Chemical engineering education

http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
Classification:
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00152

Full Text










chemical engineering education




VOLUME 35 NUMBER 4 FALL 2001




GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE


Articles on Graduate Education
A Graduate Course in Research Methods (p. 236)
Burrows, Beaudoin
Graduate Bridging and Continuing Education Using the Internet (p. 230)
Lira, Worden, Briedis
Simple Uses of Laplace Transforms in Transient Transport Problems (p. 238)
Papadopoulos
Globalization of ChE Education and Research: An NUS-UIUC Model (p. 244)
Neoh. Tan, Mirarefi, Zukoski
Chemistry and Life Sciences in a New Vision of Chemical Engineering(p. 248)
Westmoreland


5-Year Index 1997-2001
Page308


Articles of General Interest
W ho W as W ho in Transport Phenomena (p. 256) ...................................................................... Bird
Dealing with Student Background Deficiencies and Low Student Motivation (p. 266) ... Felder, Brent
Prediction and Prevention of Chemical Reaction Hazards (p. 268) ........... Shacham, Brauner, Cutlip
On the Complete Kelvin Equation (p. 274) ............................................................................... Ellion
Chemical Product Design (p. 280) ....................................... ................................ Shaeiwitz, Turton
Assessing Problem-Solving Skills (p. 300) ....... Woods, Kourti, Wood, Sheardown, Crowe, Dickson
Using MATLAB/Simulink for Data Acquisition and Control (p. 286) ................................ Ricker
Asynchronous Learning of Chemical Reaction Engineering (p. 290) ...................... Varde, Fogler
A Multidisciplinary Research Experience (p. 296) ......................... Newell, Farrell, Hesketh, Slater


ASEE-ChE Division Awards Criteria Page 243














Graduate Education Advertisements


Akron. University of ................... ................ 318
Alabama, University of ............... .............. 319
Alabama-Huntsville, University of .............. 320
Alberta, University of ............................... 321
Arizona, University of ................................ 322
Arizona State University ............................ 323
Auburn University ........................................ 324
Brigham Young University ........................... 426
British Columbia, University of .................. 426
Brown University .......................................... 440
Bucknell Universty... ................. ........ ... 427
Calgary, University of ................................... 325
Cahfornia-Berkeley, University of.............. 326
California-Davis, University of ..................... 327
California-Irvine, University of .................... 328
California-Los Angeles, Umversity of .......... 329
California-Riverside, University of............... 330
California-Santa Barbara, University of....... 331
California Institute of Technology ................ 332
Carnegie Mellon University ........... ............. 333
Case Western Reserve University ................. 334
Cincinnati, University of ....................... ..... 335
City College of New York...................... 336
Clemson University ......... ....... ................... 337
Cleveland State University .................... ....... 338
Colorado, University of ................................. 339
Colorado School of Mines............................. 340
Colorado State University ............................. 341
Columbia University ................................ 427
Connecticut, University of ............................ 342
Comell University ..................................... 343
Dartmouth College ................. ................ 344
Delaware, University of ............................... 345
Drexel University ..................... .................. 346
Ecole Polytechnique Montreal ..................... 347
Engineenng Research Center .... ................ 428
Flonda, University of ............ ................... 348
Florida A&M University, Florida State U..... 349
Florida Institute of Technology ................ .. 350
Georgia Institute of Technology .............. 351
Howard University ................. ................. 352
Houston, University of ................................ 353
Idaho, University of............................. ........ 428
Illinois-Chicago, University of ...................... 354
Illinois-Urbana, University of ........... ........... 355
Illinois Institute of Technology ..................... 356


Iowa, University of ....................................... 357
Iowa State University .................................... 358
Johns Hopkins University ............................. 359
Kansas, University of .......... ........................ 429
Kansas State University................................. 360
Kentucky, University of ............................ 361
Lam ar University .......................................... 429
Laval University ........................................... 362
Lehigh University ....................... .................. 363
Louisiana-Lafayette, University of.............. 364
Louisiana State University ......... ........ ..... 365
Louisiana Tech University ......... .................. 430
Louisville, University of .................. .......... 430
Manhattan College ...................................... 366
Maryland-College Park, University of.......... 367
Maryland-Baltimore County, University of.. 368
Massachusets-Amherst, University of.......... 369
Massachusetts-Lowell, University of .......... 440
Massachusetts Institute of Technology ........ 370
M cG ill University..... ........................... ..... 431
McMaster University ..................................... 371
Michigan, Unversity of ............................ ... 372
Michigan State University ............................ 373
Michigan Technological University .............. 374
Minnesota, University of .............................. 375
Mississippi State University ........................ 376
Missoun-Columbia, University of ............ 377
Missouri-Rolla, University of...................... 378
Monash University .................................. .... 431
Montana State University ......................... 432
Nebraska, University of ................................ 379
Nevada-Reno, University of..... .................. 380
New Jersey Institute of Technology .............. 381
New Mexico, University of ......................... 382
New Mexico State University ....................... 383
New South Wales, University of ................... 432
North Carolina State University ................... 384
North Dakota, University of .................. 440
Northeastern University ................ ...... ..... .433
Northwestern University .......................... 385
Notre Dame, University of ..... ........ ............. 386
Ohio State University ......................... ...... 387
Ohio Umversity ....................................... .. 388
Oklahoma, University of .............................. 389
Oklahoma State University ...... ................... 390
Oregon State Umversity .......... ................... 391


Pennsylvania. University of ........................ 392
Pennsylvania State University ..................... 393
Pittsburgh, University of ............... ......... 394
Polytechnic University ................... ..... 395
Princeton University ................................... 396
Purdue University ...................................... 397
Rensselaer Polytechnic University ................ 398
Rhode Island, University of........................... 433
Rice University ................... ................... 399
Rochester, University of................................ 400
Rose Hulman Institute of Technology .......... 434
Rowan University .......................................... 401
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 402
Saskatchewan. University of ......................... 434
Singapore, The National University of.......... 403
South Carolina, University of..................... 404
South Florida. University of .......................... 435
Southern California, University of............... 435
State University of New York, Buffalo......... 405
Stevens Institute of Technology .................... 406
Sydney, University of .................................... 436
Syracuse University..................................... 436
Tennessee, University of ............................. 407
Texas, University of ............................... ..... 408
Texas A&M University-College Station ....... 409
Texas A&M University-Kingsville ............... 437
Toledo, University of ................................... 410
Tufts University ............................................. 411
Tulane University .......................................... 412
Tulsa, University of ................................... 413
Utah. University of ....................................... 437
Vanderbilt University ................... .......... 414
Villanova University ...................... ........... 438
Virginia, University of ................................. 415
Virginia Polytechnic University .................. 416
Washington, University of ....................... ..... 417
Washington State University ......................... 418
Washington University .................................. 419
Waterloo, University of ................................ 438
Wayne State University ................................ 420
West Virginia University .............................. 421
Widener University .................................. 439
Wisconsin, University of .............................. 422
Worcester Polytechmc Institute..................... 423
Wyoming, University of ........................ ...... 424
Yale University ............................................ 425













EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS:
Chemical Engineering Education
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611
PHONE and FAX: 352-392-0861
e-mail: cee@che.ufl.edu

EDITOR
Tim Anderson

ASSOCIATE EDITOR
Phillip C. Wankat

MANAGING EDITOR
Carole Yocum

PROBLEM EDITOR
James 0. Wilkes, Uuniversity of Michigan

LEARNING IN INDUSTRY EDITOR
William J. Koros, Georgia Institute of Technology


-PUBLICATIONS BOARD

CHAIRMAN *
E. Dendy Sloan, Jr.
Colorado School of Mines

MEMBERS
Pablo Debenedetti
Princeton University
Dianne Dorland
Rowan University
Thomas F. Edgar
University of Texas at Austin
Richard M. Felder
North Carolina State University
Bruce A. Finlayson
University of Washington
H. Scott Fogler
University of Michigan
William J. Koros
University of Texas at Austin
David F. Ollis
North Carolina State University
Ronald W. Rousseau
Georgia Institute of Technology
Stanley I. Sandler
University of Delaware
Richard C. Seagrave
Iowa State University
C. Stewart Slater
Rowan University
James E. Stice
University of Texas at Austin
Donald R. Woods
McMaster University



Fall 2001


Chemical Engineering Education

Volume 35 Number 4 Fall 2001



> GRADUATE EDUCATION
230 Graduate Bridging and Continuing Education Using the Internet,
Carl T Lira, R. Mark Worden, Daina Briedis
236 A Graduate Course in Research Methods,
Veronica A. Burrows, Stephen P Beaudoin
238 Simple Uses of Laplace Transforms in Transient Transport Problems,
Kvriakos D. Papadopoulos
244 Globalization of ChE Education and Research: An NUS-UIUC Model
K.G. Neoh, R.B.H. Tan, A.A. Mirarefi, C.F Zukoski
248 Chemistry and Life Sciences in a New Vision of Chemical
Engineering, Phillip R. Westmoreland

> MICROBIOGRAPHIES
256 Who Was Who in Transport Phenomena, R. Byron Bird

> RANDOM THOUGHTS
266 FAQS IV: Dealing with Student Background Deficiencies and Low
Student Motivation, Richard M. Felder, Rebecca Brent

> CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS
268 Prediction and Prevention of Chemical Reaction Hazards: Learning by
Simulation, Mordechai Shacham, Neima Brauner, Michael B. Cutlip

> CLASSROOM
274 On the Complete Kelvin Equation, Janet A.W Elliott
280 Chemical Product Design, Joseph A. i,.v i, i: Richard Turton
300 Assessing Problem-Solving Skills: Part 1. The Context for Assessment,
Donald R. Woods, Theodora Kourti, Philip E. Wood, Heather
Sheardown, Cameron M. Crowe, James M. Dickson

> LABORATORY
286 Using MATLAB/Simulink for Data Acquisition and Control,
N.L. Ricker

> CURRICULUM
290 Asynchronous Learning of Chemical Reaction Engineering,
Neelesh Varde, H. Scott Fogler
296 Introducing Emerging Technologies in the Curriculum Through a
Multidisciplinary Research Experience,
James A. Newell, Stephanie H. Farrell, Robert P. Hesketh, C.
Stewart Slater

243 ASEE-ChE Division Awards Criteria
247 Books Received
273 Fellowships Available
308 5-Year Index: 1997-2001


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering
Division. American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Copyright 2001 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American
Societyfor Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not
necessarily those of the ChE Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if
notified within 120 days of publication. Write for information on subscription costs andfor back copy costs and availability.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Chemical Engineering Education, Chemical Engineering Department., University
of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Periodicals Postage Paid at Gainesville, Florida and additional post offices.











] graduate education


GRADUATE BRIDGING

AND CONTINUING EDUCATION

USING THE INTERNET



CARL T. LIRA, R. MARK WORDEN AND DAINA BRIEDIS
Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824-1226


he rapid growth of industries based on technologies successfully c
that cut across multiple disciplines (e.g., biotech- neering. The I
nology) has increased the demand for students who cepts non-chen
are cross-trained in complementary disciplines. For example, well in these c
students trained in both bioscience and chemical engineering neering. As d
are particularly well-suited for employment in the pharma- however, bridge
ceutical industry. Cross-training options vary from taking a vary, dependii
few selected courses in a second discipline to obtaining a full policies of the
graduate degree in a second department. To meet the grow-
ing need for cross-trained employees, Michigan State Uni-
versity (MSU) has developed two three-credit semester
courses, Foundations in Chemical Engineering I and II,
for Internet delivery.
The original intent of the courses was to prepare students
from chemistry, biology, and other physical sciences for
graduate work in chemical engineering. We have found,
however, that these courses also provide an excellent con-
tinuing-education option for engineers and scientists who Mark Worden
want an overview of the core chemical engineering con- gineering at MU
cepts. Consequently, the courses have been packaged into bridged to chei
ing a bachelor's
two programs that in chemistry an
in the area of b
I Meet the needs of students bridging into a chemical he has been ac
engineering graduate program disciplinary tra
] Provide continuing-education certification for bioprocessing.
professionals

Bridging Program for Graduate Training
in Chemical Engineering
The two courses can serve as the core of a bridging pro-
gram that prepares students with BS degrees in a technical
field other than chemical engineering for graduate training
in chemical engineering. In general, such bridging programs
provide sufficient background so that students can enter and
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2001


)mplete MS or PhD degrees in chemical engi-
Jational Technological University (NTU) ac-
nical-engineering students who have performed
ourses into its MS program in chemical engi-
escribed in more detail later in this paper,
ging programs from one department to another
ig on the background of the student and the
department.

Carl T. Lira is Associate Professor of Chemi-
cal Engineering at Michigan State University.
He earned a PhD from the University of Illi-
nois, Urbana-Champaign in 1986. His schol-
arly work is in the area of phase and adsorption
equilibria, and supercritical fluid processing. He
is coauthor of the new textbook, Introductory
Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics.



is Professor of Chemical En-
ichigan State University. He
nical engineering after earn-
degree with a double major
d cell biology. His research is
biochemical engineering, and
tive in development of multi-
aining programs involving




Daina Briedis is Associate Professor in the
Department of Chemical Engineering at Michi-
gan State University. She has conducted
research in bioadhesion and is currently study-
ing development of effective learning tools
for the multidisciplinary classroom. She is
active nationally and internationally in engi-
neering accreditation.


Chemical Engineering Education











graduate etaroaton )


Certificate Program for Continuing Education
The courses provide a continuing-education opportunity
for science and engineering professionals who would ben-
efit from knowledge of chemical engineering concepts, ter-
minology, and calculation methods. The two courses in-
clude most of the foundational principles covered in the
undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum. Environ-
mental engineers, chemists, biochemists, mechanical engi-
neers, agricultural engineers, food scientists, and others have
taken these courses to enhance their technical backgrounds.
A Certificate of Completion in Foundations of Chemical
Engineering is awarded to students who perform at the
grade level of 3.0/4.0 or better.

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
The Foundations in Chemical Engineering course sequence
is an Internet version of a two-course program that has been
taught at MSU for more than 20 years. This bridging pro-
gram has been effective in attracting high-caliber scientists
into MSU's graduate program because it provides intensive
and time-effective training. Twenty-four non-chemical en-
gineering students entered our MS program via this program
over a recent nine-year period. Of these students, 16 became
MS students (some of our current MS students may continue
for a PhD), three became PhD students, and five discontin-
ued after completing the bridge course.
At MSU, students bridging into our graduate program are
also required to take the first semester of the senior capstone
design course and the process controls course. As a basis of
comparison, those bridging students who completed Process
Design and Optimization I received an average grade of
3.56/4.0. Those who continued in the graduate program
earned an average graduate GPA of 3.68/4.0. These data
indicate that the bridging program provides the chemical
engineering fundamentals necessary for success at the gradu-
ate level.
In 1996, NTU began broadcasting the bridging program
live via satellite, extending the course to a nationwide audi-
ence. Access to the courses was still limited by the number
of satellite downlinks and conflicts with the schedules of
prospective students. To further expand access, MSU com-
pletely redesigned the courses for Internet delivery. The
new Web offerings, Foundations in Chemical Engineering I
and II, were taught for the first time via the Internet during
fall of 2000 and spring of 2001, respectively. NTU has
adopted these new Internet courses for its bridging students.

COURSE STRUCTURE
Because of time limitations, only those topics considered


central to chemical engineering are included in the courses.
The objectives for selection of material are that the concepts
be based on
F Fundamental balances (material balance, energy
balance, mechanical energy balance, momentum bal-
ance, phase equilibrium, reaction equilibrium)
Fundamental transfer equations (Newton's law of
viscosity, Fick's law, Fourier's law)
Basic dimensionless correlations (friction factor, heat
and mass transfer coefficients)

The courses are homework-intensive and focus on develop-
ing problem-solving skills using chemical engineering prin-
ciples. We intentionally limit the number of special top-
ics and novel applications covered. These more special-
ized areas can be acquired by the students through inde-
pendent study.
Foundations in Chemical Engineering I (three semester
credits) includes content on material and energy balances,
thermodynamics, and reaction engineering. The course top-
ics include
E Units and dimensional consistency
I Material balance procedures for single and multiple
units including chemical reactions
F Energy balance
I Entropy balance
F Process thermodynamics
E Real gas properties
F Calculation of real gas enthalpies and entropies
F Raoult's law and modified Raoult's law
I Fitting kinetic rate constants
F Reactor design equations for batch, plug flow, and
mixed flow reactors
F Series and parallel arrangements of reactors
I Reactor design for parallel reaction pathways and
series reactions
I Reaction equilibrium
I Nonisothermal reacting systems
A course overview with a complete lesson list is available at
. The texts used for this
course are: Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes,
R. M. Felder, R. W. Rousseau, 3rd ed., Wiley (2000); Intro-
ductory Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, J. R. Elliott,
C. T. Lira, Prentice-Hall (1999); and Chemical Reaction
Engineering, O. Levenspiel, 3rd edition, Wiley, (1999).
Foundations in Chemical Engineering II (three semes-
ter credits) includes content on fluid flow and heat transfer,
and mass transfer and separations. Course topics include
1 Dimensional analysis


Fall 2001











graduate education


H Introduction to fluid properties
H Macroscopic mass, mechanical-energy and momen-
tum balances
] Calculation of drag forces and friction losses
H Pumping
I Design offlow systems
H Derivation of shell balances
I Microscopic mass and momentum (Navier-Stokes)
balances
I Steady-state and unsteady-state heat conduction
H Analogies between momentum, heat and mass trans-
fer
H Convective heat transfer
] Design of heat-transfer equipment
E Heat transfer by radiation
E Mass transfer by diffusion and convection
I Mass balances for differential and stagewise sepa-
rations processes
F Design of gas absorption and stripping columns
I McCabe-Thiele distillation method
E Multi-component distillation
I Liquid-liquid extraction

A course overview with a lesson list is available at vu.msu.edu/preview/che805/>. The text used for the course
is Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering (6th edi-
tion) by McCabe, Smith and Harriott, McGraw-Hill, New
York (2001). Although this text covers many of the ba-
sics, a significant amount of supplemental material is
provided in the lesson notes, especially in the area of
microscopic (shell) balances.
The sequence in which some of the topics are covered is
unconventional. For example, in a traditional chemical engi-
neering curriculum, reaction engineering is typically cov-
ered after separations. We have combined reaction engineer-
ing with the material balances and thermodynamics topics to
more efficiently cover stoichiometric balances, chemical equi-
libria, and energy balances in nonisothermal reactors. The
last topic covered is separations.
The level of mathematics was chosen to make the courses
accessible to students having one year of calculus. Conse-
quently, the courses focus on the development of differential
equations used in chemical engineering analysis, rather than
the mathematical methods used to solve the equations ana-
lytically. To avoid requiring a differential equations course,
the differential equations encountered in the courses are
either separable or are readily solved numerically or graphi-
cally. In some cases, students are provided with tools for
solving differential equations. For example, Foundations in
Chemical Engineering I includes a set of simultaneous dif-
ferential equations for two parallel reactions involving six
232


species. The set of equations is integrated using the fourth-
order Runge-Kutta technique, and a spreadsheet is provided
to execute the solution. An understanding of the concept of a
partial derivative is required for both courses. Students are
not asked to solve partial differential equations (PDEs) ana-
lytically, however. For instance, in Foundations in Chemical
Engineering II, students use shell balances to derive un-
steady-state conduction and diffusion equations-and then
use graphical solutions to the resulting PDEs to do calcula-
tions involving unsteady-state heat and mass transfer.

CREATING A BRIDGING PROGRAM
While Foundations in Chemical Engineering I and II can
provide the chemical engineering core of a bridging pro-
gram, additional bridging courses may also be needed. At
MSU, bridging students are also required to take the first
semester of senior design and the controls course. Although
students completing this bridging curriculum do not have
the depth of chemical engineering knowledge equivalent to
that of a BS degree student, we have found that their in-
creased breadth of background offers advantages that more
than compensate for the lack of depth in the bridging courses.
The added value of the cross-training becomes particularly
obvious when a bridging student is assigned to a research
project at the interface of chemical engineering and the
discipline of his or her BS degree. Moreover, we have found
that integration of bridging students into our graduate pro-
gram enriches the educational experiences of the traditional
chemical engineering students with whom they interact.
The offering of the courses on an accelerated summer
schedule is especially well suited for bridging purposes. It
allows students who complete a BS degree in the spring to
begin graduate coursework in chemical engineering in the
fall. Thus, the time investment required for students to bridge
is minimal. In contrast, schools without an intensive bridg-
ing program may require students to take one to two years of
chemical engineering courses before starting graduate
coursework, significantly extending the time required to
graduate. The summer program also provides an indepen-
dent assessment of a student's prospects for success in a
chemical engineering graduate program. At MSU, accep-
tance of a bridging student into the graduate program is
conditional upon achievement of a 3.5/4.0 in each course.
More information on the MSU bridging program is available
at .

DELIVERY STRATEGIES
The use of information technology (IT) and multimedia
has provided educators with a broad spectrum of tools that
enhance student learning and diversify the types and loca-
Chemical Engineering Education











graduate education )


tions of audiences to which technical cot
fered. The evolution and effectiveness of t
enhanced learning environments have been
by Edgar'll and Kadiyala and Crynes.'1' I
instructional materials have been used at
classroom integration. These levels range
from the fairly straightforward posting of
course information (office hours, home-
work assignments, course schedules, com-
munications), to synchronous or asynchro-
nous web tutorials and course supple-
ments,13451 to virtual or full laboratory au-
tomation,16'7'81 to complete and self-con-
tained courses.19l10'"1
We wanted the course lessons in Chemi-
cal Engineering I and II to incorporate a
variety of synchronized, multimedia features
graphics, sound, and the ability to annotat
the presentation with sketches and typed
used to develop the MSU bridging courses
low, and URLs for the software are prc
www.egr.msu.edu/che/cont.ed/resources/>. T
age Clipboard 2000 was used to prepare th
Clipboard 2000 is a multimedia presentat
can create QuickTime movies consisting
slides, sound, camera image, mouse-direct
ing via an electronic tablet, and keyboard i
Lessons typically consist of a series of
slides containing graphics that are explain
the instructor. The mouse pointer, drawi
keyboard are used extensively to annotate
the student's attention, much as a professor
making an overhead transparency present.
age participation in the form of note tal
students with a partially completed version
encourage them to complete the slides w
lessons. To facilitate other options for 1
provide a link to the completed slides. Ai
illustrating the multimedia format is pro\
view site for Foundations in Chemical Eng
/vu.msu.edu/preview/che804/example/>.
Each course is divided into about four
each of which consists of several lessons.'
from about six to twenty minutes in length
to be relatively short, self-contained "pac
tion. This approach helps students mainta
allows busy students to view lessons durir
free time, and minimizes technical probl
downloading large lessons. Each lesson h;
defined learning objectives and a checl
Fall 2001


irses may be of-
hese technology-
recently reviewed
r and web-based
various levels of


proficiencies (outcomes) that should be gained by doing the
lesson and associated homework. The objectives and
proficiencies are intended to facilitate learning and to help
students identify topics needing further study. During the
lessons, students are prompted to stop the movie, answer a

The [two courses described here]


were designed to prepare students with science and
engineering degrees in disciplines other than
chemical engineering for graduate training
in chemical engineering-and to provide
continuing-education certification in
chemical engineering for industrial
scientists and engineers.
s--including text,
include text, question or solve a problem, and then to restart the movie to
e the text during
St check their answers.
print. The tools
are discussed be- A bulletin board program, "Web Talk" developed by the
vided at 'he software pack- tions and answers. The homework assignments provide natu-
le course lessons. ral categories for the posting of questions and answers. The
ion package that Web Talk tool has the capability for uploading files and
of synchronized graphics, a feature that is helpful for communicating clearly.
ed pointer, draw- Other listservv" tools could be as effective, provided that
nput. categories can be established to organize conversations in
detad o e the various topics. The Web Talk tool provides a search
f detailed outline
d s y b option to locate all postings for specific keywords. Adminis-
*d sequentially by
ng tablet, an r trative capability is also provided, such as tracking posts
ng tablet, and/or .
lde and from individual students.
slides and direct
ir would do when The course web site also includes an electronic chat room
nation. To encour- that provides live group interaction among the students and
king, we provide the instructor. All entries are logged on the Web Talk for
of each slide and later reference. Students have commented that the chat logs
whilee viewing the are useful as review material. The most significant problem
earning, we also with the chat room is the difficulty in finding chat times that
n example lesson are suitable for all, because the participants live in different
uided on the pre- time zones and have different schedules.
ineering I Homework is due a few days after the scheduled completion
teen topic areas, of that topic. However, because not all students progress
The lessons range through the course at the same pace, we have implemented a
and are designed system that allows students to view the solutions as soon as
kets" of informa- they submit their homework. Each student must post a query
in concentration, to get the web address of the solutions. The time of the query
ig short blocks of is logged automatically and can be compared to the time the
ems arising from student's solution was submitted by FAX. This system has
as a set of clearly helped assure integrity without intervention by the instruc-
klist of expected tor, and it frees the instructor from distributing solutions at
233


~-~--~-


L










- -- I-


various times by FAX.
Six to seven open-book quizzes and a comprehensive final
exam are administered during each course. The rigor of the
exams is comparable to that found in a typical undergradu-
ate course covering the same material. Each student desig-
nates a proctor (e.g., a local librarian) to administer the
exams. The proctors receive each quiz or exam by fax, allow
the student the designated amount of time to solve it, and
then fax the students' solutions back to the instructor. Grades
for homework and quizzes are posted on the website.

COURSE PRODUCTION

The Clipboard 2000 production tool is freeware and runs
on a MAC computer that costs less than $2,500. (Clipboard
2000 is also available on a PC platform. At the time of
production, however, the PC version was less well-devel-
oped than the MAC version, so the MAC was chosen for our
production). The only additional equipment required is a
moderate quality microphone. Although Clipboard 2000 also
offers synchronized video camera recording, we chose to
not use the video camera to minimize bandwidth.

Slides for the Internet course were developed with assis-
tance from undergraduate chemical engineering students who
had recently covered the concepts in their own classes. Graph-
ics are used extensively in the slides to illustrate concepts.
These graphics were generally either computer-generated by
the instructors or drawn by a professional artist. The Clip-
board 2000 software requires the slides to have a "gif'
format, which can be prepared on a PC platform from the
PowerPoint97 html output option (not PowerPoint2000).
The gif images created by PowerPoint, however, are not as
sharp as the screen images that can be captured using a
freeware program such as "!Glance." The gif image files are
named sequentially for automatic incorporation into the fi-
nal lesson by Clipboard 2000.

After the lesson is recorded, Clipboard 2000 combines
and synchronizes all of the tracks and compresses the output
to generate the final QuickTime movie. The QuickTime
movies can be delivered to the students by streaming or by
posting them in the "quick start" format. We use the quick
start format because MSU does not currently support a
QuickTime streaming server. The lessons play as download-
ing continues. A software glitch caused Quicktime 4.0 to
underestimate the modem download time for longer lessons
and to truncate the download at the estimated time. We
overcame this problem by cutting the lessons into 5-7 minute
segments that are loaded in succession automatically. This
sequential delivery approach is transparent to modem users,
who do not notice the transitions. The quick start format also
permits caching of the movies for review. Local area net-
234


work (LAN) users and cable users do not experience prob-
lems with longer lessons.

OBSERVATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
As with classroom presentations, practice is required to
produce organized, polished multimedia presentations. Dur-
ing the recording process, the instructor explains the mate-
rial while operating the mouse pointer, pen and tablet, and
keyboard, and also advancing the slides at the proper time.
Coordination of all these activities can be challenging. Be-
cause Internet students can click the pause button or rewind
to review portions of the lesson, pauses and repetition that
may be effective in the classroom are unnecessary and
distracting in Web lessons. Preparation of a written script
with cues indicating when slides should be changed is
helpful. The scripts can readily be edited to maintain
consistency and to improve clarity when the lessons are
revised at a later date.
Development of the course materials took more time than
expected. For every hour of final recorded movie, about five
to ten hours were required to prepare the scripts, graphics,
and slides, record the lessons, review the movies, and then
make corrections. Some lessons were recorded multiple times
to achieve a more polished product. The short lesson times
were a benefit for these steps.
The Internet platform seems better suited for the bridging
courses than the satellite-broadcast platform. The satellite
broadcasts offers the possibility of live interaction between
the professor and remote students during lectures via a toll-
free phone service. The students did not avail themselves of
this opportunity, however. In fact, most of the remote stu-
dents recorded the live broadcasts to view them at a more
convenient time. Students without access to a satellite down-
link were mailed videotapes of the lectures. Thus, the poten-
tial advantage of synchronous delivery via live satellite broad-
cast was rarely realized. On the other hand, the advantages
of Internet delivery-instant delivery to students virtually
anywhere and at any time, plus the ability to incorporate
interactive features, spreadsheets, animations, bulletin boards,
live chat rooms, etc.-have the potential to make distance
learning both convenient and effective.
Overall, the courses ran smoothly during the first Internet
offering. The most significant problem was with students
falling behind. This problem is common with distance
courses'121 (both satellite and Internet). Because of periodic
administrative delays, travel, etc. the course calendar must
often be adjusted by the instructor. In addition, the unpre-
dictable schedules of the students, many of whom are non-
traditional students with many time obligations, require some
flexibility on the part of the instructor. We recommend
identifying problems with time management as early as
Chemical Engineering Education











graduate educa-tib


possible and strongly encouraging the students to stay on
schedule. To assist in this regard, students are provided
with clear guidelines for acceptable compliance with the
course calendar.
To help the instructor respond to inquiries while out of the
office, we find it helpful to prepare a course notebook con-
taining the course calendar, homework solutions, and quiz
statements and solutions. This notebook can be carried home
and on trips, thus adding flexibility to the instructor's sched-
ule while the course is ongoing. Written organization of
reading and homework assignments was also found to be
important, because we cover selected textbook sections rather
than all material in the textbook.

ASSESSMENT OF
THE FIRST INTERNET OFFERING

Student feedback on the first Internet offering of Founda-
tions of Chemical Engineering I and II has been positive.
Seventy-one percent of those completing the on-line survey
said they would enthusiastically recommend the courses
based on coverage and mastery of material. Even though
only 29% rated the Internet courses as good or better than a
standard lecture class, 71% thought that the convenience to
their schedule or location outweighed the disadvantages. In
response to the open-ended request for anonymous com-
ments, one student responded
[ "I liked the fact that even though this was an Internet
course, I still had a good amount of contact with the
professor. The professor was always helpful and receptive
to questions and comments. He was also very understand-
ing. "
Regarding the bulletin board system posting of chat sessions
another student wrote
El "I think Webtalk is wonderful; recording the live chats
was a tremendous help for me. Being in a different time
zone made it hard for me to participate in the live chats
and it was great to see the conversation after it took place!
Several of my questions were answered this way."
Based on the assessment results, improvements in the
courses are now being implemented. Our goal is for the
students to rate the Internet offerings as being at least as
effective as a conventional lecture course. Dutton et al.121
have analyzed student performance for a computer science
course offered both as a traditional lecture and for online and
certificate (continuing education) students. Their analysis
shows that on-line students who complete a course generally
did significantly better than lecture students. Continuing
education students, however, had a lower likelihood of com-
pleting a course than students enrolled in a traditional lec-
ture. This finding, plus our own observation that Internet
Fall 2001


students find it difficult to remain on schedule, suggest that
we should emphasize and encourage time management dur-
ing future offerings.

SUMMARY
A two-course sequence has been developed to teach chemi-
cal engineering fundamentals to students having degrees in
science and engineering fields related to chemical engineer-
ing. The courses were developed specifically for Internet
delivery, and employ a multimedia format that includes
synchronized slides, voice, pointer, keyboard, and pen input.
The Internet-delivery format allows broad access to virtu-
ally all students, regardless of location or schedule. The
courses were designed to prepare students with science and
engineering degrees in disciplines other than chemical engi-
neering for graduate training in chemical engineering-and
to provide continuing-education certification in chemical
engineering for industrial scientists and engineers. Such train-
ing can help meet industry's growing need for employees
who are cross-trained in science and chemical engineering.

REFERENCES
1. Kadiyala, M., and B. L. Crynes, "A Review of Literature on
Effectiveness of Use of Information Technology in Educa-
tion," J. Eng. Ed., 89(2), 167 (2000)
2. Edgar, T.F., "Information Technology and ChE Education,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 34(4), 290 (2000)
3. Burleson, W., A. Ganz, and I. Harris, "Educational Innova-
tions in Multimedia Systems," J. Eng. Ed., 90(1), 21 (2001)
4. Smith,W.R., I. Sikaneta, and R. W. Missen, "The Interac-
tive Java-Based Web Site for Teaching Chemical Reaction
Stoichiometry," Proc. 1999 ASEE Annual Conference & Ex-
position, Charlotte, NC, June 20-23 (1999)
5. Graham, C.R. and T. N. Trick, "Java Applets Enhance Learn-
ing in a Freshman ECE Course," J. Eng. Ed., 87(4), 391
(1998)
6. Henry, J., "Laboratory Remote Operation: Features and
Opportunities," Proc. 2001 ASEE Annual Conference & Ex-
position, Albuquerque, NM, June 24-27 (2001)
7. Mannix, M., "The Virtues of Virtual Labs," PRISM, 10(1),
39 (2000)
8. Gillet, D., H.A. Latchman, C. Salzmann, and O.D. Crisalle,
"Hands-On Laboratory Experiments in Flexible and Dis-
tance Learning," J. Eng. Ed., 90(2), 187 (2001)
9. Holman, W.T., "Creating Simple and Effective Prerecorded
Web-Based Lectures," J. Eng. Ed., 88 (3), 261 (1999)
10. Crynes, B.L., Y.K. Lai, and W.S. Chung, "Chemical Engi-
neering Fundamentals-Better Learning Through Web-
Based Delivery," Proc. 1999 ASEE Annual Conference &
Exposition, Charlotte, NC, June 20-23 (1999)
11. Scranton, A.B., R.M. Russell, N. Basker, J.L.P. Jessop, and
L. C. Scranton, "Teaching Material and Energy Balances on
the Internet," Proc. 1999 ASEE Annual Conference & Expo-
sition, Charlotte, NC, June 20-23 (1999)
12. Dutton, J., M. Dutton, and J. Perry, "Do Online Students
Perform as Well as Lecture Students?" J. Eng. Ed., 90(1),
131 (2001) I












W graduate education


A Graduate Course in

RESEARCH METHODS




VERONICA A. BURROWS AND STEPHEN P. BEAUDOIN
Arizona State Universtiy Tempe, AZ 85287-6006


he traditional model of graduate education in engi-
neering incorporates aspects of both the "academy"
(individual study of oral and written exposition by
experts) and the "crafts" model (apprenticeship with a "mas-
ter" from whom the skills, art, and applied knowledge are
learned in a hands-on approach). These aspects are usually
implemented through traditional academic courses and
through mentored research, respectively.
In recent years, faculty in the ChE program at Arizona
State University became concerned that entering graduate
students, although quite academically competent, were defi-
cient in the background knowledge and skills necessary for
the successful research proposition-hence some portions of
our course are modeled on the "research proposition course"
described by Ollis.111 Although these skills have been tradi-
tionally gained through the "research apprenticeship" por-
tion of graduate study, we believe that explicit instruction in
these areas can be of great value to both the students and to
the research programs of the faculty.

Veronica Burrows is Associate Professor of En-
gineering in Chemical and Materials Engineering
at ASU. She received her BS in chemical engi-
neering from Drexel University and her PhD from
Princeton. Her research interests include the ap-
plied surface chemistry of semiconductors and
thin film sensors. Her educational activities and
interests include "girl-friendly" science and tech-
nology experiences for K-12 students, criterion-
based assessment techniques, and technology-
enhanced learning for visually impaired students.
Steve Beaudoin is Associate Professor in
Chemical and Materials Engineering at ASU.
He received his BS in chemical engineering
from MIT, his MS from UT-Austin, and his PhD
from North Carolina State University. He is a
recipient of an NSG CAREER award and has
been named Outstanding Undergraduate Edu-
cator in ChEat ASU. His research interests are
microelectronics manufacturing, including
chemical-mechanical polishing, polymer dielec-
tric processing, and particle and thin film adhe-
sion.


After considerable informal surveying and faculty discus-
sion, we embarked on the design of a course to be required
of all ChE graduate students in their first year. The course
would be designed to address these deficiencies in a struc-
tured way and to provide students with a strong training in
the basic skills required for the conception, design, organiza-
tion, execution, and communication of technical research, or
indeed, of any technical project. One of the unexpected
positive outcomes of this discussion was the recognition by
the faculty that it is, in fact, possible to define an approach to
research that is commonly accepted by all of us.

COURSE CONTENT
We began the development of this course with a statement
of course philosophy. The following statement was con-
structed early in the development process by participat-
ing faculty:

Master's and PhD engineering degrees in this
program are primarily research degrees. While
your course work is an invaluable part of your
graduate experience, it is not considered to be more
important than your research experience. The
research experience allows you to establish
yourself as an expert in a new technical discipline,
and to make a new contribution to the state-of-the-
art in your technology. Excellent researchers take a
common approach to research, and it is our goal to
teach you this approach.

Faculty then identified the desired skills of students about to
undertake their research and grouped them into the catego-
ries "project management skills" and "communication skills."
Although most entering graduate students have had formal
training or course work in technical communication, few
have had explicit training in project management.
The organization of the course content is loosely struc-
tured on the problem-solving heuristic of the McMaster Five-


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2001


Chemical Engineering Education











graduate education


Point Strategy for problem solving:12'

Define-Define a research problem, research ob-
jectives, and constraints
Explore-Research the literature, identify meaning-
ful decision criteria, generate hypotheses, choose
reference conditions
Plan-Generate multiple paths to achieving the
research objectives, map out the approach, identify
and assemble resources
Act-Conduct research, analyze results
Reflect-Check for errors, check for reasonability,
integrate with current state of knowledge, reflect
on new opportunities created by results, commu-
nicate results

Table 1 gives a topic list for this course. Each topic is
identified with its associated step in the McMaster strategy.
Topic readings are assigned from a variety of sources. We
strive to include up-to-the-minute materials from technical


TABLE 1
Research Methods Course Topics
Week Topic McMaster
Heading
1 Overview. McMaster Strategy Define
(and other heuristics) for Problem Solving
2 Types of Research: Fundamental vs. Define
Applied vs. Phenomenological vs. Problem
Solving
3 Tools, Techniques and Heuristics Define
for Problem Definition
4 Critical Review of Technical Literature Explore
and the Context of Research
5 Hypotheses and Falsifiability Explore/Plan
6 1) Idea Generation and Creativity Explore/Plan
Techniques
2) Kepner Tregoe Tools Explore/Plan/Act
7 Defining Short-, Medium-, and Plan
Long-Term Objectives
8-9 Research Plans: Hypotheses, Experimental Plan
Design, and Statistical Design of
Experiments
10 1) Documenting Research Act
2) Intellectual Property Act
11 Research Ethics, Safety, and Professionalism Act
12-13 Communicating Research: Reflect
Publications, Presentations, Proposals
14 Faculty Presentations on Research Reflect


Fall 2001


The course [is] designed to ...
provide students with a strong training in the
basic skills required for the conception, design,
organization, execution, and communication
of technical research, or indeed, of
any technical project.

literature, presentations, and conferences. Students are ex-
pected to discover some of their own sources on many of the
topics and to report on these sources to the class via the
course web site/discussion board.
Templates and checklists for most of the project manage-
ment tools (e.g., the Kepner Tregoe tools, brainstorming
checklists, impact/changeability analysis, prioritization ma-
trix, Gantt charts) are also provided electronically. Faculty
presentations, the final topic item listed in Table 1, provide
an opportunity both for faculty to formally present their
research topics and recruit students onto their projects, and
for students to observe and critique experienced researchers'
organization and presentation styles.

PEDAGOGY AND COURSE DELIVERY

The course is in a team-based active/cooperative learning
environment. Class presentations are technology-enhanced,
using presentation software and using web resources via
computer projection. All course materials (except for course
texts) are available electronically on a course web site. Al-
though students are not required to purchase a text for this
course, we require reading in-and strongly recommend that
students purchase-Strategies for Creative Problem Solving
by Fogler and LeBlanc,131 and Writing the Laboratory Note-
book by Kanare.141
A typical class begins with an agenda, a statement of the
learning objectives to be achieved, and an opportunity for
questions on assigned pre-class readings or previous work.
The class then proceeds with the topic of interest in an active
learning format that normally includes comprehension-level
exercises (levels of learning as defined by Blooms51). These
exercises are accomplished in assigned semester teams and
always include reporting of results and discussion. In-class
assignments are assessed and critiqued during class time.

ASSIGNMENTS AND ASSESSMENTS
OF STUDENT WORK
Out-of-class assignments at higher levels of learning are
assigned to support the main topics (see Table 2, next page).
Although grading approaches vary with instructors, an inno-
vative criterion-based assessment method615 has been suc-
cessfully applied in this course. Specific expectations, de-
Continued on page 279.
237











W graduate education


SIMPLE USES OF

LAPLACE TRANSFORMS

in Transient Transport Problems



KYRIAKos D. PAPADOPOULOS
Tulane University New Orleans, LA 70118


With the ever-increasing use of computers in the
solution of partial differential equations, it may
be advantageous to emphasize those analytical
tools that are easy and quick to implement. Referring spe-
cifically to the Parabolic Partial Differential Equations
(PPDE) arising in the transient problems of transport phe-
nomena, the method of Laplace Transforms can be, by far,
the most expedient technique in solving them. Carslaw and
Jaeger have provided a thorough treatment of the subject in
their texts, (e.g., the classic Conduction of Heat in Solids1"I)
and the first book of applied mathematics in chemical engi-
neering covered the topic in reasonable detail.[21 Yet this
long-known technique has received generally little attention
in chemical engineering textbooks and classrooms.
This article attempts to show how a few classic transient-
transport problems are solved through Laplace Transforms-
more quickly than through techniques that are generally
used in chemical engineering books. Also, problems, which
may be avoided in graduate courses and texts because of the
perceived length of time needed to cover them, are shown
here to be solvable in little time and few mathematical steps.
In the past, in inverting Laplace expressions using the theory
of residues, an unattractive feature of the technique may
have been the attempt to do the inversions by starting from
first principles. Whereas there are certainly problems where
using the theory of residues is necessary, the approach of
this article is to present methodologies that make use of the
well-known Laplace Transform properties together with
readily available tables of Laplace inverses. Since all rel-
evant engineering and mathematics texts discuss the proper-
ties of Laplace Transforms, reference will be made here only
to Spiegel's Mathematical Handbook (SMH).r3 For the sake
of limiting the reproduction of standard equations, references
to SMH and BSL (Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot)[4] will be made
using the equation numbers as they appear in those texts.


DEFINITION, NOTATION AND BASIC PROPERTIES
The Laplace Transform of a function f(x,t) with respect to
time, t, is denoted and defined as
(the definition)

V{f(x,t)}= f(x,s)= ff(x,t)e-"dt (1)

where s is the Laplace variable.
The operation 2:t s (or :T s) signifies Laplace
transformation of a PDE and its boundary conditions from
the real time domain, t or T, to the Laplace domain, s,
while E-l :s t (or T) is the inversion of an expression in
the Laplace domain, s, back to the real time domain, t or T.
Powerful properties for inversion, used in the following
series of equations, will be referred to by the names in the
parentheses that precede each equation
(translation property)
-' {f(x,s+a)}= e-a -- {f(x,s)}= e-a f(x,t) (2)


(derivative property)

{ f = sf(x,s)-f(x,t= 0)


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2001


Chemical Engineering Education


Kyriakos Papadopoulos is Professor and
Chair of Chemical Engineering at Tulane Uni-
versity, having joined its faculty in 1981. He
received his BS (1978), MS (1980), and DEngSc
(1982) in chemical engineering from Columbia
University. His research is in the stability of
dispersions and their transport through porous
media and has recently focused on the devel-
opment of a "capillary microscopy" technique
that has uniquely led to the visualization of
several new phenomena. He has has been
honored by a number of teaching awards at
Tulane-four departmental, one school-wide,











-. -
-~- c


(over s property)

f(xs) = -1 {f(xs)}dt = Jf(x,t)dt (4)
s o o


convolutionn property)
T
{f(x, s)g(x,s)}= (x, t)g(x, t)dt (5)
0
For the sake of brevity, when the arguments of a function
are evident they may not always be indicated, e.g., f(x,t) may
appear simply as f, and f (x,s) may be represented as f or f (s).

EXAMPLES FROM BSL
In BSL the only problem solved by Laplace Transforms is
Example 11.1-3 (cooling of a sphere in contact with a well-
stirred fluid), where the theory of residues is needed for
inversion. In this article we will deal only with problems that
do not necessitate use of residues, but rely simply on the
tabulated inversions in SMH.


BSL Examples 4.1-1 and 11.1-1

These examples address the transient diffusion of momen-
tum and heat in a semi-infinite medium. For the flow near a
wall suddenly set in motion, this is described by the PDE

av 2"v
v v (6)
Ot y
with conditions


v(y,t = 0)= 0


v(y = 0,t)= V


v(y = o,t)= 0


The method of solution of this problem in BSL is similarity
transformation (combination of variables), the didactically
detailed treatment of which is given by Whitaker.151
Using Laplace Transforms to solve the above equation,
2: t -> s of Eq. 6 with simultaneous use of the initial condi-
tion yields
2-
sv = v-- (7)
dy2
with conditions
V
v(y = 0,s)= V v(y = ,s)= 0
S
which has s-domain solution


Applying SMH 32.111 we may invert, -l:s t, to obtain
BSL's Eq. 4.1-13.
Notice that the Laplace Transform may as easily be used
to solve more difficult variations of this problem, such as
those involving a nonconstant velocity for the wall. Accord-
ingly, if the wall is set in motion with a linearly increasing
velocity so that the relevant boundary condition assumes the
form v(y=0,t)=Bt for 0 < t < tB, the Laplace transformed
condition will be
B
v(y = ,s)= 2 (9)
S
and



v=B 2 (10)
s
which is inverted either through SMH 32.113 or by using the
"over-s property" on SMH 32.111.

BSL Example 4.1-2
In this problem, the dimensionless transient velocity pro-
file in a tube, (p(, t), is the solution of

=4+ + I (11)

where 4 and T are the dimensionless radial position and
time respectively. The initial boundary conditions for this
problem are

(p(,T= 0)= 0 p( = 0,T) = finite (p( = 1,T)= 0
The solution of this problem in BSL follows the original
long and tedious "separation-of-variables" Szymanski treat-
ment. Using Laplace Transforms instead, the problem is
solved in a few simple steps as follows:

2:t -s Eq. 11 gives
I- sd = 4 (12)
5 d dij ) s

where ip is the Laplace transformed dimensionless velocity
profile. Eq. 12 is an ordinary Bessel differential equation
with a solution

= CiIo (-sC)+C2Ko (Vjs)+4 (13)

The integration constants C, and C, are found as Cz=0 from
the center condition, p( =0)=finite, whereas the wall con-
dition, ip( =1)=0, gives
-4
C, = (14)
tS2 0IFS )


v=Ve
s


Fall 2001











graduate education


so that

4 41,( ) (15)
P= (15)

Using the relationship between the Bessel function of the
first kind, Jo, and its modified counterpart, I, Eq. 15 may be
written as

4 4Jo(i~s) (16)
4- 4 (16)
s2 S2a0(i V)

In inverting Eq. 16, -:s -> T, use is made of the tabu-
lated inversion 32.157 in SMH for the second part of Eq. 16
and (p is found as in BSL Eq. 4.1-40. Notice that (p does not
have to be the dimensionless velocity as defined in BSL, but
it may be the "deviation" dimensionless profile, from some
original Hagen-Poiseuille steady-state flow.'16

UNSTEADY DIFFUSION-REACTION IN CATALYSTS
Whereas the steady-state diffusion with first-order reac-
tion in spherical catalysts is a classic example covered in
both Transport Phenomena and Reactor Design texts, its
equally important unsteady-state version is not. This is due,
in the opinion of this author, to the many tedious and lengthy
steps required by the familiar separation-of-variables solu-
tion. In Papadopoulos, 6l it was shown that when a spherical
catalyst particle is originally operating at steady state with a
surface boundary condition C(=1))=C-, and suddenly the
surface concentration is changed to C2, the PPDE is

a 2 (17)
at 2 ag ag
where = r/R
R = radius of the sphere
S= t3/R
t= time
= Diffusivity
p2 = k,R2/
k = first-order reaction rate constant
F = deviation concentration from an original steady-state
concentration, Css1 () = C1 sinh P s/[ sinh P],
defined as F = C(4, T)- Cs, (4)

The conditions for solving Eq. 17 are

F(c=0)=0 ( = 0)=finiteforallT rF(=1)=Fro

with F0=C2-C1.

The PPDE is solved by first :T- >s Eq. 17, using its
240


initial condition
I d 2 d S+32 =0) (18)

Solving this ordinary differential equation (ODE) gives

sinh s+ cosh s+2 (
S= K, +K2 (19)

The center condition causes integration constant K2 to be
zero, while the Laplace transformed surface condition,

r(E=1)=
s
produces

K -=
ssinh s+]2
and

r sinh s+ 2
P s(20)
1o s sinh Is+22

which, for the purpose of showing the steps of inversion, is
written as

r f (s+2)
=- (21)
ro s
with

f(s)= sinh (22)
sinh s
Whereas the inverse of Eq. 20 may not be readily available
in most lists of Laplace Transforms, the inverse of Eq.
22, t-' {f(s)} is given by SMH 32.148. Using this together
with the "over-s property"

(,t) 1 f ((s) e_2t dt
1F0 {0
ro ^o
1 0 n
SJ27X(-1)ne-n2 2 sin (nir)e _- dt
0 n=l

2 n -(n2T2+p2t
=-. (-1) n sin(ng4) e (n dt
n=l o

27 (_,)n n sin (nnI)
n=l n22 +2

2x7 (-l)"n sin(nin) -(n22 +p2) (23)
Chemical Engineering Education
Chemical Engineering Education











graduate education


Notice that the first term in the final expression of Eq. 23
is the final steady state, since as t---) the second term
vanishes. Since the final steady state is known indepen-
dently to be
Fss2 sinh (24)
Fo i sinhp
the final solution may also be written as
r(.T) sinhp4 27 (-1)"n sin(n7E) e-(n72+p1 )
r,, ) sinh Y' nl 2-P2
F0 (sinh ( n=1 n n +D
(25)

and a side result of this exercise is the mathematical identity


(-1)n n sin (ni) sinh P4
2L n22 -+2 sinh

PROBLEMS WITH
PERIODIC BOUNDARY CONDITIONS


i(s)=-- (31)
(s2 +o2)

Since we may readily have the inverses of h(s), SMH 32.32,
and of f(s), SMH 32.148, Eq. 29 may be inverted by invok-
ing the convolutionn property" and "translation property" as
follows:


0( ,0) fl \}
0

sif(ot 1)( )ne sin( niT,)e -2r(_t)dt
0 n=1

2 71 s 2lVn + Pn e -- ( T si n ( n 2 te -+ P 2 ) d t
=2 (-I)nn sin(nti)e f sin (ote2 )tdt
n=I 0
2n ,n \ (n2 +Pn2+P 2)
=- (-1) n sm(nig)eH
n=l


Reaction-Diffusion in a Catalyst
Unsteady-state problems may possess periodicity in a
boundary condition. An example is the unsteady catalyst
diffusion-reaction considered in the previous section, with
the difference that the surface concentration imposed at t=0
is no longer C2, but a sinusoid around C,, i.e., Cl+Csin(cor).
The PPDE is still given by Eq. 17 while the surface bound-
ary condition now takes the form F( = l,t)= F0 sin CoT, where
0, is the original surface concentration, C,. In solving this
periodic-boundary problem, Eqs. 17-19 are unchanged, K2
is zero as before, though the other integration constant is
found by using the new surface-concentration condition in
the Laplace domain,

(=1)= (27)

which leads to


Tom
K 1I- ~r --------- *)
(s2 ) sinh s+

and

rF o sinh s+p2
F0 (s2 + 2)sinh s+p2

which may be written as

r 4 sinh s+2 (S)
S0 (s2 +02 )sinh s+2 ss

where f(s) is still given by Eq. 22, and
Fall 2001


(n2/2 +


S(n2" +2) +om2


co
P2 ) 2


(32)
finally leading to

F( 7t)- n 2 -n 2 7 27 ++2 ) sin T- cosoW]

0 n- (n2n +P2) +o


2rt n me
+- j(-1)nsin(nn4) 2P2--- (33)
Sn=l n +p )2 +(0


PROBLEMS WITH PERIODIC DRIVING FORCE
Pulsatile Flow


The classic pulsatile-flow-in-a-tube problem is one where
the periodicity exists in the driving force instead of the
boundary.m71 The way the problem is set up here is by consid-
ering the situation where originally a fluid is under steady-
(29) state Hagen-Poiseuille flow with a pressure gradient
(P PL)
L
when suddenly the gradient starts fluctuating around the
original value as
(30) (P PL )+ P -L sin ao (34)
L L
Making reference to Papadopoulos,[6' it can easily be shown
241


L


I'"~'"''"~~''Kl2~P2)\inWIWCOIOI]














that the differential equation and boundary conditions are

P =4sin wot+- 1 a (35)
at
and
(p(, T = 0)= 0 (p(4 = 0, T)= finite (p( = 1,)= 0
where (p is the deviation velocity from the original steady
state161 and is non-dimensionalized as shown in BSL Eq. 4.1-
18. Laplace transformation of Eq. 35, 2: t s, with the aid
of initial condition, gives
1 d d(p s 4w (36)
T- 2 ^ -S2P=-sZ---T (36)
d d4) s2 +2
Solving the ODE above, using the center and surface condi-
tions, leads to

4m 4c 10 l(r) l (s)
s(s2+Wo2) (s2+m2) SIo(Vs) gs)

(37)
where


1
i(s)-
(s2 + 2 )


(38)


g(s) 1 J (i(39)
sIo(Vs) sJ0 (iVs)
whose inverses are found in SMH 32.32 and 32.156. To
invert Eq. 37, E-':s u, use the "over-s" and convolutionn"
properties as follows:

p(P,T)=

4isin cot dt si 1 Jnoil) L( (-) e t)dt
0 to o I n=1I I(X) I
(40)
where X, are the positive roots of the Bessel function J0.
Noticing, in the expression above, the cancellation of the
first integral and the first term of the second integral, the
steps summarized below lead to the following solution whose
second term disappears as time goes to infinity


CONCLUSIONS
Whereas Laplace Transforms have been part of every
chemical engineer's training at some point in their under-
graduate and graduate years, their usefulness is not exploited
adequately in textbook treatments of transport-phenomena
PPDEs. This article has presented simple methodologies for
solving such equations in efficient ways (e.g., BSL examples
4.1-1, 11.1-1 and BSL 4.1-2). It has also shown that famil-
iarity with the technique may allow a quick coverage of a
wide class of important problems in graduate courses-e.g.,
unsteady diffusion-reaction and problems with periodic
boundaries or driving forces-whose solution by other tech-
niques may render them too lengthy to merit class coverage.
As a word of caution, this treatment is recommended
mostly for graduate transport phenomena courses where there
is little emphasis on transient transport. On the other hand, if
there exists a two-semester transport sequence-or in courses
where the instructor chooses to emphasize unsteady momen-
tum, mass, and energy transfer-a more thorough treatment
of Laplace Transforms (theory of residues) can prepare the
student to deal easily with more challenging problems than
those belonging to the classes of examples discussed here.

REFERENCES
1. Carslaw, H.S., and Jaeger, J.C., Conduction of Heat in Sol-
ids, Oxford (1959)
2. Mickley, H.S., T.K. Sherwood, and C.E. Reed,Applied Math-
ematics in Chemical Engineering, McGraw-Hill (1957)
3. Spiegel, M.R., Mathematical Handbook of Formulas and
Tables, (Schaum's Outline Series), McGraw-Hill (1968)
4. Bird, R.B., W.E. Stewart, and E.N. Lightfoot, Transport
Phenomena, Wiley (1960)
5. Whitaker, S., Fundamental Principles of Heat Transfer,
Pergamon Press (1977)
6. Papadopoulos, K.D., "Linear Unsteady Transport Problems
When There Is an Initial Steady State," Chem. Eng. Ed.,
32(4), 260 (1998)
7. Middleman, S., Transport Phenomena in the Cardiovascu-
lar System, Wiley (1972) 0


s n ) J0 e 2n inw- cost) J o ( ) (T nS inW(T-O cost
( )= 4 [2 e- dt e sinte dt

n=1n J1 n)= [ n +02 4n D2 n=1 X, Jn l ( n + 2


+8X 2
SJ0 (. n) CO _2
4nClJl n en)ejnnge


~=r~==~sC-i7~p-~7~~FPI~'~Fi~*~~~~2 ~1~-;9( ;~:~;`~:~:~'~,


YIRX j~L~~"LPUULrarn~~irr~~I~Il~ia~LIILCi~l*L ~lriL.:X~- ~~C.^l- i~-~^CI~-~^l_ ~ (L i~ Ji I;


~- =C~~~-;-~Z~~iilCC i-


--., "-Z-r --;. -. I _.- ;I.- i- jp -.. -


242


Chemical Engineering Education


"I "':
:.1~










ASEE ChE Division





for 2002

There are far more deserving individuals than the typical number of annual nominees.
Please nominate a deserving individual!



The Lectureship Award
This award is presented to a distinguished engineering educator to recognize and encourage outstanding
achievement in an important field of fundamental chemical engineering theory or practice. This year
the recipient will present a lecture at the ASEE Summer School in Boulder, Colorado,
July 27 through August 2, 2002.



Ray W. Fahien Award
This award is presented annually to a young educator who has shown evidence of vision and contribution to
chemical engineering education. Educators who have been faculty members for not more than ten years
as of July 1st in the year of the award are eligible. There are two equally weighted criteria:
outstanding teaching effectiveness and educational scholarship.



CACHE Award
This award, sponsored by the CACHE Corporation, is presented for significant contributions in the
development of computer aids for chemical engineering education.



SLifetime Achievement in Chemical Engineering Pedagogical Scholarship
This award will be presented on an as-merited basis, not necessarily annually. It is given for lifetime
achievement, recognizing a sustained career of pedagogical scholarship that not only caused
innovative and substantial changes, but also inspired younger educators to new
behaviors that benefitted students in chemical engineering.

A condition of receiving any of the above awards is attendance at the Chemical Engineering Division banquet
at the 2002 ASEE meeting in Montreal, Quebec, Canada; June 16-19, 2002

Nomination Deadline: January 15, 2002

For more information on these awards, including nomination package information, go to
http://www.asee-ched.org
or contact
ASEE ChE Division Awards Chair
Joseph A. Shaeiwitz
304-293-2111 ext. 2410 jashaeiwitz@mail.wvu.edu
Fall 2001











MN graduate education


GLOBALIZATION OF

CHE EDUCATION AND RESEARCH:

An NUS-UIUC Model





K.G. NEOH AND R.B.H. TAN
National University of Singapore Kent Ridge, SINGAPORE 119260
A.A. MIRAREFI AND C.F. ZUKOSKI
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Ill. 61801


n 1998, the National University of Singapore (NUS) and
the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC)
initiated a Master of Science (MSc) degree program in
chemical engineering that integrates study and work experi-
ence in Singapore and the United States. This program is
motivated by the increasing importance of the global economy
and provides students with opportunities to integrate an in-
ternational dimension into their education. In addition,
the program is designed to provide UIUC and NUS fac-
ulty with possibilities for cooperative research and to
enhance the visibility of both institutions as leaders in
global education and research.
The need for a greater international dimension in a student's
education was pointed out to both departments by their cor-
porate partners who emphasized opportunities available at
multinational corporations for those with experience in the
U.S. and Singapore. In particular, our corporate partners
discussed with us their need for students with multicultural,
industrial experiences as part of a postgraduate program.
When this program began, participating students received
the MSc degree from their home universities, together with a
certificate of participation jointly awarded by both institu-
tions. The two universities are now in the process of institut-
ing a joint MSc degree for the program, however. This MSc
program provides the impetus for both institutions to extend
collaboration to joint research and PhD programs. In this
paper, we will present the MSc program with details of the
structure, curriculum, and projects completed, as well as the
planned extensions of the program.


MSC PROGRAM DURATION AND SCHEDULE
The MSc program is based on pairing Singaporean and
U.S. students to ease cultural transitions and to foster col-
laboration. Students spend nine months in Singapore and
nine months in the U.S. During each half of the program,
students take advanced courses and participate in an intern-
ship. The program began in 1998 with four students (two
from each university) and has been well received. The num-
ber of participating students has increased each year since
that time. From 2000 onward, the target enrollment is ten
students (five from each university) for each academic year.
Refer to Table 1 for a summary of the program schedule.
U.S. students who apply to UIUC and are admitted into

K.G. Neoh is Professor and Head of the Department of Chemical and
Environmental Engineering at the National University of Singapore. She
received her degrees (BS and ScD) in Chemical Engineering from MIT.
Her research interests include electroactive polymers, surface
functionalization, smart materials, and nanoparticles.
Reginald B.H. Tan obtained his BSc (Eng) and PhD in Chemical Engi-
neering at the Imperial College London and University of Cambridge,
respectively. His current research areas are in modeling of multiphase
flow systems and life cycle assessment. He is a Deputy Head of the
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering at the National
University of Singapore.
Charles F. Zukoski is Lycan Professor and Head of the Chemical Engi-
neering Department, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. He re-
ceived a BA in Physics from Reed College and a PhD in Chemical
Engineering from Princeton University. His research interests include
colloid and interfacial science and protein crystallization.
All Asghar Mirarefi is Lecturer and Assistant to the Head at the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
He obtained his BS in Process Engineering at the Technical University of
Graz, Austria, and his MS and PhD in Chemical Engineering from UIUC.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2001


Chemical Engineering Education












graduate education:


TABLE 1
Program Schedule

July December April September December

Sing. Coursework Internship
at NUS Project

Internship Coursework
USA Project at UIUC




Words of Experience
"...Two students (i.e. myself and Daniel Zak)
from the University of Illinois at Urbana-
Champaign have roamed the halls of the
Chemical and Environmental Engineering
Department here at NUS, as part of a coop-
erative master's program between the two
universities. We have had the opportunity
to spend two semesters studying in
Singapore. We haven't been alone, though.
Two NUS students, Low Mei Yin and Tay
Boon Keat, have been with us all along,
showing us the ropes and being good friends. When we first arrived,
the thing we always commented on was the heat, but who here
[Singapore] doesn't know about that? After all this time, we are now
faced with the question, 'So what do you think of Singapore?' From
our experiences, Singapore has taught us many things.
"Our first semester here at NUS taught us about living in residence
halls in Singapore (yes, it is very different from the USA) and about
the educational system and structure at NUS. Getting accustomed to
living here took quite a while, but by the end of the semester we were
more than comfortable with the way of life. We went home (both of
us live near Chicago) between semesters, but before going we had
been able to travel to Malaysia. Thailand, Indonesia, Hong Kong,
China, and Japan. Upon returning from the worst blizzard either of us
could ever remember in the USA, it was nice to be back in the tropical
climate of Singapore. Our next semester taught us about 'working
life,' as we completed an industrial attachment. Dan was attached to
TECH Semiconductor with Boon Keat. I was posted to Shell Oil
(Pulau Bukom) with Mei Yin. Work life was very different, but just as
challenging and rewarding as school. Also, as we had moved off-
campus to rented rooms in Clementi, we were exposed to a different
way of life in Singapore as part of the local community.
"Now that we are faced with going back to the USA, a tinge of
sadness fills us. Of course, our adventures won't be over, because Mei
Yin and Boon Keat will be coming back with us. Still, memories of
durians (love it or hate it), chicken rice, the Indian stall at the engi-
neering canteen, the Merlion at Sentosa, Raffles Place, Orchard Road,
Little India, Clementi Central, the Bugis night markets, the mooncake
festival, Chinese New Year, and all the wonderful places we have
visited and experiences we have had, will never leave us. It has been
an amazing time, and we hope to make it back here someday."
Jonathan Powell
NUS-UIUC Programn 1998-99

Figure 1. Perceptions of the program from a student
who participated in it.


Fall 2001


this program join NUS students in Singapore for the first
semester of the academic year. The students remain at the
university from July to November. Participating students at
the host institution are expected to help visiting students
with settling-in and orientation (see Figure 1). During
this first semester, students take courses and prepare for
the internship project.
The internship in Singapore starts in December and lasts
through April of the following year. Students then relocate
to the United States and work on the second internship
project from May until August. Afterward, they spend the
fall semester at UIUC, completing the coursework require-
ment. Thus, students spend equal portions of their time in
Singapore and in the United States. Between the course-
work semester and the internship period, and also between
the two internship periods, there are short breaks of a couple
of weeks each. These breaks, as well as the periods before
and after the formal program, are appreciated by the stu-
dents, who often use the time traveling to places of interest.

COURSEWORK
AND PROJECT REQUIREMENTS

Students are required to take at least six graduate-level
subjects (at least three subjects at each university) and to
achieve an average grade of "B" or better at both institu-
tions. In addition, the internship projects must be completed
in a satisfactory manner-final reports and oral presenta-
tions are required. At NUS, the subjects are to be selected
from the list shown in Table 2 (next page). Two of the
subjects chosen must have the "CN" prefix, which denotes
subjects offered in the department's chemical engineering
program. The subjects with the prefix "EV" and "SH" de-
note subjects offered in the department's environmental en-
gineering program and safety, health, and environmental
technology program, respectively. At UIUC, two of the sub-
jects taken must be those approved for graduate credit in
chemical engineering. A listing of approved courses is given
in Table 3 (next page). While the students are at NUS and
UIUC, they are also appointed as teaching assistants or
laboratory demonstrators.
The internship period may involve a single project or a
number of smaller projects. UIUC and NUS students are
usually paired up during the internship period and are as-
signed to work on the same, or related, projects. The projects
are intended to be of a practical nature and relevant to
current technology. Examples of industrial projects are given
in Table 4. The examples were chosen from projects under-
taken in the areas of petroleum refining, microelectronics
processing, chemicals/petrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals.
The projects are jointly supervised by the company's staff
245
















and staff members from NUS and UIUC, who act as liaison
officers. Liaison officers are also responsible for coordinat-
ing with the company to ensure suitability of the projects and
to grade student reports. As can be seen from Table 4, the
projects are a mix of modeling, simulation, and optimization
studies on existing plant units, as well as developmental stud-
ies on alternative processes.

INDUSTRY PARTICIPATION

The participation of individual companies and foundations
through their financial support-and employment of stu-
dents as interns-is a key factor in the success of this pro-
gram. The internships also provide close collaboration be-
tween industry and academe. The industrial companies sup-
porting the program provide training opportunities in a wide
range of areas that are of great interest and importance to
chemical engineers. These include process engineering,
petroleum/petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, food, chemi-
cals, and microelectronics processing (see Table 5). The



TABLE 2
List of Approved Subjects at NUS

CN5010 Mathematical Methods in Chemical & Environmental Eng.
CN5020 Advanced Reaction Engineering
CN5030 Advanced Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
CN5040 Advanced Transport Phenomena
CN5050 Advanced Separation Processes
CN5111 Optimization of Chemical Processes
CN5114 Advances in Multivariable Controller Design
CN5115 Distillation Dynamics and Control
CN5121 Electrochemical Systems and Methods
CN5131 Colloids and Surfaces
CN5161 Polymer Processing Engineering
CN5191 Project Engineering
CN5193 Instrumental Methods of Analysis
CN5222 Pharmaceuticals and Fine Chemicals
CN5241 Viscoelastic Fluids
CN5242 Two-Phase Flow and Fluidization
CN5251 Membrane Science and Technology
CN5391 Selected Topics in Advanced Chemical Engineering I
CN5392 Selected Topics in Advanced Chemical Engineering II
EV5102 Water Pollution Control Technology
EV5104 Air Pollution Control Technology
EV5202 Quantified Risk Analysis
EV5203 Environmental Impact Assessment and Auditing
SH0004 Fundamentals in Industrial Hygiene
SH0011 Hazard Identification and Evaluation Techniques
SH0014 Safety Engineering
SH0017 Industrial Hazardous Waste Control


student pairs sponsored by multinational companies, such
as Schering-Plough, DuPont, and ExxonMobil, usually
work in the companies' U.S. and Singapore plants during
their internship. Sponsoring companies without the nec-
essary operations in either country can team up partners
to provide complementary internship, e.g. Chartered Semi-


TABLE 3
List of Approved Subjects at UIUC

CHE465 Chemical Engineering Seminar
CHE466 Applied Mathematics in Chemical Engineering
CHE467 Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis
CHE469 Special Topics in Chemical Engineering
CHE485 Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics and Molecular Rheology
CHE486 Surface Chemistry
CHE487 Fluid Dynamics
CHE488 Advanced Topics in Heat and Mass Transfer
CHE496 Individual Study
CHE497 Special Problems


TABLE 4
Examples of Internship Projects

Petroleum Refining Modeling and optimization of
lube hydrocracking and dewaxing
units.
SSimulation of hydrocracking units
and reactor sections for maximiz-
ing naphtha production.

Chemicals/Petrochemicals Simulation models of NO
absorber to estimate temperature
profile, release rate of NO, during
disturbance, and vent area
required to prevent over-
pressurization of tanks.
SDevelopmental work on
azeotropic distillation of Promoter
X using a packed-bed distillation
column.

Pharmaceuticals Pilot scale studies on liquid-liquid
extraction as an alternative to the
double precipitation process for
production of Z.
SFeasibility studies of the recovery
of vaporized liquid N, and the
integration of N, vaporization
with VOC condenser systems.

Microelectronics Processing Optimization and cost-saving
options for ultrapure water
facilities.
SApplication of phase-shift
masking for sub-0.16pm contact
hole imaging.

Chemical Engineering Education


---
li-
~---












-. gradt a 'te dA)


conductor Manufacturing in Singapore and Applied Ma-
terials in the U.S.
Some companies may require the Singapore students to
return to work for a specified period of time (two years) in
return for sponsoring student participation in the projects. In
practice, however, many of the companies do not require
commitments, and the employment of graduates by the com-
panies is mutually agreed upon.
Through financial incentives, staff members are encour-
aged to participate by visiting the companies in order to
discuss and formulate the projects and to provide feedback
on the project work. During these visits, staff members
establish contacts that eventually may provide research con-
nections. Companies may require participating students and
staff members to sign a deed of confidentiality.

CHALLENGES AND FUTURE PLANS
The MSc program is now in its fourth year and has been
positively received by students, sponsoring companies, and
both institutions. Survey data and informal feedback from
participating companies indicate that the program is of ben-
efit to all stakeholders. Students from both countries learn a
great deal about living and working in different cultures and
applying skills learned in the classroom to real plant prob-
lems. The corporate partners appreciate contact with, and
the projects carried out by, a group of highly motivated and
unusually adventurous students. Each institution, however,
also recognizes the amount of effort required to coordinate
the academic activities and the planning and management of
projects with industrial sponsors. A staff member has been
appointed by each department to serve as a coordinator for
the program and to liaise with the students, university ad-
ministrators, and industrial sponsors.
The coordinators also assist students in the procurement
of travel documents and housing arrangements. While the

TABLE 5
List of Participating Companies in NUS-UIUC MSc Program


Company

Chartered Semiconductor Man.
DuPont
Applied Materials
Mobil/ExxonMobil
Glaxo-SmithKline
Kraft
TECH Semiconductor
Shell
Schering-Plough
Honeywell


Years
Participated
2000-01,2001-02
1999-00, 2000-01
2001-02
1999-00, 2000-01,2001-02
2001-02
1998-99
1998-99
1998-99,2001-02
1999-00, 2000-01, 2001-02
2001-02


students are in Singapore or at UIUC, they are eligible for
student housing. During the internship in various parts of the
U.S., however, they have to make their own housing ar-
rangements, although some companies provide assistance in
this respect. The "buddy system," whereby participating stu-
dents from the host university play an active role in helping
visiting students settle in, alleviates some of the difficulties.
Both institutions are now in the final stages of working
toward awarding a joint MSc degree for graduates of this
program. The success of the program sets the stage for
further collaboration in chemical engineering between the
two institutions. In January of 2001, the departments jointly
organized an NUS-UIUC Joint Symposium on Globaliza-
tion of Chemical Engineering Research where intensive dis-
cussions were conducted in an effort to design a joint PhD
program. There is already collaborative research going on
between chemical engineering faculty members at NUS and
UIUC. A joint PhD program will, however, formalize and
further enhance this collaboration, providing visibility for
the quality research that can be done with the skills, re-
sources, and ideas of NUS and UIUC faculty members in a
combined effort of this type.
This program is being implemented with a shared commit-
ment to excellence in education and with research based on
collaborative efforts-where the interests, capabilities, and
resources of each institution combine to offer unique and
advantageous opportunities. 1


o books received

Turbulence Structure Vortex Dynamics, edited by J.C.R. Hunt and J.C.
Vassilicos: Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York,
NY 10011-4211; 306 pages, $80 (2001)
Foundations of Spectroscopy, by Simon Duckett and Bruce Gilbert; Oxford
University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016-4314; 90
pages, $12.95 (2000)
An Introduction to Magnetohydrodynamics, by P.A. Davidson; Cambridge
University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211; 431
pages (2001)
Organotin Chemistry, by Alwyn G. Davies; VCH Publishers, Ic., 337 7th
Avenue, New York, NY 10001; 327 pages (1997)
Stereochemistry of Coordination Compounds, by Alexander von Zelewsky;
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012;
254 pages (1996)
Hydrocarbon Resins, by R. Mildenberg, M. Zander, G. Collin; John Wiley
& Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012; 179 pages
$140(1997)
An Introduction to Turbulent Flow, by Jean Mathieu and Julian Scott;
Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-
4211; 374 pages, $90.00 (hardback), $39.95 (paperback); (2000)
Computational Analy sis of Biochemical Systems, by Eberhard O. Voit;
Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-
4211; 531 pages, $130 (hardback), $49.95 (paperback) (2000)
247


Fall 2001











re]"l graduate education


CHEMISTRY AND LIFE SCIENCES IN A

NEW VISION OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


PHILLIP R. WESTMORELAND
University of Massachusetts Amherst Amherst, MA 01003-9303


Chemical engineering must expand its self-concept in
order to maintain its vitality and viability as a pro-
fession. It can still be defined as "the profession that
applies chemistry." However, current chemical engineering
education, however, does not effectively couple chemistry to
engineering applications. This article proposes that the cen-
tral issue of this profession's future is how to reintegrate
chemistry, including life sciences, into our vision of chemi-
cal engineering. It is a challenge to be met in educational
curricula, in practice, and within the restructuring of the
chemical process industries.
Applying chemistry now must be understood to include
applying the chemistry of life sciences. Chemical
engineering's foundation in chemistry has been a solid basis
for dominating the interface between process technology
and the chemical sciences. The profession's relationship to
life sciences has been hazier, deriving naturally-but often
empirically-from parallels of bioreactors and bioseparations
to traditional reactor engineering and separations. Much of
the traditional profession still sees biochemical engineering as
peripheral, and the lack of life sciences in the ChE curriculum
shows how strong that perception is. Now, as biology is be-
coming chemically based, haziness should be cleared up.
Going still further, modern chemistry and biology have
become more focused on understanding and exploiting the
molecular scale, and so must chemical engineering. Reac-
tions and physical properties alike have their bases in chemi-
cal structure. Chemical engineers should be at the forefront
of translating this understanding into processes and prod-
ucts. Extra science courses aren't sufficient, as the discon-
nects between chemistry courses and chemical engineering
courses show. Rather, the science and applications must be
layered and mixed through the curriculum.
Molecularly based modeling is one aspect of these con-
nections that chemical engineers will increasingly need to
know. Over time, it must be added into the curriculum as a
topic in its own right and as an educational aid to the larger
goal of integrating chemistry. Use of this set of tools is
248


penetrating the research activities of many companies, but it
is also beginning to be a practical means for resolving many
questions about engineering properties. The Schrodinger
equation and statistical mechanics form its scientific prin-
ciples, and computational quantum chemistry, molecular
simulations, and computer visualization form its toolbox. It
is not a substitute for understanding the relevant chemistry,
however. For such problems, computer programs still are
faster than they are intelligent.
Applied chemistry-understood on the molecular and con-
tinuum scales, including biological chemistry, and tied more
effectively into the profession and the rest of the ChE cur-
riculum-must become a component of chemical engineer-
ing education that is equally important with transport phe-
nomena, process operation and design, and economics.
Chemical engineering faculties have a particular responsi-
bility for reintegrating chemistry into chemical engineering
because the undergraduate and graduate curricula reflect the
profession's self-image to each new generation.

DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING'S
PRESENT SELF-IMAGE
A profession's self-image is defined by
A What its professionals do
L What they think others in their profession do
A What they are taught about the profession
Consequently, it is useful to consider the undergraduate
chemical engineering curriculum and how it has developed.

Phil Westmoreland is Professor of Chemical
Engineering at the University of Massachu-
setts Amherst. His research interests include
gas kinetics by molecular-beam mass spec-
trometry; experimental polymer decomposi-
tion and flammability kinetics; and applica-
tions of computational quantum chemistry and
reactive dynamics, and reaction theory to
these problems. He is a graduate of N.C.
State (BS '73), LSU (MS '75) and MIT (PhD
'86).

Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2001
Chemical Engineering Education












graduate education


The curriculum expresses what the faculty think the profes-
sion is or should be, and the courses of study also strongly
influence the self-image of ChE students who go on to
become its practicing professionals.
Historically, any ChE department's curriculum must be in
accord with broad opinion, as articulated by the Accredita-
tion Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). Even
though ABET now allows much greater latitude for depart-
ments to reshape their curricula, changes must be guided by
careful study of feedback from their constituencies.
The key feature of chemical engineering practice is the
economically feasible process. Realistically, de novo prod-
uct invention has never been our calling card. It is natural,
however, that product development will continue to be a
collaboration between engineers and scientists, almost al-
ways linked by the requirement of a desirable product and
the necessary process of making or formulating it. The link
is only broken when the needed amount of product is tiny
(scientists may carry out production) or when the science is
already in place (product engineering).

Breadth is consequently another key aspect of chemical
engineering's present self-image. Our profession is wonder-
fully inclusive, bringing together a wide range of sciences,
technologies, and economics. It may not be quite true that


"chemical engineers can do anything," as many have put it,
but we do an amazing variety of things. The self-image of
breadth in engineering education, coupled with particular
depths, is somewhat deceptive. Historically, the education
breadth has narrowed and become more specialized. Signifi-
cantly, chemistry has always been at the heart of chemical
engineering practice, but it has been pushed off to the edge
of academic experience.
In the 19th century, the chemical engineer was a general
engineer with a specialization in applied chemistry (Table
1). Courses involved much hands-on practical work, but
most were usually "engineering" or "practical chemistry" or
"industrial chemistry." The Civil War and the subsequent
second industrial revolution had stimulated a burst of engi-
neered production of oil products, of steel and smelted met-
als, and of manufactured tobacco products and refined sugar.
The transportation industry (rail and ship) was a key factor
to increased use and distribution of products, and demand
for modem conveniences brought civic water and sewage
systems, the coal-derived "gas-light" era, and dyed fabrics.

During the early 1900s, German chemists dominated in-
dustrial chemistry with their expertise in dyestuffs, coal
conversion, and synthetic fertilizers. Petroleum refining in
the U.S. focused on fuel uses. It was dominated by


TABLE 1
Examples of Curriculum Requirements for Chemical Engineers: 1898,1" 1965, and 2000
1898" 1965 2000
Industrial Chemistry (including Mass and Energy Balances Mass and Energy Balances
lectures and "laboratory for study of Unit Operations (Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow) Transport Phenomena (Fluid Mechanics,
chemical processes on a larger scale") Equilibrium Separations Heat Transfer, Mass Transfer Operations)
Mass Transfer Operations Equilibrium Separations
Reactor Engineering Process Design
Industrial Chemistry Process Control
Process Design Engineering Science and Process
Process Control Laboratory
Unit Operations Laboratory


Other Metallurgy and Forging FORTRAN Programming Communication and Computer Skills
Engineering Drafting Engineering Graphics Engineering Science Electives
Machining Statistics
Intro. to Materials
Intro. to Electrical Engineering
Mathematics Calculus I, II, III Calculus I, II, III
Differential Equations Differential Equations
Chemistry Gen., Org., Adv. Inorg., Theoretical, General Chemistry I and II General Chem. I and II
(Some with Labs) History of, and Sanitary Chemistry: Organic Chemistry I and II Organic Chem. I and II
Qual., Quant.. and Gas Analysis Physical Chemistry I (Thermodynamics and Physical Chem. I (Thermody., Kinetics)
Kinetics) II (Spectroscopy, Quantum Mech.)
Other Sciences Mineralogy Physics I and II Physics I and II
(Some with Labs) Elective Intro. Course in Life Science Elective intro. course in life science
Liberal Arts English Composition English Composition


Electives required in Econ., Arts or
Literature, History, Social Science


Electives required in History, Economics


Area
Chemical
Engineering


Fall 2001 24














Rockefeller's Standard Oil trust until the 1911 court-man-
dated break-up and by its components afterward. World War
I forced U.S. chemical companies to develop, such as Dow
Chemical and Diamond Alkali (now part of Ultramar Dia-
mond Shamrock).
The "Unit Operations" approach responded to these de-
velopments and the demand for quantitation in the early
20th century. Arthur D. Little and William H. Walker identi-
fied certain process elements as cutting across the variety of
processes. Examples are fluid flow, heat transfer, distillation,
and crystallization. Separation processes, based on equilibrium
or on mass-transfer rates, were especially important. This ap-
proach provided a basis for moving from earlier batch and
semibatch processing to high-capacity continuous processing.
Textbooks by Walker, Lewis, and McAdams[21 pioneered the
approach, and the text of McCabe and Smith31 was a central
text on the subject from the 1950s through the 1970s.
Transport Phenomena141 still overshadows the chemistry
of chemical engineering in U.S. curricula. No doubt, the
intellectual appeal of its "clean" mathematics and physics is
part of the explanation, contrasting sharply as it does with
"messy" chemistry. "Clean" and "messy" are oversimplifi-
cations, but the dividing line between physics and chemistry
has often been defined by the amount of mathematics and
the degree of quantitation and precision. For example, com-
pare mathematics in sophomore physics to the lack of it in
sophomore organic chemistry. Motion of a pendulum may
be treated rather exactly, but reactions of a Grignard reagent
are organized by pattern recognition.
Physical chemistry is the point where students see math-
ematics and chemistry intersect. In their book, Chemical
Process Principles, Hougen and Watson1s5 chose to subdi-
vide the physical chemistry of chemical engineering into
mass and energy conservation balances, equilibrium ther-
modynamics, and kinetics. By comparison, modern physical
chemistry courses have five main components: classical ther-
modynamics, kinetics, spectroscopy, quantum mechanics,
and statistical mechanics.
Reactions have always been the most obvious part of
chemistry in chemical engineering courses, appearing in
courses on material and energy balances, thermodynamics,
reaction engineering, and process design. Linkage to chem-
istry courses, however, is usually poor. Kinetics often ap-
pears only in the reaction engineering course, where reactor
analysis is the emphasis and stoichiometric reactions are
given to the student. Analysis is usually in terms of first-
order reactions of "A goes to B." Inference of rates from
ideal reactors gets good attention, and other power-law ex-
pressions are used to a small extent. Often, catalysis is not
taught to undergraduates except via pseudo-homogeneous
250


kinetics, although texts include heterogeneous treatments.
Catalytic chemistry is treated as an empirical black box, and
its chemical principles and classifications are seldom taught.
Even at the graduate level, elegant treatments of reactor
analysis and design (e.g. Aris' Introduction to the Analysis
of Chemical Reactors[61) have presumed that all of the needed
chemical reactions, stoichiometries, and rate constants were
known. Empirical kinetics and well-modeled reactors have
served chemical engineers very well, but industrial practice
has relied more and more on chemists to provide the reactions.
In the past, chemistry also appeared in "industrial chemis-
try" courses. These courses largely died out in the 1960s,
strangled by their focus on flowsheet memorization rather
than the chemical principles and components of the
flowsheets. Also, as processes proliferated and became more
confidential, flowsheets and details were less available for
students, and these courses became less relevant.
At present (Table 1), the undergraduate curriculum typi-
cally includes a core of chemical engineering courses. It
includes substantial formal study of mathematics, physics,
and chemistry. Organic chemistry provides molecular struc-
tures and language for engineers to work with chemists, but
its reaction chemistry seldom carries over to ChE courses.
Physical chemistry emphasizes classical thermodynamics,
which can be reinforcing or merely redundant when students
often see two ChE thermodynamics courses as well. Spec-
troscopy may not be connected to practical chemical analy-
sis. Elementary quantum mechanics may appear, but usually
not statistical mechanics. Courses in life sciences are seldom
required and are often limited to a freshman-level introduc-
tory course in biology, genetics, ecology, or medical issues.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING IN EVOLVING PRACTICE
Meanwhile, the ChE professional has worked in a steady
range of job types, but within dramatically changing indus-
tries. The process engineer has long typified the image of the
chemical engineer, employing mass and energy balances,
equilibrium and rate analyses, economics, and the engineer-
ing problem-solving skill of de-constructive analysis in
order to operate and improve processes. Stereotypically,
the process engineer would work in a large company.
Many work instead in small companies as all-purpose
chemical engineers.
There are many other roles as well. New engineers often
move quickly into management roles, using different blends
of many of the same talents, augmented by a greater role for
communications and organizational skills. There are oppor-
tunities in product development, although chemists may
dominate. Process design engineers, R&D engineers, and
educators are other clearly visible career tracks for ChE
Chemical Engineering Education


- --. -











graduate dseaWaUsu.


students. When the economy is good, starting companies
and consulting are easier than ever for students to imagine.
Many chemical engineers are in sales and marketing.
As at the turn of the 20th century, the turn of the 21st
century finds many chemical engineers working for oil and
chemical companies. Continuous processes now dominate
the plants, yet the spectrum of products is broader. Refiner-
ies produce a host of different fuels, byproducts, and chemi-
cals that include elastomers, thermosets and thermoplastics,
specialty chemicals, and fine chemicals.
In striking contrast to 1900, however, many chemical
engineers are also working in food, personal care, materials,
electronics, pharmaceuticals, and environmental-control in-
dustries. Figure 1 shows that these sectors employ approxi-
mately 33% of all chemical engineers working in industry
and 38% of new chemical engineering graduates who took

(iAAn CWE Graduates Going to Industry)

Chemical -- ,Electronics
companies Food/Consumer
Prods.
Fuels-- Biotech &
Pharma
S\Materials
Other (incl Materials
consulting) \ Envir Eng
Research &'\ Design &
Testing Construction

Chsincal Engineers in Industry

All ChE's in industry:


Research & Design &
Testing Construction

Figure 1. Current distribution of industrial jobs in chemi-
cal engineering. TOP: New graduates going into industry,
1997-2000. Three-year average, weighted by number ofBS
(2,870 in survey, 52.3% going directly to industry), MS
(520, 42.7%), and PhD graduates (380, 55.1%) in 2000
survey from 77 of 177 U.S. and Canadian chemical engi-
neering programs.171 Graduates not reported as going to
industry are mostly continuing to academic institutions or
do not report their employment. Total number ofBS gradu-
ates is approximately 6,000 per year. BOTTOM: Full-time
salaried chemical engineers in industry, interpreted from
AIChE Career Services data.t8'
Fall 2001


jobs in industry during the last three years. Chemical and
fuel companies employed 41% of all chemical engineers and
all new chemical engineering graduates. In contrast, in 1991
only 22% of chemical engineering graduates entered these
newer sectors, while 63% went into chemical and fuel com-
panies. The pie-chart in Figure 1 shows the electronics sec-
tor with a disproportionately larger portion of the employ-
ment of new graduates relative to all chemical engineers,
while other sectors are quite comparable.
Significantly, several chemical companies have begun add-
ing more biologically oriented business. Part of the driving
force behind this movement has been an optimistic belief in
the lucrative nature of the pharmaceuticals business. Part is
building on businesses in chemically synthesized agricul-
tural products, and another part is the belief that bioprocessing
and biomimetic processing can replace important
nonbiological processes. Monsanto made a major commit-
ment to applied life sciences, eventually splitting off its
chemicals business as Solutia. DuPont, the oldest of the
American chemical companies, joined with Merck to form a
joint pharmaceuticals business, later buying out the venture
as DuPont Pharmaceuticals. In June of 2001, however, it
announced sale of this business to Bristol-Myers Squibb.
Bayer has also built a strong life-sciences business and has
chosen to keep it closely tied with its chemicals business.

LINKING CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY INTO CHE
PRACTICE AND EDUCATION
These changed needs require a new vision of a more
chemistry-centered chemical engineering. Process develop-
ment and operation must be "faster, better, cheaper" (the
pragmatist's mantra), requiring more effective understand-
ing of the science and of how to apply chemical knowledge
combined with physics and economics. "Product engineer-
ing" is yet another application of these combined principles.
New understanding and tools of molecular-scale chemistry
and molecular biology can help us achieve this vision.
This goal can be accomplished by
3 A better coupling ofchemistry to solving engineering problems,
using molecular perspectives as the basisfor improvement
3 Incorporating relevant life sciences (biochemistry, microbiology,
and molecular biology) and their engineering applications using a
molecular, chemical viewpoint
3 Beginning to exploit computational quantum chemistry and
molecular simulations as practical methodsfor engineering
education and application
These same issues of chemistry, life sciences, and appro-
priate tools for modeling them are important at all levels of the
profession, from undergraduate curricula to continuing educa-
tion for practicing engineers. The third approach is taking
shape in graduate curricula now, and it will begin to influence
251












(aca4*wt. .c: tlo


undergraduate curricula more as texts begin to appear.

Integrating Molecularly Based Chemistry
The chemistry of chemical engineering is more important
than ever, both in established industries and newer indus-
tries-from nanostructured materials to biotechnology to
process units to atmospheric impact. New physics is also
important, certainly for non-Newtonian fluid flows, mor-
phology-property relations, and the solid state. Even there,
many of the interesting, relevant issues for chemical engi-
neering physics are molecule-specific and must be dealt
with on electronic and molecular scales.
Ironically, chemistry has been dis-integrated from engi-
neering courses. Ten years ago, a University of Massachu-
setts senior disparaged required chemistry courses as being
"scientific liberal arts-something you had to take because
it was good for you, not because you ever used it." This was
perception rather than reality, but it was perception based on
our failure both to show where chemistry was coming into
play and to use more of it in chemical engineering courses.
Why is this linkage poor? In contrast to 1898, where
"practical" chemistry courses were the primary type offered,
modern chemistry courses are more focused on scientific
principles, mainly on the molecular scale. Chemical engi-
neering faculties not only have approved of such changes,
but we have also moved the ChE curriculum toward funda-
mentals, mainly of continuum physics. This has put the
profession on a solid intellectual footing and advanced the
field. In emphasizing scientific fundamentals, however, it
has proven harder to spend as much time or to be as experi-
enced in process-scale applications.
We can easily address some improvements. In transport,
thermodynamics, and reaction engineering, it is easiest to
teach general principles by using chemical species A and B.
It is important, however, to move quickly into problems that
require real properties of real chemicals, real mixtures, and
real reactions. Using real species is the norm in material and
energy balances, separations, process design, and the chemi-
cal engineering laboratory. In these courses, we must help
the students realize they are applying what they have learned
in general chemistry classes about nomenclature, balancing
reactions, calculating molecular weight, equilibrium con-
stants, and using the ideal gas law.
To really blend chemical science and application, how-
ever, we must work to make sure the right chemistry courses
are required and that we then use their content. There are
several issues to be remembered.

SWe use much of the general chemistry course content, the main
exception being its molecular perspective on bonding and properties.
SChE courses often use little from the organic chemistry courses
252


except for nomenclature of small organic molecules. Memorizing
lists of reactions is usually emphasized in the course, and they are
treated nonquantitatively. More constructively, the courses include
the role of bonding types in determining molecular structure, proper-
ties, and the reactivity manifested in these actions. This perspective
should be used much more effectively in the chemical engineering
curriculum, which tends to imply that properties can be looked up as
needed.


3 Biochemistry is rarely required or used, but it should be.
C From physical chemistry courses, the ChE curriculum mostly uses
thermodynamics, kinetics, and the laboratory experience. Physical
chemistry is usually split into a lab and two or three courses. The first
course may contain some kinetics and reaction equilibrium, but it is
largely redundant with chemical engineering thermodynamics. This
redundancy is normally argued as necessary for students to master
this difficult subject. ChE students, however, often gain comfort with
thermodynamics through using it, as in equilibrium separations, rather
than in restudying the fundamentals.
Some schools have reasonably made the physical chemistry
thermodynamics course optional. Unfortunately, the traditional sec-
ond physical chemistry course-quantum mechanics, spectroscopy,
or possibly some statistical mechanics-is usually perceived to be an
easier course to sacrifice. This feeling arises because it is often taught
as a narrow and purely intellectual subject, disconnected from rel-
evance to applications. Seeking to adapt present courses in coordina-
tion with chemistry colleagues is important, especially in the short-
term. Chemical engineers, however, must ultimately take responsibil-
ity for integrating physical chemistry and engineering content.

Molecular structure is the basis of many chemical and
physical properties which can be estimated, correlated, and
sometimes calculated, beginning from simple descriptions
of molecular structure. This does not necessarily require
computational chemistry, although computer models can
help. In ChE courses, molecular structure and properties can
be related to common engineering properties such as activa-
tion energies, heat of mixing, vapor pressure, thermal con-
ductivity, or free energy of formation. Quantitative esti-
mates of properties are even more convincing. For example,
when students know the atom connectivity in a molecule,
they can generate quite useful activity coefficients and ideal-
gas thermochemistry from UNIFAC and Benson group-ad-
ditivity methods, respectively.
Reaction engineering provides many good examples of
molecular-level processes that have reactor-scale impact.
For example, reaction chemistry is inherently molecule-based.
Individual molecules react, although collective behaviors
like solvation and conduction bands in catalysts influence
the reactions. Even so, solvation involves localized shells of
solvating molecules and is dominated by solvent-molecule
coupling or shielding between solvated molecules. Conduc-
tion bands represent the populations of occupied and unoc-
cupied orbitals. This information must be turned into rate
expressions and rate constants, or rate constants may be
organized on the basis of patterns in the molecular informa-
tion. Semi-quantitatively, reactions can be classified logi-

Chemical Engineering Education


i I~ __ ____











graduate education
*s ___ ________________________________________________-- --- -


cally by molecularly general and specific transition states
* As s,p-orbital reactions-radical reactions of association/dissociation
and abstraction, ionic reactions, and pericyclic reactions
* As d-orbital reactions-reactions based on the d orbitals of metals,
including adsorption and catalysis.
Quantitative Structure-Activity Relations (QSARs) are fur-
ther examples, where molecular parameters (often using
computed values) are used in fitted correlations of rate data.
Chemical engineers excel at combining chemical kinetics
with all the other phenomena occurring in chemical pro-
cesses. Many of these phenomena-such as thermochemis-
try and chemical equilibrium, phase equilibrium, and most
transport processes-have meaning only for domains that
are large enough to be statistical continue. The continuum
relations, however, are determined by intermolecular inter-
actions, which, in turn, are determined by the shapes and
structures of the molecules (the masses and nuclear posi-
tions of their atoms and their electronic structure).
Teaching chemical engineers about these relationships and
how to exploit their understanding cannot be relegated to
science courses. Rather, existing and newly-developed ChE
courses and texts must integrate these molecular-scale rela-
tions with continuum-scale relations. In this way, real reac-
tion chemistry and property relations can be understood and
used effectively. For over twenty years, Preetinder Virk of
MIT taught a graduate course in physical organic chemistry
titled, "Industrial Chemistry," developed as an updating of
the traditional industrial chemistry courses. It has been very
successful in convincing students that they could apply chemi-
cal principles quantitatively.

Incorporating Life Sciences into ChE
These arguments also apply to understanding and using
the chemistry of life sciences. Biology is dramatically in-
creasing in importance. For classically prepared chemical
engineers, biotechnology is a logical extension of reaction
engineering and separations. This is not the biology of clas-
sifying genus and species, however, but of biochemistry,
microbiology, and increasingly, molecular biology. Molecu-
lar-scale underpinnings of these life sciences are rapidly
becoming more understood qualitatively and quantitatively.
Biotechnology has eagerly sought chemical engineers, valu-
ing the profession's classical reaction and separations skills.
The ongoing transformation of life sciences toward chemis-
try and informatics makes them naturals for chemical engi-
neers also. However, few chemical engineering curricula
require any microbiology, biochemistry or molecular biology.
The life sciences are reasonably accepted as being inside the
tent of ChE academic research, but they are mostly omitted
from the curriculum and forced to be optional or possibly
Fall 2001


offered as electives.
The challenge is in the details of implementation. The
simplest step is to add a biochemistry course, while courses
in microbiology and in cellular and molecular biology are
valuable, too. All of these courses are fundamental science
courses, so merely requiring students to take such courses
does not make the subject matter part of chemical engineering.
Chemical engineering courses must incorporate this science,
just as they do physics or physical chemistry.
Curricula are crowded, and a reasonable zero-sum ap-
proach is to substitute biochemistry for the traditional first
physical chemistry course in classical thermodynamics. That
choice is controversial, but seems justified. Some schools
have already adopted this approach.
Another good choice that some departments have made is
to add an elective survey course that groups relevant life-
science topics. That approach presently requires a specialist
in the field, in part for lack of sufficient experience in the
field by the other faculty. Lack of an authoritative but usable
text can also prevent the scientific rigor or breadth that is
needed, depending on the specific expertise of the instructor.
Creating an applied life sciences course is the right direction
to go, but the course cannot become part of the standard set
of ChE courses so long as only a specialist can teach it.
Compare this situation to the status of process design or
process control courses. They have been specialized areas,
but now can be taught by most faculty with chemical engi-
neering backgrounds. The reason is the existence of good
texts such as those by Douglas,191 Ogunnaike and Ray,1'01 and
Seborg, Edgar, and Mellichamp.i""
What is needed more is a required, chemical-engineering-
oriented course in applied life sciences-taking advantage
of the latest advances in molecular biology. One of the first
texts to fit this need has been Biochemical Engineering
Fundamentals by Bailey and Ollis.[21 However, it has been
mostly used for elective courses in the field, and much has
been learned about the chemical foundations of the life
sciences in recent years.
In addition, life-sciences applications must be woven
through the curriculum. This approach is crucial but well
advanced. Consider the teaching of Michaelis-Menten en-
zyme kinetics in texts such as that of Fogler."'I Like tradi-
tional heterogeneous catalysis, it is based on the idea of
kinetic binding and reaction on sites that satisfy a population
balance. A useful difference is that the site is specific, well
defined, and increasingly well described (e.g. the binding
site of acetylcholinesterase in Sussman, et al.[J41). Thus, it is
a better model to introduce modeling of elementary cataly-
sis. Other examples are the pharmacokinetics problems in
Ogunnaike and Ray.o101














Elective status cannot continue. The life sciences are less
and less an option for the chemical engineer. Instead, more and
more they must become essential parts of his or her education.

Beginning to Teach Molecular Modeling and its
Engineering Applications
The right intellectual framework for molecular-scale chem-
istry is the Schrodinger equation and the equations of statis-
tical mechanics. These relations parallel the importance of
continuum equations for transport phenomena.
The tools to exploit this framework are computational
quantum chemistry and molecular simulations. The first clas-
sification includes ab-initio wavefunction methods, elec-
tronic density functional theory, and semi-empirical mo-
lecular orbital theory-all based on zero-kelvin solutions of
the electronic Schrodinger equation. The second includes
Newtonian molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simula-
tions based on parameterized force fields to model intra- and
intermolecular interactions, interpreted through statistical
mechanics. There are useful direct combinations of quantum
mechanics and statistical mechanics as well, such as com-
puter programs for variational transition-state theory and
Car-Parrinello ab-initio molecular dynamics.
Computational tools for chemistry are beginning to be
used industrially for practical prediction'15 and in the chem-
istry classroom for teaching, but they are not yet used much
in chemical engineering courses. They have the potential to
transform chemical-engineering chemistry intellectually in
the same way that genomics is transforming the life sciences
(and may also transform chemical-engineering data han-
dling). In the career span of today's students, these tools will
be used routinely to predict and extrapolate properties of
chemicals and materials.
They already are the tools of choice for obtaining thermo-
chemistry and for developing new homogeneous organometal-
lic catalysts by calculations of reactivity, coupled to experi-
mental synthesis and benchscale measurements. They are be-
ginning to play an important role for electronic materials. As a
future example, these are the natural modeling tools for the
developing field of nanotechnology, applications occurring
at the scale of nanometers. Covalent bond lengths are on the
order of 1A or 0.1 nm, and individual molecules may be
nanometer-sized or much larger. Condensed-phase materi-
als may have larger structures, but their behaviors and even
mesoscale morphologies have molecular-scale origins.
These methods are in use for a broad range of applications
in the chemical process industries, in pharmaceutical com-
panies, and in materials companies." 1 The number of spe-
cialists is small at present, one to 30 people per company.
Nonspecialist use of the methods and of the results is in-

254


creasing rapidly. While basic understanding of its principles
and execution is necessary, computational quantum chemis-
try can deliver reliable molecular structures and properties
with increasing ease of implementation and interpretation.
Computational molecular simulations are used less heavily
in the chemical process industries, but they are very
important in product development (especially of drugs)
and are becoming worthy companions to analytic theo-
ries. Many industrial sectors have begun to employ engi-
neering-style QSAR and QSPR (Quantitative Structure-
Property Relations) correlations based on molecular struc-
tures and parameters.
Chemistry courses are beginning to use molecular visual-
ization and even computational chemistry as lecture aids and
in computer laboratory assignments. Similarly, chemical en-
gineering courses can use visualization to reinforce molecu-
lar-scale concepts. Molecular simulations available on the Web
or on local computers are valuable aids to convey molecular
origins of reaction and continuum behaviors, as well as the
relations and properties that result. The chemical origins of
biological processes and biocatalysis are powerfully commu-
nicated when three-dimensional molecular behaviors can be
shown and related to their bases in specific bonding relations.
Beyond their helpfulness for teaching, these tools will
increasingly need to be taught as ways in which practicing
engineers will obtain engineering properties. Again, the sci-
ence and its practice must be interwoven. Such material
might be taught as part of the chemistry courses, but it will
more likely be taught within chemical engineering core
courses-paralleling the observation that transport phenomena
courses are most effectively taught in chemical engineering,
not the physics department. Several such courses are being
developed, mostly at the elective graduate level. For example
A Since 1992, the University of Massachusetts has had a graduate
chemical engineering course that couples theoretical and computa-
tional tools to engineering applications.
A A chemist (Michael Hall) and a chemical engineer (David Ford) co-
teach "Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling for
Engineers" at Texas A&M.
A Colorado School of Mines requires its seniors to take "Molecular
Perspectives in Chemical Engineering. Molecular modeling is
applied in other core ChE classes, and the school'sfaculty co-teach
some of the required physical and organic chemistry courses.
A Recently, Charles Musgrave of Stanford has taught a graduate course
"Quantum Simulations of Molecules and Materials."
A At Notre Dame, Ed Maginn teaches "Molecular Modeling and Theory."
Course materials are also needed. The Molecular Model-
ing Task Force (http://zeolites.cqe.nwu.edu/Cache/) of the
CACHE Corp., the nonprofit educational software organiza-
tion, has developed a Web-based textbook on molecular
simulations (http://w3press.utk.edu/). In another MMTF
project, David Kofke of SUNY-Buffalo and colleagues have

Chemical Engineering Education


~-.
''












wooi in m


developed "Etomica" (http://www.ccr.buffalo.edu/etomica/),
a Java-based, visual-programming environment for develop-
ing molecular simulations and teaching modules

CONCLUSIONS
The chemical engineering profession must join together in
a common vision of how its various disciplinesfit together,
and the center of that vision should be applied chemistry.
This is the most crucial issue for the future of chemical
engineering as a profession. Seemingly disparate interests,
especially in technologies new to the profession, could yet
lead to its Balkanization. Alternately, the profession's present
mixture of classical chemical engineers, materials-focused
chemical engineers, and biotech- and biomedical-focused
chemical engineers has the balance and individual strengths
to define, propound, and carry out a new vision effectively.
There are three elements in reaching this vision:
A Integrating molecularly-based chemistry into ChE
A Integrating life science into ChE through its chemical principles
A Beginning to teach molecular modeling and its engineering applications
In chemical engineering education, the undergraduate and
graduate curricula must be adapted to this chemistry-cen-
tered vision. Engineering curricula have always been under
pressure to adapt, but they have been adapted only with
difficulty because they are so full. Nevertheless, life sci-
ences and molecular-scale chemistry must be integrated into
the curriculum and our self-image of what chemical engi-
neering should mean. The new ABET criteria make such
changes more feasible for the undergraduate curriculum.
Changing the required graduate curriculum requires a simi-
lar deep-seated change in convictions of what the core of
chemical engineering is.
Specific near-term curriculum changes can be proposed.
A Course syllabi, examples, and problems should be examined to see
that chemical principles are brought out effectively, keeping in mind
the molecular perspective of modern chemistry
A Physical chemistry requirements should be re-examined, and its clas-
sical thermodynamics course should probably be dropped
A A required undergraduate course in biochemistry should be added
A Students should be able to take courses in microbiology and in
cellular and molecular biology
A Elective and required chemical engineering courses should be devel-
oped in applied physical chemistry (including molecularly based
modeling) and applied life sciences at both the undergraduate and
graduate levels. The necessary science applications must be interwo-
ven, as in core chemical engineering courses.
Longer-term curriculum changes can be targeted. Chemi-
cal engineering courses in applied life sciences and applied
physical chemistry must become part of the core curriculum
in order to reflect their principles as being part of the
profession's core. If they are core principles, they will also
be reflected in other courses. It seems reasonable that com-
puter prediction of chemical engineering properties will be-
Fall 2001


come a crucial part of all the courses, especially the capstone
design course, so it should eventually become part of the
standard curriculum.
To depend on service courses from the science depart-
ments is to fail our students. The physics department does
not teach the transport phenomena courses to chemical engi-
neering students. Transport is essentially applied physics,
yet the engineering-science approach blends fundamental
phenomena and mathematics with an application- and pro-
cess-oriented focus. In the same way, telling chemical engi-
neering students to "go take a course in quantum mechan-
ics," or molecular biology, or something similar, is only to
address the scientific half of the issue. It is not reasonable to
expect science departments to provide the blend that engi-
neers need. It is up to us to create the right blend through
course and textbook development.

REFERENCES
1. Weiss, A.H., "Worcester Polytechnic Institute," Chem. Eng.
Ed., 34(3), 186 (2000); Depts/ChemEng/News/cm_history.html>
2. Walker, W.H., W.K. Lewis, and W.H. McAdams, Principles
of Chemical Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1923)
3. McCabe, W.L., and J.C. Smith, Unit Operations of Chemical
Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1956)
4. Bird, R.B., W. Stewart, and E.N. Lightfoot, Transport Phe-
nomena, Wiley, New York, NY (1960)
5. Hougen, O.A., and K.M. Watson, Chemical Process Prin-
ciples, Wiley, New York, NY (1947)
6. Aris, R., Introduction to the Analysis of Chemical Reactors,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1965)
7. "Initial Placement of Chemical Engineering Graduates, 1999-
2000," and placement.htm> AIChE Career Services (June 2001)
8. "Salary Figures by Industry," careerservices/trends/salarydata.htm> AIChE Career Ser-
vices (June 2001)
9. Douglas, J.M., Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes,
McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1988)
10. Ogunnaike, B.A., and W.H. Ray, Process Dynamics, Model-
ing, and Control, Oxford University Press, New York, NY
(1994)
11. Seborg, D.E., T.F. Edgar, and D.A. Mellichamp, Process
Dynamics and Control, Wiley, New York, NY (1989)
12. Bailey, J.E., and D.F. Ollis, Biochemical Engineering Fun-
damentals, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1977, 1986)
13. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering,
2nd ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1992)
14. Sussman, J.L., M. Harel, F. Frolow, C. Oefner, A. Goldman,
L. Toker, and I. Silman, "Atomic Structure of Acetylcho-
linesterase from Torpedo Californica: A Prototypic Acetyl-
choline-Binding Protein," Science, 253, 872 (1991)
15. Westmoreland, P.R., P.A. Kollman, A.M. Chaka, P.T.
Cummings, K. Morokuma, M. Neurock, E.B. Stechel, and P.
Vashishta, "Applying Molecular and Materials Modeling:
An International Comparative Study," Kluwer Academic,
New York (in press); 0.











ll microbiographies


WHO WAS WHO IN

TRANSPORT PHENOMENA



R. BYRON BIRD
University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI 53706-1691


When lecturing on the subject of transport phenom-
ena, I have often enlivened the presentation by
giving some biographical information about the
people after whom the famous equations, dimensionless
groups, and theories were named. When I started doing this,
I found that it was relatively easy to get information about
the well-known physicists who established the fundamentals
of the subject, but that it was relatively difficult to find
accurate biographical data about the engineers and applied
scientists who have developed much of the subject. The
documentation on fluid dynamicists seems to be rather plen-
tiful, that on workers in the field of heat transfer somewhat
less so, and that on persons involved in diffusion quite
sparse. What follows is an attempt to assemble a modest set
of "microbiographies" which might be useful until a more
comprehensive compilation can be made.
Most of this material has been assembled from secondary
sources, and for each person I have indicated those sources
(biographical citations are given at the bottom of the next
page). It has been difficult to decide who should be included
in this listing. Quite arbitrarily I decided to exclude persons
who are still living, even though their contributions merit
recognition. I have tried to include the names that are en-
countered frequently in textbooks, names with which any
student of chemical engineering should be familiar. In addi-
tion, I have included a handful of less-familiar persons, either
because I feel some important contribution has been over-
looked or just because of curiosity on my part. I've tried to be
particularly attentive to persons working in the area of diffu-
sion. Almost all of the persons listed in this tabulation are cited
in Transport Phenomena, by Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot,
(Wiley, New York, 2nd ed., 2002), where more detailed com-
ments are given about their scholarly contributions.
Extra emphasis has been placed on those who have devel-
oped the kinetic theories for transport phenomena. The rea-
son for this decision is that it is the molecular theories that


provide the "glue" that binds the various topics together into
a coherent subject. It is also the subject to which we ulti-
mately have to turn when controversies arise that cannot be
settled by continuum arguments alone.
It would be very easy to enlarge the list by including the
authors of exceptional treatises (such as H. Lamb, H.S.
Carslaw, M. Jakob, H. Schlichting, and W. Jost). Attention
could also be paid to those many people who have, through
painstaking experiments, provided the basic data on trans-
port properties and transfer coefficients.
Doing accurate and responsible investigations into the
history of science is demanding and time-consuming work,
and it requires individuals with excellent knowledge of his-
torical research techniques. It may also require a certain
amount of travel to gain access to original sources and to
conduct interviews. The field of history of engineering is
particularly undermanned and engineering societies should
be pushing for more work in this area.
Comments on these "microbigraphies" would be greatly
appreciated; corrigenda can be sent to me at my e-mail
address (bird@engr.wisc.edu). Finally, I would like to dedi-
cate this work to the memory of my late colleague, Prof. W.
Robert Marshall, who often expressed a desire to contribute
to the history of chemical engineering. He felt that there
were many interesting and important stories to be told.


R. Byron Bird retired in 1992 after forty years
of teaching-one year at Cornell and thirty-nine
years at Wisconsin. The book Transport Phe-
nomena, which he wrote with colleagues War-
ren Stewart and Ed Lightfoot, was the first text-
Sbook on the subject specifically prepared for
undergraduate chemical engineering students.
He also coauthored Dynamics of Polymeric Liq-
uids with Bob Armstrong (MIT), Ole Hassager
(DTU), and Chuck Curtiss (UW).

Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2001
Chemical Engineering Education












a Jerome Howard Arnold (1907-1974)
The "Arnold problem ": unsteady-state evaporation
Studied at Iowa State College, University of Minnesota, and MIT (ScD
1931) with Warren K. Lewis
1931-1944 taught at MIT. University of Minnesota. Linsly Institute of
Technology. University of North Dakota. and University of Iowa
Books: Chemical Engineering Stoichionmetr (1941) and Chemical
Engineering Thermodynamics (1953)
1944-1948 worked with Standard Oil of California
1956-1960 was director of Contra Costa Transit District
SOURCES: AMS 1965. MIT

E Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782)

The "Bernoulli equation": "2 v2 + J dp + gz = const.

Early developments in kinetic theory of gases
Studied in Heidelberg. Strasbourg, and Basel
Became Doctor of Medicine in 1721
At Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg until 1732: lectured on
medicine, mechanics, physics
In 1732 moved to Basel as professor of anatomy and botany. in 1743
became professor of physiology and in 1750 became professor of physics
In 1738 published Hydrodinanmica. in which the "idea" of the Bernoulli
equation was given (later derived by Euler)


Won 10 prizes of the Academy of Sciences in Paris for work on
astronomy, gravitation, tides, magnetism, ocean currents
SOURCES: DSB. RI. SGBKT


E Jean Baptiste Biot (1774-1862)
The "Biot number" in heat transfer
The "Biot-Savart law" in electromagnetism
Educated at the Ecole Polytechnique
1797 appointed professor of mathematics at the U. of Beauvais
1800 became professor of physics at the College de France
1803 elected to the Academie Franqaise
After 1804 investigated heat conduction in rods
1840 awarded Rumford Medal from the Royal Society for his develop-
ment of a simple nondestructive test to determine sugar concentration
SOURCE: EB. BS


[ Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (1844-1906)
"Stefan-Boltnzann law": q "''=oT4
"Mca.xell-Boltzmann distribution of velocities"
"Boltzmann equation for f(r,v,t) of gas kinetic theory
The "Boltzmann constant": k
Entropy-probability connection: S=klogW
General formula for stress tensor for linear viscoelastic


SOURCES


AMS American Men of Science
ARFM Annual Reviews of Fluid Mechanics
BES Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists
BMFRS Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society
BS Baehr, H.D, and K. Stephan, Heat and Mass Transfer, Springer,
Berlin (1998)
CBC Curtiss, C.F., R.B. Bird, and P.R. Certain, J. Phys. Chem., 86, 6A
(1982)
CC Chapman, S., and T.G. Cowling, Mathematical Theory of Non-
Uniform Gases, 3rd ed., Cambridge University Press, 407 (1970)
CCLB Cercignani, C., Ludwig Boltzmann: The Man Who Trusted Atoms,
Clarendon Press, New York, NY (1998)
DSB Gillispie, C.C., Ed., Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Scribner,
New York, NY (1970-1990)
EAM Mason, E.A., Contemp. Phys., 12, 179 (1971)
EB Encyclopedia Britannica (1974)
ELC Cussler, E.L., Diffusion, 2nd. ed., Cambridge (1997)
EPW Wigner, E.P., Symmetries and Reflections, Ox Bow Press,
Woodbridge, CT (1979) (Wigner's original Hungarian name was
Jeno Pal Wigner)
GKB Batchelor, G.K. J. Fluid Mech., 70, 625 (1975)
HCO Ottinger, H.C., Stochastic Processes in Polymeric Fluids, Springer,
Berlin, 293 (1996)
HCE History of Chemical Engineering, American Chemical Society, Wash-
ington, DC (1980)
HE Eyring, Henry, Ann. Revs. Phys. Chem., 28, 1 (1977)
HJM Merk, H.J., Stofoverdracht in Laminaire Grenslagen door Gedwongen
Convectie, Uitgeverij Excelsior, 's Gravenhage (1957)
JH Herivel, J., Joseph Fourier: The Man and the Physicist, Clarendon
Press (1975)
JM Meixner, J., and H.G. Reik, Handbuch der Physik, 3(2), Springer,
413(1959)
JOH Hirschfelder, J.O., Ann. Revs. Phys. Chem., 34, 1(1983)
KGD Denbigh, K.G., Thermodynamics of the Steady State, Methuen,
London (1951)


KK Kagaku Kogakkai
KSZ Klafter, J., M.F. Shesinger, and G. Zumofen, Physics Today, Feb-
ruary, 33(1996)
LBMPP Broda, E., Ludwig Boltzmann: Man, Physicist, Philosopher, Ox
Bow Press, Woodbridge, CT (1983)
LN Kronig, R., Ed., Leerboek der Natuurkunde, Scheltema & Holkema,
Amsterdam (1961)
MD Dresden, Max, H.A. Kramers: Between Tradition and Revolution,
Springer, Berlin (1987)
MIT Massachusettes Institute of Technology
MJL Lighthill, M.J., Physics Today, May, 65 (1988)
MHMSE McGraw-Hill Modern Scientists and Engineers (1980)
NAS Biographical Memoirs, National Academy of Sciences
NTCS McMurray, E.J., Ed., Notable Twentieth Century Scientists, Gale
Research Inc., New York, NY (1995)
NTN Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Natuurkunde, 27, 145 (1961)
PAMD Dalitz, R.H., The Collected Works of PA.M. Dirac, Cambridge
University Press (1995)
PFN Nemeni, P.F., Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 2, 52 (1962)
RBB Bird, R.B., Physics Today, 42(10), 13 (1989)
RBL Lindsay, R.B., historical introduction to Rayleigh's Theory of
Sound, Dover, New York, NY (1945)
RI Rouse, H., and S. Ince, History of Hydraulics, Dover, New York,
NY (1957)
RM Mezaki, Dr. Reiji, of the Mitsubishi Research Center, in personal
communication.
RNB Bracewell, R.N., Scientific American, 260(6) 86, 92 (1989)
SGB Brush, S.G., translator's introduction to Boltzmann's Lectures on
Gas Theory, University of California Press (1964)
SGBKT Brush, S.G., Amer. Journ. Physics, 30, 269 (1962)
UM University of Michigan archives
WWWAH Who Was Who in American History: Science and Technology, Mar-
quis, Chicago (1976)
WWWS World Who's Who in Science, Ed. A.G. Debus, Marquis, Chicago
(1968)


Note: This material was used as the basis for a presentation on Nov. 17, 1998, at the annual meeting ofAIChE held in Miami Beach, FL.,

Fall 2001 25












materials (the 'Boltzmann superposition principle")
Doctorate in Wien 1866, with J. Stefan
Held professorships in Wien, Graz, Miinchen, Leipzig
His Vorlesungen iiber Gastheorie, Part I (1896) and Part II (1898), is a
masterpiece of technical presentation. In the preface to Part II, because of
increasing attacks by the "energeticists" (mainly Otswald and Mach), he
states, "I am convinced that these attacks are merely based on a
misunderstanding and that the role of gas theory in science has not yet
played out... In my opinion, it would be a great tragedy for science if the
(kinetic) theory of gases were temporarily thrown into oblivion because
of a momentary hostile attitude toward it... I am conscious of being only
an individual struggling weakly against the stream of time..."
Elected to the National Academy of Sciences (USA) in 1904
Was a lively, witty, clear, and stimulating teacher with outstanding
blackboard technique and excellent lecture demonstrations
Lise Meitner, who attended his lectures during the period 1902-1905,
said, "He was a good teacher. His lectures were the most beautiful and
stimulating I have ever heard... He was himself so enthusiastic about all
he was teaching that we left every lecture with the feeling that an entirely
new and wonderful world was being opened to us. He also loved to insert
personal remarks into his lectures."
Other students of his were Nemst, Smoluchowski, Ehrenfest
He was extraordinarily friendly and enjoyed assisting others
He often invited students to his home and played the piano for them (he
had studied with Anton Bruckner (1824-1896))
He enjoyed ice skating and swimming
His suicide in 1906, possibly because of health problems or discourage-
ment because his kinetic theory was still being attacked, was an enormous
tragedy for science
S=klogW is on his gravestone in Vienna
SOURCES: DSB, SGB, SGBKT, LBMPP, CCLB

E Joseph Valentin Boussinesq (1842-1929)
"Eddy viscosity "for turbulentflow
The "Boussinesq approximation ": buoyancy effects
Never studied formally self taught
1867 was awarded a doctor's degree
1873 was appointed to a professorship in Lille
Later moved to Paris
Published Theorie Analvtique de la Chaleur in two volumes (1901, 1903)
SOURCE: BS

1 Henri Coenraad Brinkman (1908-1961)
The "Brinkman number": (Br=pV/kAT); a related dimension-
less group is the "Nahme-Griffith number"
Fluid heating by viscous dissipation
Flow in porous media
Plasma physics
1932 received a doctor's degree with Professor H.A. Kramers
1932-1935 studied with Professor E Zernike in Groningen
1935 moved to BPM Laboratories in Amsterdam
1949-1954 taught at the university in Bandung, Indonesia, during which
time he wrote The Application of Spinor Invariants to Atomic Physics
1954 moved to TNO and was also head of the FOM Instituut voor Plasma
Fysica
SOURCE: NTN

E Auguste-Louis Cauchy (Baron) (1789-1857)
(pronounced "Koh-shee," with accent on second syllable)
"Cauchy-Riemann equations" in complex variable theory
"Cauchy's equation of motion" in terms of the stress tensor
"Cauchy's second equation of motion ": symmetry of the stress
tensor
1800, as a military engineer, worked on fortifications at Cherbourg for
258


Napoldon's planned invasion of England
Professor at Ecole Polytechnique, professor at the College de France, and
member of the Acad6mie Franqaise
Was dismissed from all three when he refused to take the loyalty oath
following the revolution in 1830
1822 laid the foundations of the theory of elasticity
Was in exile in Switzerland, Turin, and Prague
Allowed to return to France in 1838. After the revolution of 1848 his
professorship at the Sorbonne was reinstated
SOURCE: EB, BS

E Sydney Chapman (1888-1970)
Rigorous kinetic theory for monatomic gases (generally known
as the "Chapman-Enskog theory")
First experiments on thermal diffusion in gases
Kinetic theory of plasmas
The "Chapman-Jouguet condition" in theory offlames and
detonations
His father was chief cashier of a textile firm
1908 MS in mathematics from Manchester
1911 1 st Class in Mathematics Tripos at Cambridge, was a college
lecturer there during the period 1914-1916
1911-1914 and 1916-1918 did geomagnetism at the Greenwich
Observatory
1919-1924 was professor of mathematics at the University of Manchester,
successor to Sir Horace Lamb
1924-1954 taught at Imperial College of the University of London
After 1954 was at the High Altitude Observatory (Boulder, CO) and the
Geophysical Institute (Alaska)
The Mathematical Theory of Nonuniform Gases by Chapman and
Cowling went through three editions and was very influential
Elected fellow of the Royal Society in 1919
Elected foreign member of the Nat. Academy of Science, USA, in 1946
Was fond of cycling, swimming, and hiking
Known for his persistence, kindliness, integrity, and simplicity
SOURCES: DSB, SGBKT

a Thomas Hamilton Chilton (1899-1972)
"Chilton-Colburn relations"
Son of a Methodist minister
As a youth worked in a printing shop
Started college at the University of Alabama and finished up at Columbia
University with a Ch.E. degree in 1922
1925-1959 career at Du Pont in Wilmington
1943 awarded honorary doctorate from the University of Delaware
During WWII served on the Manhatten Project
Was present for the first nuclear pile at the University of Chicago
1950 elected vice president of AIChE, and president in 1951
After retirement held visiting professorships at Berkeley, Kyoto and
Nagoya (Japan), U. of New South Wales, Nancy and Toulouse (France),
Georgia Tech, U. of Delaware, U. of Virginia, Birla Inst. of Technology
(India), U. of Alabama, U. of Massachusetts, U. of Puerto Rico, U. of
Natal (South Africa), U. of South Carolina
Hobbies included photography and classical music
Founder of the Auto License Plates Collectors of America
Was a splendid researcher, scholar, teacher, remembered for his high
ethical standards and his ability to inspire others
SOURCE: NAE

a Alan Philip Colburn (1904-1955)
The "Chilton-Colburn relations"
The "Colburn j-factors"
Simultaneous heat and mass transfer
1926 BS, 1927 MS, 1929 PhD at the University of Wisconsin (first PhD
student of Olaf Andreas Hougen)
Chemical Engineering Education












1929-1938 did research at Du Pont in Wilmington
1938-1955 professorial career at the University of Delaware (1938-1941
associate professor, 1941-1955 professor, 1947-1950 assistant to
president, 1950-1955 provost)
AIChE: 1936 Walker Award, 1948 Professional Progress Award
1944-1947 director of AIChE
ASME chairman, Heat Transfer Division
SOURCE: WWWAH

E Stanley ("Stan") Corrsin (1920-1986)
Interaction of turbulent fluctuations and chemical reactions
The "Corrsin equation "for the propagation of the double
temperature correlation and for the double concentration
correlation in chemically reacting systems
1940 BS mechanical engineering, University of Pennsylvania
1942 MS and 1947 PhD aeronautics Cal-Tech
1947-1986 on faculty of Johns Hopkins U., where he had a distinguished
career and established a formidable group in the field of turbulence
1963 elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences
1974 honorary doctorate, Universit6 de Lyon
1980 elected to the National Academy of Engineering
SOURCE: NAE

E Gerhard Damkihler (1908-1944)
The "Damkdhler number"for the first-order heterogeneous
reactions (there are other Damkohler numbers as well)
His publication "Einfluss von Diffusion. Str6mung, und Warmetransport
auf die Ausbeute von chemischen Reaktionen," in Der Chemie-lngenieui;
Leipzig. 359 (1937) was a key publication in chemical reaction
engineering
SOURCE: BS

E Peter Victor Danckwerts (1916-1984)
Residence-time distribution and mixing
Diffusion and chemical reactions
Role of diffusion in gas absorption
1935-1939 studied chemistry at Oxford
1939-1940 worked in a small chemical company
1940-1945 was bomb disposal officer at the Port of London during the
Blitz; later was assigned to similar work outside of England; was
wounded in a mine field in Italy
1948 received an MS at MIT
1948-1954 was on staff at Cambridge University
1954-1956 served at the Industrial Group of the United Kingdom Atomic
Energy Authority at Risley
1956-1959 served as professor of chemical engineering science at
Imperial College in London
1959-1977 held the Shell Chair at Cambridge University
1965-1966 was president of the Institution of Chemical Engineers
1952-1983 served as executive editor of Chemical Engineering Science
1970 published his treatise Gas-Liquid Reactions
1978 elected to National Academy of Engineeering
SOURCES: NAE, BMFRS

E Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (1902-1984)
As a graduate student at Cambridge, studied the dissociation
of a gas in a temperature gradient
Suggested the concepts separativee capacity" and "value
function "for comparing separation processes
Began studying electrical engineering at the University of Bristol
Went to Cambridge in 1923, where he became a professor in 1932
Published his relativistic wave equation in 1928
Received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1933
Elected to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in 1949
Fall 2001


SOURCES: LN, PAMD


[ Carl Henry Eckart (1902-1973)
Thermodynamics of irreversible processes applied to flowing
fluid mixtures
Geophysical hydrodynamics
BS, MS in engineering at Washington University
1925 PhD at Princeton
Early in his career he was deeply involved in the development of the
quantum mechanics of the 1920s and 1930s
Series of four papers in 1940 on thermodynamics of irreversible processes
applied to transport phenomena in fluids (Phys. Rev., volumes 58, 73) was
extremely influential
1953 elected to National Academy of Sciences and in 1966 received the
NAS Alexander Agassiz Medal
1965-1969 vice chancellor of the University of California San Diego
SOURCES: NAS. JM, DSB

E Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
"Einstein's viscosity formula "for dilute suspensions of
neutrally buoyant spheres p=j L[1 +(5/2)0] [in original
publication, the factor 5/2 was missing]
Theory of Brownian motion and translational diffusivity
(Brownian motion was first observed in 1789 by Jan
Ingenhousz 1730-1799)
Born in Ulm, Germany
Educated in Germany, Italy, and Switzerland
At the Ziiricher Polytechnikum he was next-to-the-bottom student. He
disliked lectures and exams. He liked to read.
1902-1909 he served as an examiner in the patent office in Bern
1905 published theory on special relativity (received doctorate from
Ztrich in same year)
Held professorships in Bern, ZUrich, and Prague
1914 appointed director of Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics
1921 Nobel Prize for "photoelectric effect" (relativity was not mentioned)
1933 fled Hitler Germany and went to the Institute for Advanced Study,
Princeton, New Jersey
1942 elected to National Academy of Sciences
SOURCE: NAS

E David Enskog (1884-1947)(pronounced roughly "Ayn-skohg")
Developed the modern kinetic theory of gases (the "Chapman-
Enskog theory ")
First theoretical prediction of thermal diffusion in gases
Developed the "Enskog kinetic theory for dense gases"
First derivation for dilatational viscosity of dense gases
1917 doctorate at Uppsala, dissertation on the solution of the Boltzmann
equation for the kinetic theory of gases
In 1930 was appointed professor at the Royal Institute of Technology in
Stockholm (Sydney Chapman wrote a letter of recommendation for this
professorial appointment. Later Chapman said that "his transfer to a
university chair seemed rather to bring him new duties than increased
leisure...")
SOURCES: DSB, CC, SGBKT

a Henry Eyring (1901-1981)
Transport properties of liquids based on simple physical
models
First molecular theory for non-Newtonian viscosity
Father had a 14,000-acre cattle ranch in Mexico
1923 BS in mining engineering from the University of Arizona
1924 MS in metallurgy from the University of Arizona
1927 PhD in chemistry (Berkeley) with Professor G.E. Gibson
1927 instructor in chemistry at the University of Wisconsin, then had













postdoctoral year with Professor F. Daniels
1929-1930 NRC fellow at Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin with
Professor Michael Polanyi
Taught at Berkeley (1930-1931), Princeton (1931 -1946), and the U. of
Utah (1947-1981) and served at the latter as dean of the Graduate School
1945 elected to the National Academy of Sciences
He heeded his father's excellent advice, "to be dedicated to the truth.
wherever one finds it, and to live in such a way as to make one
comfortable in the company of good people."
He was thoughtful of all people, regardless of their rank or station. He is
said to have remarked that one should be good to people whom you pass
"on the way up because you will want them to be good to you when they
pass you on their way up and when you are on your way down."
SOURCES: NAS, JOH, HE, DSB


[ John Thomas Fanning (1837-1911)
Fanning friction factor (f)
Studied architecture and civil engineering until 1861
Served in the U.S. Civil War, going from a lieutenant to a lieutenant
colonel
After the Civil War, became prominent in engineering, particularly water
works and water power in the northeastern part of the United States and
later in the West and Midwest
Author of A Practical Treatise on Hydraulic and Water-Supply Engineer-
ing, D. Van Nostrand. New York, NY (1877); also 14th Ed. (1899)
SOURCE: WWWAH


E Adolf Eugen Fick (1829-1901)
"Fick's first law of difthuion ": j =- \ABVcA
"Fick's second law of dittuiion": cc A/t= ABV2c
Studied medicine in Marburg and Berlin
Doctorate in 1851 on visual errors due to astigmatism
1852-1868 was in Zurich (1861-1868 as professor)
1855 published "Fick's law of diffusion"
1868 moved to Marburg
1878-1879 rector of the University of Wirzburg
Postulated equations for diffusion by analogy with heat conduction not
by experiment
Published Die Medizinische I .. ". the first biophysics book (1856)-
dealt with molecular physics, diffusion, hemodynamics, sound, origin of
heat in the human body, optics, etc.
SOURCES: EB, DSB, ELC


E Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier (Baron) (1768-1830)
Establishment of the basic equations for heat conduction
The "Fourier number": (Fo)
"Fourier series," "Fourier integral"
Orphaned at age nine, he was placed in a local military school run by
Benedictine monks
1794 was among the first students at Ecole Normale in Paris
1795 became a teacher at Ecole Polytechnique
1798 accompanied Napoleon to Egypt and was secretary of the Institut
d'Egypte, doing research on Egyptian antiquities
Gained fame as an Egyptologist and contributed substantially to the
compilation and publication of Description de i t. *.. (1808-1925), a
21-volume work on the culture and history of Egypt
1802-1814 was prefect of Isere (began his book on heat conduction in 1807)
1809 was made a baron by Napoleon
1815 became director of the Statistical Bureau of the Seine
1817 elected to the Academie des Sciences
1822 published Thdorie Analutique de Chaleur
1826 was elected to Academie Franqaise and Academie de Medicine
The name "Fourier" is on the list of 72 names on the Eiffel Tower
SOURCES: EB, DSB, RNB, JH


E[ William Froude (1810-1879) (rhymes with "food")
The "Froude number": Fr
"Froude's law of similarity":first proposed by F Reech 1831
Studied seven years at Oriel College, Oxford
Elected fellow of the Royal Society in 1870
Honorary doctorate from the University of Glasgow in 1876
Worked as a civil engineer (railways and ocean steamships)
Retired from active practice at age 36
Did resistance studies on scale models and worked on screw propellers
In 1870 received 2,000 to have a towing tank (250 feet in length) built
on his own property
SOURCES: DSB

a[ Thomas Graham (1805-1869)
"Graham's laws of diffusion"
Son of a prosperous manufacturer
1819 entered the University of Glasgow
1826 received MA in chemistry from the University of Glasgow and then
worked two years in a laboratory at the University of Edinburgh
1824 and 1833 published works on diffusion, later also works on effusion
1830 named professor of chemistry at Anderson's College (later the Royal
College of Science and Technology)
1834 became a fellow of the Royal Society
1837 named professor of chemistry, University College, London
1834 named Master of the Mint
Was well liked by students and was in demand as a consultant
SOURCES: DSB, EAM, ELC

E Franz Grashof (1826-1893) (pronounced "grahss-hoff")
The "Grashof number": Gr=pgb5Ap/p2
1844 went to Gewerbe-Institut in Berlin to study mathematics
For one year he was an army volunteer
Shipped out as an apprentice seaman on a sailing vessel; returned in 1851
and decided to become a teacher
1852 resumed studies in Berlin
1854 became teacher of mathematics and mechanics at the Gewerbe-
Institut. He was also director of the Office of Weights and Measures
In 1856 was one of 23 founders of VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure).
He was made director of the society and editor of the Z. ... The
Grashof Medal of VDI is named after him.
1860 received an honorary doctorate
During 1863-1891 was professor of applied mechanics at the Polytech-
nikum, Karlsruhe; was known for the clarity and precision of his lecturing
1871-1886 published Theoretische Maschinenlehre (three volumes)
SOURCE: DSB

E Shir6ji Hatta (1895-1973)
The "Hatta number"
Absorption with chemical reactions
1916-1919 was an undergraduate in applied chemistry at T6ky6 Teikoku
Daigaku
1919 took employment at Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Company
1925-1958 taught at T6hoku Daigaku
1928 proposed the "Hatta number," published in 1932 in volume 35 of
S.. . I ;
1936-1938 was editor-in-chief of Kagaku Kogaku
1939-1940 was vice president of Kagaku Kogakkai
1940 saw the publication of the textbook Kagaku Kogaku, by S. Uchida,
S. Kamei, and S. Hatta, Maruzen, T6ky6
1954 was appointed Dean of Engineering
1955-1957 was president of Kagaku K6gakkai
1959 accepted a position at Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and
Construction Company, Ltd.
His hobby was playing the Japanese board game "go"
SOURCES: KK. BS, RM

Chemical Engineering Education












E Ralph Wilmarth Higbie (1908-1941)
Early work on "penetration theory"
BS 1934, MS 1929, ScD 1934 in chemical engineering at the University
of Michigan
Worked at E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Belle, WV, and at
Eagle-Picher Lead Company in Joplin, MO
1935 article in Trans. AIChE on gas absorption in falling films
1935-1938 instructor in chemical engineering, University of Arkansas at
Fayetteville
1938-1941 assistant professor of chemical engineering at the University
of North Dakota at Grand Forks
SOURCES: UM

L Joseph ("Joe") Oakland Hirschfelder (1911-1990)
Kinetic theory of multicomponent gas mixtures
First derivation of Maxwell-Stefan equations from kinetic
theory of multicomponent dilute gas mixtures
Theory of gas-mixture thermal conductivity, based on a model
of a multicomponent reacting gas mixture
Theory rt trl,,i. and detonation
Calculation of transport coefficients for realistic force laws
Determination of intermolecular forces from measurements of
gas transport properties
(Most of this work was done in close collaboration with
Professor Charles Francis Curtiss, University of Wisconsin)
1927-1931 undergraduate education at Minnesota and Yale
1931-1936 graduate study at Princeton, coadvised by Henry Eyring in
chemistry and Eugene Paul Wigner in physics
1937-1941 research associate in chemistry at the University of Wisconsin
1941-1990 on the faculty of the chemistry department at the University of
Wisconsin
1942-1945 involved in government research at NDRC in Washington.
D.C., and at Los Alamos
1946 founding director of the Theoretical Chemistry Institute at the
University of Wisconsin
1950 senior author of The Effects ofAtomic Weapons
1953 elected to National Academy of Sciences
1954 senior author of Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids
1976 received the National Medal of Science
SOURCES: NAS, JOH, CBC, MHMSE

E Jan Ingenhousz (1730-1799)
(rhymes with "swingin'moose")
Predated Brown for observation of "Brownian motion"
Made the first quantitative measurements of heat conduction
in rods
Did experiments in America (with Benjamin Franklin) on
lightning rods
1772-1779 was court physician to Austrian Empress Maria Theresa
Discoverer of photosynthesis
SOURCES: DSB, EB, KSZ

E Gustav Andreas Johannes Jaumann (1863-1924)
(pronounced "yow-mahn")
Proposed the "equation of change for entropy"
DS
p- = -(V s) + gs
Formulated the "Jaumann derivative": corotational derivative

=t D {w' A} -{wA}t where w= [Vxv]1
st Dt 2
(actually proposed earlier by S. Zaremba)
Author of [I', I,, itM i... i. rBeiwegungslehre, Barth. Leipzig (1905).
Fall 2001


He is listed as being "Professor der Physik an der Deutschen Technischen
Hochschule in Briinn" (today Brno in the Czech Republic)
SHis article in WienerAkad. Sitz. (Math-Naturw. Klasse), 120(2A) 385
(1911) was an extensive summary of the "field equations" of physics,
including the equation of change for entropy in nonequilibrium systems
(including "entropy flux": s, and "entropy production": g,)
SOURCES: KGD, JM

E Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (1824-1887)
"Kirchhoff's radiation laws" for emissivity and absorptivity
Published his famous laws for electrical networks while still a student at
the university in Konigsberg
1850 appointed professor in Breslau
1854 received professorship in Heidelberg
1875 became professor of theoretical physics at the University of Berlin
(where he was one of the founders of mathematical physics)
SOURCE: BS

E John ("Jack") Gamble Kirkwood (1907-1959)
Kinetic theory of the transport properties of liquids
Derived modified Maxwell-Stefan equations for diffusion in
monatomic liquid mixtures
Kinetic theory of polymers: non-Newtonian viscosity, complex
viscosity, diffusion
Thermodynamics of irreversible processes (multicomponent)
Graduated from the U. of Chicago at the age of 19 in December of 1926
Received his PhD from MIT's chemistry department in June of 1929
Did postdoctoral work with Debye in Leipzig
1942 elected to the National Academy of Sciences. From 1955-1958 he
served as foreign secretary. He was quite good in French
1942-1945 government work on explosives, detonations and shock waves
Taught at Comell University (1934-1937 and 1938-1947), the University
of Chicago (1937-1938), Cal-Tech (1947-1951), and Yale (1951-1959).
He served as Chairman of Chemistry and as Director of Science at Yale.
His article with Bryce Crawford in J. Phys. Chem. (1952) was the first
discussion of the application of the thermodynamics of irreversible
processes to multicomponent mixtures of gases or liquids
SOURCE: NAS

E Martin Hans Christian Knudsen (1871-1949)
"Knudsen flow" (free molecule flow)
"Knudsen number": (Kn)
"Knudsen manometer"
1890 entered the University of Copenhagen
1896 received MS in physics
1901-1912 docent in physics at Copenhagen
1912-1941 professor of physics at the University of Copenhagen (and
also gave some lectures at the Technical University)
1934 The Kinetic Theory of Gases was published (based on lectures at the
University of Glasgow in 1933)
Most of his career was in the field of hydrography
Was vice president of the Central Committee for Oceanic Research
1908-1948 edited the Bulletin Hydrografique
SOURCE: DSB

3 Hendrik Anthony Kramers (1894-1952)
"Kramers-Kistemaker effect": diffusional slip, when there is a
concentration gradient along a wall
Kinetic theory of polymer chains in dilute solution
Contributions to the theory of Brownian movement
"Kramers-Kronig relations": originally developed for
polarizability, they are also used in viscoelasticity to
interrelate the real and imaginary parts of the complex












viscosity: r*-=rl'-ir"
1912 matriculated in Leiden to study with professor Ehrenfest
1916 completed "doctoral" exam; taught high school for a few months
1916-1926 completed work for the doctorate at Copenhagen and then
continued working with Niels Bohr
1926-1934 professor of physics at the University of Utrecht
1934-1952 professor of physics at the University of Leiden
1946-1950 president of the Internat. Union of Pure and Applied Physics
The "K" of the WKB method for solving differential equations
Known for attacking very difficult and fundamental problems. He was
highly respected by the leading theoretical physicists of his day and made
many contributions in the development of quantum theory
SOURCES: MD, RBB, DSB

E Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-1777)
"Lambert's Law of absorption "
"Lambert's cosine law" in radiation
son of a tailor, largely self-educated
Known for his work Photometria, Sive de Mensura et Gradibus Luminis,
Colorum, et Umbrae, Augsburg (1760)
1759 became a member of the Bavarian Academy of Science
1761 he proved that 7n and e are not rational numbers
1765 became a member of the Berlin Academy of Science
SOURCE: BS

E Lev Davydovich Landau (1908-1968)
Flow of liquid helium
Equations of superfluid dynamics
Entered Baku University at the age of 14
1927 was awarded the doctorate at the age of 19
1929-1931 studied in Germany, Switzerland, Great Britain, and Denmark
(with Niels Bohr)
1932-1937 head of the theoretical department at the Ukranian Physico-
technical Institute
1937 appointed head of the theoretical department, Institute for Physical
Problems, Academy of Sciences, USSR
1960 elected foreign member of the National Academy of Sciences, USA
1962 received the Nobel Prize for his work on liquid helium
1962 (December) was in a disastrous car-truck collision near Moscow
His books on theoretical physics, coauthored with E.M. Lifshitz, are
world-famous. The volume titled Fluid Mechanics is still the best book
available on advanced transport phenomena. According to his coauthor,
Landau was not very familiar with fluid dynamics when they started
writing the book, and Landau "set about thinking through it ab initio and
deriving [the] basic results" this explains why there are so many
interesting and different approaches in the book
SOURCE: MHMSE

E Warren ("Doc") Kendall Lewis (1882-1975)
The "Lewis number" Le=a/?AB or its reciprocal
The "Lewis relation ": Le=l
The "Lewis-Whitman film theory"
1905 BS at MIT, 1908 PhD in chemistry at Breslau
Worked as a chemist in a tannery in New Hampshire
1911 joined the MIT faculty
1920 appointed the first head of the ChE department at MIT
In 1923 the influential book, Principles of Chemical Engineering by
Walker, Lewis, and McAdams, was published, providing a unifying
influence on the field
1938 elected to National Academy of Sciences
1966 elected to National Academy of Engineering
In Chemical Engineering Progress 44(1), 17 (1948) one finds the
following comments of J. Howard Arnold: "I do not believe that Lewis
ever used this group [Le]. I do know that he contested the application of
boundary-layer theory to the problems of simultaneous heat and material


transfer, and that this theory ultimately demonstrated the lack of rigor in
the Lewis analogy. The designation of /WJAB as the Lewis group is
highly inappropriate and does not merit general acceptance." (Of course, it
has gained widespread acceptance, particularly in the field of combustion.)
Some workers in the field of combustion assume (incorrectly) that the
Lewis number was named for Bernard Lewis (1899-1993), who for many
years was a major figure in the field of combustion research.
SOURCES: MHMSE, NAE, HCE 1980 (chapters 4 and 7)

E James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879)
Kinetic theory of gases
"Maxwell-Stefan equations "for binary diffusion
Established the theory of linear viscoelasticity
"Maxwell-Boltzmann equation" of gas kinetic theory
Thermal conductivity of composite solids
Slip of gases at a wall (viscous slip and thermal slip)
1854 graduated with honors at Trinity College, Cambridge
1856 became professor of natural philosophy, Aberdeen
1860 moved on to King's College, London, and published his kinetic
theory of gases
1864 A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field was published,
the work for which he is most famous
1871 became the first Cavendish Professor at Cambridge
1877 published the Theory of Heat
Not considered to be a good teacher, but was very friendly and mild-
mannered. He had deep religious convictions
SOURCES: EB, DSB, SGBKT

E Hendrik ("Henk") Jacobus Merk (1920-1988)
First derivation of Maxwell-Stefan equations for multicompo-
nent diffusion from irreversible thermodynamics
1940-1942 enrolled at Technische Hogeschool Delft in mechanical
engineering. His studies were interrupted by World War II
1945-1952 completed studies in Delft; received degree in engineering physics
1957 received a doctor's degree with Professor J.A. Prins
1953-1987 was a professor at Technische Hogeschool Delft
SOURCE: HJM

E Claude-Louis-Marie-Henri Navier (1785-1836)
pronouncedd "Nah-vyay, with second syllable accented)
Obtained "Navier-Stokes equations" before Stokes by (faulty)
molecular arguments
Was a civil engineer whose specialty was road and bridge building
1821 established the equations for equilibrium and vibration of
elastic solids
Best-known work was a treatise on bridges, however, a bridge
over the Seine in Paris designed by him collapsed because
of the settling of one pier
He is included as one of the 72 names of notables inscribed on the
Eiffel Tower
SOURCES: PFN, RI

E (Sir) Isaac Newton (1643-1727)
Newton's "law of viscosity": Ty =-p(dv,/dy)
Newton's "law of cooling": q=hAAT
Equations of motion of dynamics
Had a traumatic childhood because of death of his father and
remarriage of his mother
1661 matriculated at Cambridge
1667 was a fellow at Trinity College
1669 was appointed Lucasian Professor and resigned in 1701
1696 became Warden of the Mint
1703 became president of the Royal Society
Chemical Engineering Education












1705 was knighted by Queen Anne
1707 was elected to the Acad6mie des Sciences (France)
In Section IX of Book II of the Principia (1687), Newton wrote
the following: "The resistance arising from the want of lubricity in
the parts of a fluid is, other things being equal, proportional to the
velocity with which the parts of the fluid are separated from one
another." This statement is taken to be the precursor to Newton's
"law of viscosity."
M.J. Lighthill has this to say about Newton's contributions to fluid
dynamics, "...one does observe some falling off of quality both in
the reasoning and in its relation to observation when one plows
onward to the part of Book II of the Principia which treats of the
dynamics of fluid media. Two theories are given, of which we can
at least say that neither was worthy of being enshrined forever in a
book destined to be treated as the scientific equivalent of holy
writ. The dense-medium theory rested on the unspoken,
undefended, erroneous assumption that fluid motions can be
superposed linearly, and predicts correspondingly unrealistic
flows. The better known rarefied medium theory is put forward in
a properly tentative manner, but nevertheless it was treated with
exaggerated reverence (as if it were a physical theory of real
fluids) for over two centuries, and has recently been resuscitated."
SOURCES: EB. DSB, MJL, PFN


E (Amalie) Emmy Noether (1882-1935)
"Noether 's theorem" shows how the conservation laws for
energy, momentum, and angular momentum may be
derived from the equations of motion plus the notions of
homogeneity of time, homogeneity of space, and isotropy
of space, respectively
Specialities were abstract algebra, hypercomplex numbers, rings,
and ideals
1900-1902 was a "nonmatriculated auditor" at Erlangen
1902-1904 was a "nonmatriculated auditor" at Gottingen
1904-1907 studied at Erlangen, doctorate summa cum laude
1915 invited by Hilbert to Gottingen and in 1919 did Habilitation
1922-1933 was a "nichtbeamteter ausserordentlicher Professor"
(an unofficial adjunct professor without salary!)
Dismissed from her job at the beginning of Hitler's program of
religious persecution
Became professor of mathematics at Bryn Mawr
In Herman Weyl's memorial tribute, he referred to her as a
paragon of vitality, and said "she stood on the earth with a certain
sturdy humor and courage for life."
"Noether's theorem" can be found in Nachi: Kgl. Ges. Wiss.
Gottingen (Math.-Phys. KI.), 235 (1918): see also Chapter 2 of
Landau and Lifschitz's Mechanics.
There are questions of the assignment of priorities for Noether's
theorem (see H. van Dam and E.P. Wigner, Phys. Rev. B138,
B1578, fn 6).
Crater on the moon was named after her (located at 66.6N Lat.
113.5W Long.)
SOURCES: NTCS, EPW

[E Ernst Kraft Wilhelm Nusselt (1882-1957)
First major researcher on convective heat and mass transfer
Analogous behavior of heat- and mass-transfer processes
Dimensionless presentation of heat- and mass-transfer data
The "Nusselt number": Nu=hD/k
Film condensation
Radiant heat transfer
Doctorate at the Technische Hochschule in Miinchen in 1907
1907-1909 was assistant to Mollier at Technische Hochschule in
Dresden
After two years in industry, returned to Dresden in 1913 and
Fall 2001


remained there until 1917
1915 published "Das Grundgesetz des Wirmeiiberganges" in
Gesundheits-Ingenieur, in volume 38 dealing with natural and
forced convection and showing how to use dimensional analysis to
generalize experimental data
Discussed film condensation of steam
1918-1919 was at BASF Ludwigshafen
1920 became professor at Technische Hochschule in Karlsruhe
1925-1952 was professor of theoretical mechanics at Mtinchen
1930 discussed the analogies between heat and mass transfer
Published Technische Thermodynamik, (Volume I in 1934 and
Volume II in 1944)
He was an exacting taskmaster with students and an avid
mountain climber, but was not a colorful or exciting lecturer
SOURCE: DSB

E Lars Onsager (1903-1976)
Nonequilibrium thermnodynamics
"Onsager reciprocal relations"
Separation of isotopes by thermal diffusion
Turbulence
1920-1925 studied chemical engineering at the T.H. in Trondheim
1926-1928 studied with Debye in Zilrich
1928 went to Johns Hopkins as an associate in chemistry and was
dismissed after one year for very poor teaching
1928-1933 taught at Brown University. While there in 1931, he
published his famous papers on irreversible thermodynamics
1933 moved to Yale (because he was terminated at Brown). He
sent his work on irreversible thermodynamics to Trondheim to
get a doctorate, but the material was deemed unworthy of a
degree. Then he submitted a thesis, Solutions of the Mathieu
Equation of Period 4rt and Certain Related Functions (1935) to
the chemistry department at Yale, which enabled him to get an
assistant professorship there.
1942 announced the evaluation of the partition function for the Ising
model for a two-dimensional ferromagnet (according to Wolfgang
Pauli, the only noteworthy advance in physics during WWII).
His two courses on statistical mechanics were referred to by
students as "Advanced Norwegian I and II," i.e. his lectures were
difficult to follow
Made many friendships because of his kindness, warmth, and
integrity
1947 elected to the National Academy of Sciences
1960 received an honorary doctorate from Trondheim
1968 received the Nobel Prize (for his work on irreversible thermody-
namics) and the National Medal of Science
SOURCES: NAS, BES

a Jean-Claude-Eugene P6clet (1793-1857)
(proiounoced "Pay-clay with second syllable accented)
The "Peclet number": P6=RePr
Was educated at the Ecole Normale
Became a professor in Marseille in 1816
Founder of. and professor at, the Ecole Centrale
Was head at the Ecole Normale
Author of several books, including Trait de la Chaleur et de ses
Applications in 1829 and its revised edition in 1843
Determined (with Fourier) thermal conductivities of various materials up
to 100C
SOURCE: WWWS

E Robert ("Bob") Lamar Pigford (1917-1988)
Diffusion and convection; diffusion and chemical reactions
Rate of atmospheric dispersion of clouds of droplets
Interphase diffusion
Isotope separation












Transient behavior of mass transfer equipment
1938 received BS degree from Mississippi State College
1940 granted MS in chemistry at University of Illinois
1942 granted PhD in chemistry, did thesis on mass transfer with Professor
H. Fraser Johnstone
1941-1947 worked in the engineering department of E.I. du Pont de
Nemours and Company, Inc.
1947 named chairman of the Chemical Engineering Department at
University of Delaware; on faculty there 1947-1966; 1975-1988
1966-1975 served on the faculty at Berkeley
Coauthored The Application of Differential Equations to Chemical
Engineering with W.R. Marshall Jr. and Absorption and Extraction with
T.K. Sherwood (and a third edition with C.R. Wilke)
Elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1971
Elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1977
Founding editor of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research
Hobbies included playing the clarinet, operating a ham radio, making
furniture, and fabricating electronic devices
A scholarly leader with a warm and refined personality
SOURCE: NAE

E Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (1858-1947)
"Planck's distribution law" for black-body radiation
"Planck's constant" h
"Fokker-Planck equation"

Derivation of Stefan-Boltzmann constant: o = t5k4 / 2
Oct. 19, 1900, proposed his distribution law for the radiant energy
of emission from black bodies as an empiricism
Dec. 14, 1900, presented a derivation of his distribution law by
introducing the notion of quantization of energy
His book, Vorlesungen iiber die Theorie der Wiirmestrahlung 2nd Ed.
(1913), is a careful presentation of the derivation of the Planck
distribution for black-body radiation. In this book he had this to say about
the idea of "emission of quanta": "It is true that we shall not thereby
prove that this hypothesis represents the only possible or even the most
adequate expression of the elementary dynamical law of the vibrations of
the oscillators. On the contrary, I think it very probable that it may be
greatly improved as regards form and contents. There is, however, no
method of testing its admissability except by the investigation of its
consequences, and as long as no contradiction in itself or with experiment
is discovered in it, and as long as no more adequate hypothesis can be
advanced to replace it, it may justly claim a certain importance."
1918 was awarded the Nobel Prize for proposing quantization
When asked in 1931 how he came to formulate the idea of quantization of
energy, he said, "It was an act of desperation. For six years I struggled
with the black-body theory. I knew the problem was fundamental and I
knew the answer. I had to find a theoretical explanation at any cost,
except of the inviolability of the two laws of thermodynamics." (Quoted
from A. Hermann in The Genesis of the Quantum Theory, 1971.)
1926 elected to the National Academy of Sciences, USA
1930 became president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute
During WWII he was an outspoken opponent of Adolf Hitler (his eldest
son was executed for involvement in a plan to assassinate Hitler). In
about May of 1933, he had a very unsatisfactory audience with Hitler,
trying to dissuade him from his policies of religious persecution. He had
to resign the presidency of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in 1937.
He was rescued by the U.S. Armed Forces and restored as president of the
Kaiser Wilhelm Society (later renamed the Max Planck Society).
A peak in the Dolomites is named after him, because he made its first
ascent.
He had a well-developed interest in music. He had a harmonium built
with 104 tones in each octave. He had the piano technique of a
professional. He preferred Schubert, Schumann, and Brahms.
He had a respect for the law, a trust in established institutions, a strong
sense of duty, and absolute honesty. He valued a clear conscience as
extremely important.


His private library and all his correspondence were destroyed in a 1944
Allied air raid of Berlin.
SOURCES: DSB, EB, BES, LN, HCO

E Ludwig Prandtl (1875-1953) pronouncedd "Prahn-tl")
"Prandtl boundary-layer theory (some prior work on this
was done by L. Lorenz of Denmark)
"Prandtl mixing length" in turbulence
"Von Kdrmdn-Prandtl equation "for f(Re)for tubes
"Prandtl number": Pr=v/u(
1898 graduated from Technische Hochschule in Munich
1900 doctorate in physics at Munich
1901 became professor at the Technische Hochschule in Hannover
1904 named head of the Institut fir Technische Physik at the University
of Gattingen; proposed the boundary-layer idea
1925 became head of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Mechanics
Had perfect pitch and enjoyed playing the piano
A rather turgid lecturer, because he could not make a statement without
qualifying it
SOURCES: EB, DSB, BES, ARFM (19)

E Osborne Reynolds (1842-1912)
"Reynolds number": Re=DVp/|t (named by A. Sommerfeld in 1908)
Laminar-turbulent transition
Theory of lubrication
"Reynolds stresses"
Transport of heat by turbulent motion
Heat transfer between solids and fluids
"Reynolds transport theorem" (just a special case of the three-
dimensional Leibniz formula)
1867 graduated from Queens College, Cambridge
1868 named first professor of engineering in Owens College, Manchester,
and served there 37 years
1877 named a fellow of the Royal Society
1883 did the famous experiments on instability of tube flow
Was an active member of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical
Society, in which he served as secretary and president
SOURCES: EB. ARFM (22) (article by N. Rott), DSB

E Ernst Heinrich Wilhelm Schmidt (1892-1975)
Heat and mass transfer
"Schmidt number" Sc
Studied civil engineering at the T.H. in Dresden and the T.H. in Miinchen,
then switched to electrical engineering at the university in Miinchen,
receiving the doctor of engineering degree in 1921
1925 became professor in Gdansk, Poland
1945-1952 was professor at the T.H. in Braunschweig
1952 became professor at the T.H. in Munich as successor to Nusselt
1956-1968 was rector of the T.H. in Munich
Author of Technische Thermodynamik, 10th ed. (1963), and
Wasserdampftafeln, 6th ed. (1963)
SOURCES: WWWS, BS

E Thomas ("Tom") Kilgore Sherwood (1903-1976)
The "Sherwood number, Sh, was appropriately named in
honor of his many distinguished contributions to the field
of mass transfer; however it may be argued that this
dimensionless group first originated with Nusselt and
should therefore bear the latter's name
1923 BS in chemical engineering from McGill University
1929 ScD in chemical engineering from MIT, with W.K. Lewis
1930-1969 was on the faculty in chemical engineering at MIT
After retiring from MIT, became professor of ChE at Berkeley
Chemical Engineering Education












1948 elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences
1958 elected to National Academy of Sciences
1964 chosen as a founding member of National Academy of Engineering
Coauthor of books: Absorption and Extraction, Mass Transfer, The
Properties of Gases and Liquids, A Course in Process Design, The Role of
Diffusion in Catalysis
AIChE awards included the William H. Walker Award, the Founders'
Award, and the Warren K. Lewis Award. He also received the Murphree
Award from the American Chemical Society
Hoyt C. Hottel, author of the NAE memoir, said, "He had warmth, charm,
orderliness, and a conscience that drove him to use his talents to the
fullest to advance chemical engineering in theory and practice."
SOURCE: NAE

EU Charles Soret (1854-1904) ("So-eh, accent on second syllable)
First to measure the thermal diffusion effect in liquids in 1879,
the "Soret effect." C. Ludwig, however published on this
phenomenon in 1856 in Sitzber. K. Akad. Wien.
A swiss minerologist

E Thomas Edward Stanton (1865-1931)
"Stanton number": St=Nu/RePr
Studied with Reynolds at the University of Manchester
In 1899 became a professor of engineering at the University of Bristol
Worked on aerodynamics and airplane construction
SOURCE: BS

1E Josef Stefan (1835-1893)
"Maxwell-Stefan equations "for multicomponent diffusion in a
mixture ofN gases:

N x x Y
Vx -I X (p v


Established empirically the "Stefan-Boltzmann equation":
qb( .=oTF4
The "Stefan problem ": heat conduction with phase change
and moving boundary; earlier work by F Neumann of the
University of K6nigsberg had not been published
Relation between surface tension and evaporation
Had to help out his illiterate Slovenian parents on a farm
1853 enrolled at the university in Wien
1865 elected to the Imperial Academy of Sciences in Austria, was vice-
president from 1885 to 1893
1876-1877 was rector magnificus of the University of Vienna
Deduced the surface temperature of the sun as 6,000C
SOURCE: DSB

a George Gabriel Stokes (1819-1903)
"Navier-Stokes equation "
"Stokes flow" (creeping flow)
"Stokes law" for flow around a sphere
1849 appointed, at the age of 30, as Lucasian Professor at Cambridge
1851 elected to Royal Society of London
1854-1888 served as secretary for the Royal Society
1884 elected as president of the Royal Society
1883 elected to the National Academy of Sciences, USA
Worked on geodesy, wave theory of light, fluorescence
SOURCE: RI

[ John William Strutt, Lord Rayleigh (1842-1919)
Established the field of acoustics
The "Rayleigh number": Ra=GrPr
"Rayleigh-Jeans theory" of radiant energy flux
Fall 2001


"Rayleigh scattering"
Poor health as a youth; had to withdraw from Eaton and Harrow
1861 entered Trinity College, Cambridge
1865 received a BS degree as "Senior Wrangler"
1871 took extended vacation on houseboat on the Nile because of
rheumatic fever, during the trip he started on the Theory ofSound, Vol. I
(1877) and Vol. II (1878)
1873 became the third Baron Rayleigh and built a lab next to his home
1879-1884 succeeded Maxwell as the second Cavendish Professor
1884 became secretary of the Royal Society
1904 received the Nobel Prize for isolating argon
1905 became president of the Royal Society
1908-1919 served as chancellor of Cambridge University
SOURCES: EB, RBL, LN

E[ Geoffrey Ingram ("G.I.") Taylor (1886-1975)
"Taylor diffusion"
"Taylor vortices"
Statistical theory of turbulence
In 1905 matriculated at Trinity College, Cambridge
1911 temporary readership at Cambridge
1912 went on HMS Scotia on a six-month expedition in the North
Atlantic Ocean
After 1923 was a Royal Society professor at Cavendish Laboratory in
Cambridge
During WWII was involved with the Manhattan Project and witnessed the
first nuclear explosion at Alamagordo
Retired in 1952. but continued doing research for an additional 20 years
Well known for a series of movies illustrating fluid flow phenomena
SOURCES: GKB, DSB, ARFM (29)

E Ernest William Thiele (1895-1993)
The "Thiele modulus"
Catalyst effectiveness factors
The "McCabe-Thiele diagram"
1919 BS in chemical engineering from the University of Illinois
1925 ScD in chemical engineering at MIT
1925-1960 associate director of research for Standard Oil of Indiana
1960-1970 professor of ChE at the University of Notre Dame
1971 honorary DEng from the University of Notre Dame
1980 elected to the National Academy of Engineering
A kind and gentle person and a very good listener
Wrote and spoke French and German, enjoyed traveling to Europe and
visiting France and Germany
SOURCE: NAE

E Moritz Weber (1871-1951) pronouncedd "Vay-ber")
The "Weber number": We=pV2D/o
Professor of naval architecture in Berlin
Responsible for naming the Froude number
Die Grundlagen der Ahnlichkeitsmechanik u. ihre Verwertung bei
Modellversuchen (1919)
Weber number named by Franz Eisner (1895-1933)
SOURCE: RI

E Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Franz Wien (1864-1928)
pronouncedd "Veen ")
"Wien's displacement law" of radiation
1890 became assistant to Hermann v. Helmholtz in Berlin
1896 became professor of physics at Technische Hochschule in Aachen
1899 moved to Wirzburg as professor
1911 received Nobel Prize for physics for his work on radiation
1920 appointed professor in Munich
SOURCE: BS 0











Random Thoughts...





FAQS IV


DEALING WITH

STUDENT BACKGROUND DEFICIENCIES

AND LOW STUDENT MOTIVATIONm



RICHARD M. FIELDER, REBECCA BRENT
North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695


Students can be frustrating, as evidenced by the fact
that the next two in our list of frequently asked ques
tions at workshops are among the most common
we get.

l I tried putting my students to work in groups but some of
them hated it and one complained to my department head.
What am I supposed to do about student hostility to
teaching methods that make them take responsibility
for their own learning?
E[ Many of my students are (a) unmotivated, (b) self-cen-
tered, (c) apathetic, (d) lazy, (e) materialistic, (f) unpre-
pared, (g) unable to do high school math, (h) unable to
write, (i) unable to read, (j) spoiled rotten. (Pick any sub-
set.)
How can I teach people who don't have the right
background or the willingness to work or even the
desire to learn ?

We have written elsewhere about student resistance to non-
traditional instructional methods-why it occurs, what forms
it takes, and how to defuse it.12 The remainder of this col-
umn deals with the second question.
The problems of poor student motivation and preparation
are challenging. Certainly there are some students in our
courses who appear to be uninterested in the subject, unwill-
ing to work at it, and clueless about things they were sup-
posed to have learned in prerequisite courses or high school.
There may be even more students like that now than there
were 20 years ago (as many older professors claim), although
this trend is more likely due to a shift in entering college


student demographics than to a general weakening in the moral
fiber of today's youth. But while grumbling about the stu-
dents (and the high schools or Ted Kennedy or Jesse Helms
or whoever else we hold responsible for widespread moral
fiber decay) may have some therapeutic benefit, it doesn't
solve anything. For better or worse, these students are the
ones we have to work with-we can't write off an entire
generation and hope for better things from the next one.
A more productive approach is to take our students where
they are and find ways to overcome whatever shortcomings
in preparation or motivation they may have. It's not impos-
sible-professors at every university and college do it all the
time. If you think about your faculty colleagues, you can surely
come up with one or two who set high standards that most of
their students regularly meet and exceed, who consistently
get top ratings from students and peers, and about whom the
alumni talk reverently years and decades after graduation.
These professors are obviously doing something to reach the
same students whose lack of motivation and deficient back-
grounds their colleagues keep complaining about. What is it?


Richard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese Professor Emeritus of Chemical
Engineering at North Carolina State University. He received his BChE from
City College of CUNY and his PhD from Princeton. He is coauthor of the
text Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes (Wiley, 2000) and
codirector of the ASEE National Effective Teaching Institute.
Rebecca Brent is an education consultant specializing in faculty develop-
ment for effective university teaching, classroom and computer-based simu-
lations in teacher education, and K-12 staff development in language arts
and classroom management. She co-directs the SUCCEED Coalition fac-
ulty development program and has published articles on a variety of top-
ics including writing in undergraduate courses, cooperative learning, pub-
lic school reform, and effective university teaching.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2001


Chemical Engineering Education











MOTIVATING STUDENTS TO LEARN

Student motivation in a class generally falls into three broad
categories. Some students have a high level of interest in the
course topic and will study it intensively regardless of what
the instructor does or fails to do. No special motivation is
necessary for these students-the two of them will do fine on
their own. Others have a complete lack of aptitude for the
subject and/or a deep-seated antipathy toward it, but the course
is required for their degree and so there they sit, defying the
instructor to teach them anything. Trying to motivate these
charmers may be more trouble than it's worth, but (at least in
engineering courses) there are fortunately not many of them
either. Still others-usually a large majority-are in the third
category: they don't have a burning interest in the subject but
they also don't hate it and they have the ability to succeed in
it. How the instructor teaches can profoundly affect how these
students approach the course.
In another column13' we discussed what educational psy-
chologists have termed a "deep approach" to learning. Stu-
dents who take this approach do whatever it takes to gain a
conceptual understanding of the subject being taught. They
routinely try to relate course material to other things they
know, look for applications, and question conclusions-pre-
cisely the kinds of things that the students whose lack of
motivation we complain about never do.
Certain course attributes have been found to correlate with
students taking a deep approach,'31 suggesting that the key to
motivating students in that large third category might be to
build as many of those attributes into our courses as we can.
The attributes are

(a) clear relevance of the course material to familiar
phenomena, material in other courses the students
have taken or are currently taking, and problems they
will be called upon to solve in their intended careers
(b) explicit statements of the knowledge and skills the
students are expected to acquire, which may take the
form of instructional objectives14' or detailed study
guides for exams
(c) assignments that provide practice in the skills
specified in the objectives and are not too long, so
that the students have time for the studying and
reflection entailed in a deep approach
(d) some choice over learning tasks (e.g., a choice
between problem sets and a project)
(e) well-designed tests that are clearly grounded in the
objectives (no surprises or tricks) and can be finished
in the allotted time (For more details, see Reference 3.)


Building those things into your course may take some work
but will probably motivate enough of your students to allay
any concerns you may have about their generation.

TEACHING
UNDERPREPARED STUDENTS

What about the students who come into your class having
successfully completed prerequisite courses but apparently
having absorbed little or nothing from them? Again, blaming
the instructors who taught the prerequisites (who "passed stu-
dents they clearly should have failed") or the Math Depart-
ment (which "doesn't know how to teach calculus to engi-
neers") or the K-12 system (which "doesn't know how to
teach anything") is easy but doesn't help with the immediate
problem. The fact is, these students are in your class now and
somehow you've got to teach them, and you don't want to
spend the first three weeks of the course re-teaching what
they were supposed to know on Day 1. What can you do?
Here's a technique that works well. On the first day of class,
announce that the first exam in the course will be given in the
following week and will cover only the prerequisite material.
Hand out a study guide containing instructional objectives'41
for that exam, including only the knowledge and skills re-
quired for your course and not everything in the prerequisite
course text. Further announce that you will not lecture on
that material but will be happy to answer questions about it in
class or during your office hours. (You may also choose to
hold an optional review session.) Then start the course. Most
of the students will manage to pull the required knowledge
back into their consciousness by the day of the exam, and the
few who fail will be on notice that they could be in deep
trouble and might think about dropping the course and doing
whatever it takes to master the prerequisites by next semes-
ter.
You might also try to persuade your colleagues who teach
the prerequisite courses to adopt some of those methods that
induce students to take a deep approach to learning. If they
do that, the problem in your course could take care of itself.

FOOTNOTES
1. See Columns.html> for previous FAQ columns
2. Felder, R.M., and R. Brent, "Navigating The Bumpy Road to Student-
Centered Instruction," College Teaching, 44 (2), 43-47 (1996). Avail-
able on-line at public/Papers/Resist.html>
3. Felder, R.M., "Meet Your Students. 3. Michelle, Rob, and Art," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 24(3), 130 (1990) Available on-line at the URL in Ref. 1.
4. Brent, R., and R.M. Felder, "Objectively Speaking," Chem. Eng. Ed.,
31(3), 178 (1997) Available on-line at the URL in Ref. 1. J


Fall 2001


All of the Random Thoughts columns are now available on the World Wide Web at
http://www2.ncsu.edu/effectiveteaching/ and at http://che.ufl.edu/-cee/











pW =class and home problems



The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collections of interesting and novel prob-
lems in chemical engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by
presenting a particular principle in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel home
problem, are requested, as well as those that are more traditional in nature and that elucidate
difficult concepts. Manuscripts should not exceed ten double-spaced pages if possible and should
be accompanied by the originals of any figures or photographs. Please submit them to Professor
James 0. Wilkes (e-mail: wilkes@umich.edu), Chemical Engineering Department, University of
Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136.




PREDICTION AND PREVENTION OF

CHEMICAL REACTION HAZARDS

Learning by Simulation


MORDECHAI SHACHAM
Ben Gurion University of the Negev Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel
NEIMA BRAUNER
Tel-Aviv University Tel-Aviv 699 78, Israel
MICHAEL B. CUTLIP
University of Connecticut Storrs, CT 06269


earning to predict and prevent chemical process haz-
ards is an essential part of the chemical engineer's
education. Mannan, et al.,1] discuss in detail the vari-
ous aspects of process safety education. They point out that
safety in the process industry is of primary importance and
is critical to the industry's continuing license to operate.
The number of accidents happening in the process indus-
try is large. Mannan, et al.,[11 for example, quote a study
that found that more than 34,500 accidents involving
toxic chemicals occurred over a period of five years
(1988-1992) in the U.S. Recently there have been many
requests to develop standards for reducing the frequency
and severity of chemical accidents. The university obvi-


ously plays a critical role in achieving this objective.
Mannan, et al.,m'' suggest that students should take specific
courses on process safety engineering. Process safety should
also be incorporated into existing chemical engineering
courses, such as design, reaction kinetics, and thermody-
namics. The objective of putting such great emphasis on
safety issues is to ensure that safety will become second
nature for the engineer. It is important to make it clear to
students that safety considerations are essential components
of the design and operation of process equipment.
Learning by simulation is very effective since students
have the chance to discover for themselves the consequences


Mordechai Shacham received his BSc (1969) and
his DSc (1973) from Technion, Israel Institute of
Technology. He is a professor of chemical engi-
neering at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,
Beer-Sheva, Israel, where he has served since 1974
at every academic level, including two four-year terms
as department head. His research interests include
analysis, modeling, regression of data, applied nu-
merical methods, computer-aided instruction, and
process simulation, design, and optimization.


Neima Brauner is professor and head of mechani-
cal engineering undergraduate studies in the De-
partment of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer at
Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel. She received
her BSc and MSc in chemical engineering from the
Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Is-
rael, and her PhD in mechanical engineering from
Tel-Aviv University. Her research has focused on
the field of hydrodynamics and transport phenom-
ena in two-phase flow systems.


Michael B. Cutlip is a BS and MS graduate of
The Ohio State University (1964) anda PhD gradu-
ate of the University of Colorado (1968), all in
chemical engineering. He is the immediate past
chair of the Chemical Engineering Division of the
ASEE and is cochair of the Division's Summer
School for Chemical Engineering Faculty to be
held in 2002. He is a coauthor with Mordechai
Shacham of the POL YMATH software package and
a recent textbook on numerical problem solving.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2001
68 Chemical Engineering Education











The objective of putting such great emphasis on safety issues is to ensure that
safety will become second nature for the engineer. It is important to make it
clear to students that safety considerations are essential components
of the design and operation of process equipment.


of operator mistakes or of failure of a critical component.
Simulation also enables students to consider various strat-
egies for dealing with the emergency situation and then
to rapidly investigate the effectiveness of these strategies
in preventing culmination of the component's failure into
a serious accident.
Chemical reaction hazards are a major cause of accidents
in the chemical industry,121 and thermal runaway reactions
are probably responsible for most of those accidents. There-
fore, no course in reaction engineering is complete without
due treatment of runaway reactions.l' To fully understand
the various aspects involved in safety of exothermic reac-
tions, issues related to the cooling and control systems must
also be discussed. A realistic model of a cooled exothermic
reaction can be, however, too involved and complex to be
discussed in depth in a particular course.
In order to solve this dilemma, we have selected a model
described in detail in a textbook.31' The course instructor can
describe parts of the model relevant to the course and refer
the students to the textbook for a detailed description of the
additional subjects. The batch reactor model presented by
Luyben13' and the simulation technique described by Shacham,
et al.,141 are used in this paper to derive a simulation exer-
cise that allows students to investigate prime causes of
incidents involving runaway reactors. The potential causes
that can be investigated us-
ing this simulator include, for
example, overcharging, fail- Reactants charged initial
ure to control steam pressure
or duration of steam heating,
the loss of cooling water, and
pipe blockage. Temperature
Co ing sensor
In order to investigate the Cooteg
various options, the student outlet
should be able to follow and
understand the fairly complex TvccHp
simulation model in the form Ac,
used for presentation to a nu-
merical solver for solution. .[
In the past, FORTRAN pro- v"
grams-which are difficult to PN
follow and understand-had
to be used for simulation (see
Luybenl3'). The currently CondensateWc,Tj
available software packages, Products
however, such as Maple,5' Figure 1. Cooled batch

Fall 2001


MATLAB,'6' and POLYMATH,'7' make it possible to present
the simulation model in an almost mathematical form-
which is easy to follow and understand.


PROBLEM STATEMENT
-___________


The exothermic liquid-phase reaction A---B-C is carried
out in a batch reactor, which is sketched in Figure 1.
After the reactant is charged into the vessel, steam is fed
into the jacket to heat the reaction mass to the desired tem-
perature. Thereafter, cooling water is fed into the jacket to
remove the exothermic heat of reaction and to make the
reactor follow a prescribed temperature-time curve. The ob-
jective is to maximize the production of the desired product
B (various hydrogenation and nitration reactions can serve
as typical examples for such a sequence of reactions).
The equations describing the operation of the reactor at the
various stages are summarized in Table 1, Parts 1 and 2, (see
next page). For further explanation, the reader is referred to
the problem definition in Luyben,'31 pages 51-62 and 150-
157, where the equations are shown in their mathematical
form. The corresponding equation numbers are shown in the
second column of Table 1. The format of the equations
presented in Table 1 is that
required by POLYMATH0
5.0 Numerical Computation
Temperature transmitter Package.
TT" PcP


reactor (based on Luyben[31).


The mass and energy con-
servation equations for the re-
acting liquid and the vessel
metal are given in rows 1-5 of
Table 1. The equations for the
heating/cooling jacket are dif-
ferent for the various phases
of the batch. The first phase
involves heating with steam
at a supply pressure given by
Psteam. The corresponding
equations describing the tem-
perature (and additional vari-
ables) inside the jacket are
shown in rows 7-14 of Table
1. Note that the calculation of
the temperature inside the













jacket involves solution of a differential algebraic system of
equations (DAE). The "controlled integration" method of
Shacham, et al., [8 is used for solving this DAE. A detailed
explanation on the use of the controlled integration method
for this particular problem can be found in this reference.181

Steam heating lasts until the temperature, denoted as
Theatmax, is reached inside the reactor. At this point the
steam heating is switched off and the flow of cooling water


into the jacket is turned on. This is governed by the variable
cooling (see row 6 in Table 1), which initially is positive and
keeps increasing as long as the temperature inside the reac-
tor is greater than Theatmax. Thus it is always positive
throughout the cooling period.

The equations representing the cooling-water-flow rate,
water volume in the jacket, and heat transfer are shown in
rows 15-17 of Table 1. The equation for calculating the


TABLE 1

Definition of the Equations and Output Variables for the Batch Reactor Problem


Output variable Definition Description
No No in Book Name Initial value Exothermic Reactions in a Batch ReactorlPOLVER05_0
1 535 Ca Ca(0)=0 8 d(Ca)/d(t) = -kl*Ca Concentration of A (mol/cu ft.)
2 5.36 Cb Cb(0)=0 d(Cb)/d(t) = kl*Ca-k2'Cb Concentration of B (mol/cu ft.)
3 5.37 T T(0)=80 d(T)/d(t) = (-HR1'kl*Ca-HR2*k2*Cb)/rho-Qm/(rho*V) Temperature in the reactor vessel (deg F)
4 5.38 Qm Qm = hi'AOm*(T-Tm)/60 Heat transferred through the metal wall (Btu/min)
5 539 Tm Tm(0)=80 d(Tm)/d(t) = (Qm-Qj)/(rhom*Cpm'Vm) Temperature of the metal wall (deg F)
6 Cooling Cooling(0)=0 d(Cooling)/d(t)= if (T0 cooling)
7 5 40 rhos rhos(0)=0.0803 d(rhos)/d(t) = if (Cooling==0) then (ws-wc)/jmax else (0) Density of the steam in the jacket (Ib/cu ft )
8 new and 5.51 Tj Tj(0)=259 d(Tj)/d(t) = if (Cooling==0) then (Kc'(err+drhosdt/10)) else Temperature in the heating/cooling jacket(deg F)
(((Fw0*(Tinj-Tj)+Qj/rhoj)/Vj))
9 5.41 err err= rhos-18*144*Pj/(1545*(Tj+460)) Steam density deviation for controlled integration
10 5.42 Pj Pj = exp(15.70036-8744.4/(Tj+460)) Steam pressure inside the Jacket (psi)
11 543 ws ws = if (Pj>Psteam) then (0) else (xs*Cvs*sqrt(Psteam-Pj)) Steam mass flow rate (Ib/min)
12 5 44and 5.49 Qj Qj = if (Cooling==0) then (-hos*Ajmax*(Tj-Tm)/60) else Heat transferred to the jacket (Btu/min)
(howAO*(Tm-Tj)/60)
13 5.45 we wc = -Qj/Hvap Condensate mass flow rate (Ib/min)
14 New drhosdt drhosdt = (ws-wc)/Vjmax Steam density derivative (for controlled integration)
15 5.46 AO AO = Vj*Ajmax/Vjmax Heat transfer area for cooling (cu. ft )
16 5.47 VJ Vj(0)=0.001 d(Vj)/d(t) = if (Cooling>0 and Vj 17 5.50 FwO FwO = if (Cooling>0) then (Cvw*sqrt(Wp)*8.33*xw/rhoj) else (0) Cooling water mass flow rate (Ib/min)
18 552 Ptt Ptt= 3+(T-50)'12/200 Output pneumatic signal from temp. transmit. (psi)
19 5.53 P1 P1 = 7+2*(Pset-Ptt) Controller output pressure (psi)
20 5.53 Pc Pc = if(P1<3) then (3) else (if (P1>15) then (15) else (P1)) Controller adjusted output pressure (psi)
21 5.54 Pset Pset(0)=12.6 d(Pset)/d(t) = if (Cooling>O) then (RAMP) else (0) Set point signal (psi)
22 see p. 151 xl xl = (Pc-9)/6 Steam valve- fraction open
23 see p. 151 xs xs = if(xl<0) then (0) else (if (x1>1) then (1) else (xl)) Steam valve fraction open (adjusted)
24 see p. 151 xwl xwl = (9-Pc)/6 Cooling water valve fraction open
25 see p. 151 xw xw = if (xwl1) then (1) else (xwl)) Cooling water valve fraction open (adjusted)
26 363 k1 k1 = 729.5488*exp(-15000/(1 99'(T+460))) Reaction rate coefficient for A -> B (1/min)
27 3.63 k2 k2 = 6567.587*exp(-20000/((T+460)*1.99)) Reaction rate coefficient for B C (1/min)

Definition of Constants for the Batch Reactor Problem
No Source Name Definition Description
28 Table 5.12 HR1 HR1 = -40000 Heat of reaction for A -> B (Btu/mol)
29 Table 5.12 HR2 HR2 = -50000 Heat of reaction for B -> C (Btu/mol)
30 Table 5.12 rho rho = 50 Density of reacting mass (Ib/cu.ft.)
31 Table S 12 V V= 42.4 Volume of reaction vessel (cu. ft)
32 Table 5.12 rhom rhom =512 Density of metal wall (Ib/cu.ft.)
33 Table 5.12 Cpm Cpm = 0.12 Specific heat of metal wall (Btu/lb cu ft )
34 Table 5 12 Vm Vm =9 42 Volume of metal wall (cu. ft )
35 Table 5.12 rhoj rhoj = 62.3 Density of cooling water (Ib/cu ft.)
36 Table 5.12 Tinj Tinj = 80 Cooling water inlet temperature (deg. F)
37 FORTRAN progr Theamax Theatmax = 200 Temperature for switching from heating to cooling (deg F)
38 Table 5.12 Vjmax Vjmax =1883 Total volume of the jacket (cu. ft )
39 FORTRAN progr RAMP RAMP= -0 0005 Rate of Pset change with time (psl/min)
40 Table 5 12 hi hi= 160 Inside heat transfer coeff (Btu/hr-deg F-cu ft.)
41 Table 5 12 AOm A0m = 56.5 Metal heat transfer area (cu. ft )
42 Table 5.12 Ajmax Ajmax = 56 5 Jacket's total heat transfer area (cu ft)
43 Table 5.12 hos hos = 1000 Jacket's heat transfer coeff. (with steam, Btu/hr-deg. F-cu. ft )
44 Table 5 12 how how = 400 Jacket's heat transfer coeff. (with water, Btu/hr-deg F-cu. ft.)
45 Table 5 12 Hvap Hvap =939 Steam's heat of condensation (Btu/lb)
46 Kc Kc = 7000 Proportional gain for controlled integration
47 FORTRAN progr. Psteam Psteam= 35 Steam's supply pressure (psi)
48 Table 5.12 Cvs Cvs =112 Steam valve's coefficient (Ib/min sqrt(psi))
49 Table 5.12 Cvw Cvw = 100 Water valve's coefficient (gpm/sqrt(psi))
50 FORTRAN progr. Wp Wp = 20 Water header pressure (psi)


Chemical Engineering Education











water temperature in the jacket is given in row 8. The equa-
tions related to the control system-namely the output (pneu-
matic pressure) signal from the temperature transmitter, the
controller's output pressure, the set-point signal, and the
fractional openings of the steam and water valves-are shown
in rows 18-25 of Table 1.
The Arrhenius equations describing the change of the
reaction rate coefficients as functions of the temperature in
the reactor are shown in rows 26-27 and the numerical
values of the various constants are defined in rows 28-50.

TYPICAL STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS
1. Simulate the normal operation of the batch reactor by
solving the model described in Table 1, which also shows
all the parameters and initial values. The reaction dura-
tion is two hours and forty minutes. Verify the correct-
ness of your solution by comparing your results with
those shown in Table 2 and Figure 2. Note that if
POLYMATH 5.0 is used to solve the model, the equa-
tions, the constant definitions, and the initial values of the
variables can be "copied" from Table 1 and "pasted"
into POLYMATH 5.0. If another program is used,
Maple or MATHLAB for example, the equations must
be rewritten in the syntax and format required by the
particular program.
2. Check the effects of overcharging. Change the initial
concentration of component A to C,,=l .0 lb mole/ft3 (in-
stead of C,,=0.8 lb mole/ft3 in normal operation). Note
that the reaction vessel can withstand a pressure of up to
1,600 psi, which is reached when the temperature in the
reactor approaches 500F. If overcharging results in a
temperature runaway, suggest changes of the operat-
ing conditions that will enable successful completion
of the batch.


TABLE 2
Batch Reactor Simulation Results for
Normal Operating Conditions*

Name Initial value Minimal value Maximal value Final value
time 0 0 160 160
Ca 0.8 0.2534251 0.8 0.2534251
Cb 0 0 0.4797339 0.4797339
T 80 80 211.70419 193.23402
Qm 0 0 1.32E+04 4345.6661
Tm 80 80 164.3911 164.3911
Tj 259 89.494809 259 151.91749
Pj 34.414173 0.8065525 34.414173 4.0967667
Qj -168600 -168600 21170 4698.481
xs 1 0 1 0
ws 85.72406 0 85.72406 0
xw 0 0 0.3701784 0.0224042
FwO 0 0 22.135179 1.3396817
k1 6.32E-04 6.32E-04 0.0097696 0.0071075
k2 5.43E-05 5.43E-05 0.0020885 0.0013665

The solution is reported using an excessive number of digits for the
stage of model and numerical solver validation.

Fall 2001


3. Check the effects of failure to control duration of steam
heating. Change Theatmax (the temperature in the reactor
when the switch from heating to cooling takes place) to
2200F and to 2300F (instead of the normal value of 2000F).
If this causes temperature runaway, suggest changes of
the operating conditions needed for completing the batch
successfully.
4. Check the effects of pipe blockage. Change the value of
Wp (water header pressure) to 10 psi to simulate an extra
drop in pressure because of pipe blockage. If this causes
temperature runaway, suggest changes of the operat-
ing conditions that will enable successful completion
of the batch.
5. Check the effects of cooling water failure. Set the value of
FwO to zero starting at a point two hours after the start
of the batch and lasting until its completion. Does this
cause a temperature runaway? Check the effects of
cooling water failures of various durations at various
stages of the batch.
6. Discuss the flexibility of the batch reactor system to
operate in emergency conditions and suggest ways to
increase the system resilience.



220 0.48 q

S192 ,, 0.38 E

164- 0.29

136 / -0.19

108 / -0.10 8
80 O
0 32 64 96 128 168
t [min]

Figure 2. Variation of the temperature and the
concentration of the desired product (Ch) in
the reactor (normal operating conditions).

500
/ 0.4
E 400- /
0.3 .
S300- /
S- 0.2
C 200-
E 0.1 a
00
100 ,* c
L_.. '"T i I i I 0 0
0 10 20 30 40
t [min]

Figure 3. Variation of the temperature and C, in the
reactor when reactant concentration is increased
to C,,o=1.0 lb mole/ft3.











EXPECTED SIMULATION SOLUTIONS

1. Normal operating conditions
The initial, minimal, maximal, and final values of the
principal variables are shown in Table 2. The maximal con-
centration of the desired product B is 0.48 lb mole/ft3, mean-
ing sixty percent of the reactant A is converted to B. The
highest temperature in the reactor is 211.70F, well inside the
safe region. It is interesting to note that the maximal opening
of the cooling water valve (xw) is only 37%, meaning there
is some excess capacity in the cooling water system. Figure
2 shows the variation of the temperature and the concentra-
tion of B in the reactor. The temperature increases steadily
during the steam heating. It reaches its maximum a short
time after the heating is turned off and cooling is turned on.
From that point, it decreases gradually throughout the dura-
tion of the reaction.

2. Overcharging
To simulate overcharging, the initial concentration of A is
set to 1.0 lb mole/ft3. Figure 3 shows the variation of the
temperature and concentration of B in the reactor for this


t [min]

Figure 4. Variation of the temperature and C, in the
reactor when reactant concentration is increased
and heating period duration is decreased.


t [min]

Figure 5. Variation of the temperature and b in the
reactor when cooling water fails after two
hours of operation.


case. Note that the temperature keeps increasing even after
the cooling is turned on. The increase is gradual at first, but
after about 35 minutes, runaway conditions develop. The
temperature reaches the threshold limit of 5000F at 42 min-
utes after the start of the batch.
Shortening the duration of the steam heating period can
prevent temperature runaway in this case. The variation of
the temperature and concentration of B in the reactor when
Theatmax is set to 1250F is shown in Figure 4. The tempera-
ture rise continues long after the heating is turned off, reach-
ing a maximal value of 2410F. At this point, however, the
concentration of A is low enough so that the cooling system
is able to remove the excess reaction heat and prevent
temperature runaway. The final concentration of B is
0.637 lb mole/ft3, meaning 63.7% of the reactant, A, is
converted to the desired product, B. In this case the
reactor's performance is even slightly better than under
normal operating conditions.

3. Failure to control duration of steam heating
If the switch from heating to cooling takes place when the
temperature in the reactor reaches 2200F (set Theatmax=220),
the extra cooling capacity of the system is able to remove the
excess of reaction heat and temperature runaway is pre-
vented. The maximal opening of the cooling water valve is
83%, the maximal temperature is 234F, and the final con-
centration of B is 0.625 lb mole/ft3-thus the batch is com-
pleted successfully. If switching from heating to cooling is
done when the temperature in the reactor reaches 230'F,
however, runaway conditions develop after about 55 min-
utes and the threshold value of 500F is reached about one
hour after the start of the batch. Prevention of temperature
runaway in this case requires structural changes in the
cooling system. Doubling the heat transfer area, for ex-
ample, enables successful completion of the batch even
with Theatmax=230.

4. Pipe blockage in the cooling system
Because of the extra cooling capacity of the system, re-
duction of the effective water header pressure by fifty per-
cent (brought about by pipe blockage) has very little effect
on the temperature trajectory of the batch. The maximal
temperature increases to 215F, but there are no other no-
ticeable differences from normal operating conditions. The
maximal water valve opening is still only 46%. This means
the cooling system extra capacity can accommodate an even
more serious pipe blockage.

5. Cooling water failure
Cooling water failure can be implemented in the model
(shown in Table 1) by introducing a new variable: fail=1, if
there is cooling water failure, and fail=0 otherwise. The
equation for calculating FwO (Eq. 17 in Table 2) must also
be changed by multiplying it by (1-fail).
Figure 5 shows the variation of the temperature and con-
Chemical Engineering Education


250

S216

182

H 148
E
. 114

80











centration of B in the reactor for the case where the cooling
water system fails two hours after the start of the batch and
is not recovered until the end of the batch. While the tem-
perature increases considerably (final temperature is 278F
instead of the normal value of 1930F), it is still far from the
dangerous level of 5000F. The concentration of the desired
product B is 0.495 lb mole/ft3, slightly higher than the nor-
mal value of 0.479 lb mole/ft3.
The effect of cooling water failure depends very much on
the timing and duration of this event. Even 25 minutes loss
of cooling, for example, causes the development of runaway
conditions if failure occurs during the first hour of the batch.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
This simulation exercise was given as a homework assign-
ment to the students in the process simulation course at Ben-
Gurion University of the Negev. Graduate and senior under-
graduate students who have previously studied both chemi-
cal reaction engineering and process control normally take
this course. These students were asked to complete the as-
signment in two weeks and most of them did so success-
fully. They thought the assignment was challenging and
interesting and said it helped them better understand the
safety-related issues of reactor design. They discovered that
increasing the heat transfer area of the cooling system (add-
ing an internal cooling coil to the existing jacket, for ex-
ample) could increase the resilience of the reactor.
The batch reactor simulation can, of course, be used for
demonstrating various effects of additional types of failures,
but can also be used for raising some dilemmas that concern
the interrelation between economics and safety. In this case,
for example, economical considerations dictate fixing the
set point of the cooling water controller at the highest pos-
sible value in order to achieve a maximal yield of the desired
product B. This reduces the safety resilience of the system to
a minimum, however.
Additional realistic safety-related simulation exercises can
be found in Shacham, et al.,I[4 where a propylene polymer-
ization reactor is analyzed, and in Fogler,'91 where the
"nitroanaline reactor rupture" incident (Sauget, IL, 1969) is
modeled.

REFERENCES
1. Mannan, M.S., A. Akgerman, R.G. Anthony, R. Darby, P.T.
Eubank and K.R. Hall, "Integrating Process Safety into
ChE Education and Research," Chem. Eng. Ed., 33, 198
(1999)
2. Barton, J., and R. Rogers, (Eds), Chemical Reaction Haz-
ards: A Guide to Safety, Institution of Chemical Engineers,
Rugby (1997)
3. Luyben, W.L., Process Modeling Simulation and Control for
Chemical Engineers, 2nd Ed., McGraw Hill, New York, NY
(1990)
4. Shacham, M., N. Brauner, and M.B. Cutlip, "Open Archi-
tecture Modeling and Simulation in Process Hazard Assess-
Fall 2001


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ment," Computers Chem. Eng., 24(2-7), 413 (2000)
5. Maple is a trademark of Waterloo Maple, Inc.

6. MATLAB is the trademark of The Math Works, Inc.

7. POLYMATH is copyrighted by M. Shacham, M.B. Cutlip
and M. Elly
8. Shacham, M., N. Brauner, and M. Pozin, "Application of
Feedback Control Principles for Solving Differential-Alge-
braic Systems of Equations in Process Control Edcuation,"
Computers Chem. Eng., 20(Supp.) 1329 (1996)
9. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering,
3rd Ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (1999) 1
273











I Oclassroom


ON THE

COMPLETE KELVIN EQUATION




JANET A.W. ELLIOTT
University ofAlberta Edmonton, AB, CANADA T6G 2G6


he Kelvin equation quantifies the deviation in equi-
librium vapor pressure above a curved surface from
that which would exist above a plane surface at the
same temperature. As the importance of surfaces and col-
loids is being recognized more often in chemical engineer-
ing applications, the Kelvin equation is being used by an
increasing number of chemical engineers. In addition, as
surfaces and colloids are being introduced to more chemical
engineering students-either as separate graduate or upper-
year undergraduate courses, or as a part of a physical chem-
istry course-the Kelvin equation is being presented to an
increasing number of students.
Although Lord Kelvin was the first to introduce the idea
that the equations of capillarity would lead to a different
vapor pressure at a curved surface,"1 he presented only a
rough derivation and arrived at the original approximate
form of the equation, which was not thermodynamically
correct. Since that time, the correct equation'12 and its deriva-
tion13'41 have been presented in the literature and can even be
found in a minority of textbooks.'5-7] Unfortunately, the ma-
jority of textbooks have this equation8'"1 and its deriva-
tion112-171 incorrect. Researchers and educators who make use
of the Kelvin equation should be aware of these errors.
I believe the reason that the "complete" Kelvin equation and
its correct derivation have not been adopted more often in
literature is that there does not exist in the literature a complete
discussion that points out where the errors are in often-
published and incorrect derivations of the Kelvin equation.
This paper is an attempt to address that deficiency.

DERIVATION OF THE KELVIN EQUATION
To understand the correct derivation of the Kelvin equa-
tion, it is necessary to begin at the conditions for thermody-
namic equilibrium at a curved interface. Although one can
choose a variety of thermodynamic systems from which to
derive these conditions for equilibrium, the most general
derivations require varying amounts of differential geometry


to arrive at exactly the same answer. Thus, for purposes of
illustration, consider the relatively simple capillary system
shown in Figure 1. A single component fluid is enclosed in a
cylindrical, diathermal, piston-cylinder device surrounded
by a constant-temperature, constant-pressure reservoir. The
cylinder has a single cylindrical capillary in which an equi-
librium liquid-vapor interface will exist. External fields, such
as gravity, will be neglected in this derivation. (For a com-
plete treatment, including gravity, see Ward and Sasges."81)
For geometrical simplicity we will assume that the contact
angle (as measured through the liquid) is zero.
The conditions for equilibrium can be found by requiring
that variations in the entropy of the isolated system about the
equilibrium state vanish subject to the constraints of the
system. Mathematically, we may write
dSL +dSV +dSs +dSLV +dSV + dSL +dS = 0 (1)
where SL, S', and Ss are the entropies of the liquid, the
vapor, and the solid phases, respectively, and SLV, SSV, SsL
and SR are the entropies of the liquid-vapor, the solid-vapor,
and the solid-liquid interphases, and the reservoir, respec-
tively. Each of the entropy differentials may be written using
the fundamental relation and the definitions of the intensive
properties.1'91 For the liquid phase, denoted by the super-
script L,
L- L LdNL (2)
dSL IdUL + dVL PdNL (2)
TL L L
T T T


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2001


Chemical Engineering Education


Janet A.W. Elliott is Associate Professor of
Chemical Engineering at the University of Alberta
where she holds a Canada Research Chair in
Interfacial Thermodynamics. She received a
BASc degree in the physics option of engineer-
ing science and MASc and PhD degrees in me-
chanical engineering from the University of
Toronto. She is currently the Director of Educa-
tion and Student Affairs of the Canadian Society
of Chemical Engineering. Her research and
teaching interests are in thermodynamics.











where T, U, P, V, g, and N denote temperature, internal
energy, pressure, volume, chemical potential, and number of
moles, respectively. For the vapor phase, denoted by the
superscript V,

dS = dUv +V dVv dN (3)
T Tv (3)

Assuming that the system imposes no stress components on
the solid other than the pressure,"91 we may write for the
solid phase (denoted by the superscript S)

s I Ps s P s
dS = dUs + dVS dN (4)
Ts Ts Tsds
where ss and N are the chemical potential and the number
of moles of solid molecules.
For the liquid-vapor interphase, denoted by the superscript
LV,
SLV LV
dSLV dULV 7 dALV dNL (5)
TLv TLv TLv

where y denotes interfacial tension and A denotes area of the
interface. For the solid-vapor interphase, denoted by the
superscript SV

sv sv sv
dSs = dUSV- dAs- dN- SdN (6)
Tsv Tsv sV TSV S

where g s and Nsv are the chemical potential and number
of moles of fluid molecules located in the solid-vapor inter-
phase and tsv and NsV are the chemical potential and
number of moles of solid molecules located in the solid-


Figure 1. Schematic diagram of a capillary system.
Fall 2001


vapor interphase. For the solid-liquid interphase, denoted by
the superscript SL


dSSL = dUSL
TSL


SL SL SL
SdASL S dNsL S dNSL (7)
TL L TSL ST


In Eqs. 5-7, it is assumed
C That curved interfaces are placed so that the interfacial
tension does not depend on curvature (Gibbs surface of
tension)
C That flat interfaces are placed so that there are no solid
molecules in the interfaces (Gibbs dividing surface).
For the reservoir, denoted by the superscript R
R R
dS R -dU R + dVR dN (8)

where tRR and NR are the chemical potential and number of
moles of the molecules making up the reservoir.
The constraints on the system shown in Figure 1 must now
be enumerated. The total internal energy of the isolated
system is constant so that

dU R =-dU L -dUV -dUs -dUL -dUsv -dUSL (9)
The total number of molecules in the reservoir, the total
number of fluid molecules, and the total number of solid
molecules must remain constant so that


dNR =
dNR =0


dNL =-dN -dNLv -dNsv -dNSL


dN = -dNS -dNsL


The total volume of the isolated system remains constant so
that
dVR = -dVL -dV (13)
It is assumed that the volume of the solid is constant so that

dVs =0 (14)
Since we have assumed a priori that the liquid-vapor
interface is spherical (no gravitational effects) and that the
contact angle is zero, the liquid-vapor interface will be hemi-
spherical with a radius of curvature equal to the radius of the
cylindrical capillary, reap. Thus

dALV =0 (15)
From geometry,

dASL- 2 dVL (16)


Also from geometry,

dAs =_ dASL +- (dV +dVL)
r '










where rcy is the radius of the large cylindrical vessel which
contains the capillary (see Figure 1).
Substituting Eqs. 2-17 into Eq. 1 and collecting like terms
yields


4 1 )L iv 1 )SdV +1 TduSL
IT- I dU L+ dU + T-- dUs L


+ -LV T- dULV+ dUs 1 dUs

STL T TR TSL TR
LS SSV S SL ) S dL SV S
+(s +L; TV ~s F d L T v dNV


+ PL TLV ) LV dN( L _SV + dN) )SL
T TE d TL TsvdN TL TsL

(pL y SV 2 ySV 2 ySL 2 PR L
IFL TsV rcap TsV rcyl TL rcap TR

(pV SV 2 PR
TL TV ryl TR )dV =0 (18)

Since the equality in Eq. 18 must be satisfied for arbitrary
variations about the equilibrium state, each set of parenthe-
ses may be set equal to zero. Taking the limit as r.y, goes to
infinity (i.e. neglecting interfacial effects at the system-res-
ervoir boundary) yields the following conditions for equilib-
rium:


TL =TV TS = LV =V sv TsL =TR

s sV sL
lts Ps 9Ls
L tV 9LV SV !SL
I' = I= 1 = It p


pV =pR

pV _L 2TL
rcap


In order to find Eq. 23, the Young equation for a contact
angle of zero was used
SV -ySL = LV (24)
Eq. 23 is the Laplace equation for the geometry shown in
Figure 1.
Eqs. 19-23 are the conditions that must be satisfied in
order for thermodynamic equilibrium to exist in the system
shown in Figure 1. If, for example, a more general derivation
were performed in which the contact angle was not assumed
to be zero, Eqs. 19-22 would remain unchanged and the
Laplace equation would become
276


P2 p ,LV
pV pL = cos0


where 6 is the contact angle, and the Young equation would
come out of the derivation as an additional condition for
equilibrium
ySV _SL =YLV COS0 (26)

The format of the above derivation of the conditions for
equilibrium was chosen carefully. Effects of adsorption on
solid surfaces are often neglected13' when the conditions for
equilibrium are derived for systems such as the one shown in
Figure 1. Including these effects, however, ensures that the
chemical potentials of the solid-vapor and solid-liquid inter-
faces appear in Eq. 21. That such an equilibrium exists, leads
to interesting phenomena such as the dependence of contact
angle on adsorption in the same way that fluid-fluid interfa-
cial tension is known to depend on adsorption."8"201
The Kelvin equation may be found by combining the Laplace
equation, Eq. 23, with the chemical potential equality

SL = V (27)
from Eq. 21. It is clear from the above extremization of
entropy that for thermodynamic equilibrium to exist, the
Laplace equation (Eq. 23) and the equality of chemical po-
tentials (Eq. 27) must be satisfied simultaneously and since
the pressures are different in the liquid and vapor phases at
equilibrium, we may write Eq. 27 as


tL (T, PL = (TP ) (28)
(19)
If one had exact forms of the chemical potential (and
(20) gravity and contact angle could truly be neglected) then the
Kelvin equation found in this way would be exact. For the
(21) purposes of illustration, assume the vapor may be treated as
an ideal gas so that


(23) Tpv (T, v(T,P_)+RT (n -J (29)
(23) P_


where P, could be any reference pressure but it is taken here
to be the saturation pressure at a plane interface. Assuming
the liquid is incompressible

PL (T,PL)=PL(TP_ )+vL(PL -P) (30)

where vL is the molar volume of the liquid. Substituting
Eqs. 29 and 30 in Eq. 28 yields

RT n (PjV L(pL -P) (31)

Substituting Eq. 23 in Eq. 31 yields the "complete" Kelvin


Chemical Engineering Education











equation,
(pV) 2 vLyL L/V
RT n r L+V -P p) (32)
P j reap

For a generalization of the Kelvin equation to systems in
which the contact angle is not zero, Eq. 25 should be used
instead of Eq. 23. For a generalization of the thermodynamic
treatment of curved interfaces to systems in which gravity
cannot be neglected, see Ward and Sasges.'18 For treatments
with nonideal vapors and liquids, there are a number of
sources.[3.21231
An approximate form of the Kelvin equation in which the
second term on the right-hand side is missing is widely
published in textbooks.18 17

( pv 2 v'y
RT (\ -v r (33)
J rcap

The above equation is not thermodynamically correct since
it cannot satisfy the two requirements for equilibrium (Eqs.
23 and 27) at the same time.

MAGNITUDE OF THE DISCREPANCY
In many cases, the neglected term is negligible and the
approximate Kelvin equation will yield adequate results.121
In a very widely referenced experimental validation of the
Kelvin equation' cyclohexane at room temperature was
used,121 for which the second term on the right-hand side of
the complete Kelvin equation is equal to approximately 0.05%
of the first term on the right-hand side for the range of radii
considered (4 to 20 nm). One may find circumstances, how-
ever, for which the missing term should not be neglected.
Looking at Eq. 32, it is clear that the significance of the
second term on the right-hand side increases as pressure
increases. High-pressure systems are often important for
chemical engineers.

For example, if one considered a fluid, the vapor of which
behaved like an ideal gas, but which had the same thermody-
namic properties of water at 3600C, for the same range of
radii as in Fisher and Israelachvili,[2j i.e. 4 to 20 nm, then the
second term on the right-hand side of the complete Kelvin
equation would be 14% of the first term. (Note that for this
calculation, the surface tension of water was extrapolated
linearly from data between -8 and 100'C.) Of course, to
make accurate calculations for a substance such as water, the
vapor of which cannot be treated as an ideal gas, the com-


SUsing a slightly different geometry than the one presented
here-the complete Kelvin equation would be

RTnp +vLLV L(pV -P) (34)
I P-J rcap


Fall 2001


plete Kelvin equation would need to be derived using non-
ideal chemical potential equations.'21'23

COMMENTS ON DERIVATIONS
IN THE LITERATURE
Several derivations of the approximate Kelvin equation
are presented in textbooks which give readers the illusion
that one can arrive at Eq. 33 without neglecting a term.


Incorrect Derivation No. 1
In one such derivation, the change in the Gibbs free en-
ergy, AG, in the formation of an interface is set to zero.15'171
In other words, the authors assert that the Gibbs free energy
will be an extremum when the system is in equilibrium. This
thought comes from applying the thermodynamics of simple,
single-phase systems to multiphase systems.
From thermodynamics, we find the free energy of a par-
ticular system by requiring that the free energy be that en-
ergy which is minimized when entropy is maximized subject
to the constraints of the problem. For a simple, single-phase
system kept at fixed temperature and pressure, the free en-
ergy of the system will indeed turn out to be the Gibbs free
energy, G. For the multiphase system shown in Figure 1,
however, extremization of the entropy subject to the con-
straints of the system yields a different free energy.

Derivation of the Free Energy
Consider the system shown in Figure 1. The difference
form of the fundamental relation for the reservoir is
AUR TRAR -pRAVR +tR RANR (35)

The constraints may be written

AU R =-AU -AUv -AUs AUL -AUs -AUsL (36)

ANR =0 (37)

AVR =-AVL -AV (38)

TR =T (39)

pR =pv (40)

Substituting Eqs. 36-40 in Eq. 35 yields

0=AUL + AU +AU +AU LV +AUsv +AUSL +


TASR +PVAV +pVAVL


For spontaneous changes

ASR >-ASL -AS -ASS -ASL -ASSV -ASSL (42)
Substituting Eq. 41 in Eq. 42 and rearranging gives, for
277











spontaneous changes

A[(UL-TSL)+(UV -TS+PVVv)+(Us -TSS)+(ULV TSLV)+(USV TSSV)+(USL TSSL)+pVVL]<0


In other words, the free energy that is minimized when the
entropy of the system plus its surroundings is maximized is

B=FL +GV +F +FLV +FSV +FSL +PVVL (44)

where F represents a Helmholtz free energy. An extremum
in the above free energy will correspond to the conditions for
equilibrium given in Eqs. 19-23.


Incorrect Derivation No. 2

In another often-published derivation,[12,14.16] it is asserted
that "for liquid-vapor equilibrium at a spherical surface,
both the liquid and vapor must be brought to the same
pressure," P,+AP.1161 The change in free energy of the liquid
is written


AG = f
JP


V dP = LAP


The free energy change of the vapor is written

AG = RT (n P +AP (46)

Eqs. 45 and 46 are then equated to give Eq. 33. The only way
that equating Eqs. 45 and 46 can give Eq. 33, is if AP has the
meaning of pV_pL in Eq. 45 and the meaning of Pv-P, in Eq.
46, which does not make sense.

CONCLUSION

Correct derivations of the "complete" Kelvin equation
presented in the literature have not been incorporated in
many mainstream textbooks. In this paper a simple, yet
thorough, thermodynamic derivation of the "complete" Kelvin
equation has been presented. Although the "complete" equa-
tion presented here and the "approximate" Kelvin equation,
given most often in textbooks, do not differ significantly for
many experimental circumstances, in other experimental cir-
cumstances, the difference may be important. In particular,
the complete Kelvin equation and the approximate Kelvin
equation differ at high pressures. Since chemical engineers
may encounter high pressures, it is important that they be
aware of the complete Kelvin equation along with its correct
derivation. Incorrect derivations of the approximate Kelvin
equation, published in textbooks, have been discussed in
light of the proper thermodynamic treatment.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Surface thermodynamics research is being supported by the
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council
(NSERC) of Canada and the University of Alberta.


REFERENCES
1. Thomson, W., "On Equilibrium of Vapour at a Curved Sur-
face of Liquid," Phil. Mag. S. 4, 42(282), 448 (1871)
2. Fisher, L.R., and J.N. Israelachvili, "Direct Experimental
Verification of the Kelvin Equation for Capillary Condensa-
tion," Nature, 277, 548 (1979)
3. Melrose, J.C., "Model Calculations for Capillary Condensa-
tion," AIChE Journ., 12, 986 (1966)
4. Ward, C.A., A. Balakrishnan, and F.C. Hooper, "On the Ther-
modynamics of Nucleation in Weak Gas-Liquid Solutions,"
Trans. ASME, 92, 695 (1970)
5. Hunter, R.J., Foundations of Colloid Science, Vol. 1, Clarendon
Press, Oxford, England, 260 (1989)
6. Hunter, R.J., Introduction to Modern Colloid Science, Oxford
University Press, Oxford, England, 142 (1994)
7. Tester, J.W., and M. Modell, Thermodynamics and Its Appli-
cations, 3rd ed., Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (1997)
8. Dullien, F.A.L., Porous Media: Fluid Transport and Flow
Structure, Academic Press, New York, NY, 31 (1979)
9. Leja, J., Surface Chemistry of Froth Flotation, Plenum Press,
New York, NY, 383 (1982)
10. Israelachvili, J., Intermolecular and Surface Forces, 2nd ed.,
Academic Press, New York, NY (1992)
11. Schramm, L.L., Ed.,Advances in Chemistry Series 242, Foams:
Fundamentals and Applications in the Petroleum Industry,
American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. (1994)
12. Adamson, A.W., Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, 5th ed., John
Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 58 (1990)
13. Myers, D., Surfaces, Interfaces and Colloids: Principles and
Applications, VCH Publishers, New York, NY, 143 (1991)
14. Shaw, D.J., Introduction to Colloid & Surface Chemistry, 4th
ed., Reed Educational and Professional Publishing, Oxford,
England, 67 (1992)
15. Evans, D.F., and H. Wennerstr6m, The Colloid Domain, VCH
Publishers, New York, NY, 58 (1994)
16. Hiemenz, P.C., and R. Rajagopalan, Principles of Colloid and
Surface Chemistry, 3rd ed., revised and expanded, Marcel-
Dekker, New York, NY, 261 (1997)
17. Stokes, R.J., and D.F. Evans, Fundamentals of Interfacial
Engineering, Wiley-VCH, New York, NY, 64 (1997)
18. Ward, C.A., and M.R. Sasges, "Effect of Gravity on Contact
Angle: A Theoretical Investigation," Journ. Chem. Phys.,
109(9), 3651 (1998)
19. Callen, H.B., Thermodynamics and an Introduction to
Thermostatistics, 2nd. ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY
(1985)
20. Sasges, M.R., and C.A. Ward, "Effect of Gravity on Contact
Angle: An Experimental Investigation," Journ. Chem. Phys.,
109(9), 3661 (1998)
21. Forest, T.W., and C.A. Ward, "Homogeneous Nucleation of
Bubbles in Solutions at Pressures above the Vapor Pressure
of the Pure Liquid," Journ. Chem. Phys., 69(5), 2,221 (1978)
22. Shapiro, A.A., and E.H. Stenby, "Kelvin Equation for a non-
ideal Multicomponent Mixture," Fluid Phase Equilibria, 134,
87(1997)
23. Shin, Y., and J. Simandle, Vapor and Liquid Equilibria (VLE)
in Porous Media, presented at the 49th Canadian Chemical
Engineering Conference, Saskatoon, SK, 1999 J
Chemical Engineering Education












Graduate Research Methods
Continued from page 237.

rived from the assignment's learning objec-
tives, are provided for each assignment in the
form of a checklist. Checklist items include
both present/not present elements, and elements
assessed on a scale of quality (for example,
"excellent," "okay," and "weak"). A sub-
mitted assignment is assessed as having ex-
ceeded expectations, met expectations, or as
needing improvement.
Work that needs improvement must be re-
worked until it meets expectations. Requiring
rework of an originally weak product is a real-
istic model of most work environments, and
assures minimum competence for all course
learning objectives. Another important aspect
of this assessment approach is that students are
required to exceed expectations in order to
achieve higher grades. This approach en-
courages student innovation, creativity, and
attention to work quality. In addition, it again
models a more realistic work environment
where successful professionals will strive to
go beyond the mere meeting of minimum
requirements.
COURSE EFFECTIVENESS
One of our original goals for this course was


Assignment

Technology Gap Analysis
Literature Summary

Critical Proposal Review

Generation of Proposal Topics
List (Part I of Proposal)
Selection of Proposal Topic
(Part II of Proposal)
Preliminary Research Plan
(Part III of Proposal)
Patent Search and Review
Research Ethics Case Study
Completed Research Proposal
(Part IV of Proposal)
Oral Presentation of Proposal
(Part V of Proposal)
Peer Assessment of
Research Proposal


to improve student preparation for the conduct of indepen-
dent research, as we believe that this is the major element
that distinguishes graduate from undergraduate work. The
number of students who have completed this course (more
than thirty) is too small for any statistically significant study
of outcomes. We have, however, the following anecdotal
evidence that this course has met most of our original goals:
Student performance on both the dissertation
prospectus and the Qualifier have improved dramati-
cally, with fewer students being required to make
major revisions or complete rewrites of these and
more students passing without any required revi-
sions.
Faculty report greater satisfaction with student
ability to generate falsifiable hypotheses and to use
these hypotheses to consistently guide the design and
interpretation of the research.
Faculty external to the ChE program (at least one
non-ChE faculty member is required on each
Dissertation Committee) have expressed interest in
importing the class into their own programs, based
on their observations of ChE student performance
on dissertation prospectuses and dissertations.
Students report high satisfaction with the course and
Fall 2001


Topic

Problem Definition
Critical Review of Technical
Literature
Types of Research, Hypotheses,
Critical Review
Idea Generation and Creativity
Techniques
Kepner Tregoe Tools: Problem
Analysis and Decision Analysis
Defining Objectives, Research
Plans
Intellectual Property


Level of
Learning Expected
Analysis
Analysis

Analysis

Application

Application

Application

Comprehension


Ethics, Safety, and Professionalism Application


Communication of Research

Communication of Research


Communication of Research


Application

Application

Analysis


its content. Students who have taken this course after
an earlier research experience (e.g., undergraduate
research, or after having completed an MS at
another institution) are especially positive about
the course, most expressing the wish that they had
taken a course of this nature before their earlier
research experience.
We are currently exploring the possibility of making the
course available to graduate students in other engineering
and science disciplines at Arizona State University.

REFERENCES
1. Ollis, D.F., "The Research Proposition," Chem. Eng. Ed.,
29(4) 222 (1995)
2. Woods, D.R., A Strategy for Problem Solving, 3rd ed., De-
partment of Chemical Engineering, MacMaster University,
Hamilton, ON, CANADA (1985); also Chem. Eng. Ed., 13(3),
132(1979)
3. Fogler, H.S., and S.E. LeBlanc, Strategies for Creative Prob-
lem Solving, Prentice-Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ
(1995)
4. Kanare, H.M., Writing the Laboratory Notebook, American
Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1985)
5. Bloom, B.S. ed., Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Book
1: Cognitive Domain, Longman, NY (1984) (1956 original)
6. McNeill, B.W., L. Bellamy, and V.A. Burrows, "A Quality-
Based Assessment Process for Student Work Products," J.
Eng. Ed., 88(4), 485 (1999) J


TABLE 2
Research Methods Out-of-Class Assignments











re R1classroom


CHEMICAL PRODUCT DESIGN




JOSEPH A. SHAEIWITZ AND RICHARD TURTON
West Virginia University Morgantown, WV26506-6102


he capstone senior-design experience has tradition-
ally involved design of a new process to make a
familiar product. With the exception of the introduc-
tion of process simulators, changes over the past 50 years
have been subtle. For example, the focus on environmental
issues such as pollution prevention using alternative sol-
vents or alternative reaction paths, waste stream treatment,
and recycling has become popular. Similarly, projects in the
"emerging" technologies such as materials and biochemical
engineering are more common today. In a recent article,
Cussler made a strong case for including product design as
part of the capstone, chemical engineering design experi-
ence.1" He argues that the future of the chemical engineering
profession is more consistent with the design of new chemi-
cal products and less with the design of chemical processes
to make existing chemicals. His statistics show that over the
past 20 years, there has been a shift in corporate and hiring
practices so that more graduates go to work for companies
that develop new chemical products than companies that use

Joseph A. Shaeiwitz received his BS from
the University of Delaware and MS and PhD
from Carnegie Mellon University. His profes-
sional interests are in design, design educa-
tion, and outcomes assessment. He is co-
author of the text Analysis, Synthesis, and
Design of Chemical Processes, published by
Prentice Hall in 1998.


Richard Turton received his BSc from the
University of Nottingham and his MS and PhD
from Oregon State University. His current re-
search interests are focused in the area of
fluidization and its application to the coating of
pharmaceutical products. He is coauthor of
the text Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of
Chemical Processes, published by Prentice
Hall in 1998.


traditional, continuous chemical processes.
In this paper, a senior design assignment specifically in-
volving product design is described. Three product de-
signs completed by students are described, two in detail.
The implications of this type of assignment and its poten-
tial as a framework for interdisciplinary team projects
are also discussed.

BACKGROUND
Cussler and Moggridge121 define four types of chemical
products. They are:
New specialty chemicals
Products whose microstructure rather than molecu-
lar structure creates value (e.g. paint)
Devices causing chemical change (e.g. a blood
oxygenator or the electrolytic device described later
in this paper)
Virtual chemical products (e.g. software to simulate
chemical processes or estimate physical properties)

In this paper, a fifth category of chemical products is
included: technology that uses chemical engineering prin-
ciples. Cussler and Moggridge also define one possible frame-
work for the product design process.121 It contains four steps:
identify customer need, generate ideas to meet that need,
select from among the ideas generated, and manufacture the
product. They also suggest that one key difference between
process design and product design is the entrepreneurial
skills required of the engineer in product design.
In process design, the decision on what to manufacture
does not usually involve the process engineer. He or she
usually focuses on the calculations and engineering judg-
ment necessary to design and to optimize the process and/or
keep it running smoothly and efficiently. In product design,
a combination of business and technology skills is required.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2001


Chemical Engineering Education










The engineer shares responsibility for identifying the product and for its design
and manufacture. The responsibility for identifying the product may be shared
with those who have business backgrounds, and the responsibility for its
design and manufacture may be shared with other types of engineers. This is
the type of interdisciplinary effort that companies now favor.

STUDENT ASSIGNMENT
One goal of this assignment was to give students an experience in chemical
product design. A second goal was to determine whether chemical product
designs could be used successfully as capstone projects. The framework for the
student assignment was our unique, year-long design experience led by a
student chief engineer.'31 In this case, a group of fourteen students under the
direction of one student, who was selected as chief engineer, was given the
during the second semester. Faculty played roles in this assignment-one was


... a group of

fourteen students

under the direction

of one student, who

was selected as

chief engineer, was

given the

open-ended

assignment of

identifying product

design

opportunities.

The goal for the

first semester was

to identify as many

opportunities as

possible and then

progressively

narrow the field

until one or more

would be selected

for design during

the second

semester.


Fall 2001


TABLE 1
Product Designs Recommended by Students

Product Notes
E[ Products designed
Chlorine alternatives in pools Device to convert salt to chlorinated
disinfectant
Magnetic refrigerator Based on magnetocaloric effect-no
compressor
Zebra mussel control Removal and control of mollusks that
foul water intake pipes in water
treatment plants and power plants

El Chosen by client for further evaluation and recommended by students for complete
design (but not actually designed)
Removal of silver by chitosan Using crustacean shells as adsorbent
Peptide production Production of kilogram quantities of
peptides from amino acids
Starch-based polymers (polylactic acid) Novel product-biodegradable poly-
mer
Ethanol-water separation using molecular sieves Method to purify past azeotrope
El Also chosen by client as being worthy of further evaluation
Asbestos removal system Air filtration system to remove
asbestos continuously
E. coli detector On meat packaging to determine
freshness
Additives to assist in garbage decomposition Enzymes, proteins, etc.
Medical disposal service Furnace to convert stainless steel
needles to recyclable metal
Geothermal heat pump Home heat pump using geothermal
temperature difference
Anti-nerve gas injection system Automatic sensor that commences in-
jection when nerve gas is detected
Naturalpesticides Naturally produced chemicals de-
rived from plants like tobacco
Fuel cells For cars, etc.











the "client" and the other was the "vice-president of the
students' company." TABLE 2
With reference to the product design framework discussed Investment/Equipment Summary
for Salt Chlorination System
earlier, the students were required to complete the first three
steps during the first semester and the fourth step during the Commercial Residential
second semester. Because the students were not working for
an actual company, some liberties were taken with the defi- Number of plates in cell 21 11
nition of the customer. The client was the customer, but the Plate spacing 0.5 cm 0.5 cm
client's company had no specific business. Instead, the cli- Area of one plate 68 cm2 17 cm2
ent was a venture capitalist looking for opportunities for
investment. Therefore, it was incumbent on the students to Length of piping 50 ft. 50 ft.
determine the potential need (customer base) for their ideas Number of elbows 10 10
and to sell these ideas to the client. Number of Ts 2 2
Students were given a limited background on product Pipe diameter 4" (10.2 cm) 2" (5.1 cm)
design. The basics were introduced at a level of detail roughly Cell cost $177 $23
equivalent to that described in the "background" section
above. They were also given the printed materials listed in Total cost of piping $98 $42
references one and two. There were weekly client meetings, Hopper $80 $80
which are a standard feature of this capstone experience.131 Salt sensor cleaner $20 $20
For the first few weeks, these meetings were used to clarify,
or at least narrow, the definition of product design, to deter- Sensor and controller $1,500 $1,500
mine which of their ideas qualified as product design, and to Initial start-up salt $500 $125
suggest product design ideas for their consideration. Sand filter $300 $160

RESULTS Pump $760 $190
The student group generated more than 100 ideas within AC/DC converter $300 $250
the first month or so of the first semester. Many of these
ideas were the result of brainstorming activities and were Total cost $3,735 $2,390
rejected rather quickly. By the midpoint of the first semes-
ter, 17 ideas were recommended by the
students for further study, and 15 of
them were chosen by the client for fur- P-101 F-101 E-101 EC-101 V-101
their evaluation. These are listed in Table Pool Solids Water Electrolytic Salt Solution
Circulation Filter Heater Cell Make-up
1, which includes a brief description of Pump Vessel
each. After further evaluation, the stu-
dents recommended seven ideas for de-
sign. Three were chosen for complete V-101
design. The group of 14 students was
subsequently subdivided into three--
smaller groups for the product designs,
which were completed during the sec-
ond semester. Each group had a group salt
leader, and the chief engineer was
responsible for coordinating all three Swimming Pool
designs and representing the group
to the client.
E-101 EC-101
The eight ideas that were not recom- F-101
mended for complete designs were in
that category because students deter-
mined that either these products already P-101 To Drain
existed and current markets were satu- .
existed and current markets were satuFigure 1. Process flow diagram for salt chlorination cell
rated, or sufficient information did not and pool pumping system.
exist in the open literature for a com-
282 Chemical Engineering Education











plete product design. This latter reason was the primary
consideration for selection of the three products for final
design. We determined that sufficient information was avail-
able for a design, and that experiments would not be needed
to determine key parameters.
A short description of the zebra mussel control technology
product is presented below. Then descriptions of the salt
chlorination device and the magnetic refrigerator are pre-
sented in greater detail. Additional descrip-
tions of all of these products can be found on
our web site.141
... on
ZEBRA MUSSEL CONTROL give
In 1986, zebra mussels were first introduced
in the United States. They were discovered in exp
the Great Lakes, and their most likely source chem
was the ballast water of ships coming from
Europe. Their arrival became notorious when A s
water-intake pipes all over the Great Lakes re-
was t
gion started to become clogged with their
masses. It has been determined that a 4.5-ppm whet
aqeous alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride proc
solution can be used for a one-time kill of zebra cou
mussels and that continuous addition of 3-ppm suct
hydrogen peroxide inhibits further infestation. capst
The deliverables for this design included a We be
process flow diagram (PFD) for the pumping/ comp.
delivery system and an economic analysis of sugg
the annualized cost of installing and operating
the delivery system. A grating was designed for
the water-intake pipes to deliver these chemi-
cals. The project also included design of the
pumping system and an analysis of the tur-
bulent fluid mechanics at the injection point to ensure


e go
stud
uniq
eriej
ical
design
econ
'o de
her c
Fuct
Id b
cessf
one
lieve
leted
est t
als
chief


complete coverage and adequate dispersion/mixing of
the injected chemicals. More details of this design are
available elsewhere.l51

CHLORINE ALTERNATIVES IN POOLS
The salt chlorination device uses an electrolytic cell to
electrolyze salt into hypochlorous acid, the active pool dis-
infectant. This device eliminates the almost-daily require-
ment to add chlorinated chemicals to a pool. It also reduces
the chlorine smell because the device is in the "pump
room." Additionally, the bleaching and irritating effects
of chlorine in the pool are diminished because the hy-
pochlorite is concentrated only near the electrolytic cell.
It either does not exist within the pool or its concentra-
tion is much lower in the pool.
The deliverables for this part of the project included a PFD
for the pool pumping system, a design of the electrolytic
cell, a cost analysis of the components of the system, and an
analysis of the incremental cost of such a device versus the
Fall 2001


time saved by the pool owner. Decision variables for the
optimizations included the pool operating temperature, num-
ber of electrode plates in the cell, and their spacing.
The electrolytic cell and the pumping system were de-
signed as shown in Figure 1. Specifications and a list of
component parts are listed in Table 2 for both a commercial
and residential pool. An interesting feature of this design is
the need to quantify the cost of convenience of such a
device. The question is how much a home or
commercial pool owner would be willing to
pay for the convenience of not having to deal
wast with adding chemicals on a daily basis. It
tents a was estimated that the residential pool owner
ue would actually save several thousand dollars
nce in per year (based on seasonal operation, more
product for annual operation) by using this device.
n The additional cost of this device, however,
d goal adds $2,000 to $3,000 to the initial cost of
the pool. With a payback period of approxi-
termine
mately one year, the economics are clear.
heical This does not mean, however, that electro-
Iesigns lytic salt chlorination devices will be easy
e used to sell as add-ons. Clearly, this is a mar-
ully as keting issue that cannot be answered with-
projects. out customer surveys.


That the
designs


MAGNETIC REFRIGERATOR


lat both Magnetic refrigeration is based on the
were magnetocaloric effect. This effect, discov-
ved. ered in 1881, is defined as the response of a
solid to an applied magnetic field, which is
manifested as a change in its temperature.161
This effect is obeyed by all transition metals
and lanthanide-series elements. When a magnetic field is
applied, these metals tend to heat up. As the field is applied,
the magnetic moments align. When the field is removed, the
ferromagnet cools down as the magnetic moments become
randomly oriented. Gadolinium, a rare-earth metal, exhibits
one of the largest known magnetocaloric effects. It was used
as the refrigerant for many of the early magnetic refrigera-
tion designs. The problem with using pure gadolinium as the
refrigerant material is that it does not exhibit a strong
magnetocaloric effect at room temperature. More recently,
however, it has been discovered that arc-melted alloys of
gadolinium, silicon, and germanium are more efficient at
room temperature and that alloys with the appropriate tem-
perature properties for a home refrigerator exist. m7
The main difference between the magnetic refrigerator
and a conventional refrigerator is that the magnetic refrig-
erator needs no compressor, the most inefficient and expen-
sive part of the conventional gas-compression system. In
place of the compressor there are small beds containing the
open-ended assignment of identifying product design oppor-
283












tunities. The goal for the first semester was to identify as
many opportunities as possible and then progressively nar-
row the field until one or more would be selected for design
magnetocaloric material, a small pump to circulate the
heat transfer fluid, and a drive shaft to move the beds in
and out of the magnetic field. The heat transfer fluid
used in this process is water mixed with ethanol. This
mixture is used instead of traditional refrigerants that
pose a threat to the environment.
The ultimate goal of this technology is to develop a stan-
dard refrigerator for home use. The use of magnetic refrig-
eration has the potential to reduce both operating and main-
tenance costs when compared to the conventional compres-
sor-based refrigeration. The major advantages to the mag-
netic refrigeration technology over compressor-based refrig-
eration are potentially simpler design technology, a less
serious environmental impact, and lower operating costs.
The deliverables for this design included a device design,
the choice of working fluid, a cost analysis of the component
parts for a prototype, and an analysis of the cost reduction
per unit realized during mass production. The process flow
diagram for the magnetic refrigeration system is shown in
Figure 2. The component parts list for a prototype and oper-
ating costs are shown in Table 3. An ethanol/water mixture
serves as the heat transfer fluid for the system. The
magnetocaloric beds simultaneously move up and down,


TABLE 3
Capital and Operating Costs
for Magnetic Refrigeration

Capital Costs $
Hot Heat Exchanger $ 175


175
80
50
40
35
20
90
80
35
$780


$/Year
$40.00
2.50
$42.50


Cold Heat Exchanger
Magnetocaloric Material
Drive Shaft
Magnet
Tubing
Pump
Defrost Equipment
Fan Motors
Capillary Tube Dryer
Total Start-Up

Operating Costs
Drive Shaft Electricity
Pump Electricity
Total Operating


into and out of the magnetic field. When the beds are in the
magnetic field, they heat up, and when they leave the mag-
netic field, they cool down. The ethanol/water mixture passes
through the hot heat exchanger (E-101 in Figure 2), which
uses ambient air to transfer heat to the atmosphere and cool
the mixture. The mixture then passes over the copper plates
attached to the nonmagnetized cooler magnetocaloric beds
and is cooled. The cooled ethanol/water mixture then passes
through a heat exchanger (E-102), where it exchanges heat
with ambient air sucked through a fan (F-101). This cooled
air passes into the freezer to keep the freezer temperature at
approximately 0F. The cold air from the freezer is blown
into the refrigerator by the freezer fan (F-102). The tempera-
ture of the refrigerator section is kept at approximately 39"F.
The ethanol/water mixture then gets heated as it passes
through the copper plates attached to the magnetized warmer
magnetocaloric beds.
In the design of the magnetic refrigerator, students had to
use their knowledge of fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and
thermodynamics. They chose the ethanol/water solution by
investigating the thermodynamics of several different mix-
tures. The pump and tubing system for circulating the etha-
nol/water mixture was designed and optimized. The heat
exchangers were also designed. These are typical chemical
engineering calculations.
Some nonchemical engineering considerations were also
necessary, however. A system had to be designed to move
the two sets of beds of magnetocaloric material in and out of
the magnetic field. After consultation with mechanical engi-
neers, a chain-and-sprocket system was chosen. A more
complete design would require a control system. This was
not included in this project, however. Another consideration


E-101 E-102 P-101 D-101 M-101 V-101 B-101 B-102 F-101 F-102
Hot Heat Cold Heat Fluid Pump Drwe Electro Vessel Hot Cold Freezer Fan Refngerator Fan
Exchanger Exchanger Shaft Magnet Magnetocalonc Magnetocalonc
Beds Beds

D-101



V-101 .------- ---.
M-101 M-101"'

---------- ------------
(O'F) (39 'F)
Sootri RI .......
Rcoom Ar B-101 B-101
R .m---- --- ------------------ -j


F-102
B-102 0-102
Room Air

Figure 2. Process flow diagram for magnetic refrigeration.


Chemical Engineering Education











was the cost to mass produce refrigerators based on the
estimated cost of the prototype. After consulting with indus-
trial engineers, students discovered there is a learning curve
that can be used to estimate the cost to mass produce an
item, based on the number of units manufactured. The cost
per unit to produce millions of units approaches one-half the
cost of the prototype. Only after analysis was completed,
was the cost of the magnetic refrigerator found to be com-
petitive with existing refrigerators.

DISCUSSION
We believe this project was a success. We were unsure,
however, of the outcome until late in the second semester.
As stated earlier, one goal was to give students a unique
experience in chemical product design. A second goal was
to determine whether chemical product designs could be
used successfully as capstone projects. We believe that the
completed designs suggest that both goals were achieved.
The assignment on the year-long project is always open-
ended, but this assignment was more open-ended than usual.
Given the novelty of this assignment, our level of discomfort
was equivalent to that of the students early in the project.
Normally, we go into one of these open-ended assignments
with at least one idea for a project direction, though we
expect that students will identify many feasible alternatives.
In the worst-case scenario, the client can drive the project
toward that default option. In this case, the students deserve
credit for pulling these projects together. It was particularly
satisfying that, for all three projects, they identified an ob-
jective function and decision variables to do optimization,
even though these functions and variables were different
from those normally used in traditional process designs.
After the final presentation, the group was interviewed
and asked how they felt about having done this project
instead of a more traditional chemical process design (as
was done by their peers in the other half of the class). All the
group members said they felt it was a positive experience.
Their opinion is best summarized by one response: "It was
certainly more interesting than doing another process de-
sign." This is a reflection of the design orientation in our
curriculum, in which students had already completed a tradi-
tional process design in the sophomore and junior years and
had worked on different aspects of a traditional chemical
process in another portion of the senior design class. On the
semester course evaluations, there were no anomalies, one
way or the other. The instructor evaluations were similar to
previous years, there were no negative comments about the
product designs, and there were a few positive comments.
In retrospect, all three of these projects would be excellent
opportunities for multidisciplinary team experiences. As was
described for the magnetic refrigerator, there were aspects
appropriate for mechanical and industrial engineers. The salt
chlorination device would have benefited from the involve-
Fall 2001


ment of someone with a business background who could
help students understand potential issues such as consumer
acceptance of these devices, determining target prices, num-
ber of units to be manufactured, and development of a busi-
ness plan for the new product. The zebra mussel project
would normally have benefited from the contributions of a
biologist, but it turned out that one of the students (who was
the source of the idea) was already an expert on zebra
mussel biology from a high school science project. Chemi-
cal engineering departments or engineering colleges wish-
ing to implement a multidisciplinary design experience may
wish to consider a product design project for this purpose.

CONCLUSION
A unique capstone design experience involving product
design was quite successful. Students in groups of four or
five, led by a chief engineer, completed three such designs.
One product was chemical process technology and two were
devices. Students did an excellent job in applying chemi-
cal engineering principles to these designs and said they
felt very positive about the experience. Product designs
such as these offer the possibility for multidisciplinary
design projects, potentially involving engineering, sci-
ence, and business disciplines.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The following students from the WVU class of 2000 par-
ticipated in this project: Brian J. Anderson as chief engineer;
Matthew Billiter as group leader for the magnetic refrigera-
tor project; Jason Tennant as group leader for the salt chlori-
nation device project; Christopher Yurchick as group leader
for the zebra mussel control project; Kelli Adams, Nicolas
Martino, Matthew Miller, Matthew Plants, Lia Porco, Rob-
ert Rappold, Diana Roseborough, Lynn Roseborough, Byron
Walker, and Bonnie Welcker as group members.

REFERENCES
1. Cussler, E.L., "Do Changes in the Chemical Industry Imply
Changes in Curriculum?" Chem. Eng. Ed., 33(1), 12 (1999)
2. Cussler, E.L., and G. Moggridge, Chemical Product Design,
Cambridge Press, New York (2001)
3. Shaeiwitz, J.A., W.B. Whiting, and D. Velegol, "A Large-
Group Senior Design Experience: Teaching Responsibility
and Life-Long Learning," Chem. Eng. Ed., 30(1), 70 (1996)
4. Web site located at: /publications/projects/index.html>
5. Shaeiwitz, J.A., and R. Turton, "Chemical Product Design,"
Chemical Engineering Education in the New Millennium,
Topical Conference Proceedings, AIChE Annual Meeting,
Los Angeles, CA, 461, November (2000)
6. Gschneidner, K., V. Pecharsky, and C. Zimm, "Magnetic
Cooling for Appliances," International Appliance Technical
Conference Proceedings, 144, May (1999)
7. Gschneidner, K., and V. Pecharsky, "The Giant Magneto-
caloric Effect in Gd (SixGelx)4 Materials for Magnetic Re-
frigeration," Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Plenum
Press, New York, 1729 (1998) p
285











]f1 laboratory


USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

For Data Acquisition and Control



N.L. RICKER
University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195-1750


Much has been published on process control educa-
tion for chemical engineers. For example, an on-
going controversy regards the extent to which
classical linear analysis, such as frequency response, should
be included."' All would agree, however, that our under-
graduates should have experience in applying control con-
cepts to representative problems.
One possibility is to use computer simulations, which are
increasingly powerful, affordable, and user-friendly." '4 An
instructor can tailor simulations to illustrate key concepts of
varying complexity. Experimental systems are relatively in-
flexible, and have safety, cost, and space constraints.
Simulations, however, leave some students coldl5--an ideal
curriculum would supplement them with lab experiments.
One approach is to provide small-scale but realistic pro-
cesses. Excellent examples include those described by
Luyben,[61 and Lennox and Brisk,71] which are relatively com-
plex. We favor such experiments for our unit operations lab
and in our elective advanced process control course where
students have two to three weeks to complete a project.
We take a different approach in our required class on
process dynamics and control (ChemE 480) which encom-
passes ten weeks-three hours of lecture and three hours of
lab per week. The typical enrollment is fifty students. There
are four lab sections, each one limited to sixteen students
who work in teams. The lab portion employs eight identical
experimental units, each of which interfaces to a PC (Pentium
III, Windows NT). Professor Brad Holt designed the units to
be inherently safe, self-contained (they require electrical
power only), and sufficiently flexible to support a variety of
simple experiments.'18 They are inexpensive and have oper-
ated for more than a decade with little maintenance.
A key advantage is the ability to coordinate lab and lec-
ture, even when enrollment is large. In a given week, all
students perform the same experiment, which draws upon
the most recent lectures. Table 1 shows the topics covered in
2000-2001. Weeks one, eight, and nine are simulations (us-
ing MATLAB and Simulink as described by Bequette, et
al.[3]), but the others are experiments.
286


Our original lab computers were Macintosh systems, and
we used Mac WorkBench9g] for data acquisition and control.
WorkBench provided a student-friendly graphical interface
for configuring control strategies. In 1998 we switched to
Windows-based machines, however, and decided to stan-
dardize on LabVIEW,["'1 which was being used in most of
our research labs.
This worked well in the unit operations lab, where we
were able to preprogram LabVIEW VIs, but it was a disaster
in the control lab. Undergraduates found LabVIEW pro-
gramming to involve a steep learning curve. Moreover, the
LabVIEW graphical representation had little in common
with the block diagrams found in process control texts-a
pedagogical disadvantage.
Meanwhile, MATLAB and Simulink" were being used
routinely for ChemE 480 and our reactor design course.
Simulink was especially popular because of its intuitive
graphical interface. Thus, when The Mathworks released
their Data Acquisition (DAQ) Toolbox in 1999, we decided
to test it as a LabVIEW replacement. We already had an
educational site license for MATLAB and Simulink, and the
incremental cost of the DAQ Toolbox was negligible.
Direct DAQ Toolbox use requires high-level MATLAB
and object-oriented programming skills, however. We there-
fore packaged DAQ commands as Simulink objects, which
could be configured graphically, as in a simulation. The
standard Simulink Library blocks provided signal genera-
tion, signal processing, and display capabilities. We tested
this approach for the first time in the fall of 2000. It quickly


Larry Ricker received his BS in chemical
engineering from Michigan in 1970 and an
MS from Berkeley in 1972. He worked as a
systems analyst for Air Products and Chemi-
cals until 1975, when he returned to Berkeley
and was awarded the PhD in 1978. He then
joined the University of Washington faculty
of chemical engineering, where he spe-
cializes in process monitoring, control, and
optimization- with an emphasis on Model
Predictive Control.
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2001
Chemical Engineering Education











became a mainstay of both the control and unit operations
laboratories. In the control lab, for example, we found it easy
to implement both standard feedback and advanced techniques,
such as Model Predictive Control. Student reaction has been
very favorable. The remaining sections describe this software,
and illustrate some of the ways it can be used.

DATA ACQUISITION IN SIMULINK
Simulink is a simulation platform, not a real-time environ-
ment. To appreciate the advantages and limitations of our
approach, one must first understand Simulink's simulation
methodology. A Simulink diagram consists of interconnected
blocks (see Figure 1). Each block can model a continuous
system (such as CSTR), a discrete operation, or a hybrid of the

TABLE 1
ChemE 480 Lab Topics

Week Topic
1 MATLAB tools for analysis and dynamic simulation. Modeling in Simulink.
2 Introduction to experimental system, data acquisition, sensor calibration.
3 First-order systems. Dynamics of liquid level in tanks with controlled inflow
and gravity-driven outflow. Effect of tank geometry, outflow restriction.
4 First-order systems in series. Series connection of the two tanks studied in
Week 3. Noninteracting and interacting configurations.
5 Proportional control of liquid level (series connection as in Week 4). Effect
of controller gain on second-order response (damping, gain, offset, etc.).
6 PID control. Build a controller using Simulink blocks. Level control
experiments. Controller tuning.
7 Frequency response. Direct sine-wave forcing of tank levels (first-order and
second-order configurations). Pulse testing.
8 PID control of simulated "mystery" process (chosen from among several
possibilities). Measure essential process response characteristics. Tune
controller accordingly.
9 Cascade control of a simulated process. Process description given, but
transfer functions unknown.
10 Feedforward-feedback control of level in second tank (series connection)
with feed rate to first tank as measured disturbance.


two. Signals connect the blocks, and represent variables and
parameters that change as a function of time. During a simula-
tion, Simulink calls upon each block repeatedly (in a certain
order) for the information needed to calculate the signals.

A Simulink block can include MATLAB code, so it is
possible to use the MATLAB DAQ functions within
Simulink. The main problem we faced is that the simulated
time between successive block call varies (Simulink uses
variable-time-step integration by default), and the elapsed
real time between successive calls varies even more, de-
pending, e.g., on each block's complexity, the computing
power available, and resource competition from other pro-
grams running simultaneously. Thus, the real time required
to complete a sequence of block operations is unpredictable,
which is incompatible with DAQ needs. For example, one
usually wishes data to be acquired and control actions to be
taken at a specified frequency.

On the other hand, modern computers are very powerful
and can often simulate a complex system's response orders
of magnitude faster than real time. Therefore, our approach
was to slow Simulink down until it was closely aligned with
real time. To do so, we developed two DAQ block types

An A/D block to sample an analog signal
N A D/A block to send an analog signal to the equipment.
(We also developed a block to support data acquisition via
a serial communication link.)

These are discrete-operation blocks, which Simulink calls at
specified time instants, tk, where tk=kAt, k is an integer, and
At is a specified sampling period. Note that tk is measured in
terms of the simulated time, i.e., Simulink's independent
variable. Each time a DAQ block executes, it checks the
computer's real-time clock. If necessary, the block pauses
the simulation until the real time catches up with the simu-
lated time. It then executes its data acquisition and
allows the simulation to continue. This cycle re-
peats until a specified run time elapses or until the
user stops the experiment.

EXAMPLE:
SIMULTANEOUS DAQ AND MODELING
Figure 1 shows an example from Week 3 of the
ChemE 480 lab. The objective is to perform step-
tests of a first-order system, comparing its response
to a model. The physical system is the "short tank"
in Figure 2 (next page), which is cylindrical, about
25 cm tall, and 18 cm in diameter. The student
varies the flow rate via a 0-10 VDC signal that
regulates a miniature variable-speed gear pump
(labeled P1 in Figure 2). A sensor (not shown in
Figure 2) returns a 0-10 VDC signal in proportion
1ic to the tank's liquid level. For this experiment, all
valves except V2 are closed, and liquid leaves the


Figure 1. Simultaneous data acquisition and dynamo
modeling using Simulink.
Fall 2001











tank by gravity-driven flow (through a central drain pipe,
which has a series of small orifices drilled along its length).

Returning to Figure 1, the block labeled "Control Lab D/
A" controls the pumps. Here, the student is sending a step
function to pump PI, and a constant zero voltage to pump
P2, which is to remain turned off. The D/A Block is a
customized Simulink mask. When the student opens it, a
dialog asks for the sampling period (typically one second).
Hidden underneath the mask is our general-purpose D/A
block, which we configured by specifying the type of hard-
ware being used, the D/A channel numbers, etc. We have
chosen to spare the students these details.
Similarly, the block labeled "Control Lab A/D" periodi-
cally samples the voltages coming from the unit's two level
sensors. Again, the students need only specify the
sampling period. The output from each sensor is
going to a linear calibration block, which converts
the voltage to a liquid level (centimeters). Note that
in the prior week, the students configured the cali-
bration block. The signal from the differential pressure
sensor (DP) is irrelevant here. The "Coil" signal is
measuring the step response, and the student is plotting Tall
Tank
it on a real-time display.


The student is also plotting the output of a first-
order-plus-delay model, which is running in parallel
with the experimental unit. Its input signal is the
voltage being sent to the pump, from which the
student is subtracting the constant labeled Pls (the
steady-state pump voltage = 4.0 VDC). The result-
ing "deviation variable" feeds a standard Simulink
Transfer Fcn block (in this case, a continuous-time,
first-order system with a gain of 2.1 and a time
constant of 10.2 seconds). The transfer function out- -
Fi
put goes to a standard Transport Delay block. Its
output is a deviation variable, so the student adds
the steady-state level (18.2 cm) to allow a direct
comparison with the plotted experimental value.
Each run requires about two minutes, in order to allow the
experimental system to reach the new steady-state. The
real-time display focuses the student's attention on the speed
and magnitude of the two responses. The student can change
the model and rerun the experiment in order to observe the
result. The data can also be saved to MATLAB (via
Simulink's To Workspace block), for use with off-line data
analysis tools. For example, one could use the System Iden-
tification Toolbox to estimate model parameters. Figure 3
shows the fit of a first-order-plus-delay model (solid line) to
the response of an over-damped, second-order system (two
tanks in series). Here, the sampling period is two seconds
and for clarity we are showing every fourth data point only.
In subsequent weeks, the teams use standard Simulink
blocks to configure and test feedback controllers, ranging
from proportional to PID with anti-windup and derivative-
288


on-measurement features, as described by Chung and
Braatz."l2j The students apply these in feedforward/feedback
and cascade combinations. Since they already know how
to configure Simulink simulations, the transition to real-
time control is easy and they can implement strategies of
surprising sophistication.
For example, in Week 10 we run a contest to see which
team can design a feedback/feedforward system providing
the minimum integral absolute error (IAE) for a given dis-
turbance. We make the problem more challenging by adding
transport delay to the feedback loop. In each run, the students
calculate the IAE and display it in real time using Simulink's
absolute value, integration, and digital display blocks. This
motivates them to investigate the reasons for large IAE values
and to modify their strategy and tuning constants accordingly.
I


gure 2. Schematic of the
experimental unit.


2.5-


DISCUSSION
The Simulink platform also al-
lows plug-and-play testing for
modern control techniques. For
example, Bemporad, et al.,[13]
have developed an MPC block
for Simulink. It was intended for
simulations, but it provided ex-
cellent control of our lab unit.
The software solved the MPC
quadratic program in real time,
consuming only a small fraction
of the specified two-second sam-
pling period. Installation was no
more difficult than for any other
Simulink block.
There are some potential disad-
vantages, however, including
A There is no guarantee that


2

1.5




o.s




-0.5 --
0 50 100 150 200 250
Elapsed time, Seconds
Figure 3. Off-line analysis of step-response data to
identify a first-order-plus-delay model.
Chemical Engineering Education


Storage Tank


Deiation from steady state liquid level, cm











data acquisition will occur at precisely spaced time intervals. In
particular, Simulink initialization overhead causes the first sample
to be delayed by as much as a second or two. A heavy computa-
tional burden-e.g., another program running temporarily in the
background-could also delay execution. Otherwise, however,
DAQ actions typically occur within 0.05 seconds of the intended
real time. The A/D block's time output (see Figure 1) allows the
user to monitor the correspondence between real and simulated
time.
A Output signals from the A/D block are piecewise constant. If the
sampling period is small, relative to the dominant system time
constants, the impact will be insignificant. but it could be an issue
in certain applications. For example, a typical rule of thumb for
sampled-data implementation of PID feedback control is that the
sampling period should be less than five percent of the combined
delay and dominant time constant.1141
A Similarly, the D/A block updates its analog output at the sampling
instants only.

We have used sampling periods as small as 0.5 seconds,
but 1.0 second and greater is more realistic. Thus, our ap-
proach would be a poor choice for applications demanding
>1 Hz (or those having safety issues!). Fortunately, most
process control systems operate on a compatible time scale,
and this has not been a problem in the ChemE 480 lab-even
though we cover continuous systems only. In fact, students
rarely notice that DAQ is discontinuous unless we point it out.
We also use the software in our follow-on (elective) con-
trol course, which covers sampled data systems. The stu-
dents are then in a position to understand the impact of
reduced sampling frequency and to experiment with this
additional design parameter.
Our approach can also be used to provide real-time simu-
lation. For example, one could include a "dummy" DAQ
block in a simulation to synchronize it with real time,
allowing a student to interact with the simulated process
through Simulink input and display blocks. Such a real-
time simulation could also be controlled by software
residing on another computer, either via the DAQ sig-
nals, a serial link, or other means.
It's worth considering the more powerful commercially-
available alternatives. For example, The MathWorks offers
the "Real Time Workshop" and "xPC Target" packages that
provide additional functionality and can operate at much higher
sampling frequencies. A classroom license for these two pack-
ages costs about $88 per seat (compared to $18 for the DAQ
Toolbox) and require a C++ compiler (about $50 per seat).

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
The DAQ Toolbox supports certain National Instruments,
Agilent, and ComputerBoards hardware. See the MathWorks
web site for up-to-date hardware compatibility information.
We use the National Instruments PCI 6024E, which has 12-
bit resolution, handles 16 (single-ended) analog inputs and
two analog outputs, supports digital I/O, and listed for $595
in 2000. Data acquisition via serial communication requires
only that the computer have one or more serial ports-the
Fall 2001


DAQ Toolbox is not needed.

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
The Simulink DAQ blocks described here require
MATLAB Version 6 (Release 12), Simulink Version 4 (Re-
lease 12), and DAQ Toolbox Version 2 (Release 12). The
author, Professor Ricker (), will
provide the DAQ blocks and documentation for class-
room use at no cost.

CONCLUSIONS
The Simulink-based data acquisition approach is a useful
tool for undergraduate process control education. Students
can perform simulations and work with physical systems
from within a single software package, which is conceptu-
ally simpler, more flexible, and less expensive than a typical
industrial control system. Sampling frequencies are limited
to 1 Hz or lower, however. Commercially available alterna-
tives provide faster sampling and other enhancements.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
ChemE 480 TA Mike Johnson helped with the initial
software testing and provided much useful feedback. Profes-
sor Brad Holt was instrumental in setting up our control lab
and promoting the use of a student-friendly graphical inter-
face for data acquisition and control. Professor Frank Doyle,
III, and the anonymous reviewers provided constructive com-
ments on the first draft of this paper.

REFERENCES
1. Young, B.R., D.P. Mahoney, W.Y. Svrcek, "A Real-Time Approach to
Process Control Education," Chem. Eng. Ed., 34(3), 278 (2000)
2. Cooper, D., and D. Dougherty, "A Training Simulator for Computer-
Aided Process Control Education," Chem. Eng. Ed., 34(3), 252 (2000)
3. Bequette, B.W., KD. Schott, V. Prasad, V. Natarajan, and R.R. Rao,
"Case Study Projects in an Undergraduate Process Control Course,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 32(3), 214 (1998)
4. Doyle, F.J. III, E.P. Gatzke, and R.S. Parker, Process Control Mod-
ules, Prentice-Hall PTR, New Jersey (2000)
5. White, S.R., and G.M. Bodner, "Evaluation of Computer-Simulation
Experiments in a Senior-Level Capstone ChE Course," Chem. Eng.
Ed., 33(1), 34 (1999)
6. Luyben, W.L., "A Feed-Effluent Heat Exchanger/Reactor Dynamic
Control Laboratory Experiment," Chem. Eng. Ed., 34(1), 56 (2000)
7. Lennox, B., and M. Brisk, "Network Process Control Laboratory,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 32(4), 314 (1998)
8. Holt, B.R., R. Pick, and T. Leach, "An Undergraduate Process Control
Laboratory," Proceedings of the IFAC Meeting on Advances in Control
Education, 197, Boston, MA (1991)
9. Strawberry Tree, a subsidiary of IOTech, Inc., strawberrytree.com>
10. National Instruments,
11. The MathWorks
12. Chung, S.H., and R.D. Braatz, "Teaching Anti-Windup, Bumpless
Transfer, and Split-Range Control," Chem. Eng. Ed., 32(3), 220 (1998)
13. Bemporad, A., M. Morari, and N.L. Ricker, "The MPC Simulink
Library, Automatic Control Laboratory," ETH, Report AUTO1-08
(2000)
14. Marlin, T.E., Process Control, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, 369 (2000) 0
289











7 curriculum


ASYNCHRONOUS LEARNING OF


CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING



NEELESH VARDE, H. SCOTT FOGLER
The University of Michigan Ann Arbor MI 48109-2136


With the emergence and widespread use of comput-
ers during the past twenty years, technology has
advanced further than most people ever thought
possible. This progression has had a significant impact on
education. Through ever-increasing technological advance-
ments, education has been able to expand to better meet the
diverse needs of students. An excellent review of the litera-
ture by Kadiyala and Crynes'" provides evidence that instruc-
tional technology enhances learning. With these advances, a
variety of student learning styles described by the Felder and
Soloman Inventory'12 (e.g., active, reflective, global, sequen-
tial) can be addressed, thereby reducing the need for a synchro-
nous course with a lecture. Wallace and Mutooni'31 and Felder
and Brentl41 discuss these advantages.
Asynchronous Learning (AL) is the concept that students
can learn at different locations and at different times. AL is
opposite to synchronous learning, where students learn at the
same time and in the same place in traditional activities such
as classroom lecture and laboratory sessions. Recently,
Dutton, et al., 's showed that on-line AL students in their course
performed better than the lecture students. The asynchro-
nous learning environment provides students with interac-
tive teaching materials and tools for registration, instruction,
and discussion. Student-to-student interaction is provided by
a common "conference room," (either an online chat room, a
bulletin board, or an e-mail group) that allows everyone to
post a message, read a message, or respond to a message, all
within the same shared space. Student-faculty/teaching as-
sistant interactions are primarily through e-mail.
Technology has facilitated the use of AL and has now made
it a viable alternative to synchronous learning. Today, with
widespread Internet use, as well as faster connections and
more powerful computers, it is easy to provide interactive
lessons. Students can communicate with other students, read
and interact with the course summary notes on the web, and
even check their own grades.
Because AL involves the ability to maintain communica-
tion without the necessity of having to meet at the same place
and at the same time as their classmates, students who work


s-W E..xL-ms- l

- - - - -- -- -





Figure 1. Organizational structure of the course.

during the day or who have family responsibilities at home can
easily take a class without having to commute to a college or
university at night. Another benefit is that because AL involves
self-paced study, students who have more important priorities
in one week can easily move their coursework to a more conve-
nient time. Because of these benefits, AL has emerged as a popu-
lar and effective alternative for many students.

COURSE CONTENT
The course, "Principles of Chemical Reaction Engineer-
ing," covers the fundamentals of chemical reaction engineer-
ing and includes rate laws, kinetics, mechanisms of homoge-
neous and heterogeneous reactions, analysis of rate data, mul-
tiple reactions, adiabatic and non-adiabatic reactors, safety,
and multiple reactions with heat effects. Emphasis is placed
on logic rather than memorization of equations and the con-
ditions to which they apply.

Neelesh Varde received his BS in Chemical Engineering from the Univer-
sity of Michigan in 2000. Neel is from Plymouth, Michigan, and was the
teaching assistant for the asynchronous learning course the summer term
of 2000. He is currently a PhD student at the University of Illinois, Urbana.
H. Scott Fogler is the Vennema Professor of Chemical Engineering at the
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. His research is in the area of
flow and reaction in porous media. He has published 175 research papers
in that area and has graduated 28 PhD students from his research group.
He is also the author of two textbooks.
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2001
Chemical Engineering Education













* Chapter Outline

4
L*ng R. oen




B MInan k
3 Int w Computer Moulkes
B Ilau A anna f orhen ai g uBo niic lal PC

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I tndPe ,- 4 PreIan Drotp luth Reaion t- .freo ,MCon
HOME 1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
APPENDICES
Figure 2. Chapter outlines.


- 1


HOME 1 2 345 91011 121314 1

TI

C-B R--,-- -d -u 9- --PI~do


na..... lh rl in
HOME 12l3.ml.45c.6l0 .10 1 1 a 13


HOME 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
_________ ____ ,^ d


Figure 3. Lecture notes.


Fall 2001


COURSE STRUCTURE
The class, normally a four-credit course for junior stu-
dents, is divided into 21 self-paced units. Each unit con-
tains a textbook and a CD reading assignment, mandatory
homework problems, recommended study problems, and
solved problems. In addition to the 21 units, students
must take two tests and a final exam, and complete an
open-ended project (OEP). Figure 1 shows an organi-
zational structure of the course.

CLASS RESOURCES
Because of the enormous resources associated with the
course that had been built up over the years,"Principles of
Chemical Reaction Engineering" was the first class cho-
sen in the Department of Chemical Engineering to be of-
fered through asynchronous learning. In addition to the text-
book, Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering,[61 each
student is provided with an interactive CD and the class
web page ( asyLearn> or ~cre>). The interactive CD includes:
Chapter outlines
Web modules
Sununarny notes with audio clips
Equation derivations
Self tests
Video clips
Living example problems
FAQs
Interactive computer modules

The Chapter Outlines (see Figure 2) give the user an
easy index to "surf' the CD ROM.The Summary Notes,
which are interactive (see Figure 3), with their numerous
derivations, examples, links, self-tests (Figure 4), and au-
dio clips (in both wave and mp3 format) are a nice supple-
ment to the text material and are ideal not only for the glo-
bal learner, but also for the active and sequential learners.

Because questions asked by the students from year-to-
year are very similar (if not the same), one of the key in-
gredients for a successful AL course is the collection and
display of these frequently asked questions (FAQs). The
FAQs (see Figure 5) section provides answers to the most
commonly asked questions in previous classes.

Simulations are also a major component of the CD, as
web modules, interactive computer modules (ICMs) (see
Figure 6) and living-example problems are also included.
The web modules (Figure 7) are stand-alone lessons that
show novel applications of the chemical reaction engineer-
ing principles. Each ICM has a description of the module, a
review of the fundamentals, and an interactive scenario on
which the students are graded by the computer (Figure 8).

The living-example problems are a new concept. The
examples in the textbook are also on the CD ROM, so they
291


rSTR


L
i F [ _
L


PBR












can easily be loaded onto the student's computer. They are designed
so that students can easily vary parameters in the text example prob-
lems in order to understand real-life problems and ask "what if" ques-
tions that will allow them to develop their creative and critical think-
ing skills. The eight ICMs and six Web Modules are well suited for
active and sequential learners. The ICMs allow students to ask "what
if" questions as well as enjoy practicing reaction engineering con-
cepts, while the Web Modules enable students to learn how reaction
engineering principles can be applied to a variety of real-world situa-
tions. The CD also features a Professional Reference Shelf that in-
cludes material important to the practicing engineer, which is typi-
cally not included in most chemical reaction engineering courses.

ADDRESSING DIFFERENT LEARNING STYLES

Research has shown that not everyone learns the same way. One of
the more cited ways to classify the different learners is given by Felder
and Soloman"'l

Active Learners vs. Reflective Learners
Global Learners vs. Sequential Learners
Visual Learners vs. Verbal Learners
Sensing Learners vs. Intuitive Learners

Virtually all the different learning styles are addressed in the re-
sources available for the AL course. For example, the global learner
can obtain an overview of the material from the web summary notes
before diving into the text for the details. The sequential learner can
interact with the "Derive" hot buttons to see the details of the deriva-
tion of an equation. Owing to the large number of hot buttons ("De-
rive," "Self-Test," "Example," and "Link"), the active learner is con-
tinually able to participate in the learning process. The reflective learner
style is addressed through the self-tests and the ICMs multiple-choice
quizzes where the student has a chance to pause and think about an an-
swer before proceeding further. The visual learner is able to follow the
trends through plotting the variables from the solutions to the Polymath
living-example problems. The audio clips in the summary notes, which
are more like short "sound bytes" than reading the text material, are a
welcome resource to the verbal learner, as is the textbook material.

DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS

Thoughts on critical thinking were taken from R.W. Paul's book,
Critical Thinking, [7 and from the Oklahoma State University Phillips
Lecture of April, 1997.'8 A number of assignments asked the students
to write a question about the homework problem that required critical
thinking and to explain why it involved critical thinking. Specifically,
Paul's six types of Socratic questions were used. The questions were
then collected and e-mailed back to the students-they were asked to
vote on the best critical-thinking question and to make a statement as
to why they felt it was the best. Seeing, judging, and comparing other
students' questions further develop their critical-thinking skills.

In accordance with ABET requirements, there is an open-ended
project involved in the class. The purpose of the project is to give each
member of the class a chance to practice and develop their creative-
thinking skills. To do this, students need to learn and bring creative-
thinking skills (Osborn's Vertical Thinking, Futuring, Analogy,
292


DeBono's Lateral Thinking) to bear on a specific prob-
lem.19 The specific topics chosen were researched in-
dependently in groups of two. These topics represent
situations that can be modeled using the principles of
chemical reaction engineering learned in this course.
The type of modeling includes reactor schemes, math-











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P__ -a-------.. -.0 --

Self Test
A. Which of thd foowl n r,,gctio order is most ffcted by prnun drop?
b) fa order
*)third odr
d) rl of rd4r
SoLbon A

a) inaorc th o onvernion
b) dn rI t con
) naoot ffl dc rocoovaw .i
d) prodAce ngativ con
o m d bov whr 0 v l be if tlfhdr wr prct-rc & p.



Figure 4. Self-tests.

[P .. .


Figure 5. FAQs
Chemical Engineering Education


Chaper 3
i Wh a th freqWacy ftor r and hre C cW g v .e for it?
Who is it dpnde -?



2 Why un the lim-n ract or basis of calclaion?
nIf re iatolreact ta not chtor a the ba- of cilculaoD- mone
could caculat a NEGATIVE concetron See Example 3-5 (p 90)
3 What is de rklcohip between t he em C rhastrb (A + B<-
>c, r.-

and thed k n d.e rte
,,, rm. qb, conr td k spe. c r d onm ta ha
umts of te The concentr~on equbntm co-nunt K, doe not
4 H do dthe k (pcrifi region rate) depend on pn r, or
does it?
ONLY In m rar u nes t very hgh pessoch 6000
n s k fun on of pressure See p 220 and CD-ROMon
*Cntquog hat you rmad
5 What isth. freuncy fator,A, inth Arrhnniu quaion I
wantlo know whutiphsicia cm gis md/rcwha it is a
fequneyty famr.
Anhr s Equ, on t k = AeJRT
Thec fequnny factor. A is the coeffic-ent of to, pononal tn It ho
the swmat k fsst slased to t numbe, ,oco&Leo between

6 What does the ov. adr ofd h per lawmodbl indicate?
On cn classic, eaons by ovher ovo-rdir action













ematical models, evaluation of constants, analysis of assump-
tions, etc. Resources that can be used include web sites, jour-
nals, books, and class materials. The topics for the summer
2000 OEP included

Drinking and Driving (a study of alcohol uptake by

CO Emanole 9-I Startup of a CSTo
3.000


KEY: 2.400
-Ca
--Cb
1.800


1.200


0.600


0.000
o.ooo I i 1 I

0.000 0.900 1.600 2.400 3.200 4.000
OISPLA OPTIONS
g. Other variables in GRAPH 4orm. i. Sa.e variables in TABULAO forn.
d. Urte results to file. s. Summary table. F3 to prepare to print graph.
SF for neu problem or library. i-2 to taku changes.


CO Example 9-1 Startup of a CSTR
Cquations Initial values
-+ d(Ca)ld(I)=lt/auitCa-Ca)nra 0
d(Cb)/d(t)=l,/taut(CbO-Cb)+rb 3
d(Cc)/d(tl)=l/Iaui(-Cc3 rc 0
d(Cn);d( )= t aus(CnO-C0) 0
d(rT)d(1)=IUAR(T-T--Fa-rOThataCpl(T-TO)>(-36000)raO U)/NCp 75
tau=.L
UA=70000
Tas85
FaO=40D
T0O75
k;=16.96elt2exp(-32400/1.987/(rT460n )
Fb0=5000
FnO=20
ro0=0
ra=-k Ca

Differential Equations: 5 Auxiliary Equations: 24
POOBLECM OPTIONS U
a/d//u. to add/deletre/hange/duplicate an equation. t. to change ttle .
/f. to s.c inllal fn.ia values. T ., Pop, PgD. to v pointer.
to set independent variable snae r. to Pestar, froth current condition
F7 to .olo. 1r 8f. 6 for help. F3 to print.

Figure 6. Living-example problems.












Welcome to Cobr. Problem


welcome t totfr CIbrt Probfnm'


body)
The Poison Bite Problem (a study of venom and anti-
venom effect of a poisonous snake)
The Antibiotic Model (a study concerning antibiotic
concentration in blood with bacterial growth and
death)

The students divided almost equally between the "Drink-
ing and Driving" and "The Poison Bite Problem." The "Drink-
ing and Driving Problem" is currently being developed into
a full web module.

STUDENT PERSPECTIVE

AL is also advantageous from the students' perspective.
Course structure in the chemical engineering department is
oriented so that certain required classes are only offered ev-
ery other semester. Because of this arrangement, a student
who accepts a co-op job assignment is often at a disadvan-
tage, having to take an extra semester to a year to graduate.
There are also students who barely fail a course and want to
take it again immediately. AL fulfills this need, recognizing
that a student who is fresh with the material is more likely to
do better than a student who has been away from the subject
for a while. Finally, we realized that some students have ob-
ligations (family, work, etc.) that do not allow them to regularly
meet for a class. With AL, these students can study when they
have free time-they don't have to worry about missing an im-
portant lecture or lab session.

For students taking the course asynchronously, many as-
pects of the class have to be logistically considered, includ-
ing: submission of assignments, taking exams, getting an-
swers to questions, and the nature of the open-ended project.
Assignment submission and home-problem assignments were
submitted in three ways: by fax, mail, or e-mail as a graphics
attachment (a gif orjpeg image file). The most popular choice
for turning in assignments was e-mail submission. The hand-
written homework solutions were scanned and attached to an
e-mail message to the teaching assistant (TA). The assignments


Reaction
Parameters

A-B


01e


C~8a e vw. Topttaio Feed Parameters
Sg............. TemperaturB

OS fI 0

100 2 i
: /; Flow Rate
i // i i i


m U I


Heat of Reaction Parameter Options



(EATER) teo nteftr metrbo
-d(EStotiitsimflo
i O*forinripwarfwtter


Figure 7. Web modules.


Heat Exchanger Parameters
Temperature
Exchanger Area (A)




UA = 1088 J/(sec*K)


K--I


Figure 8. ICMs.


Fall 2001











were graded in the normal way and returned to the students.
Once the homework assignment is turned in, the student is given
an assignment-specific password for each problem set to view
the solution on the web.
Two exams and a final were required for the class. Because
students were scattered throughout the United States, a proc-
tor system was developed. Students were allowed to take ex-
ams only under the supervision of a proctor, who had to be
either a supervisor at work, another college professor, or a
high school teacher. The exams were mailed to the proctor
and returned by the proctor to the TA or the professor. The
proctor had to sign a statement indicating that he/she moni-
tored the test at all times and had not observed any violations of
the University of Michigan College of Engineering's honor code.
Students will inevitably have questions regarding home-
work assignments and conceptual understanding of course
material. (They are asked to read through the FAQs related to
the chapter first.) A teaching assistant is "on e-mail call" for
most of the day, so questions can be answered with a mini-
mum amount of turn-around time, usually less than a day. On
the average, the TA received about 10-15 e-mails a week.
Students also have the opportunity to send questions to the
class e-mail list.
Grading in this course, whether synchronous or
ashynchronous, has always been on the following straight
scale basis:
A 90-100
B 80-89
C 70-79
D 66-70
E Below 66
The weighting of each component is


Homework
OEP
Comprehensive Problem
Exam I
Exam II
Final Exam
Total


20%
5%
5%
20%
25%
25%
100%


The comprehensive problem is a specific problem in the text-
book, encompassing one of the main goals of the class, to solve
a chemical reaction engineering problem involving multiple re-
actions with heat effects. Usually either problem P8-29, P8-30,
or similar ones, are assigned as the comprehensive problem.

BARRIERS
There are many advantages of an asynchronous class, but
there are many barriers as well. We were able to remedy a
few of these barriers, but others have no apparent solution.
One easily solved barrier was related to the web page. The
course web page has links to the overall chemical reaction
294


engineering home page, which we initially suggested the stu-
dents visit frequently. Students using a modem were having
difficulty listening to the audio files-they were rather large
to download (about one megabyte each). To compensate for
this and solve the problem, we supplied an updated CD con-
taining the audio files, which effectively removed the bottle-
neck (download time) from the studying and learning process.
We also made the asynchronous-learning course home page
very easy to download, with no large image files.
Another potential barrier we were able to solve had to do
with students asking questions and getting quick answers.
When students encountered a frustrating concept or question,
we knew that if they they could e-mail the TA and get a quick
response, they would be more likely to keep working on it
that same period.
Perhaps the biggest barrier that is common in AL courses
is student self-discipline. Without specific deadlines, it is
human nature to put off studying and learning until the last
possible moment. We found that after only one month, just
two students out of seven were keeping pace with homework
submission. To combat this in the next AL offering of this
course, we will implement three or four deadlines for home-
work. We have already placed deadlines for taking the first
test and believe that a few more deadlines would help stu-
dents stay on track for the course.

SUMMER 2000 STUDENT PROFILE
Seven students were enrolled in the course: all seven
passed. Six were University of Michigan students and one
was junior ChE student from Northwestern University. Five
students were off campus at their co-op work or summer in-
ternship and only two students were on the Ann Arbor cam-
pus. Four students from Winter Term 2000 were required to
repeat the course because of their winter-term grade. The final
grades in the AL course coincided with the students' GPA's from
previous courses at the university. The final grade for the course
was a 3.04 (two As, one B+, two B-s, and two C+s).

SUMMER 2001
Eleven students were enrolled in the course, one of whom
was out of the country. Based on the progress of the students
in the summer 2000 course, the time lines for completing the
various units were revised, an additional exam was set, and
the window for taking the exams was specified.

OUTCOMES
At the end of the course the students were asked to fill out
a questionnaire/evaluation of the course. In addition, one-
on-one interviews were carried out during the fall term a
month or so after the course had been completed. Based on
the interviews, questionnaires, exams, and exam scores, there
appeared to be no significant difference between the seven
students who took the course asynchronously during the sum-
Chemical Engineering Education











mer of 2000 and the 135 students who took the course syn-
chronously during winter term 2000.
One major discovery by the AL students was a realization
that responsibility for learning the material was transferred
from the instructor to themselves. Recognition of this fact is
desirable in every course, not just courses offered asynchro-
nously, as it helps the student develop life-long learning skills.
Many AL students said their self-confidence increased as a
result of successfully completing the course. All students liked
the flexibility of the AL course and that it was offered during
the summer. Two students commented that when they were
in cooperative learning groups during the winter term, they
felt rushed by the other group members and were under stress
to understand the material, in contrast to the summer 2000
course, which was virtually self-paced.
The next time the course is offered we plan to place dead-
lines for taking the exams at specified times during the term.
In addition, to help the students proceed at a reasonable pace
two or three cumulative deadlines may be imposed.
All of the students appreciated the resources available to
them, namely the Interactive Computer Modules, the Summary
Notes with "Derive" hot buttons, extra examples, audios, and
self tests. The key activities of a successful AL course are to:
Provide a variety of learning resources to accommo-
date the various learning styles described by Felder
and Soloman. 21
Keep the student involved through interacting with the
computer and the material (hot buttons, simulations).
Provide a number ofFAQs collected from previous
courses since the AL instructor is not immediately
available and a number of the same questions come up
year after year.
Help the student come to a realization that the respon-
sibility of learning material is on his/her shoulders.
There is no instructor around to answer questions after
class
Provide incentives that will keep the students on the
time line.

The principle negative of the course is the lack of face-to-
face interaction between student, faculty, graduate student
instructors, and other students. Also, the chat room/bulletin
board was not effective, perhaps in part because of the small
number of students. Future AL courses may use professional
software to facilitate a "real time" chat room.
With respect to the open-ended problems, generating and
developing ideas proved to be quite difficult solely through
e-mail and telephone conversations. Only one or two of the
open-ended problems were of above-average quality. Also,
if students could not find the answer to a question in the FAQ's,
they sometimes they had to wait for the TA to respond if, for
example, the TA had checked his e-mail just before they signed
on. Another drawback was that some of the questions were
Fall 2001


difficult to explain by just using e-mail-especially those
where sketches were required.
A teacher can make every effort to motivate students to
learn, but in the end it is the student who is responsible for
learning the course material. AL places a greater responsibil-
ity on the student to learn as compared with a traditional class,
but we believe it is good practice for the workplace. When
students move into industrial jobs, there will be many times
when they will have to assume the full responsibility for learn-
ing. The AL course prepares them for this environment in ad-
dition to giving them confidence that they can learn on their
own. In the exit survey, most of the students cited increased
self-confidence as one of the greatest positives in the AL course.

SUMMARY
Chemical reaction engineering was taught asynchronously
using e-mail, the web, texts, and CD-ROMs. The wide vari-
ety of resources given to the students allowed for most of the
learning styles described by Felder and Soloman. The stu-
dents in the course performed well in the AL course and en-
joyed it. Two major advantages of the chemical reaction
course were that it addressed a number of the learning styles
identified in Felder/Soloman's inventory and that it provided
great flexibility in time and location for learning the subject.
The students developed a greater sense of self-confidence
and gained a realization that the responsibility for learning
was transferred from the professor to the student.
The major drawback was a lack of face-to-face communi-
cation between student, GSIs, and faculty. After reviewing
the course structure and outcomes from summer 2000, the
chemical engineering department's curriculum committee
voted to accept the asynchronous learning version of the chemi-
cal reaction engineering course as equivalent to the synchro-
nous version of the course offered during the academic year.

REFERENCES
1. Kadiyala, M., and B. L. Crynes, "A Review of the Literature on
Effectiveness of Use Information Technology," J. of Eng. Ed., 89,
177(2000)
2. Felder and Soloman felder/public/ ILSdir/styles.htm>
3. Wallace, D.R., and P Mutooni, "A Comparative Evaluation of World
Wide Web-Based and Classroom Teaching," J. Eng. Ed., 86, 211
(1997)
4. Felder, R., and R. Brent, "Is Technology a Friend or Foe of Learn-
ing?" Chem. Eng. Ed., 34, 326 (2000)
5. Dutton, J., M. Dutton, and J. Perry, "Do On-Line Students Perform
as Well as Lecture Students?" J. Eng. Ed., 90, 131 (2001)
6. Fogler, H. Scott, The Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering,
3rd ed., Prentice Hall (1999)
7. Paul, R.W., Critical Thinking Foundation for Critical Thinking, Santa
Rosa. CA (1995)
8. Fogler, H.S., "Teaching Critical Thinking, Creative Thinking, and
Problem Solving in the Digital Age," Phillips Lectureship, Okla-
homa State University, April (1997)
9. Fogler, H. Scott, and Steven E. LeBlanc, Strategies for Creative
Problem Solving, Prentice Hall (1995) 0











MI -curriculum


INTRODUCING EMERGING


TECHNOLOGIES IN THE CURRICULUM

Through a Multidisciplinary

Research Experience


JAMES A. NEWELL, STEPHANIE H. FARRELL, ROBERT P. HESKETH, AND C. STEWART SLATER
Rowan University Glassboro, NJ 08028


Students and employers clamor for more exposure to
emerging technologies such as biotechnology, ad-
vanced materials, pharmaceutical production, particle
technologies, food engineering, and green engineering.[, 2] It
is difficult, however, to work these topics into an already-
overcrowded chemical engineering curriculum, which aver-
ages 133 credits.[31 Often, professors attempt to address this
problem by developing and assigning homework problems
within their classes that touch on these issues.[4-6 Although
these are certainly worthwhile activities, homework problems
and unit operations lab experiments usually do not give stu-
dents the level of exposure that they and their future employ-
ers want. In some programs, selected undergraduate students
are given the opportunity to work with a professor on his or her
research through an honors program. Unfortunately, only a small
fraction of students are able to participate in these programs.
At the same time, industry reports that new hires lack ex-
perience in working in multidisciplinary team environments
and that effectiveness in teams is an essential skill for profes-
sional success.[7-9 Many universities are responding to this
challenge by introducing multidisciplinary laboratory or de-
sign courses.'10-"' At Rowan University, we have developed a
method of addressing these diverse challenges, while also
implementing pedagogically valuable hands-on learning ex-
periences'12- 3" and technical communications.[ 4-E 6
At Rowan University, all engineering students participate
in engineering clinics in an eight-semester course sequence.1E71
In the junior and senior years, these clinic courses involve
multidisciplinary student teams working on semester-long or
year-long research projects led by an engineering professor.
Most of these projects have been sponsored by regional in-
dustries. Student teams have worked on emerging topics in-
cluding enhancing the comprehensive properties of Kevlar,
examining the performance of polymer fiber-wrapped con-
crete systems, advanced vegetable processing technology,
metals purification, combustion, membrane separation pro-
cesses, and many other areas of interest. Every engineering
296


student participates in these projects and benefits from hands-
on learning, exposure to emerging technologies, industrial con-
tact, teamwork, experience, and technical communications.
Although many of the projects are sponsored by industry,
some projects have sponsorship from federal or state agen-
cies, including the National Science Foundation, the Depart-
ment of Energy, and the Environmental Protection Agency.
Some projects are self-funded by the department to facili-
tate the seed research needed to attract corporate sponsor-
ship for future projects.

THE CLINIC SEQUENCE
In 1992, local industrialist Henry M. Rowan made a $100
million donation to the then Glassboro State College in order
to establish a high-quality engineering school in southern New
Jersey. This gift has enabled the university to create an inno-
vative and forward-looking engineering program. Since 1996,

James A. Newell is Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at Rowan
University. He serves as Secretary/Treasurer of the Chemical Engineering
Division of ASEE and has published in Chemical Engineering Education,
The International Journal of Engineering Education, Carbon, andHigh Per-
formance Polymers. He received the 2001 Ray Fahien Award and the 1997
Dow Outstanding New Faculty Award in the North Midwest Region.
Stephanie Farrell is Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at Rowan
University. Her research interests lie in the areas of biotechnology and con-
trolled release and she has actively published novel experimental methods
for undergraduate education. She is the recipient of the 1999 Dow Out-
standing New Faculty Award for the Mid-Atlantic region.
Robert Hesketh is Professor of Chemical Engineering at Rowan Univer-
sity. He is the 1999 recipient of the Ray Fahien Award, the 1998 recipient of
the Dow Outstanding New Faculty Award, and a two-time winner of the
Martin Award. In 2000, he co-chaired the first topical conference on educa-
tion at the National AIChE meeting in Los Angeles. He serves as member-
ship chair of the ChE division of ASEE.
C. Stewart Slater is Chair of the Chemical Engineering Department at
Rowan University. He is a two-time recipient of the Martin Award, and other
awards include the Westinghouse, Carlson, and Dow. He is the founding
chair of the innovative, hands-on undergraduate-focused chemical engi-
neering program at Rowan. He is on the editorial board for Chemical Engi-
neering Education and The International Journal of Engineering Educa-
tion.
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2001
Chemical Engineering Education











the exceptional capabilities of each incoming class of approxi- Univ
mately 100 engineering students at Rowan (with an average proji
SAT score of 1260 and an average class rank of top 13%) have
repeatedly verified the need for a quality undergraduate engi- TYF
neering school in the growing region of southern New Jersey. Tt
The College of Engineering at Rowan is comprised of four befo
departments; chemical, civil, electrical and computer, and in de
mechanical. Each department has been designed to serve 25 tial t
to 30 students per year, resulting in 100 to 120 students per tact
year in the college. The size of the college has been opti- regi
mized so that it is large enough to provide specialization in thro
separate and credible departments, yet small enough to per- stud.
mit a truly multidisciplinary curriculum in which project- sity
based courses are offered simultaneously to all engineering Re
students in all four disciplines. Indeed, the hallmark of the the
engineering program at Rowan University is the multidisci- to th
plinary, project-oriented engineering clinic sequence. ticul
The engineering clinics are taken each semester by every quer
engineering student at Rowan University. In the engineering a bri
clinic, which is loosely based on the medical school model,E7' facu
students and faculty from all four engineering departments ing I
work side-by-side on laboratory experiments, real-world de- ulty
sign projects, and research. The solution to engineering prob- Ti
lems requires not only proficiency in the technical principles, tion,
but also, just as important, requires a mastery of written and brai
oral communication skills and the ability to work as part of a thesl
multidisciplinary team. Table 1 contains an overview of course proj
content in the eight-semester engineering clinic sequence. As also
shown in the table, each clinic course has a specific theme, achi
although the underlying concept of engineering design per- stud
vades throughout. Detailed course descriptions are available the
on the Rowan University web site found at engineering.rowan.edu>. a co
With a total of 32 faculty members across the four engi- univ
neering disciplines participating in the clinic, the small stu- and
dent-to-faculty ratio facilitates a high level of faculty-student ages
interaction. This proves valuable to both student learning and Th
the success of the project. Typical teaching loads for Rowan


TABLE 1
Overview of Course Content in the Eight-Semester Engineering Clinic S


Year


Freshman


Engineering Clinic Theme
(Fall)
Engineering Measurements


Engineering Clini
(Spring)

Reverse Engine


Sophomore Written Communication and Design 16-Week Multidisciplinary
and Oral Commui


Junior

Senior


Year-Long Multidisciplinary Industrial Research Projects

Year-Long Multidisciplinary Industrial Research Projects


lersity engineering faculty are two courses per semester plus
ect management for junior/senior clinic projects.

PICAL PROJECT LIFE
te life of a typical engineering clinic project starts well
re the first day of the semester, and the preliminary work
fining a project and securing funding requires a substan-
ime investment by the faculty members. The initial con-
between a professor and a scientist or engineer from a
onal company often results from a connection made
ugh a professional society meeting, a recruiting event,
ent internship, or a newspaper article about the univer-
or company.
representatives from the interested company are invited to
university for an informational visit. They are introduced
te unique nature of the engineering clinics and the par-
ar advantages that the flexible nature of the clinic se-
ice offers their company. The representatives also receive
ef overview of the expertise and interests of the college
Ity members, while the faculty learn about the engineer-
priorities of the company. After this visit, interested fac-
members often visit the plant site.
te next stage is to match faculty interest with the opera-
s of the company. Then further meetings are set up to
storm and sketch out project ideas. Professors research
e ideas to develop and scope the difficulty level of the
ect to upper level engineering students. The professor must
engineer the project to have outcomes that can be
eved within one and two semesters that will satisfy the
ents and the sponsor. Finally, a budget is prepared for
project and negotiations are undertaken with the com-
y to finalize the agreement. In many cases this includes
nfidentiality agreement between the company and the
'ersity. Normally, the time between the first contact
obtaining a defined and funded clinic project aver-
Sabout one year.
e fall semester begins on a Tuesday with a project fair in
which all students are introduced to
the projects. Students are given 24
hours to select their project. They
Sequence may choose to work on a project led
by a faculty member in their disci-
c Theme pline, or they may decide to select
c Theme
one outside of their discipline. On
Wednesday afternoon, programs
ering meet to place students in projects.
In many cases, students from bi-
Design Projects ology, chemistry, computer sci-
nication
ence, and business are recruited
on these projects. On Thursday of
the first week of the semester, the
projects begin.


Fall 2001










Industrially-sponsored projects usually begin with a brief
introduction by the professor followed by a steep learning
curve by the students. They are required to read introductory
material provided by the professor in order to become famil-
iar with the industry. In the second week, industry represen-
tatives give a presentation to the students on
the project. At this meeting, students begin
to develop a rapport with the industry repre- Studen
sentatives. They begin to see the aspects of o ortu
the project that are important to industry, that O .r
industry has very short deadlines, and that engine
industrial sponsors expect to see experimen- to Cl
tal results. Students also see that these engii
projects have a goal that will directly impact
the operation of the plant. project
For the next several weeks students work equil
on the project. With industry projects, stu- scope
dents have a budget to purchase equipment done by
and supplies and there is pressure to begin
obtaining this equipment. In cases where a in th
system needs to be designed and fabricated,
this stage may take longer. The students have
informal meetings at least once a month with the industry
representatives and weekly meetings with the project faculty.
Formal presentations to the industry are given in the eighth
and fourteenth week of the semester. At these meetings with
industry representatives, students begin to realize the engi-
neering clinic is not an ordinary class where they simply sub-
mit their unfinished homework and expect a grade. Instead,
they see that industry expects results and solutions to the prob-
lems. This aspect of the project motivates students to work to
achieve project outcomes as opposed to only working during
the three-hour laboratory period that meets twice each week. It
also prepares students for the accountability they will face in
the real world, where projects are not constrained by class hours.
These projects also help the program address many of the
"softer" skills required by ABET.11' Students function in
multidisciplinary teams, design and conduct experiments,
learn about safety and environmental issues, analyze and in-
terpret data, communicate through oral and written reports,
and use modern engineering tools.

CASE STUDIES OF
INDUSTRIALLY SPONSORED CLINIC
PROJECTS
E Polymer Fiber-Wrapped Concrete
In this project, a multidisciplinary team of chemical engi-
neering and civil engineering students analyzed the influence
of epoxy selection and fireproofing on polymeric fiber-
wrapped concrete members exposed to various heating cycles.
This project was sponsored by Fyfe Company, a manufac-
turer of fiber wraps and construction materials. The student
activities included: identifying potential safety hazards, de-
298


tsh
nit
,rin
ond
nee
s th
ale
to
en
epi


veloping a detailed literature review, formulating a budget,
planning and scheduling a year-long project, casting and wrap-
ping concrete cylinders, designing the experimental plan, fail-
ure testing each cylinder, performing data analysis, and de-
veloping conclusions regarding the processing variables.
The students were forced to interact with
members of the university community beyond
ave an those with whom they had normal contact.
y in the For example, the students made arrangements
g clinic with the art department to use its large kilns
g for an initial study. They met with faculty
lUCt in the mathematics department to discuss
ring experimental designs and interpretation of
iat are experimental data. They also arranged with
the company for shipment of the fiber-wrap
nt in material.
those This project provided considerable oppor-
gineers tunities for the students to work with epoxide
plant. chemistry, materials testing, concrete, fiber
wraps, and other emerging areas in advanced
materials. Concurrently, the students served
as the primary point of contact between the
project and its industrial sponsor. They gained experience in
producing specific deliverables for an external industrial cli-
ent. They also were given many opportunities to present their
work both internally and externally, culminating in their re-
ceiving the best undergraduate student poster award at the
2000 Uni-Tech Conference.

1E Advanced Vegetable Processing Technology
In a project sponsored by Campbell Soup Company, a team
of students researched cutting-edge technologies applied to
the processing of vegetables for soups and juices. The
multidisciplinary team comprised two undergraduate chemi-
cal engineering students, one civil engineering student, and
one biology student. In addition, one chemical engineering
master's student served as the project manager.
Through this project, students investigated advanced mem-
brane separation techniques as well as enzymatic, thermal,
and physical/mechanical treatment techniques applied to veg-
etable processing. Their responsibilities included HAZOP
analysis, project planning, budget formulation and manage-
ment, literature and patent reviews, experimental design, data
analysis, and developing a proposal for a second phase of the
work project. In addition to the engineering expertise the stu-
dents acquired through this work, they gained familiarity
with Food and Drug Administration regulations on food
processing.
Engineers from Campbell's demonstrated a high level of
commitment to the project and to student learning by attend-
ing monthly progress meetings. At these meetings, students
gave oral presentations on their progress. Then the industrial
representatives, faculty, and students had brainstorming and
Chemical Engineering Education











discussion sessions in which the project was refocused and
fine-tuned. This industrial interaction helped maintain a high
level of motivation among the students, and helped maintain
focus and a fast pace of productivity. In addition to the
progress meetings, the student team also conducted a lunch-
and-learn seminar at Campbell's to share their research with
engineers, scientists, and marketing representatives from the
company. The enthusiastic response of the audience at
Campbell's reaffirmed the industrial relevance and impact of
the team's research.

E[ Metals Purification

The metals purification projects have been sponsored by
Johnson Matthey, Inc. A precious-metals refinery belonging
to the company is operated at West Deptford, which is less
than ten miles from the university. This close proximity fa-
cilitates the numerous interactions and projects that we have
with Johnson Matthey. The company has sponsored three
years of engineering clinic projects. The objective of all of
these projects is to investigate novel and innovative tech-
niques that have the potential to replace current refinery
process units.
At the refinery, precious metals such as Pt, Pd, and Rh are
purified from feed streams containing many unwanted metal
species. These feed streams are made up of spent catalysts
from which precious metals are recovered and recycled to
feed streams from mines. In the refinery there are many dis-
solution, selective-precipitation, and filtration steps. Using
new and innovative processes, the plant capacity, product
purity, and the processing cost have the potential to be im-
proved. In essence, students have an opportunity in the engi-
neering clinic to conduct engineering projects that are equiva-
lent in scope to those done by engineers in the plant. Our
most successful project resulted in Johnson Matthey adding
several new processing units to their refinery.
A grant from the National Science Foundation's Division
for Undergraduate Education helped support the membrane-
related equipment costs necessary to undertake this project."9'
These funds enabled the college to expose students to the
latest membrane-process technology, which helped secure
industrial funding for subsequent projects in this area.
The impact of these projects on students has resulted in the
following outcomes:

Understanding of the economics of high value-added
chemicals.
Design, fabrication and operation of new and innova-
tive technologies.
Examination of scale-up from laboratory scale at
Rowan to pilot-plant scale in both West Deptford and
Sonning, England.
Experience with direct interaction of students with
plant operators, chemists, engineers and managers.
Fall 2001


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors would like to thank the sponsors of the projects
described in this paper, including Fyfe, Inc., Johnson Matthey,
Inc., and Campbell Soup. Partial support for the membrane-
related laboratory project was provided by the National Sci-
ence Foundation Division for Undergraduate Education
through grant DUE-9850535.

REFERENCES

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Middleton, "A Multidisciplinary Engineering Laboratory
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Introduction to Engineering Through an Integrated Re-
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ing in the Engineering Clinic?" Hewlett Packard Eng. Edu-
cator, 2(1), 6 (1998)
14. Newell, J.A., D.K. Ludlow, and S.P.K. Sternberg, "Progres-
sive Development of Oral and Written Communication Skills
Across an Integrated Laboratory Sequence," Chem. Eng.
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15. Van Orden, N., "Is Writing an Effective Way to Learn Chemi-
cal Concepts?" J. Chem. Ed., 67(7), 583 (1990)
16. Fricke, A.C., "From the Classroom to the Workplace: Moti-
vating Students to Learn in Industry," Chem. Eng. Ed.,
33(1), 84 (1999)
17. Newell, J.A., A.J. Marchese, R.P. Ramachandran, B.
Sukumaran, and R. Harvey, "Multidisciplinary Design and
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Ed., 15(5), 376 (1999)
18. ABET Engineering Criteria 2000
19. Slater, C.S., K. Jahan, S. Farrell, R.P. Hesketh, and K.D.
Dahm, "Using Membrane Process Experiments in a Project-
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SOclassroom


ASSESSING PROBLEM-SOLVING SKILLS

Part I: The Context for Assessment*




DONALD R. WOODS, THEODORA KOURTI, PHILIP E. WOOD, HEATHER SHEARDOWN,
CAMERON M. CROWE, AND JAMES M. DICKSON
McMaster University e Hamilton, Ontario, CANADA L8S 4L7


An analysis of the future of engineering education
suggests that problem-solving skills are needed by
today's graduates.t1 ABET Engineering Criteria
2000 criterion 3.e121 asks that we show that graduates have
skills in identifying, formulating, and solving problems. We
define "problem solving" as the process used to effectively
and efficiently obtain a best value for a goal or unknown for
a given set of constraints when the pertinent data, the goal,
and/or the method of solution are not obvious. This process
is in contrast to "exercise solving" wherein the pertinent
data, the goal, and the solution methods are quickly apparent
because similar problems have been solved successfully in
the past. It is a challenge to be able to distinguish between
and appropriately assess a student's knowledge and compre-
hension, skill in exercise solving, and skill in problem solv-
ing. For ABET purposes (and to improve our educational
efforts) we also want to evaluate the effectiveness of our
programs in developing skill.
In this paper, we review the principles of assessment, list
example goals and criteria for skill in problem solving, and
list some options for assessing both a student's understand-
ing of the subject knowledge and skill in problem solving. In
Part II, (planned for publication in a future issue of Chemical
Engineering Education) we will explore options for assess-
ing the student's skill in problem solving, give evidence
about the different options, and offer some suggestions for
evaluating a program's effectiveness in developing skill in
problem solving.

PRINCIPLES OF ASSESSMENT
We define "assessment" as a judgment based on the de-
gree to which goals have been achieved using measurable
criteria and pertinent evidence. We have found that breaking
this definition into five principles assists in applying it.
These five principles are as follows:[3 6]

* Part 2, "Assessing the Process of Problem Solving," will appear
in the next issue of CEE.
300


] 1. Assessment is a judgment based on performance, not
personalities. We need to help students realize that a poor
mark does not mean that they are bad people. The judg-
ment is made about performance in completing a task.
This is an issue, especially for students with attitudes
characterized by Perry's Level 2. More details about
Perry's levels and their implications to teaching and learn-


Donald R. Woods is Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering at
McMaster University. He is a graduate of Queen's University and the
University of Wisconsin. His research interests are in surface phenom-
ena, plant design, trouble shooting, cost estimation, improving student
learning, assessment, developing problem solving and team skills, prob-
lem-based learning and motivating and rewarding faculty.
Theodora Kourti received her bachelor degree in chemical engineering
from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, and her PhD from
McMaster University, Canada. Her research interests include multi-
variate analysis, multivariate statistical process control, data mining and
sensors for polymer characterization.
Philip E. Wood is Associate Dean of the Faculty of Engineering at
McMaster University. He is a graduate of the University of Waterloo and
California Institute of Technology. His teaching and research interests
are in mass balances, experimental and computational fluid mechanics
and heat transfer. He has won numerous awards for his teaching and
leadership.
Heather Sheardown is Assistant Professor in the Department of Chemi-
cal Engineering at McMaster University. She received her BEng from
McMaster and her PhD from the University of Toronto. Her research
interests are in the field of blood and ophthalmic biomaterials. Peda-
gogically, she is interested in problem solving and the biotechnological
aspects of chemical engineering.
Cameron M. Crowe is Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering at
McMaster University. He is a graduate of McGill University and of the
University of Cambridge. He teaches courses in mass balances, ther-
modynamics, reaction kinetics and reactor design, numerical methods
and modeling, and process design. He is the author of Process Model-
ing and Numerical Methods.
Jim Dickson (BASc, MASc, University of Waterloo; PhD, Virginia Tech)
is Professor of Chemical Engineering, McMaster University. He has
spent nearly 30 years working in the area of synthetic polymeric mem-
branes, including membrane transport, fabrication, characterization, and
applications. He is a devoted teacher, winner of the McMaster Student
Union Teaching Award, and loves rock climbing.


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2001
Chemical Engineering Education











ing are given elsewhere.3 81
* 2. Assessment is a judgment based on evidence, not
feelings. We might intuitively feel that a student is a
good problem solver. We need to replace that intuitive
feeling, however, with physical evidence such as the
written script in an exam, a reflective journal, a self
assessment, an assignment, or a project report.
* 3. Assessment should be done for a clearly identified
purpose and with clearly defined performance condi-
tions.
E 4. Assessment is a judgment done in the context of pub-
lished goals, measurable criteria, and pertinent, agreed-
upon forms of evidence.
U 5. Assessment should be based on multidimensional evi-
dence:
static and dynamic situations
small assignments and lengthy projects
academic, social, and personal contexts
a variety of conditions (i.e., exams and homework,
written and oral presentations, performance as an
individual and as a member of a group)
formative and summative data with different persons
as assessors (i.e., self peers, teacher, and trained
external observers)

ISSUES IN PRACTICE
To remove ambiguity from assessment, the following six
issues in practice should be addressed.E3-61

Goals
What is being assessed? Knowledge in chemical engineer-
ing? Skills? Attitudes? Have the goals been expressed unam-
biguously and in observable terms? Who creates the goals?
Are the goals explicit and published?

Criteria
Are there criteria that relate to the goals? Can each crite-
rion be measured? Who creates the criteria? Are the criteria
explicit and published?

Form of evidence
What evidence is consistent with the criteria? Are the
checklists used for the assessment asking questions related
to the criteria? Do both the assessor and the student know
that this form of evidence is acceptable?

Resources
Are the goals and the collection of evidence possible to
achieve in the time and with the resources available?

Assessment process
What is the purpose of the assessment? Under what condi-
tions is the student's performance assessed? Who assesses?
What type of feedback is given by the assessor? (For ex-
Fall 2001


ample, pass-fail, a grade, five strengths and two areas to
work on?) What is the form of the feedback? (For example,
verbal or written?) What is the timing of the feedback? Who
delivers the feedback?

Training in the assessment process
Have both the student and the assessor received training in
assessment?
Failures of assessments to accomplish their purpose can
usually be traced to violations of any of these five principles of
assessment or to the incorrect application of the six issues in
practice.

PUBLISH GOALS AND CRITERIA
FOR PROBLEM SOLVING
Consistent with principle four, goals should be published
to describe the target skills and attitudes of successful prob-
lem solvers. Although initially one might be satisfied with a
general objective,191 such as "skill in identifying, formulat-
ing, and solving problems," we have found it extremely
helpful (especially for the purposes of assessment) to elabo-
rate on the skill. Such elaboration should be based on re-
search findings "0 about the performance of successful prob-
lem solvers. Here are some options for creating goals and
criteria for problem solving.

Create a list of descriptors of the process
An example list could be: "The problem is defined, many
issues and hypotheses are explored, the criteria are listed,
and the issues are prioritized; the problem solver refrains
from early closure and keeps at least five options open;
active processes are used with continual and frequent moni-
toring (about once per minute); the approach taken is flex-
ible yet organized and systematic; decisions are made based
on criteria." A disadvantage of this approach is that few
criteria are included. For example, without published crite-
ria, what one assessor might judge to be "flexible perfor-
mance," another might characterize as being "inflexible."

Create a list of target skills and attitudes
An example list of target skills for problem solving is
available.38 "" As with the previous approach listed, too few
criteria are given.

Provide a structured list of goals,
moving from beginning to advanced
Alverno College'5'2" identifies six levels of goals
U Level 1. Students are able to identify the process, as-
sumptions, and limitations involved in problem-solving
approaches. They are aware of the problem-solving pro-
cess and are able to identify, order, and label the steps
used in a strategy. They are able to state the assumptions
or limitations involved and to identify or recognize the
present situation, the desired goals, the pertinent knowl-










edge and data, the constraints on the problem solver, any
alternative plans, the total problem-solving process used,
and the effective dimensions of the problem-solving ap-
proach. This awareness and ability will be demonstrated
in three subject domains. The student is able to recog-
nize common elements when the problem-solving pro-
cess is used in different domains.
U Level 2. Students can recognize, analyze, and state a
problem to be solved. This includes the ability to iden-
tify the type of problem, to determine the assumptions
and constraints in the problem situation, to determine the
information and time available to problem solve, to make
explicit their own criteria, to recognize their usual style
or approach, and to reformulate the problem as a result
of a systematic examination of the previous dimensions.
E Level 3. Students can apply a problem-solving process
to a problem. They can design and implement an entire
problem-solving process to complete a project requiring
new data from such sources as experiments, a synthesis
of literature, surveys, and/or interviews.
U Level 4. Students can compare processes and evaluate
their own approach in solving problems. They can repeat
level three in another subject discipline. They can reflect
on the process, identify their strengths and limitations as
problem solvers, and compare processes used for the
projects chosen in this level and in level three.
U Level 5. The students are able to design and implement a
process for resolving a problem which requires collabo-
ration with others.
U Level 6. Students demonstrate facility in solving prob-
lems in a variety of situations.
For each of the above levels, detailed and measurable
criteria are published.14'5121

List component skills and create sets of behavioral,
unambiguous goals with measurable criteria for each
For example, in the McMaster problem solving program,"13
the three levels of development are
To be aware of and be able to apply skills to solve
well-defined, ordinary homework problems and to
extend those skills to solve problems in other courses
and in personal life. The component skills include
awareness of the problem-solving process (or
metacognition), systematic application of a strategy,
ability to self assess and manage time and stress, facility
in reading problem statements, and the development of
an ease in classifying information. Those skills also
include exhibiting creativity, defining the stated
problem, creating goals and criteria, and creating the
look back. Also needed is an ability to exploit personal
preference, to translate information from one form to
another (such as choosing symbols, drawing a diagram,


formulating an equation), to get "unstuck," to learn and
relate the pertinent subject knowledge to problem
solving, and to explore the problem (or create the
internal representation of the problem).
To solve problems as teams. The component skills
include conflict resolution, listening and responding,
group work, chairperson skills, making decisions, and
asking the right questions.
To be able to solve ill-defined or open-ended prob-
lems as individuals or as teams. The component skills
include defining problems, trouble shooting, lifetime
learning, coping with ambiguity, and chairperson skills.
Each of the 30-plus component skills has about a dozen
objectives, published measurable criteria, and example as-
sessment tasks.[ 1.13,14]
We recommend the use of the last two options, from
Alverno College or the McMaster problem-solving program,
because assessment is easier (and more equitable and fair)
with more explicit goals and published criteria.

FORMS OF EVIDENCE
Performance options to assess problem solving
Valid assessments are based on evidence (principles two
and four). Selecting the various forms of evidence is a chal-
lenge because we want to assess both the quality of the
product or answer and the efficiency and effectiveness of
the process used to get the answer. Unraveling the process is
not easy. The skilled process includes at least four compo-
nents: subject knowledge, experience knowledge, past expe-
rience in solving similar problems successfully, and skill in
problem solving.
Subject knowledge: How well did the students compre-
hend the fundamentals of chemical engineering? Were
the correct fundamentals chosen by the student?
Students may fail to produce best answers because they
don't understand the subject knowledge. As teachers, we
have to provide students with opportunities to demon-
strate problem solving using subject knowledge.
Teachers should pose questions that give students a
chance to demonstrate analysis, synthesis, and judgment
(levels four to six in Bloom's taxonomy"5l in the
cognitive domain).
Experience knowledge: Some authors refer to this as
"tacit knowledge," others refer to it as "rules of thumb."
Typically, this memorized subject knowledge is
concrete. For example, usually liquids are pumped at 1
m/s. This knowledge is crucial for judging if answers or
assumptions are reasonable. For example, a student
correctly used knowledge of heat exchange and optimi-
zation to yield an optimum heat exchanger of three tubes
of length 4.3 km. A student should recognize that such a
configuration is impractical and modify his answer. This
Chemical Engineering Education










experience knowledge is useful in judging reasonable-
ness of numbers generated by simulators and computer
programs.
Past experience in solving similar problems success-
fully and storing that experience for easy recall:
Usually, students are asked to solve problems on exams
that are similar to those they have previously solved for
homework. Indeed, in preparing for exams some
students will have solved many other problems (from
past exams, from other problems at the end of the
chapter in the required text or other texts, etc.). If
students have a rich set of accessible problem solutions,
then the problems they encounter on the exam may be
exercises and not problems. The skill they demonstrate
will be exercise solving and not problem solving. The
evidence we gather should be related to problem
solving.
Skill in problem solving: The goals and criteria were
described earlier. One option researchers have to gather
evidence about problem solving has been recording
"protocols" of students solving problems. Such record-
ings can be made in written, audio, or videotaped
forms.t10.16]
What we hope to measure and gather forms of evidence
about includes a good answer (the product should be of
value, the answer should be correct and reasonable) and a
skilled process for achieving the answer to a problem (not an
exercise).
Three general forms of evidence can be gathered-the
correctness of the answer, a combination of the answer and
the process, and, primarily, the process. In Part I, we de-
scribe seven options of evidence of the correctness of the
answer and a combination of the answer and the process. In
Part II, we will consider evidence primarily about the pro-
cess and offer examples of how some of these options have
been applied.

OPTION 1
Option for the Answer
The first option is to mark the answer. The answer should
be marked on the basis of published, explicit criteria. This is
an important form of evidence. The answer alone, however,
tells us little about the efficiency and effectiveness of the
problem-solving process used. Furthermore, as outlined in
assessment principle five, many forms of evidence should
be used. The evidence can be based on the final exam or on
the term work that includes homework, tests, and projects.
High marks in term work, however, might mean the students
are knowledgeable about the subject matter and are good
problem solvers, or it could mean the students copy and are
neither. Low marks in term work could indicate a lack of
subject knowledge, poor problem solving skills, lack of a
source from which to copy, or lack of motivation.
Fall 2001


Options for the answer and the process
For most assignments, tests, exams, and projects, teachers
usually assess the problem-solving process as well as the
answer. How well teachers can assess problem solving might
depend on the teacher's response to the task and the student's
response. The teacher's response includes assigning tasks
that are "problems" and clarifying how problem-solving
skills will be assessed.

Teacher's Response
The assigned task should be an opportunity for the
students to use higher-order thinking skills, such as
analysis, synthesis, and judgment. But teachers tend to
pose few such tasks. One analysis of a four-year cur-
riculum, based on Bloom's classification, found that
only 21% of the 2,952 homework problems assigned
were level four to six.'7-18] For creating exams, one
guideline suggests that at least half of the marks should
be assigned to questions demanding higher-order think-
ing. Another recommends that at least three questions
out of eleven test higher-order thinking.I"9 Traditional
examinations usually contain a limited number of ques-
tions testing problem-solving skill. If the teacher wants
to use a separate "mark for problem solving," he can
average only the marks for those questions testing higher-
order thinking skills.
] Clarifying how problem solving will be assessed is also
part of the teacher's response. Exam marks are a mix of
having the correct answer and the individual instructor's
version of how to assign part marks for subject knowl-
edge comprehension and the problem-solving process.
The teacher's script to mark the problem solving should
be published and based on research evidence such as the
"novice versus expert" data'""1 for problem solving in-
stead of on the teacher's intuition and personal style.
For example, students should know that they are ex-
pected to list five hypotheses, identify criteria, write
down monitoring statements for each minute of think-
ing, and select the best hypothesis.
Documentation such as the monitoring statements should
help clarify the process of assigning the part marks, but
this is still not easy. We analyzed the part marks given
for different types of questions on an exam in a senior
course (sample size, n=43). The sample size is small,
but the findings illustrate the difficulty teachers have in
marking the problem-solving process in conventional
examinations.
For an application question (Bloom's level three), twelve
students lost marks because they didn't show they un-
derstood the chemical engineering knowledge, three lost
marks because of mathematical mistakes, six lost marks
because they did not provide sufficient detail and/or
rationalization of how they did the calculations, and one
303










lost marks because he misread the problem. Twenty-one
received full marks.
An analysis-synthesis question (level four to five) on
the same exam in the same course resulted in six stu-
dents losing marks because they did not detect simple
errors, and 22 lost marks because they failed to address
all the issues given in the problem statement. The asses-
sor could not distinguish from each student's written
work whether that student did not understand the knowl-
edge or whether his problem-solving skills were defi-
cient.

Student's Response
Is the task a "problem" or an "exercise?" Have the
students seen a similar situation before and are they
recalling a past practice? For exams, for example, the
top students probably worked so many problems from
past exams that many exam questions may be exercises
to them but are problems for the C, D, and F students. If
our goal is to assess problem solving, then we should
assess problem solving and not exercise solving. More
comments about problem solving versus exercise solv-
ing are available.[201
Exam anxiety[21-23] may interfere with the students' per-
formance. Our data indicate that some students suffer-
ing from exam anxiety have exam marks 20% to 35%
below our assessment of their ability.[22] Students with
exam anxiety might be identified with the use of the
Alpert-Haber anxiety achievement inventory121] or from
high scores on the Kellner-Sheffield inventory.[22231 We
found that students with high scores on both of these
inventories also had exam marks that were more than
30% below their term work mark. This might serve as
an indicator of exam anxiety when data from either of
these inventories are missing. This could also be a mea-
sure of academic dishonesty, but for the purpose of this
work we assume it measures exam anxiety.
I Student motivation and skill in taking exams should
also be considered. Students may not perform well on
written exams because they lack motivation or they are
unskilled in studying for tests. Two possible indicators
of motivation might be using the elements "attitude"
and "motivation" in LASSI[241 or hypothesizing that un-
motivated students hand in less than 50% of the term
work assignments. Skill in studying for tests might be
measured by the elements "study for tests" and "test strat-
egy" from LASSI[241 or by a measure we developed.1221
The student's inability to display the process has to
be taken into consideration. Our experience has been
that students rarely display their problem-solving pro-
cesses explicitly on exams. Their written scripts often
omit important mental processing that they use. One of
the challenges is to help the students make the process
304


visible as evidence.
Options two through seven try to address this latter issue
by encouraging the student to make the problem-solving
process visible. These options include
Telling them the process is important
Offering guidelines about the key processing features
Prompting them by requiring them to use a problem-
solving template
Making the process steps explicit choices

OPTION 2
Tell Students the Process is Important
In a variety of chemical engineering test questions, mark
the student scripts of solutions for the comprehension of the
subject matter, correctness of the answer, and the problem-
solving process displayed. This is easier said than done.
Telling them marks will be given for the process is often too
little instruction. Furthermore, this approach usually fails to
use assessment principle four. The criteria for marking the
problem-solving aspects of the script are usually unpub-
lished and intuitive approaches chosen by the instructor.
This approach could have potential.

OPTION 3
Give Guidelines About the Key
Problem-Solving Elements
This differs from option two in the explicitness with which
the criteria and purpose are presented to the students. In
tests, assignments, and examinations we can give marks for
process with a marking scheme that might assign, for ex-
ample, five marks for a correct definition of the problem,
fifteen marks for a correct diagram and identification sys-
tem, five marks for the selection of the correct theory and
equations, three marks for the correct identification of the
boundary and initial conditions, and so on. The "correct-
ness" is judged by the teacher. Heller, et al.,1251 used this
approach in their study of problem-solving skill develop-
ment in the context of freshman physics.
The scheme they used was to mark
The degree of conceptual understanding of the physics
of the problem. Does the description of the physics show
that the student clearly understands the physics and
relationships?
Whether the student's description of the physics was
useful. Is the description correct? Is it complete? Are all
the correct forces shown? If the question is about forces,
are forces shown on the diagram?
Whether the equation matched the physics description.
Are the correct equations used?
Whether a reasonable plan for solution was displayed.
Does the solution show that the number of unknowns
equals the number of independent equations? Are the
Chemical Engineering Education











equations solved in the correct sequence?
Whether a logical mathematical progression was used
to arrive at the solution. Did the student identify the
correct general expression and correctly reduce it to the
form specific for this application? Did the student delay
substituting with numbers until the unknown variable
had been isolated?
Whether the student used appropriate mathematical
procedures. Is the mathematics reasonable? Are the
assumptions reasonable? Is there a correct mathematical
method of solution? Correctness was judged by the
teacher.
Such marking schemes for problem solving tend to be
specific to the context (in this case, to physics) and this
example is an interesting mix of issues related to subject
knowledge comprehension (the first three listed) and to prob-
lem solving. For these items the student could lack either
knowledge or problem-solving skills. Discrimination is dif-
ficult. This scheme addresses analysis (as described in
Bloom's level four). Different schemes would have to be
created for problems asking for synthesis, reasoning, evalu-
ation, and for different subjects.
Whereas this example is specific to physics, marking
schemes that are less dependent on the context have been
used. For example, the creators of the PRIDE program'126
developed and used the Cognitive Objective List-Assisted
Report Scoring (COLARS) scheme. The criteria used were
number and quality of the citations, summary, transforma-
tion of information, application, analysis, synthesis, and
evaluation. COLARS was used to assess student project
reports. The criteria consider a combination of writing, re-
search, and general higher-level thinking skills. These crite-
ria can be made more specific through the use of the novice
versus expert evidence for problem-solving skill.1'10 Without
such detail, the expectations and assessment are ambiguous,
especially for students. For this approach to provide useful
evidence, the third and fourth assessment principles need to
be addressed. The performance conditions should provide
students with an opportunity to present pertinent evidence.
The goals and criteria need to be defined and published.
Angelo and Cross127 describe a similar option, CAT 22,
and use it to monitor the classroom learning experience.
CAT 22 could provide evidence for assignment if the crite-
ria are published and are consistent with the goals, as de-
scribed in section two, and if the students are aware of the
goals and the purpose of the activity.

OPTION 4

Prompt Students by Requiring the Use
of a Problem-Solving Template

Teachers can provide a template to be used by students as
they solve problems.'2""9 Mettes, et al.,"1 provide a list of
Fall 2001


the numbered phases, with details, on the left-hand side of
the page with working space to the right where students are
expected to show their work keyed to the number of activity.
For example, Phase 1 is "analysis," which has the sub-
activities of

1.1 Read and mark
1.2 Sketch or scheme the data
1.3 Reword what is asked
1.4 Estimate
1.5 Give the overall picture
Heller and Heller"129 have five overall phases

Focus the problem
Describe the physics
Plan the solution
Execute the plan
Evaluate the answer

Trigger words for these phrases are printed on two pages
with plenty of space around each set of words where
students can write their work. Both of these templates
are structured around a problem solving strategy.128291
The use of this particular option offers advantages and
disadvantages.
On the positive side, the use of such a format helps stu-
dents develop elements of the target skills. In this case those
skills are being systematic and organized, being able to
select the appropriate cognitive and attitudinal skills, and
being able to overcome the initial panic they might have
when faced with a difficult problem to solve. Such a script
usually provides many more details of the process than are
given by students working under the conditions of options
one through three. The script is usually easy to mark and we
believe it provides valid evidence since this is consistent
with some of the target skills.
On the negative side, successful problem solvers rarely
apply the stages serially.3."'15'20'301 They do not define, then
explore, and then plan. They cycle back and forth among
stages as they need them with frequent rereading of the
problem statement. Hence, the very use of the structured
form, especially if the stages are numbered serially, tends to
impede the development of other skills important in problem
solving, such as the flexible use of a strategy.'12l This option
is easy to mark but focuses on a restricted set of problem-
solving skills.
Angelo and Cross[271 describe CAT 21 to monitor the
classroom learning experience. CAT 21 could provide evi-
dence for assessment if the criteria are published and consis-
tent with the goals, as described in section two, and if the
students are aware of the goals and purpose of the activity.
Indeed, one of the templates suggested above might be used
to enrich CAT 21.










OPTION 5
Make the Process Steps Explicit Choices
Barrows131 created the Portable Patient Problem Pack (P4)
to assess knowledge and problem-solving process skill for
medical students. In this approach, students select cards, one
at a time, and give their preferred sequence of problem-
solving activities. On the front of each card is printed a
problem-solving activity. Students learn the results by read-
ing the back of the selected card. The sequence of cards
selected and the rating for each card provide evidence about
the problem-solving process. Each card has a printed rating
based on the use of the P4 deck by skilled problem solvers.
Barrows created a set of cards that simulate the clinical
interaction between a doctor and patient. These cards outline
the following stages:
The situation (single card)
History to be gathered from the patient
Questions to ask the patient
Actions, as in physical examination and
laboratory tests to be performed
Consultants brought in
Interventions, both medical and nursing
Closure (single card)
The P4 method has been developed for medical programs,
but a P4 deck could be developed in other subjects. For ex-
ample, Munn, et al.1321 created a P4 deck for the alleged envi-
ronmental impact of effluent from a pulp and paper company.

OPTION 6
Make the Process Steps Explicit (TRIPSE)
Rangachari1331 developed the following assessment activ-
ity to be used with one teacher and classes of up to 20
students. He asks students to resolve a set of data. The task is
divided into three stages with students providing written
evidence from each stage. He called the activity "Triple
Problem-Solving Exercise" or TRIPSE.
In the first phase, within thirty to forty minutes, students
write an explanation/hypothesis for the data they are given.
Data are from experimental, clinical, or field settings in the
context of undergraduate pharmacology or epidemiology. In
the second phase, within thirty to forty minutes, students
select one of their explanations and design one or more
experiments or provide avenues for further exploration in
relation to the chosen explanation. In the final phase, stu-
dents are given feedback information and asked to reevalu-
ate their original explanation or tests in the light of the new
information. Students are assessed on all three tasks.

OPTION 7
Make the Process Steps Explicit
(Triads for Trouble Shooting)
Troubleshooting problems are created in the context of the
chemical process industry. Accompanying each problem is
306


the "expert system" that describes the cause, gives the re-
sults of various diagnostic tests, and suggests how to re-
spond to the requests of a troubleshooter. A separate guide"[3
summarizes the target skills of effective troubleshooters,[34431
gives a feedback form based on research evidence of expert
behavior,1"3431 and provides a worksheet for the troubleshooter
to use in posing tasks.
The triad consists of a troubleshooter, an expert system,
and an observer. Before the activity, each person is given a
set of problem statements, expert system details for his case,
and the troubleshooter's guide material with feedback forms.
In a ninety-minute period, each person assumes each role.
The activity starts with the first expert system handing the
problem statement to the troubleshooter. The troubleshooter
reads the problem aloud, talks about his thought processes,
writes on the worksheet questions, tests calculations, and
consults on tasks to enable him to identify, correct, or mini-
mize the fault. The expert system responds in writing to each
request. Only one request can be made at a time.
Throughout the activity, the observer completes the feed-
back sheet regarding the quality of the problem-solving pro-
cess used by the troubleshooter. Thus, after each person has
played all three roles, each person also has written evidence
about the questions and answers (from the worksheet) and
feedback about the process used (from the observer's sheet).
This approach has been used with classes of up to 100 and
for engineers in industry, and since the groups work autono-
mously the only limitation is creation of the case materials.
Eight other forms of evidence, which focus primarily on
the problem-solving process, will be given in Part II.

SUMMARY
The five principles of assessment provide a framework for
developing and using instruments for assessment of student
performance and of the evaluation of program effectiveness.
Crucial to any assessment is the creation of published goals
and measurable criteria that form the context for the perfor-
mance of the student. Evidence should be gathered and
assessed in the context of these goals and criteria. Four
example sets of goals and criteria were presented.
Assessment is based on evidence of performance. Seven
options of gathering evidence were described in this paper.
Eight options that focus more on measuring the problem-
solving process will be given in Part II. The first two options
of evidence (mark the answer and tell the student the process
is important) provided exam scripts in subject discipline,
where correctness of the answer, subject knowledge, and
problem solving were being marked. We elaborated on the
challenges of using conventional exams as a measure of
problem-solving skill.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank the reviewers for their useful suggestions.
Chemical Engineering Education












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Volumes 31 through 35
(Note: Author Index begins on page 315 )


TITLE INDEX
Note: Titles in italics are books reviewed.


A
ABET EC 2000: Chemical Engineering and .................33(2),104
ABET Criteria 2000: An Exercise in Problem Solving ... 32(2),126
Acetone Production from Isopropyl Alcohol ................ 33(3),210
Adsorption, An Undergraduate Experiment on ...............32(1),76
Advanced Transport Phenomena................................... 35(2),110
Advice From an Old-Timer ............................................. 32(1),72
Affinity Adsorption: Introduction to Bioseparations.......31(2),124
Alternative Fuels ................................... ...................... 33(1),39
Ammonia from a Liquid Jet, Desorption of .................. 33(4),328
Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes .32(4),268
Animal Guts as Ideal Reactors ........................................ 32(1),24
Anomalous Results from Process Simulators..................31(1),46
Anonymous Quizzes: An Effective Feedback Mechanism..31(1),56
Antiwindup, Bumpless Transfer, and Split-Range
Control, Teaching .................................................... 32(3),220
Articulation Matrix, The: A Tool for Defining and
Assessing a Course............................................ 33(2),122
ASEE Annual Meeting Program, 1997 .........................31(2),108
ASEE Annual Meeting Program, 2001 ......................... 35(2),120
ASEE Chemical Engineering Division
Awards.................................. 32(4),269; 33(4),287; 34(4),337
Assess a ChE Program, Using Portfolios to .................. 33(2), 110
Assessing a Course, A Tool for: The Articulation Matrix 33(2),122
Assessment Plan, Issues in Developing and
Implem enting an ..................................................... 34(2),268
ASTutE: Computer-Aided Teaching of Materials
Balancing ................................................................ 34(2),258
Asymmetric Ceramic Membranes, Permeation of
G ases in ..................................................................... 33(1),58
Asynchronous Learning of Chemical Reaction
Engineering ................................. .... ......... 35(4),290
Automotive Catalytic Reaction Engineering Experiment.. 34(2),240

Award Lectures
Do Changes in the Chemical Industry Imply Changes
in Curriculum ? .................................................. 33(1),12
Combustion Synthesis of Advanced Materials ....... 35(1),14
Particle Dynamics in Fluidization and Fluid-Particle
Systems: Part 1. Educational Issues ................... 34(1),40
Particle Dynamics in Fluidization and Fluid-Particle
Systems: Part 2. Teaching Examples ............... 34(2),128
Process Control: From the Classical to the
Postmodern Era ................................................. 31(1),12
Synergism Between Research and Teaching in
Separations ................................................ ..... 31(4), 202


B
Basic Principles, Use of an Emission Analyzer to
Demonstrate ............................................................ 34(2),178
Batch Distillation, Simulation, Optimal Design and Control32(1), 13
Batch Distillation Optimization Made Easy .................. 32(4),280
Batch Processing Experiment, Sequential: For
First-Year ChE Students ........................................... 33(3),216
Beroulli Equation, Demonstrating the Quantitative
A accuracy of..................................... ....................... 35(2),116
Biochemical Engineering, Laboratory Experiment in .......33(1),54
Bioengineering and Process Modeling, A Case Study
in: Cross-Course Project Assignments ...................... 35(2),128
Bioinformatics, Genomics, and the Chemical Engineer .34(4),346
Bioseparations, Introduction to: Affinity Adsorption ...... 31(2),124
Biotech Manufacturing Facility Design and
Regulatory Compliance, Teaching ............................. 35(3),188
Bode Plots, A Note on Stability Analysis Using ........... 35(3),208
Brain Structure and Function: Part 1. Toward
Technical Understanding ....................................... 31(3),152
Bubble Column, Mass Transfer in a ..............................32(2),138
Bubble Column, Measuring Axial Dispersion in a.......... 32(3),198
Building the EC 2000 Environment .............................. 33(2),128
Business Meeting, The: An Alternative to the Classic
Design Presentation................................................... 35(2),104
By-Product Disposal Costs, CSTR Optimization with ...31(2),142


c
Capital Cost Estimation, A Software Package for ........... 33(3),254
Capstone ChE Course, Evaluation of Computer-
Simulation Experiments in a Senior-Level ................33(1),34
Case Study Projects in an Undergrad Process
Control Course ......................................................... 32(3),214
Catalytic Reaction Engineering Experiment, Automotive. 34(2),240
Cellular Automation Concepts Through Interdisciplinary
Collaborative Learning, Teaching ............................ 34(4),304
Ceramic Membranes, Permeation of Gases in Asymmetric. 33(1),58
Chemical Engineering and the Other Humanities .............32(1),14
Chemical Engineering, The Practical Side of ................ 32(3),208
Chemistry and Life Sciences in a New Vision of ChE .... 35(4),248
Choose/Focus/Analyze Exercise, A ................................. 35(1),80
Choosing an Optimum Feedstock for Yeast Production.... 31(1),22
Chromatography Laboratory, Ion Exchange ...................31(1),26
Citation Statistics, Some Pitfalls with ............................. 34(1),62
Citation Statistics, The Effect of Publication
R ate Profile on .......................................................... 35(1),32
Chemical Engineering Education











Class and Home Problems
Application of a Heat Pump: A Feasibility Study ..... 34(1),68
Batch Distillation Optimization Made Easy ........... 32(4),280
Beware of Bogus Roots with Cubic Equations of
State .................................................................. 33(4),278
CSTR: Start-Up of a Non-Isothermal ................... 31(4),250
CSTR Optimization with By-Product Disposal Costs 31(2),142
Design Project for Thermodynamics Students, An
"Open-Ended Estimation"................................ 34(2),154
Icing the Rink: A Problem for the Stoichiometry
C ourse ............................................................... 33(2),154
Introduction to Process Flexibility:
Part 1. Heat Exchange ........................................ 31(3),172
Prediction and Prevention of Chemical Reaction
Hazards: Learning by Simulation....................... 35(4),268
Problems in Mass Transfer and Separation Processes 31(1),40
Residue Theorem to Invert Laplace Transforms,
Use of the ............................................................ 35(1),22
Sequential and Non-Disciplinary Problems to
Teach Process Dynamics, Use of ....................... 35(3),182
Tuning and Activation of a PI Controller During
Startup of Non-Isothermal CSTR...................... 34(2),246

Classroom to the Workplace, From the ........................... 33(1),84
Cogeneration Facility, Using A ...................................... 33(4),316
Collaborative Learning, Teaching Cellular
Automation Concepts Through Interdisciplinary .......34(4),304
Colum Transport Experiments for Dissolved
Pollutants and Colloids ........................................... 35(3),222
Combustion, An Experiment in ..................................... 31(4),236
Combustion Synthesis and Materials Processing ............ 31(4),228
Combustion Synthesis and Materials Processing: Exercises 32(1),82
Combustion Synthesis of Advanced Materials................35(1),14
COMET: An Open-Ended, Hands-On Project for
Sophom ores ............................................................... 32(1),20
Communication for Professional Engineering, Effective .. 34(2),234
Communications Course? Just a...................................... 32(1).84
Compressible Flow Analysis, Importance of
System Selection on ................................................. 32(4),308
Computational Tools in Engineering Education, Use of:
A Case Study on the Use of Mathcad....................... 31(3),180
Computer-Aided Process Control Education,
A Training Simulator for ......................................... 34(2),252
Computer-Aided Teaching of Materials
Balancing, ASTutE ................................................... 34(2),258
Computer-Mediated Collaborative Learning in Che .......33(3),250
Computer Modeling in the Undergraduate Unit Ops Lab 35(2). 116
Computer-Simulation Experiments in a Senior-Level
Capstone ChE Course, Evaluation of ......................... 33(1),34
Computer Simulation of Tracer Input Experiments ........ 33(4),300
Concentration-Front Movement, Using In-Bed
Temperature Profiles for Visualizing the .................35(2),122
Concepts, Introducing Students to Basic ChE............... 33(3),190
Contaminants, Experiments Illustrating Phase
Partitioning and Transport of Environmental............. 32(1),40
Continuing Education Using the Internet, Graduate
Bridging and ............................................................ 35(4),230
Control Course, Experiences with an Experimental
Project in a Graduate ............................................ 33(4),270
Cooperative Education .............................. .................. 35(1),58
Fall 2001


Correlation for Estimating the Transfer of Oxygen
From Air to Water, Developing the Best .................. 35(2),134
Cost Estimation, A Software Package for Capital........... 33(3),254
Creative Problem-Solving Skills in Engineering
Design, Teaching .............................. ..............33(2),150
Cross-Course Project Assignments................................35(2),128
CSTR Optimization with By-Product Disposal Costs ....31(2),142
Curriculum? Do Changes in the Chemical Industry
Im ply Changes in ...................................................... 33(1),12
Curriculum for Introductory Courses in ChE, A
Project-Based Spiral: Part 1. Curriculum Design ......34(2),222
Curriculum for Introductory Courses in ChE, A
Project Based Spiral: Part 2. Implementation ............ 34(4),296
Curriculum, Incorporation Chemical Process
Miniaturization into the ChE....................................34(4),316
Curriculum Through a Multidisciplinary Research
Experience, Introducing Emerging Technologies in ..35(4),296
Curve. Quantifying the .................... ...................32(3),238

D
Dairy Products as a ChE Laboratory Experiment,
Ultrafiltration of ...................................................... 32(4),318
Data Acquisition, Using MATLAB/Simulink for............ 35(4),286
Debates, Chemical Engineering .................................... 34(4),362

Departmental Articles
Alberta, University of ........................................... 34(2),102
City College of New York ..................................... 35(3),162
Clem son University...................... .................... 33(3),178
Colorado State University ..................................... 31(3),146
Connecticut, University of .......................................... 31(1),2
M aine, University of ........................................... 31(2),80
Melbourne, University of ..................................... 35(1),8
M ississippi State University .................................... 32(2),82
Oklahoma State University ....................................... 34(1),2
Puerto rice, Mayagiiez Campus............................. 32(3),168
Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology .................... 33(2),96
Washington State University ..................................... 33(1),6
W ayne State University ......................................... 32(1),8
Worcester Polytechnic Institute............................. 34(2),186

Design, Chemical Product ............................................ 35(4),280
Design, Experience with Teaching: Do We Blend
the Old with the New?............................................. 33(2),158
Design Throughout the ChE Curriculum, Integrating .....32(4),290
Design Presentation: The Business Meeting,
An Alternative to the Classic....................................35(2),104
Design Project for Thermodynamic Students,
An "Open-Ended Estimation"...................................34(2),154
Design Project in Chemical Process Design, Integrated
Course and ................................................................. 31(2),94
Desorption of Ammonia from a Liquid Jet....................33(4),328
Differential-Algebraic Equations Systems: What to do if
Relative Volatilities Cannot be Assumed to be Constant 31(2),86
Differential Equations with Maple, Solving.................. 34(4),328
Dimensional Analysis, A New Approach to Teaching.....31(3),158
Dimensional Analysis, An Alternate Method for
Teaching and Implementing ..................................... 34(2),216
Dimensional Equation from Environmental
Engineering, A ........................................................ 34(1),94











Discontinuities in ChE Education ................................... 33(1),18
Dynamics of Fluidized Particles, The ........................... 35(3),187

E
Early Engineering Education, Experiments with
Integration of ........................................................... 33(3),204
EC 2000 Criteria, An Introductory Laboratory
Incorporating ........................... .. ................. 34(1),80
EC 2000 Environment, Building the ............................. 33(2),128
EC 2000 Objectives, A Pollution Prevention
Course that Helps M eet ......................................... 34(2),272

Educator Articles
Cussler, Ed; M innesota's ....................................... 35(3),158
Dorland, Dianne ......................................... 35(1),2
Doyle III, Frank.................................................... 34(2),192
Glandt, Eduardo, of the University of Pennsylvania... 31(1),8
Green, Don, of the University of Kansas .................. 34(1),8
Hall, Carol, of North Carolina State University...... 33(3),184
Larson, Maurice A., of Iowa State University ............ 33(1),2
Paul, Don, of The University of Texas .................... 35(2),86
Reklaitis, G.V. (Rex), of "Old Purdue" ................. 34(2),98
Rousseau, Ronald W., of Georgia Tech ................... 32(2),88
Russell, T.W Fraser ...................... ..................... 31(2),74
Tirrell, M att; M innesota's ..................................... 32(3),162
Varma, Arvind, of Notre Dame ................................. 32(1),2
Westerberg, Art, of Carnegie Mellon University ...... 33(2),90

Electrochemical Engineering in the Process
Laboratory Course ..................................................... 35(1),74
Electrochemical Treatment, Removal of Heavy
Metals in Wastewater by ...................................... 33(2),172
Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes ................35(2),91
Energy in Reactions, Is Matter Converted to ................ 34(2),168
Engineering Education for the 21st Century ................. 31(3),166
Engineering Flow and Heat Exchange............................ 34(1),89
Enrollment Cycling in ChE, An Analysis of ................... 35(1),50
Environmental Chemodynamics .................................... 31(4),249
Environmental Engineering, A Dimensional
Equation from ........................................................... 34(1),94
Environmental Engineering Program, Postgraduate .......32(4),250
Environmental Health and Safety Department,
Freshman Design Projects in the ................................ 32(1),58
Environmentally Sound Manufacturing Principles,
Demonstrating: The Green Square
Manufacturing Game .............................................. 33(2),166
Emission Analyzer to Demonstrate Basic Principles,
Use of an ................................................................. 34(2),178
Ethanol Fermentation: Laboratory Experiment in
Biochemical Engineering ........................................... 33(1),54
Europe, Courses in Fluid Mechanics and Chemical Reaction
Engineering in ..................................................... 34(2),284
Experiment, A Simple Process Dynamics .......................31(1),64
Experiment, A Transient Fluidized-Bed Heat Transfer:
Being Dynamic in the Unit Operations Laboratory ... 31(2),120
Experiment, Automotive Catalytic Reaction
Engineering ............................................................. 34(2),240
Experiment, Ultrafiltration of Dairy Products as a
ChE Laboratory ....................................................... 32(4),318
Experiment for Mass Transfer, A Simple ...................... 32(2),142
310


Experiment in Applied Optics, An: Determinatiion of
the Kinetics of the Oxidation of an Organic Dye ....... 32(3),174
Experiment in Combustion, An ..................................... 31(4),236
Experiment on Adsorption, An Undergraduate ...............32(1),76
Experiment, Sequential Batch Processing ....................... 33(3),216
Experiments, A Novel Laboratory Course on
Advanced ChE ........................................................ 31(4),260
Experiments, Computer Simulation of Tracer Input ....... 33(4),300
Experiments for the Fluid-Mechanics and Heat
Transfer Laboratory Class, Two Simple................... 33(3),226
Experiments on Viscosity of Aqueous Glycerol Solutions 33(3),232
Extraction Experiment, A Supercritical: For the
U nit O ps L ab ............................................................... 35(2),96

F
Faculty in Effective Teaching, How to Involve ............. 33(3),244
Feed-Effluent Heat Exchanger/Reactor Dynamic
Control Laboratory Experiment, A.............................34(1),56
First-Year Students, An Introductory ChE Course for ...... 32(1),52
Flashback and Laminar Flames: A Classroom
Demonstration .............................................. .......... 35(3),220
Flowrates, Calculating Minimum Liquid: New Method
for Rich-Phase Gas Absorption Columns ................ 34(4),338
Fluid Dynamics, Introduction to Theoretical and
Computational ...................................... ..................... 32(1),29
Fluidized-Bed Heat Transfer Experiment, A Transient:
Being Dynamic in the Unit Operations Laboratory ...31(2),120
Fluid Mechanics and Chemical Reaction Engineering
in Europe, Courses in ............................................... 34(2),284
Fluid-Mechanics and Heat-Transfer Laboratory Class,
Two Simple Experiments for the.............................. 33(3),226
Fluid-Particle Flow, CFD Case Studies in....................... 32(2),108
Fluid-Particle Systems, Particle Dynamics in
Fluidation and ....................... .... ................. 34(2),40,128
Fluid-Particle Processes, Teaching .................................. 32(2),94
Freshman Design Projects in the Environmental
Health and Safety Department ...................................32(1),58

Future of Engineering Education Series
Introduction ........................................... ........... 34(1),14
Part 1. A Vision for a New Century......................... 34(1),16
Part 2. Teaching Methods that Work ....................... 34(1),26
Part 3. Developing Critical Skills.......................... 34(2),108
Part 4. Learning How to Teach............................... 34(2),118
Part 5. Assessing Teaching Effectiveness and
Educational Scholarship ..................................... 34(2),198
Part 6. Making Reform Happen .............................. 34(2),20

G
Gas Absorption Columns, New Method for Rich-Phase:
Calculating Minimum Liquid Flowrates .................... 34(4),338
Gases in Asymmetric Ceramic Membranes,
Permeation of ............................................................ 33(1),58
Gaseous Diffusion through Permeable Solids,
A Laboratory for...................................................... 34(2),172
Genomics, and the Chemical Engineer, Bioinformatics,. 34(4),346
Globalization of ChE Education and Research ............. 35(4),244
Glycerol Solutions, Experiments on Viscosity of Aqueous 33(3),232
Graduate Bridging and Continuing Education Using
the Internet ........................................ 35(4),230
Chemical Engineering Education











Graduate Control Course, Experiences with an
Experimental Project in a ......................................... 33(4),270
Graduate Course in Materials Design, A ChE ............... 33(4),262
Graduate Course in Research Methods ......................... 35(4),236
Graduate Education for Particle Schience and Technology 32(4),262
Graduate Programs, Ranking....................................... 33(1),72
Graduate School, Getting the Most Out of .................... 33(4),258
Graduate Student Symposium, A Multi-University......... 32(4),266
Graduate Students, A Structured Interview for
Selection of ...................................................... 31(4),210
Graphics, How to Lie with Engineering ........................ 33(4),304
Green Square Manufacturing Game, The ......................33(2),166

H
Heat and Mass Transfer with Microwave Drying,
Demonstrating Simultaneous ................................... 33(1),46
Heat Exchange, Engineering Flow and........................... 34(4),343
Heat of Solids, A Simple Method for Determining
the Specific .............................................................. 32(3),190
Heat-Transfer Laboratory Class, Two Simple
Experiments for the Fluid-Mechanics and ............... 33(3),226
Heat Pump, Application of a: A Feasibility Study............. 34(1),68
Heavy Metals in Wastewater by Electrochemical
Treatment, Removal of ............................................. 33(2),172
Higher-Order Thinking in the Unit Operations
Laboratory ........................................................... ...... 32(2).146
Honors in the Major Program, The................................ 34(4),356
Human Societies: A Curious Application of
Thermodynamics ..................................................... 32(3),230
Humanities, Chemical Engineering and the Other ............32(1),14
Hydrodynamic Models, Simulation of Reaction
Kinetics Using ................... ........... .................. 35(3),194

I
Ideal Reactors, Animal Guts as ....................................... 32(1),24
Industrial Experience in a Laboratory Course, Providing .31(2),130
Industrial Pollution Prevention, Process Integration and..31(4).,242
Information, Practical Tips for Gathering ....................... 32(1),68
Information Technology and ChE Education ................ 34(4),290
Integration of Early Engineering Education,
Experiments with ................................ ......... 33(3),204
Internationalizing Practical ChE Education: The M.I.T.
Practice School in Japan............................................. 33(2),162
Internet, Graduate Bridging and Continuing Education
Using the ................................................................. 35(4),230
Internship, A Quality-Driven Process Design ...............31(2),100
Internship a Learning Experience, Make Summer ............ 32(1),48
Interview for Selection of Graduate Students,
A Structured ............................ .. .............. 31(4),210
Intranet in ChE Instruction, Using the........................... 31(2), 110
Introducing Process Safety into ChE Education
and Research ............................................................ 33(3),198
Introducing Students to Basic ChE Concepts: Four
Simple Experiments ................................................ 33(3),190
Introductory ChE Course for First-Year Students, A .........32(1),52
Investigtive Project for Secondary School Students,
A ChE ...................................................................... 31(2),138
Ion Exchange Chromatography Laboratory: Experimentation
and Numerical Modeling........................................... 31(1),26
Isopropyl Alcohol, Acetone Production from................ 33(3),210
Fall 2001


J
Japan, The M.I.T. Practice School in:
Internationalizing Practical ChE Education .............33(2),162
Java, Using Object-Oriented Programming
M ethodologies and ............................................... 35(3),202
Job Club, The ................................................................. 31(1),44
Joint Chemical/Electrical Engineering Course in
Advanced Digital Process Control.............................33(1),62

K
Kelvin Equation, On the Complete ............................... 35(4),274
Kinetics and Reactor Design Courses, Important
Concepts in Undergraduage ..................................... 33(2),138
Kinetics Using Equivalent Hydrodynamic Models,
Sim ulation of Reaction ............................................ 35(3),194

L
Laboratory, Vapor-Liquid Equilibria in the Undergraduate34(1),74
Laboratory Class, Two Simple Experiments for the
Fluid-Mechanics and Heat-Transfer......................... 33(3),226
Laboratory Course, Getting the Most Out of a..............32(3),184
Laboratory Course. Providing Industrial Experience in a31(2),130
Laboratory Course on Advanced ChE Experiments,
A Novel ................................................. ................ 31(4),260
Laboratory for Gaseous Diffusion through
Permeable Solids ..................................................... 34(2),172
Laboratory Incorporating EC 2000 Criteria,
An Introductory ......................................................... 34(1),80
Laboratory Experiment, A Feed-Effluent Heat
Exchanger/Reactor Dynamic Control ........................34(1),56
Laboratory Experiment in Biochemical Engineering ........33(1),54
Laboratory-Scale Tubular Reactor, Rate
M easurement with a ................................................ 33(3),238
Laplace Transforms in Transient Transport
Problems, Simple Uses of ........................................ 35(4),238
Laplace Transforms, Use of the Residue Theorem to
Invert ......................................................................... 35(1),22
Learning, Student Motivation, Attitude, and Approach to 35(1),62
Learning in ChE, Computer-Mediated Collaborative .....33(3),250

Learning in Industry
Co-Op Student Contribution to Chemical Process
Development at Dupont Merck............................ 31(1),68
Cooperative Education: Link Between Industry
and Engineers ....................................................... 35(1),58
Introducing Graduate Students to the Industrial
Perspective ........................................................ 31(3),188
Experience Factor, The: Internships Through the
Eyes of Students and Industry ............................ 32(2),152
What is Inside that Black Box, How Does It Work?. 32(4),306

Leblanc Soda Process: A Gothic Tale for
Freshman Engineers ............................................ 32(2),132

Letters to the Editor ............. 31(1),25;(3),177: 32(1),13;(2),113:
.............. 33(2),141; (3),189: 34(1),65,88)167,(3)245,251,282:
...................................................................... 35(2),107; (3),207

Lie with Engineering Graphics, How to.......................... 33(4),304
Life Sciences in a New Vision of ChE, Chemistry and... 35(4),248
311











Logbooks in Undergrad Classes, The Effective Use of... 33(3),222

Low-Cost Experiments in Mass Transfer
Part 3. Mass Transfer in a Bubble Column ............. 32(2),138
Part 4. Measuring Axial Dispersion in a
Bubble Column ................................................ 32(3), 198
Part 5. Desorption of Ammonia from a Liquid Jet.. 33(4),328
Part 6. Determination of Vapor Diffusion
Coefficient ......................................................... 34(2),158
Part 7. Natural Convection Mass Transfer on a
Vertical Cylinder with Sealed Ends.................... 34(4),310
Part 8. Absorption of Carbon Dioxide
from a Single Bubble ............................ .... ... 35(3),198


M
Major Program, The Honors in the................................ 34(4),356
Making Successful Oral Presentations: A Guide.............31(1),52
Manufacturing Game, The Green Square...................... 33(2),166
Maple, Solving Differential Equations with.................. 34(4),328
Mass Transfer (see Low-Cost Experiments in...)
Mass Transfer, A Simple Experiment for ........................ 32(2),142
Mass Transfer Across a Porous Membrane,
Single-Component .................................................. 32(4),286
Mass Transfer and Axial Dispersion in a Reciprocating-Plate
Liquid Extraction Column: Unit Ops Lab................ 32(3),202
Mass Transfer Experiment Using Nanofiltration
M em branes .............................................................. 34(2),264
Materials Balancing, ASTuTE: Computer-Aided
Teaching of ..................................................... 34(2),258
Materials Design, A ChE Graduate Course in ............... 33(4),262
Materials Processing, Combustion Synthesis and ........... 31(4),228
Mathcad, A Case Study of the Use of: Use of
Computational Tools in Engineering Education ........31(3),180
Mathematical Methods in Chemical Engineering ........... 32(3),189
Mathematical Modelers, Helping Students
Become Better ......................................................... 31(4),254
Mathematical Power Tools: Maple, Mathematica,
M ATLA B, and Excel ................................................ 32(2),156
MATLAB/Simulink for Data Acquisition, Using............ 35(4),286
Matter Converted to Energy in Reactions? Is................ 34(2),168
Maxwell-Stefan Experiment, A ....................................... 34(1),90
Medical Surveillance and the Undergraduate Thesis ........ 33(1),50
M emoriam: Sami Selim .................................................. 35(1),45
Microelectronics Processing, A Web-Based Course in
the Fundamentals of ................................................. 34(4),350
Microwave Drying, Demonstrating Simultaneous
Heat and M ass Transfer with........................................33(1),46
Miniaturization into the ChE Curriculum,
Incorporating Chemical Process .............................. 34(4),316
Modelers, Helping Students Become Better
M athematical ........................................................... 31(4),254
Modeling into the ChE Curriculum, Incorporating
M olecular ................................................................ 34(2),162
Modeling to ChE Undergrads, Teaching PDE-Based .....34(2),146
Mole and Its Use in ChE, Understanding of the............ 33(4),332
Molecular Modeling into the ChE Curriculum,
Incorporating ........................................................... 34(2),162
Motivation, Attitude, and Approach to Learning, Student 35(1),62
Multimedia Fluid Mechanics........................................... 35(2),95
312


N
Nanofiltration Membrane, Mass Transfer
Experim ent Using ................................................ 34(2),264
Network Process Control Laboratory ............................ 32(4),314
Non-Adiabatic Container Filling and Emptying ............. 33(1),26
Numerical Computation in Science and Engineering ....... 33(1),11
Numerical Simulation, Introducing Process Control
Concepts to Senior Students Using .......................... 33(4),310


0
Optics, An Experiment in Applied ............................. 32(3),174
Oral and Written Communication Skills,
Development of ........................................................ 31(2),116
Oral Presentations, Making Successful: A Guide.............. 31(1),52
Outcomes Assessment: An Unstable Process? ................ 33(2),116
Outcomes Assessment: Its Time has Come ................... 33(2),102
Outcomes Assessment: Opportunity on the
Wings of Danger ........................................ 33(2),106
Outcomes Assessment Methods .................................... 32(2),128
Oxygen From Air to Water, Developing the Best
Correlation for Estimating the Transfer of...............35(2),134

P
Packed-Column Design from a Plate-Column
Perspective, Teaching ..................... ...................... 32(4),302
Particle Dynamics in Fluidization and
Fluid-Particle System s ............................................... 34(1),40
Particle Science and Technology, Grad Education for .... 32(4),262
Particle Science and Technology
Educational Initiatives ............................................. 32(2), 122
Particle Technology, A Survey Course in ...................... 33(4),266
Particle Technology, Industrial Perspective
on Teaching ............................................................... 32(2),98
Particle Technology, Undergraduate Teaching in
Solids Processing and............................................... 32(2),118
Particle Technology Concentration at NJIT .................... 32(2),102
Particle Technology on CD............................................ 33(4),282
PDE-Based Modeling to ChE Undergraduates, Teaching34(2),146
Peer Review in the Undergraduate Laboratory, Using ....32(3),194
Peng-Robinson Equation of State: Thermodynamic
Properties Involving Derivatives, Using the ............ 35(2),112
Petroleum Design Course in a Petroleum Town,
Designing a ............................................................. 33(4),322
Phase Equilibria: Measurement and Computation .........32(4),277
Phase Partitioning and Transport of Environmental
Contaminants, Experiments Illustrating ..................... 32(1),40
Phenomena-Oriented Environment for Teaching
Process Modeling, A ............................................... 33(4),292
Pitzer-Lee-Kesler-Teja (PLKT) Strategy, The ................... 35(1),68
Pneumatic Transport and Solid Processing Studies ........ 32(2),114
Pollutants and Colloids, Column Transport
Experiments for Dissolved ....................................... 35(3),222
Pollution Prevention, Process Integration and Industrial 31(4),242
Pollution Prevention Course that Helps Meet
EC 2000 Objectives ................................................ 34(2),272
Pollution Prevention Through Process Integration,
Educational Tools for ............................................... 32(4),246
Polymerization Reaction Engineering, Innovative
W ays to Teach ......................................................... 32(1),62


Chemical Engineering Education












Porous Membrane, Single-Component Mass
Transfer Across a..................................................... 32(4),286
Portfolios to Assess a ChE Program, Using .................. 33(2),110
Postgraduate Environmental Engineering Program ........ 32(4),250
Practice School in Japan, The M.I.T.:
Internationalizing Practical ChE Education ............. 33(2),162
Principles for Teaching, Guiding ................................... 34(4),344
Problem-Solving Skills, Assessing: Part 1. The
Context for Assessment.............................................. 35(4),300
Problem-Solving Skills in Engineering Design,
Teaching Creative................................................ 33(2),150
Process Analysis: An Electronic Version......................... 33(1),40
Process Control, A Joint Chemical/Electrical
Engineering Course in Advanced Digital................... 33(1),62
Process Control, A Motivational Introduction to...............31(1),58
Process Control, Experimental Projects in Teaching.......32(4),254
Process Control, Undergrad: Clarification of
Concepts .................................................... .......... 35(2),148
Process Control Concepts to Senior Students
Using Numerical Simulation, Introducing ...............33(4),310
Process Control Course, Case Study Projects
in an Undergraduate ................................................. 32(3),214
Process Control Development, An Integrated Real-Time
Computing Environment for Advanced ................... 35(3),172
Process Control Education, A Training Simulator for
Computer-Aided................................ ................ 34(2),252
Process Control Laboratory, Network ........................... 32(4),314
Process Design, An Integrated Course and Design
Project in Chem ical .................................................. 31(2),94
Process Design Elements in the Unit Ops Lab,
Introducing ................................................................ 33(1),66
Process Design Internship, A Quality-Driven ............... 31(2),100
Process Dynamics Experiment, A Simple ....................... 31(1),64
Process Flexibility, Introduction to: Recycle Loop
with Reactor ............................................................ 32(3),224
Process Integration and Industrial Pollution Prevention .31(4),242
Process Laboratory Course, Electrochemical
Engineering in the ..................................................... 35(1),74
Process Modeling, A Phenomena-Oriented
Environment for Teaching ........................................33(4),292
Process Safety in the Curriculum: Explosion Prevention 32(4),270
Process Safety into ChE Education and Research,
Integrating ...................................... .................... 33(3),198
Process Safety Principles, Experiments to
Demonstrate Chemical ............................................... 35(1),36
Process Simulation, A Course in: Using Object-Oriented
Programming Methodologies and Java .................... 35(3),202
Process Simulators, Anomalous Results from................. 31(1),46
Product Design, Chemical ............................................. 35(4),280
Professional Development, A Seminar Course on........... 32(3),234
Professional Engineering, Effective
Communication for ................................................. 34(2),234
Psychological Theories in Engineering Education, Some35(3),212
Publication Rate Profile on Citation Statistics,
The Effect of ............................................................... 35(1),32


Q
Quantifying the "Curve"................................................ 32(3),238
Questioning Work for You, How to Make ..................... 31(2),134
Quizzes, Anonymous: An Effective Feedback Mechanism .31(1),56
Fall 2001


Random Thoughts
All in a Day's W ork ................................................. 34(1),66
Alumni Speak, The............................................... 34(2),238
Brief History of Elementry Principles of Chemical
Processes, A .............................. ............... 35(3),180
FAQS ....................................... 33(1),32
FA Q S II ................................................................ 33(4),276
FAQS III: Groupwork in Distance Learning........... 35(2),102
FAQS IV: Dealing with Student Background
Deficiencies and Low Student Motivation........... 35(4),266
Impostors Everywhere ......................................... 31(4),220
It Takes One to Know One ...................................... 31(1),32
Meet Your Students: 7. Dave, Martha, and Roberto 31(2),106
Memo: To Students Who are Disappointed
with Their Last Text Grade ................................ 33(2),136
New Faculty Member, The .................................... 32(3),206
Night Someone Slipped the Truth Serum in
the Punch Bowl, The ......................................... 32(4),278
Objectively Speaking ......................................... 31(3),178
Scholarship of Teaching, The ................................ 34(2),144
Ships Passing in the Night ...................................... 32(1),46
Speaking of Education II....................................... 33(3),196
Technology a Friend or Foe of Learning? Is ........... 34(4),326
Truth in Advertising ............................................ 35(1),25

Ranking Grad Programs: Alternative Measures of Quality 33(1),72
Rapid Determination of Vapor-Liquid Equilibria............ 31(1),34
Rate Measurement with a Lab-Scale Tubular Reactor .... 33(3),238
Reaction Kinetics Using Equivalent Hydrodynamic
M odels, Simulation of .............................................. 35(3),194
Reactor, Rate Measurement with a Lab-Scale Tubular ... 33(3),238
Reactor Design Courses, Important Concepts in
Undergraduate Kinetics and .....................................33(2),138
Reactors, Animal Guts as Ideal ....................................... 32(1),24
Real-Time Computing Environment for Advanced
Process Control Development, An Integrated ............35(3),172
Recycle Loop with Reactor: Introduction to
Process Flexibility ................................................... 32(3),224
Regulatory Compliance, Teaching Biotech
Manufacturing Facility Design and..........................35(3),188
Refrigeration Cycle, Analysis and Simulation of
Solar-Powered ......................................................... 35(1),26
Relative Volatilities Cannot be Assumed to be Constant,What
to do if: Differential-Algebraic Equations Systems .....31(2),86
Research, Integrating Process Safety into ChE
Education and ............................................................ 33(3),198
Research, On the Nature and Conduct of Technical........31(4),222
Research Methods, A Graduate Course in ..................... 35(4),236


S
Safety in the Curriculum, Process: Explosion Prevention32(4),270
Safety into a Unit Ops Laboratory Course, Incorporating32(3),178
Safety into ChE Education and Research, Integrating .... 33(3),198
Safety Principles, Experiments to Demonstrate
Chemical Process .................................... ............ 35(1),36
Secondary School Students, Investigative Project for.....31(2),138
Selectivity and All That, Yield, ..................................... 34(4),320
Semiconductor Simulation Tools, Instruction via











W eb-Based .............................................................. 32(4),242
Seminar Course on Professional Development, A........... 32(3),234
Senior-Level Capstone ChE Course, Evaluation of
Computer-Simulation Experiments in a .....................33(1),34
Separation Process Technology .......................................34(1),55
Separations: Synergism Between Research and Teaching 31(4), 202
Separations, Teaching; Why, What, When, and How? ....35(3),168
Sequential Batch Processing Experiment for
First-Year ChE Students ........................................... 33(3),216
Stirred-Tank Heater, Dynamics of a ................................ 35(1),46
Software Package for Capital Cost Estimation, A ........... 33(3),254
Solar-Powered Refrigeration Cycle, Analysis
and Simulation of a .................................................... 35(1),26
Solid Processing Studies, Pneumatic Transport and ....... 32(2),114
Solids, A Simple Method for Determining the
Specific Heat of........................................................ 32(3),190
Solids Processing and Particle Technology,
Undergraduate Teaching .......................................... 32(2),118
Solving Differential Equations with Maple................... 34(4),328
Spiral Curriculum for Introductory Courses in
ChE, A Project-Based: Part 1. Curriculum Design .... 34(2),222
Spiral Curriculum for Introductory Courses in ChE,
A Project Based: Part 2. Implementation ................. 34(4),296
Spiral Curriculum for Introductory Courses in ChE,
A Project-Based: Part 3. Evaluation ......................... 35(2),140
Stability Analysis Using Bode Plots, A Note on ........... 35(3),208
Statistics, Some Pitfalls with Citation ...............................34(1 ),62
Statistics and Probability, Use of Spreadsheets in Intro .. 31(3),194
Statistics to ChE Students, Teaching .............................31(3),168
Students to Basic ChE Concepts, Introducing............... 33(3),190
Split-Range Control, Teaching Antiwindup, Bumpless
Transfer, and ............................................................ 32(3),220
Spreading the Word (About Chemical Engineering)....... 34(2),228
Spreadsheets, Introductory Statistics and Probability .....31(3),194
Spreadsheets for Thermodynamics Instruction ............... 31(1),18
Survey Course in Particle Technology, A ...................... 33(4),266
Symposium, A Multi-University Graduate Student......... 32(4),266
Symposium at Carnegie Mellon, The Annual ChE ........... 34(1),86
System Selection on Compressible Flow Analysis,
Importance of ........................................... 32(4),308

T
Teaching, Efficient, Effective .......................................... 35(2),92
Teaching, Guiding Principles for ...................................34(4),344
Teaching, Helpful Hints for Effective ............................. 32(1),36
Teaching, How to Involve Faculty in Effective............. 33(3),244
Teaching and Learning, Three Trends in ....................... 32(4),296
Teaching Biotech Manufacturing Facility Design and
Regulatory Compliance.............................................. 35(3),188
Teaching Separations: Why, What, When, and How? .... 35(3),168
Technical Understanding, Toward: Part 1. Brain
Structure and Function ............................................ 31(3),152
Technical Understanding, Toward: Part 2. Elementary
Levels ...................................................................... 31(4),214
Technical Understanding, Toward: Part 3. Advanced
Levels ........................................................................ 32(1),30
Technical Understanding, Toward: Part 4. A General
Hierarchy Based on the Evolution of Cognition ..........34(1),48
Technical Understanding, Toward: Part 5. General
Hierarchy Applied to Engineering Education ............34(2),138


Technical Research, On the Nature and Conduct of........ 31(4),222
Temperature Profiles for Visualizing the Concentration-
Front Movement, Using In-Bed ................................. 35(2),122
Thermodynamics, A Curious Application of: Human
Societies .................................................................. 32(3),230
Thermodynamics, Chemical Engineering ..................... 32(3),223
Thermodynamics Instruction, Spreadsheets for .............. 31(1),18
Thermodynamics Problem with Conflicting Solutions.. 34(4),366
Tracer Input Experiments, Computer Simulation of ....... 33(4),300
Transport Phenomena, Who Was Who in...................... 35(4),256
Transport Problems When There is an Initial Steady
State, Linear Unsteady ............................................. 32(4),260
Thermodynamic Properties Involving Derivatives:
Using the Peng-Robinson Equation of State ............ 35(2),112
Tubular Reactor, Rate Measurement with a Lab-Scale ... 33(3),238
Turbulent Flow, A New Approach to Teaching ............. 33(2),142

U
Undergrad Classes, The Effective Use of Logbooks in ..... 33(3),222
Undergraduate Laboratory, Using Peer Review in the .... 32(3),194
Undergraduate Laboratory, Vapor-Liquid Equilibria in the34(l),74
Undergraduate Thesis, Medical Surveillance and the .......33(1),50
Unit Operations Lab: Mass Transfer and Axial Dispersion in
a Reciprocating-Plate Liquid Extraction Column ...... 32(3),202
Unit Operations Laboratory, A Supercritical Extraction
Experiment for the...................................................... 35(2),96
Unit Operations Laboratory, Computer Modeling in the... 35(2),116
Unit Operations Laboratory, Being Dynamic in the: A
Transient Fluidized-Bed Heat Transfer Experiment ..31(2),120
Unit Operations Lab, Higher-Order Thinking in the .......32(2),146
Unit Operations Lab, Introducing Process-Design
Elem ents in the ......................................................... 33(1),66
Unit Operations Lab Course, Incorporating Safety into..32(3),178
Universities...W hy? ...................................................... 33(4),288
Unsteady Transport Problems When There is an Initial
Steady State, Linear ............................................. 32(4),260
Using the Intranet in ChE Instruction............................ 31(2),110


V
Vapor Diffusion Coefficient, Determination of ............. 34(2),158
Vapor-Liquid Equilibria in the Undergraduate Laboratory 34(1),74
Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Rapid Determination of .............31(1),34
Viscosity of Aqueous Glycerol Solutions, Experiments on33(3),232

w
Wastewater by Electrochemical Treatment, Removal
of Heavy M etals in .......................... ......................... 33(2),172
Web-Based Course in the Fundamentals of
Microelectronics Processing, A ................................ 34(4),350
Web-Based Semiconductor Simulation Tools,
Instruction via ..................................................... 32(4),242
What Do You Want From Me? ..........................................31(1),60
Written Communication Skills, Development of Oral and 31(2),116



Yeast Production, Choosing and Optimum Feedstock for .. 31(1),22
Yield, Selectivity, and All That...................................... 34(4),320

21st Century, Engineering Education for the ................ 31(3),166
Chemical Engineering Education













Author Index


A
Abraham, Martin A................... 34(2),272
Abu-Khalaf, Aziz M. 31(4),250: 32(3),184:
........................................... 34(2),246
Adams, Prisella J. ......................... 34(1),8
Agrawal, Deepak ...................... 33(3),254
Ahmed, Vian S.......................... 34(2),258
Akgerman, A. ........................... 33(3),198
Alabart, Joan R. ........................ 33(3),244
Ali, Emad M. ............................ 34(2),246
Allen, Maurice.......................... 32(2),156
Allen, R.M ............................... 33(2),150
Alpay, E ................................. ... 35(3),212
Aluko, Mobolaji E. ................... 33(4),310
Alves, Manuel A ...... 33(3),226: 34(2),245
Amyotte, Paul R. ........................ 31(1),60
Anderson, Paul K. .................... 34(2),168
Anderson, Thomas F ..................... 31(1),2
Angus, John C. ........... 33(1),72: 34(2),282
Anklam, Mark R. ........................ 31(1),26
Arce, Pedro E............................ 34(4),356
Aris, Rutherford........................ 35(3),158
Athony, R.G. ............................. 33(3),198
Ayers, Jerry B. .......................... 34(4),304

B
Badino, Jr., Alberto Colli............ 33(1),54
Baird, Malcolm H.I.31(1),44:32(2),138;198
...... 33(4),328: 34(1),65;158: 35(3),198
Baldwin, Robert M. .................32(2),146:
................................. 34(2),162;(4)310
......................................... ... 35(1),45
Barat, R. .................................... 32(3),174
Barolo, Massimiliano ............... 32(4),280
Barsotti, D .A ................................ 35(1),2
Beaudoin, Stephen P .................. 35(4),236
Beer, Eduard ............................... 34(1),68
Bell, John T. ................................ 31(1),56
Bellamy, Lynn ........................... 33(2),122
Bellner, Steven............................ 31(2),94
BeltrAn, Maribel.......................... 33(3),189
Bendrich, Guido ......... 32(1),84: 32(3),208
Bequette, B. Wayne .................. 32(3),214
Bhethanabotla,Venkat R. ............ 31(1),34
Biegler, Lorenz ........................... 33(2),90
Biernacki, Joseph J. .................. 34(4),304
Bieszczad, Jerry .......................... 33(4),292
Bird, R. Byron .......................... 35(4),256
Birol, Gtilnur ............................ 35(2),128
Birol, Inan ................................. 35(2),128
Block, David E. ........................35(3),188
Bodner, George M. ..................... 33(1),34
Bonete, Pedro .............. 33(2),172;(4),300
Boosak, D. ................................ 34(2),240
Braatz, Richard D. .................... 32(3),220
Bradburn, Tanya ......................... 35(1),58
Bradley, Melissa J ..................... 34(2),234
Fall 2001


Brand, Jennifer I. ...................... 33(3),222
Brauner, Neima. 31(2),86: 35(1),32;(4)268
Brent, Rebecca. 31(1),32;(3),178: 34(1),66
Briedis, Daina ........... 33(2),128; 35(4),230
Brisk, Michael ..........................32(4),314
Brown, Wayne A....................... 35(2),134
Browning, Samuel .................... 34(4),346
Bunge, Annette L. ..................... 31(4),254
Buonopane, Ralph A................. 31(3),166
Burrows, Veronica A ................ 35(4).236
Buttrey, D .................................. 34(1),74

C
Campbell, Bill .......................... 32(2),152
Campbell, Scott W...... 31(1),34: 32(4),277
Carlson, Eric D. ..........................32(1),24
Carta, Giorgio ........................... 31(4),242
Case, Jennifer M. ...................... 33(4),332
Caskey, Jerry ............................... 33(2),96
Chaplin, Robin A. ..................... 31(2),130
Chase, Andrew............................ 31(2),80
Chase, George G....................... 32(2),118
Chen, Wei-Yin .......................... 33(3),238
Chung, Jihchin ............................ 31(1),68
Chung, Serena H....................... 32(3),220
Churchill, Stuart W. .... 31(3),158: 33(2),14
(inar, A li .................................. 35(2),128
Clark, William M........... 34(2),222;(4),296:
............................................... 35(2),140
Cleotelis, II, Gregory A. ........... 31(4),242
Collins, David ........................... 34(4),346
Comparini, Lisa ........................ 35(2),140
Conesa, J.A............... 33(4),300: 34(2),284
Conlee, Thomas D. ................... 32(4),318
Cook, Michael .......................... 32(2),132
Cooper, Doug............................ 34(2),252
Coronas, Joaquin ........................ 33(1),58
Counce, R.M. ............................ 31(2),100
Crowe, Cameron M. ................. 35(4),300
Crowl, Dan ................................. 34(1),88
Cruz, Paulo ............... 34(1),90: 35(2),122
Cussler, E.L. ............................... 33(1),12
Cutlip, Michael B. .................... 35(4),268

D
Dahm, Kevin D......................... 33(4),292
Dang, Sanjit Singh.... 32(4),242: 34(4),350
Daniel, Stephen R..................... 34(2),162
Darby, R. ................................... 33(3),198
Daubert, Thomas E. .................. 32(3),223
Dave, Rajesh N. ........................ 32(2),102
Davies, Reg ................................ 32(2),98
Davis, E. James ........................32(3),189
Davis, Robert H. ................ 32(1),36;(2),94
de Nevers, Noel .......... 33(1),26: 35(3),207
DeLancey, George B................... 33(1),40


Delgado, P ................................... 32(3),174
Deshpande, Prasanna A. ........... 35(3),222
DiBiasio, David ....................... 33(2),116:
.................................. 34(2),222;(4),296
............................................... 35(2),140
Dickson, James M. ................... 35(4),300
Dixon, Anthony G. ......... 34(2),222;(4),296:
............................................... 35(2), 140
Donnelly, Anne E........... 32(2),122;(4),262
Dorathy, Brian D. .........................35(1),36
Dorland, Dianne ....................... 31(3),168
Dougherty, Danielle.................. 34(2),252
Doyle, III, Francis J. ................. 33(4),270
Dranoff, Joshua S. ......... 34(2),283;(4),362
Dub6, Marc A. ............................31(4),210
Duarte, Horacio A .................... 31(1),46
Dudek, David A. ....................... 33(2),154
Dufaud, Eric ............................. 34(2),172

E
Eakman, James .............................31(2),94
Earl, W .B. ................................. 33(2),150
Edgar, Thomas F.......... 31(1),12: 34(4),290:
............................................... 35(3),208
Edison, Thomas ........................ 35(3),208
Edwards, David W. ................... 34(2),258
Edwards, Louis L. ...................... 33(1),62
Edwards, Robert V. ..................... 33(1),72
Edwards, S.V. ............................31(2),100
El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M........... 32(4),246
Elliott, Janet A.W. ..................... 35(4),274
Elmore, Bill B. .......................... 34(4),316
Ekechukwu, Kenneth N............ 33(4),310
Ely, James F.32(2),146: 34(2),162: 35(1),45
Epstein, Norman ...........................32(1),13
Erjavec, John J. ......................... 34(2),268
Est6vez, L. Antonio .................... 33(1),66
Eubank, P.T. .............................. 33(3),198
Evans, G.M. ..............................32(4),308
Exp6sito, Eduardo ......... 33(2),172;(4),300

F
Falconer, John L. ...................... 33(2),138
Fan, Liang-Shih ........... 32(2),94: 34(1),40:
............................................... 35(3),187
Farooq, Shamsuzzaman .............. 32(1),76
Farrell, Stephanie H.................. 35(4),296
Favre, Eric ................................ 34(2),172
Feeley, Joseph J. ......................... 33(1),62
Felder, Richard M.......... 31(1),32;(2),106;
...................................... (3),178;(4)220 :
.......... 32(1),46;(2),126;(3)206;(4),278
... 33(1),32;(2), 136;(3),184,196;(4),276
....... 34(1),14,16,26,66;(2)108,118,144;
........................ (3)198,208,238;(4),326:
............ 35(1),25;(2)102;(3),157;(4)266
315











Fenton, James M......................... 33(2),166
Fenton, Suzanne S. ................... 33(2),166
Finlayson, Bruce A. ......................31(1),26
Finol, Carlos ............................... 33(1),58
Fischer, Ian S. .............................32(2),103
Flach, Lawrance ....................... 33(2),158
Fogler, H. Scott......................... 35(4),290
Forbes, J. Fraser........................ 34(2),102
Fordon, Keith B. ....................... 31(4),236
Forrester, S.E. ........................... 32(4),308
Foss, Alan S. ............................. 33(4),292
Fraser, Duncan M. .......... 33(3),190;(4)332
Fricke, A. Christian .................... 33(1),84
Furzer, Ian A. .............................. 33(1),50

G
Gabbard, Ronald G. ..................... 35(2),96
Gallo-O'Toole, Sara ................... 31(1),44
Ganter, Susan L. ....................... 35(2),152
Garcia-Garcia, Vicente .. 33(2),172;(4),300
Garred, L.J................ 32(2),138: 34(2),158
Gast, Alice P. .............................. 32(1),24
Gatzke, Edward P..................... 33(4), 270
Geurts, Kevin R. ....................... 33(4),292
Gilmour, .A. ............................. 33(2),150
Giralt, Francesc......................... 33(3),244
Godiwalla, Shanaya .................. 32(4),306
Gomes, Vincent G. ................... 33(3),204
G6mez, Amparo ........................ 33(3), 189
Gonzales-Garcia, Jos6 ... 33(2),172;(4),300
Goodeve, Peter J. ...................... 33(4),292
Gooding, Charles H.. 32(4),318: 33(3),178
Graham, Michael D. ... 32(1),29: 35(2),152
Grant, Ron ................................ 33(3),178
Gray, Murray R. ............................ 31(1),22
Grau, Francesc X. ..................... 33(3),244
Grimberg, Stefan J........................ 32(1),40
Grossmann, Ignacio ...... 33(2),90: 34(1),62
Guedes de Carvalho, J.R. .......... 33(3),226:
......................................... .. 34(2),245
Gumpel, Damiin ........................ 32(2),152
Guzman, Roberto........................ 31(2), 124

H
Haile, J.M. ..... 31(3),152;(4),214: 32(1),30
........................ 33(4),288: 34(1),48,128
Hahn, Juergen ............................. 35(3),208
Haj-Hariri, Hossein..................... 35(2),95
H all, K .R. ....................................33(3),198
Hamielec, Archie E................... 32(1),62
Harb, J.N. .................... 31(3),180; 32(1),52
Hariri, Hossein............................ 33(2),96
Hasan, Rashid A. ...................... 34(2),268
Hatton, Alan.............................. 33(2),162
Hatzimanikatis, Vassily ............ 34(4),346
Helgardt, Klaus......... 32(3),190: 34(2),228
Henda, Redhouane..................... 35(3),194
Henriquez, V. .............................32(2),142
Herrero, Joan ............................ 33(3),244
Hesketh, Robert P. .... 33(4),316: 34(2),240
316


........................................... 35(4),296
Hestekin, Jamie A....................... 32(4),266
Hills, John H. ............................ 33(3),216
Hirt, Douglas E. ........................ 32(4),290
Hokka, Carlos Osamu................. 33(1),54
Hollein, Helen C. ...................... 32(4),318
Holmes, J.M. ............................ 31(2),100
Howard, G. Michael ..................... 31(1),2
Hunkeler, D. ............................... 35(2),91
Huvard, Gary S........... 32(1),48: 33(2),138

I
Ingles, Marina ............. 33(2),172;(4),300
Iniesta, Jesds ................ 33(2),172;(4),300
Iveson, Simon M. ..................... 34(4),338

J
Jacob, Karl ................................ 32(2),118
Jolls, Kenneth R. ...................... 32(2),113
Jones, A ................................... 31(3),180
Jones, Frank J ........................... 34(4),316
Jones, W.E.31(3),172: 32(3),224: 33(3),216


K
Kandas, Angelo W. ................... 33(2),162
Karim, Nazmul ......................... 31(3),146
Kasko, A .................................. 32(3),174
Kauffman, Kenneth J ................ 31(2),134
Keffer, David J............................ 35(2),116
King, Julia A. ............................ 32(3),178
Kline, L. .................................... 34(2),240
Klinzing, George ...................... 32(2),114
Knox, Dana E. ............................ 35(2),96
Ko, Edmond I. .......................... 32(3),234
Koenig, Andree........................... 31(1),22
Kolaczyk, Anne ............................ 32(1),2
Konak, A.R ................................ 31(1),40
Koros, William J. ......................... 35(2),86
Koulouris, Alexandros .............. 33(4),292
Kourti, Theodora ...................... 35(4),300
Krantz, William B..................... 34(2),216
Kresta, Suzanne M...................... 31(1),22
Kwon, Kyung ........................... 33(3),232


L
Lacks, Daniel J. ........................ 32(4),302
Lamb, Fiona M. ........................ 34(2),258
Langrish, Timothy A.G............. 33(3),204
Lawrence, Shawn ..................... 34(4),346
Lee, Carolyn W.T ..................... 34(4),344
Lee, James H. van der............... 35(3),172
Lee, Kelvin H. .......................... 34(4),346
Lennox, Barry ............................. 32(4),314
LeVan, Douglas ........................ 31(4),242
Lira, Carl T. .............................. 35(4),230
Lisal, M artin ............................... 35(1),68
Lodge, Keith B. .......... 34(1),94: 34(2),178
Lombardo, Stephen J ................ 34(2),154
Loney, N.W ................................ 35(1),22


Ludlow, Douglas K..................... 31(2),116
Luke, Jonathan.......................... 32(2),102
Luke, June ................................ 32(3),202
Lusvardi, V. ................................. 34(1),74
Luyben, William L..... 34(1),56: 35(3),182

M
MacGregor, John F ...................... 31(1),44
Mackenzie, J.G. ......................... 33(2),150
Macias-Machin, A ....................32(2),142
Mackenzie, Judith G...................32(2),156
Maclean, W. Dan ......................... 32(1),72
MagalhAes, FernBo D................ 35(2),122
Mahoney, Donald P................... 34(2),278
Mannan, M.S. ........................... 33(3),198
Marcilla, Antonio...................... 33(3),189
Marrero, T.R. .............. 31(4),249: 33(1),39
Martin-Gull6n, Ignacio............. 34(2),284
Matijasevi'c, Ljubica ................. 34(1),68
Matthes, Raymond A................ 34(4),350
Meadows, Edward S................. 33(4),270
Medir, Magda ........................... 33(3),244
Mendes, Addlio........... 34(1),90: 35(2),122
McCallum, Christine L ............... 33(1),66
McCormick, Alon V.................. 35(3),158
McNeill, Barry.......................... 33(2),122
Mich, Jennifer L. ........................ 35(1),36
Miller, Ronald L. .....................31(4),254:
.............................. 32(2),146;33(2),110
Missen, Ronald W.................... 34(4),320:
.................................... 35(1),68;(2),109
Mitchell, Brian S. ..... 31(3),194: 33(4),262
Mirarefi, A.A. ........................... 35(4),244
Mohammad, A. Wahab ............. 34(2),264
Montesinos, Rosa Ma. ..............31(2),124
Montiel, Vicente ............ 33(2),172;(4),300
Mooers, Jamisue A. ...................... 35(1),36
Miller, Erich A......... 32(3),230: 34(4),366:
............................................. 35(2),110
Munson-McGee, Stuart H. ........... 34(1),80
Murhammer, David W ................ 35(1),36
Myers, Kevin. 31(2),120;(2),142: 33(1),46

N
Nabours, Nick............................. 31(2),94
N appi, J. .................................... 32(3),174
Natarajan, Venkatesh ................ 32(3),214
Natori, Yukikazu ....................... 33(2),162
Nelson, Jr., Ralph D.................... 32(2),98
Neoh, K.G............... 32(4),250; 35(4),244
Newell, Heidi L. ....................... 34(2),268
Newell, James A...... 31(2),116: 32(3),194:
................ 34(2),268: 35(2),104;(4)296
Nirdosh, I. ........... 31(1),52: 32(2),138;198:
............................................... 33(4),328
................ 34(2),158;(4),310: 35(3),198
Noriega, JuAn A ........................ 31(2),124

0
O'Connell, John P. .................... 31(4),222
Chemical Engineering Education












O'Connor, Andrea J.................. 33(2),162
Olds, Barbara M. ...... 32(2),146; 33(2),110
Olsen, Donald G. ......................35(3),172
Oreovicz, Frank S. ...................... 34(2),98
Ottino, J.M ............................... 34(4),362
Owens, Thomas C. ................... 34(2),268

P
Palanki, Srinivas ......................... 31(1),64
Palazogul, A. ............................... 35(1),46
Pallerla, Sammaiah..................... 33(3),232
Papadopoulos, Kyriakos D. .......32(4),260;
........................................... 35(4),238
Penlidis, Alexander ..................... 32(1),62
Perilloux, C.J. .............................31(2),100
Peterson, James N....................... 33(1),11
Pfeffer, Robert ............................32(2),102
Pinto, A.M ............................... 34(2),245
Pinto, M.F.R. ............................ 33(3),226
Podmore, C.A. .......................... 31(3),146
Power, Timothy D....................... 34(1),86
Powers, Susan E. ......................... 32(1),40
Prausnitz, J.M ............................ 32(1),14
Prasad, Vinay ............................ 32(3),214
Pratt, Ronald M. ....... 33(4),278: 35(2),112
Prausnitz, Mark R....... 32(1),20: 34(2),234
Price, Jesse W. .......................... 32(4),254
Price, John M. ............................. 32(1),58
Priore, Brian ............................. 31(2),120
Proctor, Stan ............................. 33(2),104
Prud'homme, Robert K. .............31(1),26
Pugsley, Todd S. ....................... 32(3),208

R
Rajagopalan, Raj ...... 32(2),122: 33(4),258
Ranade, Saidas............................ 32(1),68
Rao, N.V. Rama .......................... 34(1),65
Rao, Ramesh R. ........................ 32(3),214
Ravi, R. ..................................... 35(2),148
Reimer, R.A. ............................. 31(2),100
Rhinehart, R. Russell ... 31(3),188: 34(1),2:
............................................ 35(1),50
Rhodes, Martin J....................... 33(4),282
Ricker, Lawrence ...... 32(3),202: 35(4),286
Riggs, James B. ........................ 31(3),188
Rockstraw, David A .................... 31(2),94
Rodriguez, J.M. ........................ 32(2),142
Rogers, Gloria .......................... 33(2),106
Romagnoli, J.A. .......................... 35(1),46
Rosato, Anthony D. .................. 32(2),102
Rosner, Daniel E......... 31(4),228: 32(1),82
Rothberg, Steve J. ..................... 34(2),258
Rowley, R.L. ............................. 31(3),180
Roy, Sanjeev ............................. 33(3),232
Rugarcia, Armando ..............34(1),16,26;
.................. ... (2)108,118: (3)198,208
Ruiz, Arturo .............................. 31(2),124
Ruthven, Douglas M.. 31(2),80: 32(2),113:
.......... ................... ... 34(2),167
Ryan, Jr., James E. .................... 31(4),242
Fall 2001


S
Sadeq, Jafar................................. 31(1),46
Sampath, Vishak ......................... 31(1),64
Sandler, Stanley I. ....................... 31(1), 18
Sarkari, Marazban ..................... 32(4),266
Sauer, Sharon G. ....................... 34(4),356
Schruben, Dale L. ..................... 32(2),113
Schultz, Brian D. ........................ 33(1),72
Seagrave, Dick.......................... 33(2),104
Sedahmed, G.H......................... 34(4),310
Senkan, Selim M. ..................... 31(4),236
Serth, Robert W .......................... 31(1),46
Schott, Kevin D. ......................32(3),214
Shacham, Mordechai ................. 31(2),86:
..................................... 35(1),32;(4)268
Shaeiwitz, Joseph A................. 32(2),128;
................ 33(2),102;(3),210: 35(4),280
Shallcross, David .......................... 35(1),8
Shama, Gilbert .......... 32(3),190: 34(2),228
Shallcross, David C. ................. 31(2),138
Shanley, Edward S.................... 35(3),220
Sheardown, Heather ................. 35(4),300
Shemilt, Leslie M. ...................... 31(1),44
Sheppard, Charles M ................ 32(4),270
Shinnar, Reuel .......................... 35(3),162
Shonnard, David R. .................. 35(3),222
Sinclair, Jennifer L. .. 32(2),108: 33(4),266
Siurana, Amparo G6mez ............ 34(2),251
Skliar, Mikhail .......................... 32(4),254
Slater, C. Stewart ...... 32(4),318: 33(4),316
....................................... 35(4),296
Sloan, E. Dendy .......................... 35(1),45
Smith, William R. .................... 34(4),320:
.................................... 35(1),68;(2),108
Soares, Joao B.P........................... 32(1),62
Solen, Kenneth A. ....................... 32(1),52
Sommerfeld, Jude T.... 32(3),238: 35(1),26
Spicer, Thomas O. .................... 35(2),109
Spriggs, H. Dennis.... 31(4),242: 32(4),246
Stadtherr, Mark A ..................... 32(4),268
Stanforth, R.R. .......................... 32(4),250
Steidle, Cheri C. .........................33(1),46
Stephanopoulos, George .. 33(2),90;(3),292
Sternberg, P.K .......... 31(2),116: 34(2),268
Stice, James E....... 34(1),16,26;(2)108,118
............................................ (3)19 8,20 8,
Subramanian, Venkat R. ........... 34(4),328
Summers, Melissa A ................. 32(4),266
Sureshkumar, G.K. ....................... 35(1),80
Svrcek, W.Y. ............ 33(4),322: 34(2),278:
............................................... 35(3),172


T
Talbot, Jan B. .............................. 35(1),74
Tan, R.B.H ............................... 35(4),244
Tardos, Gabriel I. ........................ 34(1),89
Taveira, Pedro ............................. 34(1),90
Taylor, David G. ....... 33(3),250; 35(3),202
Teja, Amyn S. ............................. 32(2),88
Tejeda, Armando....................... 31(2),124


Takoudis. Christos G. 32(4),242: 34(4),350
Tardos, Gabriel I. ...................... 34(4),343
Thompson, Karsten E ............... 34(2),146
Tian, Kong S. ............................ 32(2),113
Tien, C ..................................... 32(4),250
Ting, Y.P ...................................... 32(4),250
Toghiani, Rebecca K. ................. 32(2),82
Turton, Richard......... 33(3),210: 35(4),280
Tyler, Christopher A ................. 32(4),254

V
Vadigepalli,Rajanikanth............ 33(4),270
Vanderlick, Kyle ........................... 31(1),8
Varde, Neelesh.......................... 35(4),290
Varma, Arvind .............................. 35(1),14
Vasudevan, P.T........................... 33(3),254
Venerus, David C...................... 35(2),110
Vesilind, P. Aarne...................... 33(4),304
Vincentm, Louis Marie ............. 34(2),172
Vincitore, Antonio M ................ 31(4),236
Vivaldo-Lima, Eduardo .............. 35(1),62

W
Wankat, Phillip C...... 31(4), 202: 32(1),13:
......... 34(1),55;(2),98: 35(2),92;(3),168
Wanke, Sieghard E. .................. 34(2),102
Warren, Matthew M.................... 35(1),36
Way, J. Douglas ........................ 34(2),162
Weiss, Alvin H. ......................... 34(2),186
Westmoreland, Phillip R............. 35(4),248
Whitacre, Shawn....................... 31(2),120
Whitaker, Stephen ........ 33(1),18: 35(1),46
White, Ralph E. ........................ 34(4),328
White, Scott R. ........................... 33(1),34
Whitmyre, G. ................................ 34(1),74
Wilding, W.V. .......................... 31(3),180
Willey, Ronald J. ........ 32(1),58: 33(3),216:
35(3),220
Wilson, J.A. ........... 31(3),172: 32(3),224:
............................................... 33(3),216
Woo, Wilbur W. ............................31(1),58
Wood, Philip E............ 31(1),44: 35(4),300
Woods, Donald R....... 31(1),44: 32(4),296:
....................... 34(1),16,26;(2),108,118:
............................................... 35(4),300
Worden, R. Mark ...................... 35(4),230
W renn, S. .................................... 34(1),74

Y
Yarranton, H.W.......................... 33(4),322
Yeomans, Hayde ....................... 31(2),124
Yin, K. Karen............................ 31(3),168
Young, Brent R......... 34(2),278: 35(3),172

Z
Zaki, M.M. ................................ 34(4),310
Ziemer, Katherine S.................. 32(4),266
Zinatelli, Mama ..........................31(4),210
Zuba, Leonard P ....................... 32(4),266
Zukoski, C.F ............................ 35(4),244
317














Graduate Education in Chemical Engineering


Teaching and
research assistantships
as well as
industrially sponsored
fellowships
available
up to
$17,000.

In addition to
stipends,
tuition and fees
are waived.

PhD students
may get
some incentive
scholarships.

The deadline for
assistantship
applications
is
April 1st.


G. G. CHASE
Multiphase Processes,
Fluid Flow, Interfacial
Phenomena, Filtration,
Coalescence




H. M. CHEUNG
Nanocomposite Materials,
Sonochemical Processing,
Polymerization in
Nanostructured Fluids,
Supercritical Fluid
Processing


S. S. C. CHUANG
Catalysis, Reaction
Engineering, Environ-
mentally Benign
Synthesis



J. R. ELLIOTT
Molecular Simulation,
Phase Behavior, Physical
Properties, Process
Modeling




E. A. EVANS
Materials Processing and
CVD Modeling


L. K. JU
Biochemical Engineering,
Environmental






S. T. LOPINA
BioMaterial Engineering
and Polymer Engineering






B.Z. NEWBY
Surface Modification,
Polymer Thin film






H. C. QAMMAR
Nonlinear Control,
Chaotic Processes






P. WANG
Biocatalysis and
Biomaterials


For Additional Information, Write
Chairman, Graduate Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Akron Akron, OH 44325-3906
Phone (330) 972-7250 Fax (330) 972-5856 www.ecgf.uakron.edu/~chem


Chemical Engineering Education








Chemical Engineering

at the


University



of


Alabama



A dedicated faculty with state-of-the-art facilities
offer research programs leading to Master of
Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees.

Research Interests:
Biomass Conversion, Catalysis and Reactor
Design, Controlled Release, Energy Conversion
Processes, Environmental Studies, Fuel Cells,
Hydrodynamic Stability, Magnetic Storage Media,
Mass Transfer, Metal Casting, Microelectronic
Materials, Microencapsulation, Polymer Rheology,
Process Dynamics and Control, Reservoir
Modeling, Suspension and Slurry Rheology,
Thermodynamics, Transport Process Modeling


For Information Contac
Director of Graduate Studies
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Alabama
Box 870203
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0203
Phone: (205) 348-6450
Fall 2001


An equal employment/equal educational
opportunity institution.


Faculty


G.C. April, Ph.D. (Louisiana State)
D. W. Arnold, Ph.D. (Purdue)
C. S. Brazel, Ph.D. (Purdue)
E. S. Carlson, Ph.D. (Wyoming)
P. E. Clark, Ph.D. (Oklahoma State)
C. Clements, Jr., Ph.D. (Vanderbilt)
R. A. Griffin, Ph.D. (Utah State)
D. T. Johnson, Ph.D. (Florida)
T. M. Klein, Ph.D. (NC State)
A. M. Lane, Ph.D. (Massachusetts)
M. D. McKinley, Ph.D. (Florida)
L. Y. Sadler III, Ph.D. (Alabama)
V. N. Schrodt, Ph.D. (Penn. State)
J. M. Wiest, Ph.D. (Wisconsin)











Chemical &


Materials Engineering




FACULTY & RESEARCH AREAS


he Department of Chemical and Materi-
als Engineering at the University of Ala-
bama in Huntsville offers you the oppor-
tunity for a solid and rewarding graduate career
that will lead to further success at the forefront
of academia and industry.
We will provide graduate programs that educate
and train students in advanced areas of chemical
engineering, materials science and engineering,
and biotechnology. Options for an MS and PhD
degree in Engineering or Materials Science are
available.
Our faculty are dedicated to international lead-
ership in research. Projects are ongoing in Mass
Transfer, Fluid Mechanics, Combustion,
Biosparations, Biomaterials, Microgravity Mate-
rials Processing, and Adhesion. Collaborations
have been established with nearby NASA/
Marshall Space Flight Center as well as leading
edge biotechnology and engineering companies.
We are also dedicated to innovation in teaching.
Our classes incorporate advances in computational
methods and multi-media presentations.

Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Alabama in Huntsville
130 Engineering Building
Huntsville, AL 35899
320


Ram6n L. Cero Ph.D. (UC-Davis)
Professor and Chair
Capillary hydrodynamics, multiphase flows, enhanced heat transfer
surfaces.
(256) 890-7313, rlc@che.uah.edu
Chien P. Chen Ph.D. (Michigan State)
Professor
Multiphase flows, spray combustion, turbulence modeling,
numerical methods in fluids and heat transfer.
(256) 890-6194, cchen@che.uah.edu
Krishnan K. Chittur Ph.D. (Rice)
Professor
Protein adsorption to biomaterials, FTR/ATR at solid-liquid
interfaces, biosensing.
(256) 890-6850, kchittur@che.uah.edu
Douglas G. Hayes Ph.D. (Michigan)
Assistant Professor
Enzyme reactions in nonaqueous media, separations involving
biomolecules, lipids and surfactants, surfactant-based colloidal
aggregates.
(256) 890-6874, dhayes@che.uah.edu
James E. Smith Jr. Ph.D. (South Carolina)
Professor
Kinetics and catalysis, powdered materials processing, combustion
diagnostics and fluids visualization using optical methods.
(256) 890-6439, jesmith@che.uah.edu
Jeffrey J. Weimer Ph.D. (MIT)
Associate Professor, Joint Appointment in Chemistry
Adhesion, biomaterials surface properties, thin film growth, surface
spectroscopies, scanning prode microscopies.
(256) 890-6954, jjweimer@matsci.uah.edu






UAH
The University of Alabama in Huntsville
An Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Institution
Web page: http://chemeng.uah.edu
Ph: 256.890.6810 FAX: 256.890.6839
Chemical Engineering Education













Cheica a M Eng inr


The University of Alberta is well

known for its commitment to ex-

cellence in teaching and research.

The Department of Chemical and

Materials Engineering has 37 pro-

fessors and over 100 graduate stu-

dents. Degrees are offered at the
M.Sc. and Ph.D. levels in Chemi-

cal Engineering, Materials Engi-

neering, and Process Control. All

full-time graduate students in the

research programs receive a stipend

to cover living expenses and tuition.




For further information, contact
Graduate Program Officer
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
University ofAlberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6
PHONE (780) 492-1823 FAX (780) 492-2881
e-mail: chemical. engineering @ ualberta. ca
web: www.ualberta.ca/chemeng


P. CHOI, Ph.D. (University of Waterloo)
Statistical Mechanics of Polymers Polymer Solutions and Blends
K. T. CHUANG, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Mass Transfer Catalysis Separation Processes Pollution Control
I. G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (Univ. of Minnesota) EMERITUS
Chemical Reaction Engineering Heterogeneous Catalysis
J. A. W. ELLIOTT, Ph.D. (University of Toronto)
Thennodvnamics Statistical Thennodynamics Interfacial Phenomena
D. G. FISHER, Ph.D. (University of Michigan) EMERITUS
Process Dynamics and Control Real-Time Computer Applications
J.F. FORBES, Ph.D. (McMaster University)
Real-Tine Optimization Control of Sheet Forning Processes
M. R. GRAY, Ph.D. (California Inst. of Tech.)
Bioreactors Chemical Kinetics Bitumen Processing
R. E. HAYES, Ph.D. (University of Bath)
Numerical Analysis Reactor Modeling Computational Fluid Dynamics
B. HUANG, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Controller Perfonnance Assessment Multivariable Control Statistics
S. M. KRESTA, Ph.D. (McMaster University)
Turbulent & Transitional Flows Multiphase Flowis CFD
S. LIU, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Fluid-Particle Dynamics Transport Phenomena Mass Transfer
D. T. LYNCH, Ph.D. (University of Alberta) DEAN OF ENGINEERING
Catalysis Kinetic Modeling Numerical Methods Polymerization
J. H. MASLIYAH, Ph.D. (University of British Columbia)
Transport Phenomiena Colloids Particle-Fluid Dynamics Oil Sands
A. E. MATHER, Ph.D. (University of Michigan)
Phase Equilibria Fluid Properties at High Pressures Thennodynamics
E. S. MEADOWS, Ph.D. (University of Texas)
Process Control Model Predictive Control Optinization
W. C. MCCAFFREY, Ph.D. (McGill University)
Reaction Kinetics Heavy Oil Upgrading Polymer Recycling Biotechnology
K. NANDAKUMAR, Ph.D. (Princeton University)
Transport Phenomena Distillation Computational Fluid Dynamics
A.E. NELSON, Ph.D. (Michigan Technological University)
Heterogeneous Catalysis UHV Surface Science Chemical Kinetics
M. RAO, Ph.D. (Rutgers University)
AIl Intelligent Control Process Control
J.M. SHAH, Ph.D. (University of British Columbia)
Petroleuml Thermodynamics Multiphase Mixing Process Modeling
S. L. SHAH, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Computer Process Control System Identification Adaptive Control
U. SUNDARARAJ, Ph.D. (University of Minnesota)
Polymner Processing Polymer Blends Interfacial Phenomena
H. ULUDAG, Ph.D. (University of Toronto)
Bionmaterials Tissue Engineering Drug Delivery
S. E. WANKE, Ph.D. (University of California, Davis) CHAIR
Heterogeneous Catalysis Kinetics Polrymerization
M. C. WILLIAMS, Ph.D. (University of Wisconsin)
Rheology Polymer Characterization Polymer Processing
Z. XU, Ph.D. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
Surface Science & Engineering Mineral Processing Waste Management
T. YEUNG, Ph.D. (University of British Columbia)
Emulsions Interfacial Phenomena Micromechanics


Fall 2001











I ACUT / RSARC INEET I


ROBERT G. ARNOLD, Professor (CalTech)
Microbiological Hazardous Waste Treatment, Metals Speciation and Toxicity
PAUL BLOWERS, Assistant Professor (Illinois, Urbana-Champaign)
Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis, Surface Phenomena
JAMES C. BAYGENTS, Associate Professor (Princeton)
Fluid Mechanics, Transport and Colloidal Phenomena, Bioseparations

WENDELL ELA, Assistant Professor (Stanford)
Particle-Particle Interactions, Environmental Chemistry


JAMES FARRELL, Associate Professor (Stanford)
Sorption/desorption of Organics in Soils
JAMES A. FIELD, Associate Professor (Wagenigen Agricultural Ur
Bioremediation, Microbiology, White Rot Fungi, Hazardous Waste
ROBERTO GUZMAN, Associate Professor (North Carolina State)
Affinity Protein Separations, Polymeric Surface Science
ANTHONY MUSCAT, Assistant Professor (Stanford)
Kinetics, Surface Chemistry, Surface Engineering, Semiconductor Processi,
Microcontamination
KIMBERLY OGDEN, Associate Professor (Colorado)
Bioreactors, Bioremediation, Organics Removal from Soils
THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor and Dean (CalTech)
Aerosols, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Microcontamination
ARA PHILIPOSSIAN, Associate Professor (Tufts)
Chemical/Mechanical Polishing, Semiconductor Processing
JERKER PORATH, Research Professor (Uppsala)
Separation Science
EDUARDO SAEZ, Associate Professor (UC, Davis)
Rheology, Polymer Flows, Multiphase Reactors
FARHANG SHADMAN, Professor (Berkeley)
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactive Membranes,
Microcontamination
JOST 0. L. WENDT, Professor and Head (Johns Hopkins)
Combustion-Generated Air Pollution, Incineration, Waste
Management


For further information, write to


CHEMICAL AND


ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING

at


THE


UNIVERSE


ARIZON


The Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department
at the University of Arizona offers a wide range of research
opportunities in all major areas of chemical engineering and
environmental engineering, and graduate courses are offered in
most of the research areas listed here. The department offers a fully
accredited undergraduate degree as well as MS and PhD graduate
degrees. Strong interdisciplinary programs exist in bioprocessing
and bioseparations, microcontamination in electronics manu-
facture, and environmental process modification.
Financial support is available through fellowships, government
and industrial grants and contracts, teaching and
research assistantships.
Tucson has an excellent climate and many
recreational opportunities. It is a growing modern city that
retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere.


.~


http://www.che.arizona.edu

OR write

Chairman, Graduate Student Committee
Department of Chemical and
Environmental Engineering
P.O. 210011
The University of Arizona
Tucson, AZ 85721

The University of Arizona is an equal
opportunity educational institution/equal opportunity employer.
Women and minorities are encouraged to apply.


322 Chemical Engineering Education











ARIZONA STATE


UNIVERSITY


Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

A Distinguished and Diverse Faculty A multi-disciplinary research
Chemical Engineering environment with opportunities
Jonathan Allen, Ph.D., MIT. Atmospheric aerosol chemistry, single particle in electronic materials
measurement techniques, environmental fate of organic pollutants processing biotechnology *
Stephen Beaudoin, Ph.D., North Carolina State. Semiconductor materials processing, characterization
processing, environmentally-benign semiconductor processing, particle and and simulation of materials *
thin film adhesion, chemical-mechanical polishing, polymer dielectrics ceramics air and water
James Beckman, Ph.D., Arizona. Unit operations, applied mathematics, a
energy-efficient water purification, fractionation, CMP reclamation purification atmospheric
Veronica Burrows, Ph.D., Princeton. Surface science, environmental sensors, chemistry *process control
semiconductor processing, interfacial chemical and physical processes in
sensor processing
Ann Dillner, Ph.D., Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Atmospheric particulate
matter (aerosols) chemistry and physics, ultra fine aerosols, light scattering,
climate and health effects of aerosols
Gregory Raupp, Ph.D., Wisconsin. Gas-solid surface reactions mechanisms
and kinetics, interactions between surface reactions and simultaneous transport
processes, semiconductor materials processing, thermal and plasma-enhanced
chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
Anneta Razatos, Ph.D., Texas at Austin. Bacterial adhesion, colloid
interactions, AFM, biofilms, genetic engineering
Daniel Rivera, Ph.D., Caltech. Control systems engineering, dynamic modeling
via system identification, robust control, computer-aided control system design
Michael Sierks, Ph.D., Iowa State. Protein engineering, biomedical
engineering, enzyme kinetics, antibody engineering

Materials Science and Engineering U.s
James Adams, Ph.D., Wisconsin. Atomistic simulation of metallic surfaces,
adhesion, wear, and automotive catalysts, heavy metal toxicity
Terry Alford, Ph.D., Cornell. Electronic materials, physical metallurgy,
electronic thin films
Nikhilesh Chawla, Ph.D., Michigan. Lead-free solders, composite materials,
powder metallurgy
Sandwip Dey, Ph.D., Alfred. Ceramics, high-K dielectrics, sol-gel processing
Stephen Krause, Ph.D., Michigan. Characterization of structural changes in processing of semiconductors
Subhash Mahajan (Chair), Ph.D., Berkeley. Semiconductor defects, high temperature semiconductors, structural materials
deformation
James Mayer, Ph.D., Purdue. Thin film processing, ion beam modification of materials
Nate Newman, Ph.D., Stanford. Growth, characterization and modeling of solid state materials
S. Tom Picraux, Ph.D., Caltech. Nanostructured materials, epitaxy, and thin film electronic materials

For details concerning graduate opportunities in Chemical and Materials Engineering at ASU, please call
Marlene Bolf at (480) 965-3313, or write to Subhash Mahajan, Chair, Chemical and Materials Engineering,
Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6006 (smahajan@asu.edu).


Fall 2001













AUBURN UNIVERSITY


Chemical Engineering


Robert P. Chambers University of California. Berkeley
Harry T. Cullinan Carnegie Mellon University
Christine W. Curtis Florida State University
Steve R. Duke University of Illinois
Mahmoud EI-Halwagi University of California, Los Angeles
Said Elnashaie University of Edinburgh
James A. Guin University of Texas, Austin
Ram B. Gupta University of Texas, Austin
Gopal A. Krishnagopalan University of Maine
Y. Y. Lee Iowa State University
Glennon Maples Oklahoma State University
David R. Mills Washington State University
Ronald D. Neuman The Institute of Paper Chemistry
Stephen A. Perusich University of Illinois
Timothy D. Placek University of Kentucky
Christopher B. Roberts University of Notre Dame
A. R. Tarrer Purdue University
Bruce J. Tatarchuk University of Wisconsin p2.


Research Areas
Biochemical Engineering
Pulp and Paper
Process Systems Engineering
Integrated Process Design
Environmental Chemical Engineering
Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
Materials Polymers
Surface and Interfacial Science
Thermodynamics Supercritical Fluids
Electrochemical Engineering
Transport Phenomena
Fuel Cell Technology
Microfibrous Materials


Inquiries 4o:
director of Graduate Recruiitig 1.
Department of Chemical Engineering
S Aubur University, AL 36849
i Phone (334) 844-4827
SFax (334) 844-2063 F
http:/www, eng.aubifrn.edu
-enil: chemicaI@eng.au rum.edu
Financial assistance is available to qualified applicants.












DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL

AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING


FACULTY
R. G. Moore, Head (Alberta)
J. Azaiez (Stanford)
H. Baheri (Saskatchewan)
L.A. Behie (Western Ontario)
C. Bellehumeur (McMaster)
P. R. Bishnoi (Alberta)
P. J. Farrell (Calgary)
R. A. Heidemann (Washington U.)
C. Hyndman (Ecole Polytechnique)
A. A. Jeje (MIT)
M. S. Kallos (Calgary)
A. Kantzas (Waterloo)
B. B. Maini (Univ. Washington)
A. K. Mehrotra (Calgary)
S. A. Mehta (Calgary)
B. J. Milne (Calgary)
M. Pooladi-Darvish (Alberta)
A. Settari (Calgary)
S. Srinivasan (Stanford)
W. Y. Svrcek (Alberta)
M. A. Trebble (Calgary)
H. W. Yarranton (Alberta)
B. Young (Canterbury, NZ)
L. Zanzotto (Slovak Tech. Univ., Czechoslovakia)


The Department offers graduate programs leading to the M.Sc. and Ph.D.
degrees in Chemical Engineering (full-time) and the M.Eng. degree in Chemical
Engineering, Petroleum Reservoir Engineering or Engineering for the
Environment (part-time) in thefollowing areas:
Biochemical Engineering & Biotechnology
Biomedical Engineering
Environmental Engineering
Modeling, Simulation & Control
Petroleum Recovery & Reservoir Engineering
Polymer Processing & Rheology
Process Development
Reaction Engineering/Kinetics
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena
Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available to all qualified applicants.

*For Additional Information Write *
Dr. A. K. Mehrotra Chair, Graduate Studies Committee
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4
E-mail: gradstud@ucalgary.ca


The University is located in the City of Calgary, the Oil capital of Canada, the home of the world famous Calgary Stampede and the 1988
Winter Olympics. The City combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication of a modern urban center Beautiful Banff
National Park is 110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of Banff Lake Louise,and Kananaskis areas are readily accessible. In the
above photo the University Campus is shown with the Olympic Oval and the student residences in the foreground. The Engineering
complex is on the left of the picture.
I fg.] UNIVERSITY OF
_S CALGARY


~I'wIc~
~ :~O~&


Fall 2001











































The Chemical Engineering Department at the
University of California, Berkeley, one of the pre-
eminent departments in the field, offers graduate pro-
grams leading to the Master of Science and Doctor
of Philosophy. Students also have the opportunity
to take part in the many cultural offerings of the San
Francisco Bay Area and the recreational activities
of California's northern coast and mountains.


FACULTY


Nitash P. Balsara
Harvey W. Blanch
Arup K. Chakraborty
David B. Graves
Alexander Katz
C. Judson King
Susan J. Muller
John M. Prausnitz
Jeffrey A. Reimer


Alexis T. Bell
Elton J. Cairns
Douglas S. Clark
Enrique Iglesia
Jay D. Keasling
Roya Maboudlan
John S. Newman
Clayton J. Radke
David V. Schaffer


Chairman: Arup K. Chakraborty


Unvrst o aifria eree


BIOENGINEERING
Blanch, Clark,
Keasling, Schaffer,
Chakraborty, Muller,
Prausnitz & Radke






























POLYMERS &




Radke & Reimer


FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, PLEASE VISIT OUR WEBSITE:
http://www.cchem.berkeley.edu/~chemeng/

326 Chemical Engineering Education


CATALYSIS &
REACTION ENG.

Bell, Chakraborty,
Iglesia, Katz & Reimer


ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING

Bell, Graves, Iglesia,
Keasling & King




Full Text












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