Chemical engineering education

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Chemical engineering education
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Chem. eng. educ.
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Full Text











chemical engineering education





VOLUME 39 NUMBER 4 FALL 2005





GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE



. Featuring articles on graduate courses...


Molecular-Based Equations of State at the Graduate Level (p. 250)
Colina, Olivera-Fuentes, Gubbins

SA Survey of the Graduate Thermodynamics Course Across the United States (p. 258)
1 Dube, I isco

C A Graduate-Level-Equivalent Curriculum in Chemical Product Engineering (p. 264)
I Favre, Marchal-Heussler, Durand, Midora. Roizard

Teaching a Graduate-Level Course in Tissue Engineering (p. 272)
$ Detamore, Schnedlen
*-M
a s?
WI

" .2 ... and articles of general interest.

. Random Thoughts: A Fond Farewell (p. 279) .................................. ... .................................. Felder
i Learning Through Simulation: Student Engagement (p. 288) .................... Streicher, West. Fraser. Case. Linder
a' Teaching Semiphysical Modeling Using a Brine-Water Mixing Tank Experiment (p. 308) ....................... Rivera
Heat Transfer Analysis and the Path Forward a Student Project (p. 316).......................................... Oh. Akers
*S 5 I A Freshman Design Experience (p. 296) ......................................... Barritt. Drwiega. Carter. Muzyck, Chauhan
S 5 Assessing the Incorporation of Green Engineering Into a Design-Oriented Heat Transfer Course (p. 320) ..... Flynn
(, '.C
Scaled Sketches for Visualizing Surface Tension (p. 328) ..................................................... Mason
SAnalogies: Those Little Tricks That Help Students to Understand Basic Concepts (p. 302) .... Ferndnde:-Torres
S Modern Learning Pedagogies (p. 280) ............ Goiter, Van 3Iie. Scuderi. Henderson, Dueben, Brown, Thomson






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Chemical Engineering Education
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Colorado School of Mines

MEMBERS
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North Carolina State University
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University of Washington
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University of Michigan
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North Carolina State University
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Georgia Institute of Technology
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University of Virginia
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North Carolina State University
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Georgia Institute of Technology
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University of Delaware
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Iowa State University
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Rowan University
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McMaster University


Chemical Engineering Education

Volume 39 Number 4 Fall 2005


> GRADUATE EDUCATION
250 Molecular-Based Equations of State at the Graduate Level,
Coray M. Colina, Claudio G. Olivera-Fuentes, Keith E. Gubbins
258 A Survey of the Graduate Thermodynamics Course in Chemical
Engineering Departments Across the United States,
Sanjay K. Dube, Donald P. Visco, Jr

264 A Graduate-Level-Equivalent Curriculum in Chemical Product
Engineering,
Eric Favre, Laurent Marchal-Heussler, Alain Durand, Noel Midoux,
Christine Roizard

272 Teaching a Graduate-Level Course in Tissue Engineering
Michael S. Detamore, Rachael H. Schmedlen

> RANDOM THOUGHTS
279 A Fond Farewell, Richard M. Felder

> CLASSROOM
280 Combining Modem Learning Pedagogies in Fluid Mechanics and Heat
Transfer, PB. Goiter, B.J. Van Wie, P. V Scuderi, TW. Henderson,
R.M. Dueben, G.R. Brown, W.J. Thomson
288 Learning Through Simulation: Student Engagement,
Samantha J. Streicher Kate West, Duncan M. Fraser,
Jennifer M. Case, Cedric Linder
302 Analogies: Those Little Tricks That Help Students to Understand Basic
Concepts in Chemical Engineering, Marfa J. Ferndndez-Torres

308 Teaching Semiphysical Modeling to ChE Students Using a Brine-Water
Mixing Tank Experiment, Daniel E. Rivera

> LEARNING IN INDUSTRY
316 Heat Transfer Analysis and the Path Forward in a Student Project on the
Splenda Sucralose Process, Dong Hee (Lindsey) Oh, William H. Akers

> CURRICULUM
296 A Freshman Design Experience: Multidisciplinary Design of a Potable
Water Treatment Plant, Amber Barritt, Jack Drwiega, Rufus Carter,
David Mazvck, Anuj Chauhan

320 Assessing the Incorporation of Green Engineering Into a Design-
Oriented Heat Transfer Course, Ann Marie Flynn

> CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS
328 Scaled Sketches for Visualizing Surface Tension, Sarah L. Mason


327 Call for Papers

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering
Division, American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Copyright 2005 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American
Society for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not
necessarily those of the ChE Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if
notified within 120 days of publication. Write for information on subscription costs andfor back copy costs and availability.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Chemical Engineering Education, Chemical Engineering Department., University
of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Periodicals Postage Paid at Gainesville, Florida and additional post offices.


Fall 2005











Graduate Education


MOLECULAR-BASED


EQUATIONS OF STATE

at the Graduate Level





CORAY M. COLINA, CLAUDIO G. OLIVERA-FUENTES,* AND KEITH E. GUBBINS
North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695-7905


In recent decades, equations of state (EOS) have become
a major tool for the correlation and prediction of thermo-
dynamic properties of fluids. They can be applied to pure
substances as well as to mixtures, and in view of the variety
of chemical species and applications, it is not surprising that
hundreds of equations of state have been published to date; if
variants are counted, too, the total exceeds 2,000.111 There-
fore, a very large number of publications deal with the devel-
opment or improvement of equations of state.
Once they enter their careers, chemical engineers will of-
ten be in the position of having to select an EOS that is most
appropriate for a specific situation. In addition to commonly
used empirical equations, graduate students should be exposed
to molecular-based equations of state. In this paper, we present
a project for graduate thermodynamics courses at North Caro-
lina State University (NCSU) and Sim6n Bolivar University
(USB) in which students are asked to determine the vapor-
liquid equilibria, including the critical point, of a pure sub-
stance using three different EOS: (a) cubic, (b) multiparametric,
and (c) molecular-based. Students are prompted to use the
Internet, and to develop a code for the molecular-based EOS.

SELECTING AN EOS
Depending on one's taste and desired application, one can
use a cubic EOS, a local-composition model, corresponding-
states theory, group-contribution methods, or a more funda-
mental approach such as perturbation theory. For simple flu-
ids (i.e., molecules for which the most important intermo-
lecular forces are repulsion and dispersion), all of these meth-
ods are likely to give good results. For more complex fluids,


* Department of Thermodynamics and Transport Phenomena, Simdn
Bolivar University, Caracas 1080, Venezuela


however, such as electrolytes, polar solvents, hydrogen-
bonded fluids, polymers, and so on, conventional predictive
tools fail.
Wei and Sadus12' presented a wide-ranging overview of re-
cent progress in the development of equations of state, en-
compassing both simple empirical models and theoretically
based equations. The main branches of the EOS tree proposed
by them correspond to the van der Waals, Camahan-Starling,


Coray M. Colina is currently a postdoctoral
research associate in the Department of
Chemistry at the University of North Carolina
at Chapel Hill. She obtained her Ph.D. at
North Carolina State University (2004) and
her B.S. (1993) and M.S. (1994) at Sim6n
Bolivar University, where she has been a fac-
ulty member. She will join the Department of
Materials Science and Engineering at Penn-
sylvania State University as associate profes-
sor in July 2006.
Claudio G. Olivera-Fuentes is a professor in
the Department of Thermodynamics and
Transport Phenomena and coordinator (dean)
of chemical engineering at Sim6n Bolivar Uni-
versity, Caracas, Venezuela. He received the
University Award for Outstanding Teaching by
a Full Professor in 1998 and 2000, and the
Procter & Gamble Award for Excellence in
Teaching in 2003.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005


Chemical Engineering Education


Keith E. Gubbins is the WH. Clark Distin-
guished University Professor at North Caro-
lina State University, where he has been since
1998. He obtained his Ph.D. at the Univer-
sity of London and has been a faculty mem-
ber at the University of Florida and Cornell
University prior to joining North Carolina State
University.











Graduate Education


Hard Convex Body (BACK EOS), Perturbed Hard Chain
Theory (PHCT EOS), and Thermodynamic Perturbation
Theory (SAFT EOS) models. Among these, the BACK,
PHCT, and SAFT equations of state are shown as the precur-
sors of many theoretical attraction terms. (The Redlich-
Kwong EOS is similarly presented as the precursor for the
development of empirical attraction terms, notably in cubic
EOS.) In this project we chose to work with the statistical
associating fluid theoryE31 (SAFT) EOS.
SAFT is a molecular-based method that is designed to ac-
count for effects of molecular association, chain flexibility,
and repulsive and dispersion interactions. It has been suc-
cessfully used to model thermodynamic properties and phase
behavior of a large variety of simple and complex fluids and
fluid mixtures. The SAFT equation has proven to be a sig-
nificant improvement over more empirical equations of state,
because it has a firm basis in statistical mechanics. Recently
Miller and Gubbins,' 4 5 Wei and Sadus,1'2 and Economou'61
presented reviews of the SAFT EOS and related approaches.
Despite many theoretical improvements, one of the most
successful modifications remains the Huang-RadoszE17 ver-
sion of the SAFT equation. Huang and Radosz have applied
SAFT to more than 100 real fluids, fitting the potential pa-
rameters to experimental vapor pressure and saturated liq-
uid-density data. A generalized method to estimate these pa-
rameters from the critical data and acentric factor of any fluid
has also been presented.181

SAFT MODEL
In SAFT, molecules are modeled as chains of covalently
bonded spheres (see Figure 1). Homologous series, such as
n-alkanes and polymers, can be modeled as chains of identi-
cal spheres, where the number of spheres in the chain in-
creases with the molecular weight. The residual Helmholtz
energy, are", is of the form

areas= aseg chainn +assoc 1)
where aseg is the part of the Helmholtz energy due to seg-

1. ah": equal size, single hard spheres

SC 2. ase 3. a'"hain
Sk 4. a(Ia"'"'
L LL
IL
intermolecular attractive force tick spots-
(appropriate potential) each molecule IIl-lxb ding *


Figure 1. SAFT model.


ment-segment interactions (i.e., interactions between mono-
mer units in different molecules, usually modeled as hard
sphere, Lennard-Jones, or square-well interactions). Further,
achan is the additional Helmholtz energy due to chain forma-
tion, and a'"o'c is that due to association (e.g., hydrogen bond-
ing) between different molecules.
Granted, the principal value of this theory lies in the strong
physical foundation of the characteristic parameters, which
permits a reasonable prediction of thermodynamic proper-
ties of large molecules (e.g., polymers, hydrocarbons of high
molecular weight), and in the explicit inclusion of the as-
sociation effect. Yet it is also possible to apply this EOS
to nonassociating fluids. The widely used Huang and
Radosz version of the SAFT EOS for pure nonassociating
fluids can be written in terms of the compressibility fac-
tor as


Z= 1+Zseg +Zchain


where


Zseg =m4rl2rl 2 4+9 .jDT( u )i]
(1-r) i ij= k-

5 1
Chain (l-m) 21-
(l I4


with the auxiliary definitions


v 3u0 uu o
=T m vO=0o[1-C exp 31 .= L1+-e] (5)
v kT k k kT

In these equations, rl represents the reduced fluid density (seg-
ment packing fraction), vo is the segment molar volume in a
close-packed arrangement, v1 is the segment volume (tempera-
ture-independent segment molar volume at T = 0), r = 0.74048,
C = 0.12, and e/k = 10 except for a few small molecules (e/k
= 0 for argon; 1 for methane, ammonia, and water; 3 for ni-
trogen; 4.2 for carbon monoxide; 18 for chlorine; 38 for CS,;
40 for carbon dioxide, and 88 for SO,). D are universal con-
stants that have been fitted to accurate PvT, internal energy,
and second virial coefficient data for argon, by Chen and
Kreglewski.191 For pure nonassociating compounds, there are
three essential adjustable parameters: m, the number of hard
spheres that forms a molecule; v 0, the volume of a mole of
these spheres when closely packed (this sets their size); and
u, the segment energy, which determines segment-segment
interactions. As mentioned earlier, pure component param-
eters for a large variety of nonassociating and associating real
fluids have been tabulated.17J


Fall 2005













Graduate Education

PROJECT STATEMENT

In this assignment, students are asked to generate predic-
tions for the vapor-liquid equilibria region (including the criti-
cal point), using the Huang and Radosz171 version of the SAFT
EOS for the nonassociating fluid assigned to them. They are
also asked to compare these with the predictions of a fluid-
specific multiparametric EOS and of a cubic EOS spe-
cifically, SRK (Soave-Redlich-Kwong) or PR (Peng-
Robinson). To accomplish this task, they need to perform the
calculations with the SAFT equation, using any software they
feel comfortable with, such as Matlab, Maple, Mathematica,
Mathcad, Excel, VisualBasic, and Fortran.

Many useful EOS resources can be found on the Internet.
For example, leading institutions such as NISTI"0 or DIPPRI11
have user-friendly Web pages, on which up-to-date databases
are available for selected fluids. Several sites can also be found
where online cubic EOS software is available (see, for ex-
ample, Reference 12). Students wishing to "program" a cu-
bic EOS are certainly permitted to do so. For example, un-
dergraduate textbooks present computer-aided strategies for
solving cubic equation of state, e.g., (a) use of packages such


ek:= 10


ek
mb:= 3.458 uko:= 195.11 uk(T) := uko (1 +


Vo(T)
g(T,v) .=r-mb--
v


-88043 29396
4.164627 6.0865383
-48.203555 40.137956
140.4362 76.230797
-195.23339 -133.70055
113515 86025349
0 -1535 3224
0 1221.4261
0 -409.10539


2 8225
4.7600148
11 257177
-66.382743
69 248785
0
0
0
0


a :=0..8


b := 0..3


0.34
-3.1875014
12.231796
12.110681
0
0
0
0
0 )


Definition of SAFT Terms: Zseg, Zchain as a function of T, v


ZsgT,v) 4 (Tv) -2.(TT, v)2 + I (a+ 1)D, uk(T) b+1 ( (Tv) a+
-(1 q (T,v))3 a b


Zchan(T,v) .=(1- b)


5- (T,v) q(Tv)
2


ZIT,v) '= 1 + ZseT,v) + ZchamT,v)


Definition of In(flP) and Pressure as a function of T,v (equilibrium criteria)


IniT,v)= 1 Z(Tx)dx+ (Z(T,v) ) ln(Z(T,v))
S x


P(Tv). RT


r


Solve block to determine molar volumes of liquid (vL) and vapor (vV) at a given T


Specified Temperature T := 305


Guess values vL = 110


vV:= 8000


Given
In(T,vL)= In(T.,vV)

P(T.vL) = PT,vV)

A : Find(vLvV)


A =


V:=A10 3


P VL P W
(bar) (L/mol) (bar) (L/mol)
(P(T,A0).10 V0 P(TAI) 10 Vl)=


Chemical Engineering Education


Figure 2a. A typical Mathcad code for the prediction of the vapor-liquid equilibria.


as Maple, Mathematica, Mathcad, and Matlab (see, for ex-
ample, References 13-15); or (b) use of spreadsheets such
as Excel (see, for example, Reference 14). Some textbooks
even supply appropriate computer code that can be used
for a specific cubic or multiparametric EOS (see, for ex-
ample, Reference 16).

The results can be presented in graphical and/or tabular
form. The use of Pv or P p diagrams and of group statistics
(see Reference 17) is recommended. A copy of the computer
program developed for the SAFT EOS must be provided as
an appendix.

Additionally, students are asked to report the acentric fac-
tor, w0-1-logl0Pr,sat(Tr =0.7}, predicted from the SAFT
EOS for the fluid under study. Finally, comments on applica-
bility range and comparisons among the models are expected.

SOLUTION

The project presented here is part of a graduate thermody-
namics course. The course is suitable for students who are
already familiar with classical thermodynamics and differ-
ential and integral calculus. The course is divided to cover
one-third traditional thermodynamics and two-thirds statisti-
cal mechanics. The traditional module includes the study of
stability, phase equilibrium, and high-pressure phase dia-
grams. The statistical mechanics section consists of the fol-
lowing: ensembles, classical statistical mechanics, intermo-
lecular forces and potentials, corresponding states, ideal gas,
virial equation, molecular simulations, and liquid mixtures.
The evaluation consists of weekly homework, two special
projects (molecular simulations and the SAFT project here pre-
sented), two partial exams, a final exam, and a final term paper.
An optional course on multiscale modeling of soft matter is
offered (at NCSU) the following semester. A description of this
advanced course was recently given by Hung, et al."18


o(T uko. 3


(1- (T,v))'l q(T,v))













Graduate Education


In a previous paper,1"91 we presented a "thermo project" for
a first thermodynamics course, in which the undergraduate
student was encouraged to use the Internet, handle some soft-
ware, and read tables to evaluate the PvT prediction capabili-
ties of different models for a pure fluid. In this work, we ad-
ditionally prompt the graduate student to program a molecu-
lar-based EOS, such as the SAFT EOS, using any software
they feel comfortable with. Generally students select Mathcad
or Excel, and use the same application (Excel) to show the
results. The Internet is used to obtain the predictions of
multiparametric EOS for different fluids through the NIST
Web book"01 or the DIPPR database,'"] and to obtain the pre-
dictions of the Peng-Robinsono201 equation (from Reference
14 or 15). The reader is referred to our previous paper for
additional details on the use of Internet, software, and com-


puter-aided strategies for this type of project. In this paper we
concentrate on the programming of a molecular-based equa-
tion of state, e.g., SAFT. Several examples are given below.

EXAMPLES

Figure 2 (a and b) shows a typical Mathcad code for the
prediction of the vapor-liquid equilibria of a pure compound
using the SAFT EOS for a nonassociating fluid. As can be seen
in the figures, the necessary code is relatively straightforward.
Students with no previous experience in using this software (or
equivalents such as Mathlab, Maple, and Mathematica) are able
to program the EOS with the assistance of the "help" section of
the software. It is important to keep in mind that the code shown
is an example of an actual student submission and should be
judged accordingly. In particular, the code uses the simplified


CP(v.T.voom uokek)= tole---10-
el -1
e2 1
TV -T
C-012
S-074048
R -83147295
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
D*,- 0 -88043 41646270 -482035555 14043620 19523339 11351500 0 0 0
0 2 9396 -6 0863383 40 137956 -76 230797 -133 70055 860 25349 -1535 3224 1221 4261 -40910539
0 2 8225 4 7600148 11 257177 -66 382743 69 248785 0 0 0 0
0 03400 -31875014 12231796 -12110681 0 0 0 0 0
it--0
while (el>tole)-(e2>tole)



ek
vo-voo 1-C e

uk -uok 1+

Tv
a-r m vo VVRij T D L a1(w J)


(51 a mw270a3m w+27a2 w16 am w+2 a6m +12 am wt-26 w4a2+42 aw -27 w2ad8 was+4w01 a6)




w-W+a)4 (-2w+a) (-2
1 m a a 1 ....Riow--' (2a| (wa"a )



T (454a'mak4.Oiama -1395am vn02 a mr-24 a41a4+143 a5-112vn a.236 a18 v^-I a0 104 a, l n O '-22 ai .1 281 a'm vr,' -52v'a'8 an'a +11 .ea6+114 a2' ] 2R

el- w-vn
e2*- Tv-Tn
Tv-Tn
w-vn
It It+1
solo-w
soli -Tv
r(a w )_-(a vw-1)2 4 9
so2 R Tv+ R Tv [4 (a w')-2 (a w-1)2 5 RTv (m) 2 )- (aw ,-
(1-a (1-a w-1) [1-(0 5 a w-')] ,= -


S014-- it
sol

Figure 2b. A typical Mathcad code for the prediction of the critical point
of a pure compound using the SAFT EOS for a nonassociating fluid.


Fall 2005












Graduate Education


form of the SAFT EOS for pure nonassociating substances.
Additionally, good initial density guesses must be supplied
in order to achieve convergence.

A typical Excel spreadsheet is shown in Figure 3. No macro
(such as Visual Basic) is being used in this example. All cal-
culations are made within the spreadsheet. Cells are pro-
grammed with the SAFT equation as can be seen in the fig-
ure. Many of the intermediate calculations are also shown.
This scheme involves more direct input from the student, and
it could be computationally less efficient than, for example,
the use of Visual Basic objects (macros) embedded in the
same application. It is relatively simple, however, and no ad-
vanced knowledge of numerical methods is needed from the
student. In this example students use the "solver" function
(an Excel add-in) to find mechanical equilibrium (equality of
pressure) and then calculate the fugacity coefficients at this
condition to check that they are equal.

The use of Visual Basic, Fortran, Pascal, etc. requires some
knowledge of the application, since a numerical routine (e.g.,
bisection, Newton-Raphson) is required to obtain the density
(or packing fraction) roots of the equation. Examples are not
shown here, because only a small percentage of the students
chose to use these techniques, even though they were expected
to have the necessary numerical tools from their undergraduate
courses to pursue this computational project. We have to bear


in mind that this is one of the first courses at the graduate level,
where differences in background are starting to appear. We place
accordingly more emphasis on the correctness of the results
and the soundness of their analysis, and less on the sophistica-
tion of the calculation procedure employed.

REPRESENTATIVE RESULTS

The phase envelopes (vapor-liquid equilibria or saturation
conditions) for carbon dioxide and n-decane are shown in
Figures 4 and 5 as examples. Results are shown for the
multiparametric EOS (Span and Wagner' 1021] for CO2 and
saturated liquid densities for n-decane["'), Peng-
Robinson,["4.201 and SAFT.'7'

These figures illustrate the predictive capabilities of
multiparametric equations of state. The Span-Wagner'21] EOS
is the equation most frequently used for carbon dioxide, and
can be taken as a reference (for a more detailed discussion,
see References 17 and 21). It is worth mentioning that even
though the Internettl0- "i was used in this stage of the project,
the data for n-decane is relatively old, corresponding to a
compilation made from sources dating from 1944 to 1989
(specific references are given in DIPPR1"I). The data's lon-
gevity can, however, be used to show that "old" methods
(tables and handbooks) are not necessarily less accurate than
"new" methods (Internet), or vice versa.


Figure 3. A typical
Excel spreadsheet
code for the
prediction of the
vapor-liquid
equilibria of a
pure compound
using the SAFT
EOS for a
nonassociating
fluid.


Chemical Engineering Education


6 D I I I 0. I 2 I 7 | M 1 ; | 2
S217 u7kT 082 S 1S.
Sv 13,578 u 2 0.672531 t 6 6558 646167322
m 1417 3 0.551529 2 0505527 1017 5442
T512 8 ik 40 (uukt)4 0452298 3 -0,756 -2,36 74
S 0 11 07404 0 4 2181166 27 26322
SR 1 3H 51 5 -2118321 525 316020
6 6716387 4029 83213
Z-. .0 -(1 .f1l.D f~5 2 0 263D26 D26 7 -1032552 .7227255
S ..... 9 1361 -2472252
3 -48 3555 01756 1.718
14 4 432 -76230797 638274 -?.11
1 -1M23339 -33-70G5 6924879 0
S1G 51 8'0"s 4` 0 D
rff; 7 0 -15353224 0 .a.1r T .E26'$K E2'2"$K$4.E26 $K$5.E26'4"$K$6.E26'tK7.E2e'$'tK8 hE26'7'$K .E2658-K$.E26'$K9 l
8 1221.4261 0 0 a. MRT .([1D2643W '26(-2 -D26)'2
$ Q 0Q -409,10539 0 a. 1 (l-$D$4)-LN[["0 5-D26)[l"246r3)
a, ________ Zch [lI-$Dt4)( 2D6-26 6 6-Z)[I-DZ8'nI-0-5'p26)J
S13000 OI P L26"CD7tC$123"A261

F| r i. 1 i --l ." .... ..; ..1 T__ i SIol u 0g 7


3, iEqj& To- r vf, r Kn r %a. a
e. l..a. gab.aO,- ------ --- w, I:I
! I$i-t:-. ,-,- 3J WM |


7 .. o. u ,o --~-
)6u
3716
30ahGI~JL~ ~[ IOI p
38~











Graduate Education


Deficiencies of cubic equations of state in the prediction of
liquid densities are shown by the PR results. Also worth men-
tioning is that it was shown in the previous work"9' that for
carbon dioxide and in the region under study, the PR equa-
tion is more accurate than SRK. It is clear in Figure 4 that in
general, the PR EOS performs better than the SAFT EOS for
CO,, especially near the critical point. The prediction of liq-
uid densities in the low temperature region, however, is bet-
ter from the SAFT EOS. This should lead students to discuss
how the fluid-specific parameters of molecular-based EOS





8











0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03
6 0


I. 4


2



0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03
p (mol/cm3)


Figure 4. Vapor-liquid phase envelope for CO,
shown as a Pp diagram.
Continuous line predicted by the SAFT EOS,13 71
dashed line predicted by the Peng-Robinson EOS,2'"J
(0) predicted by the Span-Wagner EOS.m'

7








o ---------- .--.." --
6



4
3

2
E 1

0
250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650
Temperature (K)

Figure 5. Vapor-liquid phase envelope for n-decane
(CoH22) shown as a Tp diagram.
Continuous line predicted by the SAFT EOS,t[3 7
dashed line predicted by the Peng-Robinson EOS,[201
(0) predicted by the DIPPR database.""


such as SAFT are fitted to experimental vapor pressure and
liquid-density data; the result is an overestimation of the
critical temperature and pressure. On the other hand, the
usual practice for a cubic EOS such as Peng-Robinson is
to enforce the experimental values of the latter two prop-
erties; this results instead in overestimation of the critical
volume. Similar conclusions (not shown) are obtained for
the lower members of the n-alkane family. In Figure 5,
however, it is seen that there is little to choose between
the PR and SAFT equations for n-decane. The vapor-liq-
uid phase envelope for n-eicosane (C20H42) is shown as a
Tp diagram in Figure 6. For this substance, predictions
of the PR EOS are now inferior to those of the SAFT EOS
(e.g., AAD saturation pressure: 8.3% SAFT, 23.4% PR;
molar liquid density: 6.2% SAFT, 15.3% PR).
Finally it is worth mentioning than both PR and SAFT -
like all analytic (i.e., based on mean field) EOS predict a
parabolic instead of the experimentally found cubic curve in
the critical region. The latter arises from the nonanalytic na-
ture of the coexistence in the critical region, which yields a
much flatter curve in this region.

CRITICAL PROPERTIES AND ACENTRIC
FACTOR
From the traditional stability conditions at the critical point,
it follows that the critical isotherm must exhibit an inflexion
point in Pv coordinates


op) (82P (2a
=0 and 2 =0 or a
v T)T v


0 and a =0 (6)
S av3 T


3.5

3

E 2.5 0000000.0o,
E 2Oo


1.5 0 000




0.5

0
300 400 500 600 700 800
Temperature (K)


Figure 6. Vapor-liquid phase envelope for n-eicosane
(C2,H42) shown as a Tp diagram.
Continuous line predicted by the SAFT EOS,13 71
dashed line predicted by the Peng-Robinson EOS,'20]
(0) predicted by the DIPPR database.11"


Fall 2005











( Graduate Education


A possible algorithm to find the critical properties using
Mathcad is shown in Figure 2b. It can be observed that find-
ing the critical point is straightforward with this package (or, in
fact, any equivalent package). Results for the critical proper-
ties of the fluids mentioned above are given in Table 1.
The acentric factor, o, specifies a vapor pressure at a re-
duced temperature of Tr = 0.7 and is defined by

P T
co-l-logloPr,sat{Tr =0.7} P,- Tr (7)
Pc T'
Results for the acentric factor from the equations of state stud-
ied above are also shown in Table 1. The primary objective
of these calculations is to make students realize that the acen-
tric factor is a thermodynamic property dependent on the satu-
ration pressure at a specific temperature (T = 0.7 Tc). De-
pending on the accuracy of the experimental data or model,
different values are obtained. To stress this point, acentric
factors reported in Reid, et al.,[221 and Poling, et al.,23] are
also included. Differences between these sources and up-to-
date databases show the variation on experimental data avail-
able. Moreover, these calculations can also be used to dis-


Figure 7. Pressure-temperature diagram for CO,, C10H22,
C20H42. Continuous line predicted by the SAFT EOS,13 71
dashed line predicted by the Peng-Robinson EOS,12"1
symbols predicted by the DIPPR database'11 or NIST'0; for
(A) CO2, (0) n-decane, and (0) n-eicosane.


Chemical Engineering Education


3



2

0

1



0 -
200


300 400 500
T(K)


TABLE 1
Acentric Factor and Critical Properties
Tc (K) Pc (MPa) Vc (m'/kmol)

FLUID/EOS MPc PR SAFT MPc and PR SAFT MPc and PR SAFT MPc PR SAFT

CO2 0.228 0.242 0.255a 304.13 320.71 7.38 9.25 0.094 0.101 0.098

0.225d 0.085b

0.239e

n-decane 0.490 0.429 0.428a 617.8 639.84 2.11 2.46 0.624 0.687 0.738

0.490d 0.309b

0.489e

n-eicosane 0.907 0.883 0.914a 768.0 796.73 1.16 1.22 1.34 1.71 1.802

0.865d 0.694b

0.907e

calculated with experimental Tc and Pc
calculated with Tc and Pc predicted by the EOS

'NIST webbook
dPoling et al.

eReid et al.


600 700 800












Graduate Education


cuss the accuracy of different equations. It could appear that
there are surprising differences between the acentric factor
predicted by the SAFT EOS and the general predictions ob-
served in Figures 4-6. A PT projection of the saturation line
predicted for the different equations n-decane and n-eicosane
(shown in Figure 7 for CO2) could help clarify the appar-
ent inconsistency as well as the two sets of acentric factors
reported in Table 1 for the SAFT EOS. The overprediction of
critical temperatures and pressures by the SAFT EOS is re-
sponsible for the incorrect acentric factor predicted by the EOS
(case b in Table 1). If experimental critical properties are used
to obtain the acentric factor, however, then due to the good fit
of the EOS to saturation pressures at intermediate temperatures,
good predictions on co are found (case a in Table 1). Regard-
ing carbon dioxide, it is worth noting that Tr = 0.7 is below
the triple point of this substance. Therefore, an experi-
mental value of the acentric factor does not exist, except
as an extrapolation subject to greater uncertainty than for
other fluids.

FINAL COMMENTS
It should be made clear to the students that even though
similar results were found using an empirical equation such
as Peng-Robinson, and an equation with statistical mechani-
cal basis such as SAFT, the selection of the equation should
be based on the range of conditions. As mentioned early on,
for simple fluids molecules for which the most important
intermolecular forces are repulsion and dispersion cubic
equations are likely to give good results. If, however, mix-
tures in liquid-liquid equilibrium are the desired objective,
these predictive tools will fail. They will also fail for more
complex fluids, such as electrolytes, polar solvents, hydro-
gen-bonded fluids, and polymers. Several examples at these
conditions can be found in the graduate thermodynamics book
of Prausnitz, et al. [24]

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We would like to thank our students, at both Sim6n Bolivar
and North Carolina State universities, for their support, feed-
back, and motivation in the implementation of this project. This
work was partly supported by the STC Program of the National
Science Foundation under Agreement No. CHE 9876674.

REFERENCES
1. Deiters, U.K., "Remarks on Publications Dealing with Equations of
State," Fluid Phase Equil., 161, 205 (1999); Deiters, U.K., and K.M.
de Reuck, "Guidelines for Publication of Equations of State. I. Pure
Fluids," Pure Appl. Chem., 69, 1237 (1997)
2. Wei, Y.S., and R.J. Sadus, "Equations of State for the Calculation of
Fluid-Phase Equilibria," AIChE J., 46, 169 (2000)
3. Chapman, W.G., Gubbins, K.E., Jackson G., and M. Radosz, "New
Reference Equation of State for Associating Liquids," Ind. Eng. Chem.


Res., 29. 1709 (1990)
4. Miiller, E.A., and K.E. Gubbins, "Associating Fluids and Fluids Mix-
tures," in J.V. Sengers, R.F. Kayser, C.J. Peters, and H.J. White, Jr.
(Eds), Equations of State for Fluids and Fluid Mixtures. Experimental
Thermodynamics, Volume 5, Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 435 (2000)
5. Miiller, E.A., and K.E. Gubbins, "Molecular-Based Equations of State
for Associating Fluids: A Review of SAFT and Related Approaches,"
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 40(10), 2193 (2001)
6. Economou, I.G., "Statistical Associating Fluid Theory: A Successful
Model for the Calculation of Thermodynamic and Phase Equilibrium
Properties of Complex Fluid Mixtures," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 41,953
(2002)
7. Huang, S.H., and M. Radosz, "Equation of State for Small, Large,
Polydisperse, and Associating Molecules," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 29,
2284 (1990)
8. Bouza, A., Colina, C.M., and C.G. Olivera-Fuentes, "Parameteriza-
tion of Molecular-based Equations of State," Fluid Phase Equilib.,
228-229C, 561 (2005)
9. Chen, S.S., and A. Kreglewski, "Applications of the Augmented van
der Waals Theory of Fluids. I. Pure Fluids," Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys.
Chem., 81, 1048 (1977)
10. Lemmon, E.W., M.O. McLinden, and D.G. Friend, "Thermophysical
Properties of Fluid Systems," in NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST
Standard Reference Database Number 69, Eds. P.J. Linstrom and W.G.
Mallard, July 2001, National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Gaithersburg, MD, 20899
11. Rowley, R.L., W.V. Wilding, J.L. Oscarson, Y. Yang, R.J. Rowley, T.E.
Daubert, and R.P. Danner, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Com-
pound Properties, Design Institute for Physical Property Data, AIChE,
New York, NY (2001)
12.
13. Smith, J.M., H.C. van Ness, and M.M. Abbott, Introduction to Chemi-
cal Engineering Thermodynamics, 6th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York
(2001)
14. Elliott, J.R., and C.T. Lira, Introductory Chemical Engineering Ther-
modynamics, Prentice Hall (1999)
15. Sandler, S.I., Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics, 3rd Ed.,
John Wiley & Sons (2001)
16. Van Wylen, J.G., R.E. Sonntag, and C. Borgnakke, Fundamentals of
Classical Thermodynamics, 4th Ed., John Wiley & Sons (1994)
17. Jacobsen, R.T., S.T. Penoncello, E.W. Lemmon, and R.Span,
"Multiparametric Equations of State," in J.V. Sengers, R.F. Kayser,
C.J. Peters, and H.J. White, Jr. (Eds), Equations of State for Fluids
and Fluid Mixtures. Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume 5,
Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 849 (2000)
18. Hung, F.R., S. Franzen, and K.E. Gubbins, "A Graduate Course on
Multi-Scale Modeling of Soft Matter," Chem. Eng. Ed.. 38(4), 242
(2004)
19. Colina, C.M., and K.E. Gubbins, "Choosing and Evaluating Equa-
tions of State for Thermophysical Properties," Chem. Eng. Ed., 37(3),
236(2003)
20. Peng, D.-Y., and D.B. Robinson, "A New Two-Constant Equation of
State," Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 15(1), 59 (1976)
21. Span, R., and W. Wagner, "A New Equation of State for Carbon Diox-
ide Covering the Fluid Region from the Triple-Point Temperature to
1100 K at Pressures up to 800 MPa," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data., 25,
1509 (1996)
22. Reid, R.C., J.M. Prausnitz, and B.E. Poling, The Properties of Gases
and Liquids, 4th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1987)
23. Poling, B.E., J.M. Prausnitz, and J.P. O'Connell, The Properties of
Gases and Liquids, 5th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (2001)
24. Prausnitz, J. M., Lichtenthaler, R.N., and E. Gomes de Azevedo, Mo-
lecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria, 3rd Ed., Prentice
Hall International Series (1999) 7


Fall 2005










Graduate Education



A Survey of


THE GRADUATE

THERMODYNAMICS COURSE


in Chemical Engineering Departments

Across the United States


SANJAY K. DUBE AND DONALD P. Visco, JR.
Tennessee Technological University Cookeville, TN 38505


During a typical undergraduate chemical engineering
curriculum, a student is normally exposed to ther-
modynamics in a wide range of courses. Sure, stu-
dents may take one, two, or even three classes with the word
"thermodynamics" in the course title, but this topic shows up
in classes from the first semester of the freshman year (Gen-
eral Chemistry) to the last semester of the senior year (Pro-
cess Dynamics and Control) and many places in between.
Such ubiquity of coverage at the undergraduate level cre-
ates a challenge for a graduate program trying to design a
single "advanced" chemical thermodynamics course. Does
one cover the undergraduate material, but now in more depth?
Does one focus on more research-related topics involving
statistical thermodynamics? Where does molecular simula-
tion come in, if at all? No wonder Prof. Stanley Sandler com-
mented recently that, "The graduate thermodynamics course
in different schools is probably the least defined and most
heterogeneous course in the graduate program."'1l
In order to aid in the analysis of the questions posed above,
we thought it would be a reasonable first step to actually de-
termine what is being taught in thermodynamics at graduate
programs in chemical engineering across the United States.
Motivated by a special session on "Teaching Thermodynam-
ics and Statistical Mechanics at the Graduate Level," orga-
nized at the 2004 AIChE Annual Meeting by Area la, we
conducted a survey to glean information about the con-
tents of the graduate-level thermodynamics course taught
in the United States.
Such attempts to determine what colleagues are doing at
their institutions and in their courses are not new and, in fact,
are part of the reason why academics read and/or contribute
to journals such as Chemical Engineering Education. Nor-
mally, however, a submission would discuss a particular con-


cept performed by an instructor (a problem or an experi-
ment).[2] Larger-scale studies, such as exploring the chemical
engineering curriculum in terms of semester hours, are less
frequent.13
Even rarer are those studies which look at a particular course
or a particular concept as viewed not from the perspective of
a single department, but from that of the country as a whole.
An example of such a study is from Donald Woods and Darsh
Wasan a decade ago on colloid and surface phenomena.'41

SURVEY GOALS
The survey goals were as follows:
1. Determine if advanced chemical thermodynamics is a
core course in chemical engineering graduate programs
and, if so, if more than one course in thermodynamics is
included in the core.

Sanjay K. Dube received his B. E. (Bachelor
of Engineering) degree from the University
of Mumbai in June 2001 and will receive his
M.S. degree from Tennessee Technological
University in August 2005. He is currently
working as a process engineer at Alstom
Power Environmental Control Systems. His
research interests were in computational ther-
modynamics, particularly in the development
of phase equilibrium calculation methods.


Donald P. Visco, Jr., is an associate profes-
sor of chemical engineering and undergradu-
ate program coordinator at Tennessee Tech-
nological University. He received his Ph.D. in
1999 from the University at Buffalo, SUNY.
His research focuses on molecular design for
the chemical-process and pharmaceutical in-
dustries.


@ Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005


Chemical Engineering Education












Graduate Education


2. Determine which textbooks are used in the core
advanced chemical thermodynamics course.
3. Determine whether statistical mechanics and/or
molecular simulation are taught in the advanced
chemical thermodynamics course.
4. Determine what other thermodynamics-related courses
exist as graduate electives.

The first goal assesses whether thermodynamics is a core
subject for all graduate programs in chemical engineering.
While intuitively one may guess that all programs contain
thermodynamics, such a question endeavors to validate this
widely held assumption. The second goal is important be-
cause selecting a textbook for a particular course can be con-
sidered the point at which a faculty member (or department,
in general) chooses the content for that course. After all, stu-
dents are expected to purchase the book and, thus, its selec-
tion indicates at some level that the book coverage maps onto
the expected course content. The third goal looks at some
important content contained within the advanced chemical
thermodynamics class. The fourth goal looks to explore the
type of specialty courses being offered at graduate programs
across the United States. Note in all references to the United
States, we implicitly include Puerto Rico as well.


SURVEY RESULTS
We sent our survey to more than 140 chemical engineering
graduate programs in the United States. Not every school re-
sponded to the survey, even though much prompting was pro-
vided via e-mail and phone calls. The following results were


Figure 1. The distribution of required textbooks in the advan
course. The numbers are for 143 textbooks based on 122 scho


obtained and will be discussed with regard to the survey goals.
Note that there is likely some error in all of these results ow-
ing to the knowledge (or lack thereof) of the person complet-
ing the survey at a particular institution. For example, it was
not unusual to receive a survey response that listed a par-
ticular textbook as being required, yet on the actual sylla-
bus of the course a different textbook was listed as required.
Accordingly, while quantitative results will be presented here,
qualitative conclusions (where applicable) should be drawn.

1. Determine if advanced chemical thermodynamics is a
core course in chemical engineering graduate programs
and, if so, if more than one course in thermodynamics is
included in the core.

Of the 135 program respondents to this part of the ques-
tion, 122 schools (or 90%) acknowledged that thermodynam-
ics is a core graduate class in their curriculum. Additionally,
two schools listed two thermodynamics classes as part of the
core graduate curriculum. Thus, the generally held notion
that almost all chemical engineering graduate programs
have thermodynamics in their core is validated by the re-
sults of this survey.

2. Which textbooks are used in the core advanced chemical
thermodynamics course?

From the 122 schools that offered graduate thermodynamics
as part of the core, 143 textbooks (total) were identified as
required. The most popular textbook chosen was the J.M.
Prausnitz, R.N. Lichtenthaler, and E.G. de Azevedo of-
fering, Molecular Thermodynamics and Fluid-Phase
Equilibria,[s' which
appears as required in
nearly one-third of all
graduate programs.
The other common
offering, in nearly a
Prausnitz, Lichtenthaler and de
Azevedo, Molecular Thermodynamics of quarter of all graduate
Fluid Phase Equhbna[5]
S30%* programs, is Thermo-
dynamics and Its Ap-
plications, by J.W.
Tester and M. Modell.[6]
In total, 29 unique text-
Tester and Modell, Thermodynamics books in thermody-
and ltsApphcations [6] namics were identi-
22%
fied across the 122
schools. A graphical
essand Abbott, representation of the
chemical Engineenng
dyn.mcs(7] most popular text-
books for graduate-
level thermodynam-
iced chemical thermodynamics ics is provided in Fig-
ols. Percentages are rounded off. ure 1. Note that Table


Fall 2005


Callen, Thermodynamics and an
Introduction to Thermostatistics [14]
2%O
Rowley, Statistical Mechanics for
Thermophyscal Property Calculations
[13]
2%
Elliott and Lira, Introductory Chemical
Engineenng Thermodynamics [12]
2%

Denbigh, The Pnnciples of Chemical
Equilbnrum [11 ]
2%

Hill, An Introduction to Statistical
Thermodynamics [10]
4%


Chandler, introduction to Modern
Statistical Mechanics [9]
4%
Sander, Chemical and Engineenng
Thermodynamics [8]
5%


Others. 16%


Smith, Van N
Introduction to C
Thermod











Graduate Education


Of the 135 program
respondents... 122
schools (or 90%) ac-
knowledged that thermo-
dynamics is a core
graduate class in their
curriculum.



1 provides details on the "Others"
heading from Figure 1.
3. Are statistical mechanics and/
or molecular simulation taught
in the advanced chemical
thermodynamics course?
Of the 106 syllabi we received, 64
(or 60%) had some statistical mechan-
ics while 22 covered molecular simu-
lation in some form. Of the 42 schools
that did not have statistical mechan-
ics in their core advanced chemical
thermodynamics course, at least 15 of
them had an elective with a title that
contained statistical mechanics. Thus,
at 75% (or more) of the graduate pro-
grams surveyed, students can take a
course in statistical mechanics at
the graduate level within chemical
engineering.
4. Determine what other
thermodynamics-related
courses exist as graduate
electives.
To give a flavor for the type of op-
portunities available to graduate stu-
dents in chemical engineering pro-
grams across the United States, Table
2 provides a sample of some elective
graduate courses that have a relation-
ship to thermodynamics. Clearly, a
wide variety of electives in this area
is offered throughout a wide range
of institutions.

DISCUSSION
Among the results presented
above, one of the most interesting
findings was the distribution of re-


quired textbooks used in the advanced chemical thermodynamics course. The
most popular text, Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid Phase Equilibria,51'
is true to its statement in the book's preface about being, "suitable as a text
for students who have completed a first course in chemical engineering ther-
modynamics."
In fact, the first and second laws of thermodynamics are lumped together quite
early in the text (page 11 of the Third Edition), and are used to provide the basis
for reversible paths and fundamental grouping of variables. By contrast, the sec-
ond most popular text, Thermodynamics and Its Applications,16 has one chapter
devoted to the first law of thermodynamics and another chapter devoted to the
second law of thermodynamics.
In particular, regarding Thermodynamics and Its Applications,,'6 of the 25 schools
for which we have syllabi that use this textbook as required in the class, all but one
cover the first and second laws of thermodynamics. By contrast, for Molecular
Thermodynamics of Fluid Phase Equilibria,'1' of the 38 schools for which we have
a syllabus that use this textbook as required in the class, only 19 cover the first law
of thermodynamics while 21 cover the second law of thermodynamics. Note that
in the latter case, other books have been employed to review/supplement informa-


TABLE 1
The Required Textbooks Listed in the "Others" Heading From Figure 1.
Frequency of use based on the number of schools listing the textbook as required.
Author, Text Frequency
de Pablo and Schieber, Chemical, Biological, and Materials Eng. Thermodynamicsl1" 2
McQuarrie, Statistical Mechanics 16 2
McQuarrie and Simon, Molecular Thermodynamicst 2
O'Connell and Haile, Thermodynamics: Fundamentals and Its Applications'18 2
Balzhiser, Samuels, and Eliassen, Chemical Engineering Thermodynamicst" 1
Bromberg and Dill, Molecular Driving Forces20] 1
Firoozabadi, Thermodynamics of Hydrocarbon Reservoirst21 1
Guggenheim, Thermodynamicsl1 1
Gyftopoulos and Beretta, Thermodynamics, Foundations and Applications23' 1
McGee, Molecular Engineering'41 1
Nash, Elements of Statistical Thermodynamicst25 1
Poling, Prausnitz, and O'Connell, Properties of Gases and Liquids126 1
Reed and Gubbins, Applied Statistical Mechanicst271 1
Reif, Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physicst21 1
Saad, Thermodynamics[29 1
Tisza, Generalized Thermodynamics13O 1
Van Ness and Abbott, Classical Thermodynamics of Non-Electrolyte Solutions"31 1
Walas, Phase Equilibria in Chemical Engineering32 1
Zemansky and Dittman, Heat and Thermodynamicst33 1


Chemical Engineering Education


260











Graduate Education
s^______________________________________________^ -


tion about the laws of thermodynamics. Hence, this provides some of the
reason why the book from J.M. Smith, H.C. Van Ness, and M.M. Abbott
(Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics)'7' was the third
most popular required textbook for the advanced chemical thermody-
namics class (see Figure 1).
If one examines all 106 syllabi for the inclusion of the first and second
laws of thermodynamics into the course, one finds that 68 (64%) have
included the first law while 73 (69%) have included the second law. Note
that the higher-level inclusion of the second law relative to the first law
seems to come from a common discussion of the statistical interpreta-
tion of entropy. Also note that while performing this survey, someone
asked if we were going to recommend content for the advanced chemi-
cal engineering thermodynamics course based on the results of this study.
Since the individual constituencies, be they students, faculty, local in-
dustry, and so forth, should drive content inclusion at some level, a "one



TABLE 2
Elective Courses in Thermodynamics Offered at the Graduate Level
at a Variety of ChE Departments Across the United States.

Elective Course University
Polymer Thermodynamics ........................................ Auburn
Physical Chemistry of Colloids and Surfaces ............. Carnegie Mellon
Thermodynamics of Systems of Large Molecules ..... Georgia Tech
Multiscale Modeling of Fluids/Soft Matter .............. North Carolina State
Interfacial Phenomena .................... .................... Rice
Phase Equilibrium/Staged Operations ...................... University at Buffalo. SUNY
Thermodynamics of Mixture .................................... Texas A&M
Advanced Thermodynamics of Solids ...................... California-Davis
Molecular Thermodynamics of Complex Fluids ........ California-Riverside
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology ................................. Colorado
Thermodynamics of Materials .................................. Connecticut
Thermodynamics of Polymers .................................. Iowa
Interfacial Thermodynamics ..................................... Yale
Mesoscopic/Nanoscale Thermodynamics ................. Maryland
Quantum and Computational Chemistry .................. North Dakota
Thermodynamic Property Estimation ....................... South Alabama
Statistical Mechanics of Polymers ............................ Texas-Austin
Thermodynamics of Semi-Conductors/Materials ....... Toledo
Thermodynamics of Mixtures................................... Wisconsin
Microscopic Thermodynamics ................................. Washington State
Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics ...................... California-Santa Barbara
Thermodynamics of Solids ....................................... Dayton
Thermodynamics of Multi-Component Mixtures ....... Illinois-Chicago
Phase Equilibria Thermodynamics ........................... Tulsa
Thermodynamics of Materials .................................. Alabama-Huntsville
Molecular Thermodynamics ..................................... Tennessee Tech
Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics ............................ Louisville
Surfactant Self-Assembly ......................................... Penn State


With regard to statistical
mechanics, it is unclear why some
schools choose to add this topic
into their advanced chemical
thermodynamics classes while
others do not. Is this a needs-based
decision or is it based on the
background of the faculty?



size fits all" approach is likely not warranted. Be
that as it may, it would be instructive to provide
some details on what faculty across the United
States are including, in general, in this course. To
provide some insights, we have reviewed the syl-
labi for courses that use the two most popular text-
books, Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid
Phase EquilibriaE15 and Thermodynamics and Its
Applications, ~ to determine what content is nor-
mally included when using these required texts.
As can be seen from Table 3, the first six chapters
plus chapter 10 of Molecular Thermodynamics
of Fluid Phase Equilibriai51 are what is most com-


TABLE 3
The Chapter Titles From
Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria.15s
Chapters that occurred most frequently from an
analysis of the course syllabi are given in italics.
Chapter Title Frequency
1 The Phase Equilibrium Problem High
2 Classical Thermodynamics High
of Fluid Phase Equilibria
3 Thermodynamic Properties High
from Volumetric Data
4 Intermolecular Forces, High
Corresponding States and
Osmotic Systems
5 Fugacities in Gas Mixtures High
6 Fugacities in Liquid Mixtures: High
Excess Functions
7 Fugacities in Liquid Mixtures: Medium
Models and Theories of Solutions
8 Polymers: Solutions, Blends, Low
Membranes, Gels
9 Electrolyte Solutions Low
10 Solubilities of Gases in Liquids High
11 Solubilities of Solids in Liquids Medium
12 High-Pressure Phase Equilibria Medium


Fall 2005











Qui~ist~*~watIon


mon among the institutions that use this textbook as re-
quired. For Thermodynamics and Its Applications,t61 the
first nine chapters plus chapters 15 and 16 are the normal
coverage when using this textbook, as seen in Table 4.
With regard to statistical mechanics, it is unclear why some
schools choose to add this topic into their advanced chemical
thermodynamics classes while others do not. Is this a needs-
based decision or is it based on the background of the fac-
ulty? In order to explore this issue, we looked at three factors
which may provide some insights in order to aid in answer-
ing this question: (1) school ranking, (2) more available fac-
ulty, and (3) more graduate students.
In its simplest form, the argument goes that the better a
school's ranking, the more advanced projects (seemingly) the
faculty can offer and, in turn, the students will work on. Since
statistical mechanics is normally associated with advanced
topics in thermodynamics, one might conclude that the higher-
ranked schools would offer statistical mechanics inside their
core advanced chemical thermodynamics course at a greater
rate than the average reported. Of the eight top-10 schools[34]
for which we have syllabi, seven of them (or 88%) have sta-
tistical mechanics in the core advanced chemical thermody-


namics course. If we expand our
search to the top-58 programs
listed, 34 of the 49 syllabi we
examined (or 70%) have sta-
tistical mechanics in the core ad-
vanced chemical thermody-
namics course. Since the over-
all average for all schools re-
ported in this study was 60%,
these results indicate that the
distribution of schools adding
statistical mechanics to this
core advanced chemical ther-
modynamics course is biased
toward the higher-ranked
schools.
In a similar manner, we ana-
lyzed all available faculty in de-
partments that provided syllabi to
the core advanced chemical ther-
modynamics course. Of the 60%
of the schools that offered statis-
tical mechanics in the advanc-
ed chemical thermodynamics
course, 64% of the faculty were
from those schools.r351 Thus, per-
haps another reason, albeit
smaller, is that more faculty are


available at these institutions.
A third area we investigated was the number of Ph.D. and
M.S. graduates at institutions which had statistical mechan-
ics in the core advanced chemical thermodynamics class.
While the average number, like before, was 60% overall, we
found that 70% of all Ph.D. students who graduated during
2002-2003E35 came from institutions that offered statistical
mechanics in the core advanced chemical thermodynamics
course. For M.S. graduates during this same time period, the
number was 64%. It appears from this data that the larger the
graduate student population in chemical engineering at an in-
stitution, especially for the Ph.D., the more likely it is that a
student will be exposed to statistical mechanics in the core at
that institution.
While the above question focused on statistical mechan-
ics, a similar question can be asked about the study of elec-
trolytes. We investigated this and found that only 18 syl-
labi (17%) made mention of the study of electrolytes dur-
ing the semester. Considering that very little, if any, is
done with electrolytes during the undergraduate curricu-
lum for chemical engineers, the ultimate conclusion is that
most chemical engineering graduates at all levels are not


Chemical Engineering Education


TABLE 4
The Chapter Titles From Thermodynamics and Its Applications'"'
The chapters that occurred most frequently from an analysis of the course syllabi are given in italics.

Chapter Title Frequency
1 The Scope ol Classical Thermodynamics High
2 Basic Concepts and Definitions High
3 Enerrv and the First Law High
4 Reversibility and the Second Law High
5 The Calculus of Thermodynamics High
6 Equilibrium Criteria High
7 Stability Criteria High
8 Properties of Pure Materials High
9 Property Relationships for Mi.turer High
10 Statistical Mechanical Approach for Property Models Medium
11 Models for Non-Ideal, Non-Electrolyte Solutions Medium
12 Models for Electrolyte Solutions Low
13 Esumanmg Physical Propenies Medium
14 Practical Heat Engines and Power Cycles Medium
15 Phase Equilibrium and Stabilrt High
16 Chemical Equilibria High
17 Generalized Treatment of Phase and Chemical Equilibria Low
18 Systems under Stress, in Electromagnetic or Potential Fields Low
19 Thermodynamics of Surfaces Low











Graduate Education


very knowledgeable about electrolyte systems. Such a sen-
timent has been echoed for several years by many in indus-
try, most notably Paul Mathias.'361

CONCLUSIONS
In this work we gathered data from more than 100 institu-
tions across the United States that teach
chemical engineering at the graduate
level. Our findings indicate that almost
all of these institutions require their "The
graduate students to take a course in term
thermodynamics as part of the core
graduate curriculum. Additionally, we COurse i
found that there is a wide variety of text-
books used in this course, with two texts sch
being used more than 50% of the time. probably
We also compiled information from the defined
syllabi in which these two texts were
used to generate a list of the most popu- h eter
lar topics. Our analysis also showed that
students, whether as part of the core cur- couri
riculum or during an elective, have ex- grc
posure to statistical mechanics in at least
75% of the institutions surveyed, pro
We also looked to explore the poten-
tial reasons behind why some institu-
tions offer statistical mechanics while Prof. S
others do not. Finally, we found that less Chemical
than one in five of the institutions sur-
veyed include any discussion on the ther- ing The
modynamics of electrolytic systems.


REFERENCES
1. Sandler, S.I., Chemical and Engineering
Thermodynamics, 4th Ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York (2006)
2. Ruiz, J., "An Open-Ended Mass Balance Problem," Chem. Eng. Ed.,
39(1), 22 (2005)
3. Occhiogrosso, R.N., and B. Rana, "The Chemical Engineering Cur-
riculum 1994," Chem. Eng. Ed., 30(3), 184 (1996)
4. Woods, D.R., and D.T. Wasan, "Teaching Colloid and Surface Phe-
nomena 1995" Chem. Eng. Ed., 30(3), 190 (1996)
5. Prausnitz, J.M., R.N. Lichtenthaler, and E.G. de Azevedo, Molecular
Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria, 3rd Ed., Prentice-Hall,
Upper Saddle River, NJ (1999)
6. Tester, J.W., and M. Modell, Thermodynamics and Its Applications,
3rd Ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (1997)
7. Smith, J.M., H.C. Van Ness, and M.M. Abbott, Introduction to Chemi-
cal Engineering Thermodynamics, 6th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York
(2001)
8. Sandler, S.I., Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics, 3rd Ed.,
John Wiley & Sons, New York (1999)
9. Chandler, D., Introduction to Modern Statistical Mechanics, Ist Ed.,
Oxford University Press, Oxford (1987)
10. Hill,T.L.,An Introduction toStatisticalThermodynanics, 1st Ed.. Do-
ver Publications, New York (1986)


11. Denbigh, K., Principles of Chemical Equilibrium, 3rd Ed., Cambridge
University, Cambridge (1971)
12. Elliott, J.R., and C.T. Lira, Introductory Chemical Engineering Ther-
modynamics. 1st Ed., Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, NJ (1999)
13. Rowley. R.L.. Statistical Mechanics for Thernophysical Property Cal-
culations, 1st Ed., Prentice Hall (1994)
14. Callen. H.B., Thermodynamics and an
Introduction to Thermostatistics, 2nd Ed.,
Wiley, New York (1985)
15. de Pablo, J.J., and J.D. Schieber, Chemi-
cal. Biological, and Materials Engineer-
duate ing Thermodynarics
16. McQuarrie, D.A., Statistical Mechanics,
ram ics Harper & Row, New York (1976)
17. McQuarrie, D.A., and J.D. Simon, Mo-
fferent lecular Thermodynamics, 1st Ed., Univer-
sity Science Books (1999)
is 18. O'Connell. J.P., and J.M. Haile, Thermo-
.e least dynamics: Fundamentalsfro Applications,
e l as Ist Ed., Cambridge University Press,

d most (2005)
19. Balzhiser, R.E., M. Samuels, and J.
Seous Eliassen, Chemical Engineering Thermo-
dynamics, 1st Ed., Prentice Hall, (1972)
1the 20. Bromberg, S., and K.A. Dill, Molecular
Driving Forces, Ist Ed., Garland Publish-
ite ing (2002)
S21. Firoozabadi, A.. Thermodynamics of Hy-
L* drocarbon Reserves, 1st Ed., McGraw-
Hill (1999)
22. Guggenheim, E.A., Thermodynamics, 4th
Ed., Interscience Publishers (1959)
'y Sandler 23. Gyftopoulos, E.P., and G.P. Beretta, Ther-
,n ee- modynamics: Foundations and Applica-
Engineer- ios, st Ed., MacMillan (1991)
dynamics, 24. McGee, H.A., Molecular Engineering, Ist
4th Ed. Ed., McGraw-Hill (1997)
25. Nash, L.K., Elements of Statistical Ther-
modynamics, 2nd Ed., Addison-Wesley
(1974)
26. Poling. B.. J.M. Prausnitz, and J.P. O'Connell, Properties of Gases
and Liquids, 5th Ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company (2001)
27. Reed, T.M., and K.E. Gubbins, Applied Statistical Mechanics,
McGraw-Hill, New York (1973)
28. Reif, F, Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics, 1st Ed.,
McGraw-Hill (1965)
29. Saad, M.A., Thermodynamics, 1st Ed., Prentice-Hall (1997)
30. Tisza, L., Generalized Thermodynanics, 1st Ed., The MIT Press (1978)
31. Van Ness, H.C., and M.M. Abbott, Classical Thermodynamics of Non-
electrolyte Solutions, 1st Ed.. McGraw-Hill, New York (1982)
32. Walas, S.M., Phase Equilibria in Chemical Engineering, Butterworth
Publishers, Boston (1985)
33. Zemansky, M.W., and R.H. Dittman, Heat and Thermodynamics, 7th
Ed., McGraw-Hill (1996)
34. US News & World Report, "America's Best Graduate Schools 2005,"
(2005)
35. Qin, S.J., and J.S. Swinnea, Chemical Engineering Faculty Directory:
2003 2004. AIChE: New York, (2003)
36. Mathias, P., Fluid Properties for New Technologies: Connecting Vir-
tual Design with Physical Reality. In 14th Symposium on
Thermophysical Properties, Boulder, CO (2000) 0


Fall 2005


gra

,dyn

n di

ookl

\ytl

Ian

ogei

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rdu

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tanle
and
rmoi











Graduatte- Educattion-


A

GRADUATE-LEVEL-EQUIVALENT

CURRICULUM IN

CHEMICAL PRODUCT ENGINEERING







ERIC FAVRE, LAURENT MARCHAL-HEUSSLER, ALAIN DURAND, NOEL MIDOUX, CHRISTINE ROIZARD
Institute National Polytechnique de Lorraine Nancy, France 54001


As many as 40 years ago, P.V. Danckwerts already
recognized that, "It will be a great mistake to think
of the content of chemical engineering science as
permanently fixed. It is likely to alter greatly over the years
in response to the changing requirements of industry and to
new scientific discoveries and ideas for their application."1'L
This statement clearly draws the bipolar nature of chemical
engineering: Just like any other field of engineering, chemi-
cal engineering has to face a permanent dilemma:
i) To be open to the challenges and problems of the chemi-
cal process industries (CPIs)
ii) To simultaneously produce its own tools, usually referred
to as paradigms,121 based on fundamental scientific
grounds and covering various disciplines (Figure 1)
Such a subtle equilibrium between applied and fundamen-
tal aspects is very delicate to maintain, both for teaching and
research purposes. As a consequence, controversial debates
periodically arise when our discipline tends toward either ex-
treme too practical (see, for instance, References 3 and 4)
or too fundamental (e.g., References 5 and 6).
We do not want to enter into this debate, but we have ob-
served that the evolution of the training of chemical engi-
neering students in the last decades has been stimulated by
changes in both science and industry. 7] The somewhat simple
analysis presented above has been our guide for the teaching
project which we describe in this work.
We began with an analysis of the current and future needs


and problems of the CPI. Based on this analysis, we selected
a series of topics among a broad spectrum of disciplines to
serve as the essential building blocks for a training program
targeted at the equivalent of first-year graduate students. The
final structure of the proposed academic project is detailed
as an illustrative example in the last part of this paper.

COMMODITY VS. SPECIALTY PRODUCTS:
EDUCATIONAL SPECIFICITIES
Chemical process industries have undergone profound
modifications during the last 20 years. CPIs are nowadays
defined essentially in terms of applications (e.g., paints, ad-


Eric Favre is a professor at the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Indus-
tries Chimiques in Nancy, France. His field of expertise is chemical
engineering.
Laurent Marchal-Heussler is a professor at the Ecole Nationale
Superieure des Industries Chimiques in Nancy, France, whose field of
expertise is colloids and pharmaceutical sciences.
Alain Durand is a professor at the Ecole Nationale Superieure des
Industries Chimiques in Nancy, France, and specializes in polymer sci-
ence.
Noel Midoux is a professor at the Ecole Nationale Superieure des
Industries Chimiques in Nancy, France, and specializes in chemical
engineering and fluid mechanics.
Christine Roizard is a professor at the Ecole Nationale Superieure
des Industries Chimiques in Nancy, France. Her field of expertise is
chemical engineering.


@ Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005


Chemical Engineering Education











Gr


hesives, pharmaceuticals) rather than chemicals (such as coal,
aniline, etc.).'8-91 At the same time, a strong trend toward so-
called specialty products has been observed, to the detriment INE
of commodity products. Even though this dichotomy, sum-
marized in Table 1, is oversimplified, it remains useful when E
identifying educational targets. Chemicals
This evolution has induced significant changes in terms of
jobs for chemical engineers. In place of traditional sectors Petroleum
such as oil refineries, petrochemical plants, or base-chemical
production, an increased ratio of our engineers find jobs in
companies that produce mainly specialties and products."1
Table 2 contains an overview of these industrial sectors. En-
gineers in these companies are faced mainly with problems C
issued from the product, rather than from the process. As a
consequence, there is a crucial need for a chemical engineer
to understand the specificities of a given product and to see
how to solve problems, for instance, in terms of structure
and/or quality.'1 Moreover, in place of conventional unit op- -
erations which are still mainstays in the commodity sector Chemistry
(e.g., distillation, extraction, absorption), process flow
schemes in product engineering involve operations such as
granulation, emulsification, and extrusion, which are often chemistry p
neglected in the traditional chemical engineering curriculum.
The changes listed above give a strong incentive to extend S1
the scope of chemical engineering to include a new field,
alternatively named "(chemical) product engineering" or
"product design." 2-51 Figure 1. Chemi


TABLE 1
A Simplified Classification of Commodity and Specialty Products
(Adapted from References 8 and 10)


Commodity Specialty
Base Products Pigments
Examples (ethylene, ammonia, chlorine, etc.) Surfactants
+ Insecticides
Intermediates Aromas
(urea, acetic acid, acrylonitrile, etc.) Antioxydants
Number of molecules Around 20 base products + 200 > 30,000
intermediates
Product specificity Remains unchanged on the market Rapid turnover
over many years
Competition Price Quality + Performance
Ratio sales/investment 0.5 2
Product type Mainly small molecules Surfactants, polymers,
particulate solids
Production process Single product, high tonnage, Batch production, low tonnage
continuous production
Selling price 0.1 to 1 $/kg 2 to 500 $/kg


aduate Education


cal engineering "family tree."


Fall 2005


TABLE 2
An Overview of Some of
the Major Areas Involved
in the Production
of Formulated Products

Adhesives
Crop protection
Cosmetics
Lubricants
Food (aromas, etc.)
Paints and coatings
Surfactants and cleaners
Metal surface treatment
Oil products (gas, bitumen, etc.)
Cement and plaster
Photography
Packaging and plastic materials
Inks and varnishes
Rubber
Textile fiber
Paper
Drugs and pharmaceuticals
Corrosion inhibitors
Water treatment
Leather treatment











( Graduate Education


To specify the content required to create a product engi-
neering program, we must examine what we mean by "prod-
uct." A sample of three different product compositions (in
liquid and solid forms) is given in Table 3 to help illus-
trate this point.
Clearly, these types of products differ strongly from the
traditional chemicals commonly described in chemical engi-
neering textbooks. These new products are invariably based
on a combination of different molecules, each of which plays
a specific role in creating the desired end-use properties. The
art of combining various compounds based on chemical
knowledge (and still quite a bit of empiricism) is often called
formulation.116J Formulation is largely and capably covered
in CPI by physical chemists and chemists, who play a lead-
ing role in product-design projects.
Nevertheless, we believe that a large number of products
cannot be designed based solely on composition. This is simi-
lar to the traditional thermodynamics versus kinetic rate-con-
trolled classification in chemical reaction engineering. In fact,
most, if not all, final forms of a formulated product are mul-
tiphase and often metastable. As a consequence, the manner
in which mechanical and/or thermal energy is provided to
the mixture during production is key.
This means that the careful selection of production pro-
cesses is absolutely necessary to obtain the expected struc-
ture and, by extension, end-use properties. Even in the early
stages of a product-design project, we must account for the
interplay between the formula and the process. In fact, food
and pharmaceutical companies, which have been acting in
the product design and engineering field for centuries, often
follow this strategy. Figure 2 gives a schematic representa-
tion of this approach, which will be the cornerstone of our
teaching program in product engineering.

NEW CURRICULUM
DESCRIPTION
Overall Framework a Suspension (Crop P
While product engineering The main function
sounds appealing, it is still in its
infancy in terms of educational pro- Read Use
Ready-to-Use
grams. No unified methodology, Crop-Protection Susl
ready to be taught to the student, is
currently available. Phenylurea (active co
Phenolethoxyphospha
On the other hand, a large number (dispersing)
(dispersing)
of detailed engineering analyses can Fatty alcohol (wetting
be found in the literature for various S e
Silicone (antifoam)
transformations of colloidal or com- ropyenegyco (an
Propyleneglycol antif
plex mixtures, for instance granula- Water (sohlent)
tion,117' drying,"8i and coating.119


Generally speaking, the problems encountered in product
engineering are extremely complex and require a previous,
sound understanding of basic phenomena. In that respect, the
more general approach of chemical engineering, which is
well-suited to commodity production, remains essential at
the beginning of the curriculum.
The overall framework of the new teaching program in our
department at Ecole Nationale Sup6rieure des Industries
Chimiques (ENSIC), part of the Institut National
Polytechnique de Lorraine, is sketched in Table 4.
Undergraduate students follow a traditional chemical en-
gineering curriculum for the first three semesters to get used
to the methodology of the discipline (i.e., chemistry, physi-
cal chemistry, thermodynamics, balances, transport phenom-
ena, kinetics). After three semesters, the students should have
mastered the "toolbox" needed to produce a given molecule
in a continuous process (i.e., synthesis scheme, reactor and
unit operations design, physical properties estimation, numeri-


Chemicals

Structure


Product End-use
End-use


t-^


properties


Physlco-chemical
Properties


Figure 2. Overview of product engineering framework.

TABLE 3
ustrative Composition Forms of Three Products:
protection an Emulsion (Painting), and a Powdered Solid (Pharmaceutical)
n contributed by each compound of the formula has been added in italics.



pension Water-based Emulsion Paint Pharmaceutical Tablet

pound) Titanium oxide -r,.,ri,,L i Active compound
te Calcium carbonate (filler) Lactose (film forming)
Yellow hanza (pigment) Cellulose (diluting)
Polyacrylic acid (dispersing) Talc (filler)
CMC (viscosity enhancer) Magnesium stearate
'eeze) Water (solvent) (lubricating)


Chemical Engineering Education


Processes


7


i











Graduate Education
>s ____ _____ ___________ ___ ___ ______ _-------_---------------


cal techniques, and overall flowsheet simulation).
It is worth mentioning here the differences between the
higher-education progression in France versus elsewhere. For
example, in the United States, students can begin a four-year
undergraduate program in chemical engineering following
high school. The first year typically focuses on establishing a
solid base in mathematics and the physical sciences; students
then shift to the traditional chemical engineering curriculum
described above. In contrast, the French system begins with
a two-year intensive training period in mathematics and the
physical sciences. Following this period, successful students
switch schools and begin a chemical engineering program.
As described above, the first three semesters of this pro-
gram follow the U.S. system fairly closely. At the end of
this period, students could be considered the equivalent
of mid-year "seniors."
French students in Nancy are asked at this point to choose
from one of two options: advanced chemical engineering or
product engineering. The fourth semester is dedicated to in-


troductory lectures in this elective, in combination with a cap-
stone design project, humanities, and project management.
Finally, the last two semesters are dedicated to each op-
tion. This fifth year of the French program can be considered
equivalent to the first year of a graduate program in the United
States. The advanced chemical engineering lectures focus
mainly on the extension of the undergraduate approach to
nonideal systems: non-Newtonian and multiphase fluids, and
nonideal and multicomponent mixtures. To that respect, a
large amount of simulation is necessary, and Computational
Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is essential. Process intensification,
process control and optimization, large plant operation, and
energetic analysis are also included in the package. We now
turn to the development of the product engineering program.
Teaching Product Engineering: Overview and
Tentative Generic Issues
While generic issues can be identified for the chemical
engineering approach thanks to decades of educational expe-
rience, the same does not hold for the product engineering


Fall 2005


TABLE 4
Teaching Calendar at ENSIC: Overview

Level Semester # Content Target and Keywords

Chemistry (mineral, organic, analytical), Master the chemical synthesis, analysis, continuous
Chemistry (mineral, organic, analytical), p n
physical chemistry, thermodynamics, numerical production, and design
Undergraduate 1,2, and 3 methods, and basic chemical engineering (reaction + purification) of a given molecule
(transport processes, chemical reaction
(transport processes, chemical reaction Keywords: synthesis, analysis, selectivity, yield,
engineering, unit operations)purity


Project management
Humanities
Graduate Capstone design
Elective introductory


Keywords: Advanced mass transfer, hydrodynamics,
and chemical reaction engineering

Elective 1: Simulation and optimization tools
Chemical Engineering
Process intensification, energetic analysis


Keywords:
Advanced physical chemistry
(intermolecular forces, colloids, and surfaces)

Elective 2: Characterization methods
Product Engineering
Mixing, drying, emulsification, granulation, etc.

End-use properties











Graduate Education


lectures. Although some topics can be proposed on a broad
basis to the students, we decided to split the lectures in prod-
uct engineering according to the different states of matter
that can be found as final forms of chemical products in
industry. This simplistic but useful classification scheme
is detailed in Table 5.
The first category of products corresponds to particulate
solids with solid final forms such as granules, tablets, and
powders. A finely dispersed solid phase clearly constitutes
the key compound in these products. The importance of par-
ticle shape and size distribution is paramount. Solid surface
properties are also essential, since they will govern phenom-
ena such as wetting by liquids (e.g., for granulation) or adhe-
sion under compression.
The second category of products is dispersed fluid phases,
such as emulsions, foams, and micelles. For these products,
surfactants play a key role in the attainment of the product
structure. This is true both in terms of the process (emulsifi-
cation for instance, which depends strongly on surfactant dy-
namics) and product properties (optical appearance, rheologi-
cal behavior, stability, etc.).
The last category of products is soft matter, which includes
gels, pastes, and creams. Here, polymers are key compounds,
and the corresponding fields of macromolecular physical
chemistry and process engineering of viscous solutions are
developed in this topic.
It is obvious that most of the final forms of products simul-
taneously include the three key compounds selected in Table
4, namely particulate solids, surfactants, and polymers (see,
for instance, the composition of the products detailed in Table
3). Nevertheless, we do not see at the moment how to build
an educational program that would encompass the overall
complexity of product formulation
and production, taking into account
the exhaustive content of a real prod- Tentative Classificati
uct. We hope the strategy developed
through this simplified framework
is of interest to convince the student
that scientific tools, even if they suit Finalform example
in principle much simpler systems
than the complete composition it-
self, can be valuable in a product Continuous phase
design scenario.
Discontinuous phase
Apart from these specific catego-
ries, a limited number of generic
concepts (i.e., applying to any of Key compound
the three product categories) have Approximate ratio
been identified and included in the in pharmaceutical
final program. industries&"l


Product Engineering Syllabus
The overall content of the product engineering teaching
program is detailed in Table 6.
Generally speaking, a major part of the lectures consists of
physical chemistry concepts (essentially colloids and sur-
faces), characterization techniques, and process engineering.
It is obvious that lectures dedicated to end-use properties are
also a key issue. This target is taken into account at the end of
the curriculum via industrial case studies that can highlight
how to combine methodologies both "hard" (e.g., physical
chemistry and chemical engineering computations) and "soft"
(e.g., needs identification, idea selection, and shortcut meth-
ods to help to choose the right manufacturing process).
Table 6 shows an overview of the various chapters and con-
cepts, some of which are presented in a generic way (i.e.,
independent of the state of matter concerned) while others
are exposed in close relationship to a defined state of matter.
This classification is by no means systematic and has been
adopted, somewhat arbitrarily, to offer the students some kind
of "red line" among the vast assortment of information and
theoretical approaches covered. These can be described as
follows:

Ingredients
In the first series of lectures, attention is focused on the
production of ingredients (i.e., molecules), which will be used
in final forms. This topic is clearly another form of product
engineering (see, for instance, Reference 20), dedicated to
the design of a novel molecule to achieve defined function in
the final form. A sample of molecular production techniques
is presented for particulate solids (precipitation and grind-
ing), small organic molecules modernr synthesis techniques),


TABLE 5
ons of Formulated Products Based on a State-of-Matter Approach

Solid forms Dispersed fluid phase Soft materials
Tablets, granules, Emulsions, Pastes, creams,
powders suspensions, foams, gels
micelles

Solid Liquid Solid

Gas Liquid or solid or Liquid or gas
gas

Particulate solid Surfactant Polymer


65% 20% 15%


Chemical Engineering Education











Graduate Education )


and polymers (controlled chemical structure and heteroge-
neous polymerization).
Understanding properties of complex media at
a molecular level
In the second lecture series, a string of generic concepts
and tools to aid in the molecular description of complex sys-
tems follows. These include intermolecular forces and mix-
ing laws, as well as rudimentary coverage of molecular dy-
namics techniques.
Colloid and interface science is further developed quite
heavily, with specific topics such as solid interfaces, liquid-
liquid interfaces, surfactants, and fluid systems involving
polymers. We also focus attention on characterization tech-
niques for colloidal and complex mixtures (e.g., size distri-
bution, rheology, RX, DSC, spectroscopy), which are of ut-
most importance in order to assess the structure. In parallel,
colloidal statics (DLVO theory) and dynamics flocculationn)
are explained on a broad basis. Students are expected to have
in hand, at this stage, the basic toolbox needed to communi-


cate with specialists in synthetic, physical, or analytical chem-
istry. At the same time, they are, in principle, trained to ana-
lyze or predict the behavior or properties of complex media
containing a limited number of compounds (e.g., emulsions,
polymer solutions), both from the molecular and macroscopic
point of view. Thus, they should be ready to tackle the design
and phenomenological understanding of production processes.
Mastering production processes
In this section, chemical engineering methodology is ten-
tatively applied to complex systems. Two emblematic pro-
cesses are treated on a generic basis: drying, including spray
drying and mixing (especially for multiphase), and/or non-
Newtonian media.
Apart from these, a series of operations is presented and
analyzed for each state of matter. Emphasis is put on the phe-
nomena taking place during the process, in relationship to
the evolution of the structure of the product. Technological
insights are also provided so that the students know the prin-
cipal technique used for a given operation.


Fall 2005


TABLE 6
Product Engineerng Graduate Syllabus, Detailed Content

State of Matter (Product Final Form)
Particulate solids Dispersed solids Soft matter
Introduction

Raw materials (ingredients) Precipitation, grinding Advanced synthesis methods Heterogeneous polymerization
production Solid state synthesis Controlled-architecture polymers
Molecular activity of biomolecules

Intermolecular forces Mixing laws Introduction to molecular dynamics simulation

Interfacial forces Surface tension and interfaces Osmotic pressure
Colloids and surfaces Interfaces (solid/gas) (liquid/liquid and liquid/gas) Polymers in solution (molecular
Surface angle, wetting Surfactants, phase diagrams approach and rheology)
Surface angle, wetting Gels (formation and properties)
Polymers at interfaces

Colloidal solutions and dynamics: DLVO theory, aggregation, flocculation

Agglomeration Emulsification Gelification
Process engineering Granulation Foaming Extrusion
Compression Coating
Freeze drying Prilling
Spray coating

Mixing multiphasee systems, non-Newtonian fluids, suspensions) Drying and spray drying

Size distribution Rheology Rheology
Characterization techniques X-ray diffraction Optical techniques DSC, DMTA
Porosimetry Spectroscopy (NMR, IR)

End-use properties Case Studies (industrial lecturers):
Pharmaceutical tablet Water-based emulsion paint Superabsorbent gel










SGraduate Education


Toward understanding and design of end-use properties
At this stage, a major piece is still lacking in the product
engineering puzzle: end-use properties. This aspect is very
hard to develop since end-use properties are extremely dif-
ficult to link unambiguously to a quantifiable property of
the product. Furthermore, academic researchers are sel-
dom familiar with situations where end-use properties are
a key concern.


In place of traditional
sectors such as oil refineries,
petrochemical plants, or
base-chemical production, an
increased ratio of our engi-
neers find jobs in
companies that produce
mainly specialties
and products.



Conversely, a great amount of knowledge, experience, and
proficiency can be found in industry for a given product or
application. As a result, we put emphasis at this stage on a
broad and synthetic understanding of product engineering,
based on case studies performed by lecturers from industry.
These final synthetic lectures may sound frustrating compared
to the academic presentations performed before. Neverthe-
less, we think that this strategy is necessary in order to famil-
iarize the student with concepts such as, "when to be careful
and when to be careless," or "what can be computed and what
cannot." Such concepts are based on real experiences in prod-
uct engineering projects. Starting from this industrial knowl-
edge, the major challenge would be to rationalize an inte-
grated approach to product engineering, maybe using a pro-
cess similar to that developed for material selection in me-
chanical engineering.26, 27] The first point is to convert the
end-use properties into physical properties (e.g., mechanical
behavior, solvent resistance, sensitivity to salt or pH). This is
probably the hardest point to teach but it is absolutely key for
a product engineer. Then, the main components of the prod-
uct must be selected with particular attention to those which
contribute the most to macroscopic properties. Another task
of the product engineer is to select the best processes (e.g.,


type of emulsifying procedure, shaping process) according
to the product's physical properties and to the characteristics
required (such as the size of the dispersed phase). We hope
that the ENSIC teaching program could contribute to the
elaboration of such a rationalized approach in product engi-
neering by unifying "industrial know-how," physical chem-
istry, and chemical engineering.

FEEDBACK AND TENTATIVE GUIDELINES


Even though significant feedback on this curriculum is
extremely hard to collect, as it is only three years old, we
think it is useful to add some comments on the project and
the achievements at this stage.
First, in terms of teamwork, the project has been immedi-
ately embraced, especially by the younger faculty, probably
due to its novelty. By contrast, the advanced chemical engi-
neering project, which started from an already existing sylla-
bus, was more difficult to build.
Nevertheless, it is obvious that the development of the prod-
uct engineering project had to overcome numerous difficul-
ties. First, given the number of disciplines which are con-
cerned, the vocabulary, techniques, and objectives had to be
merged. A team-project approach, dedicated to one of the three
states of matter (particulate solids, dispersed fluids, and soft
matter) was proposed in order to help the identification of
clearly defined chapters. For one year, meetings have been
organized for the three sub-project teams and the full com-
mittee in order to define, step by step, the overall road map
(Table 6). Additionally, the lack of knowledge among the fac-
ulty concerning practical product case studies was also a
major drawback. A series of conferences and meetings
with industrial experts has been initiated in order to over-
come this limitation.
It is also worth mentioning that the possibility to simply
include product engineering as an option within the classic
chemical engineering syllabus was initially planned and tested
for two years in our department (in 2001 and 2002). This
trial convinced us that it was very difficult to condense such
a broad domain into one unit (around 60 hours). Moreover, it
was almost impossible for the students to assimilate the nu-
merous facets and variety of situations underlying the prod-
uct engineering discipline. For these reasons, we felt it was
necessary to cover product engineering with a long, struc-
tured, teaching block.
In terms of the students' response, we were encouraged to
observe a nearly equal split between the two options (prod-
uct engineering and advanced chemical engineering).
Furthermore, we recently had the opportunity to collect
evaluation forms from the first students who followed the


Chemical Engineering Education


.. .











Graduate Education


complete product engineering syllabus. Generally speaking,
the students initially found the "hard-core" chapters taught at
the beginning of the program (e.g., intermolecular forces, col-
loids, interface) to be too heavy and lacking a clear link with
the objective of the course. Nevertheless, the final evaluation
pointed out that this first impression had (hopefully) van-
ished. We must stress the key role of a product-design project,
performed as a team project during the last semester, as well
as the case-study conferences, to help convince the students
of the (occasional but decisive) role of these hard-core top-
ics. We believe that this situation is similar to the hard fluid
mechanics chapters in a classic undergraduate program, which
students often perceive as extraneous before they discover
the overall picture of chemical engineering methodology -
typically at the graduate level.

CONCLUSIONS

Generally speaking, we feel that, apart from its challeng-
ing nature, product engineering can act as a melting pot of
the numerous paths already suggested as the new frontiers in
our discipline, such as:
[1 Facing complex and nonideal media'1'
E[ Taking into account chemical structure in a systems ap-
proach'121
E[ Understanding phenomena on a multiscale view1'22
E[ Dealing with soft materials which, to some extent, covers the
peculiarities of biological systems (i.e., metastable state, pre-
dominancy of weak bonds, and complex function due to a
specific structure).'21
Product-oriented process development offers stimulating
challenges from the research point of view, and chemical en-
gineers can play a crucial role in this field.1251 Unfortunately,
the writing of a product engineering text encompassing the
methodology of chemical engineering has yet to be achieved.
Following Cussler, we think that the changes of industry
should induce changes in the curriculum.'231 We have pro-
posed in this work a framework and content for a teaching
program dedicated to product engineering, which is more an
evolution than a revolution in terms of educational concepts. It
is obvious that this first trial will necessitate modifications and
improvements; for now, we await the feedback from industry.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work has been carried out by a team including: A.
Durand, V. Falk, E. Favre, B. Jamart, H.Z. Li, L. Marchal-
Heussler, N. Midoux, D. Petitjean, C. Roizard, V. Sadtler,
and C. Schrauwen. The authors gratefully acknowledge the
invaluable team spirit of their colleagues taking part in
the so-called "commission de r6forme" who have collec-
tively enabled this challenging project to become reality.


REFERENCES
1. Danckwerts, P.V., "Science in Chemical Engineering," The Chen. En-
gineer, 7, 155 (1966)
2. Wei, J., "A Century of Changing Paradigms in Chemical Engineer-
ing," ChernTech, 26(5), 16 (1996)
3. Bird. R.B., "Rethinking Academia: Restore the Right Priorities," Chen.
Eng. Progress. 92, 80 (1996)
4. Astarita, G., "Frontiers in Chemical Engineering and 1992," Chem.
Eng. Progress, 86, 55 (1990)
5. Landau. R., "Education: Moving from Chemistry to Chemical Engi-
neering and Beyond," Chem. Eng. Progress, 93, 52 (1997)
6. Landau, R., "The Chemical Engineering Trilemna," Chem. Eng.
Progress, 72, 13 (1976)
7. Hougen, O.A., "Seven Decades of Chemical Engineering," Chen. Eng.
Progress, 73, 89 (1977)
8. Amundson, N.R., Frontiers in Chemical Engineering. Research Needs
and Opportunities, Washington, D.C., National Academy Press (1988)
9. Quadbeck-Seeger. H.J., "Chemistry for the Future. State of the Art
and Perspectives," Angewandte Chemie, International English Edi-
tion, 29(11), 1177 (1990)
10. Agam, G., Industrial Chemicals. Their Characteristics and Develop-
nent, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1994)
11. Cussler, E.L., D.W. Savage, A.P.J. Middleberg, and M. Kind,
"Refocussing Chemical Engineering," Chem. Eng. Progress, January,
26 (2002)
12. Wintermantel, K., "Process and Product Engineering Achievements.
Present and Future Challenges," Chem. Eng. Science, 54, 1597 (1999)
13. Charpentier, J.C., "The Triplet 'Molecular Processes Product Pro-
cess' The Future of Chemical Engineering?" Chem. Eng. Science, 57,
4667 (2002)
14. Favre. E., L. Marchal-Heussler, and M. Kind, "Chemical Product En-
gineering: Research and Educational Challenges," Transactions
IChemE, 80, A, 65 (2002)
15. Cussler, E., and G. Moggridge, Chemical Product Design, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge (2001)
16. Mollet H., and A. Grubenmann, Formnlationstechnologie, Wiley VCH
Ed. (2000)
17. Iveson, S.M., "Growth Regime Map for Liquid-Bound Granules,"
AIChE Journal, 44, 1510. Lister (1998)
18. Caimcross, R.A., L.F Francis, and L.E. Scriven, "Predicting Drying
in Coatings That React and Gel: Drying Regime Maps," AIChE Jour-
nal, 42, 55 (1996)
19. Coyle, D.J., C.W. Macosko, and L.E. Scriven, "The Fluid Dynamics
of Reverse Roll Coating," AIChE Journal, 36, 161 (1990)
20. Wei, J., "Molecular Structure and Property: Product Engineering," In-
dustrial Engineering ChemistrN Research, 41, 1917 (2002)
21. Villadsen, J., "Putting Structure into Chemical Engineering," Chem.
Eng. Science, 52, 2857 (1997)
22. Mashelkar, R.A., Seamless Chemical Engineering Science: The Emerg-
ing Paradigm," Chem. Eng. Science, 50, 1 (1995)
23. Cussler, E.L.. "Do Changes in the Chemical Industry Imply Changes
in Curriculum?" Chem. Eng. Ed., 33(1) 12 (1999)
24. Roberts. C.J., and PG. Debenedetti, "Engineering Pharmaceutical Sta-
bility With Amorphous Solids," AIChE Journal, 48, 1140 (2002)
25. Wibowo. C., and M.N. Ka. "Product-Oriented Process Synthesis and
Development: Creams and Pastes," AIChE Journal, 47(12), 2746
(2001)
26. Ashby, M.F., "On the Engineering Properties of Materials," Acta
Metall., 37, 1273 (1989)
27. Johnson, K.W., P.M. Langdon, and M.F Ashby, "Grouping Materials
and Processes for the Designer: An Application of Cluster Analysis,"
Materials and Design, 23(1), 15 (2002) O


Fall 2005











Graduate Education


Teaching

A GRADUATE-LEVEL COURSE


IN TISSUE ENGINEERING








MICHAEL S. DETAMORE
University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045-7609
RACHAEL H. SCHMEDLEN
University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136


What goes into teaching a tissue engineering course
in a chemical engineering or bioengineering de-
partment? Developing any new course presents
numerous challenges such as topics to cover, textbook selec-
tion, and types of assignments to give. Additionally, in an
area such as tissue engineering where the technology is con-
stantly evolving, the course must stay current on cutting-edge
research. With the increasing demand for improved health-
care, bio-focused fields such as tissue engineering have gath-
ered increased attention. We surveyed 80 universities across
the country, and found that at least 40 universities currently
offer a course in tissue engineering. Of the 20 universities
that comprise the top-10 lists of chemical engineering and
bioengineering graduate programs from the 2006 US News
& World Report survey, 16 currently offer a tissue engineer-
ing course. Many courses are offered by the chemical engi-
neering department, although most are taught in the growing
number of bioengineering/biomedical engineering depart-
ments across the country.
As more faculty with tissue engineering expertise begin
their academic careers, the number of institutions with tissue
engineering courses will likely increase. Furthermore, exist-
ing "bio" faculty generally familiar with tissue engineering
may develop an interest in creating a tissue engineering
course, or perhaps incorporate a tissue engineering compo-
nent into a broader engineering course. This article, contain-


ing examples and insights from our experiences teaching tis-
sue engineering at the University of Kansas and the Univer-
sity of Michigan-Ann Arbor, aims to serve as a guide both to
those developing a new course in tissue engineering and those


Michael Detamore is currently an assistant
professor of chemical and petroleum engi-
neering at the University of Kansas. He re-
ceived his B.S. in chemical engineering from
the University of Colorado in 2000 and his
Ph.D. in bioengineering from Rice Univer-
sity in 2004. While in graduate school, he
taught algebra, geometry, and fourth-grade
math on weekends for a year, and was a
co-instructor for a graduate-level course in
continuum biomechanics. At KU, he has
taught material and energy balances and tis-
sue engineering. His research interests in-
clude tissue engineering, biomechanics, and
the temporomandibularjoint (TMJ).


Rachael Schmedlen received her B.S. in
chemical engineering from the University of
Michigan and her Ph.D. in bioengineering
from Rice University. Her thesis involved the
development of hydrogel scaffolds for vas-
cular tissue engineering. Currently, she is an
adjunct lecturer in the Department of Biomedi-
cal Engineering at the University of Michigan,
teaching introductory biomedical engineering,
biomedical engineering senior design, and tis-
sue engineering.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005


Chemical Engineering Education











Graduate Education


looking for ideas to supplement an existing tissue engineer-
ing course. We will discuss key administrative details, such


as textbook selection, class level, prerequi-
sites, and types of assignments and exams,
as well as course curricula. Moreover, we
will offer suggestions for incorporating
quantitative material into the course.

TEXTBOOK AND READING
SELECTIONS
Selection of textbooks and/or reference
reading material presents a difficult task for
this course, due to the rapidly changing state
of tissue engineering technology and the
number of choices available. One good op-
tion is to choose a large edited book, which
can offer an ample volume of information
on a broad variety of topics.'1- Other books
offer more focus, which may be useful to in-
structors with a given expertise or to refer
students to a focused topic.[6 10
Alternatively, one may choose a textbook
written entirely by the same authorss, which
offers continuity between chapters in the tra-
ditional style of a course textbook. We are
aware of three such textbooks written in the
past couple of years.1"-131 In fact, textbooks
are now available that include homework
problems,11213' which can reduce the amount
of time the instructor spends on creating
homework sets.
Rather than choose any single book, some
instructors may decide to assign select chap-
ters from a combination of these texts and/or
supplement them with chapters from refer-
ence texts and journal articles about current


This approach will serve the potential educational diver-
sity of the students: Those from chemical or mechanical en-


FURTHER READING

Background
> General texts on tissue
engineering 71

Cell biologyl18
> Physiology'9

Chemical signals
> Kinetics and transport11t'"
Chemotaxiss1'I

Mechanical signals1l31
> Single-cell mechanics 41122
> Viscoelasticity'23 261

Stem cells127"32
0 Embryonic stem cells1' ~71

Scaffolds15,7.31-401
> Hydrogels'4l

Bioreactors1421
Perfusionl4' 'l
> Rotating wall1" 531

Engineering of Specific Tissues
> Skin154 rl
> Cartilagel 6 -5S91
> Bone1'6 6. 60621
> Kidney'161

Figure 1. Abbreviated example
of a "Further Reading" supple-
ment to distribute to students. A
bibliography of corresponding
references would follow.


advances in tissue engineering. This approach exposes the
students to the basic concepts in engineering (e.g., transport,
materials science, mechanics) along with biochemistry and
cell biology. It also introduces students to contemporary strat-
egies and issues in the field.
Whatever type of reading material the instructor chooses,
however, we highly recommend that additional books on se-
lect subjects be suggested as optional, recommended, or on
reserve. Related-reading topics of special importance include
basic and cell biology. Depending on the course focus, litera-
ture on immunobiology, polymer science, biomechanics, and
biomaterials could also be suggested for students who need
more background in certain areas or who wish to read further
into a particular area of interest.


gineering may need a stronger understand-
ing of biology concepts, and vice versa for
science students. In this way, the instructor
can foster learning outside the classroom
(thereby encouraging lifelong learning),
and prevent covering topics in class that
some portion of the student population has
learned prior to the course. A strategy one
of us has used is to compile a "further read-
ing" list, with references numbered
throughout the outline as in a journal ar-
ticle (Figure 1). These references include
texts as well as several journal articles, and
are updated with every iteration of the
course. The advantage of this format is that
it provides a resource to those students in-
terested in learning more about specific
topics, whether for their research, course
projects, or sheer curiosity. It preempts the
inevitable question, "Can you recommend
a book or some articles about... ?"
In summary, we recommend instructors
be aware of all available options. Every in-
structor will choose a format that best fits
his or her course design, whether that means
using a conglomeration of selected sections
of various texts given as handouts, a large
edited volume, or a textbook with home-
work problems, etc. In any event, it stands
to reason that each approach would benefit
from supplementing with optional or re-
served reference materials and perhaps a
further reading list.


COURSE LEVEL AND PREREQUISITES
A course in tissue engineering is often intended to be a gradu-
ate-level course, which can be open to advanced junior- and
senior-level undergraduates. We feel that in an area such as tis-
sue engineering, which is perpetually in a state of flux, the best
way to teach is by focusing a major portion of the class on
researching the current literature a method more amenable
to a graduate-level course.
Tissue engineering can certainly be tailored to an under-
graduate curriculum, which a few universities offer (typically
as an earlier version of the graduate-level tissue engineering
course). Likewise, junior and senior undergraduates with a
solid background of engineering and biology classes can be
permitted to enroll in the graduate course.


Fall 2005


273











Graduate Education


Prerequisites may be minimal, as this course can ap-
peal to a broad student audience. Students outside of
engineering, however, may not be prepared for the quan-
titative rigor of the course, so it may be prudent to at
least require prior coursework in differential equations.
Moreover, some instructors may choose to require bio-
science courses to ensure a basic understanding of bio-
chemistry and cell biology among those taking the
course. At the University of Kansas, we require only
senior/graduate standing in engineering or instructor
permission. At the University of Michigan-Ann Ar-
bor, we require biochemistry and another upper-level
biology or biotechnology course and senior standing.

COURSE CURRICULUM
Selecting pertinent topics for a course that compre-
hensively covers all relevant aspects of tissue engineer-
ing is a challenging and sometimes overwhelming task.
While tissue engineering courses will vary from uni-
versity to university, some common themes define the
course, and we believe these constitute a set of "re-
quired" topics. Table 1 provides, in random order, spe-
cific topics to cover that fall under the umbrella of re-
quired discussion; also provided are additional topics
that are commonly covered and can be chosen based
on instructor expertise and available time in the course.
Inevitably, debate will surround any discussion of re-
quired versus optional topics, as is presented here. Of
course, we realize that arguments could be made for
moving certain items from core to supplemental, or for
including additional suggested topics. These topic des-
ignations are merely our best suggestions based on our
own experience and on surveying tissue engineering
curricula at various other universities; a brief explana-
tion is provided for each topic we have designated as
required. We recognize that the list of supplemental
topics is not all-inclusive, nor should it be, for the
sake of brevity.
At minimum, the instructor should introduce students
to the three main components used to create tissue-en-
gineered constructs, often referred to as "the tissue en-
gineering triad" cells, signals, and scaffolds. All other
concepts can subsequently build upon this foundation.
Cells Cell sources can be discussed from afew
perspectives, namely autologous versus
nonautologous sources and stem cells
versus differentiated cells. Of course, stem-
cell discussion can be separated into
discussion of embryonic and extraembry-
onic cells compared to adult stem cells.


Signals Discussing cell signaling provides an excellent
opportunity for integrating quantitative material,
covering both mechanical and chemical signals. For
mechanical signals, mechanotransduction at the single-
cell level can be addressed, including integrin receptors
and ranging all the way up to large-scale mechanical-
stimulation bioreactors. Discussion of chemical signals
is an excellent way for bioengineering and chemical
engineering to incorporate transport and kinetics
equations, including controlled-release applications.
Transport equations can be expanded upon with a
mathematical description of chemotaxis of cells toward
a chemical signalF'" and transport of nutrients through
the blood and tissue.
Scaffolds Although the depth of the course related to scaffolds
will vary from instructor to instructor ; certain central
themes should be covered, including the components,



TABLE 1
Suggested Topics To Be Covered in Every
Tissue Engineering Course (Core)
and Possible Additional Topics to Include
Based on Instructor Expertise (Supplemental)


Cell sources
V Tissue Engineering Triad Chemical
U Cell signaling
-4 Mechanical
0 Scaffolds
Immune response, biocompatibility, and associated strategies
0
Structure/function of native tissue

V' Tissue engineering strategies for specific tissues
W
0 Equipment
Tissue engineering practice Cost
Design of experiments

Stem cells

S Cell culture, sterile technique
F--
Gene therapy, drug delivery

Z Tissue repair, remodeling, angiogenesis

S Bioreactors

Mechanical testing
Construct validation Quantitative biochemical analysis
SHistology/immunohistochemistry

O Ethical issues

FDA regulations and patents


Chemical Engineering Education











Graduate Education


structure, and function of the extracellular
matrix, natural and synthetic scaffolds, and
comparisons between these matrices along with
modern fabrication and seeding techniques.
Furthermore, immune response and biocompatibility are
central to the success of any implanted tissue, as any trans-
plant surgeon would attest. Therefore, the instructor needs to
instill student awareness of these issues, impart understand-
ing of the basic underlying principles, and expose students to
strategies to overcome potential problems (e.g., autologous
cells, immunosuppression, immunoisolation, reduction of pro-
tein adsorption, and HLA tissue typing). Structure and func-
tion of native tissues is a crucial topic, as native-tissue prop-
erties serve as the design criteria for tissue engineering ef-
forts. Basic information on the extracellular matrix would be
relevant, as would mechanical properties of musculoskeletal
tissues. Every course should highlight select tissues, which
can be done by the instructor (in which case recent review
articles are quite useful) or by students in group-project pre-
sentations to the class (discussed later). Discussions of select
tissues and the current tissue engineering strategies for these
tissues show the students how all the various concepts are inte-
grated (e.g., cells, signals, scaffolds, and immune response) and
how the elements can be applied for real-world use.
Finally, in the spirit of balancing theory and practice -
providing the link between concept and application desired
in engineering education we would like to offer a few strat-
egies to address tissue engineering practice. A strategy we
have employed is to briefly cover the function and cost of the
major pieces of equipment in a tissue engineering laboratory
(e.g., biosafety cabinets, incubators, autoclave, inverted mi-
croscope, cryostat, plate readers, centrifuge). An excellent
follow-up to this discussion is a class tour of an actual tissue-
culture facility, which the students enjoy. In our experience,
this serves to create a tangible and practical understanding of
what is involved in tissue engineering, as it helps to paint a
mental picture of the work being done in the articles the stu-
dents read. Time and resources permitting, a laboratory com-
ponent may also be useful if an equivalent component of an
existing laboratory course is not already offered. Another
practical application is experimental design, in which stu-
dents can learn to determine sample sizes, calculate the
amount of growth factor to buy, and so forth.
In addition to these topics, contemporary information is
crucial to the success of the course and should be incorpo-
rated into each topic of the course whenever possible. The
instructor should follow topics in the current literature and
those in the political arena and bring them to class for discus-
sion. Class discussions on ethical and political topics such as
embryonic stem-cell research policy, gene therapy, and clon-


One of the most difficult tasks in teaching a
course in tissue engineering is adhering to
the expectation that a graduate-level course
in chemical engineering.., should be
highly quantitative.

ing if moderated carefully and appropriately can raise
the students' level of interest in the class and expose them to
the controversies surrounding advancements in medical treat-
ments. Assignments directed at contemporary literature will
also serve to familiarize students with the latest breakthroughs
in their areas of interest.
Class discussions also help facilitate and promote new ex-
ercises in active learning a style of learning increasingly
incorporated into engineering courses. In active learning, stu-
dents are encouraged to interact with the instructor and/or
each other throughout or at certain times in the lecture via
class exercises and discussions. The benefits of active learn-
ing include increased student awareness and interest, imme-
diate feedback of student comprehension of the material, and
increased understanding of the material. For a tissue engi-
neering course, the instructor may begin adding active learn-
ing elements into the lecture using the ethical discussions
mentioned above.
An exercise we used at the University of Michigan-Ann
Arbor was a discussion of skin-tissue engineering strategies.
Before we discussed it as a class, students were asked to chat
in small groups for five or 10 minutes and come up with four
or five key design considerations for creating a tissue-engi-
neered skin construct. In another example, the class was asked
to list the pros and cons of different bioreactors and mechani-
cal-conditioning devices. This approach engages students and
allows them to reflect on newly presented lecture material
and think critically about its implications. At the University
of Kansas, we discussed the ethical considerations of embry-
onic stem-cell research after students became informed on
the topic via lectures and outside reading. The students enjoy
participating and it helps break up long lecture periods as
well, so these discussions should often be distributed through-
out the lecture period.
If the instructor wishes to incorporate more quantitative
exercises, he or she may present a conceptual problem based
on a governing equation. For example, we asked students
which geometry provides the best transport to cells seeded
inside immunoisolated devices: slab, cylinder, or sphere. Stu-
dents were asked to first solve the problem individually and
then in groups, since peer interaction can improve student
comprehension. In this way, the instructor can gain feedback
on student understanding by either polling the students prior


Fall 2005











Graduate Education
"s ___ ^ __ ________ .^___^_______ _____ ___ ___ ^ ____


to discussion or by listening in on group discussions about
the solution. One drawback to active-learning exercises is
that they demand significant portions of lecture time, which
may necessitate that students be required to study any un-
covered lecture material outside of class.

COURSE ASSIGNMENTS AND EXAMS
To complement the course material, an instructor for a tis-
sue engineering course must also decide whether to offer as-
signments, and if so, what types of assignments should be given.
The purpose of assignments is to encourage students to re-
view their notes, gain comprehension of basic concepts and
key topics, prepare for exams, and learn about the latest tech-
nology. We have accomplished this objective by assigning a
variety of tasks as needed, such as homework problems, litera-
ture critiques, NIH-style proposals, and quizzes and/or exams.
Occasional quizzes covering lecture material and required
readings help ensure understanding of the material and pre-
pare for exams. Homework assignments can draw from text-
book problems, topics covered in class, and/or literature re-
views and article critiques; they can emphasize quantitative
problem-solving skills, practical application of concepts,
and/or critical-thinking skills. Literature-critique assignments
can serve as a means to keep the course current by requiring
students to prepare a short presentation (10-15 minutes) on a
newsworthy tissue engineering topic of their choice. To de-
velop students' ability to review and critique the literature
and use the concepts learned in class to create a novel re-
search plan, the instructor may choose to assign a semester-
long NIH-style proposal assignment, which will be discussed
later. Finally, in light of the fact that this is an engineering
course, effort should be made to include a significant quantita-
tive component that can be reflected in the assignments and in
the exams an issue we address in the following section.

MAKING TISSUE ENGINEERING
A QUANTITATIVE COURSE
One of the most difficult tasks in teaching a course in tis-
sue engineering is adhering to the expectation that a gradu-
ate-level course in chemical engineering (or any engineering
discipline) should be highly quantitative. One strategy to add
more quantitative weight to the course is to assign more points
to quantitative homework problems and to quantitative ma-
terial on exams. Another is to include a greater proportion of
quantitative problems on a given assignment. Of course, the
instructor should make these strategies exceedingly clear to
the students and adequately illustrate example problems in
the lectures. As engineering students, they will tend to re-
spect and even welcome this policy. It is entirely feasible to
write a fair exam in this course that is more than 50 percent


quantitative in point distribution. The topics listed in Table 2,
some of which were mentioned earlier, lend nicely to quanti-
tative evaluation.
Many forms of traditional engineering problems can be in-
corporated into a tissue engineering course to reinforce basic
concepts, introduce advanced material, and demonstrate prac-
tical applications. Chemical engineering principles can be ap-
plied to discussions of signal diffusion, chemotaxis, controlled
release, and receptor-ligand interactions. Moreover, we can
demonstrate to students that an understanding of the equa-
tions can lead to a practical understanding. For example, the
mass transport equation applies to addressing nutrient- and
waste-transport limitations (e.g., a rotating-wall bioreactor in-
creases concentration gradient and hence driving force; a di-
rect-perfusion bioreactor introduces a convection term). Like-
wise, single-cell mechanics and viscoelasticity are great ways
to keep the mechanical engineers in the class entertained as
well as provide a little variety for the chemical (and other) en-
gineers. Space limitations prevent exploration of either of these
topics in depth, but a review of key concepts and methods pro-
vides useful information and a refreshing change of pace while
lending more quantitative material to the course. Such a review
can also reinforce the multidisciplinary nature of the field.
Other quantitative material may be drawn directly from
aspects of the tissue engineering triad, particularly with re-
gard to cells and scaffolds. The compartmental model for dif-
ferentiation provides an opportunity for students to use the
software of their choice (e.g., Matlab, Maple, Mathcad) to
solve a series of ordinary-differential equations to quantita-
tively evaluate and conceptually understand the effects of
varying self-renewal rates, initial cell numbers, and growth
rates. While cell migration is enormously complex and ac-
tively studied, important parameters can be distilled for stu-
dents, such as performing calculations to determine the ran-
dom-motility coefficient, persistence time, and root-mean-
square migration speed. Calculations for scaffolds can range
from simple molecular-weight calculations to more complex
calculations associated with polymer science, drug delivery,
and scaffold development. Another quantitative aspect not
listed in Table 2 is design of experiment calculations, i.e.,
teaching students to make calculations that would be typical
in the early stages of an experiment. For example, have them
determine a safe but conservative margin of error for what
is needed when ordering expensive biochemicals (e.g.,
growth factors and antibodies) and accounting for statis-
tical significance.
It should be noted that although we have presented a num-
ber of alternatives that we have used to make a tissue engineer-
ing course more quantitative, it will be beneficial to continue to
strengthen the quantitative aspects of this engineering course.


Chemical Engineering Education











Graduate Education


SEMESTER PROJECT
The semester project is arguably the single most important
component of the course. A common and successful strategy
has been to make students prepare a research plan based on a
literature search in a given area of interest. This project dis-
tinguishes the course as a graduate-level course and serves
as a crucial means to educate students in contemporary tis-
sue engineering methodology. Moreover, it will introduce
many students to conducting literature searches, learning ex-
perimental techniques and assessments, and formulating a
plan of research facilitating their transition to a graduate-
student mentality. The semester project is an exercise in prob-
lem-based learning (PBL), which is a forum for students to
actively engage a problem as a group and ultimately further
develop skills to become independent and lifelong learners.'20'


Fungi"2 presents one possible sequence in a bioengineering
class project that instructors may find useful, where innova-
tive thinking is the basis of the project.
In our classes, we place students in groups of three or four
and require them to prepare a hypothesis-driven, NIH-style
grant proposal. The literature search provides the background
information from which the students critique current ap-
proaches, identify a need for new technology, formulate a
hypothesis and supporting aims, and argue the feasibility of
methods and choice of operating parameters. In addition to
imparting technical knowledge, this project reinforces the
importance of developing strong teamwork skills. The
projects are evaluated by criteria of the instructor's dis-
cretion, with weight given to originality of the idea, qual-
ity of the background research, and logical organization
of the research design.


TABLE 2
Selected Quantitative Topics in Our Tissue Engineering Courses with Example Equations


Topic


Diffusion of signals["4,15


Chemotaxisl"'



Cell signaling


Single-cell mechanics""6



Viscoelasticity"l71


Proliferation & differentiation"31


Cell migration"3' 18



Scaffolds"l'



Drug delivery


Example Equation


=DV2c-V (c)+P
at


t =pV2n- Vn-Vc+nV2c
at



-= kf(R,-C) Lo- Nv-krC




R RcP


a(t)=EReo I+ [ l e-t/E


dxi-
= 2(1- fi1 ) i-lX il +(2fi 1)-ixi
dt


I=lS2p
2


EwiMi ENiM'
MW= Jwi -_NiMi



dM 27thDKAC
dt In[r
ri


Explanation


Standard macroscopic species balance


Constitutive equation with random
motility and chemotaxis


The rate of change of receptor ligand
complexes on a cell


Cortical tension from micropipette
aspirationt"I


Stress relaxation profile from a step
strain

Compartmental model for differentia-
tion

Motility coefficient in terms of RMS
migration speed and persistence time


Simple weight-average molecular
weight of a polymer



Drug release from a cylindrical
polymeric reservoir device


Fall 2005












SGraduate Education

In the spirit of practical education, the instructor may choose
to ask that students adhere to NIH formats using face
pages, biosketches, and half-inch margins with single-
space writing.
In addition, the instructor may choose to require some form
of itemized budget, as is typically requested for an NIH grant.
Asking students to identify and estimate the necessary per-
sonnel, travel, equipment, materials, (bio)chemical, and lab-
supply expenses will foster comprehension and appreciation
for the significant cost of scientific research. As with any
course, the instructor should allot one or two class periods to
introduce and follow-up on the project, as well as encourage
(or require) the groups to meet with the instructor periodi-
cally to make sure they are on track. The project can be com-
prised of two parts: a written proposal and an in-class group
presentation.
The following strategy is a combination of our approaches.
During the oral presentation, the class critiques the presenta-
tion along with the instructor, both on format and content.
Following the presentation, the presenting group leaves the
room and the class discusses the strengths and weaknesses of
the presentation. Each remaining student is required to turn
in a one-page critical review of the proposal. The presenting
group's written proposal is turned in on the same day as the
oral presentation, graded by the instructor, and returned the
next period. Then on the last day of class, a "resubmission"
is turned in, which gives the group that presents first the most
time to incorporate revisions and vice versa. The advantage
to this approach is that the instructor has the opportunity to
provide thorough, constructive criticisms, and the students
have the opportunity to critically assess others' research plans,
learn from these suggestions, and incorporate them into a solid
final piece of work. As incentive to turn in quality work the
first time, and to lend more flavor of reality to the proposal,
groups that earn an "A" on their first submission are not re-
quired to resubmit analogous to being funded the first time
around. The criteria for earning an "A" is, of course, at the
instructor's discretion, allowing you to decide which groups
must resubmit.

CONCLUSIONS
A course in tissue engineering affords the instructor a great
deal of flexibility, and will appeal to a broad range of stu-
dents with diverse backgrounds. The heart and soul of the
students' educational experience will come from comple-
tion of the semester project, supplemented with focus ar-
eas identified earlier, and strengths from the instructor's
area of expertise. Several ways to bring a quantitative com-
ponent into this course have been described, although cer-
tainly others exist that each instructor can bring to his or
her classroom.


We wish our colleagues the best in their endeavors to de-
velop or to continue and improve upon their tissue engineer-
ing courses. Have fun, and keep the class discussions lively.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We would like to extend our appreciation to Dr. David Kohn
and Dr. David Mooney for contributing tissue engineering
lecture notes, which provided several ideas on tissue engi-
neering course topics and formats of NIH-style proposals.
We would also like to acknowledge Dr. Tony Mikos for teach-
ing our tissue engineering courses during our student years.

REFERENCES
1. Palsson, B., J.A. Hubbell, R. Plonsey, and J.D. Bronzino, Tissue Engi-
neering, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (2003)
2. Lewandrowski, K.U., D.L. Wise, D.J. Trantolo, J.D. Gresser, M.J.
Yaszemski, and D.E. Altobelli, Tissue Engineering and Biodegrad-
able Equivalents, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York (2002)
3. Atala, A., and R.P. Lanza, Methods of Tissue Engineering, Academic
Press, New York (2002)
4. Lanza, R.P., R. Langer, and J.P. Vacanti, Principles of Tissue Engi-
neering, 2nd Ed., Academic Press, New York (2000)
5. Patrick, C.W., A.G. Mikos, and L.V. McIntire, Frontiers in Tissue En-
gineering, Oxford Pergamon, New York (1998)
6. Hench, L.L., and J.R. Jones, Biomaterials, Artificial Organs, and Tissue
Engineering, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK (2005)
7. Goldberg, V.M.. and A.I. Caplan, Orthopedic Tissue Engineering,
Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York (2004)
8. Hollander, A.P., and P.V. Hatton. Biopolymer Methods in Tissue Engi-
neering, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ (2004)
9. Guilak, E, D.L. Butler, S.A. Goldstein, and D.J. Mooney, Functional
Tissue Engineering, Springer, New York (2003)
10. Zilla, P.P., and H.P. Greisler, Tissue Engineering Of Vascular Pros-
thetic Grafts, RG Landes Co., Austin, TX (1999)
11. Minuth, W.W., R. Strehl, and K. Schumacher, Tissue Engineering-
Essentials for Daily Laboratory Work, Verlag: John Wiley and Sons,
Inc. (2005)
12. Saltzman, M., Tissue Engineering: Engineering Principles for the De-
sign ofReplacement Organs and Tissues, Oxford Press, New York (2004)
13. Palsson, B.O., and S.N. Bhatia, Tissue Engineering, Pearson Prentice
Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2004)
14. Britton, N.F., Essential Mathematical Biology. Springer, New York
(2003)
15. Bird, R.B., W.E. Stewart, and E.N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena,
2nd Ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York (2002)
16. Tsai, M.A., R.E. Waugh, and P.C. Keng, "Passive Mechanical Behav-
ior of Human Neutrophils: Effects of Colchicine and Paclitaxel,"
Biophys. J., 74(6), 3282 (1998)
17. Humphrey, J.D., and S.L. Delange, An Inttrduction to Biomechanics:
Solids and Fluids, Analysis and Design, Springer, New York (2004)
18. Kouvroukoglou, S., K.C. Dee. R. Bizios. L.V. Mclntire, and K.
Zygourakis. "Endothelial Cell Migration on Surfaces Modified With
Immobilized Adhesive Peptides," Biomaterials, 21(17), 1725 (2000)
19. Allcock, H.R., and F.W. Lampe. Contemporary Polymer Chemistry.
2nd Ed., Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1990)
20. Evensen, D.H., and C.E. Hmelo, Problem-BasedLearning: A Research
Perspective on Learning Interactions, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,
Mahwah. NJ (2000)
21. Fung, Y.C., Introduction to Bioengineering, World Scientific Publish-
ing Co., River Edge, NJ (2001) 0


Chemical Engineering Education










Random Thoughts ...

Editor's Note: Carole Yocum, CEE's longtime managing editor, retired this summer after 28 years with the journal.




A FOND FAREWELL
RICHARD M. FIELDER
NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY


Ms. Carole Yocum, Editoribus Managerimus in Excelsis
Chemical Engineering Education
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL

Dear Colleague, Friend, and Partner in Crime,
I suppose it's not fair for me to criticize you for retiring when you've been trying so hard for so long to do so, seeing
as how I retired from N.C. State the very day I became eligible. However, do as I say and not as I do has always
worked for me as a philosophy, and so with no qualms whatever I can say, "YOU CAN'T DO THIS TO US!"
Follow me on this. Chemical engineering professors who have been dedicated for years to the cause of high-quality
education have relatively little they can count on in life to sustain them. They've got their old K&E slide rules or HP
calculators that took the place of their snuggly blankets when they came of age, the appreciative notes from department
heads that accompanied their 0.01% annual merit raises, and Chemical Engineering Education ... and it seems to me
that their years of service to the profession have earned them certain rights regarding the latter resource. When they
send in a manuscript, should they not expect to have someone on the receiving end who can root out their fragments
and redundancies and dangling participles and turn their jargon-ridden professorial prose into readable English? Whose
e-mail messages are invariably models of grace, elegance, and when the occasion calls for it, great humor? Who treats
them with unfailing gentility, whether the thumb goes up or down on the submission? I hold that they're entitled to
nothing less, and if I had time I'm sure I could find text in the U.S. Constitution to support this position, not to mention
the Magna Carta, the Kama Sutra, and the Tibetan Book of the Dead.
But I'm working under a deadline here and don't have time to dig out the supporting documentation, which I
suppose means that I have to reluctantly allow you to go through with your selfish plan to get a life for yourself that
doesn't involve endless typesetting and proofreading and managing page layouts and mailings and departmental and
corporate and individual subscriptions and student supplements and ads and budgets and annual reports and overcom-
mitted editors-in-chief and upset authors and probably a few dozen other things that no one but you even knows about.
So go, with my blessings. But when you go, please take satisfaction in knowing that everyone in our profession -
the few who know the incredible job you've done over the years and the many who don't have a clue will be forever
in your debt. CEE has for years been the best disciplinary education journal in the world. Much of the credit of course
goes to Ray Fahien and Tim Anderson, but most of it goes to you, for having the dedication and skill to do whatever it
took to translate their vision into reality. I hope that your successor will come close to maintaining the standard of
excellence that you have set. Coming close is the best we can hope for, though finding someone who can do
everything you've done as well as you've done it is simply inconceivable.
Have a wonderful life. You've earned it!

Love and admiration,



Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005 )


Fall 2005











S iSclassroom


Combining

MODERN LEARNING PEDAGOGIES

in Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer



P.B. GOLTER, B.J. VAN WIE, P.V. SCUDERI, T.W. HENDERSON,
R.M. DUEBEN, G.R. BROWN, W.J. THOMSON
Washington State University Pullman, WA 99164-2710


Teaching paradigms need to be shifted to address the
difference between how engineering students learn
largely inductively and the traditional deductive
teaching style.[' 2'31 Research shows that any of the active,
cooperative, or problem-based models are more palatable to
students than copying lengthy derivations from a board.'4'
These alternative pedagogies are also more in line with cur-
rent needs of industry where chemical engineers work to-
gether as part of diverse teams to creatively tackle design
problems not found anywhere in standard texts.'E5 The dis-
connect between how students learn best and how we typi-
cally teach is also receiving considerable attentioni6 7] from
ABET, which has revised its Program Outcome and Assess-
ments Criteria to reflect this concern the criteria now in-
clude greater focus on multidisciplinary teams charged with
experimentation and design to enact solutions within a soci-
etal and global context.'8'
Many theorists subscribe to the notion that learning im-
proves with increased involvement in the educational pro-
cess. The idea is often depicted as a cone of learning'9' as
illustrated in Figure 1. Percentages are attached that relate
the percentage of knowledge retained both when learners are
more actively engaged in the education process and when
they share learning with others.
Varied tactics are used to move pupils to the base of the
retention triangle. Yet often they are applied individually,
whereas an implication of the increasingly complex activi-
ties listed in the 50 to 90% range is that simultaneous use of
interactive learning pedagogies would be more beneficial. For
example, cooperative learning (CL) has been shown to be
effective in a host of chemical engineering courses,110 "I yet
the concept is largely restricted to homework problems, labo-
ratories, and design courses. Hands-on learning (HL) -
though remarkably successful for reinforcing concepts is


typically reserved for laboratories in preparatory science cur-
ricula and the ChE senior-year unit operations laboratories;
the idea is rarely used in traditionally nonlaboratory courses.
Active learning (AL) techniques are interspersed within a
lecture period to maintain student interest, cement learning


Paul Goiter is the instructional laboratory supervisor for the School of
Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering at Washington State Univer-
sity. Prior to that, he worked in the pulp and paper industry. He received
his B.S. in chemical engineering from the University of Idaho.
Bernie Van Wie is a professor in the School of Chemical Engineering
and Bioengineering at Washington State University. He received his Ph.D.
in chemical engineering at the University of Oklahoma. His research in-
terests are in biosensors, novel bioreactor design, and in transforming
learning engineering experiences by employing new teaching pedagogies.
Phillip Scuderi is currently the associate director of information sys-
tems at Washington State University and formerly the associate director
for the Center for Teaching, Learning, and Technology at Washington
State University While at the WSU CTLT his research centered on criti-
cal thinking and learning. He received his B.S. in economics and busi-
ness administration from the College of Idaho.
Tom Henderson is an assessment coordinator for the Center for Teach-
ing, Learning, and Technology at Washington State University His re-
search interests are in evaluating the efficiency of educational technol-
ogy and assessment of educational processes. He received his Ph.D. in
interdisciplinary studies from Washington State University.
Rebecca Dueben is an instructional technologist for the Extended Uni-
versity Services and formally a hypernaut coordinator with the Center for
Teaching, Learning, and Technology at Washington State University. Her
research is focused on student-centered, activity-based pedagogies.
She has an M.A. in composition and rhetoric from Washington State
University.
Gary Brown is the director of Washington State University's Center for
Teaching, Learning, and Technology. His research interests are under
graduate learning, assessment, and technology. He received his Ph.D.
in interdisciplinary studies from Washington State University.
William J. Thomson is a professor with the School of Chemical Engi-
neering and Bioengineering at Washington State University, and prior to
that had been a professor at the University of Idaho. He received his
Ph.D. from the University of Idaho. He also authored the undergraduate
textbook Introduction to Transport Phenomena, which is being used in
the Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer course described in this article.
His technical research interest is primarily in catalysis and he has been
active as an ABET evaluator of chemical engineering programs at sev-
eral universities.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005


Chemical Engineering Education










by immediate use of material, and provide the
instructor with an immediate chance to gauge
student understanding.'12 17 While many AL ex-
ercises are group or pair in nature, AL does not
provide a CL environment that reinforces stu-
dent interdependence, individual accountabil-
ity, and development of collaborative skills."18
Problem-based learning (PL) has been used ef-
fectively at Virginia Commonwealth Univer-
sityl"9 for a student-operated consulting firm,
yet this approach could benefit from hands-on
experiential learning components where con-
sequences of variable changes and process op-
eration decisions are immediately observable.
In this paper we describe a novel approach,
referred to as CHAPL, being taken at Wash-
ington State University (WSU) which combines



5 % Hear
10% Read
20 % See
50 % Discuss
75% / Practice
S90 %/ Teach

Figure 1. Learning retention.


r m I 1 perllle
Figure 2. A typical CHAPL classroom, formula

Concrete
Experience v

ve
Active Obser ion
Experi station

Abstract
Conceptualization


Figure 3. The Kolb Learning Cycle.


effective pedagogies in a single course. These include: the form-
eams for conducting projects and solving homework problems (i.e.,
)operative learning); manipulating fluid and heat exchanger equip-
observe principles in action (i.e., "H," hands-on learning); con-
Sbrief, small-group exercises to perform derivations and discuss
nations (i.e., "A," active learning); and assigning design problems
ulate procurement of knowledge about general principles (i.e.,
oblem-based learning). Herein we provide a detailed descrip-
the pedagogy, assessment of learning improvement, and stu-
ceptivity.

L PEDAGOGY
the past six years, we have developed a paradigm for the simulta-
use of all four pedagogies CL, HL, AL, and PL in the re-
junior-level ChE course, Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer (ChE
'his course is two credits and is offered only in the spring, as it has
junior-level course, Introduction to Transport Processes, as a pre-
te. In recent years the class size has varied from 15 to 30. The class
n two one-hour sessions each week.
approach has undergone steady refinement so that we are now re-
positive feedback from the majority of students involved. In this
'm students work in highly interactive groups to solve problems
atively and propose designs as they test concepts using hands-on
*s. Figure 2 shows a typical CHAPL session. There is little lecture;
the instructor and teaching assistants (TAs) act as preceptors, cor-
sconceptions, and when necessary, help resolve group conflicts.
student groups are stuck on what to do next or on a particular con-
e urge, "Let's hear a sample discussion among your group of what
e thinking so far." Often, with a tip thrown in here and there, the
ts work out the solution themselves. Other times we will direct the
ts to a particular section, paragraph, figure, equation, etc., in a text-
hat succinctly deals with the issue at hand. We'll say, "Someone
is, and then see what impact that has on your discussion."
goal in this exercise is to guide groups through Kolb's experiential
g cycle,20 21] shown in Figure 3. This entails: concrete experience
or a look at what is happening here and now as module process
es are manipulated; reflective observation (RO), or what is the
ag of what was just observed; abstract conceptualization (AC), or
n these observations be quantified mathematically; and active ex-
ntation (AE), or how can process variables be adjusted, mathematical
as be reduced, and new information be added to complete the un-
derstanding of important concepts.
One of the pedagogical tools central to our approach is the
"jigsaw," or expert, group-member concept advanced by Aronson
et al.1221 Students are split into "home teams" and each team
member is assigned one of the concepts relevant to the broad
field of fluid mechanics. New jigsaw groups are formed and
comprised of the students from each home team who are as-
signed the same concept. Each group is provided access to a
hands-on module that is set up to allow exploration of their con-
cept. The jigsaw groups are charged with the task of studying
their concept and developing a Kolb Cycle learning exercise
involving all four CHAPL components.


Fall 2005












We facilitate a brief class discussion in which
student groups acknowledge the variety of
learning styles among them they project ways
they will use their new knowledge about others
to promote better group interactions and learn
best from each other.



These exercises will then be shared with their home teams. After two sessions,
the jigsaw group members return to their home teams and take turns guiding the
rest of their team members through the exercises they developed. The students
then have a homework problem written to correspond with the hands-on module.
These problems are not trivial, and frequently require iterative solutions. This pro-
motes individual accountability, as each team member owns a critical piece of the
cumulative information puzzle needed to solve assigned problems. The entire pro-
cess is repeated for the heat transfer portion of the class.
The hands-on modules are designed to allow groups to examine the basic prin-
ciples behind pressure losses, flow regimes, flow measurement, the application of
the mechanical energy balance, thermal energy balances, and the determination of
heat transfer coefficients and heat losses. There are currently eight different mod-
ules, as described in Table 1. The modules themselves are remarkably simple. For
example, Figure 4 illustrates a clear plastic shell and copper tube heat exchanger.
Two 4-liter reservoirs mounted about 6 feet up on a pegboard stand provide grav-
ity flow through the system. All connections are flexible tubing with quick-con-
nect fittings. A pitot tube and manometer are provided, again with quick-connect
fittings, and can be integrated into the system wherever the students choose. In
addition, the pegboard stand itself provides a flexible arrangement, allowing, for
example, the height of the reservoirs to be adjusted. Small whiteboards above each
module serve to encourage peer interaction in two ways: first, via diagramming
flow patterns, heat transfer resistance films, and energy balance inlet and outlet
points; second, through the writing and reduction of process-modeling equations.
Thermocouples are installed in the heat exchanger at each inlet, each outlet, and at
the midpoint of each side. These are read with a digital multiposition thermo-
couple temperature display. Hot and cold tap water give a sufficiently measurable
temperature change, and are readily available.
To promote student "buy-in" to the model, some initial readings on the subjects
of learning styles"'' and of CL are assigned.El8 Students also take the Soloman and
Felder learning-styles inventory (available via a Web site"23]) and turn in their re-
sults. We facilitate a brief class discussion in which student groups acknowl-
edge the variety of learning styles among them they project ways they
will use their new knowledge about others to promote better group interac-
tions and learn best from each other. Students are quizzed on the readings
to ensure proper understanding of the CL principles1"6 of positive interde- *
pendence (must rely on each other), individual accountability (they must
do their share and master all concepts), face-to-face promotive interaction
(must challenge, encourage, and teach others), collaboration (must develop
skills for trust-building, leadership, decision-making, and conflict manage-
ment), and group processing (must assess goals and teamwork). These Fi
CL principles serve as underlying foundations for integrating the re-


maining pedagogies into our class-
room environment.
Maintaining individual accountability
is especially important. As stated above,
the jigsaw process does this by nature
as each group member gives and grades
a quiz and leads a learning module. Also,
both group and individual homework as-
signments are given throughout the se-
mester. The group problems promote in-
teraction while the individual problems
reveal how well each person is taking
responsibility for learning the material.
Another way we maintain account-
ability is by including opportunities for
group members to provide feedback
about the group-learning process. This
is done through student ombudspersons.
Students are asked to designate
ombudspersons to carry student con-
cerns and issues back to the instructor.
They are questioned about what's work-
ing well in the course, what issues need
to be resolved, how well the jigsaw
groups prepare their modules, and how
well the home teams function together
while learning modules, doing home-
work, and developing group projects.
Half of the home teams supply an
ombudsperson during the first half of the


TABLE 1
Hands-On Modules

* Reynolds dye/flow-through clear pipe
* Pressure drop through fittings and valves
* Flowmeters venturi, orifice, and Pitot
tube
* Extended surface heat. ex. radiator/fan
* Kettle boiler/steam condenser
* 1-2 Shell and tube heat exchangers
* Fluidized bed compressed air through
sand
* Double-pipe heat exchangers


figure 4. The see-through shell and tube
heat exchanger.


Chemical Engineering Education










semester, and the other teams do the same during the second
half. We meet with the ombudspersons at least twice and use
their suggestions to improve the learning process. In this pa-
per we will present results from the ombudsperson interac-
tions an element that has proven especially effective in
refining course pedagogy.
A final avenue exists for when a significant problem oc-
curs with individuals in a group who are not "carrying their
weight." We use a three-step process. First, group members
meet with the individual to attempt to resolve the issue. Sec-
ond, if that proves ineffective, the group arranges a meeting
with the instructor for help. Finally, as a last resort, the group
may dismiss a "freeloader," in which case the offending indi-
vidual becomes responsible for his or her own assignments
and projects.
Grading and course content are not significantly changed
from what would be seen in a standard version of this course.
Students are still given individual exams, one at midterm and
one at the semester's end, worth a total of 40% of the final
grade. Homework (which is about 50% group and 50% indi-
vidual) and quizzes (all individual) are worth 30%, and group
projects are worth 30%. In terms of course content, due to the
concurrent manner in which subjects are covered, it is impos-
sible to make a direct comparison of the amount of class time
dedicated to any given topic.
The topics covered are complete, however, and match
the topics covered in this course when taught in a tradi-
tional manner.

ASSESSMENT
We use a variety of assessments throughout the semester-
long course. These include: end-of-semester skills assess-
ments by professors, focus groups, course evaluations, stu-
dent ombudspersons, learning-styles inventories, video in-
terviews, surveys, and an expert evaluation by a noted edu-
cational researcher, Richard Felder. We will discuss the re-
sults individually.

Skills Assessments Conducted by ChE Professors
At the end of the semester all students have individual in-
terviews with one of three experienced professors not associ-
ated with the course. The goal is to compare the skills and
understanding of course concepts learned in the CHAPL peda-
gogy with those of previous students taught by the evalua-
tors using a traditional lecture approach. The following are
excerpts from written reports submitted over the two years in
which we have used this assessment:
"They have developed a much strongerfoundation than
students I have taught in these subjects (fluid mechanics)
by more traditional methods."
"I was surprised to find that strong students were not
significantly better than average students in answering
the principles (of fluid mechanics)."


Student Focus Groups
The Center for Teaching, Learning, and Technology (CTLT)
at WSU performed a focus-group study where a CTLT staff
person met with each home team to facilitate a discussion
around these questions:
How did you initially respond to the way the course
was planned in the syllabus?
How has the way you respond changed as the semester
progressed?
How did this course change your practice as a learner,
if at all?
How have your learning habits changed in this class?
What did you learn about the field of chemical
engineering in this class?
What have you learned about yourself as a learner in
this class?

Students initially thought the syllabus was confusing and
long, and the methodology would be difficult. As the semes-
ter progressed, they came to enjoy the course and the hands-
on work. When asked about what impact the course had on
their learning habits, there was a general consensus that they
had more responsibility and relied less on the professor than
in other courses and that they benefited from the group social
contact. Question 5 elicited some responses that showed de-
velopment of critical thinking skills. The students mentioned
they learned how to "figure out" equations and to be open to
each student's unique way of finding the answer. They also
mentioned that they learned to "discuss a problem for five
minutes before answering a question." Some of the stu-
dents came to the realization that group work would be
valuable to their success in later jobs. This illustrates the
strength of these methods in producing engineers who are
better able to make the shift to the group environment
that typifies the modern workplace.61 The students had a
difficult time answering the third and fourth question -
most discussed their learning preferences rather than their
learning habits.
The students were also asked for general comments. They
reported some difficulty scheduling group meetings due to
varying extracurricular and work schedules. Some thought
more TAs were needed, as they sometimes had to wait until
one was available. The four groups shared one primary in-
structor and two other preceptors this meant at times one
group would be without someone with whom to consult at a
time when they desired more feedback. We do not see this
concern as a major problem, however, since the CHAPL peda-
gogy is one where groups are encouraged to pursue their own
solution paths. Also, their time spent waiting for consultation
with a preceptor could be applied to other aspects of a prob-
lem which needed work.
End-of-Semester Course Evaluations
We assess the written comments from the standard end-of-
semester course evaluations used in the WSU College of


Fall 2005










Engineering and Architecture. The comments in our most
recent offering fall into six categories
(1) How well students like the course
(2) Workload
(3) Lecture and active learning balance
(4) Number of preceptors
(5) Homework
(6) Miscellaneous
In the comments below, CL refers not only to cooperative
learning but is a general term used by the students to refer to
the CHAPL pedagogy. Here are typical comments from each
category:
Category (1) Liking the Course
"First day of classes ... my least favorite, however, it
quickly became my favorite."
"CL was much more enjoyable than lecture courses."

Category (2) Workload
"CL seemed more demanding on the student, however
that also may have had a lot to do with the difficult
nature of the course material."
"Too much outside time was needed. Should be worth
more than two credits."

Category (3) Lecture / Hands-on Balance
"This class would be much better if it were supple-
mented by a lecture course."
"Meet twice a week in lab and once a week in lecture
and make it a three-credit class."

Category (4) Preceptors
"It would be nice if there were as many TAs as there
were groups. Because sometimes the groups were left
waiting for like 15 minutes without being helped."

Category (5) Homework
"Maybe for one of the modules, the class could actually
measure all of the variables and solve a related
problem."
"Less emphasis on turning in such a huge bulk of
paperwork, more time to work with the modules and see
how they work."

Category (6) Miscellaneous
S"Most of the kinks were worked out over the course of
the semester."
"Put together teams by the members' schedules outside of
class."

The students found their being actively engaged in the learn-
ing process far more enjoyable than standard lectures. They
wrestled, however, with having to construct their own under-
standing of concepts; they desired better preceptor availabil-
ity, more lectures, and less outside preparation on their part.
We conclude that at the very least the pedagogy is successful
at shifting the responsibility for learning to the students. Yet,
there seems to be a critical balance between the positive im-


pact gained by a total CHAPL paradigm and inserting an ex-
pert treatment of the subject at points where the majority of
students are at an impasse. Hence, in our more current for-
mat, mini lectures are inserted to help draw together the ma-
jor concepts. Also, a better correlation between homework
assignments and hands-on modules is now used this re-
duces some of the outside-of-class time needed to digest and
solve new problems. It also provides even more motivation
to fully understand the modules being studied. We now make
sure home teams have complementary schedules. Finally, a
few students complained the instructor was not always avail-
able during scheduled office hours. One way of interpreting
this is to say that when responsibility for learning is shifted
to students and their teams they need mechanisms to debrief
with field experts (in this case the instructor) to raise their
comfort level with the pedagogy. On the other hand, we find
that, because of the group interactions inherent in this course,
students in general greatly reduce the number of times they
come by for office hours so much so that the instructor
begins doing other things during those times. Then when stu-
dents, on occasion, do come by they may not always find the
instructor is available. Moving to an e-mail appointment sys-
tem is helping to solve this problem.
Student Ombudsperson Interactions
Twice in the semester we had students designate a pair of
representatives to give us feedback on how the course was
working and what needed changing (one each from two home
teams the first time and one each from the other two home
teams the second time). Overall the student comments were
upbeat about the team approach
"Entertaining"
"Learn a lot more"
"Would rather be here than have notes, notes, notes!"
"If you don't work together, you don't survive."
"(Improved) work ethic and learning atmosphere for all
students; carries over to the other classes."
This is precisely the kind of effect we hope for: enthusiasm
for learning, valuing the group process, changing the learn-
ing culture, seeing cooperative learning skills carry over to
other classes, and instilling team-learning habits that will be
useful over a lifetime.
Student ombudspersons also voiced some concerns, which
we took as constructive criticism and responded by devising
ways to minimize or alleviate the problems
"Group members were not always prepared to come
back to their home groups."
"Some members always late; (this) causedproblems
when they were supposed to be teaching their group."
"Some students were not very serious about the class;
(this) caused difficulties due to the interdependence
(requirements for the class)."
As is evident, the majority of the concerns deal with group-
member reliability. This feedback indicates a need for more
formal accountability measures regarding the jigsaw groups.


Chemical Engineering Education








Therefore, in the second half of the semester (and in subsequent courses) we re-
quired jigsaw groups to develop an improved learning-module activity plan to in-
clude a reading assignment, a short quiz, a simple hands-on experiment, and a
group fill-in-the-blank worksheet.
The plans are submitted by the groups and evaluated by the preceptors, who make
recommendations for improving the plan to create a uniform experience when jig-
saw members return to their home teams and take them through a cooperative hands-
on learning module. This results in a more uniform student experience. Again this is
what we hope for learners critically evaluating the learning process by consider-
ing for themselves, "What will make us better?" or "How can we improve the atmo-
sphere for everyone, including a 'project supervisor' preceptorss in this case) and
coworkerss' (student team members)?"
Student Learning Styles Inventory
In the beginning of the semester students take learning-styles inventories. Com-
bined with some reading about cooperative learning""8 and learning styles,1" this
gives them a sense of why this pedagogy is helpful. Results from one particular
semester typify the WSU ChE students: about 80% were sensing versus intuitive
learners, 60% were thinkers rather than feelers, 90% were visual over verbal, and
there was an even split between introverts and extroverts. In particular the sens-
ing and visual category results indicate that "traditional lectures are not the best
pedagogy for these students21- yet that is what the community almost univer-
sally does."'
Obviously, we deviate from the traditional lecture here. Yet, because lectures are
the norm almost everywhere else, students often want to revert to that mode of in-
struction at some level. We have to continually remind them that we expect they will
learn much more in the present format. We also strive to help groups appreciate the
differences between extroverts and introverts these are sometimes referred to as
active and reflective learners, respectively.l" We help students understand that the
active learner is helpful in getting the group thinking about the problem, yet the
reflective learner often has important insights that if left unshared may allow the
group to go down the wrong path. Preceptors constantly challenge groups to encour-
age activess" to acquiesce at times, and for "reflectors" to take the risk of making
their ideas known. We tell the students, "If you have left the classroom with your
ideas unchallenged today you should feel deprived."
Student Video Interview
In our most recent course offering, a small group of students volunteered to take
part in videotaped interviews for our use in symposia presentations and training ma-
terials for other instructors. The interviews reinforced many of the benefits that
had been shown in some of the other assessments, and highlighted some issues
on which we need to work.
Reinforcement of earlier comments:
"(Even) 'good' students sometimes missed conceptual 'stuff'; others filled in
concepts."
"Groups carried over to other technical classes."
"Didn't skip this class as much as others; you would miss too much."
An issue to work on: We overestimated the impact of peer pressure to excite all
group members to excellence, especially when serving as the jigsaw point person for
a given day. There needs to be more accountability we need better assurance that
students will return to their home teams prepared to facilitate learning modules for
SPhraseology attributed to Eric Schulenberge;r University of Washington professional writer;
in discussion ofpedagogy.


At the end
of the semester
all students
have individual
interviews with
one of three
experienced
professors
not associated
with the course.
The goal is
to compare
the skills and
understanding

of course
concepts
learned in
the CHAPEL
pedagogy
with those
of previous stu-
dents taught by
the evaluators
using a
traditional
lecture
approach.


Fall 2005










their group members. We believe this can be addressed in
future classes by giving the students examples, both written
and acted out on a CD, of an effective student-led instruction
session, and by providing a grade mechanism to hold jigsaw
experts accountable for being prepared and on time.

Evaluation by Educational Consultant
Recently two experienced teaching-effectiveness strategists,
Richard Felder and Rebecca Brent, visited our classroom and
brought to our attention that this may be the first instance
where all four CHAPL strategies have been effectively imple-
mented in one course. They made recommendations for fur-
ther refinements including:
Intermittent mini-lectures to the entire class to clarify
misconceptions common to multiple groups and to
highlight principles "just-in-time" for students to use
them in discussing modules
More verbal affirmation to groups when theyfinally
grasp important concepts
Video interviews of students as an evaluative tool.
"Control" courses at other universities-this
can be accomplished in part by using common exams
Wider dissemination of the methodology so that others
can benefit from what students are learning
We have already begun implementing these helpful sug-
gestions. We draw attention to the last point in particular it
is our hope that through publication of the pedagogy and dis-
semination of results at national meetings that many other
universities will elect to adopt the CHAPL approach.
Survey Comparing to Traditional Courses
In the 2002 class, the CTLT performed a survey of the stu-
dents in ChE 332, asking them to compare it to traditional
lecture courses. Figure 5, listing the responses for the more
important questions, shows a definite weighting toward in-
creased time on task, more interactions with other
students and instructors, creation of their own un-
derstanding, and better preparation for industry.
Faculty and Resource Inventory
One question that arises when implementing
a new pedagogy, especially one which requires
equipment and a new teaching paradigm, is,
"How much time and what resources will it take
me to teach this way?"
Regarding faculty time there is the initial in- _
vestment in designing hands-on modules that
will work for the course. This can take a couple T
of weeks, but that can easily be reduced by ac-
quiring plans from another university (e.g.,
WSU) which has done something similar. For o
the most part equipment is a onetime investment,
though refinements and new processes can be
added. A day more of planning is needed to pre-
pare the syllabus and course materials as one


maps out jigsaw group and home-team logistics, what key
concepts will be emphasized in each module, the format re-
quired for jigsaw modules, what additional reference texts
and journal articles will be available to the students, the strat-
egy to be used for homework assignments (whether a combi-
nation of individual and group; we suggest a combination),
whether some assignments will be done as a jigsaw group,
and whether to include larger group-project assignments.
We also have special office hours set aside for the jigsaw
experience (two per group), and for home team projects (two
per group, plus two one-hour meetings with ombudspersons
per semester). The extra planning time and office hours, how-
ever, are more than offset by eliminating the time needed to
prepare and review lecture notes, make overheads, etc. Fur-
thermore, because of the strong group interactions that result
during the course, students typically find reduced need for
regular office hours.
Regarding financial resources, there is the need to develop
the hands-on modules. We suggest inexpensive and simple
homemade designs, using clear plastic tubes (for visual ob-
servation), with simple manometers (for gauging pressure
drops), thermocouples leading to digital readout meters, pitot
tubes for measuring flows, 5-gal. plastic carboys for grav-
ity feed to the modules, etc. Maintaining this equipment
also represents an additional load on the time of the de-
partmental technician.
Finally, in our instance, we had the privilege of having three
individuals, aside from the instructor, to serve as preceptors
to help guide student groups during class. One of these indi-
viduals would be available to most departments the instruc-
tional laboratory supervisor, or technician, who is respon-
sible for designing and maintaining undergraduate lab equip-
ment. A second was a graduate TA being supported by a WSU
grant to assist in implementing and evaluating the new peda-



More time on task
Outside class discussion
Interacted w/ others
O Interacted w/ instructor
Created own understanding
3 Prepared for industry









Much More More Often Same Less Often Much Less

Figure 5. Survey comparing ChE 332 to other
ChE lecture-based courses.


Chemical Engineering Education











gogy. Third was a graduate research assistant who plans to
return to his home country to teach; he volunteered so he
could learn the alternative teaching approaches. For the most
part, however, these extra persons are only involved during
the classroom period and have no additional responsibilities.
Also, we note this course has been done with only the profes-
sor involved in mentoring groups. This works fine, but stu-
dent feedback is more positive when individual groups are
given more attention; the extra preceptors provide exactly
that and we think the pedagogy is so valuable that it is worth
investing in at least one extra person (preferably a graduate
TA). Preceptors need not do extra preparation, but should be
experienced enough with the subject that they can add value
by coaching groups during the class.

CONCLUSIONS
Research has shown that the traditional lectures that domi-
nate engineering curricula are not well suited to typical engi-
neering students whose learning styles tend more toward the
sensing and visual ends of the spectrum. This was confirmed
in surveys given to junior-level students at WSU. Other re-
search has shown that the more students are actively engaged
in the classroom experience, the more they will retain. We
have presented findings from a recent Fluid Mechanics and
Heat Transfer course where small fluid-flow and heat-trans-
fer modules are present in the classroom. To study these mod-
ules and learn concepts represented in the module exercises,
student teams combine several learning pedagogies, namely
cooperative, hands-on, active, and problem-based learning,
or CHAPL as we refer to it. This collective pedagogical ap-
proach has proven effective in engaging the students without
sacrificing course content. The method also gives students
an opportunity to learn and practice some of the nontechni-
cal personal interaction skills that are vital to success in the
modem workplace. Outside evaluators confirm that the stu-
dents taught in this matter turn out to be uniformly knowl-
edgeable about course concepts.
Other feedback shows students are enthusiastic about the
pedagogy, feel they learn more, are more interested, and carry
the learning methods over to other courses and into industry.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank Professors Richard Felder and Rebecca Brent for
their helpful comments, suggestions, and encouragement af-
ter visiting the classroom. We are appreciative of support from
the WSU provost's office, which provided funding through
the WSU Assessment & New Curriculum Initiative, for the
most recent version of the educational model. The WSU CTLT
supplied initial funding and providing a quarter release time
to Professor Van Wie to develop the course pedagogy; CTLT
staff also provided valuable feedback that assisted with course
design, and spearheaded much of the assessment effort. We
are grateful to our teaching assistant, Burton Schmuck, who
coached groups and assisted with module problem develop-


ment and assessment aspects for the course. Finally, we thank
the students in the classes who were willing to bear with us
while we developed this pedagogy.

REFERENCES
1. Felder, R.M., "Matters of Style," ASEE Prism, 6, 18 (1996)
2. Felder, R.M., and L.K. Silverman, "Learning and Teaching Styles in
Engineering Education," Eng. Ed., 78, 674 (1988)
3. Tobias. S.. "They're Not Dumb, They're Different: Stalking the Sec-
ond Tier." Research Corporation, Tucson (1990)
4. Felder, R.M., "Changing Times and Paradigms," Chem. Eng. Ed., 38(1),
32 (2004)
5. Varma, A., "Future Directions in ChE Education: A New Path to Glory,"
Chlem. Eng. Ed., 37(4), 284 (2003)
6. Rugarcia, A., R.M. Felder, D.R. Woods, and J.E. Stice, "The Future of
Engineering Education, I. A Vision for a New Century," Chem. Eng.
Ed.. 34(1), 16 (2000)
7. Holmes, J., and E. Clizbe. "Facing the 21st Century," Business Ed.
Forum, 52. 33 (1997)
8. ABET. Criteria for Accrediting Engineering Programs, Accreditation
Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc., Engineering Accreditation
Commission, Baltimore, MD. Also teria/E001%2004-05%20EAC%20Criteria%2011-20-03.pdf> (2003)
9. NTL Institute for Applied Behavioral Science, 300 N. Lee Street, Suite
300, Alexandria, VA 22314. 1-800-777-5227
10. DiBiasio, D., "Active and Cooperative Learning in an Introductory
Chemical Engineering Course," Frontiers in Education Conference,
Session 3c2. p. 3c2.19-22 (1995)
11. Felder, R.M., K.D. Forrest, L. Baker-Ward, E.J. Dietz, and PH. Mohr,
"A Longitudinal Study of Engineering Student Performance and Re-
tention, I. Success and Failure in the Introductory Course," J. Eng.
Ed.. 84, 209-217 (1994)
12. Falconer, J.L., "Use of Conceptests and Instant Feedback in Thermo-
dynamics," Chem. Eng. Ed., 38(1), 64 (2004)
13. Watson, K., "Utilization of Active and Cooperative Learning in EE
Courses: Three Classes and the Results," Frontiers in Education Con-
ference, Session 3c2, p. 3c2.1-4 (1995)
14. Bonnstetter, R.J., "Research & Teaching: Active Learning Often Starts
with a Question," J. College Science Teaching, 18, 95 (1988)
15. Bonnel, C.C., and J.A. Eison, "Active Learning: Creating Excitement
in the Classroom," ASHE-ERIC Higher Education ReportNo. 1, George
Washington University. Washington, D.C. (1991)
16. Johnson, D.W.. R.T. Johnson, and K.A. Smith, Active Learning: Co-
operation in the College Classroom, Interaction Book Company, Edina,
MN (1991)
17. Meyers, C., and T.B. Jones, Promoting Active Learning: Strategies
for the College Classroom, Jossey Bass, San Francisco (1993)
18. Felder, R.M., Cooperative Learning in Technical Courses: Procedures,
Pitfalls, and Payoffs, ERIC Document Reproduction Service Report
ED 377038 (1994). Also pers/Coopreport.html>
19. Huvard, G., G. Wnek, B. Crosby, N. Cain, J. McLees, and J. Bara,
"ChemEngine: Realizing Entrepreneurship in Undergraduate Engineer-
ing Education," Proceedings of the 2001 ASEE Annual Conference,
Albuquerque, NM (2001)
20. Kolb, D., Experiential Learning, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall
(1984)
21. Kolb, D.A., and L.H. Lewis, "Facilitating Experiential Learning: Ob-
servations and Reflections," in Experiential and Simulation Techniques
for Teaching Adults. New Directions for Continuing Education, Lewis,
L.H., ed. No. 50, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco (1986)
22. Aronson, E., N. Blaney, C. Stephan, J. Sikes, and M. Snapp, The Jig-
saw Classroom, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA (1978)
23. Soloman, B.A., and R.M. Felder, Index of Learning Styles Question-
naire, Department of Chemical Engineering, North Carolina State
University, Raleigh, NC, ilsweb.html>, accessed Dec. 29, 2004 O


Fall 2005











l classroom


LEARNING THROUGH SIMULATION

Student Engagement






SAMANTHA J. STREICHER, KATE WEST, DUNCAN M. FRASER,
JENNIFER M. CASE, CEDRIC LINDER*
University of Cape Town Rondebosch, 7701, South Africa


he use of simulations in chemical engineering under-
graduate degree courses has increased rapidly in re-
cent years. It has reached the point where simulation
packages form the basis for a number of chemical engineer-
ing textbooks (e.g., Seider, et al,rl] and Svrcek, et al'1).
The emphasis of most of the simulations in chemical engi-
neering education seems to be on teaching students how to
use simulations to solve typical engineering problems.'31 We
have found little evidence of simulations being explicitly used
to develop conceptual understanding, and we therefore sought
to investigate their potential use in this regard. In order to
create a context where this investigation might take place,
we used the variation theory of learning to redesign a distil-
lation column simulation undertaken by junior students.[4'
This paper is a follow-up to our previous study and con-
cerns examination of how effectively students engaged with
a distillation column simulation, with a view to determining
conditions that were conducive to learning through the simu-
lation. Clearly, a better understanding of what features of
simulations facilitate student learning, as well as how stu-
dents engage with such exercises, will mean that simulations
could be used more effectively to promote learning.
In this study junior chemical engineering students at the
University of Cape Town (UCT) carried out a distillation
simulation. Distillation is a challenging part of the curricu-
lum and students need to understand the interaction of a num-
ber of different parameters, such as feed-tray location, mul-
tiple components, side-stream draws, and integration of mass
and energy balances.15' At the time of the study, the students

* Physics Department, Uppsala University, Sweden, and University of the
Western Cape, South Africa


were nearly at the end of a course on mass transfer and had
completed the section on distillation and written a test on it.
They had also done a project in the course using the ChemSep
simulation package as a design tool. Note that in this course,
as in many others in our program, lectures are supplemented
by weekly tutorials.
In this paper we will first examine simulations as a learn-
ing tool and then deal with some theories of learning which
we found helpful in framing this study. Next, we will present
the development of the simulation exercise that was used and
the experimental approach we used to analyze what was hap-

Samantha Streicher and Kate West are recent chemical engineering
graduates of the University of Cape Town and are both currently em-
ployed. Both received their degrees with first-class honors. They con-
ducted the work presented in this paper for their senior research project.
Duncan Fraser holds degrees of B.Sc. (chemical engineering) and Ph.D.,
both from the University of Cape Town, where he has been lecturing in
chemical engineering since 1979. He has taught a wide range of courses
from freshman to senior level. His research interests are in engineering
education and process synthesis.
Jennifer Case holds the degrees of B.Sc. Hons. (chemistry) from the
University of Stellenbosch, M.Ed. (science education) from the Univer-
sity of Leeds, and a Ph.D. from Monash University. She taught science
in a high school before joining the Department of Chemical Engineering
at UCTin 1996 as education development officer. She teaches a fresh-
man introductory course in chemical engineering, and is an active re-
searcher in the area of student-learning research.
Cedric Linder holds degrees of B.Sc. Hons. in physics and electronics
(Rhodes), and Ed.M. (Rutgers) and Ed.D. (British Columbia), both in
science education. He has taught extensively in physics and physics
education both in South Africa and Sweden, where he is currently lead-
ing a research group in physics education.

Tutorials are two- to three-hour in-class problem-solving sessions in which
students work on a set ofproblems, whether individually or in small groups,
and submit their solutions; satisfactory performance in these submissions
is normally a prerequisite for being allowed to write the examination in
the course.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005


Chemical Engineering Education










opening as the students undertook the exercise. Finally, we
will discuss the findings of the study and draw conclusions
about how better to use simulations for learning in chemical
engineering courses.

SIMULATIONS AS A LEARNING TOOL
Due to the growth in computer technology, simulations are
being used abundantly in education, particularly in science
and engineering. The majority of respondents to a survey con-
ducted by Dahm, et al,131 recognized simulations as "a tool
that graduating chemical engineers should be familiar with
... taught for its own sake." This dominant view among en-
gineering educators of simulations as engineering tools un-
derplays the value they can have from an educational per-
spective. Some researchers, however, point to the educational
benefits of simulations. For example, Goodyear161 argues that
simulations allow students to understand complex devices
that may not even be understood through direct contact with
the equipment itself. Kassim and Cadbury17' note that simu-
lations should support and reinforce a student's independence,
in turn promoting self-directed study a fundamental re-
quirement for a successful university education. Daviesl8' sug-
gests that simulations offer the additional benefit of allowing
students to experience ownership of the task once they en-
gage with it, which encourages intrinsic motivation.
Goodyear identified four potentially problematic areas in
simulation-based learning
Inadequate knowledge of the sofNare package
Lack of investigative or problem-solving skills
No understanding of the benefits of simulations as learning
tools

TABLE 1
Features that Facilitate Simulation Learning

Simulations seen as a learning tool
Complexity approaching reality
Peer-interaction learning environment
Thorough accompanying instructions
Use of a familiar package
*Sufficient time for engagement to occur
Learning history
Open-endedness

TABLE 2
Simulation Learning Foci

A Simulations as a given assignment that needs to be completed
B Simulations as tasks that are a representation of the phenomenon
C Manipulation of the simulation to understand how the simulation
itself works
D Exploration of the phenomenon, where students engage and use it
to predict results


Inability to transfer knowledge gainedfrlom simulations to
other areas
A key finding emerging from this is that students need to
be aware of the learning possibilities that a simulation pre-
sents. It is important to consider this feature in simulation
design. Other critical features emerge from a range of studies
reviewed below.
In a case study on a heat transfer simulation, Davies fo-
cused on trying to better understand the simulation charac-
teristics that facilitate improved understanding and learning.
Davies showed that the following key features are necessary
to support student engagement with simulations:
Complexity of the simulation approaching that of reality
Learning environment allowing peer interaction
Thorough set of accompanying instructions
Overcoming navigational uncertainty by using a familiar
package
Significant time for engagement to develop
This study also highlights the need for educators to design
simulations with learning as the primary objective, as op-
posed to simply reproducing a scenario or solving a problem.
Parush, et al.,'91 identified that the presence of a learning
history, which allows students to stop, rewind, or restart the
simulation at any point, resulted in better understanding and
also in better long-term retention of knowledge.
Strijbos, et al.,110' explored an additional feature, where the
simulation learning objective is "open skills," such as argu-
mentation and negotiation, that arise when students build on
each other's knowledge. Open-ended tasks promote better
interactive discussions due to the presence of a number of
possible solutions.
From this short review, the features listed in Table 1 have
been identified as facilitating effective learning through com-
puter simulations. In this study we will examine the effec-
tiveness of each of these features in promoting simulation-
based learning.
In one of the few studies that has looked at simulation-
based learning from an educational research perspective,
Ingerman, et al.,1111 recognized four ways in which students
focus on simulations. They are listed in Table 2. We will use
the term interaction to signify a situation where students are
merely manipulating the simulation to perform tasks without
thinking, and the term engagement to indicate where students
attempt to understand what is happening in the simulation.
Using this terminology, we consider foci A and B to be
indicative of interaction with the simulation, while foci
C and D show engagement with the concepts the simula-
tion presents.

LEARNING THEORY
There are many learning theories that attempt to address
how we learn. Phenomenography focuses on the student ex-


Fall 2005











Simulations need to be introduced to
students as learning tools from early in
the program, before they begin working wi
Simulation tasks must encourage explorati
provide sufficient guidance to help student
on the key variables necessary for
conceptual understanding.


perience of learning and encompasses research that has been
done on students' approaches to learning, as well as that which
has focused on how learning is facilitated through variation.E121
Deep and surface approaches to learning were first identi-
fied in a study by Marton and Silj6,t131 and subsequently con-
firmed in many other studies. A more recent study by Case
and Marshall"14 identified two further approaches to learning
that expanded the typology to include the following four ap-
proaches:
Surface approach: student focus is on gathering and
memorizing information
Procedural surface approach: the focus lies on memorizing
algorithms or solutions to problems in order to pass a test
Procedural deep approach: students link formulae and
algorithms together with the aim of eventually understanding
concepts through repetitive applications
Deep approach: here the students'focus is on developing
conceptual understanding
It is important to carefully distinguish between the two pro-
cedural approaches. In the procedural surface approach, stu-
dents are simply using algorithms without any underlying at-
tempt to think about concepts. In the procedural deep approach,
standard solution algorithms are coupled with evidence of ap-
plying some thought to understanding the problem.
Case and Marshallt14] have shown that these approaches are
not fixed, but rather depend on factors such as students' per-
ceptions of the course context and their previous learning ex-
periences. An important finding of their research is that
courses taught using a procedural approach may not succeed
in students developing a deep conceptual understanding. This
has implications for the work presented in this paper since
distillation is traditionally taught procedurally, with the fo-
cus on solving problems mathematically.
With regard to learning through variation, Marton and Booth
point out that learning consists of different aspects of a phe-
nomenon being concurrently discerned and present in a
person's focal awareness (when something is noticed in a
new way, or brought into the foreground, it comes into focal
awareness).[12] Variation is posited as central to such discern-
ment. There are many examples of applying these concepts
at the lower school levels, but only a few we are aware of at


the university level, two of which are
in engineering. [4151


We consider the four simulation
th them .... foci presented in the previous section
on, but also to be closely related to these four ap-
s preaches to learning, as shown in
sfo Table 3. Note that the first two ap-
proaches/foci are characterized by
the intention of passing the test or in-
teraction with the simulation,
whereas the last two approaches/foci
are characterized by the intention of understanding or engag-
ing with the simulation.
DEVELOPING THE SIMULATION EXERCISE
The primary focus of this work was to answer the follow-
ing questions:
How do these students view simulations?
Was learning achieved during the simulation?
How did students engage with the simulation?
How can the benefits of simulation-based learning be
maximized?
The simulation exercise was set up with these questions in
mind.
We also needed to take into account the traditional approach
taken to the teaching of chemical engineering in most of our
program, which emphasizes a procedural approach, with class
exercises and tutorials consisting of solving standard text-
book problems that require a numerical solution rather than
explanations. The teaching of distillation in the mass transfer
course the students were doing at the time they undertook the
simulation exercise tended to follow this general pattern.
In the simulation exercise, the impacts of feed vapor frac-
tion, feed ratio, side-stream draw, and additional components
on the optimum feed-tray location were explored in the tasks
that the students performed.

The Simulation Exercise
Before beginning the simulation, students were informed
of the nature of this research, which was to understand how

TABLE 3
Approaches to Learning and Simulation Foci

Passing the Test / Interaction
Approach Simulation Focus Strategy
Surface approach Following the task Memorizing
Procedural surface approach Simulation as representations Problem solving

Understanding Engagement
Approach Simulation Focus Strategy
Procedural deep approach Manipulation of simulations Problem solving
Deep approach Exploration of phenomenon Concepts


Chemical Engineering Education













TABLE 4
Simulation Exercise

1) For the given benzene-toluene distillation column:
a) The feed vapor fraction is changed from 0.5 to 0 and to 1.
Identify and explain four effects that this has on the system,
using a simulation history.
If the vapor fraction changes, is the feed location still optimum?
Why or why not? If not, in each case optimize the feed location
in the system.
It is desired that the distillate has a purity 2 0.95 benzene. What
is the best vapor fraction to run this column at: 0, 0.5, or I?
Explain your reasoning.
b) What is the effect on the feed location if the benzene and
toluene flowrates were changed to the specified values?
c) It is desired to draw a liquid side stream (0.2 kmol/s) with
approximately 60 mol% benzene. On which stage would you
draw this stream? Can you explain the effects this draw has on
the system? Does this affect the feed location? If so, find the
optimum location.
If the side stream's phase were to change to vapor, would the
feed location still be optimum, and why?


2) For the given n-butane n-hexane distillation column:
a) Examine the system that is given to you and note any important
results or graphs that may be required for comparisons in the
rest of Task 2.
b) Add n-pentane to the system (flowrates specified).
What are the effects of the additional component on the system?
Can you explain the effects? Has the additional component
affected the feed location at all?
c) By changing the feed location up one or down one tray, can you
get a similar McCabe-Thiele diagram? What parameters would
you analyze to decide which is the optimum feed location and
what features should they display, i.e., high value, low value?
d) It is desired that n-butane in the distillate be approximately
91%. Optimize the system to meet this specification. What are
the new specifications and why have you chosen them?




TABLE 5
How Closely Did We Achieve the Features Facilitating
Simulation Learning?


Feature
Simulations seen as a learning tool
Complexity approaching reality
Peer-interaction learning environment
Thorough accompanying instructions
Using a familiar package
Sufficient time for engagement
Learning history
Open-endedness


Incorporated in Design?
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
no
Physical, not automatic
yes


students learn through simulations. The aim of this was to
encourage students to associate learning with the exercises.
ChemSep, an educational package that specifically models
separations, is the only simulation package that UCT chemi-
cal engineering students have been exposed to by the end of
their junior year. They had used it as an engineering tool in a
number of class exercises and tutorials, as well as in the jun-
ior design project, and were thus familiar with it. This pack-
age was thus used to ensure that navigational uncertainty had
been overcome. It treats the column as a black box in terms
of calculations but allows the user to view all the column
profiles. A drawback of ChemSep is that it does not have a
learning history function. A more sophisticated package, such
as AspenPlus, could have been used, but then navigational
uncertainty would have been a major hindrance. Conse-
quently, students were encouraged to create a physical learn-
ing history by recording necessary data and diagrams in a
Word or Excel document.
In order to bring the concept of feed-tray location into the
students' focal awareness, its location had to be discerned by
not always appearing optimum on the McCabe-Thiele dia-
gram. This proved to be the largest hurdle in the simulation
setup. ChemSep automatically optimizes the system and treats
the feed-tray location and number of stages as fixed values,
adjusting the reflux ratio to meet the purity specifications.
Consequently, the feed-tray location always appears optimum
on the diagram. By keeping the reflux ratio constant, the feed-
tray location would no longer appear optimum and could
therefore be discerned. This compromise between complex-
ity and variation of the key concept resulted in a simulation
that did not present the best column operation, but was es-
sential to facilitate learning.
The simulation consisted of two tasks (see Table 4 for full
details). The first task consisted of a benzene-toluene system
and focused on the impacts that feed-vapor fraction, feed ra-
tio, and side-stream draw have on optimum feed-tray loca-
tion. This was to sensitize the students to look at the vari-
ables they would need to solve the second task consisting of
an n-butane n-hexane system, to which n-pentane was added.
Since the objective of the exercise was to observe how stu-
dents engage with simulations, not their ability to set up a
system, both simulation tasks were ready for the students to
run and all information was supplied on the simulation task
sheet. The simulation was performed in pairs to facilitate peer
interaction. Thorough instructions were provided to the stu-
dents to encourage them to explore the system in each task.
Table 5 indicates how closely we were able to approach
the characteristics of the "ideal" simulation in this study. The
aspects that were not achieved were complexity approaching
reality (due to the choice of simulation package) and signifi-
cant time for engagement (due to the timing of the research
coinciding with the approach of final examinations).


Fall 2005










The Conceptual Test
The conceptual test was developed to gauge students' un-
derstanding of distillation before they undertook the simula-
tion exercise (the pre-test), as well as to gauge any improve-
ment in understanding after the simulation exercise (the
post-test).
Both the simulation and the conceptual test questions were
structured so the students needed more than their theoretical
and procedural knowledge base to explain their answers. Table
6 shows a typical question in the conceptual test.
The conceptual test consisted of five questions, four of
which were multiple choice. Each question focused on one
of the above four variables that have an impact on the distil-
lation system. It was also intended that the conceptual test
prepare the students for the simulation tasks by bringing the
concept of feed-tray location into their focal awareness. All
the multiple-choice questions required the students to explain
their answers.
The conceptual pre- and post-tests were evaluated accord-
ing to the framework laid out in Table 7, where an example
of each type of approach is given. A model answer for the
question illustrated in Table 6 should take the form of: "De-
creases. More vapor is entering the column and consequently
there is less need to reboil. The additional energy has entered
the column with the feed."
Note that considerable judgment is needed in categorizing
qualitative responses, because they are not purely right or
wrong. While Derek's answer in Table 7 is in fact incorrect,
it was at least indicative of an attempt to think about what
was happening, and so was classified as indicating a proce-
dural deep approach, compared to Delia's solution which
seemed to result from the use of an algorithm. Note that all
names used here are pseudonyms.

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH
Beveridge (cited in Flyvbjerg['6]) stated that in social sci-
ence "more discoveries have arisen from detailed observa-
tions than from statistics applied to large groups." This sug-
gests that an in-depth study of a small, purposeful group of
students undertaking the simulation exercise, as opposed to a
larger, statistically representative sample, would provide rich
data to enable us to answer the questions posed in this re-


search. The research sample was therefore composed of seven
students from a range of academic and social backgrounds,
each of whom selected a partner of his or her choice.
Methods of Data Collection
A summary of the data collection process is shown in Fig-
ure 1. Two one-hour sessions were scheduled with each stu-
dent pair. In the first session the conceptual pre-test and the
simulation exercise were performed. The second session con-
sisted of the conceptual post-test and an interview. An hour
was needed for each of the sessions, which were held in the
final two weeks of term. Two separate sessions were needed to
establish the extent to which any learning that occurred was
retained. In addition to the pre- and post-tests, a range of other
data was collected, consisting of screen capture of the simula-
tion, field observations, and interviews, as detailed below.
Each pair's interaction during the simulation was video-
taped and their mouse and keyboard movement captured us-
ing Camtasia screen-capture software. A few students were
initially nervous at the mention of its use. An isolated room
was used for both sessions to minimize intimidating factors.
Field observations were recorded during the simulation
exercise. Comments on each pair's interaction with each other
and the simulation, as well as the extent of their engagement,
were made. Body language such as students leaning toward
or touching the screen, or taking over control of the mouse,
was a primary gauge for interaction. Video and field data
were fundamental for analyzing engagement. The video
camera and our presence could not be avoided without a
special laboratory where students could be observed

TABLE 6
Typical Conceptual Test Question (Ib)

Assume a 50% benzene, 50% toluene stream at its bubble point is fed to
a column. The column has 10 stages and you can assume a constant
reflux ratio. Feed enters the column on stage 5. At present, the distillate
composition is 95 mol% and the bottoms composition is 5 mol% ben-
zene. If the feed stream were to change and be fed at its dewpoint what
effect will this have on the following? (You should answer without us-
ing a McCabe-Thiele diagram.)
Reboiler duty:
A-Increases B-Decreases C-Stays the same D-Cannot say
Please explain your reasoning.


TABLE 7
Examples of Responses (for Question lb from Table 6)

Value Description Illustration
0 Incorrect (Increases due to) "increased vapor in system" -Vani
1 Surface Approach "Decreases due to decrease in flow of both species to the bottom of the column" -Gershwin
2 Procedural Surface Approach "More vapor is introduced to the system" -Delia
3 Procedural Deep Approach "Less number of stages in the bottom of the column, thus less vapor is required to reach the feed stage" -Derek
4 Deep Approach "Vapor is being supplemented by the feed, so less of it has to be vaporized." -Mpho

92 Chemical Engineering Education










through one-way glass.
Interviews were conducted with students to determine if
the simulation exercise had been successful in bringing the
concept of feed-tray location into their focal awareness and
further, to establish how students view simulations and their
engagement with them. Stimulated recall[17] was used in each
interview, where video and screen capture clips of the pair
performing the simulation were played back to them for fur-
ther probing and clarification of some of their comments and
actions during the simulation. The interviews were conducted
in pairs, audiotaped, and transcribed for further analysis.
A senior year focus group of seven students was used to
further explore some of the findings and tentative conclu-
sions of this research. This was also to establish whether these
findings were isolated to the mass transfer course, or a more
general experience in the degree.

RESEARCH FINDINGS
In this section each of the four questions that framed this
study will be addressed in turn.

How Did These Students View Simulations?
From their general classroom experience of simulations,
only three of the 14 students held a positive view of simula-
tions, as far as learning was concerned. The majority of stu-
dents saw simulations as "plug and chug" tools that merely
save calculation time, despite having been sensitized to asso-
ciate the exercise with learning. This result was even more
disturbing when it emerged that students held a positive
view of simulations only as a timesaving tool and felt that
they were only being used properly when generating "rea-
sonable" answers.


In the interviews, each student pair was asked to describe
their approach to the distillation simulation that they had com-
pleted. Their answers were categorized in terms of the focus
levels identified by Ingerman, et al.,'"' as described earlier
(Table 2). The results are shown in Table 8.
It was hoped that students would demonstrate learning foci
at the levels of simulation as representations and manipulation
of the simulation. In this case, however, a number of students
adopted the weakest focus simply following the task.
Students were also asked to discuss how their approach
would change if they were doing the distillation exercise in a
normal three-hour class tutorial session. The majority of them
did not expect that their focus would change. This again em-
phasizes how they view simulations in the same light as
tutorials. Both junior and senior students saw tutorials as
necessary primarily for meeting minimum course require-
ments for entrance into the final examination, which re-
sults in the learning potential of simulations being seri-
ously reduced.
The two pairs that manifested the deepest focus level found
in this study, namely "manipulation of the simulation," both
felt that their focus would weaken in a tutorial environment.
One of the pairs felt that tutorials were only worked until
boredom overcame them and then they became a social event,
while the other pair found tutorials pressurized and indicated
that they would focus on simply getting the task done on time.
They added that much of the understanding that can be de-
veloped through this type of exercise gets lost in the rush to
ensure that minimum requirements are met.
Was Learning Achieved During the Simulation?
Each student's progression in approach was analyzed, as


Session 1
1 Hour

I


Session 2
1 Hour


S20 Minutes 40 Min


20 Minutes


Q 1 o...


ANALYSIS ... J


Figure 1. Data collection process.


Fall 2005


TABLE 8
Breakdown of Student
Simulation Learning Foci

Focus Description Occurence
A Following the task 2
B Simulations as a
representation 3
C Manipulation of
the simulation 2
D Exploration of
the phenomenon 0










shown in Table 9. A student was assigned a score on the post-
test. The scoring was as follows: A score of-1 was assigned
if their approach regressed, a 0 if their approach remained
the same, and a +1 if their approach progressed from the
pre-test. The progressions and regressions were tallied and
appear in Table 9. We have also identified those students
who said they enjoyed the task (represented by the gray
block), which is discussed in the following section.
The results of all questions showed that half the students
did not improve in approach, despite a potential to do so, as
indicated by negative scores in the overall improvement col-
umn. An inherent implication of this is that despite the "close-
to-ideal" simulation environment, the exercise did not result
in significant conceptual development. This is potentially
due to students' preoccupation with their upcoming exams.
The fact that half of the students did learn and develop con-
ceptually from the exercise is encouraging, however.
As depicted in the table, some students regressed from their
original approach. Many previously demonstrated a deep con-
ceptual approach in the pre-test. Some post-test comments
indicated boredom, after students had circled the correct
answer.
Very little exploration of the concepts was observed. This
result was confirmed by the focus group held with senior
students, who all felt that their approach to tutorials (includ-
ing simulations) was merely to complete the task as quickly
as possible.
How Did Students Engage With the Simulation?
All seven pairs interacted with the simulation, whether
focusing on understanding or simply going through the mo-
tions. Despite the obvious interaction observed, we found
that engagement generally did not occur.
A definite correlation between enjoyment and engagement
was noted during this work. All students who expressed en-
joyment of the simulation exercise experienced an overall
progression in their conceptual understanding (gray block
in Table 9). Bongani's enjoyment is evident below:
Bongani: "But even in the literature, like when
[the lecturer] teaches us to use ChemSep, all those
things, but you don't go into detail, like what
effects this has on this. The problem is just given to
you and you have to solve this thing ..we never
have a chance of investigating."
This student clearly appreciates the advantages of simula-
tion-based learning and showed an overall progression in
his approach from the pre-test. Nearly all students who ex-
pressed partial or no enjoyment regressed in their approach,
except for Arkash and Thandiwe.
The group of seniors confirmed that a correlation between
learning and enjoyment does exist. Furthermore, they felt
that enjoyment results from small subtasks of an exercise


being accomplished. They felt that understanding the reasons
for using simulations and enjoyable exercises is necessary
for the tasks to be meaningful.
Students generally did not explore the simulation beyond
the tasks laid out in the exercise. They focused on generating
results and the majority did not use these results to explain
the observed effects, despite being asked for conceptual ex-
planations of what they saw in each question. This highlights
a need for students to be sensitized to a new way of learning
when presented with one.
Only five students felt they had not learned about the con-
cept they believed the simulation focused on. The focus of
the students who did not feel they gained a deeper under-
standing generally lay on merely changing numbers.
The video equipment was not problematic and students
generally were not hindered by this factor. External factors
such as mood and attitudes were found to hinder five stu-
dents. Previous experiences with ChemSep hindered learn-
ing in one student.
Students' procedural approach was generally a hindrance
to their development of conceptual understanding. Many
students expected to be able to answer all the questions
corresponding to the common engineering tutorial focus,
where the aim is to complete tasks quickly and correctly.
This emphasizes that students do not see the learning value
of simulation exercises, but see them as a test of what
they already know.
How Can the Benefit of Simulations Be Maximized?
The success of the features identified as facilitating learning
through engagement with simulations will be assessed in turn.
Simulations as learning It is evident from this study that it
takes more than the effort of briefing students to change their
view of simulations as engineering tools. It seems that a much
longer-term mindset change, developed throughout the course
of the chemical engineering program, is required to enable
them to start to see simulations as an opportunity for gaining
understanding.
Complexity The use of ChemSep did compromise the ap-
proach of the simulation to reality. Approaching reality would
have required the use of a package such as AspenPlus, but as
discussed below, this was not familiar to the students. In this
case we had to choose familiarity over complexity.
Peer-interaction learning environment The majority of the
students thought that performing the simulations in pairs was
helpful because it allowed them to share ideas and build on
each others' knowledge. An example of a pair using interac-
tion to their benefit is given below:
Bongani: "Ja, it was useful, because you can
just get his view and then analyze it and compare
it to what I think ... ifl go against it then we
discuss it."


Chemical Engineering Education










The students in this study felt that an interactive environ-
ment is essential for facilitating learning, confirming what
was found in the literature.
Thorough instructions Many of the students were critical of
the structure of the simulations tasks and suggested that it
may be improved with fewer, more focused questions, con-
sisting of "baby steps" that would guide them to the final
answer (a similar structure to their tutorials). Clearly the stu-
dents did not like the open-endedness of the questions.
Many students began the exercises believing that they would
be able to do everything and were unsure when confronted
with a new, conceptual approach. Their immediate response
was to guess answers. The large amount of guesswork showed
that some of the benefit of the
simulation was lost through
lack of prior theoretical
lk of po Overall Improvement and St
knowledge, despite the exer-
cises being based on work Improvem
already covered in class. Names Regressions Progressio
Familiarity with package Bongani 0 5
Using a familiar package im- Gershwin 1 5
proved the learning potential Nandi 0 4
for working with the simula- Mpho 1 4
tion, since students were able Sizwe 1 4
to focus on the conceptual Thandiwe 1 4
issues being explored as op- Arkash 0 3
posed to worrying about Delia 1 0
navigational aspects. The de- Vani 1 0
cision to use ChemSep was Carey 2 1
vindicated since none of the Jarrod 3 1
students had any naviga- Olivia 3 1
tional difficulties. This also Richard 4 1
reduced the time required Derek 3 0
for the exercise.
Time for engagement In this simulation exercise time was
limited, but it seems that the view students held about simu-
lations (as engineering tools rather than learning tools) was
the major factor hindering engagement, rather than time
pressure.
Learning history The physical learning history was not ben-
eficial. The majority of students abandoned it relatively
quickly in favor of memory, which may not have worked for
a more complex simulation. The benefits of an automatic
learning history could not be studied due to the use of
ChemSep. A physical learning history proved not to be a sub-
stitute for the stop/rewind/restart functionality.
Open-ended The simulation tasks were designed to be open-
ended. Evidence that the open-ended structure to questions
was a distraction was noted in the first simulation task, where
students were asked at which feed-vapor fraction it was best
to operate the column in order to achieve a distillate benzene
purity of 95%. All the pairs based their decision solely on


maximum purity, with no regard for the effects on column
size or cost. This question was again posed in the interviews
and students were presented with a table of variables that
were important for the decision. This eliminated the problem's
open-ended status, but each pair showed conceptual deepen-
ing in their responses. Ideas of column size, energy require-
ments, and cost were mentioned. It appears that there is a
fine line between allowing for an open-ended structure and
helping students to explore all the variables necessary for
developing a conceptual understanding.
Consolidation Some students clearly indicated that the ex-
ercise had deepened their understanding, but felt that it had
not been consolidated and so any benefit had been lost. They
felt that if the post-test had been
written immediately or if they
9 had been allowed to write down
its' Expressed Enjoyment their numerical answers or sum-
marize observed effects while
S Enjoyment performing the simulation, their
Overall Yes Partial No..
O new understanding may have
5 been cemented. One issue raised
4 x
4 x by a student was that he would
3 x not consolidate any understand-
3 x ing unless he was certain that his
3 answers were correct; the need
3 for a model solution was identi-
3 x
Sx fied. This is symptomatic of a far
x deeper problem involving stu-
dents' lack of self-confidence.
-1 x
-2 x CONCLUSIONS
-2 x
-3 x This study has identified a
-3 x number of findings that have sig-
nificant implications for design-
ing simulation exercises that can
facilitate conceptual understanding.
Finding 1. There is a need to differentiate between stu-
dents' physical interaction with a simulation package and
conceptual connections that are key to engagement.
It was clear in this study that all student pairs interacted
with the simulation (surface approach), but only two pairs
actually deepened their conceptual understanding and men-
tally engaged with the concepts (deep approach).
Finding 2. There seems to be a strong correlation be-
tween enjoyment and engagement.
In this simulation exercise, enjoyment facilitated engagement.
Students who expressed having enjoyed the tasks showed an
overall progression in their conceptual approach.
Student enjoyment is therefore important for simulation
exercise design.

Continued on page 301


Fall 2005











lf1 curriculum


A Freshman Design Experience:

MULTIDISCIPLINARY DESIGN OF


A POTABLE WATER TREATMENT PLANT


AMBER BARRITT, JACK DRWIEGA, RUFUS CARTER,
University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611
To succeed in the current technological environment,
engineers need theoretical as well as practical know-
ledge. It is essential that a part of their education be
comprised of hands-on practical training that prepares them
for the challenges that they are expected to encounter in pro-
fessional practice. This will serve to reinforce the students'
interest in engineering and open their minds to the numerous
exciting challenges that lie ahead of them. Moreover, stu-
dents who participate in undergraduate research/design are
more likely to pursue graduate studies.Ei
While the current engineering curricula in most schools
build a strong understanding of theoretical concepts, in imple-
mentation of these concepts many fail to provide design and
hands-on experiences in a multidisciplinary environment.
(Herein, multidisciplinary is defined as a course that requires
the fundamental aspects from chemical, environmental, civil,
mechanical, and computer engineering.)
Many high school students choose to pursue engineering
in college because of their desire to apply cutting-edge sci-
entific knowledge to solve practical problems. During the first
two years in most engineering curricula, however, the stu-
dents rarely have the opportunity to employ their newly gained
knowledge and understanding toward innovation and design.
This renders the engineering disciplines less attractive and as
a result, many of the students become disillusioned and choose
to pursue another field of study. This is one cause of low
retention rates in most engineering disciplines. Our internal
departmental surveys show that students believe that deduc-
tive classroom learning is more effective if a design class -
which exposes the student to real-life engineering applica-
tions precedes it. An ideal freshman design class must lay
the foundation for future learning by teaching some funda-
mental theory, and it must utilize this theory to design and
fabricate a real-life engineering system.
This design experience must also help the students put the


DAVID MAZYCK, ANUJ CHAUHAN


future classroom-based learning in perspective. Indeed, if
freshmen are exposed to team problem-based learning early,
it is more likely that they will achieve success in subsequent
years.[2] In addition, when freshmen are exposed to hands-on
learning, the result is an increased ability to apply the lessons
learned in future classes.i31
This project aimed to determine the success of freshman
multidisciplinary design to help retain students in the engineer-
ing disciplines at the University of Florida (UF). To overcome
the deficiencies in the engineering curricula described above,
we have attempted to incorporate interdisciplinary design and
problem-based learning into the freshman-level engineering
curriculum.

Amber M. Barritt is a project engineer with CDM in West Palm Beach,
Fla. A member of the America Water Works Association and the Florida
Water EnvironmentAssociation, she received her B.S. and M.E. degrees
from the University of Florida.
Jack Drwiega is a project engineer with Jones, Edmunds, and Associ-
ates, Inc., in Tampa, Fla. Jack received his bachelor's and master's de-
grees from the University of Florida.
Rufus Carter did his Ph.D. in educational research and testing in the
Department of Educational Psychology, University of Florida. He received
a B.S. in psychology and sociology from the University of Virginia, Wise.
His research interests involve test and survey validation, generalizability
of high-stakes performance exams, classroom and project assessment
and evaluation, and methodologies for setting performance standards.
Currently, he is a lecturer in psychology at Marymount University, Va.
David Mazyck is an assistant professor in the Department of Environ-
mental Engineering Sciences at the University of Florida. He received
his Ph.D. from Penn State University (2000). Currently, he and his gradu-
ate students research sorption (e.g., activated carbon and silica) and
photocatalysis.
Anuj Chauhan is an assistant professor in the Department of Chemical
Engineering at the University of Florida. He is a graduate of Indian Insti-
tute of Technology, Delhi, India (B. Tech, 1993) and the City University of
New York (Ph.D., 1998). He pursued postdoctoral research at the Uni-
versity of California, Berkeley, from 1998 to 2000. His research interests
include transport in biological systems, microfluidics, and interfacial phe-
nomena.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005


Chemical Engineering Education










To maximize hands-on learning, we offered a full-scale
project that required designing, fabricating, and operating a
pilot-scale water treatment system. Of the several method-
ologies investigated, Burton and White found the full-scale
project most successful for creating an exciting environment,
best for introducing the design concepts and engineering tools,
and best for promoting teamwork.141

MULTIDISCIPLINARY COURSE DESCRIPTION
Prior to the development of this multidisciplinary fresh-
men design course, the College of Engineering at UF already
offered a course titled "Introduction to Engineering" (EGN
1002) that introduces freshmen students to all 11 engineer-
ing disciplines available at UF Its intent is to help the stu-
dents make a more informed choice while deciding their
majors. Each department uses different techniques to kindle
the students' interest in the three hours that is allotted to ev-
ery engineering discipline. The contents vary from a
PowerPoint presentation summarizing key aspects, to simple
hands-on experiments, to tours of local facilities. The course
also aims to keep alive the students' interest in engineering,
thereby increasing the retention in the college.
Statistics show that the retention rate among the students
who took this course (51%) is higher than the retention rate
in a peer group (34%) that is matched to have similar levels
of technical competence as gauged by SAT scores and GPA.15S
Thus, this course has clearly been successful in increasing
retention, and has exposed the students to some elements of
design through simple hands-on experiments. The three-hour
time spent in each department, however, is not enough to
provide any substantial design experience to these students.
Therefore, we decided to build upon this success and fur-
ther strengthen the introductory course by adding to it a
multidisciplinary design component. The result was an
experimental EGN 1002 course offered over three semes-
ters in 2001 and 2002.
Funding for the project was through the National Science
Foundation-sponsored program, SUCCEED (Southeastern
University and College Coalition for Engineering Education,
NSF Cooperative Agreement No. EID-9109853). This pilot-
scale water treatment project imparted knowledge of chemi-
cal and environmental engineering for designing the unit op-
erations; mechanical and civil engineering for fabricating the
basins, mixers, and impellers; and electrical and computer
engineering for designing the optical turbidimeter and pro-
viding online data acquisition and control. Thus it provided a
multidisciplinary, group-design experience to the students,
which is reportedly lacking in current curricula according to
the ABET 2000 report.16' This project aimed to provide fresh-
men with an opportunity to experience, understand, and ap-
ply engineering concepts and develop problem-solving
skills during their first year. The course had four main com-
ponents: (1) acquire the knowledge base required for the de-


Fall 2005


sign; (2) fabricate the potable water treatment plant; (3) de-
velop teamwork skills; and (4) use this design project to serve
as a base to support future learning and to motivate students to
learn more.
This course is targeted to increase the student retention rate
in all engineering majors. Accordingly, statistics were com-
piled on all students, and some results are discussed below,
to determine if the course achieved its objective.
Class Lectures
Our teaching philosophy can be simply stated in three
words: "Get students involved." We believe teaching is most
effective if students are actively engaged in the learning pro-
cess. Thus, we prepare lectures with ample opportunities for
asking questions and interacting with students. The purpose
of lectures in this design class is twofold. First, the students
are given the knowledge base that is needed to accomplish
the design objectives. Second, the link is demonstrated be-
tween theoretical concepts and the practical application of
these concepts in design. It is extremely important to estab-
lish this link early in the students' careers because it helps
them put all future classroom learning in perspective. Keep-
ing these objectives in mind, we delivered lectures on the
following topics in the class:
(a) Group Dynamics and Presentation Skills: This lecture
was aimed at improving communication and presenta-
tion skills, as well as helping students develop an
understanding of the importance of group dynamics
both in this course and in their future careers.
(b) Water Chemistry: This lecture covered the concept of
reaction equilibrium and its application in the process
of hardness removal, precipitation, flocculation, and
acid-base reactions. It also discussed the various kinds
of impurities present in water and the processes for
removing them.
(c) Calculus and Reaction Kinetics: This lecture intro-
duced the basic concepts in calculus and applied them
to develop the design equations for batch and well-
mixed reactors. The basic reaction mechanisms were
also discussed in this lecture.
(d) Design of Unit Operations: This lecture covered the
physics and the design equations for designing
flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration basins.
(e) Hardware and Softwarefor Data Acquisition: This
lecture covered the basics ofA-D boards and the use of
Labview in writing data acquisition codes.

Project Evaluation
The students were evaluated on the following:
E Teamwork: Their "teaming" skills were gauged based
on faculty observation, faculty interviews, and peer
evaluations. During the design and construction phases
of the pilot plants, the faculty coaches observed and
interviewed each member of the team to evaluate
participation and understanding. Peer evaluations were
completed via a questionnaire that evaluated each team

297










member's level of participation, ingenuity/creative-
ness, and project understanding on a scale of 1 to 5.
After the questionnaires were completed, the students
could compare their average score to the team's
average score to evaluate how the team perceived
their personal participation on the project.
E Quality of the final presentation: The final
presentation was judged by the course faculty and
student assistants. Criteria used in the judging
included quality of the PowerPoint slides (e.g., font
size, use of pictures), ability of each team member to
maintain eye contact with their audience, posture,
and quality of speaking (e.g., avoidance of both long
pauses and the repetitive use of "uhmmm").
E Success of the design effort: The design project was
judged by the same panel on the basis of the effluent
turbidity measurement (goal was less than 0.2
turbidity units), color (none), alum consumption
(least amount possible), control (proportional
control of alum input as a function of turbidity
measurements), and the understanding of the
technical concepts by the team members.

Course Implementation
The experimental EGN 1002 was designed to build upon
the already established course by letting students choose
five engineering disciplines of interest and then taking the
students to only these five departments for the three-hour
introduction sessions. This allowed students to utilize the
remaining 10 three-hour periods to participate in the design
experience by fabricating a potable water treatment plant.
During the first session, the experimental course was
taught to a group of 34 students chosen randomly from 50
volunteers. Since it was a summer offering, two three-hour
periods were available each week. Two hours were de-
voted to the lecture and four hours to the lab. The lecture
hours in this course were used to introduce the problem to
the students and provide the knowledge base needed to
achieve the design objectives.
The students were randomly split into two groups of 17,
and further subdivided into four subgroups of four to five
students each. During the laboratory sessions for pilot-plant


Figure 1. Potable water treatment pilot-plant schematic.


design, the teams of students employed the design equations
learned during the lectures ( mazyck/webpage/egnl002/lectures.htm>) to construct the unit
processes (rapid mixing, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtra-
tion basins) required for processing approximately 0.25 gal./min.
of water (Figure 1). The size of each unit process for the pilot
plant was designed based on the relationship between contact
time, flowrate, and volume (i.e., volume is equal to the product
of flowrate and time). Therefore, since the flowrate was known
and the students could choose a residence time for each unit
process based on the lecture notes, the volume of each basin
could be designed. Sheets of Plexiglas measuring 4 by 8 ft.
were provided to construct the unit process basins. The stu-
dents were required to size the sheets, cut the sheets with a table
saw, and cut the holes for baffles and water flow via a drill press.
The basins were glued together and seams were sealed with sili-
cone to avoid water leakage. If mixers were chosen (some groups
elected to accomplish mixing with baffles only), standard mixers
purchased from a laboratory supply company (e.g., Cole-Parmer)
were provided. With respect to the filter, the students were re-
quired to use gravel, sand, and activated carbon, but the depths of
these media were chosen by each group. The water processed
was collected from nearby Lake Alice (very high color and mod-
erate turbidity) and cost for each pilot unit was less than $500.
(The Web address above includes pictures of the pilot plants as
well as lectures and various other course details.)
It took approximately six hours to design and construct the
basins, and another two sessions to assemble the entire water
treatment plant. Aliquots of water were withdrawn at the inlet
and outlet of the process at fixed intervals of time, and the pH,
turbidity, and color were measured. After the construction of
the pilot plant, students varied the flow and monitored water

TABLE 1
Results of Selected Questions from
Second and Third Course Offerings

Questions) Second One Third One
Offering Standard Offering Standard
Average Deviation Average Deviation
Score Score

1 4.4 0.6 4.3 0.4
2 4.1 0.6 4.6 0.5
3 4.0 0.6 4.1 0.4
4 3.1 0.7 3.2 0.5
5 3.3 0.7 3.6 0.4

1. Did the class help to build and demonstrate the importance of
teamwork?
2. Was the class a positive learning experience?
3. Were the chemistry lectures successful in relating the theoretical
concepts to the design project?
4. Did this class improve your PowerPoint skills?
5. Did the class demonstrate the importance of presentation skills?


Chemical Engineering Education


298










quality (i.e., turbidity) and made adjustments to baffles and mix-
ing rates for two weeks. In the final week of class they compiled
their data, prepared a brief report, and gave a group presenta-
tion. The students also learned the idea of using feedback con-
trol to manipulate the alum dosage to keep the effluent water
turbidity to within a tolerable limit.
For the second offering, the goal was to improve the course
based on an end-of-semester questionnaire (specific results dis-
cussed below). The major change implemented for the fall course
was to decrease the size of each team. We accepted 36 students
into the course and we subdivided them into four teams. Team
responsibilities included designing and fabricating the pilot plant
and implementing feedback control. The effluent turbidity was mea-
sured by a commercial turbidimeter and the digital output was fed
to the pump that adds alum to the rapid-mix basin. A proportional
control scheme was implemented by using the modules available
with the turbidimeter and the pump. This gave the students a basic
idea of feedback control. Other changes included streamlining the
chemistry and calculus lectures to delineate the connection between
the theory and the design more clearly. To help accomplish this,
the chemistry lecture was immediately followed by a jar-test ex-
periment where students varied pH and alum dosage to study the
impact of these variables on flocculation and sedimentation.
The third offering remained unchanged except that the fac-
ulty served as mentors for undergraduates (i.e., the first two au-
thors of this manuscript) who taught the course. As such, we
only accepted 11 students so as to not overload the two under-
graduate instructors. In addition, three freshmen students from
the previous offerings participated in the teaching of the course
via lending support to the instructors during the design and con-
struction phases of the course.
COURSE ASSESSMENT
At the conclusion of the first semester, the students completed
a simple questionnaire consisting of 14 questions aimed at evalu-

TABLE 2
Student Responses to E-mail Questionnaire
Approximately Two Years After the Course
Question* Average Standard
Response Value* Deviation

Do you feel this class prepared you for 3.6 1.0
your future studies?

Do you feel this class motivated you to 3.6 0.7
participate in undergraduate research?

Do you feel this class was worth the 4.3 1.0
extra time and effort required to
conceptualize and develop the design?

Would you recommend this experience 4.6 0.7
to other freshmen?
*Note: Questions were rated on a scale of I to 5. A rating of "I" represented a
response of "Not Really." A rating of "5" represented a response of "Very Much."


ating the success of this course and helping us determine ways
of improving the class.
The results showed that we were very effective in im-
parting design and presentation skills, and the concept of
teamwork (average of 8.3/10), but we were not successful
in relating the theoretical concepts in the chemistry and
calculus lectures to the design project (average of 4.9/10).
All of the students made useful comments. Some consid-
ered the "hands-on experience" to be the most valuable
component of this course. Many suggested reduction in the
size of the teams.

During the second semester, we modified the course, but
we also recognized that we needed to improve the survey
by (a) improving the phrasing of the questions, (b) increas-
ing the number of questions (from 14 to 24), (c) reducing
the rating scale from a total of 10 to 5, (d) including redun-
dant questions, and (e) adding a Likert scale that described
the meaning of the scale. For example, 1 indicated strongly
disagree, 3 indicated neither agree nor disagree, and rating
a question a 5 indicated that the student strongly agreed.
Based on the results from this revised questionnaire, the
students found the second offering of the course more re-
warding as compared to the first offering. Also, the stu-
dents rated the chemistry lectures much higher than those
in the first offering, which could partly be attributed to the
more interactive teaching methodology that we adopted in
the second offering. Some of the results from the second
and third offering are compiled in Table 1.

Overall, each semester the students scored the class with
higher marks. We were particularly pleased with the third
trial results because two undergraduate students covered
the lectures and design labs with minimal faculty supervi-
sion. This was done to assess if the course could be effec-
tive with undergraduates and graduates running the course
with faculty coaches.

Approximately two years after completing the course,
we administered an e-mail survey to 13 randomly chosen
students to determine their status in the engineering pro-
gram, their continued motivation for completion of an en-
gineering degree, and the impact of the course on their cur-
rent engineering studies. Of the respondents, 92% of the
students were engineering majors at the time of the class.
(EGN 1002 is a course open to the entire student body, and
as such, some nonengineering students elect to take the
class). At the time of the survey, as the students were enter-
ing their upper division studies, 77% remained engineer-
ing majors. Students were then asked to rate their experi-
ence in the class through a series of four questions. Rat-
ings ranged from 1 to 5, with 1 representing a response of
"Not Really" and 5 representing a response of "Very Much."
Table 2 displays the results of the questionnaire. Overall,
the students expressed that the class was a rewarding ex-


Fall 2005










perience for them. Many would recommend the experience
to other freshmen. Moreover, the students found that the prin-
ciples taught in the course were an asset in their future stud-
ies, including teamwork, multidisciplinary solutions to engi-
neering problems, and an idea of the practical applications of
their studies. Table 3 displays a sampling of the comments
received with the questionnaires.
Recently, we calculated the retention rate for this experi-
mental course, and of the 81 students who enrolled, 50 either
still remain in engineering or graduated with an engineering
degree. Unfortunately, at the time the course was offered, we
did not recognize that some students (probably less than five)
were not engineering students to begin with, so the overall
retention rate is likely even higher than the observed 62%.
When comparing this retention rate to the retention rate for
the original EGN 1002 course (51%),i5' the multidisciplinary
design course showed marked improvement.
When establishing a course of this nature that focuses on a
particular theme (i.e., a potable water treatment plant), some
may be concerned that only students in chemical, civil, or
environmental engineering might be interested or that stu-
dents in different engineering disciplines might change their
major to one more aligned with the experiment. This was not
the case, however. Of the 50 students who graduated or are
still enrolled in engineering, 15 are/were electrical engineer-
ing majors. The remaining 35 students were approximately
equally dispersed among civil, chemical, agricultural and bio-
logical, mechanical, and computer engineering, while only
one student is currently enrolled in industrial and environ-
mental engineering.

CONCLUSIONS
Students successfully built pilot-scale water treatment plants
that met the turbidity and color standards, and therefore, this


class not only provided a design experience during their first
year, but also provided them with new confidence that they
could build upon in future classes.
Surveys at the conclusion of each course offering provided
positive feedback that this multidisciplinary design course was
a positive experience for the students, and the retention of 62%
of the students in engineering suggests that implementing this
course into the curriculum at the University of Florida is a worth-
while pursuit. Presently, the faculty instructors and associate
dean for academic affairs are reviewing the course outcomes
and developing an implementation strategy.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We would like to thank Dr. Tim Anderson, Dr. Marc Hoit,
and Dr. Paul Chadik for their assistance related to the devel-
opment of this experimental multidisciplinary design course.
In addition, we would like to thank Barbi Barber and Heather
Byrne for their assistance with tracking of the students and
compiling data.

REFERENCES
1. Compton, W.D., "Encouraging Graduate Study in Engineering," J. Eng.
Ed., 84(3), 249 (1995)
2. Maskell, D., "Student-Based Assessment in a Multidisciplinary Prob-
lem-Based Learning Environment," J. Eng. Ed., 88(2), 237 (1999)
3. Marra, R.M., B. Palmer, and A. Liztinger, The Effects of a First-Year
Engineering Design Course on Student Intellectual Development as
Measured by the Perry Scheme," J. Eng. Ed., 89(1), 39 (2000)
4. Burton, J.D., and D.M. White, "Selecting a Model for Freshman Engi-
neering Design," J. Eng. Ed., 88(3), 327 (1999)
5. Hoit, M.I., M. Ohland, and M. Kantowski, "The Impact of a Disci-
pline-Based Introduction to Engineering Course on Improving Reten-
tion," J. Eng. Ed., 87(1), 79 (1998)
6. Engineering Criteria 2000, 2nd Ed. Engineering Accreditation Com-
mission of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology
(ABET), Baltimore, MD, 1996 0


Chemical Engineering Education


TABLE 3
Additional Comments Received from Students
"Overall, I would recommend the class to an entering freshman. The fact that we got to design and build our own water (treatment plant) seemed
overwhelming at times but was a great experience and one that not many freshmen at large colleges get to experience."
"As I've taken more classes I have recognized some of the principles that we discussed in lecture."
"I would recommend the experience to freshmen because it gives them an idea of what the industry is like in the real world with other disciplines
involved."
"This project gave me great experience for getting a job at (the Florida Department of Environmental Protection). However, I think the
experience from the project prepared me for any sort of job situation where teamwork and problem solving is involved, not just in the environ-
mental field."
"I really enjoyed the class and think that this is a great program. It combined multiple disciplines and implemented teamwork skills."
"The hands-on training and teamwork skills developed in this class are incredibly valuable no matter what engineering field you go into. You get
a lot more out of it than you realize right away. Thanks for all the help!"
"I believe that this experience was one which allowed me to view engineering in a different light and start to examine the practical applications,
which all my hard work in academics were for."
"Engineering classes can get discouraging because all you learn is theories, formulas, and how to solve simple problems. However, as a
practicing engineer, you deal with designing a multitude of things and you are constantly dealing with people. This class was able to show
freshmen engineering students how to design and work in a group of a variety of different engineers, which is common in the engineering world."











Learning Through Simulation
Continued from page 295

Finding 3. The points identified as key for effective en-
gagement with the simulation in order to facilitate learn-
ing were generally supported by our results.
A notable exception to this is an open-ended task structure,
which appeared to hinder learning in this study. By eliminat-
ing the open-ended structure during the interviews, students'
conceptual understanding was deepened. Open-endedness
should be retained to encourage system exploration, but
sufficient "hints" or guidelines must exist to ensure desired
concepts are focused on.
Briefly sensitizing students for learning through simulations
was not successful in changing their tutorial-like view of
simulations.
A physical learning history is a poor substitutefor the ability
to stop, rewind, or restart a simulation.
Externalfactors that students bring into the simulation
environment with them can hinder engagement, thus
undermining their experience. Major hindrances include
mood, previous experiences, and the context in which students
perceive the exercise. This implies that the "ideal" environ-
ment can be subverted by external factors.
Finding 4. The majority of the students see simulations
merely as sophisticated calculators that save time.
Simulations are viewed as tutorials that need to be completed
quickly and accurately, not as potential learning exercises.
Students' mindsets regarding simulations need to be devel-
oped.
This may be addressed in several ways
Structure tasks to elicit conceptual rather than numerical
answers.
Remove the assessment weighting of such tasks in the course
structure.
Begin sensitizing students to the benefits of simulation
learning before any simulation packages are introduced in the
degree.
Finding 5. Allowing the students to use their class notes
while completing tests and simulation tasks may elimi-
nate a guessing approach.
Students in this study identified consolidation as an essential
part of their learning. The use of the following should be en-
couraged:
Class notes
Summarizing or another form of consolidation
This will also ensure that students retain any new understand-
ing and bring their prior theoretical understanding to bear
when performing the simulation.
This study suggests important implications for the design
of simulation exercises for learning. The features identified
as facilitating engagement with simulations are insufficient


Fall 2005


due to external factors that have an impact on the learning
context as well as students' preconceived perceptions of simu-
lations. Simulations need to be introduced as learning tools
from early in the program, before students begin working
with them. Enjoyment is vitally important for student engage-
ment with simulations. Finally, simulation tasks must encour-
age exploration, but also provide sufficient guidance to help
students focus on the key variables necessary for conceptual
understanding.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We would like to acknowledge Will Scarborough for his
valuable contribution to this work and his technical exper-
tise. We would also like to acknowledge financial support
from the South Africa National Research Foundation and the
Swedish International Development Agency.

REFERENCES
1. Seider, W.D., J.D. Seader, and D.R. Lewin, Process Design Principles;
Synthesis, Analysis and Evaluation, Wiley, New York (1999)
2. Svrcek, W.Y., D.P. Mahoney, and B.R. Young, A Real-Time Approach
to Process Control, Wiley, New York (2000)
3. Dahm, K.D., R.P. Hesketh, and M.J. Savelski, "Is Process Simulation
Used Effectively in ChE Courses?" Chem. Eng. Ed., 36(3), 192 (2002)
4. Fraser, D.M., C.J. Linder, S. Allison, H. Coombes, and J.M. Case,
"Using Variation to Enhance Learning in Engineering," in press, Int.
J. Eng. Ed. (2005)
5. Wankat, P.C., "Teaching Separations Why, What, When, and How?"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 35(3), 168 (2001)
6. Goodyear, P., "A Knowledge-Based Approach to Supporting the Use
of Simulation Programs," Comp. and Ed., 16, 99 (1990)
7. Kassim, H.O., and R.G. Cadbury, "The Place of the Computer in Chemi-
cal Engineering Education," Comp. Chem. Eng., 20, S1341 (1996)
8. Davies, C.H.J., "Student Engagement with Simulations: A Case Study,"
Comp. and Ed., 39, 271 (2002)
9. Parush, A., H. Hamm, and A. Shtub, "Learning Histories in Simula-
tion-Based Teaching: The Effects on Self-Learning and Transfer,"
Comp. and Ed., 39, 319 (2002)
10. Strijbos, J.W., R.L. Martens, and W.M.G. Jochems, "Designing for
Interaction: Six Steps to Designing Computer-Supported Group-Based
Learning," Comp. and Ed., 42, 403 (2004)
11. Ingerman, A., C. Linder, and D. Marshall, "Learning-Focuses in Phys-
ics Simulation Learning Simulations," presented at the 12'h Annual
Conference of SAARMSTE, Cape Town, South Africa (2004)
12. Marton, F, and S. Booth, Learning and Awareness, Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates, Mahwah, NJ (1997)
13. Marton, F., and R. Siljb, "Approaches to Learning," in: F. Marton, D.
Hounsell, and N. Entwistle (Eds), The Experience of Learning, Scot-
tish Academic Press, Edinburgh (1984)
14. Case, J.M., and D. Marshall, "Between Deep and Surface: Procedural
Approaches to Learning in Engineering Education Contexts," Studies
in Higher Education, 29(5), 605 (2004)
15. Carstensen, A-K., and J. Bernhard, "Laplace Transforms Too Dif-
ficult to Teach, Learn or Apply, or Just a Matter of How to Do It?"
presented at SIG-9 Conference, Gothenburg (August 2004)
16. Flyvbjerg. B., "Making Social Science Matter: Why Social Inquiry
Fails and How It Can Succeed Again," Press Syndicate of the Univer-
sity of Cambridge, UK (2001)
17. Lyle, J., "Stimulated Recall: A Report on its Use in Naturalistic Re-
search," British Ed. Res. J., 29(6), 861 (2003) 1

301










MAI =classroom


ANALOGIES:

Those Little Tricks That Help Students to Understand

Basic Concepts in Chemical Engineering






MARIA. J. FERNANDEZ-TORRES
University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg, South Africa


A according to Schowalter,11 the scientific principles
used to solve successive generations of problems (in
the context of chemical engineering) change very
slowly, but the problems themselves have a different format
and different details that require a critical understanding of
the fundamental concepts involved. Students need this depth
of understanding while studying to equip them with the abil-
ity to successfully apply these engineering concepts in their
future professions. This is the challenge for students under-
taking chemical engineering studies, mentioned periodically
by many authors in articles published in Chemical Engineer-
ing Education. For instance, Falconer'21 in his recent article
states that many students memorize algorithms for solving
problems without understanding the concept itself, and thus,
have difficulties when a new problem is different from one
they have previously solved.
Guidance and suggestions on how to improve teaching
methods seeking better results from students can be
found in most educational journals and books. For instance,
Case and Fraser131 emphasize the importance of a deep approach
to learning, noting, "There is ample evidence that students fre-
quently manage to pass traditional assessment in tertiary sci-
ence and engineering without understanding the work."

THE NEED FOR A DEEP APPROACH
TO LEARNING
To me, the onus still rests on the educator/lecturer to prop-
erly transfer technical concepts to students, and to ensure that
obstacles preventing them from grasping these concepts are
overcome.


In the same line of thought, Demirel[41 states that the in-
structor (lecturer or tutor) has to improve the effectiveness of
his/her teaching since he/she cannot do much about the stu-
dents' ability or background. Felder, in the majority of his
Random Thoughts columns (e.g., Reference 5), shares the
same view. This same author15-61 and many others"' mention
the need to help students adopt a deep approach to learning,
by "trying routinely to relate course material to other things
they know." Bearing this in mind, it can be easily understood
that analogies, though simplistic, offer a way for students to
make those connections.
The use of analogies is a creative teaching method that pro-
motes conceptual understanding among students. It can be
"fun" to use simple analogies of everyday situations to clarify
the fundamental concepts/phenomena being presented. For
example, Iveson'l7 published a very interesting article describ-
ing an analogy (two basins used to clean dishes in stages)
useful to explain why counter-current layout is more effi-
cient than co-current. Also, analogies break the flow of the
lecture routine. It is necessary to catch the attention of the
few students who have adopted a "bystander" attitude when

Maria. J. FernAndez-Torres completed her
B.Sc. in chemistry in 1992 and Ph.D. in chemi-
cal engineering in 1996, both at the Univer-
sity of Alicante (Spain). Since then she has
been a full-time lecturer. She has published
some papers under the general topics of trans-
port phenomena and phase equilibria but her
main interest and dedication is to help her stu-
dents learn. She is currently at Universidad
de Alicante in Alicante, Spain.


Copyright ChEDivision of ASEE 2005


Chemical Engineering Education











Figure 1. Analogy to help
clarify some misconcep-
tions associated with the
understanding of mass
and mole fractions:
a) shows a problem posed
to students in class;
b) shows that simply
adding mass or mole
fractions to obtain the
final fraction of the
mixture is incorrect.


attending lectures. Analogies are also useful to motivate stu-
dents who lack some aptitude for understanding the subject
adequately. It can be much easier for them to first relate the
concepts to something tangible and then to extrapolate to its
scientific context.
I often use analogies when I explain concepts to my stu-
dents. The procedure is usually as follows: First, I present
the material on an academic level. If some express concern,
show lack of understanding (usually with a frown), and/or in-
dividually come to consult me, I then use analogies to
reinforce what I stated during the academic presentation.
I have noticed how students gain understanding in basic con-
cepts through the use of analogies. It is when their faces
light up with understanding that I realize how helpful
analogies can be.
This paper describes some analogies that have been help-
ful to first-year students and gives an idea of how analogies
are applied in class and in tutorials.
Analogies to Help Clarify Some Misconceptions
Associated with Mass and Mole Fractions
Mass and Mole Fractions Analogy 1 Mass and mole frac-
tions are used frequently in chemical engineering. Students
usually encounter them for the very first time when dealing
with mass balances in the first year. Some students have dif-
ficulty understanding how to deal properly with these frac-
tions because they do not grasp the underlying concept in-
volved. This is especially obvious when they have to calcu-
late the mass/molar fraction of one particular component af-
ter the mixing of two or more streams (see Figure la). These
students do not understand that the flowrate value of each
joining stream influences the mass/molar fraction of the out-
put stream. Some of them even end up concluding that the
resulting mass/molar fraction, for example the problem rep-
resented by Figure la, is "xAl + xA2 !
A good way to prevent this incorrect conclusion from tak-
ing root is to give them the following analogy (see Figure
lb): Imagine that a university has 15,000 male students and
15,000 female students. One should agree that there are 50%


of each. Now imagine that your family is made up of three
males and three females. Also 50/50, isn't it? So, now, if your
family comes to the university for a visit, does it mean
that the total percentage of females is 100%? This should
very clearly illustrate that the final mole or mass fraction
of a species in solution after mixing is not merely a cu-
mulative sum of the fractions of the initial solutions be-
fore mixing.
Mass and Mole FractionsAnalogy 2 Another typical case of
a lack in conceptualization occurs when a sample is taken
from a homogeneous mixture by using a splitter (Figure 2a).
A clear insight of this is essential, for instance, to carry out
proper mass balance calculations when purging.
Some students do not see that both streams have the same
concentration. One could illustrate the principle using the


Figure 2. Analogy to help clarify some of the miscon-
ceptions associated with the understanding of mass and
mole fractions: a) shows a problem posed to students in
class; b) shows how to tackle the problem a sample
from a homogeneous mixture has the same concentra-
tion as the original mixture itself.


Fall 2005


8 1/3 of the flow
x,=0.2
X 3
x -- 2/3 of the flow


I













Students need ... depth of understanding while
studying to equip them with the ability to successfully apply
these engineering concepts in their future professions.


following example (see Figure 2b): If
you prepare a drink made up of orange
concentrate and water, and you serve it
in different glasses, which one would
taste better?
Mass and Mole Fractions Analogy (3)
Now, for the sole purpose of illustra-
tion, the opposite of the above-men-
tioned example could also be used to
reinforce the same principle, namely
that if we join, for instance, two streams
with the same mass/molar fraction (Fig-
ure 3a), the resulting one will retain the
same fraction. Should we pour the con-
tent of one glass of juice back into the
original mixture, the new mixture
would still taste the same (see Figure
3b). It should then be clear to students
that the same principle applies. Note:
The intention of the author here is not
to show that students could do the same
with chemicals (i.e., return chemicals
to the reagent jar). This is just an anal-
ogy to aid comprehension.

Analogy to Assist with the
Understanding of Steady-State
Conditions
Because transient processes are
typically considered too complex for
first- and second-year students to
grasp, course content often contains
steady-state situations a concept
also not readily assimilated by first-year
students. Students tend to think that if
a system is under steady-state condi-
tions, all the variables should be the
same at any point. One could tackle this
problem using the example of a mov-
ing conveyor belt in a production line.
For illustration, consider Figure 4. At
one end of the belt, the bottles are
empty. They are then filled with, say,
chopped tomatoes, the lid is placed on


top, and finally they are labeled. If we look at the belt tomorrow it will look the
same. In one year's time (provided that there have been no changes to the fac-
tory) it will still look the same it is as if time is not a variable in the process.
Yes, it is true that if you look at one particular bottle, time is a variable. That
particular bottle gets filled, packed, sold, used, and hopefully recycled, but


Figure 3. Analogy to help clarify some of the misconceptions associated
with the understanding of mass and mole fractions: a) shows a problem
posed to students in class; b) shows how to approach the problem -
returning a previously removed sample to the homogeneous mixture does
not affect the final concentration.


Figure 4. Analogy to assist with the understanding of steady state. The
conveyor belt symbolizes any process plant functioning at steady state. It can
be understood that although an individual bottle gets filled, packed, and
sold, the process behaves as if time stands still.


Chemical Engineering Education


The flavor of the content of the jug does
not change when we pour back some of the
juice.










that is not the point. The point is that the process
behaves as if time stands still.

Analogy to Assist with the Understand-
ing of Specific Volume
The principle of specific volume is first encoun-
tered with multiphase systems. Some students
only realize later on in the year, while trying to
understand all the data presented in the ther-


Figure 5. Analogy to assist with the understand-
ing of specific volumes. The figure helps show
that the same substance in different states has
different specific volumes.


modynamic tables, that they do not really have a feeling for what
this means. For example, consider the following situation: Imagine 1
kg of water confined in a vessel of volume 0.025 m3 at T= 275.6 C
and P= 60 bar. By looking at suitable tables of data,181 it can be found
that the conditions in the vessel are those of saturation, and that the
water inside should be a mixture of liquid and vapor since the spe-
cific volume of saturated vapor for that situation equals 0.0324
m3/kg, and the corresponding value for saturated liquid water is
0.001332 m3/kg. Some students understand this concept better if
one describes the following scenario: Imagine that a fully inflated
balloon always displaces 1 L of water (e.g., a balloon submerged in
a tank of water, Figure 5) and a flat balloon occupies only 5 mL. If
we have 10 balloons inside the tank and they displace 5.025 L, in
which states) should we find them -all inflated, all flat, or a
mixture of both?

Analogy to Assist with the Understanding
of Saturated Air
The concept of air saturated with water is a topic of great impor-
tance, one that students are introduced to in the first year and also
revisit during their study of other subjects (such as mass transfer
operations).
The students usually first encounter this concept when they are
taught how to interpret the psychrometric chart. Some students find
it difficult to understand that when air is saturated and then cooled
(see Figure 6a), we get some liquid water (that part is easy for
them to grasp), but also some "saturated air" again, only now at a
cooler temperature. Students are typically completely puzzled by
the latter consequence.
Yet, one could explain this scenario with an example using a
tray filled with drinking glasses (Figure 6b). The tray symbolizes
the air initially saturated. Suppose that when we cool it, the tray
"shrinks," causing some glasses to fall off (i.e., water condens-
ing). The shrunken tray, however, remains "saturated" with glasses.
So if one pushes one more glass onto the tray, another glass will
fall off.


before shrinking



after shrinking


a) b)

Figure 6. Analogy to assist with the understanding of air saturated with water.
a) Shows a problem posed to students in class. The left drawing in b) helps students visualize air (tray) saturated with
water. After cooling (the right figure in b), air is still saturated despite some water having condensed.


Fall 2005


saturated air .saturated air
40liC a20t




liquid water










Analogy to Assist with the Understanding of
Concentration After Evaporation
The study of binary mixture evaporation is usually ex-
plained using Txy and Pxy diagrams. The lecturer explains



The analogy is not
the only way that the concept is
presented to a student.
Rather, an analogy is
a possible complement
useful at the end of
an academic/formal presentation
to reinforce a concept.



the changes of concentration in the liquid and the vapor be-
tween bubble and dew point (see Figure 7a, top), but can still
find that some students are not able to answer the following
question (see Figure 7a, bottom): "What is the concentra-
tion of a mixture, initially liquid, made up of 40% benzene
and 60% toluene after total evaporation?" The following
analogy then comes in handy (Figure 7b): You have a party
consisting of 40% women and 60% men. Initially they
are all sitting, but at some point they all get up and start
to dance. What percentage of women is dancing? It is clear
from this example that the concentration of a mixture af-


ter total evaporation is the same as it was before evapora-
tion. Figure 7 helps to illustrate how the percentage of
the different components of a liquid mixture does not
change after total evaporation of a liquid (provided that
there is no reaction or thermal decomposition).

Analogy to Assist with the Understanding of
Manometers
The use of manometers and the concepts of pressure and
pressure changes are common for chemical engineers. This
is one of the first topics that a first-year student will deal with
in his/her student career.
To explain why the manometer fluid is at a particular
position inside a manometer, while the system fluid is
flowing (Figure 8a), one could use the following anal-
ogy: Each branch of the manometer fluid in the manom-
eter is subjected to a different pressure. You have to imag-
ine that there is a platform on top of each branch of ma-
nometer fluid (Figure 8b) and an animal placed on top of
each platform, both having very different weights. These
could be, say, a pig and a chicken. How are the respective
weights going to affect the levels of the manometer fluid
in the branches of the manometer? Remember that pres-
sure is force/area!

CONCLUSIONS
Some illustrations of possible analogies between scientific
concepts and real life have been presented here. Students seem
to understand concepts better when an analogy is used to
elaborate on academic ideas. For the author, there is no one


Liquid Vapour
60% Toluene ? % Toluene
40% Benzene ? % Benzene


all sitting:
60 % men, 40 % ladies


Chemical Engineering Education


Figure 7. Analogy to assist with the understanding of concentration after total evaporation. Part a) shows a problem
posed to students in class. The left drawing in b) represents the liquid state and the right one in b), the vapor.










way to assess the influence of the analogies on the learning
experience of a student, since the analogy is not the only
way that the concept is presented to a student. Rather, an
analogy is a possible complement useful at the end of an
academic/formal presentation to reinforce a concept. For
the author the fact that many students' faces light up after
the analogy is presented gives a good enough indication
that the methodology is an effective strategy in learning
and teaching. This is mainly because students gain insights
into the theory through analogies.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author sincerely thanks Prof. Potgieter (University
of the Witwatersrand, South Africa) and Prof. Ruiz-Bevia
(Universidad de Alicante, Spain) for reading the manu-
script and providing constructive comments.

REFERENCES
1. Schowalter, W.R., "The Equations (of Change) Don't Change. But the
Profession of Engineering Does." Chem. Eng. Ed.. 37(4), 242 (2003)
2. Falconer, J.L., "Use of Conceptests and Instant Feedback in Thermo-
dynamics," Chem. Eng. Ed. 38(1), 64 (2004)
3. Case, J.M., and D.M. Fraser, "The Challenges of Promoting and As-
sessing for Conceptual Understanding in Chemical Engineering,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 36(1), 42 (2002)


4. Demirel. Y., "Teaching Engineering Courses with Workbooks," Chem.
Eng. Ed.. 38(1). 74 (2004)
5. Felder, R.M., and R. Brent, "FAQS IV: Dealing with Student Back-
ground Deficiencies and Low Student Motivation," Chem. Eng. Ed.,
35(4), 266 (2001)



The use of analogies is a creative
teaching method that promotes
conceptual understanding
among students. It can be "fun"
to use simple analogies of everyday
situations to clarify the
fundamental concepts/phenomena
being presented.



6. Felder, R.M., "Meet Your Students: 3. Michelle, Rob, and Art," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 24(3), 130 (1990)
7. Iveson, S., "Explaining Why Counter-current is More Efficient than
Co-current," Chem. Eng. Ed.. 36(4), 257, Letter to the Editor (2002)
8. Rogers, G.F.C., and Y.R. Mayhew, Thermodynamic and Transport
Properties ofFluids, SI Units, 5th Ed. Blackwell Publishing (1995) 1


Figure 8. Analogy to assist with the understanding of manometers: a) shows a sketch of the manometer; b) shows the
effect of pressure exerted by animals having different weights.


Fall 2005


manometer
fluid

zl


manometer fluid


I










,W classroom


Teaching

SEMIPHYSICAL MODELING

to ChE Students Using

a Brine-Water Mixing Tank Experiment








DANIEL E. RIVERA
Arizona State University Tempe, AZ 85287-6006


Process dynamics education in the ChE curriculum is
usually accomplished as part of a dedicated controls
course, which is listed in most programs of study as a
senior-year course; many papers have been published in the
literature describing process control educational efforts and
laboratories. -3, 5' 8 The fundamentals of the dynamical be-
havior of engineering systems can be adequately presented
much earlier in the curriculum, however, and done so in the
context of applications more general than process systems.
Including a laboratory experience as part of this instruction
provides an opportunity for students to develop analysis skills
as well as a working feel for abstract concepts that will prove
valuable in later courses and during their subsequent careers.
Such an experience was provided to chemical engineering
students at Arizona State University. "Understanding Engi-
neering Systems via Conservation," (ECE 394 Systems) was
the third in an experimental core curriculum developed at
Texas A&M141 which was part of the chemical engineering
curriculum at ASU from 1992 to 2003. Students traditionally
took ECE 394 Systems in the spring semester of their junior
year. This four-credit-hour course was structured with three
lecture hours a week and one weekly two-hour recitation.
The course stressed the broad-based use of accounting and
conservation principles to model systems involving process,
electrical, and mechanical components (separately and in

@ Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005


combination). Another principal course objective was the use
of computer-based tools to model engineering systems of prac-
tical interest.
In ECE 394 Systems, students were confronted with the
"reality" of engineering systems from the very first lecture.
Students are made aware that most real systems are
E Dynamic/unsteady-state ("steady-state is a figment of
the imagination")
El Nonlinear
CE Multivariable (i.e., possessing multiple inputs and
outputs)


Daniel E. Rivera is an associate profes-
sorin the Department of Chemical and Ma-
terials Engineering at Arizona State Uni-
versity, and program director for the ASU
Control Systems Engineering Laboratory
(). He
received his Ph.D. in chemical engineer-
ing from the California Institute of Technol-
ogy in 1987, and holds B.S. and M.S. de-
grees from the University of Rochester and
the University of Wisconsin-Madison, re-
spectively Prior to joining ASU he was an
associate research engineer in the Con-
trol Systems section of Shell Development Company. His primary teach-
ing and research interests lie in the field of process dynamics and con-
trol, which includes the topics of dynamic modeling via system identifi-
cation, robust process control, and applications of process control con-
cepts to problems in supply chain management and adaptive inter-
ventions in behavioral health.


Chemical Engineering Education










E Uncertain (i.e., models of real systems lack accuracy)
[E Stochastic (i.e., real systems are subject to random
behavior, and as such cannot be always described by
deterministic models; precision errors will always be
present in models)
Starting in the first lecture (and frequently thereafter)
students were also presented with the saying attributed to
famous statistician Prof. G.E.P. Box of the University of
Wisconsin, "All models are wrong, but some are useful."
Students in the course work in recitation as part of three-
person teams. Two individual reports and three group pre-
sentations are required as part of the modeling project.
The brine-water tank experiment (Figure 1) was used in
ECE 394 Systems as an ongoing project to indoctrinate stu-
dents to reconciling the abstraction of mathematical model-
ing with the realities of a practical system. The main objec-
tive of this experiment is to develop via first principles and
semiphysical modeling techniques usefid mathematical mod-
els of the tank behavior displaying good predictive ability.
Specifically, the students are asked to model the dynamic re-
sponse of salt concentration in the outlet stream (c) and level
in the tank (h) to changes in the inlet brine flowrate (q)), the
freshwater flowrate (q,,), and outlet flow (q ). The tank is
interfaced to a industrial-scale, real-time computing platform,
namely a Honeywell TotalPlant Solution System (previously
known as the TDC3000, Figure 2). The engineer is capable
of adjusting all three tank flows via the TDC3000 regulatory
control points FIC100, FIC101, and LIC100 (see Figure 1).
The experiment also requires students to generate a suitable
calibration between the signal generated from an online con-
ductivity sensor and the salt concentration (in g/f) for the
outlet stream in the tank.
This paper describes the following aspects of the project:
EL The experimental apparatus
EL The first-principles model for the tank and the correspond-
ing derivation of a semiphysical modelfor this system
EL The steps involved in developing a comprehensive
semiphysical modeling procedure, beginning with
experimental design and concluding with model valida-
tion; the procedure is illustrated with actual experimental
data obtained from the tank
EL Recommendations for the use of this experiment in other
courses in the ChE curriculum

EXPERIMENTAL DESCRIPTION
Figure 1 shows both the process and the instrumentation
used in this experiment. The flow of tap water to the process
is regulated by measuring the flow with an orifice meter and
changing the valve position on the water line according to an
algorithm in a regulatory control point in the TDC3000. This
control loop is assigned the tagname FIC100. Similarly, the
flow of a concentrated salt solution is controlled with loop
FIC 101. The level in the tank is measured with a differential
pressure cell (d/p) with one leg connected to the bottom of


Figure 1. The brine-water mixing tank in diagram (a),
and pictured (b).


Figure 2. Representative cluster of Universal and Global
User Stations for ASU's TotalPlant Solution System.


Fall 2005










the tank and the other leg open to the atmosphere. The regu-
latory control point LIC100 compares this level with a de-
sired level and manipulates the flow through the drain line.
The salt concentration leaving and entering the tank is mea-
sured with conductivity cells and is read into the system via
analog input points CI100 and CI102, respectively. The con-
ductivity measurements are displayed as the PVs (process
values) of CI100 and CI102. By setting the appropriate in-
strument range-limit parameters in the system (e.g.,
PVEUHI and PVEULO) the students are able to imple-
ment a linear correlation relating the raw 4-20ma signal
from the conductivity cells to a sensible value for con-
centration in units of g/f.
CIC100 is a regulatory control point used in a subsequent
course (ChE 461, Introduction to Process Control[7') which
adjusts the salt-inlet flowrate setpoint (FIC101.SP) to keep
exit-stream salt concentration at setpoint (CI100.PV); stu-
dents are asked to leave this point on "manual" throughout
the experiment.
The mixing tank experimental apparatus has been a long-
standing fixture of the undergraduate chemical engineering
laboratories at ASU, having been in continuous use since the
mid-1980s. The cost to build a system of similar size to the
one shown in Figure 1 (not including the data acquisition and
control equipment) is estimated at slightly more than $8,000.
This total is roughly broken down into the following: $200
for two polypropylene tanks, $4,000 for sensors (consisting
of two flow meters, three differential pressure cells, and two
conductivity cells with transmitters), $3,600 for three electro-


pneumatic valves, and $350 for the rack/frame and associ-
ated piping and wiring. Once built, the experiment requires
only basic maintenance for adequate operation; since 1990
our setup has only required replacing the polypropylene tanks
and one of the conductivity transmitters.
The TDC3000/TotalPlant Solution System is also a long-
standing fixture of our laboratory (having been donated by
Honeywell to our program in 1990, as described in Refer-
ence 7). But, in lieu of a commercial distributed-control sys-
tem, a readily available data acquisition platform such as
LabVIEW from National Instruments ()
can be used as a computer interface with the system. We
should note that a smaller-scale apparatus can be used to ac-
complish the experiment described in this paper; for example,
the bench-scale brine-water tank experiment described by
Bequette and Ogunnaike[2J could readily be adapted for the
purposes here.

BRINE-WATER TANK MODELING

First-Principles Modeling
During lecture and through homework assignments, stu-
dents use Matlab with Simulink to develop a first-principles
dynamical model describing the effect of the various system
inputs on the level and salt concentration. The principles of
conservation of total mass and accounting of the salt species
in the tank are used to derive this model. The level dynamics
of the system are described by a differential equation arising
from the conservation of total mass in the system


Figure 3. Simulink window for the brine-water mixing tank first-principles model.


Chemical Engineering Education









dh I PC
-- q-qF+ qc (1)
dt A p-
while the dynamics of salt in the tank are modeled by accounting for this species in
the system

d (cc-Pc -q V=hA (2)
dt V[ p ) V
A, the cross-sectional area of the tank, pc and p, the inlet-brine and inlet-water/
outlet-stream densities (respectively), and c the inlet-brine concentration, are con-
stant valued parameters in the model.
An example of the Simulink window built by students is shown in Figure 3. Fur-
thermore, Matlab with Simulink can be used to compare the results of the first-prin-
ciples nonlinear model with the responses obtained from its linearized equivalent at
an operating condition; this enables students to evaluate the modeling errors associ-
ated with linearization.
Semiphysical modeling
The derivation of the semiphysical model follows along the line of the analysis
presented in Lindskog.16' Assuming constant volume in the tank (as the result of tight
level control in the system) and constant densities for all streams, the first-principles
model per Eqs. (1) and (2) reduces to
dc qcc, (qc+qw)c
(3)
dt V V
Using a forward-difference approximation on the derivative (for a sampling time T)
leads to
c(t+T)-c(t) q,(t)c,(t) (qc(t)+qw(t))c(t)
(4)
T V V
which solving for c(t+T) yields

Cc(t)c(t)T (qc(t)+qw(t)) c(t)T
c(t+T)= c(t) v v(5)
Rearranging and consolidating terms, as well as renaming time in terms of sam-
pling instants (t = k T, where k, the sampling instant, is an integer) leads to the
semiphysical model structure
c(k)= c(k- 1)+O1qc(k- I)cc(k- 1)+2qc(k- l)c(k- 1)+03q,(k- l)c(k- 1) (6)
Estimates of 01, 02, and 03 can be obtained from the first-principles model
T T T
6,=- ,=- 6-,= (7)
V V V
or alternatively, they can be estimated from plant data by recognizing that 01, 02, and
03 are linear in the parameters and hence linear regression can be readily applied. The
latter represents the semiphysical parameter estimation problem which can be easily
computed in software packages widely available to students, such as Excel or Matlab.

A COMPREHENSIVE SEMIPHYSICAL MODELING EXPERIENCE
Having recognized that parameter estimation in semiphysical modeling constitutes
a regression problem, students are then asked to perform a series of tasks that com-
prise a comprehensive identification procedure. These include:


The

main

objective

of this

experiment

is to develop

- via first

principles and

semiphysical

modeling

techniques -
useful

mathematical

models of the

tank behavior

displaying

good

predictive

ability.


Fall 2005











1. ExperimentalDesign. Students are asked to use the first-principles Matlab/Simulink
model to design an informative experiment on the system. The design consists of a series
"All models are of step changes of varying magnitude and duration that are intended to highlight the

wrong, but some nonlinear behavior of the system and take into account the dominant time dynamics. The
are useful." experiment must not exceed a two-hour time period (the length of a recitation session)
and must avoid taking the sensors and actuators past their limits. Figure 4 shows a
TDC3000 data screen for a typical experimen-
-attributed to tal run designed by the students. Various ex-
Prof. G.E.P. Box perimental runs are performed over two weeks pour Parameter Model Ver A
of the University of in the semester, and these are used to serve as Estimated Thetal = 0.019993
Wisconsin estimation and validation data sets for the en- First principles, Thetal = 0.013557
suing parameter-estimation problem.tited eta 0.047
_________________________________ M Estimated Thata2 = 0.047279
2. Model structure selection and parameter First principles, Theta2 = -0.014069
estimation. Students are then asked to develop a Matlab program that uses regression
analysis to estimate parameters of the semiphysical model. In addition to the three- Estimated Theta3 = -0.015284
parameter model structure shown in Eq. (6), the program must also estimate parameters First principles, Theta] = -0.013557
for the following difference equation model structures, which are simple extensions to estimated Teta4 = 0.oe9as
the model per Eq. (6): First principles, Theta4 = i
Four-parameter model (Version A):


c(k)=04c(k-1)+Oiqc(k- 1)cc(k- )+02qc(k- )c(k-1)+03qw(k- )c(k- ) (8)

Four-parameter model (Version B):

c(k)=c(k- 1)+9,q,(k-l)c,(k- 1)+02qc(k- 1)c(k-1)+3qw(k- l)c(k- 1)+4 (9)

Five-parameter model:

c(k)=04c(k- 1)+1qc(k- l)cc(k-1)+02qc(k- )c(k- 1)+63q(k l)c(k- )+05 (10)

The "four-parameter" and "five-parameter" models have more degrees of freedom
and therefore allow greater flexibility in improving the goodness-of-fit as compared to
the "three-parameter" difference equation.


Figure 4.
Estimation data
collected from
the mixing tank,
shown on a
Honeywell TPS
group display.


EBtimation Data Results
KMS error = 0.022619
MAX error = 0.056326

Validation Data Results
EMS error = 0.22734
MAX error = 0.46546

Figure 6. Parameter estimates for
the four-parameter semiphysical
model (Version A), compared
with coefficients from first
principles.


12 Nov 98 16:38:57 3


LIC100 50


7 full 25


120

S FIC100
gpm
SR-AXIS H20 FLOW


2 HOURS HM HM HM HM
_________^ I-r


105
3 *
FIC101
GPM
SALTFLOW


0.12* 0.280^


75 6'

CI100
GRAMS/L
TANKCONC


0 45
BP


CI102
GRAMS/L
SALT CON


40.0 ------ ------


0.12 0.087 40.3 -0.472


0.0L 105.0H


MAN
LIC100


82.9


11/12/98 16:38:30 MIN


CIC100 DACQTANK
GRAMS/L
TANKCONC DATACOL

0.000*

L -0.473

58.3*
INIT
CIfU


AUTO AUTO
TANK LEVEL, Z FULL


Chemical Engineering Education


GROUP 001 MIXING TANK EXPERIMENT











3. Model Validation. Ultimately, the goal of model valida-
tion is to determine the model structure and parameters lead-
ing to predictions that are both physically meaningful and
result in lower errors when compared on a validation data set
(i.e., a data set other than the one used for estimation). The
semiphysical model estimates are compared against each
other and against the responses obtained from the first-
principles model (in both continuous-time and difference-



DER Outlet Tank Concentration, Solid Measured Data, Dashed Nonlinear Model, Dash-Dotted Semiphysical


s
4 ---
Snlnear Modelata
2 3 Parameter Semiphysical
o ~-/'


0 5 10 15 20
time


25 30 35 40


DER Tank Level, Solid. Measured Data Dashed Nonlinear Model


ii

Iii


I *I '' ,l


0 5 10 15 20
Time


25 30 35 40


equation form). In addition, students are asked to com-
pute, display, and plot the maximum and root-mean-
square (RMS) errors for both the estimation and cross-
validation data sets. The RMS and maximum errors are
determined on the basis of the residual time series

eresid(k)=c(k)-c(k), k=l,...,N (11)

which is the difference between the measured concentration
(c(k)) and that estimated from a model ( (k)). N is the total
number of observations in the data set. The RMS error is
computed as



1RMSerr= (12)

while the maximum error consists of the largest absolute
magnitude in the residuals,

MAXerr=maxleresid(k)l, k=l,---,N (13)
k


4. Reflection. Determir
first-principles) is "best"
to examine their experien
sible sources of error and
tance. The inquisitive stui


DER Inlet Salt Flowrate and Setpoint DER Inlet Water Flowrate and Setpoint
0.22 2.2
0.2 2
S0.18 1.8
0- 0.16 1.6
o 0.14 1.4
S0.12 1.2

0.1 1

0.08 0.8
0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40
time Time

DER Outlet Flowrate, Solid: nonlinear, Dashed: linear DER Inlet Salt Concentration
2.5 39

38.5
.k 2 at
= c 38
3~ 0

1o 5 37.5
0 a)
LL 1.5 g
0
0 37

1 36.5
0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40
Time Time


Figure 5. Output (a) and input (b) time series for the estimation data set.


ning which model (semiphysical or
is not enough. Students are asked
ice with the system and list all pos-
1 prioritize them in order of impor-
dent will recognize problems related
with the calibration of mea-
surements, the relative effect
of the simplifying assump-
tions, and similar circum-
stances. Ultimately, the stu-
dents realize the importance of
semiphysical modeling and of
working with data as a valu-
able tool in modeling.
An illustration of the vari-
ous steps with some repre-
sentative test data sets is
shown in Figures 5 through
8. These plots are generated
using the Matlab/Simulink
files developed by the stu-
dents over the course of the
semester. A typical estima-
tion data set (consisting in
this case of one step change
each for the inlet brine and
freshwater flows) is shown in
Figure 5. Parameter estimates
are presented on the Matlab
command window and com-
pared to first-principles coef-
ficients; Figure 6 shows typi-
cal values obtained for the
four-parameter model (Ver-


Fall 2005


-I


)










sion A). Simulation results on the estimation
and validation data sets that include the first-
principles model, and the regression results us-
ing the various semiphysical model structures
presented earlier, are shown in Figure 7. There
is relative agreement between the first prin-
ciples and three-parameter semiphysical
model results, as can be seen in Figure 6. All
semiphysical models closely agree (Figure 7a),
and as reflected by the RMS values (Figure 8a),
increasing the number of parameters yields im-
proved goodness of fit in the estimation data set.
Simulation results on the validation data set seen
in Figure 7b, however, indicate that the four-pa-
rameter model (Version A) has the best predic-
tive ability over all the evaluated models; this
is ultimately the most important criterion in
discriminating between the various models.
Besides a better visual fit in the simulation,
the four-parameter model (Version A) also dis-
plays superior RMS (Figure 8b) and MAX er-
rors (not shown).


STUDENT FEEDBACK
AND ASSESSMENT
Prior to the introduction of the brine-water mix-
ing tank experiment in ECE 394 Systems, stu-
dent exposure to real-time data acquisition and
measurement was minimal (until the senior year,
when they were required to take ChE 461, Pro-
cess Dynamics and Control). Likewise, Matlab
experience was limited to working with M-func-
tions in a core numerical methods course (ECE
384), and there was no exposure to Simulink. As
a result, much of the strongest praise and rec-
ognition of the benefits of the ECE 394 Sys-
tems course was offered by students during
their senior year, or following employment in
industry or graduate school (as evidenced by
many anecdotal experiences shared with the in-
structor). Nonetheless, student evaluation re-
sponses to the question "What did you like the
most about the course?" often focused on the
recitation/lab experience involving the brine-
water mixing tank experiment. Some com-
ments include:
"I liked the opportunity to get hands-on ex-
perience in the lab. It was fun learning how
to use Matlab and Simulink to model what
was going on in class. Also, I believe this
class will prepare me quite wellfor others."
"I was able to relate course material to real-


world problems .... Ifelt like I learned a lot."
* "(I liked) the fact that near the end of the course the theoreticalparts of
the course were shown in a practical way, i.e., working with the mixing
tank."
* "Going to work with the brine-water tank reinforced what we did in
class. Usually you do not get to apply what you learn in a class, but
our lab gave us this opportunity."



DER Estimation Data
R ,,


3.5


5 10 15 20
time


25 30 35 40


DER Validation Data


0 5 10 15 20
time


25 30 35 40


Figure 7. Simulation results on the estimation (a) and validation (b)
data sets for the first-principles and semiphysical models.


Chemical Engineering Education


-- Measured Data
Nonlinear Model
/ 3 Par Semiphysical
X/ 4 Par Semiphys (Vi
4 Par Semiphys (Vi
-e-- 5 Par Semiphysical


er A)
er B)











"The recitation period was very different and interesting it
made us think!"

"The projects and lab materials were the best part of the course.
They gave me the chance to see actual uses for my degree."
Student criticism associated with the brine-water experiment con-
sisted principally of complaints on the perceived additional workload
created by project, as well as the timing of the final project report
(which some students felt was too close to finals). One student re-
quested that peer assessment be part of the final project grade. Some
criticism was particularly noteworthy, for instance:

S"There was, perhaps, too much computer modeling done in
this course. I did, however; enjoy doing it."



RMS error comparison on the estimation data set


0.03



0.025



002


S32 3.4 3.6 3.8 4 42
Number of estimated parameters


Version A

Version B


4.6 48


RMS error comparison on the validation data set


Q Version B


Version A


3 3.2 3.4 36 3.8 4 4.2
Number of estimated parameters


44 46 48 5


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The brine-water mixing tank is a relatively simple
experiment that can be readily taught to students
across disciplines. The experiment described in
this paper exposes students to significant con-
cepts in dynamical modeling, system identifica-
tion, and numerical computing in a challenging
experimental and real-time information setting.
Semiphysical modeling is introduced in a
meaningful way while demanding only a modest
mathematical background from students: knowl-
edge of differential equations, basic numerical
methods, and regression analysis. Aside from a
dedicated engineering systems course, this ex-
periment can serve an important role in either an
introductory process dynamics and control course
or a senior-level unit operations laboratory. Cop-
ies of the Matlab/Simulink files implementing
this procedure, including some sample data files,
can be obtained by request from the author via
e-mail (daniel.rivera@asu.edu).


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The assistance of Prof. Emeritus V.E. (Gene) Sater
in providing some of the historical and cost infor-
mation regarding the brine-water mixing tank ex-
periment is gratefully acknowledged.


REFERENCES

1. Ang, S., and R.D. Braatz, "Experimental Projects for the
Process Control Laboratory," Chem. Eng. Ed. 36(3), 182
(2002)
2. Bequette, B.W.. and B.A. Ogunnaike, "Chemical Process
Control Education and Practice," IEEE Control Systems
Mag. 21(2), 10(2001)
3. Edgar, T.F., "Process Control Education in the Year 2000:
A Round-Table Discussion," Chem. Eng. Ed., 72-77 (1990)
4. Glover, C.J., and C.A. Erdman, "Overview of the Texas
A&M/NSF Engineering Core Curriculum Development,"
Proceedings of the 1992 Frontiers in Education Confer-
ence, Nashville. TN, p. 363 (1992)
5. Joseph, B., C.M. Yin, and D. Srinivasgupta, "A Labora-
tory to Supplement Courses in Process Control," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 36(1), 20 (2002)
6. Lindskog, P., Methods, Algorithms, and Tools for System
Identification Based on Prior Knowledge, Ph.D. thesis.
Linkoping University, Sweden, Dept. of Electrical Engi-
neering (1996)
7. Rivera, D.E., K.S. Jun, V.E. Sater, and M.K. Shetty, "Teach-
ing Process Dynamics and Control Using an Industrial-
Scale Real-Time Computing Environment, ComputerApps.
in Eng. Ed.. Special Issue on Computer-Aided Chemical
Engineering Education, 4(3), 191 (1996)
8. Young, B.R., D.P. Mahoney, and W.Y Svrcek, "A Real-
Time Approach to Process Control Education, Chem. Eng.
Ed., 34(3), 278 (2000) 1





25


Figure 8. RMS error comparison on the estimation (a)
and validations (b) data sets.


Fall 2005


)










learning in industry


Heat Transfer Analysis and the Path Forward

in a Student Project on

THE SPLENDA* SUCRALOSE PROCESS






DONG HEE (LINDSEY) OH
Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332-0100
WILLIAM H. AKERS
Tate & Lyle Sucralose, Inc. Mclntosh, AL 36553


Tate & Lyle is a global leader in the ingredient manu-
facturing and sales business. The group operates 41
manufacturing plants and 20 additional production fa-
cilities in 28 countries, supplying a wide variety of products
from starches to polymers. Tate & Lyle Sucralose, Inc., lo-
cated in McIntosh, Ala., produces Sucralose, the first and the
only calorie-free non-nutritive sweetener made from sugar
(see Figure 1) It is marketed and distributed by the brand
name, Splenda.* Sucralose, unlike other artificial sweeten-
ers available in the market, is stable in a wide temperature
range, enabling consumers to cook and bake with it without
breaking apart the molecule. Its sugarlike taste is another point
which attracts consumers worldwide. Since the initial pro-
duction launch, demand for Sucralose has seen exponential
growth. It is projected that this trend will continue in the com-
ing years, as more and more consumers seek healthier ways

* SplendaO is a trademark ofMcNeil Nutritionals, LLC.


of eating and dieting without having to compromise taste.
Tate & Lyle Sucralose, Inc., offers a co-op program to un-
dergraduate chemical engineering students which provides

Dong Hee (Lindsey) Oh is an undergraduate
student at Georgia Institute of Technology ma-
joring in chemical and biomolecular engineering.
She has worked for Tate & Lyle Sucralose, Inc.,
as a co-op since 2003.


William H. Akers is a maintenance engineer for
Tate & Lyle Sucralose, Inc. He holds a B.S. in
mechanical engineering from West Virginia Tech.
He has worked in the chemical industry and ce-
ramic composite materials manufacturing.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005


Chemical Engineering Education


This column provides examples of cases in which students have gained knowledge, insight, and
experience in the practice of chemical engineering while in an industrial setting. Summer internships
and co-op assignments typify such experiences; however, reports of more unusual cases are also
welcome. Description of the analytical tools used and the skills developed during the project should
be emphasized. These examples should stimulate innovative approaches to bring real world tools and
experiences back to campus for integration into the curriculum. Please submit manuscripts to Profes-
sor W.J. Koros, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712.










the students a hands-on learning experience as well as a com-
petitive hourly wage. Thanks to the innovative production
process of Sucralose, students are exposed to unique projects
which often involve frontline machinery, technology, and
chemistry. In the midst of projects, students extend their learn-
ing to other areas of engineering, such as mechanical and
electrical, as they deal with situations that are subjects for
investigation and improvement. Upon reporting the project
results, students are provided with opportunities to apply
various other skills learned in school, including: economic
analysis skills; programming skills; and presentation
skills both written and oral. This paper focuses on the
practical learning aspects a student gained in the course
of a heat transfer analysis project, which involved the fol-
lowing aspects:
C System definition
C Analyzing the base condition
O Calculation of heat transfer rates
C Economic analysis
C Reporting

SYSTEM DEFINITION
Upon receiving a new project, the first step a student takes
is to examine the process and define the system under study.
In this project, the system is defined by the following com-
ponents (see Figure 2):
C A vessel in which a batch chemical reaction takes
place
C A primary loop pump and the heat exchanger,
through which the process fluid is carried and its
post-reaction temperature is maintained
C A secondary loop pump and the heat exchanger,
which supply the coolant to the main exchanger
Cooling is provided by a propylene glycol solution. Propy-
lene glycol is an environmentally friendly
chemical which is often used in foods and
medicines. While the glycol solution is
considered safe, a secondary cooling loop
provides an additional level of protection REACTION
for the process fluid by eliminating any
chance for the process fluid to be in di-
rect contact with the glycol solution.
In order to verify the layout of heat ex-
changers and auxiliary instruments exist-
ing in the system, the student physically
went out to the process area and exam-
ined the system of study, referenced the
monitor screens which capture the view
of the system, talked to technicians who
are familiar with the area and thus have a L
reliable knowledge about the system's
physicality, and studied the relevant de- Figure 2. Lay


sign diagrams, such as piping and instrument diagram
(P&ID) and isometric drawings.

ANALYZING THE BASE CONDITION
Prior to performing the energy balance around the current
system, the following assumptions were made:
) The system is at steady-state.
C The specific heats and the specific gravities of all
fluids are constant.
C The primary loop exchanger performs at 65% of
its designed U value, whereas the secondary loop
exchanger performs at 80% of its designed U
value. This assumption was necessary due to the
complex nature of system fluids' chemistry as well
asfoulings that exist inside the exchangers.
Acquiring the design data for the heat exchangers as well
as the chemical and physical information for the operating
fluids is critical for analyzing the current condition of the
system. The heat exchangers' design information was obtained
from the project and maintenance engineers. Approximate




CH2OH
1 CH2 CI
O OH
OH



OH OH


Figure 1. The chemical make-up of Sucralose.


PRIMARY
.OOP PUMP


SECONDARY
LOOP PUMP


'out of heat exchangers and auxiliary instruments in Case 1.


Fall 2005


317
















Figure 3.
Layout
of heat
exchangers
and auxiliary
instruments,
Case 2.


chemical property information, such as data for the specific gravity and
specific heat, was obtained from the plant's design material balance. Be-
cause there was no flow-measuring device installed in the system, the
pump performance curves were studied to estimate the current flowrates
of the process fluid and the coolant based on pump suction and discharge
pressures. The value for the glycol supply chiller's design flowrate was
used for calculations. Prior to removing heat from the primary circula-
tion loop, the secondary loop must be cooled (see Figure 3). The second-
ary cooling loop flow is first routed through the secondary loop exchanger
where it is cooled with glycol. The glycol is supplied on demand at a
constant temperature. The temperature of the process fluid exiting the
final reactor is also controlled to be constant. The remaining fluid tem-
peratures were then computed via iterative calculation.

CALCULATION OF HEAT TRANSFER RATES
There were two major equations used for calculation of heat transfer
rates in each exchanger (see Figure 4):
Q = M*Cp*AT (1)
Q = U*A*LMTD (2)
where
A = heat transfer rate (in Btu/hr)
M = mass flowrate (in gal/min)
Cp = specific heat (in Btu/lb-F)
AT = temperature difference (in F)
U = heat transfer coefficient (in Btu/ft2-_F)
A = area of heat transfer (in ft2)
LMTD = log mean temperature difference (in F)
= (AT, AT,) / ln(AT, / AT)

Eq. (1) was written for each fluid in each exchanger, and Eq. (2) was
written for each exchanger. Then the temperatures were calculated by
setting the set of Eq. (1) equal to the set of Eq. (2) until the system Q-in
matched the system Q-out. A spreadsheet was developed to carry out the


calculation. The student applied iterative calcu-
lations methods learned in a numerical analysis
course and utilized Microsoft Excel's "Solver"
tool which has a built-in Newton's approxima-
tion algorithm. The future operation plans in-
troduced new exchangers, either as replacements
for the existing equipment or as additions to the
existing sequence. New flowrates were estimated
by accounting for friction losses through the new
equipment, and new heat transfer rate calcula-
tions were done in a similar manner. This pro-
cedure was repeated for multiple operating cases



T-process return

AT2




T-coolant in

0 = MCpAT
(heat load)

T-coolant out






T-process in


Figure 4. Detail of a heat exchanger.


Chemical Engineering Education


LOOP PLMP


PRIMARY
LOOP PUMP B











by taking different combinations of the current and the new
heat exchangers. Then, another set of calculations was done
to compare the heat transfer rates given a different tempera-
ture value at the final reactor outlet (see Figure 5).

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
In order to make the managerial decision on which future
operating plan would be the best alternative for the com-
pany, an economic analysis for each case was carried out.
The percent increase in the heat transfer rate is in a direct
proportionality with the plant's overall production rate in-
crease. However, the construction downtime and the pro-
duction loss during the outage had to be accounted for in


order to accurately predict the break-even point of the true
profit. By setting the basis at the current operation condi-
tion and the profit generated at current output levels, a
net capital contribution value for each future operating
option was calculated.

REPORTING

As work progressed, the student constantly communicated
with her direct supervisor for comments and suggestions about
her work. After the calculation and analysis were finalized,
the student prepared a comprehensive report which summa-

Continued on page 327


REPORT: HEAT TRANSFER RATE ANALYSIS

I. BASE CASE: CURRENT OPERATING CONDITION

BASE CASE A BASE CASE B
CONFIGURATION PCcU.eT I SCC U.E. PCcuRRE~T I SCcua ET
TOLYCOLBUPPLY 42 TU 30 TU PC = PRIMARY COOLER
Q ACHIEVED 4192 EU 4520 EU SC = SECONDARY COOLER

NOTE: LOWERING GLYCOL TEMPERA TURE FROM 42 TO 30 ALLOWED 7.3% INCREASE IN RATES. SIMILARLY,
RAISING GLYCOL TEMPERA TURE BACK TO 42 WILL RESULTING 7.3% DECREASE IN RATES

II. CASE 1: CURRENT CONFIGURATION, ONE NEW EXCHANGER (E1311 OR E1314)

CASEIA CASEIB CASE1C
CONFIGURATION PCcuRa.eT I SC.Iw PCn, 0 SCcuarn.T PCn" I SCn
TLYOLWLSBUPP LY 30 TU 30 TU 30 TU
Q ACHIEVED 5070 EU 6111 EU 7162 EU
%Q INCREASE 12.2 % 35.2 % 58.4.%
DOWNTIME IBREAK-EVEN POINT 1 Day' 1 6 Days 4.5 Days / 16 Days 4.5 Days / 11 Days
DOWNTIME IBREAK-EVEN POINT, Tod=42 1 Day* / 17 Days 4.5 Days 1 21 Days 4.5 Days / 13 Days

IV. CASE 2: FUTURE CONFIGURATION
SERIES COOLANT FLOW FROM PRIMARY TO SECONDARY COOLER

CASE 2A CASE 2B
CONFIGURATION PCcuRR.HT IPCHn WSC.w PCcu.kRRT FPC.wISCn.
PRIMARY COOLER PCCU..nCT PCm
TOLYOLsBUPPLY 30 TU 30 TU
Q ACHIEVED 8024.EU 8645 EU
PRIMARY COOLER c_,mer 43.6 % 28.2 %
PRIMARY COOLER,, 56.4 % 71.8 %
SECONDARY COOLER,, 100.0 % 100.0 %
%Q INCREASE 77.5 % 91.31%
DOWNTIME IBREAK-EVEN POINT 7 Days / 15 Days 7 Days i 14 Days ..
DOWNTIME IBREAK-EVEN POINT, To 42 7 Days 1 17 Days 7 Days / 15 Days

NOTE 1: RATIO OF PROCESS FLOW THROUGH PRIMARY COOLER: SECONDARY COOLER = 1:2.

-NOTE 2: COMPARED TO CASE 3,PARALLEL COOLANT CONNECTION THROUGH PC oc~mr AND PC Iw WILL RESULT
INANA VERA GE OF 3.9% DECREASE IN RATES SERIES COOLANT CONNECTION FROM SECONDARY TO PRIMARY COOLER
WILL RESULTINAN AVERAGE OF 6.6% DECREASEIN RATES

ir-TE : L-.-il .\T"IIE = Di.jE 7,E ; I ..' *" I:jI\. r- T 7C C.A, START-UP (1.5 DAYS) i _
DOWNTIME FOR CASE 1A IS SHORTER THAN THE OTHER CASES (NO WELDING REQUIRED: MIN. PREP TIME)

Figure 5. Calculations to compare the heat transfer rates given a different temperature value at the final reactor outlet.


Fall 2005










rpm -curriculum


Assessing

THE INCORPORATION OF

GREEN ENGINEERING

Into a Design-Oriented Heat Transfer Course






ANN MARIE FLYNN
Manhattan College Riverdale, NY 10471


With the support of the U.S. Environmental Protec-
tion Agency, a problem set was developed that
included many of the green engineering concepts
found in Green Engineering Environmentally Conscious
Design of Chemical Processes, by Allen and Shonnard, with
key heat transfer design concepts found in the widely used
textbook, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, by
Incropera and DeWitt.",2 These greened heat transfer prob-
lems were incorporated into an undergraduate, design-ori-
ented heat transfer course offered to chemical engineering
students in the fall of their junior year. Twenty-four prob-
lems were developed to cover topics in 13 chapters of the
heat transfer textbook. Each greened heat transfer problem
references the following: the corresponding heat transfer
sections) in Incropera and DeWitt, the corresponding
sections) in the green engineering text by Allen and Shonnard,
and the specific Sandestin green-engineering principles cov-
ered. [, 2,3] The total percentage of green-engineering principles
covered by the heat transfer problem set can be found in Fig-
ure 1.141 All of the problems with their detailed solutions can
be found at and an in-
depth analysis of four of the more popular problems is pre-
sented in a companion paper."' This work assesses the incor-
poration of green engineering concepts into a traditional un-
dergraduate chemical engineering course, and a general road
map for that assessment process is highlighted by the dashed
enclosure on the feedback loop in Figure 2. The primary ob-
jective of this assessment process was to determine whether
or not green engineering concepts could be successfully


internalized by undergraduate students so that these
concepts might actually have an impact on industry after
the students graduate.
This work examines the progression of the "green engi-
neering IQ" of 27 undergraduate chemical engineering stu-
dents during the course of a 14-week semester. The assess-
ment process started at the beginning of the semester when
the students were asked to rate their own environmental
awareness on a scale of 0-10, i.e., quantify their green engi-
neering IQ. Over the course of the semester they were also
asked to rate each green engineering problem assigned to them
(on a scale of 0-10) with respect to how it affected their green
engineering IQ. At the end of the semester each student was
required to reevaluate their green engineering IQ and submit
a two-page analysis of the greened heat transfer course out-
lining how (if at all) the green engineering portion of the
course affected their environmental attitudes, values, and prin-
ciples and how (if at all) their green engineering IQ was al-


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005


Chemical Engineering Education


Ann Marie Flynn is an assistant professor of
chemical engineering at Manhattan College.
She received her Ph.D. from the New Jersey
Institute of Technology. She received her M.E.
and B.E. from Manhattan College. Her fields
of interest include engineering pedagogy and
the chemistry of metals in flames.












Conserve and improve natural
resources
3%

Life cycle thinking incorporation
14%














Input and output
safety/reduction of liability
18%


Historical approach and use of Solutions based thinking
systems analysis, input beyond current tools -- invent
assessment role Provide vehicle for stakeholder for sustainability
5% input into solutions 11%
0%


Development of solutions
with stakeholders'
concerns
21%


Figure 1.
The total
percentage of
green engineer-
ing principles
covered by the
heat transfer
problem set.


Natural resource depletion
rrnirrization
10%


tered. They were asked to reinforce their comments using
specific green engineering problems. Finally, the instructor
used the student surveys of the greened homework problems,
the student surveys that tracked their green engineering IQ,
the students' green engineering analyses, and the course
objective surveys as assessment tools to modify the
greened course.


TURNING GREEN ENGINEERING CONCEPTS
INTO PROBLEM SETS

In summary, each problem that was developed consisted
of two parts. The first part addressed key heat transfer design


Formulation of General
Green Engineering Concepts
-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -

Incorporation of General Concepts
Into Specific Engineering Courses
And Development of
Green Engineering Problems

Assessment by
Presentation of Green Engineering nstussctor
Problems to Students and Quantifying
the Green Engineering IQ of the Student


Evaluation of Green Engineering
Problems by Students


Evaluation of the Impact of
Green Engineenng Problems
on Students' Green Engineering IQ



Figure 2. Assessment diagram.


concepts required in most standard heat transfer design cur-
ricula, such as
Conduction and convection resistance

Overall heat transfer coefficients

Standard heat-exchanger design (e.g., double pipe and
shell and tube)

The second part of each problem then addressed the im-
pact of that design on a specific environment. For example,
the first part of one such problem might require the student
to calculate the necessary insulation thickness for an under-
ground heated transfer line. The second part of that same prob-
lem would then require the student to discuss the possible
consequences of placing that transfer line near a densely popu-
lated area susceptible to earthquakes, soil shifting, or land-
slides. The problems could be used in their entirety or the
greened portion of the problems could be used alone. To il-
lustrate this methodology, an abbreviated version of a greened
heat transfer problem that was used as a take-home project is
presented on page 323, and the different formats in which it
could be offered are outlined. The complete solution is pre-
sented elsewhere.[61

QUANTIFYING GREEN ENGINEERING IQ
For this study, the concept of a greened heat transfer course
was received with a mixed response (at best) from the junior
chemical engineering class when it was presented to them at
the beginning of the semester. The discussion began with an
explanation of "the concept of green engineering." The stu-
dents were told that they would be part of a semester-long
study to determine whether or not this methodology would
heighten the awareness of students to the concept of green
engineering. The students were told how importantly the con-


Fall 2005


Waste prevention
18%










cept of green engineering was viewed by such influential
agencies as the EPA, and about the large number of funded
projects that addressed the single issue of green engineering.
In spite of this buildup, the predominant response from the
class was, "You're trying to make us environmental engi-
neers." Indeed, the initial response from the class was so lack-
luster, and at times belligerent, that it required the rewriting
of the course syllabus so that a specific percentage of the
final grade was allocated toward green engineering. From
the instructor's point of view, it would have been easy to re-
turn to the status quo for the course at this point. Yet such a
significant amount of time and money had already been in-
vested in the development of the greened problem sets (with
similar slotted for the future) that it was necessary to persevere
in order to quantify the "transferability" of the enthusiasm and
interest in green engineering from the faculty to the students.
At the beginning of the semester, each student was given a
two-sided handout that was to be submitted with each home-
work assignment during the semester and submitted for the
last time at the end of the semester, with the final exam. One
side of the handout stated a widely used definition of green
engineering, and the student was asked to rate their own green
engineering IQ, from 0-10, based on this definition.[7, 81
This handout is seen in Figure 3. The student also used


Figure 3.
Handout
for students to
rate their
green
engineering
IQ.




Figure 4.
Handout
for students to
rate each
green engineering
problem and how
it increased
their awareness.


this same sheet to reevaluate their green engineering IQ
at the end of the semester.


STUDENT EVALUATION OF GREENED
PROBLEMS

The second side of the handout, seen in Figure 4, asked the
students to rate each individual greened heat transfer prob-
lem as it was presented to them with respect to what impact
(if any) it had on their green engineering IQ. Over the period
of a 14-week semester students were given eight homework
assignments. Typically one week was allowed for comple-
tion of each assignment. Each assignment varied in length
from one problem to five problems, depending on the diffi-
culty of each problem. The students completed a total of 27
heat transfer problems over the course of the semester, of
which 11 problems (approximately 40%) were taken from
the newly developed greened heat transfer problem set. The
remaining 16 homework problems were taken from a variety
of sources the predominant sources being the instructor's
notes and the text, Process Heat Transfer, by Kern.J91 The
Incropera and DeWitt text was used as a reference text for
the course.
Of the 27 students in the class, 26 students successfully


NAME

On Wednesday, September 22, 2004, on a scale of 0-10 (0 = completely unaware, 10 =
completely aware) I give the following statement a rating of:

I understand the mechanisms that determine how chemicals are transported and
transformed in the environment and what their environmental and human health impacts
are, and how it is possible to incorporate environmental objectives into the design of
chemical processes and products with respect to heat transfer.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10



Please rate the following homework problems (on a scale of 0-10) as to how they helped
increase your awareness of how heat transfer design and its related applications impact the
environment.

Chapter Problem Date Rating
1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 2
2 1
2 2
3 1



13 1
13 2


Chemical Engineering Education










Problem Statement completed the greened heat transfer problem evaluation. The
Results were tabulated (on a scale of 0-10) and the average
Heated swimming pools can extend the swimming season well
beyond the summer. It is required to determine the optimum time rating for each greened heat transfer problem presented to
of day to turn on a swimming pool heater such that: the class is shown in Figure 5. The standard deviation of these
a) The bulk temperature of the pool, Too, remains at ratings varied from 1.6 to 2.7. Note that the numbers on the
approximately 80 OF between the hours of 12 p.m. x-axis on Figure 5 denote the chapter and problem number of
and 8 p.m. each problem from the Rowan Web site.
b) The energy consumption is minimized. The results from Figure 5 combined with student comments
Model To, as a function of time. Note that Tp,t and the tem- submitted in the green engineering analyses at the end of the
perature of the water at the surface, T, are considered equal semester show that the ratings of the green engineering prob-
and the terms may be used interchangeably. The temperature progressed, not be-
very far from the pool, T = 490 R, is considered constant. The lems tended to increase as the semester progressed,
cause the students were warming to the concept of green en-
swimming pool volume and its free surface area (surface ex-
posed to air) are approximately 35,000 gal. (4679ft3) and 1,300 gineering, but rather because they simply liked the problems
ft, respectively. The power of the pool heater is 333,000 BTU/hr. that were presented at the end of the semester better. Student
The pool loses heat to the outside air via three mechanisms: comments from the green engineering analyses regarding
radiation, surface evaporation, and natural convection, these early problems included, "Too much looking up,"
The solution to this unsteady-state problem revolved around an "Didn't seem like a real engineering problem," and "Needs
energy balance between the heat input to the pool by the heater, more calculations." For example, greened problems for early
the heat retained by the pool, and the heat lost from the pool due topics in Incropera and DeWitt tended to be very general and
to convection, radiation, and evaporation. The problem had the introductory in nature. Problem titles included: Green Engi-
option of being presented in three formats, each format offering neering Responsibilities (avg. rating = 2.2), Energy Savings
a different level of difficulty, and Environmental Awareness (avg. rating = 3.3), and Proper
Level 1: Perform an energy balance on the pool and Disposal of Spent Fuel (avg. rating = 3.4).
model the temperature of the water in the heated pool as
a function of time, assuming a constant air temperature Student responses to these early problems in the green en-
and manually turning the heater on and off gineering analyses included: "Waste of time," "Only com-
Level 2: Model the temperature of the water in the mon sense," and "Busywork." The difficulty arose in the fact
heated pool as a function of time, assuming a variation that early on in the semester, the students had little in the way
in the temperature of the air (based on a 24-hour cycle) of heat transfer design capability and the greened heat trans-
and then determine the optimum time of day to manually fer problems tended to be qualitative in nature out of neces-
turn the heat off and on by trial and error so as to sity. Overall, the ratings for the early greened problems were
minimize energy consumption. low and the comments were relatively negative.
Level 3: Model the temperature of the water in the heated
Sa a f, a i In contrast, the problems that were distributed toward the
pool as a function of time, assuming a variation in the
temperature of the air (based on a 24-hour cycle) while end of the semester were rated slightly higher by the students
the heater is turned off and on automatically by use of a and garnered extremely positive comments in the green en-
thermostat so as to minimize energy consumption. gineering analyses. For example, of the 27 students that sub-
mitted a green engineering analysis, 27 out of 27 cited the
"Rain Forest" problem (avg. rating = 5.1) as a favorite and
7.0 23 out of 27 sited the "Argon-Filled Windows" problem as a
6.0 M Average Rating favorite (avg. rating = 4.7).[51 Sample student comments in-
cluded: "Inspiring," "Why can't all homework problems be
S5.0 like this?", "Changed the way I think about green engineer-
4.0 ing," and "Made me think I can make a difference."
W 3.0
SI PRESENTATION OF GREENED PROBLEMS
3 AND STUDENTS'GREEN ENGINEERING IQ
1.0
SAs previously stated, 27 students were asked at the begin-
0 2 2 22 3 3/2 4 9 9ning of the semester to quantify their awareness of the con-
1/11 1//2 2//1 2//2 3//1 3//2 411//1 9/12 6//2 811//1 9/11
cept of green engineering, i.e., their green engineering IQ. At
Green Heat Transfer Problem the end of a 14-week semester after the students had worked
(ChapterllNumber)
through 11 heat transfer homework problems that contained
S5 T r e multiple green engineering concepts, the students were once
figure 5 The average rating for each greened heatasked to quantify their green engineering IQ. This was
uraerT aeralern fre ed heo again asked to quantify their green engineering IQ. This was
transfer problem presented to the class.


Fall 2005










done in order to determine if the greened heat transfer prob-
lem set had had any impact on their environmental aware-
ness and the concept of green engineering. Of the 27 stu-
dents in the class, only 25 students successfully completed
the green engineering IQ evaluation. The results of the evalu-
ation are shown in Table 1.
The results show that the average green engineering IQ of
25 students was 3.0 at the beginning of the semester and in-
creased to 6.8 by the end of the semester. The increase in
green engineering IQ from the beginning of the semester to
the end of the semester was 3.9 points on average for each
student. In other words, the green engineering IQ of each
student more than doubled over the course of a 14-week se-
mester as a result of being exposed to homework problems
that contained a variety of green engineering concepts.


It should be noted that none of the students had bee
ously introduced to green engineering concepts in
classroom environment. While the chemical engine
apartment at Manhattan offers a variety of classes
incorporating environmental concepts such as
Air Pollution, Pollution Prevention, and Accident
and Emergency Management all of them are
available only to graduate students and a select
group of seniors. Therefore, in theory, it was ex-
pected that the green engineering IQ of all the
students at the beginning of the semester would
hover around 0. This lack of awareness of green
engineering concepts by some of the students was
also evident in early homework discussions. For
example, only a few of the 27 students actually
knew what a rain forest was and only one stu-
dent had ever been to a rain forest.

COURSE ASSESSMENT
AND MODIFICATION
The Accreditation Board for Engineering and
Technology (ABET) has in recent years placed
an emphasis on the concept of a continuous feed-
back loop for engineering and technology
courses. It is a closed-loop process with the goal
of successfully achieving a course's objectives
by continuous evaluation and modification of the
course over time. A model similar to that found
in ABET was used in this study.
There was one objective for this study: to de-
termine whether or not the awareness chemical
engineering students had of green engineering
was increased by incorporating green engi-
neering concepts into heat transfer homework
problems.
This objective is directed toward achieving the
overall, long-term goal of having chemical en-


en previ-
a formal
ring de-


gineering students bring an increased awareness of green
engineering concepts into industry upon graduation. Table 2
outlines the extent to which this objective was successfully
achieved.

CONCLUSIONS
Based on the results of the assessment outlined in Table 2 -
specifically the green engineering IQ, the green engineering
analysis, and the course objectives survey the objective
of increasing the awareness among chemical engineering stu-
dents to green engineering concepts was successfully
achieved. In addition, the success of the project was further
punctuated by the fact that three students in the course ap-
proached the instructor on two occasions to find out how they
could get further involved in green engineering as a result of
their exposure to the greened heat transfer problems presented
in class. One student indicated that she would like to spend
time doing research on projects that have a green engineer-


TABLE 1
Impact of Greened Heat Transfer Problems
on Students' Green Engineering IQ


Chemical Engineering Education


Green Engineering IQ
Student Start of End of Rating % Increase
Semester Semester Increase increase
1 2 5 3 150
2 1 5 4 400
3 4 6 2 50
4 5 9 4 80
5 1 7 6 600
6 1 3 2 200
7 4 8 4 100
8 1 4 3 300
9 1 4 3 300
10 1 3 2 200
11 4 9 5 125
12 4 10 6 150
13 1 9 8 800
14 2 10 8 400
15 3 8 5 167
16 6 8 2 33
17 2 6 4 200
18 3 6 3 100
19 3 7 4 133
20 2 7 5 250
21 3 5 2 67
22 5 9 4 80
23 5 8 3 60
24 8 9 1 13
25 2 6 4 200

Average 3.0 6.8 3.9 126












TABLE 2
Assessment and Course Modification Analysis

Assessment Tool Assessment Course Modifications

Student rating of greened heat The average ratings for the problems from early Eliminate the problems from early chapters in the future.
transfer problems with respect chapters (1, 2, 3) were lower than the problems Multiple assessment tools showed that the students found them
to how the problem increased from later chapters (4, 6, 8, 9). too general and ineffective toward achieving the project
their green engineering IQ objectives.

Even though some of the later chapters received Refine the rating system. It may be naive to expect the majority
ratings of 8 or 9 from individual students, none of students to "like" anything about homework and probably
of the combined average rating for any one accounts for the overall low ratings. Also, there was too much
problem was greater than 5.5 resolution in the rating system. In addition, each student had a
different point of reference. The rating system should be more
qualitative and less quantitative. For example, once the project
objective has been given to the student, he/she could simply
rate the problem as to whether it was either effective or
ineffective toward achieving that objective.

The rating of the students' The green engineering IQ of the students went The green engineering IQ rating system was a success and a
green engineering IQ at the up an average of 3.9 points or approximately useful tool to determine how much the students themselves felt
beginning of the semester and 200% over the course of the semester, that their awareness of green engineering concepts had
at the end of the semester increased. It should be included in the course in the future.
after the students had been Unlike the homework problem rating system, the IQ rating
exposed to greened homework system worked well in this situation because the most important
problems. metric was the change in IQ.

Green engineering analysis Of the 27 students that submitted a report, 26 This was a less quantitative tool than the previous two
submitted by each student at described the experience of being exposed to numerical rating tools and therefore offered less concrete
the end of the semester, green engineering concepts in a positive information when used as a tool to make modifications to the
manner. One student agreed that the exposure course. In many cases, however, it offered the students an
to greened heat transfer problems increased his opportunity to express themselves other than by assigning a
awareness of green engineering concepts but value to their thoughts. In many cases, the students were clearly
he, however, found the knowledge useless, inspired by the concept of green engineering and were quite
eloquent in expressing their thoughts. This was also a useful
motivational tool for the instructor going forward.

Many students commented that some of the Based on the inconsistent correlation between the course notes
heat exchanger design calculations in the and greened heat transfer problem, an informal assessment and
greened heat transfer problems did not always course modification were made midway through the semester.
correlate well with the material taught in class, This included providing the students with the problems and
partly because Incropera & DeWitt was not the solutions to the design part of the problem (only). The students
primary textbook for the course. This was were then only responsible for the parts of the problem that
verbalized by the students during the semester pertained to green engineering. This allowed them to focus
and repeated in the end-of-semester analysis. more, the students were happier, and the homework grades
increased. This approach should be used in the future if the I&D
text is not the primary textbook for the course.
Many students commented that they would like
to spend more time in class in a round-table The instructor will make a conscious effort in the future to
format discussing the solutions to the green provide discussion time for the green engineering solutions.
engineering section of the problems. They also
commented that they would like an entire The green engineering analysis counted as 5% of the final
course devoted solely to green chemical grade. This seemed to minimize the number of students who
engineering (and made the distinction between simply wrote what they thought the instructor might want to
such a course and an environmental engineer- hear or students who simply "mailed it in." It should be given
ing course) equal consideration in the future if included in the course.

Course objectives survey: 20/26 (77%) of the students rated this course Achievement of this course objective was a success since 24/26
Objective 8: To develop an objective as either "excellent" or "good" with (92%) students were satisfied with the outcome.
awareness of the concept of respect to how the objective was met. 4/26 It is felt, however, that the course objective was developed at
green engineering and to (15%) said that this objective was met the beginning of the semester and the second part of the
become aware of the impact "adequately" and 2/26 (8%) said that this statement was too specific and far-reaching with respect to heat
that heat transfer and heat objective was met "poorly." exchanger design. In the future it should include only: To
exchanger design can have on develop an awareness of the concept of green engineering.
the environment.


Fall 2005










ing component. Two of the other students expressed a desire
to one day own their own consulting firm that specialized in
green engineering. Quite simply, they wanted to get more
involved in other greened chemical engineering courses. They
expressed an interest in courses on such topics as greened
reactor design and environmentally conscious plant design.
In addition, these three students subsequently formed a stu-
dent task force to perform a supplementary assessment of the
newly greened course. While the com-
plete assessment has been submitted for
publication elsewhere, the most signifi- "There are
cant results are presented here.110' The re- society wh
suits of the student assessment show that geatr
the student task force identified five criti- greater
who have t
cal elements that are necessary for the
successful integration of green engineer- gence, kno
ing concepts into a traditional, design-ori- ability to d
ented, nongreen class. The five critical world, and
elements are as follows: the truth. 1
1. Provide students with a short, requires in
introductory text. intelligence
2. Periodically test students on their imply wisd
green engineering knowledge. wisdom oft
3. Include significant classroom behind knc
discussion before and after home- Green engi
work assignments have been attempt to
completed. powerful a
powerful a
4. Assign group research projects. should be
5. Include homework assignments that society."
address world issues and are
industry based. Studei
from the green
The first critical element, providing stu-
dents with an introductory text, emerged
as the most important modification to the
previous greened heat transfer course that should be made in
order to improve the effectiveness of the curriculum.
It seems only fitting that this paper should conclude with
thoughts from the students involved in the project (extracted
from the green engineering analyses and unedited) since the
students (and their thoughts) are a constant source of inspira-
tion for all who teach.
"There are those within society who must carry a greater bur-
den; those who have the intelligence, knowledge, and ability
to destroy the world, and those who see the truth. While wis-
dom requires intelligence, intelligence does not imply wis-
dom, and wisdom often trails far behind knowledge. Green
engineering is an attempt to combine these powerful at-
tributes, and should be embraced by society."
> "The green engineering problems this semester helped stu-
dents to learn a new method of thinking. In the past many
students assumed that operating with concern for the envi-
ronment meant sacrificing profit and eating a lot of granola.
The problems helped show students that operating with envi-


ronmental issues in mind can be beneficial in many ways, not
just for trees."
> "I learned to not always think with my wallet but rather
the health of myself, others, and the environment. Over-
all, I no longer see these assignments as a waste of time
or busywork, because of the impact it had on my sense of
ethics in the engineering world."


I "In my ow


n experience with solving these problems Ifeel that
I have gained a greater knowledge of
what, indeed, green engineering is, and
they have influenced me to pursue a ca-
reer in the green engineering field."


N "Pollution exists in many forms and av-
enues of which people are ignorant. The
green problems counteract this general
lack of knowledge by introducing real-
life situations in which the environment
is involved. When considering the prob-
lems concerning the environment, igno-
rance is the greatest problem and knowl-
edge is the greatest weapon."

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Funding for this work was provided by
a grant from the U.S. Environmental Pro-
tection Agency, Office of Pollution Pre-
vention and Toxics and Office of Preven-
tion, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances
#X-83052501-0, "Implementing Green
Engineering in the Chemical Engineer-
ing Curriculum" (lead institution-
Rowan University).

REFERENCES


1. Allen, D.T., and D.R. Shonnard, Green Engineering Environmen-
tally Conscious Design of Chemical Processes, Prentice Hall (2002)
2. Incropera, F.P., and D.P. DeWitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass
Transfer, 5th Ed., John Wiley & Sons (2002)
3. Ritter, S.K., "A Green Agenda for Engineering: New Set of Principles
Provides Guidance to Improve Designs for Sustainability Needs,"
Chem. & Eng. News, 81(29), 30 (2003)
4. Slater, C.S., R.P. Hesketh, D. Fichana, J. Henry, A.M. Flynn, and M.
Abraham, "Expanding the Frontiers for Chemical Engineers in Green
Engineering Education," Submitted to the Special Sustainable Engi-
neering Issue of the Internat. J. of Eng. Ed. (2005)
5. Flynn, A.M., M.H. Naraghi, and S. Shaefer, "The Greening of a De-
sign-Oriented Heat Transfer Course," Chem. Eng. Ed. 39(3), 216 (2005)
6. Flynn, A.M., and M.H. Naraghi, "The Optimization of the Incorpora-
tion of Green Engineering into Heat Transfer Using Excel," Submit-
ted to Computers in Eng. Ed. (2005)
7.
8.
9. Kern, D.Q., Process Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill (1950)
10. Flynn, A.M., M.H. Naraghi, N. Austin, S. Helak, J. Manzer, "Teach-
ing Teachers to Teach Green Engineering," Submitted to The Journal
of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) Edu-
cation: Innovations and Research (2005) D


Chemical Engineering Education


Those within
o must carry a
rden; those
he intelli-
wledge, and
destroy the
those who see
Vhile wisdom
telligence,
e does not
om, and
en trails far
iwledge.
neering is an
combine these
attributes, and
embraced by


nt feedback extracted
engineering analyses













CALL


* FOR


* PAPERS


for the
FALL 2006 Graduate Education Issue
of

Chemical Engineering Education


We invite articles on graduate education and research for our
fall 2006 issue. If you are interested in contributing, please send us
your name, the subject of the contribution,
and the tentative date of submission.

Deadline for manuscript submission is April 1, 2006.


Respond to: cee@che.ufl.edu


Learning in Industry: The Sucralose Process
Continued from page 319
rized the work in order to present it in a meeting. Courses
such as technical writing and public speech would have helped
the student for a more concise oral briefing and the written
report. Upon approval of the report by her direct mentor, a
meeting was held among engineers, managers, and project
coordinators in order to decide on the most profitable solu-
tion. While the student's direct mentor attended the meeting
to advocate the student's work, the student was also invited
to the meeting to explain her work and to answer any ques-
tions that attendees might have regarding the report. Con-
struction downtime, the cost of construction, and the produc-
tion rate increase, as well as other ongoing projects that in-
fluence the studied system, were major factors which affected
the final decision. The decision was made to implement the
option which achieved an intermediate heat transfer rate and
that minimized downtime and investment until issues in other
areas that are subject to bottleneck would be resolved.

CONCLUSIONS
The benefit this type of project gives to students is beyond
what one can expect from textbooks or classroom lectures.
From finding out about minor instrument factors to keeping
meticulous track of details such as accounting for the en-
ergy loss due to friction through the pipelines and operational


equipment -the student combines and applies principles
learned at school in a practical situation. The skills used are
often not limited to those learned from the core engineering
courses required for the degree being pursued. Rather, they
also included statistics, time-management skills, communi-
cation and presentation skills, and knowledge about economic
analysis. The sequence of Tate & Lyle Sucralose, Inc.'s, co-
op program demands that when the students return to their
successive work-terms, they rotate from one specialized area
to another operations, maintenance, project management,
and research and development. This benefits the students as
an excellent opportunity to gain experiences in various engi-
neering emphases. Likewise, the company recognizes the
benefit brought by the students upon successful completion
of projects and assignments.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors acknowledge support by James E. Wiley and
Susan E. Green, technology and maintenance department
managers at Tate & Lyle Sucralose, Inc.
REFERENCES
1.
2. McCabe, W.L., P. Harriott, and J.C. Smith, Unit Operations of Chemi-
cal Engineering, 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, Chapter
11 (1985)
3. Green, Susan E., and James E. Wiley, Tate & Lyle Sucralose, Inc.,
personal communications 0


Fall 2005


1










[e] M class and home problems


SCALED SKETCHES

FOR VISUALIZING SURFACE TENSION







SARAH L. MASON
Technical University of Denmark Lyngby, Denmark


his article suggests using scaled sketches as a supple-
ment to the usual tabular or graphical output of spread-
sheet programs, and gives an example of using such
sketches to visualize the action of surface tension. Many stu-
dents find visual information such as pictures and diagrams
useful,E31 and sketches are commonly used when presenting
the concept of surface tension. While unsealed sketches are
helpful, scaled sketches can more accurately illustrate quan-
titative relationships.
Scaled sketches can be drawn in an Excel spreadsheet en-
vironment and automated using the Visual Basic macro ca-
pability. These scaled sketches for visualizing surface ten-
sion are generated based on values of surface tension, radius,
chord length, and internal pressure chosen by the student.
The student can then view how the components of the ten-
sion and pressure forces balance when the parameter values
change in the Laplace-Young equation.


Surface tension may be thought of both as an energy per
unit area and as a force per unit length.1 Using the force-
balance approach allows sketches to be drawn and compari-
sons made among various situations where forces act on
curved surfaces, such as for liquid drops, thin-walled pres-
sure vessels, and even tensor bandages.


Sarah L. Mason is associate professor of
industrial rheology at BioCentrum-DTU at -
the Technical University of Denmark, near
Copenhagen. She has degrees in chemi-
cal engineering from Queen's University
and the University of Waterloo in Ontario,
Canada, and the Swiss Federal Institute of
Technology in Zurich, Switzerland (Ph.D.
1992). Research interests include the phys-
ics of emulsion formation and the rheology
of structured food materials.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005


Chemical Engineering Education


The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collections of interesting and novel prob-
lems in chemical engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by
presenting a particular principle in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel
home problem, are requested, as well as those that are more traditional in nature and that eluci-
date difficult concepts. Manuscripts should not exceed 14 double-spaced pages and should be
accompanied by the originals of any figures or photographs. Please submit them to Professor
James O. Wilkes (e-mail: wilkes@umich.edu), Chemical Engineering Department, University
of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136.
1 ___ __ ___ -__ -__^










2-D FORCE BALANCE
If we ignore the force of gravity, we can assume that
pressure is the same everywhere inside an object. In l1
liquid drops this is not strictly true and leads to flattened dr
in reality. Nevertheless, ignoring gravity allows us to cho
one radius of curvature for an object and write the Lapl
Young equation in two dimensions as

Pin =Pout +C-
R


Figure 1. Forces applied to a thin-walled pressure vessel
or a small liquid drop.


Pokt I I
+. i + .
A ------- ---- ------ -
Q I


R = D/2



C t o a cyi t D
O


Pingure2. Forcesactingon indcalsuce.


Figure 2. Forces acting on a cylindrical surface.


where Pn is the pressure inside the circular boundary, Pout is
the pressure outside the circular boundary, (o is the surface
tension, and R is the constant radius of the circle.


the
large


ops Eq. (1) does not apply to the curved surfaces that are pro-
lose duced when an applied force causes an object to bend so that
ace- the outside surface is stretched while the inside surface is
compressed, for example when bending a piece of sheet
metal. The sketch results presented later on assume fur-
(1) their that Pout = 0 for simplicity of presentation.
The laws of equilibrium can be applied to a thin-walled
pressure vessel or to a small liquid drop. Figure 1 shows each
of these systems, while Figure 2 shows the terminology for
forces acting on a cylindrical surface. For a thin-walled pres-
sure vessel, represented by arc SQT, the external inward pres-
sure is distributed over the outside of the vessel while the
internal outward pressure is distributed over the inside of the
vessel. For a small cylindrical liquid drop, on the other hand,
the body for the force balance is segment SQTS. The exter-
nal inward pressure is distributed along arc SQT but the in-
ternal outward pressure is distributed along the line ST. Since
gravitational forces are ignored, the force balance is the same
in these two situations and the net force due to pressure can
be found from a force balance on the control surface ABDC.
Consider a circle of radius R with the object on which the
forces act defined by the position of a chord. The angle 2A,
subtended by the chord (Figure 2) determines the line of ac-
tion of the pressure- and surface-tension-related forces and is
given by


A, =arcsm =2arcsin -
D'2 D


where L is the length of the chord and D is the diameter of
the circle.
Forces due to surface tension and net pressure are applied
to the system and are quantified as follows:
Surface Tension Force: The force due to surface
tension is applied as a pulling force tangent to
curve SQT at points S and T in Figure 2. In an
axisymmetric system, the horizontal x-components
of the surface tension force cancel out while the
vertical y-components both act downward and are
added. The resultant downward force is

FDown = 2sinAl (3)
Pressure Force: A force balance on the control
surface ABDC gives the resultant upward force

Fup = 2R(PIn Pout)sinAl (4)
Eq. (4) is derived in the Appendix. Equating FUp and FDow,


Fall 2005


Uquid Droplet


11


~s












Sketch 1: 2R, a, L


L
Pin = P
.Lp}


Sketch 2: R, o, L


Sketch 3: R, o-2, L


Sketch 4: R, 2a, L


I Downward surface tension
force components.
Surface tension force vector. The number
of transverse bars indicates the relative
magnitude of the surface tension.


Resultant downward force [N/m]
due to surface tension applied at
two points = 2 a sin A1


Pn. = 2P








Pin = P












Pin = 4P


Resultant upward force [N/m]
due to pressure load distributed
along chord line of length L
= 2 PI, R sin A1 = PI. L.


Chemical Engineering Education


L
,p ^


,41


I11Dtl









balances the acting forces and gives Eq. (1).

SKETCH RESULTS
This section presents examples of the scaled sketches gen-
erated from running the sketching program with different
choices of variables. The sketches are discussed in terms of
droplets but illustrate the situation for thin-walled pressure
vessels as well. Sketches 1 to 7 in Figures 3 and 4 were gen-
erated in an Excel worksheet using a Visual Basic program.
Each sketch shows the object (a segment of a circle) on
which the forces act, with the points of application of the
surface tension shown. To the right of the circle, the y-com-
ponents of the surface tension force are added, following
Eq. (3). The resultant upward force is shown by a vector


equal in magnitude to FDo,, but opposite in direction.
The pressure inside the object, P and its application length
L are shown superimposed on the resultant upward force FU .
A convenient scale is chosen to illustrate the pressure inside
the drop; this does not depend on the scaling of the force
vectors since pressure is a scalar quantity.

Different Droplet Sizes, R and R/2
The oil inside a small droplet in a sample of mayonnaise
(an oil-in-water emulsion) is under more pressure than the
oil in a larger droplet, as can be seen by comparing Sketches
1 and 2 in Figure 3. The student can generate such sketches by
running the spreadsheet program with values of R and 2R.
Walker'81 similarly illustrates that the y-components of the


Sketch 5: L = 0.20 D

L


L
A PIk


Sketch 6: L = 0.50 D


Figures 3 and 4.
Scaled sketches
automatically drawn
in an Excel worksheet
using a Visual Basic
program. Students
can produce such
sketches along with
the usual tabular
values: in Figure 3
(left) the sketches are
used to visualize the
forces acting on small
and large drops and
drops with the same
radius but different
surface tension
values; in Figure 4
(right) the sketches
are used to visualize
the forces acting when
different portions of
the same object are
chosen.


7-0


Sketch 7: L = 0.95 D


Downward surface tension
force components.


Resultant downward force [N/m]
due to surface tension applied at
two points = 2 o sin A1


Surface tension force vector. The number
of transverse bars indicates the relative
magnitude of the surface tension.


EL


Resultant upward force [N/m]
due to pressure load distributed
along chord line of length L
= 2 Pin R sin Ai = PI, L.


Fall 2005


Pin







h } Pin


ZV










surface tension are shorter in a larger drop. The scaling of the
sketches in Figure 3 is intended to help quantify the relation-
ship: the internal pressure is doubled when the droplet radius
is halved.
Different Surface Tension Values, 0-/2, c, 2a
Comparing Sketches 3, 2, and 4 in Figure 3 illustrates the
forces acting on a droplet of radius R and chord length L with
the three different surface tension values 0/2, u, and 2r. If
the surface tension is increased, the pressure inside the drop-
let is also increased.
Force Balance on Different Portions of the Same Object
The portion of the object on which the forces act is deter-
mined by choosing the different values of L; however, the
calculated pressure, PIn must be the same. If the object is not
a semicircle, the force vector representing the surface ten-
sion must be drawn with its components in the x and y direc-
tions and is not as easy to sketch accurately freehand. Figure
4 shows the forces acting on three different portions of the
same object of radius R and with uniform surface tension o-.
The y-component of the surface tension force increases when
longer chord lengths L are chosen, so that the forces balance
and the calculated pressure inside the drop is the same.

APPLICATIONS
Small Liquid Drops and Soap Bubbles
Soap bubbles have two air-liquid interfaces, one inside and
one outside the liquid film, as illustrated by Guyon, et al.[41
The tension to be used in Eq. (1) is therefore twice the sur-
face tension between the air and the liquid:


an unstable system. If the pressure were higher in the smaller
alveolus, air would flow out into the larger alveolus, eventu-
ally leading to the collapse of the smaller alveolus. This situ-
ation would arise if the surface tension were the same in each
alveolus, illustrated by Sketches 1 and 2 in Figure 3. Fortu-
nately, a difference in surface tension due to the presence of
lung surfactant allows small alveoli to be connected to large
alveoli without collapsing (Sketches 1 and 3 in Figure 3).
The magnitudes of the pressures and tensions involved
could be explored using alveolus radii in the range 0.05
to 0.10 mm15' and surface tensions in the range of 1 mN-m-
Sto 28 mNm- .151
Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels
Eq. (1) can be used to find the wall tension in thin-walled
pressure vessels when the wall is in pure tension and no shear
stresses are present in the wall. If an allowable tensile stress
is specified by the choice of construction material, the allow-
able wall tension, a-,, is


2[s]=S[N2 ]T[m]
m m_


in which S is the tensile stress and T is the wall thickness.
The maximum pressure that can be sustained inside a pres-
sure vessel of a given radius, that has a given wall thickness
and a known allowable tensile stress, can be calculated by
combining Eqs. (1) and (6) and solving for (P, Pout).
Notice in Eq. (1) that the pressure difference and the sur-
face tension are linearly related


LmJ LAP ]R[m]
M1= M2~P


The difference between the situation for a small liquid drop
and a small air bubble can be visualized by comparing
Sketches 2 and 4 in Figure 3.

Balloons and Alveoli
The inflation and deflation of balloons, and of
the terminal air sacs of the lungs, are processes in
which radius and wall tension change continuously,
and hence the instantaneous pressure-difference
varies. To inflate a balloon, a volume of air must
flow into the balloon. As the balloon expands, its
volume increases and the membrane stretches. The
first puff when inflating a balloon must apply the
highest pressure since the radius of the film is small-
est, as shown by Eq. (1). The wall tension itself
varies during inflation, increasing as the membrane (0,
becomes more stretched.


where R is the radius of a tank. Eq. (7) shows that when us-
ing a large tank, the wall tension required to withstand a given
internal design pressure is also large.6] Sketches 1 (small tank)
and 3 (large tank) in Figure 3 with the same internal pressure
illustrate this situation. Thus, several smaller tanks might be


Two interconnected alveoli of different size form Figure 5. Pressure inside a noncircular drop at rest on a solid surface.


Chemical Engineering Education


0)


(Y[N i
]m 2 mT[
Lm \m










more suited to store a given volume while keeping within the
limits of the allowable tensile stress for the material. Lique-
fied gas is often transported in batteries of smaller pressure
vessels, allowing the pressure to be larger within each cylin-
der for the same material of construction.
Compression Bandages
While not a usual study topic in chemical engineering, the
compression of a limb beneath a bandage is related to the
tension in the bandage. The more tightly the bandage is
wrapped, the greater the compression applied. To calculate
the compression, given by P,, in Eq. (1), we need to know the
tension in the bandage, which is given by"'7


SN j[-]FB[N]W[m]
[Lm W[m]

in which j layers of a bandage of width W are applied to a
limb with a force of FB newtons. The radius in Eq. (1) is cal-
culated from the circumference of the patient's leg. Because
this radius is not constant, the compression will vary in prac-
tice.'7 Sketches 1 and 2 in Figure 3 illustrate that a child's
leg of radius R would experience a much higher compres-
sion than an adult's when applying a bandage with the
same tension.
The calculated compression can be compared to a standard
diastolic blood pressure of 80 mm Hg (10.7 kilopascals) to
ensure that blood can still flow freely.
Large Liquid Drops
A liquid drop adjusts its shape in response to differences in
pressure and will not remain spherical under gravity. Figure
5 is a sketch of a large liquid drop with a noncircular cross-
section resting on a solid surface.
Assuming a uniform pressure outside the drop, the pres-
sure at point "1" in Figure 5, located at depth hMax below the
apex of the liquid drop of density Pn, is given by


PIn = Pout+- +P n gh Max (9)
b

Eq. (9) uses the radius of curvature at the apex of the drop,
b, since the radius of curvature is no longer the same at each
point on the surface but changes continuously along the drop
boundary. For a static liquid, the pressure is constant as we
traverse the path 1-2-3 at constant elevation. Since the height
of liquid above points 1-2-3 decreases, the radius of curva-
ture must decrease as we proceed from D to E to F. The pres-
sure is not the same everywhere inside the object shown
in Figure 5, but is higher at greater depths below the air-
liquid boundary.
Note in Figure 5 that three phases are in contact at point G,
where the air-liquid boundary of the drop meets the solid sur-


face; the tangent angle measured through the liquid phase is
known as the contact angle. Introducing the concepts of sur-
face tension and contact angle separately might help a stu-
dent make the distinction between the separate phenomena
of the presence of tension at a boundary and wetting phe-
nomena where a liquid is in contact with a solid surface.[91
Electrowetting, in which an electric field modifies the con-
tact angle of a liquid droplet in contact with an insulated con-
ductor, is useful in making lenses with no mechanical mov-
ing parts in digital camera technology."'

SUMMARY
This paper has presented a suggestion of visualizing the
action of surface tension by using a scaled sketch. By pro-
ducing a scaled sketch along with calculated values, the ap-
proach would be a useful supplement for visual learners. The
additional applications where forces act over curved surfaces
are intended to provide an idea of how the concept of tension
at a boundary is widely useful. A scaled sketch would also
be a useful supplement to spreadsheet programs for drop
size and shape distributions as well as for other simple
force balances.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was supported by the Centre for Advanced Food
Studies, Lyngby, Denmark, .

NOMENCLATURE
A, Half the angle subtended by a chord of length L, [radians]
b Radius of curvature at the apex of an axisymmetric drop,
[m]
D Diameter of a circle, [m]
FDon Force per unit length downward, [N.m-']
F Force per unit length upward, [N-m ']
Fo0 External force per unit length acting inward, [N-m-1]
Fn Internal force per unit length acting outward, [Nm ']
FB Force with which a bandage is applied, [N]
g Acceleration due to gravity, [m-s-2]
hx, Height of liquid inside a drop at the apex of the drop, [m]
j Number of times a bandage is wrapped around a limb, [-]
L Chord length, [m].
AP Pressure difference across a boundary equal to P,, Pou,
[N-m-2]
P, Pressure inside the circle, on the concave side, [Nm 2]
Pou Pressure outside the circle, on the convex side, [N m-2]
R Radius of a circle, radius of curvature, [m]
s Length of segment of curve, [m]
S Tensile stress, [N-m2]
T Wall thickness, [m]
W Width of a tensor bandage, [m]
x Coordinate in the horizontal direction, [m]
y Coordinate in the vertical direction, [m]
0 Coordinate in the angular direction, [radians]
p,, Density inside the boundary of a liquid droplet, [kg.m-3]
o Surface tension, [Nm-']
ar Surface tension for different situations, [N-m ]


Fall 2005
















Many
students
find visual
information
such as
pictures and
diagrams
useful,t31
and sketches
are commonly
used when
presenting
the concept

of surface
tension.
While
unsealed
sketches are
helpful,
scaled
sketches
can more
accurately
illustrate
quantitative
relationships.


APPENDIX DERIVATION OF EQ. (4)
The external inward force on a differential element of length ds of arc SQT in Figure 2 is


dFout = Poutds


The y-component of the force in Eq. (10) is


dF,out = -Pout sin ds=-Pout sin 6d(Re)=-Pout R sin d O

Fy,ot = JdFyout =-Pout R sinit ed =PoR[cose](J)+A
J('/2)_Al jt /z)-A


Evaluating the integral in Eq. (12) and substituting L = 2RsinA, gives the y-component of
the external inward force on SQT


Fy,OutSQT =Pout R{-sin A -sin A}=-2PoutRsin A =-PoutL (13)

The internal outward force on a differential element of length ds of arc SQT in Figure 2 is
dFn =Pinds (14)
The y-component of the force in Eq. (14) is found using the same procedure as in Eqs.
(11) and (12)


Fy,InSQT =-PnR[cs](2)+A = 2PI Rsin A =PiL
FyIuQ -ruI.cou( E2)-A1 In 1 Pi


(15)


For a liquid droplet, the internal outwards force along the line ST can be immediately writ-
ten by examination of Figure 2:


FynST = PnL=2PinRsinAt


(16))


Thus the net force due to pressure is the same whether the object is a thin-walled pressure
vessel or a small liquid drop (the two cases illustrated in Figure 1). Adding the pair of equa-
tions (15) + (13) or (16) + (13) gives Equation (4):
Fup = 2R(Pn Pout )sinA, (4)

REFERENCES
1. "Going With the Flow," The Economist Technology Quarterly, 27-28 (June 12, 2004)
2. Adamson, A.W., Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, 4th Ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York (1982)
3. Felder, R.M., and L. Silverman, "Learning and Teaching Styles in Engineering Education," Eng. Ed., 78, 674
(1988)
4. Guyon, E., J. Prost, C. Betrencourt, C. Boulet, and B. Volochine, "Attention aux Tensions Superficielles!"
European J. of Physics, 3, 159 (1982)
5. Liu, M., "Synchronized Changing of Transinterface Pressure, Bubble Radius, and Surface Tension: A Unique
Feature of Lung Surfactant," Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 89, 55 (1997)
6. Nave, R.,Alveoli of the Lungs, , Department of Physics
and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Mar. 2004. Last accessed July 11, 2005.
7. Thomas, S., "The Use of the Laplace Equation in the Calculation of Sub-Bandage Pressure," European Wound
Management Association J., 3, 21 (2003)
8. Walker, J., "Why are the First Few Puffs the Hardest When You Blow Up a Balloon?" Scientific American, 136,
Dec. (1989)
9. Walton, A., "Surface Tension and Capillary Rise," Physics Education, 7, 491 (1972) 0


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heavy oil processing and upgrading, heterogeneous
catalysis, hydrogen storage materials, materials
processing, microalloy steels, micromechanics, mineral
processing, molecular sieves, multiphase mixing,
nanostructured biomaterials, oil sands, petroleum
thermodynamics, pollution control, polymers, powder
metallurgy, process and performance monitoring,
rheology, surface science, system identification,
thermodynamics, and transport phenomena.

For further information, contact:
Graduate Program Officer
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6
Phone: (780) 492-1823 Fax: (780) 492-2881
chemical.engineering@ualberta.ca
www.engineering.ualberta.ca/cme

* This ranking is against 177 programs in the U.S. and Canada and is
based on total refereed publications over a five-year period as listed
in the Science Citation Index of ISI.


R. E. Burrell, PhD (University of Waterloo)
W. Chen, PhD (University of Manitoba)
P. Choi, PhD (University of Waterloo)
K. T. Chuang, PhD (University of Alberta)
C. Diaz-Goano, PhD (University of Alberta)
R. L. Eadie, PhD (University of Toronto)
T. H. Etsell, PhD (University of Toronto)
3. A. W. Elliott, PhD (University of Toronto)
J. F. Forbes, PhD (McMaster University) Chair
M. R. Gray, PhD (California Institute of Technology)
R. E. Hayes, PhD (University of Bath)
H. Henein, PhD (University of British Columbia)
B. Huang, PhD (University of Alberta)
D. G. Ivey, PhD (University of Windsor)
S. M. Kresta, PhD (McMaster University)
S. M. Kuznicki, PhD (University of Utah)
D. Li, PhD (McGill University)
Q. Liu, PhD (University of British Columbia)
J. Luo, PhD (McMaster University)
D. T. Lynch, PhD (University of Alberta) Dean of Engineering
3. H. Masliyah, PhD (University of British Columbia)
A. E. Mather, PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus
W. C. McCaffrey, PhD (McGill University)
E. S. Meadows, PhD (University of Texas)
D. Mitlin, PhD (University of California, Berkeley)
K. Nandakumar, PhD (Princeton University)
A. E. Nelson, PhD (Michigan Technological University)
S. Sanders, PhD (University of Alberta)
S. L. Shah, PhD (University of Alberta)
J. M. Shaw, PhD (University of British Columbia)
U. Sundararaj, PhD (University of Minnesota)
H. Uludag, PhD (University of Toronto)
S. E. Wanke, PhD (University of California, Davis)
M. C. Williams, PhD (University of Wisconsin) Emeritus
Z. Xu, PhD (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
T. Yeung, PhD (University of British Columbia)


-I
Dr. Murray Gray with the JEOL JAMP-9500F field emission Auger
microprobe.


Chemical Engineering Education











FAUT / R SEAC INEET I


ROBERT G. ARNOLD, Professor (CalTech)
Microbiological Hazardous Waste Treatment, Metals Speciation and Toxicity
PAUL BLOWERS, Assistant Professor (Illinois, Urbana-Champaign)
Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis, Surface Phenomena, Green Design
JAMES C. BAYGENTS, Associate Professor (Princeton)
Fluid Mechanics, Transport and Colloidal Phenomena, Bioseparations
WENDELL ELA, Associate Professor (Stanford)
Particle-Particle Interactions, Environmental Chemistry


JAMES FARRELL, Associate Professor (Stanford)
Sorption/desorption of Organics in Soils
JAMES A. FIELD, Professor (Wageningen University)
Bioremediation, Microbiology. White Rot Fungi, Hazardous Waste
ROBERTO GUZMAN, Professor (North Carolina State)
Affinity Protein Separations, Polymeric Surface Science
ANTHONY MUSCAT, Associate Professor (Stanford)
Kinetics. Sirface Chemistry, Sifface Engineering. Semiconductor
Processing, Microcontamination
KIMBERLY OGDEN, Professor and Interim Head (Colorado)
Bioreactors, Bioremediation, Organics Removal from Soils
THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor and Dean (CalTech)
Aerosols, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Microcontaminationi
ARA PHILIPOSSIAN, Associate Professor (Tufts)
Chemical/Mechanical Polishing, Semiconductor Processing
EDUARDO SAEZ, Associate Professor (UC, Davis)
Polymer Flows, Multiphase Reactors, Colloids
FARHANG SHADMAN, Regents Professor (Berkeley)
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactive Membranes.
Microcontamination
REYES SIERRA, Associate Professor (Wageningen University)
Environmental Biotechnology, Biotransformation of Metals, Greeni
Engineering



For further information, write to -


Chemical and Environmental

Engineering

at

THE UNIVERSITY OF


ARIZONA
TUCSON ARIZONA


The Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering
at the University of Arizona offers a wide range of research
opportunities in all major areas of chemical engineering and
environmental engineering. The department offers a fully accredited
undergraduate degree in chemical engineering, as well as MS and PhD
degrees in both chemical and environmental engineering. A signifi-
cant portion of research efforts is devoted to areas at the boundary
between chemical and environmental engineering, including environ-
mentally benign semiconductor manufacturing, environmental
remediation. environmental biotechnology, and novel
water treatment technologies.
Financial support is available through fellowships, government
and industrial grants and contracts, teaching and
research assistantships.

Tucson has an excellent climate and many
recreational opportunities. It is a growing modern city that
retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere.


5 Q,


http://www.che.arizona.edu

or write

Chairman, Graduate Study Committee
Department of Chemical and
Environmental Engineering
P.O. BOX 210011
The University ofArizona
Tucson, AZ 85721

The University of Arizona is an equal
opportunity educational institution/equal opportunity employer.
Women and minorities are encouraged to apply.


Fall 2005 341












ARIZONA STATE


UNIVERSITY

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

A Distinguished and Diverse Faculty
Chemical Engineering A multi-disciplinary research
Jonathan Allen, Ph.D., MIT. Atmospheric aerosol chemistry, single-particle measurement environment with opportunities
techniques, environmental fate of organic pollutants in electronic materials
James Beckman, Ph.D., Arizona. Unit operations, applied mathematics, energy-efficient water
purification, fractionation, CMP reclamation processing biotechnology
Veronica Burrows, Ph.D., Princeton. Surface science, environmental sensors, semiconductor processing, characterization,
processing, interfacial chemical and physical processes in sensor processing and simulation of materials *
Jeffrey Heys, Ph.D., Colorado, Boulder. Modeling of biofluid-tisue interaction, tissue and ceramics air and water
biofilm mechanics, parallel multigrid solvers purification atmospheric
Jerry Y.S. Lin, Ph.D., Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Advanced materials (inorganic mem- chemistry process control
branes, adsorbents and catalysts) for applications in novel chemical separation and reaction
processes
Chan Beum Park, Ph.D., POSTTECH, South Korea. Bioprocess in extremis, novel cell-free
protein synthesis, biolab-on-a-chip technology
Gregory Raupp, Ph.D., Wisconsin. Gas-solid surface reactions mechanisms and kinetics,
interactions between surface reactions and simultaneous transport processes, semiconductor
materials processing, thermal and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
Daniel Rivera, Ph.D., Caltech. Control systems engineering, dynamic modeling via system
identification, robust control, computer-aided control system design
Michael Sierks, Ph.D., Iowa State. Protein engineering, biomedical engineering, enzyme
kinetics, antibody engineering
Joe Wang, Ph.D., Israel Institute of Technology. Nanomaterial-based bioelectronics, biosensors
and biochips, electrochemistry



Materials Science and Engineering
James Adams, Ph.D., Wisconsin. Atomistic stimulation of metallic surfaces, adhesion, wear, and
automotive catalysts, heavy metal toxicity
Terry Alford, Ph.D., Cornell. Electronic materials, physical metallurgy, electronic thin films
Nikhilesh Chawla, Ph.D., Michigan. Lead-free solders, composite materials, powder metallurgy
Sandwip Dey, Ph.D., Alfred. Electro-ceramics, MOCVD and ALCVD, dielectrics: leakage, loss
mechanisms and modeling
Cody Friesen, Ph.D., MIT. Surface/Interface physics, nanomechanics, nanostructured materials, thin
film growth, novel approaches to catalysis and sensing, electrochemical processes
Ghassan E. Jabbour, Ph.D., Arizona. Development of materials for optical and electronic applications
Stephen Krause, Ph.D., Michigan. Characterization of structural changes in processing of semiconductors
Subhash Mahajan (Chair), Ph.D., Berkeley. Semiconductor defects, high temperature semiconductors, structural materials deformation
James Mayer, Ph.D., Purdue. Thin film processing, ion beam modification of materials
Nathan Newman, Ph.D., Stanford. Growth, characterization, and modeling of solid-state materials
S. Tom Picraux, Ph.D. Caltech. Nanostructured materials, epitaxy, and thin-film electronic materials
Karl Sieradzki, Ph.D. Syracuse. Fracture of solids, thin-film deposition and growth, corrosion
Mark van Schilfgaarde, Ph.D. Stanford. Methods and applications of electronic structure theory, dilute magnetic semiconductors, GW approximation

For details concerning graduate opportunities in Chemical and Materials Engineering atASU, please call Paul Grillos
at (480) 965-5558, or write to Subhash Mahajan, Chair, Chemical and Materials Engineering, Arizona State University,
Tempe, Arizona 85287-6006 (smahajan@asu.edu), or visit us at http://www.fulton.asu.edu/~-cme.

342 Chemical Engineering Education










Graduate Program in the Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering


University of Arkansas

pas. c, The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas
offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees.
SQualified applicants are eligible for financial aid. Annual departmental
S Ph.D. stipends provide $20,000, Doctoral Academy Fellowships provide
$25,000, and Distinguished Doctoral Fellowships provide $30,000. For
stipend and fellowship recipients, all tuition is waived. Applications re-
^eabrs 200 zo ceived before April 1st will be given first consideration.

Areas of Research


El Biochemical engineering
El Biological and food systems
EL Biomaterials
El Chemical process safety
[ Consequence analysis of hazardous chemical releases
[J Electronic materials processing
E[ Fate of pollutants in the environment
[E Fluid phase equilibria and process
design
L Integrated passive electronic Faculty
components X, n A ,


EL Membrane separations
EL Mixing in chemical processes


IVI. %c. .s1 V Uln
R.E. Babcock
R.R. Beitle
E.C. Clausen
R.A. Cross
J.A. Havens
J.W. King
W.A. Myers
W.R. Penney
T.O. Spicer
G.J. Thoma
J.L. Turpin
R.K. Ulrich


For more information contact
Dr. Richard Ulrich or 479-575-5645
Chemical Engineering Graduate Program Information: http://www.cheg.uark.edu/graduate.asp


I
Fall 2005 34.


-~~n












AUBURN UNIVERSITY


Chemical Engineering


Faculty
W. Robert Ashurst University of California, Berkeley
Mark E. Byrne Purdue University
Robert P. Chambers University of California, Berkeley
Harry T. Cullinan Carnegie Institute of Technology
Christine W. Curtis Florida State University
Virginia Davis Rice University
Steve R. Duke University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Mario R. Eden Technical University of Denmark
James A. Guin University of Texas at Austin -
Ram B. Gupta University of Texas at Austin
Thomas R. Hanley Virginia Tech Institute
Gopal A. Krishnagopalan University of Maine
Yoon Y. Lee Iowa State University
Glennon Maples Oklahoma State University
Ronald D. Neuman The Institute of Paper Chemistry
Timothy D. Placek University ofKentucky
Christopher B. Roberts University ofNotre Dame
Arthur R. Tarrer Purdue University
Bruce J. Tatarchuk University of Wisconsin
h University


Research Areas
s Fuel Cells* Energy Conversion and Storage
n Biomedical Engineering Drug Delivery
n Materials* Polymers Nanotechnology
n Biomaterials MEMS and NEMS
s Biochemical Engineering Bioprocessing
s Pulp and Paper Microfibrous Materials
s Computer-Aided Engineering
m Environmental Biotechnology
e Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
s Surface and Interfacial Science
s Thermodynamics Supercritical Fluids
s Green Chemistry Sustainable Engineering


Incquiries-o: -
S iielor of Graduate Recrutidg ; -'
Deparnmcni of CheimEcd Engineenng
Auburn UniversityAL 36849-5127 F-
Phone 334.844.4827
Fax 334.844.2063
Swww.engaumn.edutht I
-- eriicar@engaubumrnedu
Financial assistance is avadable to qualified applicants.


Chemical Engineering Education











FACULTY


T. G. Harding, Head (Alberta)
J. Abadi (Toronto)
J. Azaiez (Stanford)
L. A. Behie (Western Ontario)
C. Bellehumeur (McMaster)
A. DeVisscher (Ghent)
I. D. Gates (Minnesota)
J.M. Hill (Wisconsin)
M. Husein (McGill)
A. A. Jeje (MIT)
M. S. Kallos (Calgary)
A. Kantzas (Waterloo)
D. Keith (MIT)
B. B. Maini (Univ. Washington)
A. K. Mehrotra (Calgary)
S. A. Mehta (Calgary)
R. G. Moore (Alberta)
P. Pereira (France)
M. Pooladi-Darvish (Alberta)
K. Rinker (North Carolina State)
A. Sen (Calgary)
A. Settari (Calgary)
W. Y. Svrcek (Alberta)
M. A. Trebble (Calgary')
H. W. Yarranton (Alberta)
B. Young (Canterburv, NZ)
L. Zanzotto (Slovak Tech. Univ., C:echoslov


DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL

AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

The Department offers graduate programs leading to the M.Sc. and Ph.D.
degrees in Chemical Engineering (full-time) and the M.Eng. degree in Chemical
Engineering, Petroleum Reservoir Engineering or Engineering for the
Environment (part-time) in the following areas:
Biochemical Engineering & Biotechnology
Biomedical Engineering
Upgrading, Catalysis and Fuel Cells
Environmental Engineering
Modeling, Simulation & Control
Petroleum Recovery & Reservoir Engineering
Polymer Processing & Rheology
Process Development
Reaction Engineering/Kinetics
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena
Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available to all qualified applicants.


For Additional Information Contact *
Dr. J. Azaiez Associate Head, Graduate Studies
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4
E-mail: gradstud@ucalgary.ca
1 **


ikia)


The University is located in the City of Calgary, the Oil capital of Canada, the home of the world famous Calgary Stampede and the 1988
Winter Olympics. The City combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication of a modern urban center. Beautiful Banff
National Park is 110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of Banff, Lake Louise,and Kananaskis areas are readily accessible. In the
above photo the University Campus is shown in the foreground. The Engineering complex is on the left of the picture, and the Olympic
Oval is on the right of the picture.


UNIVERSITY OF

CALGARY


Ii


Fall 2005


I












Univrls1 I fII 1 Ciff ll fn B]kly


The Chemical Engineering Department at the
University of California, Berkeley, one of the pre-
eminent departments in the field, offers graduate pro-
grams leading to the Master of Science and Doctor
of Philosophy. Students also have the opportunity
to take part in the many cultural offerings of the San
Francisco Bay Area and the recreational activities
of California's northern coast and mountains.

FACULTY


Nitash P. Balsara
Harvey W. Blanch
Arup K. Chakraborty
Jean M.J. Frechet
David B. Graves
Alexander Katz
Susan J. Muller
John M. Prausnitz
Jeffrey A. Reimer


Elton J. Cairns
Douglas S. Clark
Enrique Iglesia
Jay D. Keasling
Roya Maboudlan
John S. Newman
Clayton J. Radke
David V. Schaffer
Rachel A. Segalman


Chairman: Alexis T. Bell


BIOENGINEERING
Blanch, Clark,
Keasling, Schaffer,
Chakraborty, Muller,
Prausnitz & Radke
















A










POLYMERS &
SOFT MATERIALS
Balsara, Chakraborty,
Muller, Prausnitz, Radke,
Reimer, Segalman,
Frechet


FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, PLEASE VISIT OUR WEBSITE:

http://cheme.berkeley.edu


Chemical Engineering Education


ELECTROCHEMICAL
ENGINEERING


Cairns, Newman &
Reimer


MICROELECTRONICS
PROCESSING &
MEMS

Graves, Maboudian,
Reimer & Segalman




Full Text