and polymer processing, polymer blends, interfaces and networks Alon V. McCormick Reaction engineering of materials synthesis, spectroscopy and cryo-microscopy, molecular simulation David C. Morse David J. Norris Optical materials, colloids Christopher Palmstrm Epitaxial growth processes and heterostructure Lanny D. Schmidt Reaction engineering, surface chemistry, heteroge neous catalysis L. E. Scriven Fluid mechanics and rheology, colloid and interface science, transport reaction and stress phenomena, materials processing: coatings David A. Shores High temperature corrosion, aqueous corrosion of bio-medical materials William H. Smyrl Electrochemical engineering, modeling electrochemi cal systems, microvisualization of reactive surfaces Friedrich Srienc Biochemical engineering, systems biology, metabolic networks, single-cell physiology, biodegradable polymers Robert T. Tranquillo Cardiovascular and neural tissue engineering Michael Tsapatsis Nanoscale engineering of materials for separation, reaction, and energy applications Renata M. Wentzcovitch Theory of materials at high pressure and temperature For additional information, visit our web site at http://www.cems.umn.edu Leadership and Innovation in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND MATERIALS SCIENCEat the U NIVERSITY OF M INNESOTA FACULTY

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Fall 2006 389 UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI COLUMBIA Rakesh K. Bajpai, PhD (IIT, Kanpur) Biochemical Engineering Hazardous Waste Paul C. H. Chan, PhD (CalTech ) Reactor Analysis Fluid Mechanic s Eric Doskocil, PhD (Virginia) Catalysis Reaction Engineering William A. Jacoby, PhD (Colorado ) Photocatalysis Transpor t Sunggyu Lee, PhD (Case Western ) Supercritical Fluids Polymers Fuels Stephen J. Lombardo, PhD (California Berkley) Ceramic & Electronic Materials Transport Kinetics Sudarshan K. Loyalka, PhD (Stanford) Aerosol Mechanics Kinetic Theory Richard H. Luecke, PhD (Oklahoma) Process Control Modeling Thomas R. Marrero, PhD (Maryland) Vice President, IACChE Coal Log Transport Conducting Polymers Fuels Emission s David G. Retzloff, PhD (Pittsburgh) Reactor Analysis Materials Truman S. Storvick, PhD (Purdue) Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Thermodynamics Galen J. Suppes, PhD (Johns Hopkins) Biofuel Processing Renewable Energy Thermodynamic s Dabir S. Viswanath, PhD (Rochester) Applied Thermodynamics Chemical Kinetics Hirotsugu K. Yasuda, PhD (SUNY, Syracuse) Polymers Surface Science Qingsong Yu, PhD (Mizzou) Surface Science Plasma Technology The University of Missouri Columbia is one of the mo st comprehensive institutions in the nation and is situated on a beautiful land grant campus halfway between St. Louis and Kansas City, near the Ozark Mountains and less than an hour from the recreational Lake of the Ozarks. The Department of Chemical Engineering offers MS and PhD programs in addition to its undergraduate BS degree. Program areas include surface science, nuclear waste, wastewater treatment, biodegradation, air pollution, supercritical processes, plasma polymerization, polymer processing, coal transpor tation (hydraulic), fuels, chemical kinetics, protein crystallization, photocatalysis, ceramic materials, and polymer composites. Faculty expertise encompasses a wide variety of specializations and research within th e department is funded by industry, government, nonprofit, and institutional grants in many research areas. For details contact: Coordinator, Academic Programs Department of Chemical Engineering W2030 Lafferre Hall Columbia, MO 65211 Tel: (573) 882-3563 Fax: (573) 884-4940 E-Mail: PreckshotR@missouri.edu See our website for more information: www.missouri.edu/~chewww Scholarships are available in the form of teaching/research assistantships and fellowships.

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Chemical Engineering Education 390 University of Missouri-Rolla Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Offering M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Established in 1870 as the University of Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy, UMR has evolved into Missouris technological university. UMR is a medium-sized campus of about 5,000 students located along Its proximity in the Missouri Ozarks provides plenty of scenic and rec reational opportunities. The University of Missouri-Rollas mission is to educate tomorrows leaders in engineering and science. UMR offers a full range of experi ences that are vital to the kind of comprehensive education that turns young men and women into leaders. UMR has a distinguished faculty dedicated wholeheartedly to the teaching, research, and creative activi ties necessary for scholarly learning experiences and advancements to the frontiers of knowledge. Teaching and Research Apprenticeships available to M.S. and Ph.D. students.For additional information: Address: Graduate Studies Coordinator Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering University of Missouri-Rolla Rolla, MO 65409-1230 Web: http://chemeng.umr.edu/ E-mail: umrcbe@umr.edu Online Application: http://www.umr.edu/~cisapps/gradappd.html Neil L. BookAssociate Professor, Ph.D., Colorado Computer-Aided Process Design; Chemical Process Safety; Engineering Data Management Daniel ForcinitiProfessor, Ph.D., North Carolina State Bioseparations; Thermodynamics; Statistical Mechanics David B. HenthornAssistant Professor, Ph.D., Purdue Biomimetics; Drug Delivery; Biomaterials Kimberly H. HenthornAssistant Professor Ph.D., Purdue Entrainment and Conveying of Fine Particles; Multiphase Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); Characterization of Interparticle Forces; Particles for Pulmonary Drug Delivery Applications Sunggyu KB LeeProfessor UMC, Ph.D., Case Western Supercritcal Fluid Technology, Materials Processing, and Polymerization; Reactive Polymer Processing; Biodegradable Polymers; Polymer Blends; Scale-Up and Pilot Plant Studies; Environmental Technology A.I. LiapisProfessor, Ph.D., ETH-Zurich Transport Phenomena; Adsorption/Desorption; Fundamentals and Processes; Bioseparations; Chromatographic Separations; Capillary Electrochromatogra phy; Chemical Reaction Engineering; Lyophilization Douglas K. LudlowProfessor, Ph.D., Arizona State Surface Characterization of Adsorbents and Catalysts, Applications of Fractal Geometry to Surface Morphology Parthasakha NeogiProfessor, Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon Interfacial Phenomena; Drug Delivery Judy A. RaperProfessor and Chair, Ph.D., University of New South Wales Particle Technology; Characterization of Fractal Aggregates; Measurement of Surface Roughness and Fractal Dimension of Dry Powder Pharmaceutical Aerosols; Fly Ash Characterization and Utilization; Waste Minimization Oliver C. SittonAssociate Professor, Ph.D., University of Missouri-Rolla Bioengineering Jee-Ching WangAssistant Professor, Ph.D., Penn State tions of Surfactant Systems, Molecular Properties of Materials Yangchuan XingAssistant Professor, Ph.D., Yale Synthesis, Processing, and Characterization of Nanomaterials Craig D. Adams*Professor, Ph.D., University of Kansas Effects and Control of Antibiotics and Other Organic Compounds in Water; Oxidative and Adsorption Technology for Water Treatment; Kinetic Modeling of Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Systems Kai-Tak Wan*Assistant Professor, Ph.D., University of Maryland Cellular Biomechanics; Mechanical Characterization and Adhesion Measurement of Single Cell and Biomembranes; Fracture/Mechanical Characterization of Thin Visco-Elastic Polymer Films; Molecular Dynamics Simulation David J. Westenberg*Associate Professor, Ph.D., University of California-Los Angeles Respiratory Enzymes; Quorum Sensing; Respiratory Genes; Antibacterial Glass *Joint Appointment

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Fall 2006 391 G RADUATE R ESEARCH AT THE F RONTIER The University of New Mexico The future of chemical engineering is a bright one, with rapidly developing technologies and exciti ng new opportunities. Pursue your graduate degree in a stimulating, student-centered, intellectual environment, anchored by forward-looking research. We offer full tuition, health care and competitive stipends. The ChE faculty are leaders in exploring phenomena on the meso-, micro-, and nanoscales. We offer graduate research projects in biotechnology and biomaterials; ca talysis and interfacial phenomena; microengineered materials and self-assembled nanostructures; plasma processing and semiconductor fabrication; polymer theory and modeling The department enjoys extensive in teractions and collaborations with New Mexico's federal laboratories: Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and the Air Force Research Laboratory, as well as high technology industries both locally and nationally. Albuquerque is a unique combination of the very old and the highly contemporary, the natural world and the manmade environment, the frontier town and the cosmopolitan city, a harmonious blend of diverse cultures and peoples. Join us! Be part of this future! Faculty Research Areas Plamen Atanassov Electroanalytical Chemistry, Biomedical Engineering C. Jeffrey Brinker Ceramics, Sol-Gel Pr ocessing, Self-assembled Nanostructures Heather Canavan Stimulus-responsive materials, cell/surface interactions, Biomedical Engineering Joseph L. Cecchi Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, Plasma Etching and Deposition John G. Curro Polymer Theory, Computational Modeling Abhaya K. Datye Catalysis, Interfaces, Advanced Materials Elizabeth L. Dirk Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering Julia E. Fulghum Surface Characterization, 3-D Materials Characterization Sang M. Han Semiconductor Manufacturing T echnology, Plasma Etching and Deposition Ronald E. Loehman Glass-Metal and Cerami c-Metal Bonding and Interfacial Reactions Gabriel P. Lpez Chemical Sensors, Hybrid Materials, Biotechnology, Interfacial Phenomena Dimiter Petsev Complex fluids, Na noscience, Electrokinetic phenomena Timothy L. Ward Aerosol Materials Synthesis, Inorganic Membranes David G. Whitten Biosensors, Conjugated poly mer photophysics and bioactivity in films and interfacial assemblies, Multicomponent systems and their applications For more information, contact: Jeffrey Brinker, Graduate Advisor Chemical and Nuclear Engineering MSC01 1120 The University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM 87131 505 277.5431 Phone 505 277.5433 Fax chne@unm.edu www-chne.unm.edu

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Chemical Engineering Education 392 NEW MEXICO STATE UNIVERSITY PhD & MS Programs in Chemical Engineering Faculty and Research Areas Paul K. Andersen Associate Professor, University of California, Berkeley Transport Phenomena, Electrochemistry, Environmental Engineerin g Francisco R. Del Valle College Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Food Engineering Shuguang Deng, Associate Professor, University of Cincinnati Adsorption, Nanostructured Materials, Separations, and Fuel Cell Technology Abbas Ghassemi, Professor and Institute for Energy and the Environment Director, New Mexico State University Process Control Charles L. Johnson, Professor, Washington University-St. Louis High Temperature Polymers Richard L. Long Professor and Associate Head Rice University Transport Phenomena, Biomedical Engineering, Separations Martha C. Mitchell Associate Professor and Head, University of Minnesota Molecular Modeling of Adsorption in Nanoporous Materials, Thermodynamic Analysis of Aerospace Fuels, Statistical Mechanics Stuart H. Munson-McGee Professor, University of Delaware Advanced Materials, Materials Processing, Separations David A. Rockstraw Professor, University of Oklahoma Separations, Environmental Engineering, Kinetics LOCATION Southern New Mexico 350 days of sunshine a year For Application and Additional Information Internet http://chemeng.nmsu.edu/ E-mail chemeng@nmsu.edu PO Box 30001, MSC 3805 Department of Chemical Engineering New Mexico State University Las Cruces, NM 88003

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Fall 2006 393

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Chemical Engineering Education 394 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING in the Heart of Boston The Department offers full and part-time graduate pro grams leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. M.S. students may have the opportunity of co-op experience. The faculty of the chemical engineering program are committed to providing state-of-the-art research areas.Research Areas Biochemical Engineering Biological and Physical Interfaces Biomedical Engineering Catalysis Nanocomposite Membranes Semiconductor MaterialsSelected Research Topics Pharmaceutical compounds from plant cell cultures Carbon Nanotubes Mixed-Matrix Membrane Separation Sickle Cell Adhesion Surface Acidity of Ti-silicas Tissue Engineering Thin Film Heterostructures Biosensors For more information write Chairman Dept of Chemical Eng. 342 SN 360 Huntington Ave. Boston, MA 02115 Faculty Gilda Barabino Daniel D. Burkey Rebecca L. Carrier Carolyn Lee-Parsons Shashi K. Murthy Albert Sacco Jr. Ronald J. Willey Katherine S. Ziemer Northeastern University Chemical Engineering Department is the home of CAMMP (Center for Advanced Microgravity NASA-sponsored Commercial Space Center. It is one of 16 NASA centers at major universities nation wide and the only one exclu sively focused on materials. Visit our web site http://www.coe.neu.edu/COE/grad_school/

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Fall 2006 395 Chemical and Biological Engineering at Northwestern University Luis A.N. Amaral Ph.D., Boston University, 1996 Complex systems, computational physics, biological networks Annelise E. Barron Ph.D., Berkeley, 1995 Bioseparations, biopolymer engineering Linda J. Broadbelt PhD., Delaware, 1994 Reaction engineering, kinetics modeling, polymer resource recovery Wesley R. Burghardt Ph.D., Stanford, 1990 Polymer science, rheology Buckley Crist, Jr. Ph.D., Duke, 1966 Polymer science, thermodynamics, mechanics Joshua S. Dranoff Ph.D., Princeton, 1960 Chemical reaction engineering, chromatographic separations Kimberly A. Gray Ph.D., Johns Hopkins, 1988 Catalysis, treatment technologies, environmental chemistry Bartosz A. Grzybowski Ph.D., Harvard, 2000 Complex chemical systems Harold H. Kung Ph.D., Northwestern, 1974 Kinetics, heterogeneous catalysis William M. Miller Ph.D., Berkeley, 1987 Cell culture for biotechnology and medicine Monica Olvera de la Cruz Ph.D., Cambridge, 1984 Statistical mechanics in polymer systems Julio M. Ottino Ph.D., Minnesota, 1979 Fluid mechanics, granular materials, chaos, mixing in materials processing E. Terry Papoutsakis Ph.D., Purdue, 1980 Biotechnology of animal and microbial cells, metabolic engineering, genomics Gregory Ryskin Ph.D., Caltech, 1983 Fluid mechanics, computational methods, polymeric liquids Lonnie D. Shea Ph.D., Michigan, 1997 Tissue engineering, gene therapy Randall Q. Snurr Ph.D., Berkeley, 1994 Adsorption and diffusion in porous media, molecular modeling John M. Torkelson Ph.D., Minnestota, 1983 Polymer science, membranesFor information and application to the graduate program, write Director of Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois 60208-3120 Phone: (847) 491-7398 or (800) 848-5135 (U.S. only) E-mail: admissions-chem-biol-eng@northwestern.edu Or visit our website at www.chem-biol-eng.northwestern.edu

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Chemical Engineering Education 396 Graduate Studies in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The University of Notre Dame Faculty Paul W. Bohn J oan F. Brennecke H.-Chia Chang Davide A. Hill Jeffrey C. Kantor David T. Leighton, Jr. Mark J. McCready Paul J. McGinn Edward J. Maginn Albert E. Miller Alexander S. Mukasyan Andre F. Palmer William F. Schneider Mark A. Stadtherr William C. Strieder Eduardo E. Wolf Y. Elaine Zhu For more information and application materials, contact us at Director of Graduate Recruiting Department of Chemical and Biomo lecular Engineering University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA On-Line Application www.nd.edu/~gradsch/applying/appintro.html http://www.nd.edu/~chegdept chegdept.1@nd.edu Phone: 1-800-528-9487 Fax: 1-574-631-8366 Research Areas Biomaterials Biological Photonic Devices Blood Rheology Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Combinatorial Materials Synthesis Combustion Synthesis Drug Delivery Electrochemical Processes Environmentally Conscious Design Enzyme EncapsulationThe University Notre Dame is an independent, national univer sity ranked among the top twenty schools in the country. It is located adjacent to the city of South Bend, Indiana, approximately 90 miles southeast of Chicago. The scenic 1,250-acre campus is home to over 10,000 students.The Department The Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering is developing the next generation of research leaders. Our program is characterized by the close interaction between faculty and students and a focus on cutting-edge, interdisciplinary research that is both academically interesting and industrially relevant.Programs and Financial Assistance The Department offers MS and PhD degree pro grams. Financially attractive fellowships and as sistantships, which include a full-tuition waiver, are available to students pursuing either degree. University of Notre Dame Inorganic Membranes Ionic Liquids Molecular Modeling Multiphase Flows Nanostructured Materials Nonlinear Dynamics Parallel Computing Polymeric Materials Superconducting Materials Tissue Engineering

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Fall 2006 397 Excellent facilities and a unique combi nation of research projects at the frontiers of science and technology. Outstanding faculty and student population who are dedicated and professional. Close working relationships between graduate students and faculty. Attractive campus minutes away from downtown Columbus. For complete information, write, call, or catch us on the web at http://www.chbmeng.ohio-state.edu or write Graduate Program Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering The Ohio State University 140 West 19th Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43210-1180 Phone: (614) 292-9076 Fax: (614) 292-3769 E-mail address: che-grad@chbmeng.ohio-state.edu Bhavik R. Bakshi, MIT Industrial Ecology, Process Engineering, Analysis of Complex Systems Robert S. Brodkey, Wisconsin Experimental Measurements for Validation of Computational Fluid Mechanics and Applications to Mixing Process Applications Jeffrey J. Chalmers, Cornell Immunumagnetic Cell Separation, Effect of Hydrodynamic Forces on Cells, Inter facial Phenomena and Cells, Bioengineering, Biotechnology, Cancer Detection Stuart L. Cooper, Princeton Polymer Science and Engineering, Properties of Polyurethanes and Ionomers, Polyurethane Biomaterials, Blood-Material Interactions,Tissue Engineering Liang-Shih Fan, West Virginia Fluidization, Particle Technology, Particulates Reaction Engineering Martin Feinberg, Princeton Mathematics of Complex Chemical Systems Winston Ho, Illinois-Urbana Membrane Separations with Chemical Reaction and Fuel-Cell Fuel Processing Kurt W. Koelling, Princeton Isamu Kusaka, CalTech Statistical Mechanics and Nucleation L. James Lee, Minnesota Polymer and Composite Processing, Micro/Nano-Fabrication, BioMEMS Umit S. Ozkan, Iowa State Heterogeneous Catalysis, Kinetics, Catalytic Materials Andre F. Palmer, Johns Hopkins Michael Paulaitis, University of Illinois Molecular simulations and modeling of weak protein-protein interactions; the role of hydration in biological organization and self-assembly phenomena; multiscale modeling of biological interactions James F. Rathman, Oklahoma Colloids, Interfaces, Surfactants, Molecular Self-Assembly, Bioinformatics David L. Tomasko, Illinois-Urbana Separations, Molecular Thermodynamics and Materials Processing in Supercritical Fluids Jessica O. Winter, University of Texas at Austin Nanobiotechnology, Cell and Tissue Engineering, Neural Prosthetics Barbara E. Wyslouzil, CalTech Nucleation, Aerosol Formation, Growth and Transport, Atmospheric Aerosols, Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria Shang-Tian Yang, Purdue Biochemical Engineering, Biotechnology, and Tissue Engineering Jacques L. Zakin, New York Rheology, Drag Reduction, Surfactant Microstructures, and Heat Transfer Enhancement The Ohio State University

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Chemical Engineering Education 398

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Fall 2006 399 Oklahoma State University Where People Are Important Faculty Heather Fahlenkamp (Ph.D., Oklahoma State University) Gary L. Foutch (Ph.D., University of Missouri-Rolla) K.A.M. Gasem (Ph.D., Oklahoma State University) Karen A. High (Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University) Martin S. High (Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University) A.J. Johannes (Ph.D., University of Kentucky) Sundarajan V. Madihally (Ph.D., Wayne State University) R. Russell Rhinehart (Ph.D., North Carolina State University) James E. Smay (Ph.D., University of Illinois) D. Alan Tree (Ph.D., University of Illinois) Jan Wagner (Ph.D., University of Kansas) James R. Whiteley (Ph.D., Ohio State University) Engineering offers programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. nationally competitive levels. For more information contact Dr. Khaled A.M. Gasem School of Chemical Engineering Oklahoma State University Stillwater, OK 74078-5021 gasem@okstate.edu Ion Exchange Molecular Design Nanomaterials Phase Equilibria Polymers Process Control Process Simulation Solid Freeform Fabrication Tissue Engineering Adsorption Biochemical Processes Biomaterials Colloids/Ceramics Environmental Engineering Fluid Flow/CFD Gas Processing Hazardous Wastes Research Areas Visit our web page at http://www.cheng.okstate.edu

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Chemical Engineering Education 400 Pursue your Chemical Engineering Degree in a diverse Big-Ten University located in a vibrant college community. Individuals with a B.S. degree in related areas are encouraged to apply. For more information, contact: Chairperson, Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering The Pennsylvania State University 158 Fenske Laboratory University Park PA 16802-4400 http://fenske.che.psu.edu/ Anto nios A rm aou (Univ of CA at Los Angeles) Process Control, System Dynam ics Aziz Ben-Jebria (Univ. of Paris) Respiratory Fluid Flow and Uptake, Inhalation Toxicology Ali Borhan (Stanford) Fluid Dynamics, Transport Phenomena Patrick Cirino (Calif. Inst. of Technology) Biocatalysis, metabolic engineering, protein engineering and directed evolution Wayne R. Curtis (Purdue) Plant BiotechnologyRonald P. Danner (Lehigh) Polymers, Phase Equilibria, DiffusionJ. Larry Duda (Delaware) Polymers, Diffusion Thermodynamics, Tribology, Fluid Mechanics, Rheology Kristen Fichthorn (Michigan) Statistical Mechanics, Fluid-Solid Interfaces, Molecu lar Simulation Henry C. Foley (Penn State) Nanoporous Materials, Heterogeneous Catalysis, Adsorp tion and Permeation Jong-in Hahm (University of Chicago) Nano-Biotechnology Michael Janik (Univ. of Virginia) Fuel Cells, Electrochemistry, Alternative Energy Systems Seong Han Kim (Northwestern) Nano-Tribology and Nano-MaterialsCostas D. Maranas (Princeton) Computational Chemistry, Bioinformatics, Supply Chain Optimization Janna Maranas (Princeton) Molecular Simulation, Polymers, Thermodynamics, Network Glasses Themis Matsoukas (Michigan) Aerosol Processes, Colloidal Particles, Ceramic Powders Joseph M. Perez (Penn State) Tribology, Lubrication Michael Pishko (Texas) Bio-materials, Bio-sensing, and Tissue Engineering James S. Ultman (Delaware) Physiological Transport Processes, Respiratory Mass TransferDarrell Velegol (Carnegie Mellon) Colloidal and Nanoparticle Systems, Bacterial Adhesion James S. Vrentas (Delaware) Transport Phenomena, Applied Mathematics, Diffu sion in Polymers, Rheology Andrew Zydney (Massachusett s I nstitute of Technology) Biomedical Engineer ing, Bioseparations, and Membrane Processes Chemical Engineering P ENN S TATE

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Fall 2006 401

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Chemical Engineering Education 402 Princeton University Ph.D. and M.Eng. Programs in Chemical Engineering ChEFaculty IlhanA. Aksay Jay B. Benziger Pablo G. Debenedetti ChristodoulosA. Floudas YannisG. Kevrekidis Morton D. Kostin AthanassiosZ. Panagiotopoulos Richard A. Register Dudley A. Saville SankaranSundaresan David W. Wood T. Kyle Vanderlick(Chair) Please visit our website: http://chemeng.princeton.edu Write to: Director of Graduate Studies Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 or call: 1-800-238-6169 or email: chegrad@princeton.edu Applied and Computational Mathematics Computational Chemistry and Materials Systems Modeling and Optimization Biotechnology Biomaterials Computational Biology Protein and Enzyme Engineering Environmental and Energy Science and Technology Art and Monument Conservation Fuel Cell Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena Biological Transport Electrohydrodynamics Flow in Porous Media Granular and Multiphase Flow Polymer and Suspension Rheology Materials: Synthesis, Processing, Structure, Properties Adhesion and Interfacial Phenomena Ceramics and Glasses Colloidal Dispersions Nanoscienceand Nanotechnology Polymers Process Engineering and Science Chemical Reactor Design, Stability, and Dynamics Heterogeneous Catalysis Process Control and Operations Process Synthesis and Design Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics Glasses Kinetic and Nucleation Theory Liquid State Theory Molecular Simulation Affiliate Faculty

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Fall 2006 403

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Chemical Engineering Education 404 Faculty and Research Interests Elmar R. Altwicker, altwie@rpi.edu Professor Emeritus Spouted-bed combustion; incinera tion; trace-pollutant kinetics Georges Belfort, belfog@rpi.edu Membrane separations; adsorption; biocatalysis; MRI, interfacial phenomena B. Wayne Bequette, bequette@rpi.edu Process control; fuel cell systems; biomedical systems Henry R. Bungay III, bungah@rpi.edu, Prof.Emeritus Wastewater treatment; biochemical engineering Timothy S. Cale, calet@rpi.edu Semiconductor materials processing; transport and reac tion analyses Marc-Olivier Coppens, Nature-inspired chemical engineering; nano-biotechnol ogy; mathematical & computational modeling; statistical mechanics; nanoporous materials synthesis; reaction engineering Steven M. Cramer, crames@rpi.edu Displacement, membrane, and preparative chromatogra phy; environmental research Jonathan S. Dordick, dordick@rpi.edu Biochemical engineering; biocatalysis, polymer science, bioseparations Arthur Fontijn, fontia@rpi.edu Combustion; high-temperature kinetics; gas-phase reactions Shekhar Garde, gardes@rpi.edu Macromolecular self-assembly, computer simulations, statistical thermodynamics of liquids, hydration phe nomena William N. Gill, gillw@rpi.edu Microelectronics; reverse osmosis; crystal growth; ceramic composites Ravi S. Kane, kaner@rpi.edu Polymers; biosurfaces; biomaterials; nanomaterials Sanat K. Kumar, kumar@rpi.edu Polymer nanostructures, nanocomposites, dynamics of Howard Littman, littmh@rpi.edu, Professor Emeritus transport Lealon Martin, lealon@rpi.edu Chemical and biological process modeling and design; optimization; systems engineering E. Bruce Nauman, nauman@rpi.edu Polymer blends; nonlinear diffusion; devolatilization; polymer structure and properties; plastics recycling Joel L. Plawsky, plawsky@rpi.edu Electronic and photonic materials; interfacial phenom ena; transport phenomena Susan Sharfstein, sharfs@rpi.edu Biochemical engineering, mammalian cell culture, recombinant protein production Hendrick C. Van Ness, vanneh@rpi.edu Institute Professor Emeritus Peter C. Wayner, Jr., wayner@rpi.edu Heat transfer; interfacial phenomena; porous materials The Chemical and Biological Engineering Department at Rensselaer has long been recognized for its excellence in teaching and research. Its graduate programs lead to research-based M.S. and Ph.D. degrees and to a course-based M.E. degree. Programs are also offered in cooperation with the School of Management and Technology which lead to an M.E. in Chemical Engineering and to an MBA or the M.S. in Management. Owing to funding, consulting, and previous faculty experi ence, the department maintains close ties with industry. Department web site: http://www.eng.rpi.edu/dept/chem-eng/ Chemical and Biological Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Located in Troy, New York, Rensselaer is a private school with an enrollment of some 6000 students. Situated on the Hudson River, just north of New Yorks capital city of Albany, it is a three-hour drive from New York City, Boston, and Montreal. The Adirondack Mountains of New York, the Green Mountains of Vermont, and the Berkshires of Massachusetts are readily accessible. Saratoga, Philadelphia Orchestra, and jazz festival) is nearby. Application materials and information from: Graduate Services Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, NY 12180-3590 Telephone: 518-276-6789 e-mail: grad-admissions@rpi.edu http://www.rpi.edu/dept/grad-services/

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Fall 2006 405 THE UNIVERSITY Rice is a leading research university small, private, and highly selective distinguished by a collaborative, highly interdisciplinary culture. State-of-the-art laboratories, internationally renowned research centers, and one of the countrys largest endowments support an ideal learning and living environment. Located only a few miles from downtown Houston, it occupies an architecturally distinctive, 300-acre campus shaded by nearly 4,000 trees. THE DEPARTMENT Offers Ph.D., M.S., and M.Ch.E. degrees. Provides 12-month stipends and tuition waivers to full-time Ph.D. students. Currently has 57 graduate students (55 Ph.D., 1 M.S. and 1 M.Ch.E. / M.B.A.) Emphasizes interdisciplinary studies and collaborations with researchers from Rice and other institutions, the Texas Medical Center, NASAs Johnson Space Center, and R&D centers of petrochemical companies. FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS Advanced Materials & Complex Fluids Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured assembling systems, hybrid biomaterials, rheology of nanostructured liquids, polymers, carbon nanotubes, interfacial phenomena, emulsions, colloids. Biosystems Engineering Cell population heterogeneity, metabolic engineering, systems biology, microbial fermentations, signal transduction and biological pattern formation, protein engineering, cellular and tissue engineering. Energy & Sustainability uid properties, enhanced oil recovery, reservoir characterization, aquifer remediation, pollution control. Sibani Lisa Biswal (Stanford, 2004) Walter Chapman (Cornell, 1988) Ramon Gonzalez (Univ. of Chile, 2001) George Hirasaki (Rice, 1967) Nikolaos Mantzaris (Minnesota, 2000) Clarence Miller (Minnesota, 1966) Matteo Pasquali (Minnesota, 2000) Marc Robert (Swiss Fed. Inst. Tech., 1980) Laura Segatori (Effective 7/1/2007) (UT Austin, 2005) Michael Wong (MIT, 2000) Kyriacos Zygourakis (Minnesota, 1981) Joint Appointments Vicki Colvin (UC Berkeley, 1994) Anatoly Kolomeisky (Cornell, 1998) Antonios Mikos (Purdue, 1988) Ka-Yiu San (Caltech, 1984) Jennifer West (UT Austin, 1996) For more information Chair, Graduate Admissions Committee and graduate program Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, MS-362 applications, write to: Rice University P.O. Box 1892 Houston, TX 77251-1892 Or visit our web site at: http://www.rice.edu/chbe/

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Chemical Engineering Education 406 For further information and application, write Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering 206 Gavett Hall Box 270166 University of Rochester Rochester, New York 14627-0166 Phone: (585) 275-4913 Fax: (585) 273-1348 e-mail: markham@che.rochester.edu M. L. ANTHAMATTEN Ph.D. 2001, M.I.T. Macromolecular Self-Assembly Associative and Functional Polymers Nanostruc tured Materials Optoelectronic Materials Vapor Deposition Polymerization Interfacial Phenomena S. H. CHEN Ph.D. 1981, Minnesota Polymer Science and Engineering Glass-forming liquid crystals Mesomorphic conjugated polymers Photonic and electronic devices E. H. CHIMOWITZ Ph.D. 1982, Connecticut Critical Phenomena Statistical Mechanics of Fluids Computer-Aided Design D. R. HARDING Ph.D. 1986, Cambridge (England) Cryogenic Fuel Capsules for Nuclear Fusion Experiments S. D. JACOBS Ph.D. 1975, Rochester Optical Materials for Laser Applications Liquid-Crystal Optics Electrooptic De vices Optics Manufacturing Processes Magnetorheological Finishing Polishing Abrasives and Slurries Optical Glass J. JORNE Ph.D. 1972, California (Berkeley) Electrochemical Engineering Fuels Cells Microelectronics Processing Ecosys tems Sustainable Energy M. R. KING Ph.D. 1999, Notre Dame Cell and Tissue Engineering L. J. ROTHBERG Ph.D. 1984, Harvard Polymer Electronics Optoelectronic Devices Light-Emitting Diodes Thin Film Transitors Organic Photovoltaics and Solar Cells Biomolecular Sensors Plas mon-enhanced Devices Y. SHAPIR Ph.D. 1981, Tel Aviv (Israel) Critical Phenomena Transport in Disordered Media Scaling Behavior of Growing Sur faces C.W. TANG Ph.D. 1975, Cornell Organics Electronic Devices Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Solar Cells Photo conductors Image Sensors Photoreceptors Metal-Organic and Organic-Organic Junction Phenomena Flat-Panel Display Technology J. H. D. WU Ph.D. 1987, M.I.T. Biochemical Engineering Fermentation Biocatalysis Bone Marrow Tissue Engineer ing Molecular Control of Hematopoiesis Stem Cell and Lymphocyte Culture Enzymol ogy of Biomass Degradation and Energy Utilization Molecular Biology H. YANG Ph.D. 1998, Toronto Nanostructured Materials Magnetic Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites Meso porous Solids Microand Nanofabrication Synthesis of Nanoparticles in Ionic Liquid Methanol and Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Catalysts Porous Solids Functional Nanomaterials for Photonic and Biological Applications M. YATES Ph.D. 1999, Texas (Austin) Colloids and Interfaces Materials Synthesis in Microemulsions Nanoparticle/ Polymer Composites Supercritical Fluids Microencapsulation University of Rochester Department of Chemical Engineering Graduate Study and Research leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees Fellowships to $24,000 plus full tuition

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Fall 2006 407 Faculty Robert P. Hesketh Chair University of Delaware Kevin Dahm Massachusetts Institute of Technology Stephanie Farrell New Jersey Institute of Technology Zenaida Gephardt University of Delaware Brian G. Lefebvre University of Delaware James Newell Clemson University Mariano J. Savelski University of Oklahoma C. Stewart Slater Rutgers University Dr. Mariano J. Savelski Graduate Student Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering Rowan University 201 Mullica Hill Road Glassboro, NJ 08028 Located in southern New Jersey, the nearby orchards and farms are a daily remi nder that this is the Garden State. Cultural and recreational opportunities are plentiful in the area. Philadelphia and the scenic Jersey Shore are only a short drive, a nd major metropolitan areas are within easy reach. Research Areas For additional information Membrane Separations Pharmaceutical and Food Processing Technology Biochemical Engineering Green Engineering Controlled Release Kinetic and Mechanistic Modeling of Complex Reaction Systems Reaction Engineering Novel Separation Processes Modeling and Processing of High-Performance Polymers Process Design and Optimization Particle Technology Environmental Engineering Master of Science Chemical Engineering State-of-the-Art Facilities Project Management Experience Individualized Mentoring Collaboration with Industry Multidisciplinary Research Day and Evening Classes Part-time and Full-time Programs Assistantships Available The Chemical Engineering Departme nt at Rowan University is hous ed in Henry M. Rowan Hall, a $28million, 95,000 sq. ft. multidisci plinary teaching and researchspace. An emphasis on project management and industrially relevant research prepares students for successful careers in hightech fields. A recent award of $6 million as seed money for the South Jersey Technology Center will provide further opportunities for st udent training in emerging technologies. E-mail: savelski@rowan.edu Web: http://engineering.eng.rowan.edu Phone: (856) 256-5310 Fax: (856) 256-5242

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Chemical Engineering Education 408 Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Our Graduate Programs PhD and MEng NUS-UIUC Joint PhD and Joint MSc Strategic Research & Educational Thrusts Program Features Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering as a profession and Singap ore as a nation mirror each other in many ways. Both are dynamic, trend-setting and constantly evolving. And bot h represent an exciting and ever-changing interplay of complementary interpretations of the life around us, with the fusion of chemical/biological sciences and engineering sciences in the case of the former rivaling the symbiosis bet ween the East and the West in our culturally vibrant island nation. Our Department is a microcosm of what surrounds us locally as well as globally. Culturally, the Department is an amalgam of the East and the West. Intellectually, we span the many facets of the frontiers of our profession.We draw the best students from Singapore and the region to our undergraduate programs and compete successfully with overseas institutions for highly competent graduate students. We combine strengths with the finest institutions around the world through our international initiatives in education andresearch.Our faculty members come from world-class universities.Our facilities are enviable by anyones standards.A nd our vision and ideas are as exciting as any you will find elsewhere. Come join us and be a pa rt of the future today! Engineering Your Own Evolution! Reach us @

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Fall 2006 409 S i n g a p o r e M I T A l l i a n c e G r a d u a t e F e l l o w s h i p C h e m i c a l a n d P h a r m a c e u t i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g A c u t t i n g e d g e c u r r i c u l u m i n t h e f i e l d s o f m o l e c u l a r e n g i n e e r i n g a n d p r o c e s s s c i e n c e f o c u s e d o n t h e p h a r m a c e u t i c a l i n d u s t r y S i n g a p o r e M I T A l l i a n c e ( S M A ) i s a p a r t n e r s h i p b e t w e e n t h e M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y i n t h e U S a n d t h e N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y o f S i n g a p o r e ( N U S ) a n d t h e N a n y a n g T e c h n o l o g i c a l U n i v e r s i t y ( N T U ) i n S i n g a p o r e S M A o f f e r s D U A L D E G R E E S : e i t h e r a M I T P r a c t i c e S c h o o l M a s t e r s d e g r e e a n d a M a s t e r s d e g r e e f r o m N U S / N T U ; o r t h e M I T P r a c t i c e S c h o o l M a s t e r s a n d a P h D f r o m N U S / N T U ; o r a P h D D E G R E E f r o m e i t h e r N U S o r N T U j o i n t l y s u p e r v i s e d w i t h M I T f a c u l t y m e m b e r s S M A G r a d u a t e F e l l o w s h i p B e n e f i t s : F u l l s u p p o r t f o r t u i t i o n a n d f e e s a t M I T a n d e i t h e r N U S o r N T U C o m p e t i t i v e m o n t h l y s t i p e n d a n d l i v i n g a l l o w a n c e R o u n d t r i p a i r f a r e b e t w e e n S i n g a p o r e a n d B o s t o n A d d i t i o n a l l i v i n g a l l o w a n c e d u r i n g r e s i d e n c y a t M I T I n t e r n a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e D e g r e e A w a r d : A n M I T M a s t e r s i n C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g P r a c t i c e ( M S C E P ) a n d a n N U S S M ( D u a l M a s t e r s ) ; o r A n M I T M S C E P a n d a n N U S P h D ; o r A n N U S o r N T U P h D d e g r e e w i t h S M A C e r t i f i c a t e A d m i s s i o n R e q u i r e m e n t s : B a c h e l o r D e g r e e i n C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g o r r e l a t e d a r e a s 1 s t o r 2 n d U p p e r C l a s s D e g r e e w i t h H o n o u r s o r i t s e q u i v a l e n t G o o d T O E F L a n d G R E s c o r e s A P P L Y F O R T H E J U L Y 2 0 0 7 I N T A K E F R O M S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 6 O N W A R D S C h e m i c a l a n d P h a r m a c e u t i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g ( C P E ) p r o g r a m m e c o m p r i s e s i n n o v a t i v e c o u r s e s o f s t u d y t h a t i n t e g r a t e a m o l e c u l a r l e v e l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f b i o l o g i c a l a n d c h e m i c a l p h e n o m e n a w i t h a d v a n c e s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g f o r t h e p h a r m a c e u t i c a l a n d f i n e c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r i e s S t u d e n t s w i l l b e e x p o s e d t o s t a t e o f t h e a r t c o n c e p t s i n b i o p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g b i o c a t a l y s i s b i o c h e m i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g n a n o s t r u c t u r e d c a t a l y s t d e s i g n a n d o r g a n i c s y n t h e s i s m o l e c u l a r e n g i n e e r i n g m o l e c u l a r p r i n c i p l e s o f c o l l o i d a l a n d i n t e r f a c i a l e n g i n e e r i n g a n d m e t a b o l i c e n g i n e e r i n g O t h e r S M A p r o g r a m m e s o f f e r e d : A d v a n c e d M a t e r i a l s f o r M i c r o a n d N a n o S y s t e m s ( A M M & N S ) C o m p u t a t i o n a l E n g i n e e r i n g ( C E ) M a n u f a c t u r i n g S y s t e m s a n d T e c h n o l o g y ( M S T ) C o m p u t a t i o n a n d S y s t e m s B i o l o g y ( C S B ) T o a p p l y p l e a s e v i s i t : h t t p : / / w e b m i t e d u / s m a / s t u d e n t s / a d m i s s i o n s / i n d e x h t m F o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s p l e a s e v i s i t : h t t p : / / w e b m i t e d u / s m a / s t u d e n t s / p r o g r a m m e s / i n d e x h t m F o r e n q u i r e s e m a i l u s a t : s m a r t @ n u s e d u s g o r c o n t a c t u s a t : ( 6 5 ) 6 5 1 6 4 7 8 7 S A p p l i c a ti o n D e a d l i n e : 2 n d J a n u a r y 2 0 0 7 P h o t o o f M I T D o m e t a k e n b y M s J o c e l y n S S a l e s

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Chemical Engineering Education 410 The Department of Chemical Engineering at USC has emerged as one of the top teaching and research programs in the Southeast. Our program ranks in the top twenty nationally in research expenditures (> $4 million) and annual doctoral graduates (10-12 per year). The Depart ment offers Masters and PhD degree programs in chemical engineering and biomedical engineering PhD candidates re ceive tuition and fee waivers, a health insur ance subsidy, and highly competitive stipends start ing at $22,000 per year Department of Chemical EngineeringAdsorption Technology Batteries and Fuel Cells Biomedical Engineering Biomaterials Colloids and Interfaces Composite Materials Corrosion Engineering Electrochemistry Heterogeneous Catalysis Nanotechnology Numerical Methods Research ProgramsPollution Prevention Process Control Rheology Separations Sol-Gel Processing Solvent Extraction Surface Science Supercritical Fluids Thermodynamics Waste Management Waste Processing The University of South Carolina is located in Columbia, the state capital. Columbia is conveniently of a big city with the charm and hospitality of a small town. The areas sunny and mild climate, combined with its lakes and wooded parks, provide plenty of opportunities for yearround outdoor recreation. In addition, Columbia is only hours away from the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Atlantic Coast. that serve as Columbias international gateways For further information: The Graduate Director, Department of Chemical Engineering, Swearingen Engineering Center, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 Phone: 1-800-763-0527 Fax: 1-803-777-0973 Web page: www.che.sc.edu Faculty M.D. Amiridis, Wisconsin J.W. Bender, Delaware J. Delhommelle, Paris F.A. Gadala-Maria, Stanford E.P. Gatzke Delaware E. Jabbari, Purdue M.A. Matthews Texas A&M M.A. Moss, Kentucky T. Papathanasiou McGill H.J. Ploehn Princeton B.N. Popov, Illinois J.A. Ritter, SUNY Buffalo T.G. Stanford Michigan V. Van Brunt, Tennessee J. W. Van Zee, Texas A&M J.W. Weidner NC State R.E. White, Cal-Berkeley C.T. Williams Purdue

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Fall 2006 411 U n i v e r si t y o f S o u t h e r n Ca l i f o r n i a GR AD U A T E S T U D Y I N C H E M I C AL E N GI N E E R I NG M A T E R I A L S S C I E N C E A ND P E T R O L E U M E N GI NE E R I N G M o r k F a m i l y D e p a r t m e n t o f C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g a n d M a t e r i a l s S c i e n c e o f f e r s d e g r e e s i n M S E N G a n d P h D i n C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g i n M a t e r i a l s S c i e n c e a n d P e t r o l e u m E n g i n e e r i n g F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e d e g r e e p r o g r a m s f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t a n d a p p l i c a t i o n f o r m s : h t t p : / / c h e m s u s c e d u E a r n y o u r M S d e g r e e i n C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g M a t e r i a l s S c i e n c e o r P e t r o l e u m E n g i n e e r i n g o n l i n e t h r o u g h U S C s D i s t a n c e E d u c a t i o n N e t w o r k F o r m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n p l e a s e v i s i t D E N s w e b s i t e a t : h t t p : / / d e n u s c e d u W V ic t or C h a n g ( P h D C h e m ic a l E n g in e e r in g C a l i f or n ia I n s t it u t e of T e c h n olog y 1 9 7 6 ) P h y s ic a l p r o p e r t ie s of p ol y m e r s a n d c om p os it e s ; a d h e s ion ; f in it e e le m e n t a n a l y s is I r a j E r s h a g h i ( P h D P e t r ol e u m E n g in e e r in g U n iv e r s it y of S ou t h e r n C a lif or n i a 1 9 7 2 ) F or m a t ion e v a lu a t ion a n d c h a r a c t e r iz a t io n of s u b t e r r a n e a n r e s e r v oir s ; s m a r t oilf i e ld t e c h n olog ie s ; g e os t a t is t ic a l m e t h o d s ; f r a c t u r e d f lo w s y s t e m s K r is t ia n J e s s e n ( P h D C h e m ic a l E n g in e e r in g T e c h n ic a l U n iv e r s it y of D e n m a r k 2 0 0 0 ) F low a n d t r a n s p or t in p or ou s m e d ia P h a s e b e h a v ior a n d t r a n s p o r t p r op e r t i e s of n on id e a l m ix t u r e s C O 2 s e q u e s t r a t ion H ig h or d e r a c c u r a t e n u m e r ic a l s c h e m e s f or s y s t e m s of c on s e r v a t ion e q u a t ion s An a l y t ic a l m e t h o d s f or s y s t e m s of h y p e r b olic c on s e r v a t ion e q u a t ion s C om p os it ion a l s t r e a m lin e s im u l a t ion E d w a r d G oo ( P h D Ma t e r ia ls S c i e n c e S t a n f or d 1 9 8 5 ) Mi c r os t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r iz a t ion ; t r a n s m is s ion e l e c t r on m i c r os c o p y ; p h a s e t r a n s f or m a t ion s ; c r y s t a l d e f e c t s R a j iv K a li a ( P h D P h y s ic s N or t h w e s t e r n U n iv e r s it y 1 9 7 6 ) m u lt id is c i p lin a r y r e s e a r c h in c lu d e s l a r g e s c a l e c om p u t e r s t i m u la t ion s of n o v e l m a t e r ia ls a n d b io m e d ic a l s y s t e m s p r oc e d u r e s a n d t e c h n iq u e s f or t h e in t e r a c t ion of w or ld w id e s u p e r c om p u t e r n e t w or k s a n d s of t w a r e t ools f or in t e r a c t i v e v is u a liz a t ion e n v ir on m e n t s At u l K on k a r ( P h D Ma t e r i a ls S c i e n c e U n i v e r s it y of S ou t h e r n C a lif or n ia 1 9 9 9 ) E le c t r on a n d S c a n n in g P r o b e Mic r os c o p i e s N a n os c a l e S t r u c t u r a l a n d E le c t r ic a l S t u d i e s of I n t e g r a t e d N a n os t r u c t u r e s C T e d L e e J r ( P h D C h e m ic a l E n g in e e r in g U n i v e r s it y of T e x a s Au s t in 2 0 0 0 ) R e s p on s i v e s u r f a c t a n t s y s t e m s ; t e m p l a t e d n a n o m a t e r i a ls ; p r ot e in f old in g ; g e n e t r a n s f e c t i on ; d r u g d e li v e r y ; b ios u r f a c e s An u p a m M a d h u k a r ( P h D Ma t e r i a ls S c i e n c e a n d P h y s ic s C a l i f or n ia I n s t it u t e of T e c h n olog y 1 9 7 1 ) E l e c t r on ic / P h ot on ic Ma t e r ia l s & N a n os t r u c t u r e s G r ow t h I n s it u p r oc e s s in g E le c t r ic a l, O p t ic a l a n d S t r u c t u r a l P r op e r t ie s a n d D e v ic e s F lor ia n B M a n s f e l d ( P h D P h y s ic a l C h e m is t r y U n iv e r s it y of Mu n ic h G e r m a n y 1 9 6 7 ) E le c t r oc h e m is t r y c or r os ion s c ie n c e a n d t e c h n olog y e l e c t r od e p o s it ion b a t t e r i e s a n d f u e l c e lls S t e v e n N u t t ( P h D Ma t e r i a ls S c ie n c e U n i v e r s it y of V ir g in ia 1 9 8 2 ) M e c h a n i c a l b e h a v ior a n d m a n u f a c t u r e o f f i b e r r e in f or c e d c om p os it e s a n d s a n d w i c h s t r u c t u r e s ; n a n oc om p os it e s y n t h e s is a n d p r op e r t ie s ; s y n t h e s is a n d p r o p e r t i e s of f ib e r r e in f or c e d f o a m s ; e l e c t r on m ic r os c o p y of c om p os it e in t e r f a c e s R ic h a r d R o b e r t s ( P h D B iop h y s ic a l C h e m is t r y Y a l e U n iv e r s it y 1 9 9 3 P os t d oc t or a l f e llow H a r v a r d M e d i c a l S c h ool 1 9 9 7 ) C om b in a t or i a l p e p t id e p r ot e in a n d d r u g d e s ig n m R N A d is p la y s ig n a l t r a n s d u c t i on or ig in of li f e Mu h a m m a d S a h i m i ( P h D C h e m ic a l E n g in e e r in g U n iv e r s it y of Min n e s ot a 1 9 8 4 ) Me m b r a n e s e p a r a t ion ; h e t e r o g e n e ou s m a t e r ia ls ; a t o m is t ic m o d e l in g of t r a n s p or t a n d s e p a r a t ion of f lu id m i x t u r e s in n a n a p or ou s m a t e r i a ls ; f low t r a n s p or t r e a c t io n a n d w a v e p r op a g a t ion in la r g e s c a l e p or ou s m e d i a ; p e r c ol a t ion t h e or y ; m a s s iv e ly p a r a ll e l c om p u t a t ion s K a t h e r in e S S h in g ( P h D C h e m i c a l E n g in e e r in g C or n e ll, 1 9 8 2 ) T h e r m od y n a m ic s a n d s t a t is t i c a l m e c h a n ic s ; s u p e r c r it i c a l e x t r a c t ion ; p r ot e in a d s or p t ion T h e o d or e T T s ot s is ( P h D C h e m i c a l E n g in e e r in g U n iv e r s it y of I llin ois U r b a n a 1 9 7 8 ) C h e m i c a l r e a c t ion e n g in e e r in g ; m e m b r a n e s e p a r a t ion p r oc e s s e s P r iy a V a s h is h t a ( P h D I n d i a n I n s t it u t e of T e c h n olog y K a n p u r I n d ia 1 9 6 7 ) C o m p u t i n g t e c h n o l o g y r e a l i s t i c s i m u l a t i o n s o f c o m p l e x s y s t e m s a n d p r o c e s s e s i n t h e a r e a s o f m a t e r i a l s n a n o t e c h n o l o g y a n d b i o e n g i n e e r e d s y s t e m s P in W a n g ( P h D C h e m i c a l E n g in e e r in g C a lif or n ia I n s t i t u t e of T e c h n olo g y 2 0 0 4 ) P r ot e in b ios y s t h e s is ; b i m ol e c u l a r e n g in e e r in g ; b io m a t e r i a ls e n g in e e r in g a n d m i c r of lu id i c d e v ic e s f or b iolo g ic a l a p p lic a t ion Y a n n is C Y or t s os ( P h D C h e m i c a l E n g in e e r in g C a l if or n i a I n s t it u t e of T e c h n olo g y 1 9 7 9 ) F low t r a n s p or t a n d r e a c t i on in p or ou s m e d ia F A C U L T Y

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Chemical Engineering Education 412 Nanoscale Science and Engineering Computational Science and Engineering Chemical and Biological Engineering Faculty Paschalis Alexandridis (MIT) self-assembly, complex fluids, nanomaterials interfacial phenomena, amphiphilicpolymers Stelios T. Andreadis (Michigan) gene therapy, tissue engineering of skin & blo od vessels, controlled prot ein and gene delivery Jeffrey R. Errington (Cornell) molecular simulation, statistical thermodynamics, biopreservation Vladimir Hlavacek (ICT -Prague) reaction engineering, nanopowders, explosives and detonations, analysis of chemical plants Mattheos Koffas (MIT) metabolic engineering, bioinfor matics, evolutionary engineering David A. Kofke (Pennsylvania) molecular modeling and simulation Carl R. F. Lund (Wisconsin) heterogeneous catalysis, chemical kinetics, reaction engineering Michael McKittrick (Georgia Tech) molecularly engineered materials, catalysis, photochemistry Sriram Neelamegham (Rice) biomedical engineering, cell bi omechanics, vascular engineering Johannes M. Nitsche (MIT) fluid mechanics, transpor t phenomena, bioactive surfaces, bi ological pores, tr ansdermaltransport Sheldon Park (Harvard) biomolecularengineering, molecular evolution, structural bioinformatics andsimulations Eli Ruckenstein (Bucharest) catalysis, surface phenomena, colloids and emul sions, biocompatible surfaces and materials Michael E. Ryan (McGill) polymer and ceramics processing, rh eology, non-Newtonian fluid mechanics Mark T. Swihart (Minnesota) nanoparticlesynthesis modeling of reactive flows, computational chemistry chemical kinetics E. (Manolis) S. Tzanakakis (Minnesota) stem cell technology, pancrea tic cell and tissue engineering, biochemical engineering Adjunct Faculty Athos Petrou (Physics) spectroscopy, semiconductor nanostructures Frederick Sachs (Biophysics) cellular mechanics and signaling CarelJan van Oss (Microbiology and Immunology) colloids and interfaces YaoqiZhou (Biophysics) protein folding, simulation of biomolecules http://www.cbe.buffalo.edu For more information and an application, go to http://www.cbe.buffalo.edu e-mail cegrad@buffalo.edu, or write to Director of Graduate Studies, Chemical and Biological Engineering, University at Buffalo (SUNY), Buffalo, New York, 14260-4200 All Ph.D. students are supported as research or teaching assistants. Additional fellowships sponsored by Praxair, Inc., The National Science Foundation IGERT program, and the State University of New York are available to exceptionally wellqualified applicants. Chemical and Biological Engineering faculty participate in many interdisciplinary cente rs and initiatives including The Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences, The Center for Computational Research, The Institute for Lasers, Photonics, and Biophotonics, The Center for Spin Effects and Quantum Information in Nanostructures, The Center for Advanced Molecular Biology and Immunology, and The Center for Advanced Technology for Biomedical Devices Integrative Research at the Leading Edge of Chemical and Biological Engineering Emeritus Faculty in Residence Robert J. Good (Michigan) adhesion and interface science, philosophy of science Thomas W. Weber (Cornell) process control Sol W. Weller (Chicago) catalysis, coal liquefaction, history of chemical engineering Genetically Modified Skin Silicon Nanocrystal Simulation of Ordering of Water Molecules Genetically Modified Skin Genetically Modified Skin Silicon Nanocrystal Simulation of Ordering of Water Molecules Silicon Nanocrystal Silicon Nanocrystal Simulation of Ordering of Water Molecules Simulation of Ordering of Water Molecules Biochemical & Biomedical Engineering Chemical Engineering Science

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Fall 2006 413 S T E V E N S INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Full and part-time Day and evening programs MASTERS CHEMICAL ENGINEER PH.D. Stevens Institute of Technology does not discriminate against any person because of race, creed, color, national origin, sex, age, marital status, handicap, liability for service in the armed forces or status as a disabled or Vietnam era veteran.For application, contact: Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-216-5234 For additional information, contact: Chemical, Biomedical, and Materials Engineering Department Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-216-5546 Faculty R. Besser (PhD, Stanford University)G.B. DeLancey (PhD, University of Pittsburgh)H. Du (PhD, Penn State University) B. Gallois (PhD, Carnegie-Mellon University)D.M. Kalyon (PhD, McGill University) S. Kovenklioglu (PhD, Stevens Institute of Technology) A. Lawal (PhD, McGill University) W.Y. Lee (PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology) M. Libera (ScD, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology) A. Ritter (Ph.D. University of Rochester) G. Rothberg (PhD, Columbia University) K. Sheppard (PhD, University of Birmingham) H. Wang (PhD, University of Twente) X. Yu (PhD, Case Western)Research in Micro-Chemical Systems Polymer Rheology, Processing, and Characterization Processing of Electronic and Photonic Materials Processing of Highly Filled Materials Chemical Reaction Engineering Biomaterials and Thin Films Polymer Characterization and Morphology High Temperature Gas-Solid and Solid-Solid Interactions Environmental and Thermal Barrier Coatings Biomaterials Design, Tissue Engineering, and Cell Signaling Neural and Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering and Nanobiotechnology Multidisciplinary environment, consisting of chemical and polymer engineering, chemistry, and biology Site of two major engineering research centers; Highly Filled Materials Institute; Center for Micro chemical Systems Scenic campus overlooking the Hudson River and metropolitan New York City Close to the world's center of science and cul ture At the hub of major highways, air, rail, and bus lines At the center of the country's largest concen tration of research laboratories and chemical, petroleum, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology companies

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Chemical Engineering Education 414 Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering The University of Tennessee, Knoxville Piece together the elements of a great graduate experience... The Faculty Paul R. Bienkowski (Ph.D., Purdue, 1975) Bioprocessing, Thermodynamics Duane D. Bruns (Ph.D., Houston, 1974) Process Control, Modeling John R. Collier (Ph.D., Case Institute, 1966) Polymer Processing and Properties Robert M. Counce (Ph.D., Tennessee, 1980) Green Engineering, Design, Separations Brian J. Edwards (Ph.D., Delaware, 1991) Non-Newtonial Fluid Dynamics Paul D. Frymier (Ph.D., Virginia, 1995) Biochemical Engineering, Biosensors David J. Keffer (Ph.D., Minnesota, 1996) Molecular Modeling of Adsorption, Diffusion and Reaction in Zeolites Charles F. Moore (Ph.D., Louisiana State, 1969) Process Control Tsewei Wang (Ph.D., M.I.T., 1977) Process Control, Bioprocessing Frederick E. Weber (Ph.D., Minnesota, 1982) Radiation Chemistry, Engineering Pedagogy Graduate students and faculty working together to reach common goalsthat partnership is at the heart of The University of Tennessee-Knoxvilles Department of Chemical Engineering. Its a partnership that works, creating exciting and productive research in six major areas: (1) bioprocess engineering, (2) molecular science and engineering, (3) separations and transport phenomena, (4) computer-aided process simulation and design, (5) polymer processing, and (6) process control. These research programs reach out to other engineering and science departments, to the nearby Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and to industry, forming larger partnerships and creating an unsurpassed research environment. Founded in 1794 as Blount College, the first non-sectarian college west of the Appalachians, The University of Tennessee today is the states largest university and Land-Grant institution with about 21,000 undergraduates, 6,000 graduate and professional students, and a faculty of 1,400. The University of Tennessee is located in Knoxville near the headwaters of the Tennessee River. Within an hours drive are six Tennessee Valley Authority lakes and the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The Knoxville metropolitan area has a population of 800,000 but enjoys a pleasant, generally uncrowded atmosphere and consistently ranks among the nations top ten metropolitan areas in surveys on quality of life. East Tennessee has a four-season climate, ranging from warm summer temperatures to winter temperatures cold enough for snow skiing in nearby mountain resorts. The Next Step For additional information contact: Department of Chemical Engineering University of Tennessee-Knoxville 419 Dougherty Hall Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 Phone: (865) 974-2421 Email: cheinfo@utk.edu World Wide Web: http://www.che.utk.edu The Research The University The nearby Oak Ridge National Laboratory provides additional cutting-edge opportunities for graduate student research and post-graduation employment. Many of our graduate students conduct research in collaboration with both ORNL scientists and UT faculty. In turn, many ORNL scientists hold adjunct faculty appointments in our department. The result of these collaborative efforts is an exciting research environment in fields such as biotechnology, nanotechnology and high performance computing and simulation.

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Fall 2006 415 T ennessee Tech University Chemical Engineering at Were here for the students.

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Chemical Engineering Education 416

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Fall 2006 417 R.G. Anthony Ph.D. University of Texas, 1966 C.D. Holland Professor Environmental remediation & benign processing kinetics, catalysis & reaction engineering J. Appleby Ph.D. Cambridge University, 1965 Electrochemistry P. Balbuena, Assoc. Head Ph.D. University of Texas, 1996 GPSA Professor Molecular simulation and computational chemistry J.T. Baldwin Ph.D. Texas A&M University, 1968 Process, design, integration, and control M.A. Bevan Ph.D. Carnegie Mellon University, 1999 Colloidal Science J.L. Bradshaw B.S., Texas A&M University, 1960 Process safety D.B. Bukur Ph.D. U. of Minnesota, 1974 Reaction engineering, math methods J.A. Bullin Ph.D. U. of Houston, 1972 Professor Emeritus T. Cagin Ph.D. Clemson University, 1988 Computational materials science and nanotechnology; functional materials for devices and sensors; surface and interface properties of materials Z. Cheng Ph.D., Princeton University, 1999 Nanotechnology R. Darby Ph.D. Rice University, 1972, Professor Emeritus Rheology, polymers R.R. Davison Ph.D. Texas A&M U., 1962, Professor Emeritus Asphalt characterization L.D. Durbin Ph.D. Rice University, 1961 Professor Emeritus M. El-Halwagi Ph.D., Univ. of California, 1990, McFerrin Professor Environmental remediation & benign processing, process design, integration, & control P.T. Eubank Ph.D. Northwestern University, 196 1 Professor Emeritus Thermodynamics G. Froment Ph.D. University of Gent, Belgium, 1957 Kinetics, catalysis, and reaction engineering C.J. Glover, Assoc. Head Ph.D. Rice University, 1974 Materials chemistry, synthesis, and characterization, transport and interfacial phenomena J. Hahn Ph.D. University of Texas, 2002 Process modeling, analysis, and control; systems biology M. Hahn Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2004 Vocal fold tissue engineering; cell-biomaterial interactions K.R. Hall Ph.D., Univ. of Oklahoma, 1967, Jack E. & Frances Brown Chair Process safety, thermodynamics C.D. Holland Ph.D. Texas A&M Univ., 1953 Professor Emeritus Separation processes, distillation, unsteady-state processes J.C. Holste Ph.D. Iowa State University, 1973 Thermodynamics M.T. Holtzapple Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1981 Biomedical/biochemical A. Jayaraman Ph.D. University of California, 1998 Biomedical/biochemical Y. Kuo Ph.D., Columbia University, 1979, Dow Professor Microelectronics S. Mannan Ph.D. University of Oklahoma, 1986, Mike OConnor Chair I Director, Mary Kay OConnor Process Safety Center. Process safety J. Seminario Ph.D. Southern Illinois University, 1988 Lanatter and Herbert Fox Professor Molecular simulation and computational chemistry D.F. Shantz Ph.D. University of Delaware, 2000 Director, Materials Characterization Facility Structure-property relationships of porous materials, synthesis of new porous solids J. Silas Ph.D. University of Delaware, 2002 Biomaterials V. Ugaz Ph.D. Northwestern University, 1999 Microfabricated Bioseparation Systems T.K. Wood Ph.D. North Carolina State University, 1991 Mike OConnor Chair II L. Yurttas Ph.D. Texas A&M University, 1988 Curriculum Reform, Education Texas A&M University Large Graduate Program Approximately 130 Graduate Students Strong Ph.D. Program (80% PhD students) Diverse Research Areas Top 10 in Research Funding Quality Living / Work Environment Financial Aid for All Doctoral Students Up to $25,000/yr plus Tuition and Fees and Medical For More Information Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering Dwight Look College of Engineering Texas A&M University College Station, Texas 77843-3122 Phone (979) 845-3361 Website http://www.cheweb.tamu.edu RESEARCH AREAS Complex Fluids Biomedical and Biomolecular Environmental Materials Micro-Electronics Micro-Fluids Computational Chemical Engineering Nano-Technology Process Safety Process Systems Reaction Engineering Thermo-Dynamic

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Chemical Engineering Education 418 offers an outstanding balance between theory and experiment and between research and practice. The Faculty represents a broad range of backgrounds that bring industrial, national laboratory and academic exper iences to the future graduate student. External funding supports a diverse research portfolio including Polymer Science, Rheology and Materia ls Science, Process Control and Optimization, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Molecular Modeling, Reaction Engineering, Bioengineering and Na noBiotechnology. We have fourteen faculty members with significant industrial experience and national recognition within their fields of expertise. There is a Process Control and Optimization Consortium with participation from eight key chemical industries. In 2005 the Department spent over $2.127 million in research expenditure to support graduate research projects. Based on an NSF published report, the Department ranks 46th among all the chemical engineering departments in the country based on research expenditure. Department has an NSF-f unded Nanotechnology Interdisciplinary Research Team (NIRT) studying dynamic heterogeneity and the behavior of glass-forming material s at the nanoscale. More than 27,000 students attend classes in Lubbock on a 1,839 acre campus. Texas Tech University offers many cultur al and entertainment programs, including nationally ranked football and basketball teams. Lubbock is a growing metropolitan city of mo re than 200,000 people and is located on top of the caprock on the South Plains of Texas. The city offers an upscale lifestyle that ble nds well with old fashioned Texas hospitality and Southwestern food and culture. Prospective students should provide official transcripts, official GRE General Test (verbal, quantitative written) scores, and should have a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering or equivalent. Students are urged to apply by the end of January for en rollment in the coming fall semester. Prospective students should apply online by filling out the forms at the website: http://www.depts.ttu.edu/gradschool/prospect.php Dr. M. Nazmul Karim Professor, Chair, and Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering Texas Tech University P. O. Box: 43121 Lubbock, TX 79409-3121 e-mail: naz.karim@ttu.edu e p p ( 806 ) 742-3553 F ( 806 ) 742-3552 Dr. Ted Wiesner Associate Professor; PhD: Georgia Tech Research: Capturing the energy generated by the human body to power implanted medical devices; Robust control of rate-adaptive cardiac pacemakers; Wastewater treatment for long-duration manned spaceflight; Computer-based training for engineers. Dr. Brandon Weeks Assistant Professor; PhD: Cambridge University, UK Research: Nanoscale phenomena in energetic materials including crystal growth, nanolithography, thermodynamics and kinetics.; Atomic Force Microscopy and small angle x-ray scattering; Scanning probe instrument design and microscale sensors. Dr. Mark Vaughn Associate Professor; PhD: Texas A & M University Research: Nitric oxide in the microcirculation; Membrane transport of small molecules; Transport and reaction in concentrated disperse system. Dr. Easan Sivaniah Assistant Professor; PhD: Cambridge University, UK Research: The manipulation of self assembly in synthetic and natural macromolecular systems.; Systems of study include, block copolymers, colloidal assemblies, 2 beam interference lithography, and surface initiated polymerization; Applications of these studies extend to membrane separation and sensors. Dr. Sindee Simon Professor; PhD: Princeton University Research: The physics of the glass transition and structural recovery; Melting and Tg at the nanoscale; Cure and properties of thermosetting resins; Measurement of the viscoelastic bulk modulus; Dilatometry and calorimetry. Dr. Jong-Shik Shin Assistant Professor; PhD: Soeul National University Research: Nanobiotechnology; Biological circuit engineering; Protein design and engineering; Biotransformation. Dr. Jim Riggs Professor; PhD: University of California at Berkeley Research: Process control; Process optimization; Mercury distribution in the human body. Dr. Greg McKenna Professor; PhD: University of Utah Research: Small molecule interactions with glassy polymers; Torsion and normal force measurements; Nanorheology and nanomechanics; Melt and solution rheometry; Residual stresses in composite materials. Dr. Uzi Mann Professor; PhD: University of Wisconsin Research: Particulate technology and processes; Chemical reaction engineering; Chemical process analysis modeling and design; Formulation and synthesis of hollow micro and submicro particles; Biodiesel. Dr. Jeremy Leggoe Associate Professor; PhD: University of West. Australia Research: Modeling aerosol dispersion in the urban environment; Characterizing heterogeneity in multiphase materials; Modeling failure in multiphase materials; Predicting the ultimate strength of thermoplastic elastomers; Constitutive modeling of thermoplastic elastomers. Dr. Rajesh Khare Assistant Professor; PhD: University of Delaware Research: Nanofluidic devices for DNA separation and sequencing; Lubrication in human joints; Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations; Multiscale modeling methods; Properties of supercooled liquids and glassy polymers; Dr. Naz Karim Chairman & Professor; PhD: University of Manchester, UK Research: Control and optimization of chemical and bioprocesses; Bio-fuels production using recombinant microorganisms; Metabolic engineering; glyco-proteins in CHO cell culture; Diabetic and cardiovascular diseases; Vaccine production for flu viruses. Dr. Karlene Hoo Professor; PhD: University of Notre Dame Research: Integration of process design with operability; Hemodynamics of venous vein and valve; Embedded control; Intelligent control; Systems engineering. Dr. Lenore Dai Assistant Professor; PhD: University of Illinois Research: Fundamentals of Pickering emulsions; Self-assembly of nanoparticles; Dynamics of solid particles at liquid/liquid interfaces; Dynamic wetting; Synthesis and characterization of polymer composites. PAINTER: THIS AD SHOULD BE PLACED AS A BLEED ON SITE. IT IS INCLUDED HERE SIMPLY TO INDI -CATE PLACEMENT AND TO AID IDENTIFICATION OF CORRECT IMAGE.

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Fall 2006 419 MARTIN A A BRAHA M PROFESSOR Ph.D., University of Delaware Catalysis and Reaction Engineering, Hydrogen Production, Fuel Cell Systems, Sustainability A BDULMAJEED A ZAD, ASSOCI A TE PROFESSOR Ph.D., University of Madras, India Nanomaterials & Ceramics Processing, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells MARIA R COLE M AN, PROFESSOR Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin Membrane Separations, Bioseparations KENNETH J D EWITT, DISTINGUISHE D PROFESSOR Ph.D., Northwestern University Transport Phenomena, Modeling & Numerical Methods J OHN P. D IS M U K ES, PROFESSOR Ph.D., University of Illinois Materials Processing, Managing Technological Innovation I SABEL C. E S C OBAR, ASSOCI A TE PROFESSOR Ph.D., University of Central Florida S ALEH J ABARIN, PROFESSOR Ph.D., University of Massachusetts Polymer Physical Properties, Orientation & Crystallization D ONG S HI K KI M ASSIST A NT PROFESSOR Ph.D., University of Michigan Biomaterials, Metabolic Pathways, Biomass Energy S TEVEN E L E B LAN C PROFESSOR Ph.D., University of Michigan Process Control, Chemical Engineering Education G G LENN L I P S C O M B, PROFESSOR A N D C H A IR Ph.D., University of California at Berkeley Membrane Separations, Alternative Energy, Education T he Department of C hemical & E nvironmental E ngineering at T he U niversity of T oledo oers graduate programs leading to M. S and Ph.D. degrees. We are located in state of the art facilities in N itschke H all and our dynamic faculty oer a variety of research opportunities in contemporary areas of chemical engineering. FA C ULTY C HE M IC A L & E NVIRON M ENT A L E NGINEERING 4 1 9 5 3 0 8 0 8 0 w w w c h e u t o l e d o e d u c h e e d e p t @ u t o l e d o e d u SEND IN Q UIRIES TO : G raduate S tudies Advisor C hemical & E nvironmental E ngineering T he U niversity of T oledo C ollege of E ngineering 2801 W. Bancroft S treet T oledo, O hio 43606-3390 B RU C E E POLING, PROFESSOR Ph.D., University of Illinois Thermodynamics and Physical Properties CONSTAN C E A SC HALL, ASSOCI A TE PROFESSOR Ph.D., Rutgers University Biomass conversion, Enzyme kinetics, Crystallization S ASIDHAR V ARANASI, PROFESSOR Ph.D., State University of New York at Buffalo Colloidal & Interfacial Phenomena, Hydrogels U T COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

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Chemical Engineering Education 420 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL & BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING Tufts University Phone: 617-627-3900 Fax: 617-627-3991 E-mail: chbe@tufts.edu Science and Technology Center Tufts University 4 Colby Street Medford, MA 02155 Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Full-time Faculty Christos Georgakis Department Chair, Ph.D., University of Minnesota Reactor modeling, control of complex proc esses, pharmaceutical process engineering Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos Ph.D., University of Minnesota Environmental catalysis, clean energy, pollution prevention David L. Kaplan Ph.D., Syracuse University Bioengineered polymers related to se lf assembly, biomaterials and tissue engineering Kyongbum Lee Ph.D., M.I.T. Metabolic engineering, biot echnology, bioinformatics Jerry H. Meldon Ph.D., M.I.T. Membrane science and technology, mass transfer with chemical reaction & mathematical modeling Blaine Pfeifer Ph.D., Stanford University Biotechnology, biomaterials, drug and gene delivery for cancer therapy Daniel R. Ryder Ph.D., Worcester Polytechnic Institute Materials science, advanced process control applications Nak-Ho Sung Ph.D., M.I.T. Polymers and composites, interface science, polymer diffusion, surface modification Kenneth A. Van Wormer Sc.D., M.I.T. Optimization, reaction kinet ics, VLSI fabrication Hyunmin Yi Ph.D., University of Maryland Nanobiofabrication, engineered biom aterials, biotechnology, bioMEMS Adjunct & Research Faculty Gregory D. Botsaris Ph.D., M.I.T. Crystallization, nucleation, applied surface science Aurelie Edwards Ph.D., M.I.T. Biomedical engineering, role of mi crocirculation in the renal medulla Dale Gyure Ph.D., University of Colorado Novel therapeutics and nutrition supplements Walter Juda Ph.D., University of Lyons Electrochemistry and chemical reaction engineering Brian Kelley Ph.D., M.I.T. Novel methods for protein purification, large-scale purifications, high-density bacterial fermentation In 2000, Tufts became the first chemical engineering department in the nation to re cognize the evolving interdisciplinary nature of the field by integrating biological engineering into it s curriculum. Today, Tufts is nationally recognized for excellence in technological innovati on, novel research, and superior faculty. Tufts offers ME, MS, and PhD degrees in chemical engineering or biotechnology engineering. Graduate students enjoy a broad arts and sciences environment with all the advantages of a research university, such as opportunities for interdisciplinary co llaboration with the Universitys leading medical and veterinary schools. The Department and its laboratories are housed in the Science and Technology Center, a state of the art research and teaching facility which also houses the cu tting-edge interdisciplinary research acti vities of our Bioengineering Center. The Tufts campus is only minutes away from Bostons myriad cultural, academic and recreational resources. Visit our Website! http://ase.tufts.edu/chemical

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Fall 2006 421 Faculty and Research AreasHenry S. Ashbaugh Classical Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics Molecular Simulation Solution Thermodynamics Multi-Scale Modeling of Self-Assembly and Nanostructured Materials Daniel C.R. DeKee Rheology of Natural and Synthetic Polymers Constitutive Equations Transport Phenomena and Applied Mathematics W T. Godbey Gene Delivery Cellular Engineering Molecular Aspects of Nonviral Transfection Biomaterials Vijay T. John Biomimetic and Nanostructured Materials Interfacial Phenom ena Polymer-Ceramic Composites Surfactant Science Victor J. Law Modeling Environmental Systems Nonlinear Optimization and Regression Transport Phenomena Numerical Methods Yunfeng Lu Nanostructured and Microelectronic Materials Sol-Gel Processes and Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials Membrane Separations and Cata lysts Chemical Sensors and Biosensors Brian S. Mitchell Fiber Technology Materials Processing Composites Kim C. OConnor Animal-Cell Technology Organ/Tissue Regeneration Re combinant Protein Expression Kyriakos D. Papadopoulos Colloid Stability Coagulation Transport of MultiPhase Systems Through Porous Media Colloidal Interactions For Additional Information, Please Contact Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Tulane University New Orleans, LA 70118 Phone (504) 865-5772 E-mail chemeng@tulane.edu Tulane is located in a quiet, residential area of New Orleans, approximately six miles from the world-famous French Quarter. The department currently enrolls approximately 40 full-time graduate students. Graduate fellowships include a tuition waiver plus stipend. Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

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Chemical Engineering Education 422 Engineering the World The University of Tulsa The University of Tulsa is Oklahomas oldest and largest independent university. Approximately disciplines. Tulsa, Oklahoma Off-campus activities abound in Tulsa, one of the nations most livable cities. Our temperate climate, with four distinct seasons, is perfect for year-round outdoor activities. With a metropolitan popula tion of 888,000, the city of Tulsa affords opportunities for students to gain internship and work enjoy world-class ballet, symphony and theatre performances, and exhibits in the cultural communi ty. Annual events include Mayfest, Oktoberfest, the Chili Cook-off and Bluegrass Festival, the Tulsa Run, and the Jazz and Blues festivals. Chemical Engineering at TU TU enjoys a solid international reputation for expertise in the energy industry, and offers materials, environmental and biochemical programs. The department places particular emphasis on experimen tal research, and is proud of its strong contact with industry. The department offers a traditional Ph.D. program and three masters programs: Master of Science degree (thesis program) Master of Engineering degree (a professional degree that can be completed in 18 months without a thesis) Special Masters degree for nonchemical engineering undergraduates Financial aid is available, including fellowships and research assistantships. The Faculty D.W. Crunkleton Fuel cells, sensors, nanotechnology L.P. Ford Kinetics of dry etching of metals, surface science K.D. Luks Thermodynamics, phase equilibria F.S. Manning Industrial pollution control, surface processing of petroleum C.L. Patton Thermodynamics, applied mathematics G.L. Price Zeolites, heterogeneous catalysis K.L. Sublette Bioremediation, biological waste treatment, ecological risk assessment K.D. Wisecarver Further Information Graduate Program Director Chemical Engineering Department The University of Tulsa 600 South College Avenue Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104-3189 Phone (918) 631-2227 Fax (918) 631-3268 E-mail: chegradadvisor@utulsa.edu Graduate School application: 1-800-882-4723

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Fall 2006 423 Vanderbilt UniversityDEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERINGGraduate Study Leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Graduate work in chemical engineering provides an opportu nity for study and research at the cutting edge to contribute to shaping a new model of what chemical engineering is and what chemical engineers do. Formal course work for the Ph.D. essentially doubles the exposure to chemical engineering prin ciples that students receive as undergraduates. Thesis research gives unparalleled experience in problem solving, the key to challenging research assignments in industry and admission to the worldwide community of scholars. http://www.che.vanderbilt.edu/ Located in Nashville, Tennessee, Vanderbilt is a selective, comprehensive teaching and research university. Ten schools offer both an outstanding undergraduate and a full range of graduate and professional programs. With a prestigious faculty of more than 2,200 full-time and 300 part-time members, Van derbilt attracts a diverse student body of approximately 6,200 undergraduates and 4,800 graduate and professional students from all 50 states and over 90 foreign countries Peter T. Cummings (Ph.D., University of Melbourne) Computational nanoscience and nanoengineering; mo computing; computer-aided process design and optimiza tion; bacterial migration in in situ bioremediation. Kenneth A. Debelak (Ph.D., University of Kentucky) Development of plant-wide control algorithms; intelligent process control; activity modeling; effect of changing particle structures in gas-solid reactions; environmentally benign chemical processes; mixing in bioreactors. Scott A. Guelcher (Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University) Biomaterials; bone tissue engineering; polymer synthesis and characterization; drug and gene delivery. G. Kane Jennings (Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology) corrosion inhibition; microelectronics processing. Paul E. Laibinis (Ph.D., Harvard University) Self-assembly; surface engineering; interfaces; chemical sensor design; biosurfaces; nanotechnology. M. Douglas LeVan (Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley) Fixed-bed adsorption; adsorption equilibria; adsorption processes (pressure-swing adsorption, temperature-swing adsorption, adsorptive refrigeration): process design. Clare McCabe biological systems, molecular rheology, molecular theory, phase equilibria. Bridget R. Rogers (Ph.D., Arizona State University) applications (mass transport, kinetics, and effects of substrate topography on CVD, sputter deposition and etch processes). Karl B. Schnelle, Jr. (Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University) Turbulent transport in the environment, control of toxic emissions and SO 2 and NO x tion thermodynamics, applications of process simulation to microcomputers, supercritical extraction applied to soil remediation. For more information:Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering Vanderbilt University VU Station B 351604 Nashville, TN 37235-1604

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Chemical Engineering Education 424 University of Virginia a commitment to continuing the Jeffersonian ideal of students and faculty as equal partners in the pursuit of knowledge Giorgio Carta PhD, University of Delaware Adsorption, ion exchange, biocatalysis, environmentally benign processing Robert J. Davis, PhD, Stanford University Heterogeneous catalysis, characterization of metal clusters, reaction kinetics Erik J. Fernandez, PhD, University of California, Berkeley and spectroscopy Roseanne M. Ford, PhD, University of Pennsylvnaia Environmental remediation, microbial transport in porous media David Green, PhD, University of Maryland Reaction engineering of nanoparticles, rheology of complex nanoparticle suspensions John L. Hudson, PhD, Northwestern University Reaction system dynamics, chaos and pattern formation, electrochemistry Donald J. Kirwan, PhD, University of Delaware Mass transfer and separtions, crystallization, biochemical engineering Cato Laurencin, MD, Harvard Medical School PhD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Biomaterials, tissue engineering, nanotechnology Steven McIntosh, PhD, University of Pennsylvania Solid oxide fuel cells, advanced materials Matthew Neurock, PhD, University of Delaware Molecular modeling, computational heterogeneous catalysis, kinetics of complex reaction systems James P. Oberhauser, PhD, University of California, Santa Barbara John P. OConnell, PhD, University of California, Berkeley Molecular theory and simulation with applications to physical and biological systems R. Michael Raab, PhD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Medical and industrial biotechnology, bioinformatics, systems biology Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering W RITE Graduate Admissions Dept. of Chemical Engineering P.O. Box 400741 University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22904-4741 PHONE 434-924-7778 EMAIL cheadmis@virginia.edu VISIT US AT OUR W EBSITE www.che.virginia.edu

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Fall 2006 425 Faculty . Donald G. Baird (Wisconsin) David F. Cox (Florida) Richey M. Davis (Princeton) Stephen M. Martin (Minnesota) Aaron S. Goldstein (Carnegie Mellon) Chemical Engineering at Virginia Tech Research Centers and Focus Areas Polymer Materials and Interface Laboratory Center for Composite Materials and Structures Center for Adhesives and Sealant Science Center for Biomedical Engineering Center for Self-Assembled Nanostructures and Devices Biotechnology and Tissue Engineering Surface Chemistry and Catalysis Colloid and Surface Science Computer-aided Design Nanotechnology and Biomedical Devices Supercritical Fluids and High Pressure Processing Computational Science and Engineering Erdogan Kiran (Princeton) Y. A. Liu (Princeton) Eva Marand (Massachusetts) separations S. Ted Oyama (Stanford) Amadeu K. Sum (Delaware) John Y. Walz [Dept. Head] (Carnegie Mellon) Department of Chemical Engineering 133 Randolph Hall, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 Telephone: 540-231-5771 Fax: 540-231-5022 e-mail: chegrad@vt.edu http://www.che.vt.edu Gateways of Opportunity

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Chemical Engineering Education 426 with t. with Rim of is of of top is #1 to UW (CNT) & (UC C. (UC (UC R. Holt M. Switz.) D. N. (UC T. (UC M. of of

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Fall 2006 427 Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering Masters and doctoral programs in WSUs School of Chemical Engineer ing and Bioengineering offer you a world-class environment for research and scholarship with a comprehensive graduate curriculum and highest quality faculty members to lead you. The program is closely aligned with industry and government interests that often lead to professional career opportunities. Our emphases in bioengineering, environmental restoration, and hydro carbon processing involve you in such projects as biotreatment of hazard ous contamination, diagnostic medical devices, and conversion of natural gas to useful products. Our Center for Multiphase Environmental Research provides interdisciplinary opportunities to solve complex environmental problems at the interface of air, water, and earth. Facilities Facilities include the Engineering Teaching and Research Laboratory in Pullman, a state-of-the-art building that houses the O.H. Reaugh Advanced Processing Lab. Other venues are the Spokane Intercollegiate Research and Technology Institute and WSU Tri-Cities access to Hanford resources, such as the Environmental Molecular Science Lab and the Hanford Library. Financial Assistance All full-time ChemE graduate students at WSU receive nancial support to help cover costs of education, living, and insurance. Student Life Pullmans residential campus offers single and family housing for graduate students. Families with children have access to highly rated K-12 schools. Outdoor and recreational activities abound in the nearby mountains, rivers, and forests. Students may belong to the Graduate and Professional Student Association and numerous other student societies. About WSU Washington State University is a landgrant research university founded in Pullman in 1890. It enrolls more than 20,000 students at four campuses and numerous Learning Centers throughout the state. As many as 100 advanced degrees are offered from 70 graduate programs within its eight colleges. Faculty Nehal Abu-Lail Ph.D. Worcester Polytechnic Institute, single-molecule spectroscopy of proteins and lateral force microscopy studies of polymers and lubricants H aluk Beyenal, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, biolms, microbial fuel cells, microsensors, and bioremediation S u Ha, Ph.D. Illinois, electrochemical systems for energy conversion and storage, including Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells, bio fuel cells, fuel reforming for hydrogen production, catalysis Cornelius Ivory Ph.D. Princeton, bioprocessing, separations, modeling James Lee Ph.D Kentucky, bioprocessing, mixing KNona Liddell Ph.D. Iowa State, hazardous wastes, materials, electrochemistry, kinetics, chemical equilibria James Petersen Ph.D. Iowa State, bioremediation, bioprocessing, subsurface reactive ow and transport, optimization Bernie Van Wie Ph.D. Oklahoma, bioprocessing, biomedical engineering Richard Zollars Ph.D. Colorado, colloidal and interfacial phenomena, separations Contacts School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering chedept@che.wsu.edu www.che.wsu.edu Richard Zollars, Interim Director ChEBE, 509-335-4332 Bernie Van Wie, Graduate Studies Coordinator, 509-335-4103 WSU Graduate School 509-335-1446 gradsch@wsu.edu www.gradsch@wsu.edu 7/06 114486

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Chemical Engineering Education 428 M. Al-Dahhan Chemical Reaction Engineering, Multiphase Reactors, Mass Transfer, Process Engineering L. A ngenent Biological Waste Conversion, Bioaerosol Control, Environmental Engineering P. B iswas Aerosol Dynamics, Environmental Engineering M. P. D udukovic Multiphase Reaction Engineering, Tracer Methods, Environmental Engineering J. T. Gleaves Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surface Science, Microstructured Materials B. Khomami Rheology, Polymer and Composite Materials Processing P. A. Ramachandran Chemical Reaction Engineering, Boundary Element Methods R. Sureshkumar Complex Fluids Dynamics, Interfacial Nanostructures, Multiscale Modeling and Simulations J. Turner Environmental Reaction Engineering, Air Quality Policy and Analysis, Air Pollution ControlFor Information Contact Graduate Admissions Committee Washington University Department of Chemical Engineering Campus Box 1198 One Brookings Drive St. Louis, Missouri 63130-4899 E-mail: chedept@che.wustl.edu Phone: (314) 935-6070 Fax: (314) 935-7211 Masters and Doctoral Programs Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at Washington University

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Fall 2006 429 Bioengineering Systems Biology Carbon Pr oducts Fr om Coal Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Electronic Materials Fluid Particle Sciences Molecular Dynamics and Modeling Multi Phase Flow Nanocomposites Natural Gas Hydrates Particle Coating /Agglomeration Phase Equilibria Polymer Rheology Separation Processes Brian J. Anderson Massachusetts Institute of T echnology Eung H. Cho University of Utah Eugene V. Cilento, Dean University of Cincinnati Dady B. Dadyburjor, Chair University of Delaware Rakesh K. Gupta University of Delaware Elliot B. Kennel Ohio State University David. J. Klinke, II Nor thwestern University Hisashi O. Kono, Emeritus Kyushu University Edwin L. Kugler Johns Hopkins University R uifeng Liang Institute of Chemistry Joseph A. Shaeiwitz Carnegie Mellon University Alfred H. Stiller University of Cincinnati Char ter D. Stinespring W est V ir ginia University Richard Turton Oregon State University Ray Y.K. Yang Princeton University Wu Zhang University of London John W. Zondlo Carnegie Mellon University MS and PhD Pr ograms Come Explor e Chemical Engineering F a c u l t y Pr ofessor Rakesh Gupta Graduate Admission Committee Department of Chemical Engineering PO Box 6102 West Virginia University Morgantown, WV 26506-6102 304-293-2111 ex 2418 che-info@mail.wvu.edu F o r A p p l i c a t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n W r i t e h t t p : / / w w w c h e c e m r w v u e d u R e s e a r c h A r e a s I n c l u d e :

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Chemical Engineering Education 430 NICHOLAS L. ABBOTT Biotechnology, interfacial phenomena, colloid chemistry, soft materials, nanotechnology JUAN J. DE PABLO Molecular thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, polymer physics, nanotechnology, protein biophysics, protein and cell stabilization JAMES A. DUMESIC Kinetics and catalysis, surface chemistry, energy from renewable resources MICHAEL D. GRAHAM (Chairman) computational mathematics DANIEL J. KLINGENBERG Colloid THOMAS F. KUECH Semiconductor and advanced materials processing, solid-state, electronic, and nanostructured materials, interface science DAVID M. LYNN Polymer synthesis, biomaterials, functional materials, gene and drug delivery, controlled release, highthroughput synthesis/screening CHRISTOS T. MARAVELIAS Process modeling and optimization, supply chain optimization, new product development, systems biology, scheduling MANOS MAVRIKAKIS Thermodynamics, kinetics and catalysis, surface science, computational chemistry, electronic materials, fuel cells REGINA M. MURPHY Biomedical engineering, protein-protein interactions, targeted drug delivery A tradition of excellence in Chemical Engineering PAUL F. NEALEY Polymers, directed assembly, nanofabrication, cell-substrate interactions SEAN P. PALECEK Cellular engineering, biosensors, cell adhesion, genomics and proteomics JAMES B. RAWLINGS Process modeling, dynamics, and control, particle technology, crystallization THATCHER W. ROOT Green chemistry, catalysis, solid-state NMR, bioseparations ERIC V. SHUSTA Drug delivery, protein engineering, biopharmaceutical design ROSS E. SWANEY Process design, synthesis, modeling, and optimization JOHN YIN Systems biology, molecular http://www.engr.wisc.edu/che WISCONSIN For more information, please contact: Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering University of WisconsinMadison 1415 Engineering Drive Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1607 U.S.A. Michael Forster Rothbart, UW-Madison University Communications

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Fall 2006 431 Eric Altman, Ph.D. Pennsylvania Menachem Elimelech, Gary L. Haller, Ph.D. Northwestern Michael Loewenberg, Ph.D. Cal Tech William Mitch, Ph.D. University of California Jordan Peccia, Ph.D. University of Colorado Lisa D. Pfefferle, Ph.D. Pennsylvania Daniel E. Rosner, Ph.D. Princeton Paul Van Tassel, Ph.D. University of Minnesota Joint Appointments Thom as Graedel (School of Forestr y & Environmental Studies) Kurt Zilm ( Chemistry ) Mark Saltzman (Biomedical Engineering ) Yale University P. O. Box 208286 New Haven, CT 06520-8286 Phone: (203) 432-2222 FAX: (203) 432-4387 http://www.eng.yale.edu/chemical/index.html Biomolecular Engineering Bioseparation Processes Catalysis Chemical Reaction Engineering Combustion Environmental Engineering Microbiology Environmental Physio-chemical Processes Fine Particle Technology Interfacial and Colloidal Phenomena Membrane Separations Materials Synthesis and Processing Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials Multiphase Transport Phenomena Soft Nanomaterials Surface Science

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Chemical Engineering Education 432 BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY Master of Science in Chemical Engineering Bucknell is a highly selective private institution that combines a nation ally ranked undergraduate engineer ing program with the rich learning environment of a small liberal arts college. For study at the Masters level, the department offers state-ofthe-art facilities for both experimental and computational work, and faculty dedicated to providing individualized training and collaboration in a wide array of research areas. Nestled in the heart of the scenic Susquehanna Valley in central Pennsyl vania, Lewisburg is located in an ideal environment for a variety of outdoor activities and is within a three-to-four hour drive of several metropolitan centers, including New York, Phila delphia, Baltimore, Washington, D.C., and Pittsburgh. J. Csernica Chair (PhD, M.I.T.) D.P. Cavanagh (PhD, Northwestern) Interfacial dynamics, biotransport M.E. Hanyak (PhD, Pennsylvania) Process analysis, multimedia courseware design E.L. Jablonski (PhD, Iowa Stte) W.E. King (PhD, Pennsylvania) Photodynamic therapy, hemodialysis J.E. Maneval (PhD, U.C. Davis) NMR methods, membrane and novel separations M.J. Prince (PhD, U.C. Berkeley) Biochemical systems, environmental barriers T.M. Raymond (PhD, Carnegie Mellon) Atmospheric physics and chemistry, organic aerosols, indoor air pollution W.J. Snyde r (PhD, Penn State) Polymer degradation, kinetics, drag reduction M.A.S. Vigeant (PhD, Virginia) Bacterial adhesions to surfaces For further information, contact Dr. Margot Vigeant Chemical Engineering Department Bucknell University Lewisburg, PA 17837 Phone 570-577-1114 mvigeant@bucknell.edu http://www.bucknell.edu/graduatestudies/ COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering Faculty and Research Areas IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK Financial Assistance is Available For Further Information, go to www.cheme.columbia.edu Columbia University New York, NY 10027 (212) 854-4453 S. BANTA Protein Engineering, Metabolic Engineering C. J. DURNING Polymer Physical Chemistry G. FLYNN Physical Chemistry C. C. GRYTE Polymer Science, Separation Processes, Pharmaceutical Engineering J. JU Genomics J. KOBERSTEIN Polymers, Biomaterials, Surfaces, Membranes S.K. KUMAR Polymer Science E. F. LEONARD Biomedical Engineering, Transport Phenomena B. OSHAUGHNESSY Polymer Physics N. SHAPLEY Complex Fluids, Biological Transport N. TURRO Supramolecular Photochemistry, Interface Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry A. C. WEST E lectrochemical Engineering, Mathematical Modeling

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Fall 2006 433 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING For further information, please write Graduate Admissions Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Lamar University P. O. Box 10053 Beaumont, TX 77710 D. H. CHEN (Ph.D., Oklahoma State University) D. L. COCKE (Ph.D., Texas A&M University) J. L. GOSSAGE (Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology) T. C. HO (Ph.D., Kansas State University) J. R. HOPPER (Ph.D., Louisiana State University) K. Y. LI (Ph.D., Mississippi State University) SIDNEY LIN (Ph.D., University of Houson) H. H. LOU (Ph.D., Wayne State University) P. RICHMOND ( Ph.D., Texas A&M University R. TADMOR (Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science) Q. XU (Ph.D., Tsing Hua University) C. L. YAWS (Ph.D., University of Houston) Master of Engineering Master of Engineering Science Master of Environmental Engineering Doctor of Engineering Ph.D. of Chemical Engineering Process Simulation, Control and Optimization Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering Air Modeling Transport Properties, Mass Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions Computer-Aided Design, Henrys Law Constant Thermodynamic Properties, Water Solubility Air Pollution, Bioremediation, Waste Minimization Sustainability, Pollution Prevention Fuel Cell Applications FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS LAMAR UNIVERSITY FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT Academic Programs Administrator, Department of Chemical Engineering Monash University, PO Box 36, Wellington Road MONASH UNIVERSITY VIC 3800 AUSTRALIA Tel: 61 3 9905 1872 Fax: 61 3 9905 5686 Web site: http://www.eng.monash.edu.au/chemeng/ e-mail: lilyanne.price@eng.monash.edu.au Monash offers programs of study and research leading to MSc and PhD in chemical engineering. At with industry through the Australian Pulp and Paper Institute and the Cooperative Research Centers for Functional Communication Surfaces, and Greenhouse Gas Technologies. Our research in biotechnology has been strengthened through our recent involvement with the Australian National Centre for Advanced Cell Engineering and the Commonwealth Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology, both housed at Monash University. X.D.Chen G.Forde G.Garnier K.Hapgood A. Hoadley F.Lawson (honorary) C-Z.Li K.L.Nguyen I.H.Parker O.E.Potter (emeritus) I.G.Prince C.Selomulya W. Shen T.Sridhar C.Tiu P.H.T.Uhlherr (honorary) H.Wang P.A.Webley F A C U L T Y Biochemical Engineering Fuel Cell Engineering Brown Coal Utilisation Paper Making Heterogeneous Catalysis RESEARCH AREAS Particle Technology Biotechnology Pulp Technology NanoTechnology Chemical Reaction Engineering Adsorption Engineering Rheology Process Design and Economics Fluidisation Engineering Melbourne, Australia

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Chemical Engineering Education 434 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA For Further Information: Director of Graduate Studies, De pt. ofChemical Engineering, 241 Centennial Drive, Stop 7101, Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202-7101. (701) 777-4244 Fax: (701) 777-3773 Email: chem_e@mail.und.nodak.edu Website: http://www.und.edu/ dept/sem/che/index.html Dr. Michael Mann, Chair Dr. Frank Bowman Dr. Darrin Muggli Dr. Wayne Seames Doctoral & Masters degrees Chemical & Environmental Engineering Programs Financial Aid Available Dr. Ed Kolodka Dr. Brian Tande RENEWABLE and SUSTAINABLE ENERGY PROJECTS crop oil based fuels and chemicals biopolymers biomass combustion advanced coal systems environmental impacts H 2 storage materials CATALYSIS PROJECTS photocatalysis biofuelcatalysts VOC/NOx removal transient reactions POLYMERS and ADHESIVES PROJECTS novel biodegradable polymers wood laminate adhesives property analysis ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS aerosol modeling particulate abatement flood contamination cleanup biochemical cleanup processes trace metals emission mitigation

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Fall 2006 435 L largest city, Ryerson has 20, 000 full-time students. Graduate studies leading to M.A.Sc., M.Eng., and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering are available. Finan cial support through scholarships, research and/or teaching assistantships is available For more information, contact: Chemical Engineering Graduate Program Administrator School of Graduate Studies 350 Victoria Street Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5B 2K3 Phone: (416) 979-5000, ext. 7790 Fax: (416) 979-5153 E-mail: chemgrad@ryerson.ca Research areas include Water/Wastewater and Food Treatment Technologies tors Removal of heavy metals and BOD in industrial wastewater Ozonation and chemical oxidation processes for wastewater Food emulsion stability Biological processes in upgrading food wastes Environmental biotechnology of microbial food contaminants Polymer and Process Engineering Phase separation in polymer systems Modeling and simulation nology and behavior Modeling, simulation, optimal control, and optimization of chemical processes Diffusivity in polymer-solvent www.ryerson.ca/~chemgrad/ DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FOR INFORMATION WRITE Dr. David Miller Department Graduate Advisor Chemical Engineering Department Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology Terre Haute, IN 47803-3999 M.R. Anklam, Ph.D., Princeton Polymers, Separations, Chromatography R.S. Artigue, D.E., Tulane A. Carlson, Ph.D., Wisconsin, Madison Biotechnology D.G. Coronell, Ph.D., MIT Kinetics, Catalysis, Materials M.H. Hariri, Ph.D., Manchester, U.K. Petrochemicals, Safety and Loss Prevention S.J. McClellan, Ph.D., Purdue Colloidal Interfacial Phenomena D.C. Miller, Ph.D., Ohio State Process Systems Engineering S.G. Sauer, Ph.D., Rice Thermodynamics, Statistical Mechanics A. Serbezov, Ph.D., Rochester Adsorption, Process Control EMERITUS FACULTY C.F. Abegg, Ph.D., Iowa State W.B. Bowden, Ph.D., Purdue J.A. Caskey, Ph.D., Clemson S. Leipziger, Ph.D., I.I.T. N.E. Moore, Ph.D., Purdue

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Chemical Engineering Education 436 DISCOVER USF Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering Leading to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees For further information contact: Graduate Program Coordinator Chemical Engineering University of South Florida 4202 E. Fowler Ave., ENB 118 Tampa, Florida 33620 (813) 974-3997 http://che.eng.usf.edu che@eng.usf.edu Faculty Research Areas: Biomaterials/Biocompatibility Biomedical Engineering Drug/Gene Delivery Systems Electronic Materials Fuel Cells Modeling and Simulation Molecular Thermodynamics Nanotechnology Phase Equilibria Physical Property Correlation Polymer Systems Process Control Process Monitoring and Analysis Reaction Engineering Sensors and Instrumentation Solar Energy Supercritical Fluid Technology Surface Science F. T. AL-SAADOON Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, P.E. J. L. CHISHOLM Ph.D., University of Oklahoma W. A. HEENAN D.Ch.E., University of Detroit, P.E. S. LEE Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh FACULTY TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITYKINGSVILLE Chemical Engineering M.S. and M.E. Natural Gas Engineering M.S. and M.E. Located in tropical South Texas, forty miles south of the urban center of Corpus Christi and thirty miles west of Padre Island National Seashore. FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE: A. A. PILEHVARI Department of Chemical & Natural Gas Engineering Texas A&M UniversityKingsville Campus Box 193 Kingsville, Texas 78363 A. A. PILEHVARI Ph.D., University of Tulsa, P.E. H. A. DUARTE Ph.D., Texas A&M University P. L. Mills D.Sc., Washington University in St. Louis R. W. SERTH Ph.D., SUNY at Buffalo, P.E.

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Fall 2006 437 VILLANOVA UNIVERSITY 800 LANCASTER AVENUE VILLANOVA, PA 19085-1681 The Villanova University M.Ch.E. program is designed to meet the needs of both full-time and part-time graduate students. The part-time program is designed to address the needs of both new graduates and experienced working professionals in the suburban Philadelphia region, which is rich in pharmaceutical and chemical industry. The full-time program is research-based with research projects currently available in the following areas: Biotechnology/Biochemical Engineering Supercritical Fluid Applications Reaction Analysis Model-Based Control Industrial Wastewater Treatment Processes Nanomaterial Synthesis For more information, contact: Professor Vito L. Punzi, Graduate Program Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Villanova University Villanova, PA 19085-1681 Phone 610-519-4946 Fax 610-519-7354 e-mail: vito.punzi@villanova.edu UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO For further information, write or phone The Associate Chair (Graduate Studies) Department of Chemical Engineering University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 Phone (519) 888-4567, ext. 2484 Fax (519) 746-4979 e-mail at gradinfo.che@uwaterloo.ca or visit our website at http://cape.uwaterloo.ca W. A. Anderson, Associate Chair Undergraduate H.M. Budman, Associate Chair Graduate A. Chakma I. Chatzis P. Chen P. Chou E. Croiset P.L. Douglas T.A. Duever, Chair A. Elkamel W. Epling X. Feng M. Fowler D. Henneke R.R. Hudgins M.A. Ioannidis E. J. Jervis R.L. Legge N. McManus C. Moresoli F.T.T. Ng R. Pal Q. Pan A. Penlidis M.D. Pritzker G.L. Rempel J.M. Scharer L. Simon J.B.P. Soares C. Tzoganakis FACULTY Biochemical engineering and industrial biotechnology Chemical kinetics, catalysis and reactor design, energy conversion Environmental engineering and pollution control Electrochemical engineering Flow in porous media and enhanced oil recovery Interfacial engineering Mathematical analysis, statistics, and process control Nanotechnology Polymer science and engineering, polymer processing RESEARCH AREAS Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering The Department of Chemical Engineering is one of the largest in Canada offering a wide range of graduate programs. Full-time and part-time M.A.Sc. programs are available. Full-time and part-time coursework M.Eng. programs are available. Ph.D. programs are available in all research areas. Financial aid is available in the form of research assistantships, teaching assistantships and scholarships.

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Chemical Engineering Education 438 J. Ackerman coatings nanomaterials H. Adidharma en hanced oil recovery molecular thermodynamics V. Alvarado enhanced oil recovery solute transport and dispersion reservoir engineering M.D. Argyle heterogeneous catalysis plasma reactions hy drogen generation and separation D.A. Bell coal liquefaction surface science H.G. Harris enhanced oil and gas recovery coal processing coalbed methane P.A. Johnson biosensors biomaterials biointerfaces nano materials T. LaForce analytical solutions streamline simulations N.R. Morrow interfacial phenomena wettability oil recovery M. Radosz polymers bionanomaterials energy separations M.P. Sharma production/EOR air pollution Y. Shen polymer synthesis living polymerization bio-materials B.F. Towler, Head oil reservoir engineering phase behavior wax deposition FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT Coordinator for Graduate Studies Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department University of Wyoming Dept 3295 1000 E. University Ave. Laramie, WY 82071 (307) 766-2500 chpe.info@uwyo.edu wwweng.uwyo.edu/chemical/ Opportunities Extensive industrial interactions Applied and basic research projects Interdisciplinary research Vibrant interna tional network Excellent lab infra structure Non-ChE candidates encouraged The University of Wyoming is located in Laramie, Wyoming, at an elevation of 7200 ft. Laramie is about two hours north of Denver and is surrounded by state and national forests which allow for beautiful year-round outdoor activities: mountain and rock climbing, and hunting. Graduate Studies in Chemical and Petroleum Engineering U N I V E R S I T Y O F M A S S A C H U S E T T S LOWELL Dr. A. Donatelli (Chemical Engineering) Dr. G. J. Brown (Energy Engineering) Graduate Coordinators One University Avenue Lowell, MA 01854 College of Engineering Department of Chemical Engineering BIOPROCESS ENGINEERING BIOTECHNOLOGY COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS CONTROL ENERGY ENGINEERING ENGINEERED MATERIALS NANOMATERIALS AND CHARACTERIZATION PAPER ENGINEERING POLYMERIC MATERIALS We offer professionally oriented engineering education at the M.S., Ph.D., and D.E. levels In addition we offer specialization in









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Fall 2006 439 An Open Letter to SENIORS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Should you go to graduate school? We invite you to consider graduate school as an opportunity to further your professional development. Graduate work can be exciting and intellectually satisfying, and at the same time can provide you with insurance against the ever-increasing danger of technical obsolescence in our fast-paced society. An advanced degree is certainly helpful if you want to include a research component in your career and a Ph.D. is normally a prerequisite for an academic position. Although graduate school includes an in-depth research experience, it is also an integrative period. Graduate research work under the guidance of a knowledgeable faculty member can be an important What is taught in graduate school? of graduate school will often focus on the study of advanced-core chemical engineering science subjects ( e.g. transport phenomena, phase equilibria, reaction engineering). These courses build on the material learned as an undergraduate, using more sophisticated mathematics and often including a molecular perspective. Early in the graduate program, you will select a research topic and a research adviser and begin to establish a knowledge base in the research subject through both coursework and independent study. Graduate education thus begins with an emphasis on structured learning in courses and moves on to the creative, exciting, and open-ended process of research. In addition, graduate school is a time to expand your intellectual and social horizons through participa tion in the activities provided by the campus community. We suggest that you pick up one of the fall issues of Chemical Engineering Education (CEE), whether it be the current issue or one of our prior fall issues, and read some of the articles written by scholars at various universities on a wide variety of subjects pertinent to graduate education. The chemical engineering professors or the library at your university are both good sources for borrowing current and back issues of CEE Perusing the graduate-school advertisements in this special compilation can also be a valuable resource, not only for determining what is taught in graduate school, but also where it is taught and by whom it is taught. We encourage you to carefully read the information in the ads and to contact any of the departments that interest you. What is the nature of graduate research? Graduate research can open the door to a lifelong inquiry that may well lead you in a number of directions dur of a university. Learning how to do research is of primary importance, and the training you receive as a graduate As a senior, you probably have some questions about graduate school. The following paragraphs may assist you

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Chemical Engineering Education 440 student will give you the discipline, the independence, and (hopefully) the intellectual curiosity that will stand you in good stead throughout your career. The increasingly competitive arena of high technology and societys discovery. Where should you go to graduate school? that there are schools that specialize in preparing students for academic careers just as there are those that prepare school or a certain professor with great strength or reputation in that particular area would be desirable. If you are more to your liking; or you might choose a school with a climate conducive to sports or leisure activities in which you are interested. Many factors may eventually feed into your decision of where to go to graduate school. Study the ads in this special printing and write to or view the Web pages of departments that interest you; ask for pertinent information not only about areas of study but also about fellowships that may be available, about the number of students in graduate school, about any special programs. Ask your undergraduate professors about their experiences in graduate school, and dont be shy about asking them to recommend schools to you. They should know your strengths and weaknesses by this stage in your collegiate career, and through using that knowledge they should be a valuable source of information and encouragement for you. Financial Aid living needs. This support is provided through research assistantships, teaching assistantships, or fellowships. If you are interested in graduate school next fall, you should begin the application process early this fall since admission decisions are often made at the beginning of the new calendar year. This process includes requesting application materials, seeking sources of fellowships, taking national entrance exams ( i.e. the Graduate Record Exam, GRE, is required by many institutions), and visiting the school. A resolution by the Council of Graduate Schoolsin which most schools are membersoutlines accepted deadlines for acceptance violate the intent of the resolution). Furthermore, an acceptance given or left in force after the commitment has been made. Historically, most students have entered graduate school in the fall term, but many schools do admit students for other starting dates. We hope that this special collection of chemical engineering graduate-school information proves to be helpful to you in making your decision about the merits of attending graduate school and assists you in selecting an institution that meets your needs.





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Summer 2006 245 Chemical Engineering Education Volume 40 Number 4 Fall 2006 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of Florida. Co r respondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Copyright 2005 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily 120 days of pu b lication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and availability. POSTMA S TER: Send address changes to Chemical Engineering Education, Chemical Engineering Department., University of Florida, PUBLICATIONS BOARD EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS: Chemical Engineering Education Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 PHONE and FAX : 352-392-0861 EDITOR Tim Anderson ASSOCIATE EDITOR Phillip C. Wankat MANAGING EDITOR Lynn Heasley PROBLEM EDITOR James O. Wilkes, U. Michigan LEARNING IN INDUSTRY EDITOR William J. Koros, Georgia Institute of Technology EDITORIAL ASSISTANT Nicholas Rosinia CHAIRMAN E. Dendy Sloan, Jr. Colorado School of Mines VICE CHAIRMAN John P. OConnell University of Virginia MEMBERS Kristi Anseth University of Colorado Pablo Debenedetti Princeton University Dianne Dorland Rowan University Thomas F. Edgar University of Texas at Austin Richard M. Felder North Carolina State University Bruce A. Finlayson University of Washington H. Scott Fogler University of Michigan Carol K. Hall North Carolina State University William J. Koros Georgia Institute of Technology Steve LeBlanc University of Toledo Ronald W. Rousseau Georgia Institute of Technology Stanley I. Sandler University of Delaware C. Stewart Slater Rowan University Donald R. Woods McMaster University GRADUATE EDUCATION 246 Teaching Entering Graduate Students the Role of Journal Articles in Research Priscilla J. Hill 251 Multidisciplinary Graduate Curriculum on Integrative Biointerfacial Engineering Prabhas V. Moghe and Charles M. Roth 259 Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source: an Illustration of ChE Thermodynamic Concepts Marguerite A. Mohan, Nicole May, Nada M. Assaf-Anid, Marco J. Castaldi 268 Incorporating Computational Chemistry into the ChE Curriculum Jennifer Wilcox CLASSROOM 291 Pressure For Fun: A Course Module for Increasing ChE StudentsExcitement and Interest in Mechanical Parts Will J. Scarbrough, Jennifer M. Case 323 The Research Proposal in Biochemical and Biological Engineering Courses Roger G. Harrison, Matthias U. Nollert, David W. Schmidtke, Vassilios I. Sikavitsas RANDOM THOUGHTS 281 Whats in a Name? Richard M. Felder OUTREACH 283 Biomedical and Biochemical Engineering for K-12 students Sundararajan V. Madihally, Eric L. Maase CURRICULUM 275 An International Comparison of Final-Year Design Project Curricula Sandra E. Kentish, David C. Shallcross 297 Biomolecular Modeling in a Process Dynamics and Control Course Jeffrey J. Gray 313 Using Visualization and Computation in the Analysis of Separation Processes Yong Lak Joo, Devashish Choudhary CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS 307 Computer-Facilitated Mathematical Methods in ChE: Similarity Solution Venkat R. Subramanian 327 Teaching Tip 328 5-Year Index: 2002

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Chemical Engineering Education 246 S tudents entering graduate school have a variety of backgrounds. While some have actively participated in research as an undergraduate, many have no research experience at all. Although they may have read assigned technical articles, few are in the habit of searching journal articles for information or reading articles critically. These skills, however, are essential to being successful as a gradu ate student. Lilja [1] states that good researchers must perform literature searches to determine what is already known, and to avoid repeating existing work. Included in this approach is the need to develop skills to critically evaluate research articles. Lilja further states that these are skills that must be taught. Although technical articles have long been used in graduate courses to convey technical information, they arent always used to develop critical-thinking and technical-writing skills. To develop critical-thinking skills, several educators have required students to summarize the main points of journal articles, and critically evaluate the research. [1-4] Others have required undergraduate students to list the sections of a journal article to develop technical writing skills. [5] A similar view is taken at Michigan Technological Uni versity, where chemical engineering graduate students are required to take a course entitled, Theory and Methods of Research. [6] The purpose of this course is to provide formal training in skills that students need to be successful in graduate school. This includes a wide range of subjects from how to present professionally to guidelines on research notebooks. One major goal of the course is to improve paper writing, taught through lectures on the subject and writing assign ments. These lectures discuss the purpose of journal articles, types of journal articles, and the journal submission process. Later in the semester, students are required to review a journal article of their choice and present their critique. One chemical engineering textbook on reaction engineering includes journal article critiques [7] as exercises at the end of selected chapters. These exercises use chapter concepts to test claims made in selected papers. Each exercise presents the point being questioned, and gives hints on how to test the claim. The goal of these exercises is to teach students how to critically evaluate what they read. PRISCILLA J. HILL Mississippi State University Mississippi State, MS 39762 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2006

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Fall 2006 247 At the University of Michigan, students in the graduate chemical reaction engineering course are required to analyze and critique a related journal article. [8] This consists of a de tailed analysis in which students are encouraged to critically evaluate the assumptions, methods, and conclusions in the article. They are asked to determine if there is another ex planation for the papers results. The students are also given evaluation guidelines used by reviewers of AIChE Journal and Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers At the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, students in a graduate-level chemical engineering kinetics class [9] were required to present or discuss as signed technical articles in class. On the day of presentation, a student was selected at random to summarize the key points of the paper, while the other students joined the discussion. At the beginning of the semester, students were given guidelines as to what ques tions they should ask about each article they read. The goal is to teach entering graduate students the role of journal articles in research. This includes teaching students to search journal articles when looking for information, to critically evaluate journal articles, to summarize the key points of an article, and to evaluate the applicability of the research. These methods are implemented by classroom discussion of technical articles. INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES The objective of journal-related instruction is to better prepare students for research. Meeting this objective consists of two parts: 1) Giving students a better understanding of the role of technical articles in research 2) Introducing students to the paper submission and review process Although students will learn this information during their research projects, it is often helpful for students to hear this in formation from two different sources. In addition, it begins the transition from an undergraduate student to a researcher.IMPLEMENTATION Throughout the semester, 10 papers are distributed to the class for reading. At the beginning of the semester, the class is told that they are expected to read the assigned technical articles and be prepared to discuss each paper. An in-class discussion session of approximately 15 minutes is set aside for each paper. The instructor moderates the discussion and asks questions to encourage class participation. This participa tion includes a discussion of the papers technical points and other issues, such as the type of paper. The class discussion method is chosen because it encourages active participation, and research has shown that teaching is more effective when active learning is involved. [10, 11] This approach was implemented in a graduate-level thermodynamics course at Mississippi State University. The graduate thermodynamics class was chosen because it is one of the core courses entering students fall semesters of 2003 and 2004, there were 10 and 12 students, respectively. Generally, graduate classes are small enough to allow all students to participate in the discussion. Although all papers assigned relate to ther modynamics, they are also chosen to provide students with a sample of various types of papers and journals. For example, the papers assigned for the fall 2004 semester are given in References 12. They ranged from tra ditional papers on fundamental concepts to papers on recent developments. While most of the papers were published within the last [13] was published in 1914 and another [18] in 1958. Since most entering graduate students are unsure what to look for when reading a paper, they are instructed to address the following items. Fundamental issue addressed: What concerns are the authors addressing? What problem is being solved? Motivation, perspective: Why are the authors writing in the area? Is there a need for this research? Is the research novel? Main ideas: What are the key points? What are the assumptions, methods used, limitations, and applica tions? For example, is the work limited to a certain pressure range or a certain class of compounds? course? The discussion is conducted in a manner to elicit volunteer responses. Since part of the grade depends on discussion, a record is kept of participation. The discussion is largely guided The class discussion method is chosen because it encourages active participation, and research has shown that teaching is more effective when active learning is involved. [10, 11]

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Chemical Engineering Education 248 by the questions given above. The purpose of the assignment is to give students practice reading technical articles, particularly to aid students in developing the ability to understand the main points in technical articles outside their research area. CLASS DISCUSSIONS At the beginning of the semester, the instructor explains that graduate students should become more familiar with journal articles. Students usually agree that their undergraduate work relied heavily on textbooks and handbooks, and rarely in volved searching journal articles for information. The purpose of the explanation is to help students understand the reason for reading assignments. To aid students in understanding the role of technical papers, many concepts can be discussed in addition to the items given in the student guidelines. Topics discussed in class include the following. It is emphasized that the purpose of journal articles is to disseminate research results in a timely manner, to bring attention to research needs, or to encour age research in certain areas. The paper on applying thermodynamics to biotechnology [17] is used to demon strate the last two items. Discussion of journal types includes journals written for various audiences. Class examples include scien [16] for the Chemical Engineering Progress for the practicing chemical engineer, and other journals, e.g., Chemical Engineering Science [12, 15, 21] Industrial and Engineering Chemistry [18] and Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research [20] for researchers. Other examples include disciplinary journals such as Chemical Engineering Science [ 12, 15, 21] and Pure and Applied Chemistry [17] for chemical engineers and chemists, respectively. Further examples such as Fluid Phase Equilibria [14, 19] demonstrate journals that are highly specialized. The students are told that research articles can be categorized as theoretical, computational, experimen tal, or as a combination of these types. One paper is included to show how experimental papers may present new techniques or devices. [21] Discussion also mentions other types of articles, such as published plenary lec tures and review articles. Also discussed is how articles are categorized by length as letters or full research articles. Classroom discussion on article structure emphasizes the purpose of each section in the paper, showing how sections of a paper vary depending on article type. The students are told that although acceptance criteria varies among journals, they share many common criteria, including determining whether a paper is ap propriate for the journal, presents new material, and submission guidelines. The mechanics of journal submission are also dis cussed, and students are encouraged to check the submission and acceptance dates on published articles.ASSESSMENT AND DISCUSSION formal assessment was used. In 2004, an anonymous assess survey was to determine the students knowledge entering the class, while the second survey determined how much the additional questions to determine the students perception of what they had learned through the discussions. The initial survey at the beginning of the semester followed the suggestions of Angelo and Cross [22] for a background knowledge probe and a misconception/preconception check on the purpose of technical articles and procedure for pub lication. Some of the survey questions were drawn from TABLE 1 Importance of Reading Technical Articles Question 1 2 3 4 5 Initial Survey Final Survey 1. What sources do you use for technical information? books only mainly books books and articles mainly articles articles only 2.92 3.20 2. What sources do you use for current technical information? books only mainly books books and articles mainly articles articles only 3.83 4.3 3. Rank the importance of reading technical articles for conducting research. not neces sary slightly useful useful very useful crucial 4.75 4.8

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Fall 2006 249 taught in 2003. This survey provided a baseline comparison with the second survey. importance of reading technical articles. The students were are the average ratings for each question. A comparison of more students became convinced technical articles are the main source for current information. Since students were already aware that reading technical articles is important, this question showed little change. Other questions asked required short answers. The purpose of using a short-answer format was to avoid leading students asked in this format. 1. Why do graduate students and faculty read technical papers? The responses to this question were mostly to get current information came from at least half the class. This is probably because most students al ready realized that articles are a good source of cur rent information. One change between surveys was that on the initial survey 42% of students responded gave these responses. 2. Why are technical articles published? Most students responded either to disseminate research results or to disseminate research results quickly. The main difference between the two surveys was in the second response; the number of students citing this reason increased from 25% to 40%. 3. Why is a literature review included in an article? Most studentsmore than 50%already realized that the literature review is used to provide background. In the initial survey, 33% of the students stated that the purpose of the review was to give credit to previous researchers, but this response dropped to 10% in the 4. What are the criteria for getting a technical article accepted? The response of the work being novel or creative increased from 17 to 50 percent during the semester. Also, while one-third of the students re sponded dont know on the initial survey, only one 5. How long does it take for a journal article to be reviewed? The initial survey showed that 42% of the students wrote dont know for this question, but survey. In general, on the initial survey most students thought reviews would be received in less than 6 months, while the times became slightly longer on second survey. Student perception of the technical article reading assign shown in Table 2. For these questions, the students were asked how much they agreed with the statements by rating their agreement on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). In general, students thought the technical reading assignments and class discussions helped their understand ing of how to read technical articles and get a journal article published. Furthermore, most of the students recommended this exercise be repeated in future classes. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Class discussion of journal articles required little additional time to implement. Faculty members commonly use technical papers to provide more information on technical concepts. Although discussing the role of technical papers in research required some time, it provided graduate students with a bet ter understanding of why they should read recent literature. Having reading assignments and class discussions account for 10 percent of the course grade motivated the students to read the assignments. In addition, class participation seemed to encourage the students to be prepared. TABLE 2 Students Perception of the Technical Reading Assignments (Rated from 1-strongly disagree to 5-strongly agree) Statement Average Rating 1. During this course, my ability to read technical articles improved. 4.22 2. I have a better understanding of the role of technical articles in research. 3.89 3. As a result of the discussions, I have a better understanding of the types of journals and articles. 4.11 4. I have a better understanding of the acceptance criteria and procedure for getting a journal article published. 3.67 5. I would recommend that the professor repeat the technical article reading assignments and discussions the next time the course is taught. 4.39

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Chemical Engineering Education 250 The survey assessment was supplemented by faculty obser vation during class discussion. It was clear from the students comments and questions that they had read the papers and were able to comprehend the main points. They even com mented on some differences in the types of articles. Some of the concepts, however, were new to them. For example, many of the students had not submitted a paper to a journal at this time, so they were not aware of the review and publi cation timeline. Most students also didnt know that papers frequently list the date the manuscript was received and the date it was accepted. The response from the students was that they liked reading the papers and discussing them in class. Many of the students regularly contributed to the discussions. Since this assessment has only been performed once with a class of 12 students, it has not been well tested. Future work will include repeating this technique and its assessment. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Parts of this paper were originally published in the 2005 ASEE Southeastern Section Conference Proceedings.REFERENCES 1. Lilja, D.J., Suggestions for Teaching the Engineering Research Pro cess, ASEE Annual Conference Proceedings Session 0575 (1997) 2. Gleichsner, J.A., Using Journal Articles to Integrate Critical Thinking with Computer and Writing Skills, NACTA J., 38 (3), 12 (1994) 3. Gleichsner, J.A., Using Journal Articles to Integrate Critical Thinking with Computer and Writing Skills, NACTA J. 38 (4), 34 (1994) 4. Ludlow, D.K., Using Critical Evaluation and Peer-Review Writing Assignments in a Chemical Process Safety Course, 2001 ASEE Annual Conference Proceedings Session 3213 (2001) 5. Tilstra, L., Using Journal Articles to Teach Writing Skills for Labora tory Reports in General Chemistry, J. Chem. Educ., 78 762 (2001) 6. Holles, J.H., Theory and Methods of Research (or, How to Be a Gradu ate Student), 2005 ASEE Annual Conference Proceedings (2005) 7. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering 4th Ed., Prentice Hall, PTR, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (2006) 8. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering 1st Ed., Prentice Hall, PTR, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1986) 9. Westmoreland, P.R., personal communication (2003) 10. Felder, R.M., and R. Brent, FAQs, Chem. Eng. Ed., 33 32 (1999) 11. Wankat, P.C., and Service, Allyn and Bacon, Boston (2002) 12. Jaksland, C.A., R. Gani, and K. Lien, Separation Process Design and Synthesis Based on Thermodynamic Insights, Chem. Eng. Sci. 50 511 (1995) 13. Bridgman, P.W., A Complete Collection of Thermodynamic Formu las, Phys. Rev., 3 273 (1914) 14. Raabe, G., and J. Kohler, Phase Equilibria in the System NitrogenEthane and Their Prediction Using Cubic Equations of State with Different Types of Mixing Rules, Fluid Phase Equil., 222-223, 3-9 (2004) 15. Aslam, N., and A.K. Sunol, Reliable Computation of Binary Homo geneous Azeotropes of Multicomponent Mixtures at Higher Pressures Through Equations of State, Chem. Eng. Sci., 59 599 (2004) 16. Barker, J.A., and D. Henderson, The Fluid Phases of Matter, Sci. Am., 245 130 (1981) 17. Prausnitz, J.M., Molecular Thermodynamics for Some Applications in Biotechnology, Pure Appl. Chem., 75 859 (2003) 18. Curl, R.F. Jr., and K.S. Pitzer, Volumetric and Thermodynamic Proper ties of FluidsEnthalpy, Free Energy, and Entropy, Ind. Eng. Chem., 50 265 (1958) 19. Gmehling, J., Potential of Thermodynamic Tools (Group Contribu tion Methods, Factual Data Banks) for the Development of Chemical Processes, Fluid Phase Equil. 210 161 (2003) 20. Givand, J., B.-K. Chang, A.S. Teja, and R.W. Rousseau, Distribution of Isomorphic Amino Acids Between a Crystal Phase and an Aqueous Solution, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 41 1873 (2002) 21. Loffelmann, M., and A. Mersmann, How to Measure Supersaturation, Chem. Eng. Sci., 57 4301 (2002) 22. Angelo, T.A., and K.P. Cross, Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Hand book for College Teachers, 2nd Ed., Jossey-Bass, San Francisco (1993)

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Fall 2006 251 B iointerfaces arise at contacts between biologically de rived systemsliving and nonlivingand synthetic systems, typically comprised of synthetically designed materials. Many new technologies in cell-based diagnostics and therapies, tissue engineering, biomolecular therapies, and biosensors are critically dependent on advances in biointeractive surfaces. [1, 12, 22] Rapid advances have taken place in identifying new biological molecules and in the initial design bio-recognition. [42] poised for a major impact on our society. In contrast to the which largely occurred independently, the next generation of bio-inspired and bio-interactive materials will be systemati cally developed through the integration of these disciplines, with strong links to traditional molecular/cellular biology, structural biochemistry, and nano/microsystems materials sciences and engineering. [2, 11, 37] To realize these opportunities, a structured framework is needed for cooperative graduate learning and research scholarship that cuts across engineer ing, physical, and life sciences while focusing on mainstream biointerfacial problems and opportunities. Based on the edu cational core of a new National Science Foundation-supported IGERT initiative at Rutgers, we propose a new Integrative MULTIDISCIPLINARY GRADUATE CURRICULUM ON INTEGRATIVE BIOINTERFACIAL ENGINEERINGPRABHAS V. MOGHE AND CHARLES M. ROTH Rutgers University Piscataway, NJ 08854 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2006

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Chemical Engineering Education 252 Biointerfacial Engineering (IBE) curriculum that involves a three-pronged focus on molecular/cellular engineering; micro/nanoscale biomaterials; and tools to quantitatively probe biointerfaces (see Figure 1). While such a curriculum can be best rooted within a bioengineering core (designated bio-x-engineering), the integrative curriculum is designed to effectively resonate among a diverse range of nonengineers. In the following section we review the core curriculum and the best instructional practices of the IBE curriculum.TECHNOLOGICAL CONTEXT FOR CURRICULUM: RESEARCH PROGRAMS ON BIOINTERFACES The curriculum on biointerfaces can be designed to ar graduate institution. The research thrusts are an important prerequisite, as they provide the technological context and research infrastructure for the courses. Three major thrusts i.e. engineered cellular/intracellular systems that elucidate/affect biointerfacial phenomena; (2) biologically interactive na noscale and microscale interfaces; and (3) systems or devices built from designed biointerfaces. Thrust 1 involves studies at the interfaces that occur be tween living cells and biomaterials, between living cells and supported biomolecules (ligands), and intracellular in terfaces between cytoskeletal proteins and signaling targets within living cells. Such interfaces are fundamental to any cell-based diagnostic, therapeutic, or model systems used to study stem-cell development, pathology, and bio-inspired devices. The interpretation and modeling of cellular dynamics on more complex ligand substrates is also an area that often falls outside the expertise of cell biologists, but is central to the integrated curriculum proposed here. A recent report in the Annals of Biomedical Engineering describes a curriculum concentrating on cellular engineering [20] that embraces many of these principles. Thrust 2 involves investigation of inorganic and polymeric substrates from micron-sized cell interfaces to nano-sized peptide/protein interfaces. Such interfaces are widely emerg ing in biophotonics, bioMEMs, single-cell studies, and therapeu tic approaches to tis sue regeneration and drug delivery. For ex ample, interfaces cre ated by micropatterning proteins on synthetic polymeric substrates can be fabricated using microlithographic or microcontact printing technologies, then ana lyzed using microscop ic, spectroscopic, and cellular approaches. The capabilities of micro fabricationthe physi cochemical character izationand biological studies fall outside the expertise of any single discipline and, there fore, constitute a major area in the integrated training approach we envision. Thrust 3 involves studies of systems or processes involving Figure 1. A triad of graduate courses has been designed to capture the synthetic and analytical approaches related to biointerfacial problems involving living engineered cells on: substrates; microand nanoscale biofunctional materials; and biosystems and processes for cell signaling, biosensing, and actuation. The schematic backdrop illustrates the landscape of the curriculum in terms of (a) the biointerfacial conuence of cells, biomolecules, and materials; and (b) inter disciplinary research thrusts denoted as IRTs. Emerging opportunities allow engineers and life scientists to address biointerfacial problems at the nanothrough microscales.

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Fall 2006 253 biomaterial substrates designed to elicit systematic responses from living cells or biomolecular moieties ( e.g ., oligonucle otides, peptides/proteins), called bio-responsive interfaces; substrates designed to detect and sense biomolecules and cells, called biosensors; and substrates engineered to be physiologic, three-dimensional, [19] and/or actuated through the media tion of biologic mechanisms or motors. Such interfaces are fundamental to the development of therapeutic implantable biomaterials, implantable biosensors, and biomicro-electro mechanical systems (BioMEMS). COURSE LEVEL AND PREREQUISITES The biointerfacial engineering curriculum is aimed at second-year or higher graduate students in chemical and biomolecular engineering, biomedical engineering, allied en gineering disciplines (mechanical and materials engineering), and physical and life sciences. At Rutgers, nearly 60 graduate students (50% chemical and bio-engineers; 10% mechani cal and materials engineers; 25% molecular bioscientists; and 10% physical scien tists) participated in these courses in academic year 2005-6. Because students enter the curriculum from diverse backgrounds, prerequisites are expressed topically rather than by and consultation with course instructors and/or IGERT administration is encouraged. Prerequisites include undergraduate life sciences courses (general biology, cell biology/bio chemistry/molecular biol ogy) as well as structured undergraduate courses in the physical and quanti tative sciences, such as physical chemistry and advanced calculus. The curriculum builds later ally on graduate core en gineering courses such as transport phenomena, an alytical methods in chemi cal and bioengineering, and thermodynamics and kinetics. The curriculum does not typically add any further to the courseload beyond the expected graduate elec tives for a Ph.D. degree. For example, the Rutgers Chemical and Biochemical Engineering graduate program requires 15 elective credits (beyond 15 core credits), for which any or all of the three integrative courses (IC) described below may be used. Further, engineering graduate programs that have recently instituted a life science course requirement can eas ily adopt any IC courses. Similarly, biomedical engineering graduate programs, such as those at Rutgers, require three bioengineering electives (9 credits), which can be readily met through the IC courses. CURRICULUM COMPOSITION The proposed curriculum involves a triad of courses, denoted as IC1, IC2, and IC3 (see Table 1). We utilize an integrative philosophy to develop curricular themes. For example, we designed courses that integrate biointerfaces across the range of organization of biological components of the interfaces ( e.g., genes, proteins, cells: see IC1), or size T ABLE 1 Course Syllabus for Integrative Biointerfaces Curriculum Course and underlying integrative philosophy Syllabi of course modules IC1: Molecular and Cellular Bioengineer ing (integrated across scales of bio-organiza tion) Module 1 : Genessequence and function technologies and data Module 2 : Proteinsstructure and function; molecular recogni tion; protein adsorption; nanopatterning of proteins; proteomic technologies Module 3 : Biochemical Networksgene expression data mining; modeling Module 4 : Cellsgrowth and differentiation; cell-material responses; expression-phenotype relationships; actuated cell responses; stem cells IC2: Microscale and Nanoscale Biointer faces (integrated across scales) Module 1: Microlithography and microfabrication Module 2: Nanoscale processing and fabrication Module 3: Soft tissuenanostructures, microstructures, macro structures Module 4: Hard tissuenanostructures, microstructures, and functional components Module 5: Nanostructures and microstructures of biosensors, bioseparations, implantable devices, bioMEMs IC3: Biointerfacial Characterization (integrated across biointerfacial phases: chemical, physical, biological) Module 1 : Chemical surface characterization; electron spectros copy Module 2: Physical surface characterizationtopography, surface energetics, microscopy, spectroscopies (surface Raman; single molecule; FTIR); nanoparticle sizing and morphology Module 3: Biological Surface Characterizationproteins at inter faces and protein arrays; cell dynamics at interfaces (adhesion; migration; endocytosis; growth/differentiation); biofunctional ized substrates; gene micro-arrays Module 4: Integrative design, applications, and case

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Chemical Engineering Education 254 scales ( e.g., nano-micro-macroscales: see IC2), or the two phases that constitute a typical biointerface ( e.g. the gene element, plus the siliconwafer, that form a class of gene-chips: see IC3). In the future, other integrative philosophies can be envisioned as well ( e.g. integration across time scales for dynamic interfaces). INTEGRATIVE TREATMENT OF THE CURRICULUM A variety of fundamental tools and phenomena are in troduced in each of the three courses within the context of cohesive framework in the overall curriculum, many key problems are dissected within all three courses. Naturally, each course treats the problem differently, as illustrated in ing of drug nanoparticles is discussed in IC1 at the level of receptor-ligand binding, and in the theory and analysis of biofunctionalization; while IC3 treats the experimental tools for nanoparticle characterization. These tools include the use of dynamic laser scattering and zeta potential measurements to characterize nanoparticle charge and sizing, and quartz-crystal microbalance and surface plasmon resonance techniques to are summarized in Table 2.BEST PRACTICES In developing the new curriculum, an overarching goal has been integration of the graduate students research and learning experiences, i.e ., to help usher the frontiers of bio interfacial science and engineering into the classroom. The that have proven to be particularly effective in merging active applications. These approaches include the selected inclusion of faculty experts as guest lecturers, extensive incorporation of readings from current research literature, and demonstra tions of techniques and instrumentation at laboratories around campus. Additionally, mid-course corrections in response to student feedback have occurred. For all three courses, each major topic was contextualized through extensive use of recent, leading publications in the review and discussion. In IC3, following each lecture students were assigned homework based on the key publication. The homework involved writing a short essay highlighting key principles, insights obtained, and shortcomings of biointer facial characterization techniques treated in each reading. T ABLE 2 Breakdown of Topics Treated Across the Triad of Integrative Courses CROSS-CUTTING PROBLEMS SPECIFIC TOPICS AND REFERENCES IC1 IC2 IC3 High-Content Living Cell Assays Signal transduction; cell cycle and proliferation; differentiation; metabolic engineering [6, 30, 40] Cell microreactors [32] Cell adhesion and motility characterization [4, 10, 44, 45, 47] DNA and Protein Microarrays Applications of microar rays; interpretation of data [3, 23] Photolithography; surface attachment and functionalization [25, 34] Chemical, physical, and functional characteriza tion [36, 48] Discovery and Applications of Novel Biological Transformations Protein molecular recog nition and function [5] Micro/nano-scale or ganic substrates [8, 31] Single molecule and FRET imaging [21, 38] func tion [5] Targeted Biofunctionalized and Drug Carriers Ligand-receptor binding ing [29] Fabrication of microand nanoscale inorganic and organic substrates [7, 4, 15, 17, 22] Size; charge; biofunc tional characterization; copy [18, 28, 33, 35] Regenerative Biomaterials Scaffolds Protein adsorption and biocompatability [46] Fabrication of nanoand microporous scaf [16, 24] Molecular modeling; conformation; topography and microstructure characterization [27, 41, 43] Multicellular Tissue Assembly and Engineering Cell-cell and cell-matrix communication [9, 26, 39] Cell-matrix assembly and patterning [13] Cellular phenotypic and signaling within tissue assemblies [19]

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Fall 2006 255 Retrospectively, students have reported this exercise was critical to understanding the key elements of each technique within an application area. As described below, student feed enthusiastic. Careful attention has been given to choosing student as sessment vehicles that both support the research-centric and integrative goals of the new curriculum and address the divergence in student backgrounds and preparation ( i.e., the enrollment across engineering, physical sciences, and life sciences graduate programs). All three courses used a threefold combination of short (homework) assignments, mid-term students with different ways to demonstrate mastery of the material. Class projects, in particular, have proven to be a valuable mechanism for promoting integration of classroom learning and student research, and promoting cross-disciplin ary interactions. In all three courses, students were assigned one or more integrative project reports to prepare over the course of the entire class and also submitted their slides and/or a paper to the instructor. Students were challenged to select topics that related to their own thesis research, and to consult the course instructors should they need help in doing so. Several strategies were adopted to encourage cross-disciplinary dialog and learning during the course projects. For example, the IC1 course projects allowed pairs of students to work on such reports, with the teams composed of students from different graduate disciplines. In IC2, Rutgers graduate students from projects. The instructor for IC3 encouraged each student to sultant on his or her project. vey administered by the instructors has proven invaluable in assessing the knowledge base of each student population, and appropriately customizing the focus of the modules within each course. For instance, in IC1, which has now been offered twice, the student body was further along in research and more familiar with tissue engineering and other bioengineering top ics. The second years class was, on average, still formulating research projects and had a preponderance of students with bioinformatics backgrounds. Mid-course surveys also proved asked for additional background information, such as further postings on the course Web sites. Given the interdisciplinary nature and lack of precedent for such a curriculum, continuing assessment is necessary to as sure that it meets its goals and the needs of constituents. The ultimate goal of the curriculum is to provide students with knowledge that will increase the quality and productivity of their research. While the current curriculum form has been at Rutgers since 2003, a more comprehensive quantitative assessment of this outcome will have to wait for curricular knowledge to be translated to research output. Comments on course assessments suggest that students feel more knowl edgeable and empowered in the areas of this interdisciplinary curriculum. The curriculum serves as an effective platform for evalu ating the success of students from diverse backgrounds. To gather additional data on possible differences in student per formance, based on disciplinary background and/or IGERT participation, all students in IC3 were asked to evaluate each others oral course project presentations using a structured questionnaire designed by the instructor. Evaluation criteria included not only presentation quality (clarity, organization, etc.), but also the appropriateness of the characterization methods chosen and the degree to which the chosen re their peers, IGERT Fellows and non-IGERT students fared comparably, on average, indicating that the student learning outcomes were not systematically biased by their training chemists all fared similarly, with some students from each discipline giving stronger presentations than others from the same discipline. An excellent source of data about student feedback on courses is the Student Instructional Ratings Survey (SIRS) program that is administered by the Rutgers Center for Ad vancement of Teaching. All courses at Rutgers are evaluated rating scale. The survey is reproduced, along with actual rat (next page). Additionally, three open-ended questions were posed to acquire qualitative feedback (not shown for brev ity). To put the curriculum feedback in context, we calculated an average bio-x-eng response by using the SIRS data for mean of responses from all courses this level from the biomedical engineering and chemical and biochemical engi neering graduate programs at Rutgers for the two academic semesters the IC courses were offered.

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Chemical Engineering Education 256 Students complimented the teaching quality of all three courses, which is consistent with the high numerical scores for each of the three lead instructors in Questions 1. Students noted the care given to the choice of topics (both breadth and relevance) and to the organization and delivery of the course material. Many comments addressed the ways in which all three courses incorporated current research literature into the course curriculum. Students appreciated the time devoted to discussion of the papers, and how these discussions, together with written assignments, helped students develop alternative way(s) to look at data and critically review papers. Finally, students appreciated the attempts to tie course content and assignments to the biointerfacial aspects of their graduate dissertation research. The projects/presentations assigned in all three courses were useful in terms of covering topics of interest instead of recycling research or spending too much time out of research. As expressed by another student, in structor and peer feedback from classroom presentations of research in a biointerfacial twist. Students in IC1, which did not use guest lecturers, expressed interest in having a few guest lecturers. Conversely, students in IC2 and IC3 felt that courses might be improved by fewer guest lecturers and/or better quality control. In IC2, students were primarily concerned that they sometimes could not deduce the relevance of a certain lecture, i.e., its relationship to the overall curriculum. Other constructive criticism and suggestions of the students focused on not decreasingand perhaps increasingthe frequency of short assignments and other ongoing student assessments. In IC2, there was concern input that optional short exercises, calculations, and readings could be provided to address respective gaps in students backgrounds. Finally, some students suggested the creation of a textbook for IC3, and a more modular organization of topics as in IC1.CURRICULUM EVOLUTION AND INSTITUTIONALIZATION The Rutgers curriculum on biointerfacial engineering was the IGERT program (). We expect the curriculum to evolve in response to the emerging areas of biomaterials and biointerfaces. The dynamic participation of a large number of research-active institutional faculty with access to state-of-the-art research infrastructure and tools will be integral to ensuring the timely evolution of the cur riculum. The biointerfacial engineering area also resonates engineering. Given the close ties of our IGERT to the New Jersey Center for Biomateri als (), we expect to offer the IC courses along with core biomaterials-related courses as part of a comprehensi ve gers on biointerfaces and program, to be established fall 2006, indicates success ful institutionalization of the curriculum and will help sustain an identity for the curriculum. CONCLUSIONS A new graduate curriculum on integrative biointerfacial engineering was developed. This curriculum treats the T ABLE 3 Rutgers Student Instructional Rating Survey (SIRS) Questions N=15 N=13 N=16 IC1 IC2 IC3 bio-xeng 1. The instructor was prepared for class and presented the material in an organized manner 4.75 4.67 4.75 4.32 2. The instructor responded effectively to student comments and questions 4.63 4.60 4.67 4.30 3. The instructor generated interest in the course material 4.44 4.73 4.67 4.09 4. The instructor had a positive attitude toward assisting all students in understanding course material 4.63 4.53 4.58 4.40 5. The instructor assigned grades fairly 4.38 4.20 4.38 4.22 6. The instructional methods encouraged student learning 4.31 4.00 4.50 3.98 7. I learned a great deal in this course 4.50 4.27 4.58 3.97 8. I had a strong prior interest in the subject matter and wanted to take this course 4.56 4.53 4.42 3.73 9. I rate the teaching effectiveness of the instructor as 4.44 4.33 4.77 4.10 10. I rate the overall quality of the course as 4.25 4.13 4.77 4.08

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Fall 2006 257 synthesis, analysis, and design of biological interfaces in terms of the constituent components (biologics, materials, systems), and with an eye to emerging technological applications such as tissue engineering, biotechnology, nanobiomaterials, and biomedicine. Each course within the curriculum is designed based on a fundamental integrating philosophy. The node for the curriculum lies within bio-x-engineering, while the breadth of the curriculum enables life scientists, physical scientists, and other bio-engineers to participate fully within the curriculum. Various instructional strategies were adopted to more fully integrate the multiple disciplines represented assessment, the curriculum is equivalently amenable to stu dents from a wide range of disciplines, effectively structured and rigorous, dynamic in embodying state-of-the-art research engineers and scientists. Graduate curriculum on integrative biosciences and bioengineering would resonate well in other American and international universities, particularly those advanced materials, and engineering sciences.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation Integrative Graduate Educa tion and Research Traineeship (IGERT) DGE 0333196 (PI: P. Moghe), and from Rutgers University. The authors are indebted to Professor Kathryn Uhrich for her active participa Dr. Linda J. Anthony provided excellence assistance with the management of the educational program. P. Moghe expresses gratitude for the contributions of many faculty colleagues at Rutgers and UMDNJ including Yves Chabal, David Sh reiber, Theodore Madey, Gary Brewer, William Welsh, Jack Ricci, Adrian Mann, Richard Riman, Sobin Kim, and Edward Castner, among several others, whose instructional help has strengthened the quality of the curriculum. REFERENCES 1. Anderson, D.G., S. Levenberg, and R. 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Yarmush, Metabolic Flux Analysis of Cultured Hepatocytes Exposed to Plasma, Biotechnol. Bioeng., 81 33 (2003) 7. Chen, Y., and A. Pepin, Nanofabrication: Conventional and Noncon ventional Methods, Electrophoresis, 22 187 (2001) 8. Ehrick, J.D., S.K. Deo, T.W. Browning, L.G. Bachas, M.J. Madou, and S. Daunert, Genetically Engineered Protein in Hydrogels Tailors Stimuli-Responsive Characteristics, Nat. Mater., 4 298 (2005) Discher, Substrate Compliance Versus Ligand Density in Cell on Gel Responses, Biophys. J., 86 (1 Pt 1) 617 (2004) 10. Entschladen, F., T.L. Drell, K. Lang, K. Masur, D. Palm, P. Bastian, B. Niggemann, and K.S. Zaenker, Analysis Methods of Human Cell Migration, Exp. Cell Res., 307 418 (2005) 11. Farokhzad, O.C., S. Jon, A. Khademhosseini, T.N. Tran, D.A. Lavan, and R. Langer, Nanoparticle-Aptamer Bioconjuages: A New Approach for Targeting Prostrate Cancer Cells, Cancer Res., 64 7668 (2004) 12. Farokhzad, O.C., A. Khademhosseini, S. Jon, A. Hermmann, J. Cheng, System for Studying the Interaction of Nanoparticles and Micropar ticles with Cells, Anal. Chem., 77 5453 (2005) 13. Folch, A., and M. Toner, Microengineering of Cellular Interactions, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2 227 (2000) 14. Freiberg, S., and X.X. Zhu, Polymer Microspheres for Controlled Drug Release, Int. J. Pharm., 282 1-18 (2004) 15. Freitas, S., H.P. Merkle, and B. Grander, Microencapsulation by Solvent Extraction/Evaporation: Reviewing the State of the Art of Microsphere Preparation Process Technology, J. Controlled Rel. 102 313 (2005) Electrospinning, Curr. Opin. Colloid Interf. Sci., 8 64-75 (2003) 17. Gates, B.D., Q. Xu, M. Stewart, D. Ryan, C.G. Willson, and G.M. Whitesides, New Approaches to Nanofabrication: Molding, Printing, and Other Techniques, Chem. Rev., 105 1171 (2005) 18. Grant, C.D., M.R. DeRitter, K.E. Steege, T.A. Fadeeva, and E.W. Castner, Fluorescence Probing of Interior, Interfacial, and Exterior Re gions in Solution Aggregates of Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(propylene oxide)-Polyethylene oxide) Triblock Copolymers, Langmuir, 21 1745 (2005) Physiology in Vitro, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol., 7 211 (2006) 20. Hammer, D.A., and R.E. Waugh, Teaching Cellular Engineering, Annals of Biomed. Eng. 34 253 (2006) 21. Haustein, E., and P. Schwille, Single Molecule Spectroscopic Meth ods, Curr. Opin. Str. Biol., 14 531 (2004) 22. Hiltz, J.Z., and N.A. Peppas, Microfabricated Drug Delivery Devices, Int. J. Pharm. 306 15 (2005) and Genotype Analysis, Nat. Rev. Gen. 7 200 (2006) 24. Hollister, S.J., Porous Scaffold Design for Tissue Engineering, Nat. Mater. 4 518 (2005) 25. Kannan, B., K. Castelino, F.F. Chen, and A. Majumdar, Lithographic Techniques and Surface Chemistries for the Fabrication of Peg-Pas sivated Protein Microarrays, Biosens. Bioelectron., 21 1960 (2006) 26. Khetani, S.R., G. Szulgit, J.A. Del Rio, C. 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Chemical Engineering Education 258 29. Lauffenburger, D.A., E.M. Fallon, and J.M. Haugh, Scratching the (cell) Surface: Cytokine Engineering for Improved Ligand/Receptor Chem. Bio. 5 R257 (1998) 30. Lee, K.D., T.K.C. Kuo, J. Whang-Peng, Y.-F. Chung, C.T. Lin, S.H. Chou, J.-R. Chen, Y.-P. Chen, and O.K.-S. Lee, In Vitro Hepatic Dif ferentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Hepatology 40 1275 (2004) 31. Lin, D.C., B. Yurke, and N.A. Langrana, Mechanical Properties of a Reversible, DNA-Crosslinked Polyacrylamide Hydrogel, J. Biomech. Eng. 126 104 (2004) 32. Maharbiz, M.M., W.J. Holtz, R.T. Howe, and J.D. Keasling, Mi crobioreactor Arrays with Parametric Control for High-Throughput Experimentation, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 86 485 (2004) 33. Maheshwari, G., G. Brown, D.A. Lauffenburger, A. Wells, and L.G. tering, J. Cell Sci. 113 1677 (2000) 34. Moorcroft, M.J., W.R. Meuleman, S.G. Latham, T.J. Nicholls, R.D. Egeland, and E.M. Southern, In Situ Oligonucletoide Synthesis on Poly(dimethylsiloxane): A Flexible Substrate for Microarray Fabrica tion, Nucleic Acids Res. 33 75 (2005) 35. Popielarski, S.R., S.H. Pun, and M.E. Davis, A Nanoparticle-Based Model Delivery System to Guide the Rational Design of Gene Delivery to the Liver: Synthesis and Characterization, Bioconj. Chem. 16 1063 (2005) 36. Reddy, G., and E.A. Dalmasso, Seldi Proteinchip Array Technology: Protein-based Predictive Medicine and Drug Discovery Applications, J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 4 237 (2003) 37. Richards, G., I.S. Choi, B.M. Tyler, P.P. Wang, H. Brem, M.J. Cima, and R. Langer, Multi-Pulse Drug Delivery from a Resorbable Polymeric Microchip Device, Nat. Mater., 2 767 (2003) 38. Sako, Y., S. Minoguchi, and T. Yanagida, Single-Molecule Imaging of Egfr Signalling on the Surface of Living Cells, Nat. Cell Biol. 2 168 (2000) 39. Semler, E.J., A. Dasgupta, P. Lancin, and P.V. Moghe, Engineering Hepatocellular Morphogenesis and Function Via Ligand-Presenting Hydrogels with Graded Mechanical Compliance, Biotechnol Bioeng. 89 297 (2005) 40. Semler, E.J., and P.V. Moghe, Engineering Hepatocyte Functional Fate Through Growth Factor Dynamics: The Role of Cell Morphologic Priming, Biotechnol. Bioeng., 75 510 (2001) 41. Smith, J.R., V. Kholodovych, D. Knight, J. Kohn, and W.J. Welsh, Predicting Fibrinogen Adsorption to Polymeric Surfaces in Silico: A Combined Method Approach, Polymer 46 4296 (2005) 42. Stevens, M.M., and J.H. George, Exploring and Engineering the Cell Surface Interface, Science 310 1135 (2005) 43. Sun, Y., W.J. Welsh, and R.A. Latour, Prediction of the Orientations of Adsorbed Protein Using an Empirical Energy Function with Implict Solvation, Langmuir 21 5616 (2005) 44. Tan, J.L., J. Tien, D.M. Pirone, D.S. Gray, K. Bhadriraju, and C.S. Chen, Cells Lying on a Bed of Microneedles: An Approach to Isolate Mechanical Force, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100 1484 (2003) 45. Tjia, J.S., and P.V. Moghe, Cell Migration on Cell-Internalizable Ligand Microdepots: A Phenomenological Model, Annals of Biomed. Eng. 30 851 (2002) 46. Yoon, J.J., Y.S. Nam, J.H. Kim, and T.G. Park, Surface Immobilization of Galactose onto Aliphatic Biodegradable Polymers for Hepatocyte Culture, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 78 (1), 1-10 (2002) 47. Zaman, M.H., R.D. Kamm, P. Matsudaira, and D.A. Lauffenburger, Computational Model for Cell Migration in Three-Dimensional Matrices, Biophys. J. 89 1389 (2005) 48. Zhu, H., M. Bilgin, R. Bangham, D. Hall, A. Casamayor, P. Bertone, N. Lan, R. Jansen, S. Bidlingmaier, T. Houfek, T. Mitchell, P. Miller, R.A. Dean, M. Gerstein, and M. Synder, Global Analysis of Protein Activities Using Proteome Chips, Science 293 2101 (2001)

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Fall 2006 259 A s discussed in an earlier paper, [1] the overall objective of the thermodynamics course sequence at Manhat about their understanding of theoretical material and familiar enough with mathematical manipulations to properly and ac curately set up solutions to problems involving thermodynam ics. Toward the end of the semester, students have a chance to explore and propose feasible solutions for what-if scenarios to contemporary problems such as Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) contamination of groundwater, [1] biofuels, [2] and thermodynamics of power plants. [3] The desired outcome is to develop the students engineering judgment and capabilities along with their mathematical skills in solving complicated equations with many inputs. This major assignment introduces the students to a practical and current problem they can tackle somewhat intuitively, rather than by a direct application of formulas as presented by Cengel. [4] The only requirement for a solution is the use of computer programming, possibly a spreadsheet, and the thermodynamic principles taught in class ( e.g. phase equilibria, solubility, fugacity). Such an open-ended approach is common in engineering education and BIOMASS AS A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SOURCE: MARGUERITE A. MOHAN, NICOLE MAY, NADA M. ASSAF-ANID, AND MARCO J. CASTALDI Manhattan College Riverdale, NY Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2006 Columbia University Earth and Environmental Engineering Department

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Chemical Engineering Education 260 has been used in thermodynamics courses [5] because it resembles problem-solving situations en countered in industry. [6] The objectives of this paper are to present an open-ended prob graduate process thermodynamics class, describe how one student tackled it, and demonstrate how it was a useful addition to the ther modynamics concepts taught in the class. Portions of the problem may be suitable in an undergradu ate thermodynamics, modeling, [3] or design class, [7] if presented in a less open-ended manner or as a continuing problem integrated in a series of courses using the approach of Shaeiwitz. [8] The problem given to students, with three references on anaerobic digestion, [9-11] is shown below. Students were instructed on literature research methods using online libraries and Internet sites, such as About.com, [12] ground information. Topics and information searched ranged systems, to physical property data needed to perform calcula tions, to ideas for possible solutions.PROBLEM STATEMENT As shown in Table 1, the students had about six weeks to complete the project and were expected to work indepen dently. By the time the computer assignment was issued, the students were exposed to solution equilibrium theory, which begins with Chapter 6. The demand for power, especially electricity, has driven many engineers to propose possible ways to generate power. Of course, that power generation must be compatible with environmental regulations and must be fueled by available resources. One novel power-generation system uses a bioreac tor to decompose various types of biomass anaerobically. The off-gas from that process will generate methane (CH 4 ), which can be used as fuel. However, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is also generated. In this gas mixture of CH 4 and CO 2 the latter is considered a diluent and effectively lowers the energy content of the gas stream. One could separate out the CO 2 from the stream, but the energy requirements are prohibitively high. The total power that can be obtained from the system is been proposed to accelerate the decomposition of the biomass to generate more CH 4 CH 4 /CO 2 mixture. One way to do this is to feed the bacteria that is decomposing the biomass a warm stream of CO 2 and hydrogen (H 2 ). In addition, this CO 2 can serve as a carbon source for the bacteria. This allows the bacteria population to increase and the decomposition of the biomass to occur faster. The supply of CO 2 and H 2 is secured by another reactor placed upstream to convert some of the bioreactor product stream (CH 4 and CO 2 ) to H 2 carbon monoxide (CO), and CO 2 This second reactor is a catalytic, reforming reaction that uses a T ABLE 1 Overview of Course Syllabus (The chapters refer to the class textbook [13] ) Week Subject 1 Review of classical thermodynamics 2 Review of classical thermodynamics (contd) 3 Ch. 2, prepare for exam #1 4 Ch. 3, exam #1 (classical thermo and Ch. 2) 5 Ch. 4 (parts) 6 Ch. 5 (parts), review exam #1 7 Ch. 6 (parts); computer assignment discussed 8 Ch. 7 (parts) 9 Ch. 7 (parts), exam #2 (Ch. 3, 4, 5, 6) 10 Ch. 8, Ch. 9 (parts) 11 Review exam #2, Ch 9 (parts) 12 Ch. 10 (parts), Ch. 11 (parts), Ch. 12 (parts) 13 Statistical thermodynamics, computer assignment due, review 14 Final exam Catalytic Reactor Bioreactor Power Plant Air Liquid Draw Off Air Figure 1. Schematic of system components.

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Fall 2006 261 small amount of air. Lastly, it is known that the bacteria will have some waste byproducts as a result of their digestive process. Some of those byproducts could harm the bacteria if they accumulate to dangerous levels. As an engineer on this job, you need to provide a full understanding of the bio reactor. That is, what types of byproducts will be formed by the bacteria and how will those byproducts distribute them selves between liquid and gas phases. In addition, you also need to determine the preferred concentrations of carbon in the bioreactor feed stream as a function of residence time in the bioreactor, to ensure that adequate carbon is dissolved in the liquid phase for the bacteria to access. In addition to the statement, a concep tual schematic (Figure 1) was provided to show the overall system. Finally, a survey was distributed to students assessing how this type of a project impacts their understanding of the subject and overall learning experience.BACKGROUND AND THEORY Anaerobic digestion, or methane fermentation, is the process by which microorganisms convert biomass to methane in the absence of oxygen. Of ten, a water layer serves as a blanket to exclude oxygen and promote growth of the appropriate anaerobes. [14] With higher (gross) heating values ranging from 15.7 to 29.5 MJ/m 3 (n), the gas produced by the anaerobic digestion of biomass, called biogas, is a medium-energy fuel that may be used for heating and power. [14] Methane fermentation is a three-step process that utilizes three main categories of bacteria: fermentative, acetogenic, and methanogenic. [14, 15] fermentative bacteria convert complex polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids present in biomass to lower molecular weight fragments, such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen, [14] according to the main reactions shown. [14] o(kJ) C 6 HO HO CO H R xn CH OC H 12 62 22 61 26 3 66 12 26 1 2 () C CO CO HH Rx n CH OH OC HC H 2 2 61 26 2 3 22 112 2 2 () 2 22 22 61 26 32 35 192 3 CO HC OH Rx n CH OC HC HC () H HC OH CO H R xn 22 22 22 264 4 () In the second step, hydrogen-producing acetogenic bacteria catabolize the dioxide, and hydrogen. Also, some carbon dioxide and hydrogen are converted to acetate by the acetogens, according to the main acetogenic reactions considered below [14] : o(kJ) CH CO CO HO CH CO CO H R xn CO 32 2 3 22 2 2 52 5 24 () H HC HC OH HO Rx n HC OH HC 2 3 2 2 32 2 9 5 6 24 () H HC OH O R xn CH OH OC HC O 32 2 61 26 2 3 2 4 105 7 42 () 24 4 206 8 22 3 2 61 26 2 3 HC OH H R xn CH OH OC H () C CO HC OH Rx n CH OC HC O 2 2 2 61 26 32 22 4 216 9 3 () 3 311 10 H R xn () convert acetate to methane and carbon dioxide by decarboxylation, and the latter to additional methane upon reaction with hydrogen, according to Reference 14: o(kJ) CH CO HC HC O R xn CO HC HH 32 42 22 42 36 11 4 2 () O O R xn HC OH HC HH O R xn 131 12 4 3 136 1 3 2 42 () (3 3) In the three stages described above, CH 4 H 2 and CO 2 are in the gaseous state. In addition, the standard physiological conditions are atmospheric pressure, unit activity, and a temperature of 25 C at a pH of 7.0. [14] As evidenced by the reactions, there are a number of intermediate acids gen erated. Since all reactions do not go to completion, a certain amount of these compounds builds up within the bioreactor, changing the solution pH, poisoning the bacteria, or inhibiting the digestion rates. Since the bioreactor usually takes days to digest the initial charge of biomass, an equilibrium is established between the vapor and liquid phases in which the compounds partition. The information presented thus far on biochemical reactions taking place in the bioreactor can now be applied to solve the problem at hand. One unique feature of this type of problem is the dynamic nature of the system. That is, starting the system with an initial charge results in changing stream composition while steady state is achieved. This requires students to develop a solution that is iterative in nature and exposes them to realistic processes in industry, where thought must be given to system startup and shutdown, as well as adjustments that must be made on the way to a targeted operational condition. As was previously discussed, the

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Chemical Engineering Education 262 problem statement is open-ended; therefore, there are several possible approaches and solutions. ONE STUDENTS SOLUTION A computer solution was created in Mathematica to perform the calculations described in the Background and Theory section, and can be obtained, in Mathematica format, upon request. The objective of this project was to determine if it is possible to increase the total power that may be harnessed from a traditional bioreactor system. Therefore, the logical starting point is to calculate the amount of power actually generated from a traditional system, which consists solely of a batch bioreactor set to operate in the mesophilic 30 C 38 C temperature range, at a pH within the range 6.6 7.4 to maintain the proper alkalinity. Furthermore, a high-rate digestion is assumed, and an appropriate residence time of using values from the literature, [1] and it is assumed that ap proximately two-thirds of the total volume is charged with an initial amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). The MSW water, and its volume, along with the density of the waste (a weighted density of water and glucose), allows the calculation of the total amount of MSW in the reactor or the total amount of glucose initially charged (S 0 ). Once the initial amount of glucose is calculated, three sets of reactions (Rxn 1) are assumed to occur, and the resulting biogas (vapor product stream) may be evaluated. Its composition (which is directly proportional to the power generated) is noted. This will serve as the control to which all subsequent biogas compositions will be compared. The next aspect of the solution is the introduction of addi tional equipment (the catalytic reforming reactor and the shift system that may be used to meet the objective of increasing ment. The product stream from the bioreactor is split: 90% is sent to a power generation plant, and the remaining 10% is routed to a catalytic reforming reactor which is brought online to generate hydrogen that will be fed continuously to the bioreactor. Hydrogen is used by the bacteria in the bioreactor as an electron donor for methanogenesis. In most cases, the hydrogen is the limiting reactant. Therefore, feeding hydrogen to the bioreactor may help to accelerate the decomposition and carbon dioxide. This was one of the major outcomes of the investigation. That is, once the student developed the computer routine that accurately predicted the performance of the system, it was discovered that under several scenarios the hydrogen fed back to the bioreactor was completely consumed long before the other substrates. This result brings into question the entire concept of feeding a warm stream of hydrogen to accelerate the digestion process. In addition to the 10% split, an air stream is fed to the catalytic reforming reactor. The air stream provides the oxygen necessary for a partial oxidation reaction, which will produce (among other things) the desired hydrogen. In order to maximize the concentration of hydrogen in the catalytic reforming reactors product stream, the equivalence ratio ( ) of the system is varied, and the effect on product composition (/ ) (/ ) () FA FA actua l st oichiometr ic 1 where F/A = the fuel (CH 4 ) to air (O 2 ) ratio After testing various equivalence ratios, an = 3.0 is cho sen, and a partial oxidation reaction follows: 42 670 10 00 449 35 4 2 2 2 CH gg Ng CO g () .( ). () .( ) 5 50 901 72 11 00 2 2 2 CO gH Og Hg Ng Rx n () .( ). () .( ) ( 1 14 ) The stoichiometry of the above partial oxidation reaction was obtained through the use of the thermodynamic equilib rium software, GasEQ. [17] (1020 K), Rxn (14) has an equilibrium conversion, X eq of 0.9969. within the bioreactor. In order to avoid feeding this CO to the bioreactor, a shift reactor is added to the process after the catalytic reactor, and before the bioreactor, to convert, or shift, the CO to CO 2 according to: CO gH OC OH gR xn () () () 2 2 2 15 2 are two-fold. First, it removes the entire amount of poisonous CO from the bioreactor feed stream. Second, it provides the bacteria with the other species necessary for methane productioncarbon The next step in the solution involves returning to the bioreactor). This bioreactor operates as a semi-batch reactor since the waste that is decomposed by the bacteria is charged

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Fall 2006 263 in as necessary (this is dictated by the residence time), while the stream of hydrogen and carbon dioxide produced from the other reactors (catalytic reforming and shift) is fed continuously. The same assumptions as in the traditional system regard ing the MSW are made, and once the total amount of glucose initially charged is calculated, it is further assumed that at the end of the charge life all of the glucose will have decom a residence time of 10 days, which is typical for high-rate anaerobic digestion, and assuming that glucose decomposes at a constant rate throughout the 10-day period, the rate of glucose decomposition may be calculated and compared to 2 and CO 2 that is fed to the bioreactor, since both will be on a time basis. The initial charge of MSW is allowed to start decompos ing before the external H 2 and CO 2 stream is fed into the of the fermentative and most of the acetogenic reactions to occur. As this decomposition approaches the end of the ace togenic stage and the beginning of the methanogenic stage, the continuous feed of H 2 and CO 2 of introducing this external feed stream into the bioreactor 2 and CO 2 provide an immediate electron and carbon source for the bacteria; second, the gas stream increases the contact area between the bacteria and the available food sources; and third, since the external feed stream is at an elevated temperature, it enhances the digestion rate within the bioreactor. As this stream feeds into the bioreactor, the solubilities of its components in water must be considered. Most of those (N 2 H 2 and the acid vapors) are gaseous and insoluble in water. The solubility of CO 2 is of particular interest, however, as it is dictated by the carbonate system. When CO 2 enters an aqueous solution, the following dissolution and dissociation occur: CO gC Oa qH CO aq HC Oa qR x K K K H m a 2 2 23 3 () () () () ( n n1 6) The initial concentration of the CO 2 entering the bioreactor is used along with Henrys constant, K H tion of CO 2 (aq). The latter is then used in combination with K m 2 CO 3 The concentration of H 2 CO 3 along with K a and the pH of the ion HCO 3 Once the concentrations of CO 2 (aq), H 2 CO 3 and HCO 3 have been calculated, the remaining concentration of the CO 2 (g) is tabulated. As the remaining acetogenic and methanogenic reactions take place, CH 4 and CO 2 are continually produced, while most of the other components are consumed. The exceptions to this are the acid byproductsacetic, butyric, and propionic acidsproduced in the fermentation and acetogenic reactions, and if their levels in the liquid continue to increase, the alkalin ity of the bioreactor will change. As a result, the pH may drop outside of the allowable range for methane fermentation. In vapor phases, chemical thermodynamic concepts are applied using the assumptions summarized in Table 2 (next page). The ff Mi L Mi V ,, () 2 The fugacity of component i in a liquid solution is related to the mole fraction, x i according to the following equation fx TP xf TP Mi L ii ii (, ,) (, ) ( ) 0 3 i f i 0 = the fugacity at some arbitrary condition known as the standard state In this solution, the standard state is assumed to be that of the pure substance and the fugacity of the standard state is fT PP Te i i sa t i sa t RT Vd P P i sa t P 0 1 (, )( () 4 The Poynting pressure correction factor and the fugacity i sa t are assumed to be negligible (i.e. they equal unity). Another term in the standard state fugacity is the vapor pressure for the pure liquid, P i sat (T), which can be calculated liquid phase fugacity is the liquid mole fraction. In this system, the only nongaseous components formed from the bioreactor reactions are water and organic acids, which are assumed to be produced as byproducts in a supernatant layer that is separate from the sludge. Thus, the original liquid mole frac tion is known, and the liquid phase fugacity for each compo nent may be calculated. Once the standard state fugacity is known, the next step in obtaining the liquid phase fugacity is to calculate the activity i which is a function of composition, tempera ture, and pressure as seen in Eq. (3). Unless the pressure is be neglected, as is done in this solution, and the van Laar The fugacity of component i in a gas mixture may be related to the fugacity of pure gaseous i at the same temperature and pressure by the following relationship,

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Chemical Engineering Education 264 F Air =1.94 F CO2 = 11.30 F H2 = 0 F CH4 = 8.16 F CO2 =1.13 F H2 = 0 F CH4 = 0.816 F CO2 =1.943 F H2 = 0.905 F CH4 = 0.00253 F CO = 0 F[=] lbmol/min Liquid Draw Off F Acids =1.13 Air F Water =0.722 6305 m 3 T = 86 o F P = 14.7 psia Figure 2. Flow rates (in lbmol/min) of major components using modied system. T ABLE 2 Summary of Thermodynamic Model Assumptions Liquid Phase Assumptions 1) The Standard State is that of the Pure Substance 2) Poynting Pressure Correction Factor = 1 e R Vd P P i sa t P 1 is negligible sat Since it is an exponential function of P, it is small at low Ps. The bioreactor is operated at low Ps, therefore the Poynting calculations. i sat = 1 Corrects for deviations of the saturated vapor from ideal gas behavior. i sat differs con siderably from 1 as T critical is approached. Since the T of the system is not near any of the components critical Ts, it is assumed that this term equals unity. i is not a function of P is low, this term is primarily a function of T and composition. van Laar Equation The van Laar equation is typically used for binary systems. When it is employed, however, the concentrations of all other components are so small that a binary system can be as sumed. Vapor Phase Assumption s 1) Lewis Fugacity Rule applies (f i = y i f pure,i ) dent of the composition of the mixture and is independent of the nature of other compo nents in the mixture. The LFR relies on the assumption that Amagats rule is valid over the low Ps where the gas phase is ideal, as is the case in this system. pure,i and mole fraction, y pure,i = 1 For a pure, ideal gas, the fugacity is equal to the pressure ( i.e. mole fraction are both 1). It is assumed that the system follows ideal-gas behavior because because the species is pure.

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Fall 2006 265 RT fT Py yf TP vv dP Mi V i i pur e ii P ln (, ,) (, ) () ( 0 5 5) To more easily solve for the vapor phase fugacity, either an equation of state or the principle of corresponding states with a simplifying assumption such as the Lewis Fugacity Rule may be used. According to this rule, the fugacity coef and of the nature of the other components of the mixture, at constant temperature and pressure. As a result, the fugacity of component i in a vapor mixture is expressed as: fT Py yf TP yP Mi V ii pur ei i (, ,) (, )( )( ) 6 where i in the gaseous mixture. The pure phase fugacity is determined using an equation of state such as the van der Waals equation. Although the van der Waals equation, shown below, is the simplest nontrivial equation of state, it provides a reasonable estimation of volumetric behavior of the vapor phase: i v vb a R e i ii i (l n T Tv Pv RT Pv RT i i i 1l n wh er ev RT P b a RT i i i () 7 In this solution, was calculated and was close to unity. Once all of the terms in both the liquid and vapor phase fugacities have been tabulated, the criterion for equilibrium may be written as: xT Px PT e ii ii sa t i sa t RT Vd P P i sa (, ,) () 1 t t P yP ii () 8 Eq. (8) is used to solve for the composition of the vapor phase and allows the calculation of the composition of the liquid phase in equilibrium with this vapor. RESULTS While not all students followed the above development, the results obtained from the students were generally satisfactory, in that most of them analyzed the entire system. Figure 2 de pass, and Table 3 illustrates how the external feed stream of H 2 and CO 2 ( i.e generated and summarizes the comparison of the traditional accelerating the decomposition of the biomass by producing more methane: 8.16 lbmol/min vs. 7.65 lbmol/min produced respectively. Although the quantity of the methane produced 4 to CO 2 ratio) decreases from 0.89/1 to 0.72/1 COURSE ASSESSMENT Once the projects were submitted, the students were asked to assess the overall success of the assignment. The student answers to questions 2 and 3 indicate that they overwhelm ingly found the project to have enhanced their understanding of thermodynamics (n = 8). In Table 4 (next page), a score of 5 indicates agreement with the statement, and 1 indicates disagreement. In addition to the four questions listed in Table 4, students were asked for their comments on two other topics. When answering the question, What sources ( e.g. World Wide Web, online libraries, handbooks, publications) were useful in obtaining thermodynamic data, bioreactor information, etc.?, students listed a variety of sources including the Web chemical engineering departments at large universities, e.g. Texas A&M). Students also indicated the use of the Manhattan College and Columbia University online libraries, Vapor/Liq uid Equilibrium Data handbooks, the research articles handed out with the assignment, and microbiology and bioreaction engineering textbooks. In their answer to the question, Did you program the solution yourself or use a computer program in your solution? If computer program was used, which one and why?, students reported using a variety of program ming tools including Mathematica (especially for its useful indexing feature and for repetitive and iterative calculations), T ABLE 3 Traditional BR CH 4 Produced, lbmol/min 7.65 8.16 CH 4 -0.765 CH 4 Sent to Power Plant, lbmol/min 7.65 7.40 Biogas CH 4 /CO 2 0.89/1 0.72/1

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Chemical Engineering Education 266 Excel (for both programming and graphing), and the Pro/II Simulation Package.CONCLUSIONS This paper presented the results of one students work for a class-required computer project. Model results valida tion using Pro/II and an experimental anaerobic bioreactor is the subject of another study in preparation. The require ment given to the students was to only use the thermodynamic concepts learned during the semester to analyze and propose a feasible solution to a current environmental or industrially students to apply sometimes-abstract thermodynamic con cepts to an important problem while training them to focus for what commercially available thermodynamic packages need to obtain property information not found in literature. Also, the exercise gives students a sense of accomplishment in that they applied the principles of thermodynamics to analyze and propose feasible, realistic solutions to problems they may encounter during their careers. Lastly, as the need for renewable energy sources grows, research and development will require a workforce that is well educated and trained to develop the technologies neces sary for a sustainable future. The example presented in this paper demonstrates that such training is possible through an in-depth approach to a societal problem. It also sets the stage for further development of the chemical engineering curricu lum at Manhattan College to include grounding in alternative energy sources and sustainability following the call of J.W. Sutherland, et al. [19] of Michigan Technological University for the need for globally aware students.NOMENCLATURE f Mi L Fugacity of component, i, in the liquid mixture f Mi V Fugacity of component, i, in the vapor mixture. x i Liquid phase mole fraction of species, i. i (T, P, x i of temperature, pressure and liquid phase mole fraction. fT P i 0 (, ) Pure component fugacity of, i, in the liquid phase. PT i va p Vapor pressure of species, i, as a function of temperature. i sa t species, i. V Molar volume of the liquid (condensed) phase. yi Gas phase mole fraction of species, i. P Total pressure of the system. Equivalence ratio.REFERENCES 1. Castaldi, M., L. Dorazio, and N. Assaf-Anid, Relating Abstract Concepts of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics to Current, Real World Problems, Chem. Eng. Ed ., 38 (4) 268 (2004) 2. Kauser, J., K. Hollar, F. Lau, E. Constans, P. Von Lockette, and L. Head, Getting Students to Think About Alternate Energy Sources, ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Vive Lingenieur, 4593-4600 (2002) T ABLE 4 Course Assessment Question 5 4 3 2 1 1. Overall, do you feel that the class lectures and homework provided you with the neces sary background for developing a solution to the computer project? 12.5% 75% 12.5% 2. Did the computer project give you a better understanding of thermodynamic principles such as fugacity, solubility, and multi-phase equilibrium, and how they are used in practi cal situations? 12.5% 75% 12.5% 3. Was the computer project a relevant, practical, and open-ended application of the principles taught in the class? 75% 25% 4. Did the computer project enhance your research skills? 12.5% 12.5% 50.0% 12.5% 12.5%

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Fall 2006 267 3. Farley, E.T., and D.L. Ernest, Application of Power Generation Mod eling and Simulation to Enhance Student Interest in Thermodynam ics, Modeling and Simulation, Proceedings of the Annual Pittsburgh Conference 21 (3), 1275 (1990) namics, Proceedings of the ASME Advanced Energy Systems Division 36, 251 (1996) 5. Lombardo, S., Open-Ended Estimation Design Project for Thermo dynamics Students, Chem. Eng. Ed 34 (2), 154 (2000) 6. Tsatsaronis, G., M. Moran, and A. Bejan, Education in Thermo dynamics and Energy Systems, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Advanced Energy Systems Division (Publication) AES, 20 644 (1990) 7. Reistad, G.M., R.A. Gaggioli, A. Bejan, and G. Tsatsaronis, Ther modynamics and Energy SystemsFundamentals, Education, and Computer-Aided Analysis, American Society of Mechanical Engi neers, Advanced Energy Systems Division (Publication) AES 24 103 (1991) 8. Shaeiwitz, J.A., Teaching Design by Integration Throughout the Curriculum and Assessing the Curriculum Using Design Projects, International Journal of Eng. Ed ., 17 479 (2001) 9. Garcia-Ochoa, F., V.E. Santos, L. Naval, E. Guardiola, and B. Lopez, Kinetic Model for Anaerobic Digestion of Livestock Manure, Enzyme and Microbial Technology 25 55 (1999) 10. Jagadish, K.S., H.N. Chanakya, P. Rajabapaiah, and V. Anand, Plug Flow Digesters for Biogas Generation from Leaf Biomass, Biomass and Bioenergy 14 (5/6), 415 (1998) 11. Castelblanque, J., and F. Salimbeni, Application of Membrane Sys tems for COD Removal and Reuse of Waste Water from Anaerobic Digesters, Desalination 126 293 (1999) 12. Chemical Engineering section, About.com 13. Prausnitz, J., R.N. Lichtenthaler, and E. Gomes de Azevedo, Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria, Prentice Hall International Series, Upper Saddle River, NJ (1999) 14. Klass, D.L., Biomass for Renewable Energy, Fuels, and Chemical, Academic Press, New York, 452 (1998) 15. Madigan, M.T., J. Martinko, and J. Parker, Brock Biology of Microor ganisms, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2000) tions, Chem. Eng. Ed. 34 (4), (2000) 17. Morley, C., 18. Sutherland, J.W., V. Kumar, J.C. Crittenden, M.H. Durfee, J.K. Gersh enson, H. Gorman, D.R. Hokanson, N.J. Hutzler, D.J. Michalek, J.R. Mihelcic, D.R. Shonnard, B.D. Solomon, and S. Sorby, An Educa tion Program in Support of a Sustainable Future, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Manufacturing Engineering Division, 14 611 (2003)

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Chemical Engineering Education 268 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2006 I fundamental concepts that are required to provide all students with an optimum base for the solution develop ment of new problems and applications. Although this task is daunting, replacing the learning and understanding of fundamental concepts with starting parameters and a list of equations to use as tools is not a solution. Such an approach subsequently limits the capabilities and potential accomplish ments of the students. This trap is easy to fall into, however, since it is nearly im possible to cover all of the fundamentals in addition to the ap plications. Yet a failure to emphasize these basics could mean putting emerging chemical engineers at a disadvantage against chemists or physicists, who may be able to develop new ideas more readily because their training through education has taught them to derive the equations they are using. Engineers are typically admired for their ingenuity and creativity, but with a curriculum that does not obligate them to derive and to consistently ask why and from where, engineers will soon lose the merits for which they are so well known. Within a graduate-level chemical engineering course, fun damental chemical principles combined with computational chemistry software were used as a tool to bridge the gap that often exists between chemistry and applications within the problems in which rate expressions must be known, activa tion energies and rate constants are typically provided as input parameters for a particular design equation. Since more sophisticated methods for approximating rate constants are not taught in traditional chemical engineering courses, the development of a rate expression was chosen as one of the main objectives of this computational chemistry course. The theoretical calculation of a rate expression involves many tasks, including the development of a quantum mechanicalbased potential energy surface (PES) and the understanding of reaction kinetic tools such as transition state theory. Similar methodologies have emerged recently in the literature for as similation into graduate chemistry coursework. [1, 2] The current methodology, however, is different from its typical inclusion COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY JENNIFER WILCOX Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester, MA 01609

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Fall 2006 269 within a chemistry course since it has been incorporated into a chemical engineering curriculum, where it serves to couple fundamental chemical principles to applications in chemical engineering through a combination of ab initio theory and reaction kinetics. During the fall 2005 semester this course Department at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. A six-week assignment termed, Learning through a Reaction Example, served as the main driving force throughout the course and The course methodology carried out to accomplish the goal of bridging the gap between fundamental principles in chemistry to applications in chemical engineering is selfcontained, in that it can be adopted by any instructor wishing to achieve this goal through offering a similar class within his/her department.COURSE OVERVIEW The course spanned 14 weeks and was held for 1.5 hours twice a week; homework was assigned on a weekly basis. The course was divided into the following sections with less than half taking place outside the computer lab: Principles by which ab initio-based methods and basis sets are comprised. Background of key features and concepts of quantum mechanics (QM) were taught. Homework assignments in cluded the following: methods used in solving ap proximations to the SWE, e.g. variational meth ods and perturbation theory; classical problems from QM, e.g. particle in a 1-D box; harmonic oscillator; and the hydrogen atom. Homework assignments throughout this aspect of the course required a background in calculus and differential equations. A brief review of complex numbers and differential-equation solution types was given. These topics comprised four weeks of the course, culminating with a closed-book, in-class exam. Learning Through a Reaction Example. This take-home exam that required students to compile the individual components into the form of scien manuscript is being submitted for publication that describes further details and results of this assign ment, purely through the students perspective. [3] four sections of the course in detail, determining and why. Throughout the Learning Through a Reaction Example topic, a combination of lecture and interactive learning through computa tional in-class lab exercises was used, i.e. using the Gaussian98 software package for electronic energy predictions. Extraction of these energies combined with reaction kinetic tools such as po tential energy surface development and transition state theory (TST) led to the development of rate expressions. To ensure mastery of the software, an in-class, computer-based exam was given seven weeks into the course, i.e. three weeks after the software was introduced. Final project. During the last four weeks of the course, students were asked to choose a topic for a relate to a students research project, i.e. within their senior thesis, M.S. thesis, or Ph.D. disserta computational and kinetic tools learned through out the course to an aspect within their chemical engineering research. In some cases, the research area of focus required an advanced background in molecular modeling that the course was not able to provide in just 14 weeks, and in these cases the students gained mastery of the literature available on the computational chemical aspect of their research. Additionally, the students used what was learned from the course to provide insight into the chemical mechanisms that may play a role in the explanation of experimentally observed phenom a way to evaluate students understanding of the material, with a measure of the course success dependent upon whether a student was able to ef fectively apply knowledge gained from the course to their research in a novel way. Some examples of this application include: Electrochemical water-gas shift reactions on plati num and ruthenium catalysts Application: fuel cell chemistry Adsorption mechanisms of MTBE, chloroform, and 1,4-dioxane with cations Application: separation of contaminants from groundwater using zeolites Mechanism development of sulfurs role in poison ing palladium Application: hydrogen separation using palladium membranes

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Chemical Engineering Education 270 With regard to several of the student projectssuch as the one involving the application of ab initio theory for modeling complicated catalytic processes such as those involved in fuel a visual interpretation of the mechanisms involved within the providing focused direction when deciding which experiments to carry out in the lab. This theoretical understanding became the goal of this students project since heterogeneous modeling was outside the scope of the course. With respect to the sec ond project listed above, the student used ab initio energetic predictions along with electrostatic potential and molecular orbital maps to understand the reactivity between groundwater contaminants and zeolite exchange ions. This student has since had a paper accepted and has presented her research at the International Conference in Engineering Education in Puerto Rico in July 2006. [4] Therefore the measure of success spans a wide range, whether it is based on the direct inclusion of ab initio-based calculations in a students work or based on an appreciation and understanding of the ab initio language to a level that allows for material retention from a peer-reviewed If one wished to integrate molecular modeling and compu tational chemistry techniques into a graduate curriculum to supplement the chemical engineering background tradition ally acquired, carrying out this reaction assignment would ensure student mastery of the computational tools necessary for incorporating a molecular perspective into their graduate research. Therefore, it is this aspect of the course that will be described in detail within this article.COURSE SPECIFICS In the Learning Through a Reaction Example assign ment, elementary gas-phase reactions were considered for a complete thermodynamic and kinetic analysis. The goal was to produce a high-level potential energy surface based upon ab initio energetics, and to derive accurate rate expressions for the reaction using transition state theory. Computational-based ab initio techniques were employed to solve approximations to the Schrdinger wave equation (SWE), which describes the location and energetics associated with the electrons in a given system. The level of theory chosen to investigate the species within a given reaction requires two components, i.e. a mathematical method to solve the approximation to the SWE and a wave function (spatial description of the electrons in space). This computational chemistry course was highly techno logically based with approximately two-thirds of the classes involving active learning through the use of computers. Stu dents used the software package Gaussian98 [5] to calculate the electronic energies from approximations to the SWE. To visualize vibrational frequencies, chemical bonding, electron density maps, and molecular orbital maps, gOpenMol soft ware was employed. In a traditional course in introductory chemistry these topics are covered in detail, but oftentimes abstract quantum chemistry involved. Using the visualiza tion software, the students were responsible for developing electron density and molecular orbital maps to gain under standing into the chemical reactivity of various species. Straightforward molecules such as water and methane were introduced, and in additional assignments students explored molecules of increasing interatomic bonding complexity such as cyclohexane and 1,4-dioxane. For the development of the quantum mechanical-based potential energy surfaces, MATLAB software was used. A Sun Microsystems Sun Fire V20z server with a dual AMD Opteron 64 bit processor and 4 gigabytes of memory with a 73 gigabyte hard disk was WebMO 4.1 was used as an interface to submit jobs to Gauss ian98 through the Sun server. Students were able to submit their calculations to the server such that the local desktop computers could remain active throughout each class period; homework assignments and submit jobs from any computer with Internet capabilities.DESCRIPTION OF REACTION ASSIGNMENT One of the following elementary gas phase reactions was assigned to each pair of students in the class. HC HC H 2 11 1 () DC DC D 2 11 2 () HF HF H 2 3 () DF DF D 2 4 () FH HF F 2 5 () Two students investigating the same reaction were doing so for validation of the molecular results generated with each investigation being performed at a unique level of theory, i.e. method and basis set combination. Step One: Students were asked to retrieve experimentally based chemical properties of the species within their assigned reaction in addition to experimental thermochemical and kinetic data for the total reaction. The chemical properties included equilibrium bond distances, vibrational frequencies,

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Fall 2006 271 dipole moments, and rotational constants. Seeking these experimental data required students to gain familiarity with standard references such as JANAF [6] tables, the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, [7] and Herzberg spectroscopy texts. [8] The experimental thermochemical data included reaction enthalpies, entropies, Gibbs free energies, and equilibrium constants using the NIST Chemistry Web Book. [9] To locate experimental kinetic data for the reaction, students were encouraged to perform literature searches in addition to accessing the data available in the NIST kinetic database. [9] Step Two: Within this step of the assignment students per formed geometry optimization and spectroscopic calculations on their assigned reaction species. They were required to perform the calculations at varying levels of theory, includ ing the density functional method, i.e. Becke-3-parameterYee-Lang-Parr (B3LYP), as well as Hartree-Fock, and the second order perturbation methodMoller-Plesset (MP2). Additionally, higher electron-correlated methods such as (CC) techniques were also explored. Both Pople and Dunning basis sets were considered with each of these calculational methods. The complexity of the basis sets assigned ranged from minimalsuch as the double-zeta Pople basis set, 6-31Gto more extensive, including both diffuse and po larization functionssuch as the triple-zeta Pople basis set, 6-311++G**. Students were assigned nine levels of theory for the energetic and spectroscopic predictions, and asked to consider three additional others. Step Three: Within this step students compared their theoreti cal predictions to the experimental data that was compiled in step one of the assignment. It is this aspect of the assignment that allows the students to be in control of their learning; they are able to see how well a chosen level of theory agrees to asked to choose three levels of theory to consider in addition to those assigned. An example of equilibrium geometry and spectroscopic predictions for Reaction (2) is shown in Table 1. Thermochemical predictions, including reaction enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs free energies, at varying levels of theory, T ABLE 1 Comparison of Chemical Properties of Species from D 2 + Cl DCl + D Theory Bond Length () Vibrational Frequency (cm -1 ) Dipole Moment (Debye) Rotational Constant (cm -1 ) DCl D 2 DCl D 2 DCl DCl D 2 B3LYP/LANL2DZ 1.3149 0.7435 1943 3153 1.80 5.11 30.28 HF/6-31G 1.2953 0.7297 2097 3289 1.87 5.27 31.44 HF/STO-6G 1.3112 0.7105 2097 3886 1.77 5.14 33.16 MP2/6-31G 1.3174 0.7376 1970 3206 1.88 5.10 30.77 MP2/6-311+G 1.3269 0.7376 1943 3149 1.89 5.02 30.77 MP2/6-311+G(d,p) 1.2731 0.7383 2214 3206 1.44 5.46 30.71 MP2/6-31+G* 1.2810 0.7375 2177 3206 1.53 5.39 30.77 MP2/6-311(3df,3pd) 1.272 0.7367 2190 3195 1.17 5.47 30.84 QCISD/6-31G 1.3262 0.7462 1901 3089 1.88 5.03 30.06 QCISD/6-311+G 1.3262 0.7465 1875 3018 1.71 5.03 30.04 QCISD/6-311+G** 1.2758 0.7435 2183 3126 1.33 5.43 30.28 QCISD/6-311++G** 1.2762 0.7435 2181 3126 1.32 5.43 30.29 CCSD/6-31G 1.3261 0.7462 1901 3089 1.88 5.03 30.06 CCSD/6-311+G 1.3365 0.7465 1876 3018 1.89 4.95 30.04 CCSD/cc-pVDZ 1.2905 0.7609 2144 3100 1.16 5.31 28.91 CCSD(T)/6-311G** 1.2772 0.7435 2174 3127 1.46 5.42 30.28 CCD/aug-cc-pVDZ 1.2897 0.7610 2151 3084 1.16 5.32 28.90 CCD/cc-pVTZ 1.2748 0.7421 2172 3127 1.18 5.44 30.39 Experimental 1.2746 0.7420 2145 3116 5.44 30.44 Ref [7, 8, 14]

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Chemical Engineering Education 272 are presented for Reaction (5) in Table 2. In most cases, the students would choose more than three additional levels of theory for investigation in an effort to obtain a theoretical prediction with minimal deviation from experiment. Within this step of the assignment students learned how the addition ence the theoretical predictions. Of course, lecture material included a discussion of the details of methods and basis sets; however, the interactive experience of testing, checking, and comparing to experiment was far more valuable, allowing these concepts to sink in to a deeper level of understanding from the student perspective. Class at this time included dis cussions concerning the difference in accuracy of the various levels of theory and the reasons associated with why some levels work better than others. Additionally, discussions also included why at times some levels of theory work, but not necessarily for the right reasons, i.e. cancellations in error could provide a reasonable heat of reaction prediction in one case, but may deviate from experiment in terms of the predicted equilibrium geometry. The goal of matching the ex perimental data provided a motivation for the students to push forward through obstacles that are typical of a traditional lec ture-formatted curriculum. For example, traditional teaching or conventional rote lectures tend to neglect participation of the students, consequently allowing their minds to wander, losing the ability to grasp the material at hand. Providing a motivated student with an objective and the responsibility for his or her own learning through a series of interactive exercises ensures active participation, which undoubtedly enhances the likelihood of material retention. Step Four: This step involves the development of a highlevel potential energy surface (PES). For a student to proceed with this step, two criteria must be met, i.e. students must of reaction and equilibrium constant. Once a student obtains a level of theory which predicts a heat of reaction to within 2 kcal/mol to experiment and an equilibrium constant to within an order of magnitude of experiment, he or she can proceed to develop a PES at this chosen level of theory. A PES generated from the class for Reaction (3) at the QCISD/6-311G(3df,3pd) level of theory is presented in Figure 1. The software program MATLAB was employed for the PES plots. Most of the surfaces generated in the class consisted of approxi mately 200 single-point energies. Since the reactions assigned were all elementary gas-phase reactions involving, at most, three atoms, the largest transition structures were three-atom complexes. It was assumed that each activated complex was linear so that two degrees of freedom could be con sidered along two dimensions of the three-dimensional PES plot, with T ABLE 2 Thermochemistry Comparison for F 2 + H HF + F Theory rxn (kcal/mol) rxn (cal/mol*K) rxn (kcal/mol) K eq B3LYP/LANL2DZ -91.61 1.841 -92.16 3.87(+67) HF/6-31G -121.20 1.904 -121.7 2.01(+89) MP2/6-31G -82.76 1.677 -83.26 1.16(+61) MP2/6-311+G -91.99 1.586 -92.46 6.48(+67) MP2/6-311+G(d,p) -103.8 1.787 -104.3 3.44(+76) QCISD/6-31G -84.52 1.578 -84.99 2.14(+62) QCISD/6-311+G -94.24 1.510 -94.69 2.82(+69) CCSD/6-31G -84.65 1.577 -85.12 2.68(+62) CCSD/6-311+G -94.44 1.513 -94.89 3.91(+69) CCSD/aug-cc-pVDZ -104.4 1.798 -104.9 9.08(+76) CCSD(T)/6-311G** -98.96 1.607 -99.44 8.56(+72) QCISD(T)/6-311G** -98.92 1.612 -99.40 7.92(+72) Experimental -98.27 3.596 -99.34 7.20(+72) Numbers in parenthesis denote powers of 10. Ref [6, 9, 15] Figure 1. PES for the reaction H 2 + F HF + H generated at the QCISD/6-311G(3df,3pd) level of theory.

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Fall 2006 273 the third dimension serving as the potential energy. From the PES plots students extracted the relative geometry of the reactions activated complex. As a further check that this activated complex corresponded to a true transition structure, a frequency calculation was performed to ensure the existence of one negative frequency along the reaction coordinate. Oftentimes this additional calculation would provide more accurate coordinates of the transition structure, ensuring ac curacy in the barrier-height calculation. Step Five: The last step of the assignment involved the cal culation of rate expression parameters, i.e. the rate constant, using the hard-sphere collision model (HSCM) for an upper bound and transition state theory (TST) for a more accurate rate prediction. In determining the rate constant for each reaction, the value predicted by transition state theory, [10] Eq. [11] given by Eq. (8), k kT h Q QQ e TS T bT S E RT a 12 6 () k hc v kT T b 1 1 24 7 2 () kk k cm mo ls TS T T 3 8 () the transition structure and the partition function, Q Total = Q trans Q rot Q vib Q elec Two lectures and one homework assignment were dedicated to providing the students with an introductory background in statistical mechanics so that they could under stand the assumptions that are made in Gaussian to obtain the partition function data. Three to four lectures were dedicated to reaction kinetics in which the HSCM and TST were taught. Students were required to work through two TST problems in a homework assignment before applying the knowledge to their reac tion example. Further details of TST can be found in standard kinetic texts, which served as references for the course. [12, 13] In addition, the barrier heights required for Eq. (6) were extracted from the previously developed high-level PES. The barrier height was calcu lated by taking the energy difference between the thermal-corrected (including zero-point energies) transition structure and the sum of the thermal-corrected reactant species. The calculation of the rate constant based upon the hard-sphere collision model was performed using Eq. (9), kN kT e cm mo Coll A b E RT a 12 2 12 3 8 l ls () 9 where the barrier height, E a is the same as for k TST 12 is the 12 is the collision diameter. Since E a is 12 can be determined with a simple cal diameter. Here, the lack of experimental data required the based on the critical properties of the species in the reaction as shown in Eq. (10), in which V c and Z c are the critical volume and critical compressibility parameters, respectively. 0 1866 10 1 3 6 5 () VZ cc An example of the predicted reverse rate expressions for Reaction (1) calculated at the CCSD/6-311G(3df,3pd) level of theory compared to literature predictions and experiment is presented in Table 3. Figure 2 (next page) is a graphical representation of the rate prediction for the forward direction of Reaction (1), showing that this high level of theory with a modest kinetic tool such as TST provided a fairly accurate kinetic prediction.CONCLUSIONS A graduate-level chemical engineering course in com putational chemistry was developed that served to provide chemical engineering students with an introduction to a molecular approach in understanding chemical reactivity. Often there exists a disconnect between the topics in an ap plied engineering discipline and the fundamental chemical and physical principles on which applications are based. This course served as a means to provide students with additional T ABLE 3 Comparison of Arrhenius Parameters for the Reaction, HCl + H Cl + H 2 Temp Range (K) A (cm 3 /mol*sec) Ea (kcal/mol) Reference 291192 2.999(13) 5.10 Adusei and Fontijn [16] 1000 3.114(13) 4.84 Allison, et al. [17] 600 2.318(13) 4.25 Allison, et al. [17] 200 7.94(12) 4.39 Lendvay, et al. [18] 298.15 5.015(13) 4.39 Present work (TST) CCSD/6-311G(3df, 3pd) 298.15 6.134(14) 4.67 Present work (HSCM) Numbers in parenthesis denote powers of 10.

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Chemical Engineering Education 274 tools to supplement their graduate research projects. This connection was established through the development of a reaction assignment which led students through a series of steps ranging from an introduction to quantum mechanics to the development of a potential energy surface, from which barrier heights were extracted for predicted rate expression calculations. This series of steps ensured students compre hension of the concepts covered, which was evident based these tools of computational chemistry into their individual research projects.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author acknowledges graduate students Erdem Sasmaz, Bihter Padak, and Saurabh Vilekar, and undergraduate student Nicole Labbe for use of their reaction results in this work. In addition, the suggestions and careful reading of this manu script by Caitlin A. Callaghan are appreciated. Finally, WPIs Unix administrator, Mark Taylor is recognized for assisting in the administration of the course-designated server. REFERENCES 1. Leach, A.G., and E. Goldstein, Energy Contour Plots: Slices through the Potential Energy Surface That Simplify Quantum Mechanical Studies of Reacting Systems, J. Chem. Educ. 83 451 (2006) 2. Galano, A., J.R. Alvarez-Idaboy, and A. Vivier-Bunge, Computational Quantum Chemistry: A Reliable Tool in the Understanding of GasPhase Reactions, J. Chem. Educ. 83 481 (2006) 3. Labbe, N., S. Vilekar, E. Sasmaz, B. Padak, N. Pomerantz, J.-R. Pascault, P. Vallieres, G. Withington, C. Callaghan, and J. Wilcox, The Connection Between Computational Chemistry and Chemical Figure 2. Rate-constant comparison for the reaction, Cl + H 2 HCl + H. Engineering: A Students Perspective, in progress 4. Labbe, N., J. Wilcox, and R.W. Thompson, An ab initio Investigation of Cyclohexane and Zeolite Interactions, Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference in Engineering Education (2006) 5. Frisch, M.J., G.W. Trucks, H.B. Schlegel, G.E. Scuseria, M.A. Robb, J.R. Cheeseman, V.G. Zakrzewski, J.A. Montgomery Jr., R.E. Strat mann, J.C. Burant, S. Dapprich, J.M. Millam, A.D. Daniels, K.N. Kudin, M.C. Strain, Farkas, J. Tomasi, V. Barone, M. Cossi, R. Cammi, B. Mennucci, C. Pomelli, C. Adamo, S. Clifford, J. Ochter ski, G.A. Petersson, P.Y. Ayala, Q. Cui, K. Morokuma, P. Salvador, J.J. Dannenberg, D.K. Malick, A.D. Rabuck, K. Raghavachari, J.B. Foresman, J. Cioslowski, J.V. Ortiz, A.G. Baboul, B.B. Stefanov, G. Liu, A. Liashenko, P. Piskorz, I. Komromi, R. Gomperts, R.L. Martin, D.J. Fox, T. Keith, M.A. Al-Laham, C.Y. Peng, A. Nanayakkara, M. Challacombe, P.M.W. Gill, B. Johnson, W. Chen, M.W. Wong, J.L. Andres, C. Gonzalez, M. Head-Gordon, E.S. Replogle, and J.A. Pople, Gaussian 98 Gaussian, Inc., Pittsburgh (1998) 6. Chase, M.W. Jr., NIST-JANAF Themochemical Tables 4th Ed., J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data Monograph 9, 1-1951 (1998) 7. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 58th Ed. CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio (1978) 8. Huber, K.P., and G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Struc ture. IV. Constants of Diatomic Molecules Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. (1979) 9. NIST Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 101, Release 12, Aug. 2005, Editor: Russell D. Johnson III, 10. Eyring, H., The Activated Complex in Chemical Reactions, J. Chem. Phys. 3 107 (1935) 11. Wigner, E., Crossing of Potential Thresholds in Chemical Reactions, Z. Phys. Chem. B., 19 203 (1932) 12. Simons, J., An Introduction to Theoretical Chemistry Cambridge University Press (2003) 13. Steinfeld, J.I., and J.S. Francisco, Chemical Kinetics and Dynamics Prentice Hall (1999) 14. Shimanouchi, T., Tables of Molecular Vibrational Frequencies, Con solidated Volume I 39 (1972) 15. Cox, J.D., D.D Wagman., and V.A. Medvedev, CODATA Key Values for Thermodynamics Hemisphere, New York (1989) 16. Adusei, G.Y. and A. Fontijn, A High-Temperature Photochemistry Study of the H + HCl H 2 + Cl Reaction from 298 to 1192 K, J. Phys. Chem. 97 1409 (1993) 17. Allison, T.C., G.C. Lynch, D.G. Truhlar, and M.S. Gordon, An Im proved Potential Energy Surface for the H 2 Cl System and Its Use for J. Phys. Chem. 100 13575 (1996) 18. Lendvay, G., B. Laszlo, and T. Berces, Theoretical study of X + H 2 XH + H and Reverse Reactions (X = F, Cl, Br, I) using a new empirical potential energy surface, Chem. Phys. Lett., 137 175 (1987) 19. Kumaran, S.S., K.P. Lim, and J.V. Michael, Thermal Rate Constants for the Cl+H 2 and Cl+D 2 Reactions Between 296 and 3000 K, J. Chem. Phys., 101 9487 (1994) 20. Westenberg, A.A., and N. de Haas, AtomMolecule Kinetics using ESR Detection. IV. Results for Cl + H 2 HCl + H in Both Directions, J. Chem. Phys., 48 4405 (1968) 21. Miller, J.C., and R.J. Gordon, Kinetics of the ClH 2 system. I. Detailed balance in the Cl+H 2 reaction, J. Chem. Phys., 75 5305 (1981)

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Fall 2006 275 T of the chemical engineering undergraduate curriculum for many decades. Some would argue that the structure of this subject has changed little. [1] As will be shown in this paper, however, there is considerable evidence of a substantial demands of both a changing discipline and the wider expecta tions of future employers. This paper reviews design project teaching at 15 chemical engineering departments across Australia, Singapore, and the United Kingdom. Information on Australian courses was obtained during a design project workshop organized by the Australian-based Education Subject Group of the Institution of Chemical Engineers, and sponsored by Aker Kvaerner Aus tralia. The workshop was held Feb. 1415, 2005. Information regarding the courses in Singapore and the UK was obtained during a study tour by one of the authors in July 2005. Historically, the capstone design project was developed to draw together the design techniques developed during SANDRA E. KENTISH AND DAVID C. SHALLCROSS University of Melbourne Victoria, Australia 3010 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2006 ChE

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Chemical Engineering Education 276 the chemical engineering course into a single, integrated project. Reference to the instructions for the 1974 Institu tion of Chemical Engineers design project [2] indicates that the requirements were for process selection and descrip tion, material and energy balances, process and mechanical design, and costing. There was a requirement to complete a Hazard and Operability study, but generally the emphasis on health, safety, and the environment was minimal. The learn ing outcomes were clearly intellectual ability and practical design skills. Transferable skills such as teamwork, oral com munication, and open-ended problem-solving ability were not considered relevant. By 1991, [3] the scope of the project brief had broadened with inclusion of topics such as market At this stage, however, there was still no evidence of generic skill development. More recently, emphasis within chemical engineering edu cation has shifted to focus on learning outcomes beyond only a technical nature. Transferable skills that will assist graduates in a range of employment roles are gaining importance. [4-7] Evidence from the institutions considered here shows that the developing these skills because of its position at the tail end of the course and the minimal demands for technical knowledge transfer. Indeed, the design project acts as the exit transition subject at most institutions, bridging the gap from university study to a real-world position. The greater computing and word processing power available to todays students and the ready access to electronic literature resources has enabled the design project scope to expand. Larger and/or more diverse projects are being undertaken focusing on broader learning outcomes such as sustainability, process safety, and the use of design standards and regulations. Pro cess simulation can be practiced and practical computing skills developed. A common feature of chemical engineering courses considered here is that they are accredited by the UK-based professional body, Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE). [7] The IChemE promotes the concept of a design portfolio, in which a number of design exercises are completed over the curriculum. There was certainly evidence of a trend in this direction, with many institutions running product design projects in separate subjects, as well as design exercises in the earlier years of study. This paper, however, which is the fourth year of continuous study at almost all in accreditation guide [7] indicates that at this M.Eng. level: . the course shall include a major design exercise demon strating that issues of complexity have been appropriately addressed. The major project is normally undertaken in The major project at M.Eng. level can be up to 50% of the Table 1 shows that among the departments considered, the design project had a credit range between 12.5 and 40% of single semester or the full year. Some English institutions, however, undertook the design project in the penultimate year of an M.Eng. course to accommodate B.Eng. students into a common program. It should be noted that within the UK system, a degree of uniformity between departments is provided by the use of external examiners. All design project briefs, assessments, senior academic from another institution. Within Australia, a T ABLE 1 Chemical Engineering Departments Considered in this Study and the Format of Their Capstone Design Projects Country Percent of FinalYear Credit Timing of Project No. of Written Submissions Curtin University Australia 25.0 Final Semester 12 James Cook University Australia 25.0 Full Final Year 5 Monash University Australia 25.0 Final Semester 1 RMIT University Australia 25.0 Final Semester 4 University of Adelaide Australia 25.0 Final Semester 1 University of Melbourne Australia 18.75 Final Semester 2 University of New South Wales Australia 18.75 Penultimate Semester 7 University of Newcastle Australia 25.0 Full Final Year 3 University of Queensland Australia 25.0 Final Semester 5 University of Sydney Australia 33.3 Full Final Year 5 National University of Singapore Singapore 12.5 Final Semester 3 University College London UK 37.5 Full Third Year 8 University of Birmingham UK 40.0 Full Third Year 8 University of Nottingham UK 42.0 Full Year 1 University of Edinburgh UK 33.0 Full Year 1

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Fall 2006 277 similar degree of uniformity is engendered by the availability of an Australia-wide design project student prize (the Aker Kvaerner award) and several regional prizes. For example, the Aker Kvaerner Prize guidelines currently restrict assessment components for safety and environmental considerations to PROJECT STRUCTURE Five of the 15 institutions offered only a single project topic per year, arguing this reduced staff workload. Others offered a range of project topics. In the variations on a theme ap proach, a single process was considered, but variations in things such as raw material purity or plant location were used to differentiate team projects. This approach was used by three institutions in order to reduce the opportunity for collu sion between classmates, while also limiting staff workload. Only at the University of Melbourne was plagiarism software implemented as a tool for monitoring both collusion and plagiarism from the Internet. When introduced in 2004, this proved very effective. Substantial plagiarism was detected in one students work, and appropriate action was taken. At virtually all institutions, the students were initially pre sented with a design brief of between one and three pages outlining the design problem. This brief often contained basic technical and/or costing data. In most cases, the students were study; that is, to assess alternate process routes and develop a plant capacity, and to identify potential environmental and safety issues. This was followed by more detailed equipment design work, the development of process control strategies, and a process and instrumentation diagram. At the feasibility study stage or at the conclusion of more detailed work, an assessment of the process economics was required. In most cases, students were expected to argue a business case to management as to whether the facility should proceed. In all cases, project work was supported by a lecture pro gram that provided instruction in design methodology. This lecture program was often structured to cover subject material missed in other areas. Thus, for example, it was recognized that the design of process utilities such as steam and cooling water systems needed to be covered within this program. The number of assessable written reports required from a single submission at the end of a yearlong project to weekly submissions for a 12-week program. TEAMWORK AND PEER ASSESSMENT The design project was conducted as a team exercise at all institutions. Generally, broader process issues such as economics, environmental impact, and health and safety were assessed as teambased tasks, with process design remaining an individual activity. It was common for the individualbased tasks to equate to slightly more than 50% of the total grade. As shown in Table 2, the size of the teams varied, with typically institutions with larger class sizes, students were allowed to select their own team members. This was generally because of the logistics involved in a central team-selection process when the number of stu tion of design project coordinators with smaller class sizes, however, spent considerable effort to develop team membership. Interestingly, there was a range of ways to do this. Some selected students of common academic ability to be in the same team, while others deliberately placed students of varying academic T ABLE 2 Basis for Team Assignments in the Capstone Design Project at the Institutions Studied Class Size Group Size Team Allocation Team Leaders Peer Assessment 12-25 5-6 random rotated no 25-35 4-5 by project preference elected by team no 25-40 2-3 and then 10-12 random rotated weekly no 40 5 mix of abilities/gender no no 45 5 by several factors yes yes 50 6 random no 58 5-6 academic merit no yes 60 4 students can exclude others no no 70 3-4 by academic merit and project preference no yes 60-70 4-5 random no 70-80 4 self-selection rotated weekly no 80-100 5 random rotated no 100 6-10 mix of abilities/ethnic ity/background no yes 80-120 4 self-selection no yes 200-300 7 self-selection elected by team no

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Chemical Engineering Education 278 ability within one team. The University of Queensland is from previous years as a basis for team membership in the Many institutions provided explicit workshops or training sessions to develop teamwork skills. For example, the Uni versity of Sydney had fortnightly sessions on team building with group leaders. University College London (UCL) had a two-day workshop on effective teamwork a year before the capstone design project, and followed up with a one-day refresher course at the projects start. Similarly, many institu tion of team leader allowed leadership skills to be developed among the majority of students. Some campuses had interdisciplinary teams, which is more representative of actual industrial environments. For ex ample, both the University of Queensland and the National University of Singapore included an environmental engineering student in each team, while the Uni versity of New South Wales included industrial chemists. The University of Birmingham had an optional project that integrated civil engineers, while Sydney had a multidisciplinary project for highly academic students only that integrated civil and mechanical engineer ing students. While teamwork was clearly well established as part of the design project, it was somewhat disappointing to the authors that only a third of the institu tions used this opportunity to introduce peer assessment. Between the institutions that did, a considerable range of methods was used to man age the process. In some cases, peer assessment marks were determined collaboratively by all team members in an open forum. In others, submission of peer assessment ratings was anonymous, so that students could not discover how their team members rated them. The University of New South Wales presented a relatively sophisticated peer assessment method designed to improve the consistency of assessors. [8] While this method would provide high accuracy and a lack of bias, it could be time consuming in large classes. INDUSTRIAL INVOLVEMENT All institutions actively involved engineers with a design or processing background in the design project curriculum. Some institutions, notably Melbourne and Birmingham, maintained part-time adjunct professor-type positions for engineers with engineering design experience, typically one day a week. In design engineers, the hazard analysis was considered at an earlier stage as a more integral part of the design process than in other cases. Many other institutions relied on corporate engineers to assist with setting a valid technical scenario, and in many cases personnel from these companies provided a consultant role. In most cases, the academic in charge of the project also had extensive industrial expertise. PROCESS SIMULATION AND COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY All institutions incorporated the use of simulation packages such as HYSYS and ASPEN PLUS to assist in design. In most cases, their use was actively encouraged. In some cases, the design project brief was even manipulated to ensure that simulation was possible. Others, however, felt that the use of simulation packages could detract from the design exercise because proper input. They also argued that there was a tendency for students to accept simulation output without question, and the educa tional value was therefore limited. An em output was essential, and was usually the shortcut hand calculations and reference to literature data was encouraged. The use of dynamic simulation for process control and hazard assessment by RMIT University was noteworthy. Also of note was the extensive use of portion maintained subject Web pages as a major mechanism for relaying information to students. These subject sites also often used online discussion forums as a means of bringing common questions into the open and creating inter-student debate. Electronic library resources such as Proquest, SciFinder Scholar, and Knovel were also utilized. A range of smaller, discrete computer programs was also used to support student learning, such as Microsoft Visio for engineering drawings. ORAL PRESENTATION Now considered an important transferable skill, oral pre sentation served as an assessment component in nine of the 15 curricula. In some cases, these presentations were made directly to engineers and management of the company whose operations had formed the basis of the design task. Presen tations could be individualor team-based, and sometimes involved the use of posters to support oral commentary. While teamwork was clearly well established as part of the Design Project, it was somewhat disappointing to the authors that only a third of the institutions used this opportunity to introduce peer assessment.

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Fall 2006 279 SUSTAINABILITY The IChemE now prescribes that graduates must be aware of the priorities and role of sustainable development. There was little evidence, however, that sustainability was being given a focus in the capstone design project. RMIT University was the only institution formally requiring a sustainability report as part of the project, relying on the IChemE Sustain ability Metrics [9] other institutions discussed sustainability during the course. This is clearly an area that could be improved, and many design teaching staff indicated that they would be enhancing their approach to this crucial issue in the years to come.BIO-FOCUSED PROJECTS Internationally, there is a shift within many chemical engineering undergraduate degree programs from projects based on the traditional petrochemical, chemical, and mineral industries into biomolecular and biochemical engineering University of Melbourne with a four-year degree in chemical and biomolecular engineering commencing in February 2005. It is imperative that the design project can accommodate this shift to a bio focus while retaining the generic skill develop ment discussed above. In many respects, University College London was the leader in developing a bio-focus with the development of a biochemical stream alongside their standard course years ago. This proved so popular, however, that a separate de partment had to be formed. This meant that the chemical engineering department no longer had a need for a bio-based design project. Birmingham University ran three projects simultaneously, one of which was a bio-based project. This project was taken mainly by M.Sc. students, but had IChemE accreditation. They found that a design team with a mix of scientists and engineers worked well. They have found some issues with a full-year bio-based project, however, because of the limited nature of these processes, and were intend ing to move to a series of shorter, more intense campaigns. Some of these would be focused more on product design than process design. Typical bio-based projects that had been undertaken at different universities are listed in Table 3. In such bio-based programs the process volume is much smaller (20kg versus 20,000 tonne per year). The downstream separation processes, however, can be more complicated, with 10-15 separation steps being usual. Detailed design tasks can include expanded crobiological quality steam or ultra-pure water may also be required. The regulatory environment of bioprocessing must also gain an increased focus. Students need to be exposed to relevant food and drug quality-assurance programs such as Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), [10] as well as Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). [11] Conversely, these projects will be more limited in their use of process simulation packages. There are a number of bioprocess model ing computer packages on the market (Aspen Batch Plus and Intelligen SuperPro), but these can be limited in their ability to accurately predict unit operation scale-up. [12] CONCLUSIONS The design project workshop and subsequent study tour raised a number of other issues common to many institutions that cannot be covered in-depth in this analysis. These issues included the high workload required from teaching staff to provide a worthwhile design exercise, and the similarly high workload taken on by some students in completing the of institutions, and it was felt that this resulted principally from the open-ended nature of the design study. Many staff curate and up-to-date equipment cost data from the public domain. The above discussion, however, shows that institutions in the United Kingdom, Singapore, and Australia are now using the capstone design project as a major vehicle for the teaching of transferable skills such as time management, openended problem solving, teamwork, and oral presentation. tion, or preparing the student for a role in the workplace. While the curricula in most cases is very well developed, the incorporation of more peer assessment and a greater emphasis on sustainability would enhance further teaching in this subject. T ABLE 3 Bio-Based Design Project Topics Used at the Institutions Studied Enzymatic production of glucose and galactose from cheese whey waste Lactic acid production Plasmid DNA-based AIDS vaccine Bio-ethanol from waste paper Production of tissue plasminogen activator Penicillin Production

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Chemical Engineering Education 280ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Information was provided by staff at Curtin, James Cook, Monash, and RMIT Universities, the Universities of Ad elaide, New South Wales, Newcastle, Queensland, Sydney, Birmingham, Nottingham, and Edinburgh, University Col lege London, and the National University of Singapore. This input is gratefully acknowledged. Financial support for travel to Singapore and the United Kingdom was provided by the University of Melbourne through a Universitas 21 Fellowship, and this support is also appreciated. REFERENCES 1. Murray, K.R., T. Pekdemir, and R. Deighton, A New Approach to the Final-Year Design Projects, Proceedings of the 7th World Congress of Chemical Engineering Glasgow (July 2005) 2. Austin, D.G., and G. Jeffreys, The Manufacture Of Methyl Ethyl Ketone From 2-Butanol : A Worked Solution to a Problem In Chemical Engineering Design, Institution of Chemical Engineers in association with G. Godwin Ltd. Rugby, UK (1979) 3. Ray, M.S., and M. Sneesby, Chemical Engineering Design Project: A Case Study Approach, 2nd Ed., Overseas Publishers Association, Amsterdam (1998) 4. Changing the Culture: Engineering Education into the Future: The Institution of Engineers Australia (1996) 5. Criteria for Accrediting Engineering Programs, ABET Engineering Accreditation Commission, Accessed from (2004) 6. How Does Chemical Engineering Education Meet the Requirements of Employment? World Chemical Engineering Council, Dechema Frankfurt (2004) Accessed from 7. Accreditation Guide: Undergraduate Study 2nd Ed., Institution of Chemical Engineers (2005) 8. Bushell, G., Moderation of Peer Assessment in Group Projects, Ass. and Eval. in Higher Ed. (2005) 9. The Sustainability Metrics: Sustainable Development Progress Metrics Recommended for Use in the Process Industries Institution of Chemical Engineers 10. Welbourn, J., Good Manufacturing Practice in Pharmaceutical Pro duction, An Engineering Guide, IChemE, Rugby, UK, Bennett B., G. Cole (Eds) (2003) 11. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 12. Shanklin, T., K. Roper, P. Yegneswaran, and M. Marten, Selection of Bioprocess Simulation Software for Industrial Applications, Biotech nology and Bioengineering, 72 (4) 483 (2001) POSITIONS AVAILABLE Use CEE s reasonable rates to advertise. Minimum rate, 1/8 page, $100; Each additional column inch or portion thereof, $40. Johns Hopkins University The Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at Johns Hopkins University invites applications for a full-time lec turer. This is a career-oriented, renewable appointment. Responsi bilities include: Teach 3 courses each semester (currently with labs). Manage curriculum issues, including degree requirement updates and course development. Coordinates advising for undergraduate Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering majors. Organize prospective freshmen activities, including open houses and welcome letters, and serve as liaison to the Oversee and train graduate TAs and graders. Maintain retention and growth statistics. Applicants must have a Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering or a closely must include a letter of application, curriculum vitae, and a statement of teaching philosophy. Applicants should arrange for three reference letters to be sent directly to the address below. All material should arrive by Nov. 30, 2006. Lecturer Search Committee Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department Johns Hopkins University 3400 N. Charles St, 221 MD HALL Baltimore, MD 21218 410-516-7170 tpaulha1@jhu.edu Johns Hopkins University is an EEO/AA employer. Women and minorities are strongly encouraged to apply.

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Fall 2006 281 T he monthly Chemical Engineering Department faculty meeting is in full swing. They spent the usual half hour discussing the latest catastrophic budget shortfall and the urgent need to bring in more grants and more graduate students with NSF fellowships, and then they moved on to the upcoming ABET visit. A prolonged argument broke out about whether teaching students the Gibbs-Duhem equation counts as preparing them to be ethical and professionally respon sible lifelong learners who understand contemporary issues and can work in multidisciplinary teams to solve global and societal problems. The argument ended unresolved. Chuck, the department chair, relayed a message from the department administrative assistant that unless the professors started cleaning up their messes in the faculty lounge they could start making their own coffee. Once the ensuing panic subsided, the meeting turned to New Business, and the critical issue on Chuck: OK, folks, lets take up Dianes proposition to change our name to the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. Diane, want to say something about it? Diane: Sure. Everyone knows that biotech is the future, and the ones who know it best are the stu dentsthe freshmen are going more and more for departments that do biology, and graduate students all want to work for faculty doing bio research. Most Chem. E. departments have already put biosomething in their names and if we dont were gonna lose out. Ch: Makes sense to me. OK, if no one else has anything to say, lets vote on it. All in favor of our becoming the Department of Chemical and Biomo lecular Engineering, say Carl: Hold on, Chuck. If you just say biomolecular engineering, people will think were only about Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2006 DNA and all that stuff, which is yesterdays news. Sam and I do a lot of biocatalysis and biosepara tions, which are much sexier than all that gene stuff, but the students wont know we do those things here unless we make it explicit. Ch: You mean Sam: Yeah, lets be the Department of Chemical, Biocatalytic, and Bioseparations Engineering. D: Wait just a minute, bustergenes are a whole lot sexier than enzymes and chromatography, and weve got twice the grant support you guys do! S: Oh, yeahwell whos got more CAREER awards, and whats more Ch: All right, all rightcalm down. Tell you whatwell just make the tent bigger and call it the Department of Chemical, Biomolecular, Bio catalytic, and Bioseparations Engineering. Hows that? C: Make it Biocatalytic, Biomolecular, Biosepara tions, and Chemicalalphabetical order. D: Thats the dumbest suggestion I ever Ch: OK, all in favor say Random Thoughts . .WHATS IN A NAME?RICHARD M. FELDER North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695

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Chemical Engineering Education 282 Morrie: Hey, what am I, chopped liver? I dont like to brag, but have you forgotten that Im heading graduate students... S: organs just asked if hes chopped liver? M: [Glares at Sam] ...five graduate students and two postdocs, and what about our cooperative agreement with St. Swithens Hospital? Biomedi cal engineering is every bit as important as those other bios around herebesides, we heal people and save liveslets see somebody here top that for sexy. Ch: OK, OKI guess we cant include three of our four bio areas and leave out the fourthso, all in favor of renaming ourselves the Department of Biocatalytic, Biomolecular, Bioseparations, Chemical, and Biomedical Engineering say M: Ahem Ch: Right, rightthe Department of Biocatalytic, Biomedical, Biomolecular, Bioseparations, and Chemical Engineering Ned: Look, you want to talk about sexy areas, you cant dream of leaving out nanotechnologyits your proposal title and you can start looking for your check by return mailwell pull the students in here like a vacuum cleaner. Ch: I see your pointI guess if we dont have nanotechnology in our name Berkeley grads wont look twice at us. OK, so all for the Depart ment of Biocatalytic, Biomedical, Biomolecular, Bioseparations, Chemical, and Nanotechnological Engineering say N: My mother always said to let the smallest one meters, so it should be the Department of Nano technological Ch: Enough alreadydont push your luck! Now, all in favor of Ernie: Whoa, Chuckhave you forgotten Mother Earth? Ch: Say what? E: Saving lives may be important, but nothing is more important than saving the planet, and the environmental engineering program in this depart ment is second to none in its dedication to Ch: Yeah, yeahand what could be sexier than sav ing Mother Earth? E: Just what I was going to say. Ch: is the Department of Biocatalytic, Biomedical, Biomolecular, Bioseparations, Chemical, Environ mental, and Nanotechnological Engineeringtake it or leave it. All in favor say D: You know, thats kind of an awkward name. Ch: Oh reallyI hadnt noticed. So are you offer ing to drop Biomolecular to help us solve this problem? D: Of course notyou cant begin to count the graduate students youd lose by dropping Bio molecular. I was thinking, thoughnobody here really does anything you could call chemical engineering, do they? E: Hey, shes rightand we got rid of the last of our unit operations equipment in the undergraduate lab to make room for Neds scanning electron mi croscopy experiment and Morries heart catheter ization demo. M: Besidesstudents dont seem to have much use for chemical engineering anymore. S: Thats for surethe latest Roper poll had chemi cal engineering and pig-lagoon maintenance tied for 247th place in job desirability rankings. Ch: Well, I guess that settles it. All in favor of be coming the Department of Biocatalytic, Biomedi cal, Biomolecular, Bioseparations, Environmental, and Nanotechnological Engineering say aye. All: Aye! Ch: Done! Ill have Patsy order our new letterhead stationery immediately. C: Hey Chuck, dropping chemical wont cause a problem with ABET, will it? Ch: the Gibbs-Duhem equation, were cool. All of the Random Thoughts columns are now available on the World Wide Web at

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Fall 2006 283 O ne problem facing the United States is a declining number of students interested in an engineering major. [1] Between 1992 and 2002, the percentage of high school students expressing an interest in engineering de [2] In addition, U.S. students demonstrate a lack of preparedness in math and science. [3] To address these issues, a number of programs have been initiated throughout the country in which high school teachers are retrained, or students are exposed to science and engineering through summer outreach programs. [4-7] The College of Engineering, Architecture, and Technology (CEAT) at Oklahoma State University (OSU) has developed a multidisciplinary, weeklong, resident summer academy for high school students called REACH (Reaching Engineer ing and Architectural Career Heights). The primary goal of REACH is to provide factual, experiential information to all of engineering, architecture, and technology. Another goal involves increasing the number of students from underrep resented groups studying these disciplines. The academy is designed to help students make individual career decisions, with the intention of attracting them to engineering careers. Participants are primarily junior or senior high school stu dents. In the 2005 program, nearly 70% of the 30 students (18 BIOMEDICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FOR K STUDENTSSUNDARARAJAN V. MADIHALLY AND ERIC L. MAASE Oklahoma State University Stillwater, OK 74078 ChE Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2006 female and 12 male) were from groups under-represented in engineering, architecture, and technology (such as females, Hispanics, and Native Americans). Each academy begins with a recreational activity such as rock climbing or camping so that participants get to know each other. Afterwards, participants get exposure to engineering

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Chemical Engineering Education 284 T ABLE 1 Bioengineering Module Schedule Initial Survey 9:00 -10:00 Overview and Introduction 10:00 -11:40 Experimentation 10:20 -10:50 Lab Tour I 10:50 -11:20 Lab Tour II (15 students) 11:45 1:15 Lunch break 1:30 1:45 Wrap up the experiment 1:45 2:00 Prepare for the presentation 2:00 2:45 Presentations (5 min each group) 2:45 3:15 Summarize/questions Final Survey Figure 1. Pre-assessment survey form. disciplines including civil and environmental; architectural, electrical, and computer; technology; biosystems and agricultural; mechanical and aerospace; industrial; and chemical and biomedical/biochemical. These disciplines are taught using a modular approach by instructors from each specialty. Hands-on projects are tailored to high school students. During the week participants are also exposed to the engineering industry through a plant tour. At the conclusion of the week, students give a presentation describing their experience at the academy in front of their peers, parents, and teachers. This paper focuses on use of a new module at the 2005 academy, in which students were introduced to biomedical and biochemical engineering. This was the last module in the series. The primary goal was to expose students to various activities in bioengineer ing. Additional goals included teaching students good research methodology and presentation skills. The activities for the day and scheduled events for the module (Table 1) included an introductory presentation, a laboratory tour, and experimental work. In these ac tivities, both deductive and inductive learning styles were used [8-13] to maximize teaching effectiveness and successful completion of the module goals. STUDENT PRE-ASSESSMENT After being informed about the scheduled events for the module and their activities for the day, students were asked to complete a one-page sur vey (Figure 1). Of 10 questions on the survey, two were about interest in a bio engineering career or attending medical school. The eight remaining questions required students to self-assess their ous topics: biological (basic biology and molecular biology); medical (biochem istry and biotechnology, human physi ology, immunology, and genetics); and and electrical circuits). Results of the students expressed interest in medical school and 10 in a bio-based engineer in biological, medical, and engineering topics (Figure 2), average values varied from 36% (%) to 56% (%). The levels between male and female students was in the engineering sciences. In the questions on the uses of corn syrup and enzyme-dependent degradation of level was 33%. In questions on the awareness of prosthetic devices and tissue engineering, 12 students could name vari ous prosthetic devices and nine had some knowledge of tissue engineering. 2005 BioModule REACH Pre-Survey

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Fall 2006 285 PRESENTING AN OVERVIEW AND INTRODUCTION TO BIOENGINEERING After completion of the survey, the next event initially ap peared as an introductory presentation. But its intent instead was as a tool to initiate conversation with the students. [14] ics in bioengineering, i.e. physiologic systems modeling, prosthetic devices, tissue engineering, drug delivery, and biotechnology. Using an interactive presentation approach, instructors drew attention to practical applications students could have observed in society and asked students to pro vide their knowledge and awareness of the topics. Further, students were encouraged to ask questions. This approach comfortable while providing new information on biomaterials and bioengineering. The discussion on modeling physiological factors included and modeling thoracic forces. The example was Lance Armstrongs success in Tour de France competitions, thereby connecting students with a real-life event. The other example involved modeling the dialysis process, and students were informed they would see an entire dialysis unit during the laboratory tour. donors. To encourage participation, students were asked about aids, pacemakers, and contact lenses (the most likely device with which an audience member would have direct experi ence). Further, they were asked, How do they work?, and What is the need? This was done to overcome possible student reluc tance to participating in portion on prosthetic de heart valves, covering the progression of research and use from mechanical valves to bioprosthetic valves, and the difference with tissue-engineered valves. The basic concepts in tissue engineering were then introduced using examples of currently available artificial skin products and their manu facturers. After exposing was: How do we engineer such products? In order to show the engineering principles, controlled drug delivery devices were considered. Questions such as: What happens when a person takes Tylenol?, and Why does that person need to take pills repeatedly?, served as a basis for pondering better initiated a discussion on the importance of biological factors (half-life, absorption, and metabolism) vs. physiochemical factors (dose, solubility/reactivity/pH, stability) in drug de livery. In addition, characteristics of traditional oral dosing (cyclic concentrations) and more desirable constant (continu ous) drug delivery concepts allowed a short discussion of chemical diffusion. Drug delivery served as a link to discussing digestive physiology and enzymes. To introduce this topic, randomly selected students were asked to read the content list on several empty soft drink containers. The most common ingredient, dents were asked about the need for corn syrup, creating some discussion on the sweetness, solubility, and production cost of the syrup. This led to discussion on reactor design and the chemical process for obtaining corn syrup. A comprehensive engineering process diagram for complete corn wet milling was presented, [15] emphasizing the importance of acid hydro lysis or enzymatic degradation. The discussion concluded by examining enzyme (and acid) degradation of starch. HANDS-ON EXPERIMENT For a hands-on experiment, students were asked to study enzyme-mediated or acid hydrolysis of potato starch. Students Figure 2. Student pre-assessment: science and engineering knowledge by gender.

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Chemical Engineering Education 286 be from differing high schools, and balanced by gender with three females and two males. The low-budget experiment is straightforward, as students either mash cooked potatoes or lase) or acid is added, and the solution is mixed, maintaining a constant temperature. In presence of the enzyme or acid, starch hydrolyzes to smaller sugars. The presence and amount of starch in a sample can be measured using the iodine-clock reactionin which the abundant presence of starch is indi cated by the fast appearance of blue color; reduced presence delays the appearance of blue color; and complete degradation of starch into glucose is indicated by the loss of blue color. Digestion and saliva reactions having already been discussed in the overview, the background consisted of a short (oneslide) presentation on the importance of carbohydrates ( e.g. immediate source of energy for the body), and various sources of carbohydrates, including rice, corn, wheat, and potatoes. Other information included types of sugars (granulated sugar, simple sugars (fructose and fruit sugar) and double sugars (sugar cane, sugar beet, maltose or malt sugar, and lactose or milk sugar). The experiment was conducted so that students had to take an active role in developing and clarifying experimental pro cedures. [16] A brief experimental protocol, with instructions regarding volumes of water, directions to use the enzyme or acid, and the solution temperature, was provided to students. The detailed protocols with complete instructions were deliberately not given while critical direc tions were provided. Furthermore, although each team had the same experimental task, each group was given a unique experimental condition, so substrate-size on reaction rate could be discussed. Variables included the amount of potato used, whether it was baked or unbaked, mashed or cut, the temperature (30 C, 50 C, or 70 C), and either enzyme or hydrochloric acid. Potatoes were purchased from a local supermarket, while Aldrich Co. An iodide-clock reaction kit was from Universe of Science, Inc. Experiments were and each group was equipped with a hotplate/ magnetic stirrer, thermometer, and pH strips. Each group was told to record initial potato weight and solution pH, and to take samples at regular inter vals to measure starch content. Baked potatoes needed to be mashed, and unbaked potatoes cut into small pieces using a kitchen knife. Students enjoyed this part of the work as an easy means of team participation (Figure 3). Each group had 20 minutes to get experiments under way before laboratory tours began. LABORATORY T OUR Each experimental group was split, with half of the class (15 students) accompanying an instructor on a laboratory tour while the other half stayed to continue experimentation. After tour was scheduled for 30 minutes. In the laboratory tour, students were taken to an undergradu ate instructional laboratory containing various unit operations. While emphasis was given to a packed bed reactor containing a resin enzyme, other equipment included a heat exchanger skid, bioreactor assembly, dialysis, absorption column, and discussion of computer interfaces and control valves. Students liked the demonstrations, and asked a number of questions regarding the computer interface. ORAL PRESENTATIONS After a lunch break, during which experiments continued, the students returned to conclude their experiments. Each group was asked to present the experimental observations/outcomes as a team. They were given 10 minutes preparation time. During this recess, they were told the presentation should be a group effort, all members should be respectful to other Figure 3. Different groups pulverizing potatoes.

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Fall 2006 287 group members, and the audience should ask questions. Each question-and-answer sessions. the presentation, with the three female members only par ticipating during the question-and-answer portion. The initial group also provided no introductions of group members or motivation(s) for experimental work. Prior to the beginning of second presentation, instructors gave immediate feedback on presentation strategy and reminded the students about the required equal participation from all group members. This havior was followed for all presentations. Further, instructors solicited additional critiques from the audience so the entire class could become a source of feedback on presentation style and effectiveness. The instructors ensured their remarks were neither admonishing nor overly negative. Subsequent group presentations continued to improve. The second group correctly followed initial instructions by introducing all team members, and allowing them to actively participate. Presentations from each group improved overall, results. Furthermore, none of the teams mentioned conclu sions and recommendations for future investigations. Inter estingly, one group that performed the experiment similar to in their solution, but failed to make any comparison with the other team. Neither group initiated any discussion or ques tions of the results. Instructors had to ask students for possible explanations of the differences between each outcome. EFFECTIVE PRESENTATIONS, EXPERIMENTAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE, AND CRITICAL THINKING After the presentations, an overview of what needed to be included in the presentation was discussed. Some of the points addressed included: Why did you do this experiment? What was your experimental set-up? What were your results? What conclusions can be drawn? What future plans would you suggest? The students were commended for excellent performance in explaining their setups so the discussion would be viewed positively rather than as criticism. Using the completed experiments as a guide and while their own presentations were still fresh, a discussion on the attributes of an effective presentation was initiated. Using questions stated above, the instructors introduced a general presentation format including introduction, methodology, results, conclusions, and recom mendation sections. Although this presentation outline is not robust, it does incorporate many features of an effective presentation. [17] The students seemed to enjoy participating in a discussion of effective presentations from the unique perspective of devils advocate, with a recent presentation ings, and desirable improvements. The instructors also opened a general discussion on ap questions included were: Why did the pH drop in the experiments where acid was used? What happened to the pH of the solution? What happened to the temperature? Did it take a long time at the end of the experiment? Did you keep track of time it has been sitting in the container? Did the viscosity of the slurry create mixing problems? What happened when you added potatoes to a pre-mea sured volume of water? What problems arose? These questions allowed discussion of the criteria neces sary for good experimental procedures, the problems that may occur in experimental setups, and necessary data to analysis. In addition, there was an opportunity to emphasize the ethical aspect of reporting. One of the teams had forgot ten to include a magnetic stirring rod, and thus their solution was not well mixed, resulting in less degradation of starch than expected. They were honest about it, and the other teams thought that was a humorous mistake. This allowed a discussion of how no experiment is really a failure, every mixing matters a great deal. Other aspects of the experiment encouraged critical think ing. Some students spilled excess water from their beakers because they did not account for additional volume when adding potatoes. In other experiments, uniform heat distri bution was an issue. These complications were built into experimental protocols, and the students needed to identify, overcome, and otherwise consider these issues to accomplish their experimental work. Together with the hands-on experiment, students were shown a 5 liter bioreactor with a jacketed heater and control lable agitator during the laboratory tour. Explanations were given about how bioreactors work. Reexamining these factors after their experiments emphasized the differences and simi larities between the two setups, and the need for engineering design of equipment.

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Chemical Engineering Education 288 PROBLEMS AND RECOMMENDATIONS At the end of the module, a general discussion was initiated asking students to comment on their experiences during the module. Principal comments included: a) Confusion from switching of operators taking care of experiments b) Need for proper equipment to mash potatoes or cut them into small pieces c) Desire to have an experiment where the product is a take-home substance (not some form of potatoes that are discarded) experimental protocols e) A prize for the best performance to motivate their work With each suggestion, the instructors provided immediate feedback and an explanation of the current module structure in order to elicit further group discussion. For example, team splitting can cause confusion due to lack of communication, but may not necessarily be a problem. It is very common in industrial practice to have three continuous shifts, and personnel must effec tively communicate between shifts. One way to promote communication may be to include a 10-minute break between the tours with members regarding experimental status. In order to save time, one could use a household food processor to mash or chop the potatoes. The incomplete nature of the experimental protocols has already been mentioned, and the students were provided some reasoning for the lack of information. Their reactions were noted on this approach in future classes. The suggestion of a prize for the best group was interesting, as the students had been conditioned over the previous week by many of the REACH faculty to expect such forms of praise. While considering the suggestion, the current module seems best served by not including prizes as a form of reward. Overall, the students enjoyed the desired give-andtake interaction encouraged by the instruc tors, and were open in their suggestions for improvements.OUTCOME ASSESSMENT To understand the effectiveness of the mod ule on student learning, an outcome assess ment was provided (Figure 5), similar to the Figure 4. Module effect on students perceptions of available career options. Figure 5. Post-assessment survey form. Please name

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Fall 2006 289 pre-assessment survey. To measure the main objectives of the module, i.e. two questions in the pre-assessment were repeated. Out of 30 students, a large number (~2/3) had already expressed interest in attending medical school (pre-assessment data). Therefore, in the student desire, awareness of medical school, or career options (Figure 4). By comparison, an increase in student awareness of bioengineering as a career was observed, as four This suggested that the module was successful in introducing bioengineering. doubled (Figure 6) with a large group of students indicating age was 63% ( 13%) and 76% ( 20%), respec tively, for each category. Further, students indicated presentation. Without a pre-assessment question re garding their abilities in data presentation, however, the effectiveness of this aspect of the module could not be assessed, although one student did mention that this portion of the module was his/her favorite experience. interest in the introductory presentation materials, laboratory tour, and handson experiment, for which re sponses were ~50% ( 28%). A follow-up, open-ended ques tion asked for students favorite experience during the day, with responses grouped into six gen eral categories (Table 2). Sur prisingly, nearly 53% indicated the lecture materials as their favorite events (one student noted that the afternoon lecture on effective presentations was the most interesting, and said it included information that he/she had never been shown or heard previously). The introductory materials are likely the most interesting, simply due to the interactive nature of the presentations in and aspects of importance in students lives. While drawing conclusions regarding differences between male and female responses is indeterminate given the small sample population, cant interest and engagement with instructors and presented materials. Further, a larger number of female students than male students indicated the experimental portion was the most enjoyable topic. The trend was opposite the previous response enjoyment of the experiment at 54% compared to female students at an average of 47%. SUMMARY interactive presentations, discussions, experimental proce dure (hands-on work), and a tour of working engineering laboratories. The presentation was designed to encourage Figure 6. Student responses to Importance of Corn Syrup. T ABLE 2 What was the topic you most enjoyed? by category and gender Category M F Total % General Lecture 2 1 3 10 Prosthetic Devices 2 4 6 20 4 3 7 23 Experiment 2 6 8 27 Lab Tour 1 1 2 7 No Response 1 3 4 13

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Chemical Engineering Education 290 engineering aspects. All topics incorporated design aspects to draw on personal experiences with bioengineering products, processes, and research. Students enjoyed the presentation style and topics, and were able to connect much of the mate rial to their own experiences and knowledge. Based on the immediate responses, the overall module was successful in understand the effectiveness of the module, however, longterm follow-up studies are needed examining the students career choices. The assessments also need to be redesigned to more effectively measure module features and goals. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Conoco-Phillips, NASA, and OSU CEAT for analysis and manuscript preparation.REFERENCES 1. The Science and Engineering Workforce: Realizing Americas Potential National Science Board August (2003) 2. Learning for the Future: Changing the Culture of Math and Science Education to Ensure a Competitive Workforce Committee for Eco nomic Development, May (2003) 3. Bayer Facts of Science Education IX: Americans Views on the Role of Science and Technology in U.S. National Defense (2003) 4. Olds, S.A., D.E. Kanter, A. Knudson, and S.B. Mehta, Designing an Outreach Project that Trains Both Future Faculty and Future Engineers, Proceedings of the American Society for Engineering Education Nashville (2003) 5. Knight, M., and C. Cunningham, Draw an Engineer Test (DAET): Development of a Tool to Investigate Students Ideas about Engineers and Engineering, Proceedings of the American Society for Engineering Education Salt Lake City (2004) 6. Chandler, J.R., and A. Dean-Fontenot, TTU College of Engineering Pre-College Engineering Academy Teacher Training Program, Proceedings of the American Society for Engineering Education Salt Lake City (2004) 7. Douglas, J., E. Iversen, and C. Kalyandurg, Engineering in the K-12 Classroom: An Analysis of Current Practices & Guidelines for the Future, ASEE Engineering K12 Center November (2004) 8. Kolb, D.A., Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learn ing and Development Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1984) 9. Honey, P., and A. Mumford, The Manual of Learning Styles, Maid enhead, Homey (1986) 10. Bransford, J., A. Brown, and R. Cooking, How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School National Academy Press, Washington D.C. (1999) 11. Donovan, M.S., J.D. Bransford, and J.W. Pellegrino, How People Learn: Bridging Research and Practice, National Research Council (1999) 12. Felder, R., and L. Silverman, Learning and Teaching Styles In Engi neering Education, Eng. Ed ., 78 (7), 674 (1988) 13. Felder, R., and R. Brent, Understanding Student Differences, J. Engr. Ed. 94 (1), 57 (2005) 14. Baker, A., P. Jensen, and D. Kolb, Conversational Learning: An Expe riential Approach to Knowledge Creation Quorum Books, Westport, CT (2002) 15. Chapter 9, Introduction to AP 42, Volume I, Stationary Point and Area Sources, US EPA 5th Ed. (1995) 16. Watai, L., A. Brodersen, and S. Brophy, Designing Effective Engi neering Laboratories: Application of Challenge-Based Instruction, Asynchronous Learning Methods, and Computer-Supported Instru mentation, American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition, Salt Lake City (2004) 17. Hendricks, W., Secrets of Power Presentations Career Press, Franklin Lakes, NJ (1996)

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Fall 2006 291 C hemical engineering as a profession grew in the late 19th century out of collaboration between chemists and mechanical engineers working to develop largescale industrial processes. To this day chemical engineers working in the process industries are closely involved not only with particular chemical processesand unit operations such as reactors and separators that can accomplish these processesbut also with mechanical devices such as pumps and valves that enable the transport of materials. We have found, however, that skill or even familiarity with mechani engineering students, even though they are often the best and brightest science and mathematics students at the high school intensive, and the practical exposure that does take place is more in the traditional science subjects, complemented by some experimental work using basic pilot-scale unit opera students, although academically relatively successful, still struggle to connect reality to theory. In addition, a large seg ment of the class is relatively intimidated by the prospect of working in a plant environment. In the Department of Chemical Engineering at the Univer sity of Cape Town (UCT) we have been considering for some students better exposure to mechanical aspects of chemical engineering. It was fortuitous that the opportunity arose to the course dealt with the interpretation of chemical engineer PRESSURE FOR FUN: WILL J. SCARBROUGH AND JENNIFER M. CASE University of Cape Town Rondebosch, South Africa 7701 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2006 material to the second year to integrate it more closely with core chemical engineering courses. In discussion among a group of academic staff, we decided that our objectives for this module would not be primarily focused on detailed content knowledge, but rather on changing students attitudes toward this aspect of chemical engineering. These were the objectives for the new module: Get students excited about mechanical things. things work (and the desire to learn more). ChE

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Chemical Engineering Education 292 Help students start building a sense of mechanical intuition. Provide familiarity with equipment diagrams and hard ware. Develop students ability to link the real world and theory. This is a rather different set of objectives compared to what chemical engineering lecturers usually design courses around. How do you explicitly design a course module for excitement? This paper describes how we went about meeting this cur riculum development challenge. The new course module ran UCT. In this paper we focus on the process of setting up and APPROACH TO COURSE DESIGN We found a useful rationale for running this type of course in the classic work by Woolnough [1] regarding practical work in school science. He argued against the widely held belief that practical work should be done for the sake of theory, and that conceptual understanding will be an automatic outcome of successful practical work. Instead, he suggested that practi cal work is better understood as having its own end, either to develop skills, to develop the ability to conduct investigations, or to simply get a feel for important physical phenomena. The the chief aim being to allow students physical interaction with the mechanical aspects of chemical engineering. In recent times a number of innovative courses have been chemical engineering students. For example, Barritt, et al., [2] describes a highly successful multidisciplinary project that involved small groups of students in the design, manufacture, and operation of a pilot-scale water treatment plant. Moor, et al ., [3] neering students, this time involving the design of a reverse osmosis system, with the collection and interpretation of experimental data from an existing rig. Willey, et al., [4] de a sequential batch-processing system. Most of the courses reported in past literature, such as those described here, incorporate relatively sophisticated design projects that run over a long duration. Our aims were more limited as we had a large class and a short period of time. We therefore decided to focus on our primary objectives, which were centered on changing students attitudes toward working with mechani cal artifacts. To meet these objectives, we adopted a particular teaching approach that included small class size, group work, and excellently trained facilitation. Additionally, the activities were planned to give students a sense of accomplishment and encourage experiential learning and unsolicited experimen tation. In traditional terms, this resulted in a combination of practice and some tutorial in one class period, without the use of a lecture period. Assessment was based on a combination of individual and group assignments, and contributed 10% in which this module was located. By concentrating on the primary objectives of the course, content topics that suited these objectives could be chosen and a rapid movement between topics undertaken if necessary. in our activities. The intended objectives, however, remained focused on excitement and learning how to explain, rather than on content. of approximately 20 students, and each group was allocated week course module. Each session was attended by two or three tutors and the course organizer. Each class made use of student teams ranging in size from two to four members. In most cases students continued with the same team for two successive classes. An introductory chemical engineering time they began this module in the second semester of their One vital component of the course was facilitation by tutors. Students were asked to operate unlike they had in any previous school or university situation. Such unfamiliar expectations occasionally caused students to balk at requests. Additionally, with little experience in a potentially intimidating situation, students often had no idea where to begin or how to proceed after achieving a portion of the activity. Our solution was to handpick tutors and train them in facilitation (also known as coaching). The primary role of the tutors was to closely observe student teams and offer guidance when necessary. The tutors were mainly graduate students who were selected based on previous experience with tutoring and an observed ability to patiently facilitate the group process. Tutors were given a short manual on facilitation and practiced a short roleplay illustrating typical situations. Detailed tutor notes were provided for each class including a time schedule, jobs for Before each weeks class, the tutors met to go over the activity, practice it themselves, and discuss the reference materials for the topic and facilitation tactics for the activity. The environment within the classroom was also an impor

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Fall 2006 293 tant consideration. From the initial description of the module to the manner of facilitation, students were told they had organizer and tutors made a careful effort throughout the module to create an environment safe for experimentation, in particular for the students most nervous about physical parts and equipment.THE ACTIVITIES Each week students were presented with a different activity, assessment was integrated throughout the module. The introductory class consisted simply of pairs of students taking apart large-scale components from industry and attempting mechanical design. Students were allowed the time to construct their own ideas. An important element was giving each student practical experience with physical parts. Most of the parts were nothing more complicated than valves, yet the novelty of valves weighing 20 kg was clearly demonstrated with an initial com ment, This is a pump, right? After the activity, a handout with information on each type of valve was given. During class we tried not to criticize or correct students ideas, but instead encour age each pair to complete the line of thinking them selves. For assessment purposes, each student was required to submit rough notes and a written explanation of how the mechanical part worked. At the start of the sec ond class each pair of students was given a cheap, transparent pump and bottle: the kind often used for liquid hand soap. Starting with observation, continu ing with disassembly and reassembly of the pump, and ending with directed experiments, pairs needed to discern the working principles of the pump. Each pair was instructed to create a one-page diagram ex planation of the physics principles underlying the pumps operation, and how those prin ciples are utilized by the mechanical parts. This report counted as 30% of the assessment mark for the module. An example of a par ticularly good student response is reproduced in Figure 1. Figure 1. Explanation of hand pump by student pair. The illustrated mechanism is an example of a reciprocrating pump, a type that is also used to extract H 2 O and oil from under the ground.

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Chemical Engineering Education 294 Within this class and the whole module, students were faced with the need to come up with their own answers. When students asked questions about the pump, tutorsrather than provide the answer immediatelyencouraged students to try it and see what happens. Similar to other activities in this module, free experimentation was required to discover the workings of the mechanism. Creating a detailed explanation of a relatively simple pump a task to a reasonable degree of satisfaction. Only in written feedback afterward were stu dent misconceptions noted. In a reverse from previous exercises, the next class began with sets of mechanical draw ings for six types of pumps. Each group of three or four students had a limited amount of time to work backwards from the drawings for two types of pumps to discover how the pumps operate. The previous hands-on experience with a reciprocating piston pump (the hand pump) provid ed a base for interpretation of the pump drawings. Partway through the class, students were rearranged into new groups, such that no one in the new group had encountered the same pumps. Then, in a very restricted time, each student was required to explain the pumps they knew to others. THE CHALLENGE to complete the experience. We named it The Challenge. inexpensive rig was provided for each team of three to four students. A diagram of the rig is shown in Figure 2. For the worksheet and then experiment with the rig to demonstrate concepts relating to pressure, head, laminar and turbulent For The Challenge, students worked to control the motion of a bead in a system of pipes using pressure changes (Figure 3). Students had to experiment with the equipment to learn the effect of closing and opening particular valves. The activities complished through effort, teamwork, and practice. Many unplanned learning points arose as a result of the left to the upper left of a D shape, a trickle of dye left the Figure 2. The Challenge rig setup. Figure 3. Students participating in The Challenge.

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Fall 2006 295 A student remarked that they had no idea any water would team names, an elimination tree structure, stopwatches to record times, and a prize for the winning team. A video cam era captured the event and projected it onto the big screen behind the two competing teams. The other students cheered as their classmates competed (shown in Figure 4). For as sessment purposes each team was required to submit a brief report on The Challenge, and this counted as 30% of the module grade.EVALUATION OF THE MODULE From simple observation of students during the module, it noticed students enthusiasm with the activities and high levels of verbal interaction within student teams as they sought to a way to more systematically gauge the success of the activity in meeting its objectives, and therefore administered a short Likert-type survey to all students before and after the module. Five statements were provided, and students were asked to in dicate their response on a scale of (5) strongly agree, (4) agree, (3) uncertain, (2) disagree, or (1) strongly disagree. Ninety-two completed question naires were returned. Table 1 (next page) shows the change in the mode (most frequently reported response) for each statement. A more complete indication of the range of re sponses is given in Figure 5. The largest change observed was ques tion 1, explain; most students (51%) began not knowing if they could explain how a mechanical object works to some one else or not. The responses agree and strongly agree moved from 38% before the module to 97% after the module. Question 2, intuition, began with the greatest disagree of all questions at 15%. After the module this was reduced to 3%, although this question retained the largest number of uncertain re sponses, with 27%indicating students who did not have the tions. The combined responses agree and strongly agree to intuition moved from 42% to 73%. Student interest in how things work, Question 3, started high and had nowhere to go; this group of students began and remained a curious Figure 4. The winning group celebrates. Figure 5. Box and Whisker plot of survey responses, N = 92.

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Chemical Engineering Education 296 T ABLE 1 Modal Responses by Students, Before and After Module, N=92 # Question Reference in text Mode Before Mode After 1 I can explain how a mechanical object works to someone else. explain uncertain agree h 2 I have an intuition that allows me to understand mechanical things. intuition uncertain agree h 3 how things work. strongly agree strongly agree n 4 I am excited to do a practical or job that involves mechanical things. excited agree strongly agree h 5 I can connect chemical engi neering theory to an image in my mind of what actually happens. theory agree agree n bunch. Question 4, excited, saw only a small decrease (3%) in those uncertain about working with mechanical things. Nevertheless, the combined responses agree and tion, theory, the combined responses agree and strongly agree moved from 64% to 86%.CONCLUSION In this paper we have reported on the development and evaluation of a new module in our chemical engineering undergraduate program, which has the primary objective of mechanical artifacts. It has been shown that the module in their ability to work with and explain mechanical things. It was also great fun for the students, tutors, and the course organizer. The module is now fully established in the program, and makes an important contribution to the development of degree outcomes. It was a fairly radical move to design a course module around attitudinal objectives (excitement, etc.) rather than the more conventional content-based design. Even with the current focus on outcomes-based design, this is still often a neglected aspect of curriculum development in chemical engineering. We hope that the descriptions of the activities given in this article will encourage others to try them out with ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The tutor Ryan A. Stevenson was invaluable for his help in brainstorming creative ideas for this module. The support and encouragement of other colleagues in the Department of Chemical Engineering at UCT is also acknowledged. REFERENCES 1. Woolnough, B.E., Exercises, Investigations, and Experiences, Phy. Ed 18 60-63 (1983) 2. Barritt, A., J. Drwiega, R. Carter, D. Mazyck, and A. Chauhan, A Freshman Design Experience: Multidisciplinary Design of a Potable Water Treatment Plant, Chem. Eng. Ed. 39 (4), 296 (2005) 3. Moor, S.S., E.P. Saliklis, S.R. Hummel, and Y.C. Yu, A Press RO Sys tem: An Interdisciplinary Project for First-Year Engineering Students, Chem. Eng. Ed. 37 (1), 38 (2003) 4. Willey, R.J., J.A. Wilson, W.E. Jones, and J.H. Hills Sequential Batch Processing Experiment for First-Year Chemical Engineering Students, Chem. Eng. Ed. 33 (3), 216 (1999)

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Fall 2006 297 T dustrial chemistry at the beginning of the last century, through the revolutionary reformulation of unit operations and engineering science in the 1960s, to the extensive use of computing and the incorporation of biology over the last two decades. [1] This latter change is now maturing. Chemical engineering departments around the world are changing their names and refocusing their missions to include the fundamen tal science of biology.BRINGING IN BIOLOGY ing curricula. Most prominently, the human genome was 2001, [2, 3] and thus the full parts list of this organism and many others is now available. High-throughput and systems biology tools are extending this parts list to provide com plex views of biological systems at the molecular and cellular level. [4, 5] Concurrently, the pharmaceutical industry is creating new drugs and products using new biotechnology (cell culture, protein engineering, genetics). These advances rely on tools measure and affect processes on the biological-length scales (ngstroms to microns). Biological systems are complex, interested in mimicking these qualities in designed materials, processes, devices, and systems. In addition, we are poised to discover new insights into biology by bringing chemical At Johns Hopkins University (JHU), the Department of biologically relevant problems, due in part to the proximity and diffusion of ideas from our prominent medical school and biomedical engineering department. Of our 12 full-time faculty, six have research programs primarily focused on biological problems (protein engineering, cell engineer ing, drug delivery, etc.), and most of the remaining six have projects with biological implications or applications as discussions within the chemical engineering community began to suggest that renaming departments could be useful of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (ChemBE) in fall 2002. We also recognized that to be a department including biomolecular engineering, it is necessary to train students, many Hopkins students were already receiving such training, BIOMOLECULAR MODELING JEFFREY J. GRAY Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD 21218 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2006 ChE

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Chemical Engineering Education 298 as research ideas naturally diffuse into traditional courses and new electives. We resolved to criti cally examine our undergraduate curriculum and revise course requirements and topics within all core courses to realign the undergraduate cur riculum with our new mission. The context and purpose for these new courses can best be summed up by the new JHU ChemBE mission statement: archetype of innovative and fundamentally grounded engineer at the undergraduate and graduate levels through the fusion of fundamental chemical engineering prin ciples and emerging disciplines. We will nurture a passion for technological innova boundaries. We will be known for developing lead ers in our increasingly technological society who are The Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering offers courses and training toward a B.S. degree in chemical and biomolecular engineering. This discipline is dedicated to solving problems and generating valuable products from chemical and bio logical transformations at the molecular scale. The undergraduate program emphasizes the molecular science aspects of biology and chemistry along with engineering concepts essential to developing com mercial products and processes. By selecting an ap propriate concentration or by free electives, students can prepare for a professional career path or for further study in chemical, biomolecular, or a related school. In the tradition of JHU, many undergraduates are also involved in researchworking closely with faculty and graduate students in research groups. With the departmental decision to change the undergradu ate curriculum, I contemplated questions about the process control course. What skills and abilities of dynamics and control are also applicable to biomolecular and nanoscale systems? What new skills and abilities must be taught? How are biological dynamical systems similar to and different from traditional chemical process systems? How will our new graduates differ from their predecessors? Similar questions were discussed at a recent series of national workshops. [6] As additional background has been added to the curriculum, some have even suggested that dynamics and control be BOX 1 1. Create dynamic models for chemical and biological processes, including single-variable and multivariable, linear and nonlinear systems. 2. Integrate dynamic models to determine system behavior over time using Laplace methods, state space methods, or numerical methods. 3. Design control schemes to control system behavior. 4. Analyze dynamics and control with frequency approaches. 5. Analyze nonlinear dynamics with phase portraits and numerical methods. 6. Meet environmental and safety objectives through process control. 7. Use computational tools for system analysis. 8. Operate an industrial control system on a lab-scale process. 9. Collaborate in small working teams on research, analysis, and design. 10. Present work orally and in written reports. BOX 2 Topics Covered 1. Motivation for modeling and control 2. Modeling and system representations 3. State space models and linearization 4. Introduction to MATLAB 5. Pharmacokinetic modeling, biomolecular modeling, and the Central Dogma 6. Laplace transforms 7. Transfer functions 8. First, second, and higher-order systems 9. Poles and zeros, time delay 10. Empirical model formulation 11. Control of gene expression, lac operon 12. Feedback control 13. PID controllers 14. Closed-loop transfer function and stability 15. Large-scale biosimulation (guest lecture) 16. Controller tuning in industry (guest lecture) 17. Frequency response 18. Bode and Nyquist approaches, robustness 19. Introduction to nonlinear dynamics 20. Lotka-Volterra model, limit cycles, chaos 21. Current topics in the literature eliminated. [7] The specialty, however, is important in biology because biological processes are dynamic, nonequilibrium, and tightly integrated and regulated as a system. [7] There are several main ways in which biological systems differ from traditional chemical process systems. First, chemi cal process systems are human-created with known parts and components. Biological systems evolve without human design, and they involve many parts and components that we are still discovering. Indeed, the fact that we are rapidly dis

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Fall 2006 299 covering these parts and their functions now (via the genome project and various microand nanoscale analyses) is one of the main reasons this topic is important today. In the study of dynamics of biological systems, the task is often to reverse engineer the workings of the system, whereas in a chemical process the task is to build a model from the components and parts of a known process. [8] Secondly, biological systems are almost always nonlinear. Enzymatic reactions and active transport channels follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics, allosteric proteins have multistate behavior, and intracellular and tissue transport can be superor sub-diffusive due to the structured environment. Biological systems are often complex, involving multiple length scales from the atomic and molecular through the tissue, organ ism, and even ecosystem level. The range of time scales is nanoseconds to ecological changes over decades. Biological systems incorporate multiple regulatory loops including feed back, feedforward, and more complex control schemes. These issues are not limited to biological systems: real chemical processes also exhibit the challenges of interplay between multiple length and time scales, nonlinear underly ing equations, and multiple interacting control loops. Newer textbooks treat these subjects judiciously in later chapters. [9-11] The utility of these topics to both biological and chemical process systems provides additional motivation to include these ideas in a new dynamics and control class. Recent chemical engineering textbooks have begun to include biological problems and examples. For example, Bequettes text includes modules on a biochemical reactor and pharmacokinetic models for diabetic patients. [9] Ogunnaike and Ray also include problems from pharmacokinetics, bio technology, tissue engineering, and physiology (see problems in chapter 6 on dynamics of higher-order systems). [10] Seborg, Edgar, and Mellichamp now include a section on fed-batch bioreactors. [11] the traditional process dynamics and control course to create a new course, Modeling, Dynamics, and Control of Chemi cal and Biological Processes. The course is semester long, (13 weeks) with two 1.5-hour lectures and one hour-long discussion per week. It is typically taken during the senior year. It is required for ChemBE majors, and typically 25% of the students are nonmajors or part-time students from local industry. Below, I discuss the changing nature of students observed in the new chemical and biomolecular engineering program, and detail the revisions in the syllabus, the new modules. Student learning in the course is assessed through homework, exams, and a short presentation. The usefulness of course changes is assessed through a survey of alumni. I conclude with my opinions on the material that remains omit ted and prospects for the future of this course in the chemical engineering curriculum.STUDENTS The chemical and biomolecular engineering students at JHU courses taken by the students. Figure 1 (next page) shows the percentage of students enrolled in the dynamics class who had taken biology subjects. ChemBE majors are listed separately (nonmajors include biomedical engineering stu dents who have taken an engineering Molecules and Cells course). Biochemistry became a mandatory course for the graduating class of 2007, but the classes before that showed interest in the subject, and in 2005 77% of the students had taken biochemistry. This background allows me to move more quickly through the Central Dogma of Biology and assume some knowledge from the students about the role of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the cell. Hopkins students are highly involved in research. In fall 2005, 65% of students participated in research at some time during their tenure at Hopkins and, of those, 55% were involved in biologically related research. This background elevated the level of discussion on current engineering topics as well as on the basic elements of biological systems, and what at other schools, it may be necessary to take into account the background of the students.SYLLABUS AND OBJECTIVES Boxes 1 and 2 show the course objectives and the list of topics covered in the course from the syllabus. In a broad sense, the course is structured similarly to a traditional process and the second third feedback control. Both of these parts are infused with biological examples and systems, includ ing a couple of special lectures. The last third of the course includes a new section on nonlinear dynamics, and a week In traditional process dynamics and control courses, students learn about sensors, transducers, and actuators. In the new ChemBE curriculum, students must also examine the structures of biomolecular control components.

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Chemical Engineering Education 300 to review current modeling and control literature. Students are graded on the traditional tests and homework, and in ad dition they perform an experimental lab exercise and present a literature article to the class. Box 3 shows the biologically related learning objectives and those from the novel nonlinear dynamics segment. Many portions of a traditional chemical process control course have been retained. In particular, the philosophies of model building, Laplace approaches, transfer functions, block diagrams, feedback control, and frequency response methods are essential. Many traditional concepts can be reinforced through biological examples from recent literature, e.g ., Mark Martens lab has recently characterized experimental fre quency responses of fungal cell cultures. [12] Some of the more advanced and specialized treatments for process analysis, however, have been trimmed to make additional time for new concepts. Topics now minimized include in-depth treatments such as ratio control and cascade control, and, regretfully, modern control approaches such as model-based controllers. MAJOR REVISIONS The major subject material additions to the course are as follows. mation in a cell. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is transcribed by the polymerase into ribonucleic acid (RNA), and RNA is translated by the ribosome into protein. Proteins perform functions within the cell. Therefore, control in a cell can be exerted at any of these levelsinterfering with transcription, translation, or the protein function directly. These systems can be modeled as a set of chemical reactions in a cascade, for ex ample, r translation (t) = k translation C polymerase mRNA the rate of translation of mRNA into protein, given the concentra tion of the polymerase and the mRNA transcript, and assuming students with training in kinetics and reactor design. Organism models have been built using so-called phar macokinetic approaches. In this approach, each tissue in the body ( e.g., brain, liver, muscle) is modeled as a one-, two-, or three-compartment chamber. The compartments are assumed to be either diffusion-limited or reaction-limited, and are modeled accordingly as an ideal system. The bloodstream is modeled as a single (or double) well-mixed compartment that connects the other organs together. The set of compartments can be distilled into a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. These models are most often used to characterize the body. [13, 14] Molecular, cellular, and ecological systems can be con sidered by writing population balances, or balances on the number of cells, molecules, or organisms in the system: dN/dt = bN-dN+ where N is the number of units in the can describe the number of molecules inside a cellular organ elle, the number of cells in a culture or tissue, or the number of organisms in an ecosystem, for example. Such equations are intuitive for a chemical engineering student with training in mass and energy balances, and they quickly allow the student to work problems with these applications. An example study in literature is the measurement of leukocyte birth and death rates using tracing with the BrdU label. [15] One of the most fundamental ways in which a cell exhibits control is by changing which genes are expressed, thus what proteins exist to carry out function. [16] Gene expression is controlled by transcription factorsproteins that bind to the DNA and either recruit the polymerase or prevent the poly merase from initiating a transcript. The transcription factors themselves are often switches activated by the presence of a bacterial lac operon system regulates cell metabolism to use either glucose or lactose as a carbon source. [16] When lactose is present, allolactose (a lactose derivative) binds the lac re pressor, which can then dissociate from the DNA, allowing transcription of the genes encoding the proteins necessary for glucose feed, however, additional proteins are regulated via the level of cyclic AMP to ensure metabolic energy is not wasted producing lactose-metabolizing machinery. Keaslings group has constructed a straightforward dynamic model of the system, [17] and their article makes an excellent demonstration of a nonlinear, multivariable system that can be simulated third of a dynamics and control course. Furthermore, this segment allows me to introduce a descrip tion of the biomolecules involved in the process. In traditional process dynamics and control courses, students learn about sensors, transducers, and actuators. In the new ChemBE cur riculum, students must also examine the structures of biomo lecular control components. PowerPoint slides available from publisher W.H. Freeman [18] (Chapter 31) show the structures of molecules involved in control loops in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, from the small molecule effectors, to allosteric proteins and transcription factors, to the ribosome, polymerase, and histones. With this biomolecular background, students were challenged in a homework assignment to imag ine other nanoscopic implementations of a control scheme. In addition, they could predict the effect of perturbations to the existing biological system (see Box 4, page 304).

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Fall 2006 301 BOX 3 Nontraditional Learning Objective s Basics of Modeling : 1. Derive population model equations for cells, molecules, or organisms. 2. Describe the approach of pharmacokinetic modeling. 3. Derive dynamic equations for compartment-based models of living organisms. Biomolecular Control Systems : 4. Describe the lac operon as a model biomolecular control system, using standard biochemical terms properly (operator, inducer, repressor, promoter, gene, constitutive, induced). 5. Identify standard control features in biomolecular control systems. 6. Describe post-translational control strategies and eukaryotic strategies such as chromatin packing. 7. Describe the Central Dogma of Biology and identify steps where control can be achieved. 8. Imagine new complex control arrangements using biomolecular components. 9. Create complex dynamic models for biomolecular systems. Introduction to Nonlinear Dynamics : 10. Analytically solve for a trajectory given initial conditions and a linear system. 11. Sketch a phase portrait for a linear system or for some nonlinear systems. point. 14. Integrate a nonlinear system using a numerical tool. Figure 1: Biology-course background of students in the dynamics and control class (ChemBE 409) and for ChemBE majors only. The number of students surveyed in the course each year was 21, 29, and 31 in Fall 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively. The number of ChemBE graduates was 12, 15, 14, 20, and 15 for the classes of 20022006. Students were not surveyed about their academic background in Spring 2002-2003, and data for majors are from student transcripts. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Sp02Sp03F03F04F05 Biochemistry (409) Biochemistry (majors) Cell Biology (409) Cell Biology (majors) The scope and impact of biosimulation is demonstrated by examining recent simulations by a biotechnology startup com pany that has published details on its models. Entelos (Daly City, CA) employs chemical engineers along with biologists, biochemists, and computer scientists to create realistic disease models. We review the idea of taking a model to the extreme using a case study of Entelos arthritis model that simulates a rheumatoid joint. The model has hundreds of state variables and captures cell population dynamics, biochemical mediator T-cells, and chondrocytes. Ultimately, the model predicts cartilage degradation. [19] With this example, we can discuss issues of numerical accuracy, experimental validation, and uncertainty. Several fundamental skills underlie biologi cal dynamics problems and need extra empha sis in our course. Fortunately, some of these same concepts, such as state-space representa tion, multivariable systems, and treatment of coupled nonlinear evolution equations, have become more important in industrial process control and are more emphasized in recent textbook treatments. While Laplace approaches create elegant analytic treatments, tools such as MATLAB and Mathematica make it easy to represent vectors and create state-space representations. In particular, Bequettes recent textbook [9] incorporates the state-space viewpoint from the beginning, introducing eigenvalue/eigen vector treatments immediately and later developing Laplace treatments. With computational tools it is a straightforward generalization to include multiple variables for inputs and outputs in a dynamic model. These approaches culminate in a unit on nonlinear dynamics at the end of the semester.

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Chemical Engineering Education 302 BOX 4 Sample Homework and Exam Problems in Biomolecular Modeling and Control Population balances and compartment models Develop a very simple dynamic model for an E. coli cell consuming a metabolite. Ultimately, we would like to know the instantaneous rate of hydrolysis of the metabolite in response to dynamic changes in the metabolite concentration outside of the cell. The hydrolysis occurs via an enzyme that is itself regulated (through molecular mechanisms in the cell) by the external metabolite concentration. Assume the concentration of the metabolite outside of the cell, M 0 can be manipulated dynamically. The metabolite diffuses passive ly into the cell. Inside the cell, an enzyme hydrolyzes the metabolite (concentration M) into a product. The enzyme (concentration E) is expressed in response to the presence of the metabolite: a receptor on the outside of the cell detects the external concentration of metabolite and signals this information to the transcription and translation machinery; for simplicity, ignore those intermediate steps and assume that the rate of enzyme production in the cell is instantaneously proportional to the concentration of the metabolite out side the cell. The enzyme cannot diffuse through the cell membrane and it degrades naturally with a rate of r d = k d E. The metabolite hydrolysis obeys Michaelis-Menten kinetics, r kM E KM m a. Identify the state variable(s), input and output variable(s), and parameter(s). c. Put your model in deviation variable form and linearize if necessary. You might want to replace combinations of constants d. Find a transfer function from the input to output variable(s). Pharmacokinetics ment brain, connected by the bloodstream. is membrane-limited and passive, i.e ., n = -h(C I -C II /R). Also, assume the molecule is degraded in the inner compartment with d c. Identify input and output variables and parameters for the most general model. Is your system under-, over-, or exactly deter mined? Control of gene expression (adapted from Berg [16] ) A common genetic manipulation employed by cell biologists is to delete a particular gene. What would be the effect of deleting the following genes in the lac repressor system? a. lacY b. lacZ c. lacI Nonlinear dynamics (adapted from Beltrami [20, 31] ) Consider this coupled system of ODEs: xx x xx xx x 11 1 12 22 2 91 9 2 61 12 xx 12 This model captures the dynamics of two competing populations of bacteria. The two state variables represent the population densi ties of each species, the terms in parentheses cap the growth due to limitations in the environment, and the x 1 x 2 terms represent the negative effects of competition between the species. a. Show that the point [ 5 2 ] T b. Linearize the system around [ 5 2 ] T behavior oscillatory? since the variables represent population densities, values less than zero are not meaningful and can be omitted from the dia gram.

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Fall 2006 303 Since biological systems are often highly nonlinear and can exhibit multiple steady-state and non-steady-state be havior, I have incorporated a unit on nonlinear dynamics. We begin with a set of nonlinear, multivariable, dynamic equa tions, such as xx xx x 12 22 1 ;s in which represents large motions of a forced pendulum. Approaches to these problems are covered in Beltramis short treatise [20] and in a later chapter in Coughanowrs text. [21] We discuss the idea of multiple steady states and how a complete analysis must capture a systems behavior throughout the phase space. We and eigenvectors, relating them to concepts introduced in the Laplace framework. We proceed to sketching phase portraits of attractors, repellors, saddles, and centers. Finally, we dis cuss means of constructing a complete nonlinear phase portrait [20] The Lotka-Volterra problem, [22] which is usually associated with derived to analyze chemical kinetics, provides an excellent and tractable in-class problem for students to work in small groups. Discussion leads naturally to concepts of robustness (or the lack thereof in the Lotka-Volterra system) and the idea of a limit cycle. In discussing limit cycles, we review oscil lating chemical systems such as the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, [23,24] for which chemical kinetic models have been constructed. [25] Finally, in a homework assignment, students integrate the Lorenz equations to plot trajectories for a strange attractor based on the Rayleigh instability of a liquid heated from below. [26] systems dynamics with that of less strange attractors, and we i.e. sensitivity erratically to the neighborhood of each point on the attrac tor, fractal microstructure, and noisy power spectra). With a background in dynamics developed throughout the semester, students have an appreciation for the oddities of a chaotic system and a strange attractor, and are able to speculate how a chaotic dynamical system might be controlled. Student understanding of modeling, dynamics, and control concepts in the application to biological systems can be immediately assessed by an oral literature review. In small groups of two to three people, students review a current paper in eling, dynamics, and control of a chemi cal or biological process. The goals are: (1) to apply knowledge of modeling and control to current applications, particularly in biomolecular and cellular applications for which the course has relatively few homework problems during the semester; (2) to gain experience extracting relevant information from primary literature; (3) to synthesize the topics covered during the semester; and (4) to practice oral presentation skills. Talks present the basic concepts of the article, particularly the modeling and control aspects. Stu dents need to rephrase the work into standard control terms (control objective, inputs, outputs, state variables, feedback, feedforward, stability, robustness, etc.). Short presentations and written summaries include basic background of the ap plication, some details on the model or controller formulation, and some of the results. The ambitious groups replicate some MATLAB. I provide the students a list of articles in literature (see Box 5), but students are allowed to chose articles that interest them, and occasionally they contribute something from a lab where they work. Overall, students demonstrate ease in explaining the biological context of the problems and the dynamic behavior or control systems studied. Occasion ally students needed help identifying proper state variables and system inputs and outputs, and some complex models in the literature were challenging for undergraduates to fully and helped students recognize the motivations and strategies employed by each papers authors. Students complete peerassessments of the members of their team, [27] and I evaluate BOX 5 Selected Literature Articles, Including Biological Dynamics, Suitable for Review in an Undergraduate Course Robust control of initiation of prokaryotic chromosome replication: essential considerations for a minimal cell, S.T. Browning, M. Castellanos, and M.L. Shuler, Biotech. Bioeng., 88(5), 575 (2004) et al. Science, 309, 1083 (2005) A computational study of feedback effects on signal dynamics in a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway model, A.R. Asthagiri and D.A. Lauffenburger, Biotechnol. Prog., 17, 227, (2001) A mathematical model of caspase function in apoptosis, M. Fussenegger, J.E. Bailey and J. Varner, Nat. Biotechnol., 18, 768 (2000) Robust perfect adaptation in bacterial chemotaxis through integral feedback control, T.M. Yi, Y. Huang, M.I. Simon and J. Doyle, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 97(9), 4649 (2000) Class discussion, however, often claried points and helped students recognize the motivations and strategies employed by each papers authors.

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Chemical Engineering Education 304 their talks, focusing on how well students learn the concepts of dynamics and control (see Box 6). To further broaden the perspectives heard in-class, I typi cally include two guest lectures per semester. One is given by Red Bradley and Lochlann Kehoe of GSE Systems, a local control systems company. These engineers give an industrial perspective on the challenges and complexities of modeling and controlling real chemical process systems. The second guest lecture is given by someone involved in biological modeling, and differs each year. Two recent speakers were Prof. Kenneth Kauffman of the University of California at Davis who discussed optimal control in cellular systems, [28] and Dr. Saroja Ramanujan of Entelos, Inc., who discussed large-scale biosimulation of arthritis. [19] Guest lectures include a question-and-answer period, and student comprehension of the main topics is evaluated through short-answer, closedbook exam questions.ASSESSMENT Students complete a mid-semester survey and an end-ofsemester course evaluation, both of which include questions about the usefulness of the biological content in the course. Opinions are mixed, as some students enjoy the new perspec tives while others are clearly uncomfortable with the biologi cal topics (data not shown). Resistance has decreased in recent years, probably due to a combination of changed expectations and improved teaching of the material due to past feedback. To assess the long-term effectiveness of the class, alumni online. Respondents included students from the graduating classes of 2003 through 2005 currently in industry, graduate or professional school. The survey and responses are shown in Box 7. Overwhelmingly, the alumni felt that the addition of biological material helped make the course more practical, and prepared them for their future careers. They also felt that the course did not suffer from lack of traditional content; this view was shared by an alum working in the process control industry and another in a graduate process control research group. Anecdotally, one alumnus reported that he had vigor ously opposed the integration of biology into the curriculum in his end-of-semester course evaluation and senior exit interview, but that he had experienced a complete change of heart and now is thankful for his biologically related training. Another alumnus, now a graduate student in biological and environmental engineering, noted that the study of the lac understand gene regulation. Interestingly, 62% reported that knowledge of biology is essential to their current positions, and only one respondent reported that biology is not at all needed in his or her current position. OUTSTANDING TOPICS Much of dynamic biological phenomena requires math ematical treatments that are significantly different from traditional, lumped-parameter, continuous, or deterministic treatments. In particular, many molecular systems are known to be stochastic and require treatments such as Fokker-Planck and Langevin equations. [29] Recently, one institution has developed a Web module to teach stochas tic modeling using batch reactor models and oscillating reactions. [30] I have, so far, been unable to introduce this material, but perhaps as students enter with more biology background the time devoted to introducing biological concepts can be redirected toward these novel treatments. One possibility to free up additional time might be teach ing dynamics entirely in state-space form and removing BOX 6 Literature Review Evaluation of Team Oral Presentation s Assessment Questions (50%) Have the students demonstrated understanding of the major concepts of modeling, dynamics and control (modeling, solution of dynamic equations, nonlinearities, control, feedback, stability, robustness, validation, phase behavior, etc. as appropriate for the article)? (10%) Have the students demonstrated an understanding of computational tools? (20%) Have the students demonstrated excellent communication skills? (10%) Have the students demonstrated an ability to work together in teams? (10%) Are the students aware of contemporary issues, the impact of the work, and any professional or ethical responsibilities? Components Technical Content (65%): Introduction (15%): Problem and goals explained clearly to audience audience Other Design Criteria / Broader Impacts (5%): Safety, environmental, economic, biological criteria; relate work to current Reasonable responses to questions (15%) reasonable energy level, participation by all group members, creativity, clear one-page summary sheet

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Fall 2006 305 Laplace treatments, but this could prove challenging with the absence of appropriate textbooks.CONCLUSIONS This paper surveys a radical revision of a chemical engineer ing process control course to include new material appropriate for chemical and biomolecular engineers. The revised cur riculum has excited students and provided strong preparation for graduate school, professional school, or industry. I hope this description of our remolded dynamics and control class will be useful, inspiring, and perhaps help others to determine the next step in the chemical engineering curricular evolution. Brown has remarked that the transformation of a curriculum can take a decade. [1, 6] The shift in the chemical engineering curriculum has just begun, and we will see more changes in the next few years.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The teaching assistants for this course over the last several years, Tom Mansell, Aroop Sircar, Jullian Jones, and Robert Plemons, added their perspective on biomolecular engineering to help formulate problems and topics. I also thank former department chair Michael Betenbaugh for encouraging me to experiment with the content of this course. Kenneth Kauffman generously provided insightful comments on the manuscript and guidance on course assessment. BOX 7 Assessment Results From Alumni Survey Sixteen alumni responded (out of 55). Respondents came from the classes of 2003 (5), 2004 (7), and 2005 (3). Largest responses indicated in bold. Rate your agreement with the following state ments. N/A 1strongly disagree 2dis agree 3neutral 4agree 5strongly agree Response Average 1. I am comfortable with my process dynam ics, modeling, and control background from the Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Depart ment at JHU. 0% (0) 0% (0) 6% (1) 12% (2) 50% (8) 31% (5) 4.06 2. I feel this course has prepared me for the chal lenges I have encountered with modeling, dynam ics, and control after leaving JHU. 6% (1) 0% (0) 6% (1) 19% (3) 38% (6) 31% (5) 4.00 3. I feel this course shortchanged me by omitting key concepts from classical dynamics and control. 19% (3) 19% (3) 44% (7) 6% (1) 12% (2) 0% (0) 2.15 4. The integration of biology helped to make the concepts of the course more practical. 6% (1) 0% (0) 6% (1) 12% (2) 31% (5) 44% (7) 4.20 5. The integration of biology helped to make the concepts of the course more intuitive. 6% (1) 0% (0) 12% (2) 12% (2) 44% (7) 25% (4) 3.87 6. The integration of biology helped prepare me for my career or education after my B.S. in ChemBE. 6% (1) 6% (1) 0% (0) 12% (2) 31% (5) 44% (7) 4.13 7. I have developed an appreciation for the challenges of analyzing complex dynamics and regulation in biological and chemical systems. 6% (1) 0% (0) 6% (1) 0% (0) 62% (10) 25% (4) 4.13 dynamics, modeling, and control to be successful at the types of tasks required of me in my current position. 6% (1) 25% (4) 38% (6) 6% (1) 19% (3) 6% (1) 2.40

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Chemical Engineering Education 306 Additional course material can be accessed at .REFERENCES 1. Kim, I., A Rich and Diverse History, Chem. Eng. Prog. 98 2S-9S (2002) 2. Lander, E.S., L.M. Linton, B. Birren, C. Nusbaum, M.C. Zody, and J. Baldwin, et al. Initial Sequencing and Analysis of the Human Genome, Nature, 409 860 (2001) 3. Venter, J.C., M.D. Adams, E.W. Myers, P.W. Li, R.J. Mural, and G.G. Sutton, et al. The Sequence of the Human Genome, Science 291, 1304 (2001) 4. Henry, C.M., Systems Biology, Chem. and Eng. News 81 45 (2003) 5. Kitano, H., Systems Biology: A Brief Overview, Science 295 1662 (2002) 6. Brown, R.A., Frontiers in Chemical Engineering Education (Web site), (2002-2006) 7. Edgar, T.F., ChE Curriculum of the Future: Re-Evaluating the Process Control Course, Chem. Eng. Ed. 37 inside cover (2003) 8. Csete, M.E., and J.C. Doyle, Reverse Engineering of Biological Complexity, Science 295 1664 (2002) 9. Bequette, W.B., Process Control: Modeling, Design, and Simulation Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2003) 10. Ogunnaike, B.A., and W.H. Ray, Process Dynamics, Modeling, and Control Oxford University Press, New York (1994) 11. Seborg, D.E., T.F. Edgar, and D.A. Mellichamp, Process Dynamics and Control, 2nd Ed., Wiley (2004) 12. Bhargava, S., K.S. Wenger, K. Rane, V. Rising, and M.R. Marten, Effect of Cycle Time on Fungal Morphology, Broth Rheology, and Recombinant Enzyme Productivity during Pulsed Addition of Limiting Carbon Source, Biotech. Bioeng. 89 524 (2005) 13. Gerlowski, L.E., and R.K. Jain, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling: Principles and Applications, J. Pharm Sci 72 1103 (1983) 14. Saltzman, W.M., Drug Delivery: Engineering Principles for Drug Therapy Oxford University Press, New York (2001) 15. Mohri, H., S. Bonhoeffer, S. Monard, A.S. Perelson, and D.D. Ho, Rapid Turnover of T Lymphocytes in SIV-infected Rhesus Macaques, Science 279 1223 (1998) 16. Berg, J.M., J.L. Tymoczko, and L. Stryer, Biochemistry 5th Ed., W.H. Freeman, New York (2002) 17. Wong, P., S. Gladney, and J.D. Keasling, Mathematical Model of the lac operon: Inducer Exclusion, Catabolite Repression, and Diauxic Growth on Glucose and Lactose, Biotechnol Prog 13 132 (1997) 18. Clarke, N.D., J.M. Berg, J.L. Tymoczko, and L. Stryer, Web Content to Accompany Biochemistry 5th Ed. (Web site), (2002) 19. Rullmann, J.A., C. H. Struemper, N.A. Defranoux, S. Ramanujan, C.M.L. Meeuwisse, and A.V. Elsas, Systems Biology for Battling Rheumatoid Arthritis: Application of the Entelos PhysioLab Platform, IEE Proceedings-Systems Biology 152 256 (2005) 20. Beltrami, E.J., Mathematics for Dynamic Modeling 2nd Ed., Academic Press, Boston (1998) 21. Coughanowr, D.R., Process Systems Analysis and Control 2nd Ed., McGraw Hill, Boston (1991) 22. Krebs, C.J., Ecology, 5th Ed., Pearson, Boston (2002) 23. Belousov, B.P., The Oscillating Reaction and its Mechanism, Khimiya i Zhizn 7 65 (1982) 24. Zaikin, A.N., and A.M. Zhabotinsky, Concentration Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Liquid-Phase Self-Oscillating System, Nature 225 535 (1970) 25. Field, R.J., and R.M. Noyes, Oscillations in Chemical Systems IV. Limit Cycle Behavior in a Model of a Real Chemical Reaction, J. Chem. Phys ., 60 1877 (1973) 26. Lorenz, E.N., Deterministic Nonperiodic Flow, J. Atmos. Sci. 20 130 (1963) 27. Kaufman, D.B., R.M. Felder, and H. Fuller, Accounting for Indi vidual Effort in Cooperative Learning Teams, J. of Eng. Ed. 89 133 (2000) 28. Kauffman, K.J., E.M. Pridgen, F.J. Doyle III, P.S. Dhurjati, and A.S. Robinson, Decreased Protein Expression and Intermittent Recoveries in BiP Levels Result from Cellular Stress During Heterologous Protein Expression in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Biotech. Prog. 18 942 (2002) 29. Rao, C.V., D.M. Wolf, and A.P. Arkin, Control, Exploitation, and Tolerance of Intracellular Noise, Nature 231 (7), 420 (2002) 30. Kraft, M., S. Mosbach, and W. Wanger, Teaching Stochastic Model ing to Chemical Engineers Using a Web Module, Chem. Eng. Ed. 39 (2005) 31. Beltrami, E.J., Mathematical Models for Society and Biology, Academic Press, San Diego (2002)

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Fall 2006 307 H igh-performance computers coupled with highly ef packages have helped instructors teach numerical solutions and analysis of various nonlinear models more model is to provide insight about a system of interest. Ana lytical solutions provide very good physical insight, as they are explicit in the system parameters. Having taught applied appreciate the value of analytical solutions because (1) they wrongly believe numerical methods are best used to solve complex problems with high-speed computers, and (2) they are not comfortable or confident doing the complicated integrals, rigorous algebra, and transformations involved in obtaining analytical solutions. Such solutions, however, can be gained using various computer techniques. For example, computer algebra systems such as Maple, [1] Mathematica, [2] MATLAB, [3] and REDUCE, [4] can be used to perform the tedious algebra, manipulations, complicated integrals, vari able transformations, and differentiations, etc., involved in applying mathematical methods. The goal of this paper is to show how Maple can be used to facilitate similarity transformation techniques for solv ing chemical engineering problems. The utility of Maple in performing the math, solving the equations, and plotting the results will be demonstrated. For an understanding of the physics in the problems solved, readers are advised to refer to the cited references. For the sake of readers not familiar with Maple, a brief introduction about Maple is given. SIMILARITY SOLUTIONVENKAT R. SUBRAMANIAN Tennessee Technological University Cookeville, TN 38505 The object of this column is to enhance our readers collections of interesting and novel prob lems in chemical engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a particular principle in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel home problem, are requested, as well as those that are more traditional in nature and that elucidate dif (e-mail: wilkes@umich.edu), Chemical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136. ChE Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2006

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Chemical Engineering Education 308 MAPLE Maple [1] is a computer-algebra system capable of perform ing symbolic calculations. Although Maple can be used for performing number crunching or numerical calculations just like FORTRAN, the main advantage of Maple is its symbolic capability and user-friendly graphical interface. In a Maple program, commands are entered after a >. Maple prints the results if a ; is used at the end of the statement. This helps results are shown after every step or command. For brevity, in this paper most of the Maple commands are ended with a colon (:). In general, while Maple is very useful in doing transformations, the user might have to manipulate resulting expressions from a Maple command to obtain the equation in the simplest or desired form. Often, these manipulations can be done in Maple itself by seeing the resulting expres : at the end of each statement to view the results after each command/statement. Many of the mistakes made by students all of the statements. Maple can be used to perform all steps the same sheet. All the mathematical steps and manipulations clarity between the Maple commands and output, all the text describing the process or Maple commands is given within brackets, [ ].SIMILARITY TRANSFORMATION FOR P ARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS Similarity transformation is a powerful technique for treating partial differential equations arising from heat, mass, momentum transfer, or other phenomena, because it reduces the order of the governing differential equation (from partial to ordinary). Depending on the governing equation, boundary conditions, domain, and complexity, the similarity transformation technique might yield a closed-form solu tion, a series solution, or a numerical solution. One of the independent variables to a similarity variable. The following examples illustrate the use of computers and software in teaching/obtaining similarity solutions for various chemi cal engineering problems. Consider the transient heat-conduction problem in a slab. [1, 2] The governing equation and initial/boundary conditions are expressed in Eq. (1). u t u x ux ut an du t 2 2 00 1 01 0 (, ) ( ) (, )( ,) where u is t he temperature, x is the distance from the surface of solved by using the transformation xt /. 2 The origi nal partial differentia l equation is converted to an ordinary ary conditions for U (u in the similarity variable), are: U U () () () 01 0 2 The steps involved in the similarity transformation method are illustrated below: Typically, Maple programs are started with a restart com mand to clear all the variables. Next, the with(student) package is called to facilitate variable transformations: >restart: with(student): >eq:=diff(u(x,t),t)-alpha*diff(u(x,t),x$2); eq t ux t x ux t :( ,) (, ) 2 2 equation is converted to the similarity variable: ] >eq1:=changevar(u(x,t)=U(eta(x,t)),eq):eq2:=expand (simplify(subs(eta(x,t)=x/2/(alpha*t)^(1/2),eq1))): eq2:=expand(eq2*t):eq2:=subs (x=eta*2*(alpha*t)^(1/ 2),eq2):eq2:=convert(eq2,diff): >eq2:=expand(-2*eq2); eq d d U d d U 2 1 2 2 2 :( ) [The given boundary conditions are used to solve the govern ing equation:] >bc1:=U(0)=1 ; bc1: =U(0) =1 >bc2:=U(infinity)=0; >U:=rhs(dsolve({eq2,bc1,bc2},U(eta))): >U:=convert(U,erfc); >u:=subs(eta=x/2/(alpha*t)^(1/2),U); ue rfc x t : 2 [The solution is plotted in Figure 1, which shows how the temperature, u, penetrates to progressively greater distances as the time, t, increases:] >plot3d(subs(alpha=0.001,u),x=1..0,t=500..0,axes=bo xed,labels=[x, t,u],orientation=[-60,60]);

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Fall 2006 309 Plane Flow Past a Flat PlateBlasius Equation The velocity distribution in the boundary layer of a plane laminar u x v y u u x v u y u y uy ux 0 2 2 01 3 ,0 00 1 00 an du x vx , stream functions defined by uy an dv x / / The 1). The second e quation yields the governing equation for the xf wh er ey x / is the similarity variable. The boundary conditions for u both stream functions and velocity expressions can be expressed in compared to the previous example. All the complicated steps involved can be facilitated using Maple: >restart:with(student):with(plots): [The governing equation is entered:] >eq:=u(x,y)*diff(u(x,y),x)+v(x,y)*diff(u(x,y),y)diff(u(x,y),y$2) ; eq ux y x ux yv xy y ux y :, ,, 2 2 y ux y [Next, Stream functions uy an dv x / / are introduced] >vars:={u(x,y)=diff(psi(x,y),y),v(x,y)=diff(psi(x,y),x)}: eq:=subs(vars,eq); eq y xy xy xy :, 2 x xy y xy , 2 2 3 3 y xy [Next, the transformation xf wh er ey x / is used to obtain the equation for f:] >eq:=changevar(psi(x,y)=x^(1/2)*f(eta(x,y)),eq): eq1:=(simplify(subs(eta(x,y)=y/x^(1/2),eq))): eq1:=subs(y=eta*x^(1/2),eq1):eq1:=si mplify(eq1*x):eq2:=convert(-eq1,diff); eq d d ff d d f 2 1 2 2 2 3 3 : [Next, the velocity variables, u and v ( i.e., derivatives of the stream function), are expressed in terms of f and >v(eta):=diff(psi(x,y),x):v(eta):=changevar(psi(x,y)=x^(1/ 2)*f(eta(x,y)), v(eta)):v(eta):=expand(subs(eta(x ,y)=y/x^(1/2),v(eta))):v(eta):= subs(y=eta*x^(1/ 2),v(eta)):v(eta):=factor(v(eta)); v fD f x : 1 2 >u(eta):=diff(psi(x,y),y): u(eta):=changevar(psi(x,y)=x^(1/2)*f(et a(x,y)),u(eta)):u(eta):=expand(subs(eta(x,y)= y/x^(1/2),u(eta))): u(eta):=subs(y=eta*x^(1/ 2),u(eta)); uD f : pressed in terms of f:] >bc1:=subs(eta=0,v(eta))=0; bc l f x : 1 2 0 0 >bc1:=-bc1*2*x^(1/2); bc lf : 00 >bc2:=subs(eta=0,u(eta))=0; bc Df 20 0 : >bc3:=subs(eta=infinity,u(eta))=1; bc Df 3 1 : Figure 1. Dimensionless temperature distribution in a semi-innite domain.

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Chemical Engineering Education 310 >bc3:=subs(infinity=5,bc3); bc Df 35 1 : [For this problem, analytical solutions are not possible (al though approximate solutions are possible). For this example, numerical solution for the Blasius equation is obtained as:] >sol:=dsolve({eq2,bc1,bc2,bc3},f(eta),type=numeric); sol:= proc (x_bvp) ... end proc [The solution is plotted in Figure 2, which shows how the function, f (related to the stream function), varies with the >odeplot(sol,[eta,f(eta)],0..5,thickness=3,axes=boxed); >u(eta):=convert(u(eta),diff);v(eta):=convert(v(eta),diff); u d d f v f d d f () : : 1 2 x [Figure 3 shows how the x component of velocity increases from zero, at the wall, and levels off at its main stream value >odeplot(sol,[eta,u(eta)],0..5,thickness=3,axes=boxed ,labels=[eta ,u]); [Since v is a function of x, v*x 1/2 is plotted. Figure 4 shows the y component of velocity (multiplied by x 1/2 ) increases from zero at the wall, and levels off at its main stream value >odeplot(sol,[eta,v(eta)*x^(1/ 2)],0..5,thickness=3,axes=boxed,lab els=[eta,v*x^(1/2)]); >sol(0); 00 0 2 2 0 3361523 ., ., ., f d d f d d f 7 78983949952 [Stress is related to the Reynolds number (re) and the velocity gradient at y = 0:] >S:=re*diff(u(x,y),y); Sr e y ux y : [The velocity gradient in terms of the stream function is:] >subs(u(x,y)=diff(psi(x,y),y),S); re y xy 2 2 [The second derivative of the stream function (d) is expressed >d:=diff(psi(x,y),y$2):d:=changevar(psi(x,y)=x^(1/ 2)*f(eta(x,y)), d):d:=expand(subs(eta(x,y)=y/x^(1/2),d)): d:=subs(y=eta*x^(1/2),d ):d:=convert(d,diff); d d d f x : 2 2 >S:=re*d: [The second derivative of f is found from the numerical solution:] >eqd3:=sol(0)[4]; eq d d d f 3 0 336152378983949952 2 2 : [Hence, the stress-Reynolds number relationship becomes:] >S:=subs(diff(f(eta),`$`(eta,2))=rhs(eqd3),S); S re x : 0 336152378983949952 Graetz Problem in Rectangular Coordinates Consider the Graetz problem in rectangular coordinates (to simplify the mathematical complexity involved with cylindri cal geometry). [4] The governing equation and initial/boundary conditions are: 1 01 4 00 2 2 2 x u z u x ux uz an d u x ( ) 1 10 ,z For this problem, a similarity transformation cannot be used to reduce the partial differential equation to one ordinary dif ferential equ solutions very close to z = 0, Eq. (4) is converted to the new xz an dz z /2 (note, some textbooks use z = z 1 as the second coordinate, but for simplic z, u is obtained using a perturbation technique by expressing Figure 2. Function f as a function of the similarity variable,

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Fall 2006 311 u as uZ f k i i k 0 The boundary conditions for f (in the ff k ff k k k 0 0 01 01 12 3 00 ;, ,, ... ;, 12 3 5 ,, ... () The steps involved in the similarity transformation method are performed in Maple. >restart:with(student): >eq:=(1-x^2)*diff(u(x,z),z)-diff(u(x,z),x$2); eq x z ux z x ux z : , 1 2 2 2 [First, the governing equation is converted to similarity >eq1:=changevar(u(x,z)=U(eta(x,z),z),eq): eq2:=expand(simplify(subs(eta(x,z)=x/2/(z)^(1/ 2),eq1))):eq2:=expand(eq2*z):eq2:=subs(x=e ta*2*(z)^(1/2),eq2):eq2:=convert(eq2,diff): eq2:=expand(-4*eq2); eq Uz z z Uz 22 4 :, 8 3 16 22 zU z z z z Uz Uz , 2 2 [For illustration, only terms up to z 2 are considered in the perturbation series:] >N:=2;vars:={U(eta,z)=sum(z^k*f[k](eta), k=0..N)}; N:= 2 va rs : Uz fz fz f 0 1 2 2 [The governing equations for the dependent variables are obtained as:] >eq3:=expand(subs(vars,eq2)):for i from 0 to 2 do Eq[i]:=coeff(eq3,z,i);od; Eq d d f d d f 0 2 0 2 2 0 : Eq d d ff 1 2 1 4 1 : 8 3 0 2 2 1 d d f d d f Eq d d ff 2 2 2 8 2 8 : 3 1 16 2 1 2 2 2 d d f f d d f equations with the given boundary conditions (note that the boundary condition at x = 1 is solved approximately as U = >sol[0]:=dsolve({Eq[0],f[0](0)=0,f[0](infinity)=1});assign (sol[0] ): sol 0 : = f 0 ( ) = erf( ) >sol[1]:=dsolve({Eq[1]}); so lf C e 11 2 2 12 2 12 : 2 2 12 1 3 34 2 2 3 dC l e [The constants have to be zero to satisfy the boundary condi tions:] >assign(sol[1]):_C1:=0:_C2:=0:f[1](eta):=eval(f[1](eta)); f e 1 3 1 3 34 2 : [Similarly, f 2 is obtained:] Figure 3. The x-component velocity as a function of the similarity variable, Figure 4. The y-component velocity as a function of the similarity variable

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Chemical Engineering Education 312 >sol[2]:=dsolve(Eq[2]):assign(sol[2]):_C3:=0:_C4:=0: f[2](eta):=eval(f[2](eta)); f e 2 3 5 7 1 180 285 570 384 160 2 : [Once the functions (the fs) are obtained, the Sherwood number can be obtained: [4] ] >u:=subs(vars,U(eta,z)):u:=subs(eta=x/2/sqrt(z),u); ue rf x z x z x z : / 2 1 3 3 2 2 3 32 e z x x z 2 4 2 1 180 285 2 z z x z x z x z 285 4 12 5 4 3 32 5 52 7 72 / / / e x z 2 4 [The dimensionless temperature distribution is plotted in Figure 5, which shows that temperature increases from the center of the slab to the surface value along the x-coordinate. The increase in temperature is more rapid at the entrance and temperature increases are more gradual for higher values of >plot3d(u,x=1..0,z=0.05..0,axes=boxed,labels=[x,z, u],orientatio n=[120,60]); SUMMARY This paper illustrates that mathematical methods for nontrivial problems in chemical engineering can be taught efficiently in a class using computers and user-friendly software. The similarity solution approach is a very powerful tech nique for obtaining closed-form solutions for problems in heat, mass, momentum transfer, and other disciplines in chemical engineering. A traditional approach to teaching this technique would involve complicated variable transformations and integrals done by hand. In this paper, it was shown how an analytical technique could be facilitated using computers and software. While Maple has been used in this paper, Math ematica, MATLAB, REDUCE, or other symbolic software packages can be used to obtain similar results. In addition to teaching numerical simulation, computers and software pack ages can be used to teach traditional mathematical methods for a wide variety of problems. Mathematical methods, such as separation of variables, Laplace transform, perturbation, conformal mapping, Greens function, analytical method of lines, and series solutions for nonlinear problems (multiple steady states) can be facilitated using Maple. Readers can contact the author for further details or copies of related Maple programs. Some of these methods are illustrated in a book to be published in the future. [9] REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Carslaw, H.S., and J.C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids Oxford University Press, London (1973) 6. Crank, J., Mathematics of Diffusion Oxford University Press, New York (1975) 7. Slattery, J., Advanced Transport Phenomena Cambridge University Press, New York (1999) 8. Villedsen, J., and M.L. Michelsen, Solution of Differential Equation Models by Polynomial Approximation Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1978) 9. White, R.E., and V.R. Subramanian, Computational Methods in Chemical Engineering with Maple Applications Springer-Verlag (to be submitted in 2006). Figure 5. Dimensionless temperature distribution in rectangular coordinates, governed by the Graetz equation.

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Fall 2006 313 M ATLAB [1] is best described as easy-to-use math ematical software that allows powerful graphical presentation and numerical analysis. At Cornell University, MATLAB has been used intensively as a teaching aid in undergraduate courses. For example, every engineering freshman is required to take a computer programming course (COMS100) that includes basic programming concepts and problem analysis using MATLAB. Students in chemical engi neering take an engineering distribution course on computers and programming (ENGRD211), which deals extensively with MS Excel and MATLAB. They also develop user-friendly computer programs using MATLAB to solve homework in many chemical engineering core courses, including heat and mass transfer. This early integration of MATLAB provides an excellent background for use in the second semester of the junior year, allowing these students to be comfortable with MATLAB in the separations course. In addition, MATLAB can be a very useful teaching aid in a separations course, as its powerful graphical presentation and numerical analysis tools can be utilized both in an interactive, step-by-step, graphical display of conventional methods, and also in solving systems of equations for complex separation processes. The ability to integrate powerful computer software into the course rests on the availability of appropriate computing equipment. Our departments undergraduate computing laboratory is an excellent facility for such activities, and is equipped with 42 Windows-based PCs with a site license for MATLAB.THE COURSE Although typical chemical engineering curricula recognize the importance of recent trends in emerging technologies, fundamentals. [2] ChemE332 at Cornell is a three-credit course for chemical engineering juniors covering separation methods. The emphasis of the course had formerly been placed on traditional, equilibrium-based methods that involve using manual graphical techniques, including McCabe-Thiele, Ponchon-Savarit, and Hunter-Nash. [3-7] As computers became readily available, however, the graphical approaches were supplemented with assignments to write Fortran code and/or use spreadsheets for distillation columns. [8-11] Modern tools, USING VISUALIZATION AND COMPUTATION YONG LAK JOO AND DEVASHISH CHOUDHARY Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2006 ChE

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Chemical Engineering Education 314 such as the easy-to-use mathematical software MATLAB [1] and Mathematica, [12] can be used to write simple codes that allow undergraduates to calculate and display accurate graphi cal solutions interactively, and thus make learning graphical methods more enjoyable and effective. We introduced inclass visualization of conventional graphical methods using a simple MATLAB code. The interactive nature of MATLAB allowed what if analyses [11, 13] in which the effect of changing spending less time on the details of solving problems graphi cally or by trial and error, we can spend more time discussing the conceptual and quantitative descriptions of processes, recent trends, and design aspects. With condensed lectures on equilibrium-based processes, ChemE332 in spring 2001 was reconstructed to reinforce rate-based processes such as membrane and sorption separations. Furthermore, emerging processes in bioseparations, such as electrophoresis and is sues in choosing and designing separation processes, were separations. More than half of the total lectures in ChemE332 are currently spent on rate-based methods, bioseparations, and the design of separation processes. Despite the advantage of helping students visualize the separation, graphical methods no longer represent the mod ern practice of chemical engineering. [7] Modern practice for designing and simulating separations involves commercial process simulators such as AspenPlus, ChemCad, Hysys, and Prosim. [14] To be prepared for commercial practice, stu dents need experience simulating and designing separation processes using these methods. Unfortunately, students often treat these commercial simulators as black boxes, and tend to believe the results they obtain without further checking. [7, 14] The exact methods used in these simulators involve solving systems of nonlinear equations and large matrices. Although there is a limit for complicated systems, these exact methods are now tractable due to user-friendly routines and software for numerical analysis. To avoid the potential creation of yet another black box using MATLAB, students can be asked to model, matrix solving, and time integration scheme. In this paper we demonstrate that using easy-to-develop mathematical solutions for visualization and numerical computation can make conventional graphical approaches more enjoyable and effective, providing students better un derstanding of more complex problems. Visualization and interactive display of graphical methods in distillation, solution procedures for complex processes such as mul ticomponent distillation, and thermal swing adsorption can promote understanding of how these separation processes work. Although we present the examples in distillation and adsorption, this approach can also be extended to many other separation processes such as absorption, stripping, and extraction. We present four two examples, the step-by-step, interactive display of conventional graphical methods for binary distillation were facilitated by MATLAB, while systems of nonlin ear equations were rigorously solved using MATLAB in the last two examples on multicomponent distillation and adsorption. V isualization of McCabe-Thiele Method and We used MATLAB to visualize the McCabe-Thiele graphical equilibrium-stage method and estimation of ture of A and B. As described in Table 1, the code consists of (i) constructing and displaying the equilibrium curve, (ii) drawing operating lines and feed line, (iii) displaying the equilibrium stages, and (iv) illustrating stage and over in MATLAB [1] to visualize and animate the diagrams (see Table 1). The code was used for interactive display of the method in lectures and homework assignments. Ste p 1 : Dis p la y y vs. x dia g ram ( e q curve ) Ste p 2 : Dis p la y o p eratin g lines and feed line Step 3 : Determine theoretical equilibrium stages, N t Constant relative volatility/ Raoults law/ Actual data Determine actual stages N a and overall efficiency E o Obtain equilibrium data Reflux ratio & feed condition or Reflux ratio & boilup ratio or Boilu p ratio & feed condition Mur p hree va p or efficienc y E mv Horizontal line to equilibrium curve Vertical drop to operating line Desi g n In p ut Thermod y namicIn p ut Desi g n In p ut Step 4 : Display new stepping based on E mv Figure 1. Flowchart of Example 1: McCabe-Thiele method for binary distillation.

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Fall 2006 315 Before the McCabe-Thiele graphical method was dem onstrated by step-by-step display, a lecture was given on the concept and a handout on the detailed description of the options and functions of the MATLAB code for the method was distributed. In-class visualization of the graphical method Step 1 We show how the equilibrium curves can be constructed. Three ways of determining the equilibrium re lationship between liquid and vapor phases are implemented in the code: using (i) a constant volatility for mixtures with a similar heat of vaporization, (ii) a simple thermodynamic model such as Raoults law [4] in which the Antoine equation is used to provide the vapor pressure information, and (iii) actual data. For the Antoine equation, the function fzero in MATLAB [1] of partial pressures of two components equals the total pres sure ( i.e., PP P A sa t B sa t tota l ) for a liquid composition x A and x B (see Table 1). Step 2 We show how to draw operating lines. Once any two of three parameters ( e.g. V B and the feed line are uniquely determined. We also explain the relation between the slope of the q-line and the state of the feed (subcooled, saturated liquid, partially vaporized, saturated vapor, and superheated). Step 3. We demonstrate how to determine theoretical stages. Once the equilibrium curve, operating lines, and feed line are drawn, the equilibrium composition at each stage is deter mined by the McCabe-Thiele method. Starting from the distillate x D (or bottoms product x B ), drawing a horizontal line from (x D x D ) on the y = x line to the equilibrium curve, followed by dropping a vertical line to the operating line, is repeated until x reaches x B When actual data is used for the equilibrium curve, the MATLAB interpolation function called interp1 is used librium curve (see Table 1). [1] The transfer in the operating line from the rectifying section to stripping section is typically made when the liquid composition, x, passes the intersection of the two operating lines and feed line. The interactive nature of MATLAB allows what if analyses [9, 11] in which parameter values such dition may be changed, and their effects on the distillation column are graphically displayed during the presentation. Step 4 The actual stages, based on the Murphree vapor MV for each stage, are displayed on top of theoreti actual number of stages. In the current example, we note that a MV is used throughout the entire distillation column for simplicity and symmetry in the o is then determined by the ratio of the number of the theoretical equilibrium stages to that of the actual stages, i.e., E o = N t /N a Some snapshots of the of acetone and toluene that are displayed in class are shown in Figure 2 (page 318). After the graphical method by MATLAB code was in troduced, a couple of problems associated with using and modifying the MATLAB code were given as homework. For example, students were asked to determine various feed condi tions such as subcooled, partially vaporized, and superheated using the thermodynamic properties of benzene and toluene, and then determine the number of equilibrium stages and Table 2, page 318). The effect of feed conditions on column performance is demonstrated by entering different q values while x >= x_B % loop for stepping ynew=y xnew=ynew/(a-ynew*(a-1)); t=fzero(antoine2,tmid,optimset(disp,iter),ynew,a1,b1,c1,a2,b2,c2,Ptotal); xnew=ynew*Ptotal/pvapor(a1,b1,c1,t); else % using actual data for eq. relation xnew=interp1(ydata,xdata,ynew); end plot([x,xnew],[y,ynew],r,LineWidth,2) % a. Draw a horizontal line to the eq. curve hold on Frames(:,i)=getframe; pause i=i+1; x=xnew if x >= x_c %if x >= z y=LoverV_D*x+x_D/(R+1) % using the op. line for rectifying section else y=LoverV_B*x-x_B/V_B % using the op. line for stripping section end plot([xnew,x],[ynew,y],r,LineWidth,2) % b. Draw a vertical line to the op. line hold on Frames(:,i)=getframe; pause if x >= x_B % calculating # of stages nstage=nstage+1 else nstage=nstage+x/x_B end end % c. Repeat a and b until x reaches x_B T ABLE 1 Portion of a MATLAB Code for Example 1

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Chemical Engineering Education 316 in the MATLAB code and dis playing the stage-stepping inter actively. In the second problem, students were asked to modify and extend the MATLAB code to determine the actual number of stages based on the stage ef and displayed in the lecture, but this time the students were asked to reconstruct what they had seen in class and use it to solve a homework problem. About 85% of the students were able to modify the code correctly to determine the actual number of stages. Figure 2. Snapshots of graphi cal output in Example 1: Mc Cabe-Thiele method for binary distillation of acetone and tolu ene: a) equilibrium curve from Raoults law; b) operating lines and feed line for z A = 0.5, x D = 0.95, x B = 0.05, q = 0.5, R = 2; c) theoretical equilibrium stages; and d) actual stages (shown in dashed line) with E mv = 0.7 for the entire distillation column. T ABLE 2 An Example of MATLAB Homework Problem To Link the Effect of Feed Conditions to the Number of Theoretical Stages and Boilup Ratio L/D=3.0 in the rectifying section. The feed has a boiling point of 92 C and a dew point of 98 C at a pressure of 1 atm. Determine the q value if (i) the feed is vapor at 150 C; (ii) the feed is liquid and at 20 C; (iii) if the feed is a mixture of two-thirds vapor and one-third liquid. Component vap (cal/g mol) C p (cal/g mol C) Liquid Vapor Benzene 7,360 33 23 Toluene 7,960 40 33 Assume a relative volatility of 2.5 and use a simple MATLAB code (feed.m) that is available at the ChemE 332 Web page to determine the number of theoretical stages and the boilup ratio in the stripping section for three different feed conditions. Submit the printouts (graphs). Each graph should have your name and the output (number of stages and boilup ratio) printed on the upper left corner. To do this, the MATLAB code has the following gtext gtext({number of stages:, num2str(nstage)}) gtext({boilup ratio:, num2str(V_B)}) gtext({run by, your_name}) First, the code asks you your name and input conditions including the q value. After running the code, go to the graph and click a location (total three times) to print out the number of stages, boilup ratio, and your name on the graph. a b c d

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Fall 2006 317 [6] The McCabe-Thiele method uses an energy balance only at the feed tray, whereas the Ponchon-Savarit graph ical method uses a rigorous energy balance throughout the distillation column. [4, 6] Although the Ponchon-Savarit method for distillation has largely been supplemented by rigorous computer-aided methods, the concept of using a diagram for the separating agent (heat in distillation) and difference points is very important and useful in un derstanding similar graphical approaches in other separa tion processes, such as the Maloney-Schubert graphical method [4] in extraction that uses the analogous Janecke diagram for the separating agent (the solvent). We used recitation sessions as well as lectures to in troduce and demonstrate the Ponchon-Savarit graphical method. A handout on the method using the MATLAB demonstrated using step-by-step display. The visualiza tion of the Ponchon-Savarit method consists of determin ing difference points and displaying rays and equilibrium tie lines on the enthalpy diagram. varit method for binary distillation is shown in Figure 3. We again used the commands plot and mov ie in MATLAB to visualize and graphically display the diagrams, [1] and some snapshots of the method for distillation of acetone and water mixtures are shown in Figure 4, right, as well as in Figure 5 (next page). The operating lines obtained under the assumption of constant dashed lines in the y vs. x diagram students were asked to run the same code as the lecture to solve similar homework problems by varying de sign inputs such as feed conditions. In the future, we will ask students to modify the MATLAB code for the Ponchon-Savarit method for Ste p 1 : Dis p la y y vs. x and enthal py Ste p 2 : Determine and dis p la y difference and feed p oints Display rays that pass difference point and liquid (vapor) composition Display equilibrium tie line to determine the corresponding vapor (liquid) composition. Step 3 : Determine the number of equilibrium stages Actual e q uilibrium & enthal py data Thermodynamic Input Reflux ratio & feed condition Distillate, bottoms compositions Desi g n In p ut On enthal py Obtain equilibrium and enthalpy data dia g ram 3 Figure 3. Flowchart of Example 2: Ponchon-Savarit method for binary distillation. Figure 4 Graphical output for Example 2: a) enthalpy-composi tion diagram from enthalpy data; and b) difference points (open circles) and feed line for z A = 0.5, x D = 0.90, x B = 0.0216, q = 0.5, and R = 0.288. The y-x composi tion diagram is also shown at the a b

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Chemical Engineering Education 318 distillation such that the extraction process can be solved, analyzed, and displayed interactively. Direct Solving Exact Methods for Multicomponent Distillation [4] Despite its practical importance, multicomponent distil on separations. This is mainly because analysis of multi component separations requires solving material balances, enthalpy balances, and equilibrium relations at each stage, only an approximate method commonly referred to as Fen ske-Underwood-Gilliland (FUG) has been used to make preliminary designs and optimize simple distillation. [4] Al ternatively, commercial simulators have been introduced to solve multicomponent separations in detail, but students often treat these commercial process simulators as black boxes. [7,14] We used MATLAB to solve the nonlinear algebraic equations for multicomponent distillation in user-friendly routines in MAT LAB were used to employ the equation-tearing, bubble-point method in solving the governing equations. This numerical method consists of calculating equilibrium compositions and enthalpies, solving the modified material balance equations, and updating solutions using Newtons method (see Table 3). As indicated in the flowchart of the procedure in Figure 6 (page 322), the system of equations was solved for composi tions at each stage by the matrix solver sparse in MATLAB. [1] The Newtons method was used to update the guess of tearing vari ables, temperature, and vapor rate at each stage. A function froot.m was created which solves nonlin ear equations using a Newtons method to update the temperature and vapor rate at each stage. Once temperature, enthalpy, and com positions are obtained, the heat duties can be determined. Using the developed MATLAB code, students were asked to solve a multicomponent distillation of hydrocarbons and compare the results with those obtained from the commercial pro cess simulator, AspenPlus (see Table 4, page 322). Again, a handout that describes the method used in the code was distributed and explained in a recitation session before the homework was distributed. As depicted in Figure 7 (page 323), a simple thermodynamic model (Raoults law in which the Antoine equation has been used to provide the vapor pres sure information) overpredicts the volatility of light non-key (LNK) component (ethane) and underpredicts that of heavy non-key (HNK) components (pentane and hexane) in the multicomponent distillation of hydrocarbons. As a result, the compositions of the light key (LK) component (propane) in the distillate and the heavy key (HK) component (butane) in the bottoms are slightly lower than the values obtained from Aspen simulation with more accurate thermodynamics models such as Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation. Figure 5. Snapshots of graphical output of Example 2: Pochon-Savarit method for binary distillation of acetone and water: a) rays (solid) and equilibrium lines (dashed) in the rectifying section; and b) rays and equilibrium tie lines in the rectifying section. The operating lines obtained under the assumption of constant molal overow are shown by the dashed lines in the y vs. x diagram at the right for comparison. a b

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Fall 2006 319 T ABLE 3 Portion of a MATLAB Tutorial Handout for Example 3 If we assume that phase equilibrium is achieved at each stage, the governing equations for a distillation process for n components consisting of N stages can be written as [4] Lx Vy Fz LU xV Wy jj jj jj jj jjj j 11 11 0 0 x () () ; ( ) , 1 2 11 3 1 1 yK xy ji jj ij i n ij i n L Lh VH Fh LU hV WH jj jj jF jj j jjj 11 11 () () j jj Q0 () 4 where L j V j F j U j and W j are liquid, vapor, feed, liquid side stream, and vapor side stream rates at stage j, respectively. h j H j and Q j are liquid and vapor enthalpies, and heat transfer at stage j, respectively. We utilize the equation-tearing, bubble-point method in solving the governing Eq. (1)-(4) using the Newtons method. i) Equilibrium Compositions and Enthalpy Calculation s For simplicity, the Antoine equation is used to evaluate K-values and enthalpy of each component. One of tear variables, temperature is assumed and the volatility of each component is determined by K i = y i /x i = P sat i /P total Meanwhile, the enthalpy of each species can be determined from [4] hh H vi vi i va p ,, 0 where the ideal gas species molar enthalpy hC dT aT Tk an dC vi pV i T T ki i KK p , () / 0 0 1 4 0 0 V Vi ii i i aa Ta Ta T ,, ,, 0 12 3 2 4 3 is the heat capacity at constant pressure. At low pressures, the enthalpy of vaporization is given in terms of vapor pressure by classical thermodynamics [4] HR T dP dT RT B TC i va p i sa t i 2 2 ln i i 2 5 () By rearranging the governing equations Eq. (1)-(3) for each stage, the following systems of equations for component i at stage j are obtained: [4] BC AB C A BC AB 11 22 2 3 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 NN NN x x x x 1 2 1 N N D D D D 1 2 1 N N () 6 where x j =[x 1,j x 2,j x 3,j x n,j ] is the liquid composition vector at stage j, and the components of the tridiagonal matrix in each stage are AV FW UV BV jj mm m m j j j jN 1 1 1 1 2 7 ( ) FW UV UV W mm m m j jj ji j K 1 1 () ,, () ( ) 1 8 11 9 11 jN K j N jj ij CV and the r i ight -h andsi de vector at each s tage j DF j z z j jN () 1 1 0 The system of equations Eq. (6) is solved for x i,j by the sparse matrix solver sparse in MATLAB [1] . [instructions continue]. Direct T ime Integration of Thermal Swing Adsorption [4] to teach since it is rate-based, which requires a mass transfer analysis, and is usually operated as a time dependent process. As a result, adsorption with very simple isotherms, such as an irreversible isotherm, has been analyzed in most separa tion texts. [3, 4] After we introduced the concept of adsorption we used MATLAB to develop a numerical model for ratebased, time-dependent adsorption processes such as thermal swing adsorption. In thermal swing adsorption, one bed is adsorbing the solute at ambient temperature, while the other bed is desorbing the adsorbate at a higher temperature. A numerical solution for the regeneration (desorption) step can be obtained using a procedure discussed by Wong and Niedzwiecki [15] (see Figure 8, page 324). Again, a handout that describes the method used in the MATLAB code was distributed in the lecture. In the absence of axial dispersion ference approximation derived from Taylors series expan sion. The time integration of the sets of ordinary differential equations was carried out using a simple Euler method with swing adsorption at two different regeneration air interstitial velocities, v = 30 m/min and v = 60 m/min, are shown in

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Chemical Engineering Education 320 Initial guesses for tear variables, T and V j j Calculate enthalpy ( h j H j ) and volatility ( K i j ) Solve tri-diagonal matrix for x j Compute new T j Q i V j and L j Antoine equation Enthal py e q uation Iterate until T j is converged Sparse matrix solver Newtons metho d Conver g in g criteria Reflux ratio & feed stage Distillate, bottoms compositions Desi g n In p ut Dis p la y va p or and li q uid com p osition p rofiles 6 Figure 6 Flowchart of Example 3: multicomponent distil lation. T ABLE 4 An Example of MATLAB Homework Problem Paired With a Problem Using Aspen Plus to Solve a Multicomponent Distillation of Hydrocarbons. 1. Multicomponent Distillation using Aspen Plus Feed (saturated liquid at 250 psia and 213 F) Component Lbmol/h Ethane 3.0 Propane 20.0 n-Butane 37.0 n-Pentane 35.0 n-Hexane 5.0 Column pressure = 250 psia Partial condenser and partial reboiler Distillate rate = 23.0 lbmol/h Number of equilibrium plates (exclusive of condenser and reboiler) = 15 Feed is sent to middle stage E-mail the following to the TA: 1) a printout of your Aspen process with your NetID as the column name as well as a stream table showing the results using the conditions 2) a graph of liquid composition of each component vs. stage number 3) a graph of vapor composition of each component vs. stage number 2. Multicomponent Distillation using MATLAB Repeat Problem 1 using simple MATLAB codes (problem2.m and froot.m) available at the ChemE 332 Web site. The code utilizes the equation-tearing, bubble-point method in solving the MESH equations as described in the handout. For simplicity, the Antoine equation is used to method. See the handout for details. When the code is run, you are asked to input the conditions described in the problem. Submit the following printouts 1) a graph of liquid composition of each component vs. stage number 2) a graph of vapor composition of each component vs. stage number Compare your results with those obtained in Problem 1. T ABLE 5 Responses of the Students Responses to: How valuable were the lectures and homework assignments based on MATLAB? % responses 1 = taught me little 3.0 2 = taught me some 4.2 3 = educational 16.3 4 = very educational 57.7 5 = extremely educational 17.8 Some comments from the students The mix of conventional method and animation helps us to under stand the concept from the front. I like how much of it is graphic. This makes the learning more intuitive. I hate graphical methods, but using MATLAB is okay. Some MATLAB homework problems were too easy because I just punched in numbers No more MATLAB, please.

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Fall 2006 321 and cooling cycle in thermal swing adsorption was discussed in detail. Students were asked to use the MATLAB code to determine the regeneration characteristics in thermal swing In the future, the students will be asked to extend the code to solve similar rate-based sorption processes such as ion exchange and chromatography. PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS OF STUDENT ACTIVITIES AND RESPONSES OF STUDENTS The pedagogical aspects of student activities have evolved over the years. The incorporation of interactive display of graphical methods was done in lectures to effectively dem onstrate the effect of design parameters on the distillation Figure 7. Vapor composition of each compo nent at each stage in Example 3: multicompo nent distillation of hydrocarbons, a) obtained using direct matrix solver in MATLAB with a simple thermodynamic model (Raoults law), and b) obtained from Aspen Plus with the Soave-Redlich-Kwong model. Operating condi tions are listed in Table 4. column. Then, students were asked to run the same code used in lecture to solve similar problems by varying design inputs such as feed conditions. We started asking the students to modify the MATLAB codes to extend its capabilities and analyze the results. A tutorial on how to develop a MAT LAB code was instituted in the recitation sessions to make this transition smoother. We conducted a survey on using MATLAB in lectures and homework assignments as a part of mid-term evaluation, and results are summarized in Table 5. The wording of questions and responses in the table is taken verbatim from the survey. The survey also provided a space for written comments. As indicated in Table 5, the use of MATLAB was generally accepted as a useful aid in teaching separations. In the future, we would like to allow the students to play more active roles in solving various separation problems using MATLAB. In particular, students will be asked to modify the MATLAB codes and extend them to work out many other separation processes such as absorption, strip ping, and extraction. CONCLUSIONS We have demonstrated that simple mathemati cal software, MATLAB, can be integrated into a separations course as a useful and effective teaching aid for visualization and numerical computation of MATLAB are the following: Step-by-step and interactive display can make conventional graphical approaches more enjoy able to students and more effective in classroom. Visualization of the graphical methods has been further extended to the study of packed-column analysis. By spending less time on the details of solving problems graphically and by trial-and-error, we were able to spend more time discussing the conceptual and quantitative description of pro cesses, and incorporate recent trends and design aspects in the separations course. User-friendly routines of MATLAB can be used to solve systems of nonlinear equations and perform numerical time integration, which, in turn, provides students with a better understand ing of complex separation processes such as multicomponent distillation and thermal swing adsorption. a b

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Chemical Engineering Education 322 Obtain Initial Loading and Concentration Discretize the spatial derivatives Perform Numerical Time Integration Obtain Loading and Concentration Profiles 5 point, biased upwind Finite Difference Dis p la y Loadin g and Concentration Explicit Euler Method Specification of fixed-bed adsorber Breakthrough curve Desi g n & Thermod y namic In p ut 8 Figure 8 Flowchart of Example 4: Thermal Swing Adsorption. Both display of conventional graphical methods and solving of complex systems of nonlinear equations can be achieved using MATLAB, which eliminates the requirement of multiple nu merical tools in the course such as spreadsheet, for graphical methods, and computer languages, for numerical computation. The aforementioned integration of graphical dis play and computational approaches into various sepa ration processes together with the implementation of emerging separation technologies and design aspects can provide students with the ability to choose an appropriate separation technology for a particular ap plication, and to analyze the performance of modern separation processes. The MATLAB source codes and handouts for the examples can be downloaded from the home page of the Analysis of Separation Processes Course, Chemical Engineering 332 at Cornell University (). ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank the students and teaching assis tants of ChemE332 for their feedback on the methods described in this paper. We also thank Professor T. Michael Duncan for insightful suggestions. REFERENCES 1. Pratap, R., Getting Started with MATLAB, A Quick Introduction for Scientists and Engineers, Oxford University Press (2002) 2. Chickering, A.W., and Z.F. Gamson, Appendix A: Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education, New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 47 63 (1991) 3. McCabe, W. L., J.C. Smith, and P. Harriott, Unit Operations of Chemi cal Engineering, 6th Ed., McGraw Hill (2001) 4. Seader, J.D., and E.J. Henley, Separation Process Principles, John Wiley & Sons (1998) 5. Humphrey, J.L., and G.E. Keller II, Separation Process Technology, McGraw-Hill, New York (1997) 6. King, C.J., Separation Processes McGraw Hill (1980) 7. Wankat, P.C., Teaching Separations: Why, What, When, and How, Chem. Eng. Ed. 35, 168 (2001) 8. Golnaraghi, M., P. Clancy, and K.E. Gubbins, Improvements in the Teaching of Staged Operations, Chem. Eng. Ed. 19 132 (1985) 9. Jolls, K.R., M. Nelson, and D. Lumba, Teaching Staged-Process Design Through Interactive Computer Graphics, Chem. Eng. Ed. 28 110 (1994) 10. Burns, M.A., and J.C. Sung, Design of Separation Units Using Spreadsheets, Chem. Eng. Ed. 30 62 (1996) 11. Hinestroza, J.P., and K. Papadopoulos, Using Spreadsheets and Visual Basic Applications, Chem. Eng. Ed. 37 316 (2003) 12. Dorgan, J.R., and J.T. McKinon, Mathematica in the ChE Curriculum, Chem. Eng. Ed. 30 136 (1996) 13. Rives, C., and D. Lacks, Teaching Process Control with a Numerical Approach Based on Spreadsheets, Chem. Eng. Ed ., 36 242 (2002) 14. Wankat, P.C., Integrating the Use of Commercial Simulators into Lecture Courses, J. Eng. Ed. 91 19 (2002) Fixed Bed Adsorption, AIChE Symposium Series 78 120-127 (1982) Figure 9. Regeneration loading proles in Example 4: Thermal Swing Adsorption with regeneration air interstitial velocity a) v = 30 m/min, and b) v = 60 m/min. a b

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Fall 2006 323 T he advancement of the U.S. economy is critically de pendent on new developments in science and engineer ing technology. Undergraduate students in engineering They receive very little training past reading a textbook, however, in the creative activities involved in development of new technology. One way to help students think creatively about develop ing new technology is to incorporate a research proposal into the coursework. Although numerous efforts have been made to incorporate more writing into engineering and sci ence courses, [1-4] little has been reported about using research proposals in undergraduate courses. In an undergraduate course for chemistry majors at Brooklyn College entitled Introduction to Research, students were required to select a research project provided by the instructor. [5] Students then wrote a rough draft of the proposal. After receiving feedback State University course entitled Chemistry Research, stu dents were required to select a research proposal topic, write receiving feedback from the professor. [6] For both proposals, and three weeks at Youngstown State) seems too short for undergraduates, given the challenging nature of writing a research proposal. This paper presents our experiences incorporating a research proposal in four biochemical or biological engineering courses THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL ROGER G. HARRISON, MATTHIAS U. NOLLERT, DAVID W. SCHMIDTKE, AND VASSILIOS I. SIKAVITSAS University of Oklahoma Norman, OK 73019-1004 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2006 ChE

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Chemical Engineering Education 324 for graduate students and upper-level undergraduates at the University of Oklahoma (OU). Biochemical and biological and have many opportunities for students to write research proposals on the advancement of science and engineering. We found that the great majority of students could write proposals on biochemical and bioengineering topics without major problems. Writing the proposal in stages over at least half the semesterwith feedback provided by the instructor are supported by our own observations and an anonymous survey of the students.RESEARCH PROPOSAL A research proposal was required in each of the following courses, with the number of students indicated in parentheses: Biochemical Engineering (25), Biosensors (9), Cellular As pects in Tissue Regeneration (9), and Tissue Engineering (15). Each of these courses is an upper-level engineering course for juniors, seniors, and graduate students. Students devoted at least half the semester to developing their research proposals in these courses. While the requirement to do a research paper did not cause a reduction in course material covered in lecture, there was a reduction in homework required compared to what it would have been had a research proposal not been required, especially near deadlines for the research proposal. The proposals ranged from a series of graded writing assign chemical Engineering and in Tissue Engineering; objectives the entire proposal (Cellular Aspects in Tissue Regeneration). For one of the proposals (Cellular Aspects in Tissue Regenera tion), the students were required to give a presentation, and feedback from that presentation was incorporated into the the general grading guidelines for the research proposal in Biochemical Engi neering are given in the Appendix. The selection of the research topic and development of the objectives and student were very important to success ful proposals. Exam ples of statements of objectives and sig nificance from our own research were handed out to students as guides. Students were allowed to choose a proposal topic in which they had an interest, based on their own research and/or prior courses in the biological sciences or bioengineering. (Nearly all of the students in the courses were either graduate students in the area of bioen gineering or were undergraduates who were in one of the bio elective patternsbiotechnology or pre-med.) In some cases, students read ahead in the textbook about topics of interest. Each student met with the instructor to discuss the appropriateness of his or her chosen topic. It was sometimes experience and knowledge of the topic. Students were given guidance about how to search the lit erature. In one course, Biochemical Engineering, a university librarian came to class and gave a presentation on the various resources available for searching literature, including the use of search programs and interlibrary loan.OBSERVATIONS AND OUTCOMES Our main observations were the following: 1. Writing a research proposal was a challenge for of them had been required to write a proposal, with the exception of a few students who had written a proposal in one of the four courses in a prior semester. For required to do reading outside of the assigned text books. In addition, we observed that students tended especially in coming up with new ideas to research. 2. What separates this assignment from a traditional term paper is that, besides needing to understand the lit erature, the student also has to develop his or her new ideas for research. Challenging students to develop new ideas and to express them in writing is what we see as the major reason to use this assignment. TABLE 1 Summary of an Anonymous Survey of Students About the Research Proposal in Bioengineering Courses Statement Percent of Respondents Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree The research proposal was a good way to learn about a topic in bioengineering in depth. 64 29 7 0 The research proposal involved more creativity than any other assignment I have had while at OU. 21 43 36 0 The research proposal gave me a better apprecia tion about how new technology is created. 14 58 21 7 The research proposal was one of the most chal lenging assignments I have had at OU. 21 43 29 7 Writing a research proposal in this course helped with another course/courses taken afterwards and/or a research project. 36 64 0 0

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Fall 2006 325 the survey about ways students thought the research proposal assignment could be improved. The writing of research proposals by students addresses ABET criterion 3(i): . . a recognition of the need for and ability to engage in lifelong learning. Writing a research proposal helps students to learn in a structured way how to create new technology, which will serve them in the future as they are confronted with new problems and challenges. Besides being used as part of a biochemical or biological engineering course, a research proposal could be used as the example at OU, the courses Honors Research, Undergraduate Research Experience, or Senior Research). A research pro posal could also be required in other upper-level engineering courses on topics where technology is advancing rapidly. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that requiring a research proposal provides an excellent learning experience for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in biochemical and biological engineer ing courses, especially when the proposal writing is divided into stages over at least half the semester. Writing a research proposal requires a higher level of thinking than a normal term paper, where the student is typically required to review the technical literature on a given topic. By proposing new research, the student is required to think more about existing research and consider how to advance science and technol TABLE 2 Selected Comments From an Anonymous Survey of Students About the Research Proposal in Bioengineering Courses The proposal requires background research that enhances and reinforces the concepts being conveyed in the coursework. It increased my knowledge about the subject, and it was stimulating trying to produce something new from the course. The research proposal helped us learn things that were beyond what could be covered in class. It was a good opportunity to see how the general concepts of bioengineering apply to different areas. Having to plan and design experiments was very challenging in terms of creativity. The research proposals were out of our area of research; thus, we had to be very creative in developing concepts and ideas for the project. I had to pull knowledge from quite a few areas and tie them together. It gave a stronger appreciation for those areas in which my knowledge is weak, and forced me to do a fair amount of literature review for those areas. I would say it is the most challenging assignment I had at OU after the capstone project. It helped me in writing my thesis. It has helped me in writing research proposals in my own research and for my general examination. I strongly believe that a complete and full workup of a rough draft ( i.e. turned in at least three to four weeks prior to the end of the semester. This way the professor can be critical of the writing, and the student weeks of the beginning of the course, in my opinion. Actually, I thought that it was a great experience. While doing it, I thought that it was more time consuming than it was worth. However, in retrospect I think that it was extremely valuable. 3. Breaking the requirements down into segments (such assignment more manageable for the students. Giving students written or oral feedback about each segment helped students improve on the next segment due. to produce a proposal without major problems. We found presented new and unusual ideas, were well explained, and could serve as the basis of a proposal to a federal granting agency. Undergraduate students performed about the same as graduate students on the proposals. Our observations, based on talking to students about their by an anonymous survey of the participating students. Sur vey results are summarized in Table 1 and selected student comments are given in Table 2. By a large margin, students thought that the research proposal was a good way to learn about a topic in depth. A majority of the students either agreed or strongly agreed that the research proposal involved more creativity than any other assignment they had completed at OU, gave them a better appreciation of how new technology is created, and was one of the most challenging assignments they had at OU. All of the students either agreed or strongly agreed that writing a research proposal in the course helped with another course taken afterward and/or helped with a research project. The student comments shown in Table 2 reinforce the survey results in Table 1. A couple of the com ments support breaking down the assignments into segments;

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Chemical Engineering Education 326REFERENCES 1. Plumb, C., and C. Scott, Outcomes Assessment of Engineering Writing at the University of Washington, J. Eng. Ed. 91 333 (2002) 2. Boyd, G., and M.F. Hassett, Developing Critical Writing Skills in Engineering and Technology Students, J. Eng. Ed. 89, 409 (2000) 3. Newell, J.A., D.K. Ludlow, and P.K. Sternberg, Development of Oral and Written Communication Skills Across an Integrated Laboratory Sequence, Chem. Eng. Ed ., 31 116 (1997) 4. VanOrden, N., Is Writing an Effective Way to Learn Chemical Con cepts? J. Chem. Ed. 67 583 (1990) 5. Williams, E.T., and Bramwell, F.B., Introduction to Research, J. Chem. Ed. 66 565 (1989) 6. Schildcrout, S.M., Learning Chemistry Research Outside the Labora tory: Novel Graduate and Undergraduate Courses in Research Meth odology, J. Chem. Educ ., 79 1340 (2002) APPENDIX Each student is required to write a research proposal on a topic associated with the production and processing of fundamental studies of: Molecular and Cellular Engineering This expanding area of engineering research encompasses pure and mixed culture processes, modeling, optimization, and control of cell and metabolite production, development of new biochemical reac tors, biocatalysis, and conversion of synthetic gas and other chemical feedstocks to value-added products via biological means. New techniques in the monitoring and control of molecular and cellular engineering are also of interest. Downstream Processing The capability to purify bioprod ucts in a cost-effective manner on a commercial scale is an important technical goal in bioprocessing of substances of biological origin. New processes and a major enhancement of existing processes are needed to accomplish necessary giving the objectives of your proposal and the expected tives should be discussed. Also, on a separate page, give literature references that relate to your proposal. A. Project Summary limit one page B. Project Description limit 10 pages C. References no page limit 3. The project description should be a clear statement of the work to be undertaken and should include the following: ob jectives for the period of the proposed work and expected plan of work, including the broad design of activities to be undertaken, and an adequate description of experi mental methods and procedures. Typical section headings of the project description are as follows: Objectives, Work; and Experimental Methods and Procedures. cm margins on top, bottom, and on each side; double spaced; and 12-point font size. 5. Web site references should be limited to business and government Web sites only. All other reference citations should be to peer-reviewed articles in published journals. 6. For the revised proposal, any changes made to the initial proposal should be underlined or highlighted. The grade for the research proposal will be based on the following criteria: 1. Approach. Are the conceptual framework, design, meth ods, and analyses adequately developed, well-integrated, and appropriate to the objectives of the project? 2. Innovation. Does the project employ novel concepts, ap proaches, or methods? Are the objectives original and in novative? Does the project challenge existing paradigms or develop new methodologies or technologies? 3. Utility or relevance of the research. This criterion is used to assess the likelihood that the research can con tribute to the achievement of a goal that is extrinsic or serve as the basis for new or improved technology or as sist in the solution of societal problems. Grade Credit and Schedule: Selection of proposal topic (due after three weeks) 0% Initial draft (due after 10 weeks) 20% Revised draft (due after 15 weeks) 15% Total for the proposal 40% cance was graded based on the degree to which the objectives describe what is innovative about the proposal. The initial and revised drafts of the proposal were graded based on a careful reading by the instructor, with comments and questions written where appropriate in the margins. The questions and/or problems about the proposal led to a rating of the proposal into one of three categories: minor, moderate, or major questions/problems. In addition, the objectives and assignment were corrected. Numerical grades were assigned based on the degree to which questions and/or problems well stated.

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Fall 2006 327 M ost engineering graduate students across the country are not trained in teaching. When training occurs, one of three models is normally used [1] :1) education programs 2) Formalized future faculty preparatory programs such as the Preparing Future Faculty (PFF) program 3) Informal (share a course with a graduate student) or formal (with course credit) training in pedagogy The Department of Chemical Engineering at Tennessee Technological University recently adopted a procedure similar to the third type that fully integrates a teaching assis tant (TA) into a senior-level Process Dynamics and Control course. Training occurs throughout the semester and the TA is involved in a meaningful way in all aspects of the course. Implementation was done with two graduate students as coinstructors (CI) supervised by a full-time faculty member (FM). In presenting this model below, however, we use just a single CI for clarity.PROCEDURE The CI was chosen based on interest in an academic career and past experience with the course material. Prior to the beginning of the semester, the FM discussed the CIs in volvement with the course from developing the syllabus and delivering the material, to preparing and grading homework and examinations. The FM also provided reading materials on important pedagogy tentatively planned for the class, such as active learning or team-based approaches. A weekly meeting was arranged to discuss all relevant aspects of the course, such as feedback on the previous weeks class, plans for the upcoming week, etc. In addition, the FM and the CI the days plan as well as discuss any unforeseen issues that have arisen. overview and discussed the role of the CI. The CI was trained to design the teaching methods, homework questions, quiz project and presentation. The CI was given the freedom to use the previous years course material or design new mate rial. When the CI taught the class (which happened more than half the time), the FM observed the CIs performance and vice-versa. RESULTS An individual assessment form for the CI was developed under the supervision of the FM. This 18-question form covered six areas: lectures, labs, organization, student inter action, in-class activities, and assignments/testing. Overall, the students rated the CI as above average. The best area was Student Interaction. Student comments indicated that it was easier to approach a graduate student than a faculty member. Additionally, graduate students are likely to keep similar hours to that of undergraduate students, making them more accessible. Overall, the CIs involvement in every aspect of the course proved to be effective training. The FM often had an advisory role. Based on the feedback, the students generally agreed that the CIs involvement was a positive experience for all involved. REFERENCE 1. Wankat, P.C., and F.S. Oreovicz, Teaching Prospective Engineering Faculty How To Teach, Intl. J. Engr. Educ., 21 (5), 925 (2005) MAKE YOUR TEACHING ASSISTANT A CO-INSTRUCTORBARATH BABURAO, SARAVANAN SWAMINATHAN, AND DONALD P. VISCO, JR. Tennessee Technological University Cookeville, TN 38505 ChE teaching tips the column should be approximately 450 words. If graphics are included, the length needs to be Wankat , subject: CEE Teaching Tip. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2006

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328 Chemical Engineering Education An Introduction to Consequence and Vulnerability Analysis, ..................................................................... 36 (3),206 Beer, Teaching Product Design Through the Investigation of Commercial ...................................... 36 (2),108 Binary Molecular Diffusion Experiments, Inexpensive and Simple ................................................ 36 (1),68 Biochemical and Biological Engineering Courses, The Research Proposal in .................................................. 40 (4),323 Biochemical Engineering Taught in the Context of Drug Discovery to Manufacturing .............................. 39 (3),208 Biodiesel Production Using Acid-Catalyzed Design Project: ........................................................... 40 (3),215 Biointerfacial Engineering, Multidisciplinary Graduate Curriculum on Integrative .......................................... 40 (4),251 Biological Systems in the Process Dynamics and Control Curriculum, Integrating ................................. 40 (3),181 Biology and ChE at the Lower Levels, Integrating ......... 38 (2),108 Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source: An Illustration of ChE Thermodynamic Concepts ............................. 40 (4),259 Biomedical and Biochemical Engineering for K-12 Students ...................................................................... 40 (4),283 Biomolecular Modeling in a Process Dynamics and Control Course ............................................................ 40 (4),297 Bioprocess Engineering, A Course In: Engaging the Imagination of Students Using Experiences Outside the Classroom ............................................................. 37 (3),180 Bioreactor, Mass Transfer and Cell Growth Kinetics in a .............................................................................. 36 (3),216 Block-Scheduled Curriculum, Pillars of Chemical Engineering, A ............................................................ 38 (4),292 Brine-Water Mixing Tank Experiment, Teaching Semiphysical Modeling to ChE Students Using a ...... 39 (4),308 Building Molecular Biology Laboratory Skills in ChE Students .............................................................. 39 (2),134 Building Multivariable Process Control Intuition Using Control Station .............................................. 37 (2),100 C Carbon Cycle, Earths: Chemical Engineering Course Material ....................................................................... 36 (4),296 Engineering as a .......................................................... 37 (4),268 Cars Accelerate Learning, Fast: High-Performance Engines ...................................................................... 37 (3),208 Catalytic Reactor, Experiments with a Fixed-Bed ............. 36 (1),34 Cell Growth Kinetics in a Bioreactor, Mass Transfer and .............................................................................. 36 (3),2165-YEAR INDEX 2002 Volumes 36 through 40 (Note: Author Index begins on page 338 ) TITLE INDEX Note: Titles in italics are books reviews. A Active Learning and Critical Thinking, Using Small Blocks of Times for .................................................... 38 (2),150 Active Learning That Addresses Four Types of Student Motivation, Survivor Classroom: A Method of .......... 39 (3),228 Adsorption Laboratory Experiment, A Fluidized Bed ....... 38 (1),14 Agitation and Aeration: an Automated Didactic Experiment ................................................... 38 (2),100 Agitation Experiment with Multiple Aspects, An ............ 40 (3),159 Analogies: Those Little Tricks That Help Students to Understand Basic Concepts in Chemical Engineering 39 (4)302 Applied Probability and Statistics, An Undergraduate Course in ..................................................................... 36 (2),170 ASEE Annual Meeting Program, 2002 ............................ 36 (2),128 ASEE Annual Meeting Program, 2003 ............................ 37 (2),120 Aspects of Engineering Practice Examining Value and Behaviors in Organizations ......................................... 36 (4),316 Aspen Plus in the ChE Curriculum: Suitable Course Content and Teaching Methodology ............................. 39 (1),68 Assessing the Incorporation of Green Engineering into a Design-Oriented Heat Transfer Course .................... 39 (4),320 Assessing Learning Outcomes, Rubric Development and Inter-Rater Reliability Issues in .................................. 36 (3),212 Assessment of a Simple Viscosity Experiment for High School Science Classes, Demonstration and .............. 40 (3),211 Assessment of Teaching and Learning, Using Test Results for ................................................................... 36 (3),188 Assessment of Undergraduate Research Evaluating Multidisciplinary Team Projects, Rubric Development for ........................................................... 38 (1),68 Automated Distillation Column for the Unit Operations Laboratory, An ............................................................ 39 (2),104 Automotive Applications, Design of a Fuel Processor System for Generating Hydrogen for ......................... 40 (3),239 Award Lectures Equations (of Change), Dont Change, The: But the Profession of Engineering Does ....................... 37 (4),242 Membrane Science and Technology in the 21st Century ....................................................................... 38 (2),94 Future Directions in ChE Education: A New Path to Glory ............................................................ 37 (4),284 Azeotropic System in a Laboratorial Distillation Column, Validating The Equilibrium Stage Model for an ......... 40 (3),195 B Batch Fermentation Experiment for L-Lysine Production in the Senior Laboratory, A ...................... 37 (4),262 (BLEVE), Boiling-Liquid Expanding-Vapor Explosion:

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Fall 2006 329 Cellular Biology into a ChE Degree Program, Incorporating Molecular and ...................................... 39 (2),124 CFD Tools, Teaching Nonideal Reactors with ................. 38 (2),154 ChE Principles, A Respiration Experiment to Introduce 38 (3),182 Chem-E-Car Competition, Engineering Analysis in the .... 40 (1),66 Chem-E-Car Down Under ............................................... 36 (4),288 Chemical Product Engineering, A Graduate-LevelEquivalent Curriculum in ........................................... 39 (4),264 Chemical Reaction Engineering Lab Experiment, An Integrated .............................................................. 38 (3),228 Chemical Thermodynamic Concepts to Real-World Problems, Relating Abstract ....................................... 38 (4),268 Chemistry into the ChE Curriculum, Incorporating Computational ............................................................ 40 (4),268 Classroom Demonstration of Natural Convection, A Simple ..................................................................... 39 (2),138 Choosing and Evaluating Equations of State for Thermophysical Properties ......................................... 37 (3),236 Coffee on Demand: A Two-Hour Design Problem ............ 36 (1),54 Coherence in Technical Writing, Improving .................... 38 (2),116 Collaborative Lea