Chemical engineering education

http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular

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Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
sobekcm - AA00000383_00163
Classification:
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00163


This item is only available as the following downloads:

Washington University in St. Louis, Milorad P. Dudukovic, John L. Kardos, James M. McKelvey, R.L. Motard ( PDF )

C. Judson King of UC Berkeley, John Prausnitz ( PDF )

Instant Messaging: Expanding Your Office Hours, Daniel Burkey and Ronald J. Willey ( PDF )

A Course-Level Strategy for Continuous Improvement, Joseph J. Biernacki ( PDF )

Web-Based Delivery of ChE Design Projects, Lisa G. Bullard, Patricia K. Niehues, Steven W. Peretti, Shannon H. White ( PDF )

Screens Down, Everyone! Effective Uses of Portable Computers in Lecutre Classes, Richard M. Felder, Rebecca Brent ( PDF )

Common Plumbing and Control Errors in Plantwide Flowsheets, William L. Luyben ( PDF )

Biological Engineering Taught in the Context of Drug Discovery to Manufacturing, Carolyn W.T. Lee-Parsons ( PDF )

'Greening' a Design-Oriented Heat Transfer Course, Ann Marie Flynn, Mohammad H. Naraghi, Stacey Shaefer ( PDF )

A Successful "Introduction to ChE" First-Semester Course Focusing on Connection, Communication, and Preparation, Susan C. Roberts ( PDF )

Survivor: Classroom- A Method of Active Learning that Addresses Four Types of Student Motivation, James A. Newell ( PDF )

Performing Process Control Experiments Across the Atlantic, Anders Selmer, Mike Goodson, Markus Kraft, Siddhartha Sen, V. Faye McNeill, Barry S. Johnston, Clark K. Colton ( PDF )

A Kinetics Experiment for the Unit Operations Laboratory, Richard W. Rice, David A. Bruce, David R. Kuhnell, Christopher I. McDonald ( PDF )

Using a Web Module to Teach Stochastic Modeling, Markus Kraft, Sebastian Mosbach, Wolfgang Wagner ( PDF )

( PDF )


Full Text








EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS:
Chemical Engineering Education
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611
PHONE and FAX: 352-392-0861
e-mail: cee@che.ufl.edu

EDITOR
Tim Anderson

ASSOCIATE EDITOR
Phillip C. Wankat

MANAGING EDITOR
Lynn Heasley

PROBLEM EDITOR
James 0. Wilkes, U. Michigan

LEARNING IN INDUSTRY EDITOR
William J. Koros, Georgia Institute !

-PUBLICATIONS BOARD

CHAIRMAN *
E. Dendy Sloan, Jr.
Colorado School ofMines

MEMBERS
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Rowan University
Donald R. Woods
McMaster University


Chemical Engineering Education

Volume 39 Number 3 Summer 2005



D DEPARTMENT
170 Washington University in St. Louis,
Milorad P. Dudukovic, John L. Kardos, James M. McKelvey,
R.L. Motard

0 EDUCATOR
178 C. Judson King of UC Berkeley,
John Prausnitz

> RANDOM THOUGHTS
200 Screens Down, Everyone! Effective Uses of Portable Computers in
Lecture Classes, Richard M. Felder, Rebecca Brent
> CLASSROOM
186 A Course-Level Strategy for Continuous Improvement,
Joseph J. Biernacki
194 Web-Based Delivery of ChE Design Projects,
Lisa G. Bullard, Patricia K. Niehues, Steven W. Peretti,
Shannon H. White
208 Biochemical Engineering Taught in the Context of Drug Discovery to
Manufacturing, Carolyn WT. Lee-Parsons
228 Survivor: Classroom-A Method of Active Learning that Addresses Four
Types of Student Motivation, James A. Newell
232 Performing Process Control Experiments Across the Atlantic,
Anders Selmer, Mike Goodson, Markus Kraft, Siddhartha Sen,
V Faye McNeill, Barry S. Johnston, Clark K. Colton
244 Using a Web Module to Teach Stochastic Modeling, Markus K,
Sebastian Mosbach, I Wagner

> LABORATORY
238 A Kinetics Experiment for the Unit Operations Laboratory,
Richard W. Rice, David A. Bruce, David R. Kuhnell,
Christopher I. McDonald

> CURRICULUM
202 Common Plumbing and Control Errors in Plantwide Flowsheets,
William L. Luyben
222 A Successful "Introduction to ChE" First-Semester Course Focusing on
Connection, Communication, and Preparation, Susan C. Roberts

D CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS
216 'Greening' a Design-Oriented Heat Transfer Course, Ann Marie Flynn,


Mohammad H. I


Stacey ,


OFFICE PROCEDURES
183 Instant Messaging: Expanding Your Office Hours,
Daniel Burkey and Ronald J. Willey


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering
Division, American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Copyright 2005 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American
Societyfor Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not
necessarily those of the ChE Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if
notified within 120 days of publication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and availability.
POSTMASTER: Sendaddress changes to ChemicalEngineeingEducation, ChemicalEngineering Department., University
of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Periodicals Postage Paid at Gainesville, Florida and additional post offices.


Summer 2005










j] department


Washington University



in St. Louis

MILORAD P. DUDUKOVIC*, JOHN L. KARDOS*, JAMES M. MCKELVEY*, R.L. MOTARD*
Washington University in St. Louis St. Louis, MO 63130-4899


he best-known symbol of St. Louis is
the Gateway Arch, situated on the west
bank of the Mississippi River in the
city's downtown, and designated as the
Jefferson Memorial National Monument. An-
other well-known St. Louis landmark, Wash-
ington University, was founded in 1853 and re-
cently celebrated its sesquicentennial. The uni-
versity, always an integral part of the St. Louis
community, has grown from a nonsectarian
",sicc,.,i school attended primarily by
commuters to an international, research-
based university.
Washington University in St. Louis
(WUSTL) has about 3,000 instructional faculty
and 11,000 full-time students. The students are
almost equally divided between its undergradu-
ate divisions and graduate and professional
schools. The university currently is tied for 11th
place in the 2005 U.S. News & World Report
rankings for undergraduate programs. Led by
Chancellor Mark S. Wrighton, a chemistry pro-
fessor, WUSTL has seven divisions: the Col-
lege of Arts and Sciences, the Olin School of Business, the
Sam Fox School of Design and Visual Arts, the School of
Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Law, the
School of Medicine, and the George Warren Brown School
of Social Work.

Rarely are four department chairmen still
active within a relatively small department. The
Department of Chemical Engineering at
Washington University in St. Louis, however, is
in such fortunate situation.


The St. Louis Gateway Arch at dusk.


WUSTL received more than $533 million in research sup-
port in fiscal year 2005. A fund-raising campaign that ended
on June 30, 2004, netted $1.55 billion.
The university's School of Engineering and Applied Sci-
ence (SEAS) is a small, highly competitive but friendly
place promoting high-quality education and research. The
school's dean is Christopher I. Byrnes, a professor of ap-
plied mathematics and systems science who is well known
for his contributions to nonlinear control theory. SEAS
has six departments: biomedical engineering, chemical en-
gineering, civil engineering, computer science and engi-
neering, electrical and systems engineering, and mechani-


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2005


Chemical Enyineerine Education






















W A ".




Brookings Hall, a Washington University in St. Louis
landmark.

cal and aerospace engi-
neering. It counts 1,200
undergraduates, 750
graduate students, and
88 tenured/tenure-track
faculty. SEAS also has
35 endowed professors,
six national academy
members, five foreign
national academy mem-
bers, 17 national young
investigators, and 59 fel-
lows of professional so-
Lawrence E. Stout, cities. Fiscal year 2004
WUSTL's first ChE chairman, research expenditures
pictured in 1940. were $42 million.

EARLY HISTORY
The name "Chemical Engineering" first appeared in Wash-
ington University catalogs in 1910 as a Bachelor of Science
degree within the engineering school. Students were re-
quired to master concepts in general chemistry, analyti-
cal chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, sto-
ichiometry, and industrial chemistry. They were also ex-
pected to familiarize themselves with technologies for pro-
ducing clean water, food, milk, and milk products. Ex-
tensive laboratory work was required.
Between 1910 and 1930, few changes occurred in the cur-
riculum. In this predepartmental era, chemical engineering
courses were the responsibility of the Department of Chem-
istry in the College of Liberal Arts. It is noteworthy that
Lawrence E. Stout, an associate professor of chemistry, was
responsible for teaching the chemical engineering principles
course as well as the chemical engineering laboratory and
the engineering metallurgy course-all requirements for the
ChE program at the time.

Summer 2005


In 1940, the Department of Chemical Engineering was
founded as an autonomous unit within the School of Engi-
neering, and Dr. Stout was named its first chairman. The
university's first master of science degree in chemical engi-
neering was granted in 1941. The first doctorate was awarded
in 1945. And the first woman with a B.S. in chemical engi-
neering graduated in 1948.

POST-WAR ERA
The post-World War II era saw a sharp rise in ChE degrees
at the university, cresting at 66 diplomas in 1949. In the 1950s,
there was a modest increase in graduate work, and in 1959
the department's current home, Urbauer Hall, was built. By
1960, there were six full-time faculty members.
The addition of James M. McKelvey and G.I. Esterson
to the ChE faculty brought about a notable change. The former
focused on developing new approaches to quantifying poly-
mer processing, and the latter embraced modern process-con-
trol techniques. Polymer Processing, the pioneering book writ-
ten by Jim McKelvey and published in 1962, was the first of
its kind and enhanced the department's reputation in teach-
ing and research.

THE SIXTIES AND SEVENTIES
With Jim McKelvey (1962-1964) and Eric Weger (1964-
1977) as department chairmen, the next two decades witnessed
tremendous changes. During this era, the university gained in-
ternational status. Moreover, the importance of graduate work
and research grew, thanks in large part to increased federal fund-
ing. Biomedical engineering at WUSTL had an early start-
and thriveddue to the prominence of the School of Medicine.
Environmental concerns, new petrochemical and chemical pro-
cesses, and the issues of energy and synthetic fuels all contrib-
uted to help make chemical engineering a popular major.
The undergraduate curriculum underwent a thorough trans-
formation in these decades. Introduced in this period were
mathematical analysis and modeling of chemical systems,
transport phenomena as a basis for unit operations, quantita-
tive treatment of chemical reaction engineering, process con-
trol, process synthesis, and design. New laboratory courses
illustrated the key concepts of transport, unit operations, and
chemical reaction engineering.
In summation, a curriculum that was firmly based on chemi-
cal engineering sciences emerged in the 1960s and-capital-
izing on emerging advances in information technology-was
augmented by process synthesis and model-based control in
the 1970s. With modest changes, this successful curriculum
remained in effect until 2000. Currently, a revised curricu-
lum is being phased in.
Faculty additions and accomplishments
More remarkable than curriculum evolution in these two
pivotal decades were changes that took place in research and











graduate-level coursework. These changes
were brought about by new faculty members
and the synergism the department developed
with the Corporate Engineering Division at
Monsanto in St. Louis.
Professor John L. Kardos joined the ChE
department in 1965, and in that year, the uni-
versity and Monsanto were awarded a $1 mil-
lion federal grant to develop the tc l 1. 4. -N
of composite materials. This government-
sponsored university-industry program, the
first of its kind, was part of a larger experi-
ment by the federal government to learn how
to couple universities and companies in joint
research efforts.
The Washington University/Monsanto re-
search effort was judged the most successful
among seven such partnerships nationwide.
From it emerged the engineering school's Ma-
terials Science and Engineering Program and
an internationally recognized research group
in composite materials. Today, this interdis-
ciplinary program spans several engineering
departments as well as other divisions of the
university. On June 30 of this year, the pro-
fessor so instrumental in its success, John
Kardos, retired after 40 years of exemplary
research and teaching at Washington Univer-
sity. He continues to provide advice and guid-
ance as a professor emeritus.
Others made their mark on the school's suc-
cess as well. Professor Buford Smith, who
joined the department in 1965, established a
world-renowned thermodynamics laboratory
for determination of vapor-liquid-equilibria in
binary systems and for development of esti-
mation methods for equilibria in multicompo-
nent systems. In addition, Smith-with the help
of Dr. James Fair and other Monsanto-affili-
ate facultydeveloped a series of process-de-
sign case studies still used in classrooms world-
wide. Upon Smith's retirement in the late '80s,
his laboratory was purchased by DuPont.
Professor Robert Hochmuth (on the fac-
ulty from 1967 to 1978), pursued early bio-
medical research. An expert in the red blood
cell membrane and its viscoelasticity, he de-
veloped unique experimental methods to test
the effects of diseases such as sickle cell ane-
mia on the membrane.
Professor Bob Sparks and Professor Curt
Thies arrived at ChE in the early 1970s, and
proceeded to put the department on the map


Chemical Engineering Faculty
at Washington University in St. Louis


S Milorad P. Dudukovic, Department Chair
The Laura and William Jens Professor
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Chicago, 1972
chemical reaction engineering, multiphase reactors, visualizati
flows, environmental engineering, tracer methods

Muthanna AI-Dahhan
Associate Professor
D.Sc., Washington University, 1993
reaction engineering, multiphase reactors, bioprocessing
engineering
Largus T. Angenent
Assistant Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1998
molecular tools for microbial ecology, anaerobic treatment
ofwater and waste, bioreactor design and operation

Pratim Biswas
The Stifel and Quinette Jens Professor
Ph.D., California Inst. of Tech., 1985
aerosol science and engineering, air quality and pollution control,
nanotechnology, benign processing
John T. Gleaves
Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Illinois
industrial catalysis, microstructured materials
John L. Kardos
Professor Emeritus
Ph.D., Case Western Reserve Univ., 1965
structure-property relations in polymers and reinforced
plastics, interface chemistry and physics of composites,
processing science of composites


Bamin Khomami
The Frances F Ahmann Professor
Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1987
transport properties of
biomo lecular physics


rphysice


.7


James M. McKelvey
Senior Professor
Ph.D., Washington University, 1952
thermodynamics, polymerprocessing, rheology, polymer

Rodolphe L. Motard
Senior Professor
D.Sc., Camegie Mellon University, 1952
reaction engineering, multiphase reactors, bioprocessing engineering

P.A. Ramachandran
Professor
Ph.D., University of Bombay, 1971
chemical reaction engineering, applied mathematics,
process modeling
Radakrishna Sureshkumar
SAssociate Professor
Ph.D., University of Delaware, 1996
'nanostructures,
multiscale modeling and simulations Jay R. turner

Associate Professor
D.Sc., Washington University, 1993
environmental engineering, air quality policy and technology, aerosol science
and engineering


Chemical Entineerint Education


fmultiphase


~F~F.r~J











u7 J.ii .
| I ... -


A bird's-eye
view of
Urbauer Hall,
which is
connected
to other
buildings
in the WUSTL
engineering
campus.


in the area of controlled drug release and microencapsulation
research. Sparks' research eventually culminated in the li-
censing of several patents and his retirement from SEAS in
1990 to found his own company. Thies became a professor
emeritus in 2002 and continues to run his microencapsula-
tion business from Nevada.
In 1974, Professor
Milorad P. (Mike)
Dudukovic arrived to Washington
start building the Chemi- University
cal Reaction Engineering was founded
Laboratory (CREL), in 1853
which now enjoys a a
world-class reputation. and recently
Funded by industry (18 celebrated its
companies from five sesquicentennial.
continents) and govern-
ment, CREL continues
to be the most productive research unit in the department.
Its focus is on the development of improved models and
scale-up procedures for various multiphase reactors that
are predominant in petroleum, chemical, and pharmaceu-
tical applications.
Dudukovic and his team have implemented novel
noninvasive methods-gamma ray computer tomography and
computer-assisted radioactive particle tracking-for moni-
toring phase distributions, flow, and mixing within multiphase
contractors. The research team utilizes these techniques to
validate computational fluid dynamics codes and to establish
fundamentally based reactor models.
Dudukovic has also been long known as one of the most
effective teachers at the university, and has been honored na-


tionally and internationally for his pioneering research. Un-
der his guidance, CREL has recently become a core partner
with the University of Kansas, the University of Iowa, and
Prairie View A&M University in the National Science Foun-
dation Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Ben-
eficial Catalysis (CEBC). CREL efforts for the center are fo-
cused on identifying the best reactor types for novel catalytic
processes that lead to minimal impact on the environment.
Professor Rodolphe L. (Rudy) Motard became the
department's sixth chairman in 1978. Motard's research in-
terests included flowsheeting, process synthesis, and data and
information modeling-all of which have had a significant im-
pact on industrial practice. He was one of the charter founders
of the CACHE Corporation in 1968 and served as a consultant
to the ASPEN development group at MIT. He also was instru-
mental in the formation of AIChE's Process Data Exchange
Institute (pdXi). Motard became a senior professor in 1996 and
continues to do research in process synthesis and database min-
ing with the help of Yoshio Yamashita (D.Sc. '80).
Professor Babu Joseph (1978-2002) worked with Motard
to develop a cooperative effort in process synthesis design
and control and sensor development based on wavelet trans-
forms for early corrosion detection. Joseph also pioneered
Web-based control experiments and the effective introduc-
tion of information tck',. 1 ii .- \ in classroom teaching. He left
the department in 2002 to become chairman of the ChE de-
partment at the University of South Florida in Tampa.

THE EIGHTIES TO THE PRESENT
The period of 1980 to the present has seen gradual change
in the evolution of the undergraduate program-now firmly
entrenched in chemical engineering science principles. Dur-


Summer 2005












Right, ChE Chair and Professor
Milorad P (Mike) Dudukovic guides student
researchers in the Chemical Reaction
Engineering Laboratory. Below, Professor
Pratim Biswas works with a student in the
Air Quality Research Lab.


ing these years, the program embraced process synthesis and
model-based control driven by information to, l, I ii1 _. \.
Professor P.A. Ramachandran joined the department in
1984. He has added a wealth of expertise in the area of
applied mathematics and multiphase reaction engineer-
ing, and has strengthened CREL's chemical reaction en-
gineering modeling activities. Ramachandran's research
interests are in the modeling of heterogeneous reactions
and the study of transport and reaction effects in design
of chemical reactors.
His book, T .. -' Catalytic Reactors, published in
1983, is widely used even today by industrial practitioners as
a first-reference source. Recent interests include pollution
prevention strategies in chemical reactions, and design of
green processes and reactors.
Non-Newtonian flows, polymer rheology, and processing
were the main research interests of Professor Bamin
Khomami when he joined the department in 1987. His cur-
rent research focus is on the study of nonequilibrium trans-
port and pattern formation in micro- or nano-structured me-
dia. Khomami's research involves studies of hydrodynamic
instabilities and pattern formation in complex fluids, micro-
dynamics of complex fluids, and synthesis of nano-structured
particles and thin films via aerosol routes.
Professor John Gleaves came to the department in 1988
from Monsanto. He brought his Temporal Analysis of Prod-
ucts (TAP) system for probing of reaction mechanisms on
real catalytic surfaces. Gleaves rapidly achieved worldwide


acclaim for his technique, which has now been adopted at
catalytic laboratories on four continents.
During the 1990s and beyond, the department added fac-
ulty to further support its research excellence in materials
and reaction engineering, and to provide leadership in envi-
ronmental engineering-an area targeted for growth by SEAS.
John Kardos provided stable leadership from 1991 to 1998. Mike
Dudukovic then became chairman and remains so at the present.
During this period, more impressive faculty additions occurred.
Professor Jay Turner joined the department in 1993.
Turner spearheaded the effort to reestablish environmental
engineering as an interdisciplinary graduate-degree-granting
program at SEAS. He established himself as a leading au-
thority in the transport and monitoring of atmospheric aero-
sols, and has been in charge of a multiyear, multiuniversity
project funded by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
and National Science Federation (NSF). He also has won mul-
tiple teaching awards at WUSTL.
In 1997, Professor R. Sureshkumar joined the department,
bringing additional strengths in applied mathematics and
physics of complex fluids. His research interests are nonlin-
ear dynamics of complex fluids, interfacial nanostructures,
and multiscale modeling and simulation. His work elucidat-
ing the physics of turbulent drag reduction by polymeric ad-
ditives has been noted by theoreticians in the field and has
had practical applications in saving pumping energy for farm-
ers. Sureshkumar is the cofounder of the Chemical Engineer-
ing Learning Laboratory (CELL).


Chemical Enineerine Education


U r;*r









In 1998, Professor Muthanna Al-Dahhan was converted from part-time to full-time
status to further CREL's chemical reaction engineering activities. Al-Dahhan has worked
hard to expand CREL's industrial and governmental support. He also spearheaded CREL
diversification into the biochemical area, where he has led projects in anaerobic digestor
design and in photosynthetic reactions by algae.
Professor Pratim Biswas became director of the interdisciplinary Environmental En-
gineering Science Program in 2000. Biswas brought with him world-class expertise and
recognition in aerosol generation, monitoring, transport, and applications. His Aerosol
Research Laboratory team has established new applications of aerosol tc. h I ii1. \N in gen-
erating catalysts for conversion of solar energy to hydrogen, for mercury abatement in
power plants, and for water purification.
In 2002, Professor Lars Angenent joined the department, adding breadth to the Envi-
ronmental Engineering Science Program and novel research initiatives. Angenent's tradi-
tional environmental engineering background led to his patent for an improved anaerobic
digestor. He also has extensive experience in molecular-biological techniques. He is cur-
rently studying biological means for converting waste to electricity.
All members of our tenure-track faculty are very active in research, yet still teach one
and often two courses a semester, senior professors included. In addition, we have a team
of superb professionals-many of whom are ex-research fellows at Monsanto, Solutia, or
Boeing- that contributes significantly to teaching and research as adjunct faculty. Chuck
Carpenter, with over 30 years experience in process design at Monsanto, is in charge of
our capstone design and economic evaluation courses. (Thanks in part to his contribu-
tions, our students have won AIChE national design contests several times.) Marti Evans,
who worked in research and technical service in refining and petrochemicals for Shell,
teaches as needed; currently, she is teaching a laboratory course that gives undergraduate
students hands-on experience with advanced analytical instruments.
Greg McMillan is a principal consultant for TAC Worldwide Companies and is work-
ing on the next generation of advanced control in DeltaV for Emerson Process Manage-
ment; he advises students on internships in control. Terry Tolliver, an ex-senior fellow at
Monsanto/Solutia, teaches our control course. Bob Heider brings outstanding practical ex-
perience in designing, running, and controlling various chemical processes to our control
laboratory course. Washington University ChE graduate Nick Nissing-who earned 11 U.S.
patents while working for Procter & Gamble-currently is president of a consulting firm and
teaches two senior-level classes on new-product development.
Robin Shepard teaches safety courses in the department. Starting in 2002 the AIChE
design project began awarding a separate prize for the best applications of the principles
of chemical engineering safety design, and Washington University students took home
that prize three years in a row.
We also have a number of affiliate and research faculty (particularly, in this latter cat-
egory, Gregory S. Yablonsky), who use their expertise to broaden the horizons of, and
the availability of, diverse research projects for our graduate students.

STUDENTS AND ALUMNI
A generous, need-based scholarship program ensures that the best students can apply to
SEAS, while a merit scholarship program enables the engineering school to attract stu-
dents whose quality is second to none. It is our awesome responsibility to motivate this
extremely talented group of young people. We accomplish this by taking our teaching
duties very seriously, by having a strong advising and mentoring program, by offering
abundant research opportunities, co-ops, and internships, and by allowing students to
work on product development and capstone design projects with industry. Moreover,
through exit interviews and correspondence, we monitor their careers and receive com-
ments on the effectiveness of our programs.


Of all our
graduates
of distinction,
perhaps
the most
unusual was
Charlie Johnson,
who, on his
graduate-school
application
listed as his
occupation:
"Quarterback-
St. Louis
Football
Cardinals."
During the
1960s, Johnson
tossed footballs
during the fall
semesters and
took courses
during the
spring terms.
He earned his
M.S. ChE in 1963
and a D.Sc.
in 1966.


Summer 2005












On the graduate level, a strong chemical engineering core

consisting of applied mathematics, transport phenomena,

reaction engineering, and computational techniques

is required of all students.


The diversity of the accomplishments of our alumni is as-
tonishing. A few examples: Julian Hill (B.S. ChE '24)
performed research and patented processes that made the
manufacture of nylon possible. Jim McKelvey (M.S. ChE
'47, Ph.D. ChE '50) was recognized twice with SEAS
Alumni Achievement Awards, for his pioneering contri-
butions to polymer processing and for his accomplish-
ments as SEAS dean for 27 years. Raymond W. Fahien
(B.S. ChE '47) taught at Iowa State University and the
University of Florida and authored a textbook on funda-
mentals of transport phenomena. He was also former edi-
tor of Chemical Engineering Education.
The list goes on. Bill Patient (B.S. ChE '57) was CEO of
Geon, one of the industry's major corporations. Joe Boston
(B.S. ChE '59) was a cofounder of ASPENTECH. Andrew
Bursky (B.S. ChE '78, M.S. ChE '78) is a successful busi-
nessman in the industry. Mark Barteau (B.S. ChE '75) is a
leading figure in heterogeneous catalysis and chairman and
distinguished professor at the University of Delaware. Todd
Przybycien (B.S. ChE '84) is chairman of biomedical engi-
neering at Carnegie Mellon University.
Of all our graduates of distinction, perhaps the most un-
usual was Charlie Johnson, who, on his graduate-school
application listed as his occupation: "Quarterback-St.
Louis Football Cardinals." During the 1960s, Johnson
tossed footballs during the fall semesters and took courses
during the spring terms. He earned his M.S. ChE in 1963
and a D.Sc. in 1966.

THE DEPARTMENT TODAY
The mission of our ChE department has always been to
provide a first-rate chemical engineering education, to con-
duct exciting, world-class research and engage students
at all levels in research activities, and to be of service to
the community.
The department continues to provide a first-rate undergradu-
ate education leading to the accredited B.S. ChE degree as
well as the optional B.S. in Applied Science degree with em-
phasis in chemical engineering. The five-year B.S./M.S. pro-
gram is increasingly popular, as is the control option leading
to a combined ChE and Electrical and Systems Engineering
degree. On the graduate level, a strong chemical engineering


core consisting of applied mathematics, transport phenom-
ena, reaction engineering, and computational techniques is
required of all students.
The department currently ranks first at SEAS in research
dollars from external research funding sources obtained per-
year, per-faculty, and in overhead recovery generated per-
faculty, per-year. The ChE department currently has about
40 full-time doctoral students and several postdoctoral re-
search associates and research professors.

ChE AT WASHINGTON IN THE FUTURE
The ChE department's 1970 undergraduate curriculum was
highly reflective of the i.,ic of the science" at the time,
and changed little until the year 2000. Now, however, with
an overall objective to reflect chemical engineering's
multiscale and multidisciplinary nature, our department
is phasing in a revised curriculum. As can be seen in Table
1, basic science requirements now include biology (em-
phasizing cell structure and function). Other highlights
of curriculum changes include: emphasizing multiscale
concepts, including molecular level; stressing product
design and development; and providing greater flexibil-
ity in customizing the curriculum. To this end, the core
curriculum has been reduced to accommodate up to six
additional elective courses in the desired area of concen-
tration (e.g., bioprocessing, environmental, materials,
product development, or others as approved).
In addition, a strategic plan developed with the help of the
Departmental Advisory Board calls for establishing a
strong biomolecular presence in bioprocessing. This
should allow us to capitalize more on the unique strengths
of the university in biological sciences by appropriate
expansion of our faculty.
Our ongoing goal of forming a natural link with both bio-
medical and environmental engineering begins with estab-
lishing modem, molecularly based chemical engineering prin-
ciples. Using those as a basis for scaling up the pace of dis-
coveries in life sciences, we aim to pursue products and pro-
cesses that are environmentally desirable as well as being a
foundation for comprehensive studies of the environment.
The result should be an exciting environment for research
and education.


Chemical Enyineerine Education





















Associate Professor
John Gleaves explains
his TAP (Temporal
Analysis Products)
system to visitors.


Our challenge for the future is to incorporate biomolecular
engineering into our curriculum and research, thus strength-
ening our existing areas of excellence in environmental engi-



TABLE 1
Revised ChE Core Curriculum

Basic Sciences
I i ;. -. Chemistry, Mathematics, Physics) ................... 39
Engineering Sciences ......................................... ........... 12
Chemical Engineering Core Courses
Modem Technological Challenges (ChE 146A) .................. 2
Analysis of Chem. Eng. Systems (ChE 351) ..................... 3
Thermodynamics (ChE 320)............................................ 3
M materials Science (ChE 325) ............................................ 3
Molecular Transport Processes (ChE 359) ........................ 3
Transport I & II (ChE 367 or 366, 368)............................. 6
Mass Transfer Operations (ChE 462) ................................ 3
Process Dynamics & Control (ChE 462)........................... 3
Reaction Engineering (ChE 471)....................................... 3
Chemical Engineering Laboratory (ChE 373A) ................ 4
New Product & Process Development (ChE 450).............. 3
Process and Product Design (ChE 478A) .......................... 3
Subtotal ................................... ........................... 39
Humanities & Social Science & Communications .............. 18
Total ChE Core ........................ ...................... 108
Engineering Electives
(6 courses from area of concentration) ............................ 18
Total ........................................... .............. 126


neering, clean processing, aerosols, transport, reaction engi-
neering, and materials. This biomolecular engineering initia-
tive should also fill a major need in the St. Louis metro-
politan area, which is strong in generating discoveries in
life sciences but still lacks a focused center for either trans-
ferring these discoveries to useful products, energy, and
processes, or for examining their environmental effects
in a holistic manner.
In his speech of Feb. 22, 1854, William Greenleaf Eliot,
president of Eliot Seminary (which was later renamed Wash-
ington University) said:
"There is one view of the Washington Institute which I
desire to keep particularly prominent-its practical
character and tendencies. I hope to see the time when
what we call the practical and ''"' departments
I stand in the foreground, to give character to all
the rest. In some way or another, a practical and
''" direction must be given to all educational
schemes of the present day .... "

We in chemical engineering at Washington University are
still striving to make Eliot's dream come true. Our theoreti-
cal advances are scientifically founded and motivated by the
need to improve the quality of life through environmentally
beneficial tclI. 111, -\.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors thank Barbara Carrow for her technical
assistance. f


Summer 2005










educator


C. Judson King

of UC Berkeley



JOHN PRAUSNITZ F *
University of California
Berkeley, CA

n the middle of the UC Berkeley campus, next
to the Main Library, South Hall is the last sur-
viving building from the original campus,
founded about 135 years ago. A tiny tree-shaded
appendix to this venerated classical building houses
Berkeley's Center for Studies in Higher Education,
directed by C. Judson King, former provost and \
senior vice president of academic affairs of the 10-
campus University of California, and longtime pro-
fessor of chemical engineering at Berkeley.
Jud came to Berkeley in 1963 as assistant profes-
sor of chemical engineering, following a doctoral
degree from MIT and a subsequent short appoint-
ment as director of the MIT chemical engineering
practice school station at what was then Esso (now
Exxon) in New Jersey. His undergraduate degree is
from Yale.


Starting with his MIT doctoral dissertation on gas
absorption, Jud has devoted much of his profes-
sional career to separation processes. His teaching
and research activities have been primarily con-
cerned with separation of mixtures, with emphasis
on liquid-liquid extraction and drying. As a con-
sultant to Procter & Gamble, he contributed to the
tc', i'l. -- \ of making instant coffee. His lifelong
activities in hiking and camping stimulated Jud's
interest in the manufacture of freeze-dried foods
(e.g., turkey meat) to minimize the weight of his
hiking backpack.
Jud is internationally known not only for his many
research publications but also, and even more, for
his acclaimed textbook Separation Processes
(McGraw-Hill, second edition 1980) that is used in
standard chemical engineering courses in the U.S.
and abroad.


Born into an army family in Ft. Monmouth, NJ, in 1934, Jud moved
about in the military world during his early years. He developed an interest
in camping and mountaineering during that time, an avocation he has re-
tained throughout his life. After high school in Alexandria (VA), higher
education at Yale and MIT, and marriage to Jeanne (1957), Jud began his
career at Berkeley in 1963.
While the concept of unit operations in chemical engineering is about 90
years old, when Jud started his professional career at Berkeley, about 40
years ago, the standard separation operations (distillation, extraction, ab-
sorption, etc.) were considered separate topics, each described by its own
Inc'l.l ld.,1 .--.\. Through his research and teaching, and above all through


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2005


Chemical Enyineerine Education











< Jud and IJohn Prau Berkeley -Citation diploma' at the
College il Chemistri commencement
in Maya 2004.


V Jud trightl and Larry Gen Procter & Ganblel at the International
Dr ing Si nmpon'um in
Ki iihi 1984l.


his influential textbook, Jud showed that each ot these separation opera-
tions is a special case of a unified tcli, Id ._* \ that can be described by a
general set of quantitative principles. Jud's book not only emphasizes the
common aspects of various forms of separation t lil'>. \, ._ it also dis-
cusses convergence methods for computerized calculations, energy require-
ments, and rational criteria. First, for selecting an optimum separation
method for a particular purpose, and second, for an optimized series of
separation steps in an industrial chemical plant.
Jud's pioneering leadership in advancing the tct ,iil d .\. of separation
processes is also indicated by the Separations Division of AIChE. He was
the cofounder of that division 15 years ago.
A major part of Jud's research work has been concerned with freeze-
drying-in particular, freeze-drying of foods, notably beverages such as
coffee. Akey problem in freeze-drying is retaining the volatile flavors while
subliming ice. Further, it is extremely important to avoid collapse of the
porous structure that results from sublimation; failure to prevent collapse
makes it impossible to reconstitute the dried product by adding water. Simi-
larly, for biological agents, collapse may cause the loss of biological activ-
ity. Jud and coworkers showed that collapse can be avoided by careful
control of viscosity and by addition of suitable additives (excipients). In
addition to foods, this work has also been of much help to guide freeze-
drying of pharmaceuticals. In 1971, Jud published a book on the subject,
Freeze Drying of Foods (CRC Press).
A second research area concerned extraction of carboxylic acids for re-
covery from dilute aqueous solutions. Such extraction is important not only
for acetic acid but more recently, also for lactic acid that is used for making
biodegradable polylactic acid. Jud and coworkers investigated the tech-
nology and economics of using suitable completing agents (e.g., amines)
in suitable "inert" water-insoluble solvents. His research showed convinc-
ingly that the "inert" solvent plays a major role; in fact, it is not inert.
A third area of Jud's research has been directed at synthesis in plant
design. Following the strong influence of the book Transport Phenomena


by Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot (published in
1960), chemical engineering research in the uni-
versities was primarily directed at analysis, at
detailed microscopic descriptions of chemical and
physical processes. During the 20-year period
starting about 1965, Jud was one of the few aca-
demics who gave attention to the logic of plant
design-to establishing rational criteria and meth-
ods that can make plant design more of a science
than an art.
A popular and highly effective teacher, Jud su-
pervised a large number of M.S. and Ph.D. the-
ses. The names and present affiliations of his
former Ph.D. students are given in Table 1 on the
following page.
Within a few years after his arrival in Berkeley
in 1963, it became clear that in addition to his fine
abilities in teaching and research, Jud had truly
extraordinary talents in administration. He was ap-
pointed vice-chair of the Department of Chemical
Engineering in 1967 and became chair in 1972,
where he remained for nine years. During that time,
Berkeley's Department of Chemical Engineering
grew remarkably in size and stature. Since Jud's
chairmanship, the National Research Council has
consistently rated the Berkeley ChE department
within the top three in the United States.


Summer 2005












In 1981, Jud became dean of Berkeley's College of Chem-
istry, comprising two departments: chemistry and chemical
engineering. Because the number of faculty and graduate stu-
dents in chemistry is about three times the number in chemi-
cal engineering, Berkeley's world-famous Department of
Chemistry has traditionally been the dominant part of the
college. Jud was the first chemical engineer to become dean,
a remarkable achievement because, all too often, academic
chemists are reluctant to accept chemical engineers as equals.
Because of his open fairness and his consistent good judg-
ment, Jud was able to break that prejudice. In a sense, the
election of chemical engineer Jud King in 1981 as dean of


the College of Chemistry is analogous to the election of Catho-
lic John Kennedy in 1960 as president of the United States.

Jud's achievements in chemical engineering research and
education have been recognized by numerous awards, as
shown in Table 2.

During his deanship, Jud led a successful effort to build
Tan Hall, a major building (completed in 1997) for research
laboratories in synthetic chemistry and chemical engineer-
ing, including hii c,. I ini l 41 In 1982, Jud established a Col-
lege of Chemistry Development Office for obtaining much-
needed financial support from alumni and corporations. While


TABLE 1
Ph.D. Graduates Supervised by C. Judson King


Keith Alexander 1983 Sr. VP, CH2M Hill, ret.; Joined Berkeley ChE
Department as Executive Director, Product De-
velopment Program, 2005


Daniel R. Arenson
Francisco J. Barns

Prabir K. Basu
(with Scott Lynn)
CarlP. Beitelshees
(with Hugo Sephton)
Richard J. Bellows

John L. Bomben


1988 Pfizer
1973 Former Rector, National Autonomous Univer-
sity of Mexico
1972 Searle

1978 E.I. DuPont de Nemours

1972 Richard Bellows Advanced Energy Systems
LLC
1981 SRI International


Robert R. Broekhuis 1995 Air Products
(with Scott Lynn)
Charles H. Byers 1966 IsoPro International; living in Mexico
Kumar Chandrasekaran 1971 President, InSite Vision
Daniel Chinn 1999 Chevron Texaco
J. Peter Clark 1968 Consultant
Michael W. Clark 1967 Dow Chemical, ret.
lan F. Davenport 1972 Structure and Strategy Specialist, Common-
wealth Private Bank, Australia
Jonathan P. Earhart 1975 Hewlett-Packard


Tarric M. El-Sayed
MarkR. Etzel



Loree J. Fields (Poole)
Howard L. Fong
(with Hugo Sephton)
Douglas D. Frey

Antonio A. Garcia

Terry M. Grant
C. Gail Greenwald
Robert D. Gunn


1987 Clorox
1982 Professor, Food Science and Chemical & Bio-
chemical Engineering, University of Wisconsin,
Madison
1989 Woodward-Clyde Consultants
1975 Shell Development

1984 Professor, Chemical & Biochemical Engineer-
ing, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
1988 Associate Professor, Bioengineering, Arizona
State University
1988 Weyerhaeuser
1980 Chief Operating Officer, Caveo Technology
1967 Professor Emeritus, University of Wyoming;
ret., St. George, UT


John P. Hecht
Scott M. Husson

Russell L. Jones
Dilip K. Joshi
Theo G. Kieckbusch

Romesh Kumar
(with Scott Lynn)
Patricia D. MacKenzie
Donald H. Mohr
S. Scott Moor

Curtis L. Munson
M. Abdel M. Omran
Spyridon E. Papadakis

N. Larry Ricker

William G. Rixey

Gary T. Rochelle

Orville C. Sandall

John J. Senetar
John N. Starr
James H. ', *
JanetA. Tamada
Rodney E. Thompson
Roger W. Thompson
Lisa A. Tung
Ernesto Valdes-Krieg
(With Hugo Sephton)
DavidA. Wallack
Jack Zakarian


1999 Procter & Gamble
1998 Associate Professor, Chemical & Biomolecular
Engineering, Clemson University
1975 Aventis CropScience
1982 Pharmacia & Upjohn
1978 Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universidade
Estadual de Campinas-UNICAMP, Brazil
1972 Argonne National Laboratory

1984 General Electric
1983 Chevron Texaco
1995 Assistant Professor, Engineering, Indiana Uni-
versity-Purdue University, Fort Wayne
1985 Chevron Texaco
1972 Kuwait Industrial Park, Kuwait
1987 Professor, Food Technology, Technical Educa-
tional Institution of Athens, Greece
1978 Professor, Chemical Engineering, University of
Washington
1987 Associate Professor, Civil & Environmental En-
gineering, University of Houston
1977 Professor, Chemical Engineering, University of
Texas, Austin
1966 Professor, Chemical Engineering, University of
California, Santa Barbara
1986 Amoco
1991 EcoPLA Business Unit, Cargill
1974 Broken Arrow, OK
1988 Alexza Molecular Delivery
1986 BioProcess Technology Consultants
1972 Max Kade Foundation
1993 Rohm and Haas
1975 IEGE, Mexico

1988 3M
1979 Chevron Texaco


Chemical EnEineerine Education




























Jud (right) launching the Tan Hall Project in 1983, shown here with Project
Manager Herb Fusfeld and Oski, the UC Berkeley football mascot.

such offices are now ubiquitous, 23 years ago it was a pioneering step to have
such an office in a specific college in a state-supported institution. Jud cor-
rectly anticipated that in California (as elsewhere), state support for the uni-
versity would seriously decline despite ever-increasing costs.
During his deanship, Jud started a new annual tradition. Every spring, the
dean invites all college staff members to lunch to celebrate "Staff Apprecia-
tion Day." At this lunch, also attended by many faculty, the dean warmly thanks
all the staff for their devoted service that is essential to the college's opera-
tion. He also recognizes individual staff members for outstanding service
or for many years of service.
During Jud's six successful years as dean, the top Berkeley administration
noticed his outstanding administrative abilities. As a result, in 1987, Jud was
appointed Berkeley's provost for professional schools and colleges (Engineer-
ing, Law, Business, Chemistry, Social Welfare, Environmental Design, Natu-
ral Resources, Education, Optometry, Public Health, Public Policy, Journal-
ism, and Library and Information Studies), a position directly under the Ber-
keley chancellor. One of his major tasks was to help define the role of agricul-
ture on the Berkeley campus and to modernize agricultural sciences.
In 1994, the president of the University of California chose Jud to serve as
vice provost for research, and in 1996 selected him to be his right-hand man as
provost and senior vice president for academic affairs for the entire university
system, including Berkeley, UCLA, UC Davis, UC Santa Barbara, and six
more. In addition to many other duties, Jud had responsibility of program-
matic oversight for the Department of Energy National Laboratories at Berke-
ley, Livermore, and Los Alamos.
As the university's provost, Jud had many diplomatic challenges, including
relations with the university's often volatile Board of Regents concerning af-
firmative action with respect to student admissions and recruiting of faculty
and staff. Further, it was his task to provide academic planning for how the
university could accommodate an expanding population of college-bound Cali-
fornians in the face of decreasing financial resources.
Because the president of the university is much occupied with the university
regents, the governor, and the state Legislature in Sacramento, as well as with
the federal government in Washington, with alumni, industrialists, labor unions,
etc., it was Jud who had to "mind the store," to take care of the university's
daily operations. Jud retired from this awesome administrative position in 2004.


TABLE 2
Honors and Awards

E The Electrochemical Society Lecture, The
Electrochemical Society, 1998.
E[ Outstanding Alumnus, Yale Science and
Engineering Association, Yale University,
1998.
E[ Award in Separations Science and
Technology, American Chemical Society,
1997.
l Centennial Medallion, American Society for
Engineering Education, 1993.
A Fellow, American Association for the
Advancement of Science, 1993.
E Clarence G. Gerhold Award, Separations
Division, American Institute of Chemical
Engineers, 1992.
E Warren K. Lewis Award, American Institute
of Chemical Engineers, 1990.
E Mac Pruitt Award, Council for Chemical
Research, 1990.
E Award for Excellence in Drying Research,
International Drying Symposium, 1990.
E Ninth Centennial Lecturer in Chemical
Engineering, University of Bologna, 1988.
E Fellow, American Institute of Chemical
Engineers, 1983.
E National Academy of Engineering, 1981.
E George Westinghouse Award, American
Society for Engineering Education, 1978.
E William H. Walker Award, American
Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1976.
E Food, Pharmaceutical and Bioengineering
Division Award, American Institute of
Chemical Engineers, 1975.
E Best Paper Award, 15h National Heat
Transfer Conference (with H.L. Fong and
H.H. Sephton), 1975.
E 25'h Annual Institute Lecturer, American
Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1973.
E Tau Beta Pi
E Sigma Xi


Jud's remarkable administrative skills
follow from his smiling, soft-spoken man-
ner and from his uncompromising, consci-
entious sense of fairness, responsibility, and
punctuality. Shortly after his arrival in Ber-
keley, these skills became evident to his col-
leagues who admired Jud's calm efficiency
in organizing his classes and research pro-
gram. Soon after his arrival, following an
insightful and concise presentation Jud
made at a departmental faculty meeting, a


Summer 2005










A Jud and wiife Jeanne (199.5). S
](ud in hi< role I< ud aind hi- (dllugIhter Liz ait Timothi Disiht i_ -
College lYIlel at Liz' e-radualltlun in 1981. Bth 1
lJud andL Liz i ere member' ill TD College
duringg their Vle i ea(r<. V


senior professor in the department remarked, "This fellow is
amazing. He could run General Motors."
Whether with students, colleagues, secretaries, carpenters,
or CEOs of major corporations-in short, with anyone-Jud
has a gift for attentive listening. His role as administrator is
to be helpful rather than obstructive. His decisions are al-
ways well-considered; they are clear, unambiguous, and ex-
pressed with gracious diplomatic sensitivity. Everyone may
not agree with a particular decision but it is always received
with respect and without rancor. Jud's firmness is always ac-
companied with a friendly twinkle, often enhanced by light
humor. No one ever gets angry with Jud, nor does he ever show
anger: He is always calm and considerate, never raising his
voice. At heated faculty meetings it would be instructive to put
a pH meter in his stomach to determine his real feelings.
Jud and Jeanne King have three (now grown) children:
Mary Elizabeth, Cary, and Catherine. Since 1969, Jud and
Jeanne have lived high in the Kensington hills, in a house
overlooking Tilden Park. They are enthusiastic hikers all over
California, especially in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (where
they have a summer residence at Mammoth Lakes) and on
the coast, between Jenner and Mendocino (where they have
a weekend home in The Sea Ranch near Gualala).
For many years, Jud was active in Boy Scouts, serving as
scoutmaster of a local Boy Scout troop. He has led dozens of
overnight scouting hikes in the mountains, canyons, and parks
of California. When asked if he ever had disciplinary prob-
lems with his boys, Jud replied, "No, the boys are no trouble.
But sometimes I had problems with accompanying dads."


A perennial problem of such hikes is avoiding poison oak.
Following unintended exposure to poison oak, Jud recom-
mends soaking 15 minutes in a full bathtub with one cup of
Clorox added to the bath water.
Now, as director of Berkeley's Center for Studies in Higher
Education, Jud is using his extensive university experience
first, to identify some major problems facing higher educa-
tion in California (and elsewhere). And second, to stimulate
research toward solving such problems. Topics that reflect
his particular concerns include the university's role in main-
taining and promoting innovative tc. iiil. _\, methods for
sustaining a large research-oriented university in the face of
perennial financial shortages, and the role (f Ic' I c, l, _l. \
to advance and facilitate scholarly communication.
Jud's distinguished career as a chemical engineering edu-
cator has blossomed toward concerns with higher education
in general. For the last 20 years, Jud's work has been directed
toward answering a key question: Today and tomorrow, what
is the proper function of a university in the world, in the U.S.,
in California? While many academics are working on this
question, Jud is particularly well-qualified to do so-not only
because of his long experience in university administration,
but also because of his chemical engineering background that
favors versatility, respect for new ideas, goal-orientation, and
a faith that good science can lead to useful results.
In engineering and in public service, Jud enjoys a stellar
reputation. Whenever President Bush needs to replace a mem-
ber of his administration, Jud King would be an excellent
candidate. 7


Chemical Eneineerine Education











[fjnF office procedures
---- -- *s________________________________-0__


INSTANT MESSAGING

Expanding Your Office Hours



DANIEL BURKEY AND RONALD J. WILLEY
Northeastern University Boston, MA 02115


Over the past 10 years we have witnessed amazing
changes in communication, specifically regarding the
rise of the Internet in everyday communications. All
professors, new and old, know about e-mail, and many know
how to access journal articles via electronic means. But fac-
ulty over the age of 35 may not know about instant messag-
ing (IM). On the other hand, anyone under the age of 25 may
not know of any other means of communication (such as how
to write a letter and send it via the postal service). We offer
below our experiences with IM as a means to "keep in touch
with students" and expand our availability.

BACKGROUND
For those unfamiliar with the concept, instant messaging is
different from e-mail in that the messaging is one-on-one and
occurs in real time. For example, a graduate student from Italy
used an instant messaging service to dialog with her sister daily
while she was working in a laboratory in Boston. She would
type a question, and approximately two minutes later her sister
would reply. It is very similar to having a written conversation
where a piece of paper is passed between two parties.
In IM, the questions and replies happen in real time. All
IM services allow users to have a "friends list" of other IM
users, and the service polls these friends in real time to let the
user know whether or not they are "signed in" (online). Once
signed in, the user can send a message to any other online
user or receive a message from any user. Once a connection
is established, a separate dialog box appears, and the two
parties then send messages back and forth to each other. There
is no limitation as to location; IM helps people keep in touch
across town or across the planet, and has been used in such
exotic locales as Antarctica and the Space Station.

The New Professor's Experience 4

As a first-year professor teaching my first course, I (DB)
was looking for ways to relate to students and provide them
with as many means of getting help as they needed. The class
was an introductory thermodynamics course in chemical en-


gineering with 28 students and was a mix of second- and
third-year students, the vast majority of whom were native
English speakers. The mixed nature of the course meant that
students were coming with different experience levels as well
as with wildly different schedules, which made finding times
for traditional office hours challenging.
One of my TAs for the course, a seasoned graduate student
and a veteran TA, mentioned that he often held "virtual of-
fice hours"-office hours where he had an online presence
via an instant messaging service, such as America Online's
Instant Messenger (AOL AIM). He would often have these
online sessions in the evenings, when students were likely to
be tackling assignments and required guidance or had ques-
tions about problem sets. I was intrigued, and decided that I
would also try having an online presence for students. Since
assignments for the class were due Mondays and Thursdays,
I decided to have a session on Sunday evening from 9 p.m. to
10 p.m. in order to try and catch last-minute questions for
assignments on Mondays. My TA would have another ses-
sion during the week to catch questions for the Thursday as-
signment set.
I had some previous experience with instant messaging. It
had become popular when I was in college in the late '90s-
but as a communication tool among friends, not as a method
of instruction nor as a means of enhancing student-instructor
contact hours. I had a personal instant messaging account,

Ronald J. Willey joined the faculty of Northeastern University in 1983.
He serves on the Board of Registration for Engineers and Land Survey-
ors for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. His research interests in-
clude the integration of process safety into the curriculum, and aerogels.
Daniel Burkey is an assistantprofessorof chemical engineering at North-
eastern University He received his B.S. from Lehigh University in 1998
and his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2003.
His current teaching interests include undergraduate thermodynamics,
integrating technology in the classroom, and increasing student-instruc-
tor interaction in novel ways. His research interests are centered on the
use of chemical vapor deposition as a novel means of polymer synthesis
for a variety of applications.

Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2005


Summer 2005










While there are limitations to the forum, such as the lack of robust mathematical
notation ... as new technology becomes available, many of the limitations will disappear .... As
these technologies become more commonplace, we can expect them to be used in the
learning environment. Right now, we're just at the beginning
of this technological explosion.


but created a new one for the sole purpose of the class. I knew
that my TA had had success with his online sessions, but he was
a graduate student and closer in age and experiences to the stu-
dents than I was. I had no idea if the students would actually
feel comfortable enough to contact a professor in this manner.
I sat down for my first session on a Sunday evening, and
my wife was convinced that I would be sitting there for an
hour staring at a blank screen. How wrong she was!
Within seconds of signing on, I received my first message
and my first question. Other students quickly followed, and
within a few minutes, my screen had erupted in a flurry of
new windows, each bearing a new question from a different
student or group of students working together. I estimated
that I had at least nine or 10 simultaneous conversations oc-
curring in those first few minutes. To be honest, I wasn't pre-
pared for that response, and my wife was amazed. She actu-
ally helped me get through that first evening by watching my
screen and letting me know in what order the questions ar-
rived. That enabled me to prioritize or tell people to hold on
for a minute or two while I answered another student's ques-
tion. The students were very patient, and very respectful of
the time limit I had set, and before I knew it, the hour was up.
I was drained and had cramped fingers from trying to type so
fast, but I knew that I had hit upon something that the stu-
dents responded to.
After that first session, I coordinated with my TA so that
we were often on at the same time, enabling us to pass stu-
dents back and forth between us and reducing the load on
ourselves as well as speeding up the time it took for any one
student to get a question answered. That first night was my
heaviest load, but the students took advantage of my avail-
ability throughout the remainder of the semester.
In trying to gauge the success or impact of the online office
hours, I asked the students to fill out an anonymous survey at
the end of the semester, asking them about office hours in
general. Out of 28 students in the class, I received 22 re-
sponses. When asked their office hours habits, the breakdown
was as follows:


Online Only
Online and Traditional
I .' Only
Neither


' 2 responses
5(' 11 responses
2. 5 responses
L." 4 responses


So, nearly 60% of the class took advantage of my online
presence, either exclusively or as a supplement to my regular
presence in the office during the day. Of those students that
took advantage of the online hours, 77% found it an effective


way of getting their questions answered, while 23% did not.
When asked about the best feature of online office hours,
nearly all students responded that it was my extra availabil-
ity, as well as the convenience of being available at a time
when they were likely to be working on problems. When asked
about what they liked the least with regard to online office
hours, again the response was nearly unanimous: the limita-
tions of the forum.
I can understand these limitations well. While it is an ex-
cellent forum for discussing theoretical or conceptual aspects
of the course or for having a personal conversation, the in-
stant messaging format was not the best medium for convey-
ing technical aspects of the course. Mathematical symbol-
ism, for example, was particularly difficult to convey, as there
was no easy or convenient way to write out an integral or a
differential equation. The students and I often resorted to a
sort of crude shorthand for mathematical notation which,
while effective, was not ideal. For example, in a discussion
involving fugacity, and which form of a particular equation
to use, I would type
fi (hat) = yi fi
Where fi = phi (hat) (i) P
which the student would have to correctly interpret as

fi=yifi
where

fi =0iP
So, questions dealing with a particular equation, or trying
to guide a student by looking at the form of an equation, could
be awkward to answer in an IM window. The students were
generally happy, however, to spend a little extra time typing
and interpreting if it meant the difference between getting a
question answered or spending a fruitless evening confused
and working in the wrong direction.
The last question I asked them was whether the availabil-
ity of online office hours made them more or less likely to
attend traditional office hours. I only had 13 responses to this
question, but it was interesting to me that while the majority
said it made no difference (8 responses, 62', the remainder
(5 responses, 38%) said it made them less likely to attend
regular office hours.
In the end, I found the experience to be a rewarding one.
The students would often joke around a bit more online than
they might in person, and I had some good conversations
with students about their futures and concerns that had little


Chemical Eneineerin Education










to do with the class or a problem set. Would this have hap-
pened in person? I'm uncertain; but, if those conversations
helped students, then it was worthwhile. Given that a major-
ity of students in the class took advantage of the additional
contact hours, and that a majority of them found the experi-
ence useful, it is something that I planned to continue in my
future course offerings.
Indeed, as of this writing, I have just completed another
semester of teaching the undergraduate thermodynamics
course, and my experience this time closely mirrored my origi-
nal observations. Students were pleased to have the extra hours
available to them, and took advantage of those hours on a
regular basis.

The Old Professor's Experience 4

I (RJW: 20-plus years experience) first gained an aware-
ness of instant messaging in January 2004 at a faculty re-
cruiting dinner. The new faculty (DB) was talking about how
well instant messaging was working for him running one of
his office hours from his home on Sunday nights. The idea
intrigued me since, for whatever reasons, students do not come
to my office during my office hours.
After struggling with learning the ropes of IM (it took a
few hours to download the software, figure out a user name,
and figure out how to add "my fi iicl,, ), I was ready for my
first online session by mid-semester in February, and decided
to try 8 p.m. Sunday night from my home. I had previously
announced to the class that online office hours would be held
that coming Sunday.
Within minutes, three students contacted me via instant mes-
saging. Each had his/her own dialog box. The questions and
messages were a little confusing to me at first. When one of
them opened with a message similar to "How was your week-
end?" my reply was a paragraph long, detailing a trip to New
Hampshire, and took a full 15 minutes to type out. Mean-
while, other students were waiting for their replies. I quickly
learned to cut my replies down to one sentence-I later real-
ized that for "small talk" the students expected about a one-
sentence reply.
The second surprise was how few technical questions I re-
ceived. I was expecting questions related to the latest home-
work. Instead, only about one in every three or four questions
was of this nature. I recall one question that was iterative in
nature. The student who asked wasn't familiar with Excel Solver,
so I was able to make up a quick spreadsheet example demon-
strating such, and sent it via IM to the student.
What other students wrote was quite complex. Their ques-
tions and dialog ranged from jokes to personal family situa-
tions to serious self-doubt. They related much more to me
than if they were sitting across from me in my office during a
regular office appointment. I'd like to think that some of my
replies made a difference.


Maybe, because I am so technically oriented, I lose aware-
ness of students' personal needs, and when I sit across the
desk facing students, I am perceived as their parent, or as an
"old geezer," and therefore they are reluctant to share per-
sonal problems. Also, I must confess that I can be impatient
when the point of their question isn't brought up immedi-
ately. I am sure the students sense this body language in a
face-to-face meeting-but with IM they cannot sense my hid-
den impatience. Using instant messaging brings me to their
stage where, despite the age difference, we are both the same-
someone who is online conversing. I am treated as a peer.
I was very pleased to have connected with this class in this
manner. I continued IM for a summer course, but I didn't
connect as well as I did in the spring semester. I suspect that
my hours (Sunday night again) just didn't meet the students'
needs when they were online. Also they were two years
younger (sophomores) and I represented their first experi-
ence with an "old" professor-I'd wager they probably didn't
believe that I knew how to use IM!

CONCLUSIONS
In conclusion, adding more hours of contact time via a non-
traditional method such as IM has the potential to facilitate
student-instructor interactions outside of the normal class-
room context. It also may help reach those students whose
schedules don't allow them to regularly attend face-to-face
office hours, or those students who, for whatever reason, aren't
comfortable with an in-person interaction.
Because the concept itself is relatively straightforward, and
the required software is essentially free, even a faculty mem-
ber with limited computing skills can take advantage of this
type of forum with just a little practice. Online office hours
may not be for everyone, however. Both of the classes that
are discussed in this article were relatively small, ranging
from 15 to 30 students. How a lone faculty member would
fare with 60 students (in a large class) or 200 students (in an
intro or seminar-style class) is unknown to the authors at this
point. With that many students, even a fraction of them on-
line and asking questions at once could be overwhelming.
With the proper ground rules, scheduling, and some assis-
tance from TAs, however, we believe that this method is ex-
tendable to larger class sizes.
Additionally, while there are limitations to the forum, such
as the lack of robust mathematical notation mentioned above,
as new t'cl. lii. l. becomes available, many of the limita-
tions will disappear. For example, improved handwriting-rec-
ognition software will allow for expression of mathematical
notation that can be exchanged between users, and advances in
voice and video compression will allow for real-time virtual
interactions that won't be limited to the typewritten word. As
these technologies become more commonplace, we can expect
them to be used in the learning environment. Right now, we're
just at the beginning of this technological explosion. -


Summer 2005











classroom


A COURSE-LEVEL STRATEGY FOR

CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT





JOSEPH J. BIERNACKI
Tennessee Technological University Cookeville, TN 38505


he ABET Engineering Criteria (EC)'1] is generating
an unprecedented sensitivity to assessment and track-
ing of student performance in engineering learning.[2,31
This flurry of activity has many faculty and departments
searching for and inventing various models for assessing stu-
dent performance as well as for establishing a record of those
assessments and ultimately applying them within a process
for continuous improvement.[4,'5 In this context, continuous
improvement means making changes to the course/curricu-
lum to quantitatively improve student performance against
outcomes. As such, many of the recently introduced continu-
ous-improvement activities can be broadly categorized as out-
comes-based assessment[671 and are being driven by the ABET
defined Criteria 3.111 And, while ABET did not invent out-
comes-based assessment, the accreditation organization has
clearly defined the outcomes-based movement in U.S. four-
year engineering programs.
One key aspect within this trend is to find the most effec-
tive assessment tools as well as the ones with economical
bookkeeping strategies. While the literature offers far too
many strategies to be cited here, among them are the follow-
ing notable examples that illustrate the range of approaches.
These include a skills assessment worksheet,E81 application
of quality-control theory,[9,10] the use of questionnaires,[11112]
and a grading matrix.[131
Shor and Robson's Student Centered Control Model re-
quires course-level ABET-based accounting and suggests a
,, 1i i ni guides" practice that tracks ABET skills perfor-
mance.[91 McCreanor demonstrated a college-level approach
to tracking a specific outcome-ABET Criterion 3b, the abil-
ity to design and conduct experiments.ES1 McCreanor's ap-
proach relies on a "standardized" skill assessment worksheet
distributed to select courses across all departments and cen-
trally assessed. Mandayam, et al., has implemented a cur-
riculum-wide assessment tool called X-files, which captures


student assessments across the curriculum.[14] On a course-
level, Terenzini, et al., demonstrated a student-based ques-
tionnaire used to gather course-level student responses and
feedback.111
Shor and Robson's[91 work suggests that objective (out-
comes-based) scores be given at the course level rather than
an overall score, but focuses mainly on using the outcome
results in the context of a control loop. Winter[131 provides
details regarding his course-level accounting practice that tracks
student achievement against "tasks" on exams. Winter links tasks
to objectives such as ".. obtaining the velocity field," or "...
conservation of linear momentum," but does not map objec-
tives to skill-based proficiencies, e.g., ABET outcomes. His
accounting practice scores exams according to task, thereby
enabling him to identify strengths and weaknesses against
specific, topical (task) areas of the course. Terenzini, et al.,
use student self-assessment rather than objective measures
of proficiency such as test or project scores. All report their
results in a descriptive and qualitative manner.
The present study uses some of these ., in,,epi I yet il-
lustrates direct connectivity to skills-based (ABET) outcomes.
It also details the course-level practices and presents quanti-
tative results from a case study.
Prior to ABET Engineering Criteria, most faculty in engi-
neering colleges designed their courses in what will be re-


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2005


Chemical Enyineerine Education


Joseph J. Biernacki received his B.S. from
Case Western Reserve University (1980) and his
M.S. (1983) and Doctor of Engineering (1988)
from Cleveland State University. His research in-
terests include multiscale characterization of
chemical and transport processes in materials,
microfluidics, and engineering education. He can
be contacted at Tennessee Technological Uni-
versity, Box 5013, Cookeville, TN 38501,
jbiernacki@tntech.edu, phone 931-372-3667, fax
931-372-3667.











ferred to here as the requirements domain. This form of course
design specifies requirements (such as homework, exams, at-
tendance, projects, etc.) and places a value on each, thereby
establishing what we generally refer to as the course break-
down or requirement breakdown (r1). For example, a lecture-
based course in stage-wise separation might be broken down
such that homework is 15%, projects are 20%, attendance
and participation are 5%, a portfolio is 5%, and exams are
55%, of the grade. In this way, the traditional requirements
domain scorecard is produced by summing individual assign-
ment scores for each requirement, and computing the overall
score by summing the weighted average of the scores for each
requirement.* This form of breakdown is both simple for the
instructor and tangible to the students. The requirements may
be further categorized or mapped to a pedagogical device such
as a classroom activity, team assignment, in-class assessment,
etc. (see insert in Figure 1).


ABET Criteria-based Model
(ABET Domain)


ABET Outcomes

Criterion 3a,___
knowledgee) "'
experiment ) .
Criterion 3c-b
(design)


Criterion 3k----.
(tools)


Figure 1. Framework for the ABET criteria-based model.

na na nr

S i J i
where S' is te total normalized score for te i' requiement, s1 are the
scores for theJ' assignment within the i"' requirement, p are the possible
scoresfo tej assignment witi te i requirements, and n is e num-
be of assignments fo the i;' requirement, S is the no malized score, r is
the weighting factor, and n is the number of requirements for the course.


To satisfy ABET, however, it is not enough to provide this
form of breakdown alone. In the ABET environment the
following questions must be answered: How did students
perform against Criterion 3x? What changes were made
to improve student outcomes as measured against crite-
ria .. ? What strategy is being used to ensure continu-
ous improvement?
These questions cannot easily or convincingly be answered
in the traditional domain. The traditional requirements must
somehow be further subdivided to reflect the ABET Crite-
rion 3 categories[1l and then mapped to the desired outcome
(Figure 1). In this way, the traditional approach is not simply
encompassed within the ABET model, but must be extended
to adapt to the outcomes-based assessment protocol. This new
way of distributing course requirements is the topic of the
present experiment, which offers one faculty's experience in
tracking outcomes-based, course-level assessment informa-
tion. The experiment also demonstrates how such can be used
to objectively alter course content, track and hopefully influ-
ence student performance, and at the same time, maintain a
quantitative record for ABET reviews. The goal in the end is
course-level continuous improvement that enhances student
learning and the overall quality of the educational experience.

OUTCOMES-BASED METHODOLOGY
The following outcomes-based strategy, which connects
course requirements (such as exams and homework) to out-
comes (such as ability to apply mathematics and science),
was applied to various learning environments, including: two
required lecture-based unit-operations courses, a required se-
nior-level chemical engineering laboratory, a required senior-
level departmental technical seminar, and a nontraditional
interdisciplinary technical elective (see Table 1). First, the
catalog description of the course from which content-based
learning objectives were developed was consulted. The
appropriate ABET EC Criterion 3 were selected and a set
of outcomes were written that map the content-based ob-
jectives to the ABET criteria. The course requirements
were then established and mapped to the outcomes so that
each requirement would have assessment standards linked
to one or more of the selected ABET Criterion 3 outcomes.
This establishes what will be referred to here as the as-
sessment map. An example assessment map for Transfer


Summer 2005


I !I'. ,jjr.,;lI, .i LI: .. l.,i








/. C

-- l.-.lho' TIebm A ,s.ri,,. ,r


TABLE 1
Test-Beds for Course-Level ABET Strategy

Course Title Pedagogy Subject Level Credit Hrs
CHE 3110 Transfer Science I Lecture Momentum and heat transfer Junior 4
CHE 3120 Transfer Science II Lecture Stage-wise separations Junior 3
CHE 4240 Chemical Engineering Laboratory Lab Unit operations Senior 2
CHE 4810 Developing Areas in Chemical Engineering Seminar Miscellaneous Senior 1
CHE 4470 Ceramic Materials Engineering Lecture/Lab Materials engineering Junior/Senior 3










Science II, a junior-level required stage-wise separations
course, is given in Table 2.
With each requirement mapped to one or more of the se-
lect ABET Criterion 3 it is possible to explicitly track perfor-
mance, assuming that the requirements are adequately de-
signed to demonstrate the desired outcomes. In this new out-
comes domain, the requirements must contain elements of
assessment that map to the criteria. For example, since ex-
ams are mapped to communication (ABET Criterion 3g), stu-
dent exams must include elements of communication and like-
wise be appropriately assessed and be assigned a communi-
cation score. A simple approach is to include a free-writing
problem and score it both for technical content and writ-
ten articulation. Similarly, since homework is mapped to
use of engineering tools (ABET Criterion 3k), at least a
portion of homework must involve the use of tools such
as programming software, spreadsheets, process simula-
tors, the Internet, etc., and be appropriately assessed for
mastery of this element.
It is important to note that assessment is a distributed pro-
cess in which all components of the grade are related to out-
comes and are assessed individually. Exam performance on
its own does not demonstrate that a given criterion is met.
Rather, a combination of requirements and assessment ap-
proaches must be used to provide a valid assessment. Fur-
thermore, for the present accounting strategy to be broadly
applicable to program-level quality improvement beyond the
classroom, persons other than the instructor must be involved
in the process, i.e., an external reviewer for a final project or
a colleague who assesses or writes an exam problem, etc.
Finally, skills assessment against a learning model, i.e.,
Bloom's Taxonomy,"11 can also be addressed in this context,
although this experiment did not include this higher level of
assessment. Table 3 illustrates the bookkeeping required to
track performance by both requirement and criterion.

IMPLEMENTATION
The ic'lll. >il. 1. _\ described here was implemented in five
chemical engineering courses over a three-year period to test
general suitability for application across the curriculum (see
Table 1). A single junior-level required course in stage-wise
separations was used as a case study to illustrate the process
of implementation and feedback at the course level. The re-
sults are later discussed in the broader context of laboratory
and elective courses and, finally, curriculum-level feedback.
Course description
CHE 3120, Transfer Science II, is a junior-level required
course in stage-wise separation processes. When broken down
in the traditional requirements domain, 55% of the grade will
come from exams, 20% from projects, 15% from home-
work, and 5% each for attendance and a portfolio. Five
midterm exams and a final are given. The project varies


from year to year but typically involves using or develop-
ing a process simulation.
Breaking the course requirements into ABET criteria
Traditionally an instructor will assign a problem and grade
it according to a rubric that establishes the correctness of the
solution and will then assign credit for the problem-a score.
This score becomes one of many that will be accumulated to
make up the elements of the grade. In the outcomes domain
the same problem must be analyzed so as to assess for select
ABET Criterion 3. For example, consider a typical home-
work problem in stage-wise separations:
Specify the number of ideal equilibrium stages
required to separate a 40 mole % methanol in water
stream at its bubble point into a distillate containing
not more than 5 mole % water and a waste stream not
containing more than 2 mole % methanol.
The question itself need not be altered in the new outcomes
environment, but how we view assessment must be changed.
This problem clearly contains a variety of ABET Criterion 3
elements that can be individually assessed. First, it contains
elements of design (ABET criterion 3c), regardless of the
fact that the word design does not appear in it. In addition, it
requires that the student apply knowledge of science (Crite-
rion 3a), i.e., students will have to select appropriate models
for the phase equilibrium. Students must select a methodol-
ogy to solve the problem (Criterion 3e) and to formulate and
solve engineering problems. Is a material balance required?
Is a heat balance required? What are the governing equations
relating the material, heat, and equilibrium relationships? The
problem must be solved, requiring application of mathemat-
ics (again, Criterion 3a). The instructor may also specify that
the problem be solved using a process simulator or that a
mathematical model be developed, including elements of
Criterion 3k-use of modern engineering tools. Finally, stu-
dents must assemble their results into a format that can be
understood (Criterion 3g, communications). So, a simple prob-
lem that chemical engineering faculty have been assigning
for decades is rich with outcomes-based information-only,
however, if it is subdivided and scored according to the out-
comes criteria. A similar approach was used for exams, the
project, and other assigned coursework.


TABLE 2
Assessment Map for a
Junior-Level Stage-Wise Separations Course

Requirement Criterion 3a CriteCriterion Criterion 3e Criterion 3g Criterion 3k
Knowledge Design Formulation Communication Tools
Attendance X
Project X X X X
Exams X X X X X
Homework X X X X X
Portfolio X


Chemical Entineerint Education












TABLE 3
Outcomes-Domain Bookkeeping Approach


Overall Criterion
Score


h Ih II, I Ih I ,, I .. 11I , I Ih I . I I Ih., I.. ... .. I Ih
thej assignment of the ih requirement.


TABLE 4
ABET Scorecard


Student ABET Criteria Overall
Score
3a 3c 3e 3g 3k
#1 72.3 65.5 72.6 88.5 94.5 76.3
#2 90.0 89.5 90.2 95.9 89.9 91.1
#3 74.0 7.9 74.4 93.2 90.4 78.3

__-.
------- ---- --- _- -- V ----

V

#N 62.4 53.6 62.9 90.0 86.6 68.7
Where S is the overall normaized score for the individual ABET critenon 3 (one of the a-k), p j are the
possible points for requirement 1, assignment and critenon k and n'i and n'o are the number of
assignments for requirement with criterion k and the number of critena for requirement 1 respectively.



TABLE 5
Comparison of
Requirements Breakdown and Outcomes-Based Breakdown
for a Junior-Level Stage-Wise Separations Course

Requirement Requirement 3a 3c 3e 3g 3k
Breakdown knowledge design ormulation comm tools

Exams 55% 43.9% 15.1% 35.2% 4.7% 1%
Projects 20% 28.9%\ 20.5% 18.9% 31.6%
Homework 15% 37.7% 36.5% 19.1%
Participation 5%
Portfolio 5% .... .
ABET 100% 35.6% 9.4% 29% 19.2% 6.9%
Breakdown
Where a'k are the breakdown for the it requirement associated with the k critenon and a is the ABET
breakdown for the k ABET cntenon.


S2 S ...


for Requirement i


Summer 2005


Another noteworthy point is that the assessment of an
assignment is only as good as the assessment protocol used.
Within the context of the proposed course-level strategy
for use of assessment information for continuous improve-
ment, the faculty are responsible for ensuring meaningful
assessment of student proficiencies. This might include
projects, oral presentations, observation, peer input, and, yes,
even exam scores. Further discussion on this subject can be
found in the literature and is outside the scope of this paper.
Doing the bookkeeping
The accounting practice is simple: With each require-
ment (i) broken into assignments () and each assignment
broken into elements of the criteria (k), a score for each
assignment element (SiJk) within a requirement is given,
rather than just an overall assignment score (see Table 3).
These outcomes-based (criteria-based) requirement
subscores can then be summed by assignment (across rows)
to give overall assignment scores Si or by criteria (down
columns) to give overall outcomes-based scores sik for that
requirement. Summing the requirement subscores by assign-
ment is equivalent to a traditional approach in which a single
score is given for a single assignment without attaching per-
formance to a particular outcome. Summing the assignment
subscores by outcome (criteria), however, provides the out-
comes-based distributed information that we are seeking in
this approach. In this way, an outcomes-based scorecard is
generated, thus creating an explicit record of student perfor-
mance against stated ABET outcomes (Table 4).
A strategy for computing and tracking the outcomes-
based breakdown on an ongoing basis was also devised
for formative assessment purposes. At any point in the se-
mester the outcomes breakdowns by requirement (a k) or
overall (ak) can be computed. By summing the possible
points by criterion within a requirement and normalizing
by the total possible points, the normalized-outcomes cri-
teria breakdown (ak) within a requirement is determined.
By further forming the sum of the requirement-weighted
normalized criteria breakdown, the overall outcomes-based
criteria breakdowns can be computed. This produces the
outcomes-based breakdowns (Table 5), which can be com-
puted at any time, including term-end.
Establishing proficiency levels
How should proficiency levels be established? As with
any grading system, scores (Table 4) represent a proficiency
level measured against some standard, i.e., a known cor-
rect problem solution, an accepted format for a report, the
expected outcome of an experiment, or an anticipated level
of team participation. At this time, assessments (i.e., ex-
ams, projects, homework, etc.) are deliberately designed
to evaluate student learning at various levels, but are not
tied to a learning framework such as Bloom's Taxonomy.
Traditional guidelines were used in accordance with the
instructor's judgment concerning the level of difficulty and











content of each assignment, i.e., average passing scores for
each outcome (criteria) were taken to be 60%, with each grade
level generally at 10% increments. Admittedly, one of the
next challenges will be to tie assignments to di IIi.IIIi of
learning," for example, as defined by Bloom.J151 This would
provide a more defendable basis upon which to make com-
petency decisions.
Finally, the distributed outcomes-based information for
each students' performance (Table 4) provides a unique
dataset that forms the basis for a new way of grading. Since
outcomes are based on ABET criteria that state that NI i Icli ,
will demonstrate" proficiency in a specific topic, a passing
grade (for example) should no longer be tied to an overall
score alone. Proficiency levels in each outcome area should
be defined and a grading protocol established that incorpo-
rates an outcomes-based strategy. This, however, was beyond
the scope of the present study.
Planning so the process is manageable...
tips for implementing at the course level
Preplanning a course in this way can be extremely diffi-
cult, time consuming, and some might even say "impossible."
The following guidelines, however, were used to make it more
achievable as the result of lessons learned in this pilot study.
As usual, the requirements domain was fixed prior to teach-
ing the course, while only a rough idea of the outcomes break-
down was established a priori as a target. Analyzing every
assignment, in the detail described above, is a daunting task,
however. When implementing such a strategy, a week-by-
week approach works well: Identify the homework to be as-
signed for a given week; review the problems one-by-one;
break them into outcomes criteria and grade them accord-
ingly once students have completed them. If a teaching as-
sistant is going to do the grading, some calibration may be
required. Examples may be necessary to train the grader to
recognize the outcomes elements of an assignment and to
grade in the outcomes domain.

DISCUSSION
Results of implementation
The results of three semesters (three years) of data from
CHE 3120 are discussed. The course was successively
taught in 2001, 2002, and 2003 by the same instructor
(the author) and the mic'lil.l.'>.l'\ described herein ap-
plied. Three performance metrics were used to study stu-
dent and course outcomes:
Outcomes breakdown (Figure 2)
Class-average .. -mance against Criteria 3a, 3c,
3e, 3g, and and class-average term-end r-
mance against requirements as function of time
(Figures 3a and 3b, respectively)
Class-average term-end '. *mance against the
ABET criteria (the outcomes), (Figure 4)


The net outcomes breakdown at the end of each term is
illustrated in Figure 2. This figure represents the portion of
the overall coursework that could be attributed to each of the
five ABET criteria emphasized in the course. During the first
two semesters (2001 and 2002), no conscious effort was made
to alter the course content to adjust the outcomes breakdown.
Since the new Imc'l ii., e1 \ was being developed, these first
two semesters were used as a baseline to establish nominal
course performance without significant intervention to alter
the outcomes breakdown. During these two semesters the
knowledge content was about 37%, the formulation content
32%, the design content 6%, the communications content
18%, and the tools content 7%. During the third semester
(2003), however, an effort was made so that roughly 15% of
the course content was design related, 10% tools (3k), and
10% communication, with the remainder split between knowl-
edge (3a) 35%, and formulation (3e) 30%. This was not done
to balance the emphasis, but rather to reflect this instructor's
opinion that the particular course content should have a more
significant design aspect and a more appropriate weight given
for communications. Figure 2 illustrates that, without appro-
priate assessment tracking, an instructor may inadvertently
over- or under-assess specific criteria.
Using this outcomes-based miill.ll, ,1i .-\ can yield valu-
able formative feedback provided that the data are reviewed
throughout the semester. Figure 3a illustrates the time-se-
quenced class-average performance against the five ABET
criteria for CHE 3120. An assessment of all course require-
ments was made following each exam. This includes exam
scores, homework, projects, etc.-all-inclusive. Exam peri-


45%

40%

- 35%
E
.' 30%


0
0
20%

0
15%
4o





5%
L10%


3a Know ledge 3c Design 3e Formulation 3g Communication 3k Tools

Figure 2. Term-end ABET breakdown for three
consecutive years (2001-2003).


Chemical Entineerine Education











































Exam 1 Exam 2 Exam 3 Exam 4 Exam 5 F
U Exams U Homework O Projects O Attendance U Portfolio U Overall


Figure 3. (a) Time sequence, class-average scores against
ABET criteria for 2001. (b) Time sequence, class-average
scores against requirements, attendance, and portfolios
were assessed at term end as well as the overall score.


3a 3c 3e 3g 3k

Figure 4. Class-average term-end performance against
ABET Criterion 3a (knowledge), 3c (design), 3e (formula-
tion), 3g (communication), and 3k (tools).


ods were used rather than uniform chronological periods since
coursework can sometimes be somewhat nonuniformly dis-
tributed in time. This data can be compared to Figure 3b,
time-sequenced performance on a requirements basis.
The requirements-based analysis can tell an instructor how
students perform on various forms of assessment, i.e., ex-
ams, projects, homework. As expected, students clearly per-
form better on homework (>90%) and projects (>90%)-
forms of assessment that offer students more time to find so-
lutions, work in teams, and practice engineering in a more
open environment (see Figure 3b). At the same time, exam
scores, which were typically but not exclusively in-class ac-
tivities, hardly exceeded 70%. It should also be noted that
the attendance and portfolio components of the grade were
assessed at term end, although an ongoing approach would
likely offer better feedback to both instructor and student. And,
while the portfolio has typically been treated as a term-end
project containing student-selected course products (i.e., exams,
reports, homework, etc.), a model for reviewing at one or more
midterm points has also been used. A communication-based
rubric was applied to assess the portfolio quality.
While providing feedback on a requirements-basis offers a
lumped view of how students are performing, it does not of-
fer outcomes-based insight into what they are doing well or
more importantly, what they may not be doing well. Figure 4,
on the other hand, offers a view of student performance against
the instructor's goals (outcomes). In this case it was clear
that during the first two semesters, 2001 and 2002, students
had excellent mastery of engineering tools (Criterion 3k) and
a good command of communication skills, with scores up-
wards of 80%. Knowledge (Criterion 3a) and formulation
(Criterion 3e) lagged behind, with design (Criterion 3c) scores
being even lower. While none of these scores suggested a
problem with this student population, they clearly identified
which areas might be focal points for instructional emphasis.
Since design was identified as the most challenging area
for students, during the third year of this experiment a con-
scious effort was made to not only increase design content,
but also to emphasize design concepts through lecture, home-
work, and projects. Figure 2 illustrates the outcomes-based
course breakdown for the three-year period of 2000 through
2003, and Figure 4 illustrates term-end class-average perfor-
mance for the same period. While emphasizing design con-
cepts did not produce an obviously better outcome (i.e., im-
proved scores on the design-related course elements), stu-
dent scores as compared to the cumulative average of the
prior two years were marginally higher but still well within
the year-to-year variability. Surely, one would hope that em-
phasizing a concept would lead to improved student perfor-
mance, and while the proposed method of formative and
summative course-level assessment of outcomes criteria
makes it possible to make such course-level changes, a more
detailed long-term study is required to validate cause and ef-


Summer 2005


90%
u,
o
E
0 85%


* 80%


. 75%
0-










fect of using this strategy. Such a study should include a con-
trol group that does not use the new accounting strategy. At
least three years of data in several course formats, i.e., lab, lec-
ture, etc., should be included. Input from an external assessor,
such as an ABET reviewer, would also be extremely valuable.

Experience in other learning environments
The outcomes-base strategy was also tested in other learn-
ing environments, including a self-learning environment (re-
quired seminar), a discovery-based environment (nontradi-
tional technical elective), and a hands-on environment (labo-
ratory). These courses also used a broad range of assessment
protocols (tools), including term projects, oral presentations,
assessments of team interaction, and similar, more authentic
forms of assessment.[16,17] Thereby, the proposed outcomes-
based scorecard was tested in an environment of broadly dif-
fering outcomes as well as with tools that are widely consid-
ered to provide a "richer" form of assessment than exams
and homework alone. While the accounting and mapping strat-
egy was the same in each case, the outcomes selected were
considerably different and in some cases represent the more
difficult to quantify of the ABET criteria-thus providing a
test bed for evaluating the practicality and functionality of
the mioi'li. .1 d. .*_\ for the entire range of ABET outcomes.
The chemical engineering department at TTU offers a semi-
nar course titled "Developing Areas in Chemical Engineer-
ing." It was broken into three requirements: attendance, home-
work (weekly assignments), and a term project. Students were
required to submit weekly assignments that were designed to
facilitate their ability to engage in the process of self-educa-
tion (a lifelong learning skill). The first assignment was to
define lifelong learning. Other assignments included writing
a column about microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for
a popular science magazine, researching a micromachining
tc, 1ii, I1 4. \, reviewing a technical publication, and inventing
a micromachine concept. The course culminated in short pre-
sentations and a brief written paper describing the
micromachine each student invented.
The outcomes selected for the course included ABET cri-
terion 3e (formulation), 3g (communications), and 3i (life-
long learning). The lifelong-learning goal was typically ad-
dressed in terms of how well the student was able to find the
resources needed to answer a question, and the form of articu-
lation used apart from simply the ability to communicate well.
"Interdisciplinary Studies in Ceramic Materials Engineer-
ing," a course co-offered, developed, and taught by Mechani-
cal and Chemical Engineering,118 was also part of the study.
In this case, ABET Criterion 3d (ability to function on multi-
disciplinary teams) was included; again, a rather difficult cri-
terion to assess. The interdisciplinary and teaming aspects
are addressed in this course by offering students rather open-
ended research problems that require a multidisciplinary ap-
proach. Teams and individuals conduct self-assessment and


peer assessment, and the scores are kept in the manner de-
fined by the ABET course-level accounting strategy defined
above. Finally, a hands-on laboratory course was also included
in this experiment. ABET Criterion 3b, as well as team as-
pects of 3d (not necessary multidisciplinary), were the focal
outcomes. While authentic assessment activities, rubrics, and
metrics for lifelong learning and team interaction will be de-
bated at length for some time, the course-level strategy pre-
sented here was found to provide a basis for quantifying ob-
vious elements of these processes.
After three years of pilot testing il i ii n c ili. l .1. *. \ in a broad
range of courses that included a traditional lecture-based
course, a discovery-based research-oriented environment,[181
and a self-directed seminar, several course-level improve-
ments have been made as the result of the outcomes-based
assessment data. These can be generalized into two catego-
ries: (1) altering course content to change the outcomes-based
breakdown, and (2) modification of course content to em-
phasize outcomes with low performance scores. In the lec-
ture-based stage-wise separations course, the course break-
down was altered to increase design content and decrease
communications content. Content emphasizing design-in-
cluding in-class workshops, more use of computer simula-
tions, and lectures on design mI'lili.l'l' \-was included.
In the more open-ended courses, "Interdisciplinary Materi-
als Engineering," "Chemical Engineering Lab II," and "De-
veloping Areas in Chemical Engineering," systemic problems
were identified in the area of written communications and
research mi'lh, ,C l '1. ,. Performance scores on communica-
tion (Criteria 3g) and experimentation (Criteria 3b) were low.
Surprisingly, some students could not organize their thoughts
to produce a good research report, conduct literature review,
or design an experiment (thinking through the steps associ-
ated with identification and specification of an experiment).
Similarly, their information-interpretation skills were weak,
which translated into low-quality research reports. Outcomes-
based scorekeeping helps to identify and quantify such defi-
ciencies and to track the response to changes in the classroom.
Course content was altered in each case to include in-class
workshops and mini lectures on skills-based topics that would
otherwise not be included in such classes, i.e., research-report
writing, the scientific method, and discovery-based learning.
Suggestions for using the course-level strategy in the
overall context of program-level continuous improvement
The course-level outcomes-based assessment strategy pre-
sented here has a number of advantages, including real-time
loop closure at the instructional level. It also has a number of
disadvantages, including a significant one-time start-up ef-
fort and some additional effort to prepare and grade assign-
ments in a nonconventional way. Once implemented, how-
ever, this strategy could provide a new way of optimizing
instructional efficiency. Furthermore, while this experiment
focused on applying the outcomes assessment to the course-


Chemical Entineerint Education











level, the approach may have significant utility if applied,
even on a limited basis, throughout the curriculum, to quan-
titatively address issues of feedback both at the curriculum
level and the course level. For example, if students are found
to be particularly weak in ABET Criterion 3a (ability to ap-
ply knowledge of ... mathematics .. .), the source of the
deficiency may be in the prerequisite course sequence. If ap-
plied to a significant number of courses within the depart-
ment, trends that suggest such deficiencies would be quanti-
tatively identifiable. This form of quantitative information
would then become one of a number of indicators that could
be used to improve student performance through curriculum-
level continuous improvement.
Ultimately, the objective should be to integrate course-level
information into an integrative process that is summative and
probes deep retained learning rather than superfluous short-
term learning. If strategically implemented throughout the
curriculum to include early, mid-curriculum, and capstone
courses, this nmI' l1 n l. l \ may have value as one part of a
comprehensive evaluation system.
Yet another benefit of using an outcomes-based perfor-
mance accounting strategy is possibly one of administrative
record keeping. Course-end reports including Tables 4 and 5
can be kept. When combined with student portfolios or se-
lect student papers, they provide the basis for an ABET ex-
hibit that quantitatively illustrates student performance against
ABET criteria as well as a I cil. >. 1..I \ for continuous course
and curriculum feedback and improvement.

IMPRESSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Since the ABET criteria address a broad range of skills, an
ABET-based course-level approach for using assessment out-
comes was implemented and assessed in laboratory-, lecture-,
and seminar-based settings. The use of a systematic mapping
between the requirements domain and ABET domain pro-
vides a detailed record of student performance against ABET
Criterion 3 Outcomes (Tables 3, 4, and Figure 4). The strat-
egy described here is time consuming at first, but once estab-
lished, it is no more labor intensive than other methods and
yields far more insights into the teaching and learning pro-
cesses. While the traditional approach neatly itemizes the
overall performance on individual course requirements (some-
thing that every instructor and student wants to know), it gives
no insight as to what are the strengths or weaknesses based
on any performance criterion (Figure 3b). The ABET
scorecard, however, itemizes the overall performance by the
specific performance criteria and offers the instructor a win-
dow into student skill-based abilities (Table 4). Both are im-
portant and both should be considered when assessing stu-
dent performance and when addressing course improvement.
Streamlining the process on the front end and providing
faculty training and retraining in this new ABET-based course-
level strategy should make it a more attractive alternative for


faculty to implement. A more extensive experiment is needed
to validate and extend the results presented in this case study.
Additional test beds wherein other departmental and extra-
departmental faculty adopt the strategy must be included in
the next level of the experiment. Direct feedback from an
ABET review team should be sought during the next review
cycle in 2009. Furthermore, elements of skill level should be
included in the assessment matrix using, for example, Bloom's
Taxonomy, or a similar model.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would like to acknowledge my many students who have
patiently permitted me to explore new ways to help them learn
and to discover ways to ensure that they are learning. I would
also like to thank those who reviewed and offered many con-
structive suggestions for this manuscript.

REFERENCES
1. Engineering Criteria 2000, 3rd ed., Engineering Accreditation Com-
mission of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology,
Baltimore, MD
2. Stadler, A.T., "Assessment Tools forABET Engineering Criteria 2000,"
Nat. Civil Eng. Ed. Cong., 101 (1999)
3. Sarin, S., "Plan for Addressing ABET Criteria 2000 Requirements,"
Proc. 1998 Ann. ASEE Conf (1998)
4. Ressler, S.J., "Integrated EC 2000-Based Program Assessment Sys-
tem," Nat. CivilEng. Ed. Cong. 103 (1999)
5. Pleyvoy, A., and J. Ingham, "Data Warehousing: A Tool for Facilitat-
ing Assessment," 29th Ann. Frontiers in Ed. Conf, (1999)
6. Stephanichick, P, and A. Karim, "Outcomes-Based Program Assess-
ment: A Practical Approach," 29thAnn. Frontiers in Ed. Conf, (1999)
7. de Ramierez, L.M., "Some Assessment Tools for Evaluating Curricu-
lar Innovations Outcomes," Proc. 1998 Ann. ASEE Conf (1998)
8. McCreanor, PT., "Quantitatively Assessing an Outcome on Design-
ing and Conducting Experiments and Analyzing Data forABET 2000,"
Proc. Frontiers in Ed. Conf, 1, (2001)
9. Shor, M.H., and R. Robson, "Student-Centered Feedback Control
Model of the Educational Process," Proc. Frontiers in Ed. Conf, 2,
(2000)
10. Karapetrovic, S., and D. Rajamani, "Approach to the Application of
Statistical Quality Control Techniques in Engineering," J. Eng. Ed.,
87(3) 269 (1998)
11. Terenzini, PT., A.F Cabrera, and C.L. Colbeck, "Assessing Class-
room Activities and Outcomes," Proc. Frontiers in Ed. Conf, 3, (1999)
12. Terenzini, PT., "Preparing for ABET 2000: Assessment at the Class-
room Level," Proc. 1998 Ann. ASEE Conf (1998)
13. Winter, H.H., "Using Test Results for Assessment of Teaching and
Learning,"( Ed., 36(3) 188 (2002)
14. Mandayam, S.A., J.L. Schmalzel, R.P Ramachandran, R.R. Krchnavek,
L. Head, R. Ordonez, P. Jansson, and R. Polikar, "Assessment Strate-
gies: Feedback is Too Late," Proc. 31st ASEE/IEE Frontiers in Ed.
Conf (2001)
15. Apple, D.K., K.P. Nygren, M.W. Williams, and D.M. Litynski, "Dis-
tinguishing and Elevating Levels of Learning in Engineering and Tech-
nology Instruction," Proc. Frontiers in Ed. Conf. 1, (2002)
16. Guthrie, D., "Faculty Goals and Methods of Instruction: Approaches
to Classroom Assessment," in Assessment and Curriculum. -m,
Ratcliff, J., ed., Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA (1992)
17. Angelo, T., and P. Cross, Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Hand-
book for ( Teachers, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA (1993)
18. Biemacki, J.J., and C.D. Wilson, "Interdisciplinary Laboratory in Ad-
vanced Materials: ATeam-Oriented Inquiry-based Approach," J. Eng.
Ed., October, 637 (2001) l


Summer 2005











classroom


WEB-BASED DELIVERY


OF ChE DESIGN PROJECTS




LISA G. BULLARD, PATRICIA K. NIEHUES, STEVEN W. PERETTI, SHANNON H. WHITE
North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695


Leading chemical engineering faculty, in a series of
three workshops titled "New Frontiers in Chemical
Engineering Education," have identified a need for
case studies to support the unifying curricular themes of mo-
lecular transformation, multiscale analysis, and systems ap-
proaches.11 As a result of this workshop series, case studies
are sought that provide real-world context, including aspects
of safety, economics, ethics, regulations, intellectual prop-
erty, and market/societal needs. In addition, the desired case
studies should provide real-world challenges-open-ended,
complex problems with incomplete data that require pruning
of alternatives.
Note that the term "case study" has many meanings. There
is a large body of literature on using "cases" for the purpose
of student instruction, primarily in the disciplines of business
and law but more recently in the engineering literature.[2-4] In
this context, the "cases" are brief (one- to two-page) descrip-
tions of an actual problem where students are challenged to
analyze the situation and formulate a response, taking into
consideration all of the facets of the open-ended problem.
Another type of case study is really a short (one- to five-
page) problem statement that identifies the product or pro-
cess, the design basis, associated process constraints or speci-
fications, assumptions, and required deliverables. Several
recent chemical engineering design textbooks[5-71 contain text
or accompanying CD versions of design problem statements.
CACHE, a not-for-profit educational corporation, makes
available selected design case studies with solutions.[81 Our
concept of a case study involves not only the problem state-
ment, but associated technical briefs and solution informa-
tion that provide an introduction to the material, both for the
students and for the mentoring faculty.
The formulation of design projects presents three major
challenges: the project expectations must be challenging yet


attainable, the scope must encompass the essence of industrial
practice and represent a realistic situation, and-possibly most
challenging to the instructor-the technical focus of the topic
must be such that the project advisor (usually the faculty mem-
ber responsible for the course) is able to provide adequate guid-
ance, support material, and mentorship to the students.
For this project the first objective was met by using design
projects completed by previous years' design groups. The fi-
nal reports were then compiled and the best sections or por-
tions of the solutions condensed into a single exemplary so-
lution. Following a review of the .l hiii I.," sections deemed
incomplete were made part of the deliverables assigned to
the subsequent year's project team. This is not to imply that
the solution presented is the only reasonable solution avail-
able-as with all engineering projects, many solutions can
be considered viable and the students are encouraged to think
creatively when determining a solution.

Lisa G. Bullard received her B.S. from North Carolina State University
and her Ph.D. from Carnegie Mellon University, both in chemical engi-
neering. She served in engineering and management positions at Eastman
Chemical Co. from 1991-2000. She is currently the director of undergradu-
ate studies in chemical and biomolecular engineering at North Carolina
State University.
Patricia K. Niehues received her B.S. in chemical engineering from North
Carolina State University in 2001. She has 11 years of process control
and design experience with DuPont and Degussa. She served as a coach
for senior design groups at NC State from 2001 through 2004 and is cur-
rently employed with Hazen and Sawyer as an instrument and control
engineer in the Water and Wastewater treatment industry.
Steven W. Peretti is an associate professor of chemical and biomolecu-
lar engineering at North Carolina State University. He has directed re-
search in bacterial protein synthesis, bioremediation, gene transfer in
biofilms, and green chemistry applications of bioconversion processes.
Recently, he has become active in the areas of cross-disciplinary educa-
tion and service learning.
Shannon H. White received her M.Ed. from North Carolina State Univer-
sity and is working on her Ph.D. in curriculum and instruction. She has
worked in traditional and nontraditional educational settings since 1995.
At NC State, she has worked as a designer and consultant on a number
of instructional multimedia projects, Web sites, and publications.


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2005


Chemical Eneineerine Education












Design projects present three major challenges:
The project expectations must be challenging yet attainable,
the scope must encompass the essence of industrial practice and
represent a realistic situation, and.., the technical focus of the
topic must be such that the project advisor ... is able to
nrnTvidp ndneinft crtiidannrP sinnnrt mnatrinl


and provided additional suggestions
for completion of the case study ma-
terials. For example, because of the
novelty of the bii Ji i 1 .\. -ielated projects, much of the
initial solution material generated by student groups focused
on material that was new to chemical engineering practice,
i.e., validation protocols for equipment, inoculation and cell
cultivation, and biomass processing. The solutions lacked
basic engineering data for equipment sizing and utility us-
age, and thus were vague as to how production costs were
actually calculated. This year's students will be addressing
these issues and their results will be added to the support
material for each exemplary solution.
The case study represents our effort to address the third
challenge. Some chemical engineering faculty members may
want support for the bii lc1Jii, 1, .- \ pI'' kic~ I, if they lack prac-
tical experience in this field. At North Carolina State Univer-
sity (NCSU) we are fortunate to have faculty with biochemi-
cal engineering expertise as well as industrial mentors through

TABLE 1
Typical Senior Design Course Projects

E[ AlphaVax: A Facility Retrofit for Vaccine Production
I SuperPro-Based Ammonia Plant Retrofit
[E Biodiesel Facility Utilizing Waste Vegetable Oil
[E Bio-Methanol and Bio-Ethanol Facility: A Feasibility Study
E[ Ceramic Processing
E[ Citric Acid Production Facility Case Study
[ Production of an Antigenic Co-Protein Line for PeptiVax
Pharmaceuticals
[E Innovative Design of a Snowboard
E[ Carbon Dioxide Separation: High Temperature Flue Gas
Adsorption
E[ Reducing the Risk of Cancer from Fried Foods
E 1.2 kW Portable Fuel Cell System
E Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System for NCSU
E Gasification of Biomass: Conversion to Higher Value Chemicals
and Fuels
E Designing a Gelatin Manufacturing Plant for North Carolina
E Kennametal Waste Minimization
E Medical Waste Treatment Process: for Use in Underdeveloped
Areas
E Microfluidic Cooling Device for Microprocessors
E Perchlorate Treatment for Domestic Water Systems
E The Biological Production of para-Hydroxybenzoate
E Thermochemical Processing of Tobacco to Produce Methanol: A
North Carolina Facility
l RESS Production of Micronized THC Particles in Solution, for
Pulmonary Delivery
E SuperPro Modeling and Optimization of Conjugate Vaccine
Facility


Summer 2005


' q ... pp ,
and mentorship to the students.


the local ISPE (International Society of Pharmaceutical En-
gineering) chapter, with NCSU students also having access
to internships with local pharmaceutical companies and manu-
facturers. The industrial mentors supplied by ISPE were es-
pecially helpful in developing the information for the two
bi. ~'c ii 1. 4 'l. >- case studies.

COURSE STRUCTURE AND LOGISTICS
At NCSU, the capstone design class consists of a two-se-
mester design sequence. The complete course Web site for
CHE 451 (spring 2004) is included in the "Helpful Resources
for Iiilii i ,I on the case study Web site. The first semes-
ter is primarily focused on instruction, including economic
analysis, process simulation, environmental impact, and life-
cycle analysis, etc. In previous years the students did not start
their capstone project until the second semester; the instruc-
tors have found, however, that it is more effective to launch
the project early-mid-semester in the fall-and continue it
through the spring. This allows much more time for the stu-
dents to do an in-depth literature and patent search early in
the life of the project, as well as to invest considerably more
time in the project as a whole. The instructors establish ex-
pectations that each student in the project group will invest at
least 10 hours per week throughout the project life. The solu-
tions that are available to instructors reflect the effort of one
and a half semesters (approximately 6 months), but instruc-
tors can "prune" the list of deliverables as appropriate to match
the time available.
Typically a capstone class at NCSU has an enrollment of
85 to 95 students. In previous years there were four to five
projects (typically traditional simulation-based projects) and
four to five teams working on each project in parallel, but in
recent years the instructors have tried to come up with as
many as 20 to 22 unique projects so that each team has its
own project. Typical project titles for the design course are
shown in Table 1.
The case studies described in this paper had one team of
four to five students working on the case. Again, depending
on the class size and duration, it would be feasible to have
more than one team working on the problem, each being as-
signed to different aspects of the design.
As part of the course deliverables, student teams devel-
oped team expectations and established a project manage-

195


The second objective was realized
through the involvement of industry
professionals in the formulation of
the design problem and the mentor-
ing of the teams responsible for the
project report. These practitioners
also reviewed the solution material











ment system to report time on a weekly basis. Peer evalua-
tions, completed at mid-semester and at the end of the se-
mester, were used to weight individual grades based on group
work. The instructors met weekly with teams and/or project
managers to monitor progress. Templates for grading written
and oral reports, peer evaluation forms, and examples of group
time logs are included on the Web site under "Helpful Re-
sources for Instructors."

At the end of the semester, the Chemical Engineering De-
partment sponsored a "Senior Design Day." One student from
each group made a brief (2-minute) overview presentation
using PowerPoint, and then the group adjourned to a poster
session. Each group prepared a poster and responded to ques-
tions from those attending the session. Chemical engineer-
ing faculty, industrial sponsors, multidisciplinary faculty, and
parents were invited to Design Day.

CASE STUDY STRUCTURE

To simplify accessibility of the case studies, the informa-
tion contained on the Web sites, and the Web sites them-
selves, are structurally similar. The case study informa-
tion can be broken up into three major components: the
problem statement, support information, and exemplary
solution.
The problem statement contains the basic information
that the student needs to get started on the project. The
general purpose of the project, raw-material specifications,
basic operating parameters and systems, reaction kinet-
ics, and product specifications are included in this sec-
tion. Support includes a list of starting refer-
ences, technical briefs on relevant processes (created by
previous years' project teams), facility layouts, equipment
lists, and suggested deliverables for the project teams. The
exemplary solution provides a complete project report,
including an executive summary, introduction, technical
background, process description, waste management plan,
regulatory review, facility design, validation/commission-
ing plan, detailed manufacturing costs, detailed spread-
sheet calculations for material balances, equipment siz-
ing, utility usage, profitability analysis, and process simu-
lation results.

CASE STUDY ACCESS AND EXAMPLE

The Web site contains three complete case studies for the
production of vaccine co-protein, ammonia, and citric acid.
The structure of the Web site, and exemplary material based
on the co-protein project, illustrate the nature and detail of
the case studies. The reader should keep in mind that this is
not "Web-based instruction," but rather a source of instruc-
tional material which can be accessed via the Web. While
this material may be adapted to a Web-based instructional
scenario, that would be the responsibility of the faculty imple-
menting the material.


Students and faculty can access all of the case studies shown
in Figure 1 from the main page of the Web site at

The Web site is divided into two levels of access: student
and faculty. As shown in Figure 2, students have access to
descriptive information about the project, information on each
case study, and resources related to the case studies (Web-
based, books, journal articles, PowerPoint tutorials, etc.) Fac-
ulty can access the same information as the students, but in

e 0 0 Dreyfus Foundation Case Study Projects C
< y Qhatp// iw nsuedulches/ ) G1,
NCSU ChhmFal ngn -.-ring Collgngnng Dr0u e- C.--Ud- A-n-AgondaP o NESuIJ-- S b b

Dreyfus Case Studies *!
ABOUT COPROTEIN A1MOIA CITFRCACID SOURCES INSTRUCTOR

Tr,,i rrlbr,. itl r- ".'.r ,".T arau r.*; *.r .'*,r.'r,*..*.,*.*,i, Or ..', ".,'.r. ". *" .1
familiar with the these new processes as they are with older processes
like distillation.
Many universities are not able to secure appropriate industrial
sponsorships for design projects that feature applied
; -. -e..: 'i:...: r F.. . :.r .. I :- ,: i i ..r v
engineering curriculum towards a career in biotechnology. As a result,
,r;- .: "* 3 '' C: ,'. ill, ; c T:-. l r..- .i.

The project and supplemental material were developed for use in a
capstone course in Chemical Engineering. Mor

Figure 1. Home page for case study Web site.


Available to
Students

Each Case Study
has a parallel
structure as
below

Introduction
to the Case
Study


Problem I
Statement Objectives Resources




Tutorials
Web
Resources
Books and
Texts
Journals and
Professional
Magazines
Letters from
Students


Access Provided by
Instructor


P -1
Deliverables



Executive Summary
Introduction
Product Line
Determination/
Economic Analysis
Process Description
Process Controls
Regulatory
Requirements
Validation


Figure 2. Web site structure: Student view.


Chemical Entineerint Education











addition, the exemplary solution and additional resources are
available to them through a password-protected protocol. Ex-
amples of materials that are available to the instructor are
shown in Figure 3. The instructor requests password access
through an online registration page marked II,1 i i li" on the
main page. The instructor's request is forwarded to the authors,
who will verify the instructor's status and provide a user ID
and a password. The authors will solicit feedback from faculty
who use these cases regarding questions, problems, or sugges-
tions for additional material to be included. This feedback will
be used to improve the case study materials.


CASE STUDY INFORMATION: CO-PROTEIN

To indicate the organization and the ease of comprehension
of the Web site, examples of the problem statement, a list of
deliverables, student letters, and tutorials are described below.
Problem Statement and Deliverables
The problem statement is detailed since most chemical en-
gineering students have little experience with biological sys-
tems, and the proteins and processes described are "disguised"
so as to avoid disclosure of proprietary information on the
part of the original project sponsor.
PeptiVax Inc., a biotechnology company, has developed
several co-proteins that may help in the fight against sev-
eral common viral diseases. In test animals, each co-pro-
tein attaches to a target virus and the virus-protein com-
plex stimulates the production of antibodies against the
virus. This cooperative system may also enable the hu-
man body to produce a small amount of antibodies that
will limit the spread of the virus. Several of these anti-
genic "co-proteins"-co-Hep B, co-Hep C, co-Human Pap-


Figure 3. Web site structure: instructor view.


illoma Virus, co-RSV, co-Rotavirus, and co-HIV-are now
in Phase I clinical trials (see Table 1 [contained on the Web
site] for protein characteristics). The management of
PeptiVax Inc. would like your group to evaluate and rec-
ommend a proposed product line, design the correspond-
ing Escherichia coli-based processes for protein produc-
tion (see Table 2 [contained on the Web site] for E. coli
growth data), and determine the required modifications
to their existing facility (see Figure 1 [contained on the Web
site] and Tables 3 and 4 [contained on the Web site]).

PeptiVax's senior management would like to see the fol-
lowing information and deliverables:
United States Target Market and Market Size
Intermediate and Final Product Descriptions
Major Regulatory Requirements of the U.S. market
Project ROI and Product Cost
Process Summaries
Descriptions of all Facility Modifications
Capacity and Annual Schedule, Based on Market Po-
tential
Preliminary Design/Construction/Validation/Regula-
tory Schedules

PeptiVax's technical and regulatory personnel would like
to see the following:
Process Flow Diagrams (PFDs)
Process Description
Material Balances (Raw Materials, Product, Waste,
etc.)
Equipment Lists, with Specifications
Control System Requirements (new systems)
Facility Floor Plan, Indicating Material/Personnel
Flows
Utility Requirements
Product line proposals should
be accompanied by an eco-
nomic analysis of the potential
market value of each co-pro-
tein. This should include a de-
tailed description of the corre-
sponding viral infections com-
Sbated by each co-protein, and
orthe current United States in-
es fection rates. The design pro-
cess for any proposed product
1 line should be based on the as-
Checklistfor Spring 2004 sumption that all the co-pro-
Written CHE 451
Reports I course teins are produced extracellu-
website larly by a specialized strain of
the recombinant host organ-
ism, Escherichia coli. Each re-
combinant strain ofE. coli will
be able to produce one and
only one of the potential co-
proteins. The individual co-
protein characteristics are pre-
sented in Table 1 [contained on
the Web site]. Keep in mind


Summer 2005











that the required modifications to the existing PeptiVax fa-
cilities should take into account the amount of each co-pro-
tein needed to capture the desired market share over the
course of one calendar year.
This information is sufficient for the design team to under-
stand the needs of the project sponsor.
This section is followed by the table of contents for the
project deliverables, shown below.
1. Executive Summary
2. Introduction
3. Product Line DeterminationlEconomic Analysis
4. Process Description
5. Process Controls
6. Regulatory Requirements
7. Validation
8. Waste Management
9. Facility Design
10. Detailed Costs of Proposed Product Lines
11. Conclusions
Each item in the table of contents is a link to a page in the
Web site that contains a brief (one- to two-paragraph) defini-
tion/explanation of that item. For example, the Process Descrip-
tion link will take you to a page with the following information:
What is expected: The economic analysis performed
above gives upper management at PeptiVax enough
information to determine what drugs should be
produced. This is based on the anticipated market
capture and on approximating the cost of producing a
recombinant drug. The numbers generated are rough
estimates, however. In order to calculate a detailed
manufacturing cost and to design the facility to
accommodate the equipment necessary for the
production of these co-proteins, the specific manufac-
turing process for each co-protein is required. Before
a specific process can be developed, it is necessary to
understand the different equipment that can be used
in a biotechnology process. This information can then
be used to streamline the process by using the
minimum number of unit operations required for each
co-protein production. To be included in this deliverable
are:
Overall description of protein production process
Complete process block flow diagram
Unit operation descriptions of each process unit
Material and energy balance


Need more help on Fermentation and P
views? See the Fermentation and P
the Resources section.


over-
tutorials in


The explanations are sufficiently general to allow fur-
ther refinement by the individual instructor but sufficiently
detailed to allow the team to begin work on the item in
question. There are also links to relevant tutorials through
the Resources link (note: the Resources link is on the home
page).


Letters from Students
This section contains letters from former design teams with
advice regarding project management, preparing oral and writ-
ten presentations, and general words of encouragement. A
brief example regarding oral and written presentations is
shown below.
Recommendations and Lessons Learned from Co-Protein
Group (taken directly from student comments):

Written Report
1. Create outline for proposal and phase reports before
actually writing.
2. Don't underestimate the importance of writing versus
technical content.
3. Get connected with technical advisors and use to full
advantage.
4. Schedule regular meetings with advisor.
5. Schedule regular weekly or biweekly meetings with
group.
6. Get an outside English teacher or technical-writing
advisor to review all reports.
7. Set goal to complete technical aspects of report the
week before due date, so that the last week may focus
on writing quality (i.e. grammar, sentence structure,
etc.)
8. In group meetings, whether before or after each phase
has been completed, discuss each person's section.
Each person should have a thorough understanding of
everything in the report, including all assumptions
made and all calculations.
9. Use reader's comments from each phase, to build on
them for the next phase.
10. Choose a project that you have sincere interest in.
This will help keep you motivated and interested
throughout the semester.
11. Don't get discouraged-everything comes together.
12. There is no "real" structure and requirement for what
is to be included in the final project-it really depends
on how you got there.
13. Do not look for specific outline of what needs to be
done when starting project-start on your own and
think of what seems reasonable to accomplish.
Oral Presentation
1. Transition between every slide.
2. Go over "pretend" responses to question-and-answer
period-be prepared for questions (or how to respond
to questions) you do not know.
3. Request to go first.
4. Don't use white background-always use blue or a
dark color.
5. Make sure that all figures and tables are legible. If this
is not possible, make handouts for everyone to see.


Chemical Eneineerine Education











6. All group members presenting should stand.
7. Practice, practice, practice.
8. Assign a person responsible for every section of the
presentation so that they can field questions. This will
prevent confusion and looks of helplessness during
the question-and-answer session.
While much of this advice is identical to that which the
professor would give, there is added validity when it comes
from the mouth (or pen) of a peer!
Tutorials and other Resources
The Resources link from the main page takes the stu-
dents to a list of references (Web sites, tutorials, books,
and professional journals) that will help them get started
on uncovering the technical background for their project.
The resource page for the co-protein project is summa-
rized below.
Co-Protein Case Study Resources
Web resources/tutorials/texts and books/journals/professional
magazines
Web Resources (these are links to other parts of this page)
CDC Hepatitis Information Page

MedicineNet.com
HIVandHepatitis.com #hepc/tmhepc.html>
CDC Rotavirus Information Page

CDC Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Information Page

The Respiratory Syncytial Virus Info Center

American Lung Association RSV information

CDC HIVIAIDS Information Page
http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/dhap.htm


Figure 4. Example from purification tutorial.

Summer 2005


Technical Briefs:
Overview of Fermentation (ppt) (pdf)
Overview of Purification (ppt) (pdf) (see Figure 4)
Validation Tutorial (ppt) (pdf)
Overview of Facility Design (ppt) (pdf)
Books and Texts:
Bailey, J.E., and D.F. Ollis, Biochemical Engineering Funda-
mentals, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, NY 1986
Shuler, M.L., and F. Kargi., Bioprocess Engineering Basic Con-
cepts, 2nd ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002
Journals/Professional Magazines:
Pharmaceutical Manufacturing, PutmanMedia

Chemical Processing, PutmanMedia

CONTROL for the process industries, PutmanMedia

Note that the tutorials are available in both PowerPoint and
pdf formats (ppt denotes a PowerPoint file: will open in Internet
Explorer or Microsoft PowerPoint; pdf denotes an Adobe pdf file:
requires Acrobat reader.)

SUMMARY
Three case studies have been developed for use by the
chemical engineering community. Two of the three case stud-
ies are in the area of bioprocessing, which allows faculty who
may not have extensive background in this area to provide
students with relevant materials. The authors would like to
encourage readers to use these case study materials and pro-
vide feedback on enhancements, gaps, or other opportunities
for improvement.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors would like to acknowledge the Camille and
Henry Dreyfus Foundation for the support of this work.


REFERENCES
1. Rousseau, R.W., and R.C. Armstrong, "New Directions and Opportu-
nities: Creating the Future," Workshop on Frontiers in Chemical En-
gineering Education, AIChE National Meeting, San Francisco, CA,
November (2003)
2. Fitzgerald, N., "Teaching With Cases," ASEE Prism, 4(7), 16 (1995)
3. Henderson, J.M., L.G. Bellman, and B.J. Furman, "A Case for Teach-
ing Engineering with Cases," J. Eng. Ed., 288, Jan. (1983)
4. Herreid, C.F, "What Is A Case? Bringing to Science Education the
Established Teaching Tool of Law and Medicine," J. ( Science
Teaching, 92, Nov. (1997)
5. Peters, M.S., K.D. Timmerhaus, and R.E. West, .
nomics for Chemical Engineers, Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill, p. 900
(2003)
6. Seider, W.D., J.D. Seader, and D.R. Lewin, Product and Process De-
sign Principles, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., p. 782 (2004)
7. Turton, R., "A Variety of Design Projects Suitable for Sophomore,
Junior, and Senior Courses," Retrieved March 9, 2004, at www.che.cemr.wvu.edu/publications/projects/index.php>
8. CACHE Design Case Studies. Retrieved July 9, 2004, at peabody.che.utexas.edu/cache/casestudy.html> O











Random Thoughts...









SCREENS DOWN, EVERYONE!

EFFECTIVE USES OF PORTABLE COMPUTERS

IN LECTURE CLASSES

RICHARD M. FIELDER AND REBECCA BRENT
North Carolina State University


Portable computers are getting more powerful and
cheaper all the time. Most college students now own
one, and many engineering and science curricula re-
quire all their students to have them. Once colleges do that,
though, they are also obliged to give the students enough to
do with the computers to justify that requirement. True, home-
work involving computers is routinely assigned in technical
curricula, but the computer labs at most colleges are more
than adequate to serve the students who don't have their own
computers. Few institutions have enough computer-equipped
classrooms to host all their classes, however, and so it makes
sense to have the students use their own computers in class.
The question is, to do what?
Taking notes in class is not the answer. Lecture notes in
engineering, science, and math courses normally involve
equations and diagrams, which students cannot enter on a
computer nearly as fast as instructors can write them on a
board or project them on a screen. Unless the students are
given better options, they are more likely to use their com-
puters during lectures to work on homework, play games,
surf the Web, and e-chat with their friends. It's hard enough
for instructors to hold students' attention in a lecture class
under normal circumstances; adding computers with all of
the tempting diversions they offer can make it hopeless.
The remedy for attention drift in class-with or without
computers-is to use active learning,['1 periodically giving
the students things to do (answer questions, solve problems,
brainstorm lists,... ) related to the course content. Extensive
research has established that students learn much more
through practice and feedback than by watching and listen-
ing to someone telling them what they are supposed to ki n m\\
Computers can be effectively incorporated into classroom
activities in many ways for a variety of purposes. Several
examples follow.


Working through interactive tutorials
Computer-based tutorials can be highly instructive, es-
pecially if they are interactive, prompting users for re-
sponses to questions and correcting mistakes. Tutorials
are increasingly common on CDs bundled with course
texts, and they may also be obtained from software com-
panies and multimedia libraries such as MERLOT or
SMETE.[31 A problem is that students worry about how
much time they will take and so tend to ignore them. An
effective way to deal with their concern is to have them
work through the first of a set of tutorials. If it is well
designed, they will then be much more likely to work
through the others voluntarily. (A recent research study
illustrates this phenomenon.[4])


Richard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese
Professor Emeritus of chemical engineering
at North Carolina State University. He re-
ceived his B. ChE, from City College of CUNY
and his Ph.D. from Princeton. He is coau-
thor of the text Elementary Principles of
Chemical Processes (Wiley, 2000) and
codirector of the ASEE National Effective
Teaching Institute.



Rebecca Brent is an education consultant
specializing in faculty development for effec-
tive university teaching, classroom and com-
puter-based simulations in teacher education,
and K- 12 staff development in language arts
and classroom management. She codirects
the ASEE National Effective Teaching Insti-
tute and has published articles on a variety
of topics including writing in undergraduate
courses, cooperative learning, public school
reform, and effective university teaching.

Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2005


Chemical Enyineerine Education










Getting started with new software and building
skill in its use
Many students-even those comfortable with e-mail and
computer games-feel intimidated when unfamiliar software
is introduced in a course. To help them over this psychologi-
cal barrier, have them run the software in class, working
through the same kinds of tasks they will be called on to carry
out in assignments. When they get confused or make com-
mon beginners' mistakes, they will get immediate assistance
instead of having to struggle for hours by themselves and
will then be prepared to run the software on their own. Sev-
eral in-class activities may subsequently be used to help them
gain expertise in the software, such as:
El W n happen? Give one or more statements or com-
mands and ask students to predict what the program
will do in response. Then have them enter and execute
the commands and verify their predictions or explain
why they were wrong.
El What's wrong? Give statements or program fragments
with errors and ask the students to identify and correct
the mistakes.
El How might you do this? State desired outcomes and ask
the students to write and test programs to achieve them.
Carry out Web-based research
Answers to many research questions can be obtained in a
few keystrokes using powerful search engines such as Google.
To help your students develop computer research skills, you
might ask them to do several things in class and then in home-
work assignments:
El Gather information about a specified device, product,
or process.
El Locate a visual image to illustrate a concept or include
in a report.
El Verify or refute an assertion in the popular press
related to science or t c',l. ii1. 4_. \.
El Assemble supporting arguments for different sides of
a controversial current issue.

Explore system behavior with simulations
Computer simulations allow students to explore sys-
tem behavior at conditions that might not be feasible for
hands-on study, including hazardous conditions. Having
students build their own simulations of complex systems
in class may be impractical, but prewritten simulations
(which might include random measurement errors and
possibly systematic errors) can be used for a number of
worthwhile activities:
E simulated experimental systems in lecture classes.


Ask students to (a) apply what they have learned in
class to predict responses of a simulated system to
changes in input variables and system parameters, (b)
explore those changes, interpret the results, and hy-
pothesize reasons for deviations from their predictions,
and possibly, (c) explore or optimize system perfor-
mance over a broad range of conditions.
El Prepare for up real laboratory experiments.
Have students in a laboratory course design an ex-
periment and test their design using a simulation
before actually running the experiment. Following
the run, have them formulate possible explanations
for discrepancies between predicted and experimen-
tal results.

Implementation tips
Several formats for computer-based activities in class
should be used on a rotating basis. If all students have
computers, they may work individually, or in pairs or trios,
or individually first and then in pairs to compare and rec-
oncile solutions. If there are only enough computers for
every other student, the students may work in pairs with
one giving instructions and the other doing the typing,
reversing roles in successive tasks. After stopping an ac-
tivity in any of these formats, the instructor should first
call on several individuals for responses and then invite
volunteers to give additional responses. The knowledge that
anyone in the class might be called on will motivate most of
the students to actually attempt the assigned tasks."1
Finally, an indispensable device for effectively using por-
table computers in class is the simple command, "Screens
down!" when you want the students' attention for any length
of time. As long as they can see their screens and you can't,
the temptation for them to watch the screens instead of you
can be overwhelming. If you take away that option, at least
you'll have a fighting chance.

REFERENCES
1. Felder, R.M., and R. Brent, "Leaming by Doing," Chem. Eng. Ed.,
37(4), 282 (2003), < .... r-public/Columns/

2. Prince, M., "Does Active Learning Work? A Review of the Research,"
J. Eng. Ed., 93(3), 223 (2004)
3. (a) MERLOT (Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and On-
Line Teaching), ; (b) SMETE (Electronic re-
sources for science, math, engineering, and technology education),

4. Roskowski, A.M., R.M. Felder, and L. Bullard, "Student Use (and
Non-Use) of Instructional Technology," J. SMET Education, 2, 41
(2002), Roskowski(JSMET- > O


Summer 2005


All of the Random columns are now available on the World Wide Web at
http://www.ncsu.edu/effective_teaching and at http://che.ufl.edu/~cee/










curriculum


COMMON PLUMBING

AND CONTROL ERRORS

IN PLANTWIDE FLOWSHEETS

WILLIAM L. LUYBEN
Lehigh University Bethlehem, PA 19015


Almost all senior design courses discuss only the
steady-state economic aspects of process design and
exclude any consideration of dynamic behavior. Very
few design textbooks even mention dynamics and control.E1,2
Given this tendency, the senior design course at Lehigh Uni-
versity is apparently quite distinctive in that it emphasizes
"simultaneous design," i.e., the consideration of both steady-
state economics and dynamic controllability at the early stages
of conceptual design. A detailed discussion of the need for
and the importance of this simultaneous approach has been
presented in a recent book. 31
The Lehigh design course requires two semesters. In the
fall, traditional steady-state synthesis covers steady-state com-
puter flowsheet simulation, engineering economics, equip-
ment sizing, reactor selection, energy systems, distillation
separation sequences, azeotropic distillation, and heuristic
optimization. In the spring, dynamic plantwide control cov-
ers dynamic computer simulation, pressure-driven plumbing,
control structure development, and controller tuning.
Commercial flowsheet simulation software is now suffi-
ciently user friendly that undergraduates can produce steady-
state and dynamic simulations of fairly complex processes.
Computer speed has increased to the point that dynamic simu-
lations of fairly complex flowsheets can be run in reasonable
times. Figure 1 presents an example of a flowsheet generated
by a senior design group. Note that all the plumbing details
are not given in the flowsheet, particularly the overhead pip-
ing, valves, reflux drum, and pump.
The organization of the Lehigh course has three-person
groups, with each group working on a different design project.
These projects are supplied by an industrial consultant who
works with the group throughout the year. Active and retired
engineers from industry graciously volunteer their time and
years of practical experience to this effort. Engineers have
participated from Air Products, DuPont, Exxon-Mobil, FMC,
Praxair, Rohm&Haas, and Sun Oil.


As educational aids in the area of plantwide control and in
the use of commercial dynamic simulators, two textbooks
have been written. I \\ basic types of errors are made by
many students: inoperable plumbing arrangements and un-
workable control structures. We consider these in the follow-
ing sections.

COMMON PLUMBING ERRORS
The lack of physical understanding of practical fluid me-
chanics by many students is somewhat alarming. They have
learned momentum balances, boundary-layer theory, the
Navier-Stokes Equation, etc., in their fluid mechanics course.
But when it comes to putting together a piping system to get
material to flow around in a process, many students have great
difficulty in coming up with a reasonable plumbing system.
The commercial process simulators have contributed to this
weakness by permittingflow-driven dynamic simulations in
which material "magically" flows from one unit to another
despite the fact that the first unit is at a lower pressure than
the second.
Fortunately pressure-driven dynamic simulations are also
available. These are much closer representations of reality.
Pumps, valves, and compressors must be inserted in the flow-
sheet in the required locations so that the principle "water
flows downhill" is satisfied.

William L. Luyben earned degrees in chemical
engineering from Penn State (B.S., 1955) and
Delaware (Ph.D., 1963). His industrial experi-
ence includes four years with Exxon, four years
with DuPont, and three decades of consulting
with chemical and petroleum companies. He has
taught at Lehigh University since 1967 and has
participated in the development of several inno-
vative undergraduate courses.


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2005


Chemical Enineerine Education











In my experience about 50% of the problems in designing
and operating a real chemical plant involve hydraulics. Stu-
dents need to have a solid understanding of practical fluid
mechanics. Pressure-driven dynamic simulations provide a
useful platform for developing this vital plumbing know-how.
The following is a brief compilation of some of the most
common plumbing errors that students make in developing
flowsheets. It might be useful to also state that I have seen
many of these same errors made by presumably experienced
engineers on real plants. So perhaps they are not quite as
obvious as one might think.
No Valve Installed
Perhaps the most serious plumbing error, and one that is
alarmingly common in student flowsheets, is to not have any
valve in a line connecting process units that are operating at
different pressures. This is illustrated in Figure 2 where a
process stream flows from a vessel operating at a pressure of
10 bar into a vessel operating at 2 bar. There must be a valve
in this line to take the pressure drop and regulate the flow.
The valve can be set by an
upstream controller (e.g.,
level or pressure control-
lers), or it can be set by a
downstream controller. But
a valve is required.- | |
a valve is required.


Students often state that
the pressure can be reduced
by just cooling the stream.
They confuse a ", IclI
system having a fixed
amount of material with the
"open" flow system encoun-
tered in a continuous-pro-
cess flowsheet.
Stream Flowing
"Uphill"
Equally distressing is to
see a flowsheet in which a
process stream is shown as
flowing from a low-pressure


2 bar

SCooling
10 bar Water




Figure 2. Missing valve.


location into a unit at higher pressure. Students often forget
to put in the necessary pumps or compressors.
Two Valves in Liquid-Filled Line
This is probably the most frequently made error. Since a
liquid is essentially incompressible, its flowrate is the same
at any point in a liquid-filled line. Therefore the flowrate can
be manipulated at only one location.
This means there should be only one valve in the line that
is regulating the flowrate of liquid. It is physically possible
to install two valves in series in a line, but these two valves
cannot function independently.
Figure 3 shows several examples of this type of "forbid-
den" plumbing arrangement. When a stream is split into two
streams at a tee in the line, the flow through each branch can
be independently set by two valves. The same is true when
two streams are combined.
Note that we are talking about liquid-filled lines. For gas
systems, valves can be used in a line at several locations.


Butyl acetate
product
Figure 1. Example of plantwide control structure.


Figure 3. Forbidden plumbing: two valves in liquid-filled line.


Summer 2005


LC32
LC22
C -,,, --- 0<- .-
FBUOH
I5s Butanol
fresh feed










Figure 4 illustrates this situation. The pressure in the first vessel is regu-
lated by valve VI. The pressure in the second vessel is regulated by valve
V2. This is workable because gas is compressible, so the instantaneous
flowrates through the two valves do not have to be equal as is the case
with liquids. The gas pressure in the process units can vary between the
two valves.
Valve in Suction of Pump
Pumps are used to raise the pressure of a liquid stream. Compressors are
used for the same purpose in gas systems. In this section we are considering
liquid flows using .'pumps.

Although students have learned about net positive suction head (NPSH)
requirements for pumps, they frequently forget about this concept and install
a control valve in the suction of a pump. Figure 5 illustrates this forbidden
plumbing. Suppose the liquid is coming from the base of a distillation col-
umn. This liquid is at its bubblepoint under the conditions in the column. The
base of the column must be located at an elevation high enough to provide
adequate pressure at the pump suction to prevent the formation of vapor in
the pump. This is the NPSH requirement.
If a control valve is installed between the column and the pump suction,
the pressure drop over the valve will create a pump suction pressure that
violates the NPSH requirements. So control valves in liquid systems should
be located downstream of centrifugal pumps. The exact opposite is true for
gas systems with compressors, as discussed in the next section.
It should also be remembered that no valves should be used for positive
displacement pumps. The flowrate of the liquid can only be regulated by
changing the stroke or speed of the pump or by bypassing liquid from the
pump discharge back to some upstream location. The lower part of Figure 5
illustrates this forbidden plumbing with a positive displacement pump. Throt-
tling a valve in the pump discharge will not change the flowrate of liquid
through the pump. It will just increase the pump discharge pressure and raise
the power requirement of the motor driving the pump.
Valve Downstream of Centrifugal Compressor
Centrifugal rotary compressors are positive displacement devices. At a
fixed speed they compress a fixed volume of gas per time (ft3/minute).
The mass flowrate of gas depends on the density of the gas at the com-
pressor suction, so changing the suction pressure will change the mass
flowrate.


Figure 4. Two valves in gas-filled line.


Throttling a valve in the compressor suction
changes the compressor suction pressure, so it can
be used to control the gas flowrate. But throttling
a valve in the compressor discharge, as shown in
Figure 6, does not change the gas flowrate. It just
increases the compressor discharge pressure and
power requirements.
There are three viable ways to regulate the flow-
rate of gas in a compression system:
1. Suction throttling
2. Bypass or spill-back from discharge to
suction
3. ( . compressor speed
The last option is the most energy efficient but
requires a variable-speed drive, which is typically
a steam turbine if high-pressure steam is avail-
able in the plant. Variable-speed electric motors
are also available. In compressor simulations this
variable-speed option can be easily simulated by
manipulating compressor work.
In the discussion above we have considered cen-
trifugal compressors. Regulation of flow through
a reciprocating compressor can be adjusted by
throttling a valve in the suction, by changing


Figure 6. Forbidden compressor plumbing.


Chemical Enyineerin Education


Centrifugal
Pump






Positive
Displacement
Pump


Figure 5. Forbidden pump plumbing.


SGas Stream

Centrifugal
Compressor










speed, or by changing the length of the stroke-but not by throt-
tling a valve in the discharge.
Reciprocating gas compressors usually have clearance pockets
that change the flowrate slightly, and therefore only provide minor
adjustments in flow.

COMMON CONTROL STRUCTURE ERRORS
Most students in a senior design course have had a course in
control fundamentals. They have been exposed to the mathematics
and to the tuning of single-input, single-output feedback control
loops with specified variables to be controlled and manipulated.
To develop a control scheme for a typical process, however,
many control loops are required. Decisions must be made about
what to control and what to manipulate. Students have had little
exposure to this more complex and more realistic situation.
The most practical way to learn how to develop a plantwide con-
trol system is to examine several realistic examples and step through
a logical plantwide design procedure.51 At Lehigh, several lectures
are given early in the second semester discussing reactor control,
distillation control, and plantwide control. Then the design groups


Furnace

Fuel T
Steam Reactor


Figure 7. Flows fixed in and out.


Figure 8. Recycle independent of fresh feed.


attempt to develop a control structure for their individual
flowsheets. Despite these lectures and reading assign-
ments in the textbook, the students' first efforts at de-
veloping a plantwide control system often contain many
control-structure errors. Some of the more common are
listed below.
Fixing Flows Both In and Out
Figure 7 shows a process in which two liquid streams,
containing reactants A and B, are fed into a vaporizer.
Each stream is flow controlled.
The liquid feeds are vaporized and preheated before
entering an adiabatic tubular reactor. Reactor effluent is
cooled and fed into a downstream distillation column.
The flowrate to the distillation column is flow controlled.
It is obvious that this structure is unworkable. But con-
trol schemes like this are proposed year after year by
several groups of very capable students. They get
wrapped up in the individual unit operations and neglect
to look at the big picture.
Similar conceptual issues often occur in specifying
recycle streams. Students often have trouble realizing
that the flowrate of a recycle stream is completely inde-
pendent of the flowrate of a fresh-feed stream. Fresh-
feed flowrates are set by the production requirements.
To produce 1000 kg-mol/h of a product C in a process
with the reaction A + B C, the fresh feed of each of
the reactants must be 1000 kg-mol/h. Of course, if any
reactants are lost as impurities in the streams leaving
the unit, the fresh feeds must be appropriately larger.
But inside the process we could have a recycle stream
of reactant A, for example. As illustrated in Figure 8,
the flowrate of this recycle can be anything we want it
to be: 10 kg-mol/h or 100,000 kg-mol/h.
Recycle flowrate is completely independent of fresh-
feed flowrate.
Liquid Levels and Gas Pressures Not
Controlled
Students frequently submit flowsheets in which there
is no control of liquid levels in vessels or no control of
pressure in gas-filled systems. All liquid levels must be
controlled in some way. They can be controlled by ma-
nipulating a downstream valve or by manipulating an up-
stream valve. Of course, the level control schemes for the
individual units must be consistent with the plantwide in-
ventory control scheme that connects all the units.
There are very few exceptions to this requirement for
controlling all levels. The most common exception is
when a solvent is circulating around inside a process
and there are no losses of this solvent. In this case there
will be a liquid level somewhere in the process that
"floats" up and down as the solvent circulation-rate
changes. This level is not controlled.


Summer 2005


Vaporizer


A. Recycle = 10 kg-mol/h
1000 kg-mol/h of A


B. Recycle = 10,000 kg-mol/h










The pressure in a gas-filled system must also be con-
trolled. Gas pressure can be controlled by regulating
the flow of gas into or out of the system. It can also be
controlled by regulating the rate of generation of gas
(e.g., in a vaporizer, in a distillation column reboiler,
or in a boiling exothermic reactor). Pressure can also
be controlled by regulating the rate of condensation of
Gas A
gas (e.g., in the condenser of a distillation column).
The system can consist of several gas-filled ves-
sels with vapor flowing in series through the vessels.
Figure 9 illustrates some of these ideas. In this flow-
sheet the pressure in the gas loop is controlled by the Liquid B
rate of addition of a gas fresh-feed stream. The pres- Vap
sures in all of the vessels float up and down together,
but differ slightly due to pressure drops (which are
typically kept quite small to reduce compression
costs). The flowrate of the gas recycle stream is flow
controlled, using a cascade system: Flow controller
output adjusts the setpoint of the turbine speed controller, whose out-
put manipulates high-pressure steam to the turbine.
There are rare occasions when pressure is allowed to float. These
occur when it is desirable to keep pressure as low as possible for some
process optimization reason (e.g., in some distillation columns where
relative volatilities increase with decreasing pressure). In these sys-
tems heat removal is maximized to keep pressure as low as possible.
Distillation Columns with a Fixed Product Flowrate
The first law of distillation control says that you cannot fix the dis-
tillate-to-feed ratio in a distillation column and also control any com-
position (or temperature) in the column. This law is a result of the very
strong impact of the overall component balance on compositions and
the relatively smaller effect of fractionation (reflux ratio, steam-to-
feed ratio, etc.) on compositions.
Figure 10 illustrates the effect of fixing the distillate and bottoms
flowrates when changes in feed composition occur. Initially the feed
contains 50 mol/h of A and 50 mol/h of B. The distillate contains 49
mol/h of A and 1 mol/h of B, and the bottoms contains 1 mol/h of A
and 49 mol/h of B. So product purities are 98 mol%. Then the feed
composition is changed so there are 55 mol/h of A and 45 mol/h of B.
The distillate and bottoms flowrates are kept constant at 50 mol/hr.
Now the distillate will be essentially 50 mol/h of A, and the bottoms
will be 5 mol/h of A and 45 mol/h of B. Thus the bottoms purity will
drop from 98 mol% B to 90 mol% B. No matter what reflux ratio or
reboiler heat input is used, this purity cannot be changed. Controlling
a composition or a temperature in the column is not possible.
There are columns in which a product stream is fixed. These are
called "purge columns" because the purpose is to remove a small
amount of some component in the feed. In these columns, temperature
or composition is not controlled. The flowrate of the purge stream is
simply ratioed to the feed flowrate.
A somewhat more complex situation occurs when the purging is done
in a sidestream column that has three product streams. Consider the
sidestream columns shown in Figure 11. The feed stream is a ternary


Figure 9. Pressure in gas loop.

49A 50 A
1 B OB

50A 55A
50 B 45B




1 A 5A
49 B 45 B

Figure 10. Fixing product stream
in distillation column.

mixture. Two cases are shown. In the column on the
left the feed contains a small amount of the lightest
component, and it is purged in the distillate stream.
The intermediate component is removed in the liq-
uid sidestream.
The distillate is flow controlled, and reflux-drum
level is controlled by manipulating reflux flowrate. The
issue here is how to manipulate the sidestream flow-
rate. It cannot be fixed but must change in response to
feed composition and flowrate disturbances. The
scheme shown in the left of Figure 11 achieves this by
ratioing the sidestream flowrate to the reflux flowrate.
Temperature or composition can be controlled in this
column because the separation between the interme-
diate and heavy components can be adjusted.
In the column on the right in Figure 11, the feed
contains a small amount of the heaviest component,
and it is purged in the bottoms stream.
The intermediate component is removed in the va-
por sidestream. The bottoms stream is flow con-
trolled, and base level is controlled by manipulating


Chemical Entineerint Education











VaporSidestream


PC..






S Heavy
Purge
.....


Figure 11. Purge column with sidestream.


Cooling |
Water

Figure 12. Herron Heresy.

reboiler heat input. The vapor sidestream
flowrate, which cannot be fixed, is ma-
nipulated to control a temperature in the
column. Note that when a small amount
of light impurity is present in the ternary
feed, a liquid sidestream of the interme-
diate component is used with its drawoff
location above the feed location. This con-
figuration is used because the liquid at the
sidestream tray has a lower concentration
of the lightest component than the vapor.
When a small amount of heavy impurity
is present in the ternary feed, a vapor
sidestream of the intermediate component
is used with its drawoff location below
the feed location because the vapor at
the sidestream tray has a lower concen-
tration of the heaviest component than
the liquid.
Incorrect Sensor Location and
Valves Without Input Signals
Figure 12 shows what we call at Lehigh
the "Herron Heresy" (after a senior stu-
dent in the design course who made the
same mistake twice). The diagram shows
that the temperature upstream of the
cooler is controlled by the flowrate of
cooling water to the heat exchanger.
This, of course, is impossible and


Summer 2005


Liquid Sidestream


of the reactants. Therefore simply ratioing reactants inevitably results in a gradual
buildup inside the process of the reactant that is in slight excess.
Some indication of the inventory of the reactants inside the system must be found
so that the flowrates of the fresh-feed streams can be appropriately adjusted. Ulti-
mately these flows must satisfy the reaction stoichiometry down to the last molecule.
But this much accuracy is way beyond our ability to measure flowrates.
The plantwide control structure in Figure 1 illustrates this principle. The chemistry
in this example is the reaction of methyl acetate and butanol to produce butyl acetate
and methanol. The reaction occurs in a reactive distillation column (C2). There are
two recycle streams. The "LTREC"-the distillate D2 from the reactive column-is
an azeotropic mixture of methyl acetate and methanol. The "HVYREC" is the distil-
late D3 from the third column, which is mostly recycled butanol.
The fresh butanol is added to this recycle stream to control the reflux-drum level in
the third column (level controller LC32). This level gives an accurate measurement
of the amount of butanol in the system. If more butanol is reacting than is being fed,
this level will decrease. On the methyl acetate side, the level in the reflux drum of the
first column is controlled by manipulating the fresh-feed stream, which contains
methyl acetate and methanol (level controller LC 12). This level provides a measure-
ment of the methyl acetate in the system.
Note that the production rate in this plant is set by the flow controller FC 1, which
controls the feed flowrate Dl to the second column. If more production is desired,
the operator increases the setpoint of this flow controller. The increase in Dl also
results in an increase in the flowrate of the heavy recycle because of the ratio.

CONCLUSION
Common plumbing and control concept errors have been discussed and illus-
trated. It is hoped that this paper will help students and engineers avoid these
problems in their design projects, and more importantly, in real life. Most of these
errors are obvious and can be avoided by using some common sense and not
getting all wrapped up in the computer simulation aspects of the problem.

REFERENCES
1. Seider, W.D., J.D. Seader, and D.R. Lewin, Poduct and Process Design Principles, Wiley (2004)
2. Dimian, A.C., Integrated Design and Simulation of Chemical Processes, Elsivier (2003)
3. Luyben, W.L., Chapter Al, "The need for simultaneous design education," in The Integration of
Process Design and Control, P. Seferlis and M.C. Georgiadis, editors, Wiley (2004)
4. Luyben, W.L., Plantwide Dynamic Simulators for Chemical Pocessing and Control, Marcel Dekker
(2002)
5. Luyben, W.L., B.D. Tyreus, and M.L. Luyben, Plantwide Process Control, McGraw-Hill (1999) O

207


should be obvious. Yet this type of error crops up on several
flowsheets every year.
Sometimes students correctly insert a valve in a line to satisfy
plumbing requirements, but fail to connect it to a controller. All
valves must be positioned by some controller.
Ratioing Reactant Feeds
One of the most important aspects of plantwide control is the
manipulation of the fresh-feed streams. A common error is to sim-
ply ratio the flowrates of the reactants so as to satisfy the reaction
stoichiometry. Although this will work in a simulation study, it
will not work in reality.
Flowrates cannot be measured accurately enough to guarantee
an absolute matching of the number of molecules of the various
reactants. The separation section typically prevents the loss of any


FC
LC -- Light
Purge


1# --^----- 1 :


------_-__----___--_----
LC. . . .. . .











classroom


BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Taught in the Context of

Drug Discovery to Manufacturing




CAROLYN W.T. LEE-PARSONS
Northeastern University Boston, MA 02115-5000


iochemical engineering courses are an important part
of the chemical engineering curriculum. They intro-
duce students to the rapidly growing field of biotech-
nology and to the application of chemical engineering prin-
ciples in the analysis of a nontraditional system.
Typically, biochemical engineering courses begin with the
basics of the cell, followed by the basics of cellular machin-
ery, and end with aspects of process design. In the course
described here, these traditional topics and concepts in bio-
chemical engineering are taught in a practice-oriented con-
text, using the process from drug discovery to manufacturing
as a framework and flowchart for the course. Therefore, each
lecture's relevance to the drug-discovery-to-manufacturing pro-
cess is presented. For instance, students learn how an under-
standing of the cell is essential for both developing a drug against
a disease and for designing a cell-culture process.
The main goal of this biochemical engineering course is to
provide a foundation and an overview of the fascinating
field of bii. Iliii. d1. .* \ and of the role of a chemical engi-
neer, as a scientist and a citizen, in implementing this tech-
nology. This paper presents
Activities for engaging students in learning the biologi-
cal basics
The drug-discovery-to-manufacturing process
A description of two course projects
One designed to explore the societal and ethical
issues involved in the application of biotechnology
Another designed to explore the scientific and
business aspects biotechnology and pharma-
ceutical industries


Providing an interesting, relevant, and connected frame-
work for presenting the concepts, and engaging students in
learning through in-class activities and projects, are guiding
principles applied in the design of this course.11

DEFINING THE SCOPE OF THE
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING COURSE
At Northeastern University, our biochemical engineering
course (CHEU630) is a senior-level, semester-based chemi-
cal engineering elective. A fraction of the students have taken
high school-level biology but most have not taken college-
level biology. As a result, a quarter of this semester-based
course-six of 24 lectures-is devoted to covering biologi-
cal basics, or an understanding of the cell and how it func-
tions. These basics are detailed in the next section (as well as
in the course-topic schedule found on the course Web ilc '1.
Throughout this course, chemical engineering principles such
as material balances, transport phenomena, kinetics, and sepa-


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2005


Chemical Enyineerine Education


Carolyn WT. Lee-Parsons is an assistant
professor of chemical engineering at North-
eastern University. She received her B.S.
from the University of Kansas and her Ph.D.
from Cornell University. Her research inter-
ests are in biochemical engineering, spe-
cifically the production of small molecules
(i.e., pharmaceutical compounds) from
plants and plant cell cultures.











rations are applied either to analyzing biological problems or to de-
signing a cell-culture process.
The scope of this biochemical engineering course is first defined
and introduced to the students by using the definition of biochemical
engineering found in Shuler and Kargi[3]: "Biochemical engineer-
ing has usually meant the extension of chemical engineering prin-
ciples to systems using a biological catalyst to bring about desired
chemical transformations."
In this course, the concept of a biological ", .ii.Il) i is interpreted in
its broadest sense. For instance, the biological catalyst of choice can
be a biological polymer, a cell, an organ, or a whole organism. The
spectrum of biological catalysts and the basis for choosing the biologi-
cal catalyst are presented using Figure 1.
Desired chemical transformations include
SThe production of useful compounds (e.g., vitamins, amino acids,
antibiotics, other small-molecule drugs, enzymes, hormones, or
antibodies)


9 I


-- Cells -*
Bacteria
Yeast
Animal
Plant


Tissues & Transgenic
Organs Animals &
Liver Plants
Skin Cows
Cartilage Goats
Blood vessels Rice
Corn


Figure 1. Biological "catalysts" used for accomplishing
chemical transformations.


Figure 2. Course topics taught in context of
drug discovery to manufacturing.


The utilization of alternative substrates (e.g.,
cellulose, lactose)
The degradation of hazardous compounds
(e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs)
The biological catalyst is chosen based on the
complexity of the desired chemical transformation.
In the simplest case, for instance, a chemical trans-
formation can be performed using one or a few spe-
cific catalytic biological polymer(s) such as en-
zymes, catalytic antibodies, and catalytic ribo-
nucleic acids (RNA) or ribozymes. For example,
amylase and proteases-enzymes found in deter-
gents-help break down starch-based and protein-
based stains in clothing.
If a series of reactions is required to accomplish
the desired chemical transformation, we can resort
to the enzymatic network housed within a cell by
using bacterial, yeast, fungal, animal, or plant cell
cultures. Examples include the use of genetically
engineered cultures of the bacteria Escherichia coli
to produce human insulin (by Eli Lilly and Com-
pany), or the use of cell cultures of the Pacific yew
tree to produce the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel from
simple-media components (by Bristol-Myers
Squibb Company).
With tissues or organs as the biological catalyst,
different cell types are present which together per-
form chemical transformations (e.g., in the liver)
or provide physical structure (e.g., cartilage and
blood vessels) not possible with just one cell type.
In the most complex case, a collection of "unit op-
1I.ii iIns and IC'.,. I 'I '" such as those founding whole
animal or green plant may be required. Examples in-
clude the use of transgenic cows to produce a thera-
peutic protein in their milk (by GTC Biotherapeutics),
or genetically modified plants containing a vaccine
(by ProdiGene, Inc.).
After the spectrum of biological catalysts is intro-
duced through Figure 1, the course focuses primarily
on the application of catalytic biological polymers
and cell cultures to accomplish the desired chemical
transformations.
With the scope of the course defined, a list of
course topics and their relationships is then presented
using Figure 2. A detailed course-topic schedule with
the associated reading assignment is also given to the
students and can be found on the course Web site.[2]
Students are then introduced to the course flowchart
(Figure 2) and shown how the course topics are taught
in the context of drug discovery to manufacturing.
Emphasized in this overview and throughout the
course is how the design of a process utilizing bio-


Understanding the Cell
* Cell organization &
cell classification
* Cellular composition &
nutrient requirements
* Cellular machinery:
SEnzymes
Replication, Transcription,
Translation
Regulation of protein expression
& enzyme activity
*Metabolic pathways
Intro to genomics & proteomics
Genetic engineering


Designing the Process
* Characterize & optimize
kinetics of growth &
product formation
"Choose reactor configuration
* Choose reactor design
* Design product recovery &
purification schemes
* Scale-up


Summer 2005











logical catalysts is intricately dependent on an understanding
of the biological catalyst itself. For example, the activity of
enzymes is sensitive to environmental conditions including
temperature, pH, salts, and solvents. Cells are also not fixed
but house their own process control that can change in re-
sponse to the environmental conditions. As a result, the pro-
cess design must cater to the needs and health of its biologi-
cal catalyst for the process to be productive. Thus, a more
comprehensive understanding of biological catalysts is nec-
essary and is presented in the course first.

PRESENTING THE BIOLOGICAL BASICS
The biological basics, i.e., an understanding of the cell and
how it works, are divided into the following lectures in this
course:
Cellular organization and cell classification
Cellular composition and cell-culture nutrient requirements
Cellular machinery
Through in-class activities (presented below) students are
involved in considering the impact of biology on the desired
chemical transformations and the process design. These in-
class activities are intended to help students make connec-
tions between information in order to draw out concepts rather
than simply memorize seemingly "uiiiil.,'d information.
Cellular Organization and Cell Classification
The goal of this lecture and in-class exercise is to help stu-
dents understand how the type of cell-i.e., procaryotes vs.
eucaryotes, Gram-positive vs. Gram-negative, bacterial/fun-
gal/animal/plant-impacts the types of products formed as
well as the design and operation of a process.
The professor can first set the context by discussing the


types of cultures applied in industrial processes and the clas-
sification of these cultures as procaryotes or eucaryotes. Then
an overview of the major differences between procaryotic
and eucaryotic cells and the organization within the cell can
be presented. The professor can note that choosing the cell-
culture system is one of the first steps in developing a cell-
culture-based process, thus establishing the relevance of un-
derstanding the differences between cell types before choos-
ing an appropriate cell-culture system.

An in-class activity engages students in thinking about the
characteristic differences between procaryotic and eucary-
otic cells and the implications of these differences. Having
read the textbook assignment prior to class, students are asked
to make a table with one column listing the characteristic dif-
ferences between procaryotic and eucaryotic cells, and a sec-
ond column listing their implications (in terms of the ease of

Reactants
Media Components


Cellular Components
Polymers > Enzymes
Proteins Energy Storage
Carbohydrates Nucleus
Nucleic Acids Membranes
Lipids / Fats Other Products
i.e. Antibiotics
CELL Hormones
\ Drugs /
Figure 3. The conversion of media components into
cellular components and other products.


TABLE 1
Differences Between Procaryotic and Eucaryotic Cells and the Implications of These Differences


Characteristics
Presence of nuclear membrane
(only in eucaryotes)
# of DNA molecules
(>1 for eucaryotes)
Type of cell membrane

Cell size
Presence of specific organelles
(only in eucaryotes)


Endopla
G


Implications
Affects the ease and applicability of genetic engineering techniques

Affects ease of genetic manipulation since knowledge of gene's function is limited to certain organisms

Affects ease of protein secretion (i.e., the difference between the membrane architecture and protein secretion
characteristics of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria)
Affects shear sensitivity of cells
Allows localization of specific conditions and reactions; allows sequestration of molecules that are toxic to
the cell


Vacuole Sequestes ions such as H and small molecules in plant cells; the recovery ofmolecules stored in the
vacuole can be
Lysozyme Houses digestive enzymes, away from other activities within animal cells
Chloroplast Forms glucose from CO2 and HO in the presence of light in plants;
has its own DNA and replicates independently of the cell
Mitochondria Breaks down carbon sources for energy; also has its own DNA and replicates independently of the cell
smic reticulum Site of lipid and protein production
olgi apparatus Site of glycosylation reactions and packaging of proteins


Chemical Enyineerine Education












genetic engineering, ease of product secretion, shear sensitivity, or types of
products made).

The professor can lead by giving one or two examples and then encour-
aging the students to work in groups of two to list other examples with
the help of their textbook; a sample comparison is shown in Table 1.
After about 10 to 15 minutes, the professor can review these differ-
ences using a completed table and elaborate on the implications, or the
professor can ask students to participate by having them write and re-
view one example on the board.

Specific examples explaining these differences and their implications
are given below.
One main between procaryotes and eucaryotes is the
absence or presence of i.e., specialized compartments with
phospholipid membranes that confer selective permeability. These
specialized compartments allow environmental conditions
(e.g., pH, enzymes, ion concentrations) to be
housed within the cell and hence types of reactions to occur.
For example, protein glycosylation reactions are required for produc-
ing an active protein with proper targeting and stability characteristics.
These reactions take place in the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic

TABLE 2
Chemical Structure, Function, and Composition
of Monomers/Polymers in the Cell
Monomer / Polymer Chemical Structure Function I % of
(Elemental Composition) Localization in the Cell Polymej
Amino acids / Proteins Functions include physical 50% by
H2 N COOH structure, regulatory (as dry wt
(20 amino acids) hormones), catalytic (as
f enzymes), transport (as
H membrane pumps), & protective
(as antibodies); protein are
R functional group localized in membranes & in the
Illustrate primary, secondary, cytoplasm & throughout the cell
tertiary, quaternary structure
(C, H, O, N, S)
Monosaccharides / Cn(H20)n Functions as energy storage 15 -35%
Polysaccharides or molecules, structural component
Carbohydrates of cell wall, component of DNA
HOH2C O & RNA, component of
xX/.OH glycosylated proteins which is
HO HO important for protein targeting &
OH stability
Glucose
(C, H, O)
Nucleotides / Functions as molecules for 10 20%
RNA & DNA NH2 energy storage (ATP), for
encoding the cell's characteristics
S (DNA), for encoding instructions
for protein production (RNA);
HO N localized in the nucleus, in
Op O N organelles such as mitochondria
o OH & chloroplasts, and in the
cytoplasm as t-RNA, mRNA, r-
HO R RNA.
R=H -)DNA
R =OH -RNA

(C, H, O, N, P)
Fatty acids / Functions as energy storage 5 15%
Lipids or Fats 0 molecules, regulatory molecules
H2' (hormones), and components of
Hi O CH2) -CH the cell membrane (composition
I\ '-" affects the membrane's
H 0 permeability characteristics)
\(, (c-H,

___~__________(C, H, 0) _________________


reticulum the initial protein is formed
in the cytoplasm. Hence, the implication is
that eucaryotic cell cultures would be the
biological catalyst of choice desired
product were a glycosylated protein.
Another example importance of cell
type on the process is the use of Gram-
positive versus Gram-negative bacteria.
Since Gram-positive bacteria have a single
outer membrane, proteins are more likely to
be secreted using this type of bacteria than
with Gram-negative bacteria. Hence, the
implication is that Gram-positive bacteria
would be preferable since the recovery of a
secreted protein is more . than
the recovery of an intracellular protein.
> D in the size cell have
implications on the operation and scale-up
of a bioreactor. For example, due to their
smaller size, bacteria are more resistant to
shear than animal or plant cells and can be
grown in a highly agitated, aerated stirred
tank rather than requiring a specialized
bioreactor.

Cellular Composition and Cell-Culture
Nutrient Requirements
The goal of this lecture and in-class activity is to
help students link the cell-culture nutrient require-
ments to the cellular composition and to the de-
sired products formed. Figure 3[4] is first used to
depict the cell as the ultimate alchemist: It be-
gins by transforming simple raw materials in me-
dia such as sugars and amino acids into biological
polymers (e.g., proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic
acids, lipids, and fats); those polymers then either
make up the cell (e.g., phospholipid membranes,
enzymes, nucleus, and energy storage such as gly-
cogen and starch) or are converted into valuable
complex bioactive molecules/polymers (e.g., vita-
mins, amino acids, antibiotics, other small-molecule
drugs, enzymes, and antibodies). Stated simply, the
student's role as the biochemical engineer is to main-
tain healthy cell cultures and coax them to make
the desired product.
The optimization of growth and product media is
therefore one aspect of process development for
maintaining viable and productive cell cultures.
With this context, students are then asked to con-
sider the monomers/polymers that make up the cell
and deduce the nutrients in the medium needed for
making these essential monomers/polymers.

For example, students are asked to make a table
with headings shown in Table 2, listing the major
monomers/polymers that make up the cell, their


Summer 2005












The
main goal
of this
biochemical
engineering
course is to
provide a

foundation
and an
overview
of the
fascinating
field of
biotechnol-
ogy and of
the role
of a
chemical
engineer,
as a
scientist
and a
citizen, in
implement-
ing this
technology.


chemical structure and elemental composition, their function or localization in the cell, and
their percent composition in the cell.
Similar to the previous in-class exercise, students should have read the assignment
prior to class and are then encouraged to work in pairs to complete the rest of the
table with the help of their textbook. Again the professor can lead by giving one or
two examples first. After about 10 to 15 minutes, the professor can either review and
elaborate on this material using the completed table, or have each pair of students
participate by writing and reviewing one example on the board.
Based on the composition of these polymers in the cell (Table 2), students are then
asked to determine the important elemental macronutrients-e.g., C, H, O, N, P, S, etc.-
and to order the expected prevalence of these macronutrients in the culture medium. Stu-
dents can then confirm their answers by studying the medium compositions of bacte-
rial, yeast, animal, and plant cell cultures,[6] i.e., that the carbon source is supplied at
the highest concentration. They can also compare the differences in the medium com-
positions of these cell cultures, and learn about the appropriate form to supply these
nutrients. For instance, sulfur is fed as a sulfate salt in plant cell culture medium, but
in animal cell cultures it's in the form of amino acids (cysteine and methionine).
Two points should be emphasized and connected:
The main media components provide the carbon backbones, or skeletons,for
making the main cellular polymers, the product of interest, and the energy
sources for the desired chemical
The media also contains micronutrients (e.g., various metal ions, hormones,
and vitamins) and inducers which are criticalfor maintaining the culture
health and for inducing or directing the activities toward growth or
product formation.
Hence, medium optimization involves more than just closing the material balance be-
tween inputs (media components) and outputs (cellular polymers, desired products). It
requires an understanding of the cellular machinery involved in these chemical transfor-
mations and the application of that knowledge (such as by the addition of hormones or
inducers) toward directing those cellular processes appropriately.
Cellular Machinery
At this point in the course, students have gained an understanding of: (1) how the selec-
tion of cell type/culture affects the kind of product made or the design of the process, and
(2) the importance of the medium composition on growth and product formation. Next,
the course addresses (3) how the cell makes the biological polymers and the desired
products, and (4) how the cell regulates which and how much of these products to
make. The inner workings of the cell, i.e., its cellular machinery, are then covered in
the order shown in Figure 2 (or see the more detailed course-topic schedule). The
tools used in genomics and proteomics are then presented as the current approach to
probing and expanding our understanding of the cellular machinery. Once the basics
of cellular machinery are covered, the tools of genetic engineering are introduced as
a means of altering the native, existing cellular machinery to either: produce a new
protein previously not made by that cell culture, or enhance or inhibit the production
of an existing protein.
Examples from the bii lIcl iii1- l -. \ and pharmaceutical industries are used to show the
application of these topics to understanding disease mechanisms, to discovering and
designing drugs to target a disease, and to enhancing the production of biological
compounds from cell cultures. Examples are drawn from various sources such as
those noted in the following sections on the drug-discovery-to-manufacturing pro-
cess and on the survey of a bi. lci, i1. 4. *. \ or pharmaceutical company.


Chemical Eneineerine Education









PRESENTING AN OVERVIEW OF DRUG DISCOVERY
TO MANUFACTURING
Before embarking on the engineering aspects of designing a cell-culture process, the
path from drug discovery to manufacturing is presented in one lecture. Although the
course is taught using the drug-discovery-to-manufacturing framework, a greater under-
standing of its overview was achieved when it was presented after covering the biologi-
cal basics. This lecture also illustrates the multidisciplinary effort involved in discover-
ing and bringing a drug to market-highlighting the role and contribution of chemical
engineers to this endeavor.
The topics covered include
Ways that drugs intercept the biochemical pathway of the disease (e.g., by
interfering with such biochemical steps in the cell as receptor-ligand
signal transduction, transcription, translation, or enzyme
activity)
Ways that drug hits are discovered or screened using whole-cell assays or
target assays
Sources of these drug molecules (e.g., natural-product libraries, combinatorial
chemistry libraries, targeted synthesis, drug )
The goals and steps involved in the initial testing of a drug's effectiveness or
S. (e.g., characteristics such as adsorption, distribution, metabolism,
excretion, and toxicology)
The goals of the new investigational drug application (IND), the new drug
application (NDA), and the . clinical trials (e.g., Phase I, II, III)


* Steps involved in developing a .


re process


* Cost and time associated with the drug-discovery-tc..
and the likelihood that a drug hit becomes a prescribed drug


ring process


Web sites for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA),71 the Pharmaceutical Research
and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA),[8S and various 1h.il i.,'I c'iiii .,1 l1'i. ~'>i .ll d, _l\.
companies provide publications, examples, and resources for these lectures. For example,
an FDA publication, From Test Tube to Patient: Improving Health T/ Human
Drugs,[9] presents an overview of the drug-development process.110] In addition, the FDA
Web site provides drug information such as a drug's chemical structure, the mechanism
of the drug in targeting disease, use of the drug, and its side effects.111 A final project on
surveying a pharmaceutical or bii. l iii 1d. ,-\ company (covered later in this paper) also
provides examples of how specific drugs work and how they are made.

PROJECT ON SOCIETAL AND ETHICAL
IMPACTS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
Project Description
Scientists and engineers need to understand the impact of their discoveries and tech-
nologies on society. Our students are the future scientists and engineers who will be in-
volved in determining the policies that regulate (i.e., promote and restrict) these dis-
coveries and technologies for the benefit and protection of society. In this project,
students choose a contemporary bio-related t:l II. 1 \. under debate, and evaluate
the issues regarding the application of this tc':,ii, 1i. 1. \. Serving as an advisory board,
students weigh the societal and ethical impacts of a specific bin kliicnl, 1 .. \ and then
propose their recommendations on its appropriate use in written form. Contempo-
rary biotechnologies that have raised concerns regarding safety and/or ethics are


Scientists and
engineers
need to
understand
the impact
of their
discoveries
and
technologies
on society.
Our students
are the future
scientists and
engineers
who will be
involved in
determining
the policies
that regulate
... these dis-
coveries and
technologies
for the
benefit and
protection
of society.


Summer 2005











listed and can be introduced using Table 3. References
from news and popular-science magazines such as Time
and Scientific American are also listed in Table 3 and can
serve as a starting point for this project.

Project Specifics
Students, working in groups of two or three, research, brain-
storm, and debate the issues behind the use of their chosen
bio-related tc l ii1. '\. and then present their evaluation in
written form as an editorial (five pages maximum). In evalu-
ating the tc, lIniil.. \ of interest, they are first asked to (1)
briefly explain the science behind the tct liia dl \, and (2)
summarize the benefits, risks/drawbacks, and other issues,
noting if these issues are hypothetical or real. Finally, they


are asked to synthesize their proposal on the application of
this tc'liii 1 .-* \ by (3) presenting an argument for or against
the application of the tc'liii 1. .* \ of interest and the condi-
tions under which the tc'lii 1, *_ \ should be limited, and (4)
formulating their recommendations on the application of this
tc. lil 1. .l-. \. Posted on the course Web ilc''i1 are sample stu-
dent reports exploring the societal and ethical impacts of two
such technologies: genetically modified crops and cloning.
Several ABET criteria[131 are covered through this project:
Students investigate a contemporary issue (Criterion 3j); evalu-
ate the societal and ethical impacts of bi. ~a ,lai. 1. ._*_ \ (Criterion
3h); work in a team consisting of members with potentially
different views (Criterion 3d); and practice communicating their
evaluations effectively and logically (Criterion 3g).


TABLE 3
Topics for Exploring the Ethical and Societal Impacts of Biotechnology

Debated Biotechnologies References
Human cloning
Since the cloning of Dolly (the sheep), society has speculated that the reproductive cloning of humans was just [17, 18]
a matter of time. While many are opposed to the reproductive cloning of humans, the use of therapeutic cloning
remains highly debated. The goal of therapeutic cloning of human cells is to generate stem cells, i.e., cells which
give rise to new tissue and organs. Both types of cloning utilize a similar technique which starts with an egg and
the replacement of its nucleus. Will therapeutic cloning yield replacement parts for damaged organs or serve as
the precursor to reproductive cloning?

Genetic alterations in human embryos
The science fiction movie GATTACA portrays a society where genetically engineered babies are the [19 24]
norm while babies born by natural means become the discriminated, or the untouchables, of society. With
the human genome already sequenced, gene sequence(s) which code for a devastating disease can potentially
be corrected. Could this lead to the elimination of diseases or the age of designer babies?

Genetically modified crops (GMCs)
Crops such as rice, soybeans, corn, and potatoes have been genetically engineered to enhance their yield, nutritional [25 30]
content, resistance to diseases or pests, or tolerance to specific environmental conditions such as drought or soil
salinity. Crops have even been genetically engineered to produce therapeutics such as vaccines. Could this be the
solution to world hunger or to the high cost of pharmaceuticals and biological compounds?

Transgenic animals
Animals such as cows, goats, or chickens have been genetically engineered to produce therapeutics in their milk [31]
or eggs. It has been suggested that producing therapeutics through animals may be far more economical
than through cell cultures in bioreactors. Fish such as salmon have also been genetically engineered to
be fast-growing to satisfy the growing appetite of consumers for fish. Could transgenic animals be the
solution to the high cost of pharmaceuticals and biological compounds?

Availability, patent, and ownership of genetic sequences
The genome of several organisms has been sequenced. Determining what each gene codes for is the next task. [32 36]
Who has the right to own or benefit from these gene sequences? Should genetic tests be required or elective?
Particularly with the human genome, should the genetic sequences of individuals be made available and if so,
to whom?
High cost of pharmaceutical drugs
The high cost of some pharmaceutical drugs has made them unaffordable to those in the U.S. and in Third World [37 39]
countries. What contributes to the high cost of these drugs? How can these drugs be made available to those who
need them without crippling the companies that discover and produce these drugs?


Chemical Entineerint Education












The scope of this biochemical engineering course is first defined and introduced to the
students by using the definition of biochemical engineering found in Shuler and Kargi'31:
"Biochemical engineering has usually meant the extension of chemical engineering
principles to systems using a biological catalyst to bring about
desired chemical transformations."


This project is assigned on the first day of class since
students are already acquainted with these debated issues
in the news. The project is only to be completed after the
biological basics have been covered in class (see course-
topics schedule). The project comprises 10 percent of the
course grade and is graded equally on two components:

The quality and completeness of their evaluation
of the technology (i.e., in terms of the science and
the issues pertaining to this technology)
The support for and the logical presentation of
their recommendations for the application of the
technology of interest

PROJECT SURVEYING A BIOTECHNOLOGY
OR PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANY
Project Description
Students survey a company of interest-potentially a
company in which they are seeking employment-to learn more
about the scientific and business aspects of the bi. ,l c' 4. li 1, -_\
and pharmaceutical industries. The goals of this project are
To . that a company has an underlying
or approachfor targeting a
disease
To demonstrate how an understanding of biology
is critical to determining a treatment for intercept-
ing a disease
To gain a sense of the time and resources invested
in researching a disease and in developing a drug
or treatment for that disease
To prepare studentsfor a job interview
Resources for this project include company Web sites, com-
pany annual reports, Chemical & Engineering News, news
periodicals, technical journals, and the FDAWeb site."11 Other
references such as medical dictionaries, biology textbooks,
or anatomy and physiology textbooks, will be useful for un-
derstanding and addressing the question of how the drug tar-
gets the disease.
The company surveys from individual students can then
be compiled in a notebook or file for the entire class to use in
their job searches. An example of one student's survey on
Genentech has been posted on the course Web site.[141


Project Specifics
In surveying a company, students research the following ques-
tions (pIlc'cilcl inl a handout):
Yi is the company's mission or approach? For
instance, does the company target ''"' diseases
such as cancer or those that r. the immune
system? What is the company's or
technology for targeting diseases or for discover-
ing drug leads?
List examples of eseach areas. Are they related?
. a grea deal of research in the basic
sciences is required to understand a disease or
develop a drug compound for targeting that disease.
List the important accomplishments in the
company's history that may have helped them
become established as a biotechnology or
biopharmaceutical company.
For example, companies may start as drug-
discovery companies and license their
discoveries to another company for
turning. As more of their drugs make it to
market, these companies evolve into '
entities and eventually build their own
productionfacilities. Genentech is such an
example.15
SAnother example is : a company that
was not r involved in fermentation.
Before 1939, PI :. was producing citric acid
from lemons. 1 When the price of lemons
increased dr it was no longer
economical to extract citric acid from lemons
and PI :. pursued an alternate means of
producing citric acid using mold. By turning
"lemons into lemonade," P' :. became i.
positioned for the large-scale fermentation
required to produce penicillin from mold
during World War II
List two products that are already being marketed
by the company. What is each product used for?
How does each product work, i.e. its mechanism
for targeting the disease? i type of drug is it?
How is it made, i.e. from engineered
Continued on page 221


Summer 2005











[^ a class and home problems


The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collections of interesting and novel prob-
lems in chemical engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by
presenting a particular principle in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel
home problem, are requested, as well as those that are more traditional in nature and that eluci-
date difficult concepts. Manuscripts should not exceed fourteen double-spaced pages and should
be accompanied by the originals of any figures or photographs. Please submit them to Professor
James O. Wilkes (e-mail: wilkes@umich.edu), Chemical Engineering Department, University
of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136.




'GREENING' A DESIGN-ORIENTED

HEAT TRANSFER COURSE


ANN MARIE FLYNN, MOHAMMAD H. NARAGHI, STACEY SHAEFER


Manhattan College Riverdale, NY 10471
he focus of this work is to demonstrate how green
engineering concepts and principles can be incorp-
orated into a predominantly design-oriented heat trans-
fer course through the utilization of a heat transfer problem
set that was developed with the support of the U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency (EPA) for a project at Rowan Uni-
versity entitled "Green Engineering in the Chemical Engi-
neering Curriculum."

Ann Marie Flynn is an assistant professor of
chemical engineering at Manhattan College.
She received her Ph.D. from the New Jersey
Institute of Technology. She received her M. E.
and B.E. from Manhattan College. Her fields m
of interest include engineering pedagogy and
the chemistry of metals in flames. .



Mohammad H. Naraghi is a professor of me-
chanical engineering at Manhattan College.
Prior to joining Manhattan College, he was a
visiting assistant professor of mechanical en-
gineering at the University of Akron, where he
received his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering.
His fields of interest include radiation heat
transfer and thermal modeling of propulsion
systems.
Stacey Shaefer is a chemical engineering student at Manhattan College.
After receiving her B. S. in May 2005 she will begin her studies in Manhat-
tan College's Seamless Masters Program in September2005 and expects
to receive her M.S. in May 2006. (Photo not available.)


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2005


Although the EPA was created in the early 1970s and envi-
ronmental regulations have been around since the mid 1960s,
the concept of green engineering did not gain prominence until
the mid 1990s.E11 Green engineering has been described as the
incorporation of environmentally conscious attitudes, values,
and principles into engineering design, toward a goal of im-
proving local and global environmental quality. :1 This work
examines the incorporation of key green engineering concepts
outlined in Green Engineering-I Conscious
Design of( .' Processes, by Allen and Shonnard, with a
variety of topics found in the widely used heat transfer text-
book, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass T by Incropera
and DeWitt.[3, 4] To cover topics found in 13 chapters in the
Incropera and DeWitt text, 24 problems were developed for a
junior-level chemical engineering class. A sample of some of
the more popular problems is presented here.

DEVELOPMENT
The undergraduate chemical engineering program at Man-
hattan College focuses heavily on design. One of the primary
goals of the course is to prepare the senior students for a two-
semester plant-design sequence. Typical design elements in-
clude the calculation of conduction and convection resis-
tances, overall heat transfer coefficients, and standard heat
exchanger design such as double pipe and shell and tube.
Initially, the logistics of incorporating additional concepts
such as green engineering principles into an already packed
course appeared unrealistic. During the development of the
problem set, typical questions arose, such as, "How do you
green a shell-and-tube heat exchanger?" As a result, typical


Chemical Eneineerine Education










answers followed, such as, IIih Ic.'c, the heat recovery, use
better insulation." In order to capture the attention of the stu-
dents, it was concluded that a less typical approach was
needed. Therefore, the resulting problem set focused less on
greening the fundamentals of heat transfer design and more
on examining the environmental impact of the design. Each
problem in the set contains multiple parts; the early parts ad-
dress standard, necessary design concepts required by a de-
sign-oriented curriculum, while the latter parts examine the
incorporation of green engineering principles into the design.
Therefore, the problems could be used in two ways.
Plan A. The problems could be used in their entirety as a
vehicle to both reinforce design concepts presented in class
and introduce the student to green engineering concepts.
Plan B. If the design concepts in the problems did not
coordinate well with the class material, the green engineer-
ing portions problem could be used alone to illustrate
the incorporation of green engineering into a heat transfer
course.
For this study, the first half of the semester followed Plan
A. After a midterm assessment of the newly greened course,
the mode of operation was switched to Plan B. Each greened
heat transfer problem references the following: the corre-
sponding heat transfer sections) in Incropera and DeWitt,
the corresponding sections) in the green engineering text by
Allen and Shonnard, and the specific Sandestin green engi-
neering principles covered.3, 4,5] The entire problem set with
solutions, as well as a detailed mapping of the green engi-
neering principles into the heat transfer course, can be found
at .
Over a 14-week semester, 27 students were given eight
homework assignments that totaled 27 problems. Of the 27
problems, 11 problems (approximately 40%) were taken from
the newly developed greened heat transfer problem set. A
variety of student surveys were used to assess the greened
heat transfer problems and the incorporation of green engi-
neering principles into the course. In addition, students were
required to individually submit two-page reaction papers at
the end of the semester outlining how (if at all) the greened
heat transfer problems increased their awareness of green en-
gineering. Four of the greened problems that received the
more positive feedback from students are presented here.


PROBLEM 1
The Conduction Shape Factor and
the Importance of Rain Forest Conservation
Incropera & DeWitt: 4.3; Allen & Shonnard: 1.7; Green Engineering Principles: 2, 5


Problem Statement
Faced by what is perhaps Ecuador's severest economic cri-
sis of this generation, the government of Ecuador has come
up with a plan to double its export of oil. Construction of a


new, above-ground oil pipeline, the OCP (Oleoducto de Crudo
Pesado, or Heavy Crude Pipeline) will make it possible to
open up vast new areas of the Amazon to oil exploration.
Efficient transportation of the crude requires that the tem-
perature of the crude remain above its pour point. Below its
pour point of 35C, the crude takes on a waxlike consistency.
The crude enters the OCP at 70C. The temperature is moni-
tored until it begins to approach its pour point (To, = 40C) at
which point steam is injected to raise the temperature of the
crude back up to 70C. This proposed pipeline will pass through
11 natural reserves and "protected" areas. Schedule 80 pipe (12-
inch) is used to transport 840,000 gal./day of crude. Assume
the average temperature of the ambient air is 30C (h = 6 W/m2-
K). The following crude oil data is available:

Cp = 2047 J/kg-K

v =0.839E- 04 m2 /s

p= 0.864E03 kg/m3
k=0.140 W/m-K
Pr=1050

(a) Compare the distance between steam injections for an
uninsulated pipe to a pipe that is insulated with 3-inch
standard fiberglass insulation (k = 0.035 W/m-K).
(b) This proposed pipeline will pass through 11 natural
reserves and protected areas. What are the environmen-
tal hazards associated with invading these rain forests
and protected areas in order to build this pipeline?
(c) What are the dangers associated with building this
pipeline if it is to pass through cities and near local
water supplies? Since this area sustains many earth-
quakes, landslides, and soil shifting, what would be the
consequences of a pipeline rupture?

Problem Solutions
Part (a) of the problem would be considered a typical design
question found in any homework or on any exam. The student
is required to calculate how far the crude will travel in the pipe
before the temperature drops from 70 to 40C-approxi-
mately 5C above its pour point. The student finds that with-
out insulation, steam must be injected every 17 km. When
the pipe is insulated with 3 inches of standard fiberglass in-
sulation, steam must be injected every 117 km. This is an
ideal problem to solve with packaged software such as
Mathcad, as it allows the student to easily experiment with
insulation thicknesses. The student can find that as little
as 1 inch of fiberglass insulation will increase the dis-
tance between steam injections by almost 400% (from 17
km to 65 km)-critical information when the crude pipe-
line is located in areas uninhabitable for workers, or re-
gions difficult to access. The crude oil data is courtesy of
Conoco-Phillips.


Summer 2005










The solutions to parts (b) and (c) required the student to per-
form a library and/or Internet search.[6, 7] The results were as-
tounding. First, the students (those previously unaware) became
aware of the enormous wealth of natural resources found in a
rain forest. Such resources include: Of the 121 prescription drugs
sold worldwide that come from plant-derived sources, 70% of
these plants come from rain forests; 80% of the developed
world's diet originated in the tropical rain forest, including many
fruits, vegetables, and nuts; and 70% of the 3,000 plants that
are active against cancer cells are located in rain forests. The
students were so impressed with the essential world service pro-
vided by a rain forest, that simply being required to list the
dangers associated with a ruptured pipeline (e.g., destruction of
human life, aquatic life, and wildlife; rain forest damage; and
loss of potable water) sparked shock and disbelief among them.
The instructor should be made aware to set aside extra class
time for discussion when the solution to this problem is reviewed.
This problem could easily be converted to a take-home
problem, individual project, or group project with an oral
presentation. Given the real economic crisis that currently
exists in Ecuador, the students might be asked to provide a
viable, alternate solution-complete with a hazards and op-
erability study (HAZOP) or a hazards analysis (HAZAN, a
process used to determine how a device can cause hazards to
occur and how the risks can be reduced to an acceptable level).
This would require students to weigh "real" economics with
environmental impact.[8]


PROBLEM 2
Natural Convection and Energy-Efficient Lighting
Incropera & DeWitt: 9.6; Allen & Shonnard: 1.3; Green Engineering Principles: 1, 5, 6


Problem Statement
Lighting directly affects our economy. As a nation, we spend
approximately one-quarter of our electricity budget on light-
ing-or more than $37 billion annually. An incandescent light
bulb is highly inefficient because it converts only a small
amount of the electrical energy into light; the rest is con-
verted to heat. In spite of this inefficient conversion of en-
ergy, the relatively inexpensive purchase price of incandes-
cent bulbs when compared to fluorescent lighting accounts
for their popularity among consumers.
A 75W bulb that is assumed to have the shape of a sphere
has a diameter of 6 cm and a surface temperature of 250C
(when the light is turned on). The surrounding room air tem-
perature is 25C.
(a) Determine the rate of heat transfer from the incandes-
cent light bulb to its surroundings.
(b) Compact fluorescent light bulb products generate
approximately 70% less heat than standard incandes-
cent lighting. Determine the rate of heat transfer from
the fluorescent bulb to the surrounding air.


(c) Explain why fluorescent lighting might be preferred
over incandescent lighting from an environmental
perspective.

Problem Solutions
Parts (a) and (b) of this problem are typical heat transfer de-
sign problems. The students are required to make reasonable
assumptions (e.g., steady state conditions, air is an ideal gas).
The students are required to use a free-convection correlation
for spheres, such as the Churchill correlation

r -
Nu=2+ 4/9

I 1+(o.469/Pr)916 J4

to determine the convection heat transfer coefficient used to
calculate the heat transfer rate via natural convection from
the bulbs to the air. The radiation heat loss from the light
bulb can be evaluated via

Q=Ae Ts4-Ta
Q: A s(T4 air)

Many of the physical properties necessary for the calcula-
tions may be found in the appendices of Incropera and DeWitt.
The students determined that the rate of heat transfer from
the incandescent bulb was approximately 65.13W compared
to 19.54W from the fluorescent bulb.
Solution to part (c) of the problem required the students
to look outside of the class notes and textbook-namely
to the library and/or Internet.[9] Many students found this
problem interesting because they were so familiar with
the topic and because their curiosity was piqued at the
cost-saving prospects. Students found that not only was
the fluorescent bulb more efficient in converting electri-
cal energy to light, but that one Energy Star-qualified fluo-
rescent bulb could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by more
than 500 lbs. over its lifetime (which is equivalent to sav-
ing 445 lbs. of coal from being burned to generate elec-
tricity). Also, since fluorescent light bulbs produced sig-
nificantly less heat than incandescent bulbs, they were
significantly cooler to the touch and eliminated many
safety issues when used in the home. Students also found
that even though the fluorescent bulb was more expen-
sive than the incandescent bulb, it had a significantly
longer lifespan than the incandescent bulb (the lifespan
of each bulb varied from manufacturer to manufacturer,
but a 75W incandescent bulb averaged 750 hours and a
75W fluorescent bulb averaged 10,000 hours). Students
were given extra credit if they performed a simple cost
comparison for the two different light bulbs used in a typi-
cal home in a five-year period. It was found that the light
bulb cost for a typical home decreased by approximately
53% over a five-year period when fluorescent bulbs were
used in place of incandescent bulbs.


Chemical Entineerine Education












PROBLEM 3
Natural Convection Through Windows
and Life-Cycle Studies
Incropera & DeWitt: 9.8; Allen & Shonnard: 13.5; Green Engineering Principles: 2, 3

Problem Statement
In Coldest Small Town, U.S.A., a new homeowner who
has recently purchased her home has a 25-year mortgage at-
tached to it. Her first decision regarding this new home is to
purchase new double-pane vinyl replacement windows to
replace the single-pane wood windows currently in place.
The house has a total of 25 windows that are 30 inches by
32 inches. The homeowner cannot decide if it would be
more cost efficient for her to replace her old windows
with standard (air-filled) double-pane windows or if she
should upgrade to argon-filled double-pane windows. The
double-pane windows have two pieces of glass separated
by a one-inch-wide spacing. In winter, the glass surface
temperatures across this space are measured to be -15C
and 20C. The home is heated by natural gas at a cost of
$0.4/MJ. The heat is used for four months per year, 24 hours
per day, seven days per week. The cost for the standard air-
filled window is $325. The cost for the argon-filled window
is $400. The rate of heat loss through one of the current single-
pane windows by natural convection is 65W at the indicated
temperatures.
(a) Determine the rate of heat transfer by natural convection
through one standard double-pane window.
(b) Determine the rate of heat transfer by natural convection
through one argon-filled window.
(c) Assume this homeowner will remain living in this house
for the full 25-year mortgage. Determine which double-
pane window she should purchase by doing a life-cycle
study on the windows. The system boundary that should
be used for this study is the life of the windows while
they are installed in the home.
(d) Compare the life cycle of the old wood windows to the
life cycle of the new vinyl replacement windows. The
system boundaries that should by used for this study are
the complete life cycles of each product.

Problem Solutions
Once again, the solution to parts (a) and (b) were typical of
natural-convection problems found in an undergraduate heat
transfer class. The student is required to make reasonable
assumptions (e.g., steady state, negligible radiation ef-
fects), calculate a natural convection heat transfer coeffi-
cient using a Nusselt number correlation, and determine
the heat loss from the air-filled double-pane windows (part
a) as well as from the argon-filled double-pane windows
(part b). The student discovers that the heat loss is re-
duced by approximately 35% when switching from the air-


filled windows (51W) to the argon-filled windows (33W).
Even though parts (a) and (b) of this problem may appear
fairly typical, many students had additional comments re-
garding energy loss. Some of the comments included: that
choosing the correct window is negated by the additional
heat loss resulting from improper installation of the win-
dows, that choosing the correct window is more or less im-
portant depending on the climate, that the difference in quality
from one manufacturer to another must also be accounted
for, and that the pros and cons of upgrading from vinyl win-
dows to high-end manufacturers such as Anderson and Pella
should also be examined.
In order to complete parts (c) and (d) of this problem, it is
necessary for the instructor to review the concept of life cycles
from the green engineering text beforehand since it is not
ordinarily part of a typical heat transfer course. The results of
the life-cycle study highlight for the student the environmen-
tal impact of the replacement windows via the significant
reduction in energy consumption. Over a 25-year period,
this energy reduction translates to a savings of approxi-
mately $25,000 for the air-filled windows and approxi-
mately $68,000 for the argon-filled windows. A library/
Internet search shows that vinyl replacement windows
have a longer lifespan when compared to single-pane
wood windows and finally, most of the vinyl from the
window is recyclable at the end of its use.o101


PROBLEM 4
Radiation Heat Provides Comfortfor the Workers
and Productivity for the Company
Incropera & DeWitt: 13.3; Allen & Shonnard: 9.2; Green Engineering Principles: 1, 2

Problem Statement
A maintenance hangar facility for aircraft recently installed
four gas-fired infrared tube heaters above the main work
area in the hangar. These heaters were installed to pro-
vide a more comfortable environment for the workers as
early-morning temperatures in the hangar can reach as low
as 40'F. During the colder seasons, temperatures can get
as low as 28 F in the hangar. Each of these industrial heat-
ers radiate heat at a total rate of 5,118 BTU/hr (1500W).
Assume, however, that only 5% of this heat directly
reaches the workers in the hangar. There are 20 mainte-
nance workers who work in this area each day. The aver-
age worker has an emissivity and absorptivity of 0.90 and
0.95, respectively, and an exposed surface area of approxi-
mately 18 ft2. These workers are generating heat at an
average rate of 30 BTU/hr (30% of which can be consid-
ered sensible heat-the heat absorbed or transmitted by a
substance during a change of temperature which is not ac-
companied by a change of state). The convection heat trans-
fer coefficient for the surrounding air is 1.585 BTU/hr-ft2 R.


Summer 2005











Assume that the workers can remain comfortable with an exposed skin
temperature of 85'F and the workers' clothing has an average resis-
tance to heat transfer of 0.880(R-ft2-hr)/Btu. The outside temperature
of the workers' clothing is typically 10'F above the surrounding air
temperature.
(a) Are the four radiant heaters enough to keep the workers comfortable
during the coldest mornings?
(b) Explain why it might be considered good practice for the company to
install these radiant heaters in the hangar.

Problem Solutions
This was a fun, relatively short problem. Before the problem was dis-
tributed to the students, the question was posed, "You have these 20 people
working in an airplane hangar, the dimensions of which can be measured
in acres! What are you going to do-heat the whole thing?"
Many solutions from reasonable (localized space heaters) to imprac-
tical (chemically heated overalls, similar to hand and foot warmers
used by skiers) were suggested by the students. When the students
were told that the answer lay in the form of radiant heat transfer de-
sign, simply because the radiant heat will warm the objects and not
the air, this often-maligned topic in the curriculum seemed to get a
temporary stay of execution (at least from the course-objectives sur-
vey). This problem provided an interesting, practical application for
radiation heat transfer.
For part (a), the student is required to make reasonable assumptions
(e.g., steady state, constant properties, air motion in the hangar is negli-
gible, workers are small compared to uniform temperature surroundings).
The students must then perform an energy balance on the workers where


E in from the heaters {Eout from conv & radiation from the bodies +{Egen from sensible heat = 0


to solve for T surrounding by either trial and error or use of a software
package such as Excel. The students are required to calculate an over-
all heat transfer coefficient that takes into account the resistance due
to clothing. It is found that the four radiant heaters provide enough
heat to keep the workers comfortable to a minimum surrounding tem-
perature of 12.8F, which is approximately 15F below the minimum
temperature experienced.
Part (b) of the problem outlined a situation where the student was
required to focus more on the human aspects of optimal heat transfer
design and less on dollars and cents. Results showed that the lost time
for the workers was expected to decrease, the productivity of the work-
ers was expected to increase, and a safer working environment would
be created free from odors and dust particles typically generated by
fossil fuels-all while reducing energy consumption.E[1]

CONCLUSIONS
Even though the introduction of green engineering concepts into a
design course was initially met with disapproval from students, by
the end of a 14-week semester they found the greened heat transfer
problems "useful" and "enlightening." More importantly, students


found that the greened heat transfer problems
increased their awareness and interest in the
field of green engineering. Overall, the later
problems, which were more practical in na-
ture, fared much better with the students than
the early problems that were more introduc-
tory and general in nature. A mid-semester as-
sessment of the course modified the dissemi-
nation of the greened problems to the students.
The primary textbook used for the course was
by Kern and the design portion of the greened
problems did not always correspond well to the
class material.[121 Instead, students were given
the solutions to the design portions of each
greened problem and were expected to concen-
trate on only the parts that related to green engi-
neering concepts. This worked quite well.
Homework grades increased and the students in-
dicated that they began to enjoy working on the
problems when the frustration associated with
the design elements was eliminated.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Funding for this work was provided by a
grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Office of Pollution Prevention and
Toxics, and Office of Prevention, Pesticides,
and Toxic Substances, #X-83052501-0,
"Implementing Green Engineering in the
Chemical Engineering Curriculum" (lead in-
stitution: Rowan University). Particular ac-
knowledgment goes to Dr. Stew Slater at
Rowan for his encouragement.

REFERENCES
1.
2.
3. Allen, D.T., and D.R. Shonnard, Green Engineering
Conscious Design of Chemical Pro-
cesses, Prentice Hall (2002)
4. Incropera, EP., and D.P. DeWitt, Fundamentals ofHeat
and Mass ed., John Wiley & Sons (2002)
5. Ritter, S.K., "A Green Agenda for Engineering: New
set of principles provides guidance to improve designs
for sustainability needs," 81(29) Chem. & Eng. News,
30 (2003)
6.
7.
8. Flynn, A.M., and L.T. Theodore, Health, Safety, and
Accident Management in the Chemical Process Indus-
tries, Marcel Dekker (2002)
9.
10.
11. features/BNP>
12. Kern, D.Q., Process Heat McGraw-Hill
(1950)


Chemical Entineerin Education











Biochemical Engineering
Continuedfrom page 215
bacterial or mammalian cultures,from extrac-
tion of a natural source, or from chemical synthesis?
List two products in the pipeline. What stage are
these drugs at, i.e. Phase I, II, or III clinical trials,
or approved by the FDA for production? i is
each product used for? How does each product
work? What type of drug is it? How is it made?
This project is assigned on the first day of class to help
students initiate their job search. It is due after the lecture on
the drug-discovery-to-manufacturing process, in which spe-
cific examples are presented. The project comprises 10 per-
cent of the course grade and is graded based on the quality
and completeness of the answers to the above questions; for
instance, do the answers demonstrate an understanding of the
mechanism of the drugs' actions?

CONCLUSION
The following are student comments from teaching evalu-
ation forms of this course:
Gave us an understanding of how every lecture
would be used and how it fits in with the rest
quarter.
Activities in the course encouraged the student to
learn and apply the material.
Made the class fun and informative.
Outside assignments were relevant and took a rea-
sonable amount of time to finish.
The material was an excellent overview of what is
needed to work in biotech.
I really strongly consider this as a potential career
field.
Through this course, students see the connection of each
lecture to the drug-discovery-to-manufacturing process.
In-class activities such as those presented in this paper
were effective in communicating biological fundamentals
and their implications. In addition, students were engaged
in two projects designed to
Explore the societal and ethical issues involved in the
application of biotechnology
Explore the scientific and business aspects
biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry
The course covered the basics required for working in the
area of cell-culture process development in an interesting and
fun way without overburdening last-semester seniors.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Special thanks to Kevin Cash, Ellen Brennan, Jeffrey
Pierce, Adam St. Jean, and Rui DaSilva for allowing their
projects to be posted as examples on the course Web site. Thanks
also to Professor Ronald Willey for providing feedback on this
manuscript and providing the perspective of someone without
a biology background. I gratefully acknowledge the National
Science Foundation (CAREER, BES-0134511) for funding the
research activities that led to the development of this course.


REFERENCES
Literature cited
1. Lee, C.W.T., "Guiding Principles forTeaching: Distilled from my First
Few Years of Teaching," ( Ed., 34(4), 344 (2000)
2.
3. Shuler, M.L., and F Kargi, Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts,
2nd ed., Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall, Inc. (2002); p. 2
4. Ibid, adapted from Figure 5.1, p. 135
5. Ibid, p. 48
6. Lee, J.M., Biochemical Engineering, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice
Hall (1992); p. 109, 114, 124 (Table 5.4, 5.5, 5.7)
7. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Web site,
8. Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA)
Web site,
9. FDA publication, "From Test Tube to Patient: Improving Health
through Human Drugs by FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Re-
search,"
10. FDA's diagram of the drug development process, cder/handbook/develop.htm>
11. FDA's Web site for drug information, default.htm#major>
12. Web site for sample projects on genetically modified crops and clon-
ing: and

13. ABET, Criteria for Accrediting Engineering Programs, Criterion 3,
Program Outcomes and Assessment: (d) an ability to function on mul-
tidisciplinary teams, (g) an ability to communicate effectively, (h) the
broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering
solutions in a global and societal context, (j) a knowledge of contem-
porary issues.
14. Web site for sample project on Genentech: ~cleeCHEU630/Genentech.pdf>
15. Genentech company Web site:
16. Pfizer company Web site, history between 1900-1950: www.pfizer.com/history/1900-1950.htm>
for student projects
17. Cibelli, J.B., R.P. Lanza, M.D. West, and C. Ezzell, "The First Human
Cloned," Scientific American, 286(1), 44 (2002)
18. Gibbs, N., "Baby it's You! And You, And You ...," Time, 15(7), 46 (2001)
19. Lemonick, M.D., "Designer Babies," Time, 153(1), 64 (1999)
20. Jaroff, L., "Fixing the Genes," Time, 153(1), 68 (1999)
21. Jaroff, L., "Success Stories," Time, 153(1), 72 (1999)
22. Gibbs, N., "If We Have It, Do We Use It?," Time, 154(11), 5 (1999)
23. Gorman, C., "How to Mend a Broken Heart," Time, 154(21), 75 (1999)
24. Nash, M., "The Bad and the Good," Time, 155(6), 67 (2000)
25. Walsh, J., "Brave New Farm," Time, 153(1), 86 (1999)
26. Langridge, W.H.R., "Edible Vaccines," Scientific American, 283(3),
66 (2000)
27. Brown, K., "Seeds of Concern," Scientific American, 284(4), 52 (2001)
28. Hopkin, K., "The Risks on the Table," Scientific American, 284(4), 60
(2001)
29. Nemecek, S., "Does the World Need GM Foods?," Scientific Ameri-
can, 284(4), 62 (2001)
30. Roosevelt, M., "Cures on the Cob," Time, 161(21), 56 (2003)
31. Velander, W.H., H. Lubon, and W.N. Drohan, "Transgenic Livestock
as Drug Factories," Scientific American, 276(1), 70 (1997)
32. Rennie, J., "Grading the Gene Tests," Scientific American, 270(6), 88
(1994)
33. Kluger, J., "Who Owns Our Genes?," Time, 153(1), 51 (1999)
34. Golden, F, "Good Eggs, Bad Eggs," Time, 153(1), 56 (1999)
35. Hallowell, C., "Playing the Odds," Time, 153(1), 60 (1999)
36. Kluger, J., "DNA Detectives," Time, 153(1), 62 (1999)
37. Beardsley, T., "Blood Money?," Scientific American, 269(2), 115
(1993)
38. Cooper, M., "Screaming for Relief," Time, 154(21), 38 (1999)
39. Fonda, D., and B. Kiviat, "Curbing the Drug Marketers," Time, 164(1),
40 (2004) 1


Summer 2005











curriculum


A Successful

"INTRODUCTION TO ChE"

FIRST-SEMESTER COURSE

Focusing on Connection, Communication, and Preparation



SUSAN C. ROBERTS
University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003


s a new assistant professor at the University of Mas-
sachusetts Amherst (UMass), my first teaching as-
signment was "Introduction to Chemical Engineer-
ing." Being a new faculty member, I had my preference of
courses to teach, and after some serious consideration I chose
the first-semester engineering students. In my six years at
UMass I have been fortunate to have taught this course four
times now, and as a result I have learned a great deal about
how to effectively teach and motivate beginning engineering
students. The course is primarily designed for first-semester
engineering students who have a strong interest in pursuing
chemical engineering as a major, but it is also attended by
transfer students and upper-class, novice engineering students
(i.e., transfers from chemistry or biochemistry).
Many chemical engineering departments offer freshmen-
level introductions to engineering courses, but few focus
solely on chemical engineering,M1 and even fewer focus on
first-semester freshmen. The format and content of these of-
ferings are varied and include such things as general engi-
neering education,[2-3] faculty/advisor seminars,[4-51 and labo-
ratory experimentation.[6-71 This paper describes the design
and implementation of a first-semester freshmen chemical
engineering course.

FIRST YEAR ENGINEERING AT UMASS
The UMass College of Engineering has instituted a two-
course sequence in each respective department to teach be-
ginning engineering students the fundamentals of engineer-
ing. Each two-course sequence has been designed to provide
new students with an excellent foundation in a specific engi-
neering discipline (i.e., chemical engineering, civil and envi-
ronmental engineering, mechanical and industrial engineer-
ing, and electrical and computer engineering). There is flex-


ibility, however, so students can switch mid-sequence if they
decide to pursue a different discipline at the completion of
the first-semester course.
This two-course sequence, which has evolved over the years
with significant input from both students and faculty, incor-
porates discipline-specific activities. The two-course sequence
in chemical engineering consists of a first course that is fur-
ther described in this paper and a second course that exten-
sively covers material balances and phase equilibria. The
combination of these two courses provides students with an
extraordinary background in chemical engineering fundamen-
tals in addition to giving them a broad perspective of what
the field of chemical engineering offers. Some students who
transfer to UMass or who decide to switch to chemical engi-
neering from another discipline in the spring semester enroll
in the second course without taking the first course. In the
main, these students fare well since the fundamental material
balance content is repeated in the second course. Students
can enroll in the first course the following year to gain expe-
rience in design, economics, and communication.

COURSE OBJECTIVES AND DESCRIPTION
In addition to introducing the students to the basic prin-


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2005


Chemical Enyineerine Education


Susan Roberts is associate professor of chemi-
cal engineering at the University of Massachu-
setts at Amherst. She received her B.S. from
Worcester Polytechnic Institute in 1992 and her
Ph.D. from Cornell University in 1998, both in
chemical engineering. Her research interests
are in biochemical engineering, with a focus on
plant metabolic engineering and design of in
vitro systems for the study of cellular function.












TABLE 1
Course Syllabus

Week Topics during "lecture" (2 x 1.25 hours) and laboratoryv" (50
minutes) periods
1 Course introduction; Computer set-up, printing, and establishment of
accounts
2 Physical sciences library introduction; Introduction to the Internet and
Microsoft Word*; Units, conversions, and engineering estimation
3 Introduction to Microsoft Excel**; Effective technical writing;
Introduction to processes (unit operations, flowsheets, etc.)
4 Ammonia synthesis-process design improvements; Material balances on
nonreactive processes
5 Material balances-in-class exercises; Process economics
6 Process economics (continued); Learning in teams-discussion of the
group project; Peer review of paper
7 Process economics game; Leblanc process-an illustration of chemical
..... ... i.. .1I. i'l "Tour of the unit operations laboratory*
8 UMass Chemical Engineering faculty research panel; Examination review;
Midterm examination
9 Introduction to Microsoft PowerPoint; Presentation skills workshop
10 Student midterm presentations**; Industry career panel
11 Introduction to Mathcad**
12 Safety in the laboratory and plant-case studies
13 Engineering scale-up
14 Energy balances
15 Student final presentations**; Engineering ethics; Course summary

S Indicates activities held during laboratory periods; laboratory periods
include computer instruction, departmental tours, presentations, and
communication skills workshops
** Indicates activities held during both lecture and laboratory periods


TABLE 2
ABET-Type Outcomes

At the end of this course students should...
1 Understand what chemical engineering is and what careers are possible
with a degree in chemical engineering
1 Be able to use Microsoft Office (Word, Excel, and PowerPoint) to
write technical papers, create spreadsheets to perform calculations, and
design effective presentations
1 Develop proficient oral presentation skills through group project
presentations
1 Understand the role of chemical engineers in process design
1 Understand the importance of process economics in process design
1 Be able to perform material balances on nonreactive systems
1 Acquire an appreciation for the role of ethics and laboratory safety in
the field of chemical engineering
1 Be prepared to use the principles and tools learned in this class to solve
problems not covered in detail as part of this course and to continue
learning related material as needed in the future


ciples of chemical engineering (e.g., mass balances, process
design, engineering economics, scale-up, etc.), the objectives
for the course are essentially threefold: first, to educate students
about the variety of possible careers one can pursue with a de-
gree in chemical engineering so that they can confidently de-
cide if this degree is, in fact, what they ultimately desire; sec-
ond, to create an environment where students can develop ef-
fective oral and written communication skills through individual
writing assignments, group work, and classroom presentations;
and third, to foster a learning atmosphere where students can
openly discuss relevant issues (e.g., engineering ethics) and
become "connected," i.e., familiar, with one another and with
the faculty in the department. Table 1 is an abbreviated course
syllabus, which outlines the activities planned for the se-
mester. Throughout this paper, the implementation of spe-
cific activities for attaining these classroom goals is dis-
cussed. A list of ABET-type outcomes is additionally pre-
sented in Table 2.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
AS A CAREER CHOICE
It is my opinion that most students in the introductory course
chose chemical engineering as a potential major based on the
simple fact that they enjoyed chemistry and mathematics in high
school, but when queried as to what types of jobs they would
pursue with this degree, most were unable to answer. There-
fore, throughout the semester, activities are planned to intro-
duce them to the types of careers that are available with a chemi-
cal engineering degree (they are usually very surprised to dis-
cover the choices!).
A portion of the first day is spent showing a video titled "Ca-
reers for Chemical Engineers," which is available through
AIChE. This medium is an excellent introduction to the numer-
ous arenas in which chemical engineers can focus their careers
upon graduation. Additionally, the video is an effective way of
illustrating the types of skills that students should develop dur-
ing their academic careers, including computational, commu-
nication-related, and problem solving (all of which are impor-
tant, regardless of what they ultimately choose as a career!). An
"industry career panel" is planned, with chemical engineering
representatives (typically UMass alumni) from different indus-
tries (e.g., chemical, microelectronics, pulp and paper, biotech-
nology, etc.). This panel format has proven to be an extremely
successful tool for addressing the career-education objective and
for motivating the students to seek additional information. I also
discuss the types of research that I personally do and incorpo-
rate some of my own results into problem sets, thereby allow-
ing the students to see how chemical engineering fundamentals
can be applied to solving nontraditional problems (e.g., bio-
technological problems). The students are encouraged to be-
come involved in the local AIChE student chapter as freshmen,
which also affords them access not only to the invited speakers
(e.g., career office personnel, industry representatives, etc.) but


Summer 2005











also to the upper-class chemical engineering students, whose
own objectives are more well-formed.
A Web site has been developed for the first year ( www.ecs.umass.edu/che/chell0/index.html>) that includes
not only details on the two first-year courses offered by the
department, but also has information on chemical engineer-
ing as a career choice, career skills, scholarships and intern-
ships, and safety and ethics. Students are strongly encour-
aged to partake in summer industrial internships or research
opportunities as early as the summer following their first year.
Opportunities regarding research experiences for undergradu-
ate programs are summarized on the Web site and brought to
the students' attention throughout their first year.
Additionally, many of our students are in the Honors Pro-
gram (Commonwealth College) and are required to complete
a senior honors research thesis. Students are therefore en-
couraged to learn about departmental research as freshmen,
so they can begin research in either their sophomore or jun-
ior year (when Honors Research Fellowships are available).
Many of our students have been amazingly productive, with
published articles resulting from their research work.8-"101
When beginning students learn of the achievements of up-
per-class students and alumni, they become excited about the
opportunities available to them.

PREPARATION
The UMass chemical engineering curriculum has moved
the traditional mass-and-energy balances class (typically a
fall-semester, sophomore-level course) to the second-semes-
ter freshman year. Therefore, even though the "Introduction
to Chemical Engineering" class is not a requirement for gradu-
ation, there exists a need to begin exposing students to "real"
chemical engineering calculations early in their education.
Additionally, students should be introduced to the type of
work a typical chemical engineering class entails (calcula-
tions, calculations, calculations!). Thus, although the class
focus is (in part) on connection and communication, suitable
time is also dedicated to learning some basic chemical engi-
neering fundamentals. The concept of process design and op-
timization, which separates chemical engineering from the
other engineering disciplines, is very well explained in a book
written by Duncan and Reimer (Chemical Engineering De-
sign andAnalysis, An Introduction, Cambridge). In this read-
ing, examples are used to illustrate the building and improve-
ment of processes based on physical or chemical changes.
The LeBlanc Soda Process is used as an example to depict
all aspects of design from improvements in tctliinl,'_ to
attention to safety and the environment.E11 Students are also
taught engineering economics (an economics game was de-
veloped where groups of students compete to design the most
cost-effective process), nonreactive material balances, and
scale-up issues. Freshman engineering design experiences
give students exposure to the creative nature of engineering;


there has been a recent resurgence in freshman-level design
activities.[12]
Students learn to effectively write nonreactive material
balances on simple systems (see Table 3 for some specific
examples of both homework and exam problems). Calculus
is not needed for students to understand the concept of a ma-
terial balance, and the inclusion of this material in the first-


TABLE 3
Examples of Material Balance Problems
Appeared on a Midterm Exam
A liquid mixture containing 30 mol% benzene (B), 25 mol% toluene
(T), and 45 mol% xylene (X) is fed at a rate of 1275 kmol/h to a
distillation unit consisting of two columns. The bottoms product from
the first column is to contain 99 mol% X and no B, and 98% of the X
in the feed is to be recovered in this stream. The overhead product
from the first column is fed to a second column. The overhead
product from the second column contains 99 mol% B and no X. The
B recovered in this stream represents 96% of the B in the feed to the
second column.
(A) Draw and label a flowsheet for this process.
(B) Calculate the molar flow rates (kmol/) and component mole
fractions for the product streams of the second distillation column.*
Appeared on a Homework Assignment
Ethanol can be synthesized by yeast from grain and water in a reactor.
Assuming an idealistic process, the yeast converts 2 kg of grain into 1
kg of ethanol and 1 kg of water. A perfectly efficient yeast reactor
(efficiency = 1.00) would convert all of the grain entering the reactor.
A reactor with an efficiency = 0.50 would convert half the grain
entering the reactor, and so on. The feed is 100 kg/min, 20 wt% grain,
and 80 wt% water.
(A) Calculate the total flowrate of the reactor for an
of 0.50. Also calculate theflowrates of all components in
both the reactor feed and reactor
(B) Calculate the reactor composition using a range of
reactor starting at 0.00 and increasing in step by 0.05 up
to 1.00. Also, create a chart that will display the grain
flowrate as a function of reactor the significance
of your results.**
Appeared on a Homework Assignment
The chemical Q reacts to form Z. Unreacted Q is separated from Z
and recycled to the reactor. The feed contains an impurity, P, which is
inert and is purged from the system via stream 7. The splitter purges
5.0% of stream 5. Note that a mass balance on Q must account for the
Q that reacts to form Z. Likewise a mass balance on Z must account
for the Z formed from Q.
(A) Which stream has the of Q?
(B) Calculate te flowrate of product stream 4, i kg/min.
(C) Calculate the composition of purge steam 7.
(D) Calculate the flowrate and composition of steam 2.**


* Adapted rom Felder, R., andR. Rousseau, Elementary Principles of
Chemical Processes, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY (1999)
** Adaptedfrom Duncan, T, ad J. Reimer, Chemical Engineering Design
and Analysis: An Introduction, Cambridge University Press, New York,
NY(1998)


Chemical Enrinreerin Education










semester course gives students a realistic view of the types of
approaches chemical engineers use to solve problems. I have
found that students thoroughly enjoy this section of the course
(although most feel quite challenged) and they gain confi-
dence in their ability to pursue chemical engineering as a
major. Students are also well prepared for the second-semes-
ter "Fundamentals of Chemical Engineering" course that is
dedicated to mass balances and phase equilibria.
Good portions of the class and homework assignments are
dedicated to developing students' computational skills, in par-
ticular the use of Microsoft Office (Word, Excel, and
PowerPoint) and Mathcad. This is particularly important
because there is always a certain percentage of students
who have reached this level of their education with very
limited computer skills. Since these computer applications
will be used in all future chemical engineering classes, it
is critical that the students know how to maximize their
use. To achieve this end, there is a mandated requirement
that all homework assignments must be completed on the
computer (thus assuring that the students are getting the
practice they need).
Since there is no formal requirement at UMass that stu-
dents take a course in engineering safety or engineering eth-
ics, two class periods are spent discussing safety in the labo-
ratory and plant and engineering ethics. A case-study approach
is used to stimulate thought and discussion about the impor-
tance of these subjects in the chemical engineering profes-
sion. Although only a short time is spent in the classroom on
these subjects, the students are encouraged to incorporate eth-
ics and safety into their homework problems as well as into
their group project assignments.

CONNECTION
The majority of students enrolled in the "Introduction to
Chemical Engineering" class are first-semester freshmen.
Most of them have recently arrived on campus and are new
to the college experience itself. UMass has approximately
25,000 students, and most of the first-year classes are con-
ducted in large lecture halls, giving the students limited con-
tact time with the faculty and upper-class students. Studies
have demonstrated the importance of students feeling "con-
h k' I with the university in terms of student success, hap-
piness, and retention. Previous studies have demonstrated that
advising and mentoring during the freshmen year were suc-
cessful in decreasing attrition rates for engineering students.[13]
Because this introductory course is relatively small (40-50
students) in relation to the other first-year courses, the op-
portunity exists to foster "connections." Although this takes
a bit of time on the instructor's part, it is well worth the effort
in terms of yield in student retention and class performance.
Getting to know each student on a first-name basis is critical
and being easily accessible to students is a must. Other means


of fostering this "connection" are
(1) A class lecture that is dedicated to a "faculty research
panel" where severalfaculty in the chemical engineering
department take part in a panel presentation and discussion
about their research activities. Students get to know the
other faculty in the department, develop enthusiasm about
the ongoing research programs, and begin to see the
diversity in the chemical engineering discipline.
(2) An outside-class activity (which most students attend) that is
arranged where the sophomore and freshmen classes are
brought in a casual environment to discuss issues
relating to the UMass Department of Chemical Engineering
and curriculum.
(3) A unit operations laboratory tour, given by the senior class.
The tour takes place in the same time slot as the senior
laboratory so that all the seniors are present and the
equipment is operational. This not only allows beginning
students to see what types of experiences are ahead
but also gives them the time to ask questions seniors.
(4) An "industry career panel," comprised of alumni, that not
only gives the students the opportunity to see firsthand what
types of jobs are available with their chemical engineering
degree, but also allows them the chance to "connect" with
former students and recent graduates.
(5) All students are encouraged to get involved with the student
chapter ofAIChE. The upper-class students are enthusiastic
about including beginning students in their activities and
the students feel as ' they have a home in the
department.

COMMUNICATION
Group Projects for Collaborative Learning
Throughout the semester, students learn about process de-
sign, flowsheet construction, material and energy balances,
engineering economics, laboratory safety, and ethics (see
Table 1). With this background to support them, the students
are assigned to groups of three and are given a particular
chemical or pharmaceutical to research throughout the se-
mester (e.g., ethanol, penicillin, MTBE, sulfuric acid, ethyl-
ene, etc.). They are responsible for investigating the history
of the processes) involved, for describing the current pro-
cess methods including the construction of flowsheets (syn-
thesizing all information in the literature), for creating a simple
market report, for performing an economic analysis, and for
identifying potential problems in the process associated with
hazardous materials, waste, inefficiency, and safety. The
groups must give two presentations during the semester and
then write a final report, which serves to hone both oral and
written communication skills. For the second presentation
students are asked to redesign the process based on their analy-
sis of efficiency and minimization of waste. All students must
partake in both presentations.
A presentation skills "N\, ikhIi, p has been added to the
syllabus to provide students with appropriate background on


Summer 2005











how to give an effective presentation. This "workshop" is
cofacilitated with experienced university personnel. As part of
the group project, students are required to complete a group-
member evaluation form where they evaluate themselves and
all group members (on a scale of 1 to 5).[14] The evaluation crite-
ria include reliability, research, analysis, oral presentation, re-
port writing, and leadership. The use of an evaluation system
holds the students accountable and helps bring about conflict
resolution, which creates a more realistic team environment.
Also, using an evaluation form at the midterm point in the project
allows the instructor to foresee problems with certain groups
that can possibly be solved before the semester is finished. Cur-
rently, peer evaluation is used by the instructor solely to gauge
group performance, but there are plans to include student re-
view of feedback and team conferences to discuss group dy-
namics in future course offerings. Students embrace this project
and are amazingly successful in generating a reasonable flow-
sheet and identifying process inefficiencies. This project is ex-
tremely effective at teaching students the concept of process
design, which most chemical engineering students do not begin
to understand until much later in the curriculum.
Emphasis on Written Communication
Although the group project and presentations are successful
at enhancing students' communication skills, the individual-pa-
per assignment helps them develop technical-writing skills. The
students are responsible for writing a research paper on the past,
current, or future impact of chemical engineering on society and
are required to reference a minimum of five sources, only one of
which can be from the Internet. I learned early on that students
rely too much on Internet material, which may or may not have
been peer-reviewed or regulated. At the beginning of the semester,
one of the head librarians from the Physical Sciences Library vis-
its the class and gives a complete introduction to library sources,
including a list of relevant chemical engineering publications (e.g.,
books, reference materials, journals, newspapers, etc.).
When this assignment was first implemented, the quality of
the papers received was questionable in terms of organization,
research, writing skills-and the simple ability to follow direc-
tions! This problem was somewhat solved through the institu-
tion of a technical-writing workshop, increased instruction on
researching technical subjects, and the addition of a peer-edit-
ing session a week before the deadline. The technical writing
workshop is facilitated by the course instructor and involves
reviewing a publication on technical writingE151 and critiquing
previous years' writing submissions.
For the in-class peer-review session, students are anonymously
assigned two papers to review and are instructed on how to ef-
fectively critique and provide feedback. They edit the papers
and provide comments directly on the manuscript. Authors then
receive the written feedback and incorporate changes into a re-
vised submission. The result is that most students dramatically
improve their technical-writing skills; this was assessed through
qualitative analysis from several years of teaching this course.

226


TABLE 4
"Pitfalls" Handout for Technical Writing

Follow directions!!! Many students do not follow the formatting
directions (paper length, reference and citation format, margins, title page,
etc.) or the content instructions, and therefore lose significant points on
the final paper grade.
Include citations in the text of your paper. Citations provide the reader
with the sources of information you have used to support your ideas and
conclusions. Without citations, your paper will lack credibility.
Perform a simple spell check on your paper to catch spelling and
grammatical errors.
Read over your paper before you hand it in. Many problems with
punctuation, run-on sentences, and incomplete sentences can be avoided if
you read the text out loud to yourself. Some misused words will not
appear on a spell checker. For instance, the error in the sentence
"Chemical engineering if fun," will not be detected using a spell checker.
Pay attention to sentence structure and grammatical format. Some
common mistakes are listed below:
There should be two spaces after a period (as well as after a question
mark and exclamation point) before beginning a new sentence.
Only proper names and nouns should be capitalized. For example,
many capitalize words like Chemical Engineer, which should be in
lowercase. However, the University of Massachusetts Department of
Chemical Engineering should be capitalized.
Citations in the text should be placed before punctuation (e.g., period,
comma, etc.).
Acronyms should be written out in full the first time they appear in the
text.
Author lists should not be shortened to et al. in reference lists, only in
the citations.
Try not to use the words it, this, that, etc., as nouns. More descriptive
words will make your sentences clearer.
Avoid using the first person when writing scientific or engineering
papers.
Do not write extraneous commentary in the text.
Be careful when placing commas-the meaning of a sentence can be
changed.
Write about subjects that you understand. Don't bite off more than you
can chew!
Avoid excessive and improper use of quotations in scientific and
engineering papers. Quotes taken directly from sources should add
significant meaning to the paper or else you should paraphrase and cite the
information. For instance, facts and statistics should not be quoted.


TABLE 5
Examples of Student Research Paper Titles

* Development of Orthopedic Limbs
* Contribution of Chemical Engineering to Research on Alzheimer's Disease
* The Process of Manufacturing Urethane Wheels for Roller Sports
* The Removal of Chlorine from Water
* Producing Scents: The Production of Perfume and Cologne from Past to
Present
* The Breakdown and Disposal of Nerve Gas
* Design of Artificial Kidneys
* Wastewater Treatment
* The Process for Decaffeinating Coffee
* The Synthesis of Tennis Balls
* Development of Mammalian Cell Processes for Supply of Pharmaceuticals


Chemical Entineerin Education











It must be remembered that most beginning engineering students have
never written a technical research paper-the majority of their writ-
ing experiences have thus far been nontechnical, i.e., high-school En-
glish and history. A p1.il.ll," handout was developed that highlights
problems observed with past classes. Some examples include avoiding
excessive and improper use of quotations and including citations in the
text to provide the reader with the sources of information used to support
ideas and conclusions (see Table 4). Students are also provided with a
list of previous students' paper titles (see Table 5 for some creative ex-
amples). Students are advised to choose a subject that interests them and
to avoid complex material for which they have no or limited background.
Although many faculty are starting to mandate oral presentations from
students, most faculty still do not address the need to develop effective
written communication skills. Further development of this course will
include incorporation of additional writing assignments.

ASSESSMENT
At the end of the course, students are asked to evaluate their learn-
ing in several categories that reflect the course objectives. Responses
to student surveys conducted during the past three years (with two
separate instructors) are shown in Figure 1. Responses were consis-
tently high, even with a turnover of instructors. Virtually all students
agreed that the course was successful at illustrating the field of chemi-
cal engineering and the potential careers possible with a degree in
chemical engineering. Additionally students felt they gained critical
knowledge in chemical engineering fundamentals as well as profi-
ciency in communication. The overall course evaluations were very
high (> 4.0), when students were asked to compare this course to others
offered at UMass. Qualitative feedback has also been extremely posi-
tive, particularly from minority and female students. Collectively, these
data indicate that the course was successful in meeting the educational
objectives. Before the redesign of this first-semester course, it was con-
sistently rated one of the worst in the department; today, it is one of the
most highly rated. Additionally I have appreciated the opportunity to get
to know the beginning students early in their academic careers and to
assist in connecting students with other departmental faculty.


I have acquired an appreciation for the role of ethics
and laboratory safety in the field of ChE
I am able to perform material balances for systems
without chemical reactions
I understand the importance of process economics in
process design
I understand the role of chemical engineers in
process design
I have developed proficient oral presentation skills
through group project presentations
I am able to use Microsoft Office to write technical
papers, create spreadsheets to perform calculations,
and design effective presentations -
I understand what ChE is and what careers are
possible with a degree in ChE


10 20
Strongly Disagree
Disagree


30 40 50
Neutral Agree Strongly
Agree


SUMMARY
Do not underestimate the ability of beginning en-
gineering students to learn! This course, although the
workload is significant, is always highly evaluated
and described as "useful" in student development.
The overall time commitment can be managed
through the use of teaching assistants, but faculty in-
structors must make the effort to get to know the stu-
dents to foster their connection with the department.
The right combination of preparation, connection,
and communication through the described activities
is instrumental in developing and preparing success-
ful and enthusiastic chemical engineering majors.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I gratefully acknowledge the National Science
Foundation for supporting this work through the CA-
REER Program (BES 9984463).

REFERENCES
1. Solen, K.A., and J. Harb, "An Introductory ChE Course for
First-Year Students," Chem. Eng. Ed., 32(1), 52 (1998)
2. Dally, J.W., and G.M. Zhang, "A Freshmen Engineering De-
sign Course," J. Eng. Ed., 82, 83 (1993)
3. Dym, C.L., "Teaching Design to Freshmen: Style and Con-
tent," J. Eng. Ed., 83, 1 (1994)
4. Merritt, T.R., E.M. Murman, and D.L. Friedman, "Engag-
ing Freshmen through Advisor Seminars," J. Eng. Ed., 86,
29 (1997)
5. Bowman, F.M., R.R. Balcarcel, G.K. Jennings, and B.R.
Rogers, "Frontiers of Chemical Engineering: A Chemical
Engineering Freshman Seminar," Chem. Eng. Ed., 37(1),
24 (2003)
6. Hoit, M., and M. Ohland, "The Impact of a Discipline-Based
Introduction to Engineering Course on Improving Reten-
tion," J. Eng. Ed., 87,79 (1998)
7. Willey, R.J., J.A. Wilson, W.E. Jones, and J.H. Hills, "Se-
quential Batch Processing Experiment for First-Year ChE
Students," Chem. Eng. Ed., 33(3), 216 (1999)
8. Matthew, J.E., Y. Nazario, S.C. Roberts, and S.R. Bhatia, "Ef-
fect of Mammalian Cell Culture Medium on the Gelation
Properties of Pluronic F127," Biomaterials, 23, 4615 (2002)
9. McAuliffe, G., L.A. Roberts, and S.C. Roberts, "Paclitaxel
Administration and its Effects on Clinically Relevant Hu-
man Cancer and Noncancer Cell Lines," Biotech. Lett., 24,
959 (2002)
10. McAuliffe, G., L.A. Roberts, and S.C. Roberts, "The Influ-
ence of Environmental Conditions on the Encapsulation of
HepG2 Liver Cells in Alginate," JURIBE, 3, 70 (2003)
11. Cook, M., "The LeBlanc Soda Process: A Gothic Tale for
Freshman Engineering," ( 32(2), 132 (1998)
12. Sheppard, S., and R. Jenison, "Freshman Design Experi-
ences: an Organizational Framework," Int. J. Eng. Ed., 13
(1997)
13. Besterfield-Sacre, M., C.J. Atman, and L.J. Shuman, "Char-
acteristics of Freshmen Engineering Students: Models for
Determining Student Attrition in Engineering," J. Eng. Ed.,
86, 139 (1997)
14. Ghanem, A., and S.C. Roberts, "Group Self-Assessment Sur-
veys as a Tool to Improve Teamwork," ASEEIIEEFrontiers
in Education Conference, lla2, 24 (1999)
15. Hohzapple M., and D. Reece, Foundations in Engineering,
McGraw-Hill, New York (2000) O


Summer 2005


Figure 1. Student responses to end-of-course assessment survey.











classroom


SURVIVOR: CLASSROOM

A Method of Active Learning that Addresses

Four Types of Student Motivation



JAMES A. NEWELL
Rowan University Glassboro, NJ 08028


Phil Wankatf1l succinctly states the importance of ac-
tive learning in the classroom as "Involved students
learn!" As a result of the dissemination of overwhelm-
ing evidence supporting active learning, more engineering
faculty (including, presumably, almost all of those who would
choose to read this paper) are using active learning in their class-
rooms.[2-4] A survey conducted by Brawner, et al.,1 indicated
that 60 percent of responding engineering professors used some
active learning. While the benefits of active learning are clear,
simply breaking students into small groups to work on prob-
lems during class does not automatically address the pervading
issue of student motivation. Biggs and Moore[61 classify four
primary types of motivation:
Intrinsic learning because of natural
curiosity or interest in the activity
Social learning to please the or
your peers
Achievement learning to enhance your
position relative to others
Instrumental learning to gain rewards beyond the
activity (better grades, increased likelihood of
getting a high-paying job, etc.)
As such, an active-learning activity that addresses all four
of these motivational categories would be useful. Unfortu-
nately, professors tend to assume that things that would mo-
tivate them will also motivate their students. The problem is
analogous to issues with learning styles in engineering edu-
cation: Professors tend to teach the way they prefer to learn,
which negatively impacts the learning of students with dif-


ferent preferences.[7-'9 Not all students are inherently thrilled
with solving energy balances, even when working in groups
with their peers.
Of course, motivation is a far more complex series of
cognitive processes than can be completely addressed with
a single activity. Bandurao101 emphasizes the motivational
importance of self-efficacy-the belief that "one can bring
about positive results through one's own I I 'ii'''" -by
stating that self-efficacy impacts how much effort people
offer and how long they will persevere when faced with
obstacles. Ponton, et al., [12] argue that it is paramount for
a professor to incorporate strategies that enhance efficacy.
Therefore, all students who participate in the learning
activity must practice relevant exercises that develop both
their skills and their confidence in their own abilities.
Ten years ago when I was teaching my first class, the
sophomore-level materials and energy balances course, I
was fortunate enough to have dinner with Rich Felder one
evening and to talk about pedagogy and learning styles.
The next day, I broke my class into small groups and in-


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2005


Chemical Eneineerine Education


Jim Newell is a professor of chemical engi-
neering at Rowan University. He currently
serves as secretary/treasurer of the Chemi-
cal Engineering Division of ASEE and has
won the Ray Fahien Award from ASEE for
contributions to engineering education and a
Dow Outstanding New Faculty Award. His re-
search interests include high-performance
polymers, rubric development, and devel-
oping metacognition in engineering teams.










stead of my lecturing to them about the problem, they
solved it themselves. I was happier. Most of the students
were happier. And they seemed to be learning more, but too
many of them never really engaged in the activity. Assigning
roles for team members helped, but it did not fix the prob-


lem. The student evaluations were very
positive, but the students who did not en-
gage during the active learning exercises
were disproportionately represented in the
group that did not make it to their junior
year. The challenge was to find an activity
that would motivate a wider range of stu-
dents so the entire class would engage ac-
tively in the group problem solving. The
pedagogical literatureE13-151 shows that stu-
dent involvement has a significant impact
on student success and satisfaction.
Wankat and OreoviczE161 proposed using
quiz games modeled after popular formats
such as Jeopardy or Trivial Pursuit as an
active-learning alternative to lecture, but
these games lend themselves better to
knowledge-based questions than to prob-
lem solving. I have used the I ...
Squares format in a materials science class
for such questions, but it did not seem ap-
propriate for a materials and energy bal-
ances class. Susan and James Fentonl181 at
the University of Connecticut developed
a very effective game called "Green Square
Manufacturing" that came closer to meet-
ing the needs of the class, but it did not
necessarily address all four motivational
factors, nor did it have the pop culture tie-
in that I wanted. Finally, the idea of adapt-
ing a version of the CBS "reality" game
show Survivor came to me. With inspira-
tion and a little preparation, a game that
met my needs was developed.

THE GAME
Students in the materials and energy
balances class are broken into "tribes"
of seven to eight people. At Rowan,
this usually results in three tribes, but
the number of tribes does not substan-


a problem on the board, but they must not look up any
values or begin writing until I say to begin.
Once they begin solving, the first tribe that has an answer
to the problem has a member raise a hand. The other teams
stop and the first team reveals its answer. If it is correct, that


The

challenge

was to

find an

activity

that would

motivate a

wider

range of

students so

the entire

class

would

engage

actively in

the group

problem

solving.


tially alter the flow of the game. The tribes sit together
much as they would in any group problem-solving exer-
cise. If inadequate space is available, the tribes may self-
segregate into smaller subgroups. Each tribe names itself.
The team members are permitted to have their textbook,
notes, a calculator, and pencil and paper with them, but
the book and notes must be closed at the beginning. I write


tribe has immunity and it does not lose a
member. If the answer is wrong, the tribe
cannot win immunity and the remaining
tribes continue with the problem until one
tribe successfully solves the problem or
all but one tribe has provided an incorrect
answer. To avoid issues of round-off or in-
terpolation, I accept any answer within five
percent of my answer. A representative
from the successful tribe goes to the board
to present the solution to the problem, so
that the rest of the teams can consider their
solution strategies.
At the end of the first problem, one tribe
has earned immunity and every other tribe
must lose one member. The method for
elimination that seems to work best is
In the first round, tribe members vote
off a member of their own tribe
In the second round, the tribe with
immunity votes off a member of each
of the other tribes
In the third round, one member of
each tribe is randomly eliminated by
drawing a name
If there are more than three rounds, the
steps are repeated in order. In the televi-
sion show, the tribe members always
vote off a person of their own tribe, but
initially I was reluctant to allow voting
at all. I worried that feelings would get
hurt, self-efficacy would be damaged,
and the students who most needed the
reinforced problem solving would be
eliminated the quickest. The students,
however, were unambiguous: They
wanted to vote.


As it turns out, the alternating system
described above cures many woes. In
almost every tribe, there is one player
who wants to leave the game (for a variety of reasons).
This person is almost always voted off first. Absent stu-
dents are also assigned to a tribe and they are also quickly
voted off. When the victorious tribe votes a member off
of another tribe, they uniformly take out the strongest stu-
dents. The random round is, of course, random. Ultimately,
the average students who have enough skills to solve the


Summer 2005












As the
game
progresses,
the students
gain
confidence
in their
ability
to write
and solve
problems.
The strong
students
who are
eliminated
in the second
round
recognize
why they were
eliminated
and help
the weaker
students with
aspects of the
newly created
problems.


problems, but who genuinely benefit from reinforcing the concepts, survive
the longest.
Students who have been eliminated in any round are given the task of designing
and solving a problem to be used in later rounds. Thus, while they are no longer
participating in the main activity, they remain actively engaged in team-oriented
problem solving. More importantly, they discover that they are not only capable
of solving problems, but can also create new ones. These students spend much
of the time reading the textbook (in many cases for the first time), looking for
a problem idea. Because they must provide a solution as well, their problem-
solving skills are also reinforced.
In a typical 75-minute class, there is enough time to get through about six rounds
of the game. Speeding up the elimination process would allow for more rounds,
but the students seem to thoroughly enjoy that aspect of the game and it provides
adequate time for the eliminated students to develop their own problems. At the
end of the first class, the tribes are dissolved, and all of the players who have not
been eliminated become part of a single tribe.
The team dynamics are fascinating to watch. In some tribes, each member
attempts the problem on his or her own, then the first one who finishes speaks for the
team. In other tribes, the players assign roles. One or two people look up values from
the tables while another sets up the problem. For less trivial problems, some teams
take a few seconds to discuss solution strategies before diving in.
The second day of the game involves solving the problems as individuals, but
otherwise the flow is the same. A problem is placed on the board, the first person
who finishes it either receives immunity or fails to solve the problem, and the
round continues. Players are eliminated by vote of the tribe in the first round, by
choice of the player with immunity in the second, and by random draw in the
third. The cycle repeats until a single player remains and is crowned as the grand
champion. Groups of eliminated players develop and solve the problems used
throughout this round.
The successful students are rewarded with bonus points on the 200-point final
exam. Every player who survives to the second day gets three points, every original
member of the champion's tribe gets two points, and the champion gets an additional
five points. The bonuses are additive, so the champion will wind up with 10 points
(five percent), while everyone else will get between zero and five points. In three
years of playing the game, the bonus points have never altered the final course grade
of the grand champion, but students battle ferociously for them all the same.

LINKS TO MOTIVATION AND SELF-EFFICACY
Intrinsically motivated students gladly participated in the activity because they
liked the activity itself or were genuinely interested in solving new problems. The
socially motivated students worked hard on the problems because they did not
want to let their teammates or the professor down. Achievement-oriented students
wanted to win because it was a contest, often independent of the reward or inter-
est in the material. Finally, students with instrumental motivation tendencies wanted
the bonus points in hopes of improving their final grade in the class.
In terms of self-efficacy, the weakest students are voted out in the first round,
but soon find themselves successfully writing problems that will be used later
in the game. As the game progresses, the students gain confidence in their
ability to write and solve problems. The strong students who are eliminated in
the second round recognize why they were eliminated and help the weaker
students with aspects of the newly created problems.


Chemical Enyineerin Education











STUDENT FEEDBACK
On the course evaluations at the end of each semester,
the students were specifically asked the question, "Was
Survivor helpful in developing an understanding of the
subject matter?" On a five-point Likert scale with five
representing extremely helpful and one representing not
helpful, the mean responses to that question were 4.70 in
2001, 4.77 in 2002, and 4.80 in 2003. Specific student
comments have included:
"The game made the course interesting."
.ying the game helped to stimulate thinking."
"Game was fun for a change."
"Creating our own problems was especially '. ul."

SUMMARY
The game show Survivor has been adapted and used for
three years as a means of introducing active, team-ori-
ented problem solving into a sophomore-level course on
energy balances. The game provides incentive for students
from all four motivational forms (intrinsic, social, achieve-
ment, and instrumental). By having students who have
been eliminated continue to participate through develop-
ing new problems that are used in the game, the entire
class remains engaged throughout the activity. Based on
several key observations:


The students .~ report that the game was '
and increased their motivation;


* The game was designed -,
motivational styles;


'" ."y to address


I (and other who have used the game)
have directly observed that the level of participation
increased in problem-solving activities;

Performance of the students in subsequent thermo-
dynamics classes improved after the game was
introduced;

I believe the game has provided an effective method of rein-
forcing problem-solving methodologies, as well as being ex-
tremely popular with students.

REFERENCES
1. Wankat, PC., The 'Professor: Teaching, Scholarship
and Service, Allyn and Bacon Publishers, Boston, MA (2002)
2. Terenzini, P, A. Cabrera, C. Colbeck, J. Perente, and S. Bjorkland, "Col-
laborative Leaming vs. Lecture/Discussion: Students' Reported Learn-
ing Gains," J. Eng. Ed., 90(1), 123 (2001)
3. Felder, R.M., D. Woods, J. Stice, and A. Rugarcia, "The Future of Chemi-
cal Engineering Education II: Teaching Methods that Work," .
Ed., 34 I _' (2000)
4. Prince, M., "Does Active Learning Work? A Review of the Research,"
J. Eng. Ed.," 93(3), 223 (2004)


SAMPLE QUESTIONS

Used in Survivor-Model
Active Learning Game

1. One mole of a mixture containing 2 ethanol
and ,.' water at 200C and one atmosphere is
to be cooled to 4 C.

How much heat must be removed from the
system?



2. Given the f I, chemical reaction

Dahmene (g) + 20 IQ (g) Newellium (g)

What is the heat of combustion for gaseous
Dahmene if the heats of combustion for
and IQ are
-4130 kj/mol and -246 kj/mol,
respectively?



5. Brawner, C.E., R.M. Felder, R. Allen, and R. Brent, "A Survey of Fac-
ulty Teaching Practices and Involvement in Faculty Development Ac-
tivities," J. Eng. Ed. 91(4), 393 (2002)
6. Biggs, J., and P.J. Moore, The Process of Learning, Prentice Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1993)
7. Felder, R.M., and L.K. Silverman, "Leaming and Teaching Styles in
Engineering Education," Eng. Ed., 78, 674 (1988)
8. Felder, R.M., "Meet Your Students 6. Tony and Frank," (
29(4), 244 (1995)
9. Felder, R.M., "The Effects of Personality Type on Engineering Stu-
dents Performance and Attitude," J. Eng. Ed., 91(1), 3 (2002)
1I0 1.i.... .' TheExercise ofControl,W.H. Freeman and
Company, New York, NY (1997)
11. Speier, C., and M. Frese, "Generalized Self-Efficacy as a Mediator and
Moderator between Control and Complexity at Work and Personal Ini-
tiative: A Longitudinal Field Study in East Germany," Human Perfor-
mance 10(2), 174 (1997)
12. Ponton, M., J. Edmister, L. Ukeiley, and J. Seiner, "Understanding the
Role of Self-Efficacy in Engineering Education," J. Eng. Ed., 90(2),
247 (2001)
13. Astin, A., What Matters in ( ': Four Critical Years Revisited,
Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA (1993)
14. Smith, D.G., "College Classroom Interactions and Critical Thinking," J.
Ed. Psychology, 69(2), 180 (1977)
15. Norman, D., "What Goes on in the Mind of the Learner," in McKeachie,
W.J., ed., Learning, Cognition, and ( Teaching, New Directions
for Teaching and Learning, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA (1980)
16. Wankat, PC., and F.S. Oreovicz, Teaching Engineering, McGraw-Hill,
Inc., New York, NY (1993)
17. Newell, J.A. "Hollywood Squares: An Altemative to Pop Quizzes," Pro-
ceedings of the 1999 AIChENational Meeting, Dallas, TX Nov. (1999)
18. Fenton, S.S., and J.M. Fenton, 33(2), 166 (1999) 1


Summer 2005











classroom


PERFORMING


PROCESS CONTROL EXPERIMENTS

Across the Atlantic



ANDERS SELMER, MIKE GOODSON, MARKUS KRAFT, SIDDHARTHA SEN1, V. FAYE MCNEILL2,
BARRY S. JOHNSTON3, CLARK K. COLTON3
University of Cambridge Cambridge CB2 3RA, United Kingdom


Process control has increased in importance in the pro-
cess industries over the past decades, driven by global
competition, rapidly changing economic conditions,
more stringent environmental and safety regulations, and the
need for more flexible yet more complex processes to manu-
facture high-value products. Remotely controlled processes,
which are increasingly being used in industry and research,
allow a process to be analyzed and controlled-and data re-
corded and processed via a Web interface-without the need
to be in the same physical location as the equipment itself.
Likewise, Internet-based experiments offer possibilities for
students to use up-to-date technologies for remote operation
and communication on a real system. Perhaps more impor-
tantly, they will give students essential training for what
they're likely to encounter professionally.
The purpose of this paper is to report on the development,
usage, and evaluation of a new exercise in process dynamics
and control that incorporates a Web-based experiment physi-
cally located at MIT. We first describe the experimental equip-
ment and interface used, then the new exercise, and finally
the results of the student evaluation.

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
The experimental equipment is a heat exchanger, set up for
online use within the subjects of transport processes and pro-
cess dynamics and control. This was done as part of the MIT
iCampus project, where a number of Web-accessible experi-
ments-iLabs-have been developed.11 The experiment, con-
tained in a laboratory in the Department of Chemical Engi-
neering at MIT, has been used in the education of MIT chemi-
cal engineering students since November 2001. The equip-
ment is manufactured by Armfield, Ltd. in Ringwood, En-

'Currently at Micosoft Corp., headquarters at 0O
WA 98052
2Currntly at University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1750
tMassachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307


gland, and consists of a service unit (HT30XC) supplying
hot and cold water, with a shell and tube heat exchanger
(HT33) mounted on it. The service unit is connected to a com-
puter through a universal serial bus (USB) port. The experi-
mental setup is controlled and broadcast to the Internet by
LabVIEW software from National Instruments (Austin,
Texas). A Java-based chat capability is included, allowing
communication during the experimental session among the
students (who can collaborate online at different locations)
as well as between the students and the tutor. The experiment

Anders Selmer studied chemistry and chemical engineering at the Lund
Institute of Technology, Sweden, and obtained a master's degree in 1993.
After nine years in industry he is now working with Web-based experiments
for chemical engineering students at the University of Cambridge.
Mike Goodson studied chemical engineering at the University of Cam-
bridge and started his Ph.D. on population balance modeling in 2000.
Since January 2004 he is also the department Teaching Fellow, assisting
students with continuously assessed coursework.
Markus Kraft obtained the academic degree "Diplom
Technomathematiker" at the University of Kaiserslautern in 1992 and com-
pleted his "Dr. rer. nat." at the Department of Chemistry at the same uni-
versity in 1997. Since 1999 he is a lecturer in the Departmentof Chemical
Engineering at the University of Cambridge. His main research interests
are in the field of computational chemical engineering.
Siddhartha Sen obtained his bachelor's degrees in computer science
and engineering and mathematics from the Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
nology in 2003, and went on to get a master's degree in computer science
in 2004. Sid is currently working as a software design engineer in the
Network Load Balancing group at Microsoft Corp.
Vivian Faye McNeill graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
nology with her Ph.D. in chemical engineering in February 2005. Her the-
sis was entitled "Studies of Heterogeneous Ice Chemistry Relevant to the
Atmosphere." She is currently a research associate in the Department of
Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Washington, Seattle.
Barry S. Johnston studied chemical engineering at Alabama, Clarkson,
and Northwestern universities. He has worked in the chemical and nuclear
industries. At MIT he teaches undergraduate courses in process control,
equipment design, and laboratory, and occasionally directs Practice School
stations.
Clark K. Colton received the B.ChE. degree from Cornell University in
1964 and a Ph.D. degree from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in
1969. He joined the faculty of MIT thereafter, becoming full professor in
1976. He was deputy head of the chemical engineering department 1977-
78 and Bayer Professor of Chemical Engineering 1980-86. His research
interests are in bioengineering.


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2005


Chemical Enyineerinm Education











can be accessed from any Internet-connected computer after
registering and installing Java and LabVIEW plug-ins. For a
detailed description of the hard- and software environment,
refer to Colton, et. al[2]
The experimental setup is shown in Figure 1; the heat exchanger
is to the bottom right. The cold water flow, Fc, uses mains cold water
from a tap in the laboratory and is controlled by a flow controller
operating a valve. Temperature indicators measure the cold water
inlet and outlet temperatures, T and Tco. For the hot water flow, Fh,
a pump controlled by a flow controller pumps water through a heated
tank (to the top left) where a heater, controlled by a temperature
controller, heats the water. Temperature indicators measure the hot


Figure 1. Experimental setup (described in the text).


water inlet and outlet temperatures, Th and Tho. Thl is also
used as the input to the temperature controller. The heat
exchanger was originally built to study the principles of
heat transfer; its application was then broadened to study
transient dynamics and control.
In this initial collaboration, the focus has been on the
controller for the hot water inlet temperature; the actual
heat exchanger was only treated as a black box. The stu-
dents' task was to achieve and maintain a desired water
temperature into the heat exchanger, Thl, under varying
flow conditions.
CONTROLLER INTERFACE
The graphical user interface, shown in Figure 2, al-
lows the user to change setpoint temperature, change hot
and cold water flow rates, switch between co- and coun-
tercurrent flow patterns, and set the proportional (P), in-
tegral (I), and derivative (D) parameters. It also shows
real-time values of temperatures, flowrates, and control-
ler output. Temperatures and flowrates are also displayed
in a scrolling graph and in tabular form, which is ob-
served by clicking the "Data Table" tab, and the inter-
face allows the user to record these data to a file for later
retrieval. The charts can be rescaled by double clicking
and entering new extreme values on an axis.


_ -, i L_
-- 1_2 Ii .tf


i 11:SI- S l A I- I Ilear L>- I ia.lier

Heater Power (%)
Power
i 40j60
-20 j 80-
10 0


i0I ilnlr Hot Flowiale Cold Flowrate 2 Manual PID parmeers 3
2.0 3 1 2. 3. 0 Th.iSetpoint ..
10- J -4.0 1.0 -4.0 I deg ., n .
0.0 5.0 0.0 5.0 ,. 1 1 , --
_. I L]min Llmin4jT.' '-:id f Data Filename


Reset Integral Error


,I LIIIiI __ _ __ _ _


I.-


1 I


C old Warer Flow' Rate|
t


Figure 2.
The graphical
user interface
(numbers refer
to text descrip-
tion).


Temperature Data


51.27
r output
0,00
D output
0,00


Summer 2005


I


I ...










The desired values for (1) flowrates, (2) setpoint tempera-
ture, and (3) PID parameters are simply entered into the boxes.
For the flowrates, there are also options to use the turning
knobs or the arrow buttons. To save experimental data, which
can later be retrieved from the Web site, a file name is en-
tered and the "record data" button clicked (4). By entering
appropriate values for the parameters, and using the "reset
integral error" button (5) when necessary, students can run
the experiment under P, PI, or PID control as required. The
hot and cold water flowrates are shown in the two charts
(6 and 7), with the instantaneous values in boxes. The
inlet and outlet temperatures to/from the heat exchanger
are shown in the chart (8) with instantaneous values in
boxes in the schematic heat exchanger drawing (9). The
dial (10) shows the heater output.
The interface looks and operates in exactly the same way if
it is used to control an experimental setup next to the com-
puter or if the setup is somewhere else. What the students do
not see when performing the experiment over the Internet is the
actual equipment. Maybe more importantly, they do not hear
the noise of pumps and stirrers. To reduce this disadvantage, a
Webcam has now been added to allow the students to see and
hear the equipment when running the experiment.
Since we had the opportunity to use a real experiment we
have not investigated the possibility of using a simulation.
Simulations might be of good use when teaching control, but
if students are to be trained for a real world with errors and
irregularities, it is our view that a real system is preferable to
a simulated one. This view is also supported by Ang and
Braatz, 31 and Bencomo in his review of process control edu-
cation.[41 From an interface point of view, running a simula-
tion would not differ from running a real experiment, but the
behavior of the system is likely to be more predictable.


On the same page as the interface is a Java chat facility
(Figure 3) for communication among students and between
the students and the tutor. A message is typed, and after the
"send" button is clicked the message is visible to all users
logged in to the chat facility.

THE EXERCISE
"Process Dynamics and Control[51" is the title of a one-term
course of 16 lectures taught in the second year of chemical
engineering at the University of Cambridge. It aims to give
students a variety of skills, such as how to write correctly
formulated mass and energy balances and how to analyze
and design controllers. Other institutions such as Rensselaer&61
and Illinois31 have more lecture time to cover the topic and
also have their students run a case study over several weeks[61
or spend several hours every week in the laboratory. 31 The
course at the University of Cambridge is accompanied by an
exercise that is an extended activity, undertaken individually,
designed to test the students' knowledge of ideas covered in
lectures. The exercise, although based on the course mate-
rial, aims to challenge the students and extend their under-
standing. To practice presenting work clearly and concisely,
each student writes a report on the exercise.
Unlike schools such as Utah71 and Illinois, 31 the Univer-
sity of Cambridge has no huge experimental facilities to use
for control experimentation. Further, space and time restric-
tions do not allow for a hands-on laboratory experiment to be
added to the course. By incorporating the MIT iLabs heat
exchanger operated over the Internet, the new exercise met
course goals and gave Cambridge students the traditional ben-
efits of a laboratory experiment. It also exposed them to re-
mote-control software-much in line with the future predic-
tions on remotely operated processes made by Skliar, et. al. 7]


-Login
login ID : |iig43
Password : --

Login Logout


Status Connected to server


Collaboration
login successful administrator
mjg43
as631









Type your message here:
ISend I Clear


Figure 3. The chat facility.


Chemical Enineerine Education









and described by Bencomo.[4] The advantages of this exercise are therefore twofold:
experiments can easily be performed on real systems (as opposed to simulations)
where equipment would otherwise be unavailable, and students gain knowledge of
remote-control software such as that used in research and industry.
The new exercise is divided into three parts.
SA few preparatory questions on control, enabling the students to identify the
relevant variables and to calculate control parameters from open-loop test data
A An experimental session with observations of a real system under P, PI, and PID
control, followed by fine tuning control parameters and testing the response
system to disturbances
AP of data obtained during the experimental session and follow-up
questions penetrating deeper into the matter
For the first part, students were given a piping and instrumentation diagram (see
Figure 1) of the experimental setup and four sets of real data obtained from open-
loop tests (i.e., the reaction of the system to a step change in the process variable
with the controller disconnected). From the piping and instrumentation diagram, the
students were asked to identify: (a) the controlled variable, (b) the process variable,
and (c) any disturbance variables. Most students identified the controlled and pro-
cess variables correctly as Th and Q, respectively. The disturbance variables here
are Tho and Fh since this stream is what enters the heater bath, but Tho is a function of
Fc, Fh, T and Thi, which complicates the matter. It also confused the students-thus
illustrating the truism that real life is more interesting than idealized systems.
From the data supplied, the students were told to first identify which set was best
suited to the desired operating conditions and then to apply the method of Cohen
and CoonE81 to calculate an initial set of PID parameters to be used in the ex-
perimental session.
Cohen and Coon is one of the tuning methods covered in the lectures and is known
to be nonrobust, but the method was deliberately chosen because we did not want
the students to start their experiments with a perfect set of PID parameters. The
main focus of the exercise is not choosing PID parameters from experimental data.
Rather, the focus is the practical experiment itself, and during the experiment we
wanted students to experience instabilities and have to further fine tune the system
using their theoretical knowledge of control. Because the data were real and non-
ideal, the resulting PID parameters could vary by at least a factor of three depending
on how slope, final temperature, and dead time were interpreted from the data. Many
students commented on this, and it was another useful experience with the difficul-
ties that can arise when dealing with real data, as well as some shortcomings of the
Cohen and Coon method.
After presenting reasonable estimates of the PID parameters to a tutor, each stu-
dent was issued a username and password to log in to the experiment. During allo-
cated time slots, students in groups of three or four logged in to the experiment at
using a LabVIEW interface. The Java chat facility was used
for communication between the students and the tutor. After agreeing on initial PID
parameters, the students' first task was to make qualitative observations of the sys-
tem under P, PI, and PID control, noting phenomena such as offset and stability in
the controlled variable. If the system did not stabilize, the students had to make
changes to one or more of the parameters, using their theoretical knowledge of con-
trol-or trial and error-to obtain a stable system. Once happy with the steady-state
behavior, the students tested their parameters by applying, and recording, the re-
sponse to three step changes: (a) Fh step change of -1 L/min, (b) Thl setpoint step
change of +5 C, and (c) Fe step change of +2 L/min. Some groups needed to further
adjust their parameters to ensure the system was stable in response to the distur-


Since
we had the
opportunity
to use a real
experiment
we have not
investigated
the possibility
of using
a simulation.
Simulations
might be of
good use
when teaching
control, but
if students are
to be trained

for a real world
with errors and
irregularities, it
is our view
that a real
system is
preferable
to a simulated
one.


Summer 2005










bances. Most groups completed the experimental session
within two hours, but some groups spent more time playing
and testing responses to changes in the parameters, and spent
up to three hours.



If the system did not stabilize, the
students had to make changes to one
or more of the parameters, using
their theoretical knowledge of
control-or trial and error-to obtain
a stable system.



Following the experimental session, each student wrote an
individual technical report, including his or her observations
and changes to the parameters during the experiment. The
reports showed that the students had gained understanding of
the effects of the PID parameters on the controlled variable
and how to adjust the parameters to mitigate for undesired
effects such as slow or unstable responses under servo or regu-
lator control. They also had to process their data by: choosing
(and justifying the choice of) an error-response criterion, calcu-
lating its value for each disturbance, suggesting methods for
further fine tuning, and discussing differences between the ex-
perimental system and an idealized stirred tank.
For the error-response criterion, some students chose
the integral of the square error (emphasizing large errors)
and others the integral of the absolute error (treating all
errors equally). Both criteria were accepted as long as the
choice was justified.
Because the students had just calculated the value of an
error-response criterion, we expected a suggestion
to minimize that for further fine tuning, but quite a
few suggested other routes such as minimizing over-
shoot, rise time, or decay ratio. They also pointed
out that different aspects are important to different
systems.


Finally, students ranked the comparison to an ide-
alized stirred tank as a useful exercise. They noted
things such as the presence of dead times for the
measurements in the real system, signal noise in the
measured values for temperatures and flow rates,
the real system being too complex to treat math-
ematically, and the mixing being nonperfect in the
real system. Typically, students are used to doing
this the other way around-by dealing with ideal-
ized systems and thinking about how a real system
would behave.


EVALUATION
The equipment is designed to run over long periods of time
with minimal maintenance, and once set up by the MIT staff
it could be run for the complete course with only occasional
supervision. Technically, the equipment and interface per-
formed without fault for the duration of the course (ten three-
hour sessions).
Student feedback was obtained by issuing questionnaires
assessing the usability of the experiment and interface, the
group work experience, the meeting of educational objec-
tives, and the experience in comparison to exercises in other
subjects. In the questionnaire, students had to state to what
extent they agreed with a number of statements on a Likert
scale ranging from 1, "I strongly disagree," to 7, "I strongly
agree." A total of 36 students performed the exercise, and 23
of them handed in a completed questionnaire.
[J Usability when Carrying Out the Experiment on the Web
(Instructions, operation, time needed, and retrieval of data)
Students were provided with a Web-based exercise sheet
and detailed instructions on how to carry out the experiment.
Time spent with the experiment varied from 90 to 180 min-
utes. The students were satisfied with the instructions and
managed well to use the LabVIEW interface and chat win-
dow, and to download their experimental data after the ses-
sion. Easy comprehension and use of the interface and down-
loading of experimental data are listed by Bencomo[41 as some
of the most important features of a remote experiment. Vari-
ous suggestions for minor improvements of the interface were
received.
El Working in a Group
(Contribution to group and actual and group size)
This exercise was one out of seven, with the others being
performed individually. This one was performed in groups of
four but the reports were written individually as usual. The

The remotely controlled experiment
provided an experience of qualitative
behavior of P, PI and PID control

12

(A
S10


O 6
4
E

0
= 2 ---

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
disagree agree


Figure 4. Students ranked the remotely controlled experiment.


Chemical Eneineerine Education










students said they very much liked working in groups and
felt they could contribute to the group. When it came to group
size, the students' opinions fell into two categories-either
seeing little or no reason to have smaller groups, or thinking
that a smaller group would have been good. (Three students
commented that three students would be the ideal group size.)
From a teaching point of view, we would prefer smaller
groups. This is a matter of resources available, however, since
smaller groups require more experimental sessions and in-
crease the associated workload for technicians and tutors.
When this exercise was repeated during 2005, the group size
was set to three students, which was also the group size used
at Rensselaer.[6]

11 Meeting Educational Objectives


I.' recent and analysis


' data and qualitative behavior)


Even though some students commented on the lack of a
sense of reality when performing the experiment, most agreed
that it provided an experience of measurements and analysis
of both real data and the qualitative behavior of P, PI, and
PID control (see Figure 4). A Webcam, not yet in place at
the time we used the experiment, has since been added to
enhance the experience with video and sound from the labo-
ratory equipment.

El Comparison to other exercises
The other exercises were purely theoretical and performed
individually. This exercise offered a change by being partly
performed in a group and in providing a challenge to use
theoretical knowledge to tune a real system. It was very posi-
tively received by most students (see Figure 5).

CONCLUSION
We have developed, used, and evaluated a new exercise in
process dynamics and control incorporating a Web-based ex-
periment physically located at MIT. We described the experi-


The I-lab heat exchanger was a
beneficial learning experience
(compared to other exercises)

12
5 10
8
6
4
E 2
Z 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
disagree agree

Figure 5. Students ranked the remote-learning experience.


mental equipment, the interface used, and the new exercise,
and reported on student evaluation.
The successful realization of this exercise shows that
the tcI h iii. *. is available and sufficiently stable to per-



The equipment is designed to run
over long periods of time with
minimal maintenance, and once
set up by the MIT staff it could be
run for the complete course with
only occasional supervision.


form complex educational experiments over the Internet.
The user-friendly graphical user interface and the inter-
active, fast-responding process were appreciated by the
students, as shown by positive responses to the course-
evaluation questionnaire.

The authors at the University of Cambridge are now in
the process of developing assignments and hardware for
a new experiment on chemical reactors for broadcasting
to the Internet.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This new teaching activity was funded in part by The Cam-
bridge-MIT Institute, , a co-
operation between the University of Cambridge (U.K.) and
MIT (U.S.), and by the iLabs project of iCampus icampus.mit.edu>, an educational research grant to MIT from
Microsoft Corporation (U.S.).

REFERENCES
1. , ,

2. Colton, C.K., M. Knight, R.A. Khan, S. Ibrahim, and R. West,
"A Web-Accessible Heat Exchanger Experiment," in Innova-
tions 2004. World Innovations in Engineering Education and
Research, W. Aung, R. Altenkirch, R. Cermak, R.W. King, and
L.M.S. Ruiz, eds. Begell House Publishing, New York, NY, 93
(2004)
3. Ang, S., and R.D. Braatz, "Experimental Projects for the Pro-
cess Control Laboratory," ( Ed., 36(3), 182 (2002)
4. Bencomo, S.D., "Control Learning: Present and Future," An-
nual Reviews in Control, 28, 115 (2004)
5. Deddis,C., Lecture Notes PD&CDepar
gineering, University of Cambridge (2004-2005).
6. Bequette, B.W., K.D. Schott, V. Prasad, V. Natarajan, and R.R.
Rao, "Case Study Projects in an Undergraduate Process Con-
trol Course," ( Ed., 32(3) 214 (1998)
7. Skliar, M .,J.W. Price, andC.A. Tyler, I .........i i !',...'Icts
in Teaching Process Control," Chem. Eng. Ed., 32(4) 254
(1998)
8. Cohen, G.H., and G.A. Coon, "Theoretical Consideration of
Related Control," Trans. ASME, 75, 827 (1953) 1


Summer 2005











E^ a laboratory


A KINETICS EXPERIMENT

For the Unit Operations Laboratory


RICHARD W. RICE, DAVID A. BRUCE, DAVID R. KUHNELL, CHRISTOPHER I. MCDONALD
Clemson University Clemson, SC 29634


he topic of kinetics, because it deals with change in
molecular structure (as opposed to mere physical
change), is, strictly speaking, not a subset of the term
"unit operations." Nevertheless, many schools include a ki-
netics experiment in what is nominally called a unit opera-
tions laboratory (UOL) course. This paper describes a kinet-
ics experiment that was recently added to the senior UOL
course at Clemson. It deals with selection of the reaction, the
design and operation of the apparatus, incorporation of ap-
propriate safety equipment, and analysis of results.
Once the decision to add a kinetics/reactor design experi-
ment had been made, the first issue to be resolved was whether
or not to purchase a complete "off the shelf' experiment from
a vendor (e.g., Armfield or Hampden), or to design/build our
own. The latter path was chosen for several reasons. One was
that this strategy would provide an excellent learning oppor-
tunity for the group of undergraduate students who played a
major role in the construction/debugging of the apparatus and
in the determination of feasible operating conditions. This
aspect will be described in a separate paper.'11
Another reason for deciding to design our own experiment
was that commercially available experiments use liquid-phase
reactions (e.g., saponification), whereas a heterogeneously
catalyzed gas-phase reaction system was felt to offer several
advantages, one of which would be greater variety regarding
potential assignments since, with minor modification, the
same apparatus could be used for many combinations of cata-
lyst and reactants, often with major differences in apparent
kinetics. Other advantages would be that such a system af-
fords more accurate flowrate control/determination (through
the use of mass-flow controllers) and more accurate compo-
sition measurements (through the use of a gas chromatograph
equipped with a flame ionization detector). Furthermore, de-
signing the experiments and conducting data analysis could
be varied to fit the backgrounds of the students (and the tem-
perament of the instructor). For example, the rate data could
be fit to a simple p. m\ c law" expression or to a more com-
plex Langmuir-Hinshelwood model that provides additional


insight into what is actually occurring during the reaction
process.[2] Finally, during the roughly eight months a year
when the senior UOL course is not being taught, the appara-
tus would be available as a versatile platform for senior or
graduate student research projects.

CHOICE OF REACTION/CATALYST
After considering several reactions, propane hydrogenolysis
over an alumina-supported platinum (Pt/y-Al203) catalyst was
chosen for the experiment. Under the conditions used, the
reaction can be considered effectively irreversible and ethane
hydrogenolysis, a possible complicating secondary reaction,
occurs to a negligible extent. Data analysis is also made easier
by the small number of species involved and by the fact that
the simple stoichiometry results in no change in the total num-
ber of moles (shown in Eq. 1).

C3H8 +H2 C2H6 +CH4 (1)
In the experiment, the catalyst (in a sense) merely serves
as a iin'.iii to an end," i.e., students are not asked to study
the catalyst per se. In designing the experiment, however,
the choice of catalyst was important because the catalyst
greatly influences the reaction rate, and thus, operational pa-
rameters such as reactor size, temperature, pressure, and flow-

Richard W Rice is an associate professor in the Department of Chemi-
cal Engineering at Clemson University, where he has been since 1978.
He has done research in a variety of areas, but heterogeneous catalysis
has been his main topic. Unit operations and kinetics are the subjects
that he has most frequently taught. He received his B.S.ChE. from
Clemson University and his M.S. and Ph.D. from Yale University.
DavidA. Bruce is an associate professor in the Department of Chemical
Engineering at Clemson University. He has B.S. degrees in Chemistry
and chemical engineering and a Ph.D. from the Georgia Institute of Tech-
nology. His research interests include the synthesis of heterogeneous
catalysts, advanced oxidation processes, and quantum and molecular
mechanics modeling.
David R. Kuhnell and Christopher L McDonald are recent chemical
engineering graduates from Clemson University. As undergraduates, both
were actively involved in oxidation catalysis research with Dr. Bruce and
were the primary individuals contributing to the building/testing of the
apparatus.


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2005


Chemical Enyineerine Education










rate. An additional consideration was that the catalyst should
experience minimal deactivation over the course of a given
group's experiment (typically, three 3-hour periods) so that
the determination of kinetic parameters would be straight-
forward. Combining both literature[3,41 information and our
iii-lli ic" experience[5,61 with this reaction over a variety of
catalysts resulted in the selection of a commercial 0.6 wt.%
Pt on y-Al203 catalyst (PHF-5) obtained from Cyanamid.

EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS
Figure 1 is a schematic showing the major features of the
apparatus. The four main sections are
The reactor and furnace/temperature
The feed gas system andflow s
The combustible gas detector/alarm and emergency
gas r- system
The computer-controlled gas chromatograph
The reactor consists of a 66-cm long stainless steel tube
(15.9 mm OD, 13.6 mm ID) connected at each end to a
Swagelok tee. Within the reactor, roughly 1.5 grams of 14 to
30 mesh (0.6 to 1.4 mm) catalyst particles are positioned at
the midpoint, i.e., roughly 30 cm from the inlet. The feed
preheating zone between the reactor inlet and the catalyst bed
is filled with 1.5-mm glass beads. These beads also serve,
along with small pieces of Pyrex wool, to position the cata-
lyst near the axial midpoint of the "wraparound" 1.3 kW
Lindberg Blue M tube furnace. Due to low conversions and


Figure 1. Schematic for kinetics experiment apparatus.


the small size of the catalyst bed, the catalyst temperature is
approximately uniform and is measured using a 3.2 mm OD
type-K thermocouple that is coaxial with the reactor and that
has its tip positioned in the center of the catalyst bed. Read-
ings from the reactor thermocouple are obtained using an
Omega digital thermometer. Another type-K thermocouple
is used to measure the furnace temperature, i.e., in the region
between the outside of the reactor and the inner surface of
the furnace. This thermocouple is connected to a Barber-
Colman temperature controller. In the reactor exit line there
is a pressure gauge and a Tescom back-pressure regulator.
The feed-gas system consists of
Pressure regulators and high-pressure cylinders for
the three gases used (instrument-grade propane, high-
purity hydrogen, and high-purity helium)
Normally closed solenoid valves for the hydrogen and
propane lines that are energized (open) during normal
operation and de-energized (closed) when the appara-
tus is not in use or when elevated levels of combustible
gases are detected
Three calibrated Brooks Model 5 'i -Flow
.s connected to a Brooks Model 0154 digital
flow readout
After being combined, the three streams may be either routed
to the reactor inlet or to a bypass line (for feed composition
determination).
Due to the flammability of the reagents used in this experi-
ment, a combustible gas detector with accom-
panying alarm system (RKI Instruments, Inc.)
is used to detect process leakage of hydro-
!ssure
itor carbon reactants and reaction products. The
concentration of gaseous hydrocarbons is
detected by a fixed-mount, continuous-
monitoring detector head that displays the
Relief Valve
current concentration of combustible gases
and transmits this information electrically
- Vent
(4-20 mA signal) to a multichannel gas
Glass Beads monitor. The gas monitor is programmed
to sound an alarm if hazardous levels of
combustible gas are detected and to simul-
taneously de-energize (close) the solenoid
I valves connected to the propane and hy-
--IxTC drogen pressure regulators.


Gas analysis is achieved using a Varian CP-
3380 gas chromatograph equipped with a
Valco 6-port gas-sampling valve actuated
using a Valco 3-way solenoid valve manifold,
and a flame ionization detector that uses hy-
drogen and compressed air. Separation is
achieved using helium carrier gas flow
through a 213-mm by 3.2-mm stainless steel
column packed with 80/100-mesh poropak


Summer 2005










Q and maintained at 1700C. This gives well-separated peaks
for the three hydrocarbons within an elution time cycle of
only 2 minutes. A software package (CP-3800) obtained
from Varian is used with a computer to operate the GC,
perform data logging/peak area determination, etc. Exit
streams from both the reactor and the GC are vented
through tubing to the outside.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
Before giving a general description of the procedure used,
a few comments on how UOL is conducted at Clemson should
be mentioned to provide proper context. The first is that, in
contrast to many other laboratory courses that involve what
is often called a "cookbook" approach, here each lab group
(which consists of three or four students) writes a prelimi-
nary (pre-experiment) report as well as a final report. Prior to
writing the preliminary report, each group is given a lecture
on the topic, a brief "walk-IIli. nli, of the apparatus, an as-
signment sheet outlining the objectives, and a handout that
provides guidance regarding the use of the software and the
safe operation of selected items of equipment, e.g., the GC,
flow and temperature controllers, and the combustible gas
detector. The last of these handouts is felt to be necessary
because of the complexity of the reactor system.
Once the group has received information about the experi-
ment, they are required to submit the preliminary report, which
contains
* A schematic and an experimental plan, i.e., fairly
detailed listing of operational steps and . issues
Data tables
Sample calculations
Literature review
This report is then read, graded, and corrected by the super-
vising faculty member and returned to the group. A group
normally begins actual experimentation the next lab period
after the graded preliminary report has been returned.
Depending on the background of the students, the instruc-
tor can assign students to develop a classical or a factorial
design of experiments. Traditional methods would involve
students evaluating one variable at a time (e.g., all variables
are held constant during a set of experiments, except for the
variable being evaluated). Greater sampling efficiency and
complexity of data analysis are achieved, however, by hav-
ing students use the statistics-based strategy known as de-
sign of experiments to develop a factorial design that will
enable them to quantify each parameter in the selected
reaction model. For example, the combined power law/
Arrhenius law model contains four parameters that need
evaluating (a, 3, E, ko), while a Langmuir-Hinshelwood
model incorporating the effect of temperature has a total of
five parameters (a, E, ko, AHp, KA). It should also be noted
that using factorial designs often necessitates the use of non-
linear least-squares methods to obtain optimal values of ki-


netic parameters; hence, more sophisticated mathematical
software programs may be required to complete data analy-
sis. Discussions in this paper focus on traditional experiment
designs and we would direct the reader to the literature for a
detailed discussion of design of experiments]
The first steps in the experimental procedure are to turn on
the combustible-gas-detector system, start flow of a mixture
of helium (160 seem) and hydrogen (160 seem) to the reac-
tor, set the reactor pressure to 5 psig (135 kPa), and adjust the
setpoint of the temperature controller to obtain a catalyst bed
temperature in the 460 to 4950C range. Once a temperature
in this range is obtained, reduction of the catalyst is contin-
ued for roughly 1 hour; then the reactor temperature is low-
ered to the desired value for the first propane hydrogenolysis
run, typically in the 310 to 340C range. During this time,
GC operation is initiated by setting flows of helium carrier to
the column and both hydrogen and air to the flame ionization
detector (FID). Next, propane is added to the reactor feed
stream and the flowrates of the three components (C3Hg, H2,,
He) are set to the desired values. Hydrogen is fed in consid-
erable excess (H2/C3H molar ratio > 6) in order to minimize
deactivation due to coking. A typical feed mixture for a run
might consist of 20 seem C3Hg, 160 seem H2, and 160 seem
He, corresponding to roughly 6 mole % C3Hg, 47% H2, and
47% He.
For the conditions associated with the sets of runs described
below, propane conversions are generally in the 2 to 10%
range; thus, the reactor can be approximated as being a "dif-
ferential reactor." Additionally, the selected flowrates, reac-
tor temperature, and catalyst particle size ensure that the re-
actor pressure is axially uniform and are similar to condi-
tions for which literature sources state that mass transfer ef-
fects did not distort the intrinsic kinetics.5,'61 As will be dis-
cussed later, these approximations greatly simplify data analy-
sis, leading to the determination of kinetic parameters.
When students are asked to determine power law kinetic
parameters, the first set of runs will commonly focus on de-
termining the propane reaction order (a) value. To collect
data for these calculations, exit gas GC peak-area values are
recorded for a range, e.g., 10 to 30 seem, of propane feed
rates (and thus propane concentrations, Cp, or partial pres-
sures, P ), at constant reactor temperature and pressure. At
the same time, the hydrogen concentration (or partial pres-
sure) is held virtually constant by adjusting the helium flow
such that total flow remains constant.
The aforementioned use of a great excess of H2, as well as
differential reactor operation, facilitates isolating the ef-
fect of C on the rate of consumption of C3H -rp. For a
given set of conditions, successive runs (typically two to
four) are made to confirm that the data are reasonably
reproducible.
In the second set of runs, data for the determination of the
hydrogen reaction order ([) are acquired by varying the hy-


Chemical Entineerint Education










drogen feed rate (and concentration, CH2) at the same reac-
tor temperature, pressure, and total flow, while using a con-
stant feed C value. Occasionally, a second method for vary-
ing CH2 is used, namely, varying the reactor pressure at a
given H2 feed rate, to obtain data for comparison with that of
the first method.
The third set of runs examines the temperature dependence
of the rate, specifically the activation energy, E, and the pre-
exponential (frequency) factor, ko, that appear in the Arrhenius
expression for the specific reaction rate, k (i.e., k = ke-(E/RT)).
In this part of the experiment, the pressure and feed compo-
sition are usually held constant, while the reactor tempera-
ture is varied in increments of 5 to 7 C over an appreciable
range, e.g., from 310 to 3400C.
The experiment as described takes two to three 3-hour pe-
riods that occur several days apart. Thus, it is important that
the system be shut down after the first period and restarted
for the second period in such a way that the catalyst's activ-
ity is unchanged. Shutdown is accomplished by first stop-
ping propane flow while continuing to feed hydrogen and
helium for at least fifteen minutes at the last temperature used,
then lowering the reactor temperature set point to 0C. This
purges the reactor of any adsorbed propane. During this in-
terval, power to the GC/computer is cut off and flows of H2,,
He, and air to the GC are discontinued. Finally, power is cut
off to the furnace, flow controllers, etc.
In order to achieve some diversity over a semester, the as-
signment (and thus the associated procedure) is often modi-
fied. In one such variant, the third set of runs is not devoted
to determining the temperature dependence, but is used to
study how well the reaction-rate expression developed from
differential reactor operation at a constant temperature predicts
integral packed-bed reactor behavior. In this case, the third set
of runs involves conditions that give appreciably higher pro-
pane conversions, e.g., 20 to 40%. Another variation involves
students conducting experiments to determine parameters for a
Langmuir-Hinshelwood model of the reaction process. A more
detailed discussion of these experiments is provided in the data
analysis section of this paper.

DATA ANALYSIS
As mentioned earlier, a group's preliminary report must
address not only the procedure, but also the specific calcula-
tions and data analysis needed. The latter, in addition to be-
ing necessary for composing the final report, I.up'c" the
experimental strategy by identifying the means by which the
effect of a given variable can be isolated from that of others.
The first portion of this section will describe data analysis
for the simplified case of p. m\\ c law kinetics." Later, a de-
scription is given outlining how this approach can be extended
to deal with Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate equations. Before
detailing how the power law kinetic parameters (a, 3, E, ko)
are obtained, some background information will be provided.
Summer 2005


Combining the rearranged propane balance for a packed-
bed reactor with a power law approximation for the rate ex-
pressions gives


dFp FpodXp
dW dW


E
p =koe RT Cp'CH2


where F is the propane molar flow rate, W is the weight of
catalyst, F is the propane molar feed rate, X is the propane
fractional conversion, R is the gas constant, and T is the reac-
tor absolute temperature.
For differential reactor operation, Eq. (2) can be approxi-
mated as a much simpler finite difference equation


FpoX
po p
w


E
r koe RT c H2


where T is the virtually uniform temperature of the entire
catalyst bed, and C, and CH2 are average concentration val-
ues for the respective species, which, for the very low con-
versions used, differ only slightly from either the feed or exit
values. Before going further with the illustration of how Eq.
(3) was used, two clarifying comments should be made. The
first is that, although the use of low X values makes data
analysis easier, it also introduces considerable relative un-
certainty into the determination of X by the conventional
method, i.e., comparing the inlet and outlet GC peak areas
for propane. To avoid this problem, a more accurate method
for converting GC data to X values was used. This involved
using the exit gas GC peak areas and FID response factors
for CAH8, C2H6, and CH4, along with a carbon atom balance.
The second comment regarding Eq. (3) is that, over the mod-
est ranges of temperature and pressure studied, the irrevers-
ible power law expression is a reasonable approximation for
the "true" rate equation.
Taking logarithms of both sides of Eq. (3) gives the "lin-
J.nl/'il equation

n(-rp)= In(ko) R + a np) + PnH2 (4)

One option for evaluating the power law kinetic parameters,
a, 3, E, and ko, is to conduct a series of experiments in which
the rate is found for various combinations of T, Cp, and
CH2, and then use nonlinear least-squares software to ex-
tract the values from the entire data set. An optimal data set
can be collected using experimental conditions obtained from
a factorial design (or other design of experiments approach)
that has been optimized for the variables of interest. This ap-
proach, while nominally viable and easy to implement, is,
for several reasons, less desirable than the more structured
approach associated with the experimental procedure de-
scribed earlier. The first reason is that the inelegant (and, of-
ten, less reliable) "collective least squares" regression ap-
proach does not require the students to form their experimental
plan in a logical fashion, e.g., devise a sequence of experi-











mental (and computational) steps. A second reason is that it
does not provide an opportunity to apply model development
techniques that are central topics in most kinetics texts.[21

The data analysis strategy actually used by many groups is
one that is a logical follow-up to the experimental procedure.
It will now be illustrated for the simple power-law case using
data/results taken from a representative UOL report. For the
first set of runs, where C, was the only independent vari-
able, Eq. (4) simplifies to

n(-rp)= a /n(Cp)+C1 (5)

where C, is a constant. The value of a is found as the slope of
a plot such as that seen in Figure 2. In the particular case
shown, a value of 1.3 was found for a, which is above the 0.8
to 1.0 range found in the literature[3-6] for this reaction over
Pt/A1203. Over the past two years, other UOL groups have
reported values ranging from 1.2 to 1.4. A representative
sample of power-law kinetic parameters obtained by under-
graduate students during the past two years is shown in Table
1. For the report whose results are being used as an example,
a value of about -1.5 for 3 was found from a similar plot of
/n (-r ) versus n (CH2 ) using data from the second set of
runs, where CH2 was the only independent variable. This
value is within the -1.3 to -3 range reported in the litera-
ture and clearly shows the expected inhibiting effect of
hydrogen adsorption. Other UOL groups reported 3 val-
ues ranging from -0.6 to -1.7.
Once the separate orders of reaction are known, the k. and
E values are found by first calculating specific reaction rate
(k) values for each of the temperatures used in the third set of
runs, where all concentrations and flow rates were held con-
stant, and then constructing an "Arrhenius plot" such as Fig-
ure 3. The calculation of k is accomplished using

-E
k = koeRT r (6)
P H2
from which it can be seen that the slope of a linear plot of
/n (k) versus T-1 equals -E/R and the intercept as T -> o
equals /n (ko). The results of Figure 3 correspond to E B 164
kJ/mole (39 kcal/mole) and ko 8.5 x 109 moles'2/(cm0.6 g
catalyst.min). This activation energy is slightly lower than
the 188 to 208 kJ/mole range reported by other investiga-
tors.[3-6] As shown in Table 1, other UOL groups found E val-
ues ranging from a clearly too-low value of 93 kJ/mole to a
reasonable value of 194 kJ/mole. It should also be noted that
the same catalyst sample was used for all studies having data
reported in Table 1.
If one wishes to use a Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, one
of numerous possibilities is a model proposed by Leclerq, et
al.,[3] that assumes that the rate-controlling step is surface re-
action between C3Hx.ad and either gaseous H2 or associatively


adsorbed H2 to form C2H and CHz, which are rapidly hydro-
genated to (and desorbed as) C2H6 and CH4. Single site ad-
sorption (with C3Hxad being the predominant surface spe-
cies) is assumed. The rate expression in this case is

KICPCH2
-rp =k KCC(7)
CH2 + KiCp

where k is the pseudo surface reaction rate constant, K, is the
propane equilibrium adsorption constant, and a = 4 x/2. Note
that if C a >> KiC,, this simplifies to a power-law equation,
i.e., -r, = k*CC2a. For the experimental results discussed
above, where a value of -1.5 for 3 (= -a) was found, the value
for "a" would be 2.5. If accurate, this would imply that, on
average, propane loses five H atoms upon adsorption and that
the most probable values for y and z are 3 and 2, respec-
tively. The proposed mechanism leading to this rate equation
is summarized by the following elementary steps where "site"
refers to an unoccupied surface site, "ads" implies adsorbed,
and y + z = x + 2 = 10 2a:
SC3H + site t=> (C3H 2)ad, + aH2: fast, with equilibrium constant K
S(C3H8 2aad + H2 ( ) + (CH)+(CH)d: slow, rate-
(C2Hy)d + (CHz)ad + H2 C2H6 + CH4: fast

100

-105 6

110

g -115
y =1314x+6 886
S 0 R2 = 0 999
S-120

-125

-130
-150 -145 -140 -135 -130 -125
In (Avg. Propane Concentration, mol/cc)

Figure 2. Determination of propane reaction order (a).

TABLE 1
Representative Power-Law Kinetic Parameters
Calculated from Experimental Data Collected
by Undergraduate Students

Experiment Date E(kJ/mol) a /3
9-23-02 185 1.3 -1.7
10-14-02 194 1.3 -1.5
11-11-02 164 1.2 -1.4
12-3-02 157 1.4 -1.2
4-1-03 164 1.3 -1.5
11-3-03 145 1.4 -0.6
12-3-03 93 1.3 -0.8


Chemical Entineerint Education











The specific rate equation shown above can be rearranged
to give

Ca 7
CpCH2 CH2 P 8
+ L(8)
-rp k K k

which, for a given assumed .ilci i .1 ', should give a straight
line when -rpCCH2 is plotted versus Ca for data taken at
PH2
constant C and temperature. The best-fitting value for "a"
can be found by varying C a over the maximum practicable
H2
range and examining the resulting least squares correlation
coefficient (R2) values. Next, the k value can be determined
from the intercept, i.e., k-' Cp, and then the K, value can be
found from the slope, i.e., (k K,)-'. An alternative (or supple-
mental) method is to use data taken at constant CH2 and tem-
perature, with Cp intentionally varied. In that case (for a given
assumed "a" value), the k and K, values can be found from
the intercept (k C )-1 and slope (k K,)- C a-1 of a least squares
fit of r -1 versus C 1.
p P
Assignments involving the use of Langmuir-Hinshelwood
kinetics could range in difficulty from a case similar to the
one just illustrated (where parameter evaluation is for a single
given mechanism with the assumed rate-controlling step
specified) to a challenging case in which the best-fitting
mechanism/controlling step must be determined from a vari-
ety of proposed explanations/hypotheses. Students could also
be asked to assume a specific Langmuir-Hinshelwood model
and collect data to determine the activation energy, E, and
frequency factor, ko, for the reaction as well as a heat of ad-
sorption, -AHp, for propane using an integrated form of van't
Hoff's expression for the equilibrium adsorption constant,


K K, ie., K = KAe-iHp/RT
where KA and AHp are independent of temperature over the
range studied.

-90 ,
-92 -
-94 -
-96
-9 6 -* y = -19667x + 22 859
-98 R2 = 0 971
-100 -
-102
-104
-10 6
-108
-110


00016 000162 000164 000166 000168
Recip. Abs. Temp., 1/T (1/K)


00017 000172


CLOSING REMARKS

In this paper we have attempted to not only describe the
apparatus and procedure used for our recently implemented
kinetics experiment, but also to provide a rationale for its
design and a sampling of results. The experiment offers stu-
dents the opportunity to devise a workable plan for accom-
plishing a relatively challenging assignment (which can in-
clude developing a factorial design of experiments) and then
to observe firsthand the effect of important variables (space
time, feed composition, temperature) on the rate of a cata-
lyzed reaction. In carrying out the experiment, students be-
come familiar with up-to-date instrumentation and, in writ-
ing the final report, they employ a variety of numerical meth-
ods to obtain/analyze their results.
The primary advantage of the described kinetics experi-
ment is its flexibility. The assignments can be kept simple
and straightforward (e.g., use classical methods to deter-
mine reaction order and activation energy values for a
power-law model) or students can be challenged to de-
velop a factorial design to efficiently determine all ki-
netic parameters for a Langmuir-Hinshelwood model that
uses an Arrhenius law expression to describe variations
in rate with temperature. Further, minimal changes to the
reactor system would be required to have students exam-
ine other catalysts or gas-phase reactions (e.g., hydroge-
nation of propene).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors would like to thank Matt Rogers and Bill
Coburn for their help in coupling the computer-controlled
GC and reactor portions of the system, and Jay McAliley for
assistance with drawing the process schematic. We also
thank Norton Cater for arranging a financial gift from the
Instrument Society of America and the National Science
Foundation (CAREER-9985022) for support of this up-
grade to our UO lab.

REFERENCES
1. Bruce, D.A., R.W. Rice, and C.H. Gooding, "Educational Outcomes
from Having Undergraduates Design and Build Unit Operations Lab
Equipment," to be submitted to .' Ed.
2. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd ed.,
Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (1999)
3. Leclercq, G., L. Leclercq, and R. Maurel, "Hydrogenolysis of Satu-
rated Hydrocarbons, II," J. Catal., 44, 68 (1976)
4. Bond, G.C., and X. Yide, "Hydrogenolysis of Alkanes,"J. Chem. Soc.
Faraday Trans. I, 80, 969 (1984)
5. Brown, J.T., "An Investigation of Bimetallic Interactions in Pt-Re/
A1203 and Ir-Re/Al203 Catalysts," MS Thesis, Clemson Univesity
(1994)
6. Rice, R.W., and D.C. Keptner, "The Effect of Bimetallic Catalyst Prepa-
ration and Treatment on Behavior for Propane Hydrogenolysis," Appl.
Catal. A: General, 262, 233 (2004)
7. Montgomery, D.C., Design and Analysis ofExperiments, 5th ed., John
Wiley & Sons, New York, NY (2000) O


Summer 2005


Figure 3. Arrhenius plot for determining frequency factor
and activation energy for the Pt-catalyzed
hydrogenolysis of propane.











classroom


USING A WEB MODULE


TO TEACH STOCHASTIC MODELING




MARKUS KRAFT, SEBASTIAN MOSBACH, WOLFGANG WAGNER*
University of Cambridge Cambridge CB2 3RA, United Kingdom


Computational modeling in chemical engineering is
becoming more and more a field in its own right,
due largely to the rapidly increasing power of com-
puters but also because of progress being made in develop-
ing numerical algorithms, which are necessary to solve so-
phisticated models.
The industry is highly interested because computer simu-
lations have significantly lower costs compared to experi-
mental studies. Some important ingredients for the field in-
clude accurate physical and chemical models in mathemati-
cal form, numerical values for the parameters that occur in
these models (either taken from carefully selected experiments
or from first-principles calculations), fast computers, efficient
and powerful numerical methods, and-most importantly-
competent engineers who are aware of the limitations of the
models, parameters, and numerical methods.
Although important, the whole field of computational en-
gineering is far too rich to be taught in a single course. In this
article we discuss the teaching of stochastic (or "Monte
Carlo") methods to students of chemical engineering. Monte
Carlo methods have been shown to be highly efficient in many
applications and can be found in various areas in the process
and chemical industry, such as polymer synthesis, crystalli-
zation, liquid-liquid extraction, etc. They are also useful when
it comes to simulating turbulent flames and their emissions
as well as aerosol transport in the atmosphere. More gener-
ally, it has been demonstrated in some cases that stochastic
models can account for effects that the corresponding deter-
ministic models cannot. This is because fluctuations can some-
times significantly change the overall behavior of nonlinear
physical models.
Another important aspect of Monte Carlo methods is, in
our opinion, the connection to mathematics-which provides

*Address: Weierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis and Stochastics,
D10117 Berlin, Germany


an appropriate language by means of the theory of stochastic
processes. In the last decades a number of important math-
ematical results have been achieved that shift Monte Carlo
methods from an intuitive, naive modeling level to the rigor-
ous mathematical discipline of interacting stochastic-particle
systems and their corresponding limit equations. A class of
stochastic processes which is relevant for chemical engineer-
ing is Markov processes, in particular jump and Wiener pro-
cesses (Brownian motion). To the best knowledge of the au-
thors, so far in chemical engineering the subject has been
taught from an intuitive point of view, focusing mainly on
the physical motivation of the model. Examples can be found

Markus Kraft obtained the academic degree
"Diplom Technomathematiker" at the Univer-
sity of Kaiserslautern in1992 and completed
his "Dr. rer. nat." in the Department of Chem-
istry at the same university in 1997. He has
been a lecturer in the Department of Chemi-
cal Engineering at the University of Cambridge
since 1999. His main research interests are
in the field of computational chemical engi-
neering.

Sebastian Mosbach studied physics and
computer science at the University of
Kaiserslautern, Germany, and obtained the
equivalent of a masters (Part III of the Math-
ematical Tripos) in theoretical physics at the
University of Cambridge, UK. He is currently
studying for his Ph.D. in chemical engineer-
ing at Cambridge.


Wolfgang Wagner studied mathematics at the
University of Leningrad (St.Petersburg) and re-
iceived his Ph.D. in 1980. He is working at the
SWeierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis and
SI Stochastics (Berlin) in the research group "In-
teracting random systems." His current fields
of interest include Monte Carlo algorithms for
nonlinear equations, and limit theorems for in-
teracting particle systems.
@ Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2005


Chemical Enrineerine Education










in reference one as well as in the course CH 235 (AUG) 3:0
in the masters program taught at the IISc-Bangalore ( www.iisc.emet.in/soi/ch.htm>), which is based in parts on the
book by D.M. Himmelblau and K.B. Bischoff, Process Analy-
sis and Simulation, first published by John Wiley in 1967.
With this in mind the authors felt a need to design a course
to bridge the gap between the physical-say, direct simula-
tion methods-and the more rigorous mathematical approach.
First, we aim to enable students to understand current Monte
Carlo methods on a more fundamental level and also to help
them improve a given Monte Carlo method in terms of its
numerical efficiency. Second, we teach students the connec-
tions between deterministic models and their stochastic coun-
terparts given by a Monte Carlo algorithm.
A first result of the authors' activity is the
16-lecture course taught in the Department
of Chemical Engineering at the University We dem
of Cambridge. The course, named Stochas- while I
tic Modeling in Chemical Engineering, is apa
given to students who are at an advanced exampi
undergraduate/beginning postgraduate level stochast
in the last (fourth) year of the undergraduate
curriculum. At that stage, students have al- can be
ready been exposed to some computational from it
techniques in process engineering, and they equ
have a solid knowledge of models used in and t
chemical engineering, how Mo
The stochastic modeling course starts with algorithm
examples in chemical engineering that lend impleme
themselves to a stochastic approach. After comj
the introduction, we discuss how random
numbers can be obtained using numerical al-
gorithms. Then the notion of a Markov pro-
cess is introduced, and the particular example of a jump pro-
cess (death process) is examined.
Using this basis, we then develop a jump process that can
be used to model a perfectly mixed gas in a tank reactor. For
this system, a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method
is introduced that simulates how the physical quantities of in-
terest change with time. The DSMC algorithm is based on the
work of Gillespie[2, 3] published in the 1970s. We demonstrate,
while looking at a particular example, how a stochastic process
can be obtained from its Master equation and discuss how Monte
Carlo algorithms can be implemented on a computer. For this
algorithm, we present techniques for investigating numerical
properties of Monte Carlo algorithms in general.
We then generalize the DSMC algorithm to arbitrary sys-
tems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and study
coagulation of particles as described by the Smoluchowski
equation.[4]
Finally, we introduce stochastic reactor models, which ac-
count for nonideally mixed chemical reactors. These models


are based on the joint scalar probability density function trans-
port equation, which is also frequently used for modeling tur-
bulent reacting flow.
For all examples, we state a DSMC algorithm that can be
easily implemented on a computer. The lectures are accom-
panied by example papers, which are discussed in small, su-
pervised groups. These example papers are pencil and paper
problems in a classical fashion; they do not contain any pro-
gramming exercises, which would have to be carried out on
a computer. This is partly because the students have not been
taught a high-level computer language such as FORTRAN
or C, and also because the implementation of algorithms as
part of computer science does not provide any insight from
the modeling perspective. The overall assess-
ment of the students' learning progress is at
the end of the academic year, when they have
trate, to complete four papers that cover all the
g at courses taught in that year.
ing at
iar To introduce an element of continuous as-
sessment and to give students the possibility
low a
of getting some working experience with sto-
rocess
chastic algorithms, the stochastic modeling
ined course is complemented by a Web module,
aster which will be described in more detail later
on in this paper. The purpose of this Web mod-
uss ule is to let students gain some experience on
Carlo how to perform and investigate a Monte Carlo
can be simulation algorithm without assuming any
d on a knowledge of a programming language.
er. The Web module can be accessed from ev-
ery computer that runs Microsoft Internet
Explorer or a similar Java-enabled browser.
All students at Cambridge (and a large pro-
portion of students worldwide) have access to such comput-
ers either at home or on campus.
The Web module, as it has been set up, also introduces an
element of continuous assessment. As described in more de-
tail below, it contains a set of tasks and exercises, which stu-
dents have to complete either in small groups or on their own.
They are asked to summarize their results and send a short
report by mail to the research assistant or the lecturer who
accompanied the students' progress. Some students even com-
pleted their reports at home during the vacation period and
kept in touch via e-mail.
The content and design of the Web module are described in
detail in the next section, which refers to one particular part
of the stochastic modeling course-that dealing with the di-
rect simulation of chemical reactions in a perfectly stirred
batch reactor. Two reactions are studied: a simple chemical
reaction for efficiency and convergence analysis, and the
Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction as an example of a cha-
otic chemical system. The well-known BZ system has been


Summer 2005


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chosen to study the influence of fluctuations on chemical re-
actions. Furthermore, it presents an example of an oscillating
reaction and aims to illuminate how such a system can be
studied analytically using local stability analysis. In vari-
ous exercises involving a number of numerical experi-
ments with the Java applet, students have the opportunity
to develop an understanding of the chemical reactions and
see how the theoretical analysis is related to the actual
behavior of the system.
We hope that by making this teaching resource available
on the Internet we can encourage other university teachers to
use it as an addition to their lecture courses. In our opinion,
the module is not limited to chemical engineering courses
but might also be useful in all physics, chemistry, or math-
ematics courses that contain elements of stochastic processes
and/or nonlinear ordinary differential equations.

DESCRIPTION OF THE WEB SITE
The Web module can be accessed through the home page
of the course "Stochastic Modeling in Chemical Engineer-
ing," < http://www.cheng.cam.ac.uk/c4e/StoMo>, or directly
via . The site
is structured as follows: On the title page, the table of con-
tents is shown in the form of links to all subsequent pages.
Furthermore, at the top and bottom of every page there are
navigational buttons, so that the user is led through the whole
site step by step. The following pages can be found:
Introduction
Theory
SSome theory for a simple example
SSome theory for the Belousov-Zhabotinsky system

o for the simple example
o for the Belousov-Zhabotinsky system
Numerical experiments
Videos of actual experiments
Questionnaire
Web-based teaching-a survey


On the introductory page, we explain the subjects and the
aims of the Web module and its connections to other teach-
ing units. We focus on three areas: reaction engineering,
Monte Carlo methods, and dynamical systems and chaos. We
discuss how the Web module is related to these areas. And
we specifically state the aims we want to achieve, which are:
1. To provide a numerical tool, based on a Monte Carlo
method, to simulate chemical reactions and understand
the numerical properties of Monte Carlo methods for
chemical reactions
2. To study a chemical reaction system analytically using
linear stability analysis


3. To present an example for
chemicalfeedback


reactions and


The Connection to Other Teaching units are specific to the
chemical engineering course in Cambridge, but these courses
are taught in similar fashion in other chemical engineering
departments the world over. Curriculum containing materi-
als that provide the basis for the modules' successful use and
the problems' completion includes: Computer-Aided Process
Engineering, Statistics, Mathematical Modeling of Chemi-
cal Reactors, Combustion, Bioprocess Engineering, Thermo-
dynamics, and Kinetic Theory.
In the theory section, we introduce two example systems
to be considered. The first consists of two very simple chemi-
cal reactions, allowing students to focus on investigating nu-
merical properties of the algorithm rather than struggling with
the complexity of the system itself. In the second, students
are familiarized with the BZ reaction in some detail, but in
order to avoid confusion, we restrict ourselves to a simplified
oregonator mechanism due to Field, Koris, and Noyes.5, 6]


A+Y "X+P

X+Y-k22P

A+X k2X+2Z
k4
2X A+P

B+Z-k4 fY

Here, X, Y, and Z are the species of interest in which the
oscillations are to be observed, A and B are assumed to be
constant, and f is an adjustable (not necessarily integer) pa-
rameter which arises due to the simplification of the model.
By performing a transformation of variables71 on the corre-
sponding reaction-rate equations, we derive a system of three
dimensionless ordinary differential equations:

dx 1
d= -[qy-xy+x(1-x)]

dy 7[-qy -xy+fz]

dz
-=X-Z
dt

The dimensionless parameters e, e', q, and f, which are func-
tions of A, B, and the rate constants, determine the qualitative
dynamical behavior of the system. Specifically, students are
led through the calculation of the steady state and the so-called
nullclines, which, using a number of graphs, provides an intui-
tive understanding of the time evolution in the phase space.
Finally, we demonstrate how to perform a local stability analy-
sis by means of linearization at the point of steady state includ-
ing a classification of the eigenvalues of the Jacobi matrix.
On the algorithm pages, we write down explicitly the sto-
chastic algorithms for both systems of chemical reactions.
This is simply a specialization of the general method pre-


Chemical Entineerint Education











sented in the lectures, using the same notation, and is further-
more identical to Gillespie's method.[2, 3] As mentioned above,
instead of referring to a particular programming language,
we describe in words and formulae every step of the algo-
rithm. In the lecture course, students have learned the con-
cepts of reaction-rate functions (or simply, rates) Ki, waiting
time parameter



and reaction probabilities Pi= K i/in. Equipped with this
knowledge, students are well prepared to understand the al-
gorithms. The one for the BZ system reads:
1. Initialize the number ofparticles for each species, i.e.,
N,, and N,, set the time t equal to zero, and fix a
stopping time t, .

2. Calculate the rates Ki, the waiting time parameter t, and
the reaction probabilities p,.

3. Generate an exponentially distributed waiting time T,
where the decay constant exponential is given by the
waiting time parameter T. Generate a reaction index a
according to the reaction probabilities p .
4. Perform the reaction a chosen in the previous step, i.e.:
If a =1 then increase Nx by and decrease N, by 1
SIf a =2 then decrease N, andN, each by 1
If a =3 then increase Nx by 1 and Nz by 2
If a =4 then decrease N, by 2
If a =5 then increase N, byf/2 and decrease Nz by 1
5. Advance the current time t to t + T. Ift otherwise stop.


The description of the Java applet and the list of exercises
are a central part of the Web site. The corresponding page
first explains the purpose of the applet, then its elements and
parameters, how to run a simulation, and how to obtain mea-
surement data. The applet can be started by clicking on a link
that opens a new window containing just the applet, so that
students can run simulations and browse the Web site at the
same time. Figure 1 shows the program with a typical output
of the time evolution of the species, the phase space diagram,
and numerical measurement data. It might be necessary to
download the Java 2 Runtime Environment plug-in to view this
page (the page has been tested using version 1.3.1_03).
Apart from experimenting with the applet in a rather un-
systematic way, we expect students to complete a number of
problems and exercises. The students who participated in the
lecture course were asked to include answers to the problems
in an essay to be handed in for grading.
The exercises focus on three areas: the numerical proper-
ties of the stochastic algorithm, the physical properties of the
BZ system, and the characteristic features of dynamical sys-
tems. On the numerical side, students are asked to study sys-
tematic and statistical errors, their convergence, and some
efficiency-related issues using the simple system of chemi-
cal reactions as a test case. Then, by investigating the BZ
system, the theoretical knowledge on dynamical systems de-
veloped earlier is to be consolidated. Feedback on the reports
was given in supervisions, which are tutorials for groups of
two to three students (typical for the Cambridge system of
education). In some cases students contacted research assis-
tants through e-mail to ask specific questions.


I Start I Reset IBZ j- n=165000 seed=425
q=lle-2 f=-0.7 e= 5e-2 e= 2 5e-5 kc= 0-
x0=0.4 yO= 1 z0=[0.05 k2=124e4 k5=1336
L= 1 M= 0 dt-= e-2 tstop= 40 delay-T10
PScx-=I 01 PScz=0- 5 Sc_ I_0 Scy=-I15 Scz= 5


0 40.000000000 X 0.00
0 40.000000000 Y 0.00
0 40.000000000 Z 0.97
Total number of steps: 3633107
Total CPU time elapsed: 8.943 s
m: Time[s]: Steps:
0 40.000000000 3633107000
Finished!


3352304
0309299
5233214


CPU-t[s]:
8943


Step 3633107


0


Figure 1.
Screenshot of
the Java
applet in
action.


Summer 2005


I x Time 40 000049895


40


_











For motivational purposes, we include an extra page with
links to videos of BZ-reaction experiments. These videos were
not produced by the authors, but they do complement the
Web module, since running the Java applet can qualitatively
reproduce the behavior of these experiments.
Lastly, the students can give feedback by completing an
online evaluation form. We compiled a number of questions
to gather information on how to improve the Web module for
the next academic year. Different criteria are evaluated, in-
cluding technical usability, organization of content, and qual-
ity of the problems and exercises. Students answer each ques-
tion by choosing a number from 1 to 5. We also ask how long
it took them to complete the problems, in order to estimate
how to alter or add exercises in the future. In text boxes,
we offer the opportunity to give more detailed feedback.
Users can identify strengths and weaknesses of the Web
module and comment on the Internet-based teaching ap-
proach in general.
On the page titled "Web-based teaching-a survey" we list
a number of Web sites that also attempt to supplement con-
ventional courses. We do this mainly because during the de-
sign phase of this Web module, we came across many ex-
amples that we thought deserved some advertising. We dis-
tinguish between different classes of teaching material and
give short descriptions of a selection of Web pages. More
details on various aspects of the material presented can be
found in references one and seven through 13, which are all
included in the Web module.

EVALUATION
The course Stochastic Modeling in Chemical Engineering is
an elective in the fourth year. Typically up to 10 students sign
up for it. At the end of each lecture course the students answer
a questionnaire to assess the course's content and technical is-
sues. Most students indicate they enjoyed completing the sto-
chastic-modeling Web module, in particular the hands-on as-
pect of numerical experimentation. Also highly rated is the as-
pect of modeling real chemical reactions as shown in the vid-
eos. Furthermore, students remarked that the structure of the
Web module allowed them to concentrate on better understand-
ing the material without having to worry about the fine points
of computer programming. With the activity presented as a Web
module, they were able to progress through it at their own pace,
wherever they had access to a computer. Most of the students,
however, complained about the amount of material and the short-
age of time they had to complete the tasks.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
In this paper, we described the course development on sto-
chastic numerical methods in chemical engineering at Cam-
bridge and presented a Web module, which is a central part
of the fourth-year course Stochastic Modeling in Chemical


Engineering. This Web module allows students at Cambridge
to practice concepts taught in lectures, and it offers students
worldwide a practical tool for studying stochastic methods
and nonlinear chemical systems. Two chemical reactions in a
perfectly mixed batch reactor can be studied using a DSMC
algorithm implemented in a Java applet.
In working through the Web module, the users are sup-
posed to write an essay that includes answers to a set of prob-
lems given in the module. To obtain these answers, students
need to make extensive use of the Java applet. The Web mod-
ule contains some additional material on the chemical and physi-
cal background of the reactions being studied. It also provides
some basic material on linear-stability analysis.
Some videos and a survey on Web-based teaching com-
plete the Web module. An online questionnaire gives users
the opportunity to comment on various aspects and suggest
improvements.
We view this course as a first step into Web-based teach-
ing. We are planning to increase the number of Web modules
for this particular course, but also hope to begin a virtual
laboratory. Funding for this activity has already been made
available by the Cambridge MIT Institute (CMI), and first
results will be published in due course.

REFERENCES
1. Martinez-Urreaga, J., J. Mira, and C. Gonzalez-Femandez, "Introduc-
ing the Stochastic Simulation of Chemical Reactions Using the
Gillespie Algorithm and MATLAB,"( 36(1), 14 (2002)
2. Gillespie, D.T., "A General Method for Numerically Simulating the
Stochastic Time Evolution of Coupled Chemical Reactions," J. Comp.
Phys., 22(4), 403 (1976)
3. Gillespie, D.T., "Exact Stochastic Simulation of Coupled Chemical
Reactions," J. Phys. Chem., 81, 2340 (1977)
4. Ramkrishna, D.,PopulationBalances:. locations toPar-
ticulate Systems in Engineering, Academic Press, San Diego, CA (2000)
5. Field, R.J., E. K6ors, and R.M. Noyes, "Oscillations in Chemical Sys-
tems. II. Thorough Analysis of Temporal Oscillation in the Bromate-
Cerium-Malonic Acid System," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 94, 8649 (1972)
6. Field, R.J., and R.M. Noyes, "Oscillations in Chemical Systems. IV.
Limit Cycle Behavior in a Model of a Real Chemical Reaction," J.
Chem. Phys., 60, 1877 (1974)
7. Scott, S.K., Oscillations, Waves and Chaos in Chemical Kinetics, Ox-
ford University Press, Oxford, England (1994)
8. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Prentice
Hall (1998)
9. Gray, P., and S.K. Scott, Chemical Oscillations and Instabilities. Non-
linear Chemical Kinetics, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England
(1990)
10. Korsch, H.J., and H.-J. Jodl, Chaos. A Pogram ( the PC,
2nd edition, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York (1998)
11. Kraft, M., and W. Wagner, "Numerical Study of a Stochastic Particle
Method for Homogeneous Gas Phase Reactions," Comput. Math. Appl.,
45, 329 (2003)
12. Kraft, M., and W. Wagner, Lecture Notes on Stochastic t. in
ring, Michaelmas Term 2002, Department of Chemi-
cal Engineering, University of Cambridge, UK
13. Verhulst, E,Nonlinear .' I and Dynamical Systems,
Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York (1990) O


Chemical Eneineerine Education




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Summer 2005 169 Chemical Engineering Education Volume 39 Number 3Summer 2005 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Copyright 2005 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. T he statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days of publication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and availability. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Chemical Engineering Education, Chemical Engineering Department., University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Periodicals Postage Paid at Gainesville, Florida and additional post offices. EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS:Chemical Engineering Education Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611PHONE and FAX : 352-392-0861 e-mail: cee@che.ufl.eduEDITOR Tim Anderson ASSOCIATE EDITOR Phillip C. Wankat MANAGING EDITOR Lynn Heasley PROBLEM EDITOR James O. Wilkes, U. Michigan LEARNING IN INDUSTRY EDITOR William J. Koros, Georgia Institute of Technology CHAIRMAN E. Dendy Sloan, Jr. Colorado School of Mines MEMBERS Pablo Debenedetti Princeton University Dianne Dorland Rowan University Thomas F. Edgar University of Texas at Austin Richard M. Felder North Carolina State University Bruce A. Finlayson University of Washington H. Scott Fogler University of Michigan Carol K. Hall North Carolina State University William J. Koros Georgia Institute of Technology John P. O'Connell University of Virginia David F. Ollis North Carolina State University Ronald W. Rousseau Georgia Institute of Technology Stanley I. Sandler University of Delaware Richard C. Seagrave Iowa State University C. Stewart Slater Rowan University Donald R. Woods McMaster University DEPARTMENT 170 W ashington University in St. Louis, Milorad P. Dudukovic, John L. Kardos, James M. McKelvey, R.L. Motard EDUCATOR 178 C. Judson King of UC Berkeley, John Prausnitz RANDOM THOUGHTS 200 Screens Down, Everyone! Effective Uses of Portable Computers in Lecture Classes, Richard M. Felder, Rebecca Brent CLASSROOM 186 A Course-Level Strategy for Continuous Improvement, Joseph J. Biernacki 194 W eb-Based Delivery of ChE Design Projects, Lisa G. Bullard, Patricia K. Niehues, Steven W. Peretti, Shannon H. White 208 Biochemical Engineering Taught in the Context of Drug Discovery to Manufacturing, Carolyn W.T. Lee-Parsons 228 Survivor: ClassroomA Method of Active Learning that Addresses Four T ypes of Student Motivation, James A. Newell 232 Performing Process Control Experiments Across the Atlantic, Anders Selmer, Mike Goodson, Markus Kraft, Siddhartha Sen, V. Faye McNeill, Barry S. Johnston, Clark K. Colton 244 Using a Web Module to Teach Stochastic Modeling, Markus Kraft, Sebastian Mosbach, Wolfgang Wagner LABORATORY 238 A Kinetics Experiment for the Unit Operations Laboratory, Richard W. Rice, David A. Bruce, David R. Kuhnell, Christopher I. McDonald CURRICULUM 202 Common Plumbing and Control Errors in Plantwide Flowsheets, W illiam L. Luyben 222 A Successful "Introduction to ChE" First-Semester Course Focusing on Connection, Communication, and Preparation, Susan C. Roberts CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS 216 Greening' a Design-Oriented Heat Transfer Course, Ann Marie Flynn, Mohammad H. Naraghi, Stacey Shaefer OFFICE PROCEDURES 183 Instant Messaging: Expanding Your Office Hours, Daniel Burkey and Ronald J. Willey PUBLICATIONS BOARD

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170 Chemical Engineering Education The best-known symbol of St. Louis is the Gateway Arch, situated on the west bank of the Mississippi River in the city's downtown, and designated as the Jefferson Memorial National Monument. Another well-known St. Louis landmark, Washington University, was founded in 1853 and recently celebrated its sesquicentennial. The university, always an integral part of the St. Louis community, has grown from a nonsectarian "streetcar" school attended primarily by commuters to an international, researchbased university. W ashington University in St. Louis (WUSTL) has about 3,000 instructional faculty and 11,000 full-time students. The students are almost equally divided between its undergraduate divisions and graduate and professional schools. The university currently is tied for 11th place in the 2005 U.S. News & World Report rankings for undergraduate programs. Led by Chancellor Mark S. Wrighton, a chemistry professor, WUSTL has seven divisions: the College of Arts and Sciences, the Olin School of Business, the Sam Fox School of Design and Visual Arts, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Law, the School of Medicine, and the George Warren Brown School of Social Work. WUSTL received more than $533 million in research support in fiscal year 2005. A fund-raising campaign that ended on June 30, 2004, netted $1.55 billion. The university's School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS) is a small, highly competitive but friendly place promoting high-quality education and research. The school's dean is Christopher I. Byrnes, a professor of applied mathematics and systems science who is well known for his contributions to nonlinear control theory. SEAS has six departments: biomedical engineering, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computer science and engineering, electrical and systems engineering, and mechani- Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005 ChEdepartment W ashington University in St. LouisMILORAD P. DUDUKOVIC*, JOHN L. KARDOS*, JAMES M. MCKELVEY*, R.L. MOTARD*W ashington University in St. Louis St. Louis, MO 63130-4899 Rarely are four department chairmen still active within a relatively small department. The Department of Chemical Engineering at W ashington University in St. Louis, however, is in such a fortunate situation. The St. Louis Gateway Arch at dusk.

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Summer 2005 171cal and aerospace engineering. It counts 1,200 undergraduates, 750 graduate students, and 88 tenured/tenure-track faculty. SEAS also has 35 endowed professors, six national academy members, five foreign national academy members, 17 national young investigators, and 59 fellows of professional societies. Fiscal year 2004 research expenditures were $42 million.EARLY HISTORYThe name "Chemical Engineering" first appeared in Washington University catalogs in 1910 as a Bachelor of Science degree within the engineering school. Students were required to master concepts in general chemistry, analytical chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, stoichiometry, and industrial chemistry. They were also expected to familiarize themselves with technologies for producing clean water, food, milk, and milk products. Extensive laboratory work was required. Between 1910 and 1930, few changes occurred in the curriculum. In this predepartmental era, chemical engineering courses were the responsibility of the Department of Chemistry in the College of Liberal Arts. It is noteworthy that Lawrence E. Stout an associate professor of chemistry, was responsible for teaching the chemical engineering principles course as well as the chemical engineering laboratory and the engineering metallurgy courseall requirements for the ChE program at the time. In 1940, the Department of Chemical Engineering was founded as an autonomous unit within the School of Engineering, and Dr. Stout was named its first chairman. The university's first master of science degree in chemical engineering was granted in 1941. The first doctorate was awarded in 1945. And the first woman with a B.S. in chemical engineering graduated in 1948.POST-WAR ERAThe post-World War II era saw a sharp rise in ChE degrees at the university, cresting at 66 diplomas in 1949. In the 1950s, there was a modest increase in graduate work, and in 1959 the department's current home, Urbauer Hall, was built. By 1960, there were six full-time faculty members. The addition of James M. McKelvey and G.I. Esterson to the ChE faculty brought about a notable change. The former focused on developing new approaches to quantifying polymer processing, and the latter embraced modern process-control techniques. Polymer Processing the pioneering book written by Jim McKelvey and published in 1962, was the first of its kind and enhanced the department's reputation in teaching and research.THE SIXTIES AND SEVENTIESW ith Jim McKelvey (1962-1964) and Eric Weger (19641977) as department chairmen, the next two decades witnessed tremend ous changes. During this era, the university gained international status. Moreover, the importance of graduate work and research grew, thanks in large part to increased federal funding. Biomedical engineering at WUSTL had an early start and thriveddue to the prominence of the School of Medicine. Environmental concerns, new petrochemical and chemical processes, and the issues of energy and synthetic fuels all contributed to help make chemical engineering a popular major. The undergraduate curriculum underwent a thorough transformation in these decades. Introduced in this period were mathematical analysis and modeling of chemical systems, transport phenomena as a basis for unit operations, quantitative treatment of chemical reaction engineering, process control, process synthesis, and design. New laboratory courses illustrated the key concepts of transport, unit operations, and chemical reaction engineering. In summation, a curriculum that was firmly based on chemical engineering sciences emerged in the 1960s andcapitalizing on emerging advances in information technologywas augmented by process synthesis and model-based control in the 1970s. With modest changes, this successful curriculum remained in effect until 2000. Currently, a revised curriculum is being phased in.Faculty additions and accomplishmentsMore remarkable than curriculum evolution in these two pivotal decades were changes that took place in research andBrookings Hall, a Washington University in St. Louis landmark. Lawrence E. Stout, WUSTL's first ChE chairman, pictured in 1940.

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172 Chemical Engineering Education Chemical Engineering Facultyat Washington University in St. LouisMuthanna Al-Dahhan Associate Professor D.Sc., Washington University, 1993r eaction engineering, multiphase reactors, bioprocessing engineeringLargus T. Angenent Assistant Professor Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1998molecular tools for microbial ecology, anaerobic treatment of water and waste, bioreactor design and operationJohn T. Gleaves Associate Professor Ph.D., University of Illinoisindustrial catalysis, microstructured materialsJohn L. Kardos Professor Emeritus Ph.D., Case Western Reserve Univ., 1965structure-property relations in polymers and reinforced plastics, interface chemistry and physics of composites, processing science of compositesBamin Khomami The Frances F. Ahmann Professor Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1987transport properties of complex fluids, polymer physics, biomolecular physicsJames M. McKelvey Senior Professor Ph.D., Washington University, 1952thermodynamics, polymer processing, rheology, polymer technologyP .A. Ramachandran Professor Ph.D., University of Bombay, 1971chemical reaction engineering, applied mathematics, process modelingRadakrishna Sureshkumar Associate Professor Ph.D., University of Delaware, 1996complex fluid dynamics, interfacial nanostructures, multiscale modeling and simulations Rodolphe L. Motard Senior Professor D.Sc., Carnegie Mellon University, 1952r eaction engineering, multiphase reactors, bioprocessing engineeringPratim Biswas The Stifel and Quinette Jens Professor Ph.D., California Inst. of Tech., 1985aerosol science and engineering, air quality and pollution control, nanotechnology, environmentally benign processingJay R. Turner Associate Professor D.Sc., Washington University, 1993environmental engineering, air quality policy and technology, aerosol science and engineeringMilorad P. Dudukovic, Department Chair The Laura and William Jens Professor Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Chicago, 1972chemical reaction engineering, multiphase reactors, visualization of multiphase flows, environmental engineering, tracer methods graduate-level coursework. These changes were brought about by new faculty members and the synergism the department developed with the Corporate Engineering Division at Monsanto in St. Louis. Professor John L. Kardos joined the ChE department in 1965, and in that year, the university and Monsanto were awarded a $1 million federal grant to develop the technology of composite materials. This governmentsponsored university-industry program, the first of its kind, was part of a larger experiment by the federal government to learn how to couple universities and companies in joint research efforts. The Washington University/Monsanto research effort was judged the most successful among seven such partnerships nationwide. From it emerged the engineering school's Materials Science and Engineering Program and an internationally recognized research group in composite materials. Today, this interdisciplinary program spans several engineering departments as well as other divisions of the university. On June 30 of this year, the professor so instrumental in its success, John Kardos, retired after 40 years of exemplary research and teaching at Washington University. He continues to provide advice and guidance as a professor emeritus. Others made their mark on the school's success as well. Professor Buford Smith who joined the depar tment in 1965, established a world-renowned thermodynamics laboratory for determination of vapor-liquid-equilibria in binary systems and for development of estimation methods for equilibria in multicomponent systems. In addition, Smithwith the help of Dr. James Fair and other Monsanto-affiliate facultydeveloped a series of process-design case studies still used in classrooms worldwide. Upon Smith's retirement in the late '80s, his laboratory was purchased by DuPont. Professor Robert Hochmuth (on the faculty from 1967 to 1978), pursued early biomedical research. An expert in the red blood cell membrane and its viscoelasticity, he developed unique experimental methods to test the effects of diseases such as sickle cell anemia on the membrane. Professor Bob Sparks and Professor Curt Thies arrived at ChE in the early 1970s, and proceeded to put the department on the map

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Summer 2005 173A bird's-eye view of Urbauer Hall, which is connected to other buildings in the WUSTL engineering campus. in the area of controlled drug release and microencapsulation research. Sparks' research eventually culminated in the licensing of several patents and his retirement from SEAS in 1990 to found his own company. Thies became a professor emeritus in 2002 and continues to run his microencapsulation business from Nevada. In 1974, Professor Milorad P. (Mike) Dudukovic arrived to start building the Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratory (CREL), which now enjoys a world-class reputation. Funded by industry (18 companies from five continents) and government, CREL continues to be the most productive research unit in the department. Its focus is on the development of improved models and scale-up procedures for various multiphase reactors that are predominant in petroleum, chemical, and pharmaceutical applications. Dudukovic and his team have implemented novel noninvasive methodsgamma ray computer tomography and computer-assisted radioactive particle trackingfor monitoring phase distributions, flow, and mixing within multiphase contactors. The research team utilizes these techniques to validate computational fluid dynamics codes and to establish fundamentally based reactor models. Dudukovic has also been long known as one of the most effective teachers at the university, and has been honored nationally and internationally for his pioneering research. Under his guidance, CREL has recently become a core partner with the University of Kansas, the University of Iowa, and Prairie View A&M University in the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Beneficial Catalysis (CEBC). CREL efforts for the center are focused on identifying the best reactor types for novel catalytic processes that lead to minimal impact on the environment. Professor Rodolphe L. (Rudy) Motard became the department's sixth chairman in 1978. Motard's research interests included flo wsheeting, process synthesis, and data and information modelingall of which have had a significant impact on industrial practice. He was one of the charter founders of the CACHE Corporation in 1968 and served as a consultant to the ASPEN development group at MIT. He also was instrumental in the formation of AIChE's Process Data Exchange Institute (pdXi). Motard became a senior professor in 1996 and continues to do research in process synthesis and database mining with the help of Yoshio Yamashita (D.Sc. '80). Professor Babu Joseph (1978-2002) worked with Motard to develop a cooperative effort in process synthesis design and control and sensor development based on wavelet transforms for early corrosion detection. Joseph also pioneered W eb-based control experiments and the effective introduction of information technology in classroom teaching. He left the department in 2002 to become chairman of the ChE department at the University of South Florida in Tampa.THE EIGHTIES TO THE PRESENTThe period of 1980 to the present has seen gradual change in the evolution of the undergraduate programnow firmly entrenched in chemical engineering science principles. DurWash ington University was founded in 1853 and recently celebrated its sesquicentennial.

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174 Chemical Engineering EducationRight, ChE Chair and Professor Milorad P. (Mike) Dudukovic guides student researchers in the Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratory. Below, Professor Pratim Biswas works with a student in the Air Quality Research Lab. ing these years, the program embraced process synthesis and model-based control driven by information technology. Professor P .A. Ramachandran joined the department in 1984. He has added a wealth of expertise in the area of applied mathematics and multiphase reaction engineering, and has strengthened CREL's chemical reaction engineering modeling activities. Ramachandran's research interests are in the modeling of heterogeneous reactions and the study of transport and reaction effects in design of chemical reactors. His book, Three-phase Catalytic Reactors published in 1983, is widely used even today by industrial practitioners as a first-reference source. Recent interests include pollution prevention strategies in chemical reactions, and design of green processes and reactors. Non-Newtonian flows, polymer rheology, and processing were the main research interests of Professor Bamin Khomami when he joined the department in 1987. His current research focus is on the study of nonequilibrium transport and pattern formation in microor nano-structured media. Khomami's research involves studies of hydrodynamic instabilities and pattern formation in complex fluids, microdynamics of complex fluids, and synthesis of nano-structured particles and thin films via aerosol routes. Professor John Gleaves came to the department in 1988 from Monsanto. He brought his Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP) system for probing of reaction mechanisms on real catalytic surfaces. Gleaves rapidly achieved worldwide acclaim for his technique, which has now been adopted at catalytic laboratories on four continents. During the 1990s and beyond, the department added faculty to further support its research excellence in materials and reaction engin eering, and to provide leadership in environmental engineeringan area targeted for growth by SEAS. John Kardos provided stable leadership from 1991 to 1998. Mike Dudukovic then became chairman and remains so at the present. During this period, more impressive faculty additions occurred. Professor Jay Turner joined the department in 1993. T urner spearheaded the effort to reestablish environmental engineering as an interdisciplinary graduate-degree-granting program at SEAS. He established himself as a leading authority in the transport and monitoring of atmospheric aerosols, and has been in charge of a multiyear, multiuniversity project funded by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Science Federation (NSF). He also has won multiple teaching awards at WUSTL. In 1997, Professor R. Sureshkumar joined the department, bringing additional strengths in applied mathematics and physics of complex fluids. His research interests are nonlinear dynamics of complex fluids, interfacial nanostructures, and multiscale modeling and simulation. His work elucidating the physics of turbulent drag reduction by polymeric additives has been noted by theoreticians in the field and has had practical applications in saving pumping energy for farmers. Sureshkumar is the cofounder of the Chemical Engineering Learning Laboratory (CELL).

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Summer 2005 175Of all our graduates of distinction, perhaps the most unusual was Charlie Johnson, who, on his graduate-school application listed as his occupation: "Quarterback St. Louis Football Cardinals." During the 1960s, Johnson tossed footballs during the fall semesters and took courses during the spring terms. He earned his M.S. ChE in 1963 and a D.Sc. in 1966. In 1998, Professor Muthanna Al-Dahhan was converted from part-time to full-time status to further CREL's chemical reaction engineering activities. Al-Dahhan has worked hard to expand CREL's industrial and governmental support. He also spearheaded CREL diversification into the biochemical area, where he has led projects in anaerobic digestor design and in photosynthetic reactions by algae. Professor Pratim Biswas became director of the interdisciplinary Environmental Engineering Science Program in 2000. Biswas brought with him world-class expertise and recognition in aerosol generation, monitoring, transport, and applications. His Aerosol Research Laboratory team has established new applications of aerosol technology in generating catalysts for conversion of solar energy to hydrogen, for mercury abatement in power plants, and for water purification. In 2002, Professor Lars Angenent joined the department, adding breadth to the Environmental Engineering Science Program and novel research initiatives. Angenent's traditional environmental engineering background led to his patent for an improved anaerobic digestor. He also has extensive experience in molecular-biological techniques. He is currently studying biological means for converting waste to electricity. All members of our tenure-track faculty are very active in research, yet still teach one and often two courses a semester, senior professors included. In addition, we have a team of superb professionalsmany of whom are ex-research fellows at Monsanto, Solutia, or Boeing that contributes significantly to teaching and research as adjunct faculty. Chuck Carpenter with over 30 years experience in process design at Monsanto, is in charge of our capstone design and economic evaluation courses. (Thanks in part to his contributions, our students have won AIChE national design contests several times.) Marti Evans who worked in research and technical service in refining and petrochemicals for Shell, teaches as needed; currently, she is teaching a laboratory course that gives undergraduate students hands-on experience with advanced analytical instruments. Greg McMillan is a principal consultant for TAC Worldwide Companies and is working on the next generation of advanced control in DeltaV for Emerson Process Management; he advises students on intern ships in control. T erry Tolliver an ex-senior fellow at Monsanto/Solutia, teaches our control course. Bob Heider brings outstanding practical experience in designing, running, and controlling various chemical processes to our control laboratory course. Washington University ChE graduate Nick Nissing who earned 11 U.S. patents while working for Procter & Gamblecurrently is president of a consulting firm and teaches two senior-level classes on new-product development. Robin Shepard teaches safety courses in the department. Starting in 2002 the AIChE design project began awarding a separate prize for the best applications of the principles of chemical engineering safety design, and Washington University students took home that prize three years in a row. We also have a number of affiliate and research faculty (particularly, in this latter category, Gregory S. Yablonsky ), who use their expertise to broaden the horizons of, and the availability of, diverse research projects for our graduate students.STUDENTS AND ALUMNIA generous, need-based scholarship program ensures that the best students can apply to SEAS, while a merit scholarship program enables the engineering school to attract students whose quality is second to none. It is our awesome responsibility to motivate this extremely talented group of young people. We accomplish this by taking our teaching duties very seriously, by having a strong advising and mentoring program, by offering abundant research opportunities, co-ops, and internships, and by allowing students to work on product development and capstone design projects with industry. Moreover, through exit interviews and correspondence, we monitor their careers and receive comments on the effectiveness of our programs.

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176 Chemical Engineering EducationOn the graduate level, a strong chemical engineering core consisting of applied mathematics, transport phenomena, reaction engineering, and computational techniques is required of all students. The diversity of the accomplishments of our alumni is astonishing. A few examples: Julian Hill (B.S. ChE '24) performed research and patented processes that made the manufacture of nylon possible. Jim McKelvey (M.S. ChE '47, Ph.D. ChE '50) was recognized twice with SEAS Alumni Achievement Awards, for his pioneering contributions to polymer processing and for his accomplishments as SEAS dean for 27 years. Raymond W. Fahien (B.S. ChE '47) taught at Iowa State University and the University of Florida and authored a textbook on fundamentals of transport phenomena. He was also former editor of Chemical Engineering Education The list goes on. Bill Patient (B.S. ChE '57) was CEO of Geon, one of the industry's major corporations. Joe Boston (B.S. ChE '59) was a cofounder of ASPENTECH. Andrew Bursky (B.S. ChE '78, M.S. ChE '78) is a successful businessman in the industry. Mark Barteau (B.S. ChE '75) is a leading figure in heterogeneous catalysis and chairman and distinguished professor at the University of Delaware. T odd Przybycien (B.S. ChE '84) is chairman of biomedical engineering at Carnegie Mellon University. Of all our graduates of distinction, perhaps the most unusual was Cha rlie Johnson who, on his graduate-school application listed as his occupation: "QuarterbackSt. Louis Football Cardinals." During the 1960s, Johnson tossed footballs during the fall semesters and took courses during the spring terms. He earned his M.S. ChE in 1963 and a D.Sc. in 1966.THE DEPARTMENT TODAYThe mission of our ChE department has always been to pro vide a first-rate chemical engineering education, to conduct exciting, world-class research and engage students at all levels in research activities, and to be of service to the community. The department continues to provide a first-rate undergraduate education leading to the accredited B.S. ChE degree as well as the optional B.S. in Applied Science degree with emphasis in chemical engineering. The five-year B.S./M.S. program is increasingly popular, as is the control option leading to a combined ChE and Electrical and Systems Engineering degree. On the graduate level, a strong chemical engineering core consisting of applied mathematics, transport phenomena, reaction engineering, and computational techniques is required of all students. The department currently ranks first at SEAS in research dollars from external research funding sources obtained peryear, per-faculty, and in overhead recovery generated perfaculty, per-year. The ChE department currently has about 40 full-time doctoral students and several postdoctoral research associates and research professors.ChE AT WASHINGTON IN THE FUTUREThe ChE department's 1970 undergraduate curriculum was highly reflec tive of the "state of the science" at the time, and changed little until the year 2000. Now, however, with an overall objective to reflect chemical engineering's multiscale and multidisciplinary nature, our department is phasing in a revised curriculum. As can be seen in Table 1, basic science requirements now include biology (emphasizing cell structure and function). Other highlights of curriculum changes include: emphasizing multiscale concepts, including molecular level; stressing product design and development; and providing greater flexibility in customizing the curriculum. To this end, the core curriculum has been reduced to accommodate up to six additional elective courses in the desired area of concentration ( e.g., bioprocessing, environmental, materials, product development, or others as approved). In addition, a strategic plan developed with the help of the Departmental Advisory Board calls for establishing a strong biomolecular presence in bioprocessing. This should allow us to capitalize more on the unique strengths of the university in biological sciences by appropriate expansion of our faculty. Our ongoing goal of forming a natural link with both biomedical and environmental engineering begins with establishing modern, molecularly based chemical engineering principles. Using those as a basis for scaling up the pace of discoveries in life sciences, we aim to pursue products and processes that are environmentally desirable as well as being a foundation for comprehensive studies of the environment. The result should be an exciting environment for research and education.

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Summer 2005 177Associate Professor John Gleaves explains his TAP (Temporal Analysis Products) system to visitors. Our challenge for the future is to incorporate biomolecular engineering into our curriculum and research, thus strengthening our existing areas of excellence in environmental engineering, clean processing, aerosols, transport, reaction engineering, and materials. This biomolecular engineering initiative should also fill a major need in the St. Louis metropolitan area, which is strong in generating discoveries in life sciences but still lacks a focused center for either transferring these discoveries to useful products, energy, and processes, or for examining their environmental effects in a holistic manner. In his speech of Feb. 22, 1854, W illiam Greenleaf Eliot president of Eliot Seminary (which was later renamed Washington University) said: "There is one view of the Washington Institute which I desire to keep particularly prominentits practical character and tendencies. I hope to see the time when what we call the practical and scientific departments will stand in the foreground, to give character to all the rest. In some way or another, a practical and scientific direction must be given to all educational schemes of the present day . ." We in chemical engineering at Washington University are still striving to make Eliot's dream come true. Our theoretical advances are scientifically founded and motivated by the need to improve the quality of life through environmentally beneficial technology.ACKNOWLEDGMENTThe authors thank Barbara Carrow for her technical assistance. T ABLE 1Revised ChE Core Curriculum Basic Sciences (Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, Physics)....................... 39 Engineering Sciences.........................................................12 Chemical Engineering Core Courses Modern Technological Challenges (ChE 146A)..................2 Analysis of Chem. Eng. Systems (ChE 351).......................3 Thermodynamics (ChE 320)................................................3 Materials Science (ChE 325)...............................................3 Molecular Transport Processes (ChE 359)..........................3 T ransport I & II (ChE 367 or 366, 368)...............................6 Mass Transfer Operations (ChE 462)..................................3 Process Dynamics & Control (ChE 462).............................3 Reaction Engineering (ChE 471).........................................3 Chemical Engineering Laboratory (ChE 373A)..................4 New Product & Process Development (ChE 450)...............3 Process and Product Design (ChE 478A)............................3 Subtotal...............................................................................39 Humanities & Social Science & Communications..............18 T otal ChE Core..................................................................108 Engineering Electives (6 courses from area of concentration)................................18 T otal.....................................................................................126

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178 Chemical Engineering EducationIn the middle of the UC Berkeley campus, next to the Main Library, South Hall is the last surviving building from the original campus, founded about 135 years ago. A tiny tree-shaded appendix to this venerated classical building houses Berkeley's Center for Studies in Higher Education, directed by C. Judson King, former provost and senior vice president of academic affairs of the 10campus University of California, and longtime professor of chemical engineering at Berkeley. Jud came to Berkeley in 1963 as assistant professor of chemical engineering, following a doctoral degree from MIT and a subsequent short appointment as director of the MIT chemical engineering practice school station at what was then Esso (now Exxon) in New Jersey. His undergraduate degree is from Yale. Starting with his MIT doctoral dissertation on gas absorption, Jud has devoted much of his professional career to separation processes. His teaching and research activities have been primarily concerned with separation of mixtures, with emphasis on liquid-liquid extraction and drying. As a consultant to Procter & Gamble, he contributed to the technology of making instant coffee. His lifelong activities in hiking and camping stimulated Jud's interest in the manufacture of freeze-dried foods ( e.g ., turkey meat) to minimize the weight of his hiking backpack. Jud is internationally known not only for his many research publications but also, and even more, for his acclaimed textbook Separation Processes (McGraw-Hill, second edition 1980) that is used in standard chemical engineering courses in the U.S. and abroad. Born into an army family in Ft. Monmouth, NJ, in 1934, Jud moved about in the military world during his early years. He developed an interest in camping and mountaineering during that time, an avocation he has retained throughout his life. After high school in Alexandria (VA), higher education at Yale and MIT, and marriage to Jeanne (1957), Jud began his career at Berkeley in 1963. While the concept of unit operations in chemical engineering is about 90 years old, when Jud started his professional career at Berkeley, about 40 years ago, the standard separation operations (distillation, extraction, absorption, etc.) were considered separate topics, each described by its own methodology. Through his research and teaching, and above all through C. Judson Kingof UC Berkeley Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005 ChEeducator JOHN PRAUSNITZ University of California Berkeley, CA

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Summer 2005 179his influential textbook, Jud showed that each of these separation operations is a special case of a unified technology that can be described by a general set of quantitative principles. Jud's book not only emphasizes the common aspects of various forms of separation technology; it also discusses convergence methods for computerized calculations, energy requirements, and rational criteria. First, for selecting an optimum separation method for a particular purpose, and second, for an optimized series of separation steps in an industrial chemical plant. Jud's pioneering leadership in advancing the technology of separation processes is also indicated by the Separations Division of AIChE. He was the cofounder of that division 15 years ago. A major part of Jud's research work has been concerned with freezedryingin particular, freeze-drying of foods, notably beverages such as coffee. A key problem in freeze-drying is retaining the volatile flavors while subliming ice. Further, it is extremely important to avoid collapse of the porous structure that results from sublimation; failure to prevent collapse makes it impossible to reconstitute the dried product by adding water. Similarly, for biological agents, collapse may cause the loss of biological activity. Jud and coworkers showed that collapse can be avoided by careful control of viscosity and by addition of suitable additives (excipients). In addition to foods, this work has also been of much help to guide freezedrying of pharmaceuticals. In 1971, Jud published a book on the subject, Freeze Drying of Foods (CRC Press). A second research area concerned extraction of carboxylic acids for recovery from dilute aqueous solutions. Such extraction is important not only for acetic acid but more recently, also for lactic acid that is used for making biodegradable polylactic acid. Jud and coworkers investigated the technology and economics of using suitable complexing agents ( e.g ., amines) in suitable "inert" water-insoluble solvents. His research showed convincingly that the "inert" solvent plays a major role; in fact, it is not inert. A third area of Jud's research has been directed at synthesis in plant design. Following the strong influence of the book T ransport Phenomena by Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot (published in 1960), chemical engineering research in the universities was primarily directed at analysis, at detailed microscopic descriptions of chemical and physical processes. During the 20-year period starting about 1965, Jud was one of the few academics who gave attention to the logic of plant designto establishing rational criteria and methods that can make plant design more of a science than an art. A popular and highly effective teacher, Jud supervised a large number of M.S. and Ph.D. theses. The names and present affiliations of his former Ph.D. students are given in Table 1 on the following page. W ithin a few years after his arrival in Berkeley in 1963, it b ecame clear that in addition to his fine abilities in teaching and research, Jud had truly extraordinary talents in administration. He was appointed vice-chair of the Department of Chemical Engineering in 1967 and became chair in 1972, where he remained for nine years. During that time, Berkeley's Department of Chemical Engineering grew remarkably in size and stature. Since Jud's chairmanship, the National Research Council has consistently rated the Berkeley ChE department within the top three in the United States. Jud and John Prausnitz after receiving Berkeley-Citation diplomas at the College of Chemistry commencement in May 2004. Jud (right) and Larry Genskow (of Procter & Gamble) at the International Drying Symposium in Kyoto (1984).

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180 Chemical Engineering EducationKeith Alexander 1983Sr. VP, CH2M Hill, ret.; Joined Berkeley ChE Department as Executive Director, Product Development Program, 2005 Daniel R. Arenson 1988Pfizer Francisco J. Barns 1973Former Rector, National Autonomous University of Mexico Prabir K. Basu 1972Searle (with Scott Lynn) Carl P. Beitelshees 1978E.I. DuPont de Nemours (with Hugo Sephton) Richard J. Bellows 1972 Richard Bellows Advanced Energy Systems LLC John L. Bomben 1981SRI International Robert R. Broekhuis 1995Air Products (with Scott Lynn) Charles H. Byers 1966IsoPro International; living in Mexico Kumar Chandrasekaran 1971President, InSite Vision Daniel Chinn 1999Chevron Texaco J. Peter Clark 1968Consultant Michael W. Clark 1967Dow Chemical, ret. Ian F. Davenport 1972 Structure and Strategy Specialist, Commonwealth Private Bank, Australia Jonathan P. Earhart 1975Hewlett-Packard T arric M. El-Sayed 1987Clorox Mark R. Etzel 1982Professor, Food Science and Chemical & Biochemical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison Loree J. Fields (Poole) 1989Woodward-Clyde Consultants Howard L. Fong 1975Shell Development (with Hugo Sephton) Douglas D. Frey 1984Professor, Chemical & Biochemical Engineering, University of Maryland, Baltimore County Antonio A. Garcia 1988Associate Professor, Bioengineering, Arizona State University T erry M. Grant 1988Weyerhaeuser C. Gail Greenwald 1980Chief Operating Officer, Caveo Technology Robert D. Gunn 1967 Professor Emeritus, University of Wyoming; ret., St. George, UT John P. Hecht 1999Procter & Gamble Scott M. Husson 1998Associate Professor, Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Clemson University Russell L. Jones 1975Aventis CropScience Dilip K. Joshi 1982Pharmacia & Upjohn Theo G. Kieckbusch 1978Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universidade Estadual de CampinasUNICAMP, Brazil Romesh Kumar 1972Argonne National Laboratory (with Scott Lynn) Patricia D. MacKenzie 1984General Electric Donald H. Mohr 1983Chevron Texaco S. Scott Moor 1995Assistant Professor, Engineering, Indiana UniversityPurdue University, Fort Wayne Curtis L. Munson 1985Chevron Texaco M. Abdel M. Omran 1972Kuwait Industrial Park, Kuwait Spyridon E. Papadakis 1987Professor, Food Technology, Technical Educational Institution of Athens, Greece N. Larry Ricker 1978Professor, Chemical Engineering, University of W ashington W illiam G. Rixey 1987Associate Professor, Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Houston Gary T. Rochelle 1977Professor, Chemical Engineering, University of T exas, Austin Orville C. Sandall 1966Professor, Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara John J. Senetar 1986Amoco John N. Starr 1991EcoPLA Business Unit, Cargill James H. Stocking 1974Broken Arrow, OK Janet A. Tamada 1988Alexza Molecular Delivery Rodney E. Thompson 1986BioProcess Technology Consultants Roger W. Thompson 1972Max Kade Foundation Lisa A. Tung 1993Rohm and Haas Ernesto Valdes-Krieg 1975IEGE, Mexico (With Hugo Sephton) David A. Wallack 19883M Jack Zakarian 1979Chevron TexacoT ABLE 1Ph.D. Graduates Supervised by C. Judson King In 1981, Jud became dean of Berkeley's College of Chemistry, comprising two departments: chemistry and chemical engineering. Because the number of faculty and graduate students in chemistry is about three times the number in chemical engineering, Berkeley's world-famous Department of Chemistry has traditionally been the dominant part of the college. Jud was the first chemical engineer to become dean, a remarkable achievement because, all too often, academic chemists are reluctant to accept chemical engineers as equals. Because of his open fairness and his consistent good judgment, Jud was able to break that prejudice. In a sense, the election of chemical engineer Jud King in 1981 as dean of the College of Chemistry is analogous to the election of Catholic John Kennedy in 1960 as president of the United States. Jud's achievements in chemical engineering research and education have been recognized by numerous awards, as shown in Table 2. During his deanship, Jud led a successful effort to build T an Hall, a major building (completed in 1997) for research laboratories in synthetic chemistry and chemical engineering, including biotechnology. In 1982, Jud established a College of Chemistry Development Office for obtaining muchneeded financial support from alumni and corporations. While

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Summer 2005 181 T ABLE 2 Honors and Awards The Electrochemical Society Lecture The Electrochemical Society, 1998. Outstanding Alumnus, Y ale Science and Engineering Association, Yale University, 1998. A ward in Separations Science and T echnology, American Chemical Society, 1997. Centennial Medallion, American Society for Engineering Education, 1993. Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1993. Clarence G. Gerhold Award Separations Division, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1992. W arren K. Lewis Award American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1990. Mac Pruitt Award, Council for Chemical Research, 1990. A ward for Excellence in Drying Research International Drying Symposium, 1990. Ninth Centennial Lecturer in Chemical Engineering, University of Bologna, 1988. Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1983. National Academy of Engineering, 1981. George Westinghouse Award, American Society for Engineering Education, 1978. W illiam H. Walker Award, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1976. Food, Pharmaceutical and Bioengineering Division Award American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1975. Best Paper Award, 15th National Heat T ransfer Conference (with H.L. Fong and H.H. Sephton), 1975. 25th Annual Institute Lecturer American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1973. T au Beta Pi Sigma Xi Jud (right) launching the Tan Hall Project in 1983, shown here with Project Manager Herb Fusfeld and Oski, the UC Berkeley football mascot. such offices are now ubiquitous, 23 years ago it was a pioneering step to have such an office in a specific college in a state-supported institution. Jud correctly anticipated that in California (as elsewhere), state support for the university would seriously decline despite ever-increasing costs. During his deanship, Jud started a new annual tradition. Every spring, the dean invites all college staff members to lunch to celebrate "Staff Appreciation Day." At this lunch, also attended by many faculty, the dean warmly thanks all the staff for their devoted service that is essent ial to the college's operation. He also recognizes individual staff members for outstanding service or for many years of service. During Jud's six successful years as dean, the top Berkeley administration noticed his outstanding administrative abilities. As a result, in 1987, Jud was appointed Berkeley's provost for professional schools and colleges (Engineering, Law, Business, Chemistry, Social Welfare, Environmental Design, Natural Resources, Education, Optometry, Public Health, Public Policy, Journalism, and Library and Information Studies), a position directly under the Berkeley chancellor. One of his major tasks was to help define the role of agriculture on the Berkeley campus and to modernize agricultural sciences. In 1994, the president of the University of California chose Jud to serve as vice provost for research, and in 1996 selected him to be his right-hand man as provost and senior vice president for academic affairs for the entire university system, including Berkeley, UCLA, UC Davis, UC Santa Barbara, and six more. In addition to many other duties, Jud had responsibility of programmatic oversight for the Department of Energy National Laboratories at Berkeley, Livermore, and Los Alamos. As the university's provost, Jud had many diplomatic challenges, including relations with the university's often volatile Board of Regents concerning affirmative action with respect to student admissions and recruiting of faculty and staff. Further, it was his task to provide academic planning for how the university could accommodate an expanding population of college-bound Californians in the face of decreasing financial resources. Because the president of the university is much occupied with the university regents, the governor, and the state Legislature in Sacramento, as well as with the federal government in Washington, with alumni, industrialists, labor unions, etc., it was Jud who had to "mind the store," to take care of the university's daily operations. Jud retired from this awesome administrative position in 2004. Jud's remarkable administrative skills follow from his smiling, soft-spoken manner and from his uncompromising, conscientious sense of fairness, responsibility, and punctuality. Shortly after his arrival in Berkeley, these skills became evident to his colleagues who admired Jud's calm efficiency in organizing his classes and research program. Soon after his arrival, following an insightful and concise presentation Jud made at a departmental faculty meeting, a

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182 Chemical Engineering Education Jud and wife Jeanne (1995). Jud in his role as scoutmaster (circa 1979). Jud and his daughter Liz at Timothy Dwight College (Yale) at Liz's graduation in 1981. Both Jud and Liz were members of TD College during their Yale years. senior professor in the department remarked, "This fellow is amazing. He could run General Motors." Whether with students, colleagues, secretaries, carpenters, or CEOs of major corporationsin short, with anyoneJud has a gift for attentive listening. His role as administrator is to be helpful rather than obstructive. His decisions are always well-considered; they are clear, unambiguous, and expressed with gracious diplomatic sensitivity. Everyone may not agree with a part icular decision but it is always received with respect and without rancor. Jud's firmness is always accompanied with a friendly twinkle, often enhanced by light humor. No one ever gets angry with Jud, nor does he ever show anger: He is always calm and considerate, never raising his voice. At heated faculty meetings it would be instructive to put a pH meter in his stomach to determine his real feelings. Jud and Jeanne King have three (now grown) children: Mary Elizabeth, Cary, and Catherine. Since 1969, Jud and Jeanne have lived high in the Kensington hills, in a house overlooking Tilden Park. They are enthusiastic hikers all over California, especially in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (where they have a summer residence at Mammoth Lakes) and on the coast, between Jenner and Mendocino (where they have a weekend home in The Sea Ranch near Gualala). For many years, Jud was active in Boy Scouts, serving as scoutmaster of a local Boy Scout troop. He has led dozens of overnight scouting hikes in the mountains, canyons, and parks of California. When asked if he ever had disciplinary problems with his boys, Jud replied, "No, the boys are no trouble. But sometimes I had problems with accompanying dads." A perennial problem of such hikes is avoiding poison oak. Following unintended exposure to poison oak, Jud recommends soaking 15 minutes in a full bathtub with one cup of Clorox added to the bath water. Now, as director of Berkeley's Center for Studies in Higher Education, Jud is using his extensive university experience first, to identify some major problems facing higher education in California (and elsewhere). And second, to stimulate research toward solving such problems. Topics that reflect his particular concerns include the university's role in maintaining and promoting innovative technology, methods for sustaining a large research-oriented university in the face of perennial financial shortages, and the role of new technology to advance and facilitate scholarly communication. Jud's distinguished career as a chemical engineering educator has blossomed toward concerns with higher education in general. For the last 20 years, Jud's work has been directed toward answering a key question: Today and tomorrow, what is the proper function of a university in the world, in the U.S., in California? While many academics are working on this question, Jud is particularly well-qualified to do sonot only because of his long experience in university administration, but also because of his chemical engineering background that favors versatility, respect for new ideas, goal-orientation, and a faith that good science can lead to useful results. In engineering and in public service, Jud enjoys a stellar reputation. Whenever President Bush needs to replace a member of his administration, Jud King would be an excellent candidate.

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Summer 2005 183Over the past 10 years we have witnessed amazing changes in communication, specifically regarding the rise of the Internet in everyday communications. All professors, new and old, know about e-mail, and many know how to access journal articles via electronic means. But faculty over the age of 35 may not know about instant messaging (IM). On the other hand, anyone under the age of 25 may not know of any other means of communication (such as how to write a letter and send it via the postal service). We offer below our experiences with IM as a means to "keep in touch with students" and expand our availability.BACKGROUNDFor those unfamiliar with the concept, instant messaging is different from e-mail in that the messaging is one-on-one and occurs in real time. For example, a graduate student from Italy used an instant messaging service to dialog with her sister daily while she was working in a laboratory in Boston. She would type a question, and approximately two minutes later her sister would reply. It is very similar to having a written conversation where a piece of paper is passed between two parties. In IM, the questions and replies happen in real time. All IM services allow users to have a "friends list" of other IM users, and the service polls these friends in real time to let the user know whether or not they are "signed in" (online). Once signed in, the user can send a message to any other online user or receive a message from any user. Once a connection is established, a separate dialog box appears, and the two parties then send messages back and forth to each other. There is no limitation as to location; IM helps people keep in touch across town or across the planet, and has been used in such exotic locales as Antarctica and the Space Station. The New Professor's Experience As a first-year professor teaching my first course, I (DB) was looking for ways to relate to students and provide them with as many means of getting help as they needed. The class was an introductory thermodynamics course in chemical engineering with 28 students and was a mix of secondand third-year students, the vast majority of whom were native English speakers. The mixed nature of the course meant that students were coming with different experience levels as well as with wildly different schedules, which made finding times for traditional office hours challenging. One of my TAs for the course, a seasoned graduate student and a veteran TA, mentioned that he often held "virtual office hours"office hours where he had an online presence via an instant messaging service, such as America Online's Instant Messenger (AOL AIM). He would often have these online sessions in the evenings, when students were likely to be tackling assignments and required guidance or had questions about problem sets. I was intrigued, and decided that I would also try having an online presence for students. Since assignments for the class were due Mondays and Thursdays, I decided to have a session on Sunday evening from 9 p.m. to 10 p.m. in order to try and catch last-minute questions for assignments on Mondays. My TA would have another session during the week to catch questions for the Thursday assignment set. I had some previous experience with instant messaging. It had become popular when I was in college in the late '90s but as a communication tool among friends, not as a method of instruction nor as a means of enhancing student-instructor contact hours. I had a personal instant messaging account,INSTANT MESSAGING Expanding Your Office HoursDANIEL BURKEY AND RONALD J. WILLEYNortheastern University Boston, MA 02115 ChEoffice procedures Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005Ronald J. Willey joined the faculty of Northeastern University in 1983. He serves on the Board of Registration for Engineers and Land Surveyors for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. His research interests include the integration of process safety into the curriculum, and aerogels. Daniel Burkey is an assistant professor of chemical engineering at Northeastern University. He received his B.S. from Lehigh University in 1998 and his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2003. His current teaching interests include undergraduate thermodynamics, integrating technology in the classroom, and increasing student-instructor interaction in novel ways. His research interests are centered on the use of chemical vapor deposition as a novel means of polymer synthesis for a variety of applications.

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184 Chemical Engineering Education While there are limitations to the forum, such as the lack of robust mathematical notation . as new technology becomes available, many of the limitations will disappear . . As these technologies become more commonplace, we can expect them to be used in the learning environment. Right now, we're just at the beginning of this technological explosion.but created a new one for the sole purpose of the class. I knew that my TA had had success with his online sessions, but he was a graduate student and closer in age and experiences to the students than I was. I had no idea if the students would actually feel comfortable enough to contact a professor in this manner. I sat down for my first session on a Sunday evening, and my wife was convinced that I would be sitting there for an hour staring at a blank screen. How wrong she was! W ithin seconds of signing on, I received my first message and my first question. Other students quickly followed, and within a few minutes, my screen had erupted in a flurry of new windows, each bearing a new question from a different student or group of students working together. I estimated that I had at least nine or 10 simultaneous conversations occurring in those first few minutes. To be honest, I wasn't prepared for that response, and my wife was amazed. She actually helped me get through that first evening by watching my screen and letting me know in what order the questions arrived. That enabled me to prioritize or tell people to hold on for a minute or two while I answered another student's question. The students were very patient, and very respectful of the time limit I had set, and before I knew it, the hour was up. I was drained and had cramped fingers from trying to type so fast, but I knew that I had hit upon something that the students responded to. After that first session, I coordinated with my TA so that we were often on at the same time, enabling us to pass students back and forth between us and reducing the load on ourselves as well as speeding up the time it took for any one student to get a question answered. That first night was my heaviest load, but the students took advantage of my availability throughout the remainder of the semester. In trying to gauge the success or impact of the online office hours, I asked the students to fill out an anonymous survey at the end of the semester, asking them about office hours in general. Out of 28 students in the class, I received 22 responses. When asked their office hours habits, the breakdown was as follows: Online Only9%2 responses Online and Traditional50%11 responses T raditional Only23%5 responses Neither18%4 responses So, nearly 60% of the class took advantage of my online presence, either exclusively or as a supplement to my regular presence in the office during the day. Of those students that took advantage of the online hours, 77% found it an effective way of getting their questions answered, while 23% did not. When asked about the best feature of online office hours, nearly all students responded that it was my extra availability, as well as the convenience of being available at a time when they were likely to be working on problems. When asked about what they liked the least with regard to online office hours, again the response was nearly unanimous: the limitations of the forum. I can understand these limitations well. While it is an excellent forum for discussing theoretical or conceptual aspects of the course or for having a personal conversation, the instant messaging format was not the best medium for conveying technical aspects of the course. Mathematical symbolism, for example, was particularly difficult to convey, as there was no easy or convenient way to write out an integral or a differential equation. The students and I often resorted to a sort of crude shorthand for mathematical notation which, while effective, was not ideal. For example, in a discussion involving fugacity, and which form of a particular equation to use, I would type fi (hat) = yi fi Where fi = phi (hat) (i) P which the student would have to correctly interpret as fyf where fPiii ii= =f So, questions dealing with a particular equation, or trying to guide a student by looking at the form of an equation, could be awkward to answer in an IM window. The students were generally happy, however, to spend a little extra time typing and interpreting if it meant the difference between getting a question answered or spending a fruitless evening confused and working in the wrong direction. The last question I asked them was whether the availability of online office hours made them more or less likely to attend traditional office hours. I only had 13 responses to this question, but it was interesting to me that while the majority said it made no difference (8 responses, 62%), the remainder (5 responses, 38%) said it made them less likely to attend regular office hours. In the end, I found the experience to be a rewarding one. The students would often joke around a bit more online than they might in person, and I had some good conversations with students about their futures and concerns that had little

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Summer 2005 185to do with the class or a problem set. Would this have happened in person? I'm uncertain; but, if those conversations helped students, then it was worthwhile. Given that a majority of students in the class took advantage of the additional contact hours, and that a majority of them found the experience useful, it is something that I planned to continue in my future course offerings. Indeed, as of this writing, I have just completed another semester of teaching the undergraduate thermodynamics course, and my experience this time closely mirrored my original observations. Students were pleased to have the extra hours available to them, and took advantage of those hours on a regular basis. The Old Professor's Experience I (RJW: 20-plus years experience) first gained an awareness of instant messaging in January 2004 at a faculty recruiting dinner. The new faculty (DB) was talking about how well instant messaging was working for him running one of his office hours from his home on Sunday nights. The idea intrigued me since, for whatever reasons, students do not come to my office during my office hours. After struggling with learning the ropes of IM (it took a few hours to download the software, figure out a user name, and figure out how to add "my friends"), I was ready for my first online session by mid-semester in February, and decided to try 8 p.m. Sunday night from my home. I had previously announced to the class that online office hours would be held that coming Sunday. W ithin minutes, three students contacted me via instant messaging. Each had his/her own dialog box. The questions and messages were a little confusing to me at first. When one of them opened with a message similar to "How was your weekend?" my reply was a paragraph long, detailing a trip to New Hampshire, and took a full 15 minutes to type out. Meanwhile, other students were waiting for their replies. I quickly learned to cut my replies down to one sentenceI later realized that for "small talk" the students expected about a onesentence reply. The second surprise was how few technical questions I received. I was expecting questions related to the latest homework. Ins tead, only about one in every three or four questions was of this nature. I recall one question that was iterative in nature. The student who asked wasn't familiar with Excel Solver, so I was able to make up a quick spreadsheet example demonstrating such, and sent it via IM to the student. What other students wrote was quite complex. Their questions and dialog ranged from jokes to personal family situations to serious self-doubt. They related much more to me than if they were sitting across from me in my office during a regular office appointment. I'd like to think that some of my replies made a difference. Maybe, because I am so technically oriented, I lose awareness of students' personal needs, and when I sit across the desk facing students, I am perceived as their parent, or as an "old geezer," and therefore they are reluctant to share personal problems. Also, I must confess that I can be impatient when the point of their question isn't brought up immediately. I am sure the students sense this body language in a face-to-face meetingbut with IM they cannot sense my hidden impatience. Using ins tant messaging brings me to their stage where, despite the age difference, we are both the same someone who is online conversing. I am treated as a peer. I was very pleased to have connected with this class in this manner. I continued IM for a summer course, but I didn't connect as well as I did in the spring semester. I suspect that my hours (Sunday night again) just didn't meet the students' needs when they were online. Also they were two years younger (sophomores) and I represented their first experience with an "old" professorI'd wager they probably didn't believe that I knew how to use IM!CONCLUSIONSIn conclusion, adding more hours of contact time via a nontraditional method such as IM has the potential to facilitate student-instructor interactions outside of the normal classroom context. It also may help reach those students whose schedules don't allow them to regularly attend face-to-face office hours, or those students who, for whatever reason, aren't comfortable with an in-person interaction. Because the concept itself is relatively straightforward, and the required software is essentially free, even a faculty member with limited computing skills can take advantage of this type of forum with just a little practice. Online office hours may not be for everyone, however. Both of the classes that are discussed in this article were relatively small, ranging from 15 to 30 students. How a lone faculty member would fare with 60 students (in a large class) or 200 students (in an intro or seminar-style class) is unknown to the authors at this point. With that many students, even a fraction of them online and asking questions at once could be overwhelming. W ith the proper ground rules, scheduling, and some assistance from TAs, however, we believe that this method is extendable to larger class sizes. Additionally, while there are limitations to the forum, such as the lack of robust mathematical notation mentioned above, as new technology becomes available, many of the limitations will disappear. For example, improved handwriting-recognition software will allow for expression of mathematical notation that can be exchanged between users, and advances in voice and video compression will allow for real-time virtual interactions that won't be limited to the typewritten word. As these technologies become more commonplace, we can expect them to be used in the learning environment. Right now, we're just at the beginning of this technological explosion.

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186 Chemical Engineering EducationA COURSE-LEVEL STRATEGY FOR CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENTJOSEPH J. BIERNACKIT ennessee Technological University Cookeville, TN 38505The ABET Engineering Criteria (EC)[1] is generating an unprecedented sensitivity to assessment and tracking of student performance in engineering learning.[2,3]This flurry of activity has many faculty and departments searching for and inventing various models for assessing student performance as well as for establishing a record of those assessments and ultimately applying them within a process for continuous improvement.[4,5] In this context, continuous improvement means making changes to the course/curriculum to quantitatively improve student performance against outcomes. As such, many of the recently introduced continuous-improvement activities can be broadly categorized as outcomes-based assessment[6,7] and are being driven by the ABET defined Criteria 3.[1] And, while ABET did not invent outcomes-based assessment, the accreditation organization has clearly defined the outcomes-based movement in U.S. fouryear engineering programs. One key aspect within this trend is to find the most effective assessment tools as well as the ones with economical bookkeeping strategies. While the literature offers far too many strategies to be cited here, among them are the following notable examples that illustrate the range of approaches. These include a skills assessment worksheet,[8] application of quality-control theory,[9,10] the use of questionnaires,[11,12]and a grading matrix.[13]Shor and Robson's Student Centered Control Model requires course-level ABET-based accounting and suggests a "scoring guides" practice that tracks ABET skills performance.[9] McCreanor demonstrated a college-level approach to tracking a specific outcomeABET Criterion 3b, the ability to design and conduct experiments.[8] McCreanor's approach relies on a "standardized" skill assessment worksheet distributed to select courses across all departments and centrally assessed. Mandayam, et al ., has implemented a curriculum-wide assessment tool called X-files which captures student assessments across the curriculum.[14] On a courselevel, Terenzini, et al ., demonstrated a student-based questionnaire used to gather course-level student responses and feedback.[11]Shor and Robson's[9] work suggests that objective (outcomes-based) scores be given at the course level rather than an overall score, but focuses mainly on using the outcome results in the context of a control loop. Winter[13] provides details regarding his course-level accounting practice that tracks student achievement against "tasks" on exams. Winter links tasks to objectives such as ". . obtaining the velocity field," or ". . conservation of linear momentum," but does not map objectives to skill-based profi ciencies, e.g., ABET outcomes. His accounting practice scores exams according to task, thereby enabling him to identify strengths and weaknesses against specific, topical (task) areas of the course. Terenzini, et al ., use student self-assessment rather than objective measures of proficiency such as test or project scores. All report their results in a descriptive and qualitative manner. The present study uses some of these concepts[9,13] yet illustrates direct connectivity to skills-based (ABET) outcomes. It also details the course-level practices and presents quantitative results from a case study. Prior to ABET Engineering Criteria, most faculty in engineering colleges designed their courses in what will be re- Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005 ChEclassroom Joseph J. Biernacki received his B.S. from Case Western Reserve University (1980) and his M.S. (1983) and Doctor of Engineering (1988) from Cleveland State University. His research interests include multiscale characterization of chemical and transport processes in materials, microfluidics, and engineering education. He can be contacted at Tennessee Technological University, Box 5013, Cookeville, TN 38501, jbiernacki@tntech.edu, phone 931-372-3667, fax 931-372-3667.

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Summer 2005 187ferred to here as the r equirements domain This form of course design specifies requirements (such as homework, exams, attendance, projects, etc.) and places a value on each, thereby establishing what we generally refer to as the course breakdown or requirement breakdown (ri). For example, a lecturebased course in stage-wise separation might be broken down such that homework is 15%, projects are 20%, attendance and participation are 5%, a portfolio is 5%, and exams are 55%, of the grade. In this way, the traditional requirements domain scorecard is produced by summing individual assignment scores for each requirement, and computing the overall score by summing the weighted average of the scores for each requirement.* This form of breakdown is both simple for the instructor and tangible to the students. The requirements may be further categorized or mapped to a pedagogical device such as a classroom activity, team assignment, in-class assessment, etc. (see insert in Figure 1). To satisfy ABET, however, it is not enough to provide this form of breakdown alone. In the ABET environment the following questions must be answered: How did students perform against Criterion 3x? What changes were made to improve student outcomes as measured against criteria . ? What strategy is being used to ensure continuous improvement? These questions cannot easily or convincingly be answered in the traditional domain. The traditional requirements must somehow be further subdivided to reflect the ABET Criterion 3 categories[1] and then mapped to the desired outcome (Figure 1). In this way, the traditional approach is not simply encompassed within the ABET model, but must be extended to adapt to the outcomes-based assessment protocol. This new way of distributing course requirements is the topic of the present experiment which offers one faculty's experience in tracking outcomes-based, course-level assessment information. The experiment also demonstrates how such can be used to objectively alter course c ontent, track and hopefully influence student performance, and at the same time, maintain a quantitative record for ABET reviews. The goal in the end is course-level continuous improvement that enhances student learning and the overall quality of the educational experience.OUTCOMES-BASED METHODOLOGYThe following outcomes-based strategy, which connects course requirements (such as exams and homework) to outcomes (such as ability to apply mathematics and science), was applied to various learning environments, including: two required lecture-based unit-operations courses, a required senior-level chemical engineering laboratory, a required seniorlevel departmental technical seminar, and a nontraditional interdisciplinary technical elective (see Table 1). First, the catalog description of the course from which content-based learning objectives were developed was consulted. The appropriate ABET EC Criterion 3 were selected and a set of outcomes were written that map the content-based objectives to the ABET criteria. The course requirements were then established and mapped to the outcomes so that each requirement would have assessment standards linked to one or more of the selected ABET Criterion 3 outcomes. This establishes what will be referred to here as the assessment map An example assessment map for Transfer SSpSrSi j i j n a i j i j n a i i i i n r== where Si is the total normalized score for the ith r equirement, sj i are the scores for the jth assignment within the ith requirement, pj i are the possible scores for the jth assignment within the ith r equirements, and na i is the number of assignments for the ith r equirement, S is the normalized score, ri is the weighting factor, and nr is the number of requirements for the course. Figure 1. Framework for the ABET criteria-based model.T ABLE 1T est-Beds for Course-Level ABET StrategyCourseTitlePedagogySubjectLevelCredit HrsCHE 3110Transfer Science ILectureMomentum and heat transferJunior4 CHE 3120Transfer Science IILectureStage-wise separationsJunior3 CHE 4240Chemical Engineering LaboratoryLabUnit operationsSenior2 CHE 4810Developing Areas in Chemical EngineeringSeminarMiscellaneousSenior1 CHE 4470Ceramic Materials EngineeringLecture/LabMaterials engineeringJunior/Senior3

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188 Chemical Engineering Education T ABLE 2Assessment Map for a Junior-Level Stage-Wise Separations CourseRequirementCriterion 3aCriterion 3cCriterion 3eCriterion 3gCriterion 3k KnowledgeDesignFormulationCommunicationToolsAttendanceX ProjectXXXX ExamsXXXXX HomeworkXXXXX PortfolioX Science II, a junior-level required stage-wise separations course, is given in Table 2. W ith each requirement mapped to one or more of the select ABET Criterion 3 it is possible to explicitly track performance, assuming that the requirements are adequately designed to demonstrate the desired outcomes. In this new outcomes domain the requirements must contain elements of assessment that map to the criteria. For example, since exams are mapped to communication (ABET Criterion 3g), student exams must include elements of communication and likewise be appropriately assessed and be assigned a communication score. A simple app roach is to include a free-writing problem and score it both for technical content and written articulation. Similarly, since homework is mapped to use of engineering tools (ABET Criterion 3k), at least a portion of homework must involve the use of tools such as programming software, spreadsheets, process simulators, the Internet, etc., and be appropriately assessed for mastery of this element. It is important to note that assessment is a distributed process in which all components of the grade are related to outcomes and are assessed individually. Exam performance on its own does not demonstrate that a given criterion is met. Rather, a combination of requirements and assessment approaches must be used to provide a valid assessment. Furthermore, for the present accounting strategy to be broadly applicable to program-level quality improvement beyond the classroom, persons other than the instructor must be involved in the process, i.e., an external reviewer for a final project or a colleague who assesses or writes an exam problem, etc. Finally, skills assessment against a learning model, i.e ., Bloom's Taxonomy ,[15] can also be addressed in this context, although this experiment did not include this higher level of assessment. Table 3 illustrates the bookkeeping required to track performance by both requirement and criterion.IMPLEMENTATIONThe methodology described here was implemented in five chemical engineering courses over a three-year period to test general suitability for application across the curriculum (see T able 1). A single junior-level required course in stage-wise separations was used as a case study to illustrate the process of implementation and feedback at the course level. The results are later discussed in the broader context of laboratory and elective courses and, finally, curriculum-level feedback. Course description CHE 3120, Transfer Science II, is a junior-level required course in stage-wise separation processes. When broken down in the traditional requirements domain, 55% of the grade will come from exams, 20% from projects, 15% from homework, and 5% each for attendance and a portfolio. Five midterm exams and a final are given. The project varies from year to year but typically involves using or developing a process simulation. Breaking the course requirements into ABET criteria T raditionally an instructor will assign a problem and grade it according to a rubric that establishes the correctness of the solution and will then assign credit for the problema score. This score becomes one of many that will be accumulated to make up the elements of the grade. In the outcomes domain the same problem must be analyzed so as to assess for select ABET Criterion 3. For example, consider a typical homework problem in stage-wise separations:Specify the number of ideal equilibrium stages r equired to separate a 40 mole % methanol in water stream at its bubble point into a distillate containing not more than 5 mole % water and a waste stream not containing more than 2 mole % methanol.The question itself need not be altered in the new outcomes environment, but how we view assessment must be changed. This problem clearly contains a variety of ABET Criterion 3 elements that can be individually assessed. First, it contains elements of design (ABET criterion 3c), regardless of the fact that the word design does not appear in it. In addition, it requires that the student apply knowledge of science (Criterion 3a), i.e., students will have to select appropriate models for the phase equilibrium. Students must select a methodology to solve the problem (Criterion 3e) and to formulate and solve engineering problems. Is a material balance required? Is a heat balance required? What are the governing equations relating the material, heat, and equilibrium relationships? The problem must be solved, requiring application of mathematics (again, Criterion 3a). The instructor may also specify that the problem be solved using a process simulator or that a mathematical model be developed, including elements of Criterion 3kuse of modern engineering tools. Finally, students must assemble their results into a format that can be understood (Criterion 3g, communications). So, a simple problem that chemical engineering faculty have been assigning for decades is rich with outcomes-based informationonly, however, if it is subdivided and scored according to the outcomes criteria. A similar approach was used for exams, the project, and other assigned coursework.

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Summer 2005 189 for Requirement i ABET Criteria Overall Assignment Assignment No. C1C2C3… CkScore a1Si 11Si 12Si 13… Si 1kSi 1 a2Si 21Si 22Si 23… Si 2kSi 1 a3Si 31Si 32Si 33… Si 3kSi 1 ajSi j1Si j2Si j3… Si jkSi j Overall Criterion Score si 1si 2si 3… si k i k an j i jk i kS s i j cn k i jk i jS S Where the Si jk are the scores for the kth outcome criteria of the jth assignment of the ith requirement; the si k are the criteria score sums for the kth criteria of the ith requirement; and the Si j are the assignment sums for the jth assignment of the ith requirement. ABET Criteria Student 3a 3c 3e 3g 3k Overall Score #1 72.3 65.5 72.6 88.5 94.5 76.3 #2 90.0 89.5 90.2 95.9 89.9 91.1 #3 74.0 67.9 74.4 93.2 90.4 78.3 #N 62.4 53.6 62.9 90.0 86.6 68.7 r i k a r i k an i n j i jk n i n j i jk kp S s ˆ cn k k ks a S ˆ ˆ Where is the overall normalized score for the individual ABET criterion 3 (one of the a-k), pks ˆi jk are the possible points for requirement i, assignment j and criterion k and ni ak and ni c are the number of assignments for requirement i with criterion k and the number of criteria for requirement i respectively. T ABLE 4ABET Scorecard T ABLE 3Outcomes-Domain Bookkeeping Approach Requirement Requirement Breakdown 3a knowledge 3c design 3e formulation 3g comm. 3k tools Exams 55% 43.9% 15.1% 35.2% 4.7% 1% Projects 20% 28.9% 20.5% 18.9% 31.6% Homework 15% 37.7% 6.8% 36.5% 19.1% Participation 5% 100.0% Portfolio 5% 100.0% ABET Breakdown 100% 35.6% 9.4% 29% 19.2% 6.9% ai k a k Where ai k are the breakdown for the ith requirement associated with the kth criterion and ak is the ABET br eakdown for the kth ABET criterion. T ABLE 5Comparison of Requirements Breakdown and Outcomes-Based Breakdown for a Junior-Level Stage-Wise Separations CourseAnother noteworthy point is that the assessment of an assignment is only as good as the assessment protocol used. W ithin the context of the proposed course-level strategy for use of assessment information for continuous improvement, the faculty are responsible for ensuring meaningful assessment of student proficiencies. This might include projects, oral presentations, observation, peer input, and, yes, even exam scores. Further discussion on this subject can be found in the literature and is outside the scope of this paper. Doing the bookkeeping The accounting practice is simple: With each requirement (i) broken into assignments (j) and each assignment broken into elements of the criteria (k), a score for each assignment element (Si jk) within a requirement is given, rather than just an overall assignment score (see Table 3). These outcomes-based (criteria-based) requirement subscores can then be summed by assignment (across rows) to give overall assignment scores Si j or by criteria (down columns) to give overall outcomes-based scores si k for that requirement. Summ ing the requirement subscores by assignment is equivalent to a traditional approach in which a single score is given for a single assignment without attaching performance to a particular outcome. Summing the assignment subscores by outcome (criteria), however, provides the outcomes-based distributed information that we are seeking in this approach. In this way, an outcomes-based scorecard is generated, thus creating an explicit record of student performance against stated ABET outcomes (Table 4). A strategy for computing and tracking the outcomesbased breakdown on an ongoing basis was also devised for formative assessment purposes. At any point in the semester the outcomes breakdowns by requirement (ai k) or overall (ak) can be computed. By summing the possible points by criterion within a requirement and normalizing by the total possible points, the normalized-outcomes criteria breakdown (ak) within a requirement is determined. By further forming the sum of the requirement-weighted normalized criteria breakdown, the overall outcomes-based criteria breakdowns can be computed. This produces the outcomes-based breakdowns (Table 5), which can be computed at any time, including term-end. Establishing proficiency levels How should proficiency levels be established? As with any grading system, scores (Table 4) represent a proficiency level measured against some standard, i.e ., a known correct problem solution, an accepted format for a report, the expected outcome of an experiment, or an anticipated level of team participation. At this time, assessments (i.e ., exams, projects, homework, etc.) are deliberately designed to evaluate student learning at various levels, but are not tied to a learning framework such as Bloom's Taxonomy T raditional guidelines were used in accordance with the instructor's judgment concerning the level of difficulty and

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190 Chemical Engineering Education 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45%3a Knowledge3c Design3e Formulation3g Communication3k ToolsABET Break down (% of course assignments) 2001 2002 2003 Figure 2. Term-end ABET breakdown for three consecutive years (2001-2003). content of each assignment, i.e ., average passing scores for each outcome (criteria) were taken to be 60%, with each grade level generally at 10% increments. Admittedly, one of the next challenges will be to tie assignments to "domains of learning," for example, as defined by Bloom.[15] This would provide a more defendable basis upon which to make competency decisions. Finally, the distributed outcomes-based information for each students' performance (Table 4) provides a unique dataset that forms the basis for a new way of grading. Since outcomes are based on ABET criteria that state that "students will demonstrate" proficiency in a specific topic, a passing grade (for example) should no longer be tied to an overall score alone. Proficiency levels in each outcome area should be defined and a grading protocol established that incorporates an outcomes-based strategy. This, however, was beyond the scope of the present study. Planning so the process is manageable . tips for implementing at the course level Preplanning a course in this way can be extremely difficult, time consuming, and some might even say "impossible." The following guidelines, however, were used to make it more achievable as the result of lessons learned in this pilot study. As usual, the requirements domain was fixed prior to teaching the course, while only a rough idea of the outcomes breakdown was established a priori as a target. Analyzing every assignment, in the detail described above, is a daunting task, however. When implementing such a strategy, a week-byweek approach works well: Identify the homework to be assigned for a given week; review the problems one-by-one; break them into outcomes criteria and grade them accordingly once students have completed them. If a teaching assistant is going to do the grading, some calibration may be required. Examples may be necessary to train the grader to recognize the outcomes elements of an assignment and to grade in the outcomes domain.DISCUSSION Results of implementation The results of three semesters (three years) of data from CHE 3120 are discussed. The course was successively taught in 2001, 2002, and 2003 by the same instructor (the author) and the methodology described herein applied. Three performance metrics were used to study student and course outcomes: Outcomes breakdown (Figure 2) Class-average performance against Criteria 3a, 3c, 3e, 3g, and 3k and class-average term-end performance against requirements as a function of time (Figures 3a and 3b, respectively) Class-average term-end performance against the ABET criteria (the outcomes), (Figure 4) The net outcomes breakdown at the end of each term is illustrated in Figure 2. This figure represents the portion of the overall coursework that could be attributed to each of the five ABET criteria emphasized in the course. During the first two semesters (2001 and 2002), no conscious effort was made to alter the course content to adjust the outcomes breakdown. Since the new methodology was being developed, these first two semesters were used as a baseline to establish nominal course performance without significant intervention to alter the outcomes breakdown. During these two semesters the knowledge content was about 37%, the formulation content 32%, the design content 6%, the communications content 18%, and the tools content 7%. During the third semester (2003), however, an effort was made so that roughly 15% of the course content was design related, 10% tools (3k), and 10% communication, with the remainder split between knowledge (3a) 35%, and formulation (3e) 30%. This was not done to balance the emphasis, but rather to reflect this instructor's opinion that the particular course content should have a more significant design aspect and a more appropriate weight given for communications. Figure 2 illustrates that, without appropriate assessment tracking, an instructor may inadvertently overor under-assess specific criteria. Using this outcomes-based methodology can yield valuable formative feedback provided that the data are reviewed throughout the semester. Figure 3a illustrates the time-sequenced class-average performance against the five ABET criteria for CHE 3120. An assessment of all course requirements was made following each exam. This includes exam scores, homework, projects, etc.all-inclusive. Exam peri-

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Summer 2005 191 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95%Exam 1Exam 2Exam 3E xam 4Exam 5FinalCl ass-average Scores (%) 3a Knowledge 3c Design 3e Formulation 3g Communication 3k Tools 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100%Exam 1Exam 2Exam 3Exam 4Exam 5FinalCl ass Average Scores (%) Exams Homework Proj ects A ttendance Por tfolio Over all 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95%3a3c3e3g3kClass Average Grades (%) 2001 2002 2003 a bFigure 3. (a) Time sequence, class-average scores against ABET criteria for 2001. (b) T ime sequence, class-average scores against requirements, attendance, and portfolios were assessed at term end as well as the overall score. Figure 4. Class-average term-end performance against ABET Criterion 3a (knowledge), 3c (design), 3e (formulation), 3g (communication), and 3k (tools). ods were used rather than uniform chronological periods since coursework can sometimes be somewhat nonuniformly distributed in time. This data can be compared to Figure 3b, time-sequenced performance on a requirements basis. The requirements-based analysis can tell an instructor how students perform on various forms of assessment, i.e., exams, projects, homework. As expected, students clearly perform better on homework (>90%) and projects (>90%) forms of assessment that offer students more time to find solutions, work in teams, and practice engineering in a more open environment (see Figure 3b). At the same time, exam scores, which were typically but not exclusively in-class activities, hardly exceeded 70%. It should also be noted that the attendance and portfolio components of the grade were assessed at term end, although an ongoing approach would likely offer better feedback to both instructor and student. And, while the portfolio has typically been treated as a term-end project containing student-selected course products ( i.e ., exams, reports, homework, etc.), a model for reviewing at one or more midterm points has also been used. A communication-based rubric was applied to assess the portfolio quality. While providing feedback on a requirements-basis offers a lumped view of how students are performing, it does not offer outcomes-based insight into what they are doing well or more importantly, what they may not be doing well Figure 4, on the other hand, offers a view of student performance against the instructor's goals (outcomes). In this case it was clear that during the first two semesters, 2001 and 2002, students had excellent mastery of engineering tools (Criterion 3k) and a good command of communication skills, with scores upwards of 80%. Knowledge (Criterion 3a) and formulation (Criterion 3e) lagged behind, with design (Criterion 3c) scores being even lower. While none of these scores suggested a problem with this student population, they clearly identified which areas might be focal points for instructional emphasis. Since design was identified as the most challenging area for students, during the third year of this experiment a conscious effort was made to not only increase design content, but also to emphasize design concepts through lecture, homework, and projects. Figure 2 illustrates the outcomes-based course breakdown for the three-year period of 2000 through 2003, and Figure 4 illustrates term-end class-average performance for the same period. While emphasizing design concepts did not produce an obviously better outcome ( i.e. improved scores on the design-related course elements), student scores as compared to the cumulative average of the prior two years were marginally higher but still well within the year-to-year variability. Surely, one would hope that emphasizing a concept would lead to improved student performance, and while the proposed method of formative and summative course-level assessment of outcomes criteria makes it possible to make such course-level changes, a more detailed long-term study is required to validate cause and ef-

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192 Chemical Engineering Educationfect of using this strategy. S uch a study should include a control group that does not use the new accounting strategy. At least three years of data in several course formats, i.e., lab, lecture, etc., should be included. Input from an external assessor, such as an ABET reviewer, would also be extremely valuable. Experience in other learning environments The outcomes-base strategy was also tested in other learning environments, including a self-learning environment (required seminar), a discovery-based environment (nontraditional technical elective), and a hands-on environment (laboratory). These courses also used a broad range of assessment protocols (tools), including term projects, oral presentations, assessments of team interaction, and similar, more authentic forms of assessment.[16,17] Thereby, the proposed outcomesbased scorecard was tested in an environment of broadly differing outcomes as well as with tools that are widely considered to provide a "richer" form of assessment than exams and homework alone. While the accounting and mapping strategy was the same in each case, the outcomes selected were considerably different and in some cases represent the more difficult to quantify of the ABET criteriathus providing a test bed for evaluating the practicality and functionality of the methodology for the entire range of ABET outcomes. The chemical engineering department at TTU offers a seminar course titled "Developing Areas in Chemical Engineering." It was broken into three requirements: attendance, homework (weekly assignments), and a term project. Students were required to submit weekly assignments that were designed to facilitate their ability to engage in the process of self-education (a lifelong learning skill). The first assignment was to define lifelong learning. Other assignments included writing a column about microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for a popular science magazine, researching a micromachining technology, reviewing a technical publication, and inventing a micromachine concept. The course culminated in short presentations and a brief written paper describing the micromachine each student invented. The outcomes selected for the course included ABET criterion 3e (formulation), 3g (communications), and 3i (lifelong learning). The lifel ong-learning goal was typically addressed in terms of how well the student was able to find the resources needed to answer a question, and the form of articulation used apart from simply the ability to communicate well. "Interdisciplinary Studies in Ceramic Materials Engineering," a course co-offered, developed, and taught by Mechanical and Chemical Engineering,[18] was also part of the study. In this case, ABET Criterion 3d (ability to function on multidisciplinary teams) was included; again, a rather difficult criterion to assess. The interdisciplinary and teaming aspects are addressed in this course by offering students rather openended research problems that require a multidisciplinary approach. Teams and individuals conduct self-assessment and peer assessment, and the scores are kept in the manner defined by the ABET course-level accounting strategy defined above. Finally, a hands-on laboratory course was also included in this experiment. ABET Criterion 3b, as well as team aspects of 3d (not necessary multidisciplinary), were the focal outcomes. While authentic assessment activities, rubrics, and metrics for lifelong learning and team interaction will be debated at length for some time, the course-level strategy presented here was found to provide a basis for quantifying obvious elements of these processes. After three years of pilot testing this methodology in a broad range of courses that included a traditional lecture-based course, a discovery-based research-oriented environment,[18]and a self-directed seminar, several course-level improvements have been made as the result of the outcomes-based assessment data. These can be generalized into two categories: (1) altering course content to change the outcomes-based breakdown, and (2) modification of course content to emphasize outcomes with low performance scores. In the lecture-based stage-wise separations course, the course breakdown was altered to increase design content and decrease communications content. Content emphasizing designincluding in-class workshops, more use of computer simulations, and lectures on design methodologywas included. In the more open-ended courses, "Interdisciplinary Materials Engineering," "Chemical Engineering Lab II," and "Developing Areas in Chemical Engineering," systemic problems were identified in the area of written communications and research methodology. Performance scores on communication (Criteria 3g) and experimentation (Criteria 3b) were low. Surprisingly, some students could not organize their thoughts to produce a good research report, conduct literature review, or design an experiment (thinking through the steps associated with identification and specification of an experiment). Similarly, their information-interpretation skills were weak, which translated into low-quality research reports. Outcomesbased scorekeeping he lps to identify and quantify such deficiencies and to track the response to changes in the classroom. Course content was altered in each case to include in-class workshops and mini lectures on skills-based topics that would otherwise not be included in such classes, i.e., research-report writing, the scientific method, and discovery-based learning. Suggestions for using the course-level strategy in the overall context of program-level continuous improvement The course-level outcomes-based assessment strategy presented here has a number of advantages, including real-time loop closure at the instructional level. It also has a number of disadvantages, including a significant one-time start-up effort and some additional effort to prepare and grade assignments in a nonconventional way. Once implemented, however, this strategy could provide a new way of optimizing instructional efficiency. Furthermore, while this experiment focused on applying the outcomes assessment to the course-

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Summer 2005 193level, the approach may have significant utility if applied, even on a limited basis, throughout the curriculum, to quantitatively address issues of feedback both at the curriculum level and the course level. For example, if students are found to be particularly weak in ABET Criterion 3a (ability to apply knowledge of . mathematics . .), the source of the deficiency may be in the prerequisite course sequence. If applied to a significant number of courses within the department, trends that suggest such deficiencies would be quantitatively identifiable. This form of quantitative information would then become one of a number of indicators that could be used to improve student performance through curriculumlevel continuous improvement. Ultimately, the objective should be to integrate course-level information into an integrative process that is summative and probes deep retained learning rather than superfluous shortterm learning. If strategically implemented throughout the curriculum to include early, mid-curriculum, and capstone courses, this methodology may have value as one part of a comprehensive evaluation system. Y et another benefit of using an outcomes-based performance accounting strategy is possibly one of administrative record keeping. Course-end reports including Tables 4 and 5 can be kept. When combined with student portfolios or select student papers, they provide the basis for an ABET exhibit that quantitatively illustrates student performance against ABET criteria as well as a methodology for continuous course and curriculum feedback and improvement.IMPRESSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSSince the ABET criteria address a broad range of skills, an ABET-based course-level approach for using assessment outcomes was implemented and assessed in laboratory-, lectu re-, and seminar-based settings. The use of a systematic mapping between the requirements domain and ABET domain provides a detailed record of student performance against ABET Criterion 3 Outcomes (Tables 3, 4, and Figure 4). The strategy described here is time consuming at first, but once established, it is no more labor intensive than other methods and yields far more insights into the teaching and learning processes. While the traditional approach neatly itemizes the overall performance on individual course requirements (something that every instructor and student wants to know), it gives no insight as to what are the strengths or weaknesses based on any performance criterion (Figure 3b). The ABET scorecard, however, itemizes the overall performance by the specific performance criteria and offers the instructor a window into student skill-based abilities (Table 4). Both are important and both should be considered when assessing student performance and when addressing course improvement. Streamlining the process on the front end and providing faculty training and retraining in this new ABET-based courselevel strategy should make it a more attractive alternative for faculty to implement. A more extensive experiment is needed to validate and extend the results presented in this case study. Additional test beds wherein other departmental and extradepartmental faculty adopt the strategy must be included in the next level of the experiment. Direct feedback from an ABET review team should be sought during the next review cycle in 2009. Furthermore, elements of skill level should be included in the assessment matrix using, for example, Bloom's T axonomy or a similar model.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSI would like to acknowledge my many students who have patiently permitted me to explore new ways to help them learn and to discover ways to ensure that they are learning. I would also like to thank those who reviewed and offered many constructive suggestions for this manuscript.REFERENCES1. Engineering Criteria 2000 3rd ed., Engineering Accreditation Commission of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Baltimore, MD 2. Stadler, A.T., "Assessment Tools for ABET Engineering Criteria 2000," Nat. Civil Eng. Ed. Cong. 101 (1999) 3.Sarin, S., "Plan for Addressing ABET Criteria 2000 Requirements," Proc. 1998 Ann. ASEE Conf. (1998) 4.Ressler, S.J., "Integrated EC 2000-Based Program Assessment System," Nat. Civil Eng. Ed. Cong. 103 (1999) 5.Pleyvoy, A., and J. Ingham, "Data Warehousing: A Tool for Facilitating Assessment," 29th Ann. Frontiers in Ed. Conf. (1999) 6.Stephanichick, P., and A. Karim, "Outcomes-Based Program Assessment: A Practical Approach," 29th Ann. Frontiers in Ed. Conf. (1999) 7.de Ramierez, L.M., "Some Assessment Tools for Evaluating Curricular Innovations Outcomes," Proc. 1998 Ann. ASEE Conf. (1998) 8.McCreanor, P.T., "Quantitatively Assessing an Outcome on Designing and Conducting Experiments and Analyzing Data for ABET 2000," Proc. Frontiers in Ed. Conf., 1, (2001) 9. Shor, M.H., and R. Robson, "Student-Centered Feedback Control Model of the Educational Process," Proc. Frontiers in Ed. Conf. 2, (2000) 10.Karapetrovic, S., and D. Rajamani, "Approach to the Application of Statistical Quality Control Techniques in Engineering," J. Eng. Ed ., 87 (3) 269 (1998) 11 .T erenzini, P.T., A.F. Cabrera, and C.L. Colbeck, "Assessing Classroom Activities and Outcomes," Proc. Frontiers in Ed. Conf. 3, (1999) 12.Terenzini, P.T., "Preparing for ABET 2000: Assessment at the Classroom Level," Proc. 1998 Ann. ASEE Conf. (1998) 13.Winter, H.H., "Using Test Results for Assessment of Teaching and Learning," Chem. Eng. Ed. 36 (3) 188 (2002) 14. Mandayam, S.A., J.L. Schmalzel, R.P. Ramachandran, R.R. Krchnavek, L. Head, R. Ordonez, P. Jansson, and R. Polikar, "Assessment Strategies: Feedback is Too Late," Proc. 31st ASEE/IEE Frontiers in Ed. Conf. (2001) 15.Apple, D.K., K.P. Nygren, M.W. Williams, and D.M. Litynski, "Distinguishing and Elevating Levels of Learning in Engineering and Technology Instruction," Proc. Frontiers in Ed. Conf 1, (2002) 16.Guthrie, D., "Faculty Goals and Methods of Instruction: Approaches to Classroom Assessment," in Assessment and Curriculum Reform Ratcliff, J., ed., Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA (1992) 17.Angelo, T., and P. Cross, Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA (1993) 18.Biernacki, J.J., and C.D. Wilson, "Interdisciplinary Laboratory in Advanced Materials: A Team-Oriented Inquiry-based Approach," J. Eng. Ed. October, 637 (2001)

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194 Chemical Engineering EducationLeading chemical engineering faculty, in a series of three workshops titled "New Frontiers in Chemical Engineering Education," have identified a need for case studies to support the unifying curricular themes of molecular transformation, multiscale analysis, and systems approaches.[1] As a result of this workshop series, case studies are sought that provide real-world context, including aspects of safety, economics, ethics, regulations, intellectual property, and market/societal needs. In addition, the desired case studies should provide real-world challengesopen-ended, complex problems with incomplete data that require pruning of alternatives. Note that the term "case study" has many meanings. There is a large body of literature on using "cases" for the purpose of student instruction, primarily in the disciplines of business and law but more recently in the engineering literature.[2-4] In this context, the "cases" are brief (oneto two-page) descriptions of an actual problem where students are challenged to analyze the situation and formulate a response, taking into consideration all of the facets of the open-ended problem. Another type of case study is really a short (oneto fivepage) problem statement that identifies the product or process, the design basis, associated process constraints or specifications, assumptions, and required deliverables. Several recent chemical engineering design textbooks[5-7] contain text or accompanying CD versions of design problem statements. CACHE, a not-for-profit educational corporation, makes available selected design case studies with solutions.[8] Our concept of a case study involves not only the problem statement, but associated technical briefs and solution information that provide an introduction to the material, both for the students and for the mentoring faculty. The formulation of design projects presents three major challenges: the project expectations must be challenging yet attainable, the scope must encompass the essence of industrial practice and rep resent a realistic situation, andpossibly most challenging to the instructorthe technical focus of the topic must be such that the project advisor (usually the faculty member responsible for the course) is able to provide adequate guidance, support material, and mentorship to the students. For this project the first objective was met by using design projects completed by previous years' design groups. The final reports were then compiled and the best sections or portions of the solutions condensed into a single exemplary solution. Following a review of the "solution," sections deemed incomplete were made part of the deliverables assigned to the subsequent year's project team. This is not to imply that the solution presented is the only reasonable solution availableas with all engineering projects, many solutions can be considered viable and the students are encouraged to think creatively when determining a solution.WEB-BASED DELIVERY OF ChE DESIGN PROJECTSLISA G. BULLARD, PA TRICIA K. NIEHUES, STEVEN W. PERETTI, SHANNON H. WHITENorth Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695Lisa G. Bullard received her B.S. from North Carolina State University and her Ph.D. from Carnegie Mellon University, both in chemical engineering. She served in engineering and management positions at Eastman Chemical Co. from 1991-2000. She is currently the director of undergraduate studies in chemical and biomolecular engineering at North Carolina State University. Patricia K. Niehues received her B.S. in chemical engineering from North Carolina State University in 2001. She has 11 years of process control and design experience with DuPont and Degussa. She served as a coach for senior design groups at NC State from 2001 through 2004 and is currently employed with Hazen and Sawyer as an instrument and control engineer in the Water and Wastewater treatment industry. Steven W. Peretti is an associate professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at North Carolina State University. He has directed research in bacterial protein synthesis, bioremediation, gene transfer in biofilms, and green chemistry applications of bioconversion processes. Recently, he has become active in the areas of cross-disciplinary education and service learning. Shannon H. White received her M.Ed. from North Carolina State University and is working on her Ph.D. in curriculum and instruction. She has worked in traditional and nontraditional educational settings since 1995. At NC State, she has worked as a designer and consultant on a number of instructional multimedia projects, Web sites, and publications. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005 ChEclassroom

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Summer 2005 195The second objective was realized through the involvement of industry professionals in the formulation of the design problem and the mentoring of the teams responsible for the project report. These practitioners also reviewed the solution material and provided additional suggestions for completion of the case study materials. For example, because of the novelty of the biotechnology-related projects, much of the initial solution material generated by student groups focused on material that was new to chemical engineering practice, i.e., validation protocols for equipment, inoculation and cell cultivation, and biomass processing. The solutions lacked basic engineering data for equipment sizing and utility usage, and thus were vague as to how production costs were actually calculated. This year's students will be addressing these issues and their results will be added to the support material for each exemplary solution. The case study represents our effort to address the third challenge. Some chemical engineering faculty members may want support for the biotechnology projects if they lack practical experience in this field. At North Carolina State University (NCSU) we are fortunate to have faculty with biochemical engineering expertise as well as industrial mentors through the local ISPE (International Society of Pharmaceutical Engineering) chapter, with NCSU students also having access to internships with local pharmaceutical companies and manufacturers. The industrial mentors supplied by ISPE were especially helpful in developing the information for the two biotechnology case studies.COURSE STRUCTURE AND LOGISTICSAt NCSU, the capstone design class consists of a two-semester design sequence. The complete course Web site for CHE 451 (spring 2004) is included in the "Helpful Resources for Instructors" on the case study Web site. The first semester is primarily focused on instruction, including economic analysis, process simulation, environmental impact, and lifecycle analysis, etc. In previous years the students did not start their capstone project until the second semester; the instructors have found, however, that it is more effective to launch the project earlymid-semester in the falland continue it through the spring. This allows much more time for the students to do an in-depth literature and patent search early in the life of the project, as well as to invest considerably more time in the project as a whole. The instructors establish expectations that each student in the project group will invest at least 10 hours per week throughout the project life. The solutions that are available to instructors reflect the effort of one and a half semesters (approximately 6 months), but instructors can "prune" the list of deliverables as appropriate to match the time available. T ypically a capstone class at NCSU has an enrollment of 85 to 95 students. In previous years there were four to five projects (typically traditional simulation-based projects) and four to five teams working on each project in parallel, but in recent years the instructors have tried to come up with as many as 20 to 22 unique projects so that each team has its own project. Typical project titles for the design course are shown in Table 1. The case studies described in this paper had one team of four to five students working on the case. Again, depending on the class size and duration, it would be feasible to have more than one team working on the problem, each being assigned to different aspects of the design. As part of the course deliverables, student teams developed team expectations and established a project manage-T ABLE 1T ypical Senior Design Course Projects AlphaVax: A Facility Retrofit for Vaccine Production SuperPro¨-Based Ammonia Plant Retrofit Biodiesel Facility Utilizing Waste Vegetable Oil Bio-Methanol and Bio-Ethanol Facility: A Feasibility Study Ceramic Processing Citric Acid Production Facility Case Study Production of an Antigenic Co-Protein Line for PeptiVax Pharmaceuticals Innovative Design of a Snowboard Carbon Dioxide Separation: High Temperature Flue Gas Adsorption Reducing the Risk of Cancer from Fried Foods 1.2 kW Portable Fuel Cell System Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System for NCSU Gasification of Biomass: Conversion to Higher Value Chemicals and Fuels Designing a Gelatin Manufacturing Plant for North Carolina Kennametal Waste Minimization Medical Waste Treatment Process: for Use in Underdeveloped Areas Microfluidic Cooling Device for Microprocessors Perchlorate Treatment for Domestic Water Systems The Biological Production of para-Hydroxybenzoate Thermochemical Processing of Tobacco to Produce Methanol: A North Carolina Facility RESS Production of Micronized THC Particles in Solution, for Pulmonary Delivery SuperPro¨ Modeling and Optimization of Conjugate Vaccine Facility Design projects present three major challenges: The project expectations must be challenging yet attainable, the scope must encompass the essence of industrial practice and represent a realistic situation, and . the technical focus of the topic must be such that the project advisor . is able to provide adequate guidance, support material, and mentorship to the students.

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196 Chemical Engineering EducationFigure 2. Web site structure: Student view. Figure 1. Home page for case study Web site. ment system to report time on a weekly basis. Peer evaluations, completed at mid-semester and at the end of the semester, were used to weight individual grades based on group work. The instructors met weekly with teams and/or project managers to monitor progress. Templates for grading written and oral reports, peer evaluation forms, and examples of group time logs are included on the Web site under "Helpful Resources for Instructors." At the end of the semester, the Chemical Engineering Department sponsored a "Senior Design Day." One student from each group made a brief (2-minute) overview presentation using PowerPoint, and then the group adjourned to a poster session. Each group prepared a poster and responded to questions from those attending the session. Chemical engineering faculty, industrial sponsors, multidisciplinary faculty, and parents were invited to Design Day.CASE STUDY STRUCTURETo simplify accessibility of the case studies, the information contained on the Web sites, and the Web sites themselves, are structurally similar. The case study information can be broken up into three major components: the problem statement, support information, and exemplary solution. The pr oblem statement contains the basic information that the student needs to get started on the project. The general purpose of the project, raw-material specifications, basic operating parameters and systems, reaction kinetics, and product specifications are included in this section. Support information includes a list of starting references, technical briefs on relevant processes (created by previous years' project teams), facility layouts, equipment lists, and suggested deliverables for the project teams. The exemplary solution provides a complete project report, including an executive summary, introduction, technical background, process description, waste management plan, regulatory review, facility design, validation/commissioning plan, detailed manufacturing costs, detailed spreadsheet calculations for material balances, equipment sizing, utility usage, profitability analysis, and process simulation results.CASE STUDY ACCESS AND EXAMPLEThe Web site contains three complete case studies for the production of vaccine co-protein, ammonia, and citric acid. The structure of the Web site, and exemplary material based on the co-protein project, illustrate the nature and detail of the case studies. The reader should keep in mind that this is not "Web-based instruction," but rather a source of instructional material which can be accessed via the Web. While this material may be adapted to a Web-based instructional scenario, that would be the responsibility of the faculty implementing the material. Students and faculty can access all of the case studies shown in Figure 1 from the main page of the Web site at The Web site is divided into two levels of access: student and faculty. As shown in Figure 2, students have access to descriptive information about the project, information on each case study, and resources related to the case studies (Webbased, books, journal articles, PowerPoint tutorials, etc.) Faculty can access the same information as the students, but in

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Summer 2005 197Figure 3. Web site structure: instructor view. addition, the exemplary solution and additional resources are available to them through a password-protected protocol. Examples of materials that are available to the instructor are shown in Figure 3. The instructor requests password access through an online registration page marked "Instructor" on the main page. The instructor's request is forwarded to the authors, who will verify the instructor's status and provide a user ID and a password. The authors will solicit feedback from faculty who use these cases regarding questions, problems, or suggestions for additional material to be included. This feedback will be used to improve the case study materials.CASE STUDY INFORMATION: CO-PROTEINTo indicate the organization and the ease of comprehension of the Web site, examples of the problem statement, a list of deliverables, student letters, and tutorials are described below. Problem Statement and Deliverables The problem statement is detailed since most chemical engineering students have little experience with biological systems, and the proteins and processes described are "disguised" so as to avoid disclosure of proprietary information on the part of the original project sponsor.PeptiVax Inc., a biotechnology company, has developed several co-proteins that may help in the fight against several common viral diseases. In test animals, each co-protein attaches to a target virus and the virus-protein complex stimulates the production of antibodies against the virus. This cooperative system may also enable the human body to produce a small amount of antibodies that will limit the spread of the virus. Several of these antigenic "co-proteins"co-Hep B, co-Hep C, co-Human Papilloma Virus, co-RSV, co-Rotavirus, and co-HIVare now in Phase I clinical trials (see Table 1 [contained on the Web site] for protein characteristics). The management of PeptiVax Inc. would like your group to evaluate and recommend a proposed product line, design the corresponding Escherichia colibased processes for protein production (see Table 2 [contained on the Web site] for E. coli growth data), and determine the required modifications to their existing facility (see Figure 1 [contained on the Web site] and Tables 3 and 4 [contained on the Web site] ). PeptiVax's senior management would like to see the following information and deliverables: United States Target Market and Market Size Intermediate and Final Product Descriptions Major Regulatory Requirements of the U.S. market P r oject ROI and Product Cost P r ocess Summaries Descriptions of all Facility Modifications Capacity and Annual Schedule, Based on Market Potential P r eliminary Design/Construction/Validation/Regulatory Schedules PeptiVax's technical and regulatory personnel would like to see the following: P r ocess Flow Diagrams (PFDs) P r ocess Description Material Balances (Raw Materials, Product, Waste,etc. ) Equipment Lists, with Specifications Control System Requirements (new systems) Facility Floor Plan, Indicating Material/Personnel Flows Utility Requirements Product line proposals should be accompanied by an economic analysis of the potential market value of each co-protein. This should include a detailed description of the corresponding viral infections combated by each co-protein, and the current United States infection rates. The design process for any proposed product line should be based on the assumption that all the co-proteins are produced extracellularly by a specialized strain of the recombinant host organism, Escherichia coli Each recombinant strain of E. coli will be able to produce one and only one of the potential coproteins. The individual coprotein characteristics are presented in Table 1 [contained on the Web site] Keep in mind

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198 Chemical Engineering Educationthat the required modifications to the existing PeptiVax facilities should take into account the amount of each co-protein needed to capture the desired market share over the course of one calendar year.This information is sufficient for the design team to understand the needs of the project sponsor. This section is followed by the table of contents for the project deliverables, shown below. 1.Executive Summary 2.Introduction 3.Product Line Determination/Economic Analysis 4.Process Description 5.Process Controls 6.Regulatory Requirements 7.Validation 8.Waste Management 9.Facility Design 10.Detailed Costs of Proposed Product Lines 11 Conclusions Each item in the table of contents is a link to a page in the W eb site that contains a brief (oneto two-paragraph) definition/explanation of that item. For example, the Process Description link will take you to a page with the following information:What is expected: The economic analysis performed above gives upper management at PeptiVax enough information to determine what drugs should be produced. This is based on the anticipated market capture and on approximating the cost of producing a r ecombinant drug. The numbers generated are rough estimates, however. In order to calculate a detailed manufacturing cost and to design the facility to accommodate the equipment necessary for the production of these co-proteins, the specific manufacturing process for each co-protein is required. Before a specific process can be developed, it is necessary to understand the different equipment that can be used in a biotechnology process. This information can then be used to streamline the process by using the minimum number of unit operations required for each co-protein production. To be included in this deliverable are: Overall description of protein production process Complete process block flow diagram Unit operation descriptions of each process unit Material and energy balance Need more help on Fermentation and Purification overviews? See the Fermentation and Purification tutorials in the Resources section.The explanations are sufficiently general to allow further refinement by the individual instructor but sufficiently detailed to allow the team to begin work on the item in question. There are also links to relevant tutorials through the Resources link (note: the Resources link is on the home page). Letters from Students This section contains letters from former design teams with advice regarding project management, preparing oral and written presentations, and general words of encouragement. A brief example regarding oral and written presentations is shown below. Recommendations and Lessons Learned from Co-Protein Group (taken directly from student comments): W ritten Repor t 1.Create outline for proposal and phase reports before actually writing. 2.Don't underestimate the importance of writing versus technical content. 3.Get connected with technical advisors and use to full advantage. 4.Schedule regular meetings with advisor. 5.Schedule regular weekly or biweekly meetings with group. 6.Get an outside English teacher or technical-writing advisor to review all reports. 7.Set goal to complete technical aspects of report the week before due date, so that the last week may focus on writing quality (i.e. grammar, sentence structure, etc.) 8.In group meetings, whether before or after each phase has been completed, discuss each person's section. Each person should have a thorough understanding of everything in the report, including all assumptions made and all calculations. 9.Use reader's comments from each phase, to build on them for the next phase. 10.Choose a project that you have sincere interest in. This will help keep you motivated and interested throughout the semester. 11 Don't get discouragedeverything comes together. 12.There is no "real" structure and requirement for what is to be included in the final projectit really depends on how you got there. 13.Do not look for specific outline of what needs to be done when starting projectstart on your own and think of what seems reasonable to accomplish. Oral Pr esentation 1.Transition between every slide. 2.Go over "pretend" responses to question-and-answer periodbe prepared for questions (or how to respond to questions) you do not know. 3.Request to go first. 4.Don't use white backgroundalways use blue or a dark color. 5.Make sure that all figures and tables are legible. If this is not possible, make handouts for everyone to see.

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Summer 2005 199Figure 4. Example from purification tutorial. 6.All group members presenting should stand. 7.Practice, practice, practice. 8.Assign a person responsible for every section of the presentation so that they can field questions. This will prevent confusion and looks of helplessness during the question-and-answer session. While much of this advice is identical to that which the professor would give, there is added validity when it comes from the mouth (or pen) of a peer! T utorials and other Resour ces The Resour ces link from the main page takes the students to a list of references (Web sites, tutorials, books, and professional journals) that will help them get started on uncovering the technical background for their project. The resource page for the co-protein project is summarized below.Co-Protein Case Study Resources W eb resources/tutorials/texts and books/journals/professional magazines W eb Resources (these are links to other parts of this page) CDC Hepatitis Information Page MedicineNet.com HIVandHepatitis.com CDC Rotavirus Information Page CDC Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Information Page The Respiratory Syncytial Virus Info Center American Lung Association RSV information CDC HIV/AIDS Information Page http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/dhap.htm T echnical Briefs: Overview of Fermentation (ppt) (pdf) Overview of Purification (ppt) (pdf) (see Figure 4) V alidation Tutorial (ppt) (pdf) Overview of Facility Design (ppt) (pdf) Books and Texts: Bailey, J.E., and D.F. Ollis, Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, NY 1986 Shuler, M.L., and F. Kargi., Bioprocess Engineering Basic Concepts 2nd ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002 Journals/Professional Magazines: Pharmaceutical Manufacturing, PutmanMedia Chemical Processing, PutmanMedia CONTROL for the process industries, PutmanMedia Note that the tutorials are available in both PowerPoint and pdf formats ( ppt denotes a PowerPoint file: will open in Internet Explorer or Microsoft PowerPoint; pdf denotes an Adobe pdf file: requires Acrobat reader.)SUMMARYThree case studies have been developed for use by the chemical engineering community. Two of the three case studies are in the area of bioprocessing, which allows faculty who may not have extensive background in this area to provide students with relevant materials. The authors would like to encourage readers to use these case study materials and provide feedback on enhancements, gaps, or other opportunities for improvement.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThe authors would like to acknowledge the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation for the support of this work.REFERENCES1.Rousseau, R.W., and R.C. Armstrong, "New Directions and Opportunities: Creating the Future," Workshop on Frontiers in Chemical Engineering Education, AIChE National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, November (2003) 2.Fitzgerald, N., "Teaching With Cases," ASEE Prism, 4 (7), 16 (1995) 3.Henderson, J.M., L.G. Bellman, and B.J. Furman, "A Case for Teaching Engineering with Cases," J. Eng. Ed., 288, Jan. (1983) 4.Herreid, C.F., "What Is A Case? Bringing to Science Education the Established Teaching Tool of Law and Medicine," J. College Science T eaching, 92, Nov. (1997) 5.Peters, M.S., K.D. Timmerhaus, and R.E. West, Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill, p. 900 (2003) 6.Seider, W.D., J.D. Seader, and D.R. Lewin, Product and Process Design Principles Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., p. 782 (2004) 7.Turton, R., "A Variety of Design Projects Suitable for Sophomore, Junior, and Senior Courses," Retrieved March 9, 2004, at 8. CACHE Design Case Studies. Retrieved July 9, 2004, at

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200 Chemical Engineering EducationPortable computers are getting more powerful and cheaper all the time. Most college students now own one, and many engineering and science curricula require all their students to have them. Once colleges do that, though, they are also obliged to give the students enough to do with the computers to justify that requirement. True, homework involving computers is routinely assigned in technical curricula, but the computer labs at most colleges are more than adequate to serve the students who don't have their own computers. Few institutions have enough computer-equipped classrooms to host all their classes, however, and so it makes sense to have the students use their own computers in class. The question is, to do what? T aking notes in class is not the answer. Lecture notes in engineering, science, and math courses normally involve equations and diagrams, which students cannot enter on a computer nearly as fast as instructors can write them on a board or project them on a screen. Unless the students are given better options, they are more likely to use their computers during lectures to work on homework, play games, surf the Web, and e-chat with their friends. It's hard enough for instructors to hold students' attention in a lecture class under normal circumstances; adding computers with all of the tempting diversions they offer can make it hopeless. The remedy for attention drift in classwith or without computersis to use active learning ,[1] periodically giving the students things to do (answer questions, solve problems, brainstorm lists, . ) related to the course content. Extensive research has established that students learn much more through practice and feedback than by watching and listening to someone telling them what they are supposed to know.[2]Computers can be effectively incorporated into classroom activities in many ways for a variety of purposes. Several examples follow.W orking through interactive tutorialsComputer-based tutorials can be highly instructive, especially if they are interactive, prompting users for responses to questions and correcting mistakes. Tutorials are increasingly common on CDs bundled with course texts, and they may also be obtained from software companies and multimedia libraries such as MERLOT or SMETE.[3] A problem is that students worry about how much time they will take and so tend to ignore them. An effective way to deal with their concern is to have them work through the first of a set of tutorials. If it is well designed, they will then be much more likely to work through the others voluntarily. (A recent research study illustrates this phenomenon.[4])SCREENS DOWN, EVERYONE!EFFECTIVE USES OF PORTABLE COMPUTERS IN LECTURE CLASSESRICHARD M. FELDER AND REBECCA BRENTNorth Carolina State University Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005Random Thoughts . Richard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese Professor Emeritus of chemical engineering at North Carolina State University. He received his B.ChE, from City College of CUNY and his Ph.D. from Princeton. He is coauthor of the text Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes (Wiley, 2000) and codirector of the ASEE National Effective T eaching Institute. Rebecca Brent is an education consultant specializing in faculty development for effective university teaching, classroom and computer-based simulations in teacher education, and K-12 staff development in language arts and classroom management. She codirects the ASEE National Effective Teaching Institute and has published articles on a variety of topics including writing in undergraduate courses, cooperative learning, public school reform, and effective university teaching.

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Summer 2005 201Getting started with new software and building skill in its useMany studentseven those comfortable with e-mail and computer gamesfeel intimidated when unfamiliar software is introduced in a course. To help them over this psychological barrier, have them run the software in class, working through the same kinds of tasks they will be called on to carry out in assignments. When they get confused or make common beginners' mistakes, they will get immediate assistance instead of having to struggle for hours by themselves and will then be prepared to run the software on their own. Several in-class activities may subsequently be used to help them gain expertise in the software, such as: What will happen? Give one or more statements or commands and ask students to predict what the program will do in response. Then have them enter and execute the commands and verify their predictions or explain why they were wrong. What's wrong? Give statements or program fragments with errors and ask the students to identify and correct the mistakes. How might you do this? State desired outcomes and ask the students to write and test programs to achieve them.Carry out Web-based researchAnswers to many research questions can be obtained in a few keystrokes using powerful search engines such as Google. To help your students develop computer research skills, you might ask them to do several things in class and then in homework assignments: Gather information about a specified device, product, or process. Locate a visual image to illustrate a concept or include in a report. V erify or refute an assertion in the popular press related to science or technology. Assemble supporting arguments for different sides of a controversial current issue.Explore system behavior with simulationsComputer simulations allow students to explore system behavior at conditions that might not be feasible for hands-on study, including hazardous conditions. Having students build their own simulations of complex systems in class may be impractical, but prewritten simulations (which might include random measurement errors and possibly systematic errors) can be used for a number of worthwhile activities: Study simulated experimental systems in lecture classes.Ask students to (a) apply what they have learned in class to predict responses of a simulated system to changes in input variables and system parameters, (b) explore those changes, interpret the results, and hypothesize reasons for deviations from their predictions, and possibly, (c) explore or optimize system performance over a broad range of conditions. Prepare for and follow up real laboratory experiments. Have students in a laboratory course design an experiment and test their design using a simulation before actually running the experiment. Following the run, have them formulate possible explanations for discrepancies between predicted and experimental results.Implementation tipsSeveral formats for computer-based activities in class should be used on a rotating basis. If all students have computers, they may work individually, or in pairs or trios, or individually first and then in pairs to compare and reconcile solutions. If there are only enough computers for every other student, the students may work in pairs with one giving instructions and the other doing the typing, reversing roles in successive tasks. After stopping an activity in any of these formats, the instructor should first call on several individuals for responses and then invite volunteers to give additio nal responses. The knowledge that anyone in the class might be called on will motivate most of the students to actually attempt the assigned tasks.[1]Finally, an indispensable device for effectively using portable computers in class is the simple command, "Screens down!" when you want the students' attention for any length of time. As long as they can see their screens and you can't, the temptation for them to watch the screens instead of you can be overwhelming. If you take away that option, at least you'll have a fighting chance.REFERENCES1. Felder, R.M., and R. Brent, "Learning by Doing," Chem. Eng. Ed., 37 (4), 282 (2003), < http://www.ncsu.edu/felder-public/Columns/ Active.pdf > 2. Prince, M., "Does Active Learning Work? A Review of the Research," J. Eng. Ed., 93 (3), 223 (2004) 3. (a) MERLOT (Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and OnLine Teaching), < http://www.merlot.org >; (b) SMETE (Electronic resources for science, math, engineering, and technology education), < http://www.smete.org > 4. Roskowski, A.M., R.M. Felder, and L. Bullard, "Student Use (and Non-Use) of Instructional Technology," J. SMET Education, 2, 41 (2002),< http://www.ncsu.edu/felder-public/Papers/ Roskowski(JSMET).pdf > All of the Random Thoughts columns are now available on the World Wide Web at http://www.ncsu.edu/effective_teaching and at http://che.ufl.edu/~cee/

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202 Chemical Engineering EducationAlmost all senior design courses discuss only the steady-state economic aspects of process design and exclude any consideration of dynamic behavior. Very few design textbooks even mention dynamics and control.[1,2]Given this tendency, the senior design course at Lehigh University is apparently quite distinctive in that it emphasizes "simultaneous design," i.e., the consideration of both steadystate economics and dynamic controllability at the early stages of conceptual design. A detailed discussion of the need for and the importance of this simultaneous approach has been presented in a recent book.[3]The Lehigh design course requires two semesters. In the fall, traditional steady-state synthesis covers steady-state computer flowsheet simulation, engineering economics, equipment sizing, reactor selection, energy systems, distillation separation sequences, azeotropic distillation, and heuristic optimization. In the spring, dynamic plantwide control covers dynamic computer simulation, pressure-driven plumbing, control structure development, and controller tuning. Commercial flowsheet simulation software is now sufficiently user friendly that undergraduates can produce steadystate and dynamic simulations of fairly complex processes. Computer speed has increased to the point that dynamic simulations of fairly complex flowsheets can be run in reasonable times. Figure 1 presents an example of a flowsheet generated by a senior design group. Note that all the plumbing details are not given in the flowsheet, particularly the overhead piping, valves, reflux drum, and pump. The organization of the Lehigh course has three-person groups, with each group working on a different design project. These projects are supplied by an industrial consultant who works with the group throughout the year. Active and retired engineers from industry graciously volunteer their time and years of practical experience to this effort. Engineers have participated from Air Products, DuPont, Exxon-Mobil, FMC, Praxair, Rohm&Haas, and Sun Oil. As educational aids in the area of plantwide control and in the use of commercial dynamic simulators, two textbooks have been written.[4,5] T wo basic types of errors are made by many students: inoperable plumbing arrangements and unworkable control structures. We consider these in the following sections.COMMON PLUMBING ERRORSThe lack of physical understanding of practical fluid mechanics by many students is somewhat alarming. They have learned momentum balances, boundary-layer theory, the Navier-Stokes Equation, etc., in their fluid mechanics course. But when it comes to putting together a piping system to get material to flow around in a process, many students have great difficulty in coming up with a reasonable plumbing system. The commercial process simulators have contributed to this weakness by permitting flow-driven dynamic simulations in which material "magically" flows from one unit to another despite the fact that the first unit is at a lower pressure than the second. Fortunately pressure-driven dynamic simulations are also available. These are much closer representations of reality. Pumps, valves, and compressors must be inserted in the flowsheet in the required locations so that the principle "water flows downhill" is satisfied.COMMON PLUMBING AND CONTROL ERRORS IN PLANTWIDE FLOWSHEETSWILLIAM L. LUYBENLehigh University Bethlehem, PA 19015 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005 ChEcurriculumW illiam L. Luyben earned degrees in chemical engineering from Penn State (B.S., 1955) and Delaware (Ph.D., 1963). His industrial experience includes four years with Exxon, four years with DuPont, and three decades of consulting with chemical and petroleum companies. He has taught at Lehigh University since 1967 and has participated in the development of several innovative undergraduate courses.

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Summer 2005 203In my experience about 50% of the problems in designing and operating a real chemical plant involve hydraulics. Students need to have a solid understanding of practical fluid mechanics. Pressure-driven dynamic simulations provide a useful platform for developing this vital plumbing know-how. The following is a brief compilation of some of the most common plumbing errors that students make in developing flowsheets. It might be useful to also state that I have seen many of these same errors made by presumably experienced engineers on real plants. So perhaps they are not quite as obvious as one might think.No Valve InstalledPerhaps the most serious plumbing error, and one that is alarmingly common in student flowsheets, is to not have any valve in a line connecting process units that are operating at different pressures. This is illustrated in Figure 2 where a process stream flows from a vessel operating at a pressure of 10 bar into a vessel operating at 2 bar. There must be a valve in this line to take the pressure drop and regulate the flow. The valve can be set by an upstream controller ( e.g. level or pressure controllers), or it can be set by a downstream controller. But a valve is required. Students often state that the pressure can be reduced by just cooling the stream. They confuse a "closed" system having a fixed amount of material with the "open" flow system encountered in a continuous-process flowsheet.Stream Flowing "Uphill"Equally distressing is to see a flowsheet in which a process stream is shown as flowing from a low-pressure location into a unit at higher pressure. Students often forget to put in the necessary pumps or compressors.T wo Valves in Liquid-Filled LineThis is probably the most frequently made error. Since a liquid is essentially incompressible, its flowrate is the same at any point in a liquid-filled line. Therefore the flowrate can be manipulated at only one location. This means there should be only one valve in the line that is regulating the flowrate of liquid. It is physically possible to install two valves in series in a line, but these two valves cannot function independently. Figure 3 shows several examples of this type of "forbidden" plumbing arrangement. When a stream is split into two streams at a tee in the line, the flow through each branch can be independently set by two valves. The same is true when two streams are combined. Note that we are talking about liquidfilled lines. For gas systems, valves can be used in a line at several locations.Figure 2. Missing valve. Figure 1. Example of plantwide control structure. M e t h y l a c e t a t e a n d m e t h a n o l f r e s h f e e d M e t h a n o l p r o d u c t B u t y l a c e t a t e p r o d u c t B u t a n o l f r e s h f e e dC 1 C 2 C 3 Cooling Water 10 bar 2 bar Figure 3. Forbidden plumbing: two valves in liquid-filled line.

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204 Chemical Engineering EducationFigure 4. Two valves in gas-filled line. PC PC V1 V2 Figure 5. Forbidden pump plumbing. Centrifugal Pump Positive Displacement Pump Centrifugal Compressor Gas Stream Figure 6. Forbidden compressor plumbing. Figure 4 illustrates this situation. The pressure in the first vessel is regulated by valve V1. The pressure in the second vessel is regulated by valve V2. This is workable because gas is compressible, so the instantaneous flowrates through the two valves do not have to be equal as is the case with liquids. The gas pressure in the process units can vary between the two valves.V alve in Suction of PumpPumps are used to raise the pressure of a liquid stream. Compressors are used for the same purpose in gas systems. In this section we are considering liquid flows using centrifugal pumps. Although students have learned about net positive suction head (NPSH) requirements for pumps, they frequently forget about this concept and install a control valve in the suction of a pump. Figure 5 illustrates this forbidden plumbing. Suppose the liquid is coming from the base of a distillation column. This liquid is at its bubblepoint under the conditions in the column. The base of the column must be located at an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure at the pump suction to prevent the formation of vapor in the pump. This is the NPSH requirement. If a control valve is installed between the column and the pump suction, the pressure drop over the valve will create a pump suction pressure that violates the NPSH requirements. So control valves in liquid systems should be located downstream of centrifugal pumps. The exact opposite is true for gas systems with compressors, as discussed in the next section. It should also be remembered that no valves should be used for positive displacement pumps. The flowrate of the liquid can only be regulated by changing the stroke or speed of the pump or by bypassing liquid from the pump discharge back to some upstream location. The lower part of Figure 5 illustrates this forbidden plumbing with a positive displacement pump. Throttling a valve in the pump discharge will not change the flowrate of liquid through the pump. It will just increase the pump discharge pressure and raise the power requirement of the motor driving the pump.V alve Downstream of Centrifugal CompressorCentrifugal rotary compressors are positive displacement devices. At a fixed speed they compress a fixed volume of gas per time (ft3/minute). The mass flowrate of gas depends on the density of the gas at the compressor suction, so changing the suction pressure will change the mass flowrate. Throttling a valve in the compressor suction changes the compressor suction pressure, so it can be used to control the gas flowrate. But throttling a valve in the compressor discharge, as shown in Figure 6, does not change the gas flowrate. It just increases the compressor discharge pressure and power requirements. There are three viable ways to regulate the flowrate of gas in a compression system: 1. Suction throttling 2. Bypass or spill-back from discharge to suction 3. Change compressor speed The last option is the most energy efficient but requires a variable-speed drive, which is typically a steam turbine if high-pressure steam is available in the plant. Variable-speed electric motors are also available. In compressor simulations this variable-speed option can be easily simulated by manipulating compressor work. In the discussion above we have considered centrifugal compressors. Regulation of flow through a r eciprocating compressor can be adjusted by throttling a valve in the suction, by changing

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Summer 2005 205 1000 kg-mol/h of A 1000 kg-mol/h of B 1000 kg-mol/h of C 10 kg -mol/h Recycle 1000 kg-mol/h of A 1000 kg-mol/h of B 1000 kg-mol/h of C 10,000 kg-mol/h RecycleA. Recycle = 10 kg-mol/h B. Recycle = 10,000 kg-mol/h Figure 8. Recycle independent of fresh feed. Figure 7. Flows fixed in and out. LC FCF i g 7 – F l o w s F i x e d I n a n d O u t FC Steam B A FC Cooling WaterVaporizer Reactor Furnace Fuel TC TC speed, or by changing the length of the strokebut not by throttling a valve in the discharge. Reciprocating gas compressors usually have clearance pockets that change the flowrate slightly, and therefore only provide minor adjustments in flow.COMMON CONTROL STRUCTURE ERRORSMost students in a senior design course have had a course in control fundamentals. They have been exposed to the mathematics and to the tuning of single-input, single-output feedback control loops with specified variables to be controlled and manipulated. To develop a control scheme for a typical process, however, many control loops are required. Decisions must be made about what to control and what to manipulate. Students have had little exposure to this more complex and more realistic situation. The most practical way to learn how to develop a plantwide control system is to examine several realistic examples and step through a logical plantwide design procedure.[5] At Lehigh, several lectures are given early in the second semester discussing reactor control, distillation control, and plantwide control. Then the design groups attempt to develop a control structure for their individual flowsheets. Despite these lectures and reading assignments in the textbook, the students' first efforts at developing a plantwide control system often contain many control-structure errors. Some of the more common are listed below.Fixing Flows Both In and OutFigure 7 shows a process in which two liquid streams, containing reactants A and B, are fed into a vaporizer. Each stream is flow controlled. The liquid feeds are vaporized and preheated before entering an adiabatic tubular reactor. Reactor effluent is cooled and fed into a downstream distillation column. The flowrate to the distillation column is flow controlled. It is obvious that this structure is unworkable. But control schemes like this are proposed year after year by several groups of very capable students. They get wrapped up in the individual unit operations and neglect to look at the big picture. Similar conceptual issues often occur in specifying recycle streams. Students often have trouble realizing that the flowrate of a recycle stream is completely independent of the flowrate of a fresh-feed stream. Freshfeed flowrates are set by the production requirements. To produce 1000 kg-mol/h of a product C in a process with the reaction A + B C, the fresh feed of each of the reactants must be 1000 kg-mol/h. Of course, if any reactants are lost as impurities in the streams leaving the unit, the fresh feeds must be appropriately larger. But inside the process we could have a recycle stream of reactant A, for example. As illustrated in Figure 8, the flowrate of this recycle can be anything we want it to be: 10 kg-mol/h or 100,000 kg-mol/h. Recycle flowrate is completely independent of freshfeed flowrate.Liquid Levels and Gas Pressures Not ControlledStudents frequently submit flowsheets in which there is no control of liquid levels in vessels or no control of pressure in gas-filled systems. All liquid levels must be controlled in some way. They can be controlled by manipulating a downstream valve or by manipulating an upstream valve. Of course, the level control schemes for the individual units must be consistent with the plantwide inventory control scheme that connects all the units. There are very few exceptions to this requirement for controlling all levels. The most common exception is when a solvent is circulating around inside a process and there are no losses of this solvent. In this case there will be a liquid level somewhere in the process that "floats" up and down as the solvent circulation-rate changes. This level is not controlled.

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206 Chemical Engineering Education LC PC FC SteamLiquid B Gas A LC Cooling Water Vaporizer Reactor Gas Recycle Fuel TC TC Furnace Compressor and Turbine FC SC HP Steam S P Figure 9. Pressure in gas loop. Figure 10. Fixing product stream in distillation column. 50 A 50 B 1 A 49 B 49 A 1 B 55 A 45 B 5 A 45 B 50 A 0 B The p ressure in a gas-filled system must also be controlled. Gas pressure can be controlled by regulating the flow of gas into or out of the system. It can also be controlled by regulating the rate of generation of gas ( e.g. in a vaporizer, in a distillation column reboiler, or in a boiling exothermic reactor). Pressure can also be controlled by regulating the rate of condensation of gas ( e.g. in the condenser of a distillation column). The system can consist of several gas-filled vessels with vapor flowing in series through the vessels. Figure 9 illustrates some of these ideas. In this flowsheet the pressure in the gas loop is controlled by the rate of addition of a gas fresh-feed stream. The pressures in all of the vessels float up and down together, but differ slightly due to pressure drops (which are typically kept quite small to reduce compression costs). The flowrate of the gas recycle stream is flow controlled, using a cascade system: Flow controller output adjusts the setpoint of the turbine speed controller, whose output manipulates high-pressure steam to the turbine. There are rare occasions when pressure is allowed to float. These occur when it is desirable to keep pressure as low as possible for some process optimization reason ( e.g. in some distillation columns where relative volatilities increase with decreasing pressure). In these systems heat removal is maximized to keep pressure as low as possible.Distillation Columns with a Fixed Product FlowrateThe first law of distillation control says that you cannot fix the distillate-to-feed ratio in a distillation column and also control any composition (or temperature) in the column. This law is a result of the very strong impact of the overall component balance on compositions and the relatively smaller effect of fractionation (reflux ratio, steam-tofeed ratio, etc.) on compositions. Figure 10 illustrates the effect of fixing the distillate and bottoms flowrates when changes in feed composition occur. Initially the feed contains 50 mol/h of A and 50 mol/h of B. The distillate contains 49 mol/h of A and 1 mol/h of B, and the bottoms contains 1 mol/h of A and 49 mol/h of B. So product purities are 98 mol%. Then the feed composition is changed so there are 55 mol/h of A and 45 mol/h of B. The distillate and bottoms flowrates are kept constant at 50 mol/hr. Now the distillate will be essentially 50 mol/h of A, and the bottoms will be 5 mol/h of A and 45 mol/h of B. Thus the bottoms purity will drop from 98 mol% B to 90 mol% B. No matter what reflux ratio or reboiler heat input is used, this purity cannot be changed. Controlling a composition or a temperature in the column is not possible. There are columns in which a product stream is fixed. These are called "purge columns" because the purpose is to remove a small amount of some component in the feed. In these columns, temperature or composition is not controlled. The flowrate of the purge stream is simply ratioed to the feed flowrate. A somewhat more complex situation occurs when the purging is done in a sidestream column that has three product streams. Consider the sidestream columns shown in Figure 11. The feed stream is a ternary mixture. Two cases are shown. In the column on the left the feed contains a small amount of the lightest component, and it is purged in the distillate stream. The intermediate component is removed in the liquid sidestream. The di stillate is flow controlled, and reflux-drum level is controlled by manipulating reflux flowrate. The issue here is how to manipulate the sidestream flowrate. It cannot be fixed but must change in response to feed composition and flowrate disturbances. The scheme shown in the left of Figure 11 achieves this by ratioing the sidestream flowrate to the reflux flowrate. T emperature or composition can be controlled in this column because the separation between the intermediate and heavy components can be adjusted. In the column on the right in Figure 11, the feed contains a small amount of the heaviest component, and it is purged in the bottoms stream. The intermediate component is removed in the vapor sidestream. The bottoms stream is flow controlled, and base level is controlled by manipulating

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Summer 2005 207 L i q u i d S i d e s t r e a m V a p o r S i d e s t r e a m P C L C P C L C L C L C F C F C T C T C F C F C F T R a t i o S P L i g h t P u r g e H e a v y P u r g e Figure 11. Purge column with sidestream. Figure 12. Herron Heresy. Cooling Water TC TT reboiler heat input. The vapor sidestream flowrate, which cannot be fixed, is manipulated to control a temperature in the column. Note that when a small amount of light impurity is present in the ternary feed, a liquid sidestream of the intermediate component is used with its drawoff location above the feed location. This configuration is used because the liquid at the sidestream tray has a lower concentration of the lightest component than the vapor. When a small amount of heavy impurity is present in the ternary feed, a vapor sidestream of the intermediate component is used with its drawoff location below the feed location because the vapor at the sidestream tray has a lower concentration of the heaviest component than the liquid.Incorrect Sensor Location and V alves Without Input SignalsFigure 12 shows what we call at Lehigh the "Herron Heresy" (after a senior student in the design course who made the same mistake twice). The diagram shows that the temper ature upstream of the cooler is controlled by the flowrate of cooling water to the heat exchanger. This, of course, is impossible and should be obvious. Yet this type of error crops up on several flowsheets every year. Sometimes students correctly insert a valve in a line to satisfy plumbing requirements, but fail to connect it to a controller. All valves must be positioned by some controller.Ratioing Reactant FeedsOne of the most important aspects of plantwide control is the manipulation of the fresh-feed streams. A common error is to simply ratio the flowrates of the reactants so as to satisfy the reaction stoichiometry. Although this will work in a simulation study, it will not work in reality. Flowrates cannot be measured accurately enough to guarantee an absolute matching of the number of molecules of the various reactants. The separation section typically prevents the loss of any of the reactants. Therefore simply ratioing reactants inevitably results in a gradual buildup inside the process of the reactant that is in slight excess. Some indication of the inventory of the reactants inside the system must be found so that the flowrates of the fresh-feed streams can be appropriately adjusted. Ultimately these flows must satisfy the reaction stoichiometry down to the last molecule. But this much accuracy is way beyond our ability to measure flowrates. The plantwide control structure in Figure 1 illustrates this principle. The chemistry in this example is the reaction of methyl acetate and butanol to produce butyl acetate and methanol. The reaction occurs in a reactive distillation column (C2). There are two recycle streams. The "LTREC"the distillate D2 from the reactive columnis an azeotropic mixture of methyl acetate and methanol. The "HVYREC" is the distillate D3 from the third column, which is mostly recycled butanol. The fresh butanol is added to this recycle stream to control the reflux-drum level in the third column (level controller LC32). This level gives an accurate measurement of the amount of butanol in the system. If more butanol is reacting than is being fed, this level will decrease. On the methyl acetate side, the level in the reflux drum of the first column is controlled by manipulating the fresh-feed stream, which contains methyl acetate and methanol (level controller LC12). This level provides a measurement of the methyl acetate in the system. Note that the production rate in this plant is set by the flow controller FC1, which controls the feed flowrate D1 to the second column. If more production is desired, the operator increases the setpoint of this flow controller. The increase in D1 also results in an increase in the flowrate of the heavy recycle because of the ratio.CONCLUSIONCommon plumbing and control concept errors have been discussed and illustrated. It is hoped that this paper will help students and engineers avoid these problems in their design projects, and more importantly, in real life. Most of these errors are obvious and can be avoided by using some common sense and not getting all wrapped up in the computer simulation aspects of the problem.REFERENCES1. Seider, W.D., J.D. Seader, and D.R. Lewin, Product and Process Design Principles Wiley (2004) 2. Dimian, A.C., Integrated Design and Simulation of Chemical Processes Elsivier (2003) 3. Luyben, W.L., Chapter A1, "The need for simultaneous design education," in The Integration of Process Design and Control P. Seferlis and M.C. Georgiadis, editors, Wiley (2004) 4. Luyben, W.L., Plantwide Dynamic Simulators for Chemical Processing and Control Marcel Dekker (2002) 5. Luyben, W.L., B.D. Tyreus, and M.L. Luyben, Plantwide Process Control McGraw-Hill (1999)

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208 Chemical Engineering EducationBiochemical engineering courses are an important part of the chemical engineering curriculum. They introduce students to the rapidly growing field of biotechnology and to the application of chemical engineering principles in the analysis of a nontraditional system. T ypically, biochemical engineering courses begin with the basics of the cell, followed by the basics of cellular machinery, and end with aspects of process design. In the course described here, these traditional topics and concepts in biochemical engineering are taught in a practice-oriented context, using the process from drug discovery to manufacturing as a framework and flowchart for the course. Therefore, each lecture's relevance to the drug-discovery-to-manufacturing process is presented. For instance, students learn how an understanding of the cell is essential for both developing a drug against a disease and for designing a cell-culture process. The main goal of this biochemical engineering course is to provide a foundation and an overview of the fascinating field of biotechnology and of the role of a chemical engineer, as a scientist and a citizen, in implementing this technology. This paper presents Activities for engaging students in learning the biological basics The drug-discovery-to-manufacturing process A description of two course projects One designed to explore the societal and ethical issues involved in the application of biotechnology Another designed to explore the scientific and business aspects of the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industriesProviding an interesting, relevant, and connected framework for presenting the concepts, and engaging students in learning through in-class activities and projects, are guiding principles applied in the design of this course.[1]DEFINING THE SCOPE OF THE BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING COURSEAt Northeastern University, our biochemical engineering course (CHEU630) is a senior-level, semester-based chemical engineering elective. A fraction of the students have taken high school-level biology but most have not taken collegelevel biology. As a result, a quarter of this semester-based coursesix of 24 lecturesis devoted to covering biological basics, or an understanding of the cell and how it functions. These basics are detailed in the next section (as well as in the course-topic schedule found on the course Web site[2]). Throughout this course, chemical engineering principles such as material balances, transport phenomena, kinetics, and sepa-BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING Taught in the Context of Drug Discovery to Manufacturing Carolyn W.T. Lee-Parsons is an assistant professor of chemical engineering at Northeastern University. She received her B.S. from the University of Kansas and her Ph.D. from Cornell University. Her research interests are in biochemical engineering, specifically the production of small molecules (i.e., pharmaceutical compounds) from plants and plant cell cultures. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005 ChEclassroomCAROLYN W.T. LEE-PARSONSNortheastern University Boston, MA 02115-5000

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Summer 2005 209rations are applied either to analyzing biological problems or to designing a cell-culture process. The scope of this biochemical engineering course is first defined and introduced to the students by using the definition of biochemical engineering fo und in Shuler and Kargi[3]: "Biochemical engineering has usually meant the extension of chemical engineering principles to systems using a biological catalyst to bring about desired chemical transformations." In this course, the concept of a biological "catalyst" is interpreted in its broadest sense. For instance, the biological catalyst of choice can be a biological polymer, a cell, an organ, or a whole organism. The spectrum of biological catalysts and the basis for choosing the biological catalyst are presented using Figure 1. Desired chemical transformations include The production of useful compounds (e.g., vitamins, amino acids, antibiotics, other small-molecule drugs, enzymes, hormones, or antibodies) The utilization of alternative substrates (e.g., cellulose, lactose) The degradation of hazardous compounds (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs)The biological catalyst is chosen based on the complexity of the desired chemical transformation. In the simplest case, for instance, a chemical transformation can be performed using one or a few specific catalytic biological polymer(s) such as enzymes, catalytic antibodies, and catalytic ribonucleic acids (RNA) or ribozymes. For example, amylase and proteasesenzymes found in detergentshelp break down starch-based and proteinbased stains in clothing. If a series of reactions is required to accomplish the desired ch emical transformation, we can resort to the enzymatic network housed within a cell by using bacterial, yeast, fungal, animal, or plant cell cultures. Examples include the use of genetically engineered cultures of the bacteria Escherichia coli to produce human insulin (by Eli Lilly and Company), or the use of cell cultures of the Pacific yew tree to produce the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel from simple-media components (by Bristol-Myers Squibb Company). W ith tissues or organs as the biological catalyst, different cell types are present which together perform chemical transformations ( e.g., in the liver) or provide physical structure ( e.g., cartilage and blood vessels) not possible with just one cell type. In the most complex case, a collection of "unit operations" and "reactors" such as those found in a whole animal or green plant may be required. Examples include the use of transgenic cows to produce a therapeutic protein in their milk (by GTC Biotherapeutics), or genetically modified plants containing a vaccine (by ProdiGene, Inc.). After the spectrum of biological catalysts is introduced through Figure 1, the course focuses primarily on the application of catalytic biological polymers and cell cultures to accomplish the desired chemical transformations. W ith the scope of the course defined, a list of course topics and their relationships is then presented using Figure 2. A detailed course-topic schedule with the associated reading assignment is also given to the students and can be found on the course Web site.[2]Students are then introduced to the course flowchart (Figure 2) and shown how the course topics are taught in the context of drug discovery to manufacturing. Emphasized in this overview and throughout the course is how the design of a process utilizing bio-Figure 1. Biological "catalysts" used for accomplishing chemical transformations. Figure 2. Course topics taught in context of drug discovery to manufacturing.

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210 Chemical Engineering Education T ABLE 1 Differences Between Procaryotic and Eucaryotic Cells and the Implications of These DifferencesCharacteristicsImplications Presence of nuclear membraneAffects the ease and applicability of genetic engineering techniques (only in eucaryotes) # of DNA moleculesAffects ease of genetic manipulation since knowledge of gene's function is limited to certain organisms (>1 for eucaryotes) T ype of cell membraneAffects ease of protein secretion ( i.e. the difference between the membrane architecture and protein secretion characteristics of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria) Cell sizeAffects shear sensitivity of cells Presence of specific organellesAllows localization of specific conditions and reactions; allows sequestration of molecules that are toxic to (only in eucaryotes)the cellV acuoleSequesters ions such as H+ and small molecules in plant cells; the recovery of molecules stored in the vacuole can be difficult L ysozymeHouses digestive enzymes, away from other activities within animal cells ChloroplastForms glucose from CO2 and H2O in the presence of light in plants; has its own DNA and replicates independently of the cell Mitochondria Breaks down carbon sources for energy; also has its own DNA and replicates independently of the cell Endoplasmic reticulumSite of lipid and protein production Golgi apparatusSite of glycosylation reactions and packaging of proteinsSpecific Examples logical catalysts is intricately dependent on an understanding of the biological catalyst itself. For example, the activity of enzymes is sensitive to environmental conditions including temperature, pH, salts, and solvents. Cells are also not fixed but house their own process control that can change in response to the environmental conditions. As a result, the process design must cater to the needs and health of its biological catalyst for the process to be productive. Thus, a more comprehensive understanding of biological catalysts is necessary and is presented in the course first.PRESENTING THE BIOLOGICAL BASICSThe biological basics, i.e., an understanding of the cell and how it works, are divided into the following lectures in this course: Cellular organization and cell classification Cellular composition and cell-culture nutrient requirements Cellular machinery Through in-class activities (presented below) students are involved in considering the impact of biology on the desired chemical transformations and the process design. These inclass activities are intended to help students make connections between information in order to draw out concepts rather than simply memorize seemingly "unrelated" information.Cellular Organization and Cell ClassificationThe goal of this lecture and in-class exercise is to help students understand how the type of cell i.e., procaryotes vs. eucaryotes, Gram-positive vs. Gram-negative, bacterial/fungal/animal/plantimpacts the types of products formed as well as the design and operation of a process. The professor can first set the context by discussing the types of cultures applied in industrial processes and the classification of these cultures as procaryotes or eucaryotes. Then an overview of the major differences between procaryotic and eucaryotic cells and the organization within the cell can be presented. The professor can note that choosing the cellculture system is one of the first steps in developing a cellculture-based process, thus establishing the relevance of understanding the differences between cell types before choosing an appropriate cell-culture system. An in-class activity engages students in thinking about the characteristic differences between procaryotic and eucaryotic cells and the implications of t hese differences. Having read the textbook assignment prior to class, students are asked to make a table with one column listing the characteristic differences between procaryotic and eucaryotic cells, and a second column listing their implications (in terms of the ease ofFigure 3. The conversion of media components into cellular components and other products.

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Summer 2005 211T ABLE 2 Chemical Structure, Function, and Composition of Monomers/Polymers in the Cell genetic engineering, ease of product secretion, shear sensitivity, or types of products made). The professor can lead by giving one or two examples and then encouraging the students to work in groups of two to list other examples with the help of their textbook; a sample comparison is shown in Table 1. After about 10 to 15 minutes, the professor can review these differences using a completed table and elaborate on the implications, or the professor can ask students to participate by having them write and review one example on the board. Specific examples explaining these differences and their implications are given below. One main difference between procaryotes and eucaryotes is the absence or presence of organelles, i.e., specialized compartments with phospholipid membranes that confer selective permeability. These specialized compartments allow different environmental conditions (e.g., different pH, different enzymes, different ion concentrations) to be housed within the cell and hence different types of reactions to occur. For example, protein glycosylation reactions are required for producing an active protein with proper targeting and stability characteristics. These reactions take place in the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic r eticulum after the initial protein is formed in the cytoplasm. Hence, the implication is that eucaryotic cell cultures would be the biological catalyst of choice if the desired product were a glycosylated protein. Another example of the importance of cell type on the process is the use of Grampositive versus Gram-negative bacteria. Since Gram-positive bacteria have a single outer membrane, proteins are more likely to be secreted using this type of bacteria than with Gram-negative bacteria. Hence, the implication is that Gram-positive bacteria would be preferable since the recovery of a secreted protein is more cost-effective than the recovery of an intracellular protein. Differences in the size of the cell have implications on the operation and scale-up of a bioreactor. For example, due to their smaller size, bacteria are more resistant to shear than animal or plant cells and can be grown in a highly agitated, aerated stirred tank rather than requiring a specialized bioreactor.Cellular Composition and Cell-Culture Nutrient RequirementsThe goal of this lecture and in-class activity is to help students link the cell-culture nutrient requirements to the cellular composition and to the desired products formed. Figure 3[4] is first used to depict the cell as the ultimate alchemist: It begins by transforming simple raw materials in media such as sugars and amino acids into biological polymers ( e.g., proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and fats); those polymers then either make up the cell ( e.g., phospholipid membranes, enzymes, nucleus, and energy storage such as glycogen and starch) or are converted into valuable complex bioactive molecules/polymers ( e.g., vitamins, amino acids, antibiotics, other small-molecule drugs, enzymes, and antibodies). Stated simply, the student's role as the biochemical engineer is to maintain healthy cell cultures and coax them to make the desired product. The optimization of growth and product media is therefore one aspect of process development for maintaining viable and productive cell cultures. W ith this context, students are then asked to consider the monomers/polymers that make up the cell and deduce the nutrients in the medium needed for making these essential monomers/polymers. For example, students are asked to make a table with headings shown in T able 2, listing the major monomers/polymers that make up the cell, their M o n o m e r / P o l y m e r C h e m i c a l S t r u c t u r e ( E l e m e n t a l C o m p o s i t i o n ) F u n c t i o n / L o c a l i z a t i o n i n t h e C e l l % o f P o l y m e r[ 5 ] Amino acids / Proteins (20 amino acids) R = func tional group Illustrate primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary structure (C, H, O, N, S) Functions include physical structure, regulatory (as hormones), catalytic (as enzymes), transport (as membrane pumps), & protective (as antibodies); protein are l ocalized in membranes & in the cytoplasm & throughout the cell 50% by dry wt Monosaccharides / Polysaccharides or Carbohydrates Cn(H2O)n O O H HO HO HOH2C OH Glucose (C, H, O) Functions as energy storage molecules, structural component of cell wall, component of DNA & RNA, component of glycosylated proteins which is important for protein targeting & stability 15 -35% Nucleotides / RNA & DNA N N N N O R HO O P HO OH O NH2 R = H DNA R = OH RNA (C, H, O, N, P) Functions as mol ecules for energy storage (ATP), for encoding the cell’s characteristics (DNA), for encoding instructions for protein production (RNA); localized in the nucleus, in organelles such as mitochondria & chloroplasts, and in the cytoplasm as t-RNA, mRNA, rRNA. 10 – 20% Fatty acids / Lipids or Fats O O O CH2 CH2 CH2 n1n2n3CH3 CH3 CH3 O O O H2C HC H2C (C, H, O) Functions as energy storage molecules, regulatory molecules (hormones), and components of the cell membrane (composition affects the membrane’s permeability characteristics) 5 – 15% H2N C OOH H R

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212 Chemical Engineering Educationchemical structure and elemental composition, their function or localization in the cell, and their percent composition in the cell. Similar to the previous in-class exercise, students should have read the assignment prior to class and are then encouraged to work in pairs to complete the rest of the table with the help of their textbook. Again the professor can lead by giving one or two examples first. After about 10 to 15 minutes, the professor can either review and elaborate on this material using the completed table, or have each pair of students participate by writing and reviewing one example on the board. Based on the composition of these polymers in the cell (Table 2), students are then asked to determine the important elemental macronutrients e.g., C, H, O, N, P, S, etc. and to order the expected prevalence of these macronutrients in the culture medium. Students can then confirm their answers by studying the medium compositions of bacterial, yeast, animal, and plant cell cultures,[6] i.e., that the carbon source is supplied at the highest concentration. They can also compare the differences in the medium compositions of these cell cultures, and learn about the appropriate form to supply these nutrients. For instance, sulfur is fed as a sulfate salt in plant cell culture medium, but in animal cell cultures it's in the form of amino acids (cysteine and methionine). T wo points should be emphasized and connected: The main media components provide the carbon backbones, or skeletons, for making the main cellular polymers, the product of interest, and the energy sources for the desired chemical transformations. The media also contains micronutrients (e.g., various metal ions, hormones, and vitamins) and inducers which are critical for maintaining the culture health and for inducing or directing the cellular activities toward growth or product formation. Hence, medium optimization involves more than just closing the material balance between inputs (media components) and outputs (cellular polymers, desired products). It requires an understanding of the cellular machinery involved in these chemical transformations and the application of that knowledge (such as by the addition of hormones or inducers) toward directing those cellular processes appropriately.Cellular MachineryAt this point in the course, students have gained an understanding of: (1) how the selection of cell type/culture affects the kind of product made or the design of the process, and (2) the importance of the medium composition on growth and product formation. Next, the course addresses (3) how the cell makes the biological polymers and the desired products, and (4) how the cell regulates which and how much of these products to make. The inner workings of the cell, i.e., its cellular machinery, are then covered in the order shown in Figure 2 (or see the more detailed course-topic schedule). The tools used in genomics and proteomics are then presented as the current approach to probing and expanding our understanding of the cellular machinery. Once the basics of cellular machinery are covered, the tools of genetic engineering are introduced as a means of altering the native, existing cellular machinery to either: produce a new protein previously not made by that cell culture, or enhance or inhibit the production of an existing protein. Examples from the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are used to show the application of these topics to understanding disease mechanisms, to discovering and designing drugs to target a disease, and to enhancing the production of biological compounds from cell cultures. Examples are drawn from various sources such as those noted in the following sections on the drug-discovery-to-manufacturing process and on the survey of a biotechnology or pharmaceutical company. The main goal of this biochemical engineering course is to provide a foundation and an overview of the fascinating field of biotechnology and of the role of a chemical engineer, as a scientist and a citizen, in implementing this technology.

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Summer 2005 213PRESENTING AN OVERVIEW OF DRUG DISCOVERY TO MANUFACTURINGBefore embarking on the engineering aspects of designing a cell-culture process, the path from drug discovery to manufacturing is presented in one lecture. Although the course is taught using the drug-discovery-to-manufacturing framework, a greater understanding of its overview was achieved when it was presented after covering the biological basics. This lecture also illustrates the multidisciplinary effort involved in discovering and bringing a drug to markethighlighting the role and contribution of chemical engineers to this endeavor. The topics covered include Ways that drugs intercept the biochemical pathway of the disease (e.g., by interfering with such biochemical steps in the cell as receptor-ligand binding, signal transduction, transcription, translation, or enzyme activity) Ways that drug hits are discovered or screened using whole-cell assays or target assays Sources of these drug molecules (e.g., natural-product libraries, combinatorial chemistry libraries, targeted synthesis, drug modeling) The goals and steps involved in the initial testing of a drug's effectiveness or safety (e.g., characteristics such as adsorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicology) The goals of the new investigational drug application (IND), the new drug application (NDA), and the different clinical trials (e.g., Phase I, II, III) Steps involved in developing a cell-culture process Cost and time associated with the drug-discovery-to-manufacturing process and the likelihood that a drug hit becomes a prescribed drug W eb sites for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA),[7] the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA),[8] and various pharmaceutical/biotechnology companies provide publications, examples, and resources for these lectures. For example, an FDA publication, From Test Tube to Patient: Improving Health Through Human Drugs,[9] presents an overview of the drug-development process.[10] In addition, the FDA W eb site provides drug information such as a drug's chemical structure, the mechanism of the drug in targeting disease, use of the drug, and its side effects.[11] A final project on surveying a pharmaceutical or biotechnology company (covered later in this paper) also provides examples of how specific drugs work and how they are made.PROJECT ON SOCIETAL AND ETHICAL IMPACTS OF BIOTECHNOLOGYProject DescriptionScientists and engineers need to understand the impact of their discoveries and technologies on society. Our students are the future scientists and engineers who will be involved in determining the policies that regulate ( i.e., promote and restrict) these discoveries and technologies for the benefit and protection of society. In this project, students choose a contemporary bio-related technology under debate, and evaluate the issues regarding the application of this technology. Serving as an advisory board, students weigh the societal and ethical impacts of a specific biotechnology and then propose their recommendations on its appropriate use in written form. Contemporary biotechnologies that have raised concerns regarding safety and/or ethics areScientists and engineers need to understand the impact of their discoveries and technologies on society. Our students are the future scientists and engineers who will be involved in determining the policies that regulate . these discoveries and technologies for the benefit and protection of society.

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214 Chemical Engineering Educationlisted and can be introduced using Table 3. References from news and popular-science magazines such as T ime and Scientific American are also listed in Table 3 and can serve as a starting point for this project.Project SpecificsStudents, working in groups of two or three, research, brainstorm, and debate the issues behind the use of their chosen bio-related technology and then present their evaluation in written form as an editorial (five pages maximum). In evaluating the technology of interest, they are first asked to (1) briefly explain the science behind the technology, and (2) summarize the benefits, risks/drawbacks, and other issues, noting if these issues are hypothetical or real. Finally, theyTABLE 3T opics for Exploring the Ethical and Societal Impacts of BiotechnologyDebated BiotechnologiesReferencesHuman cloning Since the cloning of Dolly (the sheep), society has speculated that the reproductive cloning of humans was just [17, 18] a matter of time. While many are opposed to the reproductive cloning of humans, the use of therapeutic cloning remains highly debated. The goal of therapeutic cloning of human cells is to generate stem cells, i.e. cells which give rise to new tissue and organs. Both types of cloning utilize a similar technique which starts with an egg and the replacement of its nucleus. Will therapeutic cloning yield replacement parts for damaged organs or serve as the precursor to reproductive cloning? Genetic alterations in human embryos The science fiction movie GATTACA portrays a society where genetically engineered babies are the [19 24] norm while babies born by natural means become the discriminated, or the untouchables, of society. With the human genome already sequenced, gene sequence(s) which code for a devastating disease can potentially be corrected. Could this lead to the elimination of diseases or the age of designer babies? Genetically modified crops (GMCs) Crops such as rice, soybeans, corn, and potatoes have been genetically engineered to enhance their yield, nutritional [25 30] content, resistance to diseases or pests, or tolerance to specific environmental conditions such as drought or soil salinity. Crops have even been genetically engineered to produce therapeutics such as vaccines. Could this be the solution to world hunger or to the high cost of pharmaceuticals and biological compounds? T ransgenic animals Animals such as cows, goats, or chickens have been genetically engineered to produce therapeutics in their milk [31] or eggs. It has been suggested that producing therapeutics through animals may be far more economical than through cell cultures in bioreactors. Fish such as salmon have also been genetically engineered to be fast-growing to satisfy the growing appetite of consumers for fish. Could transgenic animals be the solution to the high cost of pharmaceuticals and biological compounds? A vailability, patent, and ownership of genetic sequences The genome of several organisms has been sequenced. Determining what each gene codes for is the next task. [32 36] Who has the right to own or benefit from these gene sequences? Should genetic tests be required or elective? Particularly with the human genome, should the genetic sequences of individuals be made available and if so, to whom? High cost of pharmaceutical drugs The high cost of some pharmaceutical drugs has made them unaffordable to those in the U.S. and in Third World [37 39] countries. What contributes to the high cost of these drugs? How can these drugs be made available to those who need them without crippling the companies that discover and produce these drugs? are asked to synthesize their proposal on the application of this technology by (3) presenting an argument for or against the application of the technology of interest and the conditions under which the technology should be limited, and (4) formulating their recommendations on the application of this technology. Posted on the course Web site[12] are sample student reports exploring the societal and ethical impacts of two such technologies: genetically modified crops and cloning. Several ABET criteria[13] are covered through this project: Students investigate a contemporary issue (Criterion 3j); evaluate the societal and ethical impacts of biotechnology (Criterion 3h); work in a team consisting of members with potentially different views (Criterion 3d); and practice communicating their evaluations effectively and logically (Criterion 3g).

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Summer 2005 215 Continued on page 221 This project is assigned on the first day of class since students are already acquainted with these debated issues in the news. The project is only to be completed after the biological basics have been covered in class (see coursetopics schedule). The project comprises 10 percent of the course grade and is graded equally on two components: The quality and completeness of their evaluation of the technology (i.e., in terms of the science and the issues pertaining to this technology) The support for and the logical presentation of their recommendations for the application of the technology of interestPROJECT SURVEYING A BIOTECHNOLOGY OR PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANYProject DescriptionStudents survey a company of interestpotentially a co mpany in which they are seeking employmentto learn more about the scientific and business aspects of the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. The goals of this project are To illustrate that a company has an underlying scientific platform or approach for targeting a disease To demonstrate how an understanding of biology is critical to determining a treatment for intercepting a disease To gain a sense of the time and resources invested in researching a disease and in developing a drug or treatment for that disease To prepare students for a job interview Resources for this project include company Web sites, company annual reports, Chemical & Engineering News, news periodicals, technical journals, and the FDA Web site.[11] Other references such as medical dictionaries, biology textbooks, or anatomy and physiology textbooks, will be useful for understanding and addressing the question of how the drug targets the disease. The company surveys from individual students can then be compiled in a notebook or file for the entire class to use in their job searches. An example of one student's survey on Genentech has been posted on the course Web site.[14]Project SpecificsIn surveying a company, students research the following questions (presented in a handout): What is the company's mission or approach? For instance, does the company target specific diseases such as cancer or those that affect the immune system? What is the company's platform or technology for targeting diseases or for discovering drug leads? List examples of research areas. Are they related? Generally, a great deal of research in the basic sciences is required to understand a disease or develop a drug compound for targeting that disease. List the important accomplishments in the company's history that may have helped them become established as a biotechnology or biopharmaceutical company. For example, companies may start as drugdiscovery companies and license their discoveries to another company for manufacturing. As more of their drugs make it to market, these companies evolve into bigger entities and eventually build their own production facilities. Genentech is such an example.[15] Another example is Pfizer, a company that was not initially involved in fermentation. Before 1939, Pfizer was producing citric acid from lemons.[16] When the price of lemons increased dramatically, it was no longer economical to extract citric acid from lemons and Pfizer pursued an alternate means of producing citric acid using mold. By turning "lemons into lemonade," Pfizer became wellpositioned for the large-scale fermentation r equired to produce penicillin from mold during World War II. List two products that are already being marketed by the company. What is each product used for? How does each product work, i.e. its mechanism for targeting the disease? What type of drug is it? How is it made, i.e. from genetically engineered The scope of this biochemical engineering course is first defined and introduced to the students by using the definition of biochemical engineering found in Shuler and Kargi[3]: "Biochemical engineering has usually meant the extension of chemical engineering principles to systems using a biological catalyst to bring about desired chemical transformations."

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216 Chemical Engineering EducationThe focus of this work is to demonstrate how green engineering concepts and principles can be incorporated into a predominantly design-oriented heat transfer course through the utilization of a heat transfer problem set that was developed with the support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for a project at Rowan University entitled "Green Engineering in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum." Although the EPA was created in the early 1970s and environmental regulations have been around since the mid 1960s, the concept of green engineering did not gain prominence until the mid 1990s.[1] Green engineering has been described as the incorporation of environmentally conscious attitudes, values, and principles into engineering design, toward a goal of improving local and global environmental quality.[1, 2] This work examines the incorporation of key green engineering concepts outlined in Green EngineeringEnvironmentally Conscious Design of Chemical Processes, by Allen and Shonnard, with a variety of topics found in the widely used heat transfer textbook, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, by Incropera and DeWitt.[3, 4] To cover topics found in 13 chapters in the Incropera and DeWitt text, 24 problems were developed for a junior-level chemical engineering class. A sample of some of the more popular problems is presented here.DEVELOPMENTThe undergraduate chemical engineering program at Manhattan College focuses heavily on design. One of the primary goals of the course is to prepare the senior students for a twosemester plant-design sequence. Typical design elements include the calculation of conduction and convection resistances, overall heat transfer coefficients, and standard heat exchanger design such as double pipe and shell and tube. Initially, the logistics of incorporating additional concepts such as green engineering principles into an already packed course appeared unrealistic. During the development of the problem set, typical questions arose, such as, "How do you green a shell-and-tube heat exchanger?" As a result typicalGREENING' A DESIGN-ORIENTED HEAT TRANSFER COURSEANN MARIE FL YNN, MOHAMMAD H. NARAGHI, ST ACEY SHAEFERManhattan College Riverdale, NY 10471 ChEclass and home problems The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collections of interesting and novel problems in chemical engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a particular principle in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel home problem, are requested, as well as those that are more traditional in nature and that elucidate difficult concepts. Manuscripts should not exceed fourteen double-spaced pages and should be accompanied by the originals of any figures or photographs. Please submit them to Professor James O. Wilkes (e-mail: wilkes@umich.edu), Chemical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005 Ann Marie Flynn is an assistant professor of chemical engineering at Manhattan College. She received her Ph.D. from the New Jersey Institute of Technology. She received her M.E. and B.E. from Manhattan College. Her fields of interest include engineering pedagogy and the chemistry of metals in flames. Mohammad H. Naraghi is a professor of mechanical engineering at Manhattan College. Prior to joining Manhattan College, he was a visiting assistant professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Akron, where he received his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering. His fields of interest include radiation heat transfer and thermal modeling of propulsion systems. Stacey Shaefer is a chemical engineering student at Manhattan College. After receiving her B.S. in May 2005 she will begin her studies in Manhattan College's Seamless Masters Program in September 2005 and expects to receive her M.S. in May 2006. (Photo not available.)

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Summer 2005 217answers followed, such as, "Increase the heat recovery, use better insulation." In order to capture the attention of the students, it was concluded that a less typical approach was needed. Therefore, the resulting problem set focused less on greening the fundamentals of heat transfer design and more on examining the environmental impact of the design. Each problem in the set contains multiple parts; the early parts address standard, necessary design concepts required by a design-oriented curriculum, while the latter parts examine the incorporation of green engineering principles into the design. Therefore, the problems could be used in two ways. Plan A. The problems could be used in their entirety as a vehicle to both reinforce design concepts presented in class and introduce the student to green engineering concepts. Plan B. If the design concepts in the problems did not coordinate well with the class material, the green engineering portions of the problem could be used alone to illustrate the incorporation of green engineering into a heat transfer course.For this study, the first half of the semester followed Plan A. After a midterm assessment of the newly greened course, the mode of operation was switched to Plan B. Each greened heat transfer problem references the following: the corresponding heat transfer section(s) in Incropera and DeWitt, the corresponding section(s) in the green engineering text by Allen and Shonnard, and the specific Sandestin green engineering principles covered.[3, 4, 5] The entire problem set with solutions, as well as a detailed mapping of the green engineering principles into the heat transfer course, can be found at . Over a 14-week semester, 27 students were given eight homework assignments that totaled 27 problems. Of the 27 problems, 11 problems (approximately 40%) were taken from the newly developed greened heat transfer problem set. A variety of student surveys were used to assess the greened heat transfer problems and the incorporation of green engineering principles into the course. In addition, students were required to individually submit two-page reaction papers at the end of the semester outlining how (if at all) the greened heat transfer problems increased their awareness of green engineering. Four of the greened problems that received the more positive feedback from students are presented here. Problem Statement Faced by what is perhaps Ecuador's severest economic crisis of this generation, the government of Ecuador has come up with a plan to double its export of oil. Construction of a new, above-ground oil pipeline, the OCP (Oleoducto de Crudo Pesado, or Heavy Crude Pipeline) will make it possible to open up vast new areas of the Amazon to oil exploration. Efficient transportation of the crude requires that the temperature of the crude remain above its pour point. Below its pour point of 35C, the crude takes on a waxlike consistency. The crude enters the OCP at 70C. The temperature is monitored until it begins to approach its pour point (Toil 40C) at which point steam is injected to raise the temperature of the crude back up to 70C. This proposed pipeline will pass through 11 natural reserves and "protected" areas. Schedule 80 pipe (12inch) is used to transport 840,000 gal./day of crude. Assume the average temperature of the ambient air is 30C (h = 6 W/m2K). The following crude oil data is available: c s Ep= = 2047 0 86403 J/kg-K = 0.839E-04 m kg/m k= 0.140 W/m-K Pr=1050 2 3n r / (a) Compare the distance between steam injections for an uninsulated pipe to a pipe that is insulated with 3-inch standard fiberglass insulation (k = 0.035 W/m-K). (b) This proposed pipeline will pass through 11 natural reserves and protected areas. What are the environmental hazards associated with invading these rain forests and protected areas in order to build this pipeline? (c) What are the dangers associated with building this pipeline if it is to pass through cities and near local water supplies? Since this area sustains many earthquakes, landslides, and soil shifting, what would be the consequences of a pipeline rupture? Problem Solutions P art (a) of the problem would be considered a typical design question found in any homework or on any exam. The student is required to calculate how far the crude will travel in the pipe before the temperature drops from 70 to 40Capproximately 5C above its pour point. The student finds that without insulation, steam must be injected every 17 km. When the pipe is insulated with 3 inches of standard fiberglass insulation, steam must be injected every 117 km. This is an ideal problem to solve with packaged software such as Mathcad, as it allows the student to easily experiment with insulation thicknesses. The student can find that as little as 1 inch of fiberglass insulation will increase the distance between steam injections by almost 400% (from 17 km to 65 km)critical information when the crude pipeline is located in areas uninhabitable for workers, or regions difficult to access. The crude oil data is courtesy of Conoco-Phillips. PROBLEM 1The Conduction Shape Factor and the Importance of Rain Forest ConservationIncropera & DeWitt: 4.3; Allen & Shonnard: 1.7; Green Engineering Principles: 2, 5

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218 Chemical Engineering Education PROBLEM 2Natural Convection and Energy-Efficient LightingIncropera & DeWitt: 9.6; Allen & Shonnard: 1.3; Green Engineering Principles: 1, 5, 6The solutions to parts (b) and (c) required the student to perform a library and/or Internet search.[6, 7] The results were astounding. First, the students (those previously unaware) became aware of the enormous wealth of natural resources found in a rain forest. Such resources include: Of the 121 prescription drugs sold worldwide that come from plant-derived sources, 70% of these plants come from rain forests; 80% of the developed world's diet originated in the tropical rain forest, including many fruits, vegetables, and nuts; and 70% of the 3,000 plants that are active against cancer cells are located in rain forests. The students were so impressed with the essential world service provided by a rain forest, that simply being required to list the dangers associated with a ruptured pipeline ( e.g. destruction of human life, aquatic life, and wildlife; rain forest damage; and loss of potable water) sparked shock and disbelief among them. The instructor should be made aware to set aside extra class time for discussion when the solution to this problem is reviewed. This problem could easily be converted to a take-home problem, individual project, or group project with an oral presentation. Given the real economic crisis that currently exists in Ecuador, the students might be asked to provide a viable, alternate solutioncomplete with a hazards and operability study (HAZOP) or a hazards analysis (HAZAN, a process used to determine how a device can cause hazards to occur and how the risks can be reduced to an acceptable level). This would require students to weigh "real" economics with environmental impact.[8] Problem Statement Lighting directly affects our economy. As a nation, we spend approximately one-quarter of our electricity budget on lightingor more than $37 billion annually. An incandescent light bulb is highly inefficient because it converts only a small amount of the electrical energy into light; the rest is converted to heat. In spite of this inefficient conversion of energy, the relatively inexpensive purchase price of incandescent bulbs when compared to fluorescent lighting accounts for their popularity among consumers. A 75W bulb that is assumed to have the shape of a sphere has a diameter of 6 cm and a surface temperature of 250C (when the light is turned on). The surrounding room air temperature is 25C.(a) Determine the rate of heat transfer from the incandescent light bulb to its surroundings. (b) Compact fluorescent light bulb products generate approximately 70% less heat than standard incandescent lighting. Determine the rate of heat transfer from the fluorescent bulb to the surrounding air. (c) Explain why fluorescent lighting might be preferred over incandescent lighting from an environmental perspective. Problem Solutions P arts (a) and (b) of this problem are typical heat transfer design problems. The students are required to make reasonable assumptions ( e.g. steady state conditions, air is an ideal gas). The students are required to use a free-convection correlation for spheres, such as the Churchill correlation Nu Ra =+ +() ˆ 2 0 589 10 46914 916 49. ./Pr/ / / to determine the convection heat transfer coefficient used to calculate the heat transfer rate via natural convection from the bulbs to the air. The radiation heat loss from the light bulb can be evaluated via QATTs air=-()es44 Many of the physical properties necessary for the calculations may be found in the appendices of Incropera and DeWitt. The students determined that the rate of heat transfer from the incandescent bulb was approximately 65.13W compared to 19.54W from the fluorescent bulb. Solution to part (c) of the problem required the students to look outside of the class notes and textbooknamely to the library and/or Internet.[9] Many students found this problem interesting because they were so familiar with the topic and because their curiosity was piqued at the cost-saving prospects. Students found that not only was the fluorescent bulb more efficient in converting electrical energy to light, but that one Energy Star-qualified fluorescent bulb could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by more than 500 lbs. over its lifetime (which is equivalent to saving 445 lbs. of coal from being burned to generate electricity). Also, since fluorescent light bulbs produced significantly less heat than incandescent bulbs, they were significantly cooler to the touch and eliminated many safety issues when used in the home. Students also found that even though the fluorescent bulb was more expensive than the incandescent bulb, it had a significantly longer lifespan than the incandescent bulb (the lifespan of each bulb varied from manufacturer to manufacturer, but a 75W incandescent bulb averaged 750 hours and a 75W fluorescent bulb averaged 10,000 hours). Students were given extra credit if they performed a simple cost comparison for the two different light bulbs used in a typical home in a five-year period. It was found that the light bulb cost for a typical home decreased by approximately 53% over a five-year pe riod when fluorescent bulbs were used in place of incandescent bulbs.

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Summer 2005 219 PROBLEM 3Natural Convection Through Windows and Life-Cycle StudiesIncropera & DeWitt: 9.8; Allen & Shonnard: 13.5; Green Engineering Principles: 2, 3 PROBLEM 4Radiation Heat Provides Comfort for the Workers and Productivity for the CompanyIncropera & DeWitt: 13.3; Allen & Shonnard: 9.2; Green Engineering Principles: 1, 2 Problem Statement In Coldest Small Town, U.S.A., a new homeowner who has recently purchased her home has a 25-year mortgage attached to it. Her first decision regarding this new home is to purchase new double-pane vinyl replacement windows to replace the single-pane wood windows currently in place. The house has a total of 25 windows that are 30 inches by 32 inches. The homeowner cannot decide if it would be more cost efficient for her to replace her old windows with standard (air-filled) double-pane windows or if she should upgrade to argon-filled double-pane windows. The double-pane windows have two pieces of glass separated by a one-inch-wide spacing. In winter, the glass surface temperatures across this space are measured to be 15C and 20C. The home is heated by natural gas at a cost of $0.4/MJ. The heat is used for four months per year, 24 hours per day, seven days per week. The cost for the standard airfilled window is $325. The cost for the argon-filled window is $400. The rate of heat loss through one of the current singlepane windows by natural convection is 65W at the indicated temperatures.(a) Determine the rate of heat transfer by natural convection through one standard double-pane window. (b) Determine the rate of heat transfer by natural convection through one argon-filled window. (c) Assume this homeowner will remain living in this house for the full 25-year mortgage. Determine which doublepane window she should purchase by doing a life-cycle study on the windows. The system boundary that should be used for this study is the life of the windows while they are installed in the home. (d) Compare the life cycle of the old wood windows to the life cycle of the new vinyl replacement windows. The system boundaries that should by used for this study are the complete life cycles of each product. Problem Solutions Once again, the solution to parts (a) and (b) were typical of natural-convection problems found in an undergraduate heat transfer class. The stud ent is required to make reasonable assumptions ( e.g. steady state, negligible radiation effects), calculate a natural convection heat transfer coefficient using a Nusselt number correlation, and determine the heat loss from the air-filled double-pane windows (part a) as well as from the argon-filled double-pane windows (part b). The student discovers that the heat loss is reduced by appro ximately 35% when switching from the airfilled windows (51W) to the argon-filled windows (33W). Even though parts (a) and (b) of this problem may appear fairly typical, many students had additional comments regarding energy loss. Some of the comments included: that choosing the correct window is negated by the additional heat loss resulting from improper installation of the windows, that choosing the correct window is more or less important depending on the climate, that the difference in quality from one manufacturer to another must also be accounted for, and that the pros and cons of upgrading from vinyl windows to high-end manufacturers such as Anderson and Pella should also be examined. In order to complete parts (c) and (d) of this problem, it is necessary for the instructor to review the concept of life cycles from the green engineering text beforehand since it is not ordinarily part of a typical heat transfer course. The results of the life-cycle study highlight for the student the environmental impact of the replacement windows via the significant reduction in energy consumption. Over a 25-year period, this energy reduction translates to a savings of approximately $25,000 for the air-filled windows and approximately $68,000 for the argon-filled windows. A library/ Internet search shows that vinyl replacement windows have a longer lifespan when compared to single-pane wood windows and finally, most of the vinyl from the window is recyclable at the end of its use.[10] Problem Statement A maintenance hangar facility for aircraft recently installed fo ur gas-fired infrared tube heaters above the main work area in the hangar. These heaters were installed to provide a more comfortable environment for the workers as early-morning temperatures in the hangar can reach as low as 40F. During the colder seasons, temperatures can get as low as 28F in the hangar. Each of these industrial heaters radiate heat at a total rate of 5,118 BTU/hr (1500W). Assume, however, that only 5% of this heat directly reaches the workers in the hangar. There are 20 maintenance workers who work in this area each day. The average worker has an emissivity and absorptivity of 0.90 and 0.95, respectively, and an exposed surface area of approximately 18 ft2. These workers are generating heat at an average rate of 30 BTU/hr (30% of which can be considered sensible heatthe heat absorbed or transmitted by a substance during a change of te mperature which is not accompanied by a change of state). The convection heat transfer coefficient for the surrounding air is 1.585 BTU/hr-ft2 R.

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220 Chemical Engineering EducationAssume that the workers can remain comfortable with an exposed skin temperature of 85F and the workers' clothing has an average resistance to heat transfer of 0.880(R-ft2-hr)/Btu. The outside temperature of the workers' clothing is typically 10F above the surrounding air temperature.(a) Are the four radiant heaters enough to keep the workers comfortable during the coldest mornings? (b) Explain why it might be considered good practice for the company to install these radiant heaters in the hangar. Problem Solutions This was a fun, relatively short problem. Before the problem was distributed to the students, the question was posed, "You have these 20 people working in an airplane hangar, the dimensions of which can be measured in acres! What are you going to doheat the whole thing?" Many solutions from reasonable (localized space heaters) to impractical (chemically heated overalls, similar to hand and foot warmers used by skiers) were suggested by the students. When the students were told that the answer lay in the form of radiant heat transfer design, simply because the radiant heat will warm the objects and not the air, this often-maligned topic in the curriculum seemed to get a temporary stay of execution (at least from the course-objectives survey). This problem provided an interesting, practical application for radiation heat transfer. For part (a), the student is required to make reasonable assumptions ( e.g. steady state, constant properties, air motion in the hangar is negligible, workers are small compared to uniform temperature surroundings). The students must then perform an energy balance on the workers where {Ein from the heaters} {Eout from conv & radiation from the bodies} +{Egen from sensible heat} = 0 to solve for Tsurroundings by either trial and error or use of a software package such as Excel. The students are required to calculate an overall heat transfer coefficient that takes into account the resistance due to clothing. It is found that the four radiant heaters provide enough heat to keep the workers comfortable to a minimum surrounding temperature of 12.8F, which is approximately 15F below the minimum temperature experienced. Part (b) of the problem outlined a situation where the student was required to focus more on the human aspects of optimal heat transfer design and less on dollars and cents. Results showed that the lost time for the workers was expected to decrease, the productivity of the workers was expected to increase, and a safer working environment would be created free from odors and dust particles typically generated by fossil fuelsall while reducing energy consumption.[11]CONCLUSIONSEven though the introduction of green engineering concepts into a design course was initially met with disapproval from students, by the end of a 14-week semester they found the greened heat transfer problems "useful" and "enlightening." More importantly, students found that the greened heat transfer problems increased their awareness and interest in the field of green engineering. Overall, the later problems, which were more practical in nature, fared much better with the students than the early problems that were more introductory and general in nature. A mid-semester assessment of the course modified the dissemination of the greened problems to the students. The primary textbook used for the course was by Kern and the design portion of the greened problems did not always correspond well to the class material.[12] Instead, students were given the solutions to the design portions of each greened problem and were expected to concentrate on only the parts that related to green engineering concepts. This worked quite well. Homework grades increased and the students indicated that they began to enjoy working on the problems when the frustration associated with the design elements was eliminated.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSFunding for this work was provided by a grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pollution Prevention and T oxics, and Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, #X-83052501-0, "Implementing Green Engineering in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum" (lead institution: Rowan University). Particular acknowledgment goes to Dr. Stew Slater at Rowan for his encouragement.REFERENCES1. 2. 3.Allen, D.T., and D.R. Shonnard, Green Engineering Environmentally Conscious Design of Chemical Processes Prentice Hall (2002) 4. Incropera, F.P., and D.P. DeWitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 5th ed ., John Wiley & Sons (2002) 5.Ritter, S.K., "A Green Agenda for Engineering: New set of principles provides guidance to improve designs for sustainability needs," 81 (29) Chem. & Eng. News 30 (2003) 6. 7. 8.Flynn, A.M., and L.T. Theodore, Health, Safety, and Accident Management in the Chemical Process Industries, Marcel Dekker (2002) 9. 10. 11 12. Kern, D.Q., Process Heat Transfer McGraw-Hill (1950)

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Summer 2005 221Biochemical Engineeringbacterial or mammalian cell cultures, from extraction of a natural source, or from chemical synthesis? List two products in the pipeline. What stage are these drugs at, i.e. Phase I, II, or III clinical trials, or approved by the FDA for production? What is each product used for? How does each product work? What type of drug is it? How is it made? This project is assigned on the first day of class to help students initiate their job search. It is due after the lecture on the drug-discovery-to-manufacturing process, in which specific examples are presented. The project comprises 10 percent of the course grade and is graded based on the quality and completeness of the answers to the above questions; for instance, do the answers demonstrate an understanding of the mechanism of the drugs' actions?CONCLUSIONThe following are student comments from teaching evaluation forms of this course: Gave us an understanding of how every lecture would be used and how it fits in with the rest of the quarter. Activities in the course encouraged the student to learn and apply the material. Made the class fun and informative. Outside assignments were relevant and took a reasonable amount of time to finish. The material was an excellent overview of what is needed to work in biotech. I really strongly consider this as a potential career field.Through this course, students see the connection of each lecture to the drug-discovery-to-manufacturing process. In-class activities such as those presented in this paper were effective in communicating biological fundamentals and their implications. In addition, students were engaged in two projects designed to Explore the societal and ethical issues involved in the application of biotechnology Explore the scientific and business aspects of the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industryThe course covered the basics required for working in the area of cell-culture process development in an interesting and fun way without overburdening last-semester seniors.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSSpecial thanks to Kevin Cash, Ellen Brennan, Jeffrey P ier ce, A dam St. Jean, and Rui DaSilva for allowing their projects to be posted as examples on the course Web site. Thanks also to Professor Ronald Willey for providing feedback on this manuscript and providing the perspective of someone without a biology background. I gratefully acknowledge the National Science Foundation (CAREER, BES-0134511) for funding the research activities that led to the development of this course.REFERENCES Literature cited 1.Lee, C.W.T., "Guiding Principles for Teaching: Distilled from my First Few Years of Teaching," Chem. Eng. Ed. 34 (4), 344 (2000) 2. 3.Shuler, M.L., and F. Kargi, Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts 2nd ed., Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall, Inc. (2002); p. 2 4.Ibid, adapted from Figure 5.1, p. 135 5.Ibid, p. 48 6.Lee, J.M., Biochemical Engineering Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall (1992); p. 109, 114, 124 (Table 5.4, 5.5, 5.7) 7.Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Web site, 8.Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) W eb site, 9. FDA publication, "From Test Tube to Patient: Improving Health through Human Drugs by FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research," < http://www.fda.gov/cder/about/whatwedo/testtube-full.pdf> 10. FDA's diagram of the drug development process, 11 FDA's Web site for drug information, 12.Web site for sample projects on genetically modified crops and cloning: and 13.ABET, Criteria for Accrediting Engineering Programs, Criterion 3, Program Outcomes and Assessment: (d) an ability to function on multidisciplinary teams, (g) an ability to communicate effectively, (h) the broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global and societal context, (j) a knowledge of contemporary issues. 14.Web site for sample project on Genentech: 15.Genentech company Web site: 16. Pfizer company Web site, history between 1900-1950: References for student projects 17.Cibelli, J.B., R.P. Lanza, M.D. West, and C. Ezzell, "The First Human Cloned," Scientific American 286 (1), 44 (2002) 18. Gibbs, N., "Baby it's You! And You, And You ...," T ime 15 (7), 46 (2001) 19.Lemonick, M.D., "Designer Babies," T ime 153 (1), 64 (1999) 20.Jaroff, L., "Fixing the Genes," T ime 153 (1), 68 (1999) 21.Jaroff, L., "Success Stories," T ime 153 (1), 72 (1999) 22.Gibbs, N., "If We Have It, Do We Use It?," T ime 154 (11), 5 (1999) 23. Gorman, C., "How to Mend a Broken Heart," T ime 154 (21), 75 (1999) 24.Nash, M., "The Bad and the Good," T ime, 155 (6), 67 (2000) 25.Walsh, J., "Brave New Farm," T ime 153 (1), 86 (1999) 26.Langridge, W.H.R., "Edible Vaccines," Scientific American 283 (3), 66 (2000) 27. Brown, K., "Seeds of Concern," Scientific American 284 (4), 52 (2001) 28.Hopkin, K., "The Risks on the Table," Scientific American 284 (4), 60 (2001) 29.Nemecek, S., "Does the World Need GM Foods?," Scientific American 284 (4), 62 (2001) 30.Roosevelt, M., "Cures on the Cob," T ime 161 (21), 56 (2003) 31.Velander, W.H., H. Lubon, and W.N. Drohan, "Transgenic Livestock as Drug Factories," Scientific American 276 (1), 70 (1997) 32.Rennie, J., "Grading the Gene Tests," Scientific American 270 (6), 88 (1994) 33.Kluger, J., "Who Owns Our Genes?," T ime 153 (1), 51 (1999) 34.Golden, F., "Good Eggs, Bad Eggs," T ime 153 (1), 56 (1999) 35.Hallowell, C., "Playing the Odds," T ime 153 (1), 60 (1999) 36.Kluger, J., "DNA Detectives," T ime 153 (1), 62 (1999) 37. Beardsley, T., "Blood Money?," Scientific American 269 (2), 115 (1993) 38.Cooper, M., "Screaming for Relief," T ime 154 (21), 38 (1999) 39.Fonda, D., and B. Kiviat, "Curbing the Drug Marketers," T ime 164 (1), 40 (2004) Continued from page 215

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222 Chemical Engineering Education As a new assistant professor at the University of Massachusetts Amherst (UMass), my first teaching assignment was "Introduction to Chemical Engineering." Being a new faculty member, I had my preference of courses to teach, and after some serious consideration I chose the first-semester engineering students. In my six years at UMass I have been fortunate to have taught this course four times now, and as a result I have learned a great deal about how to effectively teach and motivate beginning engineering students. The course is primarily designed for first-semester engineering students who have a strong interest in pursuing chemical engineering as a major, but it is also attended by transfer students and upper-class, novice engineering students ( i.e. transfers from chemistry or biochemistry). Many chemical engineering departments offer freshmenlevel introductions to engineering courses, but few focus solely on chemical engineering,[1] and even fewer focus on first-semester freshmen. The format and content of these offerings are varied and include such things as general engineering education,[2-3] faculty/advisor seminars,[4-5] and laboratory experimentation.[6-7] This paper describes the design and implementation of a first-semester freshmen chemical engineering course.FIRST YEAR ENGINEERING AT UMASSThe UMass College of Engineering has instituted a twocourse sequence in each respective department to teach beginning engineering students the fundamentals of engineering. Each two-course sequence has been designed to provide new students with an excellent foundation in a specific engineering discipline ( i.e. chemical engineering, civil and environmental engineering, mechanical and industrial engineering, and electrical and computer engineering). There is flexibility, however, so students can switch mid-sequence if they decide to pursue a different discipline at the completion of the first-semester course. This two-course sequence, which has evolved over the years with significant input from both students and faculty, incorporates discipline-specific activities. The two-course sequence in chemical engineering consists of a first course that is further described in this paper and a second course that extensively covers material balances and phase equilibria. The combination of these two courses provides students with an extraordinary background in chemical engineering fundamentals in addition to giving them a broad perspective of what the field of chemical engineering offers. Some students who transfer to UMass or who decide to switch to chemical engineering from another discipline in the spring semester enroll in the second course without taking the first course. In the main, these students fare well since the fundamental material balance content is repeated in the second course. Students can enroll in the first course the following year to gain experience in design, economics, and communication.COURSE OBJECTIVES AND DESCRIPTIONIn addition to introducing the students to the basic prin-SUSAN C. ROBERTSUniversity of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003A Successful"INTRODUCTION TO ChE" FIRST-SEMESTER COURSEFocusing on Connection, Communication, and Preparation Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005 ChEcurriculumSusan Roberts is associate professor of chemical engineering at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. She received her B.S. from Worcester Polytechnic Institute in 1992 and her Ph.D. from Cornell University in 1998, both in chemical engineering. Her research interests are in biochemical engineering, with a focus on plant metabolic engineering and design of in vitro systems for the study of cellular function.

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Summer 2005 223ciples of chemical engineering ( e.g. mass balances, process design, engineering economics, scale-up, etc.), the objectives for the course are essentially threefold: first, to educate students about the variety of possible careers one can pursue with a degree in chemical engineering so that they can confidently decide if this degree is, in fact, what they ultimately desire; second, to create an environment where students can develop effective oral and written communication skills through individual writing assignments, group work, and classroom presentations; and third, to foster a learning atmosphere where students can openly discuss relevant issues ( e.g ., engineering ethics) and become "connected," i.e., familiar, with one another and with the faculty in the department. T able 1 is an abbreviated course syllabus, which outlines the activities planned for the semester. Throughout this paper, the implementation of specific activities for attaining these classroom goals is discussed. A list of ABET-type outcomes is additionally presented in Table 2.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AS A CAREER CHOICEIt is my opinion that most students in the introductory course chose chemical engineering as a potential major based on the simple fact that they enjoyed chemistry and mathematics in high school, but when queried as to what types of jobs they would pursue with this degree, most were unable to answer. Therefore, throughout the semester, activities are planned to introduce them to the types of careers that are available with a chemical engineering degree (they are usually very surprised to discover the choices!). A portion of the first day is spent showing a video titled "Careers for Chemical Engineers," which is available through AIChE. This medium is an excellent introduction to the numerous arenas in which chemical engineers can focus their careers upon graduation. Additionally, the video is an effective way of illustrating the types of skills that students should develop during their academic careers, including computational, communication-related, and problem solving (all of which are important, regardless of what they ultimately choose as a career!). An "industry career panel" is planned, with chemical engineering representatives (typically UMass alumni) from different industries ( e.g. chemical, microelectronics, pulp and paper, biotechnology, etc.). This panel format has proven to be an extremely successful tool for addressing the career-education objective and for motivating the students to seek additional information. I also discuss the types of research that I personally do and incorporate some of my own results into problem sets, thereby allowing the students to see how chemical engineering fundamentals can be applied to solving nontraditional problems ( e.g ., biotechnological problems). The students are encouraged to become involved in the local AIChE student chapter as freshmen, which also affords them access not only to the invited speakers ( e.g. career office personnel, industry representatives, etc.) butT ABLE 1Course Syllabus W eek T opics during "lecture" (2 x 1.25 hours) and "laboratory" (50 minutes) periods 1 Course introduction; Computer set-up, printing, and establishment of accounts 2 Physical sciences library introduction; Introduction to the Internet and Microsoft Word*; Units, conversions, and engineering estimation 3 Introduction to Microsoft Excel**; Effective technical writing; Introduction to processes (unit operations, flowsheets, etc.) 4 Ammonia synthesisprocess design improvements; Material balances on nonreactive processes 5 Material balancesin-class exercises; Process economics 6 Process economics (continued); Learning in teamsdiscussion of the group project; Peer review of paper 7 Process economics game; Leblanc processan illustration of chemical engineering principles[11]; Tour of the unit operations laboratory* 8 UMass Chemical Engineering faculty research panel; Examination review; Midterm examination 9 Introduction to Microsoft PowerPoint; Presentation skills workshop 10Student midterm presentations**; Industry career panel 11 Introduction to Mathcad** 12Safety in the laboratory and plantcase studies 13Engineering scale-up 14Energy balances 15Student final presentations**; Engineering ethics; Course summary Indicates activities held during laboratory periods; laboratory periods include computer instruction, departmental tours, presentations, and communication skills workshops **Indicates activities held during both lecture and laboratory periods T ABLE 2ABET-Type Outcomes At the end of this course students should... Understand what chemical engineering is and what careers are possible with a degree in chemical engineering Be able to use Microsoft Office (Word, Excel, and PowerPoint) to write technical papers, create spreadsheets to perform calculations, and design effective presentations Develop proficient oral presentation skills through group project presentations Understand the role of chemical engineers in process design Understand the importance of process economics in process design Be able to perform material balances on nonreactive systems Acquire an appreciation for the role of ethics and laboratory safety in the field of chemical engineering Be prepared to use the principles and tools learned in this class to solve problems not covered in detail as part of this course and to continue learning related material as needed in the future

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224 Chemical Engineering EducationT ABLE 3Examples of Material Balance ProblemsAppeared on a Midterm Exam A liquid mixture containing 30 mol% benzene (B), 25 mol% toluene (T), and 45 mol% xylene (X) is fed at a rate of 1275 kmol/h to a distillation unit consisting of two columns. The bottoms product from the first column is to contain 99 mol% X and no B, and 98% of the X in the feed is to be recovered in this stream. The overhead product from the first column is fed to a second column. The overhead product from the second column contains 99 mol% B and no X. The B recovered in this stream represents 96% of the B in the feed to the second column. (A) Draw and label a flowsheet for this process. (B) Calculate the molar flow rates (kmol/h) and component mole fractions for the product streams of the second distillation column.* Appeared on a Homework Assignment Ethanol can be synthesized by yeast from grain and water in a reactor. Assuming an idealistic process, the yeast converts 2 kg of grain into 1 kg of ethanol and 1 kg of water. A perfectly efficient yeast reactor (efficiency = 1.00) would convert all of the grain entering the reactor. A reactor with an efficiency = 0.50 would convert half the grain entering the reactor, and so on. The feed is 100 kg/min, 20 wt% grain, and 80 wt% water. (A) Calculate the total flowrate of the reactor effluent for an efficiency of 0.50. Also calculate the flowrates of all components in both the reactor feed and reactor effluent streams. (B) Calculate the reactor effluent composition using a range of r eactor efficiencies starting at 0.00 and increasing in step by 0.05 up to 1.00. Also, create a chart that will display the effluent grain flowrate as a function of reactor efficiency. Explain the significance of your results.** Appeared on a Homework Assignment The chemical Q reacts to form Z. Unreacted Q is separated from Z and recycled to the reactor. The feed contains an impurity, P, which is inert and is purged from the system via stream 7. The splitter purges 5.0% of stream 5. Note that a mass balance on Q must account for the Q that reacts to form Z. Likewise a mass balance on Z must account for the Z formed from Q. (A) Which stream has the highest flowrate of Q? (B) Calculate the flowrate of product stream 4, in kg/min. (C) Calculate the composition of purge stream 7. (D) Calculate the flowrate and composition of stream 2.*** Adapted from Felder, R., and R. Rousseau, Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY (1999) **Adapted from Duncan, T., and J. Reimer, Chemical Engineering Design and Analysis: An Introduction, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY (1998) Q P Z Z ( 100 wt %) Q P 10. kg/min Q P Q (99.0 wt %) P (1.0 wt %) 100. kg/ min 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 R eactor Q Z Separator Q P Q P also to the upper-class chemical engineering students, whose own objectives are more well-formed. A W eb site has been developed for the first year () that includes not only details on the two first-year courses offered by the department, but also has information on chemical engineering as a career choice, career skills, scholarships and internships, and safety and ethics. Students are strongly encouraged to partake in summer industrial internships or research opportunities as early as the summer following their first year. Opportunities regarding research experiences for undergraduate programs are summarized on the Web site and brought to the students' attention throughout their first year. Additionally, many of our students are in the Honors Program (Commonwealth College) and are required to complete a senior honors research thesis. Students are therefore encouraged to learn about departmental research as freshmen, so they can begin research in either their sophomore or junior year (when Honors Research Fellowships are available). Many of our students have been amazingly productive, with published articles resulting from their research work.[8-10]When beginning students learn of the achievements of upper-class students and alumni, they become excited about the opportunities available to them.PREPARATIONThe UMass chemical engineering curriculum has moved the traditional mass-and-energy balances class (typically a fall-semester, sophomore-level course) to the second-semester freshman year. Therefore, even though the "Introduction to Chemical Engineering" class is not a requirement for graduation, there exists a need to begin exposing students to "real" chemical engineering calculations early in their education. Additionally, students should be introduced to the type of work a typical chemical engineering class entails (calculations, calculations, calculations!). Thus, although the class focus is (in part) on connection and communication, suitable time is also dedicated to learning some basic chemical engineering fundamentals. The concept of process design and optimization, which separates chemical engineering from the other engineering disciplines, is very well explained in a book written by Duncan and Reimer ( Chemical Engineering Design and Analysis, An Introduction Cambridge). In this reading, examples are used to illustrate the building and improvement of processes based on physical or chemical changes. The LeBlanc Soda Process is used as an example to depict all aspects of design from improvements in technology to attention to safety and the environment.[11] Students are also taught engineering economics (an economics game was developed where groups of students compete to design the most cost-effective process), nonreactive material balances, and scale-up issues. Freshman engineering design experiences give students exposure to the creative nature of engineering; there has been a recent resurgence in freshman-level design activities.[12]Students learn to effectively write nonreactive material balances on simple systems (see Table 3 for some specific examples of both homework and exam problems). Calculus is not needed for students to understand the concept of a material balance, and the inclusion of this material in the first-

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Summer 2005 225semester course gives students a realistic view of the types of approaches chemical engineers use to solve problems. I have found that students thoroughly enjoy this section of the course (although most feel quite challenged) and they gain confidence in their ability to pursue chemical engineering as a major. Students are also well prepared for the second-semester "Fundamentals of Chemical Engineering" course that is dedicated to mass balances and phase equilibria. Good portions of the class and homework assignments are dedicated to developing students' computational skills, in particular the use of Microsoft Office (Word, Excel, and PowerPoint) and Mathcad. This is particularly important because there is always a certain percentage of students who have reached this level of their education with very limited computer skills. Since these computer applications will be used in all future chemical engineering classes, it is critical that the students know how to maximize their use. To achieve this end, there is a mandated requirement that all homework assignments must be completed on the computer (thus assuring that the students are getting the practice they need). Since there is no formal requirement at UMass that students take a course in engineering safety or engineering ethics, two class periods are spent discussing safety in the laboratory and plant and engineering ethics. A case-study approach is used to stimulate thought and discussion about the importance of these subjects in the chemical engineering profession. Although only a short time is spent in the classroom on these subjects, the students are encouraged to incorporate ethics and safety into their homework problems as well as into their group project assignments.CONNECTIONThe majority of students enrolled in the "Introduction to Chemical Engineering" class are first-semester freshmen. Most of them have recently arrived on campus and are new to the college experience itself. UMass has approximately 25,000 students, and most of the first-year classes are conducted in large lecture halls, giving the students limited contact time with the faculty and upper-class students. Studies have demonstrated the importance of students feeling "connected" with the university in terms of student success, happiness, and retention. Previous studies have demonstrated that advising and mentoring during the freshmen year were successful in decreasing attrition rates for engineering students.[13]Because this introductory course is relatively small (40-50 students) in relation to the other first-year courses, the opportunity exists to foster "connections." Although this takes a bit of time on the instructor's part, it is well worth the effort in terms of yield in student retention and class performance. Getting to know each student on a first-name basis is critical and being easily accessible to students is a must. Other means of fostering this "connection" are(1)A class lecture that is dedicated to a "faculty research panel" where several faculty in the chemical engineering department take part in a panel presentation and discussion about their research activities. Students get to know the other faculty in the department, develop enthusiasm about the ongoing research programs, and begin to see the diversity in the chemical engineering discipline. (2)An outside-class activity (which most students attend) that is arranged where the sophomore and freshmen classes are brought together in a casual environment to discuss issues r elating to the UMass Department of Chemical Engineering and curriculum. (3)A unit operations laboratory tour, given by the senior class. The tour takes place in the same time slot as the senior laboratory so that all the seniors are present and the equipment is operational. This not only allows beginning students to see what types of experiences are ahead of them, but also gives them the time to ask questions of the seniors. (4)An "industry career panel," comprised of alumni, that not only gives the students the opportunity to see firsthand what types of jobs are available with their chemical engineering degree, but also allows them the chance to "connect" with former students and recent graduates. (5)All students are encouraged to get involved with the student chapter of AIChE. The upper-class students are enthusiastic about including beginning students in their activities and the students feel as though they have a home in the department.COMMUNICATION Group Projects for Collaborative Learning Throughout the semester, students learn about process design, flowsheet construction, material and energy balances, engineering economics, laboratory safety, and ethics (see T able 1). With this background to support them, the students are assigned to groups of three and are given a particular chemical or pharmaceutical to research throughout the semester ( e.g. ethanol, penicillin, MTBE, sulfuric acid, ethylene, etc.). They are responsible for investigating the history of the process(es) involved, for describing the current process methods including the construction of flowsheets (synthesizing all information in the literature), for creating a simple market report, for performing an economic analysis, and for identifying potential problems in the process associated with hazardous materials, waste, inefficiency, and safety. The groups must give two presentations during the semester and then write a final report, which serves to hone both oral and written communication skills. For the second presentation students are asked to redesign the process based on their analysis of efficiency and minimization of waste. All students must partake in both presentations. A presentation skills "workshop" has been added to the syllabus to provide students with appropriate background on

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226 Chemical Engineering EducationT ABLE 5Examples of Student Research Paper Titles Development of Orthopedic Limbs Contribution of Chemical Engineering to Research on Alzheimer's Disease The Process of Manufacturing Urethane Wheels for Roller Sports The Removal of Chlorine from Water Producing Scents: The Production of Perfume and Cologne from Past to Present The Breakdown and Disposal of Nerve Gas Design of Artificial Kidneys W astewater Treatment The Process for Decaffeinating Coffee The Synthesis of Tennis Balls Development of Mammalian Cell Processes for Supply of Pharmaceuticals T ABLE 4"Pitfalls" Handout for Technical Writing Follow directions!!! Many students do not follow the formatting directions (paper length, reference and citation format, margins, title page, etc.) or the content instructions, and therefore lose significant points on the final paper grade. Include citations in the text of your paper. Citations provide the reader with the sources of information you have used to support your ideas and conclusions. Without citations, your paper will lack credibility. Perform a simple spell check on your paper to catch spelling and grammatical errors. Read over your paper before you hand it in. Many problems with punctuation, run-on sentences, and incomplete sentences can be avoided if you read the text out loud to yourself. Some misused words will not appear on a spell checker. For instance, the error in the sentence "Chemical engineering if fun," will not be detected using a spell checker. Pay attention to sentence structure and grammatical format. Some common mistakes are listed below: There should be two spaces after a period (as well as after a question mark and exclamation point) before beginning a new sentence. Only proper names and nouns should be capitalized. For example, many capitalize words like Chemical Engineer, which should be in lowercase. However, the University of Massachusetts Department of Chemical Engineering should be capitalized. Citations in the text should be placed before punctuation (e.g., period, comma, etc.). Acronyms should be written out in full the first time they appear in the text. Author lists should not be shortened to et al. in reference lists, only in the citations. T ry not to use the words it, this, that, etc., as nouns. More descriptive words will make your sentences clearer. A void using the first person when writing scientific or engineering papers. Do not write extraneous commentary in the text. Be careful when placing commasthe meaning of a sentence can be changed. W rite about subjects that you understand. Don't bite off more than you can chew! A void excessive and improper use of quotations in scientific and engineering papers. Quotes taken directly from sources should add significant meaning to the paper or else you should paraphrase and cite the information. For instance, facts and statistics should not be quoted. how to give an effective presentation. This "workshop" is cofacilitated with experienced university personnel. As part of the group project, students are required to complete a groupmember evaluation form where they evaluate themselves and all group members (on a scale of 1 to 5).[14] The evaluation criteria include reliability, research, analysis, oral presentation, report writing, and leadership. The use of an evaluation system holds the students accountable and helps bring about conflict resolution, which creates a more realistic team environment. Also, using an evaluation form at the midterm point in the project allows the instructor to foresee problems with certain groups that can possibly be solved before the semester is finished. Currently, peer evaluation is used by the instructor solely to gauge group performance, but there are plans to include student review of feedback and team conferences to discuss group dynamics in future course offerings. Students embrace this project and are amazingly successful in generating a reasonable flowsheet and identifying process inefficiencies. This project is extremely effective at teaching students the concept of process design, which most chemical engineering students do not begin to understand until much later in the curriculum. Emphasis on W ritten Communication Although the group project and presentations are successful at enhancing students' communication skills, the individual-paper assignm ent helps them develop technical-writing skills. The students are responsible for writing a research paper on the past, current, or future impact of chemical engineering on society and are required to reference a minimum of five sources, only one of which can be from the Internet. I learned early on that students rely too much on Internet material, which may or may not have been peer-reviewed or regulated. At the beginning of the semester, one of the head librarians from the Physical Sciences Library visits the class and gives a complete introduction to library sources, including a list of relevant chemical engineering publications ( e.g. books, reference materials, journals, newspapers, etc.). When this assignment was first implemented, the quality of the papers received was questionable in terms of organization, research, writing skillsand the simple ability to follow directions! This problem was somewhat solved through the institution of a technical-writing workshop, increased instruction on researching technical subjects, and the addition of a peer-editing session a week before the deadline. The technical writing workshop is facilitated by the course instructor and involves reviewing a publication on technical writing[15] and critiquing previous years' writing submissions. For the in-class peer-review session, students are anonymously assigned two papers to review and are instructed on how to effectively critique and provide feedback. They edit the papers and provide comments directly on the manuscript. Authors then receive the written feedback and incorporate changes into a revised submission. The result is that most students dramatically improve their technical-writing skills; this was assessed through qualitative analysis from several years of teaching this course.

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Summer 2005 227 1.02.03.04.05.0I understand what chemical engineering is and what careers are possible with a degree in chemical engineering I am able to use Microsoft Office (Word, Excel, and Powerpoint) to wr it e technical papers, create spreadsheets to perform calculations and design effective presentations I have developed proficient oral presentation skills through group project presentations I understand the role of chemical engineers in process design I understand the importance of process economics in process design I am abl e to per fo rm ma te ri al bal anc es fo r systems wit hout chemical r eactions I have acquired an appreciation for the role of ethics and laboratory sa fe ty in the field of chemical engineering DisagreeAgree St r ongly Agree Strongly Disagree Neutral I have acquired an appreciation for the role of ethics and laboratory safety in the field of ChE I am able to perform material balances for systems without chemical reactions I understand the importance of process economics in process design I understand the role of chemical engineers in process design I have developed proficient oral presentation skills through group project presentations I am able to use Microsoft Office to write technical papers, create spreadsheets to perform calculations, and design effective presentations I understand what ChE is and what careers are possible with a degree in ChEFigure 1. Student responses to end-of-course assessment survey.It must be remembered that most beginning engineering students have never written a technical research paperthe majority of their writing experiences have thus far been nontechnical, i.e. high-school English and history. A "pitfalls" handout was developed that highlights problems observed with past classes. Some examples include avoiding excessive and improper use of quotations and including citations in the text to provide the reader with the sources of information used to support ideas and conclusions (see Table 4). Students are also provided with a list of previous students' paper titles (see Table 5 for some creative examples). Students are advised to choose a subject that interests them and to avoid complex material for which they have no or limited background. Although many faculty are starting to mandate oral presentations from students, most faculty still do not address the need to develop effective written communication skills. Further development of this course will include incorporation of additional writing assignments.ASSESSMENTAt the end of the course, students are asked to evaluate their learning in several categories that reflect the course objectives. Responses to student surveys conducted during the past three years (with two separate instructors) are shown in Figure 1. Responses were consistently high, even with a turnover of instructors. Virtually all students agreed that the course was successful at illustrating the field of chemical engineering and the potential careers possible with a degree in chemical engineering. A dditio nally students felt they gained critical knowledge in chemical engineering fundamentals as well as proficiency in communication. The overall course evaluations were very high (> 4.0), when students were asked to compare this course to others offered at UMass. Qualitative feedback has also been extremely positive, particularly from minority and female students. Collectively, these data indicate that the course was successful in meeting the educational objectives. Before the redesign of this first-semester course, it was consistently rated one of the worst in the department; today, it is one of the most highly rated. Additionally I have appreciated the opportunity to get to know the beginning students early in their academic careers and to assist in connecting students with other departmental faculty.SUMMARYDo not underestimate the ability of beginning engineering students to learn! This course, although the workload is significant, is always highly evaluated and described as "useful" in student development. The overall time commitment can be managed through the use of teaching assistants, but faculty instructors must make the effort to get to know the students to foster their connection with the department. The right combination of preparation, connection, and communication through the described activities is instrumental in developing and preparing successful and enthusiastic chemical engineering majors.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSI gratefully acknowledge the National Science Foundation for supporting this work through the CAREER Program (BES 9984463).REFERENCES1.Solen, K.A., and J. Harb, "An Introductory ChE Course for First-Year Students," Chem. Eng. Ed., 32 (1), 52 (1998) 2. Dally, J.W., and G.M. Zhang, "A Freshmen Engineering Design Course," J. Eng. Ed., 82 83 (1993) 3.Dym, C.L., "Teaching Design to Freshmen: Style and Content," J. Eng. Ed., 83 1 (1994) 4.Merritt, T.R., E.M. Murman, and D.L. Friedman, "Engaging Freshmen through Advisor Seminars," J. Eng. Ed., 86 29 (1997) 5.Bowman, F.M., R.R. Balcarcel, G.K. Jennings, and B.R. Rogers, "Frontiers of Chemical Engineering: A Chemical Engineering Freshman Seminar," Chem. Eng. Ed., 37 (1), 24 (2003) 6. Hoit, M., and M. Ohland, "The Impact of a Discipline-Based Introduction to Engineering Course on Improving Retention," J. Eng. Ed., 87 79 (1998) 7.Willey, R.J., J.A. Wilson, W.E. Jones, and J.H. Hills, "Sequential Batch Processing Experiment for First-Year ChE Students," Chem. Eng. Ed., 33 (3), 216 (1999) 8. Matthew, J.E., Y. Nazario, S.C. Roberts, and S.R. Bhatia, "Effect of Mammalian Cell Culture Medium on the Gelation Properties of Pluronic F127," Biomaterials 23 4615 (2002) 9.McAuliffe, G., L.A. Roberts, and S.C. Roberts, "Paclitaxel Administration and its Effects on Clinically Relevant Human Cancer and Noncancer Cell Lines," Biotech. Lett., 24 959 (2002) 10.McAuliffe, G., L.A. Roberts, and S.C. Roberts, "The Influence of Environmental Conditions on the Encapsulation of HepG2 Liver Cells in Alginate," JURIBE, 3 70 (2003) 11 Cook, M., "The LeBlanc Soda Process: A Gothic Tale for Freshman Engineering," Chem. Eng. Ed., 32 (2), 132 (1998) 12.Sheppard, S., and R. Jenison, "Freshman Design Experiences: an Organizational Framework," Int. J. Eng. Ed., 13 (1997) 13.Besterfield-Sacre, M., C.J. Atman, and L.J. Shuman, "Characteristics of Freshmen Engineering Students: Models for Determining Student Attrition in Engineering," J. Eng. Ed., 86 139 (1997) 14. Ghanem, A., and S.C. Roberts, "Group Self-Assessment Surveys as a Tool to Improve Teamwork," ASEE/IEE Frontiers in Education Conference 1 1a2, 24 (1999) 15.Hohzapple M., and D. Reece, Foundations in Engineering McGraw-Hill, New York (2000)

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228 Chemical Engineering EducationPhil Wankat[1] succinctly states the importance of active learning in the classroom as "Involved students learn!" As a result of the dissemination of overwhelming evidence supporting active learning, more engineering f aculty (including, presumably, almost all of those who would choose to read this paper) are using active learning in their classrooms.[2-4] A survey conducted by Brawner, et al .,[5] indicated that 60 percent of responding engineering professors used some active learning. While the benefits of active learning are clear, simply breaking students into small groups to work on problems during class does not automatically address the pervading issue of student motivation. Biggs and Moore[6] classify four primary types of motivation: Intrinsic learning because of natural curiosity or interest in the activity itself Social learning to please the professor or your peers Achievement learning to enhance your position relative to others Instrumental learning to gain rewards beyond the activity itself (better grades, increased likelihood of getting a high-paying job, etc.) As such, an active-learning activity that addresses all four of these motivational categories would be useful. Unfortunately, professors tend to assume that things that would motivate them will also motivate their students. The problem is analogous to issues with learning styles in engineering education: Professors tend to teach the way they prefer to learn, which negatively impacts the learning of students with different preferences.[7-9] Not all students are inherently thrilled with solving energy balances, even when working in groups with their peers. Of course, motivation is a far more complex series of cognitive processes than can be completely addressed with a single activity. Bandura[10] emphasizes the motivational importance of self-efficacythe belief that "one can bring about positive results through one's own actions[11]"by stating that self-efficacy impacts how much effort people offer and how long they will persevere when faced with obstacles. Ponton, et al., [12] argue that it is paramount for a professor to incorporate strategies that enhance efficacy. Therefore, all students who participate in the learning activity must practice relevant exercises that develop both their skills and their confidence in their own abilities. T en years ago when I was teaching my first class, the sophomore-level materials and energy balances course, I was fortunate enough to have dinner with Rich Felder one evening and to talk about pedagogy and learning styles. The next day, I broke my class into small groups and in-SURVIVOR: CLASSROOM A Method of Active Learning that Addresses Four Types of Student Motivation ChEclassroom Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005 Jim Newell is a professor of chemical engineering at Rowan University. He currently serves as secretary/treasurer of the Chemical Engineering Division of ASEE and has won the Ray Fahien Award from ASEE for contributions to engineering education and a Dow Outstanding New Faculty Award. His research interests include high-performance polymers, r ubric development, and developing metacog nition in engineering teams.JAMES A. NEWELLRowan University Glassboro, NJ 08028

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Summer 2005 229stead of my lecturing to them about the problem, they solved it themselves. I was happier. Most of the students were happier. And they seemed to be learning more, but too many of them never really engaged in the activity. Assigning roles for team members helped, but it did not fix the problem. The student evaluations were very positive, but the students who did not engage during the active learning exercises were disproport ionately represented in the group that did not make it to their junior year. The challenge was to find an activity that would motivate a wider range of students so the entire class would engage actively in the group problem solving. The pedagogical literature[13-15] shows that student involvement has a significant impact on student success and satisfaction. W ankat and Oreovicz[16] proposed using quiz games modeled after popular formats such as Jeopardy or Trivial Pursuit as an active-learning alternative to lecture, but these games lend themselves better to knowledge-based questions than to problem solving. I have used the Hollywood Squares format in a materials science class for such questions, but it did not seem appropriate for a materials and energy balances class. Susan and James Fenton[18] at the University of Connecticut developed a very effective game called "Green Square Manufacturing" that came closer to meeting the needs of the class, but it did not necessarily address all four motivational factors, nor did it have the pop culture tiein that I wanted. Finally, the idea of adapting a version of the CBS "reality" game show Survivor came to me. With inspiration and a little preparation, a game that met my needs was developed.THE GAMEStudents in the materials and energy balan ces class are broken into "tribes" of seven to eight people. At Rowan, this usually results in three tribes, but the number of tribes does not substantially alter the flow of the game. The tribes sit together much as they would in any group problem-solving exercise. If inadequate space is available, the tribes may selfsegregate into smaller subgroups. Each tribe names itself. The team members are permitted to have their textbook, notes, a calculator, and pencil and paper with them, but the book and notes must be closed at the beginning. I write a problem on the board, but they must not look up any values or begin writing until I say to begin. Once they begin solving, the first tribe that has an answer to the problem has a member raise a hand. The other teams stop and the first team reveals its answer. If it is correct, that tribe has immunity and it does not lose a member. If the answer is wrong, the tribe cannot win immunity and the remaining tribes continue with the problem until one tribe successfully solves the problem or all but one tribe has provided an incorrect answer. To avoid issues of round off or interpolation, I accept any answer within five percent of my answer. A representative from the successful tribe goes to the board to present the solution to the problem, so that the rest of the teams can consider their solution strategies. At the end of the first problem, one tribe has earned immunity and every other tribe must lose one member. The method for elimination that seems to work best is In the first round, tribe members vote off a member of their own tribe In the second round, the tribe with immunity votes off a member of each of the other tribes In the third round, one member of each tribe is randomly eliminated by drawing a nameIf there are more than three rounds, the steps are repeated in order. In the television show, the tribe members always vote off a person of their own tribe, but initially I was reluctant to allow voting at all. I worried that feelings would get hurt, self-efficacy would be damaged, and the students who most needed the reinforced problem solving would be eliminated the quickest. The students, however, were unambiguous : They wanted to vote. As it turns out, the alternating system described above cures many woes. In almost every tribe, there is one player who wants to leave the game (for a variety of reasons). This person is almost always voted off first. Absent students are also assigned to a tribe and they are also quickly voted off. When the victorious tribe votes a member off of another tribe, they uniformly take out the strongest students. The random round is, of course, random. Ultimately, the average students who have enough skills to solve the The challenge was to find an activity that would motivate a wider range of students so the entire class would engage actively in the group problem solving.

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230 Chemical Engineering EducationAs the game progresses, the students gain confidence in their ability to write and solve problems. The strong students who are eliminated in the second round recognize why they were eliminated and help the weaker students with aspects of the newly created problems. problems, but who genuinely benefit from reinforcing the concepts, survive the longest. Students who have been eliminated in any round are given the task of designing and solving a problem to be used in later rounds. Thus, while they are no longer participating in the main activity, they remain actively engaged in team-oriented problem solving. More importantly, they discover that they are not only capable of solving probl ems, but can also create new ones. These students spend much of the time reading the textbook (in many cases for the first time), looking for a problem idea. Because they must provide a solution as well, their problemsolving skills are also reinforced. In a typical 75-minute class, there is enough time to get through about six rounds of the game. Speeding up the elimination process would allow for more rounds, but the students seem to thoroughly enjoy that aspect of the game and it provides adequate time for the eliminated students to develop their own problems. At the end of the first class, the tribes are dissolved, and all of the players who have not been eliminated become part of a single tribe. The team dynamics are fascinating to watch. In some tribes, each member attempts the prob lem on his or her own, then the first one who finishes speaks for the team. In other tribes, the players assign roles. One or two people look up values from the tables while another sets up the problem. For less trivial problems, some teams take a few seconds to discuss solution strategies before diving in. The second day of the game involves solving the problems as individuals, but otherwise the flow is the same. A problem is placed on the board, the first person who finishes it either receives immunity or fails to solve the problem, and the round continues. Players are eliminated by vote of the tribe in the first round, by choice of the player with immunity in the second, and by random draw in the third. The cycle repeats until a single player remains and is crowned as the grand champion. Groups of eliminated players develop and solve the problems used throughout this round. The successful students are rewarded with bonus points on the 200-point final exam. Ev ery player who survives to the second day gets three points, every original member of the champion's tribe gets two points, and the champion gets an additional five points. The bonuses are additive, so the champion will wind up with 10 points (five percent), while everyone else will get between zero and five points. In three years of playing the game, the bonus points have never altered the final course grade of the grand champion, but students battle ferociously for them all the same.LINKS TO MOTIVATION AND SELF-EFFICACYIntrinsically motivated students gladly participated in the activity because they liked the activity itself or were genuinely interested in solving new problems. The socially motivated students worked hard on the problems because they did not want to let their teammates or the professor down. Achievement-oriented students wanted to win because it was a contest, often independent of the reward or interest in the material. Finally, students with instrumental motivation tendencies wanted the bonus points in hopes of improving their final grade in the class. In terms of self-efficacy, the weakest students are voted out in the first round, but soon find themselves successfully writing problems that will be used later in the game. As the game progresses, the students gain confidence in their ability to write and solve problems. The strong students who are eliminated in the second round recognize why they were eliminated and help the weaker students with aspects of the newly created problems.

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Summer 2005 231 SAMPLE QUESTIONSUsed in Survivor -Model Active Learning Game 1. One mole of a mixture containing 20% ethanol and 80% water at 20C and one atmosphere is to be cooled to 4C. How much heat must be removed from the system? 2. Given the following chemical reaction Dahmene (g) + 20 IQ (g) Newellium (g) What is the heat of combustion for gaseous Dahmene if the heats of combustion for Newellium and IQ are -4130 kj/mol and -246 kj/mol, r espectively?STUDENT FEEDBACKOn the course evaluations at the end of each semester, the students were specifically asked the question, "Was Survivor helpful in developing an understanding of the subject matter?" On a five-point Likert scale with five representing extremely helpful and one representing not helpful, the mean responses to that question were 4.70 in 2001, 4.77 in 2002, and 4.80 in 2003. Specific student comments have included: "The game made the course interesting." "Playing the game helped to stimulate thinking." "Game was fun for a change." "Creating our own problems was especially helpful."SUMMARYThe game show Survivor has been adapted and used for three years as a means of introducing active, team-oriented problem solving into a sophomore-level course on energy balances. The game provides incentive for students from all four motivational forms (intrinsic, social, achievement, and instrumental). By having students who have been eliminated continue to participate through developing new problems that are used in the game, the entire class remains engaged throughout the activity. Based on several key observations: The students self-report that the game was beneficial and increased their motivation; The game was designed specifically to address different motivational styles; I (and other professors who have used the game) have directly observed that the level of participation increased in problem-solving activities; Performance of the students in subsequent thermodynamics classes improved after the game was introduced; I believe the game has provided an effective method of reinforcing problem-solving methodologies, as well as being extremely popular with students.REFERENCES1.Wankat, P.C., The Effective, Efficient Professor: Teaching, Scholarship and Service Allyn and Bacon Publishers, Boston, MA (2002) 2.Terenzini, P., A. Cabrera, C. Colbeck, J. Perente, and S. Bjorkland, "Collaborative Learning vs. Lecture/Discussion: Students' Reported Learning Gains," J. Eng. Ed., 90 (1), 123 (2001) 3. Felder, R.M., D. Woods, J. Stice, and A. Rugarcia, "The Future of Chemical Engineering Education II: Teaching Methods that Work," Chem. Eng. Ed., 34 (1), 26 (2000) 4.Prince, M., "Does Active Learning Work? A Review of the Research," J. Eng. Ed. ," 93 (3), 223 (2004) 5.Brawner, C.E., R.M. Felder, R. Allen, and R. Brent, "A Survey of Faculty Teaching Practices and Involvement in Faculty Development Activities," J. Eng. Ed. 91 (4), 393 (2002) 6. Biggs, J., and P.J. Moore, The Process of Learning Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1993) 7.Felder, R.M., and L.K. Silverman, "Learning and Teaching Styles in Engineering Education," Eng. Ed. 78 674 (1988) 8.Felder, R.M., "Meet Your Students 6. Tony and Frank," Chem. Eng. Ed. 29 (4), 244 (1995) 9. Felder, R.M., "The Effects of Personality Type on Engineering Students Performance and Attitude," J. Eng. Ed. 91 (1), 3 (2002) 10.Bandura, A., Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, NY (1997) 11 Speier, C., and M. Frese, "Generalized Self-Efficacy as a Mediator and Moderator between Control and Complexity at Work and Personal Initiative: A Longitudinal Field Study in East Germany," Human Performance 10 (2), 174 (1997) 12.Ponton, M., J. Edmister, L. Ukeiley, and J. Seiner, "Understanding the Role of Self-Efficacy in Engineering Education," J. Eng. Ed., 90 (2), 247 (2001) 13.Astin, A., What Matters in College?: Four Critical Years Revisited Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA (1993) 14.Smith, D.G., "College Classroom Interactions and Critical Thinking," J. Ed. Psychology, 69 (2), 180 (1977) 15.Norman, D., "What Goes on in the Mind of the Learner," in McKeachie, W .J., ed., Learning, Cognition, and College Teaching, New Directions for Teaching and Learning Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA (1980) 16.Wankat, P.C., and F.S. Oreovicz, T eaching Engineering McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, NY (1993) 17. Newell, J.A. "Hollywood Squares: An Alternative to Pop Quizzes," Proceedings of the 1999 AIChE National Meeting Dallas, TX Nov. (1999) 18.Fenton, S.S., and J.M. Fenton, Chem. Eng. Ed. 33 (2), 166 (1999)

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232 Chemical Engineering EducationProcess control has increased in importance in the process industries over the past decades, driven by global competition, rapidly changing economic conditions, more stringent environmental and safety regulations, and the need for more flexible yet more complex processes to manufacture high-value products. Remotely controlled processes, which are increasingly being used in industry and research, allow a process to be analyzed and controlledand data recorded and processed via a Web interfacewithout the need to be in the same physical location as the equipment itself. Likewise, Internet-based experiments offer possibilities for students to use up-to-date technologies for remote operation and communication on a r eal system. Perhaps more importantly, they will give students essential training for what they're likely to encounter professionally. The purpose of this paper is to report on the development, usage, and evaluation of a new exercise in process dynamics and control that incorporates a Web-based experiment physically located at MIT. We first describe the experimental equipment and interface used, then the new exercise, and finally the results of the student evaluation.EXPERIMENTAL SETUPThe experimental equipment is a heat exchanger, set up for online use within the subjects of transport processes and process dynamics and control. This was done as part of the MIT iCampus project, where a number of Web-accessible experimentsiLabshave been developed.[1] The experiment, contained in a laboratory in the Department of Chemical Engineering at MIT, has been used in the education of MIT chemical engineering students since November 2001. The equipment is manufactured by Armfield, Ltd. in Ringwood, England, and consists of a service unit (HT30XC) supplying hot and cold water, with a shell and tube heat exchanger (HT33) mounted on it. The service unit is connected to a computer through a universal serial bus (USB) port. The experimental setup is controlled and broadcast to the Internet by LabVIEW software from National Instruments (Austin, T exas). A Java-based chat capability is included, allowing communication during the experimental session among the students (who can collaborate online at different locations) as well as between the students and the tutor. The experimentPERFORMING PROCESS CONTROL EXPERIMENTSAcross the AtlanticANDERS SELMER, MIKE GOODSON, MARKUS KRAFT, SIDDHARTHA SEN1, V. FAYE MCNEILL2, BARRY S. JOHNSTON3, CLARK K. COLTON3University of Cambridge Cambridge CB2 3RA, United Kingdom1Currently at Microsoft Corp., headquarters at One Microsoft Way, Redmond, WA 980522Currently at University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-17503Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 Anders Selmer studied chemistry and chemical engineering at the Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden, and obtained a master's degree in 1993. After nine years in industry he is now working with Web-based experiments for chemical engineering students at the University of Cambridge. Mike Goodson studied chemical engineering at the University of Cambridge and started his Ph.D. on population balance modeling in 2000. Since January 2004 he is also the department Teaching Fellow, assisting students with continuously assessed coursework. Markus Kraft obtained the academic degree "Diplom T echnomathematiker" at the University of Kaiserslautern in 1992 and completed his "Dr. rer. nat." at the Department of Chemistry at the same university in 1997. Since 1999 he is a lecturer in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Cambridge. His main research interests are in the field of computational chemical engineering. Siddhartha Sen obtained his bachelor's degrees in computer science and engineering and mathematics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2003, and went on to get a master's degree in computer science in 2004. Sid is currently working as a software design engineer in the Network Load Balancing group at Microsoft Corp. V ivian Faye McNeill graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with her Ph.D. in chemical engineering in February 2005. Her thesis was entitled "Studies of Heterogeneous Ice Chemistry Relevant to the Atmosphere." She is currently a research associate in the Department of Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Washington, Seattle. Barry S. Johnston studied chemical engineering at Alabama, Clarkson, and Northwestern universities. He has worked in the chemical and nuclear industries. At MIT, he teaches undergraduate courses in process control, equipment design, and laboratory, and occasionally directs Practice School stations. Clark K. Colton received the B.ChE. degree from Cornell University in 1964 and a Ph.D. degree from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1969. He joined the faculty of MIT thereafter, becoming full professor in 1976. He was deputy head of the chemical engineering department 197778 and Bayer Professor of Chemical Engineering 1980-86. His research interests are in bioengineering. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005 ChEclassroom

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Summer 2005 233water inlet and outlet temperatures, Thi and Tho. Thi is also used as the input to the temperature controller. The heat exchanger was originally built to study the principles of heat transfer; its application was then broadened to study transient dynamics and control. In this initial collaboration, the focus has been on the controller for the hot water inlet temperature; the actual heat exchanger was only treated as a black box. The students' task was to achieve and maintain a desired water temperature into the heat exchanger, Thi, under varying flow conditions.CONTROLLER INTERFACEThe graphical user interface, shown in Figure 2, allows the user to change setpoint temperature, change hot and cold water flow rates, switch between coand countercurrent flow patterns, and set the proportional (P), integral (I), and derivative (D) parameters. It also shows real-time values of temperatures, flowrates, and controller output. Temperatures and flowrates are also displayed in a scrolling graph and in tabular form, which is observed by clicking the "Data Table" tab, and the interface allows the user to record these data to a file for later retrieval. The charts can be rescaled by double clicking and entering new extreme values on an axis. Figure 2. The graphical user interface (numbers refer to text description).can be accessed from any Internet-connected computer after registering and installing Java and LabVIEW plug-ins. For a detailed description of the hardand software environment, refer to Colton, et. al.[2]The experimental setup is shown in Figure 1; the heat exchanger is to the bottom right. The cold water flow, Fc, uses mains cold water from a tap in the laboratory and is controlled by a flow controller operating a valve. Temperature indicators measure the cold water inlet and outlet temperatures, Tci and Tco. For the hot water flow, Fh, a pump controlled by a flow controller pumps water through a heated tank (to the top left) where a heater, controlled by a temperature controller, heats the water. Temperature indicators measure the hotFigure 1. Experimental setup (described in the text).

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234 Chemical Engineering EducationFigure 3. The chat facility. The desired values for (1) flowrates, (2) setpoint temperature, and (3) PID parameters are simply entered into the boxes. For the flowrates, there are also options to use the turning knobs or the arrow buttons. To save experimental data, which can later be retrieved from the Web site, a file name is entered and the "record data" button clicked (4). By entering appropriate values for the parameters, and using the "reset integral error" button (5) when necessary, students can run the experiment under P, PI, or PID control as required. The hot and cold water flowrates are shown in the two charts (6 and 7), with the instantaneous values in boxes. The inlet and outlet temperatures to/from the heat exchanger are shown in the chart (8) with instantaneous values in boxes in the schematic heat exchanger drawing (9). The dial (10) shows the heater output. The interface looks and operates in exactly the same way if it is used to control an experimental setup next to the computer or if the setup is so mewhere else. What the students do not see when performing the experiment over the Internet is the actual equipment. Maybe more importantly, they do not hear the noise of pumps and stirrers. To reduce this disadvantage, a W ebcam has now been added to allow the students to see and hear the equipment when running the experiment. Since we had the opportunity to use a real experiment we have not investigated the possibility of using a simulation. Simulations might be of good use when teaching control, but if students are to be trained for a real world with errors and irregularities, it is our view that a real system is preferable to a simulated one. This view is also supported by Ang and Braatz,[3] and Bencomo in his review of process control education.[4] From an interface point of view, running a simulation would not differ from running a real experiment, but the behavior of the system is likely to be more predictable. On the same page as the interface is a Java chat facility (Figure 3) for communication among students and between the students and the tutor. A message is typed, and after the "send" button is clicked the message is visible to all users logged in to the chat facility.THE EXERCISE"Process Dynamics and Control[5]" is the title of a one-term course of 16 lectures taught in the second year of chemical engineering at the University of Cambridge. It aims to give students a variety of skills, such as how to write correctly formulated mass and energy balances and how to analyze and design controllers. Other institutions such as Rensselaer[6]and Illinois[3] have more lecture time to cover the topic and also have their students run a case study over several weeks[6]or spend several hours every week in the laboratory.[3] The course at the University of Cambridge is accompanied by an exercise that is an extended activity, undertaken individually, designed to test the students' knowledge of ideas covered in lectures. The exercise, although based on the course material, aims to challenge the students and extend their understanding. To practice presenting work clearly and concisely, each student writes a report on the exercise. Unlike schools such as Utah[7] and Illinois,[3] the University of Cambridge has no huge experimental facilities to use for control experimentation. Further, space and time restrictions do not allow for a hands-on laboratory experiment to be added to the course. By incorporating the MIT iLabs heat exchanger operated over the Internet, the new exercise met course goals and gave Cambridge students the traditional benefits of a laboratory experiment. It also exposed them to remote-control softwaremuch in line with the future predictions on remotely operated processes made by Skliar, et. al.,[7]

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Summer 2005 235Since we had the opportunity to use a real experiment we have not investigated the possibility of using a simulation. Simulations might be of good use when teaching control, but if students are to be trained for a real world with errors and irregularities, it is our view that a real system is preferable to a simulated one. and described by Bencomo.[4] The advantages of this exercise are therefore twofold: experiments can easily be performed on real systems (as opposed to simulations) where equipment would otherwise be unavailable, and students gain knowledge of remote-control software such as that used in research and industry. The new exercise is divided into three parts. A few preparatory questions on control, enabling the students to identify the r elevant variables and to calculate control parameters from open-loop test data An experimental session with observations of a real system under P, PI, and PID control, followed by fine tuning of the control parameters and testing the response of the system to disturbances Processing of data obtained during the experimental session and follow-up questions penetrating deeper into the matterFor the first part, students were given a piping and instrumentation diagram (see Figure 1) of the experimental setup and four sets of real data obtained from openloop tests ( i.e. the reaction of the system to a step change in the process variable with the controller disconnected). From the piping and instrumentation diagram, the students were asked to identify: (a) the controlled variable, (b) the process variable, and (c) any disturbance variables. Most students identified the controlled and process variables correctly as Thi and Q, respectively. The disturbance variables here are Tho and Fh since this stream is what enters the heater bath, but Tho is a function of Fc, Fh, Tci, and Thi, which complicates the matter. It also confused the studentsthus illustrating the truism that real life is more interesting than idealized systems. From the data supplied, the students were told to first identify which set was best suited to the desired operating conditions and then to apply the method of Cohen and Coon[8] to calculate an initial set of PID parameters to be used in the experimental session. Cohen and Coon is one of the tuning methods covered in the lectures and is known to be nonrobust, but the method was deliberately chosen because we did not want the students to start their experiments with a perfect set of PID parameters. The main focus of the exercise is not choosing PID parameters from experimental data. Rather, the focus is the practical experiment itself, and during the experiment we wanted students to experience instabilities and have to further fine tune the system using their theoretical knowledge of control. Because the data were real and nonideal, the resulting PID parameters could vary by at least a factor of three depending on how slope, final temperature, and dead time were interpreted from the data. Many students commented on this, and it was another useful experience with the difficulties that can arise when dealing with real data, as well as some shortcomings of the Cohen and Coon method. After presenting reasonable estimates of the PID parameters to a tutor, each student was issued a username and password to log in to the experiment. During allocated time slots, students in groups of three or four logged in to the experiment at using a LabVIEW interface. The Java chat facility was used for communication between the students and the tutor. After agreeing on initial PID parameters, the students' first task was to make qualitative observations of the system under P, PI, and PID control, noting phenomena such as offset and stability in the controlled variable. If the system did not stabilize, the students had to make changes to one or more of the parameters, using their theoretical knowledge of controlor trial and errorto obtain a stable system. Once happy with the steady-state behavior, the students tested their parameters by applying, and recording, the response to three step changes: (a) Fh step change of 1 L/min, (b) Thi setpoint step change of +5 C, and (c) Fc step change of +2 L/min. Some groups needed to further adjust their parameters to ensure the system was stable in response to the distur-

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236 Chemical Engineering Education If the system did not stabilize, the students had to make changes to one or more of the parameters, using their theoretical knowledge of controlor trial and errorto obtain a stable system.bances. Most groups completed the experimental session within two hours, but some groups spent more time playing and testing responses to changes in the parameters, and spent up to three hours. Following the experimental session, each student wrote an individual technical report, including his or her observations and changes to the parameters during the experiment. The reports showed that the students had gained understanding of the effects of the PID parameters on the controlled variable and how to adjust the parameters to mitigate for undesired effects such as slow or unstable responses under servo or regulator control. They also had to process their data by: choosing (and justifying the choice of) an error-response criterion, calculating its value for each disturbance, suggesting methods for further fine tuning, and discussing differences between the experimental system and an idealized stirred tank. For the error-response criterion, some students chose the integral of the square error (emphasizing large errors) and others the integral of the absolute error (treating all errors equally). Both criteria were accepted as long as the choice was justified. Because the students had just calculated the value of an error-response criterion, we expected a suggestion to minimize that for further fine tuning, but quite a few suggested other routes such as minimizing overshoot, rise time, or decay ratio. They also pointed out that different aspects are important to different systems. Finally, students ranked the comparison to an idealized stirred tank as a useful exercise. They noted things such as the presence of dead times for the measurements in the real system, signal noise in the measured values for temperatures and flow rates, the real system being too complex to treat mathematically, and the mixing being nonperfect in the real system. Typically, students are used to doing this the other way aroundby dealing with idealized systems and thinking about how a r eal system would behave.EVALUATIONThe equipment is designed to run over long periods of time with minimal maintenance, and once set up by the MIT staff it could be run for the complete course with only occasional supervision. Technically, the equipment and interface performed without fault for the duration of the course (ten threehour sessions). Student feedback was obtained by issuing questionnaires assessing the usability of the experiment and interface, the group work experience, the meeting of educational objectives, and the experience in comparison to exercises in other subjects. In the questionnaire, students had to state to what extent they agreed with a number of statements on a Likert scale ranging from 1, "I strongly disagree," to 7, "I strongly agree." A total of 36 students performed the exercise, and 23 of them handed in a completed questionnaire. Usability when Carrying Out the Experiment on the W eb (Instructions, operation, time needed, and retrieval of data)Students were provided with a Web-based exercise sheet and detailed instructions on how to carry out the experiment. T ime spent with the experiment varied from 90 to 180 minutes. The students were satisfied with the instructions and managed well to use the LabVIEW interface and chat window, and to download their experimental data after the session. Easy comprehension and use of the interface and downloading of experimental data are listed by Bencomo[4] as some of the most important features of a remote experiment. Various suggestions for minor improvements of the interface were received. W orking in a Group(Contribution to group and actual and preferred group size)This exercise was one out of seven, with the others being performed individually. This one was performed in groups of four but the reports were written individually as usual. The Figure 4. Students ranked the remotely controlled experiment.

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Summer 2005 237The equipment is designed to run over long periods of time with minimal maintenance, and once set up by the MIT staff it could be run for the complete course with only occasional supervision. students said they very much liked working in groups and felt they could contribute to the group. When it came to group size, the students' opinions fell into two categorieseither seeing little or no reason to have smaller groups, or thinking that a smaller group would have been good. (Three students commented that three students would be the ideal group size.) From a teaching point of view, we would prefer smaller groups. This is a matter of resources available, however, since smaller groups require more experimental sessions and increase the associated workload for technicians and tutors. When this exercise was repeated during 2005, the group size was set to three students, which was also the group size used at Rensselaer.[6] Meeting Educational Objectives(Measurement and analysis of real data and qualitative behavior)Even though some students commented on the lack of a sense of reality when performing the experiment, most agreed that it provided an experience of measurements and analysis of both real data and the qualitative behavior of P, PI, and PID control (see Figure 4). A Webcam, not yet in place at the time we used the experiment, has since been added to enhance the experience with video and sound from the laboratory equipment. Comparison to other exercises The other exercises were purely theoretical and performed individually. This exercise offered a change by being partly performed in a group and in providing a challenge to use theoretical knowledge to tune a real system. It was very positively received by most students (see Figure 5).CONCLUSIONWe have developed, used, and evaluated a new exercise in process dynamics and control incorporating a Web-based experiment physically located at MIT. We described the experimental equipment, the interface used, and the new exercise, and reported on student evaluation. The successful realization of this exercise shows that the technology is available and sufficiently stable to perform complex educational experiments over the Internet. The user-friendly graphical user interface and the interactive, fast-responding process were appreciated by the students, as shown by positive responses to the courseevaluation questionnaire. The authors at the University of Cambridge are now in the process of developing assignments and hardware for a new experiment on chemical reactors for broadcasting to the Internet.ACKNOWLEDGMENTThis new teaching activity was funded in part by The Cambridge-MIT Institute, , a cooperation between the University of Cambridge (U.K.) and MIT (U.S.), and by the iLabs project of iCampus , an educational research grant to MIT from Microsoft Corporation (U.S.).REFERENCES1. , , 2. Colton, C.K., M. Knight, R.A. Khan, S. Ibrahim, and R. West, "A Web-Accessible Heat Exchanger Experiment," in Innovations 2004. W orld Innovations in Engineering Education and Research W. Aung, R. Altenkirch, R. Cermak, R.W. King, and L.M.S. Ruiz, eds. Begell House Publishing, New York, NY, 93 (2004) 3.Ang, S., and R.D. Braatz, "Experimental Projects for the Process Control Laboratory," Chem. Eng. Ed. 36 (3), 182 (2002) 4.Bencomo, S.D., "Control Learning: Present and Future," Annual Reviews in Control, 28 115 (2004) 5.Deddis, C., Lecture Notes PD&C Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cambridge (2004-2005). 6.Bequette, B.W., K.D. Schott, V. Prasad, V. Natarajan, and R.R. Rao, "Case Study Projects in an Undergraduate Process Control Course," Chem. Eng. Ed. 32 (3) 214 (1998) 7. Skliar, M., J.W. Price, and C.A. Tyler, "Experimental Projects in Teaching Process Control ," Chem. Eng. Ed. 32 (4) 254 (1998) 8.Cohen, G.H., and G.A. Coon, "Theoretical Consideration of Related Control," T rans. ASME 75 827 (1953) Figure 5. Students ranked the remote-learning experience.

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238 Chemical Engineering EducationA KINETICS EXPERIMENTFor the Unit Operations LaboratoryRICHARD W. RICE, DA VID A. BRUCE, DA VID R. KUHNELL, CHRISTOPHER I. MCDONALDClemson University Clemson, SC 29634The topic of kinetics, because it deals with change in molecular structure (as opposed to mere physical change), is, strictly speaking, not a subset of the term "unit operations." Nevertheless, many schools include a kinetics experiment in what is nominally called a unit operations laboratory (UOL) course. This paper describes a kinetics experiment that was recently added to the senior UOL course at Clemson. It deals with selection of the reaction, the design and operation of the apparatus, incorporation of appropriate safety equipment, and analysis of results. Once the decision to add a kinetics/reactor design experiment had been made, the first issue to be resolved was whether or not to purchase a complete "off the shelf" experiment from a vendor ( e.g., Armfield or Hampden), or to design/build our own. The latter path was chosen for several reasons. One was that this strategy would provide an excellent learning opportunity for the group of undergraduate students who played a major role in the construction/debugging of the apparatus and in the determination of feasible operating conditions. This aspect will be described in a separate paper.[1]Another reason for deciding to design our own experiment was that commercially available experiments use liquid-phase reactions ( e.g., saponification), whereas a heterogeneously catalyzed gas-phase reaction system was felt to offer several advantages, one of which would be greater variety regarding potential assignments since, with minor modification, the same apparatus could be used for many combinations of catalyst and reactants, often with major differences in apparent kinetics. Other advantages would be that such a system affords more accurate flowrate control/determination (through the use of mass-flow controllers) and more accurate composition measurements (through the use of a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector). Furthermore, designing the experiments and conducting data analysis could be varied to fit the backgrounds of the students (and the temperament of the instructor). For example, the rate data could be fit to a simple "power law" expression or to a more complex Langmuir-Hinshelwood model that provides additional insight into what is actually occurring during the reaction process.[2] Finally, during the roughly eight months a year when the senior UOL course is not being taught, the apparatus would be available as a versatile platform for senior or graduate student research projects.CHOICE OF REACTION/CATALYSTAfter considering several reactions, propane hydrogenolysis over an alumina-supported platinum (Pt/ -Al2O3) catalyst was chosen for the experiment. Under the conditions used, the reaction can be considered effectively irreversible and ethane hydrogenolysis, a possible complicating secondary reaction, occurs to a negligible extent. Data analysis is also made easier by the small number of species involved and by the fact that the simple stoichiometry results in no change in the total number of moles (shown in Eq. 1). CHHCHCH3822641 ++() In the experiment, the catalyst (in a sense) merely serves as a "means to an end," i.e., students are not asked to study the catalyst per se. In designing the experiment, however, the choice of catalyst was important because the catalyst greatly influences the reaction rate, and thus, operational parameters such as reactor size, temperature, pressure, and flow- Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005 ChElaboratoryRichard W. Rice is an associate professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Clemson University, where he has been since 1978. He has done research in a variety of areas, but heterogeneous catalysis has been his main topic. Unit operations and kinetics are the subjects that he has most frequently taught. He received his B.S.ChE. from Clemson University and his M.S. and Ph.D. from Yale University. David A. Bruce is an associate professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Clemson University. He has B.S. degrees in Chemistry and chemical engineering and a Ph.D. from the Georgia Institute of Technology. His research interests include the synthesis of heterogeneous catalysts, advanced oxidation processes, and quantum and molecular mechanics modeling. David R. Kuhnell and Christopher I. McDonald are recent chemical engineering graduates from Clemson University. As undergraduates, both were actively involved in oxidation catalysis research with Dr. Bruce and were the primary individuals contributing to the building/testing of the apparatus.

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Summer 2005 239rate. An additional consideration was that the catalyst should experience minimal deactivation over the course of a given group's experiment (typically, three 3-hour periods) so that the determination of kinetic parameters would be straightforward. Combining both literature[3,4] information and our "in-house" experience[5,6] with this reaction over a variety of catalysts resulted in the selection of a commercial 0.6 wt.% Pt on -Al2O3 catalyst (PHF-5) obtained from Cyanamid.EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUSFigure 1 is a schematic showing the major features of the apparatus. The four main sections are The reactor and furnace/temperature controller The feed gas system and flow controllers The combustible gas detector/alarm and emergency gas shut-off system The computer-controlled gas chromatograph The reactor consists of a 66-cm long stainless steel tube (15.9 mm OD, 13.6 mm ID) connected at each end to a Swagelok tee. Within the reactor, roughly 1.5 grams of 14 to 30 mesh (0.6 to 1.4 mm) catalyst particles are positioned at the midpoint, i.e., roughly 30 cm from the inlet. The feed preheating zone between the reactor inlet and the catalyst bed is filled with 1.5-mm glass beads. These beads also serve, along with small pieces of Pyrex wool, to position the catalyst near the axial midpoint of the "wraparound" 1.3 kW Lindberg Blue M tube furnace. Due to low conversions and T FC FT FC FT Hy drogen Propane Helium P GC Vent T Reactor Bypass Valve Glass Beads Catalyst TC Relief Valve Back Pressure Regulator VentFurnace FC FT FC A Combustible Ga s Detector S S the small size of the catalyst bed, the catalyst temperature is approximately uniform and is measured using a 3.2 mm OD type-K thermocouple that is coaxial with the reactor and that has its tip positioned in the center of the catalyst bed. Readings from the reactor thermocouple are obtained using an Omega digital thermometer. Another type-K thermocouple is used to measure the furnace temperature, i.e., in the region between the outside of the reactor and the inner surface of the furnace. This thermocouple is connected to a BarberColman temperature controller. In the reactor exit line there is a pressure gauge and a Tescom back-pressure regulator. The feed-gas system consists of P r essure regulators and high-pressure cylinders for the three gases used (instrument-grade propane, highpurity hydrogen, and high-purity helium) Normally closed solenoid valves for the hydrogen and propane lines that are energized (open) during normal operation and de-energized (closed) when the apparatus is not in use or when elevated levels of combustible gases are detected Three calibrated Brooks Model 5850E mass-flow controllers connected to a Brooks Model 0154 digital flow readout After being combined, the three streams may be either routed to the reactor inlet or to a bypass line (for feed composition determination). Due to the flammability of the reagents used in this experiment, a combustible gas detector with accompanying alarm system (RKI Instruments, Inc.) is used to detect process leakage of hydrocarbon reactants and reaction products. The concentration of gaseous hydrocarbons is detected by a fixed-mount, continuousmonitoring detector head that displays the current concentration of combustible gases and transmits this information electrically (4-20 mA signal) to a multichannel gas monitor. The gas monitor is programmed to sound an alarm if hazardous levels of combustible gas are detected and to simultaneously de-energize (close) the solenoid valves connected to the propane and hydrogen pressure regulators. Gas analysis is achieved using a Varian CP3380 gas chromatograph equipped with a V alco 6-port gas-sampling valve actuated using a Valco 3-way solenoid valve manifold, and a flame ionization detector that uses hydrogen and compressed air. Separation is achieved using helium carrier gas flow through a 213-mm by 3.2-mm stainless steel column packed with 80/100-mesh poropak Figure 1. Schematic for kinetics experiment apparatus.

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240 Chemical Engineering EducationQ and maintained at 170 C. This gives well-separated peaks for the three hydrocarbons within an elution time cycle of only 2 minutes. A software package (CP-3800) obtained from Varian is used with a computer to operate the GC, perform data logging/peak area determination, etc. Exit streams from both the reactor and the GC are vented through tubing to the outside.EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDUREBefore giving a general description of the procedure used, a few comments on how UOL is conducted at Clemson should be mentioned to provide proper context. The first is that, in contrast to many other laboratory courses that involve what is often called a "cookbook" approach, here each lab group (which consists of three or four students) writes a preliminary (pre-experiment) report as well as a final report. Prior to writing the preliminary report, each group is given a lecture on the topic, a brief "walk-through" of the apparatus, an assignment sheet outlining the objectives, and a handout that provides guidance regarding the use of the software and the safe operation of selected items of equipment, e.g., the GC, flow and temperature controllers, and the combustible gas detector. The last of these handouts is felt to be necessary because of the complexity of the reactor system. Once the group has received information about the experiment, they are required to submit the preliminary report, which contains A schematic and an experimental plan, i.e., a fairly detailed listing of operational steps and safety issues Data tables Sample calculations Literature review This report is then read, graded, and corrected by the supervising faculty member and returned to the group. A group normally begins actual experimentation the next lab period after the graded preliminary report has been returned. Depending on the background of the students, the instructor can assign students to develop a classical or a factorial design of experiments. Traditional methods would involve students evaluating one variable at a time ( e.g., all variables are held constant during a set of experiments, except for the variable being evalua ted). Greater sampling efficiency and complexity of data analysis are achieved, however, by having students use the statistics-based strategy known as design of experiments to develop a factorial design that will enable them to quantify each parameter in the selected reaction model. For example, the combined power law/ Arrhenius law model contains four parameters that need evaluating ( , E, ko), while a Langmuir-Hinshelwood model incorporating the effect of temperature has a total of five parameters (a, E, ko, D Hp, KA). It should also be noted that using factorial designs often necessitates the use of nonlinear least-squares methods to obtain optimal values of kinetic parameters; hence, more sophisticated mathematical software programs may be required to complete data analysis. Discussions in this paper focus on traditional experiment designs and we would direct the reader to the literature for a detailed discussion of design of experiments.[7]The first steps in the experimental procedure are to turn on the combustible-gas-detector system, start flow of a mixture of helium (160 sccm) and hydrogen (160 sccm) to the reactor, set the reactor pressure to 5 psig (135 kPa), and adjust the setpoint of the temperature controller to obtain a catalyst bed temperature in the 460 to 495 C range. Once a temperature in this range is obtained, reduction of the catalyst is continued for roughly 1 hour; then the reactor temperature is lowered to the desired value for the first propane hydrogenolysis run, typically in the 310 to 340 C range. During this time, GC operation is initiated by setting flows of helium carrier to the column and both hydrogen and air to the flame ionization detector (FID). Next, propane is added to the reactor feed stream and the flowrates of the three components (C3H8, H2, He) are set to the desired values. Hydrogen is fed in considerable excess (H2/C3H8 molar ratio 6) in order to minimize deactivation due to coking. A typical feed mixture for a run might consist of 20 sccm C3H8, 160 sccm H2, and 160 sccm He, corresponding to roughly 6 mole % C3H8, 47% H2, and 47% He. For the conditions associated with the sets of runs described below, propane conversions are generally in the 2 to 10% range; thus, the reactor can be approximated as being a "differential reactor." Additionally, the selected flowrates, reactor temperature, and catalyst particle size ensure that the reactor pressure is axially uniform and are similar to conditions for which literature sources state that mass transfer effects did not distort the intrinsic kinetics.[5,6] As will be discussed later, these approximations greatly simplify data analysis, leading to the determination of kinetic parameters. When students are asked to determine power law kinetic parameters, the first set of runs will commonly focus on determining the propane reaction order ( ) value. To collect data for these calculations, exit gas GC peak-area values are recorded for a range, e.g., 10 to 30 sccm, of propane feed rates (and thus propane concentrations, Cp, or partial pressures, Pp), at constant reactor temperature and pressure. At the same time, the hydrogen concentration (or partial pressure) is held virtually constant by adjusting the helium flow such that total flow remains constant. The aforementioned use of a great excess of H2, as well as differential r eactor operation, facilitates isolating the effect of Cp on the rate of consumption of C3H8, -rp. For a given set of conditions, successive runs (typically two to four) are made to confirm that the data are reasonably reproducible. In the second set of runs, data for the determination of the hydrogen reaction order ( ) are acquired by varying the hy-

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Summer 2005 241drogen feed rate (and concentration, CH 2 ) at the same reactor temperature, pressure, and total flow, while using a constant feed Cp value. Occasionally, a second method for varying CH 2 is used, namely, varying the reactor pressure at a given H2 feed rate, to obtain data for comparison with that of the first method. The third set of runs examines the temperature dependence of the rate, specifically the activation energy, E, and the preexponential (frequency) factor, ko, that appear in the Arrhenius expression for the specific reaction rate, k (i.e., k = koe-(E/RT)). In this part of the experiment, the pressure and feed composition are usually held constant, while the reactor temperature is varied in increments of 5 to 7 C over an appreciable range, e.g., from 310 to 340 C. The experiment as described takes two to three 3-hour periods that occur several days apart. Thus, it is important that the system be shut down after the first period and restarted for the second period in such a way that the catalyst's activity is unchanged. Shutdown is accomplished by first stopping propane flow while continuing to feed hydrogen and helium for at least fifteen minutes at the last temperature used, then lowering the reactor temperature set point to 0 C. This purges the reactor of any adsorbed propane. During this interval, power to the GC/computer is cut off and flows of H2, He, and air to the GC are discontinued. Finally, power is cut off to the furnace, flow controllers, etc. In order to achieve some diversity over a semester, the assignment (and thus the associated procedure) is often modified. In one such variant, the third set of runs is not devoted to determining the temperature dependence, but is used to study how well the reaction-rate expression developed from differential reactor o peration at a constant temperature predicts integral packed-bed reactor behavior. In this case, the third set of runs involves conditions that give appreciably higher propane conversions, e.g., 20 to 40%. Another variation involves students conducting experiments to determine parameters for a Langmuir-Hinshelwood model of the reaction process. A more detailed discussion of these experiments is provided in the data analysis section of this paper.DATA ANALYSISAs mentioned earlier, a group's preliminary report must address not only the procedure, but also the specific calculations and data analysis needed. The latter, in addition to being necessary for composing the final report, "shape" the experimental strategy by identifying the means by which the effect of a given variable can be isolated from that of others. The first portion of this section will describe data analysis for the simplified case of "power law kinetics." Later, a description is given outlining how this approach can be extended to deal with Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate equations. Before detailing how the power law kinetic parameters ( , E, ko) are obtained, some background information will be provided. Combining the rearranged propane balance for a packedbed reactor with a power law approximation for the rate expressions gives dF dW FdX dW rkeCCppop po E RT p H==-=()a b 22 where Fp is the propane molar flow rate, W is the weight of catalyst, Fpo is the propane molar feed rate, Xp is the propane fractional conversion, R is the gas constant, and T is the reactor absolute temperature. For differential reactor operation, Eq. (2) can be approximated as a much simpler finite difference equation FX W rkeCCpop po E RT p H=-=()a b 23 where T is the virtually uniform temperature of the entire catalyst bed, and Cp and CH 2 are average concentration values for the respective species, which, for the very low conversions used, differ only slightly from either the feed or exit values. Before going further with the illustration of how Eq. (3) was used, two clarifying comments should be made. The first is that, although the use of low Xp values makes data analysis easier, it also introduces considerable relative uncertainty into the determination of Xp by the conventional method, i.e., comparing the inlet and outlet GC peak areas for propane. To avoid this problem, a more accurate method for converting GC data to Xp values was used. This involved using the exit gas GC peak areas and FID response factors for C3H8, C2H6, and CH4, along with a carbon atom balance. The second comment regarding Eq. (3) is that, over the modest ranges of temperature and pressure studied, the irreversible power law expression is a reasonable approximation for the "true" rate equation. T aking logarithms of both sides of Eq. (3) gives the "linearized" equation llll nrnk E RT nCnCpopH-()=()-+()+()()ab24 One option for evaluating the power law kinetic parameters, , E, and ko, is to conduct a series of experiments in which the rate is found for various combinations of T Cp and CH 2 and then use nonlinear least-squares software to extract the values from the entire data set. An optimal data set can be collected using experimental conditions obtained from a factorial design (or other design of experiments approach) that has been optimized for the variables of interest. This approach, while nominally viable and easy to implement, is, for several reasons, less desirable than the more structured approach associated with the experimental procedure described earlier. The first reason is that the inelegant (and, often, less reliable) "collective least squares" regression approach does not require the students to form their experimental plan in a logical fashion, e.g., devise a sequence of experi-

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242 Chemical Engineering Educationmental (and computational) steps. A second reason is that it does not provide an opportunity to apply model development techniques that are central topics in most kinetics texts.[2]The data analysis strategy actually used by many groups is one that is a logical follow-up to the experimental procedure. It will now be illustrated for the simple power-law case using data/results taken from a representative UOL report. For the first set of runs, where Cp was the only independent variable, Eq. (4) simplifies to ll nrnCCppl-()=()+()a 5 where Cl is a constant. The value of is found as the slope of a plot such as that seen in Figure 2. In the particular case shown, a value of 1.3 was found for which is above the 0.8 to 1.0 range found in the literature[3-6] for this reaction over Pt/Al2O3. Over the past two years, other UOL groups have reported values ranging from 1.2 to 1.4. A representative sample of power-law kinetic parameters obtained by undergraduate students during the past two years is shown in Table 1. For the report whose results are being used as an example, a value of about -1.5 for was found from a similar plot of l n (-rp) versus l n ( CH 2 ) using data from the second set of runs, where CH 2 was the only independent variable. This value is within the -1.3 to -3 range reported in the literature and clearly shows the expected inhibiting effect of hydrogen adsorption. Other UOL groups reported values ranging from -0.6 to -1.7. Once the separate orders of reaction are known, the ko and E values are found by first calculating specific reaction rate (k) values for each of the temperatures used in the third set of runs, where all concentrations and flow rates were held constant, and then constructing an "Arrhenius plot" such as Figure 3. The calculation of k is accomplished using kke r CCo E RT p p H== -()a b 26 from which it can be seen that the slope of a linear plot of l n (k) versus T1 equals -E/R and the intercept as T • equals l n (ko). The results of Figure 3 correspond to E 164 kJ/mole (39 kcal/mole) and ko 8.5 x 109 moles1.2/(cm0.6 g catalyst.min). This activation energy is slightly lower than the 188 to 208 kJ/mole range reported by other investigators.[3-6] As shown in Table 1, other UOL groups found E values ranging from a clearly too-low value of 93 kJ/mole to a reasonable value of 194 kJ/mole. It should also be noted that the same catalyst sample was used for all studies having data reported in Table 1. If one wishes to use a Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, one of numerous possibilities is a model proposed by Leclerq, et al.,[3] that assumes that the rate-controlling step is surface reaction between C3Hx,ads and either gaseous H2 or associatively adsorbed H2 to form C2Hy and CHz, which are rapidly hydrogenated to (and desorbed as) C2H6 and CH4. Single site adsorption (with C3Hx,ads being the predominant surface species) is assumed. The rate expression in this case is -= +()rk KCC CKCp pH H a p 1 2 2 17 where k is the pseudo surface reaction rate constant, Kl is the propane equilibrium adsorption constant, and a = 4 x/2. Note that if CKCH a p 2 1>> this simplifies to a power-law equation, i.e., --rkCCpp H a 2 1 For the experimental results discussed above, where a value of -1.5 for (=1-a) was found, the value for "a" would be 2.5. If accurate, this would imply that, on average, propane loses five H atoms upon adsorption and that the most probable values for y and z are 3 and 2, respectively. The proposed mechanism leading to this rate equation is summarized by the following elementary steps where "site" refers to an unoccupied surface site, "ads" implies adsorbed, and y + z = x + 2 = 10 2a: C3H8 + site ¤ (C3H8-2a)ads + aH2: fast, with equilibrium constant K1 (C3H8-2a)ads + H2 (C2Hy)ads + (CHz)ads: slow, rate-controlling (C2Hy)ads + (CHz)ads + H2 C2H6 + CH4: fast y = 1.314x + 6.886 R2 = 0.999 -13.0 -12.5 -12.0 -11.5 -11.0 -10.5 -10.0 -15.0-14.5-14.0-13.5-13.0-12.5 ln (Avg. Propane Concentration, mol/cc)ln (Reaction Rate, -rp) Figure 2. Determination of propane reaction order ().T ABLE 1Representative Power-Law Kinetic Parameters Calculated from Experimental Data Collected by Undergraduate StudentsExperiment DateE(kJ/mol)9-23-021851.3-1.7 10-14-021941.3-1.5 1 1-11-021641.2-1.4 12-3-021571.4-1.2 4-1-031641.3-1.5 1 1-3-031451.4-0.6 12-3-03931.3-0.8

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Summer 2005 243The specific rate equation shown above can be rearranged to give CC r C kK C kpH p H a p 22 18 =+() which, for a given assumed value of "a", should give a straight line when --rCCppH 1 2 is plotted versus CH a 2 for data taken at constant Cp and temperature. The best-fitting value for "a" can be found by varying CH a 2 over the maximum practicable range and examining the resulting least squares correlation coefficient (R2) values. Next, the k value can be determined from the intercept, i.e., k-1 Cp and then the Kl value can be found from the slope, i.e., (k K1)-1. An alternative (or supplemental) method is to use data taken at constant CH 2 and temperature, with Cp intentionally varied. In that case (for a given assumed "a" value), the k and K1 values can be found from the intercept (k CH 2 )-1 and slope (k K1)-1 CH a 2 1 of a least squares fit of rp -1 versus Cp 1 Assignments involving the use of Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics could range in difficulty from a case similar to the one just illustrated (where parameter evaluation is for a single given mechanism with the assumed rate-controlling step specified) to a challenging case in which the best-fitting mechanism/controlling step must be determined from a variety of proposed explanations/hypotheses. Students could also be asked to assume a specific Langmuir-Hinshelwood model and collect data to determine the activation energy, E, and frequency factor, ko, for the reaction as well as a heat of adsorption, D Hp, for propane using an integrated form of van't Hoff's expression for the equilibrium adsorption constant, Kl, i.e., Kl = KeA H p RT -D / where KA and D Hp are independent of temperature over the range studied.CLOSING REMARKSIn this paper we have attempted to not only describe the apparatus and procedure used for our recently implemented kinetics experiment, but also to provide a rationale for its design and a sampling of results. The experiment offers students the opportunity to devise a workable plan for accomplishing a relatively challenging assignment (which can include developing a factorial design of experiments) and then to observe firsthand the effect of important variables (space time, feed composition, temperature) on the rate of a catalyzed reaction. In carrying out the experiment, students become familiar with up-to-date instrumentation and, in writing the final report, they employ a variety of numerical methods to obtain/analyze their results. The primary advantage of the described kinetics experiment is its flexibility. The assignments can be kept simple and straightforward ( e.g., use classical methods to determine reaction order and activation energy values for a power-law model) or students can be challenged to develop a factorial design to efficiently determine all kinetic parameters for a Langmuir-Hinshelwood model that uses an Arrhenius law expression to describe variations in rate with temperature. Further, minimal changes to the reactor system would be required to have students examine other catalysts or gas-phase reactions ( e.g., hydrogenation of propene).ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThe authors would like to thank Matt Rogers and Bill Coburn for their help in coupling the computer-controlled GC and reactor portions of the system, and Jay McAliley for assistance with dr awing the process schematic. We also thank Norton Cater for arranging a financial gift from the Instrument Society of America and the National Science Foundation (CAREER-9985022) for support of this upgrade to our UO lab.REFERENCES1.Bruce, D.A., R.W. Rice, and C.H. Gooding, "Educational Outcomes from Having Undergraduates Design and Build Unit Operations Lab Equipment," to be submitted to Chem. Eng. Ed. 2.Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (1999) 3.Leclercq, G., L. Leclercq, and R. Maurel, "Hydrogenolysis of Saturated Hydrocarbons, II," J. Catal., 44 68 (1976) 4.Bond, G.C., and X. Yide, "Hydrogenolysis of Alkanes," J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. I, 80 969 (1984) 5.Brown, J.T., "An Investigation of Bimetallic Interactions in Pt-Re/ Al2O3 and Ir-Re/Al2O3 Catalysts," MS Thesis, Clemson Univesity (1994) 6. Rice, R.W., and D.C. Keptner, "The Effect of Bimetallic Catalyst Preparation and Treatment on Behavior for Propane Hydrogenolysis," Appl. Catal. A: General, 262 233 (2004) 7.Montgomery, D.C., Design and Analysis of Experiments, 5th ed., John W iley & Sons, New York, NY (2000) y = -19667x + 22.859 R2 = 0.971 -11.0 -10.8 -10.6 -10.4 -10.2 -10.0 -9.8 -9.6 -9.4 -9.2 -9.0 0.00160.001620.0 01640.001660.001680.00170.00172 Recip. Abs. Temp., 1/T (1/K)ln (rate constant, k) Figure 3. Arrhenius plot for determining frequency factor and activation energy for the Pt-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of propane.

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244 Chemical Engineering EducationComputational modeling in chemical engineering is becoming more and more a field in its own right, due largely to the rapidly increasing power of computers but also because of progress being made in developing numerical algorithms, which are necessary to solve sophisticated models. The industry is highly interested because computer simulations have significantly lower costs compared to experimental studies. Some important ingredients for the field include accurate physical and chemical models in mathematical form, numerical values for the parameters that occur in these models (either taken from carefully selected experiments or from first-principles calculations), fast computers, efficient and powerful numerical methods, andmost importantly competent engineers who are aware of the limitations of the models, parameters, and numerical methods. Although important, the whole field of computational engineering is far too rich to be taught in a single course. In this article we discuss the teaching of stochastic (or "Monte Carlo") methods to students of chemical engineering. Monte Carlo methods have been shown to be highly efficient in many applications and can be found in various areas in the process and chemical industry, such as polymer synthesis, crystallization, liquid-liquid extraction, etc. They are also useful when it comes to simulating turbulent flames and their emissions as well as aerosol transport in the atmosphere. More generally, it has been demonstrated in some cases that stochastic models can account for effects that the corresponding deterministic models cannot. This is because fluctuations can sometimes significantly change the overall behavior of nonlinear physical models. Another important aspect of Monte Carlo methods is, in our opinion, the connection to mathematicswhich provides an appropriate language by means of the theory of stochastic processes. In the last decades a number of important mathematical results have been achieved that shift Monte Carlo methods from an intuitive, naive modeling level to the rigorous mathematical discipline of interacting stochastic-particle systems and their corresponding limit equations. A class of stochastic processes which is relevant for chemical engineering is Markov processes, in particular jump and Wiener processes (Brownian motion). To the best knowledge of the authors, so far in chemical engineering the subject has been taught from an intuitive point of view, focusing mainly on the physical motivation of the model. Examples can be foundMarkus Kraft obtained the academic degree "Diplom Technomathematiker" at the University of Kaiserslautern in1992 and completed his "Dr. rer. nat." in the Department of Chemistry at the same university in 1997. He has been a lecturer in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Cambridge since 1999. His main research interests are in the field of computational chemical engineering. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2005Sebastian Mosbach studied physics and computer science at the University of Kaiserslautern, Germany, and obtained the equivalent of a masters (Part III of the Mathematical Tripos) in theoretical physics at the University of Cambridge, UK. He is currently studying for his Ph.D. in chemical engineering at Cambridge. W olfgang Wagner studied mathematics at the University of Leningrad (St.Petersburg) and received his Ph.D. in 1980. He is working at the W eierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis and Stochastics (Berlin) in the research group "Interacting random systems." His current fields of interest include Monte Carlo algorithms for nonlinear equations, and limit theorems for interacting particle systems. USING A WEB MODULE TO TEACH STOCHASTIC MODELINGMARKUS KRAFT, SEBASTIAN MOSBACH, WOLFGANG WAGNER*University of Cambridge Cambridge CB2 3RA, United Kingdomclassroom ChE* Address: Weierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis and Stochastics, D10117 Berlin, Germany

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Summer 2005 245in reference one as well as in the course CH 235 (AUG) 3:0 in the m asters program taught at the IISc-Bangalore (), which is based in parts on the book by D.M. Himmelblau and K.B. Bischoff, Process Analysis and Simulation first published by John Wiley in 1967. W ith this in mind the authors felt a need to design a course to bridge the gap between the physical say, direct simulation methodsand the more rigorous mathematical approach. First, we aim to enable students to understand current Monte Carlo methods on a more fundamental level and also to help them improve a given Monte Carlo method in terms of its numerical efficiency. Second, we teach students the connections between deterministic models and their stochastic counterparts given by a Monte Carlo algorithm. A first result of the authors' activity is the 16-lecture course taught in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Cambridge. The course, named Stochastic Modeling in Chemical Engineering, is given to students who are at an advanced undergraduate/beginning postgraduate level in the last (fourth) year of the undergraduate curriculum. At that stage, students have already been exposed to some computational techniques in process engineering, and they have a solid knowledge of models used in chemical engineering. The stochastic modeling course starts with examples in chemical engineering that lend themselves to a stochastic approach. After the introduction, we discuss how random n umbers can be obtained using numerical algorithms. Then the notion of a Markov process is introduced, and the particular example of a jump process (death process) is examined. Using this basis, we then develop a jump process that can be used to model a perfectly mixed gas in a tank reactor. For this system, a D irect Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is introduced that simulates how the physical quantities of interest change with time. The DSMC algorithm is based on the work of Gillespie[2, 3] published in the 1970s. We demonstrate, while looking at a particular example, how a stochastic process can be obtained from its Master equation and discuss how Monte Carlo algorithms can be implemented on a computer. For this algorithm, we present techniques for investigating numerical properties of Monte Carlo algorithms in general. We then generalize the DSMC algorithm to arbitrary systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and study coagulation of particles as described by the Smoluchowski equation.[4]Finally, we introduce stochastic reactor models, which account for nonideally mixed chemical reactors. These models are based on the joint scalar probability density function transport equation, which is also frequently used for modeling turbulent reacting flow. For all examples, we state a DSMC algorithm that can be easily implemented on a computer. The lectures are accompanied by example papers, which are discussed in small, supervised groups. These example papers are pencil and paper problems in a classical fashion; they do not contain any programming exercises, which would have to be carried out on a computer. This is partly because the students have not been taught a high-level computer language such as FORTRAN or C, and also because the implementation of algorithms as part of computer science does not provide any insight from the modeling perspective. The overall assessment of the students' learning progress is at the end of the academic year, when they have to complete four papers that cover all the courses taught in that year. To introduce an element of continuous assessment and to give students the possibility of getting some working experience with stochastic algorithms, the stochastic modeling course is complemented by a Web module, which will be described in more detail later in this paper. The purpose of this Web module is to let students gain some experience on how to perform and investigate a Monte Carlo simulation algorithm without assuming any knowledge of a programming language. The Web module can be accessed from every computer that runs Microsoft Internet Explorer or a similar Java-enabled browser. All students at Cambridge (and a large proportion of students worldwide) have access to such computers either at home or on campus. The Web module, as it has been set up, also introduces an element of continuous assessment. As described in more detail below, it contains a set of tasks and exercises, which students have to complete either in small groups or on their own. They are asked to summarize their results and send a short report by mail to the research assistant or the lecturer who accompanied the students' progress. Some students even completed their reports at home during the vacation period and kept in touch via e-mail. The content and design of the Web module are described in detail in the next section, which refers to one particular part of the stochastic modeling coursethat dealing with the direct simulation of chemical reactions in a perfectly stirred batch reactor. Two reactions are studied: a simple chemical reaction for efficiency and convergence analysis, and the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction as an example of a chaotic chemical system. The well-known BZ system has been We demonstrate, while looking at a particular example, how a stochastic process can be obtained from its Master equation and discuss how Monte Carlo algorithms can be implemented on a computer.

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246 Chemical Engineering Educationchosen to study the influence of fluctuations on chemical reactions. Furthermore, it presents an example of an oscillating reaction and aims to illuminate how such a system can be studied analytically u sing local stability analysis. In various exercises involving a number of numerical experiments with the Java applet, students have the opportunity to develop an understanding of the chemical reactions and see how the theoretical analysis is related to the actual behavior of the system. We hope that by making this teaching resource available on the Internet we can encourage other university teachers to use it as an addition to their lecture courses. In our opinion, the module is not limited to chemical engineering courses but might also be useful in all physics, chemistry, or mathematics courses that contain elements of stochastic processes and/or nonlinear ordinary differential equations.DESCRIPTION OF THE WEB SITEThe Web module can be accessed through the home page of the course "Stochastic Modeling in Chemical Engineering," < http://www.cheng.cam.ac.uk/c4e/StoMo>, or directly via . The site is structured as follows: On the title page, the table of contents is shown in the form of links to all subsequent pages. Furthermore, at the top and bottom of every page there are navigational buttons, so that the user is led through the whole site step by step. The following pages can be found: Introduction Theory Some theory for a simple example Some theory for the Belousov-Zhabotinsky system Algorithms Algorithm for the simple example Algorithm for the Belousov-Zhabotinsky system Numerical experiments Videos of actual experiments Questionnaire Web-based teachinga survey BibliographyOn the introductory page, we explain the subjects and the aims of the Web module and its connections to other teaching units. We focus on three areas: reaction engineering, Monte Carlo methods, and dynamical systems and chaos. We discuss how the Web module is related to these areas. And we specifically state the aims we want to achieve, which are:1. To provide a numerical tool, based on a Monte Carlo method, to simulate chemical reactions and understand the numerical properties of Monte Carlo methods for chemical reactions 2. To study a chemical reaction system analytically using linear stability analysis 3. To present an example for oscillating reactions and chemical feedbackThe Connection to Other Teaching units are specific to the chemical engineering course in Cambridge, but these courses are taught in similar fashion in other chemical engineering departments the world over. Curriculum containing materials that provide the basis for the modules' successful use and the problems' completion includes: Computer-Aided Process Engineering, Statistics, Mathematical Modeling of Chemical Reactors, Combustion, Bioprocess Engineering, Thermodynamics, and Kinetic Theory. In the theory section, we introduce two example systems to be considered. The first consists of two very simple chemical reactions, allowing students to focus on investigating numerical properties of the algorithm rather than struggling with the complexity of the system itself. In the second, students are familiarized with the BZ reaction in some detail, but in order to avoid confusion, we restrict ourselves to a simplified oregonator mechanism due to Field, Kšršs, and Noyes.[5, 6] AYXP XYP AXXZ XAP BZfYk k k k k c+ + + + + + + 3 2 5 4 1 22 22 2 Here, X, Y, and Z are the species of interest in which the oscillations are to be observed, A and B are assumed to be constant, and f is an adjustable (not necessarily integer) parameter which arises due to the simplification of the model. By performing a transformation of variables[7] on the corresponding reaction-rate equations, we derive a system of three dimensionless ordinary differential equations: dx d qyxyxx dy d qyxyfz dz d xz te te t =-+-()[]= ¢ --+[]=1 1 1 Th e dimensionless parameters e e ', q, and f, which are functions of A, B and the rate constants, determine the qualitative dynamical behavior of the system. Specifically, students are led through the calculation of the steady state and the so-called nullclines, which, using a number of graphs, provides an intuitive understanding of the time evolution in the phase space. Finally, we demonstrate how to perform a local stability analysis by means of linearization at the point of steady state including a classification of the eigenvalues of the Jacobi matrix. On the algorithm pages, we write down explicitly the stochastic algorithms for both systems of chemical reactions. This is simply a specialization of the general method pre-

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Summer 2005 247Figure 1. Screenshot of the Java applet in action. If a=1 then increase Nby 1 and decrease N by 1. If a=2 then decrease N and N each by 1. If a=3 then increase N by 1 and N by 2. If a=4 then decrease N by 2. If a=5 then increase N by and decrease N by 1.XY XY XZ X YZ sented in the lectures, using the same notation, and is furthermore identical to Gillespie's method.[2, 3] As mentioned above, instead of referring to a particular programming language, we describe in words and formulae every step of the algorithm. In the lecture course, students have learned the concepts of reaction-rate functions (or simply, rates) Ki waiting time parameter p= Ki and reaction probabilities pKii= / p Equipped with this knowledge, students are well prepared to understand the algorithms. The one for the BZ system reads: 1. Initialize the number of particles for each species, i.e., NX, NY, and NZ, set the time t equal to zero, and fix a stopping time tstop. 2.Calculate the rates Ki the waiting time parameter p, and the reaction probabilities pi. 3.Generate an exponentially distributed waiting time t where the decay constant of the exponential is given by the waiting time parameter p. Generate a reaction index a according to the reaction probabilities pi. 4.Perform the reaction a chosen in the previous step, i.e.: If a =1 then increase NX by 1 and decrease NY by 1 If a =2 then decrease NX and NY each by 1 If a =3 then increase NX by 1 and NZ by 2 If a =4 then decrease NX by 2 If a =5 then increase NY by f/2 and decrease NZ by 15.Advance the current time t to t + t If t
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248 Chemical Engineering EducationFor motivational purposes, we include an extra page with links to videos of BZ-reaction experiments. These videos were not produced by the authors, but they do complement the W eb module, since running the Java applet can qualitatively reproduce the behavior of these experiments. Lastly, the students can give feedback by completing an online evaluation form. We compiled a number of questions to gather information on how to improve the Web module for the next academic year. Different criteria are evaluated, including technical usability, organization of content, and quality of the problems and exercises. Students answer each question by choosing a number from 1 to 5. We also ask how long it took them to complete the problems, in order to estimate how to alter or add exercises in the future. In text boxes, we offer the opportunity to give more detailed feedback. Users can identify strengths and weaknesses of the Web module and comment on the Internet-based teaching approach in general. On the page titled "Web-based teachinga survey" we list a number of Web sites that also attempt to supplement conventional courses. We do this mainly because during the design phase of this Web module, we came across many examples that we thought deserved some advertising. We distinguish between different classes of teaching material and give short descriptions of a selection of Web pages. More details on various aspects of the material presented can be found in references one and seven through 13, which are all included in the Web module.EVALUATIONThe course Stochastic Modeling in Chemical Engineering is an elective in the fourth year. Typically up to 10 students sign up for it. At the end of each lecture course the students answer a questionnaire to assess the course's content and technical issues. Most students indicate they enjoyed completing the stochastic-modeling Web module, in particular the hands-on aspect of numerical experimentation. Also highly rated is the aspect of modeling real chemical reactions as shown in the videos. Furthermore, students remarked that the structure of the W eb module allowed them to concentrate on better understanding the material without having to worry about the fine points of computer programming. With the activity presented as a Web module, they were able to progress through it at their own pace, wherever they had access to a computer. Most of the students, however, complained about the amount of material and the shortage of time they had to complete the tasks.CONCLUDING REMARKSIn this paper, we described the course development on stochastic numerical methods in chemical engineering at Cambridge and presented a Web module, which is a central part of the fourth-year course Stochastic Modeling in Chemical Engineering. This Web module allows students at Cambridge to practice concepts taught in lectures, and it offers students worldwide a practical tool for studying stochastic methods and nonlinear chemical systems. Two chemical reactions in a perfectly mixed batch reactor can be studied using a DSMC algorithm implemented in a Java applet. In working through the Web module, the users are supposed to write an essay that includes answers to a set of problems given in the module. To obtain these answers, students need to make extensive use of the Java applet. The Web module contains some additional material on the chemical and physical background of the reactions being studied. It also provides some basic material on linear-stability analysis. Some videos and a survey on Web-based teaching complete the Web module. An online questionnaire gives users the opportunity to comment on various aspects and suggest improvements. We view this course as a first step into Web-based teaching. We are planning to increase the number of Web modules for this particular course, but also hope to begin a virtual laboratory. Funding for this activity has already been made available by the Cambridge MIT Institute (CMI), and first results will be published in due course.REFERENCES1.Martinez-Urreaga, J., J. Mira, and C. Gonzalez-Fernandez, "Introducing the Stochastic Simulation of Chemical Reactions Using the Gillespie Algorithm and MATLAB," Chem. Eng. Ed. 36 (1), 14 (2002) 2.Gillespie, D.T., "A General Method for Numerically Simulating the Stochastic Time Evolution of Coupled Chemical Reactions," J. Comp. Phys. 22 (4), 403 (1976) 3.Gillespie, D.T., "Exact Stochastic Simulation of Coupled Chemical Reactions," J. Phys. Chem., 81 2340 (1977) 4. Ramkrishna, D., Population Balances: Theory and Applications to Particulate Systems in Engineering Academic Press, San Diego, CA (2000) 5.Field, R.J., E. Kšršs, and R.M. Noyes, "Oscillations in Chemical Systems. II. Thorough Analysis of Temporal Oscillation in the BromateCerium-Malonic Acid System," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94 8649 (1972) 6.Field, R.J., and R.M. Noyes, "Oscillations in Chemical Systems. IV. Limit Cycle Behavior in a Model of a Real Chemical Reaction," J. Chem. Phys. 60 1877 (1974) 7.Scott, S.K., Oscillations, Waves and Chaos in Chemical Kinetics Oxford University Press, Oxford, England (1994) 8.Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering Prentice Hall (1998) 9.Gray, P., and S.K. Scott, Chemical Oscillations and Instabilities. Nonlinear Chemical Kinetics Oxford University Press, Oxford, England (1990) 10.Korsch, H.J., and H.-J. Jodl, Chaos. A Program Collection for the PC 2nd edition, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York (1998) 11 Kraft, M., and W. Wagner, "Numerical Study of a Stochastic Particle Method for Homogeneous Gas Phase Reactions," Comput. Math. Appl. 45 329 (2003) 12.Kraft, M., and W. Wagner, Lecture Notes on Stochastic Modelling in Chemical Engineering, Michaelmas Term 2002, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cambridge, UK 13. V erhulst, F., Nonlinear Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York (1990)