Chemical engineering education ( Journal Site )

Material Information

Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publication Date:
annual[ former 1960-1961]


Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )


Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:

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Chemical Engineering Education
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611
PHONE and FAX: 352-392-0861
Web Page:

T. J. Anderson

Phillip C. Wankat

Carole Yocum

James O. Wilkes and Mark A. Burns
University of Michigan
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University of Texas, Austin

E. Dendy Sloan, Jr.
Colorado School of Mines

Gary Poehlein
Georgia Institute of Technology
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University of Colorado

Dianne Dorland
University of Minnesota, Duluth
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University of Texas at Austin
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North Carolina State University
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University of Washington
H. Scott Fogler
University of Michigan
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Georgia Institute of Technology
Stanley I. Sandler
University of Delaware
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lowa State University
M. Sami Selim
Colorado School of Mines
James E. Stice
University of Texas at Austin
Donald R. Woods
McMaster University

Chemical Engineering Education

Volume 32

Number 2

Spring 1998

82 Mississippi State University, Rebecca K. Toghiani

88 Ronald W. Rousseau, of Georgia Tech. Amyn S. Teja

94 Teaching Fluid-Particle Processes: A Workshop Report,
Robert H. Davis, Liang-Shin Fan
98 Industrial Perspective on Teaching Particle Technology,
Ralph D. Nelson, Jr., Reg Davies
102 Particle Technology Concentration at NJIT: An NSF-CRCD Program, Rajesh N.
Dave, lan S. Fischer, Jonathan Luke, Robert Pfeffer, Anthony D. Rosato
108 CFD Case Studies in Fluid-Particle Flow, Jennifer L. Sinclair
114 Experiments. Demonstrations, Software Packages, and Videos for Pneumatic
Transport and Solid Processing Studies. George Klinzing
118 Undergraduate Teaching in Solids Processing and Particle Technology: An
Academic/Industrial Approach, George G. Chase, Karl Jacob
122 Particle Science and Technology Educational Initiatives at the University of
Florida, Anne E. Donnelly, Raj Rajagopalan

128 Outcomes Assessment Methods, Joseph A. Shaeiwitz

132 The LeBlanc Soda Process: A Gothic Tale for Freshman Engineers.
Michael Cook
138 Low-Cost Experiments in Mass Transfer: Part 3. Mass Transfer in a Bubble
Column. I Nirdosh, L.J. Garred, M.H.I. Baird
156 Mathematical Power Tools: Maple, Mathematica, MATLAB, and Excel, Judith
G. Mackenzie, Maurice Allen

142 A Simple Experiment for Mass Transfer. J.M. Rodriguez. F. Henrique., A.
146 Higher-Order Thinking in the Unit Operations Laboratory, Ronald L. Miller,
James F. Ely, Robert M. Baldwin, Barbara M. Olds

126 ABET Criteria 2000: An Exercise in Engineering Problem Solving Richard M.

152 The Experience Factor: Internships Through the Eyes of Students and Industry,
Bill Campbell, Damidn Gianpel

0 92 ASEE Annual Conference Schedule
> 113 Letters to the Editor
> 121 New Books

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering
Division, American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Copyright 1998 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American
Society for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and
not necessarily those of the ChE Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced
if notified within 120 days of publication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and
availability. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department., University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Periodicals Postage Paid at Gainesville, Florida.

Spring 1998

e department

Mississippi State University

Chapel of Memories, constructed from bricks salvaged from
original MSU men's dormitory that burned down in 1959.

Mississippi State University Mississippi State, MS 39762-9595

Mississippi State University (MSU), established in
1878 as the Mississippi Agricultural and Mechani-
cal College, is located just east of Starkville, Mis-
sissippi. MSU is the largest of eight institutions of higher
learning in the state of Mississippi and is the land-grant
institution in Mississippi. Home to the Bulldogs (or "Dawgs,"
as they are more affectionately known around campus), MSU
attracts quality students from Mississippi as well as from the
surrounding states. It has grown from 334 men in 1878 to
14,862 undergraduate and graduate students with 828 teach-
ing faculty for the 1997-98 academic year.
MSU has long been synonymous with engineering educa-
tion in Mississippi and in the Southeast. The School of
Engineering was established in 1892 by MSU's first presi-
dent, Stephen D. Lee. In 1895, the first eight undergraduates
pursuing the curriculum titled "General Engineering" were
awarded degrees. Women were first admitted to the Univer-
sity in 1934, but could not live on campus as there were no
women's housing facilities available. Alumni from the early

years at MSU fondly remember "Old Main," which was
the largest men's dormitory in the U.S. during its time.
Old Main burned in 1959, and the bricks salvaged from
its remains were used to construct the Chapel of Memo-
ries on campus.
The College of Engineering enrollment today stands at
2233 undergraduates and 268 graduate students, with 303
BS degrees, 116 MS degrees, and 18 PhD degrees having
been conferred for the 1996-97 academic year. Enrollment
of underrepresented groups in the College has grown at a
rapid pace over the past two decades, and in 1990 the Col-
lege of Engineering at MSU was recognized as one of the
top thirteen producers nationwide of BS-level engineers of
African-American descent.
The College of Engineering is also home to the National
Science Foundation Center for Computational Fluid Simula-
tion, the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Labora-
tory (DIAL), and the Raspet Flight Research Laboratory.
The NSF Center is one of twenty-five engineering research

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 1998

Chemical Engineering Education

centers across the United States with research
efforts directed at enhancing global competitive-
ness of U.S. industry and agencies by reducing
the time and cost for performing complex field
simulations for engineering analysis and design.
DIAL is funded through the Office of Environ-
mental Management in the U.S. Department of
Energy and has the mission of developing mod-
ern diagnostic techniques to monitor, control, and
optimize environmental remediation processes.
DIAL has recently moved into a new 54,000 ft2
laboratory and educational facility located at the
Mississippi Research and Technology Park adja-
cent to the MSU campus. The Raspet facility is
the largest and best-equipped university flight
research facility in the U.S. and is located at
Bryan Field, just on the west side of Starkville.
Faculty across the college and university en-
gage in interdisciplinary research efforts
through these research centers.

The past decade has been one of tremendous

The College of
today stands at
268 graduate
303 BS degrees,
116 MS degrees,
and 18 PhD
having been
conferredfor the
academic year.

growth and change at MSU. Improvements in facilities ei-
ther recently completed or just underway include: the NSF
Engineering Research Center, the DIAL Laboratory, a $15-
million expansion and renovation of the Mitchell Memorial
Library, the Joe Frank Sanderson Center (a recreational sports
complex), renovation of the Hand Chemical Laboratory, the
T.K. Martin Center for Technology and Disability, and the
Dave C. Swalm Chemical Engineering Building.
Dean A. Wayne Bennett was named Dean of the College
of Engineering in 1996 and through his leadership the frame-
work has been laid for significant enhancements to the un-
dergraduate and graduate programs in the College of Engi-
neering with a $4.6-million grant from the Hearin Founda-
tion. College faculty are excited about the change and oppor-
tunities that our undergraduate and graduate programs will
undergo in the areas of global awareness, entrepreneurship,
interdisciplinary activities, computation skills, and commu-
nications skills over the next five years.
The University's 16th president was named this past
fall. Dr. Malcolm Portera began his tenure as Presi-
dent of MSU on January 1, 1998. The coming decades
offer much excitement and continued growth for the
Chemical Engineering Department.

Chemical engineering at MSU made its debut in 1935 as a
curriculum offering through the Department of Chemistry.
The first program lacked many of the features present in
modem-day chemical engineering programs and, as was
common in those days, encompassed the field of industrial
chemistry. In 1936, courses in unit processes, industrial sto-
Spring 1998

ichiometry, and chemical plant design were added
to the curriculum, and in 1939, a state-of-the-art
course, "Slide Rule," offered by the Physics De-
partment, was added to the chemical engineer-
ing curriculum. The catalog curriculum descrip-
tion for chemical engineering noted that "those
who wish to make careers in this field will natu-
rally look forward eventually to opportunities
for graduate study."! Obviously, the opportuni-
ties for chemical engineers in industry have
grown since that time.
Harold E. Graves, Associate Professor of
Chemical Engineering, was the only faculty
member in the Chemistry Department who taught
ChE courses (all seven of them!) in those early
years. It wasn't until 1942 that the Department
of Chemistry became the Department of Chem-
istry and Chemical Engineering. The first six
graduates to complete the chemical engineering
curriculum matriculated in 1938, and among them
was Robert Lamar Pigford, who graduated with
"Special Honors."
Throughout the forties and fifties, chemical

engineering was staffed by one, at most two, faculty mem-
bers who taught all of the required courses. Graves left the
university in 1939 and Laddie F. Dobry took his place as the
sole chemical engineering faculty member. In 1940, Dillon
Evers joined Dobry, but he soon went on leave and remained
on leave through 1943. Michael G. Pelipetz came in 1942
and stayed until 1946. In 1945, Mahlon P. Etheredge joined
the faculty, and the next year, Pelipetz departed and was
replaced by Henry V. Allen Jr. Allen remained on the faculty
for only two years. During these early years, the curriculum
underwent significant modifications with courses com-
monly found in present-day ChE curriculums being added.
In 1948, Etheredge was named Head of Chemical Engi-
neering. The two-member chemical engineering faculty
tradition continued with William A. Reinhardt arriving
in 1949 to replace Allen.
In 1952 there was a significant event that continues to
impact chemical engineering even today. The state legisla-
ture approved funding for a building of 35,602 ft2 to house
chemical engineering. The building, dedicated in 1956 in
honor of Etheredge, continues to be the home of the chemi-
cal engineering department today. The faculty grew during
the next few years, with Arnold J. Gully joining as Associate
Professor in 1953, and Ernest E. Bailey, Everard G. Baker,
and Dennis Brown coming in as Acting Instructors.
In 1956, chemical engineering was established as a sepa-
rate department and Charles W. Selheimer took the helm as
the second department head. Gully and Baker remained on
the faculty with Selheimer. Then in 1959 the department was
transferred from the College of Arts and Science to the

School of Engineering, joining the nine established engi-
neering departments. Earl C. Oden joined the department as
Associate Professor and Royce B. Luker joined as Assistant
Professor in 1960.
John L. Weeks, Jr., was named head of the department in
1962, and David Cornell joined the faculty in that same year.
The faculty, consisting of Weeks, Cornell, Oden, Luker, and
Baker, was responsible for the department's successful ac-
creditation in 1964 by the EPCD. Luker left in 1967. Under-
graduate enrollment during those early years grew at a steady
pace from the first six graduates in 1938 to approximately 15
to 20 graduates per year during the 1960s.
C. Hai Kuo joined the faculty in 1971, and in 1973 Allen
G. Wehr, H.A. Koelling, and William B. Hall came to chemi-
cal engineering from the newly dissolved Ceramic and
Metallurgical Engineering program, bringing consider-
able expertise in the materials area to chemical engineer-
ing. George Lightsey, a '65 alumnus, returned to the
department to teach in 1976.
Weeks retired as department head in 1982 and Donald O.
Hill, a member of the civil engineering faculty, was named
Head of Chemical Engineering. His diverse background en-
compassed traditional chemical engineering, environmental
engineering, and considerable industrial experience and he
significantly impacted the development of external re-
search programs by departmental faculty. In 1983, Clifford
E. George joined the department. Hill, George, and Kuo
continue to serve on the faculty today and have been
joined in recent
years by Hossein
Toghiani (1989),
Rebecca Besselsen
Toghiani (1989),
Steven D. Gardner
(1991), Charles A.
Sparrow (1993),

Rudy Rogers (1993), Nancy S. Losure (1994), and Mark E.
Zappi (1996). Table 1 lists the current faculty at MSU along
with their research interests.

Chemical engineering at MSU has prepared many (1438
BS) graduates who represent the embodiment of success
through their careers. In 1989, the Chemical Engineering
Hall of Fame was chartered to honor a select group of
departmental alumni recognized for their career achieve-
ments. Charter members include: David Bradford, '40 (Presi-
dent and CEO of Allied Chemical Corporation; deceased);
C. Glendon Bradley, '64 (President of Ciba-Geigy); Gerald
W. Cross, '72 (President of Rika-Hercules Chemical Com-
pany); Earnest W. Deavenport, '60 (President of Eastman
Chemical Company); Hunter W. Henry, '50 (President and
CEO of Dow Chemical U.S.; retired); and Dave C. Swalm,
'55 (President and CEO of Texas Petrochemicals and Texas
Olefins; retired).
In 1992, R.L. Pigford ('38, Professor Emeritus, University
of Delaware) was inducted into the Hall of Fame posthu-
mously, and Lawrence A. Adcock ('59, General Manager of
the Louisiana Division of Dow Chemical USA, retired) and
Norman R. Young ('56, Vice President of Texaco Chemical
Company, retired) were also inducted.

Construction is underway for a new $18.6-million build-
ing, made possible by a generous gift from Dave
C. Swalm ('55) combined with support from the
State Legislature. The building will face Lee Hall,
the historic structure after which it is patterned.
The Institutions of Higher Learning Board of Trust-
ees in Mississippi recently approved the new name
for the chemical engineering department, hence-
forth to be known as the "Dave C. Swalm School
of Chemical Engineering."

Ground-breaking ceremony for new
engineering building, with (left to right)
Curt Ulmer, Department Head Don Hill,
MSU President Donald Zacharias, Dave C. Construction is underway (top photograph) for the new
Swalm, Governor Kirk Fordice, College of "Dave C. Swalm Chemical Engineering Building," to be
Engineering Dean Wayne Bennett, and completed in 1999, with the architect's rendering of the
Architect Richard McNeil. finished building shown above.
84 Chemical Engineering Education

^F9 .1 -

Current Faculty and Research Interests at MSU

* Donald O. Hill Professor and Head of Chemical Engineering
(PhD, Alabama, '72) Don is a native of Birmingham, Alabama. He
worked as a process engineer for the 3M company in Decatur, Ala-
bama, for seven years prior to returning to school to pursue his gradu-
ate degrees. His first academic assignment was Professor of Environ-
mental Engineering at MSU. In 1982, Don was named Head of the
MSU's Department of Chemical Engineering. His primary teaching
and research interests center on the environment and the application of
chemical engineering principles to solve environmental engineering
problems. His current research efforts focus on industrial waste/pollu-
tion prevention and catalysis. He teaches the freshman design course
that provides entering students with the fundamentals of ChE design.
* CliffordE. George Professor (PhD, Mississippi State, '85) Clifford
worked in industry for over fifteen years, gaining considerable experi-
ence in the areas of new process development and project management.
He has worked in various research, development, and production posi-
tions with Copolymer Rubber and Chemical Corp., Calumet Industries,
and Crosby Chemical Corp., and has been involved in a variety of
systems design involving waste utilization and soils remediation. Early
work was sponsored by the Tennessee Valley Authority and Energy
Corporation to apply radio frequency and microwave heating tech-
niques to industrial drying processes. As work progressed, experimen-
tal techniques and equipment were developed that led to investigation
of the use of electromagnetic energy as a heating medium for the
detoxification of contaminated soils. George has authored more than
twenty papers and has made more than sixty technical presentations at
meetings and symposiums.
* C. Hai Kuo Professor (PhD. University of Houston, '64) Hai
joined the faculty at MSU in 1970. Prior to his arrival, he was associ-
ated with Shell Development Company and the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency. His research interests and experience include pro-
cess dynamics and simulation, kinetics of vapor and liquid phase reac-
tions, mass transfer and chemical reactions in gas/liquid and solid/
liquid systems, multiphase fluid flow and heat transfer through porous
media, and air and water pollution control.
* Rudy Rogers (PhD, University of Alabama, '68) Before joining
the MSU faculty, Rudy worked in industry for eleven years on projects
that included non-Newtonian flow of slurries, freeze drying, and small-
particle phenomena. One area of his research has involved the produc-
tion of methane adsorbed on coal, and his textbook on the subject,
Coalbed Methane: Principles and Practice, was published by Prentice-
Hall in 1994. His current research interests focus on gas hydrates. In
recent years, gas hydrates (which form abundantly in arctic regions and
in deep ocean sediments) have been found to store very large amounts
of natural gas. Research at MSU is determining the feasibility of
practical uses of natural gas storage in gas hydrates for such applica-
tions as peak loads for electric power plants and as an alternative fuel
for automotive vehicles. Projects are funded by DOE and Chevron in
these and related gas-hydrate topics. Rudy and MSU hold a patent
regarding the application. Rudy teaches the mass and energy balances
course as well as process design and plant design courses in the ChE
* Charles A. Sparrow Professor (PhD, Georgia Institute of Technol-
ogy, '77) Charles has been a faculty member at MSU since 1976. His
initial appointment was in the Department of Nuclear Engineering. He
specializes in computational methods for transport problems, including
diffusion theory. Among his interests is the development of methods
for detection of small amounts of pollutants in the atmosphere. On the
MSU campus, he is associated with the Center for International Secu-
rity and Strategic Studies, where he organizes symposia to discuss
problems associated with disposition of excess fissile materials. His
research includes both numerical studies and laboratory measurements.

* Steven D. Gardner Associate Professor (PhD, University of Florida,
'90) Steven's primary research and teaching interests revolve around the
chemical and physical phenomena associated with interfaces. In fact,
much of his previous research has been directed toward characterizing
diffusion and reaction processes occurring at solid/solid, solid/liquid, and
solid/gas boundaries. As a result, he has developed considerable expertise
in surface and interface analysis using techniques such as X-ray photo-
electron spectroscopy. Auger electron spectroscopy, and ion scattering
spectroscopy. He currently directs a surface-analysis laboratory that ad-
dresses fundamental research in the areas of heterogeneous catalysis,
adhesion (with emphasis on carbon fibers and polymers), and semicon-
ductor gas sensors. Typical activities have included (1) optimizing cata-
lyst compositions for improved yield and selectivity, (2) designing surface
treatments for carbon fibers in order to achieve improved adhesion to
polymers, and (3) correlating surface composition and surface conductiv-
ity of metal oxides as a function of the ambient gas-phase composition.
* Hossein Toghiani Associate Professor (PhD, University of Missouri-
Columbia, '88) "Dr. H." (as he is known around the department) was born
in Isfahan. Iran. and teaches the senior-level process control course. He
also often teaches the reactor design and unit operations laboratory courses
as well as graduate courses. He has worked with DIAL in the area of
process gas analysis and is a major team player in the control efforts
currently underway within DIAL. He also maintains research activities in
the areas of polymer composites and phase equilibria. In collaboration
with Dr. Hill, he is investigating the production of alcohols from synthesis
gas derived from a variety of waste materials found throughout the state,
including sawdust.
* Rebecca K. Besselsen Toghiani Associate Professor (PhD, Univer-
sity of Missouri-Columbia, '88) "Dr. R" is co-PI on a DIAL project
investigating the thermodynamics of salt-cake dissolution in support of
DOE remediation efforts at the Hanford DOE Complex. Additional DIAL
activities focus on use of membrane technology for mercury removal from
gas streams. Other research interests include phase equilibria and separa-
tions. She has established a laboratory for the measurement of vapor-
liquid data (sub-atmospheric to 30 bar pressure) and for the examination
of supercritical fluid extraction as a remediation tool. She teaches a
variety of courses at the undergraduate level and has developed graduate-
level courses in process computations and membrane separation pro-
* Mark E. Zappi Associate Professor (PhD. Mississippi State Univer-
sity, '95) Mark joined the faculty in 1996 and serves as the director of the
recently established Environmental Technology Research and Applica-
tions Laboratory. His research focus has been on the development of
innovative cleanup techniques that use biological, physical, and/or chemi-
cal oxidative mechanisms for contaminant destruction. These efforts in-
volve research dealing with the treatment of contaminated water, soil, and
air using both bench and pilot-scale reactor systems. He has been actively
involved in the cleanup efforts at over twenty sites and has participated in
over ninety engineering projects.
* Nancy S. Losure Assistant Professor (PhD, Michigan State Univer-
sity. '94) After receiving her BS degree, Nancy accepted an entry-level
engineering position at Dow Chemical and carried out various assign-
ments in polymer research and production plants, culminating with four
years in the Styrene/Butadiene Latex production plant as a production
engineer. In 1987 she resigned from Dow to pursue graduate study at
Michigan State University. Since coming to MSU in 1994, she has pur-
sued projects in polymer recycling and composite material production
methods (notably in reaction injection modeling) and Kenaf/polymer blends.
Her industrial experience has also been put to use in service of MISSTAP,
where she conducts waste elimination and pollution prevention audits of
Mississippi industries. She teaches polymer and materials science courses
and the unit operations laboratory course.

Spring 1998
Spring 19988

The ground-breaking ceremony included Dave C. Swalm,
Governor Kirk Fordice, President Donald Zacharias, Col-
lege of Engineering Dean A. Wayne Bennett, and a host of
alumni and friends of chemical engineering. The new 95,000
ft2 building will feature state-of-the-art multimedia technol-
ogy in the classrooms and will significantly expand the
department's research and teaching facilities. The first two
floors of the five-story red brick structure will include class-
rooms for general university use and a 140-seat audito-
rium. The upper floors will house chemical engineering
classrooms, laboratories, and offices. Construction will
be completed in 1999.

The undergraduate program features the common core of
science, engineering, and mathematics courses combined
with traditional chemical engineering offerings. Electives
drawing on faculty research expertise provide students with
an opportunity to broaden their undergraduate academic ex-
perience in membrane separation processes, pollution abate-
ment and remediation, air pollution control, hazardous waste
incineration, experimental methods in materials research,
and high polymer theory. The undergraduate program is
accredited by ABET, requires 138 semester credit hours (see
Table 2), and currently has 320 students. Departmental en-
rollment of women and minorities is highest in the College
of Engineering, with 103 women and 82 minority students
currently enrolled. The entering freshman class to the chemi-
cal engineering program always makes its presence known
by having the highest average ACT score of any department
in the College of Engineering.
The undergraduate curriculum has recently undergone sig-
nificant modifications that allow students to focus elective
courses in an area of interest to them. Other major modifica-
tions to the four-year BS-degree program include the addi-
tion of a seminar (1 hour) and a design-concepts course
(3 hours) in the freshman year as well as more even
distribution of the required ChE courses over the sopho-
more through senior years.
Undergraduates enjoy an excellent unit-operations labora-
tory experience made possible through the generosity of the
Dow Chemical Company, Eastman Chemical Company, and
the hard work of the Drs. Toghiani and Dr. Hill. Funding in
the amount of $250,000 from Dow and $118,000 from
Eastman allowed the design, construction, and integration of
equipment for over eighteen new experiments to be added to
the laboratory between 1989 and 1993. These experiments
cover the spectrum from traditional unit operations to
emerging technologies. Much of the equipment was built
in-house and was designed to demonstrate textbook prin-
ciples. Integration of the equipment with an industrial-
style control system provides the undergraduates with a
solid laboratory experience.

First Semester
Inv. in Chemistry
Fund. of Chemistry I
ChE Freshman Seminar
English Comp. I
Calculus I
Fund. of Public Speaking
Humanities Elective
Total Credit Hours

First Semester
Calculus III
Physics II
Mass/Energy Balances
Fluid Flow Operations
Fine Arts Elective

Total Credit Hours

First Semester
Organic Chem. Lab 1
Organic Chemistry I
ChE Thermo II
Analysis & Simulation
Engineering Mechanics I
Technical Writing
Humanities Elective
Total Credit Hours

First Semester
Physical Chem. I
Physical Chem. Lab
Process Design
ChE Lab II
EE Systems
Technical Elective
Total Credit Hours


Second Semester
Inv. in Chemistry
Fund. of Chemistry II
Design Concepts for ChE
English Comp. II
Calculus II
Physics I
Social Science Elective
Total Credit Hours

Second Semester
3 Calculus IV
3 Physics III
4 ChE Thermo I
3 Heat Transfer Operations
3 Differential Equations
Social Science Elective
16 Total Credit Hours

Second Semester
1 Organic Chem. Lab II
3 Organic Chemistry 11
3 Mass Transfer Operations
3 Chem. Reactor Design
3 ChE Lab I
3 Engineering Materials
3 HU/FA/SS Elective
19 Total Credit Hours

Second Semester
3 Plant Design
1 Process Control
3 ChE Elective
2 Chemistry Elective
3 Technical Elective
15 Total Credit Hours

The ChE department is a strong proponent of cooperative
education, and over 40% of our undergraduates participate
in the program. Students in the program rotate three (or
more) work semesters with school semesters. Most students
begin their co-op rotation in the second semester of the
sophomore year. The reorganization of the ChE curriculum
provides them with classroom exposure to more ChE con-
cepts as they move through the co-op sequence. To accom-
modate the various work/school rotations, the department
offers all but two of the undergraduate required courses each
fall and spring semester and also offers a number of key
prerequisite courses during the summer session.

Chemical Engineering Education

Chemical Engineering Curriculum at MSU

The department offers two
programs of study at the MS NI I
level. Students pursuing the
traditional chemical engi-
neering option complete a
set of four core graduate
courses encompassing the
topics of transport phenom-
ena, thermodynamics,
chemical reaction kinetics,
and process computations.
The core graduate courses Op lab students investigate
are offered on a three/four in supercritical
semester rotation. Six semester credit hours in advanced
mathematics are required, as are six hours of technical elec-
tives for the MS in chemical engineering. In addition, candi-
dates from other fields of study (chemistry or another engi-
neering discipline) can pursue the MS in chemical engineer-
ing after they have completed a select set of undergraduate
prerequisite courses.
Students pursuing the industrial hazardous-waste-manage-
ment option complete 24 hours of graduate courses that are
selected to provide them with depth and breadth in the areas
of environmental engineering and hazardous/industrial waste
treatment/remediation technology. This option is available
only to those who enter the graduate program with an under-
graduate degree from an accredited engineering program.
Successful completion of either MS degree program requires
the submission and defense of a thesis by the candidate.
The ChE department participates in an interdisciplinary
PhD program leading to the PhD in Engineering. The pro-
gram requires 24 hours of graduate course work in addition
to the MS requirements and a minimum of 20 hours of
dissertation research. Students must also complete a qualify-
ing examination, a preliminary/comprehensive examination
and submit and defend a PhD dissertation.
Students can pursue a graduate degree through the off-
campus graduate program. A number of recent graduates
from the program have pursued their MS degrees while
working in industry. Because of its moderate size, graduate
classes of approximately ten students are common, provid-
ing for close association between the graduate students and
their teachers and research advisors. Students interested in
pursuing a graduate degree at MSU are encouraged to con-
tact the department. Faculty research activity is growing
steadily, and we are always seeking qualified students for
our graduate programs.

Since 1989, the department has experienced significant
growth in research. Energy and the environment continue to
Spring 1998

the s

be strong areas of research in-
terest within the department.
George, Sparrow, H.
SToghiani, and R. Toghiani
collaborate with DIAL, while
Gardner and Losure are ac-
tively involved in the Materi-
als Research Group within the
College of Engineering.
The Mississippi Technical
Assistance Program
(MISSTAP) was established
in 1989 through a grant from
olubility of naphthalene the Mississippi Department of
Con dioxide. Environmental Quality. It is
a non-regulatory, client-confidential, technical-assistance pro-
gram designed to assist Mississippi industries, businesses,
and communities in identifying pollution prevention (P2)
solutions for both their RCRA waste and their conven-
tional waste. On-site technical assistance, waste assess-
ments, and compliance monitoring are provided at no
charge to industry. MISSTAP personnel are available to
provide assistance as an informational clearinghouse and
through a library devoted to P2 and the environment. The
library and a hotline to the Waste Reduction Resource
Center in Raleigh, North Carolina, provide the basis for
fast and efficient technology-transfer activities. Research
and development activities are carried out confidentially,
but require a funding source.
The Environmental Technology Research and Applica-
tions Laboratory (E-TECH Laboratory) is the newest re-
search laboratory established in the department. Its mission
is to support government and industry through the develop-
ment and application of pollution treatment and abatement
techniques that provide cost-effective treatment of the envi-
ronment. Mark Zappi serves as its director, and Hill, Kuo,
and George contribute in research endeavors.


The past decade has been one of tremendous growth and
change for the department. We are excited about all of the
opportunities that we will be part of over the coming years.
Our new building is set for completion during 1999 and our
current freshman class will be among the first to fully utilize
the facility. We anticipate growth of our graduate programs
and our research endeavors in the years to come. Mississippi
State is a great place to pursue chemical engineering studies,
and Starkville is a great place to live. Y'all come down and
see us, y'hear?

Photos are courtesy of Fred Faulk, University Relations,
Mississippi State University. 1

e e educator

Ronald W. Rousseau

of Georgia Tech

Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA
C author of the best-selling textbook in the
history of chemical engineering ... outstand-
ing teacher and researcher. .chair of one of
the largest chemical engineering departments in the
nation ... AIChE director ... chair of the Council for
Chemical Research scholar-athlete baseball
player and fan-these are only some of the landmarks
along the way that delineate the life and career of
Ronald W. Rousseau of the North Avenue Trade -
School (Georgia Tech).
Ron was born in Bogalusa, Louisiana, and spent the
early part of his life in Baton Rouge. He recalls sell-
ing 7-Ups at Louisiana State University football games
during those early years and never had "any thought
of going to college anywhere other than LSU." While
he was at LSU, he was awarded an athletic scholar-
ship and lettered three years in varsity baseball. He
says he "did not start out as a great student," and ,, 1
confesses it was partly because he had visions of
playing professional baseball. But he found his niche
after getting the highest grade in a stoichiometry course
taught by Dave Greenberg. From that time on, base-
ball played second fiddle to chemical engineering-a .
trend that has continued to this day.
During Ron's senior year, Jesse Coates (who was
department head at LSU at that time) talked about the .
possibility of graduate school if Ron continued to do -
well in his chemical engineering classes. As a result
of his encouragement, Ron eventually obtained both Rn hs as catcher
his BS and PhD degrees at LSU, the former in Janu- for LSU. (1963)
ary of 1966 and the latter in May of 1969. His PhD
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 1998
88 Chemical Engineering Education

[Ron] says he

"did not start out as a great student,"

and confesses

it was partly because

he had visions

of playing professional baseball.

But he found his niche

after getting the highest grade

in a stoichiometry course

taught by

Dave Greenberg.

research was concerned with reacting cellulose to produce ion
exchange resins and was directed jointly by Clayton Callihan and
Bill Daly. Ron reminisces that Callihan had "unbridled imagina-
tion and industrial experience," whereas Daly had "the rigor and
enthusiasm for pure research." Both these men, and several oth-
ers (including Paul Murrill, Dave Greenberg, and Frank Groves)
were great influences on Ron's subsequent career as a professor.

After obtaining his PhD, Ron accepted a position as Assis-
tant Professor at North Carolina State University. He re-
mained there for seventeen years, rising through the ranks to
become Professor of Chemical Engineering in 1980. He formed
many associations during these years in Raleigh, the most
notable of which were his collaborations with Warren McCabe,
Rich Felder, and Jim Ferrell.
Warren McCabe spent what he called his "Indian Summer" at
NC State and was instrumental in Ron's entry into the field of
crystallization. Together, Warren and Ron did pioneering work
on contact nucleation and identified mechanisms by which anoma-
lous crystal growth occurs. This led to Ron's later work on the
role of nucleation and growth in determining crystal habit, purity,
and size distributions. It also led to over 135 publications and an
equal number of presentations, as well as to his current research
on the use of crystallization technology in the separation and
purification of specialty chemicals.
Ron's research in crystallization as a separation technology

naturally led to an interest in other separation processes
and to the giving of more than 150 short courses that
emphasized crystallization, distillation, extraction, and
general separation. Ron also edited The Handbook of
Separation Process Technology (Wiley, 1987), which
has become a standard reference on separations for the
All this body of work culminated in the Clarence G.
Gerhold Award of the American Institute of Chemical
Engineers in 1996. This award is given by the Separa-
tions Division of AIChE for "a notable record of out-
standing contributions to separations teaching and re-
Another association, formed during his years at NC
State, was with Rich Felder. Together they coauthored
Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes (Wiley,
1978 and 1986), which is the most widely used chemical
engineering textbook in the world. It is used by more than
80% of the chemical engineering programs in the United
States and has sold over 110,000 copies worldwide. Felder
and Rousseau brought "a perfect blend of styles and
interests" to the writing of this book-Ron brought broad
concepts and case studies, while Rich brought specific

Spring 1998


Some pictorial landmarks

along the way.
Top left: Ron, shown with Rich Felder, at
left, and Warren McCabe, center. (1980)
Top right, Ron and friends, including Klaus
Timmerhaus (center) enjoy some Christmas
camaraderie at a local section AIChE func-
tion in 1977.

Bottom left: Ron and Rich Felder (left), Bob Kelly (right),
and Jim Ferrell (sitting), in 1980.
Bottom right: Ron is shown testifying before Congress in
1997 in support of an increase in the budget of the Na-
tional Science Foundation.

topics, computational techniques, and the communication
style. According to Ron, the book has been successful "be-
yond my dreams." He is working on the third edition at the
present time.
A third association formed at NC State was with Jim
Ferrell, who was department head for much of Ron's time
there. Although Jim made Ron "teach two courses per se-
mester for seventeen years," he also influenced him on many
aspects of administration and eventually convinced him to
apply for his present position as Chairman at Georgia Tech.

He accepted the chairmanship position "much to the chagrin
of my wife, Sandra," he says.
His timing in accepting the chairmanship at Georgia Tech,
of course, was perfect. Its School of Chemical Engineering
had made tremendous strides under Gary Poehlein's leader-
ship; Gary had hired fifteen new faculty and had brought the
school's undergraduate and graduate programs into national
prominence. Enrollments were still increasing when Ron
took over, and he found a very supportive dean in Bill

Chemical Engineering Education

Sangster when he set out to address the problems created by
increasing numbers of students. Ron has hired some out-
standing new young faculty (Sue Ann Bidstrup-Allen, Pete
Ludovice, Jeff Morris, Mark Prausnitz, Matthew Realff, Mary
Rezac, Thanassis Sambanis, Tim Wick) and some outstand-
ing senior faculty (Chuck Eckert, Dennis Hess, Paul Kohl,
Arnold Stancell). Two of the young faculty are Presidential
Young Investigators, and two of the senior faculty are mem-
bers of the National Academy of Engineering. Indeed, with a

supportive administration behind him, the School
of Chemical Engineering has been "in a hiring mode"
for both junior and senior faculty ever since 1977.
The faculty now numbers 32 and "we are still plan-
ning to add more," says Ron.
Ron has also seen the number of students grow to
the present 800 undergraduates, 120 graduate stu-
dents, and a dozen or so postdoctoral associates,
and staff members now number 14. Faculty mem-
bers have also been active participants in several
interdisciplinary programs, including bioengineer-
ing, polymers, microelectronics, pulp and paper,
specialty separations, and manufacturing.
As an educator and a researcher, Ron has enjoyed
the success and achievements of the forty-or-so Mas-
ters and Doctoral students whose theses he has su-
pervised. His crop of advises include Bob Kelly
and Clifford Tai (currently on the faculty at NC
State and National Taiwan University, respectively)
as well as Jim Boone, Russ O'Dell, Te Chang, Ron
Zumstein, and Ray Harrison, who went on to stellar
careers at Ethyl (now Albermarle), Hoechst, Arco,
and Weyerhaeuser, respectively. Ron continues to
advise graduate students and to delight in their
Ron's service activities attest to his love for the
chemical engineering profession. He has organized

of styles
the writ

ing departments as well as research executives from industry
and federal laboratories. CCR's mission is to advance re-
search in chemistry-based sciences, engineering, and tech-
nology through productive interactions among the industrial,
academic, and governmental research sectors. Ron has been
a leading advocate of expanding the influence of CCR and
its members institutions in the nation's research agenda.

Among the activities Ron has participated in as the chair
of CCR are the signing of a memorandum of understanding
between the U.S. Department of Energy and the
chemical industry outlining efforts to identify ap-
and propriate areas of joint research between govern-
eau ment, industry, and universities; supporting the
tt "a Chemical Weapons Treaty; and testifying before a
blend House Committee in support of an increase in the
s and budget of the National Science Foundation. Ron
ts" to says that he has found these activities interesting
ing of and that they have solidified his belief in the value
ntary of linkages between industry and academia.

Principles of
Ron brought
concepts and
case studies,
while Rich
specific topics,
and the

and chaired numerous symposia at national and international
conferences on separations. He was the 1995 co-chair of the
Engineering Foundation Conference on separations, was
a founding director of the Separations Division of AIChE,
and has served as a consulting editor of the AIChE Journal, as
associate editor of the Journal of Crystal Growth, and as a
member of the editorial advisory boards of Separations Tech-
nology and Chemical Engineering Education..
As a director of AIChE in 1990-93, Ron was able to see
what people outside academia and outside the profession
could contribute to chemical engineering education. His ser-
vices continue to be in demand, as he is currently a member
of the task force for restructuring AIChE in order to relate
more effectively to its 55,000 members.
Ron also serves as the current chair of the Council for
Chemical Research (CCR), an organization consisting of
heads of all PhD-granting chemistry and chemical engineer-
Spring 1998

Ron married his wife Sandra (Geller) in 1978
and both have children from previous marriages.
Ron has three children (Ron Jr., David, and Brett)
and two grandchildren (Ron III and Noelle), and
Sandra has two children (Wendy and Bob).
Sandra is an accomplished amateur actress and
has had leading roles in several local produc-
tions. She is also currently running her father's
businesses in New York.
Ron enjoys listening to classical music and op-
era in his spare time. He claims to have little time
for any other extracurricular activities (except for
the Atlanta Braves) since recently much of his
time has been taken up by the Georgia Tech Capi-
tal Campaign. The fruits of his efforts and those of

many other people are already obvious, having resulted in
plans for a new building to house the Georgia Tech School
of Chemical Engineering (and other departments related to
Environmental Science and Technology). The new building
is due to be completed in 1002-2.


What of the future? Ron plans to continue to be depart-
ment head, at least for the near future. As mentioned previ-
ously, he is heavily involved with the current Georgia Tech
capital campaign, and sees opportunities there to further in-
fluence the direction of chemical engineering both at Geor-
gia Tech and nationally. He misses the daily contact with
research and teaching that a regular faculty member enjoys,
but he "loves chemical engineering" and values the chance
to have some impact on the profession. He has certainly
succeeded in the latter. O


Seattle, Washington
June 28 July 1, 1998


Session 1213 Getting Faculty Buy-In to Good Teaching
El Faculty Development: Getting the Sermon beyond the Choir
E Changing the Culture: What's at the Center of Engineering
LI Re-Engineering Faculty Development: Lessons LEA/RNed

Session 1313 Breathing Life into Traditional Courses
[I A Traditional Material Balances Course Sprinkled with Non-
traditional Experiences
LF Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Transforming
'Thermo' Lectures into a 'Dynamic' Experience for
3 Bringing Active Learning into the Traditional Classroom:
Teaching Process Control the Right Way
[E A Tournament to Exercise Process Economics Concepts
] A Project-Based, Spiral Curriculum for Chemical Engineering

Session 1413 Computer Survey-Training for ChE
E Results of a recent CACHE survey of Computer Usage
El Panel Discussion of Ramifications for Curriculum
Implications with Academic and
Industrial Participants

Session 2213 Fitting the Essential Extras in the ChE
[ Jump-Starting Life-Long Learning
EI Fitting the Essentials into the ChE Curriculum: Ethics,
Professionalism, Environmental Health & Safety
El Leadership and Mentoring in Undergraduate Engineer-
ing Programs
E Integrating Process Safety into the Unit Operations
a Applied Chemical Process Statistics: Bringing Industrial
Data to the Classroom
E An Industrial Approach to the Unit Operations Labora-
tory Course

Session 2413 Experimental Education in ChE
a If You Let Them Build It, They Will Come": Hands-on
Projects for Freshman to Enhance Student Learning
and Interest
a A Multidisciplinary Electrochemical Engineering

Laboratory Course
a Structured Cooperative Learning in the Undergraduate
Chemical Engineering Laboratory
E Implementing a Computer Laboratory
E Chemical Engineering Principles in a Freshman Engi-
neering Course using a Cogeneration Facility

Session 2513 Outcomes Assessment I: Is a "C" Good
E Assessment for Improvement: Coming Full Cycle
a Assessment Process at a Large Institution
a Assessment for Improvement in the Classroom
E Feedback Loops in Large Service Courses
U Implementing an Integrated System for Program
Assessment and Improvement
3 Panel Discussion

Session 2613 Outcomes Assessment II: Is a "C" Good
[ Closing the Assessment Loop
U Electronic Portfolios: What to Do with the Information
a Using a Faculty-Generated Matrix to Close the Assess-
ment Loop
a Lessons Learned from a Decade of Assessment
[ An EC2000 Visit: Perspectives from Both Sides of the
3 Panel Discussion

Session 3213 Academic Advising Issues
I Recruiting and Advising of High School Students from
"Non-Traditional" Groups
E Enhancing Under-represented Student Opportunities
Through Faculty Mentoring and Peer Interactions
U A Department-Wide Distributed Advising System
a Issues Important to the Advising of Student Chapters of
Professional Societies
E Career Choices for Chemical Engineering Students
[ Is Grad School for Me?

Session 3413 Pollution Prevention/WERC Design
E Design Contest: Pollution Prevention by Design and
Chemical Engineering Education

Capstone Design Course
E Government, Industry and Academia: An Effective
Partnership to Address Real Environmental Challenges
[ An Alumni Survey as an Assessment Tool for New
Mexico Tech's BS Environmental Engineering
[ Subterranean Spout Bed Technology for Removal of
Contaminants from Groundwater
[ Remediation of Radionuclide-Contaminated Aquifer
E Importance of Chemical Reactivity in Understanding
Environmental Hazard
E Chemical Processes in Environmental Engineering

Session 3513 Innovative Uses of Computers in ChE
E Interactive Web Site for Teaching Chemical Reaction
[ A World Wide Web Based Textbook on Molecular
[ Novel Uses of the World Wide Web to Manage an
Undergraduate Process Control Course
E Web Lab:Running Laboratory Experiments via the
World Wide Web
E Multimedia Encyclopedia of Chemical Engineering

E Improvements in the Teaching of Separation Process
Design Through Interactive Computer Graphics
E Virtual Reality in the Chemical Engineering Classroom

Session 3613 Effective Use of Process Simulators
[ A Novel Use of HYSIS to Design an Industrial Refrig-
eration System
[ Process Simulation in ChE Design: A Potential Impedi-
ment to, Instead of a Catalyst for, Meeting Course
E Experiences Using MATLAB/Simulink for Dynamic
"Real-Time" Process Simulation in an Undergraduate
Process Control Course
E Teaching ChE Principles by Use of Sophisticated
Process Design Software to Design a Ketchup Manu-
facturing Process
E Integration of AspenPlus (and other Computer tools) into
the Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Curriculum
[ Coordinating Equilibrium-based and Rate-based
Separations Courses with the Senior Process Design

Check out the 1998 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition Information at

Spring 1998


Session 1113 ChE Div. Executive Committee Meeting

Session 1613 Chemical Engineering Division Meeting /Lectureship Presentation
[ The Chemical Engineering Division will have a short business meeting that will be immediately followed by
the Division Lectureship presentation

Session 1713 ChE Division Reception/Mixer Sponsored by the CACHE Corporation Monday Evening
[ This reception will be provided to the members of the Chemical Engineering Division for a chance to
socialize and to honor the Division Lectureship Award winner

Session 2713 Chemical Engineering Division Dinner-Tuesday Evening
El The ChE Department at the University of Washington will host an optional pre-dinner visit that will include a
wine and cheese poster session of department activities and research
[ All chemical engineering division members and guests are invited to attend the annual Chemical Engineering
Division Dinner at the Faculty Club on the University of Washington campus. Winners of the ChED
awards will be recognized, and an entertaining non-technical presentation will be made.

Session 3113 ChE Chairpersons Breakfast
El ABET 2000 What curriculum changes are being planned because of new procedures (e.g. Chemistry,
design, PE exams, etc.)?
EI Discussion: Graduate's Employment, 1998
[E Discussion: Industry Participation in Design

We extend our appreciation to Robert Davis (University of Colorado)for acting as
Guest Editor in compiling, reviewing, and editing the following seven papers that
comprise a special-feature section on particle science and technology in this issue.



A Workshop Report

University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309-0424

Many chemical engineering departments are in the
process of revising their curricula, due, in part, to
the increased flexibility associated with new cri-
teria approved by the Accreditation Board for Engineering
and Technology (ABET) and to input received from alumni
and industry. One area that is being considered is fluid-
particle technology.
Chemical engineering products in particulate form, or with
particulate additives, include pharmaceuticals, paints, fertil-
izers, ceramics, detergents, juices, magnetic and photographic
films, cosmetics, processed foods, etc. Indeed, it has been
estimated that more than half of the products of the major
U.S. chemical companies are solids.1' Still, our courses tend
to focus on fluids (gas or liquid) rather than on solids trans-
port, on molecular rather than particulate separations, and on
single-phase or homogeneous rather than multiphase or het-
erogeneous reactions. Several recent articles report on stud-
ies that contrast significant educational programs on particle
technology in Canada, Europe, and Japan with the relative
neglect of this subject in the United States.E1161
Although the need to train chemical engineers in basic
particle technologies commonly encountered in industry is
becoming more widely recognized, there remains a lag in the
development and use of appropriate teaching materials. In
light of this, we were asked to arrange a series of workshops
on teaching fluid-particle processes for the ASEE Summer
School for Chemical Engineering, held in August of 1997 in
Snowbird, Utah. The purpose of these workshops was to
exchange experiences on fluid-particle educational efforts
and to identify existing and proposed materials and ap-
proaches that may assist others in the future.
In this article, we summarize the findings and recommen-
dations of the workshop participants. Further details on dem-
onstrations, experiments, simulations, modules, and courses

* Address: The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1180

that may be used to help teach fluid-particle processes are
given in the companion articles in this journal issue[6-1] as
well as in related articles from past issues.12'181

A list of the three half-day workshops is given in Table 1.
The four keynote overviews, two from industry and two
from academia, presented broad views of the need for teach-
ing fluid-particle processes and of recent progress to address
this need in U.S. chemical engineering curricula. Additional
presentations were made on individual courses, lab exer-
cises, simulations, and demonstrations on fluid-particle pro-
cesses. There was strong audience participation during the
discussions that followed each presentation and via breakout
groups on the development of teaching materials.
In their keynote presentations, Ralph Nelson (DuPont),
Bob Pfeffer (New Jersey Institute of Technology), Ted
Knowlton (Particulate Solids Research), and Frank Tiller
(University of Houston) noted that the "legacy of neglect"12'

Robert H. Davis is the Patten Professor and
Chair of Chemical Engineering at the University
of Colorado. He received his BS degree from the
University of California at Davis, and his MS and
PhD degrees from Stanford University. His re-
search and teaching interests are in fluid me-
chanics, membrane separations, and biotech-

Liang-Shih Fan is Distinguished University Pro-
fessor and Chair of Chemical Engineering at
the Ohio State University. He received his BS
degree from the National Taiwan University,
his MSChE and PhD degrees from West Vir-
ginia University, and an MS in Statistics from
Kansas State University. His research and
teaching interests are in fluidization and
multiphase flow, powder technology, and par-
S ticulates and multiphase reaction engineering.
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 1998
Chemical Engineering Education

Particle Science and Technology

of particle technology in U.S. education is beginning to
change.167' Industry-backed professional societies such as
the American Filtration and Separations Society (AFS) and
the Particle Technology Forum (PTF) of the American Insti-
tute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) have formed educa-
tional committees to promote the development of textbooks,
short courses, and other educational tools for particle tech-
nology. The Fluid, Particulate, and Hydraulic Systems Pro-
gram of the National Science Foundation (NSF) has sup-
ported several educational projects in this area. Research
centers, such as the Engineering Research Center for Par-
ticle Science and Technology at the University of Florida,
the Particulate Materials Center at Pennsylvania State Uni-

Workshops on Fluid-Particle Processes

Keynote Overviews
Ralph Nelson and Reg Davies, DuPont
Industrial Perspective on Teaching Fluid-Particle Technology
in Chemical Engineering Curricula
Bob Pfeffer, New Jersey Institute of Technology
Particle Technology in the Engineering Curriculum--Can We
Make it Happen?
Case Studies, Design Projects, and Experiments
E Tony Rosato, New Jersey Institute of Technology
Particle Technology Research-Based Curriculum Develop-
ment: A Case Study
I0 Jennifer Sinclair, University of Arizona
Case Studies in Fluid-Particle Flow Using CFD
] George Klinzing, University of Pittsburgh
Pneumatic Conveying: Design, Demonstrations, and Lab
Keynote Overview
U Ted Knowlton, Particulate Solids Research
Particle Technology in Industry and the Need for Curricula on
Fluid-Particle Technology in Chemical Engineering
Courses on Fluid-Particle Processes
1E Gabriel Tardos, City College of the City Univ. of New York
Teaching about Powders and Powder Technology to Chemical
Engineering Students
E Sotiris Pratsinis, University of Cincinnati
Particulate Formation Processes
E Rob Davis, University of Colorado
Suspensions and Colloids
Keynote Overview
E Frank Tiller, University of Houston
Short Courses on Fluid/Particle Processing and Separation,
Interfacial Engineering, and Particle Science
Courses on Fluid-Particle Processes
EJ Karl Jacob, Dow Chemical;George Chase, Univ. of Akron
Undergraduate Teaching in Solids Processing/Particle
Technology: An Academic/Industrial Approach
O L.-S. Fan, The Ohio State University
Teaching Gas-Solid Flowsfrom a Particle Technology

Reports by Breakout Groups on Development of Course Materials
Wrap-Up Discussion and Plans

Spring 1998

versity, the Particle Technology Center at the New Jersey
Institute of Technology, and the Ohio Board of Regents Con-
sortium on Fine Particle Technologies, led by the Ohio State
University, also have significant educational components.
Current educational approaches for teaching particle sci-
ence and technology in chemical engineering curricula fall
into three categories:
Multicourse sequences or options
Single elective courses
Modules and exercises in standard courses
Examples of each of these modes were included in the work-
shop presentations.
U.S. schools (including the City College of the City Uni-
versity of New York, the University of Cincinnati, the Uni-
versity of Florida, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Ohio
State University, and Pennsylvania State University) now
offer or are planning multiple elective courses on particle
science and technology.17" 1 They include a mix of under-
graduate and graduate courses and cover topics such as basic
particulate mechanics, particle formation, particle character-
ization, sedimentation, gas and liquid fluidization, filtration,
conveying, mixing, cyclones, and hopper design. Due to the
interdisciplinary nature of the subject matter, the course
offerings are often cooperative efforts of chemical, civil, and
mechanical engineering departments.
Several additional U.S. chemical engineering departments
offer single elective courses in particle-related subjects such
as colloids, fluidization, particle formation, powder technol-
ogy, fluid-solid flow, particle processing, and suspension
mechanics. Example courses were presented in the work-
shops by Tony Rosato,r'7 Gabriel Tardos,1'31 Sotiris Pratsinis,
Rob Davis,"21 Karl Jacob,'"'] and L.-S. Fan. Many of the
elective courses are aligned with the research interests of the
instructors and draw relatively small numbers of graduate
students and advanced undergraduates. Karl Jacob described
a unique undergraduate course on the basics of solids pro-
cessing, which he team-taught with George Chase at the
University of Akron.[I")
In contrast to the examples cited above, most U.S. chemi-
cal engineering departments do not currently offer a course
in particle science and technology.151 Even so, fluid-particle
processes may be introduced in any chemical engineering
curriculum by incorporating appropriate modules and exer-
cises in standard courses such as materials and energy bal-
ances, transport phenomena, separations, reaction engineer-
ing, design, and the unit operations laboratory. During the
workshops, Jennifer Sinclair (Purdue) showed how simula-
tion packages can be used to illustrate fluid-particle flows"81
and George Klinzing (University of Pittsburgh) described
several simple demonstrations and laboratory exercises on
powder flow."91 In addition, the Engineering Research Cen-
ter for Particle Science and Technology at the University of

[ Particle Science and Technology

Florida is developing several ready-to-use instructional mod-
ules that are, or soon will be, available for general use. '"
At the end of the second workshop, the participants were
divided into four breakout groups, based on their interests
and expertise, covering topics such as solid-liquid systems
colloidss and suspensions), solid-gas systems (powder me-
chanics and flow), computer simulations of fluid-particle
systems, and particle processes (formation, growth, size re-
duction, and characterization). Each group was given the
following charge:
List current impediments to the teaching ofparticle technology
Propose possible solutions to these impediments
Suggest specific examples of materials that can be used to help
teach particle technology
Present groupfindings during the third workshop
The findings of these breakout groups, as well as the recom-
mendations made during the ensuing discussion, are summa-
rized in the following section.

The different working groups had remarkably similar find-
ings; they are grouped together and summarized in Table 2.
First, there is a need for increased awareness of the impor-
tance of fluid-particle processes in the various industries that
employ chemical engineers. Students in particular need to be
shown the value of training in this area through field trips,
presentations, written materials, and hands-on experience. Fac-
ulty and administrators must also be convinced if significant
curricular change is to be effected. Industry and professional
groups will need to continue to play a lead role in this regard.
Second, it is difficult to introduce new subjects in the
chemical engineering curriculum, which at most universities
is already quite full and considered one of the broadest,
deepest, and most difficult majors. Moreover, particle tech-
nology to many lacks the glamour or attention associated
with subjects such as biotechnology, environmental engi-
neering, and microelectronics processing, which are all com-
peting for space. Fortunately, the diverse nature of fluid-
particle processes allows for great flexibility in how the
subject is addressed. As noted previously, departments may
introduce modules, examples, and experiments in existing
courses, develop a full course on fluid-particle processes, or
offer a special option in particle technology. The last may be
particularly attractive for a combined BS/MS degree. The
workshop participants recommended that all chemical engi-
neering departments include training in fluid-particle or par-
ticulate multiphase processes in some way in their curricula.
Perhaps the greatest impediment to teaching particle tech-
nology is the lack of available materials that cover, to a great
extent, the relevant interdisciplinary topics. The workshop
speakers noted that since there are no suitable textbooks for
the courses, they used a reserve list of several reference
books and specialty texts that are relevant to various por-

Primary Impediments and Recommended Solutions for
Teaching Particle Technology

Lack of Recognition a Being Important
Offer presentations and field tnps through .-ChE student chapter,
Prove ide co-op opponunities. internships, and independent study
Publish surveys, articles, and videos on particle technology
Use industrial advisory committees to provide input to departments
and administrations
Develop base of national support through ABET. WFS AIChE-
PTF. NSF. and other organizations
Lack of Room in the Curriculum
Introduce parcle technology in freshman and sophomore )ear,
through demonstrations and ideos
Include particle technology experiments m lab course
Incorporate fluid-parucle and mulnphase problems in exsinng core
De elop fltid-particle options for BS, MS, and combined BS/MS
Consider replacing an exisung course with one on fluid-particle
Lack of Avadable Teaching Materials
Assemble and distribute a booklet ol homework and example
Make available inexpensive software. CD-ROMs, modules. and
demonstrauon/iaborator) equipment
Create a website with information on courses, problems, and other
teaching materials
Write textbooks that can be used as a resource for short tutorials as
well as stand-alone courses
Use educational grants from industry. NSF. and other organizations
to develop teaching materials
Lack of Trained Faculty
Make teaching materials readily available to faculty)
Hire ne, laculry uith experuse in particle technology
Offer short course, to educate faculty
Drsu expertise from off campus using long-distance learning media

tions of the courses (a partial list of these books is included in
the reference section of this article"19-391). To help remedy this
situation, Frank Tiller reported that the American Filtration
and Separations Society is developing four texts covering
particulate and interfacial science engineering, flow through
porous media, fluid-particle mechanics, and fluid-particle sepa-
rations. We strongly urge that any new texts contain a liberal
amount of homework and example problems that can also be
used in traditional chemical engineering courses. In addition,
there is a need to create other teaching materials, such as
software, CD-ROMs, short teaching modules, demonstrations,
laboratory experiments, and example courses. A partial list of
published materials is included with this article,"7-'] but since
many of the materials created by individual faculty are un-
published, it was recommended that a website be created as a
resource for such materials.
Finally, the workshop breakout groups all noted that the
lack of trained faculty has impeded the inclusion of fluid-
Chemical Engineering Education

I Particle Science and Technology J

particle processes in chemical engineering curricula. This
problem is easily solved. Besides the obvious (though not
always easy) approach of hiring new faculty with suitable
expertise, there are short courses available to train faculty as
well as industry employees. Further, courses can be offered
to students by experienced industry representatives or fac-
ulty from other campuses through long-distance learning
media. In his keynote presentation, Frank Tiller reported on
four recent workshops with grants for faculty participation
from NSF's Undergraduate Faculty Enhancement Program.
Moreover, we believe that most chemical engineering fac-
ulty members will be able to include fluid-particle or
multiphase processes in their courses once the suitable teach-
ing materials are developed and made available.


Three specific actions have been undertaken as a results of
the workshop recommendations:

This collection of articles in CEE is being published to commu-
nicate how fluid-particle processes are being taught in several
universities and to provide resource materials for others.
A website has been initiated for archiving and distributing
additional educational materials on particle technology. Ralph
Nelson has taken the lead on developing this website, and
further information is available in his article with Reg Davies.161
A formal request was made to the Education and Accreditation
Committee ofAIChE to include particulate and multiphase pro-
cesses in the new ChE ABET criteria, with departments given
flexibility on how they provide training in this area.

In the process of reviewing their curricula, we urge all
chemical engineering departments to consider how to more
fully include particulate and multiphase processes. In addi-
tion, we hope that others will make educational materials on
particle technology available through publications, presenta-
tions, the world-wide web, and software distributors.

1. Nelson, R.D., R. Davies, and K. Jacob, "Teach 'Em Particle Tech-
nology," Chem. Eng. Ed., 29, 12 (1995)
2. Ennis, B.J., J. Green, and R. Davies, "Key Challenges in Particle
Technology: The Legacy of Neglect in the U.S.," Chem. Eng. Prog.,
32, April (1994)
3. Tiller, F.M., "Separation and Purification: Critical Needs and Op-
portunities," Fluid/Particle Sep. J., 1, S10 (1988)
4. Prescott, J.H., "A Knowledge Crisis in Solid-Fluid Separation,"
Chem. Eng., 81, 26 (1974)
5. Chase, G.G., "Closing the Education Gap in Fluid-Particle Pro-
cesses," Fluid/Particle Sep. J., 6, 1 (1993)
6. Nelson, R.D., and R. Davis, "Industrial Perspective on Teaching
Particle Technology," Chem. Eng. Ed., 31(2), 98 (1998)
7. Dave, R.N., I.S. Fischer, J. Luke, R.J. Pfeffer, and A.S. Rosato,
"Particle Technology Concentration at NJIT: An NSF-CRCD Pro-
gram," Chem. Eng. Ed., 31(2), 102 (1998)
8. Sinclair, J.L., "CFD Case Studies in Fluid-Particle Flow," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 31(2), 108 (1998)
9. Klinzing, G., "Experiments, Demonstrations, Software Packages
and Videos for Pneumatic Transport and Solid Processing Stud-
Spring 1998

ies," Chem. Eng. Ed., 31(2), 114 (1998)
10. Chase, G.G., and K. Jacob, "Undergraduate Teaching in Solids
Processing and Particle Technology: An Academic/Industrial Ap-
proach," Chem. Eng. Ed., 31(2), 118 (1998)
11. Donnelly, A., and R.J. Rajagopalan, "Particle Science and Technol-
ogy Educational Initiatives at the University of Florida," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 31(2). 122 (1998)
12. Davis, R.H., "A Course in Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 23, 228 (1989)
13. Tardos, G.I., "Development of a Powder Technology Option at
CCNY," Chem. Eng. Ed., 29, 191 (1995)
14. Fee, C.J., "A Simple but Effective Fluidized-Bed Experiment,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 28, 214 (1994)
15. Arce, P., "Topics in Transport and Reaction in Multiphase Sys-
tems," Chem. Eng. Ed., 28, 244 (1994)
16. Woods, D.R., and D.T. Wasan, "Teaching Colloid and Surface Phe-
nomena: 1995," Chem. Eng. Ed., 30, 290 (1996)
17. Priore, B., S. Whitacre, and K. Myers, "Being Dynamic in the Unit
Operations Laboratory: A Transient Fluidized-Bed Heat Transfer
Experiment," Chem. Eng. Ed., 31, 120 (1997)
18. Gerrard, M., M. Hockborn, and J. Glass, "An Experiment to Con-
solidate a Packed Bed," Chem. Eng. Ed., 31, 192 (1997)
19. Coulson, J.M., J.F. Richardson, J.R. Backhurst, and J.H. Harker,
Vol 2 of Particle Technology and Separation Processes, 5th ed.,
Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, MA (1996)
20. Rhodes, M.J., ed., Principles of Powder Technology, John Wiley &
Sons, Chichester, England (1990)
21. Svarovsky, L., ed., Solid-Liquid Separation, 3rd ed., Butterworths,
London, England (1990)
22. Friedlander, S.K., Smoke, Dust, and Haze, Wiley, New York NY
23. Marcus, R.D., L.S. Leung, G.E. Klinzing, and F. Rizk, Pneumatic
Conveying of Solids, Chapman and Hall, London, England (1990)
24. Woodcock, C.R., and J.S. Mason, eds., Bulk Solids Handling: An
Introduction to Practice and Technology, Chapman and Hall, New
York, NY (1987)
25. Fan, L.-S., and C. Zhu, Principles of Gas-Solids Flows, Cambridge
University Press, New York, NY (1998)
26. Randolph, A.D., and M.A. Larson, Theory of Particulate Processes,
2nd ed., Academic Press, San Diego, CA (1988)
27. Hinds, W.C., Aerosol Technology: Properties, Behavior, and Mea-
surement of Airborne Particles, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY
28. Allen, T., Particle Size Measurement, 5th ed., Chapman and Hall,
London, England (1997)
29. Russel, W.B., D.A. Saville, and W.R. Schowalter, Colloidal Disper-
sions, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England (1989)
30. Kim, S., and S.J. Karilla, Microhydrodynamics: Principles and
Selected Applications, Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, MA (1991)
31. Hiemenz, P.C., and R. Rajagopalan, Principles of Colloid and
Surface Chemistry, 3rd ed., Marcel Dekker, New York, NY (1997)
32. Evans, D.F., and H. Weanerstrom, The Colloidal Domain, VCH
Publishers, New York, NY (1994)
33. Clift, R., J.R. Grace, and M.E. Weber, Bubbles, Drops, and Par-
ticles, Academic Press, New York, NY (1978)
34. Kunii, D., and D. Levenspiel, Fluidization Engineering, 2nd ed.,
Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, MA (1991)
35. Beddow, J.K., Particulate Science and Technology, Chemical Pub-
lishing Co., New York, NY (1980)
36. Rumpf, H., Particle Technology (translated from German by F.A.
Bull), Chapman and Hall, London, England (1990)
37. Rietema, K., The Dynamics of Fine Powders, Elsevier, London,
England (1991)
38. Fan, L.-S., Gas-Liquid-Solid Fluidization Engineering,
Butterworth-Heineman, Boston, MA (1989)
39. Nedderman, R.M., Statics and Kinematics of Granular Materials,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England (1992) O

( Particle Science and Technology



E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, DE 19880-0304

Particle technology (PT) deals with such problems as
powder flow, cohesion, adhesion, surface reactions,
rheology, segregation, and fouling. Industry wants
Technical graduates who have some knowledge of PT
Institutions to provide career-long training in PT
External consulting and analytical resources
Consortia to find answers for common design and operation
Managers who recognize the importance ofPT
Three sectors must cooperate to accomplish this goal:
industry, government, and academia. Academia provides
most of the formal training, while government funds educa-
tion in critical-but-undeveloped areas. Industry supports ap-
prentice programs, external continuing-education courses,
and research consortia such as the International Fine Particle
Research Institute, the Solids Processing Services, the Engi-
neering Research Center for Particle Technology (Univer-
sity of Florida), the Center for Advanced Materials Process-
ing (Clarkson University), and the Particulate Materials Re-
search Center (Pennsylvania State University).
How are the Nations that have
Strong PT Positions Faring at this Point?
Japan's PT community is well organized and innovative,
with an extensive industrial base and strong academic pro-
grams. For twenty-five years their APPIE organization has
provided a strong informational base and a cohesive link
between industry, university, and government. They support
the East Asian professors of PT who hope to coordinate
academic development of PT in Japan, China, Korea, Thai-
land, Singapore, and Taiwan.'l The Hosakawa Corporation
has acquired manufacturing plants in several countries, per-
haps becoming the world's largest supplier of fine (dry)
particle mills, mixers, classifiers, etc., and is a strong partner
in academic research and consortia. Several observers, how-
ever, say that Japan's extensive support for research over-
seas may have caused research at home to suffer.12 4]
In Germany, Rumpf's leadership in PT during the 1950s
created a strong industrial and academic base.151 Both Ger-
man and U.S. chemical manufacturers recruit a large frac-
tion of their PT experts from German and other European

universities. But Freemantle161 notes that economic pressures
arising from reunification are causing some concern, that the
number of PT centers and the duration of university training
programs are under scrutiny, and that there has been a signifi-
cant drop in engineering enrollment at major universities.
England, France, the Netherlands, and Switzerland have
active academic centers and industrial centers of PT. A
"Specially Promoted Program in PT" focused national atten-
tion on PT in England. For a decade it drew together aca-
demics from several disciplines to address complex prob-
lems. This program has been replaced by the equally suc-
cessful "Soft Solids" program. The Netherlands has started
similar efforts to coordinate research.17 Australia, long aware
of particle-related problems in the mining and minerals in-
dustries, has initiated a National Center for Multiphase Flow,
funded through the Australian Research Council.
Russia has a long and strong tradition of technical excel-
lence in PT, but Lepkowski'8' reports that since the breakup
of the USSR the physical structure for technology has dete-
riorated and many faculty have become dependent on con-
sulting income. Long-term industrial stability and the future
of the relationship between government, industry, and
academia remain questions without answers.
In contrast, the U.S. is now beginning to get its act to-

Ralph Nelson is a Senior Research Associate in
the Central Research and Development function
of the DuPont Co. He has spent over twenty
years in plant technical support and world-wide
consulting on industrial process problems in pre-
cipitation, rheology, sedimentation, filtration, wet-
ting, deagglomeration, dispersion stabilization,
flocculation, foam, and emulsification.

Reg Davies is Principal Consultant and Re-
search Manager for the Particle Technology
Group at the DuPont Co. and has consulted on
industrial processes for over thirty years. He was
Technical Director of the International Fine Par-
ticle Research Institute for 1979-91 and Chair of
the AIChE's Particle Technology Forum for 1994-
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1998
Chemical Engineering Education

Particle Science and Technology

gether, and the interaction between the Particle
Technology Forum (PTF) of the American In-
stitute of Chemical Engineering (AIChE), the
Engineering Research Center for Particle Tech-
nology (ERC-PT) at the University of Florida
(and other academic centers of PT), and a newly
proposed development-the Particle Process
Industries in the Americas (PPIA)'91-should
help us solve PT problems.

What is the Challenge?
Most of the products sold by chemical compa-
nies are in particulate form, but the technology
for producing and handling particles in commer-
cial processes is rarely taught in the United States.
Consequently, although most of the production
problems faced by new (or old) chemical tech-
nologists are related to particles, few of these
technologists have had any formal training to
help resolve them. The resulting cycle of guess-
hope-fail-try again costs U.S. industries millions
of dollars a year.""' If U.S. universities do not
help meet the challenge, those nations where

... the challenge
for the next
five years:
... produce
graduates who
are both
knowledgeable in
PT and interested
in entering
management. ...
help convince
present technology
managers of the
importance ofPT
in improving
their operations...
consider making
the transition
from academia
to industry

technologists have superior training in this area will con-
tinue to expand their market share and to acquire U.S.
companies, reducing taxes available for U.S. university sup-
port and relocating job opportunities to other nations.'" 121
Alas, the vast majority of new engineering graduates in the
U.S. have no idea of the technologies associated with pro-
cesses involving particles, the commercial value of PT, what
PT problems are easily solved, or what PT problems are diffi-
cult to solve and where to get help. In 1992, we listed several
factors that make resolution of the challenge difficult:113]
The necessary elements of expertise reside in many disci-
plines, no one of which provides a principal "home "for
particle technology.
Courses are being developed in isolation, and it is hard to
add them to an existing curricula or to replace courses that
are now in place.
A multidisciplinary team effort is needed; but it is hard to
construct or to reward such teams using current academic
management and promotion policies.
There was (in 1992) no national policy to develop or to
support education in PT.
All engineering fields feel they deserve more time in the
curriculum, but there are limits on both faculty positions and
money for new laboratories. Three- and four-year degree
programs have very full curricula, so PT would have to
displace something. This will probably not happen. Five-
year diploma or MS programs probably have room for one
course in PT fundamentals. While U.S. universities offer a
few specialized MS and PhD degrees, graduates of such
programs rarely have well-rounded backgrounds in PT be-
Spring 1998

cause of the lack of PT courses.
Many disciplines are required to deal with PT
- Chemistry crystallization (morphology, de-
fects), bulk and surface composition, surface re-
activity and adsorption, surfactant synthesis, dis-
persion stabilization
> Material Science hardness, modulus, crack
propagation, strength, compressive behavior, duc-
tility, plasticity
Chemical/Mining Engineering design and
operation of economic processes to manufacture
particles with the desired properties at high ca-
pacity, yield, and purity
> Mechanical/Civil Engineering design, op-
eration, and maintenance of hoppers, milling,
conveying equipment
> Physics design and use of measuring equip-
ment, application of fields to modify solids be-
> Process Control Engineering design and
implementation of process control from particle

formation to packaging
> Mathematics/Computer Science modeling of manu-
facturing processes and of particle interactions, simulation,
visualization, and data handling
> Information Science compilation of global literature
into meaningful literature surveys, improved communica-
tions, and better transfer of information
> Statistics development of efficient experimental pro-
grams, methods for data reduction and presentation
How Much has been Accomplished?
Much has happened since we posed the challenge to
academia in 1992:".
1992 The Particle Technology Forum (PTF) was approved by
the AIChE. It provided a focal point for interdisciplinary
and intersocietal exchange of information.
1993-94 The National Science Foundation funded four PT train-
ing courses for university faculty, with the expectation
that they would introduce PT material into their courses.
1994. 96 The PTF held successful meetings; the next will be in
1994 Publication of "The Legacy of Neglect in the U.S."'10[
1994 ERC-PT established at the University of Florida
1995 NSF funded the "Virtual Technology Market" concept.
It is a Web site hosted by George Washington University
(Washington, DC) at
1995 Publication of "Teach 'Em Particle Technology""3'
1996, 97 Several new books, CD-ROMS, courses, modules, and
Web sites (see below)
Who is Leading the Effort Now?
The PTF ( has formed a Task

[ Particle Science and Technology

Force on PT Education and has assigned working group
leaders for
Particle Formation from Gases
Crystallization and Precipitation
Size Enlargement and Agglomeration
Comminution and Attrition
Tribology, Friction, and Interparticle Forces
Particle Characterization
Fluidization and Multiphase Flow
Solids Flow, Handling, and Processing
Particle Mixing, Segregation, and Classification
Powder Mechanics
Particle Reaction Engineering
Simulation, Modeling, and Visualization
Dispersion, Rheology, and Solid/Liquid Separation
Deposition, Fouling, Erosion, and Wear
The ERC-PT ( has had a signifi-
cant impact on education re-
lated to PT for many age
groups during its three-year 1
existence:1's o9T

Precollege Awareness 07
The University of 06
Florida's Center for Pre- 0.5
collegiate Education 0.4
brings in over 300 junior 03
and senior high students 02
annually. One activity is a 01
presentation by the ERC- 0. -- -- ,
PT. 2 2 .
College Courses There are
now three new engin-eering Figure 1. Master
courses in PT. Figure 1. Maste
Extension to Other ith t19
Colleges Four course
modules in PT are available.
Printed Resources One textbook has been completed and
several are in preparation.
Undergraduate Research Projects About 60 are funded
each year.
Graduate Research Assistantships Over 30 are funded
each year.
Continuing Education Three courses in 1996-97 had 150
industrial participants.
New curricula are being developed in the schools listed
below; the U.S. needs to launch many more like them in the
next few years. New beginnings will provide new options.1 6]
City College of New York: Undergraduate and graduate
laboratory experiments
American Filtration Society: Short courses coordinated
between four universities
New Jersey Institute of Technology:17 Undergraduate and
graduate courses
University of Pittsburgh: Coordinating virtual distance
learning in PT for graduate programs at four universities
Yale University: Courses in interfacial phenomena,


50 an

colloids, and aerosols.
SUniversity of Cincinnati: Courses in PT and particle

What Remains to be Done?

The PT community understands the stakes involved in
having graduates trained in this field. We must generate a
demand for such graduates in a way that can be understood
by academia and government (and by industrial manage-
Industry should specify in personnel ads that it wants
engineers with awareness of PT basics.
National technical societies should insist that education
include PT examples.
National technical societies must continue to provide
specific sessions for the presentation of PT research papers.
Authors should include PT topics in their chemical
engineering texts.
Faculty should provide
PT examples in many courses
and laboratories.
Universities (several)
should offer coherent graduate
training programs in PT.
These programs should
include a period of industrial
Universities (several)
should establish a multilevel
." ..'.. .a structure for comprehensive
8SSS8 SS 8 continuing education in PT.
AR Federal agencies should
a technical area, recognize the need to fund
7d tcRr= 1990 equipment and building
facilities to support PT
research programs.

How Can You Decide What to Change?
University faculty should carefully consider the value of
the elements in their courses according to where those ele-
ments fall on the S-curve of mastery as a function of time, m
= z4/(l+z4), where z = (t-to)/(tCRIT-to) (see Figure 1),
The Emerging Stage In the early days (when z < 5/8), so
little is known about the phenomenon that it can be men-
tioned in courses and textbooks only as an interesting and
possibly useful phenomenon. We cannot teach what we do
not understand. Industries may "bet" on success by investing
research funds and personnel in the technology, but they
recognize that their efforts may not result in commercializa-
tion. High temperature superconductors are an example of a
technology in the emerging stage.
The Vital Stage As the fundamental relationships be-
come clearer (5/8 < z < 8/5), our understanding and ability to
apply them to commercial activity is partial, but developing.
Students trained in the area can make a significant impact on
Chemical Engineering Education

Particle Science and Technology

improving industrial operations. Industries may either keep
secret or patent newly gained information. They can profit
substantially from an advance that their competitors do not
know or cannot practice due to patent constraints. Filtration
is an example of a technology in the vital stage.
The Mature Stage In the later years of mastery (8/5 < z),
understanding is thorough, and excellent equipment and con-
sultant assistance is widely available. It generally costs less
to buy the technology than to practice it in-house, so college
courses can simply summarize the material. People who
want to specialize in the field will receive their advanced
training from apprenticeship or courses taught in-house by
the firms that specialize in that technology. Electric motors
are an example of a technology in the mature stage.
We should admit that some technology elements currently
occupying considerable space in the curriculum have moved
from the vital to the mature stage and should be treated at
less length, leaving room for the vital elements of PT. The
goal of undergraduate engineering education should be to
provide all students with an awareness of and a value for PT
and with basic skills to build on. Graduate education should
provide at least some experience with advanced PT con-
cepts. At both levels, course and laboratory work should be
supplemented with practical experience provided by sum-
mer work programs or internships.

Summary, a New Project, and a New Challenge
We have made good progress in the last five years. People
at the highest levels of academia, government, and industry
now recognize the value of PT. A number of programs in PT
have been added to the few previously in existence, and
the current programs have significant strength and mo-
mentum. The success of the current programs should
attract others who wish to have similar success in helping
graduates find employment.
It is now clear, however, that training faculty in PT and
adding PT courses to the curriculum are not the answer for
most universities. Instead, we shall have to rely on faculty
who have a little background in PT to incorporate PT under-
standing and examples into their present courses. To facili-
tate this process, several participants at the Snowbird Con-
ference agreed to develop a Web site through which multi-
media educational modules contributed by experienced edu-
cators and reviewed by senior members of the PT commu-
nity could be widely and inexpensively disseminated. A
printed journal incorporating the modules will provide per-
manence, copyright protection, and concrete evidence of the
significant professional contributions made by the authors.
Since the meeting at Snowbird, the PTF has agreed to spon-
sor the project and to provide editors, and the ERC has
agreed to host the Web site. There is now a demonstration
site at
Spring 1998

National technical success will not come simply from
funding national research programs and educational mod-
ules in PT. Research results are published quickly and ben-
efit companies everywhere. Students who participate in na-
tionally funded programs come to our universities from many
nations and upon graduation are hired by companies from
around the globe. Consequently, government funding will
improve a nation's competitive situation only if that nation's
industries make the earliest and best use of the research results
and students. To do that they need savvy technology managers.
Here, then, is the challenge to educators for the next five
years: You must produce graduates who are both knowl-
edgeable in PT and interested in entering management. You
must help convince present technology managers of the im-
portance of PT in improving their operations. You might
even consider making the transition from academia to indus-
try yourself, where you can contribute directly to improving
asset productivity for U.S. industry. In short, "Savvy tech-
nology managers: train 'em, convert 'em, or become one!"

1. Matsumoto, K., "The First East Asia Professors' Meeting of
Powder Technology," 1997Adv. Powder Technol., 8,85 (1997)
2. Manifold, D.L., "Japanese Corporate Activities in Asia,"
Chemtech, p. 48, June (1997)
3. Nakanishi, K., "Scientific Research and Education in Ja-
pan," Chem. and Eng. News, p. 30, Dec. 2 (1991)
4. Tremblay, J-F., "Great Science in Hong Kong?" Chem. and
Engg. News, p. 50, Aug. 18 (1997)
5. Davies, R., "Impact of Particle Processing Technology on
U.S. Industry and Academia," H. Rumpf Memorial Collo-
quium, Karlsruhe, Germany, Nov. (1996)
6. Freemantle, M., "Turbulence Roils German Science," Chem.
and Eng. News, p. 42, April 21 (1994)
7. Layman, P., "Shortage of Chemists Spurs Dutch Programs,"
Chem. and Eng. News, p. 28, Aug. 18 (1997)
8. Lepkowski, W., "U.S. Aid to Soviet Scientists Falters," Chem.
and Eng. News, p. 30, April 7 (1997)
9. Davies, R., "Industry/University Interactions of PARSAT,"
IMECI '97, Dallas, TX (1997)
10. Ennis, B.J., J. Green, and R. Davies, "The Legacy of Neglect
in the U.S.," Chem. Eng. Prog., p. 32, April (1994)
11. Guschl, R.J., "Technology Transfer: Too Many Options?"
Chemtech, p. 7, July (1997)
12. Rosenzweig, M., "Will Foreign Students Become an Endan-
gered Species?" Chem. Eng. Prog., p. 7, August (1997)
13. Nelson, R.D., R. Davies, and K.J. Jacob., "Teach 'Em Par-
ticle Technology," (summary of 1992 talk), Chem. Eng. Ed.,
p. 12, Winter (1995)
14. Bungay, H., "Linking to the Real World," Chemtech, p. 9,
June (1997)
15. Donnelly, A.E., and R. Rajagopalan, "Particle Science and
Technology: Educational Initiatives," Chem. Eng. Ed., 32,
122 (1998)
16. Wilkinson, S., "New Engineering College Incubates Educa-
tion Reform," Chem. and Eng. News, p. 11, June 16 (1997)
17. Dave, R.N., I.S. Fischer, J. Luke, R. Pfeffer, and A.D. Rosato,
"Particle Technology Concentration at NJIT: An NSF-CRCD
Program," Chem. Eng. Ed., 32,102 (1998) a

SParticle Science and Technology



An NSF-CRCD Program

New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark, NJ 07102

Particle technology is concerned with the characteriza-
tion, production, modification, flow, handling, and
utilization of granular solids or powders, both dry and
in slurries. The technology spans a host of industries, includ-
ing chemical, agricultural, food products, pharmaceuticals,
ceramics, mineral processing, advanced materials, munitions,
aerospace, energy, and pollution control. A need for incor-
porating the subject into the undergraduate and graduate
engineering curriculum has been well recognized.1' 21
As a consequence of an NSF Combined Research and
Curriculum Development (CRCD) grant, an interdiscipli-
nary concentration of new courses in particle technology is
now being developed at the New Jersey Institute of Technol-
ogy (NJIT) by faculty members in several of its departments.
The concentration consists of three principal courses: 1)
"Introduction to Particle Technology," designed for upper-
level undergraduates and first-year graduate students; 2) "Cur-
rent Research in Particle Technology," intended for graduate

students; and 3) "Experiments and Simulations in Particle
Technology," intended for upper-level undergraduates and
first-year graduate students. It is believed that these new
courses cover material that is substantially absent in estab-
lished engineering curricula.
There are many challenges in developing this curriculum,
many of them due to the fact that the scope of particle
technology is so broad-based and interdisciplinary. The pri-
mary objective of an NSF-CRCD award is to bring the
current research of the PIs and other researchers in the field
into the curriculum. But since the subject of particle technol-
ogy is so broad and diverse, it soon became apparent to the
PIs that the students required a large amount of background
material before the research material could be taught effec-
tively. To meet this challenge, the introductory course was
designed to contain such background material. It was also
clear that one individual may not have the necessary exper-
tise required to develop a comprehensive program of educa-
tion or, in some cases, even a single course. Thus, a team of
instructors was needed to develop the curriculum concentra-
tion, and the two advanced courses were staffed with more
than a single instructor.

Another major challenge was to establish particle technol-
ogy as an interdisciplinary academic concentration that was
integrated into the engineering curriculum without adding
extra credits or dropping existing requirements. This was
met by introducing the three courses in such a way that a
student could take one or more of them as an undergraduate
elective. Moreover, while the first course provided the nec-
essary background material, the other two courses were de-
signed so that an undergraduate student with good academic
standing or a graduate student could take them without hav-
ing taken the first course. In addition, several key experi-
mental modules from the laboratory course were incorpo-
rated into the core undergraduate laboratory courses so that
every graduating engineer from either the chemical or the
'hE Division of ASEE 1998
Chemical Engineering Education

Rajesh N. Dave is Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering,
Associate Director of the Particle Technology Center, and co-directs a
joint New Jersey Center of R&D Excellence in Particle Processing Re-
search. His research interests include pattern recognition (clustering,
fuzzy sets, image processing) and particle technology (experiments and
simulations of granular flows, dry particle coating, hopper flows).
lan S. Fischer is Associate Professor and conducts research in the
kinematics of mechanisms. He is also involved with the development of a
non-intrusive particle-tracking technique, revision of the undergraduate
dynamics of machinery course, and the graduate-level spatial mecha-
nisms course.
Jonathan Luke is Associate Professor of Mathematics at New Jersey
Institute of Technology. His research specialty is the analysis of sedi-
mentation speeds in suspensions. He has developed graduate courses
in mathematical modeling and in the mathematics of particle technology.
Robert Pfeffer is Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering at
NJIT. His research interests include the flow of gas-particle suspensions,
granular and fibrous bed filtration, sintering, agglomeration, dry particle
coating, and granulation.
Anthony D. Rosato is Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering
at NJIT and is director of the Particle Technology Center. His research
interests are in computer-simulated modeling and experiments on rapid
flows of granular materials and in curriculum development in particle

I Particle Science and Technology )

mechanical engineering department was exposed to some
aspects of particle technology.
Yet another challenge in this curriculum development was
to present the basic concepts, industrial practice, and new
research in particle technology without overwhelming the
students, while at the same time exposing them to a new set
of analytical and experimental tools required for problem
solving. This challenge is being met, in part, by the develop-
ment of an instructional laboratory and the development of
user-friendly computer simulations so that the students (and
the instructor) have access to these facilities that enhance the
classroom instruction. Further difficulties arose due to the
fact that it was necessary to employ equipment and software
that are not routinely used in the current engineering curricu-
lum, such as state-of-the-art instrumentation for character-
ization, mixing, and flow property measurement, as well as
image analysis, computer simulations, and video animation
systems. In addition, students must also be taught the use of
associated software. Since the current curriculum does not
have the infrastructure to accommodate this, our challenge
was to develop an easy-to-use set of instructions and to train
graduate students who would be available to help the
students taking the courses. Thus, providing the proper
background material for the wide variety of topics has
been more demanding than delivering the material re-
lated to the PIs' research.


Introduction to Particle Technology

As previously discussed, this course is intended to provide
background material in particle technology. Since the mate-
rial covered in this class is not available in a single book,
several reference books were used.'351 The course covers a
variety of topics in particle technology, described below.
Particle Characterization Determination of the shape
and size of particles, sampling, shape factors, and fractal
dimensions for irregular shapes, Stokes' law/sedimentation,
electrozone sensing techniques (Coulter Counter), radiation
scattering methods (Malvern Mastersizer), optical size-mea-
surement systems.
Coulomb Materials Mechanics of Coulomb materials,
yield criterion of granular materials, active and passive Rank-
ine failure states, unconfined yield stress, angle of repose
and internal friction angle, Coulomb's method of wedges,
Janssen's equation for stresses on walls of bins and hoppers,
Walter's switch stress.
Hopper Design Core flow versus mass flow, Jenike
shear cell and yield locus, material flow function and flow
factor to size hopper outlet and slope, consolidation and
Spring 1998

compaction effects during loading and unloading hoppers.
Conveyor Belts Design based on handbook by manufac-
turer trade associations, conveyability characteristics, angle
of repose, angle of surcharge, flowability, density, dustiness,
wetness, abrasiveness, corrosiveness and temperature, power
requirements, belt tension, and idler spacing.
Solid-Gas Separation Aero-mechanical separators, wet
scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators and filters, pressure drop,
flow rate, grade efficiency and cut size to characterize de-
vices, cyclone dry-separation.
Gas Fluidization Purpose of fluidized bed, aeratable,
sand-like, cohesive, and spoutable powders, bed pressure
drop, minimum fluidization velocity, slugging, bed expan-
sion, entrainment of solids in exhaust, and heat and mass
Suspensions and Sedimentation Stokes' flow, Faxen's
law, hydrodynamic interactions, corrections to Stokes' law,
"effective fluid" model of a suspension, effective velocity,
Einstein viscosity, sedimentation speed in a dilute suspension.
Slurries and Suspensions Forces on a particle in a fluid,
terminal settling velocity, drag coefficient, Archimedes' num-
ber, homogeneous suspensions theological behavior, mea-
surement devices, Newtonian, power-law, Bingham plastic
and Casson constitutive equations, Arrhenius equation, tem-
perature-reference method, laminar and turbulent flows of
suspensions in pipes, mixing of powder in agitated tanks,
saltation, Durrand's correlation, vessel agitation, critical speed
of an agitation impeller.
Particle Size Enlargement Industrial applications, ag-
glomeration methods, mechanics of agglomeration, inclined-
disk agglomerators, fluidized bed, and drum granulators.
Particle Size Reduction Crushing and grinding, forces
in size reduction, Rittinger, Kick, Bond, and Holmes meth-
ods for energy requirements, mathematics of predicting prod-
uct size distribution, description of crushing and grinding
machines in industry, example of size distribution in ham-
mer mill.
Collision Mechanics Coefficient of restitution, planar
impact of spheres, normal collision of elastic spheres, colli-
sion of frictional elastic spheres, collision of inelastic spheres.

Current Research in Particle Technology

This course, intended for graduate students (but may also
be taken by upper-level undergraduates with good academic
standing), is theoretical in nature and emphasizes micro-
level modeling for the understanding of macroscopic be-
havior. It includes mathematical modeling and computer
simulations. Also incorporated into the course are recent
research developments in the field that do not yet appear

( Particle Science and Technology 1

in standard textbooks.
The course requires team teaching and also uses guest
lecturers. While the course content may change depending
upon the instructor, the main topics include: contact/colli-
sion mechanics, including hard sphere and soft sphere con-
tact modeling; computer simulations for dry granular flows,
including stochastic, geometric, and dynamic simulations;
computation of transport properties; modeling of granular
flows; dynamics of small numbers of sedimenting particles;
effective viscosity of a suspension; sedimentation speed in a
suspension; modeling of granular and fibrous bed filtration
and fluidized beds. Many of these topics involve examples
taken from the research of the PIs. The course also requires
development of computer simulation codes by the students.
Several guest lecturers from outside have already contrib-
uted to this course: Dr. P. Singh (Processing of Complex
Fluids) from Los Alamos Laboratory; Dr. L.-S. Fan (Fluidi-
zation Engineering) from Ohio State University; Dr. O.R.
Walton (Discrete Element Simulations of Granular Flows)
from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory; Dr. C. Wassgren (Ex-
periments and Simulations of Vibrated Beds) from CalTech;
Dr. K. Leschonski (Particle Classification) from CUTEC,
Germany; and Dr. A. Caprihan (Nuclear Magnetic Reso-
nance Imaging of Highly Energetic Flows) from The Lovelace
Institutes, New Mexico.

Experiments and Simulations in
Particle Technology

As part of the NSF-CRCD grant, a new combined research
and instruction laboratory is being developed, containing a
variety of experimental equipment that includes instructional
as well as research equipment. The laboratory is still under
development, and several new experimental modules are
currently undergoing construction. The completed modules
CI Angle of Repose The students are asked to measure the
angle of repose of a variety of granular materials using four
different classical methods (fixed-height table, fixed-base
cone, tilting table, and rotating cylinder). A digital camera
and image analysis are used to measure the angle of repose
from the four methods and results are compared.
EL Particle-Size Analysis Using Sieves Sieving, one of the
simplest, oldest, and most inexpensive methods of determin-
ing particle size distribution, which is widely used in indus-
try,[61 is effective for sizes down to about 38 microns. The
sieving apparatus used in our experiments is an Octagon
2000 Vibrated Siever with a set of sieves ranging from 25
microns (mesh #500) to 4.0 mm (mesh #5). The students
analyze samples of coarse sand to obtain a size-distribution
curve as well as the cumulative-distribution curve by weigh-

ing the residuals at each sieve. For the tested samples, the
students also collect data to study the sieving rate.
EI Particle-Size Analysis Using Laser Diffraction Tech-
nique The students perform size analysis of samples ob-
tained through a grinding experiment using a Malvern
Mastersizer X Laser Diffraction particle-size analyzer. The
samples analyzed had a size range from a few microns to
about 100 microns. During the course of the experiment, the
students learn about sample collection, preparation, and the
use of the Mastersizer. The most basic task of sample collec-
tion is perhaps the most difficult, and we realized that a
better sampling scheme would be required. The Mastersizer
software allows for selecting different scattering theories
and refractive index models. Students use both Fraunhofer
and Mie scattering theories and also have the flexibility of
changing the model used for the refractive index. For each
case, the results such as the "mode" (of the size distribution)
and the "residual" (of the fit of measured and computed
scattering data for all the detectors) are recorded.
E Size Reduction/Grinding with a Ball Mill For the
basic ball-mill experiment, a ball mill (Paul Abbe) with a
ceramic cylindrical jar and cylindrical Burundum Alumina
as the grinding media is used. The students are asked to
perform a simple grinding experiment to study the rate of
change in the particle size distribution as a function of time.
A challenge in this experiment is to find a suitable test
material capable of demonstrating the main features of the
grinding process within a 2- to 3-hour lab period. For the
sake of demonstration, soft gravel-like material of size 250
microns to about 4 mm is utilized.
Students are asked to analyze the results for the time
dependence of size distribution, power consumption, and
specific surface area.141
EL Material Testing by Jenike Shear Cell for Design of
Mass Flow Hoppers The purpose of this experiment is to
calculate parameters of a mass-flow hopper for a given test
material. The main issue in hopper design is the material
testing procedure that provides information about flowability
and cohesiveness of the material needed to select the hopper
slope and minimum outlet size. There are many different
methods to test the flowability of the material,17 although the
Jenike method"18 (which gives the Jenike yield locus) is still
considered the most reliable and is perhaps the most widely
used technique in industry. There is a detailed standard
procedures91 for using the Jenike apparatus (see Figure 1), as
the variability and the scatter in the test data is found to be
very wide if careful testing is not performed. Each yield
locus is formed by plotting the normal stress (loading weight)
versus the prorated shear stress for at least three operating
points. For each operating point on the curve, the material
must be pre-consolidated by the consolidating weight (see
Figure 2), and then the shear test must be performed for a
Chemical Engineering Education

Figure 1.

Jenike shear tester:
Schematic above and
photograph at left.

chosen loading weight (Figure 1), so that the loading weight
is less than or equal to the consolidating weight. Students
test materials such as flour, powdered sugar, and cornstarch.
Highly cohesive materials (e.g., cornstarch) pose difficulties
in obtaining reliable results. We found that the test apparatus
was not very user friendly, and the task of complete testing is
tedious, generally requiring 5 to 6 hours.
[1 Study of Rise of a Single Large Sphere in a Vibrated
Granular Bed Size segregation is often an undesirable

normal load

---c-- 3

Matenal to be




Offset Twisting Top

- /

Figure 2. Material being pre-consolidated for Jenike
shear test.

Particle Science and Technology ]

outcome of handling and/or processing operations of bulk
solids. In general, a large ball placed at the bottom of a
vibrated bed will rise to the surface."I0 In the laboratory
sessions, the students examine various behavioral regimes of
the vibrated bed and make observations of the rise time of
the large particle at different operating conditions.
E[ Dilatometer Measurement of the Minimum Sintering
Temperature of Fluidized Solids Many of the processes
using fluidized beds operate at high temperatures, which
cause softening and/or partial melting sinteringg) of the sol-
ids' surfaces, thereby requiring higher gas velocities to keep
the bed in the fluidized state. The purpose of this experiment
is to measure the minimum sintering temperature Ts (the
temperature at which thermally induced surface softening
and sintering begins), an intrinsic property of the solid-
particle surface. A relatively simple procedure to estimate T,
makes use of constant-rate dilatometry"'[-1 to obtain the
elongation-contraction versus temperature curve for a po-
rous rod composed of the granular material in question (see
Figure 3). In the experiment, a Theta Industries-Econo I
dilatometer is used to heat a small sample of powder (about
1.2 grams) at a constant rate (maximum is 150C/minute) to
temperatures as high as 16000C. Students set up and pro-
gram the dilatometer to operate overnight at a constant heat-






Figure 3. Schematic diagram of a dilatometer used for
measuring minimum sintering temperature
of powders.


Spring 1998


' '/ I / I '

( Particle Science and Technology

S. our goal is to put sample notes and examples on our web sites and to provide several modules from
each course to colleagues for use at other universities. We will also share information on our
laboratory development, simulation codes, and video animations.

ing rate using alumina powder in a Nitrogen
atmosphere. Results are analyzed the next day
to determine T,.
E[ Particle Sedimentation The falling-ball
viscometer is the first in a sequence of experi-
ments concerning suspensions and sedimenta-
tion. The apparatus consists of a glass cylinder
(100 cm long by 10 cm diameter) containing a
viscous fluid (UCON fluid 50-HB-3520, manu-
factured by Union Carbide), as shown in Figure
4. Small numbers of particles placed in the fluid
at the top of the cylinder may be observed as
they sediment along the axis of the cylinder.
Students receive instruction on the basic theory
of sedimentation at low Reynolds number and
its application to size segregation and charac-
terization. Using the manufacturer's specifica-
tions of the physical properties of the fluid, a
collection of particles, a balance, a thermo-
couple, a meter stick, and a stop watch, students
are asked to investigate some of the physical
characteristics of the system. Hydrodynamic
properties investigated include particle-wall and
particle-particle interactions, inertial effects, and
thermal effects. Particular emphasis is placed
on having students explain variability in obser-
vations. Reports are kept on file and future stu-
dents will be asked to analyze their data and to
reconcile their results with those of groups from
previous years.
El Other Planned Experiments Other ex-
periments will be selected from: blending and
mixing; segregation in poly-disperse vibrated
beds; conventional fluidized bed; rotating fluid-
ized bed; core-flow/mass-flow hoppers; particle-
collision properties; non-intrusive tracking in
granular flows; dry particle coating; simulation
and visualization of granular flows.

As a part of curriculum development, two
special courses were also given: "Fluid-Particle
Flows at Low Reynolds Number" (offered as
Special Topics in Applied Mathematics by Prof.
J. Luke) and "Image Analysis for Applications
in Particle Technology" (by Prof. R. Dave).
These courses had the objective of "trying out"

Figure 4.
Photograph of
the sedimentation
column, filled
with UCON

part of the material that would eventually be in-
cluded in the new three-course particle technol-
ogy concentration.

Some of our major accomplishments are:
Formation of an Advisory Board with particle
technology experts from industry and academia.
The board comprises representatives from 12 in-
dustrial companies and 6 universities. Board meet-
ings have been held every March, beginning in
Development of and offering the introductory
course, "Introduction to Particle Technology," in
the fall of 1995 and the fall of 1997 by Dr. I.
Fischer. Approximately 20 students, both under-
graduates and graduates, were enrolled each se-
Offering of the graduate course "Current Re-
search in Particle Technology" by Dr. R. Dave
during the spring of 1996 and by Dr. A. Rosato
during the spring of 1997. Approximately ten stu-
dents were enrolled each time.
Offering of two special courses
Designing and building the new combined
research and instruction laboratory.
Offering of the laboratory course "Experi-
ments and Simulations in Particle Technology" in
the fall of 1996 and again in the spring of 1998 by
Dr. R. Dave.

During the course of this project, we recognized
that a number of partnerships were required for a
successful completion. The first step toward de-
veloping these partnerships was through the Ad-
visory Board (AB), which has been of significant
help in providing guidance and advice as well as
technical and financial support. As an example,
four guest speakers, two of whom are members of
our AB, delivered three-hour lectures to the stu-
dents in the graduate course. Also, one industrial
member of the AB presented a lecture on particle-
size-analysis techniques in the laboratory course,
and another representative from a member com-

Chemical Engineering Education

Particle Science and Technology

pany spent a full day with our students on the Jenike shear
testing experiment. Our partnerships also include collabora-
tions with a number of universities, including the NSF-ERC in
Particle Science and Technology at the University of Florida.
While research activities in the area of particle technology
have been ongoing for several years at NJIT, the CRCD
award has served as the impetus for developing a number of
new research collaborations as well as the formation of the
Particle Technology Center at NJIT. Readers can access its
web site at
Moreover, our efforts have been recognized at NSF (we
were asked to showcase our CRCD program as part of the
exhibition held at the 1996 annual ASEE meeting at Wash-
ington, DC), by other academicians, by recognized experts
from industry, and most recently by the State of New Jersey.
The first and fourth authors received one of the new R&D
Excellence Awards from the state of New Jersey to establish
a Particle Processing Research Center in collaboration with
Rutgers University. Readers can access its web site at info/image2/PPRC/
This program provides seed money ($300,000/year) for five
years to establish a long-term, self-supporting program with
a focus on basic science with industrial relevance, having
intermediate and long-term commercialization potential. In
summary, our experience in forging partnerships has proven
very beneficial and we believe that even more can be gained
from these partnerships in the future. The synergism be-
tween research and education is obvious, and the success of
both depends heavily on partnerships.

The development of a curriculum concentration in particle
technology is ongoing and our experience has been quite
positive so far. Despite challenges due to the broad and
interdisciplinary nature of the subject material, we have
made substantial progress. All three of the new courses have
already been offered twice. In the near future, we will focus
on dissemination of the materials that we have developed.
Currently, our goal is to put sample notes and examples on
our web sites and to provide several modules from each
course to colleagues for use at other universities. We will
also share information on our laboratory development, simu-
lation codes, and video animations.
The course material presently focuses more on the "me-
chanical" aspects of particle technology as compared to the
"chemical" aspects. This is in part due to the fact that three
of the five team members are from the Mechanical Engi-
neering Department and have served as principal instructors
of the courses offered so far. Current efforts are to make the
material more balanced and include chemical reactors in-

Spring 1998

volving particles, mechano-chemistry, and suspension rhe-
ology so as to attract more students from chemical engineer-
ing and other engineering disciplines. In the next few months,
several experimental modules will be incorporated into the
core undergraduate laboratory courses, and the results of
that experience will be reported in the future.

We are grateful for the financial support from the National
Science Foundation grants EEC-9420597 (CRCD) and EEC-
9354671, and the Exxon Research and Engineering Corpo-
ration for three annual Teaching Aid grants. We also appre-
ciate help from all the undergraduate and graduate students
who participated in the laboratory course. Thanks are also
due to our Advisory Board members for their active partici-
pation in our curriculum development.

1. Ennis, B., J. Green, and R. Davies, "Particle Technology:
The Legacy of Neglect in the U.S.," Chem. Eng. Prog., 32,
April (1994)
2. Fischer, I.S., R.N. Dave, J. Luke, A.D. Rosato, and R. Pfeffer,
"Particle Technology in the Engineering Curriculum at
NJIT," CD-ROM Proc. of 1996 ASEE Ann. Conf, Session
1626, Washington DC, June 23-27 (1996)
3. Nedderman, R.M., Statics and Kinematics of Granular Ma-
terials, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (1992)
4. Rhodes, M., Principles of Powder Technology, John Wiley,
Chichester, UK (1990)
5. Fan, L.-S., and C. Zhu, Principles of Gas-Solid Flows, Cam-
bridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (1997)
6. Leschonski, K., "Sieve Analyses: The Cinderella of Particle
Size Analysis Method," Powder Tech., 24, 115 (1979)
7. Kamath, S., V.M. Puri, H.B. Manbeck, and R. Hogg, "Mea-
surement of Flow Properties of Bulk Solids Using Four
Testers," 1991 International Winter Meeting of the Ameri-
can Society of Agricultural Engineers, Paper No. 91-4517
8. Jenike, A.W., Storage and Flow of Solids, Bulletin No. 123
of the Utah Engineering Station, Salt Lake City, UT, March
9. "Standard Shear Testing Technique for Particulate Solids
Using the Jenike Shear Cell," a report of the EFCE (The
Institution of Chemical Engineering: European Federation
of Chemical Engineering) Working Party on the Mechanics
of Particulate Solids (1989)
10. Loic, V., A.D. Rosato, and R.N. Dave, "Rise Regimes of a
Large Sphere in Vibrated Bulk Solids," Phys. Rev. Lett., Feb
11. Compo, P., G.I. Tardos, D. Mazzone, and R. Pfeffer, "Mini-
mum Sintering Temperatures of Fluidizable Particles," Par-
ticle Characterization, 1, 171 (1984)
12. Compo, P., G.I. Tardos, and R. Pfeffer, "Minimum Sintering
Temperatures and Defluidization Characteristics of Agglom-
erating Particles," Powder Tech., 51, 85 (1987)
13. Tardos, G.I., and R. Pfeffer, "Chemical Reaction Induced
Agglomeration and Defluidization of Fluidized Beds," Pow-
der Tech., 85, 29 (1995) 1

Particle Science and Technology




Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907-1283

Given the time constraints in most undergraduate fluid-
mechanics courses, any instruction in fluid flow
involving particles is typically limited to the most
basic concepts, such as determining the pressure drop in a
packed bed or calculating the minimum fluidization veloc-
ity. A similar situation exists with instruction in single-phase
turbulent flows when students are introduced to the mixing-
length concept applied to pipe flow. But when these same
students graduate and enter industry, they are confronted
with a host of complex flow processes, both single phase and
multiphase, for which modeling could aid in scale-up, de-
sign, and optimization. Hence, students should be made
aware of the computational fluid-dynamics tools available to
approach these processes."1
This paper discusses a way in which computational fluid
dynamics software can be easily incorporated into an under-
graduate transport course and how, through the use of soft-
ware via case studies, students can be exposed to more
concepts and practical examples of fluid-particle flow.

The acronym CFD stands for computational fluid dynam-
ics. CFD codes numerically solve the mass-continuity equa-
tion and the differential momentum balance for fluid-flow
situations over a specific domain set by the user. The do-
main can range from a simple mixing tank to an intricate

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 1998

mold or a complex pipeline network. The flow can be
laminar or turbulent.
In the case of turbulent flow, several turbulence closure
models are typically available from which the user can choose.
Numerical solution of the energy balance and species conti-
nuity equation(s) can be coupled to the flow equations to
describe heat transfer and chemical reactions in flow situa-
tions. In addition, several CFD codes have multiphase capa-
bilities and can be used to simulate a dispersed phase (par-
ticles or droplets) in a continuous phase, again with the
possibility of coupling with heat transfer and chemical
reaction. The simulation results can be given in numeri-
cal output or displayed graphically or pictorially in sev-
eral different formats.

There are several excellent reasons to incorporate CFD
into transport courses.

3 Students aren't left with the notion that the em-
pirical approach is the only method to tackle most
real-life processes involving fluid flow.
If students are exposed only to "idealized" fluid-flow cases
in the curriculum, for which application of theoretical con-
cepts results in the solution of a one-dimensional ordinary
differential equation or an algebraic equation, it is very easy
for them to come away with the notion that theory is useless
for most real-life flow situations. Empiricism seems the only
way to approach flow processes that don't fit directly into
the molds that they have studied. Through exposure to CFD,
students can gain an appreciation for the fluid-flow tools
available (still based on the theories they have learned) that
can be applied to real-life processes.
3 Students can visualize the flow behavior.
Once a fluid-flow situation is analyzed theoretically or the

Chemical Engineering Education

Jennifer L. Sinclair is Associate Professor
of Chemical Engineering at Purdue Univer-
sity. Her research interests are in the areas
of gas-solids flow, fluidization, and particle
mechanics. She is the recipient of several
teaching awards, the NSF-PYI award, and
currently serves on the Executive Committee
of the Particle Technology Forum.

Particle Science and Technology

governing principles are discussed, that same situa-
tion can be visualized using the computer. This
visualization of the flow phenomena can signifi-
cantly facilitate and enhance the learning process,
especially for the visual learner. CFD software makes
flow visualization easy. Students can simulate flow
processes in a transient or steady-state mode. Flow
patterns can be displayed via velocity contours, ve-
locity vector plots, or graphs of velocity profiles. A
color scale indicates the magnitude of the velocity
for each phase or the solids volume fraction.
The graphics are very flexible and user-friendly
and are much better than any professor could draw
on the chalkboard or overhead projector using dif-
ferent colored pens! Once a fluid-flow situation is
analyzed theoretically or the governing principles
are discussed, that same situation can be visualized
on the computer.

3 Students can explore the effect of changes
in system geometry, system properties, or op-
erating conditions.
A key element in flow visualization exercises is
exploring the effect of different parameters. Using
CFD, students can quickly change the size of the
pipe, viscosity of the fluid, size of the particles,
velocity of the feed, etc., and see the resulting
changes in the flow behavior. This type of para-
metric analysis also ties in nicely with a discus-
sion of dimensionless groups and geometric and
dynamic similarity.

3 Students can compare the simulation
results using CFD with the analytical results
obtained in the classroom or in their home-
A comparison between simulation results and ana-
lytical results gives students confidence in both their
hand calculations and the CFD code. These com-
parisons can be a basis for the treatment of numeri-
cal methods applied to fluid-flow problems. They
can also be a starting point for increasing the com-
plexity of the problem for which only a numerical
solution is possible.

3 CFD is used in many companies, such as
Dow, DuPont, Alcoa, P&G, Shell, Exxon,
Chevron, etc., and in many different indus-
tries such as chemical, oil, automotive, phar-
maceutical, etc.
If our students have experience with tools that

S... when
... students
and enter
they are
with a host
of complex
both single
phase and
for which
could aid in
design, and
should be
made aware
of the
available to

they will use in industry, they will be productive
more quickly.

3 Students like it!
Students like the user-friendliness of the CFD codes,
the colorful graphics, and most of all, they like
envisioning new designs for flow processes and
trying them out.

A number of CFD codes are commercially avail-
able, but the choice can be narrowed somewhat as
certain codes are written to target specific applica-
tions, such as non-Newtonian flows.
For fluid-particle flow, CFX' and Fluent cur-
rently have the majority of the industrial multiphase
market. CFDLIB is another multiphase flow re-
search code available, developed by Los Alamos
National Laboratories. For the academic user,
the licensing fee for the object code of Fluent and
CFX is cut substantially from the industrial rate
and is typically around $2000-$3000 per year. In
developing the case studies shown in this paper, we
have used the Fluent code. It has the benefit of a
built-in generation package for quick and easy setup
of simpler flow geometries by the students, it has
extremely user-friendly input and output formats,
and it can be used successfully by undergraduate
students with little training. Tutorials that go step-
by-step through the simulation of various single
phase and multiphase flow examples are avail-
able with the user guides.
Ms. Ann Pertuit, who prepared the Fluent graphs
shown in this paper, taught herself the Fluent code
when she was a sophomore chemical engineering
student by going through these helpful tutorials. I
know of several schools, including Carnegie-Mellon
University, that have successfully integrated the
Fluent code into their transport courses with very
positive response from the students.

Multiphase flow involving particles can be mod-
eled using the Lagrangian approach or the Eulerian
approach. In the Lagrangian approach, a separate
equation of motion is integrated for each particle,

AEA Technology, 2000 Oxford Dr., Suite 610, Bethel
Park PA 15102: 412-833-4820
Fluent Inc., 10 Cavendish Court, Lebanon, NH
'"Web address: http:/ /

Spring 1998

( Particle Science and Technology

and the motion of individual particles is traced subject to
forces on the particles as specified by the user. This ap-
proach is typically used for very dilute phase flows (solid
volume fractions less than 103) due to computer-storage
limitations and the assumptions made in developing the mod-
eling equations. It is a convenient approach when different
properties/conditions need to be specified for individual par-
ticles. Coupling between the continuous phase and the dis-
persed phase occurs through the drag force.
In the Fluent code, a description for modulation of fluid-
phase turbulence by the presence of particles can be speci-
fied by the user. For example, if the k-e turbulence-closure
model is used to describe the turbulent stresses in the con-
tinuous phase, the source term in the transport equation for
the turbulent kinetic energy can be specified by the user. In
the current version of Fluent (version 4.4), particle-wall
collisions (but not particle-particle collisions) are included
in the Lagrangian formulation.
In the Eulerian approach (or "two-fluid" approach), the
dispersed phase is described as a continuum, so it is well
q.iited for dense-phase flows. In this approach, however,
sures must be specified for various terms generated from
e averaging procedure used to formulate the two-fluid
governingg equations. For example, the particle-phase stresses
must be specified. The user can set a constant solids viscos-
ity, describe these stresses with a user-defined algebraic
closure that can depend on any of the flow variables, or,
for larger particles in which hydrodynamic interactions
are negligible, employ a kinetic-theory model that is avail-
able in the Fluent code.
In the kinetic theory model, particle-phase stresses are
generated from particle-particle collisions and are described
in an analogous fashion to molecular collisions in a gas
accounting for the fact that particle-particle collisions are
inelastic. Since the solids viscosity is dependent on the mag-
nitude of the particle velocity fluctuations associated with
the particle collisions, the continuity and momentum bal-
ances are supplemented with a balance of kinetic energy for
these particle-velocity fluctuations. In the kinetic-theory
model, the user specifies the collisional behavior of the
particles in terms of a coefficient of restitution (equal to one
for a perfectly elastic particle-particle collision).
In the current (4.4) version of Fluent, a boundary condi-
tion of zero flux of particle fluctuation energy is given for
the particles. In the next release of Fluent (scheduled for
spring 1998), kinetic energy transfer with the wall during
particle-wall impacts is accounted for. Version 4.4 includes
particle-phase stresses that are due to fluctuations associated
with individual particles; Version 4.5 will include particle
fluctuations associated with clusters of particles, or particle-
phase turbulence, as well as friction between particles.

The CFD code can be introduced in one lecture. Typically,
a graduate student who has most recently taken the full
training course for the CFD code at the company site intro-
duces the students to the code. The key steps that must be
followed for any simulation should be outlined. They in-
clude allocating memory, defining the domain, setting the
cells, choosing the physical model and boundary conditions,
defining the physical constants, saving the case file, running
the program, and saving the data. Detailing these steps in a
supplementary handout is helpful (a sample of such a hand-
out will be sent on request by contacting me at For homework, students should work
through the tutorial on laminar flow in a pipe. They should
practice generating and modifying the grid and viewing the
results in the different formats.
Figure 1 shows the developing velocity profiles for lami-
nar flow in a pipe. The results can also be displayed using
velocity vectors or velocity contours. This figure was gener-
ated with a 250x10 grid. Students can compare their results
for fully developed flow to the analytical solutions they have
obtained in class. After they are comfortable with the pipe-
flow example, other geometries can be explored. Good home-
work problems include analyzing the two-dimensional lami-
nar flow pattern in a given geometry, expanding on the
analogous one-dimensional, fully developed flow solution
that was derived in class. In a heat transfer course, students
can couple the flow equations with the energy balances to
determine wall heat flux in a convection situation.
Treatment of turbulent flows at the undergraduate level
can be enhanced through the use of CFD. I spend one lecture
introducing the students to the various types of closure mod-
els commonly available in CFD software packages, focusing
on the k-E model, which is the most widely used. I discuss
both the high Reynolds number k-e model and the use of
wall functions, as well as the low Reynolds number k-e
models. For homework, students should go through the tuto-
rial on turbulent pipe flow. This tutorial is basically the same
as the laminar pipe-flow tutorial, with changes in the physi-
cal model and one parameter (pipe diameter or fluid veloc-
ity) to increase the Reynolds number. Figure 2 shows the
turbulent kinetic energy contours with Re=32,000. Other
flow geometries can be explored for homework problems.
Students should be cautioned in the lecture, however, about
the shortcomings of the k-e model and inappropriate appli-
cation of this model for certain types of flows.

Once the concept of drag is introduced to the students, it is
a simple extension to discuss the dynamic equations for a
particle in dilute phase transport. Figure 3 presents a

Chemical Engineering Education

Particle Science and Technology



i AB41




Air .20'C
2inID pipe
Re 640
Inled Velocity -0.2 mi

x Velocity Magnitude (M/S) Fluent 4.32
Max=3.556E-01 Min= O.O00E+ Fluentnc.

Figure 1. Laminar flow.



Ai Vlocity = l0


x ParticleDroplet Trajectories luent 4.32
Velocity Magnitude (M/S) Fluct Inc.

Figure 3. Sand particles injected into a 2-in. ID pipe-

Lagrangian Method

Sand VohlmeC Fatin
Max=5.999E-01 Min= 1.0E-06 Times 1.17001

Figure 5. Fluidized bed.

Spring 1998

! 445E-,]



3 Sr,e
i 322*00




A at 20-C
2inID pip.
Re 32,000
Inlet Velocity -10 ms

K.E. Of Turbulence (M2/S2) Fluent 4.32
Max =4.601E+00 Min = 0.0E+00 Fluent nc.

Figure 2. Turbulent flow.

Sand Volume Fration
Max= 1.000E-01 Min= 2.489E-04 Time = 1.530E+00

Figure 4. Turbulent flow of sand in a vertical pipe-

Eulerian Method

~i U&ill


Fopd eim peCralws 293K
W.l amnpe t 1500K
2-D Duwt Iom x 1m
Ineto Ar Vdoci-ly 10i
Jt Ail Veoloy- l5s0s
Co al. M Flow R.W 0.5 It/s
A.r Ma Flow Re 5-.59/s
P.tie .e disoribution 70pm 200.m

SCo2 Mass Faction RFlcnt432
Max= 1.899E-01 Min=0.00AE4 RuFnt[lc.

Figure 6. Coal combustion

I .- 'I-' I,:. I- le 1 .- -1 -' I; 'lc. I;. I-'

F.F f" -w--"- %dW". -- ,-



[ Particle Science and Technology

Lagrangian simulation of 110 pm sand
particles fed into side inlets along a pipe
length and shows the velocities and tra- .. visual
jectories of the particles as they move
down the pipe and impact the pipe wall. flow phej
Another excellent case study (not shown significant
here) is one in which a comparison is and en
made between the velocity magnitudes learning
and trajectories of particles with different especially
physical properties. Students also enjoy l
trying different geometries and perform-
ing parametric studies. mak
For dense-phase flow, students must be visualize
introduced to the two-fluid concept. At
the undergraduate level, this need not be
done in a rigorous fashion with a lengthy
discussion of local averaging the point equation of motion of
a single particle. Rather, the governing equations and the
continuum concept applied to the particle phase can be dis-
cussed in a more general way by analogy to a single-phase
fluid. For larger particles that engage in particle-particle
collisions, the kinetic theory concepts for describing par-
ticle-phase stress can be introduced in the same manner.
Figure 4 shows solid-volume fraction contours in a case
study involving gas-solid flow in a vertical pipe with a
uniform inlet solid-volume fraction of 10%. In this figure,
the kinetic theory model was used to describe the solid-
phase stresses, and the coefficient of restitution for the par-
ticles was 0.9.
Another example involves simulating a fluidized bed when
the topic of fluidized beds is discussed in the traditional
lecture. Figure 5 presents a plot of the sand-volume fraction
contours in a fluidized bed with a center gas jet at 0.117s of
real time. As time progresses, students can watch the evolu-
tion of the gas bubble in the bed. In this simulation, the
kinetic theory was again used to describe the particle-phase
Once students gain confidence in using CFD software, the
range of viable case studies is endless. Multiphase flow with
chemical reactions is possible. Figure 6, which was gener-
ated by following one of Fluent's tutorials, shows the con-
centration of CO, in a coal burner. Students can specify the
type of chemical reaction, the chemical species involved,
and the kinetic rate constants, in addition to all of the flow
parameters, in order to observe the evolution of reactant and
product concentrations in the flow field.

The CFD codes can typically operate on any platform
(high-end PC, workstations, supercomputers). For the Flu-
ent code, the following system requirements must be

g p

Chemical Engineering Education


ion of the CPU: Pentium family of processors, DEC,
lena can Sun, SGI, IBM, HP, Cray
aciae Video graphics device with minimum
facilitate 1024x768 resolution and 256 colors
ice the CD-ROM
r ess,* 3-button mouse is recommended
the visual X-windows systems for UNIX operating sys-
low Operating System
in easy. Microsoft Windows NT 3.51 or higher
UNIX-platform and operating system ver-
sion specific
Microsoft Windows 95
Alpha Windows NT

Memory Requirements
The memory requirements vary with the problem size/grid size.
Fluent requires a minimum of 64 MB RAM. Three-dimensional
simulations require at least 128 MB RAM.

Disk-Space Requirements
20 MB Intel Windows
100 MB UNIX systems

When the CFD code is being used by an entire class, it
is best to have it installed on one or two workstations that
can be accessed within the network by other machines so
all the students do not have to be physically sitting at
those one or two workstations. Students can then use the
keyboard and display of another machine to input their
data and see the results. A handout detailing how to
access the CFD code remotely in your local university
computing network is helpful.

This paper has pointed out the benefits associated with
integration of CFD into undergraduate transport courses and
how CFD software is a convenient vehicle for opening the
door to the treatment of complex flows, such as fluid-par-
ticle flows, at the undergraduate level. Hopefully, the reader
has been persuaded to give it a try.

The author is grateful to Ms. Ann Pertuit, a junior student
in chemical engineering at the University of Arizona, for
preparing the Fluent graphs.

1. Hrymak, A., "Computational Fluid Dynamics and the Cur-
riculum," CACHE News, 43, 15, Fall (1996) 1

Particle Science and Technology 1

letters to the editor

Dear Editor:
Bravo to Prausnitz (in the spirit of Aris) for casting our
gaze in the direction of the humanities. Will chemical engi-
neering produce its Charles Percy Snow, who caused a stir
about three decades ago urging a "humanities...literature"
culture bridge swing to a "" culture in
his The Two Cultures: A Second Look through courses such
as molecular biology. Prausnitz has delightful references to
Bohr, Chagall, Haber, Silone, and others, but only a limited
number of them. Can someone point out a textbook with
Dale L Schruben
Chemical Engineering Department
Texas A&M University, Kingsville

To the Editor:
We have produced a thermodynamics "slide show" at
Iowa State University consisting of computer-generated im-
ages of fluid-phase equilibria with supporting text. The draw-
ings show VLE situations for binary, ternary, and quaternary
systems and combined VLE-LLE in a ternary. Pressure,
temperature, and composition data in the sub-critical ranges
are based on the Peng-Robinson equation using conven-
tional mixing rules. Calculations were performed by the
various flash routines within ASPEN PLUS. Critical points
and curves were determined by the method of Heidemann
and Khalil.
Open Inventor graphics software running on a Silicon
Graphics workstation was was used to generate the three-
dimensional visualizations (binary PTx-y, ternary composi-
tion prisms, quaternary tetrahedrons). Bubble-point and dew-
point curves and surfaces are distinguished using color and
transparency, and static images are clearly labeled. Some of
the drawings can also be zoomed, rotated, and sectioned to
demonstrate phase-diagram geometries and show the impor-
tance of viewer orientation.
The Silicon Graphics "Showcase" utility was used to make
the supporting text slides (approximately 45). The slide show
was first given in November 1997 at the final examination of
Kong Tian for the M.S. degree in chemical engineering. A
Silicon Graphics "Presenter" was used for projecting the
images onto a large screen.
We would like to offer the complete show at no cost to
anyone having the Silicon Graphics equipment (and stan-
dard Showcase utility) needed to run it. The show provides

an interesting and effective way to alert students to the
visualizability of thermodynamic information and to the fun-
damental hyperdimensionality of the data.
Those interested should contact Professor Jolls. Computer
files can be retrieved via ftp and will include sufficient
information to enable users to run them in the proper se-
quence. A videotaped version of the slide show will be
available later this spring
Kenneth R. Jolls
Chemical Engineering Department
Iowa State University
2114 Sweeney Hall
Ames, Iowa 50011-2230
fax: 515-294-2689
Kong S. Tian
College Station, Texas

To The Editor:
I was interested, and indeed proud, to note that three of the
articles in the winter '98 issue of CEE had a direct relation-
ship to the Department of Chemical Engineering at the Uni-
versity of New Brunswick (UNB).
Professor Arvind Varma (profiled as the ChE educator)
graduated with a masters degree from the fledgling depart-
ment in 1968.
Dr. S. Farooq, my own former student at UNB (PhD,
1990), now a faculty member at the National University of
Singapore, was author of an interesting article describing the
development of an adsorption experiment for the under-
graduate laboratory.
Finally, Dr. Guido Bendrich, a UNB professor who ob-
tained his PhD from McMaster University under Prof. Les
Shemilt, the founding Head of the UNB department, pre-
sented an article describing a new communications course.
Not a bad record for a small department!
Douglas M. Ruthven, Chair
Chemical Engineering Department
University of Maine

Spring 1998

SParticle Science and Technology

Experiments, Demonstrations, Software Packages,

and Videos for



University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15261

( Experiments

Pickup and Saltation Velocities In order to design a
pneumatic conveying system, a knowledge of the proper
conveying velocity is essential to transport the material effi-
ciently. The pickup velocity from the bottom of a transfer
line and the saltation velocity at which the particles salt out
of the flow are essential. These velocities can be determined
experimentally with the basic flow system shown in Figure
1. Several of different parameters influence these velocities:
particle size, particle density, particle shape, cohesiveness,
pipe diameter, and gas density. Work in our laboratory
has developed a correlation for the particle pickup veloc-
ity."] Videos can be easily prepared of the pickup and
saltation phenomena and can be shown in
the classroom. Further details are given at
the end of this article.
Avalanching The release of particles onto
a self-forming pile of particles (avalanching)
presents some interesting observations that pos-
sibly can be used to characterize the particles Inra
themselves. This characterization can have a
bearing on the way the particles behave in
pneumatic conveying and other solids process-
ing operations. A simple device to deliver par-
ticles to a pile and for observing the behavior
of particle avalanching can provide students
with a unique experiment to further their knowl-
edge of particles. Figure 2 shows this experi-
ment, and Figure 3 shows a method of classify-
ing the avalanching with particle size.121 Here, BI"w.
the weight of each avalanche that occurs is

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 1998

George Klinzing is Professor of Chemical En-
gineering at the University of Pittsburgh, where
he has been conducting research and teaching
solids processing for a number of years. His
research has shown a concentration in pneu-
matic conveying. He is a fellow ofAIChE and a
lecturer in their continuing-education program.
His publications include three books on pneu-
matic conveying.

plotted against the percentage of avalanches having a weight
greater than this value. Each material shown has a particular
characteristic curve. Again, video taping can be carried out
to provide an additional classroom resource.
Pneumatic Conveying Flow Loop A simple flow loop is
shown in Figure 4. Every loop must have an air supply, a
feeder from a bin or a hopper, a transport line, and a collec-
tor. House air can supply the transport gas for a 1- or 2-inch

Sm 19m 32m 09m

101 mm I D PVC Pipelne
I Layer of Solids Removable Section
Solids Collector
Bag Filters
(5 utn)
Data Acquisition
System 10
Transducer CO2

Figure 1. Pickup and saltation flow system.
Figure 1. Pickup and saltation flow system.

Chemical Engineering Education

Particle Science and Technology

Figure 2. Avalanching experimental setup.

line. The most common type of feeder is a rotary valve,
which can be the most expensive component of the system.
The collector can be a cyclone, especially when collecting
millimeter-or-larger size particles. These units can be easily
constructed using the standard design equations for cyclones.
The loop can be instrumented with relatively
inexpensive pressure transducers coupled
with a computer measuring scheme, which
can provide a wealth of information about
entrance effect, horizontal and vertical con-
veying differences, and bend pressure
losses. Further details can be found in the
Appendix to this article.
Bins and Hopper Flows Delivery of the
solids from a bin or hopper through a feeder to
a conveying line is essential to all solids trans-
port operations. If the material will not leave
the bin or hopper, nothing will be conveyed.
A simple two-dimensional experiment to mea-
sure the effect of the wall angle of the bin or
hopper on the type of flow can be easily
constructed. By using different colored par-
ticles, one can follow the flow patterns and
velocities. Using a video or Polaroid cam-

0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1

Avalanching wt. (Kg)

Figure 3. Avalanching graphical analysis.

era can provide a good record of the experiment. The
detailed dimensions of this wedge unit are given in the
Appendix to this article.
Bend Erosion Demonstration of the process of erosion in
conveying can be carried out by using a marking pen and a
glass bend. A grid can be drawn on the inside of the bend, be
it a short radius or a tee. This marked bend can then be
subjected to the flow conditions with particle flow. As time
goes on, it can be seen that the marking will erode in certain
regions of the bend. The time of operation is short, and video
taping of the process can provide a clearer understanding of
the flow patterns in such operations.

Figure 4. Pneumatic conveying flow loop.

Spring 1998

SParticle Science and Technology


In order to impress on the students the basic prin-
ciples described by mathematical analysis, one should
search for appropriate demonstrations for classroom
use. We have developed a few of these demonstra-
tions that can give the instructor a small tool box to
help in teaching solids-handling principles.
Plug Flow Following a demonstration first em-
ployed by Peter Arnold (Wollongong University), we
constructed a Plexiglas column with an aluminum
disk connection to a cable that threaded through the
column over a pulley and attached to a pull-spring
scale. A plug of bird seed approximately 6 inches
long provided the plug for study. Measuring the force
needed to move the plug can be recorded at different
plug lengths, indicating the nonlinear force relation-
ship with the plug length. Adding a small amount of
air at the bottom of the column will slightly fluidize
the plug and permit significant reduction of the force
required to move the plug. The details of this device
are seen in Figure 5.
Wall Pressure Likewise, Peter Arnold has shown
that a paper tissue placed at the end of a tube and tied
with a rubber band can support a column of solids
because the walls support a significant portion of the
weight of the particles. This unit is also shown in
Figure 5.
Fluidization A simple fluidization pipe can show
gas fluidization by simply blowing through a tube
connected to an air distributor leading to a fluidizing
chamber containing particles. Figure 6 shows this
Bin and Hopper John Carson (Jenike and
Johanson, 1 Technology Park Drive, Westford, MA
01886) has provided small-bin demonstration devices
in an hourglass-type unit made of Plexiglas that show
mass flow with a steep bin angle and funnel flow with
a shallow bin angle. He has educated a large number
of students with this excellent demonstration (see Fig-
ure 7).
Segregation This process can be shown easily
through the movement of a mixture of large and small
particles in a Plexiglas chamber having internals simi-
lar to a bin or hopper. The larger particles are seen to
migrate to the outside of the forming pile, while the
small particles stay in the center. G. Enstad (Telemark
Institute, Norway) first constructed this device to ob-
serve the segregation phenomenon. Figure 8 shows
the details of this device, which has four chambers
arranged in an internal X-geometry.

Figure 5.
Plug flow and
lateral pressure
demonstration unit.

Figure 6.

Figure 7.
Funnel and
mass bin flow

Chemical Engineering Education


Particle Science and Technology

Figure 8.


Computer Packages

A number of computer packages have been developed
in our laboratory that provide the student with a wide
cadre of tools to help design a pneumatic conveying sys-
OPSD This program is designed to predict the energy
losses in a dilute phase-conveying system using the basic
energy equations for two-phase flow. The calculations
account for a wide range of geometries, including long-
distance pipe stepping calculations.
Nuselect This is an artificial intelligence package to
help the design choose the best conveying system offering
both dilute and dense phase systems with different types
of air movers.
Feeder Another artificial intelligence package, crafted
with the help of experts, to choose the most appropriate
feeder for an application.
Panacea Once a system is in operation, it will invari-
ably develop operational difficulties. This artificial intelli-
gence package provides a first-aid approach to remedying
a system, providing recuperation of the operation or mov-
ing the system to a more optimum point (see Figure 9).
Cyclone Using a series of common design strategies
for cyclones, this program helps the designer select the
approach cyclone by estimating the operating characteris-
tics and dimensions.

SVideos )

A convenient way to record an experiment is to video
tape the phenomenon. In our laboratory we have video
taped a wide variety of our experimental endeavors. In
some cases, this record could be analyzed quantitatively to
develop predictive models. In other cases, further under-
standing of the process was gained by viewing the video

1. Cabrejos, F.J., and G.E. Klinzing, Powder Tech., 79, 173
2. Rastogi, S., and G.E. Klinzing, Part. Part. Syst. Charact.,
3. Pneumatic Conveying Consultants, 529 S. Berks St., Allen-
town, PA 18104-6647
4. Pelczarski, E., PhD dissertation, University of Pittsburgh


Pickup and Saltation Velocities
The pickup-velocity experimental rig consists of a trans-
Continued on page 155.

Troubleshooting Pneumatic Conveying System

Troubles in your system may be due to any of the following possible
Loss of conveying air was found to be a possible cause.
Filled receiver vessel is a possible cause.
Explore further whether material coating inside the pipe may be a
possible cause.
Change in solids throughput demands more careful analysis.
It appears that there is a physical obstruction in the conveying line.

** End press ENTER to continue.


Troubleshooting Pneumatic Conveying System

Choose one or more of the following listed causes:

Loss of conveying air
Filled receiver vessel
Material coating inside conveying line
Change in material being conveyed
Increased feed rate
Physical obstruction in conveying line

1. Use arrow key or first letter of item to position the cursor.
2. Select all applicable responses

Figure 9. Artificial intelligence troubleshooting example.

Spring 1998


( Particle Science and Technology




An Academic/Industrial Approach

The University ofAkron Akron, OH 44325-3906

imagine for a moment that you are a newly graduated
chemical engineer, eager to start your first assignment
with a major chemical company. Your new boss teams
you up with a group of other engineers to work on the
design of a new production facility. Over the next few
weeks you pore over the plans to become familiar with
the overall operation.
You notice right away that the process has some reactors,
very few gas or liquid phase operations, and no distillation
columns. What it does have are a lot of hoppers, bins, mix-
ers, conveyors, extruders, filters, and dryers. Much to your
dismay, your personal reference library of chemical engi-
neering textbooks seems to be woefully inadequate for de-
signing these solids processing operations.
How often does it happen that a new chemical engineer's

George Chase earned his PhD from The Uni-
versity of Akron in 1989 and is currently Associ-
ate Professor of Chemical Engineering there.
Much of his work is in fluid/solid separations and
flows through porous materials. He actively pro-
motes fluid/solids education for engineers
through the AIChE and the American Filtration
and Separations Society.

Karl Jacob is Global Technical Leader for Solids
Processing with the Dow Chemical Company.
He is founder of the Solids Processing Lab, which
provides support to Dow's engineering, research,
and manufacturing communities. He specializes
in solving problems related to drying, powder
flow, and pneumatic conveying. He is also cur-
rently vice-chair of the AIChE's Particle Technol-
ogy forum.

* Address: Dow Chemical Company, Solids Processing Lab,
Bldg. 1319, Midland, MI 48667

first assignment involves operations with solid particles?
Perhaps more frequently than you might expect.
Ennis, et al.,'" report that in 1985 and again in 1992,
DuPont found that about 60% (by value or volume) of its
products are sold in particulate form, while another 18%
have particulate additives. Similarly, 50% (by volume) of
the Dow Chemical Company's products are solids. The total
amount of solids handled in the plants may be three to four
times that of the product volume.
Companies such as DuPont and Dow Chemical Company
have thousands of major unit operations involving solid
particles. Each operation requires engineers and technicians
who understand the relevant areas of particle technology.
The probability is high that newly hired chemical engineers
will be assigned to operations involving particulate solids.
One author (KJ) has had experience in teaching solids
processing to over 300 practicing engineers in the last five
years. A remark he has heard frequently is "I wish I had been
taught this in college."
The new engineer in our introduction lacks training in the
design of fluid-solid processing. This is not unusual. Others
have noted a similar deficiency in engineering education.2"31
A recent survey shows that there are a few courses being
taught at U.S. universities,1[4 but there are no undergraduate
programs devoted to solids processing as there are over-
seas.151 Most engineering curricula are full, with little room
for additional courses. Nevertheless, some schools are mak-
ing room in their curriculum"16 or are providing elective
specializations in solids processing.
The purpose of this paper is to describe a senior under-
graduate course on solids processing that is team-taught at

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 1998

Chemical Engineering Education

Particle Science and Technology ]

The course .., is team-taught by academia and industry and has a mix of theory and practical
design in addition to lectures and hands-on experience for the students .... we feel it
covers many of the important topics in solids processing that engineers need
to know before going to work in today's chemical process industries.

The University of Akron.


The solids processing course at The University of Akron is
unique in that it is team-taught by the two authors, one from
academia and one from industry. The course is sponsored by

Topics Covered in the Course

CPI Perspective

Particle Size and Shape

Size Distributions

Drag Force on a
Spherical and a Non-
Spherical Particle

Bulk Properties of Solids

Hindered Settling

Packed Beds

Fluidized Beds

Solid/Liquid Separations

Course organization: projects; grading
Examples of processes that handle and sepa-
rate solids: discussion of typical operations
(storage hoppers, conveying, filters, drying.
reactors, etc.) in a broad perspective.
Methods of measuring particle size; defini-
tions of particle size, mesh size; typical sizes
of common materials
Definitions of averages, frequency, and cu-
mulative distributions (number, area, mass);
choice of mean particle size
Drag coefficient; terminal velocity; spheric-
ity; correlations

Angle of repose: porosity; loose, normal, and
dense packing; bulk density: slurry viscos-
ity; coefficient of friction; axial-to-lateral
stress ratio
Uniform size distribution of particle; bimo-
dal size distribution of particles
Ergun's equation; Darcy's Law and perme-
Types of fluidization (smooth, bubbling, slug-
ging); minimum fluidization velocity; Geldart

Freeboard; entrainment rate
Four stages of separation; range of driving
forces for separations

Selection of Solid/Liquid Performance guides and selection charts
Separation Equipment

Hopper Design

Pneumatic Conveying

Separation Efficiency
(Grade Efficiency)

Flow modes; stress distributions; segrega-
tion phenomena
Dilute phase; dense phase; plug flow; pres-
sure-drop calculations
Definition; ideal versus real; sharpness of
Gas; liquid; collection efficiency and cut size;
pressure drop

the National Science Foundation by a one-year grant under
the GOALI program. It is design-oriented by intent to satisfy
ABET requirements. The mechanics of the course include
two lecture periods per week (75 minutes each), an in-class
plant-design project, group projects that the students work
on outside of class, and a plant tour. In the future we plan to
add a laboratory component to the course.

The course topics are listed in Table 1 and references used
in the course are given in Table 2. The course started out
with a discussion of the design of chemical plants and the
types of solids processing and handling equipment found in
many of the plants. Several class periods covered properties
of individual particles and the various methods of particle
measurements of sizes and size distributions. Particle-fluid
mechanics were also discussed for individual particles.

Primary References Used in Course

L Chemical Engineering, Vol. 2: Particle Technology and
Separation Processes, 4th ed.; J.M. Coulson, J.F. Richardson, J.R.
Backhurst. and J.H. Harker: Pergamon Press, Oxford, England
E Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 5th ed,; W.L. McCabe.
J.C. Smith, and P. Harriott; McGraw-Hill. New York, NY (1993)
E Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, 6th ed.; R.H. Perry, D.
Green; McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1984)
E Chemical Process Industries, 4th ed.; R.N. Shreve and J.A. Brink;
McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1977)
a Solid-Liquid Separation, 3rd ed.; L. Svarovsky; Butterworths,
London, England (1990)
E Fluidization Engineering, 2nd ed.; D. Kunii and O. Levenspiel;
Butterworth-Heinemann. Boston, MA (1991)
a Solid/Liquid Separation Technology, D.B. Purchase; Uplands
Press, Croydon, England (1981)
E "Tackle Solid-Liquid Separation Problems," M. Ernst, R.M.
Talcott. H.C. Romans, and G.R.S. Smith; Chem. Eng. Prog.,
87(7), 22 (1991)
El Principles of Powder Technology, M.J. Rhodes; John Wiley &
Sons (1990)
a Hydrocyclones, L. Svarovsky; Holt. Rinehart and Winston, London,
England (1984)
L Pneumatic Conveying of Solids, R.D. Marcus, L.S. Leung, G.E.
Klinzing, and F. Rizk: Chapman and Hall, London, England
E "Storage and Flow of Solids," A.W. Jenike; Bulletin No. 123,
Utah Engineering Experiment Station, 53(26), University of Utah

Spring 1998

( Particle Science and Technology

The mechanics and interactions involving concentrations
of particles made up the remainder of the course, which was
divided into two parts. The first part covered the handling
and storage of powders (design of bins, hoppers, pneumatic
conveying, and gas-cyclones), and the second part of the
course involved slurry handling and separations (settling,
pumping, filtration, hydrocyclones, cake washing, drying,
and solid/liquid separations equipment selection).
Not all of the topics could be covered in detail in the class
lectures. Some of the topics were assigned as reading and
homework problems. Other topics were introduced in the in-
class design project, requiring the students to learn some of
the material on their own.

The in-class design project we selected was the product
of soda ash from the ore trona, and it spanned the last th
weeks of the course. The project started with a class disc
sion to brainstorm and identify key processing steps. TI
the class was divided into teams of two students each to s
specific equipment components. One of the important lea
ing points of the group project was that the design of a
particular item of equipment in the flowsheet affects ope
tions downstream, requiring the teams to interact in order
the designs to be compatible for the whole plant.
The out-of-class group projects give the students hands-
experience in designing and building small-scale test equ
ment (possibly for use in the laboratory part of the course
Two projects were sponsored by the AirMaze Corporati
(Stow, Ohio) and the Dow Chemical Company (Freepi
Texas). Project A was to design a coalescence tester t
measures the amount of oil removed from an air stream b
test filter media. The purpose of the
apparatus was to be able to compare
the coalescence efficiency of differ-
ent filter media. Project B was to
design and construct a liquid per-
meability tester that allows measure- EQUIPMENT
ment and comparison of filter me- Sieves and shaker
dia permeabilities. These projects Fluidized bed and cy
were selected because of the impor- Jenike shear tester
tance of filtration to solids process- Ball mill; batch-grind
ing, because they are of interest to Pneumatic conveying
the sponsors, and because the de- K-meter
signs were not too complex and
could be completed in one semester.
Segregation apparatus:
The project teams met about once
a week to discuss design options and cre
problems. Project A resulted in a
paper design that is being consid- Hopper
ered for a research project. For Small-screw convey
Project B, the apparatus was de- Settling test
signed and constructed as shown in Viscometer
Figure 1. Unfortunately, the semes-

Figure 1. Photograph of apparatus designed to
ort, determine permeability of filter media. The apparatus
hat controls flowrate while measuring pressure drop. It
y a was constructed as part of an out-of-class project.

Possible Laboratory Equipment and Experiments

Particle-size distribution
Pressure drop; bed height; types of fluidization
Powder friction coefficient
Change in particle-size distribution; time/energy requirements
Pressure drop; rate of conveying
Janssen's classic experiment
Mixing of coarse and fine particles
Effects of transport and flow on segregation of well-mixed powders
Effects of flowrate on separation cut size, grade efficiency
Determine grade efficiency
Mass flow and funnel flow
Loading versus conveying rates
Effects of concentration and additives on settling
Measure slurry viscosity as function of concentration

Chemical Engineering Education


ling test



Particle Science and Technology 1

ter ended before the students could test the apparatus, but
test results by two students after the end of the semester
showed the apparatus performs as desired.
The class toured the Dow Chemical facility in Midland,
Michigan, and were permitted to see up close the process
equipment they were learning about in class. Tours such as
this are valuable because they give the students a sense of
the size of some of the equipment and they instill confidence
when the students see processes in operation.
Future offerings of the course may include a laboratory in
place of, or in combination with, the out-of-class design
project. A list of equipment and possible experiments that
could be included in the lab is given in Table 3.
The NSF GOALI program provided travel funds to take
the students to Midland and for one of the authors (KJ) to
travel from Midland to Akron to teach the students. Future
funding may not be available, however; hence, travel will be
scaled back and the course will have to be modified. A set of
course notes have been developed that will be useful, and
plant tours should be possible with industries in the local
Akron area. The course may not be team-taught in the future,
but companies can be supportive by encouraging their engi-
neers to give seminars on selected topics. Other options
include sending video tapes by industrial engineers to the
class, or using distance learning facilities if available.
The eight undergraduate and three graduate students felt
they received an exceptional experience in this course. They
thought the blend of academic and industrial instructors
made the class more interesting and gave it a practical appli-
cation and design flavor that complemented their theoretical
training. They strongly voiced their opinion that better text-
books are needed on this subject.
Asked on a course feedback questionnaire if they would
recommend the course to other students, some responded

"Yes. The class gave a valuable overview of
solids processing with a lot of practical
application. "
"Yes. It provided a well-rounded look at solids
processing while still covering the topic. "
"Definitely. The topic is really fascinating
because there doesn't seem to be enough
known about it."

The course described here is team-taught by academia and
industry and has a mix of theory and practical design in
addition to lectures and hands-on experience for the stu-
dents. The course is still evolving, but we feel it covers
many of the important topics in solids processing that
engineers need to know before going to work in today's
Spring 1998

chemical process industries.
We were fortunate to have the support from NSF and the
Dow Chemical Company that allowed one of the authors
(KJ) to travel to Akron. The travel and time commitments
are not practical in most cases, but the benefits to the stu-
dents made the effort worthwhile enough to justify the effort
to find industrial engineers in the local university communi-
ties who are willing to contribute to the course.

The National Science Foundation, Grant CTS-9613904,
the Dow Chemical Company, and the AirMaze Corporation
funded this work.

1. Ennis, B.J., J. Green, and R. Davies, "The Legacy of Neglect
in the U.S.," Chem Eng. Prog., 32, April (1994)
2. Prescott, J.H., "A Knowledge Crisis in Solid-Fluid Separa-
tion," Chem Engr., 81(7), 26 (1974)
3. Tiller, F.M., "Separation and Purification: Critical Needs
and Opportunities," Fluid/Particle Separation J., 1, S10
4. Chase, G.G., "Closing the Education Gap in Fluid-Particle
Processes," Fluid/Particle Separation J., 6(1), 1 (1993)
5. Nelson, Jr., R.D., R. Davis, and K. Jacob, "Teach 'Em Par-
ticle Technology," Chem. Eng. Ed., 29(1), 12 (1995)
6. Pratsinis, S., The University of Cincinnati, personal com-
munication, November (1996) 0

= new books

Kirk-Othner Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Vol. 19, 4th ed.,
Pigments to Powders, Handling; John Wiley & Sons, 605 Third Avenue,
New York NY 10158: $295 (1996)
Kirk-Otlhner Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Vol. 20. 4th ed.,
Power Generation to Recycling, Glass; John Wiley & Sons, 605 Third
Avenue, New York NY 10158; $295 (1996)
Progress in Dairy Science, edited by C.J.C. Phillips; Oxford University
Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York NY 10016; 417 pages, $110 (cloth)
FORTRAN Programs for Chemical Process Design, Analysis, and Sinu-
lation, by A. Kayode Coker; Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX
77252-2608; 854 pages (1995)
The Nuclear Fuel Cycle From Ore to Waste, edited by P.D. Wilson;
Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York NY 10016; 323
pages, $55 (1996)
Fluid Mechanics, by David Pnueli and Chaim Gutfinger; Cambridge
University Press, 40 West 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211; 482 pages,
$49.95 (hardback), $34.95 (paperback) (1997)
Alternative Fuels, by Sunggyu Lee; Taylor & Francis, 1900 Frost Road,
Suite 101, Briston PA 19007-1598; 485 pages, $79.95 (1996)
Green Technology and Designfor the Environment, by Samir Billatos and
Nadia Basaly; Taylor & Francis, 1900 Frost Road, Suite 101, Briston PA
19007-1598; 296 pages, $39.95 (1996)
Antioxidative Stabilization of Polymers, by Shlyapnikov, Kiryushkin, and
Mar'in; Taylor & Francis, 1900 Frost Road, Suite 101, Briston PA 19007-
1598; 243 pages, $49.95 (1996)

Particle Science and Technology



At the University of Florida

University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611

he NFS Engineering Research Center (ERC) for Par-
ticle Science and Technology at the University of
Florida addresses the need for students trained in
particle science through interdisciplinary, multi-faceted edu-
cational initiatives. Particle Science and Technology is a
term that has something for everyone. The term is so broad
and the engineering disciplines in which it is relevant are so
many that no single discipline can supply the resources and
expertise (or room in the curriculum) to cover the field
adequately. In chemical engineering alone, "particle science
and technology" makes its appearance directly or indirectly
in numerous contexts, such as fluidization operations, par-
ticulate separation phenomena, and colloidal and interfacial
phenomena, to name a few.
The importance of particle science and technology to the
practicing engineer has been articulated effectively."21 As
Ennis, et al.,l- point out, a graduating engineer seldom sees
examples of the unique problems particle-based processes
pose in industry (e.g., stability of dispersions, transport of
powders, granular materials or slurries, mixing of particles,
and separation of liquids or solids in finely divided form
dispersed in a fluid, to name a few).
As is well known now, the prevalence of particle-based
processes and operations in science and industry has also

Anne E. Donnelly is Associate Director for Edu-
cation and Outreach at the ERC. She manages
the ERC educational programs, including the Un-
dergraduate Research and Scholarship Awards,
module and textbook production, and consults
with the Industrial Partners Program on particle
science and technology issues of mutual con-

Raj Rajagopalan is Professor of chemical engi-
neering at the University of Florida and special-
izes in colloid and polymer physics, interfacial
phenomena, and statistical mechanics. He has
an active interest in educational and research
issues in colloid and particle science and serves
as an advisor to publishing houses and funding
@ Copvright ChE Division of ASEE 1998

brought to the forefront the role of surface and interfacial
phenomena and fluid/particle (e.g., microhydrodynamics)
and particle/particle interactions. Their importance has been
recognized for a long time in colloid science, but their role in
others areas (e.g., tribology, friction, synthesis of advanced
materials, and cleaning microelectronic substrates) is no less
significant. What is also important is to introduce the stu-
dents to the fascinating array of modem instrumentation and
analytical techniques that has emerged in recent years. For
example, the development of scanning tunneling microscopy
and its many offshoots has opened up possibilities hereto
unimagined (e.g., measurement of atomic forces and manipu-
lation and imaging of atoms, molecules, and particles on sur-
faces). This also implies that at least some basic principles of
the methods be introduced in courses so that the students can
appreciate these new tools and their unexplored possibilities.

How does one make room in an already overcrowded
curriculum for these materials? Where does one go for re-
sources in specialized areas to supplement what is currently
available? How does one encourage a faculty member to
prepare instructional materials when universities rarely en-
courage, in a real and substantial manner, the preparation of
textbooks or other educational aids? Is there a way to de-
velop instructional materials that can also be used in con-
tinuing education courses in industry? Such questions have
formed the motivation for development of an "Instructional
Module Series Program" at the ERC.[13
The instructional modules are reasonably self-contained
educational aids suitable for two or three one-hour lectures
on a sufficiently narrowly focused topic in particle science
and technology. Each module typically includes, in addition
to text and figures, worked-out examples, quizzes, end-of-
the-module review questions, and annotated references. The
level of the modules may vary and can be restricted to
undergraduate or graduate materials or materials suitable for
continuing-education courses. The last includes modules writ-
ten for industrial researchers as well as those targeted to
plant-level personnel.
Chemical Engineering Education

( Particle Science and Technology 1

Currently, the modules are prepared in printed form as
attractive booklets, but other media may be considered in the
future. We have published two modules so far,4"'1 and plans
for others are underway. The table of contents of the first
module is presented in Table 1. The ERC is currently recruit-
ing potential authors from both academia and industry and
will provide compensation for manuscripts accepted for pub-
lication as a module by the ERC as part of the instructional
module series.

The module program is meant to address a number of diffi-
culties an instructor faces in preparing instructional material
and in developing courses. Since the modules are short in
length and narrowly focused in terms of topics, they require
significantly less time for preparation, and faculty members
and industrial scientists and engineers can afford the time
needed to prepare them.
The modular form of the material also makes it easy for
using the material in standard courses; if the curriculum does
not permit room for new courses, at least some of the essential
elements of the area can be introduced in other courses. Some
examples of such possibilities are:
SThe viscosity of dispersions is seldom discussed in many

Contents: Instructional Module on Comminution'51
Introduction to the Principles of
Size Reduction of Particles by Mechanical Means
1. The importance of size reduction in particle processing
2. The relationship of size reduction to basic physics
3. General approaches to grinding-equipment selection, design, analysis
4. Representing particle-size distribution data
5. Mechanistic size-reduction concepts
6. Introduction to breakage rates
The first-order breakage hypothesis
Impact of media size and composition on breakage rate
Other factors influencing breakage rates, including rheology
Mill capacity as a function of breakage rate
7. Progeny fragment distributions
8. Introduction to rate mass-balance modeling
9. Advantages of batch and continuous operating modes
10. Practical comminution guidelines
11. Types of size-reduction machines
Tumbling media mills
Hammer and rotary cutting/shredder mills
Stirred-media mills, including attrition mills
Vibratory mills
Fluid energy and jet mills
12. Summary
Review Questions

Spring 1998

engineering courses, but a module on the Einstein equation
for viscosity of a dilute suspension and on the Krieger-
Dougherty equation for concentrated di cl/, s''r. can
easily be incorporated in any standard course in fluid
Similarly, a module on aggregation kinetics can serve as an
example of how standard kinetic equations (typically taught
in a course on chemical engineering kinetics) help in
developing 'population balances' and evolution of size
distribution in colloidal or aerosol dispersions.
Undergraduate thermodynamics courses introduce the
concept of second virial c., ni. a and illustrate its use in
solution thermodynamics. But if a module on osmotic
pressure, turbidity. measurements, and Zinum plots161 is
available, the thermodynaniic courses can be used as
vehicles to introduce a particle science example and to
illustrate the use of thermnodynamnic concepts in the charac-
terization of particulate systems.
The comminution module outlined in Table 1 finds a natural
place in a course on unit operations in chemical engineering
as a particle science example as well as an illustration of the
use of rate equations and mass-balance equations.
Of course, these are only a few of the many possibilities.

Because of the existing activities in the area of colloids
and surfaces, the curriculum at the University of Florida has
included for a number of years a two-credit course on inter-
facial phenomena, "Particulate Interfacial Systems: Science
and Engineering." This course, primarily at the undergradu-
ate level but also taken by graduate students unfamiliar with
the subject, consists of a general introduction to colloids,
micelles and microemulsions, colloidal and surface forces
and surface tension, and related interfacial phenomena.
A more elaborate course is also under development based
on a book by Hiemenz and Rajagopalan.161 The first chapter
is designed to be sufficiently general to offer a broad intro-
duction to particles and colloids. It also includes 21 'vi-
gnettes' (about a page each) that highlight the interdiscipli-
nary impact of particle science, colloids, and surface science
and, further, illustrate their use in a broad array of applica-
tions ranging from environmental remediation and xerogra-
phy to targeted drug delivery and molecular recognition. An
example is shown in Table 2.
In addition, a new graduate-level course on colloid phys-
ics has been introduced into the curriculum. In contrast to
conventional courses on colloids, this new course focuses on
an introduction to liquid-state physics and its applications in
understanding structure, phase transitions, and properties of
concentrated or strongly interacting colloidal dispersions.
Courses on colloids and interfaces are relatively well es-
tablished in the chemical engineering curriculum in many
universities,"1 but the same cannot be said of the somewhat
more broadly defined area of 'particle science and technol-

SParticle Science and Technology

ogy.' In order to present a general overview of at least some
of the topics in particle science and technology, we have
introduced a new course, "Particle Science and Technology:
Theory and Practice"; it carries course numbers identifying
eleven engineering and science disciplines (aerospace engi-
neering, agricultural engineering, coastal and oceanographic
engineering, chemical engineering, chemistry, computer and
information science, environmental engineering, materials
science and engineering, mechanical engineering, microbi-
ology, and physics), reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of
both the subject and the ERC. These multiple listings allow
both upper-level undergraduate and graduate students from a
wide variety of departments to enroll for the class through
their respective departments, thereby improving the accessi-
bility of the class to interested students.
The course is strengthened by the fact that it is team-taught
by engineering faculty and an industrial representative. The
inclusion of an industrial representative in the teaching team
results in a strong applications component in the course. It is

taught on a level that allows students from various disci-
plines to learn basic concepts in particle science and technol-
ogy. Student discussions of their respective research projects
during the semester further enrich the interdisciplinary focus
of this experience.

Course materials currently in use include course notes
provided by the instructors and the instructional modules
described above. A topics listing for the course is shown in
Table 3. A laboratory manual, developed to supplement the
lectures, includes experiments on grinding in media mills,
magnetic separation, powder density, effect of chemicals on
filtration, principles of solid/solid separation by flotation,
zeta potential measurements, and viscosity measurements.19'

An additional course, "Optimization Scale-Up, and Sta-
tistical Experimental Design," has also been developed. It
teaches these topics through extensive use of particle science
applications. Grinding, extractive metallurgy, powder me-
chanics, composite materials issues, environmental engineer-

Vignette on Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (adapted from [6])

Were it not for the never-ending, gentle tussle between gravity and diffusion, our planet
would not have an atmosphere, nor would we be here to reflect upon it! The barometric
equation, which describes this 'balance of power' between the above two well-known
phenomena, is derived in most introductory physical chemistry books and is mentioned in the
closing paragraph of Chapter 2."61 There are many more life-sustaining processes that are
affected by or rely on sedimentation and diffusion, but frequently it is the more mundane
'practical' consequences of these phenomena that attract our attention. One such consequence
is their use in physical characterization of colloidal dispersions and macromolecular solutions.
Let us highlight one such application through one member of a class of analytical separation
techniques known as Field Flow Fractionation.
The name Field Flow Fractionation (abbreviated to FFF) stands for a family of tech-
niques, invented in the 1960s, that take advantage of the response of colloids and macromol-
ecules to electrical, thermal, flow, or centrifugal fields to produce a chromatography-type
separation of the particles.'7' In a typical setup, a suitable force field is applied in a direction
normal to the axis of a thin chamber that contains the dispersion. The field forces the particles
against one of the walls of the chamber, and, at steady state, a concentration profile is set up in
the direction of the applied field as a consequence of the differences in the responses of the
various species in the dispersion to the applied field. The particles are then eluted by flowing
an elutant fluid through the chamber. The fluid velocity decreases progressively from the axis
toward the accumulation wall because of friction at the wall. And, as a consequence, the
particles are carried along the axis at different velocities depending upon their distance from
the accumulation wall. For example, the component closest to the accumulation wall lags
behind the one near the center of the chamber (see Figure 1). Samples can now be eluted
through a detector or collection device. The detection is usually based on changes in standard
properties such as refractive index or light absorption.
One of the more advanced of the FFF techniques is the Sedimentation FFF (SdFFF) in
which the applied field is a centrifugal force (see Figure 1). A typical separation achieved
through SdFFF is also illustrated in Figure 1. SdFFF is suitable for species with molecular
weights larger than about 106 and has proven to be useful for a large number of biocolloids
(e.g., subcellular particles), polymers, emulsions, and natural and industrial colloids. As we
shall see soon, gravitational and centrifugal sedimentation are frequently used for particle-size
analysis as well as for obtaining measures of solvation and shapes of particles. Diffusion plays
a much more prevalent role in numerous aspects of colloid science and is also used in particle-
size analysis, as discussed in the context of dynamic light scattering in Chapter 5.1', The
equilibrium between centrifugation and diffusion is particularly important in analytical and
preparative ultracentrifuges.

0.360 ,m 0.494 mu

0.272un 0.862 u
0.198 0.652

0 15 30 45 60

Figure 1. Sedimentation Field Flow
Fractionation (SdFFF): a schematic
representation of an SdFFF appara-
tus and of the separation of particles
in the flow channel. A typical frac-
tionation obtained through SdFFF
using a polydispersed suspension of
polystyrene latex spheres is also
shown (adapted from Ref. 7).

24 Chemical Engineering Education

Particle Science and Technology

ing problems, and statistical process control are some of the
many particle science and technology problems that the stu-
dents explore while participating in this course.

The ERC recognizes the need for an introductory-level
textbook to be used in a class such as described above.
Therefore, a textbook is under development (Introduction to
Particle Science and Technology, by Richard Klimpel). It is
being written from the perspective that particle science and
technology is a critical part of the education and training of
students from a variety of engineering and scientific disci-
plines. Given this interdisciplinary focus, the book is being
designed to be accessible to students across the wide range
of disciplines and at the same time provides references that
direct students to further, more specialized resources. The
book will allow students with standard university-level sci-
ence and mathematics backgrounds to become familiar with

Topics: Introductory Particle Science and Technology

Section 1 "Introduction to Particle Systems" (the nature of
particle technology and why particles tire important in
our lives)
Section 2 "Representing Characteristics of Individual Particles and
Particle Assemblies" (particle size and shape,
descriptions of particle-size distributions)
Section 3 "Methods of Particle Characterization" (optical,
lon, ,. .' physical techniques)
Section 4 "The Chemical Nature of Particle Surfaces" (surface
charge, electrokinetic phenomena, surface potential
determination, colloidal forces)
Section 5 "Chemicals Used in Particle Systems" (coagulants,
flocculants, dispersants, surfactants)
Section 6 "Surface Modification of Particle Systems" (wettabilirty
adhesion strength, uniformity of coatings, emulsions)
Section 7 "Methods of Particle Representation" (nucleation,
crystallization, gas- and liquid-phase synthesis)
Section 8 "Reducing Particle Size by Comminution" (the nature of
breakage, description of breakage processes, and
various approaches to size reduction)
Section 9 "Separation of Particulate Systems" (solid/solid and
solid/liquid separation by chemical means, methods of
classification, gravity-based separations)
Section 10 "Packing of Particles" (physicalforms, compaction,
interactive forces)
Section 11 "Transport of Particle Systems: (heat, mass, and
momentum transfer; rheology and flow of dry powders
of suspensions)
Section 12 "Environmental Aspects of Particle systems" (filtration,
aerosols, solid/gas separation)
Section 13 "Technology Applications of Particle Systems" (case
studies from different industries)

Spring 1998

particle science and technology concepts in a challenging,
but not technically overwhelming, introduction.

A key component of the ERC education effort is providing
students with the opportunity to participate in hands-on re-
search in particle science and technology. Since 1994, over
200 undergraduate students from 14 different departments
have participated in particle science and technology research
labs. These students are developing the skills necessary to
work in interdisciplinary research teams and to improve their
written and oral communication skills through research pre-
sentations and reports. This program supports students for
multiple semesters, resulting in a solid particle research com-
ponent in the education of these undergraduates.
The development of teaching materials such as the instruc-
tional module series and textbook, the addition of particle
science and technology courses to the university curriculum,
and enhancement of the undergraduate education experience
through hands-on, team-research projects are part of the
ERC commitment to improving student preparation for work
in the field of particle science and technology.

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the
Engineering Research Center (ERC) for Particle Science and Tech-
nology at the University of Florida, the National Science Foundation
NSF Grant #EEC-94-02989, and the Industrial Partners of the ERC.

(Information on References 3-5 and 9 can be obtained by writing
to Publications Coordinator, ERC for Particle Science and
Technology, 418 Weil Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
32611-6135 (e-mail:
1. Ennis, B., J. Green, and R. Davies, "The Legacy of Neglect
in the U.S.," Chem. Eng. Prog., 90(4), 32 (1994)
2. Nelson, Jr., R.D., R. Davies, and K. Jacob, "Teach 'Em
Particle Technology," Chem. Eng. Ed., 29, 12 (1995)
3. Rajagopalan, R., Series Editor, Instructional Modules in
Particle Science & Technology, ERC for Particle Science &
Technology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (1997)
4. Klimpel, R., Instructional Module, Chemicals Used in Par-
ticle Systems, ERC for Particle Science & Technology, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville, FL (1997)
5. Klimpel, R., Instructional Module, Introduction to the Prin-
ciples of Size Reduction of Particles by Mechanical Means,
ERC for Particle Science & Technology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL (1997)
6. Hiemenz, P.C., and R. Rajagopalan, Principles of Colloid
and Surface Chemistry, 3rd ed., Marcel Dekker, New York,
NY (1997)
7. Giddings, J.C., Unified Separation Science, Wiley, New York,
NY (1991)
8. Woods, D.R., and D.T. Wasan, "Teaching Colloid and Sur-
face Phenomena-1995," Chem. Eng. Ed., 30, 190 (1996)
9. El-Shall, H., ed., Particulate Characterization Laboratory
Manual, Engineering Research Center, Gainesville, FL
(1997) 71

Random Thoughts...



North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695

In recent decades, the biggest accreditation hurdle for
most of us has been persuading ABET that we were
really teaching all the engineering design we claimed to
be teaching. Starting in 2001, when "Engineering Criteria
2000" becomes the accreditation standard for all U.S. engi-
neering programs, the hurdle will be a lot higher. Under the
new system, for example, we will have to demonstrate that
our graduates possess the skills to function on
multidisciplinary teams, communicate effectively, and en-
gage in lifelong learning, and that they understand contem-
porary issues, professional and ethical responsibility, and
the impact of engineering solutions in a global/societal con-
text.* So far no one appears to know exactly what all of that
means, but it seems clear that producing students with those
characteristics will require some major changes in what we
teach and how we teach it.
What makes Criteria 2000 particularly challenging-and
either exciting or threatening, depending on your point of
view-is its requirement of outcomes assessment. In the
past, we could gain full accreditation simply by showing that
we were teaching the required amount of mathematics, chem-
istry, design, etc. We will still have to do that when the new
system is in force, but now we will also have to demonstrate
how well students are learning the prescribed content and
skills. Moreover, we will have to satisfy our ABET visitors
that we have in place a process to modify our curricula if any
required learning outcomes fail to meet the new criteria.
In other words, engineering curricula are now like open-

Richard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese Pro-
fessor of Chemical Engineering at North Caro-
lina State University. He received his BChE from
City College of CUNY and his PhD from
Princeton. He has presented courses on chemi-
cal engineering principles, reactor design, pro-
cess optimization, and effective teaching to vari-
ous American and foreign industries and institu-
tions. He is coauthor of the text Elementary
Principles of Chemical Processes (Wiley, 1986).

* Details can be found on the ABET Web site at
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 1998

loop process systems, but starting in 2001 they will have to
function as closed-loop feedback-controlled systems. The
difference between these two modes of operation is as pro-
found as it is in manufacturing processes, only the difficul-
ties of designing and implementing an optimal control scheme
in an education context are greater. The contrasts are shown
in Table 1.
Table 1 is not intended to suggest that control of manufac-
turing systems is easy, but rather that it is much easier than
control of educational systems. Deciding what you want a
manufacturing process control system to accomplish, de-
signing and implementing the system, and determining how
well it works once it is in place are all relatively straightfor-
ward exercises. In an educational system, little is straightfor-
ward. Desired outcomes tend to be either vague or contro-
versial; the effects of system changes on learning outcomes
are difficult to assess unambiguously (there are always sev-
eral possible causes for any observed effect); and both the
costs of the changes and the benefits of the outcomes are
endlessly arguable. Furthermore, few industrialists would
argue against attempting to improve product quality or rate
of return on investment, but any proposed change in curricu-
lum structure or instructional methods faces almost certain
opposition from some faculty members and administrators.
As engineering departments begin to face the prospect of
confronting these difficulties, they will seek answers to sev-
eral questions:
1. What data must be collected to assess the required
skills? Results of standardized tests? Videotaped oral
presentations? Multi-year student portfolios? Must
assessment data be collected for all students, or only
a representative sample? If the latter, how big should
the sample be, and how should it be chosen?
2. Who should evaluate the student products in light of
the accreditation criteria? The students' course in-
structors? One or more additional faculty members?
Should training be provided to evaluators to ensure
interrater reliability? Who should provide it?

Chemical Engineering Education

Feedback Control in Manufacturing and Educational Systems.

Manufacturing Process

Engineering Curriculum

* yield, purity, hardness, production rate, number of defects, content knowledge (easy to assess)
rate of return (easy to assess) skill levels (difficult to assess)

* process variable measurement and calculation (objective)

* numerical values (objective)

* IMV-SPI (clear)
* temperature (clear)
* pressure (clear)
* feed rate (clear)
* PID tuning parameters (clear)
* qualitatively clear
* quantitatively determinable by measurement or
* easy to implement

* exams (objective?)
* performance assessment (subjective)

* exam scores (objective)
* performance ratings (subjective)

* IMV-SPI (fuzzy)
* course content (clear)
* curriculum design (fuzzy)
* instructional methods (very fuzzy)

* qualitatively fuzzy
* quantitatively difficult to predict or measure
* hard to implement (for both technical and human reasons)


* easy to demonstrate

3. What percentage of students in the sample population
must satisfy each criterion? What percentage of the
criteria must be satisfied for a department to qualify
for full accreditation?
4. Will it be enough for a department to show that it is
doing something-anything-to take assessment re-
sults into account in curriculum and instructional
planning, or will the effectiveness of corrective mea-
sures be evaluated as well? What criteria will be used
to evaluate them?
All of us will be seeking answers to these questions in the
next few years, and answers will certainly be found. Produc-
ing graduates with the specified characteristics and proving
that we have done it may be an extremely tough optimal
control problem, but engineers are used to solving tough
problems and we'll eventually solve this one too.
From now until 2001, departments applying for accredita-
tion may choose whether to go by the old or the new criteria,
and thereafter the new criteria will be used exclusively.
Some departments acknowledge that the change is inevi-
table and are wisely starting to modify their instructional
programs in anticipation and to assess the learning out-
comes. Others are choosing to ignore the whole thing, per-
haps hoping that it will go away. It probably won't. In
recent years industry and funding agencies like the NSF
have increasingly called for changes along the lines of the

* difficult to demonstrate

new criteria, and departments who discount the new require-
ments may be in for a rude surprise when their ratings come
Or they may not be. Perhaps the most important question
about the new system is,
5. How serious will ABET be about Engineering Crite-
ria 2000?
Several departments have already been evaluated under
Criteria 2000 and have received full accreditation, but ABET
may not be strictly enforcing the new criteria in this pilot
stage. For example, one of these departments argued that its
faculty's involvement in multidisciplinary research was suf-
ficient to demonstrate that its students were equipped to
work in multidisciplinary teams, and the ABET visitor ap-
parently bought this argument. Granted, it may be reason-
able for ABET to go easy on volunteer departments now in
exchange for the opportunity to test-drive the new system. If
such arguments are accepted after 2001, however, there is
little chance that Criteria 2000 will be taken seriously enough
to accomplish its intended reform of undergraduate engi-
neering education. On the other hand, if ABET puts teeth
into its requirements, and one or two prominent departments
fail to meet the new criteria and are denied six-year accredi-
tation, reform will almost surely take place. All of us will be
watching attentively for signs of how the drama will play
out. It promises to be an interesting three years. 7

Measured Variables (MV)

Assessment Techniques

Set Point (SP) (target)

Feedback Signal
Control Variables

Required Control Variable

All of the Random Thoughts columns are now available on the World Wide Web at and at

Spring 1998

r, curriculum



West Virginia University Morgantown, WV26506-6102

All chemical engineering departments are now, or
soon will be, developing and implementing out-
comes assessment plans in order to satisfy ABET
Engineering Criteria 2000 (EC 2000). For many depart-
ments, this will require a paradigm shift in the administra-
tion of the undergraduate curriculum. Among the aspects
that may disappear are impersonal lectures delivered by
aloof faculty who teach their course in isolation from the rest
of the curriculum. Among the aspects that may appear are
faculty who regularly communicate with each other about
course content, the goals of the undergraduate curriculum,
whether these goals are being achieved, and what needs to
be done to be certain that the goals continue to be achieved.
Outcomes assessment is a method for determining whether
students are learning and retaining the information and skills
they need for success in their chosen field. To perform
outcomes assessment, measures of this information and these
skills are needed. In the traditional curriculum, illustrated in
Figure 1, the output of the educational process is assumed
based upon the content of the curriculum and the "quality"
of the faculty. With no measures of the output, this is analo-
gous to feed-forward control, in which the output is depen-
dent on the accuracy of the model used to predict it, in this
case, the curriculum and faculty teaching ability. In the
curriculum with a strong assessment component, illustrated
in Figure 2, the output of the educational process is mea-
sured and compared to the set point (goals), and deviations
from the set point are corrected via feedback to the curricu-

Joseph A. Shaeiwitz received his degrees in
Chemical Engineering from the University of
Delaware (BS, 1974) and Carnegie Mellon Uni-
versity (MS, 1976; PhD, 1978). He is currently
Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at
West Virginia University. His research interests
are in design, design education, and outcomes
assessment. He is coauthor of the text Analysis,
Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes,
published in 1998 by Prentice Hall.

[Outcomes] assessment is usually a formal
process and consists of documentation showing
that students completing degree programs have
the knowledge and/or skills required of their
degree program in addition to a global set of
skills expected of all college graduates.

lum. This is analogous to feedback control. As shown in
Figure 2, there may be multiple measurement and feedback
points, analogous to cascade control.
Assessment may be summative or formative. Summative
assessment (usually just called assessment) is conducted for
the purpose of making a final summativee) judgment about
the effectiveness of the educational process. It may be used
by an institution to make decisions about global learning
outcomes, resource allocation, and accountability.1' Such
assessment is usually a formal process and consists of docu-
mentation showing that students completing degree programs
have the knowledge and/or skills required of their degree
program in addition to a global set of skills expected of all
college graduates. The audience for summative assessment
is usually external to the department or university.
Formative assessment (often called classroom assessment)
is conducted for the specific process of improving (forming
or re-forming) the educational process and usually begins
before the educational process is completed. It may involve
continuous, often informal, assessment of student learning
with the expressed purpose of improving teaching and learn-
ing within a specific course or curriculum.11 The audience
for formative assessment is usually within a department or is
the instructor in a specific class. The elements of classroom
assessment are described in more detail elsewhere."2 Effec-
tive assessment plans have both summative and formative
aspects, so external constituencies can be satisfied while
continuously improving the educational process.
This paper is an introduction to the process of developing

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 1998

Chemical Engineering Education

an outcomes assessment plan. There are numerous citations
to functioning assessment plans. A more detailed background
on outcomes assessment, the details of one assessment plan,
and a more extensive bibliography are available,131 and a
more detailed guide to developing an assessment plan is also
An outcomes assessment plan consists of three compo-
1. Goals, which define what is expected of students
(the set point)
2. Measures of achievement of these goals, multiple
measures being best
(comparison of outputs to
the set point)
3. Feedback to correct and input--- curri
to improve the educa-
tional process (the
feedback loop) Figure 1. Feed-forw
curriculum. Output is
These three components are dis- lur model with no
cussed in sequence below.

GOALS one one
class course
To develop an assessment plan, ass course
educational goals must be de-
fined. It is necessary to elucidate
the knowledge and skills students F 2
Figure 2. Levels of fe
should possess upon completion curriculum with a stro
of a degree program. EC 2000
suggests eleven goals;951 how-
ever, many of them leave ample room for interpretation. The
result may be a different set of acceptable goals for depart-
ments with different objectives (i.e., preparation for aca-
demic career, preparation for industrial career). The goals
for the Department of Chemical Engineering at West Vir-
ginia University, developed prior to the EC 2000 goals,
are one example of goals developed by faculty consen-
Definition of goals may be a difficult process for faculty
members unaccustomed to discussing undergraduate educa-
tional issues. It is likely that individual faculty members
have very different ideas. For example, a course in fluid
mechanics can differ considerably when taught by different
instructors. In one case, the course may be mostly theory; in
another case, it may be mostly practical; and in a third case,
it can be a mixture of theory and practice. The differences
stem from the variant opinions faculty have of the goals of
the undergraduate educational process. There are no easy
solutions to this problem. Faculty must be prepared for a
vigorous dialog, they must recognize that there are opposing
opinions, and they should be ready to compromise. The EC
2000 goals are a good fall-back position for departments un-
able to achieve consensus on more specific goals.
Spring 1998


ard n

ng a

There are several proven assessment measures, but it is
likely that as more departments develop assessment plans,
new measures will be developed. Seven established assess-
ment measures are discussed here.
Testing e This is the simplest measure and is completely
summative. Standardized assessment tests have been devel-
oped for many non-engineering curricula. In engineering,
the FE exam can be used, as could the GRE engineering test.
With recent changes making half of the FE exam discipline
specific, it is now a better measure of discipline-specific
knowledge than the GRE. An ad-
vantage of testing is that outcomes
can be compared to national
norms, which is often what legis-
m output
assumed latures and boards of trustees
want. A disadvantage of testing
is that feedback is difficult to ob-
odel for traditional tain from the FE exam. Students
med based on curricu-
urementd of output. taking it in the spring do not get
results until after they graduate,
and information on what topics
e a students demonstrated strength or
graduate alumnus
weakness is not easily obtainable.
If testing is to be used, it should
be one of several measures rather
than the only measure, since feed-
ck characteristic of a back is an essential component
assessment component. of a quality outcomes-assessment
plan. The University of Tennes-
see system1671 uses the FE exam as the basis for an assessment
plan, and the University of Missouri, Rolla, uses the FE exam
as a component of an assessment plan.18'
Portfolios The Colorado School of Mines has used a
portfolio-based assessment plan for over a decade.191 Longi-
tudinal records for a statistically significant random sample
of students are maintained. These records are similar to
ABET portfolios for a class except that they are for an
individual student and cover the student's entire tenure at the
university. The idea is that student accomplishments in as-
signments and projects demonstrate achievement of goals
(much like an artist's, model's, or photographer's portfolio).
In every class, coursework that demonstrates students' abili-
ties pertinent to the stated educational goals is identified and
added to the portfolio. Some advantages of a portfolio-based
assessment plan are that it does not intrude on routine class-
room activities and multiple examples of a student's work
that demonstrate skill development and/or improvement are
included. Some difficulties are the need for correct analyti-
cal methods to identify a statistically significant sample of
students and the need to remind all instructors of selected
students to collect appropriate portfolio material.
Capstone Experiences Since all chemical engineering

programs have a capstone experience that draws on material
learned earlier in the curriculum, they are a rich opportunity
for outcomes assessment. For example, in our department,
students are required to do a series of individual projects and
to defend their work in front of two faculty members.13'"
(This requirement has existed in our department for over
twenty years). They must work alone, although they may
"purchase" consulting time from the instructor for a small,
time-dependent grade deduction. This requires well-formu-
lated questions that can be asked and answered quickly (the
questions are recorded because they also provide assessment
information). The defense serves multiple purposes: it is
both an assessment mechanism and a tutorial for the student.
Issues common to a significant number of students are brought
to the attention of the faculty and are emphasized in the
project review in class. Our students have a love-hate rela-
tionship with these projects; they hate the pressure, but
they recognize the quality of the learning experience.
Given the faculty time involved and the potential for
student revolution if they were added to a curriculum
without a culture supporting them, these individual
projects are not recommended as an assessment measure.
However, aspects of the projects can be borrowed.
The key advantage of the individual projects is that the
work presented by the students and their responses to ques-
tions allow the faculty to understand the student's thought
patterns and to identify any concepts that are not fully under-
stood. This can also be accomplished in other ways. What is
needed is all of the information students are told to omit
from final reports: what they tried that did not work and/or
what misconceptions they corrected while doing the project.
One method is for groups of students to do a series of
projects similar to the individual projects described above,
with faculty directing questions to specific students.
Students could also be asked to keep a diary of what they
did, alternatives they considered, and dead-ends they en-
countered (diaries are a well-known classroom assessment
method'21). This diary could be submitted weekly or periodi-
cally during the semester for evaluation by the instructor
from an assessment perspective (not for a grade). The pur-
pose of keeping the diary should be explained to the students
so they will take the assignment seriously.
The nature and scope of questions asked during a capstone
experience can also yield valuable assessment information.
We keep track of the questions asked during "consulting" on
the individual projects. For a group project, a periodic, for-
malized question-and-answer session for each group should
yield useful information about the level of student under-
standing and on their misconceptions. An interim presenta-
tion (or two) or periodic meetings with a mentor and/or a
TA, in which the interaction was documented in detail, could
yield the same information. If some form of individual as-
sessment were desired, students could be required to work

on the project for a week or two, outlining a solution
strategy and generating questions. Then, after these pre-
liminary strategies and questions were assessed, the group
project could begin.
There are no doubt other ways in which capstone experi-
ences can be adapted as assessment measures. When con-
fronted with developing an assessment plan, the first place to
consider should be the current curriculum and how it can be
adapted to become part of an assessment plan. Since all
curricula have a capstone design experience, it is a good
place to start an assessment plan.
Questionnaires Questionnaires are a common assess-
ment measure. Typically, they are sent to employers and to
alumni a few years after graduation. They have also been
used at the end of each academic year.'3 Questionnaires to
alumni give us feedback on their preparation for employ-
ment, and questionnaires to employers provide feedback
from their perspective. Questionnaires for students in the
curriculum are useful for improving the quality of student
"life" within the curriculum.
In all cases, student and alumni beliefs about what they
learned is being measured. Asking the right questions is
important. We ask alumni and employers about global skills
such as the ability to communicate and to work in teams, for
self-education, etc. We also ask students at all levels what
they believe to be the most important thing they learned
(the answers may be surprising to some because they
tend to focus on communication skills, time manage-
ment, etc., while fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, or
separations are rarely cited!).
One advantage of questionnaires is that it is an anonymous
method of obtaining feedback. There are several disadvan-
tages, however. The return rate of alumni questionnaires
tends to be low, between 25-33%. Having the questionnaires
completed by phone would increase the rate of return, but
might be annoying to alumni. Our return rate on employer
questionnaires has dropped to zero in the five years we
have been using them, with privacy issues (even though
the questionnaire does not identify the student) most
often cited. Since EC 2000 suggests employer feedback
as an important measure, this issue will have to be ad-
dressed in the future.
Interviews Another assessment measure is student inter-
views, both individual and group. Our chairman inter-
views each class as a group at the end of each academic
year, and random groups of students meet with our In-
dustrial Visiting Committee. Since some students do not
like to speak up in a group, individual interviews with
randomly selected students could also be used. The in-
formation obtained from these interviews is very similar
to that obtained from the questionnaires in that the qual-
ity of the students' life, and their self-evaluation about

Chemical Engineering Education

what they have learned is what is measured.

Job Placement Records of job placement are a valid
assessment tool since they measure the demand for gradu-
ates from a program, and high demand usually means high-
quality graduates. Most departments should have easy ac-
cess to this information through their career services or
placement offices. In recent years, many of our students
have obtained positions without going through
our career services center, so the department
also maintains placement records. A disadvan- Ou
tage of job-placement records as an assessment asses
measure is that employment opportunities can me;
be affected by economic conditions unrelated deter
to the quality or success of an undergraduate wheth
program. Therefore, while job-placement in- are le
formation is one outcomes measure, it is a reta.
good example of why multiple outcomes mea- inform
sures are needed. skills
Classroom Assessment In classroom as- for suc
sessment, an instructor measures student learn- chose.
ing more frequently than by traditional testing, perform
often on an informal basis. The goal is to deter- a
mine whether a particular lecture or exercise
was successful. Classroom assessment is not
new, and the definitive work on the subject iforn
contains fifty classroom assessment tech- these
niques.'12 They include methods for assessing n
critical-thinking skills, problem-solving skills,
synthesis and creativity skills, and student attitudes. Perhaps
the most widely known classroom assessment technique is
the "minute paper" where students take the last minute of a
lecture to write down what they learned in that class; the
instructor then uses this informal feedback to assess the
success of that lecture period. A variation of this is the
"muddiest point," where students write down the item they
found the most confusing in a given lecture.
Classroom assessment is purely formative. Alone, it will
not satisfy an external constituency, although it should be a
part of an assessment plan that improves student learning.
Examples of classroom assessment techniques that I have
used successfully are presented elsewhere.111
The seven assessment measures above are among those
most commonly used. Clearly, they are imprecise measures
of learning outcomes. The lesson is that a valid assessment
plan must include more than one or two of these mea-
sures; however, all seven need not be included to have a
quality assessment plan.

One purpose for outcomes assessment is continuous pro-
gram improvement. Feedback is absolutely essential to the
process. As shown in Figure 2, a quality assessment plan has
Spring 1998

er s
n o0

many nested feedback loops. Feedback is taken from alumni,
graduates, students in the program, and students in a class,
and it occurs at multiple points within the curriculum. In our
curriculum, a report is generated from the results of each
individual design project and is circulated to all faculty, who
take it quite seriously. The results are discussed at a faculty
meeting if it is deemed necessary.
Completing the feedback loop requires the
same paradigm shift in faculty attitudes as
les does development of program goals. For there
nt is a to be continuous program improvement, fac-
ifor ulty must be willing to accept feedback. No
ining one likes to hear that students have a signifi-
tudents cant knowledge gap in material covered in
ng and their class, but when it occurs, what is the
g the response? Does the instructor ignore the feed-
on ad back? Does the instructor attack the assess-
ment process? Does the instructor examine
y need how the class is taught, trying to determine
in their why there are knowledge gaps and attempt-
eld. To ing to rectify the situation? When feedback
itcomes from alumni suggests that oral and written
lent, communication skills need improvement, are
of this faculty willing to modify the curriculum to
on and include more communication exercises?
d. It is clear that implementation of an out-
comes assessment plan requires more atten-
tion to be focused on the results of the teaching and learning
processes instead of solely on curriculum content. How this
plays out is yet to be determined. It is unclear what will
occur if it is determined that outcomes assessment requires
devoting a little more time to undergraduate teaching and a
little less time to research. Perhaps some departments will
decide they need to employ a full-time educator to coordi-
nate assessment, to oversee evaluation of the curriculum as a
whole, and to ensure desirable outcomes.
It takes several years to implement an assessment plan.
Trying to implement an assessment plan over the same one-
year time scale needed to prepare for an ABET visit under
the old guidelines will yield unsatisfactory results. There is a
hidden challenge with EC 2000. On the surface, it may
create the illusion of being easier to satisfy than the Engi-
neering Topics Criteria because the specific course require-
ments are less proscribed. But this is just an illusion. It is
much easier to create a feed-forward model (as in Figure 1)
to satisfy the Engineering Topics Criteria than to create a
feedback model (as in Figure 2) to satisfy EC 2000. This is
partly due to the non-quantitative aspects of outcomes as-
sessment. Even though the old requirements were criticized
for their "bean-counting" aspects, many may ultimately pre-
Continued on page 145.




A Gothic Tale for Freshman Engineers

University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003

What principles of chemical engineering can we
teach freshmen, and how should those principles
be taught? The traditional undergraduate curricu-
lum demands extensive prerequisites before students begin
the quantitative study of chemical processes, typically in-
cluding two semesters of general chemistry, a semester of
physics, and a year of calculus. The introductory chemical
engineering course arrives only in the sophomore year,
so students have no clear picture of the field until their
first year has passed by.
In the College of Engineering at UMass, we have revised
the freshman curriculum to include overview courses from
each of our departments. In addition to helping the students
understand the differences between engineering disciplines
and the sciences, enabling them to make an informed choice
of major, these courses have other important goals. They are
intended to give the students an introduction to the relation-
ship between design and manufacturing, experience in a
team project, and instruction in oral and written presenta-
tion, computational skills, safety, and engineering ethics.
This is a full plate of diverse topics, and the chemical engi-
neering principles we teach in such a course must be linked
to some strong, unifying thread lest they be perceived as
disjointed and scattered scraps.
We decided to devote a module of lectures in our first-
semester freshman course to tracing the history of one par-
ticular process, and to use this process to illustrate and
explain basic engineering principles. We wanted to choose
an old process, one born before the invention of chemical
engineering, so we could point to the many sad consequences
of ignorance and discuss their remedies. We also wanted a
process that had struggled to maturity despite innate limita-
tions, but that ultimately died at the hands of a better-de-
signed and more efficient successor.
The best case study of this kind that we have found is the

Leblanc soda process. For the eighty years between 1820
and 1900, the Leblanc process was a pillar of the CPI; but it
was so completely supplanted by the Solvay process after
World War I that it is almost forgotten by modern chemi-
cal engineers. Because of its former importance, how-
ever, it has been extensively described by historians of
technology, and a number of excellent accounts are avail-
able in the literature." 91
In the following four sections of this article, we tell the
story of the rise and fall of the Leblanc process and empha-
size the lessons to be learned from its story. The final
section describes how the material is integrated into our
freshman course.

During the eighteenth century, the production of chemi-
cals and materials across Europe began to increase steadily
under the pressures of increasing population growth and
trade, urbanization, a rising standard of living, and the accu-
mulation of capital. As demand increased, natural sources of
raw materials began to fall into short supply. Among the
most heavily stressed resources were soda ash (NaCO,) and
potash (K,CO,), known collectively as alkali.
Alkali was essential to three rapidly growing industries: it
was used in textile processing as an alkaline scour in the

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 1998

Chemical Engineering Education

Michael Cook is Associate Professor of Chemi-
cal Engineering at the University of Massachu-
setts, Amherst. He received his AB degree in
chemistry from Occidental College, his MPhil in
chemistry from Imperial College, London, and
his PhD in chemical physics from Harvard Uni-
versity. His research area is the application of
electronic structure theory to problems of engi-
neering interest.

bleaching of linen and cotton cloth; it was used in glassmaking
as a fluxing ingredient to lower the melting point of soda-
lime glass compositions; and in soapmaking, alkali was
treated on-site with lime to produce caustic (NaOH or KOH)
for the saponification of fats and oils to hard or soft soap.
The traditional source of natural alkali was the ash that
remained after burning plant matter. Seashore plants were
used where soda rather than potash was required, since these
have the highest ratio of sodium-to-potassium content. Most
popular were kelp from Scotland and barilla saltwortt) from
Spain. The soda content of these ashes was comparatively
small (10 to 30%) and was very variable; more seriously,
supply was prone to sudden interruption by wars, tariff barri-
ers, and acts of God.

The importance of an artificial
source of soda became apparent
early, and between 1730 and 1790
a dozen such processes were pro-
posed, including a 1769 effort by
the unexpected team of James Watt
and Joseph Black.1n
Half a dozen of these processes
were brought to small-scale pro-
duction, typically to make captive
soda for an adjoining glassworks
or soap works, but none proved to
be competitive with natural
sources. In 1783, the French
Academy of Sciences offered
one of its celebrated prizes for a
viable process to produce soda
from common salt, but that prize
was never awarded.
It was in France, however, that
the first truly economic process
for artificial soda was born.121 Its
inventor was Nicolas Leblanc, an
amateur chemist who was the per-
sonal surgeon to the Duc
D'Orl6ans. In 1789, Leblanc con-
ceived a two-step reaction path-
way to convert common salt to
soda. Leblanc left no clear record
of his reasoning, although there is

(Na,SO4) that was novel.
In a solid-state batch reaction carried out in a furnace,
Leblanc roasted 1 part saltcake by weight with 1 part chalk
or crushed limestone and 1/2 part coal or charcoal. The
chemistry of this reaction step was poorly understood for a
century after its introduction into industrial practice, and
there are certainly many side reactions. In simplest modern
terms, however, the primary reaction can be thought of as
NaSO4 +CaCO3 +2Ch NaCO3 +CaS+2CO2T (2)
The product, a vile-smelling mass called "black ash," con-
tained soda, CaS, byproducts, and unconverted reactants.

The ash was broken up

Figure 1. Simplified flowsheet of the basic Leblanc
process; two solid-state, batch reaction steps fol-
lowed by a separation. Flowsheets for C2, recovery
(Weldon or Deacon) or S recovery (Chance) can be
added throughout the semester at the instructor's

evidence that he might have been inspired by a false analogy
with the smelting of iron from its ore. A simple block
flowsheet is shown in Figure 1.
The first reaction step
heat 0 1
2NaC1+HSO4 he NaSO44+2HC1T (1)
was well known long before Leblanc. It was the second
reaction step, the production of soda from saltcake

Spring 1998

and extracted with hot water, or
"lixiviated"; the extract was evapo-
rated to yield crude soda. The in-
soluble solids, or "tank waste,"
were discarded. If reactions (1) and
(2) went to completion stoichio-
metrically without side reactions,
1 pound of soda could be produced
from 3.2 pounds of reactants; but
in practice, because of the excess
of CaCO3 and carbon, impurities
in the reactants, the incomplete-
ness of reaction, and the weak-
ness of available HSO4, it could
require as much as 10 to 12
pounds of reactants to make a
single pound of soda.[31
Even so, Leblanc's process was
better than its contemporary com-
petitors. Leblanc was granted a fif-
teen-year patent by the French gov-
ernment in 1791, and in the same
year he formed a company to pro-
duce artificial soda, bankrolled by
his patron the Duke.
A small plant was built at St.
Denis on the Seine near Paris. For
two years the plant operated with
some success (although well be-
low its theoretical capacity), but in
1793, the economic and political
climate turned sour. France ex-
ecuted Louis XVI and was soon at

war with the rest of Europe. All available supplies of sulfur
and saltpeter (KNO3) were requisitioned for the manufacture
of gunpowder. Both of these chemicals were needed to pro-
duce sulfuric acid, and as the supply disappeared, Leblanc's
plant shut down for lack of raw materials. Worse still, the
Due D'Orl6ans was guillotined in November, and his
assets were confiscated, including the soda factory at St.
Denis that he had capitalized.


Na2CO3 (s)

Tank Waste

The revolutionary government was short of soda as well as
every other industrial chemical, since its foreign sources had
been cut off by the conflict. In order to stimulate production,
in 1794 a government commission published and publicized
a report on all available methods of making soda, including
Leblanc's process. His patent, which had been closely held,
became widely known and began to be used in a small way
by others in France and abroad-without licensing fees.
Leblanc spent nearly eight years suing for ownership of the
idle plant and petitioning for reimbursement for his per-
ceived loss of patent rights. He finally regained control of
the plant in 1801, but he was unable to raise the money to
operate it effectively. He went into debt, grew depressed,
and committed suicide in 1806.
Soon afterward, France remitted its tax on salt and re-
stricted the import of foreign barilla, and the Leblanc pro-
cess became profitable on a significant scale.1' A number of
Leblanc works were opened, primarily near Marseilles, the
center of the French soap industry. The mature development of
the process, however, took place across the Channel in Britain.


The Leblanc process had been worked in England in a
minor way as early as 1802, but its expansion to a major
industry had to wait for a drop in the price of its raw materi-
als and the rise of a new class of chemical entrepreneurs.
These factors came together in the early 1820s in three great
seaports and industrial centers: Liverpool, on the Mersey;
Newcastle, on the Tyne; and Glasgow, on the Clyde.
The growth of the lead-chamber process for the produc-
tion of sulfuric acid in the previous three decades had dropped
the price of acid from 35/ton in 1790 to 3/ton in the
1820s.15l Salt also became much cheaper because of changes
in tax policy. In the aftermath of the Napoleonic wars, the
impoverished British government had imposed a crushing
30/ton tax on salt to raise its revenues; this was finally
lifted after 1823.61 That same year, the Anglo-Irish en-
trepreneur James Muspratt opened a Leblanc soda works
in Liverpool, followed by additional plants in smaller
towns farther up the Mersey.
Muspratt chose his site carefully in that era of expensive
transportation. Transport on the roads of the time was slow,
expensive, and uncertain, particularly in the wet weather of
winter and spring, and the railroad would not come to the
region for another decade. The only affordable transporta-
tion for raw materials was by water; this was provided by the
Mersey itself, its navigable tributaries, and the network of
canals that had been dug since 1757. Merseyside plants
had access to coal from South Lancashire and salt and
limestone from Cheshire, within twenty miles; limestone
was also often carried into port as ships' ballast and sold
off cheaply at the quay.

Muspratt's mar-
kets, like his raw
materials, were
nearby. Liverpool
was already a cen-
ter of glassworks
and soap manu-
facture. The new
soda was mar-
keted aggres-
sively, and the
plant was soon a
thriving concern.
Other plants
opened in Britain,
primarily at the
three great north-
ern seaports, and
Leblanc soda be-
gan to capture the
soda market away

All too often, the first
experience of chemical
engineering students
with the profession is a
blind and headlong rush
into the pages of a
sophomore stoichiometry
text, and they do not
have a clear overview of
the structure and aims
of the field until their
capstone senior design
course. ,

from natural sources. By 1862, the industry employed 10,000
men directly and another 20,000 indirectly in mining and
transportation; that year it consumed 250,000 tons of salt
and produced 2,500,000 worth of products."
In histories of the chemical industry, the Leblanc process
is sometimes called a "nearly perfect" process that changed
very little except for "mechanical" improvements over its
history.'7 A glance at Eqs. (1) and (2) shows that this is
nonsense. Apart from the fact that the Leblanc process did
produce soda, it was a recipe for turning raw materials into
toxic waste. All the potentially valuable chlorine liberated
from salt was vented as HCl; the sulfur that had been expen-
sively converted to sulfuric acid was entirely lost as in-
soluble sulfide. These wastes caused serious problems for
both the community and the manufacturers.
The first Leblanc plants were surrounded closely by
residential areas, agricultural land, and rural estates. As
production increased, HCI emissions from the plants
burned the vegetation of the surrounding countryside and
damaged stone buildings.
Scolding letters appeared in the newspapers as early as
1827, and in 1831, Muspratt was served with the first of
many civil lawsuits claiming damages. This was a serious
matter; the copper smelters in Liverpool had already been
declared a public nuisance and had been forced out of town
because of their SO, emissions.
The first solution tried by the soda manufacturers was to
discharge the HCI through a taller stack, relying on greater
dilution of the exhaust plume before it contacted the ground
(the solution to pollution is dilution). The record height
appears to have been 454 feet.11 Often, however, the result

Chemical Engineering Education

of taller stacks was simply drawing lawsuits from acid rain
damage further downwind.
Tall stacks also did not improve the condition of workers
in the plant. The HCI fumes reportedly burned their clothes
and rotted their teeth, and it was not unusual for workers to
faint and be dragged outside to revive.1' Bronchitis and lung
disease were endemic. Workers over forty years old were
past their prime and were often moved out of the plant to
lighter work in the yard.
The CaS waste was also a problem. Landfilling was not
possible since there was no heavy earth-moving equipment
at that time. Tank waste was simply piled on surrounding
land, in heaps as high as 50 feet tall, many acres in extent.
Four and a half million tons of tank waste had been laid

001 Our hope is that
this semi-historical
module in the
freshman year will
help to give students
an accurate context
for their education at
its very beginning,
rather than
at its end.

down by 1885 in
Lancashire alone.161
When the land had to
be leased from other
owners, the cost could
run as high as 1500/
acre; this was thirty
times a workingman's
annual wage.
Tank waste contained
a spectrum of byproducts
and unconverted reac-
tants that continued to re-
act outdoors as the waste
was weathered by wind
and rain. Sometimes the

waste formed a hard, impermeable crust; occasionally it
burst into flame; and it regularly leached out a yellow-brown
liquor into local watercourses.1s1
In the acid environment surrounding the plants, the waste
piles and waterways became inadvertent chemical reactors,
producing hydrogen sulfide gas from the reaction

2HCI+CaS-CaCl2 I+HSt (3)

The stench was shocking, even to the robust noses of the
Over the long history of the Leblanc process, as basic
chemical engineering principles were slowly formulated and
implemented, these serious economic and environmental
problems were ameliorated or eliminated, one by one.
In 1836, William Gossage, an energetic inventor and owner
of a Leblanc works, devised a solution to the problem of HCI
emissions. He owned a derelict windmill near his plant; he
packed the mill with brush and twigs, piped in water at the top
from a nearby brook, and absorbed the HCI into solution.'41
This was the first use of a scrubbing tower in the CPI.
The windmill was soon replaced by a patented tower of

tar-soaked stone, packed with coke or broken brick. The
Gossage tower greatly reduced gaseous HCI emissions, al-
though they were not completely eliminated. In particular,
back-pressure from the tower reduced the rate of saltcake
production, and since workers were paid bonuses according
to output, there was a temptation to bypass the tower and
vent HCI directly when nobody was looking13' (an early
demonstration that it is a bad idea to give personnel an
economic or psychological incentive to do the wrong thing).
Many alkali works did not install Gossage towers at all,
preferring to pay occasional damages in court rather than to
invest in the capital costs.[81
In 1863, pressure from the rural gentry forced Parliament
to pass the first Alkali Act, which mandated that plants must
scrub 95% of the HC1 from their stack gases. A network of
inspectors was established to enforce the Act by regular
visits and surprise inspections. One of the first alkali inspec-
tors was George E. Davis; his experience inspecting chemi-
cal works led him to formulate the first comprehensive view
of chemical engineering as a discipline, culminating in his
Handbook of Chemical Engineering (1901 and 1904).
The weak HC1 solution condensed by Gossage towers had
little market at the time, so the first result of HCI scrubbing
was to convert the gas-disposal problem into a liquid-dis-
posal problem (illustrating the dictum that the chief cause of
problems is solutions). Most of the liquid HCI was expelled
into nearby canals and brooks. The Sankey Canal on
Merseyside became so acidic that iron-bottomed barges were
kept off it for fear of corrosion.161
As the understanding of basic chemistry improved through
the nineteenth century, auxiliary processes were gradually
developed to convert the Leblanc wastes into saleable
byproducts or recyclable raw materials. The most important
were two processes that transformed the HCI from saltcake
furnaces into Cl1; Weldon's process (1867) used a reaction
with manganese dioxide, while the Deacon-Hurter process
(1872) used a copper chloride catalyst. The Cl, was ab-
sorbed onto slaked lime to produce a solid bleaching powder
(a crude calcium hypochlorite), for sale to the textile and
pulp and paper industries.
The bleaching powder works were hardly perfect by mod-
ern standards. The reaction was carried out batchwise in
large chambers, and the finished powder was shoveled out
manually by workers smeared with beef tallow, wearing
goggles and dampened cloth masks called "muzzles."''3 Nev-
ertheless, this was one of the first major successes at con-
verting an industrial waste into a valuable byproduct.
In 1887, Chance developed a process to recover sulfur
from black-ash waste, and the solid-waste problem was also
alleviated. From the 1840s onward, sulfur burning was re-
placed by the roasting of pyrite ores to produce H,SO4 for
the saltcake process; the pyrite slags were processed to re-

Spring 1998

cover iron and copper as further byproducts.151
Several mechanical improvements were also made over
the latter half of the century. Leblanc black-ash furnaces
were originally mixed by hand throughout the course of the
reaction, a labor-intensive and inefficient technique. In 1853,
Elliott and Russell developed a revolving furnace that mixed
the reacting solids much more effectively. These "revolvers"
came into general use over the following fifteen years.
In 1861, James Shanks perfected a method for extracting
the carbonate from black ash using an ingenious system of
vats that reduced manual handling of the material, and this
improvement was also generally adopted. Large Leblanc
works often attempted to exploit economies of scale, but this
was not always successful. Thermodynamics was in its in-
fancy at the time, and there was no understanding of the
principles of heat and mass transfer, so large furnaces and
towers were often improperly sized or proportioned."l
By the late 1880s, the Leblanc process had been modified
to recover the bulk of its wastes and to operate far more
efficiently than it had done originally. The process was
finally mature; but it was also obsolete.

As early as 1811, it was known that sodium bicarbonate
could be precipitated from a brine solution saturated with
ammonia and CO,. The reaction was easy to carry out on the
benchtop, but despite repeated efforts, no one was able to
make it a viable industrial process. The sticking point was
the loss of ammonia. In order to make an ammonia-soda
process economical, almost all the ammonia had to be recov-
ered and recycled, and the gas-handling systems of the day
were not equal to the job.
Finally, in 1861, after a long period of R&D, Ernest Solvay
constructed a practical plant. Solvay's process was licensed
in Britain by Ludwig Mond, who made further improve-
ments, and Brunner, Mond & Co. began to produce soda by
the Solvay process at Winnington, on the Merseyside, in
Leblanc soda was an inherently batch process, and it car-
ried all the natural disadvantages of batchwise production in
the manufacture of a large-volume commodity chemical. It
required a lot of manual labor; uniform product quality was
hard to maintain between batches; and there were few op-
portunities for thermal recycle, so a great deal of energy was
The Solvay process, on the other hand, was continuous. It
emitted no HC1, and its solid waste was the chloride of
calcium, much less objectionable environmentally than the
sulfide. Solvay's process also had a simpler separation step
(filtration rather than extraction). Mond did not try to under-
cut the prices of Leblanc manufacturers since demand for
soda was high and he could sell all his product without a

price war. Nevertheless, as the capacity of the industry grew,
the price of soda slid from 4 10 s per ton in 1861 to 2 15 s
in 1889.!" Solvay plants were still profitable at this price, but
Leblanc manufacturers were soon selling their soda at a loss.
They stayed afloat only through the profits from bleaching
powder, which now became their principal product.
The Leblanc manufacturers formed a voluntary Bleaching
Powder Association in 1883, a cartel that propped up the
price of bleach artificially by limiting production (this was
not illegal at the time, although it was frowned upon in many
newspaper editorials). Inevitably, the cartel collapsed in 1889
through price undercutting by nonmembers and renegade
member companies. During this period, chlorine was also
beginning to be produced in quantity electrolytically, and
the Leblanc monopoly on bleach was disappearing.
It became clear that a voluntary association would not be
able to enforce prices and keep the industry viable. Finally,
in 1890, the forty-five remaining Leblanc works in Britain
merged to form United Alkali, a consolidated, publicly-held
stock company. The new company closed the most ineffi-
cient plants, downsized the industry, and diversified its prod-
uct lines.
The Leblanc process staggered on in Britain, in increas-
ingly straitened circumstances, for another thirty years; but
the last Leblanc works closed soon after World War I. United
Alkali itself was swallowed up in the giant merger that
created Imperial Chemical Industries in 1926.191

By tracing the rise and fall of the Leblanc soda process, we
can introduce a surprisingly large number of elementary
chemical engineering principles at a level that doesn't re-
quire much pre-existing background in chemistry and phys-
ics. For example:
The concepts of a process, itsflowsheet, and the unit
operations arise naturally in explaining how the reaction
scheme of Eqs. (1) and (2) was translated into practice.
Only a few simple inorganic reactions are necessary, and
the students become more comfortable with these over the
course of the semester as they concurrently study their
first semester of college chemistry.
The Leblanc process offers many concrete examples of
how the economic potential of a process is affected by the
supply of raw materials, the demand for product, transpor-
tation costs, plant-siting decisions, and government
regulation and tax policy.
The advantages and disadvantages of batch vs. continu-
ous processes are illustrated by the final struggle of
Leblanc's process with Solvay's.
The health, safety, and environmental problems associ-
ated with the process give a backdrop for discussions of
plant safety and engineering ethics later in the course.
The Leblanc process offers such a rich context that an

Chemical Engineering Education

instructor who wants to stress different principles than we
have done can easily find appropriate examples in its his-

Our freshman course consists of two fifty-minute lecture
periods and one two-hour computer laboratory per week.
The course is typically taught in two sections averaging
thirty students each.
In the paragraphs above, we gave a condensed and sequen-
tial account of the Leblanc process. In practice, this material
is spread across a four- to five-period block of lectures. At
each opportunity to illustrate a new concept (classification
of processes, economies of scale, etc.), we suspend the nar-
rative and focus on a discussion of that concept, involving
the students in as much back-and-forth interaction as pos-
sible. Then the narrative resumes.
Although we present a good deal of concrete detail and
history in these lectures, the emphasis is not on memoriza-
tion of detail, as it might have been in an old-style industrial
chemistry course; instead, it is to illustrate and illuminate
basic principles within one coherent story. The students
apply these principles to other processes in weekly home-
work assignments and in the two examinations that are given
during the semester.
At the beginning of the course, the students are organized
into teams of three, with each team assigned a different
commodity chemical process to research in the literature.
During the semester, each team gives two oral presentations
on its process to the class and produces a final written report.
Our in-depth discussion of Leblanc soda helps the students
organize a clear presentation of their own team's process
and its flowsheet. By the end of the term, each student has
actively participated in analyzing and presenting one simple
chemical process and has seen analogous presentations on
the nine or ten different processes studied by the other teams.
More details of the syllabus, structure, and lecture sched-
ule of our freshman course can be found on the web at
This web site will be expanded and updated as the course
Does the strange, Gothic tale of Leblanc soda scare fresh-

men away from chemical engineering? Does it give them the
impression that they are entering a demented and immoral
profession? That hasn't been our experience at all. After
recounting each of the inefficient or damaging aspects of the
Leblanc process, we can turn to the class and ask, "Now,
why did they have this terrible problem?" and the students
quickly recognize that the correct answer is, "Because they
had no chemical engineers." Students are eager to solve real
problems, and the Leblanc history offers an abundance.
All too often, the first experience of chemical engineering
students with the profession is a blind and headlong rush into
the pages of a sophomore stoichiometry text, and they do not
have a clear overview of the structure and aims of the field
until their capstone senior design course. Our hope is that
this semi-historical module in the freshman year will help to
give students an accurate context for their education at its
very beginning, rather than at its end.

I would like to thank my colleagues Mike Doherty, Mike
Malone, and Jim Douglas for many valuable discussions
over the years and for their comments on the manuscript.
This work was supported in part by a grant from the Engi-
neering Academy of Southern New England (EASNE).

1. Hardie, D.W.F., and J.D. Pratt, A History of the Modern
British Chemical Industry, Pergamon, London, England
2. Gillispie, C.C., "The Discovery of the Leblanc Process," Isis,
48, 152 (1957)
3. Barker, T.C., and J.R. Harris, A Merseyside Town in the
Industrial Revolution: St. Helens 1750-1900, Kelley, New
York, NY (1965)
4. Davies, J.T., in History of Chemical Engineering, W.F. Furter,
ed., Adv. Chem. Series #190, ACS, Washington, DC, 15
5. Taylor, F.S., A History of Industrial Chemistry, Abelard-
Schuman, New York, NY (1957)
6. Haber, L.F., The Chemical Industry During the Nineteenth
Century, Clarendon Pr, Oxford, England (1958)
7. Hou, T.-P., Manufacture of Soda, 2nd ed., ACS Monograph
Series #65, Hafner, New York, NY (1969)
8. Lischka, J.R., Ludwig Mond and the British Alkali Indus-
try, Garland, New York, NY (1985)
9. Reader, W.J., Imperial Chemical Industries: A History, Ox-
ford University Press, London, England (1970) 1

Spring 1998


Fall 1998 Graduate Education Issue of

Chemical Engineering Education

Anyone interested in contributing to the editorial content of the 1998 fall issue should write to CEE indicating the
subject of the contribution and the tentative date it will be submitted.
Deadline is June 1, 1998

, classroom



Part 3. Mass Transfer in a Bubble Column

Lakehead University Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada P7B 5E1

pargers are frequently used for dispersing a gas within
a liquid when multistage countercurrent contacting is
not required. Aeration of fermentation broths and
activated sludge, hydrogenation of vegetable oils, chlori-
nation of paper stock, and ore leaching in pachucca tanks
are some important industrial examples of this mode of
gas-liquid contacting.
This paper describes a simple experiment that introduces
the student to this useful operation as well as to the experi-
mental determination of a mass transfer coefficient and its
comparison with values predicted from empirical correla-
tions. The objective of this experiment is the measurement
of the mass transfer coefficient for oxygen transfer between
a rising gas (air for oxygenation or nitrogen for deoxygen-
ation) bubble dispersion and deionized water in a cylinder.

Oxygen is only sparingly soluble in water, and therefore
its transfer between gas bubbles and water is controlled by
diffusion in the liquid phase."I The mechanical motion of
rising bubbles creates sufficient agitation that it can be as-
sumed that the liquid phase is well mixed, with a uniform but
time-dependent oxygen concentration, C. As the gas bubbles
rise through the liquid, there is a slight change in their gas
composition, but because the contact time in a shallow liquid
depth is usually small, the change in the oxygen composition
of the gas bubble is small enough to be safely ignored. Also,
the oxygen composition in the liquid immediately adjacent
to the gas-bubble interface can be considered constant, at C*
(the value for air-saturated water) in the oxygenation case
and equal to zero for the deoxygenation case.
The rate of oxygen transfer across the gas-liquid interface

Address: McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
L8S 4L7

may be expressed using a mass transfer coefficient charac-
terizing the liquid-phase resistance to transfer:
For oxygenation

No, =k(C -C) (I)

For deoxygenation into oxygen-free gas

No, =k,(C-O) (2)

No, is the molar transfer rate of oxygen on a per-unit area of
gas-liquid interface basis. To obtain the transfer rate on a
per-unit volume of liquid basis, No, must be multiplied by

Inder Nirdosh received his BSc and MSc in
chemical engineering from Panjab University (In-
dia) and his PhD from Birmingham University
(United Kingdom). He joined Lakehead Univer-
sity in 1981, and his research interests are in the
fields of mineral processing and electrochemical

Malcolm Baird receive
engineering from Cambi
After some industrial exp
toral fellowship at the Un
joined the McMaster Ur
His research interests ar
oscillatory fluid flows, ar
ing of metallurgical proci

Laurie J. Garred is Professor of Chemical Engi-
neering at Lakehead University. He received his
BASc from the University of Toronto in engineer-
ing science and his PhD in chemical engineering
from the University of Minnesota. His research
interests in biomedical engineering focus on math-
ematical modeling applications in kidney failure
patients maintained on dialysis.

'd his PhD in chemical
ridge University in 1960.
lerience and a post-doc-
i versity of Edinburgh, he
.i i f

iwveriy acuuly in 1ot/.
e liquid-liquid extraction,
id hydrodynamic model-

0 Copyrnght ChE Division of ASEE 1998
Chemical Engineering Education

two factors, a and 1/(1- G), where a is the bubble surface
area per unit volume of the gas-liquid mixture and O, is the
gas holdup (i.e., the volume fraction of the gas-liquid mix-
ture occupied by the gas). Thus, (1-0 G) is the volume frac-
tion of the gas-liquid mixture occupied by the liquid.
No,a/(l-(G) is the rate of oxygen transfer (dC/dt) into or
out of the liquid phase, per unit volume of that phase. As-
suming that the liquid phase is well mixed, as is the case in
gas sparging, the transfer rate, by conservation of mass argu-
ment, must be equal to the rate of change of concentration of
oxygen in the liquid phase, Therefore, for oxygenation
dC kla ( C) (3)
dt (1-OG)

or, after integration

n(C -C)= n(C -Co) k- at (4)
This equation suggests that a plot of in(C -c) versus t
should yield a straight line.
For de-aeration into an oxygen-free gas such as nitrogen,
the appropriate equation is
nC= nCo ka t (5)
S(1- G)

and for this case, (nC versus t is the appropriate plot. In Eqs.
(4) and (5) above, Co represents the initial concentration of
oxygen in water before starting the aeration oxygenationn) or
the de-aeration (deoxygenation) experiment.
The first objective of this experiment is to confirm this
simple model by assessing how well the data fit the straight
line suggested by the model. A second objective is to evalu-
ate the group of parameters, kla/(l-G ), from the slope of
the In(C -C)-versus-t or the InC-versus-t plots.
Once the values of kla/( -0G) are obtained, we can inves-
If there is a dependence on direction of the oxygen



1UID LEVEL-- ---



Figure 1. The apparatus.
Spring 1998

transfer oxygenationn versus deoxygenation), and
> The influence of the gas flow rate on kia(l -G).
A fundamental aspect of engineering science is the ability
to predict parameters such as those in the group being mea-
sured in this experiment. Treybal12 provides some details on
sparged vessels and appropriate correlations to estimate cG,
a, and Sh, or ki. It may be noted that OG can also be deter-
mined experimentally from the height of the gas-liquid mix-
ture in a cylinder relative to the water level with no gas flow
(which, however, is not convenient at low gas flow rates).
A final objective of this experiment is to compare the
experimental values of kla/(l-0G) as determined from the
slopes of the plots of Eqs. (4) and (5) with the values pre-
dicted by the following correlation given by Treybal:

Fd0.779 0.546 pg /3 16
Sh,- d 2+b'Re 77Sc 46 (6)
cD1 DG I

where b' is equal to 0.061 for single and 0.0187 for swarms of
gas bubbles (other symbols are defined in the nomenclature).
Since the general mass transfer coefficient F, is related to
k, as F, = klCBM, 31 and noting that for aqueous solutions of
sparingly soluble gases, such as oxygen with a solubility of
<9 ppm, the solutions are essentially dilute, XBM l, the
above equation may be written in terms of k, as

kd d ol/ 0.116
Sh _p =2+b'Re.779 S05461 p(7)

The apparatus is shown in Figure 1 and is composed of an
8-L acrylic cylinder of 3-inch (0.0762 m) internal diameter,
a gas sparger with four 29/1000-inch (0.734 mm) holes, and
a Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) meter (the only instru-
ment that may not be already available in some departments
and which may need to be acquired for this experiment). The
cylinder is first filled with deionized water, leaving approxi-
mately 4-5 inches empty space above the liquid level. The
BOD probe is then suspended upside down in the cylinder
and connected to the meter. The reason for inverting the
probe is to prevent gas bubbles from becoming trapped in
the electrodes or coming in direct contact with the cell mem-
brane, both of which result in erratic readings. The top of the
cylinder is then covered (Saran wrap may be used for this
purpose) and a few holes are made in the cover for the gas to
escape. This cover ensures a nitrogen atmosphere above the
water at all times during desorption experiments, thereby
preventing the diffusion of air (oxygen) in water during
deoxygenation. The gas (air for oxygenation and nitro-
gen for deoxygenation) is metered through a calibrated
rotameter or a gas-flow meter before feeding to the
sparger submerged in the cylinder.





The suggested experimental procedure is described below.
1. De-oxygenate the water completely by bubbling nitrogen 20 SYMBOL AIR FLOWRATE
through the column at a rapid rate. This is evidenced by 8.77 mL/s
a nearly zero (ppm) reading on the meter. 0 82.50 mus
2. Begin the first oxygenation experiment by quickly
sparging air at the desired flow rate. Start the stop watch
at the same time.
3. Take frequent readings of dissolved oxygen concentra-
tion with time. Allow the process to continue until water
becomes nearly saturated, as evidenced by a constant
reading on the BOD meter.
4. Start the deoxygenation investigations by quickly
0 0-
replacing airflow with the nitrogen flow at the same gas
flow rate. We found that some time is needed to adjust
the nitrogen flow rate to the same value as the airflow
rate used during the oxygenation study. Some oxygen
desorption therefore occurs during this initial adjustment
period and the oxygen concentration in water drops -1 -
significantly. We therefore recommend that after
adjusting the nitrogen flow to the desired value, it may
be diverted from the sparger to the fume hood (for safety
reasons) and the water reoxygenated to saturation, and
the deoxygenation started by redirecting the nitrogen
through the sparger at the previously adjusted desired -2 o 0
flow rate. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
5. Monitor the change (decrease) in the oxygen concentra- TIME, min.
tion of water as was done in step 3 above for oxygen- Figure 2. nC --versus
aton. Figure 2 nC -C)-versus-t plot for oxygenation at 8.77
and 82.5 mL/s airflow rates.
6. Repeat the oxygenatiogenation/eo nation processes for at
least one other gas flow rate.

Oxygenation and deoxygenation investigations were con- 877 mls
ducted at 8.77 and 82.5 mL/s flow rates of either air or
nitrogen, respectively. Plots of (n(C* -) vs. t or (nC vs. t
were prepared. The C' value obtained from literature was
taken as 8.7 ppm (2.72 x 10-4 kmol/m3),141 and this value was .o0-
very close to the experimentally observed value at infinite o
time (the plateau value from the C-versus-t graph).
Figure 2 is a plot of nn(C*-C) versus t (Eq. 4) for the
oxygenation of water. Data for both air flow rates of 82.5
mL/s and 8.77 mL/s are plotted together for comparison. 0.0
Both plots are linear and conform to Eq. (4), having a nega-
tive slope. The slope for the larger gas flow rate is more
negative, as was expected because ka /(1 G ) increases with
an increase in the Reynolds number.
Figure 3 is a plot of PnC versus t for the deoxygenation -1o0-
runs at the corresponding nitrogen flow rates of 82.5 mL/s 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
and 8.77 mL/s. These plots are also linear, conforming to Eq. TIME, min
(5) and indicating an increase in kla/(1-4 G) with an increase
in the gas flow rate. It may be noted that one of the curves in Figure 3. nC -versus-t plot for deoxygenation at 8.77 and
Figure 3 shows an apparent leveling-off trend toward the end 825 mL/s nitrogen flow rates

140 Chemical Engineering Education

of the experiment. This appears to be due to difficulties in
measuring very low oxygen concentrations. In this case, the
slope was determined only for the initial portion of the curve.
The experimental values of kla/(l- OG) obtained from the
slopes of the plots, and the corresponding k, values calcu-
lated from the slopes, are given in Table 1. These values
indicate that k a/(1-0G) values for oxygenation and deoxy-
genation are comparable, suggesting that the direction of
mass transfer (from gas to liquid or vice versa) has little
effect on the rate of oxygen transfer.
Also included in the Table are the corresponding predicted
values of kla/(1-0G) and k, as derived from Eq. (7). The
values of OG, a, and dp needed for calculating these predicted
values were obtained from the methods given by Treybal.121
As can be seen, the experimental and the predicted values
are within 12%. These results indicate the experiment pro-
vides a simple method of comparing experimental results
and theoretical predictions.

Linear plots with negative slopes are obtained for both
oxygenation (/n(C -C) versus t) and deoxygenation ( nC
versus t) operations, conforming to the theory. The values of
the slopes of the plots indicate that mass transfer coefficient
increases with gas flow rate and is independent of the direc-
tion of transfer, i.e., gas to liquid oxygenationn) or vice versa
(deoxygenation). There is good agreement between the experi-
mental and the predicted mass transfer coefficient values.

The experimental data presented in this paper are student
generated in an undergraduate laboratory course. The proce-
dure is simple and the set of data can be obtained in a usual
3-hour laboratory period. Maintaining the same gas flow
rate during oxygenation and deoxygenation provides a chal-
lenge during this experiment. Some student groups got bet-

Comparison of Experimental and Predicted Results for Oxygenation and
Deoxygenation of Water at 8.77 and 82.5 mL/s Gas Flows
(Expt-Experimental: Pred-Predicted)

Gas Rate, mL/s
Mode of Transfer

Oxygenation 1 Deoxygenation

Expt Pred

Expt Pred

Exot Pred

Expt Pred

Mode of Calculation

103kla/(1-0G), s- 1.80 1.64 1.60 1.64 6.70 6.50 5.80 6.5C
104kj, m/s 1.62 1.50 1.44 1.50 1.96 1.90 1.70 1.9C
G 0.009 0.009 0.056 0.05,
dp, mm 4.91 4.91 10.4 10.4
a. m2/m3 11.0 11.0 32.3 32.?

Spring 1998

ter comparison between experimental and theoretical ki val-
ues using b' for single rather than swarms of bubbles. We
recommend that the class be subdivided into various groups.
Each group may be assigned to study at least two (one low
and one high) gas flow rates, with each group given a differ-
ent set of flow rates than the other groups. The groups can
also study the dependence of mass transfer coefficient on the
effects of 1) varying the liquid viscosity by adding sucrose to
the water, 2) the orifice diameter, or 3) the number of holes
in the sparger. Each group should compare experimental and
predicted values of kia/(l- G).

Financial help from the Natural Sciences and Engineering
Research Council of Canada is gratefully acknowledged.
Thanks are due to Mr. A. Morrison for collecting some of
the experimental data.


a specific surface area, m2/m'
b' constant, dimensionless
c total liquid concentration, kmol/m3
C oxygen concentration in water at any time, kmol/m3
C' oxygen concentration in water saturated with air, kmol/m3
C,, initial oxygen concentration in water, kmol/m3
d average bubble diameter, m
D, diffusivity of oxygen in water, m-/s
F general mass transfer coefficient, kmol/m2s
g acceleration due to gravity, m/s2
k, liquid side mass transfer coefficient, m/s
No, oxygen flux, kmol/m2s
ReG gas Reynolds number based on slip velocity (dpVp, /P,1),
Sc Schmidt number based on liquid properties (l.I /PDI),
Sh, Sherwood number based on gas-bubble diameter
( Fldp cD1 = kidp /D), dimensionless
VG superficial gas velocity, m/s
V, liquid velocity, m/s
V slip velocity, i.e., relative velocity of gas and liquid,
= VG/ G V/(1- 0G), m/s
xB Logarithmic mean mole fraction of non-diffusing
Greek Symbols
pU liquid viscosity, kg/ms
pi liquid density, kg/m3

aG gas hold up, dimensionless

S 1. Treybal, R.E., Mass Transfer Operations, 3rd ed.,
McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, p. 111 (1980)
5 2. ibid., pp. 139-146
3. ibid., Table 3.1, p. 49
4. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 49th ed.,
R.C. Weast, ed., The Chemical Rubber Company 1968-
S 1969, B-224 -

Oxygenation Deoxygenatior

[Big laboratory



University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain

Some papers related to chemical engineering education
that have been published" are different from the
standard laboratory experiments we find in chemical
engineering. These new experiments, called unstructured
research experiments, are simple, inexpensive and capable
of yielding meaningful results. We would like to introduce a
simple experiment in this paper that requires very simple
equipment and which illustrates one of the basic problems of
mass transfer-more specifically, a technique that calculates
the interphase mass transfer coefficient using phase change
material from laboratory data.
This paper describes an experiment where students take
the laboratory data and calculate the interphase mass transfer
coefficient for a fluid passed over a sphere, obtaining corre-

Jesus W Rodriguez, Assistant Professor in
the Department of Chemical Engineering at
the University of Salamanca (Spain), is pres-
ently at the School of Engineering of Las
Palmas on a one-year visiting faculty appoint-
ment. He is doing research on gas filtration,
aerosol generation, and multiphase flow.

Vicente Henriquez, is an Assistant Profes-
sorat the School of Engineering of Las Palmas
(Tafira Baja s/n, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran
Canaria, Spain; phone +34 28 451490). His
research interests are in the field of combus-
tion, heat transfer, and fluidization.

Agustin Macias-Machin is an Associate Pro-
fessor at the School of Engineering of Las
Palmas. His research focuses on gas filtration,
fluidization, and heat transfer. He is a member
of the AIChE and the ACS, and is also Chair-
man of the Spanish-Portuguese Chapter of the
Filtration Society.

lations for solid-gas mass transfer. Then they can compare
these results with the correlation described in the literature
or they can develop a realistic mathematical model to de-
scribe the sublimation process.
We present the experiment by saying that we want them to
find the mass transfer coefficient for a sublimation process.
The students must choose a phase change material and deter-
mine the influence of the various experimental parameters
(such as gas velocity, gas temperature, initial particle mass,
etc.) on the mass transfer coefficient and calculate its value for
a given experiment. We tell them that there is no experimental
setup for this purpose, but that the laboratory has a hair dryer, a
thermometer, a scale, and an infrared thermometer available.
After the problem is presented to the students, they have to
study the literature to become familiar with the process of
phase change. Finally, they must develop a mathematical
model that describes the sublimation process.

A schematic diagram of the experimental apparatus is
shown in Figure 1. The components are a hair dryer, a tube, a
thermometer, a scale, a Pitot tube, and an infrared thermom-
eter. The experimental procedure consists of introducing a
naphthalene ball into the tube. This ball is held to the wall by
a copper wire. The air leaving the hair dryer passes through
the electrical resistance where it is heated, then goes around
the naphthalene ball, and the sublimation process begins.
The variation of the weight of the naphthalene ball versus
time permits calculation of the interphase mass transfer co-
efficient of the experiment. The experiment is so simple that
we only need to measure the weight variation of the ball for
different flows of air and temperatures; this can be done with
a scale and a stopwatch.

The rate of mass transfer between a solid and the flow of
air is usually described by

* On leave from the University of Salamanca, Spain.

Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1998
Chemical Engineering Education

rn=KA(C,-C,) (1)

m sublimation rate
K, solid-gas mass transfer coefficient
A external surface of the particle
C, concentration on the particle surface
C, concentration inside the approaching

In practice, C,=O because the approach-
ing air is free of diffusing components.
Then, Eq. (1) can be written as

m = KsgAC, (2)


m= KA pSM (3)
R gas law constant
M molecular weight of the sublimated
T, temperature on the surface of the par-
p, vapor pressure of the pure substance
at saturation

In the case of the naphthalene ball, the
vapor pressure of the pure substance at
saturation (Eq. 3) is given as

logoo(s= 13.575- 5 (4)

with P, in N/m' and Ts in K.
A mass balance on the sublimated solid

dW = =-KsA pM (5)
dt RT,

where W is the total mass of substance
remaining in the solid phase at any time t,

W = 4 rps (6)

with p, being the density of the solid par-
The corresponding interfacial area is
A=4Tr2 (7)

From Eqs. (6) and (7), we obtained

(36,W2 )1/3
A=(- (8)

Substituting in Eq. (5), we get
Spring 1998

T hermocouple


Dry air supply

Hot air supply

Figure 1. Experimental set-up.

SAluminium pipe

, I

1 0 I -- ------------------------

09 0 Kg=6 98 102 m/s



06 K,=2.56 10' m/s




Initial Weight, Wo= 1 47 g
Air temperature, Tair = 62 5 C
0'1 E Air temperature, Tar = 305 OC


0 1000 2000 3000 4000
Time (a

5000 6000 7000 8000 9000

dW (36xW' )1 psM
d -m=-K P j RT- (

This equation can be integrated to yield
the following relation between time and
the fraction of solid remaining in the
solid phase:

1/M ( ,1 p5M
I K ( 4 t (10)
i 3 Wo p3W RT,

The plot of the variation of the frac-
tion of solid remaining in the ball versus
time will produce a straight line. Calcu-
lating the slope of this line, the student
will obtain the interphase mass transfer

Figure 2 shows the variation of the
weight of the naphthalene ball as a func-
tion of time for two different experi-
ments. This graph illustrates the impor-
tance of the temperature for the experi-
ment because the flow rate of air was
kept constant during the entire experi-
ment. If we increase the temperature of
the experiment, the fraction of solid re-
maining in the naphthalene ball decreases
and the interphase mass transfer coeffi-
cient increases.
Figure 2 shows that we have a linear

SNaphthalene ball


Figure 2. Variation of mass of naphthalene ball with time.

relationship between the variation of the
solid remaining in the ball and the operat-
ing time. The slope of this line allows
calculation of the interphase mass transfer
coefficient using Eq. (10).
In Figure 3 we can see the variation of
the mass transfer coefficient with the ini-
tial particle mass of the naphthalene ball if
we maintain the gas temperature and gas
velocity constant (T,,=62.50C, Uo=3 m/s).
It is obvious that when the particle mass
increases, the mass transfer coefficient de-
During the process of phase change, the
particle size changes and the mass transfer
coefficient might also change. In order to
check this, the experiment must be per-
formed to determine if a single value of
the mass transfer coefficient describes the
entire course of an experiment.121
In Figure 4 we have presented the model
predictions with a constant value of the
mass transfer coefficient that describes the
experimental data obtained in an accurate
way. The experiment can be too large if
the flow and air temperature are too low,
however. Therefore, when determining a
mass transfer coefficient for a given time,
it can be considered that a single data point
was taken and it was assumed that the
calculated mass transfer coefficient was
representative of the whole experiment.
After performing the experiment, the stu-
dents have to discuss a number of points
in the analysis and conduct further discus-
sion of their results. For example
Have they determined if the particle size
is important to calculate the interphase
mass transfer coefficient?
Have they determined if a simple value
of the interphase mass transfer coeffi-
cient describes the entire course of an
Were they able to find a literature cor-
relation for K, ?
Did they check to see if the air tempera-
ture did not change ; ,;ii cl during
the experiment?
If they found initial data scatter, did they
try to explain why that was so ?
To determine the solid mean tempera-
ture, we used an infrared thermometer;
if we didn't have this equipment in the
laboratory, how would the students mea-

We have found that the study of the naphthalene ball
adds interest to the mass transfer experiment. The
technique is safe, inexpensive, rapid, and
capable of yielding meaningful results.

0,35 I





I T, = 62 5 C
o= 3 m/s

10 0.5

Figure 3. Variation of the

1.0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5
W. (g)

mass transfer coefficient with the initial
particle mass.

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000
Time (s)

Figure 4. Comparison of the model prediction and experimental data.

Chemical Engineering Education

sure the solid mean temperature?
Have they determined if the initial weight of the naphthalene
ball influences the interphase mass transfer coefficient?
Were the students able to carry out the simulation and mod-
eling of the mass transfer process ?
We think that these questions give the teacher a real chance
to evaluate the students and to know if they are really using
the theoretical knowledge related to this type of unstructured
research experiment.

We have found that the study of the naphthalene ball adds
interest to the mass transfer experiment. The technique is
safe, inexpensive, rapid, and capable of yielding meaningful
results. The experimental data were also used for follow-up
work, such as the creation of a mathematical model.
We think there is a place for this type of laboratory experi-
ment in the undergraduate program.

We wish to thank Margaret Irving Wright for help given in
the preparation of this manuscript.

A external surface of particle (m)
C concentration on the particle surface (kg/mn)
C concentration inside the approaching air (kg/m')
d diameter of particle (m)
K solid-gas mass transfer coefficient (m/s)
M molecular weight (kg/mol)
mn sublimation rate (kg/s)
p vapour pressure of the pure substance at saturation (N/m')
R gas law constant (J/mol K)
r radius of particle (m)
T temperature on surface of the particle (C or K)
t time (s)
W initial mass of particle (kg)
p, particle density (kg/m')

1. Macias-Machin, A., G. Zhang, and O. Levenspiel, "The Un-
structured Student-Designed Type of Laboratory," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 24(2), 78 (1990)
2. Sensel, M.E., and K.J. Myers, "Add Some Flavor to Your
Agitation Experiment," Chem. Eng. Ed., 26(3), 156 (1992)
3. Joulie, R., M. Barkat, and G.M. Rios, "Effect of Particli
Density on Heat and Mass Transfer During Fluidized Bed
Sublimation," Powder Technol., 90, 79 (1997) 1

Outcomes Assessment Methods
Continued from page 131.

fer the well-defined requirements of the Engineering Top-
ics Criteria when struggling to implement an outcomes
assessment plan.
For chemical engineers, it is likely that determining cur-
riculum goals will not be the most significant obstacle, espe-
cially since EC 2000 provides a suggested list of program
goals.'51 The outcomes assessment measures described above
are examples that have been used successfully, but they are
by no means exhaustive. The two lessons learned from these
outcomes assessment measures are 1) that multiple mea-
sures are essential, and 2) that we must look at what is
already being done to identify potential outcomes measures.
Probably the most difficult part of an assessment plan to
implement is the feedback. Faculty unaccustomed to dis-
cussing curricular issues and individual student outcomes, or
to receiving feedback will have to change their attitudes.

Outcomes assessment is a reality looming on the hori-
zon. Within the next five years or so, all chemical engi-
neering programs will have a functioning assessment plan.
The methods described in this paper present a framework
for developing an assessment plan. The goal is to de-
velop a plan that benefits everyone involved. The result
is a win-win-win situation in which students learn more,
faculty become better teachers, and employers are more
Spring 1998

satisfied with their employees.

1. Davis, B.G., "Demystifying Assessment: Learning from the
Field of Evaluation," in Achieving Assessment Goals Using
Evaluation Techniques, P.J. Gray, ed., New Directions for
Higher Education, No. 67, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, p.5
2. Angelo, T.A., and K.P. Cross, Classroom Assessment Tech-
niques: A Handbook for College Teachers, 2nd ed., Jossey-
Bass, San Francisco, CA (1993)
3. Shaeiwitz, J.A., "Outcomes Assessment in Engineering Edu-
cation," J. Eng. Ed., 85, 239 (1996)
4. Rogers, Gloria M., and Jean K. Sando, "Stepping Ahead: An
Assessment Plan Development Guide," Rose-Hulman Insti-
tute of Technology (1996) (contact
5. Criteria for Accrediting Programs in Engineering in the
United States, ABET, Inc., Baltimore, MD, 29, December
6. Hutchings, P., and T. Marchese, "Watching Assessment:
Questions, Stories, Prospects," Change, 22(4), 12 (1990)
7. Tolbert, R., and N. Tolbert, "Outcomes Assessment: The
Tennessee Model," 1994 ASEE Annual Conf. Proc., 515
8. Patterson, G.K., Department of Chemical Engineering, Uni-
versity of Missouri,Rolla; personal communication (see also
9. Olds, B.M., and M.J. Pavelich, "A Portfolio-Based Assess-
ment Program," 1996 ASEE Annual Conf. Proc., Session
10. Shaeiwitz, J.A., W.B. Whiting, R. Turton, and R.C. Bailie,
"The Holistic Curriculum," J. Eng. Ed., 83, 343 (1994)
11. Shaeiwitz, J.A., "Classroom Assessment," J. Eng. Ed., in
press(1998) 0

M W laboratory



Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO 80401

Most faculty members are aware that too many en-
gineering courses emphasize "plugging and crank-
ing" on well-defined, close-ended, numerical prob-
lems at the expense of helping students become better criti-
cal thinkers and engineering practitioners. As a result, and in
sharp contrast to other professions such as medicine and law,
too few of our engineering graduates are capable of immedi-
ately practicing engineering when they leave college. Yet,
industry expects to hire engineering graduates who can "go
beyond the numbers" by understanding how technical re-
sults fit into a larger systems perspective, who can inte-
grate knowledge to find new solutions to problems rather
than relying on a traditional reductionist approach, and
who can communicate the results of their work to many
different audiences.1" In short, they want engineers who
can "think outside the box."
In response to these expectations, many of the new ABET
Engineering Criteria 2000 features focus on professional
practice, including "an ability to design and conduct experi-
ments as well as to analyze and interpret data; an ability to
identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems, an abil-
ity to function on multi-disciplinary teams; and an ability to
communicate effectively."'21
We believe that the unit operations laboratory provides an
ideal setting to help chemical engineering students become
better engineering practitioners. At the Colorado School of
Mines (CSM), we offer the unit operations laboratory as an
intensive six-week summer experience designed to enhance
students' higher-order thinking skills and familiarity with
many aspects of chemical engineering professional practice,
including data collection and analysis, evaluation and inter-
pretation of results to draw meaningful conclusions, and
effective communication to a variety of audiences.
As presently taught, the course relies heavily on a con-
structionist approach-that is, the cognitive theory suggest-

Ronald L. Miller is Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering and
Petroleum Refining at the Colorado School of Mines, where he has
taught chemical engineering and interdisciplinary courses and con-
ducted research in educational methods and multiphase fluid flow for
twelve years.
James F. Ely is Professor of Chemical Engineering and Petroleum
Refining at the Colorado School of Mines, where he has been since
1981. During his career at CSM he had taught courses in chemical
engineering fundamentals and has performed research in molecular
Robert M. Baldwin is Professor and Head of the Chemical Engineering
and Petroleum Refining Department at the Colorado School of Mines,
where he has been for 23 years. His research has concentrated on
fundamental and applied reaction engineering, and he is currently car-
rying out research on synthesis and evaluation of zeolite membranes at
microgravity conditions.
Barbara M. Olds is Principal Tutor of the McBride Honors Program in
Public Affairs for Engineers and is Professor of Liberal Arts and Interna-
tional Studies at the Colorado School of Mines, where she has taught
for the past fourteen years. She is chair of CSM's assessment commit-
tee and has given numerous workshops and presentations on assess-
ment in engineering education.

ing that learners construct their own internal interpretation
of objective knowledge based, in part, on formal instruction,
but also influenced by social and contextual aspects of the
learning environment and previous life experiences.'1 This
view suggests that students "make their own meaning" of
what they are learning by relying on mental models of the
world, models that may be correct or may contain strongly
held misconceptions.141 Rather than acting as acknowledged
authorities transmitting objective knowledge to passive stu-
dents, laboratory faculty use coaching and Socratic ques-
tioning techniques to help students understand complex tech-
nical phenomena by constructing mental models that reflect
reality as perceived by acknowledged experts while mini-
mizing models containing significant misconceptions.
In addition to experimental work, extensive use of statis-
tics to analyze and evaluate data and instruction and practice
in technical oral and written communication are also impor-
tant facets of the course. In this paper, we present details of

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 1998

Chemical Engineering Education

S. in sharp contrast to other professions such as medicine and law, too few of our engineering graduates
are capable of immediately practicing engineering when they leave college.... We believe that
the unit operations laboratory provides an ideal setting to help chemical
engineering students become better engineering practitioners.

the course organization, methods we use to
promote higher-order thinking, expected
student outcomes, and examples illus-
trating how students' higher-order think-
ing and communication abilities develop
during the course.

All CSM chemical engineering students
(approximately 90-100 per year) are re-
quired to complete a rigorous six-credit-
hour summer field session following their
junior year in which they spend six weeks
conducting, analyzing, and reporting the
results of a series of sophisticated unit op-
erations experiments. Expected student out-
comes during the course include
Reinforcing understanding of basic
concepts in momentum, heat, and
mass transport, and statistics
Learning how to analyze, synthe-
size, and evaluate experimental
Improving technical oral, written,
and graphic communication skills
Enhancing team-building and
leadership skills
To facilitate development of each
student's engineering abilities, supervising
faculty place as much responsibility for the
planning, execution, analysis, evaluation,
and reporting of experiments on the stu-
dents as possible. Each student performs
eight of the ten experiments listed in Table

Experiments Perft
CSM Unit Operatiol

tE Compressible gas flov
A Blower and venturi m
A Pump characterization
L Shell and tube heat ex
L Condensing steam he
B Wetted wall column
B Continuous distillation
B Tank transient heatin
B Friction factors and d
[ Gas absorber packed

Objectives fi

U Develop a friction-fl
for pipeflow encomp
laminar-, transition-,
flow regimes
B Evaluate the perform
installed orifice met
a Develop a drag-coef
correlation for partic
quiescent fluids
B Evaluate the validity
of each correlation

1, working in

teams of two or three. Teams are randomly sorted from
experiment to experiment so that students work with all their
peers in the course and each student has the opportunity to
serve as a "team leader" on several experiments. Since the
students have received extensive team-building instruction
and practice in the CSM EPICS (Engineering Practices In-
troductory Course Sequence) program,151 no additional team-
building work is required in the laboratory. As a capstone
project, student teams also design a new unit operations
experiment or retrofit an existing piece of equipment.
Each experiment consists of the five steps shown below;

Spring 1998

student teams must satisfactorily com-
E 1
Splete each step to receive credit for the
)rmed in the
ns Laboratory experiment.
"Prelab" preparation
w "Prelab" oral presentation to
eter supervisingfaculty member

chan* Operation of the equipment to
at transfer collect data
at transfer
Analysis, synthesis, and evaluation
n column of data including statistical error
g analysis
rag coefficients Presentation of results orally or in
column writing, including preparation and
review of draft written reports.

S2 Preparing and Presenting the "Prelab"
or the The afternoon prior to performing an ex-
or and periment, each student team meets to be-
xperiment come familiar with the general experimen-

ctor correlation tal objectives and safety guidelines pro-
assg the vided by faculty supervisors (an example
passing the
and trbulent- set of objectives is shown in Table 2), to
, and turbulent-
study the equipment and how to measure
and model its performance, to create a list
lance of of detailed experimental objectives, to de-
ers velop an experimental design for data
ficient collection, and to decide what statistical
les settling in analysis strategies will be used with the
experimental data.
Sand limitations We do not provide detailed step-by-step
instructions on how to conduct or analyze
an experiment-less than one page of writ-
ten guidelines (including safety issues) are
typically available for each experiment. Instead, students are
expected to educate themselves on the appropriate back-
ground knowledge required to meet each experiment's ob-
jectives, using their textbooks and other information sources;
faculty supervisors act as coaches or mentors to the teams,
but do not portray themselves as authority figures. Faculty
rarely answer questions directly, but instead help students
find their own answers using prompts such as "How do you
know that?", "How would you estimate or measure X?",
"Have you considered Y?", "What are the limitations of that
correlation?", or "How good is that assumption?"
Early on the morning the experiment is scheduled, each


student team presents the results of the "prelab"
preparation to a supervising faculty member
who questions members of the team on all as-
pects of the experiment, including background
theory, working equations, data collection, mea-
surement errors and data reproducibility, and
data analysis and evaluation. At the beginning
of the course, students need more direct feed-
back to help them establish realistic objectives
and correctly compute results from experimen-
tal data. As the students become more adept at
routine data collection and analysis, faculty be-
gin to ask more complex questions to begin the
process of nudging students to think in new and
more sophisticated ways.
We believe the "prelab" exercise is a crucial
part of each experiment because students ac-
quire a good understanding of the experiment
and our expectations before beginning data col-
lection. Depending on the degree of preparation
and understanding, each team may spend from
15 minutes to 2 hours in this examination; no
team is allowed to begin work in the laboratory
until the examination has been passed. Our ob-
jective here is to ensure that students have
thoroughly developed their experimental ob-
jectives and their data collection and analy-
sis strategy; the laboratory itself is not the
place to begin this process.
Working in the Laboratory Once they are
in the laboratory, each student team controls its
own destiny and operates without input from
faculty supervisors or teaching assistants (ex-
cept for potential safety issues). Students make
decisions about ranges of data to collect, about
the amount of data to collect, and about con-
ducting reproducibility runs. Depending on the
complexity of each experiment, they may re-
main in the laboratory for anywhere from four
to eight hours collecting data. They often use
laptop computers for "real-time" data analysis,
and several of the experiments are computer-
ized for automatic data logging directly into
personal computers.
Working with the Data With data in hand,
the team begins the process of data analysis,
comparison of results with theoretical predic-
tions or accepted correlations, and statistical
error analysis. This is an intense time for the
team members-they must either prepare and
deliver a 20-minute oral presentation describ-
ing their work one day after completing the
experiment or must submit a draft written re-

... we offer the
unit operations
laboratory as
an intensive
designed to
thinking skills
with many
aspects of
including data
collection and
of results to
and effective
to a variety of

port five days after completing the experiment.
In either case, they must complete calculations,
develop appropriate correlations of engineering
parameters such as friction factors or heat-trans-
fer coefficients, prepare figures and tables of re-
sults, develop error propagation and statistical
analyses, provide logical explanations for any
deviations of their results from expected values,
and develop overall conclusions based on evalu-
ation of their work.
We have three reasons for requiring short turn-
around times for oral and written reports. First,
the laboratory schedule requires students to move
quickly from experiment to experiment in order
to complete eight experiments within the six-
week course. Second, time demands absolutely
require effective teamwork-no individual stu-
dent alone can possibly complete all the tasks of
an experiment. Third, and perhaps most impor-
tant, we want to encourage students to plan and
study the experiment thoroughly during their
"prelab" preparation. This allows them to de-
velop their higher-order thinking skills by con-
centrating on developing meaningful conclusions
from their results rather than just reporting rou-
tine lists of numerical data.
Communicating the Results Students pro-
duce four oral and four written reports on experi-
ments completed during the course. In addition,
both an oral and written report are required as
part of the final design project. Oral presenta-
tions are attended by other students in the course
and by one or more faculty supervisors; present-
ers are expected to focus largely on the conclu-
sions drawn from their results and reasons for
any obvious discrepancies from expected trends.
Once again, faculty use Socratic questioning to
probe for evidence of analysis, synthesis, and
evaluation by student teams. Each written report
is submitted first in draft form for review by the
faculty supervisor and a technical communica-
tion specialist. Draft review meetings are then
held with individual student teams to provide
feedback and to discuss remaining difficulties in
technical and rhetorical content before the final
version of the report is submitted for grading.
Other Course Activities To further help stu-
dents improve their thinking and writing skills,
during the first few weeks of the course we con-
duct a series of workshops that focus on statistics
and data analysis, experimental design, and writ-
ten communication. For example, as part of the
experimental design workshop, we ask students

Chemical Engineering Education

to brainstorm and share ideas for extending the analysis of
the experiment they are currently conducting beyond the
objectives stated in their "prelab." This exercise works
well to help students think and work beyond the obvious
outcomes for each experi-
ment and encourages stu-
dlpnts tn thinlyl hvonnrl thp

box" in the course.
The course culminates in a
week-long capstone project in
which student teams are asked
to design a new laboratory ex-
periment or to retrofit an ex-
isting piece of equipment to
improve its performance. The
design project allows students
to apply the knowledge and
skills learned in the laboratory
experiments in a new engi-
neering context. In recent
years, students have designed

experimental systems to study gas/liquid flow in horizon-
tal and vertical pipes, gas/solid fluidization, reverse os-
mosis, air separation using membranes, and transient dry-
ing of wet granular solids.

As we designed the unit operations laboratory course to
help students develop their higher-order thinking and com-
munication skills, we were guided by Benjamin Bloom's
taxonomy of cognitive objectives;"6 the taxonomy is also
useful as a performance assessment framework to determine
whether students achieve the expected outcomes listed ear-
lier. Students are assessed by course faculty (in each "prelab"
session, oral presentation, and written report) on their ability
to demonstrate a thorough understanding of basic transport
phenomena and unit operations concepts and their use of
statistics to analyze and evaluate experimental data. Stu-
dents' communication and team skills are also assessed by
the faculty within the context of laboratory work. In addi-
tion, each student evaluates the contribution of each team-
mate after each experiment is completed. In this way, stu-
dents are individually held accountable for their contribu-
tions to the team's success or failure. Students who receive a
poor peer evaluation are immediately counseled by course
faculty-repeated low evaluations result in an overall grade
reduction or withdrawal from the course.
As shown in Table 3, Bloom's model proposes six classes
of cognitive behavior, ranging from simple recall of facts or
ideas (knowledge) through explanation of relationships and
data inference (analysis) to sophisticated value judgments
Spring 1998

about the quality or merit of an idea using data (evaluation).
The term "higher-order thinking" usually refers to the higher
three levels of cognitive behavior in the taxonomy-analy-
sis, synthesis, and evaluation.

In this section, we present
excerpts from laboratory re-
ports to illustrate how students'
thinking develops during the
six-week session. The process
is developmental, slow, and at
times frustrating and painful
for some students. But we have
found that all students in the
course, regardless of academic
preparation and background,
can improve their ability to
think and communicate if
given appropriate feedback and
encouragement by faculty su-
pervisors and peers.
Lower-Level Thinking

During the first two weeks of the course, students tend to
function in modes of thinking that have been reinforced in
earlier courses-simply reporting facts and straightforward
numerical results from the experiment. We predominately
see laboratory reports containing statements such as
Our results show that the orifice coefficient is 0.55. In
industry, the accepted coefficient is 0.61. Therefore, our
results don't agree with the correct value.
The experimental acoustic velocity was found to be 1444.0ft/
sec, which is 27.2% differentfromn the theoretical value.
Our heat-transfer coefficients ranged from 365 to 704 Btu/hr
ft2 F, which are well within the accepted range of 200-1000
Bt u/hrft2 F.
We compared our heat transfer correlation to the accepted
correlation. We found that our exponent on the Reynolds
number was lower, but the coefficient was greater. The
exponent on the Prandtl number was about the same.
At this point, students believe that reporting results, per-
haps with a simple numerical comparison to an accepted
value or range of values, constitutes data analysis. Although
they don't realize it, the message at this point is "Here's
what we got; you (the reader) figure out what it means."
Early in the course, students don't yet have the ability to
critically analyze their data, to use error and statistical analy-
sis, and to derive meaningful conclusions because they have
never been taught how to do it nor were they expected to do
it. Previous laboratory and lecture courses reinforced the
idea of one correct answer for every problem and the mis-
conception that the teacher is the only authority figure in
possession of all knowledge. When students are confronted
with "incorrect" results (i.e., results that don't agree exactly
with theory or accepted correlations), even though the ex-

Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Behavior6'"

Evaluation Judge the merit or quality of ideas or designs, using
Synthesis Solve a problem by combining two or more specific
Analysis Explain relationships or make inferences based on
Application Apply techniques and rules to solve straightforward
Comprehension Organize facts and main ideas
Knowledge Recall facts or observations

periment was done "correctly," they become puzzled and
often respond with illogical and sweeping conclusions such
as "all our data are bogus" or "the experimental apparatus is
obviously broken."
The Beginning of Analysis By about the third week
(after completing two oral and two written reports), most
students begin to understand how to analyze their data. At
this point, we see report excerpts such as
Our friction factors ranged from 0.0073 to 0.091 with a
mean error from accepted values of 32%. Error propaga-
tion estimated experimental errors at 31%. The biggest
contribution to the error came from pressure-drop
measurements. Finally, we observed that all of our
experimental friction factor values were below values from
the Moody diagram.
Our measured values of heat-transfer c.. i. w, ranged
from 571 to 1079 Btu/hrft2 F and differed from accepted
correlation values by 2.6% to 36%. All percent differences
were within the estimated error propagation; as a result,
we conclude that our measurements are as precise as the
instrumentation allows and contain no experimental bias.
Orifice coefficients using velocities measured with the
anemometer varied from literature values of 19-66%, while
coefficients using Pitot-tube data varied by 8-54%. This
difference was attributed to human error in using the
anemometer and reading Pitot-tube fluctuations.
Now students have progressed beyond routine data report-
ing to include a more detailed comparison with accepted
results, which indicates the beginning of legitimate data
analysis and the search for trends and correlations among
experimental variables. The students' message has become,
"Here's what we got, and here's how it compares quantita-
tively to accepted results." Often, however, inferences that
could be drawn from quantitative comparisons of experi-
mental and literature results are implied but not yet explic-
itly stated. Students at this stage are still reluctant to state

definitive conclusions about the data. Instead, we see gen-
eral statements such a "We conclude our data are unbiased"
or "Our results indicate the presence of human error." Ironi-
cally, writing quality tends to deteriorate as students are
pushed to more sophisticated levels of data analysis and
evaluation. Since writing and thinking are so closely
connected,171 students who are in the process of develop-
ing new modes of thinking often have significant trouble
articulating their ideas.
Moving from Analysis to Evaluation By the fifth week,
students are quite adept at reporting routine results and most
are capable of some reasonable data analysis. They are also
capable of synthesizing knowledge from different subject
areas (e.g., fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer, statis-
tics) without major difficulty. But developing the ability to
evaluate their results critically and to draw definitive conclu-
sions from their work is very difficult for the students, and
supervising faculty spend most of their time coaching the
teams to help them meet this goal. At this point, the better
students begin to write reports containing excerpts such as
For the 0.1-inch diameter orifice plate, we found an orifice
coefficient of 0.65 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.60 to
0.70, which compares favorably with the accepted value of
0.61. Thus, we conclude that the orifice meter is working
properly and operating as expected.
As shown in Table X, the agreement between the measured
velocity of sound using conservation of mass and the orifice
meter equation varied by less than 7%, indicating consistent
experimental orifice meter data. Experimental acoustic
velocity results are a function of orifice diameter. This result
shows an error in the estimation of the pressure ratio at
choking because the acoustic velocity should be independent
of orifice diameter.
The experimental friction factor values from the steel tubing
tended to lie above the correlated smooth pipe curve,
indicating the tubing had an inside roughness greater than

Summary of Student Feedback Results

Disagreeing or Percentage
Strongly Disagreeing Neutral

I better understand the differences between
lower-order thinking and higher-order thinking. 0.0
My higher-order thinking skills have improved. 2.4
My knowledge of statistics and error analysis 2.4
has improved.
My written communication skills have improved. 2.0
My oral communication skills have improved. 5.9
My ability to work in teams has improved. 7.3
I believe this course was worth the time and effort. 7.2

Agreeing or
Strongly Agreeing




Chemical Engineering Education

expected. We calculated the roughness of the steel tubing to
be 0.00053, which is 15% higher than the literature value for
steel pipe in [our text]. We conclude the tubing has a rough
deposit on the inside wall, maybe from hard water.
Students have now moved beyond data reporting and simple
comparisons and have begun developing inferences about
what the results actually mean. Their message has become,
"Here's what we got, here's how it compares to accepted
results, and therefore, here's what we think it means." Be-
cause most of the students lack extensive industrial experi-
ence, the inferences are generally not very sophisticated, but
they do help students begin to understand the limitations of
published results and correlations and the importance of
engineering judgment in professional practice. We also ob-
serve that by the fifth week, the quality and depth of writing
begins to improve-students are becoming more capable of
expressing their newly developed ways of thinking.


At the end of each six-week session, we ask students to
provide feedback about what they believe they learned in the
course; a summary of results from the first session of 1997
are shown in Table 4. Approximately 90% of the students
believed they better understood the concept of higher-order
thinking and that their own higher-order thinking skills im-
proved in the course; about the same percentage also be-
lieved their oral and written communication skills had im-
proved, while nearly 93% believed their knowledge of sta-
tistical analysis improved.
Overall, 83% of the students believed the course was
worth the tremendous time and effort involved (approxi-
mately 60-80 hours per week). One student commented that
"for all the pain and suffering, field session was definitely
worth it. I learned more in six weeks than during three years
of class." Another stated that "field session was very diffi-
cult, but it was also rewarding. I think its focus should
continue to stress what will be expected of us on the job."
We receive similar feedback from our alumni, a majority of
whom list the unit operations laboratory as the most valuable
course they took at CSM.


The unit operations laboratory course we have described is
designed to provide undergraduate chemical engineering stu-
dents with instruction and practice in developing their higher-
order thinking and communication skills. Faculty help stu-
dents improve these skills throughout the course by acting as
coaches and Socratic questioners rather than lecturers. Stu-
dents are generally not able to effectively analyze and evalu-
ate experimental data when they begin the course, but do
improve during the six-week laboratory session. The net
result is students who have acquired a deeper and more
meaningful understanding of chemical engineering funda-
Spring 1998

mental and professional practice.
For those faculty who would like to use the unit operations
laboratory to promote enhanced higher-order thinking in
their students, we offer the following observations and rec-
Although the "total immersion" summer session is
advantageous for helping our students improve their
higher-order thinking and communication skills, our
techniques should also work using a conventional
laboratory course schedule offered during the aca-
demic year.
We know of no techniques that magically help
students become better thinkers and communicators-
the keys are to set high expectations at the outset of
the course and to provide a laboratory setting that
facilitates student growth and development by
maximizing faculty/student interaction. The "prelab"
conference is a crucial part of the course structure
because it allows faculty to nudge students toward
high levels of thinking and problem solving in each
> Expect that the development of higher-order thinking
skills will be a slow and sometimes frustrating
process for most students. Be aware of where each
student is comfortably functioning on Bloom's
taxonomy and push him or her to the next level. Think
of the process as building a scaffold one level at a
time-each level must be reached and solidified
before attempting to move on to higher levels.
1 Depending on the background and experience of
students in the course, instruction and practice in
team-building skills may be necessary. Don't group
students together and expect they will automatically
form a functioning team unless they have had
previous practice in doing so.

1. "Educating Tomorrow's Engineers,"ASEE Prism, p. 11, May/
June (1995)
2. "Criteria for Accrediting Programs in Engineering," Accredi-
tation Board for Engineering and Technology, Baltimore,
MD (1998) (available on the ABET WWW homepage at
3. Teslow, J.L., L.E. Carlson, and R.L. Miller, "Constructivism
in Colorado: Applications of Recent Trends in Cognitive
Science," ASEE Proceedings, p. 136 (1994)
4. Atman, C.J., and I. Nair, "Constructivism: Appropriate for
Engineering Education?" ASEE Proceedings, p. 1310 (1992)
5. Pavelich, M.J., B.M. Olds, and R.L. Miller, "Real-World
Problem Solving in Freshman/Sophomore Engineering," in
New Directions in Teaching and Learning, p. 45, J. Gainen
and E.W. Willemsen, eds., Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Fran-
cisco, CA (1995)
6. Bloom, B.S., ed., Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, David
McKay Co., New York, NY (1956)
7. Zinsser, W., Writing to Learn, Harper & Row, Publishers,
New York, NY (1988) 1

R learning in industry

This column provides examples of cases in which students have gained knowledge, insight, and experience in the
practice of chemical engineering while in an industrial setting. Summer internships and co-op assignments typify
such experiences; however, reports of more unusual cases are also welcome. Description of analytical tools used and
the skills developed during the project should be emphasized. These examples should stimulate innovative ap-
proaches to bring real world tools and experiences back to campus for integration into the curriculum. Please submit
manuscripts to Professor W. J. Koros, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712.


Internships Through the Eyes of Students and Industry

Typically, the voice heard in these contributions is the
faculty or industrial mentor who supervised the internship.
While the mentor is present in this article, the dominant
voice is that of the student who experienced several intern-
ships and has reflected on the value of his experiences and
what he has learned from them. Therefore, although this
"Learning in Industry" contribution is somewhat different
than the typical article in this series, I think you willfind it
usefdu and interesting.
Bill Koros, Editor

clearly, there are many motivations for industry to
involve students in programs as side-by-side work
ers with degree-holding engineers. This article de-
scribes a special example of such a program, titled IN-
ROADS,"' aimed at injecting bright minority students into
the professional world of engineering. The tone of the article

Bill Campbell currently works for Apache Cor-
poration as a Senior Staff Reservoir Engineer for
the offshore Gulf of Mexico region. He has been
employed by Apache Corporation since 1994,
having previously worked for Conoco Inc. for three
years and Oryx Energy for eleven years. He re-
ceived his BS in chemical engineering from the
University of Texas in 1980. 1 1

Damian Gumpel received his BS in chemical
engineering from the University of Texas at Aus-
tin in 1997 and is beginning his career at Andersen
Consulting.While at UT he served as President
of the school chapter of AIChE. He is an alumnus
of the INROADS program and is a recipient of
the INROADS Spirit of Excellence Award.

differs a bit from other "learning in Industry" contributions,
but its emphasis on the student perspective of such programs
should be useful to those more interested in "outcomes"
rather than in formal requirements as a measure of educa-
tion. One outcome of a successful intern experience is the
establishment of a link between the student and his or her
mentor that extends well beyond the period of the formal
A short industrial perspective is offered first, followed by
a description of the formal INROADS program. Finally,
there is a personal commentary of how the industrial com-
mitment and private efforts like INROADS impacts a minor-
ity student seeking to explore the industrial world of engi-
neering as a career option.

An Industrial Perspective of Internships
by Bill Campbell, Apache Corporation
Summer internships are extremely valuable, both to the
student and to the recipient company. In experiencing the
daily operation of industry prior to leaving the classroom,
the intern can avoid some of the many "rude awakenings"
that lurk outside of the college environment. For example,
there are fewer days to sleep late or to take off, there are
work assignments that have significant monetary impact on
the company, and there are numerous opportunities for so-
cial interaction. Some other benefits to the student are:
SThe internship provides the invaluable experience of
"teamwork." Regardless of one's intelligence, GPA, or
work ethic, working with other professionals in a team
environment is a fact of life in today's corporate
America. Functioning as an integral part of a team is

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 1998

Chemical Engineering Education

critical in the business world and is a highly regarded
skill that can be gained through work experience.
The internship gives the student a chance to answer
some "gut-level" questions, such as: Do I like working
in this industry? Would I enjoy working for this com-
pany? Am I more suited for office or field work? What
position would I like to attain in the future?
The internship gives the student confidence to compete
in today's business world. The intern soon realizes that
he or she not only can meet the demands of corporate
America, but can also exceed them. This kind of success
allows the individual to raise his or her own self-esteem
in order to pursue a particular study and chosen career.
The company benefits from internships by having some-
one who can go forward with projects that have been put on
the "back burner." Most companies in the 90s have some
low-priority projects that need to be attended to but which
cannot be immediately completed due to current staffing
levels. Another benefit is that interns can provide additional
technical support through computer applications that are
taught in today's classrooms but which are not readily avail-
able to the seasoned professional. The intern also provides a
preview of his or her work habits prior to the company
extending an offer of permanent employment. Additional
considerations of internship are that the student often gives
the professional a new perspective in regard to completing
job assignments and enlightens the professional as to what is
being taught in today's classroom.
In summary, the relationship between the intern and the
company can be described in 90s terminology as a "win-
win" situation. That is, both parties benefit from the arrange-

The INROADS Program The internship experience
described here resulted from a program that is now over 25
years old, titled INROADS, which provides a unique vehicle
for students from under-represented groups to enter the busi-
ness world.
Specifically, INROADS is a private, nonprofit organiza-
tion with the mission "to develop and place talented minor-
ity youth in business and industry and prepare them for
corporate and community leadership." Frank C. Carr founded
the program in 1971 in Chicago. What began with just a
handful of high-school students from the Chicago barrios
has now expanded to fifty affiliates across the United States,
Canada, and Mexico. Currently, there are 6,000 interns, 913
sponsoring companies, and 6,500 graduates of the INROADS
program from Hispanic, African, and Native American back-
The program involves more than just an internship to
occupy the student's time during the summer break. The
interns benefit from tutoring and academic support, from

Spring 1998

training workshops in seven skill areas (communication,
self-management, business sophistication, management, valu-
ing diversity, academic/technical, and community involve-
ment and leadership), from coaching on career goals, and
from networking with ambitious students and professionals
who have similar goals. In the performance evaluation, the
interns and their business coordinators meet at the end of the
summer tour to review and provide feedback on the intern's

Student Perspective of Internships
by Damicin Gumpel
Having just graduated from high school and with college
looming on the horizon, I wasn't sure I had made the right
choice in accepting a summer internship. At that point in my
life, I wondered if the best thing to do with my summer
might be to put the word "school" in my brain's archives and
just rest, or maybe get a job that required no thought. Fortu-
nately, I had already made the commitment, and I felt I had
to keep it. So thoughts of packing my bags with sandals and
sunscreen and heading off to "Bumville" for the next three
months died on the vine. The resulting intern experience was
not only valuable but also came at a key time in my life. My
first summer internships were at Apache Corporation as part
of the INROADS program, and my most recent internship
was with 3M Corporation, which I believe I received as a
result of my previous intern work experience.
General Benefits of the Internships Beside the obvious
fact that an internship is a summer job that brings much-
needed income to the coffers of a college student, it provides
a plethora of intangible benefits and opportunities. As is true
with just about everything else in life, however, what you get
out of an internship is in direct proportion to what you put
into it. Some of the skills that an internship can provide to a
willing individual are:
Organization. For the first time in my life, someone
besides my parents was looking over my shoulder on a
daily basis. As the number of tasks and their complex-
ity increased, it became obvious that I had to develop a
sense of organization and an awareness of my work
area since I was the one responsible for knowing where
everything was. I found I was more inclined to
contribute ideas when everything was neat and tidy. By
forcing myself to become organized, I developed a
certain discipline that spread out and affected other
areas of my work ethic. This skill was put to good use
more than once in my journey through the demanding
chemical engineering curriculum.
C Communication. Society clearly could not have
evolved to its current complexity without efficient
communication at various levels of subtlety and
through various media. The same fact applies to work,


where an ineffective communicator often does not
advance through the ranks due to that deficiency alone.
The ability to communicate involves more than just
having a decent vocabulary; it is what you say and how
you say it that can spell success or doom. There is a
certain sense of professionalism that is prevalent
within the confines of an office environment. Granted,
the extent of this professionalism can vary greatly
depending on the location and the prevailing culture,
but it is up to the individual to know when and how to
communicate in the most productive fashion. I have
found that if I approach two different people for
assistance in a manner that is unique to each indi-
vidual, both instances will usually produce a positive
result. But switching my approaches would result in a
couple of blank stares.
This idea also applies to written communication, where
the two most important rules are: keep it brief and get
to the point. Gone are the college days of rambling
essays (a definite blessing for most of us). I have
noticed, however, that it is often harder to compress
my thoughts than it is to expand upon them. For
example, when I was first asked to draft memos to my
boss, my mentor would find and mark superfluous
material and return them to me time after time. I
sometimes felt as if I could do nothing right, and it was
tough for me to change, which leads me to the last
skill, humbleness.
) Humbleness. The smartest, most talented students
entering the business world can immediately look like
sardines amid the sharks. More often than not, they
find themselves surrounded by people who are at least
half again as old as they are, who have considerably
more practical experience, not to mention plain old life
experience, and who most often hold a more advanced
degree than the student. While some coworkers will try
to put the student "in his/her place," most will extend a
hand of friendship and assistance. As long as the intern
doesn't acquire a reputation of being cocky, closed-
minded, or brash, he or she is on the right track.

Apache Corporation Experience Although my summer
work at Apache corporation was not in the "traditional"
chemical engineering fields, it was extremely beneficial in
preparing me for industrial work in general. During my four
years of summer internships at Apache Corporation, I worked
on a wide range of assignments, ranging from trivial to
important. On reflection, I realize that many of these tasks
were significant. Listed below are some of my most impor-
tant assignments, with a brief description of how my chemi-
cal engineering education was put to use in executing them.
Field Studies on Marginal Oil and Gas Properties. This
work is generally considered low priority for the profes-

sional, but it needs to be completed prior to the sale of any
property in order to identify its value and to evaluate any
remaining potential. Using my knowledge of unit opera-
tions, it gave me the opportunity to calculate such things as
fluid flow, permeability, pressure loss, and static head.
Reserve Bookings on New Field Discoveries. This in-
volved applying the different terms and formulas used in an
economic analysis (NPV, IRR, and discount rate) that I
acquired from a chemical engineering elective on economic
analysis and applications.
Preparing Material for Presentation to Management at
the Quarterly Reviews. This work is significant since these
sessions are used to "showcase" the upcoming drilling op-
portunities to management and hopefully lead to their fund-
ing and ultimately to new discoveries. The training I got
throughout the chemical engineering curriculum when I had
to write lab reports and make project presentations stood me
in good stead. One class in particular that helped was a
technical communication class that stressed verbal and writ-
ten communication skills.
Providing Technical Support to My Mentor with Regard
to Computer Applications. For example, I created a spread-
sheet that evaluated three different methods used for volu-
metric calculations and selected the optimum for each par-
ticular application. I was able to do this as a result of a
computer course designed to introduce the chemical engi-
neering student to programming in applications such as Ex-
cel, Mathematica, and FORTRAN.

The internship also exposed me to some of the issues that
Bill Campbell mentioned in the first part of this article. First,
virtually all of the work was team-oriented. It involved par-
ticipating in meetings with geologists, geophysicists, and
managers who usually averaged at least fifteen years of
experience on the job. This meant that I had to find my niche
in the group in order to become an effective contributor
rather than a burden. Also, since most of my day-to-day
tasks involved working with Bill, I had to become accli-
mated to his work routine and style. This was the first time I
worked alongside someone for an extended period since
most projects I had been involved in at school were of a
shorter length and did not require more than a couple of
hours per day of interaction.
Second, the internship gave me the chance to explore the
"gut-level" questions Bill raised. All students at one point or
another ask themselves these questions, and the best way to
find the answers is through experience on the job. The four
summers I worked at Apache, along with this past summer at
3M, have been an enormous help in my personal search for
the answers. I realized I wanted to work in an office environ-
ment that requires team interaction and some travel and that
involves work in the energy industry. With this "road map"
in hand, I was able to narrow my job search to those compa-

Chemical Engineering Education

nies that included these characteristics. As a result, I found a
match with Andersen Consulting and wound up accepting an
offer from them.
The internships also helped reinforce my desire to pursue
an engineering degree. When I began college, I chose to go
into chemical engineering because I had enjoyed chemistry
in high school and my father was an engineer. I did not have
much else to go on, but as each summer passed, I was more
and more certain that this was a field I could succeed in.
I would not be in the position that I am in today without
the benefits of INROADS and my experiences at Apache
and 3M. Although I realize that not all students find them-
selves in a position to intern every summer, they should be
encouraged by their chemical engineering departments to
seek out internship opportunities. It is surprising to see just
how many industries are looking for chemical engineers
today. The versatile knowledge base that a chemical engi-
neer offers is unique and in demand. Faculty and advisors
should make every effort possible to help expose chemical
engineering undergraduates to this wide world of opportu-

1. Information relating to INROADS obtained from 1996 IN-
ROADS Annual Report and "Train to be a Leader." Head-
quarters are in St. Louis, Missouri; phone 314-241-7488. 1

Pneumatic Transport Studies
Continued from page 117.

parent 7-m long, 52-mm I.D. pipeline with a removable
section, a regulated air supply, and a solid particle collector.
The test section is made up of a 1.2-m long removable
section in the middle of the 7-m long tube. At the end of the
horizontal pipeline, a transparent T-bend is inserted so visu-
alization of the bend behavior can take place. The solids
collector was constructed from a 0.093-m3 cardboard drum
with an inlet of 100-mm I.D. The particles are separated
from the air as the flow passes through a paper filter bag.
Fine-particle collection was achieved with a double-paper
filter bag assembly. For the saltation velocity of a single
particle, a small slide valve was installed in the top section of
the pipeline to feed the individual particles, allowing the
behavior to be observed. In the three devices described, in-
house construction was required, but a number of the items
were purchased and incorporated into the overall design.
Pneumatic Conveying Loop
The pneumatic conveying system consists of a 14.5-m long,
50-mm I.D. horizontal copper pipeline with a 2.2-m long
vertical section, a return line, T-bends, and several transpar-
ent sections placed along the pipeline. A regulated com-

Spring 1998

pressed-air supply provides the gas at the pressure necessary
to convey the solids. A hopper placed on a scale and con-
nected through flexible connections to the collector and feeder
is used to continuously weigh the solids inventory. A solids
collector consists of a paper filter bag placed at the top of the
hopper. A gate valve is used to deliver the solids from the
hopper, and different settings can provide various flow rates
of the solids. The transparent sections allow visual observation
of the flow patterns. Morris couplings are used to seal the
connections and to keep the pipeline aligned (see Figure 4).
Wedge Construction
The wedge-shaped container was constructed of two pieces
of clear Plexiglas (76-cm high, 74-cm wide, 0.4-cm thick).
These were bolted to two steel supporting legs. Four bolts
(1.27-cm diameter, 0.96-cm long), two to each leg, were
used to attach each plastic sheet to the supporting legs. The
front plastic piece was scribed so that it had a 1-by- 1-cm grid
network across the entire area. The grid network formed a
convenient transparent graph for readily obtaining the posi-
tion of the black marker beads in the bed. The width of the
wedge, i.e., the distance between the Plexiglas faces, was
1.61 cm. Two brass rectangular bars (83.0-cm long, 1.61-cm
wide, 2.54-cm thick) were used to form the inclined surfaces
of the wedge. The surface of the brass bar adjacent to the
glass beads was machined to be flat, with a tolerance of +
0.05 mm. The brass bars were taped to take eight brass
screws (0.63-cm diameter, 0.96-cm long) on each side of the
bar. These screws were used to fasten the bars to the Plexiglas
at any desired inclination. A thin Plexiglas strip (76-cm long,
1.61-cm wide, 0.64-cm thick) was then placed on each ma-
chined brass bar surface to form the slide surface for the beads.
A vertical plastic disengaging section (6.35-cm high, 15.3-
cm wide, 1.61-cm deep) was located at the bottom of the
sloping sides of the wedge. The disengaging section was
included to even out velocity gradients that could have been
generated by the flow of beads through the slot located at the
bottom of this section. The slot was adjustable and was made
of two pieces of steel (17.0-cm long, 2-cm wide, 0.16-cm
thick) that were attached by means of screws to the vertical
front and back Plexiglas walls. The edges of the steel pieces
that formed the slot were machined within 0.05 mm to
ensure perfect mating when the edges met. The slot opening
was set with feeler gauges so that the opening was uniform
to within 0.05 mm across the width of the slot. The gate
was closed with a piece of tape simply by attaching the tape
to the front plastic wall. To start the flow of beads, the tape
was removed and the gate fell open, permitting the solids to
flow. The legs supporting the wedge had adjustable leveling
screws mounted underneath them. These leveling screws
were used to align the equipment vertically and horizontally.
It had been shown that unless this equipment was perfectly
aligned, it was impossible to obtain symmetrical velocity
profiles.'"4 0



Maple, Mathematica, MATLAB, and Excel

University of Canterbury Christchurch, New Zealand

he concept of using computers to help solve math-
ematical and computational problems has a particu-
lar appeal to engineers. Prior to the appearance of
personal computers, programs were coded in a computer
language, often FORTRAN, for a very specific application.
Later, generalized packages were developed to solve prob-
lems in particular disciplines. Some were purely calcula-
tional, to solve differential equations or to invert matrices;
others had more of an engineering flavor. Such specialized
engineering software was powerful, but had a narrow focus;
for example, there were programs for electrical circuit de-
sign, civil engineering structural calculations, or flowsheeting
programs for the design of chemical processing plants.
Software programs with a strong emphasis on calculation
and numerical evaluation continue to be marketed for the
personal computer. Reviews of individual packages outline
the latest features; for example, Maple V, Release 3,''i21
Mathematica 3.0,1341 MATLAB 5.0,[5-1 and Excel 7.0.1"11
Comparisons of some of these mathematical packages for
science and engineering education have been made by
Seiteri''l and Pattee.1 21
Two reports on the teaching of first-year undergraduate
calculus courses, using Mathematica, give favorable out-
comes.'13'41 Both courses are entirely computer based, on-
line with interactive text, and students have access to many
examples. Students see calculus as a course in scientific
measurement, calculation, and modeling through the use
of technology. "Technology also make it possible to
present the subject as a highly visual, often experimental,
scientific endeavor."' 51
When using Mathematica for teaching chemical engineer-
ing concepts in process control and reaction engineering,
Dorgan and McKinnoni"61 found that students had mixed but
generally positive reactions to its use. Several articles featur-
ing the use of symbolic algebra computing in control engi-
neering were published recently to foster a greater aware-
ness of the potential offered to engineers by environments
such as Mathematica and MATLAB.Ii7J's Munro"71 empha-

* Address: Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Murdoch
University, Perth, Western Australia

sized that there are many areas where symbolic computing
can offer significant improvements in the reliability and
accuracy of results obtained.
This article is concerned with these mathematical power
tools and will investigate general-purpose computer applica-
tions for mathematical calculations and symbolic algebraic
manipulation. Their comparison and evaluation will be from
the viewpoint of an undergraduate engineer seeking to solve
mathematical problems quickly and reliably and to commu-
nicate results. A direct comparison of each package with the
others will be given for each of the problems posed.

MapleTM performs computations that include symbolic
algebra and numeric approximations, linear algebra, calcu-
lus, trigonometry, differential calculus, infinite and indefi-
nite integration, modeling, statistics, and graphics, and pro-
duces program statements for a FORTRAN compiler. It is a
symbolic manipulative language that clearly displays alge-
braic expressions especially useful for integration and differ-
entiation.'"91 Barker considers Maple to be more powerful
than Mathematica when it comes to solving complex physics
MathematicaTM combines numerical calculations and sym-
bolic manipulations into an interactive environment, coupled

Judith Mackenzie is Senior Tutor in the School
of Engineering, University of Canterbury (New
Zealand). She has a Master's degree in Educa-
tion and is currently studying for a PhD in the
Department of Chemical and Process Engineer-
ing. Her topic is the application of computers to
innovative teaching in ChE education.

Maurice Alien is Associate Professor in the De-
partment of Instrumentation and Control Engi-
neering at Murdoch University (Perth, Western
Australia). His teaching and research centers on
process control, the modeling and simulation of
industrial processes, and the application of com-
puting to process engineering and teaching.
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 1998
Chemical Engineering Education

with graphic visualization and a high-level programming
language. The program is divided into a kernel, which does
the computation, and the front end, which provides the user-
interface and input capabilities. Mathematica equations are
stored and can be imported or exported in ASCII format,
favoring high portability. The Mathematica interface en-
ables users to organize text, graphics, computer output, and
pictures in a single 'notebook.' Included with Mathematica
are standard functions and add-ons that allow the advanced
user to perform more complex mathematical analysis.
MATLABTM is an interactive, matrix-based system for
scientific and engineering numerical computation and visu-
alization.12" The program operates with scalars, vectors, and
matrices from expressions entered by the user. A variety of
built-in functions can be used for displaying two- or three-
dimensional color graphics. The basic MATLAB package
may be extended with any of the different tool boxes de-
signed for engineering specialities such as systems identifi-
cation, optimization, control, spines, and Simulink. Electri-
cal engineers like MATLAB because it is matrix-based and
particularly suited for signal processing, digital communica-
tion, and control-system design. 22' A symbolic mathematics

Plate Temperature Distribution iBo-90
100 40-50
90 [030-40
80 1020-30

no L

0 Distance

Figure 1. Plate temperature distribution.

Plate Temperature Distribution
60 0 r10-10


0066 2070-80
0Wid5 Wdth 0.46070
020.2 0300

0 0 0 I -


Figure 2. Contour plot of plate temperature
distribution from Excel.
Spring 1998
Spring 1998

option in MATLAB uses the Maple kernel that extends its
numerical capabilities to algebraic manipulation.
Excel"' is a popular spreadsheet with limited symbolic
capability, but it is effective for small engineering calcula-
tions. The wide range of built-in mathematical and statistical
functions, the ease of interactive programming, ease of re-
use and modification, rapid graph generation, and on-line
help make it an efficient design and prototyping tool. Al-
though Excel was designed for business purposes, it is a
practical tool for scientists and engineers."31

To evaluate and compare the usefulness of these math-
ematical tools for teaching engineering problem solving,
four engineering problems were solved using each of the
four mathematical packages. Engineering problems consid-
ered were

The calculation and graphical display of a heat-
transfer calculation
The inversion of a large matrix as part of input-
output economic analysis
A root-finding calculation for control-system design
using the Bode stability criterion
The solution of a set of ordinary differential equa-
tions to evaluate the quality of the control-system

Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer

The two-dimensional steady-state conduction equation can
be discretized on a rectangular grid to relate the temperature
at any point to the temperatures at its four adjacent points.24'

Ti = T i +1Ti+j + Tj_1 +Tij+1 (1)
*J3 4
If the temperatures on the boundary are specified, then this
equation can be used to iteratively calculate the temperatures
at all points within the boundary. The rectangular configura-
tion of a spreadsheet conveniently conforms to this formula-
tion. Figures 1 and 2 show the temperature distribution of a
square plate, all boundaries at 0C except for a half of one
edge, unsymmetrically placed, at 1000C.
The results and graphs were generated in Excel in about 40
minutes. The programming capabilities of MATLAB and
Mathematica were used for the same calculation, but more
than twice the time was required for the programming. The
temperature results were easily and effectively graphed in
Excel, MATLAB, and Mathematica. Graphical represen-
tation facilitates the problem solving and verification
process, and color variation helps students to visualize
the problem solution.

Energy Analysis

Energy analysis is a tool to determine -
how much of an energy resource is re-
quired to enable a given good or service
to be produced and delivered to its con-
sumer, enabling a physical description of
the operation of a real-world process to be
formulated. Input-output analysis can be used for analyzing the
energy and environmental consequences of consumption. Peet125'
gives an example of energy analysis using 80 sectors.
Mathematically, the problem was that the data was avail-
able in the matrix form
X=AX+Y (2)
where X and Y are vectors of system inputs and outputs, and
A is the technical coefficient matrix. But the system was to
be analyzed in the form
X=(I-A)-'.Y (3)
where I is the identity matrix. Computationally, an 80-by-80
matrix was required to be subtracted from the identity matrix
and inverted. The matrix was easily inverted with
Mathematica and MATLAB, but Excel was unable to handle
such a large matrix. It was important, however, to have the
data in the correct format before importing.
The data was saved as plain ASCII text and imported into
Mathematica with
mymatrix=ReadList["c:\excel\energy.dat", Number,
RecordList -> True]
and into MATLAB with
load c:\excel\energy.dat
Maple has a "read" function for importing data, but the large
matrix data was unable to be imported into Maple.
After solving a large system of linear equations, an estima-
tion of the condition of the computed solution is important
for verification of numerical accuracy. Maple and MATLAB
have functions to estimate the condition number of the in-
verted matrix to provide this verification."61 The condition
number of the matrix in the example above was 9.8, indicat-
ing that the inversion was relatively accurate and resulting in
the loss of only one decimal place of significance.

Root-Finding for Control System Design

An ideal proportional-integral-derivative controller, hav-
ing the Laplace transform,

m=Kc I+-+Tds e (4)
( T, )
where m and e are the valve position and error, Kc is the

Figure 3. Control system block diagram.

F := P-ArcTan[xTa] ArcTan[xb] -ArcTan[xTc]
-ArcTan[xTe] +Arcran[xTd- Ri / x]
Ta= 1;b=2; Tc= 3;Te= 4; Ti= 7;
RPi= If[Ti> 0.0, l/Ti, 0.0];
Td= Ti/4;P= x;
FindRoot[F== 0, {x, 0.5}]
Plot F Degree, x, 0.002, 2
xesLabel -> "x", "y"
x-> 0.716372


0.5 1

Time (sec)

Figure 4. Mathematica output to confirm location of the
angular frequency root.

proportional sensitivity, and T, and T, are the integral and
derivative times, was to be designed for the fourth-order
process (see Figure 3)

( lT l (5)
(Tas + 1)(Tbs + 1)(Tes + I)(Tes + 1)(5)

where T,, Tb, T,, and T, are time constants. The Bode stabil-
ity criterion1271 requires solution of the equation

F(x)= r- tan-'(Tax)- tan- (Tbx) tan'(Tcx)

-tan-l(Tex)+tan-1 TdX-- =0 (6)
S Tix 1
for the angular frequency, x. This numerical approach,
coupled with the calculation of the amplitude ratio, replaces
the well-known graphical procedure1271 using the Bode dia-
gram graph paper.
This root-finding problem was successfully and quickly
solved by each of the four applications. The dialogue with
Mathematica, with the output indented, is shown in Figure 4.
Excel was used in two ways for this problem. First, a
Newton root-finding method was derived by hand, taking
about 50 minutes to derive and verify the derivatives. Each
Chemical Engineering Education

1.5 2

successive iteration was a row of the spreadsheet. Alterna-
tively, when the "goal"-seeking command was used, only 5
minutes were required, similar to the time required for any
of the other applications. But in the full-design procedure,
the root-finding had to be repeated three times, with only
minor modification. Each of the applications supports the

< Ta=l; Tb=2; Tc=3; Te=4; Ti=7;
Td=Ti/4; Nf=l; u=0; r=l; Kc=5;
G=Kc(l+RTi/s+Td s)
Df=(Ta s+1) (Tb s+1)(Tc s+1) (Te s+1)
c=FullSimplify[(Nf u+Nf G r)/s/(Df+G Nf)]
InverseLaplaceTransform [c, s, t]
Plot[%,{t,0,60), Frame->True,
FrameLabel->{"Time (sec) ","Response")]


0.8 /
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
'mme sec

Figure 5. Time response in Mathematica-set-point

Ta=l; Tb=2;Tc=3;Te=4;Ti=7;Td=Ti/4;Kc=3
a=Kc*(l -Td*(Te+Tc)/Tc/Te)/Te;
-1/Tb,0,0;0,0,l/Tc,-1/Tc,0;0,0,0,1/Te,- /Te]
for i=1:250
p=expm(A*t)*[l 1 1 1 1]';
pa(i)=p(1); pb(i)=p(2); pc(i)=p(3);
pd(i)=p(4); pe(i)=p(5); x(i)-t;
xlabel ('Time (sec)'), ylabel ('Response');

Figure 6. Control system initial condition response.
Spring 1998

construction of user-defined functions, similar to functions,
procedure, or subroutines in procedural programming languages.

Differential Equation Solution for Time Response

The control system design in Problem 3 had the form
shown in Figure 3. Problem 4 was concerned with the re-
sponse of this system to a change in set point, r, or to a
disturbance, u, in order to confirm the control-system design.
Differences between the nature of the mathematical appli-
cations became more evident when solving this problem.
Maple and Mathematica provided the simplest solution. The
relationships defining the closed-loop transfer function were
defined and solved automatically for the Laplace transform
of the process variable, c. The inverse Laplace transform
function[2g] available in both Maple and Mathematica gave
the required time response within an elapsed time of 5 min-
utes. The Mathematica notebook dialogue and response are
shown in Figure 5.
A finite difference approach could have been taken in
MATLAB and one of its differential equation solvers (ODE23
or ODE45) used. But since the problem was linear, the
closed-loop transfer function was rewritten in state space
form, and the matrix exponential function was used to calcu-
late the time response.
The MATLAB m-file to set up the process matrix A,
calculate its eigenvalues, and derive and plot the time re-
sponse is shown in Figure 6. The algebra required 100 minutes,
setting up the MATLAB calculation an additional 10 minutes,
and the actual calculation and plotting about 10 seconds.
Excel did not have differential equation support. A solu-
tion was obtained by deriving the differential equation for
the controller and each of the first-order elements from its
transfer function and using a finite difference approximation
to provide a recursive relationship (see Figure 7). Setting up

Figure 7. Excel graph of time response to a
unit step in the load, u.


Time (sec)

the spreadsheet took about 60 minutes and its calculation
several seconds. Modeling the time response in this way
enabled variables to be changed, giving an almost simulta-
neous change in the graph.


Attributes of the mathematical packages were rated on a
one-to-five-point scale (one being the worst and five the
best) to assess their scope, intuitiveness, ease of use, graph-
ics, and fitness for engineering applications; the results are
shown in Table 1. All four of the packages are powerful
problem-solving tools. In this evaluation, Mathematica was
ranked ahead of MATLAB, with Maple following a close
third and Excel fourth. But such comparisons are subjective
and the differences between the packages were small.

The best application in a particular instance depends heavily on
the nature of the problem. Maple had the advantage of giving a
symbolic analytical solution, but did not have the numerical capa-
bilities of Mathematica, MATLAB, or Excel. Each of the three
"M"s dealt well with symbolic manipulation and graphics. Excel
displayed the most flexible graphics with, for example, the capacity
to easily rotate three-dimensional plots. The Mathematica note-
book provided an excellent interactive feature for documentation,
report writing, and teaching. The advantages of a particular appli-
cation are lost if extensive work by hand is required to express the
problem appropriately for that application.
Our opinion is that engineers need to be skilled in at least one
spreadsheet such as Excel, a programming language, and at least
one of the other mathematical packages. If an engineer is heavily
involved in matrix manipulation and linear systems, then MATLAB
has advantages, especially if its extensive optional tool boxes are
relevant. Equally, Mathematica has distinct advantages in its use of
a natural language, the "notebook" feature, and user interface.
Maple was the most difficult package to learn and program, but was
useful for verification of mathematical analysis.
The best tool depends on individual needs, and the time spent
learning the applications will reap the benefits of these powerful
mathematical tools. How to incorporate them into our graduate and
undergraduate courses is a key issue for engineering educators.

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System: A Review," J. of Appl. Econometrics, 10(3), 329
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7. Foster, K.R., "Matrices and Much, Much More-MATLAB,"

Evaluation of the Mathematical Problem-Solving Tools


Ease of use
Fitness for engineering applications
Symbolic manipulation

aple Mathematica
4 5
4 5
3 5
3 4
4 5
5 5
23 29

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September (1995)
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ing with Technology Programme: Project 15," Imperial Col-
lege, London, and The University of Leeds (1995)
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Curriculum," Chem. Eng. Ed., 30(2), 136 (1996)
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Using Mathematica and a Graphical User Interface," Comp.
and Control Eng. J., 64, April (1997)
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NY (1993)
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May (1991)
21. Etter, D.M., Engineering Problem Solving with MATLAB,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1993)
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MATLAB," IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 12(6), 23
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Energy Requirements and Environmental Consequences of
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sis and Control, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1965)
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AP Professional, Boston, MA (1994) 0

Chemical Engineering Education



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Dalhousie University
Dartmouth College
University of Dayton
University of Delaware
Drexel University
University of Florida
Florida Institute of Technology
Florida State/Florida A&M University
Georgia Institute of Technology
Hampton University
University of Houston
Howard University
University of Idaho
University of Illinois, Chicago
University of Illinois, Urbana
Illinois Institute of Technology
University of Iowa
Iowa State University
Johns Hopkins University
University of Kansas
Kansas State University

University of Kentucky
Lafayette College
Lakehead University
Lamar University
Laval University
Lehigh University
Loughborough University
Louisiana State University
Louisiana Technical University
University of Louisville
University of Maine
Manhattan College
Marshall University Graduate College
University of Maryland
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
University of Massachusetts
University of Massachusetts, Lowell
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
McGill University
McMaster University
McNeese State University
University of Michigan
Michigan State University
Michigan Technical University
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota, Duluth
University of Mississippi
Mississippi State University
University of Missouri, Columbia
University of Missouri, Rolla
Monash University
Montana State University
University of Nebraska
University of Nevada at Reno
University of New Hampshire
University of New Haven
New Jersey Institute of Technology
University of New Mexico
New Mexico State University
North Carolina A & T University
North Carolina State University
University of North Dakota
Northeastern University
Northwestern University
University of Notre Dame
Ohio State University
Ohio University
University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma State University
Oregon State University
University of Ottawa
University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania State University
University of Pittsburgh

Polytechnic Institute of New York
Princeton University
Purdue University
Queen's University
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
University of Rhode Island
Rice University
University of Rochester
Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology
Rowan College
Rutgers, The State University
Ryerson Polytechnic University
San Jose State University
University of Saskatchewan
University of Sherbrooke
University of South Alabama
University of South Carolina
South Dakota School of Mines
University of South Florida
University of Southern California
University of Southwestern Louisiana
State University of New York, Buffalo
Stevens Institute of Technology
University of Sydney
Syracuse University
University of Tennessee
Tennessee Technological University
University of Texas
Texas A & M University, College Station
Texas Tech University
University of Toledo
Tri-State University
Tufts University
University of Tulsa
Tuskegee University
University of Utah
Vanderbilt University
Villanova University
University of Virginia
Virginia Polytechnic Institute
University of Wales, Swansea
University of Washington
Washington State University
Washington University
University of Waterloo
Wayne State University
West Virginia Institute of Technology
West Virginia University
Widener University
University of Wisconsin
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
University of Wyoming
Yale University
Youngstown State University


FALL 1998


Deadline is June 1, 1998

Full Text

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