Chemical engineering education

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Title:
Chemical engineering education
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CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
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v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
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American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
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Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
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regular

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Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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serial   ( sobekcm )

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Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
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Title from cover.
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Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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issn - 0009-2479
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ddc - 660/.2/071
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Full Text











chemical engineering education




VOLUME 30 NUMBER 4 FALL 1996





Graduate Education Issue


Feature Articles...
N | Mentoring Junior Faculty (page 244)
Ottino
N A Course in Discrete Mathematics (page 240) ASEE
Fahidy
ChE
S A Graduate Course on Pollution Prevention (page 246) Di
Grant, Overcash, Beaudoin
3 Confessions of a Graduate Student Recruiter (page 262) Awards
SKelly (page 279)
SGraduate Certificate in Environmental Auditing page 252)
S |Kummler, Hughes, McMicking
S Teaching Biochemical Separations to Engineers (page 286)
5 Todd, Harrison, Dunlop
.2 0 Real-Time, Sensor-Based Computing in the Laboratory (page 280)
*4 Badmus, Fisher, Shah
SLearning in Industry: Semiconductor Wafer Fabrication (page 266)
SBowers
U The Wind-Chill Paradox: Four Problems in Heat Transfer (page 256)
Brauner, Shacham
SDevelopment of a Multimedia-Based Instructional Program (page 272)
Basu, De. Basu, Marsh
SN Structural Stability of Nonlinear Convection-Reaction Models (page 234)
t e Balakotaiah
Random Thoughts: ...And if You Believe That, I've Got a Bridge to Sell You (page 278)
Felder



Index: 1992-1996 (page 290)









I.N*D*E*X


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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS:
Chemical Engineering Education
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PAST CHAIRMEN *
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Chemical Engineering Education


Volume 30


Number 4


Fall 1996


> GRADUATE EDUCATION
234 Structural Stability of Nonlinear Convection-Reaction Models,
Vemuri Balakotaiah

240 A Course in Discrete Mathematics, Thomas Z. Fahidy

244 Mentoring Junior Faculty, Julio M. Ottino

246 A Graduate Course on Pollution Prevention in Chemical Engi-
neering,
Christine S. Grant, Michael Overcash, Stephen P. Beaudoin

252 A Graduate Certificate in Environmental Auditing,
Ralph H. Kummler, Colleen Hughes, James H. McMicking

262 Confessions of a Graduate Student Recruiter, Robert M. Kelly

272 Development of a Multimedia-Based Instructional Program: For
Graduate and Senior-Level Class
P. Basu, D.S. De, A Basu, D. Marsh

280 Real-Time, Sensor-Based Computing in the Laboratory,
0.0. Badmus, D. Grant Fisher, Sirish L. Shah

286 Teaching Biochemical Separations to Engineers,
Paul Todd, Roger G. Harrison, Jr., Eric H. Dunlop

> CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS
256 The Wind-Chill Paradox: Four Problems in Heat Transfer,
Neima Brauner, Mordechai Shacham

> RANDOM THOUGHTS
278 ... And if You Believe That, I've Got a Bridge to Sell You,
Richard M. Felder

> LEARNING IN INDUSTRY
266 Semiconductor Wafer Fabrication: An Opportunity for Chemical
Engineers, Tom Bowers


255 Positions Available
271 Book Review
279 ChE Division Awards
290 Index: 1992-1996



CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering
Division. American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Copyright 1996 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American
Society for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and
not necessarily those of the ChE Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibilityfor them. Defective copies replaced
if notified within 120 days of publication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and
availability. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department., University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611-6005.


Fall 1996















STRUCTURAL STABILITY

OF NONLINEAR


CONVECTION-REACTION MODELS



VEMURI BALAKOTAIAH
University of Houston Houston, TX 77204-4792


he design and simulation of chemical reactors in-
volves mathematical modeling of the various trans-
port and reaction phenomena occurring in them. Since
these processes are often complex, simplifying assumptions
are made in developing a model. Detailed models, which
include most of the effects, contain a large number of param-
eters and may be unyielding to analysis or computation,
while simplified models having fewer parameters make the
task easier. A natural question that arises is whether or not
the simplified models retain the qualitative features of the
system under investigation. Generally speaking, a model is
said to be structurally stable if its qualitative features do not
change when it is subjected to small perturbations. Most
linear models that remain linear after the perturbation may
be shown to be structurally stable. This may not be the case
with nonlinear models. The purpose of this article is to
illustrate the structural stability of a widely used nonlinear
convection-reaction model, namely, the pseudohomogeneous
adiabatic plug flow (tubular) reactor model.
This model is based on the assumptions of flat velocity
profile, negligible axial dispersion of heat, mass, inter-phase
gradients, and no heat loss from the reactor. The model is
described by the initial value problem

dx ( x eprBx
= Da(1 x)exp x (la)
d (+Bx/ y)


0=Bx
x=O at =0


(1c)


Here, x, 9, and t represent the dimensionless conversion,
temperature, and distance along the tube, respectively. This
model contains three parameters: the dimensionless activa-
tion energy (y), the dimensionless adiabatic temperature
rise (B), and the dimensionless residence time or Damkohler
number (Da). It reduces to a linear model when one of the
reaction parameters (y or B) is zero. Since it is described by


an initial value problem (and the function appearing on the
righthand side of Eq. (la) satisfies the Lipschitz condition),
it has a unique solution for all values of the parameters.
Equivalently, the bifurcation diagram (or a plot) of exit
conversion or temperature versus Da is single valued for all
values of the reaction parameters B and y. When this model
is perturbed by including effects such as axial dispersion,
recycle, or interphase gradients, the initial value problem
becomes a boundary value problem that may have multiple
solutions. When the magnitude of the perturbation is small
and the boundary value problem has a unique solution, we
expect this solution to be close to that of the initial value
problem of the plug flow model. But when the boundary
value problem has multiple solutions, the qualitative fea-
tures of the solution are different. In this case, the simplified
model does not retain the correct qualitative features. Here,
we determine the magnitude of the perturbation at which
the qualitative features (i.e., the number of solutions) of
the perturbed problem begin to differ from those of the
unperturbed problem.
In this paper we will examine four different perturbations
of the plug flow model, each containing one extra parameter
and reducing to the plug flow model in the limit that the
additional parameter (and hence the perturbation) be-
comes vanishingly small. We will consider the effects of
axial dispersion, recycle, discretization (cell model), and


Vemuri Balakotaiah is Professor of Chemical
Engineering at the University of Houston. He
received his B. Tech from the Indian Institute of
Technology (Madras) in 1978, and his Ph.D.
from the University of Houston in 1982, both in
chemical engineering. His teaching and research
interests are in the areas of chemical reaction
engineering, transport phenomena, and applied
mathematics.


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1996
Chemical Engineering Education











inter-phase gradients. We place emphasis here on the
results and their interpretation and omit the algebraic and
computational details.

ANALYSIS OF
PERTURBED CONVECTION-REACTION MODELS


by Eq. (lb) is valid, and we obtain the perturbed model
containing a single extra parameter, namely the Peclet num-
ber, Pe:

1 d2x d ,ex Bx (
2 ---+Da(l-x)exp --Bx- =0 (3a)
Pe d42 d l+Bx/y


Axial Disperson Model


1 dx
-----x=O at =O0;
Pe d


dx
-dx =0 at I=1
d4


When axial dispersion of heat and mass are included, the
adiabatic plug flow model is perturbed to the adiabatic axial
dispersion model given by the following two-point bound-
ary value problem:

1 d2x dx
Sd2x +Da(x) exp (2a)
Pem di2 di 1+0/y

Sd2-0 do+BDa(1-x)exp =0 (2b)
Peh di2 d


dx
-= 0 at b=1
dO
=-0 at =1
d


1 dx
-x=O at =0;
Pem d
1 dO
--- 0=0 at -=0;
Peh d


This model contains two extra parameters, namely the
mass and heat Peclet numbers. In order to reduce the number
of parameters to one we shall assume that the Peclet num-
bers are equal (Pem=Peh). A similar analysis can be done by
assuming Pem = o and Peh finite or any fixed ratio of Peclet
numbers, but the dispersion (conduction) term
in the energy balance must be retained since the
nonlinearity of the model is in the temperature. 0
With equal Peclet numbers, the invariant given


B

(1+ B/)6


4


2


S10




1
I
0.24


0.19
Da (1 + B/y)


Figure 2. Van
(0e) and the re
teresis point w


This form of the axial dispersion model was first analyzed
by Hlavacek and Hoffmannr' in 1970 and many others since
then. It reduces to the plug flow model in the limit Pe--> o.
Although our interest is mainly for large Pe values, it should
also be pointed out that in the limiting case of Pe approach-
ing zero, x (and 0) becomes independent of and Eqs.
(3a,b) can be integrated to give the CSTR model

x-Da(1-x)exp Bx =0 (4)
1+Bx/yJ=


The bifurcation diagram of x versus Da given by Eq. (4) has
(2c) a hysteresis point at


1 y-4
x=-2 y-2
2y-2


Da=(1-4/y)e-2;


2
9=-
1-2/y
4
B= -Bh
1-4/y


For any fixed y>4 and B x versus Da is single valued, while for B>Bh it is S-
shaped with an ignition and extinction point. For 7->o
(positive exponential approximation), the hysteresis point
coordinates approach the
limit Bh =4,Da=e-2, and
x=0.5 (=2), while for
.." B---> (negligible reactant
consumption or zeroth
order reaction) they
.. .- approach the limit
../y .7=4,Da*(=BDa)=e-2
Sand 0=4.
We now examine how
S. the hysteresis point co-
o10 10 102 10 ordinates change as the
Peclet number is increased
"" from zero to infinity.
/ B For any finite Pe, the hys-
Steresis point can be calcu-
lated using the procedure
Outlined by Subramanian
and Balakotaiah.[2] Fig-
ures 1 and 2 show the
t10-1 10o0 102 to3 dependence of the hyster-
esis point on the Peclet
nation of the exit temperature number for three cases
residence time (Da) at the hys- ( 7oo, y=B, and B-oo).
ith the Peclet number. We will discuss the results


Figure 1. Hysteresis locus of the axial disperson
model (boundary separating the regions of
unique and multiple solutions of Eq. (3)).


Fall 1996


-TT






r--











The purpose of this article is to illustrate the structural stability of a widely used
nonlinear convection-reaction model, namely, the pseudohomogeneous
adiabatic plug flow (tubular) reactor model.


for the first case only (y- >) since the results and their
interpretation for the other two cases are similar.
As expected, the coordinates of the hysteresis point ap-
proach the CSTR limit for Pe -0 (Figure 1). For large Pe
values, however, Bh is a logarithmic function of Pe. Equiva-
lently, the magnitude of the perturbation (1/Pe value) at
which multiple solutions appear is an exponentially small
function of B. The results in Figure 2 show that the exit
temperature 01(=0(1)) and the Damkdhler number at the
hysteresis point also vary logarithmically with Pe. These
results may be anticipated by examining the bifurcation dia-
gram of the plug flow model (for y 0) given by the alge-
braic equation
0,
j dO
Da= (6)
(B 0)exp() (6)

Differentiation of Eq. (6) gives

dDa exp(-) )
dO, (B-01)

d2Da (1+0 B)exp(-1)
d02 )12 (7b)
dO1 (B-01)2

It follows from Eqs. (7b) and (6) that the bifurcation diagram
of the plug flow model has an inflexion point (defined by
d2Da/d02=0) at 0 =B-l, Da=1/B, and at which the first
derivative is exponentially small (Da/d0 =exp(1-B)). We
also note that the inflexion point nearly satisfies the condi-
tions of a hysteresis point (defined by dDa/d0l=0,
d2Da/d02 =0). Thus, only an exponentially small perturba-
tion is sufficient to make the first derivative dDa/d0, also
zero. By examining the numerical results shown in Figures 1
and 2, it can be verified that an excellent approximation to
the hysteresis locus for large B values is given by
2
= Bexp(2-B) (8a)
Pe
0, =B-1 (8b]

DaB=I+1 (8c'
B
In summary, it may be concluded that the plug flow model
is structurally unstable to the axial dispersion type perturba-
tion in the sense that the magnitude of the perturbation (1/Pe
value) at which multiple solutions appear is an exponentially
small function of B. In contrast, the CSTR model is structur-
ally stable since the qualitative features (number of solu-
tions) for Pe = 0 and any small but finite Pe value are the
same.


Recycle Model

With the addition of recycle, the plug flow model is per-
turbed to the boundary value problem
dO Da (
d 1R (B-e)exp1+/y (9a)
d 1+R 1+/y

0(0)= R 0(1) (9b)
I+R
where R is the recycle ratio. (Again, 0 and x are related by
the invariant 9=Bx, and we use them interchangeably for
convenience.) Integration of Eqs. (9a) and (9b) gives the
following relationship between the exit temperature 0~ and
the Damkihler number:


Da= (1+ R) f d (9c)
R (B- )exp 00
I+R
For R=0, Eq. (9c) reduces to the plug flow model, while for
R= it reduces to the CSTR model given by Eq. (4)
The hysteresis locus of Eq. (9c) can be determined analyti-
cally in a parametric form for any finite y or B. Since the
expressions for the general case are lengthy, we present the
results here only for the two limiting cases of y and
B For the first case, the locus is given by


01 = (1 + z)en )+ z + z en 1+ z

(1+z=(
R= z+z(1+z)(en Z


B= l+zfn 1+z) +zen (i+z)+en (]+Z)


01
Sexp(-0)
Da= (l+R) dO;
f (B-0)
R -


0

and is shown in Figure 3. Again, as expected, the hysteresis
point coordinates approach the CSTR limit for z-*>
(R=2z,0 =2,B=4,Da=exp(-2)). For z->0, the parametric
representation given by Eq. (10) may be simplified to

0=n(1i; Rz 1+ ; B 1+0; BDa=1+- (11)
01 ) I z,)/ B
Eliminating z and 0, from Eq. (11) gives
R= Bexp(- B) (12)


Chemical Engineering Education











This is a key analytical result showing that the magnitude
of the perturbation (recycle ratio) at which multiple solu-
tions appear is an exponentially small function of B. The
analytical results given by Eq. (11) for the exit temperature
and Da at the hysteresis point are in agreement with Eq. (6).
For the second limiting case of B (zeroth order reac-
tion), the hysteresis locus may be calculated explicitly as


(13a)


(13b)


Yh=[JR+IT+R]in

F1+R
O1 =Yh R


R
Da*=y,(1+R) Jexp Ydy
f l+y


( Tanks in Series or Cell Model I


The third perturbation we consider to the plug flow model
is that of discretization, i.e., replacing the tube by a cascade
of well-mixed tank reactors of the same total volume. This
model may be obtained by using the following discretization
of Eq. (la):

dO AO (, i_1)
di4 A 1


This gives the perturbed model

0 i- =Da (B-Oi)exp 0i i; i=1,2,...,N
N 1 +0,/7

00 =0


(15a)

(15b)


\ 1+R

As expected, Eq. (13a) reduces to the CSTR limit (h =4)
for R -> while for R -> 0 we have
S(1

or
R= exp(-yh) (14)
Thus, for the case of a zeroth order reaction, the recycle ratio
needed to obtain multiple solutions is an exponentially small
function of the activation energy. Again, we conclude that
the plug flow model is structurally unstable to the recycle-
type perturbation.


Figure 3. Hysteresis locus of the recycle model.


with a single extra parameter N, the number of cells. By
analyzing Eq. (15a) for each i, it may be reasoned that for
any fixed N, hysteresis first appears in the model equation
corresponding to tank N. Using this result, we can determine
the locus of parameter values at which the cell model begins
to exhibit multiplicity behavior.
We consider here only the case of y oo. For this case, the
hysteresis locus may be calculated using the recursive rela-
tions


uXN=2


ai = ai(l+5i) 8i_1 = 5i exp(-c(s, ); i= N,...,2


N
ON = lOci8i
i=l

Da = Nexp(-N )


B=2+0N


The results of the calculation are summarized in Table 1(next
page). Again, the value of B at the hysteresis point is a
logarithmic function of N and for large N, and the locus may
be approximated by the equations


exp(2B)
-- = B exp(2 B)


ON =B-2

BDa=I+-
B


(17a)

(17b)

(17c)


It follows from Eq. (17a) that the cell size at which multiple
solutions appear is an exponentially small function of the
reaction parameter B.

Two-Phase Model

As a fourth and final type of perturbation to the plug flow
model, we introduce the interphase heat and mass transfer
resistances into the species and energy balances. This gives
the two-phase model given by the following set of differen-
tial-algebraic equations:


Fall 1996


B
8
6
4
2
0.1
0.2
0.18
0.16
0.14
Da
0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.


SN =1


237










This locus is shown in Figure 4. For small values of P,
dO Da (Os ); 0=0 at 4=0 (18a) Eqs. (20) may be simplified to
dK Daph
SD =B-4; Os(1)=B-2 (21a)

(B-1+)Dap exp BDa=I+ ; P=(B- 1)exp(2-B) (21b)
s -0= (18b) B
1+Daph exp Is- We note that while the two-phase model reduces to the
1+ Os/)

Here, os is the solid phase temperature, while Dapm (Daph) is the
particle mass (heat) DamkBhler number. The solid and fluid phase TABLE 1
conversions are related to es and e by Values of the Parameters
at the Hysteresis Point for the Cell Model
0 0s ,- Dapm
x=- and xs=x+- (18c)
B B DaN B D
As in the case of the axial dispersion model, this perturbed model 1.0000 2.0000 4.0000 0.13534
contains two extra parameters but reduces to the plug flow model 2.0000 2.5413 4.5413 0.15752
when the interphase gradients are negligible (Dap -- 0, Daph -- 0). 5.0000 3.3862 5.3862 0.16918
In order to reduce the number of extra parameters to one, we shall 10.0000 4.0977 6.0977 0.16611
assume that Dam = Da,, = Dap. Again, a similar analysis can be 20.0000 4.8476 6.8476 0.15695
done by assuming Dapm = 0 and a finite Daph or any fixed ratio of 50.0000 5.8685 7.8685 0.14136
the particle DamkBhler numbers, but the interphase heat transfer 100.0000 6.6486 8.6486 0.12958
resistance must be retained since the nonlinearity of the model is in 150.0000 7.1051 9.1051 0.12314
the temperature. With this simplification, the two-phase model 200.0000 7.4284 9.4284 0.11882
may be written as 400.0000 8.2049 10.205 0.10932
500.0000 8.4539 10.454 0.10653
d--s ; 0=0 at -=0 (19a) 700.0000 8.8284 10.828 0.10255
dS P
1000.0000 9.2242 11.224 0.098628
8 2000.0000 9.9894 11.989 0.091768
(s -0) DaB-0) exp+/ 4000.0000 10.750 12.750 0.085790
p(1 5000.0000 10.994 12.994 0.084029
1+PDa exp + 10000.0000 11.749 13.749 0.079000

where we have substituted

Dap =P Da; P= (19c) 16 .. ..16
avkcT
The parameter P, which is the ratio of interphase transfer time
12 -12
(l/avkc) to the residence time (t), plays the same role as that of
1/Pe, R, and 1/N of the previous models. 0(1)
B 8 8
It may be reasoned that the differential algebraic system defined
by Eqs. (19a,b) has a unique solution whenever the particle equa- 4 .-' 4
tion (Eq. 19b) has a unique solution for 0, for any fixed 0. .--------
Equivalently, multiple solutions start to appear in this model when- o **' .''.......' *....' *""' *
ever the particle equation evaluated at the exit fluid conditions 0.01 1 i/p 100 104
0.14 .... .
begins to have multiple solutions. Using this observation, the
0.12 -
hysteresis locus of the two-phase model for the case of y -> o may
be determined analytically in a parametric form: 0.1
0.08
01 =(4- u)exp(u- 2)- u; -o
O9(1)=2+01; B=4+01; Dap=PDa=exp(2-B) (20b) 0.04
0.02
2+0,
2+r 5 [exp(-y)- (3 + 01 y)exp(-2 01 )] o
Da= f ep(-y)-(3+ -y)exp(-2-) y (20c) .1 1 /P 10
(4+01 -y) _____I___ I____o-haeodl
u+0' Figure 4. Hysteresis lows of the two-phase model.


Chemical Engineering Education










plug flow model in the limit of P 0, it does not approach
the CSTR limit for any finite P. But, as for other models, Eq.
(21b) shows that the critical value at which multiple solu-
tions appear is an exponentially small function of B.

CONCLUSIONS
The four perturbations we have examined show that the
classical plug flow (convection-reaction) model is structur-
ally unstable. We have examined other perturbations such as
the inclusion of radial gradients (characterized by the radial
Peclet number, Pe,), heat exchange between the effluent and
inlet stream, i.e., autothermal operation (characterized by the
Stanton number), and found similar results, i.e., the critical
values of these parameters at which multiple solutions ap-
pear are exponentially small functions of the reaction param-
eters (y or B). We have also examined other types of kinet-
ics and found similar results. For example, for the case of an
isothermal Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics (which leads to
an algebraic nonlinearity), we found that the magnitude of
the perturbation at which multiple solutions appear is alge-
braically small.
The above results can be unified and interpreted better
using residence time distribution theory and the homotopy
concept.'31 We consider a general convection-reaction model
of the form
dc
-=Daf(c); c=l at =0 (22)
d
where c is the dimensionless concentration (or temperature)
and f(c) is the normalized reaction rate (f(l)=l and f(c)>0
for c>0). Applying each of the four perturbations to Eq. (22),
the exit concentration for small values of Da may be ex-
pressed as
Da2
ce =-Da+ 2 f'(l)(1+2 +(Da3) (23)

where


P2 p2 2 -e-Pe) (axial dispersion model)
Pe Pe2


=1/N
=R/(1+R)

=2P


(cell model)

(recycle model)

(two-phase model)


is the (normalized) variance of the residence time distribu-
tion function. We note that for the first three models, o2 lies
between zero and unity, with 02 = 0 for the plug flow limit
and a2 = 1 for the CSTR limit. The structural stability of the
plug flow model can now be stated in a more general form
(independent of the specific type of perturbation) as follows:
The (plug flow) convection-reaction model defined by Eq.
(1) is structurally unstable in the sense that the magnitude of
the perturbation (02 value) at which multiple solutions ap-


pear is an exponentially small function of the reaction pa-
rameters.

DISCUSSION
It is the author's opinion that although the structural stabil-
ity result illustrated here is quite profound, its implications
are not known to most chemical engineers involved in the
modeling and simulation of reacting systems. For example,
based on the analysis of linear models, it is often stated in the
reaction engineering literature (and textbooks) that "axial
disperson effects are negligible if the tube is sufficiently
long." Another often-used assumption is "interphase gradi-
ents are negligible if the mass transfer (heat transfer) coeffi-
cient is sufficiently large." These are, at best, misleading
statements since we have shown that for an exothermic
reaction, the tube length (value of mass transfer coefficient,
k,, or heat transfer coefficient, h) at which axial dispersion
(interphase resistance) becomes negligible increases expo-
nentially (and not linearly) with the reaction parameters!
Convection-dominated nonlinear problems are often solved
numerically on the computer. Again, intuition derived from
the solution of linear models does not apply to nonlinear
models. For example, when the linear convective diffusion
equation is solved using finite differences, the mesh size is
often selected based only on the value of the Peclet number.
Our analysis of the cell model, however, showed that the
mesh size (needed to retain the features of the formulated
model) is an exponentially small function of the reaction
parameters.
It is the author's experience that the problem of structural
stability is not limited to convection-dominated systems. It
also appears in nonlinear diffusion-reaction problems as well
as in more complex problems involving fluid flow, heat and
mass transfer, and chemical reactions. It is hoped that the
results presented here for the simple convection-reaction
model serve as a guide in the understanding of these more
complex nonlinear problems.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was partially supported by a grant from the
Robert A. Welch Foundation. I thank my former students
Sudhakar Subramanian and Marianne Lovo for their help
with the numerical calculations.

REFERENCES
1. Hlavacek, V., and H. Hofmann, "Modeling of Chemical Re-
actors-XVI: Steady-State Axial Heat and Mass Transfer in
Tubular Reactors: An Analysis of Uniqueness of Solutions,"
Chem. Eng. Sci., 25, 173 (1970)
2. Subramanian, S., and V. Balakotaiah, "Classification of
Steady-State and Dynamic Behavior of Distributed Reactor
Models," Chem. Eng. Sci., 51, 401 (1996)
3. Aris, R., "Ends and Beginnings in the Mathematical Model-
ing of Chemical Engineering Systems," Chem. Eng. Sci., 48,
2507 (1993) O


Fall 1996












A Course In...





DISCRETE MATHEMATICS




THOMAS Z. FAHIDY
University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1


In a traditional chemical engineering curriculum, the rich-
ness of discrete mathematics is not sufficiently used.
Although selected numerical techniques for the solution
of differential equation have received at least adequate atten-
tion in earlier texts[1,21 as well as in more recent works,[3-51
mathematics courses taught to chemical engineering stu-
dents generally tend to put more emphasis on analytic ap-
proaches linked to continuous systems, and discrete tech-
niques usually take second place.
In the domain of process dynamics and control, the impor-
tance of digital techniques has been reflected more percepti-
bly in the textbook literature. Sampled-data control, one of
the most important applications of discrete mathematics, is
routinely covered (but to a varying extent) in currently popu-
lar textbooks.169] In spite of much progress in bringing dis-
crete mathematics to the forefront, competence of the aver-
age chemical engineering student in this area still leaves
much to be desired. The course described in this paper is an
attempt to remedy this situation.

COURSE STRUCTURE
The purpose of a senior-level elective course, which also
carries full credit as a graduate course for Master's degree
candidates, is to increase the students' knowledge in discrete
mathematics of interest to chemical engineers and to moti-
vate students to make further excursions into this field on
their own. The contents of this one-trimester exercise (thir-
teen weeks, thirty-six lectures), shown in Table 1, lean some-
IrI


what heavily to process dynamics and control, as a follow-
up to a compulsory introductory course in that subject. Ap-
plications independent of process control are also empha-
sized, and discrete techniques allowing the numerical solu-
tion of a variety of problems (not necessarily related to
process control) make up a small but still significant propor-
tion of the course material.
At the beginning of the lectures, the students receive a set



TABLE 1
Topic Areas Covered in Course

1. Finite difference operators and systems Application to discrete
and continuous systems: numerical integration and solution of
differential equations Use of the E-operator, the state-transition
matrix method, and z-transformation (7 lectures)
2. Open-loop linear (control) systems Sampling and the starred
Laplace transform z-transformation Digital convolution *
Hold elements and signal reconstruction Pulse transfer function
Inversion of z-transforms Digital transfer functions Digital
filtering Digital P, PI, PD, and PID controllers (6 lectures)
3. Closed-loop linear (control) systems Closed-loop transfer
functions and system stability via z-transforms and bilinear (r;w)
transforms Sampling instants and system stability Elementary
controller design: the minimal prototype/deadbeat response
controller and the Dahlin controller Digital control for load
changes Design of controllers via bilinear transform-based
frequency response techniques (10 lectures)
4 Elements of nonhnear discrete and sampled-dadt control siitems
Digital convolution and diagonal invariance (3 lectures)
5. Elements of discrete stochastic techniques Markov-chain
representation of discrete and continuous systems Problem
solution via linear algebra and z-transforms Application to rate
processes (2 lectures)
6. Intersample behavior Advanced- and modified z-transforms *
Intersample response via digital convolution Treatment of
process time-delay via modified z-transforms (6 lectures)
7. Review via a specific problem whose analysis is traced through
the six topics listed above (2 lectures)


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1996


Chemical Engineering Education


Thomas Z. Fahidy received his BSc (1959)
and MSc (1961) at Queen's University and his
PhD (1965) from the University of Illinois-
Urbana, in chemical engineering. He teaches
courses in applied mathematics to engineering
students and conducts research in electro-
chemical engineering. His major research ar-
eas are magnetolectrolysis and the develop-
ment of novel electrochemical reactors. He is
the author of numerous scientific articles.













In spite of much progress in bringing discrete mathematics to the forefront,
competence of the average chemical engineering student in this
area still leaves much to be desired. The course described
in this paper is an attempt to remedy this situation.


TABLE 2
Illustration of Typical Problem Complexity


Level: low
A reactant decomposes in a batch reactor according to the rate law
dc/dt=-0.5c"0 where c is in mol/dm' and t is in min. At zero time,
c=l. Estimate the reactant concentration at equally spaced time
intervals of 0.05 min by the RK-2 algorithm and compare the
estimated values to the analytical solution.

Level: low
A continuous system is subjected to an impulse input of unit
magnitude. The response is exp(-t) where t is time. The same
system is exposed to a sampled ramp with unity slope. What is the
system response?

Level: medium
Derive the quadrature formula in Eq. (1) via Taylor-series theory
and the stipulation that the integral be approximated as
A[f(a)+f(-a)]+Bf(0), where A, B, and a are a-priori indeterminate
constants.1101

Level: medium
Consider the infrared tracker problem in the text by Saucedo and
Schiring,"" Figure 9-35, page 418. The overall forward-branch
transfer function is
G(s)=K[l-exp(-0.ls)]/[s2(s+3.5)]
with K=7. This is a unity-feedback system with an ideal sampler
(T=0.1) following the comparator.
a) Is this system marginally stable according to the GMS2;
PM>300 criterion?
b) What is the maximum value of K for marginal stability?
c) Why is a very poor marginal stability tolerated for this
system?

Level: high
In the forward branch of a control system block diagram, the
transfer function G(s)=20/[(s+l)(s+3)] is placed between two
synchronized ideal samplers (T=0.5). The closed-loop system has
a unity feedback. If we put a proportional controller in front of
G(s), what is the region of stable controller gains?

Level: high
Analyze the 'recipe' for deadbeat-response controller design by
Gupta and Hasdorff,"21 with generalized input R(z)=Qn(z')"n',
where Q. is a finite polynomial in powers of z` such that there is
no zero at z=1.


of solved problems of varying complexity, but there are no
formal homework problem assignments. Encouraged through-
out the entire course to explore various "take-offs" on prob-
lems in the handout set, students have ample opportunity to
employ various computer facilities available to them on
campus; every problem in the handout set, however, can be
solved with a standard scientific calculator. A small sample
of typical problems is shown in Table 2. Students are exam-
ined via a two-hour mid-term test and a three-hour final
examination. The open-book/open-notes exams are designed
to equally test the students' understanding of fundamental
principles and their computational prowess.

FAST AND ACCURATE
NUMERICAL INTEGRATION
A major principle reiterated in the course is the avoidance
of a sledgehammer-against-the-fly application of numerical
methods. A case in point is the quadrature formularlu)

fhf(x)dx = h[5f(-hv' )+ 8f(0)+5f(h 0.6)]/9 (1)

whose error, h7f""(0)/15790, guarantees an accurate value of
integrals for monotonic functions whose sixth-order deriva-
tive is zero at the mid-interval of integration. If the integra-
tion interval is not symmetric around x=0, linear translation
is first to be done. This integration formula seems to be
unnoticed in the chemical engineering literature in spite of


TABLE 3
Illustration of a Simple Gaussian Quadrature (Eq. 1)

Problem Estimate via Eq. (1) the numerical value of the integral of
the function f(x)=exp(x) on the interval [0,1]. Compare to the
analytical answer: exp(l)-1=1.71828 (to five-decimal accuracy).
Solution The mid-point position being at x=0.5, we have for
f(-h.06) the expression 0.5-0.5'JY-6=0. 11270. Similarly, the
expression 0.5+0.5-06=0.88730 stands for f(h'0.6). Hence the
integral is approximated by
1
f exp(x)dx
0
=0.5[5 exp(0.1127)+ 8 exp(0.5)+ 5 exp(0.88730)]/9
=1.71828
The error of estimation is 8x 107 only!


Fall 1996











its high accuracy and simplicity. Table 3 illustrates an appli-
cation.

DISCRETE SOLUTION
OF CONTINUOUS PROBLEMS
The handling of linear differential equations by linear
algebraic structures is one of the best indications of the
power of discrete mathematics (and the humble program-
mable calculator). As discussed in an earlier paper,'"' the
Markov-chain model of chemical rate equations is particu-
larly instructive in this respect. The treatment of a consecu-
tive first-order decomposition process
A=B=> C (2)

with rate constants k, = 3.6/h (first step) and k2 = 7.2/h
(second step) is used for illustration. The analytical solution
for species concentrations A and B with initial conditions Ao
= 1 and Bo = 0 mol/dm3

A= Aexp(-klt) (3a)

B= [k1Ao/(k2-kl)][exp(-klt)-exp(-k2t)] (3b)

is contrasted with the Markov-chain model
A[n +1]= (1-kI)A[n] (4a)

B[n +1]= k A[n]+(1- k2)B[n] (4b)

Equations (3a,3b) are obtained by solving analytically two
differential mole balances, whereas Eqs. (4a,4b) are the
Markov states obtained by post-multiplying the transitional
probability matrix by the (n-1) state probability vector.1141
Close agreement is demonstrated in Table 4 in the case of
one-second state intervals. The establishment of Eqs. (4a,4b)
does not require calculus and/or conventional discretization
of differential equations.

DIGITAL CONVOLUTION
AND THE DIAGONAL INVARIANCE PRINCIPLE
For the computation of the output of a linear (control)
system, the digital convolution equation
n
c[nj= g[n- k]r[k] (5)
k=0
is a particularly useful tool. In Eq. (5), g denotes the impulse
response of the system, r is the input into the system, and n
represents the state of the discrete time. The principle of
diagonal invariancet15' recognizes an important structural as-
pect of Eq. (5) written in its expanded form:

c[n]=g[n]r[0] +g[n- l]r[1]+g[n-2]r[2] +.+ g[0]r[n] (6)
namely that cross-multiplication of elements of the vectors g
and r, with respect to a vertical symmetry line drawn be-
tween them, yields c[n] at any arbitrary value of n. This


TABLE 4
Computation of Species Concentration in a First-Order
Consecutive Reaction Scheme (Eq. 12)
A = mol/dm3; B = 0 mol/dm3; k, =3.6/h; k2 =7.2/h


Time(s) or
stage
number (n)


A(t) mol/dm3 A(t) mol/dm3 B(t) mol/dm3 B(t) mol/dm'
Eq.(3) Eq.(4) Eq.(3) Eq.(4)


1 1
0.9900 0.9891


0.9512
0.9048
0.8187
0.6065
0.5488
0.5001
0.4995
0.4966
0.4493
0.3679


0.9502
0.9039
0.8178
0.6058
0.5481
0.4994
0.4989
0.4959
0.4487
0.3673


0 0
0.0098 0.0108
0.0464 0.0473
0.0861 0.0870
0.1484 0.1491
0.2386 0.2390
0.2476 0.2479
0.2500 0.2502
0.2500 0.2502
0.2500 0.2502
0.2474 0.2475
0.2325 0.2325


Species B acquire. Iu maxiLum
value of 0.25 mol/dm3 at t =0.001n(2)= 693s.


Chemical Engineering Education


TABLE 5
Analysis of a Nonlinear Closed-Loop
Control System via Digital Convolution
(Eq. 9)

n g[nl mfn] c[n] e[n]
0 0 1 0 0.3
1 0 1998 1 0.1998 0.1002
2 0.1740 -1 0.3738 -0.0738
3 0.0776 1 0.0518 0.2482
4 0.0304 1 0.1338 0.1662
5 0.0114 -1 0.3380 -0.0380
6 0.004239 1 0.0370 0.2630
7 0.001564 1 0.1282 0.1718
8 0.000576 -1 0.3359 -0.0359
9 0.000212 1 0.0362 0.2637
10 0.000078 1 0.1279 0.1721











property is especially useful in the case of a closed-loop
system, were r[k] in Eq. (5) is replaced by e[k], i.e., the k-th
state value of the error. In the case of unity feedback, Eq. (5)
is replaced by Eqs. (7a,7b):
n
c[n]= __g[n-k]e[k] (7a:
k=0
e[n]= r[n]-c[n] (7b:

(comparator equation)
Finally, if there is a nonlinear element placed between the
comparator and the system, we have the equation set

n
c[n]= g[n-k]m[k] (8a)
k=0

m[n]= f{e[n]} (8b)

e[n]=r[n]-c[n] (8c)

where m=f(e) represents the nonlinear element. This well-
known approach in signal processing, which may also be
regarded as a one-dimensional illustration of the state transi-
tion matrix technique, offers an efficient alternative to the
conventional z-transformation approach to linear problems
and an elegant as well as efficient means of dealing with
nonlinear problems.
Table 5 illustrates its application to the on-off control of a
stirred-tank heater, discussed by Coughanowr"1 in terms of
phase-plane analysis. A dimensionless on-off element with
output magnitudes (-1,+1) is placed between an ideal sam-
pler receiving the error signal and the process with transfer
function Gp(s) = l/[(s+l)(s+2)]. The process gain is arbi-
trarily set to unity, since the purpose of the exercise is only
to show oscillatory behavior. This being a sample-data vari-
ant of the original problem, we also insert a zero-order hold
with transfer function [1 exp(-Ts)]/s between the controller
output and Gp(s). Defining G(s)=Gp(s)/s and setting T=l, we
obtain
g(t) = [1 + exp(-2t) 2 exp(-t)]/2
hence

g[0]= 0 (9a)
g[n]= 1.71828 exp(-n)-3.1945 exp(-2n) n = 1,2,... (9b)
upon some manipulation. Let the set-point be suddenly
changed to 0.3 (from zero). The computation of the output
proceeds as follows:

c[0]= g[0]m[0]= 0

r[0]= 0.3

m[0]= 1

c[1 = g[1]m[0] + g[0] m[1] = 0.1998


r[l]= 0.1002

m[i]= 1

c[2] = g[2] m[0] + g[l] m[l] + g[0] m[2] = 0.3738

r[2]= -0.0738

m[2]=-1

etc.


The vertical line between the g-column and the m-column in
Table 5 is the symmetry axis for diagonal invariance. Notice
that g[0]m[k] element is zero regardless of the value of k,
hence each c[n] value depends only on previous values m[0],
m[1],... m[n-l]. As n increases, the output settles to a vanish-
ingly small-amplitude oscillation, known as the chatter phe-
nomenon.

FINAL REMARKS
No currently available textbook covers the entire course
material, but several texts treat the contents of individual
chapters. Students consulting the books by Stephanopoulos161
and Coughanowr181 seem to fare best in the course.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Professor B.C. Kuo of the University of Illinois set me
firmly on the path of "digital thinking" about thirty-five
years ago. I hope that I transmit his enthusiasm to at least
some of my students.

REFERENCES
1. Mickley, H.S., T.K. Sherwood, and C.E. Reed, Applied Mathemat-
ics in Chemical Engineering, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill (1957)
2. Jenson, V.G., and G.V. Jeffreys, Mathematical Methods in Chemi-
cal Engineering, 2nd ed., Academic Press (1977)
3. Davis, M.E. Numerical Methods and Modeling for Chemical Engi-
neers, Wiley (1984)
4. Walas, S.M., Modeling with Differential Equations in Chemical
Engineering, Butterworth-Heinemann (1991)
5. Rice, R.G., and D.D. Do, Applied Mathematics and Modeling for
Chemical Engineers, Wiley (1995)
6. Stephanopoulos, G., Chemical Process Control: An Introduction to
Theory and Practice, Prentice-Hall (1984)
7. Seborg, D.E., T.F. Edgar, and D.A. Mellichamp, Process Dynamics
and Control, Wiley (1989)
8. Coughanowr, D.R., Process System Analysis and Control, 2nd ed.,
McGraw-Hill (1991)
9. Ogunnaike, B.A., and W.H. Ray, Process Dynamics, Modeling and
Control, Oxford University Press (1994)
10. Noble, B., Numerical Methods 2: Differences, Integration, and Dif-
ferential Equations, Oliver and Boyd (1964)
11. Saucedo, R., and E.E. Schiring, Introduction to Continuous and
Digital Control Systems, Macmillan (1968)
12. Gupta, S.C., and L. Hasdorff, Fundamentals ofAutomatic Control,
Wiley (1970)
13. Fahidy, T.Z., Chem. Eng. Ed., 27(1), 42 (1993); 27(2), 95 (1993)
14. Greenberg, M.D., Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Prentice
Hall (1988)
15. Dorf, R.C., Time Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems,
Addison-Wesley (1965) O


Fall 1996











f views and opinions


MENTORING


JUNIOR FACULTY


JULIO M. OTTINO
Northwestern University Evanston, IL 60208-3120


here are few articles written about mentoring young
faculty. This I discovered three years ago when I
was asked by our upper administration to give a talk
to new chairs about this very issue. Northwestern's chairs-
regardless of discipline, be it religion, geology, or chemis-
try-assume responsibilities at the same time; they all re-
ceive orientation talks ranging from human resources and
budgeting to talks by "experienced chairs." My assigned talk
on mentoring belonged in this latter category. I found little,
however, to help organize my thoughts,"'] with the possible
exception of mentoring and teaching.121 I found the gap sur-
prising, especially since young faculty are arguably the most
important resource in a department and mentoring is some-
thing that should be done on a routine basis.
I decided to compile a list of positive statements, condens-
ing common sense and making it common, with brief ex-
planatory notes as to content and setting. Since then I have
given this talk a few times and I have been encouraged to
make it public. I am aware, however, that many chairs will
feel about these admonitions as Monsieur Jourdain in
Molibre's Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme did when he discov-
ered to his amazement that he had been speaking prose
all his life. I tried, therefore, to restrict comments to a
minimum. If the idea is good, what is said, even if terse,
should suffice; if it is not, more words would not
strengthen the case.

Julio M. Ottino is Walter P. Murphy Profes-
sor and Chairman, Chemical Engineering
Department, Northwestern University. He re-
ceived his PhD from the University of Minne-
sota, his undergraduate degree from the Uni-
versity of La Plata (Argentina), and has held
visiting positions at Caltech and Stanford.
His research interests are in the areas of fluid
mechanics and granular materials, chaos and
pattern formation, and the role of mixing in
materials processing.


* Keep Them Focused on the Big Picture
Most young faculty, after years of having focused narrowly
on a PhD topic, do not have an appreciation of chemical
engineering as a whole.
Help them to identify the "why" (why they do what
they do). What part of the ChE spectrum do they
occupy?
Help them to identify the audience. Who is their
constituency?
Advise them on what invitations to accept and which
ones to reject (it is easy to get distracted by multiple
requests).
Identify ambitious targets. Publish in high-visibility
places (unread papers are useless).


* Connect Them to the Profession at Large
It is up to the department to help with networking. Editors
housed in the department may be of use.
Use them as referees (if editors are in the depart-
ments; editors are always looking for reliable
referees)
See that they are invited to meetings.
Ask them to run seminar series with external speak-
ers.


* Provide Serious Mid-Course Feedback
Three-year contract renewal should be used as a serious
opportunity for positive feedback.
Use contract renewal to seek outside letters.


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1996


Chemical Engineering Education














* Help with Funding
Funding is tight, and funding is ultimately an individual
responsibility.
Help to identify research opportunities.
Keep them focused-accept that temporary setbacks
are common!


* Explain Percentages
Research should push the envelope, but not all research
should be risky. For better or for worse, individuality still
counts for a lot in most universities, and it is risky to blur it
by carrying out exclusively multiple-investigator projects.
Type of research: 70% "sure-shot"; 30% "high risk/
high reward"
Interactions: 70% commanding voice; 30% truly
interactive


* Keep a Close Eye on Teaching
Teaching evaluations is only part of the picture. Beginning
teachers do not want to appear simplistic.
Attend a few lectures-make sure they do not
overshoot (people do not want to appear trivial, so
they may flood students with difficult material).


* Shield Them from Bureaucracy
New faculty are normally not prepared to deal with
multiple and continual requests for their time.
Leave the first quarter free.
Place them on easy committees (but involve them in
big decisions such as new faculty positions).


* Make Sure They are Known to the Depart-
ment
It is easy to lose track of what new faculty are doing (in
fact, after the interview seminar, other faculty members
might not see them "in action" again).
Present departmental research seminar a year prior to
tenure.
Ask them to talk in teaching seminars (organize a
series of teaching seminars focusing on teaching
philosophies, objectives, and styles).


* Establish Mentors Who Enjoy the Role
There is not much point in doing this by decree. Depart-
ments have to create conditions where it is the natural
thing to do. It is, however, important to appoint people who
will take responsibility for new faculty (two is best).


* Get Them Students!
Nothing much can be done without students. In a truly
democratic advisor-selection process a few well-placed
contents by senior faculty" can help enormously.
Senior faculty should (carefully) steer students to
work with new faculty.
If at all possible, provide two students for two years.


* Mentor by Walking Around
Nothing can replace direct one-on-one contact. This is
especially important in cases where there is no tradition of
informal faculty luncheons.
Drop by their offices.
Have individual luncheons.


* Provide Yearly Written Evaluations
Written comments are permanent.
Do this for everyone on the faculty-always start by
saying something positive.


* Make Sure They Know What it Takes to Get
Tenure
All of the above may be regarded as preparation for this
step (and, if the mentoring has been successful, beyond).
The ingredients are nearly universal-
research teaching service
but the weight given to each is highly local. Make sure they
understand the real requirements fbr tenure-what it really
takes to succeed in their local environment.

REFERENCES
1. For example, the book Chairing the Academic Department,
by A. Tucker, New York: ACE/McMillan, 1984, covers lots of
territory, but there is nothing specially targeted for junior
faculty.
2. Felder, R.M., "Teaching Teachers to Teach," Chem. Eng.
Ed., 27(3), 176 (1993) 1


Fall 1996


245











A graduate course on...




POLLUTION PREVENTION

in Chemical Engineering


CHRISTINE S. GRANT, MICHAEL OVERCASH, STEPHEN P. BEAUDOIN
North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina


Chemical engineers are increasingly involved in solv-
ing environmental problems in the chemical process
industry. While it is historically an area of expertise
reserved for environmental engineers with a background in
civil engineering, industry has come to realize the importance
of including other engineering disciplines in the process.
Waste minimization and pollution prevention have be-
come important environmental concepts in the last ten years.
Waste minimization focuses on the reduction of volume or
toxicity of waste materials after they have been generated,
while pollution prevention is concerned with the reduction
or elimination of waste at the source. The two terms are
often used to describe a similar course of action.
Pollution prevention can involve the redesign of existing
processes and products, a reduction in energy consumption,
reductions in the use of toxic chemicals, and better house-
keeping practices in a manufacturing facility. Opportunities

Christine S. Grant is an associate professor in
the Department of Chemical Engineering at North
Carolina State University. She obtained her ScB
from Brown University and her MS and PhD
from Georgia Institute of Technology, all in chemi-
cal engineering. She teaches courses in trans-
port phenomena and environmental issues.



Michael Overcash is a professor of chemical
engineering at North Carolina State University.
He received his BS from North Carolina State
University and his MS while on a Fulbright Schol-
arship at the University of New South Wales (Aus-
tralia), both in chemical engineering. He obtained
his doctorate from the University of Minnesota.

Steve Beaudoin holds a BS from the Massachu-
setts Institute of Technology, a MS from the Uni-
versity of Texas, Austin, and a PhD from North
Carolina State University, all in chemical engi-
neering. He is an assistant professor in the De-
partment of Chemical, Bio, and Materials Engi-
neering at Arizona State University. He teaches
courses in fluid mechanics and process design
for the environment.


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1996


for pollution prevention can be found in all manufacturing
processes.
The new breed of engineer needed to tackle these issues
requires a significant amount of training in decision-making
in order to develop environmentally benign processes and
products. Chemical engineers are uniquely qualified to ad-
dress the environmental issues associated with the design of
new, and the redesign of existing, products and processes,
but the conventional chemical engineering curriculum does
not give our students an opportunity to think critically about
the environmental aspects of subjects such as kinetics and
reactor design, transport phenomena, or thermodynamics.
At North Carolina State University we have developed a
program that enables students to learn about pollution pre-
vention concepts and applications by: participation in gradu-
ate-student summer internships for enhanced learning in
chemical companies, a graduate-level course on the applica-
tion of pollution prevention to industrial processes, and gradu-
ate-level research on environmentally benign processes. This
article focuses on the second aspect of the program-train-
ing engineers and scientists for careers that incorporate envi-
ronmental responsibilities-and part of the first aspect, in-
dustrial internships.

GRADUATE INTERNSHIP EDUCATION
Environmental education in the United States occurs at
many levels. One level is preparing and educating advanced
degree individuals who, upon completion of the PhD, are the
future teachers of pollution prevention. Pollution prevention
has certain distinctive characteristics that differentiate it within
the environmental field; one is the need for a high level of
understanding of manufacturing processes. While the envi-
ronment provides a broad definition of chemicals or emis-
sions for reduction, the bulk of pollution prevention suc-
cesses depends on engineering improvements in actual manu-
facturing or services. This relationship requires strong inter-
actions and an effective flow of information between re-
search groups and industry. Graduate students play an im-
portant role in such research, often addressing basic ques-
tions that lead to process improvements.


Chemical Engineering Education










We have had five experiences in strengthening the pollu-
tion prevention research effort (MS and PhD) through direct
industry interaction. In all five cases, the manufacturer had


interest in a specific pollution prevention research
topic. One objective of the student internship was
to define a research project where the results could
be easily transferred to industry. This involved
examining industrial information and processes for
realistic parameters and conditions from which the
research could be developed.
Internship arrangements have ranged from single
visits followed by ongoing dialogue with specific
industrial personnel to three summer months spent
at an industrial facility. In all cases, the most im-
portant element was the two-way flow of informa-
tion. It is vital that both graduate student and fac-
ulty advisors become active participants in the pro-
cess because of the high level of manufacturing
science needed to define relevant studies. Some of
these internships have been funded by industry,
while others have been sponsored in part by an
EPA Environmental Education grant.
We have become strong advocates of this indus-
try/university approach to pollution prevention re-
search, particularly in the context of graduate stu-
dent education. Our conclusions are that
Industrial input is vital in advanced research concerning pollution
prevention.


While [s
environs
problem
historic
area
expert
reserve
environs
engine
with
backgr
in ci
engineer
industry
come
realize
import
include
other
engine
discipline
the pro


In graduate education the student can best obtain meaningful industrial input
through direct industrial visits.
Although periods of industrial internship of afew days to several weeks
proved valuable, longer periods (possibly in multiple visits throughout the
research project) would have yielded even greater industrial input.
It is valuable and important to industry that their input be used in defining or
refining pollution prevention projects.
Knowledge from such intern projects is valuable tofaculty and can be directly
incorporated into the teaching of pollution prevention.

COURSE ORGANIZATION
Our course, "Advances in Pollution Prevention: Environ-
mental Management for the Future," is a three-credit hour,
graduate-level chemical engineering course (also open to
upper-level undergraduates) that introduces engineers to the
design of industrial processes that minimize or eliminate the
production of wastes. In the course, important chemical pro-
cesses are presented in enough detail for the students to
analyze the associated pollution prevention issues. Although
the course focuses on chemical processes, it is open to all
engineering majors and students with a technical background.
This diversity, however, creates some challenging issues
with respect to the level of course difficulty and the empha-
sis that can be placed on specific chemical engineering pro-
cesses.
Planning for the course occurred over a one-year period,


followed by revisions based on in-class experiences. Course
development was facilitated by the research from eight of
our nineteen faculty members who conduct pollution pre-


olving
mental
ms] is
ily an
of
tise
d for
mental


vention research. In addition, the course organi-
zation was made easier by the earlier develop-
ment of a continuing education pollution preven-
tion course for industrial personnel through the
American Institute of Chemical Engineers. The
large number of chemical engineering graduate
students doing research in this field, in addition
to students from other departments, encouraged
the development of an advanced course.


ers The course has attracted students from chemi-
eers
a cal, civil, mechanical, and textile engineering,
found environmental sciences, and management envi-
vil ronmental policy. During the first offering (spring
-ring, 1994) twenty-one students enrolled (sixteen from
y has the college of engineering and five from other
to technical departments); the second time the course
the was offered (spring 1995), there were twenty
nce of students.
ling The first part of the course describes selected
er environmental regulations and the general orga-
ering nization of current pollution prevention efforts,
nes in while the second portion describes current pollu-
cess. tion prevention research efforts in specific pro-
cesses and the third portion covers product life-
cycle analysis and its application in the design of
more efficient processes. The first two offerings of the course
focused on three chemical processes: paper production, fabri-
cation of printed circuit boards, and industrial cleaning. A
detailed syllabus for the course in presented in Table 1, but to
better illustrate the format of the course, we will present spe-
cific examples from the spring 1995 offering of the course.
In the later stages of the course, speakers from industry
and academia address key technical and policy issues in the
development and implementation of pollution prevention
programs. These presentations can be used to cover a range
of topics, such as an actual industrial product or process
modification, an overview of the environmental problems in
a specific industry, or an assessment of how industry or
private consulting firms approach pollution prevention. Ex-
amples of the guest lectures used in the first two offerings of
the course are shown in Table 2.
Students are evaluated based on their performance on: one
exam (20%), two or three case studies and homework as-
signments (40%), a final project (25%), and in-class partici-
pation (15%). The in-class participation grade is determined
from a combination of the student's attendance record, ac-
tive participation in lecture discussions, and demonstrated
knowledge of the course material.
Cooperative Learning and In-Class Exercises In order
to facilitate student interactions in the analysis and solution


Fall 1996











of pollution prevention problems, we used cooperative learn-
ing instructional techniques.1121 At the beginning of the course
the students formed self-selected groups of 3-4 students.
Two limitations were placed on the groups: (1) each group
must have at least one chemical engineering major in it, and
(2) the non-chemical engineering majors must be distributed
among the groups. These limitations resulted in a healthy
transfer of information between the different disciplines rep-
resented in the class. We required the students to do case
studies, the final project, and selected homework in groups.
These assignments were graded on a group basis, while the
exam was taken on an individual basis.
In-class exercises can be done at any point in the course
when key issues need to be discussed. The exercises range
from 5- to 10-minute brainstorming or troubleshooting ses-
sions by the class to 20- to 30-minute exercises done in
groups of 3-4, with a summary discussion by the entire class
at the end of the period. For example, in the development of
an environmentally benign alternative for a Kraft mill pulping
system, we gave the students three detailed process alterna-
tives: 1) an alternative plant design to recycle all of the water
within the paper mill, eliminating all polluting liquid effluents,
(2) the use of oxygen delignification to lower the biochemical
oxygen demand content prior to the bleaching process, and (3)
the use of extended delignification to decrease the organic
content of the effluent. The students formed
groups of four and were asked to perform
the following tasks during class:
Identify four key members of the industrial
pollution prevention team and the responsibilities
associated with each position (e.g., plant Week Topics
operator, plant manager, environmental 1-2 Introduction to poll
engineer). Each group member should then role Waste management
play these positions during the discussion. Pollution control an
Develop a strategy to gather information (e.g., EPA regulations &
technical and economic) crucial to the decision 3-4 Conducting a waste
process. Identify the key regulatory issues. Printed wiring asse
Summary of pulp a:
Decide on the appropriate pollution prevention Polution prevenlo
strategy from the list of three options presented. Introduction to rese
Identify' an advocate for the proposed changes 5-6 Pulp and paper tech
from the team and decide in what sector (e.g., Guest lecture on pu
public, company, or private sector) he or she will Discussion of case
work. year (format and c
I. 'iri ,ir, potential problems (research, 7-8 Cleaning and decon
technical, political, personnel) associated with the e.g., industrial reach
implementation of the new process or procedure.

After discussing the above issues for 9-10 Introduction to life
approximately 35 minutes, we summa- *LCAofsoapprodu
rized the results of each group and de- Developing a life c,
bated the ramifications of their respec- 11-12 LCA
tive strategies. This exercise was done 13-14 Presentation of a co
after the introductory lectures on pulp Guest lecture on en
Course evaluation
and paper process. Prior to the in-class
discussion, we gave the students infor- *Assignmentfor Final


mation on the three process alternatives as a homework
reading assignment.
Case Studies, Homework, and Tests We assigned two or
three case studies over the course of the semester. They
were designed to encourage the students to
Discuss concepts from the assigned readings and apply them to contempo-
rary issues of pollution prevention.
Illustrate specific processes (e.g., printed circuit board processing) and
develop general analytical approaches essential to the development of
environmentally benign alternatives.
Define the environmental decision alternativesfor engineers, scientists, and
polic'makers.
Use additional resources (e.g., literature, industrial personnel, faculty,
students) to facilitate an interdisciplinary approach to pollution prevention.
Depending on the complexity of the cases, the students
had one to three weeks to complete them. Prior to distribu-
tion of the case studies, we gave them background informa-
tion on the processes of interest in the form of lectures and
reference materials. We required a 5-10 page written sum-
mary of their findings; this included answers to specific
questions in each case study. Upon completion of the case,
we used one or two class periods to discuss the students'
findings and to debate the key issues raised by the case.
For example, a case study titled "Degreaser Replacement
at Ford Motor Company's Climate Control Division""1 dem-


TABLE 1
Course Syllabus


ution prevention concepts
hierarchy
Id treatment processes
pollution prevention programs
audit
mbly processing
nd paper processes
a decision points
arch and development
nology
lp and paper industry
study from previous
:ontent)
tamination processes-
:tors, microelectronics


cycle analysis (LCA)
action process
cycle inventory


Major Assignment
* Identify an industrial process for final project*
* Develop a reference list for process*
* Develop a detailed process diagram and identify wastes from
process*
* In-class presentations of flow diagrams*
* Develop a series of pollution prevention research projects for pulp
and paper industry


* Presentation and discussion of pulp and paper research projects
* Proposed process modifications for group project*
*TEST

* Group presentation and discussion of process
modifications*
* Case Study #1 assigned:"Degreaser Replacement at Ford Motor
Company's Climate Control Division"
* Case Study #1 due: in-class discussion
* Case study #2 assigned: "Agent Regeneration and Hazardous
Waste Minimization"


* Case Study #2 due: in-class discussion


mpleted industrial case study Final project due*
vironmental analysis Poster presentation of final project*


Project


Chemical Engineerins Education










onstrates how pollution prevention and total quality man-
agement can be used to reduce the environmental impact of a
process while producing a quality product. The pilot project
described in the case tested the replacement of trichloroeth-
ylene (TCE) degreasers with aqueous degreaser units used in
the decontamination of aluminum heat exchangers. The case
study outlines the strategy of the engineering staff in identi-
fying and testing three types of aqueous degreasing pro-
cesses (immersion cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, and high-
pressure spray cleaning) as alternatives to the TCE vapor
degreasers. We gave the students information on the techni-
cal considerations (e.g., temperature, surface interactions,
surfactant concentrations) and the associated research com-
ponent of the project. There was also a discussion of the
formation of cross-functional teams consisting of repre-
sentatives from the vendors, plants, and the research labo-
ratories. The "solution" to this particular case study pre-
sented the findings of the company and how the ultimate
decisions were made.
In the first part of the assignment, we required the students
to perform a number of calculations in order to quantify the
requirements of the aqueous process (e.g., water volume,
surfactant mass) and the associated economics. They also
had to assess the toxicology index associated with the TCE
and the aqueous processes. The second part of the assign-
ment focused on the decision-making aspects of the process
by asking the questions
What value does a cleaner environment have to a company?
Whose job is pollution prevention? What can be done to encourage pollution
prevention?
What costs should be attributed to an existing process and how should they be
accounted for?
Who are the customers and stakeholders of a pollution prevention project?
Speculate why some of the cleaners that perfonned well in small trials were
unable to withstand the actual production conditions. Why do you think
., -la,.. n,iiai is important in evaluating cleaning performance?
This case is a good example of the importance of understand-
ing the technical aspects of a process, large-scale processing


TABLE 2
Guest Lecturers for Pollution Prevention Course


Speaker
Professor
Wood and Paper Science Dept.
North Carolina State University
Chemical Engineer
Center for Environmental Analysis
Research Triangle Institute
Manager, Environmental Services
IBM Engineering Center for
Environmentally Conscious Products
Research Chemical Engineer
Eastman Chemical Company


Topic
Environmental issues in pulp and
paper processing

An overview of pollution preven-
tion programs: creating
partnerships for better research
Environmentally conscious
products

Developing a site-wide waste
management strategy


considerations, economics, and total quality management in
the development of pollution prevention alternatives.
The in-class test was designed to evaluate the student's
understanding of the basic environmental concepts (e.g.,
pollution prevention hierarchy and environmental regula-
tions). We also tested the students on their ability to assess
the key aspects of a process and to develop a coherent
pollution prevention strategy. The tests consisted of mul-
tiple-choice and short-answer questions in addition to a few
essays. The homework in the class consisted of portions of
the final project, reading assignments, and short brainstorm-
ing exercises to prepare for class discussions.
Final Project The final project can either be distributed
at the end of the semester or assigned in small pieces over
the course of the semester. In the 1995 offering, the final
project ("Net Waste Reduction in Industrial Manufacturing
and Life Cycle Analysis") incorporated many of the techni-
cal issues and the pollution prevention methodologies cov-
ered in the course. The students worked on the final project
over the course of the semester and presented a summary of
their findings in a two-day poster session during the last
week of class. Periodic in-class presentations of the stu-
dents' intermediate findings enabled the faculty and students
to follow the development of individual projects and to
insure that groups were making good progress. In this re-
gard, when the final project was presented at the end of the
semester, the groups did not have to explain the fundamen-
tals of their project to the class. Poster presentations were
done in a classroom and invitations were extended to a
number of engineering and non-engineering faculty.
In preparation for the final project, at the beginning of the
course we asked the students to identify three or more prod-
ucts or processes that could benefit from modifications based
on pollution prevention concepts. The students obtained in-
formation from a number of sources, including the North
Carolina Office of Waste Reduction, local companies, and
researchers in other academic departments on campus. The
main challenge for the students was to critically evaluate
company information and articles in trade magazines and to
identify waste reduction issues. The final project topic for
each group was taken from the submitted list of three pro-
cesses. The criteria used for the assignment included the scope
of the process, possible development of environmentally be-
nign alternatives, the innovative nature of the environmental
issues, a wide cross section of projects for the class, and the
absence of duplication of material from in-class case studies.
Examples of students' projects are shown in Table 3.
During the third week of the course, we asked the students
to develop a complete list of references on their assigned
topic. The references had to contain information that would
enable them to develop a process flow diagram, to ascertain
the wastes associated with the process, to identify key re-
search and development issues, and to identify a product or


Fall 1996


249










process modification to review in more detail.

By the end of the first month of the course the students had
developed a complete process flow diagram for their as-
signed product or process, had identified both the wastes
associated with the process and the treatment options for the
waste streams. A key challenge for the students at this stage
was combining information from several sources into a con-
cise, semi-quantitative flow diagram. Each group then made
a ten-minute class presentation to introduce their process or
system to the rest of the class. During this presentation they
distributed a one-page summary of the process/product flow
diagram to each class member.
The next step in the final project entailed developing a list
of at least three possible environmentally benign process/
product modifications. The students had to identify the waste
stream that was being targeted by the proposed changes and
indicate the primary technical issues (pro and con) associ-
ated with each modification. For example, if a change was
made in the chemicals used for the bleaching process in a
pulp and paper process, an engineer may worry about the
interaction of the residual chemicals in subsequent chemical
process steps. At this point in the project the students had to
identify the research and development issues associated with
one of the modifications, develop a research program, and
construct a strategy for accomplishing the proposed research.
We challenged each group member to include an issue rel-
evant to their specific discipline. The aforementioned R&D
information was formally presented by each group to the
class during a ten-minute talk.
In the final phase of the project, the students performed a
life cycle analysis to investigate the cascading effects of
their proposed process changes. It was understood that com-
plete information (e.g., specific quantities for inputs and
outputs) may not be readily accessible. The students were to
make clear assumptions (e.g., estimate values) about the
process and to defend them with logic, in an effort to achieve
as complete an analysis as possible. The final life cycle
analysis was presented to the class in the form of a poster.
The lecture material, in-class exercises and case studies
corresponded to the different stages of the final project. For
example, before the R&D assignment, we covered industrial
and academic R&D organizational structures. We then pro-
vided a detailed overview of our own research into the devel-
opment of alternatives to CFC-based cleaning of printed circuit
boards. At this point, the students were well versed in the
process through earlier homework assignments that included
the development of a detailed process flow diagram followed
by a waste audit of the printed wiring assembly process.

RESOURCE MATERIALS
We did not use a specific textbook for the course; instead
we prepared notes for the students to purchase from the
university bookstore. The coursepak was supplemented by


reference materials from different sources. A number of
textbooks were also helpful in developing course materials
in the form of handouts and lecture notes. The following
materials were used for the different portions of the course:
Introduction to chemical process flow diagrams"41
Environmental regulationss[5-"
Pollution prevention policy16'12-141
Life cycle analysis115'16
Waste treatment17'8"'7'81
Specific research areas: Pulp and paper,519221 printed circuit
board processing,[23-26J cleaning processes[271
Waste minimization/pollution prevention applicationsl13'20.28-331
It should be noted that this is by no means an exhaustive
reference list. Instructors are encouraged to identify and
develop their own set of references that focus on specific
industrial processes.
The National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Edu-
cation (NPPC)[35] has developed a number of materials de-
signed to educate students, faculty, and other professionals
about pollution prevention. It offers pollution prevention
compendia in the areas of chemical engineering as well as in
accounting, business law, environmental engineering indus-
trial engineering, etc. The students used the following subset
of materials from the NPPC chemical engineering compen-
dium:
Overview of Environmental Problems A resource that highlights the
major areas of environmental concern such as energy use, resource
depletion, solid waste, air quality, and water quality.
Pollution Prevention Concepts and Principles An introduction to
the terminology, objectives, and scope of pollution prevention.
Pollution Prevention and Chemical Engineering Resources This
includes a list of all relevant resources known to the NPPC. It
includes an annotated bibliography of chemical engineering-related
pollution prevention sources. There is also a series of case studies
prepared by the NPPC that can be used in the class.


TABLE 3
Student Final-Project Topics
> Pollution Prevention Options in the High-Quality Wood Furniture Finishing Process
> Pollution Prevention in a Nitric Acid Plant
Alternatives to Solvent-Based Paint Systems
0 Pollution Prevention in Color Film Processing
Pollution Prevention of Machining Process Fluids
0 Alternatives to Hexavalent Chromium Plating
0 Life Cycle Analysis of an In-Line Vacuum Deposition System Used for Growing
Amorphous Silicon Thin Films
1 Sol-Gel vs. Remelt Processes for Ceramic Fibers
0 Choosing the Best Route for Maleic Anhydride
0 Waste Minimization in Dyeing of Synthetic Fabrics
0 Facile Method for the Preparation of Tri-O-(Alkyl) Cellulose: Is it Really an
Improvement?


Chemical Engineering Education











COURSE EVALUATION
Evaluation of both the class and the students took several
forms throughout the course. An initial evaluation of the
students' perceptions of pollution prevention was conducted
during the first class using a questionnaire. We also assessed
the technical background and the industrial and research
experiences of each student at the beginning of the course.
For our small classes, this background information proved to
be a good way to facilitate in-class discussions. In addition
to our evaluation of the student's written and oral work, the
students evaluated each other during both in-class group
presentations and the final poster presentation.
The students evaluated the course in four ways: 1) using
standard university evaluation forms, 2) as part of the offi-
cial write-up of the final project, 3) in a separate question-
naire on the format and content on the last day of class, and
4) during one-on-one "exit interviews" that required them to
expand on their written summaries.
We were interested in how the students' perceptions of
both pollution prevention and the role of the engineer in the
process had changed over the course of the semester. We
were able to assess this by conducting a survey of their
attitudes and knowledge of pollution prevention at the
end of the class and contrasting it with the initial written
questionnaire.
The students indicated that the course provided a design
for waste reduction approach not covered in traditional engi-
neering classes. They also benefitted from the incorporation
of class diversity in the projects and the class discussions. A
number of the students also noted that they had received
favorable responses from prospective employers regarding
their enrollment in the course.

SUMMARY
The course described in this paper was successful with a
variety of disciplines for both graduate and undergraduate
students. It has the level and rigor of a graduate engineering
offering and hence is a significant challenge for students. At
the start of the course, most students had a very limited view
of pollution prevention and other environmental issues, but
by the end of the course they had a good grasp of the basic
concepts associated with pollution prevention and they
had expanded their pre-existing knowledge of environ-
mental issues in industrial processing. Armed with this
new technical knowledge, the students from this class are
better prepared to either go into industry and tackle im-
portant environmental problems or to teach engineering
from a pollution prevention perspective.

REFERENCES
1. Felder, R.M., and R. Brent, "Cooperative Learning in Technical Courses: Proce-
dures, Pitfalls, and Payoffs," North Carolina State University, ERIC Document
Reproduction Service, in press (1994)
2. Felder, R.M., "We Never Said It Would be Easy," Chem. Eng. Ed., 29, 32 (1995)

Fall 1996


3. Larky, A., "Degreaser Replacement at Ford Motor Company's Climate Control
Division," Nat. Poll. Preven. Cent. for High. Ed., Doc. #94-3 (1994)
4. Felder, R.M., and R. Rousseau, Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes,
2nd ed., Wiley, New York, NY (1986)
5. Peavy, H.S., D.R. Rowe, and G. Tchobanoglous, Environmental Engineering,
McGraw-Hill Inc., New York, NY (1985)
6. Freeman, H.M., Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, McGraw Hill, Inc.,
New York, NY (1995)
7. Vesilind, A.P., J.J. Peirce, and R.F. Weiner, Environmental Pollution and Con-
trol, 3rd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Massachusetts (1990)
8. Masters, G.M.,Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Science, Prentice
Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1991)
9. Davenport, G.B., "The ABC's of Hazardous Waste Legislation," Chem. Eng.
Prog., 45 (May 1992)
10. Davenport, G.B.,"Understand the Water-Pollution Laws Governing CPI Plants,"
Chem. Eng. Prog., 30 (Sept. 1992)
11. Davenport, D.B., "Understand the Air Pollution Laws that Affect CPI Plants,"
Chem. Eng. Prog., 30 (April 1992)
12. Bringer, R.P., and D.M. Benforado, "Pollution Prevention as Corporate Policy: A
Look at the 3M Experience," The Env. Professional, 11, 117 (1989)
13. "3M Pollution Prevention Pays," 3M Environmental Engineering and Pollution
Control Department (1994)
14. Shanley, A., "Pollution Prevention: Reinventing Compliance," Chem. Eng., 30
(Nov. 1993)
15. EPA, Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles, Environmen-
tal Protection Agency, EPA/600/R-92/245 (1993)
16. deOude, N., "Product Lifecycle Assessment," in Clean Production Strategies:
Developing Prevention Environmental Management in the Industrial Economy,
Lewis Publishers (1993)
17. Haas, C.N., and R.J. Vamos, Hazardous and Industrial Waste Treatment,
Prentice Hall, Englewood Heights, NJ (1995)
18. Wentz, C.A, Hazardous Waste Management, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY
(1989)
19. Springer, AM., "Overview of Water Pollutants and Their Impact: The Pulp and
Paper Industry," in Industrial Environmental Control: Pulp and Paper Indus-
try, Wiley, New York, NY (1986)
20. Samdani, G., K Gilges, and K Fouhy, "Pulp Bleaching: The Race for Safer
Methods," Chem. Eng., 37 (Jan. 1991)
21. Edde, H., "Environmental Control for Pulp and Paper Mills," Poll. Tech. Rev.,
108,41(1984)
22. Esposito, M.P., "Dioxin Wastes," in Standard Handbook of Hazardous Waste
Treatment & Disposal, ed., H.M. Freeman, McGraw-Hill, NY (1989)
23. Corejo, P.L., R.B. Davis, C.L. Fraust, E.R. Miroslaw, and I. Stoll, "Environmen-
tal Control in Semiconductor Manufacturing,"AT&T Tech. J., 71, 29 (1992)
24. DiMarino, Jr., L.S., PA Joseph, and E.L. Sherwood, "Eliminating VOCs and
CFCs at the AT&T Printer-Circuit Board Headquarters," AT&T Tech. J., 71, 5
(1992)
25. Chang, L., and B.J. McCoy, "Alternative Waste Minimization Analyses for the
Printed Circuit Board Industry: Examples for Small and Large Manufacturers,"
Env. Prog., 10,110 (1991)
26. Richmond, J., Industrial Waste Audit and Reduction Manual, Ontario Waste
Management Corporation (1981)
27. Perka, AT., C.S. Grant, and M.R. Overcash, "Waste Minimization in Batch
Vessel Cleaning," Chem. Eng. Comm., 119,167 (1993)
28. Overcash, M.R., andV. Cunningham, "Pollution Prevention Technology,"AChE
Today Series (1993)
29. Chadha, N., and C.S. Parmele, "Minimize Emissions of Air Toxics via Process
Changes," Chem. Eng. Prog., 37 (1993)
30. Doerr, W.W., "Plan for the Future with Pollution Prevention," Chem. Eng. Prog.,
24(1993)
31. Klee, Jr., H., A.P. Rossiter, and H.D. Spriggs, "Apply Process Integration to
Waste Minimization," Chem. Eng. Prog., 30 (Jan. 1993)
32. Petela, E. and R. Smith, "Waste Minimization in the Process Industries: Part 2.
Reactors," The Chem. Eng., 17, (12 Dec. 1991)
33. Petela, E., and R. Smith, "Waste Minimization in the Process Industries: Part 3.
Separation and Recycle Systems," The Chem. Eng., 24 (13 Feb. 1992)
34. Address: NPPC, Dana Building, University of Michigan, 430 University, Ann
Arbor MI48109-115 0











curriculum


A GRADUATE CERTIFICATE IN


ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING


RALPH H. KUMMLER, COLLEEN HUGHES, JAMES H.
Wayne State University Detroit, MI 48202

he fundamental concepts of the relatively new pro-

fession of Environmental Auditing provide corporate
America with the self-policing tools necessary to
insure compliance with the myriad set of complex environ-
mental laws and regulations that apply at the federal, state,
and local levels. A great deal of formal guidance on how to
accomplish the auditing task is available, ranging from text-
books and journal articles to professional associations and
Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) guidance docu-
ments.11 The field has come a long way since the Securities
Exchange Commission (not EPA) originally decided that
environmental liability had become too large to be ignored
on the corporate balance sheet.
Today, environmental auditing guidance documents are
even available from the Federal National Mortgage Associa-
tion, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and the
Resolution Trust Corporation, illustrating how pervasive eco-
nomic environmental concerns have become.
After years of drafting by hundreds of environmental pro-
fessionals, ASTM's (American Society for Testing Materi-
als) Committee E-50 on Environmental Assessment issued
standards for Phase I (E-1527) and transaction screen assess-
ments (E-1528). Internationally, the International Standards
Organization has given notice that there must be global
environmental management standards similar to the ISO
9000 quality certification standards that multinational com-
panies are working feverishly to attain.121 The new standard
will be called ISO 14000 when it is issued in 1996; it will set
forth a voluntary guidance and certification program so that
corporations will be implementing a single, general environ-
mental management system independently from the coun-
tries in which they operate.
Like ISO 9000, ISO 14000 will be voluntary, but it is
expected to quickly become a defacto trade requirement,
supplanting differing environmental management systems[31
country by country. Environmental consulting companies
wishing to participate in auditing multinationals may even
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1996


McMICKING



have to qualify for ISO 9000 certification before being certi-
fied for ISO 14000.
In the U.S., we are still wrestling with the advantages and
disadvantages of environmental auditing; the EPA can and
has used a company's self-auditing to impose large fines.
Because this seems intrinsically unfair and might actually
inhibit auditing, some states have passed laws that would
protect a company's self-evaluation as privileged informa-
tion when it voluntarily performs an audit.141 In one state, a
company that discloses problems found in its audits can
escape fines and prosecution by quickly correcting the fail-
ings. Even with such fundamental controversy, major corpo-
rations understand the benefits of continuing to audit, some-
times auditing under the advice of legal counsel, which
provides some attorney-client protection.
At Wayne State University we have concluded that Envi-

Ralph H. Kummler received his BS from
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and his PhD
from John Hopkins. He is Professor and Direc-
tor of Hazardous Waste Management Programs
in Chemical Engineering at Wayne State Uni-
versity and served as the Chair of Chemical
Engineering for nineteen years. His research
interests include air, water, and multimedia en-
vironmental engineering.


Colleen Hughes received her BS and MS in
Chemical Engineering and her MS in Hazard-
ous Waste Management from Wayne State
University. She is currently studying for her
PhD in chemical engineering, also at Wayne
State University.





James H. McMicking received his BS and MS
from Wayne State University and his PhD from
the Ohio State University. He is Associate Pro-
fessor and Associate Chair of chemical engi-
neering at Wayne State University.


Chemical Engineering Education











At Wayne State University we have concluded that Environmental Auditing has become a
subject large enough to warrant its own academic specialty, and our Board of
Governors has authorized the Chemical Engineering Department to
grant a full Graduate Certificate in Environmental Auditing ...


ronmental Auditing has become
a subject large enough to war-
rant its own academic specialty,
and our Board of Governors has
authorized the Chemical Engi-
neering Department to grant a
full Graduate Certificate in En-
vironmental Auditing beginning
in 1996.

GRADUATE
CERTIFICATE PROGRAM
Wayne State University,
through its interdisciplinary pro-
grams led by the chemical engi-
neering faculty, created a Gradu-
ate Certificate in Hazardous
Waste Control and a Master of
Science in Hazardous Waste
Management in the late 1980s.151
These programs were among the
first of their kind in the United
States and provided badly needed
focused education for students
in the Detroit metropolitan area.
The demand for these courses
has been great, as illustrated by
the enrollment trend (shown in
Figure 1) that documents the to-
tal number of people who have
been involved in the Hazardous
Waste Management Program.
The Figure shows the total num-
ber of participants from 1984 to
the year given on the graph.


WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY
Hazardous Waste Management

1400
1200-


S800

-ai
600



84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95
Accumulative Enrollment Year Ending

a On-campus Off-Campus

Figure 1. Total participants at the end of each
academic year.

TABLE 1
Master's-Level Hazardous Waste
Management Programs in the United States

A Idaho State University Pocatello, Idaho
A University of Idaho Moscow, Idaho, and Idaho Falls, Idaho
A National Technological University Fort Collins, Colorado
A New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark, New Jersey
A Southern Methodist University Dallas, Texas
A Tufts University Medford, Massachusetts
A Wayne State University Detroit, Michigan
A University of Findlay Findlay, Ohio
A University of San Francisco San Francisco, California


As can be seen in Table 1, there are now nine such pro-
grams at the Masters level in the United States.161 The Uni-
versity of California has an extensive, but noncredit, certifi-
cate program, operated on an open-enrollment system, and
the University of Findlay has developed a BS program in
Hazardous Materials Management along with an undergradu-
ate Certificate Program.
These programs focus on the science underlying hazard-
ous materials, on control strategies for eliminating prob-
lems, on the laws, regulations, and policies that underlie the
administration of these programs throughout the United States
and in Michigan, and on public affairs associated with the
field. Thus, students gain the fundamental background nec-


essary to practice in this dy-
namic, burgeoning field.
As a result of a United
States Department of Health
and Human Services con-
tractm71 under which we had
the opportunity to visit and
evaluate the leading U.S. uni-
versities in this field, we
found that there was a gap
between the theoretical under-
standing of the fundamentals
of the field and the actual
practice of industry and con-
sultants. The environmental
profession has been deeply
involved in creating a new
methodology for implement-
ing compliance with the new
environmental practice. A
new field has emerged; the
best description of that field
is Environmental Auditing.
The new Environmental Au-
diting practitioner has the re-
sponsibility for evaluating
corporate effectiveness in in-
suring that environmental
laws and regulations are be-
ing observed in the
company's plants and facili-
ties or in facilities under cur-
rent or proposed contracts for
waste handling and/or dis-


posal. The skills and tools of the environmental auditor are
not presently required in any traditional degree or certificate
program, but have been refined through a decade of profes-
sional practice.
In the fall of 1995, the Wayne State University Board of
Governors recognized a collection of our existing courses as
a new Graduate Certificate in Environmental Auditing. It
will complement our existing Graduate Certificate in Haz-
ardous Waste Control and should be of great interest to those
who have gone through that program as well as to more
advanced practitioners. It will also appeal to a broader seg-
ment of our society than the original industrial target audi-
ence because the banking, real estate, and insurance indus-
tries have also become totally committed to environmental


Fall 1996










auditing. In addition, it will comprise an elective set of
courses for those students who are taking the Master of
Science program and will further encourage the completion
of the Master's program. While the new certificate will act
as a feeder to the MS program in Hazardous Waste Manage-
ment, it will also support existing MS programs in chemical
engineering, civil engineering, and occupational and envi-
ronmental health sciences, as well as PhD programs in biol-
ogy and engineering.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION
Admissions Standards
The program is open to those students with a baccalaure-
ate degree in engineering, chemistry, biology, physics, health
or natural science, geology, or the equivalent who can meet the
general graduate admission requirements of the university.
Mode of Delivery
In addition to traditional on-campus and extension or sat-
ellite campus offerings, the Graduate Certificate Courses in
Hazardous Waste Management have been offered through
the Michigan Information Technology Network via satellite
TV and are being offered in a short course mode throughout
the United States in cooperation with the Hazardous Materi-
als Control Resources Institute (HMCRI), Thiokol, Environ-
mental Quality (EQ), the U.S. Department of Interior's Bu-
reau of Land Management (BLM), and the Engineering So-
ciety of Detroit.
Program Requirements
The required (semester credit) courses are:
Introduction to Hazardous Waste Management
(2 credits)
Law and Administration in Hazardous Waste
Management (2 credits)
Fundamentals of Environmental Auditing (2 credits)
Risk Assessment (3 credits)
Real Estate Assessment (2 credits)
Four credits must be taken from the following initial set of
elective courses (more courses may be developed as the
demand is created):
Chemical Process Safety (3 credits)
Locational Issues in Hazardous Waste Management
(3 credits)
Air Pollution Control Management (2 credits)
Insurance and Risk Management for Environmental
Liabilities (2 credits)
Facilities Compliance Auditing (2 credits)
Principles of Environmental Sampling (2 credits)
Hazardous Waste Laboratory (2 credits)
At least one course must be taken at the graduate-only level.


BRIEF COURSE DESCRIPTIONS
C Introduction to Hazardous Waste Management (2
credits)
Prerequisite: senior standing in engineering, biological
or physical sciences with calculus and organic chemis-
try. An overview of the field, including the fundamental
science, review of the Federal laws that apply, and the
technology to minimize and control waste production.
C Law and Administration Issues in Hazardous Waste
Management (2 credits)
Prerequisite: senior standing. Management guidelines
for industrial waste control including: cradle-to-grave
concepts, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA), Superfund, the Solid Waste Disposal Act,
identification, modification, reporting, standards, and
permits and rules, using the Code of the Federal
Regulations (CFR's) as text material.
C Fundamentals of Environmental Auditing (2 credits)
Prerequisite: Law and Administration. This course will
provide environmental auditing skills and techniques
fundamental to this new profession. The course will
benefit students in the field as well as practicing
auditors who want to learn the pedagogy of the field
and codification of the techniques. Managers who are
responsible for environmental affairs may also wish to
take this course in order to design their auditing
programs. A suitable textbook is Environmental
Auditing, by J. Ladd Greeno of Arthur D. Little. The
students will learn the types of audits, audit program
design, audit protocols, pre-audit activities, the conduct
of audit interviews, understanding management
systems, assessing internal controls, verification
techniques and strategies, evaluation of audit results,
and the conduct of reporting audit findings.
C Air Pollution Control Management (2 credits)
Prerequisite: Introduction to Hazardous Waste Man-
agement. Covers the elements of air pollution control
management as dictated by the 1990 Clean Air Act
Amendments and related state and local legislation and
prepares the practitioner for analysis, auditing, permit-
ting, policy making, and implementation of control
programs, including comparative studies with at least
one other country.
C Risk Assessment (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Calculus, Probability, organic chemistry.
An introduction to risk assessment in environmental
hazard management with emphasis on the chemical
industry, including hazard identification, exposure
analysis, and risk characterization.
C Environmental Auditing: Real Estate Assessment (2
credits)


Chemical Engineering Education











Prerequisite: Fundamentals of Environmental Auditing.
Instruction in the elements that should be included in a
professionally accepted real estate transaction audit.
Includes instruction on sources to utilize for these
audits and on ASTM Phase I, II, and III procedures that
should be followed.
C Chemical Process Safety (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Calculus, Introduction to Hazardous
Waste Management. Covers fundamental and practical
experience necessary for safe operation of a chemical
process plant. Actual industrial case studies are
conducted under industry supervision.
C Principles of Environmental Sampling
An introduction to environmental sampling with
emphasis in statistical design, quality control and
quality assurance, and interpretation of data.
C Locational Issues in Hazardous Waste Management
(3 credits)
Analyses of spatial aspects of hazardous waste sites;
corporate and public considerations and reactions; legal
issues in location considerations.
C Facility Compliance Auditing (2 credits)
Prerequisite: Fundamentals of Environmental Auditing.
This course includes examples of environmental
compliance and workplace audits. Emphasis is given to
audits involving solid and hazardous waste, environ-
mental discharges, and health and safety laws and
regulations. Case studies are highlighted.
) Hazardous Waste Laboratory (2 credits)
Includes demonstration of equipment used in hazardous
waste management.

SUMMARY
The practice of Environmental Management has become
increasingly complex and specialized in the past decade. A
large number of universities have begun to offer programs to
augment traditional engineering and science degrees, thereby
easing the entry of their graduates into a variety of new jobs
that have been created.
One emerging specialty is Environmental Auditing. The
Chemical Engineering Department at Wayne State Univer-
sity has created a Graduate Certificate in Environmental
Auditing, a 15 semester-credit program covering the law and
regulations, the fundamentals of auditing and risk assess-
ment, and real estate and facilities compliance auditing,
with opportunities for all related disciplines to add elec-
tive courses. The Graduate Certificate accepted its first
class in the fall of 1995 and expects to issue the first
Certificate in the summer of 1996.

REFERENCES
1. DiBerto, Mary Ann, "Regulatory Compliance, Management


POSITIONS AVAILABLE
Use CEE's reasonable rates to advertise.
Minimum rate, 1/8 page, $100;
Each additional column inch or portion thereof, $40.


VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE
AND STATE UNIVERSITY
Department Head Position Announcement
Chemical Engineering Department
The Chemical Engineering Department at Virginia Polytechnic Insti-
tute & State University (Virginia Tech) is seeking nominations and
applications for the position of Department Head. The Department
currently has 11 full-time faculty members, with an enrollment of 200
undergraduate and 46 graduate students. Presently, the Department
has four primary areas of specialization at the graduate level: (1)
polymeric materials and composites, (2) biotechnology, (3) surface
science and catalysis, and ()4) computer-aided process design and
control. Research expenditures in the last year totaled $2.2 million.
Candidates for Department Head should have achieved distinction in
university teaching and research and a record of demonstrated schol-
arship and administrative ability. Professional qualifications, educa-
tion, and experience should be consistent with the requirements for
appointment to the rank of full professor.
Virginia Tech, the land-grant university of the Commonwealth, is
located in Blacksburg in southwestern Virginia adjacent to the scenic
Blue Ridge Mountains. Of a total student enrollment of 24,000, ap-
proximately 5,300 are in the College of Engineering.
Applications should include a current resume along with the names,
affiliations, and telephone numbers of at least three references. Send
applications and nominations to
Chair, Deptartment Head Search Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
Virginia Tech Blacksburg, VA 24061-0211
Review of applications will begin December 15, 1996, and will con-
tinue until the position is filled.
Virginia Tech has a strong commitment to the principle of diversity
and, in that spirit, seeks a broad spectrum of candidates including
women, people of color, and people with disabilities. Individuals with
disabilities desiring accommodations in the application process should
notify the Chair of the search committee.


Assurance Drive Environmental Audits," Env. Solutions,
pg. 30(1994)
2. Stamatis, D.H., "ISO Addresses Environmental Concerns,"
Env. Eng. and Manage., 5, 15 (1995)
3. Walter, Mary, "ISO Rushes to Set Global Environmental
Standard," Env. Solutions, pg 85 (1994)
4. Pomaville, Rena M., "Environmental Auditing: The Regu-
lated Community's Progress on a Self-Evaluation Privilege,"
Env. Eng. and Manage., 5, 22 (1995)
5. Kummler, Ralph H., James H. McMicking, and Robert W.
Powitz, "Hazardous Waste Management," Chem. Eng. Ed.,
23(4), 222 (1989)
6. Powitz, Robert, Ralph H. Kummler, Colleen Hughes,
Catherine Witt, and Barry Stern, "Hazardous Waste Edu-
cation and Training in the United States," J. of the Hazard-
ous Mater. Resource Inst., p. 16, May-June (1991)
7. Kummler, Ralph H., Catherine Witt, Robert Powitz, and
Barry Stern, "A Comprehensive Survey of Graduate Educa-
tion and Training in Hazardous Management," J. A. W.M.A.,
40, 32 (1990) O


Fall 1996











e M class and home problems


THE WIND-CHILL PARADOX

Four Problems in Heat Transfer



NEIMA BRAUNER, MORDECHAI SHACHAM*
Tel-Aviv University Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel


Problems involving wind chill came into our consid-
eration when we were looking for interesting exer-
cises in heat transfer. The wind-chill index (or wind-
chill temperature) is regularly reported by meteorologists
during the winter months, and its purpose is to represent by a
single number the combined effects of low temperature and
high wind velocity on human comfort and tolerance to the
cold. When we proceeded to calculate the wind-chill tem-
perature using a model based on heat-transfer principles, we
obtained results that differ significantly from those announced
by the weatherman.
Trying to find the reason for this discrepancy, we stumbled
upon what we call the "wind-chill paradox." The model used
by weathermen to calculate the wind-chill temperature is
empirical and contains many apparent inaccuracies and in-
consistencies. On the other hand, the wind-chill index has
been in use for over forty years, and as the ASHRAE hand-
bookl" states, "This index has provided a reliable way of
expressing combined effects of wind and temperature on
subjective discomfort and has proven useful for ordering the
relative severity of environment." But since the wind-chill
index and temperature are not measurable quantities, their
validity cannot be verified by experimental results.
The popularity of the wind-chill index and its importance

* Address: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva,
84105 Israel


in everyday life on one hand, and its imprecise definition,
empirical and non-measurable nature on the other hand, can
make it a very interesting subject to explore. The concept is
simple enough so that it can be investigated using tools
available to undergraduate engineering students.
In this paper we present four problems related to wind
chill. Most of the numerical calculations involved in solving
the four assignments can be carried out using either a
spreadsheet or a numerical computation package such as
Matlab or Polymath.


Neima Brauner received her BSc and MSc from
the Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, and
her PhD from the University of Tel-Aviv. She is
currently Associate Professor in the Fluid Me-
chanics and Heat Transfer Department and she
serves as President of the Israel Institute of
Chemical Engineers. She teaches courses in
Mass and Heat Transfer and Process Control.
Her main research interests include two-phase
flows and transport phenomena in thin films.

Mordechai Shacham is Professor and Head of
the Chemical Engineering Department at the Ben
Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva,
Israel. He received his BSc and DSc from the
Technion, Israel Institute of Technology. His re-
search interests include applied numerical meth-
ods, computer-aided instruction, chemical pro-
cess simulation, design, and optimization, and
expert systems.


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1996


Chemical Engineering Education


The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collections of interesting and novel
problems in chemical engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student
by presenting a particular principle in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel
home problem, are requested, as well as those that are more traditional in nature and which
elucidate difficult concepts. Please submit them to Professor James O. Wilkes (e-mail:
wilkes@engin.umich.edu) or Mark A. Burns (e-mail: maburns@engin.umich.edu), Chemical
Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136.










PROBLEM STATEMENT
The wind-chill index (WCI), originated by Siple and Pas-
sel,[21 can be defined as the instantaneous rate of heat loss
from bare skin at the moment of exposure. Siple and Passel
developed a correlation for the WCI based on measure-
ments of the freezing rate of water in a sealed cellulose
acetate cylinder (length 5.875 in., diameter 2.259 in.) sus-
pended on a pole above the roof of a building. These mea-
surements were carried out in Antarctica in 1941 in the range
of ambient temperatures -560C < Ta< -9'C and wind veloci-
ties 1 m/s < V < 15 m/s.
Siple and Passel measured the time required for complete
freezing of the water inside the cylinder in addition to mea-
surements of ambient temperature and wind velocity. Based
on these measurements, they calculated what they called the
"Wind-Chill Factor (WCF)":

WCF AH/t(1
(Tf -Ta)

where
AH latent heat of melting for 1 liter of water (79.71 kcal/kg)
t total freezing time (hr)
T, freezing temperature of the water (0C)

Considering the method for calculating WCF, it is obvious
that it represents an overall heat-transfer coefficient (U),
which includes heat-transfer resistance of the cylinder wall
and the air. Siple and Passel correlated WCF versus the wind
velocity, and the best correlation they obtained was
WCF= (0oV+10.45-V).
Based on this correlation, the following expression for the
WCI was suggested:

WC =(loIV + 10.45 -V)(T, -Ta) (2

where WCI is the wind-chill index (kcal/h-m2) and T, =


TABLE 1
Characteristic Thermal and Transfer Properties of the Human Body

Variable Value


Body's heat-transfer resistance r,
Body's characteristic diameter (face) D
Body's characteristic diameter (finger) D
Body's temperature
Neutral skin temperature'71 T
Metabolic heat production, resting71
Matabolic heat production, walking171
Metabolic heat production, running 71
Thermal diffusivity of the skin tissues,"10 a
Thermal conductivity of the skin tissues,1101 k
Heat input from solar radiation to bare skin171
C, represents a correction factor for cloud cover


0.08 (C m hr)/kcal
15 cm
2 cm
36.7C
33oC
50 kcal/(hr m2)
100 kcal/(hr m2)
400 kcal/(hr m2)
10 7m2/s
1 W/(m C)
q, = 144(1-C'33 ), 0

330C is the exposed skin temperature. It can be seen that
WCI represents the rate of heat loss from the human body,
based on a skin temperature of 33"C, which is considered a
neutral, most comfortable skin temperature.
This correlation is being used by weathermen in the range
of
-900C < T, < 300C and 0.05 m/s < V < 25 m/s


Problem 1
Calculation of Momentary Heat Loss

Derive an equation for calculating the WCI based on heat-
transfer principles. Calculate and plot the WCI in the range
of
1.34 m/s V 35 m/s and -600C T, <10C,
using Siple and Passel's correlation (Eq. 1) and your model.
S For thermal and transport properties of the human body, use
the pertinent data from Table 1. For the characteristic diam-
eter of the body use D = 15 cm (face). Compare results from
your model with those of Siple and Passel. Comment on the
validity of the extrapolation when Siple and Passel's correla-
tion is used beyond the range of the experimental data.
Solution The momentary heat loss per unit area (q,) from
exposed surface of the skin is

qs =hc(Ts -T) (3)
where T, is the skin temperature (C) and he is the forced
convection heat-transfer coefficient (kcal/C-m2-h). For the
range of wind velocities indicated in the question, the equa-
tion proposed by Eckert and Drakel4] for a body of a cylindri-
cal shape can be used:

Nu = 0.25 Re0.6 Pr .38 Re > 1000 (4)


where
Nu = hcD/k,
Re = VD/uf
Pr= ufc/la
D = diameter of the cylinder (m)
k, = air thermal conductivity (kcal/h-m-s)
cf = thermal diffusivity (m2/s)
f = kinematic viscosity (m2/s)


The values of WCI (Eq. 2) and qs (Eqs. 3-4) are
plotted in Figure 1 versus the wind velocity for differ-
ent ambient temperatures. Consistent with Siple and
Passel, T, = 33'C is used in Eq. (3). Therefore, q, (and
WCI) represents the instantaneous heat loss rate from
bare skin at the moment of exposure when its tem-
perature is at the neutral, comfortable level. Equa-
tions were fitted to data of air thermal conductivity
and air viscosity given in Welty, et al.,I5] in order to
calculate these properties at the average temperature


Fall 1996










between T, and Ta. The set of equations for calculating
pertinent physical and transfer properties of air in the region
of interest is shown in Table 2.
Figure 1 shows that the two plots are very different. The
rate of rise of qs with the wind velocity is higher than that of
WCI, which passes a maximum at about V = 25 m/s and
diminishes for higher wind velocities. There is no maximum
for qs. Explaining the reasons for the difference between the
results can be a basis for a stimulating class discussion after
the wind-chill homework assignment is completed.
As indicated earlier, WCF represents an overall heat-trans-
fer coefficient, which includes the heat-transfer resistance of
the cylinder wall and the air. In calculating WCI (Eq. 2), the
human skin temperature (33C) is used (and not the body
temperature, 370C). Thus, in this equation the WCF is used
as if it includes only the heat-transfer resistance of the air,
ignoring the heat-transfer resistance of the human body. The
body's resistance at low wind velocities may turn out to be
negligible, but it becomes the controlling resistance at
high wind velocities.
In order to show that this mix-up between U and h is the
main reason for the difference between Siple and Passel's
correlation (Figure 1) and the results obtained based on heat-
transfer principles, we have correlated Siple and Passel's
experimental data using

U=-- ; -=CRe (5
rd+l/hc kf

where
rd thermal resistance of the cylinder (oC-m2-hr-kcal 1)
D diameter of the cylinder
C and m constants

The values for the constants (rd, C, and m) are found by
correlating the data of Siple and Passel. The optimal numeri-



TABLE 2
Viscosity, Thermal Conductivity, and Density of Air in the
Pertinent Temperature Range

Density (from ideal gas law)
p=353.603/T where T= average temperature (oK)
p = density of the air (kg/m"

Thermal conductivity (from polynomial fit to data from Welty et al.'51)
k = (0.0035+8.809x10 lT-3.5x10 8T2)/4186.8
where k = thermal conductivity (kcal/s-m-K)

Viscosity (from curve fit to data from Welty, et al1'')

p= 1.5359xl10J6 -8.1619x10-6
where g = viscosity (kg/m-s)


cal values of the constants, obtained by nonlinear regression
(numbers rounded to three decimal digits) are rd = 0.0202,
C = 0.823, and m = 0.535.
Figure 2 shows the momentary heat loss, q,, calculated
when h, in Eq. (2) was replaced by U as obtained from Eq.
(5) and values of WCI as calculated from Eq. (2). It can be
seen that in this case the values of q, and WCI are very
similar, except that qs continues to rise monotonously with
increasing wind velocity. The unreasonable behavior of Siple
and Passel's WCI correlation above wind speeds of about 25
m/s reflects the consequences of extrapolating an empirical
correlation beyond the range of wind velocities where mea-
surements were carried out. No measurement was taken
above V = 15 m/s.
Additional obvious inaccuracies in using Siple and Passel's
WCI result from ignoring the difference between the thermal
resistance of the plastic cylinder and that of the human body
and the effect of the body geometry on the heat-transfer
coefficient. The use of WCF in Eq. (2) implies that the
difference between the geometries of a human body and the
experimental cylinder and the temperature dependence of
the heat-transfer coefficient are both neglected.
At this point, questions will probably arise: How, in spite


Figure 1. Comparison of Siple and Passel's wind-chill
index and heat loss from exposed skin at the moment of
exposure.


Chemical Engineering Education










of the inaccuracies and inconsistencies in Siple and Passel's
S- correlation, it is still the basis for a useful human confort
Soo, indicator of the wind-chill effect? This paradox is probably
.x the most interesting aspect of the wind-chill concept.
,o A very important reason for the success of their correla-
O tion is that Siple and Passel have also carried out a calibra-
o r tion of the WCI scale that relates it to human comfort, as
E O shown in Table 3. Because of the calibration, it becomes less
'o important whether WCI really represents what it is supposed
OC_ to represent, as long as similar wind velocities and ambi-
ent temperatures give the same WCI as used in the cali-
o C \ bration. The peculiar behavior of the correlation at high
wind velocities is mostly irrelevant since the practical
? Oc I range of wind velocities is inside the range of Siple and
Passel's measurements.
o WCI clearly gives some representation of heat loss from
0 the human body, but in no way can it be interpreted as a
steady heat loss. The human metabolism rate under normal
4 -1 activities is in the range of 50-200 kcal/hr-m2, while the WCI
,U is already over 400 kcal/hr-m2 for "cool" conditions and
reaches values up to 2400 kcal/hr-m2 under severe weather
o conditions. Obviously, humans cannot survive with such
...i ,rates of heat losses. (Note that the metabolism rate is usually
S010 expressed in the literature16'71 per unit area rather than per
Relative Wind Velocity v/Vref unit volume, so that it can be directly related to heat loss.)
In order to calculate the steady heat loss from the whole
Figure 2. Wind-chill index calculated based on improved body, a complete heat balance must be carried out, taking
correlation for Siple and Passel's WCF. into consideration additional heat effects such as metabo-
Sqs = (Ts -Ta)/(rd +1/hc) lism rate, resistance of clothing, heat loss through the lungs,
----- WCI= (10 +10.45-V)(T,-Ta) effective wind speed at ground level,1[6 radiative heat input

and losses, and conductive heat loss (to the ground), in
addition to convective heat loss. Heat loss due to evapora-
Sd P H tion from the bare skin is negligible at low temperatures.[61
Siple and Passel's Human Comfort Scale

WCI in kcallm-hr Problem 2
600 Conditions considered as comfortable when dressed in wool Wind-Chill Equivalent Temperature
underwear, socks, mitts, ski boots, ski headband, and thin
cotton windbreaker suits, and while skiing over level snow at
about three miles per hour. (Metabolic output about 200 kcal/ Wind-chill temperature (or wind-chill equivalent tempera-
m2-hr) ture) was introduced by Falconer,131 who realized that differ-
ent combinations of wind velocity and ambient temperature
1000 Pleasant conditions for travel cease on foggy and overcast days e c o w v a a
yield the same WCI. He used this observation as the basis for
1200 Pleasant conditions for travel cease on clear sunlit days deriving the wind-chill equivalent temperature (Tw), which
.0 ,is the ambient temperature that would yield the same WCI at
1400 Freezing of human flesh begins, depending upon degree of
activity, amount of solar radiation, character of skin and a reference wind velocity (V, = 3 mph ~ 1.34 m/s, average
circulation. Travel and life in temporary shelter becomes walking velocity), as the actual temperature yields at the
disagreeable. actual wind velocity. Falconer used Siple and Passel's corre-
2000 Conditions for travel and living in temporary shelter becomes nation to prepare a nomogram, which is the one still being
dangerous. Exposed areas of face will freeze within less than used by meteorologists for announcing this temperature as
one minute for the average individual, part of their daily weather reports.
2300 Exposed areas of face will freeze within less than a half minute Calculate and plot Tw, using Siple and Passel's correlation
for the average individual. and the model that was developed in Problem 1. Compare


Fall 1996


259










the results in the range of
-600C < T, < 100C, 1.34 m/s < V < 35 m/s.
Solution Using Siple and Passel's correlation at the refer-
ence velocity yields

WCI=(0lx 34 +10.45-1.34)(33-Tw) (6)

which should be equal to the WCI at the actual temperature
and actual wind velocity. Introducing Eq. (6) into Eq. (2)
and solving for Tw yields

Tw, =33-(10oV +10.45- V)(33-Ta)/20.686 (7)

Using the same considerations and taking into account that
the skin temperature is the same under the actual and refer-
ence conditions, Eq. (3) yields

h
Twc =Ts -h-(Ts-Ta) (8)
hc,
where hc, is the heat-transfer coefficient at the reference
velocity. Neglecting the effect of temperature on the physi-
cal properties of air due to Two Ta,
f "0.6 1 \0.6
h Re V
hc, Rer R Vr

and thus


Twc =T -- (T -Ta) (9)
Vr
The wind-chill equivalent temperatures calculated using
Eqs. (7) and (9) (based on T, = 330C) are plotted in Figure 3
versus the wind velocity for different ambient temperatures.
Note that there are considerable differences between the Tw,
calculated using the two models, which result from the same
reasons discussed in the previous section. Taking into ac-
count the influence of the temperature on the physical prop-
erties of air has a minor effect relative to the discrepancy
between the results.


Problem 3
Exposed Skin Temperature


The temperature we actually sense is the skin temperature.
From the moment of exposure, the skin temperature will
drop until it reaches a steady-state level. Thus, the most
adequate indicator for the combined effect of temperature
and wind velocity is the bare skin temperature at steady
state. Derive the equations required to calculate the steady
temperature of bare skin as function of the wind velocity and
ambient temperature. Assume that only a small portion of
the skin is exposed, thus the body temperature is constant.
Consider two cases: no heat input from solar radiation (cloudy


day) and with heat input from solar radiation (sunny day).
Calculate and plot of the exposed skin temperature in the
range of V and Ta described in Problem 2.
Solution At steady state the heat transferred from the
body to the skin surface is equal to the heat transferred to the
surroundings. Thus, neglecting radiation effects,

Tb-T Tb-Ta (10)
rb rb+l/hC
where
Tb = body temperature (C) and
rb = the body thermal resistance (oC-m'-hr/kcal)

Using the values of Tb and rb from Table 1 and Eq. (3) for h,
Eq. (10) can be solved for T,. (Note that the viscosity
and thermal conductivity of the air should be calculated at
Tf = (T, + T)/2.)
Radiation effects that can be taken into account include
heat input to the skin from solar radiation and heat loss from
the body due to radiation. The equation for calculating heat
input is shown in Table 1; the radiative heat loss, qr is


Relative Wind Velocity v/vref


Figure 3. Wind-chill equivalent temperature versus wind
velocity and ambient temperature.


Chemical Engineering Education











calculated from

qr = E(T -T 4) (11

where
c = 4.88 x 10-8 (kcal)/(m'-hr-K2)
E = 1 for bare skin

When solar radiation and radiative heat losses are included
in the energy balance, Eq. (10) is replaced by

q =hc(Ts-Ta)- qsr+o Ta)=Tb -T (12)
rb
which can be solved for the skin temperature (EST) simi-
larly to the way Eq. (10) is solved.
Figure 4 shows the EST when radiative heat losses and
heat input due to solar radiation on a clear sunny day (C, = 0)
are both included, compared to EST on a cloudy day (with
no heat input from solar radiation, C, = 1). Note that at low
wind velocities, solar radiation compensates for about 5 to
10'C ambient temperature difference. For example, at low
wind velocities, an ambient temperature of -100C on a
sunny day will cause the same feeling of cold as 0C on a


10 10'


Wind Velocity, v/vr


Figure 4. Exposed skin temperature with and without
solar radiation.


cloudy day. The effect of radiation diminishes at higher
wind velocities.


Problem 4
Maximum Exposure Time (MET)


Another interesting question that may come up on a cold
windy day is whether it will be possible to walk to the
cafeteria without the danger of getting frostbite on the (ex-
posed) face. Suggest a model for estimating the time it takes
for the exposed skin to reach the freezing point from the
moment you leave the inside of a building. Calculate and
plot this time for different values of Ta and V. Use data from
Table 1 as needed.
No solution is provided for this rather challenging prob-
lem. Instructors can probably best use it as a basis for a
variety of open-ended problems. Two possible solutions for
the problem are provided in reference 9.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
The "wind-chill paradox" can serve as a basis for several
interesting and motivating exercises in heat transfer. The
exercises presented in this paper also demonstrate some
general principles of significance that are not limited to the
heat transfer area. The danger of extrapolation beyond the
interval where measurements were taken is demonstrated. It
is shown that calibration, using experimental data, is the key
to the consistency and reliability of a measuring device.
However, modeling of a physical phenomenon by a purely
empirical model does not contribute to the understanding of
the phenomenon, and it can even be misleading.

REFERENCES
1. Fundamental Handbook, American Society of Heating, Re-
frigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, New York, p. 8,
17 (1981)
2. Siple, P.A., and C.F. Passel, "Measurements of Dry Atmo-
spheric Cooling in Subfreezing Temperatures," Proc. Am.
Phil. Soc., 89, 177 (1945)
3. Falconer, R., "Windchill, a Useful Wintertime Weather Vari-
able," Weatherwise, 21(6), 227 (1968)
4. Eckert, E.R.G., and R.M. Drake, Analysis of Heat and Mass
Transfer, McGraw Hill, New York, NY, 187 (1972)
5. Welty, J.R., C.E. Wicks, and R.E. Wilson, Fundamentals of
Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, John Wiley, New
York, NY, 756 (1984)
6. Steadman, R.G., "Indices of Windchill of Clothed Persons,"
J. ofApp. Meter., 10, 647 (1971)
7. Beal, H.T., "An Operational Windchill Index," Atmosphere,
12(1), 18 (1974)
8. Mills, A.F., Heat Transfer, IRWIN Inc., Boston, 160 (1992)
9. Brauner, N., and M. Shacham, "Meaningful Wind Chill
Indicators Derived from Heat Transfer Principles," Int. J. of
Biometerology, 39(1), 46 (1995)
10. Shitzer, A., and R.C. Eberhard Heat Transfer in Medicine
and Biology, Vol. 2, Plenum Press, New York, NY, 413
(1985) O


Fall 1996














CONFESSIONS OF A

GRADUATE STUDENT RECRUITER



ROBERT M. KELLY
North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695-7905


At one time or another, most faculty have had some
degree of involvement with the graduate recruiting
process-a blend of sensitivity training, database
management, and triathlon competition. While it is a critical
part of any department's operation, recruiting can also be
time consuming, rewarding, and incredibly frustrating.
This article is dedicated to those unselfish souls who re-
spond to the recruiting call, survive the process, and move
on to bigger and better things-say, the library committee. It
is also dedicated to those unsung heroes, the graduate secre-
taries, who make the process work in spite of faculty in-
volvement. It is a fictional account of the typical recruiting
process and is based on numerous conversations with col-
leagues at various universities. I hope that both faculty and
students can relate to some of the situations described herein.

> April 16th
10:00AM The day starts innocently enough. The evening
before had been a long one, finishing the tax returns and
getting to the post office at 11:58 PM. Now its time to get
down to finishing out the semester and catching up on papers
and proposals.
Then it happens! (The magnitude of the moment will only
be remembered as a dull ache for years to come.) The depart-
ment Head's secretary calls and says that the Head wants to
talk to you about a matter of utmost importance-but she
won't reveal what that "matter" is (for reasons that become
clear later). Aha! Your threats to up and take that (nonexist-
ent) offer from the University of Mars have finally come to
fruition-your thoughts turn to dollar signs and other visions
of equal grandeur. Finally, your day has come.
4:30 PM You enter the Head's office and are welcomed
by an overabundance of sincerity and a little too much good
will-you are reminded of the last time you bought a used
car. Then the speech begins, and your mind starts to signal
an all-points bulletin but it is too late. You are told that
Professor Smith, who has handled the graduate recruiting
efforts for the past three years, has asked to be given a
different service responsibility. This is the same person who


gradually lost all grant support over the past few years and
who has exhibited especially bizarre behavior of late-every
time he hears the phone ring or the e-mail beep, he dives
behind his desk. For a while, it was amusing to see him
intercept graduating seniors in the hall and offer prizes to
those for whom he was unable to guess their GRE scores-
the fact is that he seldom had to deliver. But you sensed there
were problems when you saw him trying to choke the
Peterson's guide representative last month.
The speech drones on-you catch bits and pieces of it as
your mind drifts to thoughts of lost weekends and extended
games of phone tag and e-mail floating in cyberspace. You
hear how the department needs you to take on the graduate
recruiting job, but when you sputter and mention alternative
faculty choices you are told that you are without doubt the
best person; you have such charisma, such people skills,
such organizational abilities. Since your mind still entertains
its earlier thoughts of grandeur, these words of praise seem
appropriate-but you know something is wrong, something
doesn't quite ring true. "The department needs you!" you hear.
Well before you know it, you have bought that used car. (It
is only much later that you find you were actually the eighth
option.)

[> April 17th
You take a break and head down to the main office to
check your mail. You are astonished to find the mailbox full
of airmail envelopes from every corner of the world. (Why
didn't you keep up that childhood stamp collection?) As you


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1996


Chemical Engineering Education


Robert M. Kelly is Professor of Chemical
Engineering at North Carolina State Univer-
sity. He has served as the graduate student
recruiting coordinator at NCSU for the past
three years. Because of this, he has forgot-
ten what his research interests are.










inspect the envelopes you find that students from thirty-
seven different countries have addressed their letters asking
for graduate school application
material to you personally. News
certainly travels fast! This article
You also find that faculty put to those unse
any overseas mail they receive, respond to the
addressed to them, into your box- survive the pr
unopened. This means you must i
on to bigger
spend at least an hour separating
entreaties for postdoc positions thing
from graduate school application the library
requests. Ever the diligent recruit-
ing coordinator, you begin read-
ing-each and every letter. You find that you are soon able
to distinguish cultures by the absence or presence of the
word "keen" in the letters. You look at the clock after a bit
and are astonished to find that it's already 6:00 PM. (It looks
like you'll have to use your engineering training to design a
system that allows you to eat and sleep at some point every
twenty-four hours!)

> May 15th
You turn in your final grades and get through another
graduation. By now, you have received 7 requests for appli-
cation materials from U.S. students and 387 from interna-
tional students. (You figure that over time a better balance
will probably develop.) In an effort not to leave any stone
unturned in the search for the best students, you tell your
secretary to mail applications to all those who have writ-
ten-and you are informed that if the current pace is main-
tained, by July 9th the postal charges will drain the depart-
mental discretionary account for the next fiscal year.

> June 8th
You check to see what your secretary is sending to pro-
spective applicants, only to find that the departmental bro-
chure is miserably out-of-date. (The tip-off is that you have
been to the retirement dinners of several former students
pictured in the brochure.)

> June 11th
You corner the department Head in the hallway (for some
reason, he has been avoiding you since that last meeting!)
and ask who can be given the task of revising the departmen-
tal brochure-and it happens again! The Speech, Part II. Just
when you thought you had mastered the art of handling two
day jobs, you find yourself wishing you had been on the
high-school yearbook staff. With absolutely no experience
in advertising, photography, artwork, or editing, you now
have the job of putting together a document that must glorify
all the wonderful aspects of the department and its programs
to the point of attracting students and colleagues to its doors.


(Given the low verbal GRE and TOEFL scores of some of
the prospective students, you ponder using pictures and road


signs to get the points across.)

> July 19th
By now, your secretary has be-
come adept at screening the mail.
Unfortunately, her standards are con-
siderably higher than yours. The
good news is that mailing costs have
been slashed-but the bad news is
that the potential applicant pool is
now five (5). You decide to form a
graduate admissions committee.


> August 1st
The first meeting of the graduate admissions committee is
held. The members reluctantly agree to help. The posturing
begins; the strategy is clear-pump up the number of poten-
tial students in their own areas while practicing the fine art
of creative incompetence. (Let's face it; they probably heard
the "Speech" too, but were clever enough to invoke suffi-
cient professional and/or personal reasons to avoid the job.
Their only mistake was in being too sincere, or being
untenured, and that's why they are on the committee!)

> August 19th
Your memo to faculty requesting short research descrip-
tions for the brochure you are working on gets responses
from two faculty. A second reminder is sent out.

> September 8th
The new semester is well underway. Your recruiting ef-
forts have slowed down, although the volume of mail is still
heavy. Over dinner you tell the family its been a great day;
you have finally figured out how to open those little blue
envelopes from international students in such a way that you
can still make out the academic credentials afterwards. Your
spouse wonders if you are losing it. (Just wait until spring!)

> September 14th
After seven memos to faculty concerning the need for de-
partmental brochure information, you now have a 50% re-
sponse. Calling this a critical mass, you schedule photogra-
phers for the brochure pictures. You meet with the photogra-
pher and learn just how much hassle this is going to be-
you've never worked with an "artist" before. In fact, you learn
that faculty members and artists have much in common-
"discerning" is probably the most diplomatic description.
Laboratory shots pose a real problem; you must steer clear
of any and all safety violations while photographing. So,
instead you decide to bring some beakers full of colored


Fall 1996


is dedicated
Ifish souls who
recruiting call,
ocess, and move
wr and better
s-say,
Committee.










solutions into the front office and grab passing graduate
students to pose for the pictures. When the proofs come
back, there is good news and bad news. The good news is
that the students are wearing their safety glasses. The bad
is-it looks like they are mixing tropical fruit rum punch for
the departmental secretaries.

> September 26th-28th
You spend several days with the photographer taking fac-
ulty pictures and quickly learn there are two types of indi-
viduals on the faculty: those who don't care what their
picture looks like, and those who try to capture the moment.
After blowing two days of your time on this endeavor,
you strongly suggest that all faculty just give you their high
school yearbook picture, which will then be retouched to
bring out their years of experience.

> October 23rd
It suddenly occurs to you that you have no idea how many
students to recruit, so you conduct a survey. You ask faculty
for estimates on the numbers of new students wanted for
their groups and the number they expect they'll be able to
support. Unfortunately, no strong correlation results. In fact,
you estimate that if the number of students "wanted" were
met, it would require that the department receive all funds
available this year from NSF.
An engineering estimate is used.

> November 3rd
You have now received a 75% response to the brochure
memo (after 23 reminders). In desperation, you threaten to
write the missing summaries yourself. This threat is taken
seriously by one colleague-you receive his 37-page sum-
mary with eight figures and photographs.

> November 10th
You go to the annual AIChE meeting and exchange informa-
tion with recruiting coordinators from other departments.
You can get a good idea of how they feel about your gradu-
ate program by the quality of their own undergraduates that
they recommend. Most frequently heard comment: "His (or
her) GPA does not reflect his (or her) true capability." It
seems like you have been plugged into the national chapter
of Underachievers Anonymous. You begin to develop a deep
cynicism for any sentence containing the word "potential."

> November 20th
You have received approximately 8,000 application re-
quests by now; most also ask several questions pertaining to
the program. The volume of mail is bad enough, but then
you are reminded that your e-mail address was sent out with
the departmental mailings. Welcome to the information high-


way! You receive more e-mail messages than your computer
can store, causing it to regularly crash. You have heard
Eudora play that little jingle when e-mail arrives so often
that you expect it to be nominated for a Grammy.

> December 17th
You turn in your semester grades and try to catch up on
paper and proposal writing. It turns out that this is the time of
the year when graduating seniors suddenly realize that life as
they know it will end next May. You receive 300 phone calls a
day from prospective graduate students starting semester break.

> January 2nd
The bowl games are over, the relatives have left, and the
recruiting season is about to swing into high gear. Applica-
tions come flowing in, and all but one of the first one
hundred request waivers of the application fee. Either they
say they can't afford it or they infer that they are doing you a
favor by applying. In any case, it seems like it might take the
remaining departmental budget to pay the fees.

> January 10th
You generate a list of applicants to begin making admis-
sions decisions. But you find that the database you devel-
oped to organize the information has a serious flaw-the
applicants can be sorted in only two ways: alphabetically by
their first name, or in descending order by their zip codes.

> January 18th
Your admissions committee meets for the first time to go
over the applicants. One member thinks that all on the list
should be admitted, in contrast to another member who
thinks that none should. You try to explain to the committee
that "number of publications" is not really a factor at this
point in the applicants' careers.

> February 1st
The first round of offers is determined. You start making
calls to give the applicants the good news and to invite them
to visit. After a morning of calling, you begin to think that
there might be a connection between applicants' potential
and the nature of the greeting played on their answering
machines. You imagine the look on their parents' faces if
they heard some of these messages. Inevitably, if you reach
an applicant, they are asleep-no matter the time of day.
You begin to sympathize with hotel operators responsible
for wake-up calls.

> February 15th
The first group of applicants visits to see the campus and
meet the faculty. At breakfast, you describe the program and
its many attributes, and then ask for questions-the most


Chemical Engineering Education










frequent query concerns the distance from the nearest beach.

One student makes seventeen trips to the breakfast buffet;
another orders a large pizza; yet another drinks fifteen cups
of coffee, which you guess might be connected to the enor-
mous mini-bar bill the hotel called you about. One student
thinks she is at a different school. But most troubling is the
one student who has yet to show up for breakfast. Your only
thought is to somehow keep smiling.

> February 16th
One of your own students, who is hosting the group, calls to
tell you what a great time they all had the night before. You are
tempted to ask what they did, but decide it is better left alone.
Apparently there were no arrests and no one was injured.

> February 27th
A major snowstorm hits the east coast and the Midwest.
Travel arrangements for fifteen visiting students have now
been completely canceled. You stay glued to the Weather
Channel to keep apprised of the storm's progress. You find
that most of the students are stranded at some remote stop-
over and can't get to your city, so you suggest to the Depart-
ment Head that maybe you could rendezvous with them in,
say, Miami, to extol the virtues of the program. But, bad
news-Hurricane Albert is also on the way. Oh well, maybe
setting up an internet connection between the flight lounges
at the various airports will work.

> March 20th
Several of your applicants call to tell you they have won
NSF Fellowships, and they want to know how this will
affect their stipend. Another school has offered to triple the
stipend originally offered, but you quickly figure out that
won't work for your department-the stipend would then
exceed the salary of several associate professors, including
their summer salaries. So, you point out all the "psychic"
benefits associated with attending your institution and how
people shouldn't concern themselves with material things.
The student isn't buying this, however, so you propose an
annual "bonus" that you think is reasonable. The student
asks if this is per month.

> March 30th
One of your recruits is a basketball player at a Division I
school, and he asks to visit between tournament games. He
comes, and the visit is going great until the local news
station calls to ask if you realize you have violated NCAA
recruiting guidelines, mentioning that your institution will
be put on probation and will have to forfeit several athletic
scholarships. It turns out that the student has one year of
eligibility left even though he has only played a total of one-
minute-eighteen-seconds in three years and is graduating


early. You finally get to meet the basketball coach and
athletic director. Forget about those season tickets!

> April 8th
You make one last round of calls to all students who have
yet to turn you down. By this time they have become sea-
soned veterans of the recruiting wars and are playing hardball.
In addition to increases in the stipends offered, they are
asking for a range of concessions-first-year courses to be
taken by audit, no qualifying exams, and a personal trainer.
Okay-but no free memberships to the faculty club!

> April 14th
You haven't started your taxes yet, but that's the least of
your worries. If all the students who have yet to turn you
down say yes, you are batting 0.100. If you only include
those who scored above 300 on the verbal GREs, that num-
ber drops off. You face your colleagues at a faculty meeting
and put things in the most positive light-you have elimi-
nated those who don't really want to work hard.

> April 15th
In many ways, it is entirely appropriate that decision day
coincides with the IRS deadline. Letters and phone calls
stream in with the final verdicts.
It is interesting to hear the reasons why certain students
declined their offers. Some are more blunt than others. Things
like the offending school colors, the local supermarket's
produce section, or the motif in the departmental office are
mentioned. There are even those "left-handed" acceptance:
"My parents said I have to go there." "My girlfriend's rock
group wants to be based there." "Great rollerblading trails."
But, the good news is that some accept because that's
where they want to be! At least, that's what they say, and
you don't pursue the matter further, for obvious reasons.

> April 16th
The recruiting season is finally over. You feel as if the
weight of the world is now off your shoulders. Freedom at
last! Back to teaching and research.
You begin to go through all the departmental mail that's
been accumulating since last April. Darn, you forgot to file
last year's final spring semester senior grades-no wonder
the graduation rate was so low.
The department Head stops by to comment on the recruit-
ing results-a job well done. You exchange small talk until
you hear the phrase, ". now next year I want you to
continue ," at which time you decide to apply for a
sabbatical as a crossing guard at the local elementary school.
No one said this would be more than a one-year sentence!


Fall 1996










, learning in industry


This column provides examples of cases in which students have gained knowledge, insight, and
experience in the practice of chemical engineering while in an industrial setting. Summer interns and
coop assignments typify such experiences; however, reports of more unusual cases are also welcome.
Description of analytical tools used and the skills developed during the project should be emphasized.
These examples should stimulate innovative approaches to bring real world tools and experiences
back to campus for integration into the curriculum. Please submit manuscripts to Professor W. J.
Koros, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712.





SEMICONDUCTOR WAFER

FABRICATION

An Opportunity for Chemical Engineers


TOM BOWERS
Advanced Micro Devices 5204 E. Ben White Blvd.

he electronics industry is a vibrant industry and one

that is vital to the U.S. economy. In fact, it is the
largest basic industry in the U.S., ahead of chemi-
cals, vehicles, and petroleum refining. Electronics is also the
fastest growing manufacturing industry (projected to make
up 25% of total U.S. manufacturing in 1995) and the largest
industrial employer in the U.S. (see Figure 1). When think-
ing of what technical expertise the electronics industry typi-
cally employs, electrical and computer engineers typically
come to mind, but a major portion of the industry, circuit
manufacturing (aka, wafer fabrication), relies heavily on
physics, chemistry, and chemical engineering majors to serve
as process engineers.
Wafer fabrication, the manufacturing of the microelec-
tronics circuits that permeate every aspect of our lives today,
is one of the most (if not the most) leading-edge manufactur-
ing technologies in existence. Strong competition from within
and abroad ensures that this technology remains on the cut-
ting edge of development. It is so important to the U.S.
economy that, since 1987, the federal government has di-
rectly funded development in this arena via contributions
of $90-100 million per year to SEMATECH
(SEmiconductor MAnufacturing TECHnology), a national
consortium of semiconductor manufacturers. This fund-
ing is targeted specifically for enhancing the U.S. semi-


* Mail Stop 583 Austin, TX 78741


conductor industry's manufacturing expertise.
The wafer fabrication industry is currently seeing a world-
wide expansion that borders on explosive growth. Industry
estimates projecting the number of state-of-the-art wafer
facilities to be built worldwide over the next six years ap-
proach or exceed one hundred new facilities. This phenom-
enal expansion is meant to address the almost insatiable
hunger we have developed for microelectronics applications
in all aspects of daily life.
With this level of expansion (or, taking into account the
historically cyclical nature of our business, even with a
much more modest estimate of fifty new facilities over the
next six years) there will be a tremendous need for wafer
fabrication (wafer fab) engineers. To qualify as a wafer fab
engineer, one must have a good fundamental understanding
of the physical nature of matter as well as strong problem-
solving skills rooted in the ability to apply the scientific

Tom Bowers received a BS in Chemistry from
the University of Texas, Austin, in 1979. He
went directly into the semiconductor industry,
working for Texas Instruments as a process
engineer in a mature wafer fab. In 1981 he
moved to Motorola to participate in a wafer fab
start-up, and in 1985 he joined Advanced Micro
Devices to participate in another fab start-up.
He remains at AMD today, where he manages
external technology transfer for its Wafer Fab
Division.


Chemical Engineering Education


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1996


266











method to problem solving. Background in manufacturing
techniques, process design, statistical experimental design,
and control systems is viewed as an advantage. As men-
tioned above, individuals with either undergraduate or gradu-
ate degrees in physics, chemistry, or chemical engineering
are seen as ideal candidates for wafer fab process engineers.
Unfortunately, for most physics, chemistry or chemical
engineering students, this is an under-recognized career al-
ternative. There is, however, an opportunity for undergradu-
ate and graduate students
alike to find out more about
this promising career and
HOW ELECTRONIC
even "try it on for size" be-
fore graduating. The indus-
try typically offers co-op Electronics is the largest ...and ele
programs and some sum- basic industry in the United fastest g
States ... manufact
mer internships to both un-
Shipments in billions for 1993 Electronics
dergraduates and graduates. manulactur
This gives students a
chance to work in a wafer
fab for anywhere from three
months to a year or more
during their education. (The
co-op program at Advanced "" 7
Micro Devices [AMD] is a
two-semester industry com-
m itm e n t w ith tra d itio n a l sou..m, us co ..S ., A.--... E-1. .A
semesters of study at the
university alternated with Figure 1. Growth o)
co-op semesters.)
More details regarding AMD's co-op program will be
discussed later in this article, but we will first consider
examples of what, in general, is involved in wafer fabrica-
tion and how physical science and engineering skills apply
to the discipline.

THE WAFER FABRICATION PROCESS
The wafer fab (i.e., microelectronics fabrication facility)
gets its name from the round silicon disk ("wafer") upon
which the integrated circuit is built. Current leading-edge
silicon wafers are 200mm in diameter by 700 microns thick
and are composed of ultrahigh purity, single-crystal silicon.
These wafers are the starting material for the manufacture of
silicon-based integrated circuits. A typical advanced logic
circuit fab will have a range of 100 to 500 devices (referred
to as die) being simultaneously built on each 200mm wafer.
The exact number of die depends on the total area of the
individual device being built. A single advanced logic cir-
cuit at today's leading-edge technology will have four mil-
lion transistors per device that must all operate within pre-
cise electrical parameters for the device to function properly.
The manufacture of these circuits on the silicon wafer
entails a number of classes of operations or unit processes

Fall 1996


S IN


ctronics
rowing
during in
as a% of
ing oulpu


iotheal

Cthe


that, combined, produce the working device. Each of these
classes of processes requires careful engineering to develop
and maintain the process within required control parameters.
The engineer charged with developing and maintaining any
of these processes must have knowledge of specific chemi-
cal and physical aspects of the material in order to under-
stand and control the process. The classes of operations
making up the unit processes include:
Diffusion/Oxidation These operations encompass some
of the key processes in
the construction of the
transistor, the heart of
IDUSTRY STACKS UP the integrated circuit. An
example of a diffusion
process is the growth of
i s the ...and is the largest industrial t e t
employer, the transistor's "gate" di-
dustry.. electric (SiO,) in a dif-
tolal of U S Number of lobs, in millions, n 1993 f
t fusion furnace. This pro-
cess is critical to tran-
sistor formation. In-
S A.i.omoo .- o cluded in the engineer-
A -p.o. -os ing of this set of pro-
S .... -. cesses is knowledge of
. .'"" solid-state physics,
quantum mechanics,
solid-state diffusion
.o...naMogBNw.,w .o... I- laws, thermal dynamics,
thermal process con-
semiconductor industry, trols, gas-flow dynamics
(at atmosphere and at


millitorr pressures), crystal-lattice structures, surface inter-
faces and chemical bonding, surface preparation including
surface roughness control and chemical contamination con-
trol (at the part-per-billion levels), surface analytical tech-
niques, etc.
Ion Implantation Ion implantation is the primary method
of "doping" silicon (i.e., introducing electrically active im-
purities) to change its electrical properties from those of a
semiconductor to those of a conductor. Ions of materials in
the III and V Periods of the Periodic Table are used as these
"impurities" enabling silicon to carry electrical charges and/
or pass electric current. The ion implant process involves the
formation of a plasma of the "impurity" (e.g., boron, phos-
phorus, arsenic, antimony, etc.) to be implanted. The ions in
this plasma are then accelerated in a beam at high vacuum
down a long mass spectrometer (which helps to purify the
beam) to a wafer at the end on the beam line. When the ions
hit the wafer, they are implanted into specific regions (de-
fined by masking off regions where the ions are unwanted-
see "Photolithography" below) at depths determined by
the beam energy. This set of processes relies on knowl-
edge of high vacuum, plasma chemistry and physics,
physical chemistry, solid-state physics, quantum mechan-
ics, materials science, etc.










The wafer fabrication industry is currently seeing a worldwide expansion that borders on explosive
growth. Industry estimates projecting the number of state-of-the-art wafer facilities to be built worldwide
over the next six years approach or exceed one hundred newfacilities.... individuals with either
undergraduate or graduate degrees in physics, chemistry, or chemical engineering are
seen as ideal candidates for wafer fab process engineers.


Film Deposition A wide range of conducting and
insulating films is deposited at various points in the process.
They are then patterned and etched (see "Photolithography"
and "Etch" below) and new films are deposited on top of
them. Typically, the films alternate between conducting and
insulating layers. In this way the electrical interconnects
between cells such as transistors or capacitors are made.
(The complexity of the first metal layer has been described
as being akin to shrinking a detailed street map of New York
City down to the size of a postage stamp. Given this scale, a
single defect in the film the size of a scaled-down manhole
cover is enough to destroy the functionality of the die.)
Common methods of deposition include physical sputtering
of a material like aluminum using an inert gas such as argon,
chemically reactive sputtering using a reactant gas such as
nitrogen to sputter titanium and so form titanium nitride, or
chemical vapor deposition of such films as polysilicon (us-
ing SiH4) or silicon oxide (using SiH4/O2), etc. Engineers in
this area need to develop an understanding of chemistry,
physics, and material science as they apply to physical and
chemical vapor deposition.
Photolithography The patterning of those films depos-
ited in bulk on wafers to make conducting electrical leads,
for example, or the patterning of areas to be shielded from
implant, is done via a process known as photolithography
(typically followed by etch in the case of film patterning).
The photolithography (photo) process can be broken down
into two aspects. One deals with the chemistry of the photo-
resist polymer (resist) that is evenly coated over the surface
of the wafer. This polymer is photosensitive and, when "ex-
posed" to sufficient photon energy, breaks up into smaller
chain polymers that are then soluble in a basic aqueous
solution. By passing high intensity light through a chrome-
on-glass mask, the light hitting the wafer can be patterned so
that those areas that are "shaded" from the light remain as
long chain polymers that are not soluble in the base solution.
The wafer is then "developed" in the base solution, leaving
resist only in the areas relating to the chrome pattern on the
mask. The photoresist portion of photolithography thus clearly
entails a good bit of polymer chemistry to optimize and
control the process.
The other part of this process deals with the "camera," i.e.,
the tool that houses the chrome-on-glass photomask and the
light source used to "expose" the wafer. This tool, in today's
technology, includes a complex set of optics that results in a
five-to-one reduction of the mask pattern onto the wafer
surface. This aspect of the photolithography process requires


a good understanding of optics. Current challenges in this
arena include optimization of optical parameters to push the
use of optical lithography to its physical limits (the wave
length of the monochromatic light source).
Etch The other part of film patterning is etch. A thin
film (such as a 5000 A layer of aluminum) is first deposited
across the entire surface of a wafer. The wafer then goes
through the photo process described above to define precise
patterns on the wafer. The wafer is then exposed to some
type of etchant that attacks the film where it is left exposed
(i.e., not protected by the resist pattern), resulting in the film
being removed from that area. Today's technology requires
the use of plasma chemistry to form the reactant species used
as the etchant. The wafer is placed in a plasma reactor that
operates in a millitorr environment and a plasma is formed
using a reactant species. For example, to etch aluminum, a
chloro-carbon gas might be used to form a plasma. The
chlorine ions will react with the exposed aluminum, forming
aluminum chloride, a volatile compound, that is then pumped
away. The result is that the aluminum film is removed
from the wafer everywhere except where it was protected
by the photoresist. New challenges in this field include
finding new etchant species to meet environmental re-
quirements. Clearly, plasma chemistry and plasma phys-
ics are required skills for this area.
This process summary is meant to be only a very brief
overview with examples of the semiconductor manufactur-
ing process. As such, it is greatly simplified and by no means
comprehensive. The intent is to expose the reader to some of
the general aspects of the process so that the reader may gain
an overall appreciation for the fact that wafer fab engineer-
ing relies heavily on a basic understanding of chemistry,
physics, and chemical engineering. Entry-level engineers
are not expected to have these skills developed when they
enter the industry, but rather to have the educational back-
ground and fundamental understanding of matter and of the
scientific method of problem solving that will equip them to
be able to develop these skills. A chemical engineering
degree is an excellent background for entry into a wafer fab
engineering position. A co-op experience in the industry
further prepares graduating students and allows them to
"sample" such a position virtually risk-free before making a
career choice.

THE AMD CO-OP PROGRAM
With this in mind, let me now discuss Advanced Micro
Devices' co-operative education program as an example


Chemical Engineering Education


268











of the kind of opportunity that is available to the serious
student.
AMD co-op engineering students have an exceptional op-
portunity to evaluate their career objectives, make profes-
sional contacts, and gain exposure to various engineering
disciplines through their work experience in Sunnyvale, Cali-
fornia, or Austin, Texas. Students involved in these pro-
grams are assigned projects by their supervisors at these
facilities. The projects are not "make-work" or "junior assis-
tant" type projects, but are truly stimulating projects that will
challenge the student. The student, however, is not left alone
to "sink or swim," but is mentored through the experience by
his assigned supervisor. Space limitations preclude a com-
plete recounting of the entire spectrum of co-op assignments
at AMD. A short description by Jamie Mann (a senior at the
University of Texas, Austin, in her third co-op rotation) of
her current assignment is contained in Table 1 and should be
considered as typical, but not totally representative of the
breadth and depth possible in such assignments.
To participate in the co-op program at AMD, a student must
Maintain a grade-point average of 2.8 or above (on a


4.0 scale)

Be in good standing at his or her university

Be able to complete a prescribed minimum of two
alternating work assignments
Be a U.S. citizen or have other unlimited permission to
work in the United States (permanent resident)
Have completed the sophomore year (60+ hours) and
have at least one term remaining upon completion of the
co-op assignment
Be enrolled in a BS, MS, or PhD program majoring in
chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, materials
science, computer science/engineering, or electrical
engineering
An interview was conducted with four current chemical
engineering co-op students in AMD's Austin Wafer Fab
Division to get their opinion on several aspects of the co-op
experience at AMD. The students were all in their junior or
senior year and ranged from first co-op semester to third co-
op semester in experience. The following is a summary of
their responses to selected questions.


TABLE 1
Report from a Typical Co-op Assignment


The wafer manufacturing process generates solvent wastes from
several sources. These wastes flow into solvent waste lines and are
collected in tanks to be disposed of properly. These solvent wastes
from various sources in the wafer process mix in the solvent drain
lines and may themselves react and form by-products. At AMD, these
by-products clogged the drain lines and interrupted the continued
operation of the wafer manufacturing facility. As a result, it became
critical to identify the offending by-products, their reaction conditions,
and the prevention mechanism to avoid any additional shutdown of the
manufacturing process.
The inputs to the waste lines were determined from purchasing
records and piping schematics. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
were referenced to identify chemical constituents. The solvent wastes
from the photolithography process were most suspect. In order to
understand and identify probable reactions, an in-depth study of the
photolithographic portion of the process was conducted. Only two
reactions were identified as possible: 1) a cross-linking reaction
between photoresist resins and photoactive compounds, and 2) a
reaction between hexamethyl disilazane (HMDS) and photoresist
solids. While a reaction between HMDS and photoresist solids is
possible, the ratios in the waste stream are not favorable for this
reaction and would not account for the volume of semi-solid
generated.
Based on the chemistry of the species involved, it is possible and
probable that a cross-linking reaction between the photoresist resins is
taking place. Photoresist resins and photoactive compounds (PAC)
have differing solubility characteristics. The former is relatively
soluble in basic solutions while the latter is not. When the resins and
photoactive compounds couple, they form a matrix that is relatively
insoluble in basic solutions, nonpolar solutions, and aqueous solutions.
Upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation, the photoactive compound
portion of the matrix converts to an acid. The exposed matrix is then
soluble in basic solutions, such as photochemical developer. The
increase in solubility in basic media is the basis for photolithography.
Combining the photoresist with a basic, nonpolar, or aqueous waste


stream could cause the photoresist solids to precipitate out of the
solution.
The possible reactions were narrowed to include the cross-linking
reaction between photoresist resins and PAC and precipitation of
photoresist solids due to solubility characteristics. Experimentation
verified that these scenarios were the only probable ones.
At this point, AMD's internal analytical lab was consulted. Fourier
transform infrared (FTIR) analysis was performed on the semi-solid
and confirmed that the semi-solid was comparable to photoresist
solids. However, the photoactive compound was not present in each
sample analyzed. The semi-solid was also analyzed by one of AMD's
suppliers. Their results described the semi-solid as comparable to the
decomposition products of photoresist.
Based on the chemistry of the species involved, literature
information, and analytical results, the semi-solid was identified as
photoresist solids. It was determined that the photoresist solids were
precipitating due to insolubility in the bulk-waste stream. The
insolubility was determined to be due to the base and high alcohol
content of the bulk-waste stream.
To prevent the semi-solid from forming, two possible solutions
were identified: segregate the photoresist waste stream from the basic
waste stream, or segregate the alcohol waste stream. The current
piping system could be "broken" at the juncture and routed to two
separate tanks-one for the basic input and one for the photoresist
input. A more desirable solution would be to segregate the alcohol
input and reprocess (recycle) it, resulting in material cost savings,
disposal cost savings, and waste minimization. Implementation of
either solution prevents further interruption of the manufacturing line.
While the threat to the manufacturing line was the immediate and
overriding concern, understanding the nature of the problem was
critical. As a result of this project, increased awareness of the process
chemistry provides a basis for understanding the behavior of the waste
streams and for identifying potentially incompatible materials
BEFORE introduction into the waste stream.


Fall 1996










Q What attracted you to a co-op program?
A I thought that it would be a good experience tofind
out what the real world was like. I want to go into
industry and need experience to determine what area
I want to choose, and to be sure that I really want to
be a chemical engineer. Also, the experience looks
good on a resume, and it sure helps finance my
education.

Q What attracted you to the semiconductor industry?
A I didn't know what a chemical engineer does outside
the oil and gas industry and I wanted to explore other
options. The semiconductor industry is not the first
place you think offor chemical engineers, and I was
curious to see what it has to offer. It is an expanding
industry with opportunity for career development.
Q What are you doing in your assignment at AMD?
A 1) I'm investigating a new liquid particle counting
sensor technology, analyzing and interpreting
data, and determining the feasibility of this
technology.
2) I'm installing defect detectors in various types of
vacuum equipment for real-time process monitor-
ing. This gives me the opportunity to learn a
number of processes.
3) I'm involved in the manufacturing quality improve-
ment of a photoresist developer solution. This
includes troubleshooting process problems,
working with wafer fab designers on bulk chemical
distribution and its effect of fab design, and
determining requirements for a new chemical
services lab.
4) I'm working with product engineering in electrical
yield analysis of the finished devices, including
work in design layout of electrical test structures
and process and device modeling.

Q How does the co-op program affect your studies
when you return to classes?
A Co-oping gives you extra incentive or motivation to
learn. You now understand what you need to know
and can answer the question, "Why in the world am I
doing this?" The classes, in turn, help clear up some
of the "fuzzy" aspects of the work experience; you
can see how the course materials relate to what you
have done at work and apply the subject to the "big
picture." Seeing these applications makes what you
are studying more interesting. The co-op experience
also gives you a nice break from the pressures of
school and provides financial help, which allows you
to concentrate more on your studies (and less on
earning money).
Q What have you liked best about the co-op experience?
A I have learned so much about the semiconductor


industry that I never would have learned. Also,
having been exposed to the professional working
environment, I now know what to expect. I was
surprised at the variety of projects I've been given,
including working on teams made up of people of
different backgrounds, age levels, and educational
levels involved in real-world applications. I probably
like the people I work with best-the variety of people
and backgrounds.
Q What have you liked least about the co-op experi-
ence?
A I'm frustrated trying to overcome the concept on
campus that this industry is only for EE's.
Q What has been the biggest surprise about the experi-
ence?
A The industry has such a laid-back atmosphere-
casual dress, first-name basis (even managers),
open-door office policy. I expected it to be a lot
harder, all work and no fun. Ifound the atmosphere
more laid back and not as stressful as school. I've
learned that I can do this and really enjoy it. It's not
as impossible as it sometimes seems in class.
Q Would you recommend a co-op program in the
semiconductor industry for others?
A Yes, definitely. Everyone should co-op if they have the
opportunity, especially if they want to go into
industry. The co-op experience sets you apart from
the mainstream when interviewing. The semiconduc-
tor industry is a growth industry with a lot of
potential for a permanent career, especially in light
of the possible engineering shortage. I would also
recommend AMD very highly. AMD is a good
company to work for; I really enjoy the people.
AMD's business is expanding; it will have a lot of
opportunities as it grows.
Finally, some mention should be made of how a hiring
manager views a co-op experience on a candidate's resume,
especially when comparing that candidate to one with no co-
op experience. The co-op student is generally viewed as the
more serious, more mature student. He/she is not seen as a
"fresh-out," but rather as someone with work experience in
the industry. In fact, when the student returns to academic
study after a tour in industry, that student's gain is actually
recognized as more than just the time spent working in the
industry. Experience shows that the student who has been in
the co-op program is a better student who understands how
his or her studies will be applied in the real world and,
therefore, is more eager to make use of the opportunity to
learn those skills essential to a successful career.

REFERENCES
1. "SEMATECH, How Electronics Industry Stacks Up," pre-
sentation given 1/19/95. 3


Chemical Engineering Education












book review


ADSORPTION
CALCULATIONS AND MODELING
by Chi Tien
Butterworth-Heinemann, 313 Washington St., Newton, MA
02158; 244 pp., $115 (1994)

Reviewed by
M. Douglas LeVan
University of Virginia

A number of monographs began to appear in the mid-1980s on
adsorption processes. Among them were Principles of Adsorption
and Adsorption Processes (Ruthven, Wiley, 1984), Large-Scale Ad-
sorption and Chromatography (Wankat, CRC Press, 1986), Gas Sepa-
ration by Adsorption Processes (Yang, Butterworth, 1987), Adsorp-
tion Engineering (Suzuki, Elsevier, 1990), and Pressure Swing Ad-
sorption (Ruthvan, Farooq, and Knaebel, VCH Publishers, 1994). A
few others are currently in preparation. In addition, we have a collec-
tion of books on adsorption science with emphases on materials,
thermodynamics and equilibrium, and rate behavior.
Adsorption Calculations and Modeling, by Tien, differs from the
previous books in the adsorption process area. It is mainly concerned
with laying the foundation for understanding isothermal, non-regen-
erative batch and fixed-bed processes, with emphasis on liquid-phase
adsorption. Some computer programs on a diskette are included. The
book is in large format and is part of the Butterworth-Heinemann
Series in Chemical Engineering.
In the preface, Tien states that the book ". is not a treatise on
adsorption nor a textbook on the subject of adsorption. Rather, it is a
fairly narrowly focused and practically oriented book, aimed at giving
an introductory, yet fairly complete presentation, on the calculation
and analysis of adsorption processes .... some subjects have not been
discussed in detail here, such as pressure- or thermal-swing adsorp-
tion Instead, topics such as biological carbon adsorption, adsorp-
tion with impregnated adsorbents, and characterization of solutions of
unknown composition, which had not been discussed in any previous
texts, have been given fairly complete coverage. The level is
consistent with what is taught in an accredited B.S. degree program in
chemical or civil (environmental) engineering. The book may be used
as a textbook or part of a text for graduate courses dealing with
separation technology, although as stated previously, the book was
not written as a text."
The book begins generally before narrowing in focus to isothermal,
liquid-phase applications. The introduction (Chapter 1) compares ad-
sorption with other separation processes and gives examples involv-
ing wastewater treatment, air separation by PSA, and separation of
hydrocarbons in a simulated moving bed. Chapter 2 on thermodynam-
ics introduces the Gibbs adsorption isotherm. Equations for the vari-
ous heats of adsorption are also developed, but are not used later.
Chapter 3 introduces various equations that can be used to describe
single component isotherms. While the treatment is fairly broad,
emphasis on liquid-phase adsorption, Polanyi potential theory-based
models, and the Freundlich isotherm begins here. Numerous refer-
ences to sources of data are provided, as are large tables of isotherm


constants for liquid-phase adsorption.
Chapter 4 describes several methods for estimating multicompo-
nent adsorption equilibrium. These include the extended Langmuir
and Langmuir-Freundlich equations, the ideal adsorbed solution
theory (used extensively later), the vacancy solution theory, poten-
tial theory-based methods, and methods for heterogeneous sur-
faces. In addition, some prior work on adsorption of organic vapors
in the presence of water vapor and the adsorption of weak organic
electrolytes from aqueous solutions is presented. Chapter 5 dis-
cusses rate behavior in adsorbent particles in various applications.
Correlations are given for axial dispersion coefficients in fixed and
fluidized beds, external mass transfer, and intraparticle mass transfer.
Development of equations for modeling various adsorption pro-
cesses is contained in the next three chapters. Chapter 6 develops
particle rate equations and various material balances (batch, con-
tinuous-flow through tanks, and fluidized, fixed, and moving beds).
Then, batch processes and fixed-bed processes are discussed in
detail in Chapters 7 and 8, respectively. Numerical methods based
on finite differences and orthogonal collocation are introduced. For
fixed beds, the discussion includes coverage of local equilibrium
theory, constant pattern behavior, and the Thomas solution. Pres-
sure swing adsorption is briefly covered.
Chapters 9, 10, and 11 treat applications on which the author has
focused some of his research efforts-adsorption from solutions of
unknown composition, adsorption with chemical reaction in im-
pregnated adsorbents, and adsorption with biological growth.
An interesting feature of the book is the inclusion of more than
twenty computer programs on diskette. These are in FORTRAN
source code, carry a notice that they were developed by Hee Moon
at Syracuse University in 1987, and are copyrighted by the pub-
lisher. The diskette is divided into directories for equilibrium, batch,
and fixed beds. Programs are included for single and multicompo-
nent adsorption. Within the equilibrium section, the initial program
is for fitting data to either Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips (Langmuir-
Freundlich), or Radke-Prausnitz isotherms. Then, programs are
included for single and multicomponent calculations using the
Polanyi potential theory with fits to Dubinin equations (D-R form
for liquid-phase emphasized) and polynomial forms (gas phase
emphasized). Programs are also included within the equilibrium
directory for IAS calculations using Langmuir (with or without a
first-order correction term) and Freundlich isotherm and programs
for adsorption on heterogeneous surfaces. Programs within the
batch directory allow single and multicomponent uptake data to be
fit to models for surface and pore diffusion, including a branched
network. Programs within the fixed-bed directory permit calcula-
tions for multicomponent liquid phase adsorption in fixed beds
based on the linear driving force approximation with equilibria
described by either Freundlich or D-R equations. All programs
have a sample data file.
On the whole, this is a very nice book that achieves the goals that
Tien set out to accomplish. My criticisms of the book are few and,
for the most part, reflect my own views. The book complements
other available books, many of which have a gas-phase orientation.
If supplemented with problems and examples, this book would
make an excellent textbook for a course emphasizing adsorption
from the liquid phase. 0


Fall 1996











re" -classroom


DEVELOPMENT OF

A MULTIMEDIA-BASED

INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM

For Graduate and Senior-Level Class

P. BASU, D.S. DE,* A. BASU, D. MARSH
Technical University of Nova Scotia Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3J 2X4


To touch, to hear, to see, to smell, to interact- these
are the ways the brain learns. It is difficult to single
out one sense that is most effective for student reten-
tion and understanding of informationi" since it varies from
one student to another. An efficient teaching system, there-
fore, needs to activate as many of the senses and abilities as
possible to effect the greatest impression.
In the classroom, a teacher caters mainly to the auditory
senses of the students. It has been established that only about
30% of the students are able to make full use of this type of
learning in a first instruction. The remaining 70% are not
capable of making full use of their auditory potential for
learning and therefore require external supplements to com-
pensate for the auditory deficiency. During repeated instruc-
tions, however, a larger percentage of the students are able to
assimilate the material.
Multimedia-based instructional programs have the poten-
tial to appeal to a greater number of senses than traditional
instructional programs. They can excite students with ani-
mation, sound, and video. They can present complex pro-
cesses, theories, and facts in a manner that is second only to
actual situations. Thus, they can be a powerful tool for
supplementing the learning process by expanding the range
of senses through which information flows to the students.
Multimedia is being used for a widening range of commu-
nications. Commercial entertainment has seen the greatest
growth in multimedia. Several elementary-level multime-
dia-based instructive systems for children and multimedia of
general interest for adults are available in the market today.
Multimedia developed for elementary-level schools, or for
medicine colleges, or for popular general topics do not fit the
pattern of engineering education. In engineering, the sub-
jects are much more mathematically oriented-they must
contain more graphs, technical drawings, and equations.
Therefore an entirely new approach had to be taken to de-


velop the present multimedia system. Thus, we have made
an attempt to develop a university course on multimedia.

ORGANIZATION
In the absence of a role model for a senior-level multime-
dia course, the entire system had to be developed from
scratch. Considerable research was carried out to determine
what would be the most effective way to use multimedia
features to enhance serious study in a graduate-level engi-
neering course. The first question was, "What is the main
purpose of the multimedia?"
The primary purpose of the course would be "to serve
course materials to the students in a more living and realis-
tic form, such that the students better understand the practi-
cal relevance of the material as well as get a better quantita-
tive appreciation of the subject." The secondary purpose of
the multimedia-based course would be "to offer an interac-
tive test to the students which they can use to explore the
subject and evaluate their own comprehension of the sub-
ject."
The next question to be answered was, "How can the
course be fitted into the existing university curriculum?"

Prabir Basu graduated with a degree in Mechanical Engineering from
the Bengal Engineering College, Calcutta. He is presently a professor
of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Nova Scotia.
He is involved in experiments with different audio-visual teaching aids
for enhancement of communication with students.
Darrel Marsh is a student in engineering at the Dalhousie University.
He graduated from Halifax West High School and plans to continue his
study in civil engineering.
Atreya Basu is in pre-engineering at the Dalhousie University. He
takes great interest in development of PC-based applications such as
multimedia, expert systems, etc. He plans to continue his studies in
electrical engineering, with specialization in computers.
Dhiren S. De is Professor of Chemical Engineering at the Indian Insti-
tute of Technology, Kharagpur. He worked on multimedia develop-
ments while visiting the Technical University of Nova Scotia on an
exchange program.

Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1996


Chemical Engineering Education


272










Under the present framework, it is difficult to see multime-
dia as an alternative to classroom lectures, but it can be a
good supplement to both lectures and tutorial classes. To this
end, efforts were made to incorporate the fol-
lowing features within the present multime-
dia-based course.
Multin
Convenience This is a generic feature of instruct
the multimedia system. Students can use it to t
gather knowledge at their own pace and in ae
their own time. They can access it through the appeal
network on weekends or evenings, irrespec- number
tive of whether or not the instructor is avail- tra
able. inst
Condensed Format The best professors program
excel in providing a total picture of their lec- excite s
tures in a few brief sentences. A student ben- animatic
efits immensely from being in touch with the video
global picture before beginning to study the prese.
specific details of a subject. For this reason, process
each section should open with a brief sum- and fact
mary, including the main finding and conclu- that is s
sions. To increase the impact on a student's. actual
attention, the instructors' voice is added to the
introduction. Upon opening a chapter, a sum-
mary is read to the student while the written
text appears on the screen.
Search or Retrieval A major difference between second-
ary and post-secondary education is a need for specialized
knowledge and information. An undergraduate student fil-
ters information more than a high school student, and a
graduate student filters information to an even greater extent
from an ever wider range of topics. As students move up the
educational ladder, their need for more specialized and selec-
tive information increases. To this end, the multimedia-based
course offers an excellent advantage. Search and retrieval ca-
pability is a major feature of the multimedia system.
Detail Studies As mentioned earlier, higher-level educa-
tion requires more selective information in greater depth.
Traditional textbooks or monographs cannot easily provide
such depth. Including minute details in every topic and sub-
topic would make the book unrealistically bulky, and even if
it did include minutia, students would have to make special
efforts to handle the volume of information because text-
books do not have natural filters for different levels of infor-
mation.
In our project, we were able to take advantage of the
electronic storage capability of multimedia. For example,
while describing the effect of one parameter on a process,
we can use numerous other graphs, etc., in the background.
They pop up only if the reader needs them-otherwise they
remain hidden and do not distract the reader.
Focused Attention Focused attention leads to faster com-


iedi
onal
e po
to
of s
diti
ruct
ns.
tud
in, s
. Th
nt c
>es,
s in
ecoi
sit


Fall 1996


prehension. Traditional textbooks make this task very diffi-
cult for a serious reader. While reading a particular section,
the student is often required to consult the references, the
nomenclature, an equation or figure on some
other page, or another section of the book
d that expands the details of something dis-
ia-based
cussed on the current page. While turning
Programs pages, readers can be distracted by associ-
itential to ated information on the other pages they
i greater have turned to, and even the simple act of
enses than turning a page can often be distracting. Thus,
onal the reader's attention is diffused. Multime-
ional dia avoids such distractions by bringing up
They can only that information which the reader needs.
ents with. Thus, the reader's attention is kept focused
ound, and on the topic at hand.
rey can Explanation of Difficult Physical Con-
omplex cepts Explaining difficult physical con-
theories, cepts is often a major limitation of text-
a manner books, especially for scientific and technical
d only to subjects. Even an author's use of figures can
fail to transfer understanding to the reader if
the process is a dynamic one-a static pic-
ture cannot truly represent a dynamic phe-
nomenon (i.e., the conversion of rotational
motion to a linear one using a linkage mechanism). Multi-
media rectifies this problem through the use of two powerful
features: video and computer animation. Videos are real-life
pictures of a physical process, demonstrated with actual
sight and sound. If a fast process is being studied, the video
can be viewed at a slower speed to enhance understanding,
or simplified animation can be used to present a complex
process. If "a picture is worth a thousand words," animation
must be worth a million.
Enhanced Retention In the traditional classroom, a lec-
ture usually captures only 30% of the students' attention, but
with multimedia we can increase students' retention by add-
ing other senses to the learning process. The simple interac-
tive act of using the mouse or the motion finger on a com-
puter keyboard adds a new dimension to learning, and stu-
dents move from a passive to the more retentive active
learning mode.
Equations For those students who are not so mathemati-
cally oriented, the presence of equations on the textbook
pages can be distractions that disrupt the smooth flow of
information and thought. Multimedia systems remove that
distraction by leaving the equations hidden under the equa-
tion number, to be brought into view when needed by a
simple keystroke or mouse manipulation.
Computation There are other students who not only want
to see the mathematical expressions, they want to use and
explore them. Using a textbook, the student would have to
pull out a calculator, key in the appropriate numerical val-











ues, and check what the parameters would look like with the chosen
set of variables. Such calculations demonstrate the significance of
different parameters and allow the student to make value judgments-
a good practice for learning akin to performing an experiment in order
to understand a process. But only a few students are motivated to
actually take the time necessary to accomplish such calculations.
Multimedia makes it easier for the student to overcome that inertia by
offering a on-screen equation analyzer.

DESCRIPTION OF MULTIMEDIA
This section will show how the above features are synthesized into
one course at our university. A graduate-level course on Circulating
Fluidized Bed boiler was chosen for demonstration purposes.
Figure 1 shows the opening screen of a typical chapter. Upon
pressing (clicking) the 'Content' button, major sections of the
chapter will come on screen. This allows the reader to choose and
then to more to the chosen section without having to worry about
the page number.
If the reader want an overview of the chapter before going into its
details, he or she would press the 'Summary" button (Figure 2). The
instructor's voice has been embedded in this section. As the text
appears on the screen, a digital audio plays and gives the summary
with a familiar voice. The content of the summary is thus more easily
captured by the reader.
Comprehension Mathematical expressions and equations are an
integral part of any engineering textbook, but they can be a distraction
to less mathematically oriented students. For this reason, the multi-
media text has no on-screen equations. If the student wishes to check
an equation, a simple click on the equation number will bring the
expression on screen. After review, another click will hide the equa-
tion and the reader's attention can again focus on the text.
For complete comprehension, however, the student must review the
equation, so the equation is popped up on the screen. Take the case in
Figure 3 where an expression of heat transfer coefficient has popped
up. This expression has two terms in the denominator, and subsequent
sections of the text discuss the relative importance of these terms for
values of d, etc. This concept is captured best when the student sees a
quantitative comparison of the term, but any attempt by the student to
compare numerical values is normally impeded by factors such as
student inertia, unavailability of appropriate values of all param-
eters, or the involvement of complex operations such as integra-
tion, differential series, or numerical solution. Even if the student
overcomes these problems, it is difficult to carry out a parametric
evaluation of different values to mark the regime of dominance of
one term over the other.
In our multimedia course, the above problems have been solved by
a Visual Basic program (see Figure 4). As soon as the 'Code' button
has been clicked, the screen displays a set of appropriate default
values for parameters on the right with the computed values of the
heat transfer coefficient at the bottom. The student can change any
parameter as many times as desired. In this way, students can more
readily acquire a thorough understanding of the mathematical expres-
sion under study.


File E._II Aookmalk help
Cans.nll I fiineh (inw.l. HisI9 I lern,

CHAPTER 2
I *i, ( iLi. N .' M II


r i I


Figure 1. Opening screen for Chapter 2. Clicking on
'HYDRODYNAMICS' shows more information on the
topic.


Flie Edil Bookmalk help

HYDRODYNAMICS


E.S OF.t j:l.4.T IfN
Iq-.- 'LENT BEDLS
'*A!-;' luiol. HHj h r'-."
1 i l lUT fE. F FAS BEDS
1n M J.NC[.A I JF-A'
*a soL ff1-f-
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Figure 2. A list of contents in Chapter 2. Clicking
on any one will take the user to the specified topic.

,,e i o ChapterS HeatTransfer IN
File Edit Boolukmark Help
cG.v.l ias. I.I .te I _J! X IIwr.)...
3-2-3 Theory
account scattering However, the radiatwie heat transfer from the dispersed phase .1
can be found from the following equation
__ luf (319)
Equation

T '- T Illowing
( i--) -- i (6i..c.,..1-'.)

Code

The radiative heat-transfer coefficient from the cluster, her, can be similarly
calculated by substituting ec for ed in Eq .Q?)
For a long and continuous surface one would expect the particles in 4
Figure 3. Example of a 'pop up.'


Chemical Engineering Education












Clhaole I Hear Traniler I-
File Edit Bookmark Help


3-2-3
B*** IIfh000a | I
Mn. l..bualwee F
ITbl
where es
Su...a '.mce Ss tNII I
iii) len d.ll ull I
Suxl.'i I al
express D.lerned ahdr ledl

t3.20) .l .
where ep itj

"u EATa TRANSFER CIOEFFICIENT (hd.)_J _, .


Figure 4. An external Visual Basic program. Users can
apply equations they have been shown in the text.


Chapter 3 Heal Transler
F tr Edlt Bookmarl Help


3-2-3


Inat on 110 1
Pb: 0 Pb

Tb: 850 OTb

..D: P 1200 ODp

i Micostoll j k 1
... I Excel 4.0
Link ...
3-2-4 E
If the heat absorption per unit projected area ofthe furnace wall can be '
increased through the use of fins projecting into the furnace, it may be possible to


Figure 5. This program draws a graph depending on the
variables the user customizes. It uses the material shown
in the text.


2-1 REGIMES OF FLUIDIZATION


Exploration Some engineering subjects involve an over-
all mathematical model where numerical values of indi-
vidual expression may not give the total picture. For proper
comprehension, a student needs to use the model to arrive at
the final result. A parametric study showing the sensitivity
of the final result to an input parameter helps the students'
understanding of the model and allows them to explore the
model from different perspectives. This option has been
incorporated at the end of the section '2.0 Theory.' Clicking
the 'Example' button brings a set of default values of input
parameters onto the screen (see Figure 5). This built-in pro-
gram calculates the heat transfer coefficient using the theory
just described and displays the value of the heat transfer
coefficient for the set of input parameters.

The screen in Figure 5 asks the student to choose which
parameter is to be varied and over what range. The student
makes the selection and the Visual Basic software runs a
program of the model. Results are transferred to a spread-
sheet that draws a graph showing the effect of the chosen
parameter. The student can then go back and change another
parameter and explore its effect. This multimedia capability
provides a very powerful exploratory tool for the student.

Explanation For a student new to the field of fluidized
beds, the following statement may not make much sense
upon first reading: "Bubbling Fluidization is an operation by
which granular solids are transformed into a fluid-like state
through contact with gas." But if the students can see video
film of an actual fluidized bed, they get a good idea of the
process. The video can be viewed by clicking on the word
'Bubbling Fluidization,' which bears a distinct color to indi-
cate that it is associated with a video clipping (see Figure 6).
The video appears against the backdrop of the text and can
be removed by clicking again anywhere on the video frame.

A new student reading an explanation of the mechanism of
heat transfer as "...clusters slide down the wall. Initially
clusters are at the bed temperature. Therefore a transient
heat transfer between the wall and the clusters takes place.
During the initial period, only the first layer of particles are
involved. Particles of successive layers participate in the
transient heat conduction as the clusters slide down the
wall..." may end up confused. A figure would help, or a
series of sequential figures. But even better-a dynamic
computer animation showing the motion of clusters and
temperature variation of particles of successive layers, shown
by color changes and graphical representation. Clicking
'mechanism' brings animation on the screen (see Figure 7),
and it continues to show the process until the student under-
stands and closes the animation. These animations are more
powerful than videos for explaining a mechanism or pro-
cess. Animations drop details and highlight the central theme.

Illustrations Figures, graphs, and photographs, used to
illustrate a process, are important parts of an engineering


Fall 1996


g A



;.3 ja ichtji. rf l- n utecormblislmao edecrea sc.ra c .a erlt n ea usui ,ot, :not hnu re
Figure 6. This is an example of a video recording. It
shows phenomena that are too complicated to
explain in writing.


i


I


275











text, and color representations can even better explain a
system. For example, a cross sectional view of a boiler can
better explain its different components if each heat transfer
element is shown in its distinctive color. But conventional
textbooks are constricted by the high cost of color reproduc-
tions and often have to sacrifice clarity for economy. This
constraint is removed in multimedia-color illustrations and
photographs are used liberally throughout the text. The num-
ber of pages, also a restriction in textbook printing, is of no
concern in multimedia production. Since all figures are "hid-
den," multimedia can use two or three, or more, figures
instead of just one to better illustrate a process.
In-Depth Study The amount of information that can be
packed into a set number of pages is limited. In the original
textbook121 that this course is based on, only one graph on the
effect of suspension density on the heat transfer coefficient
was presented. The multimedia-based text, however, allows
the reader to view more than one graph to compare data at
different operating conditions (see Figure 8). The figures are
hidden and can be popped up at will by the student.

Assessment Assessment is an important part of the learn-
ing process. In traditional textbooks it is difficult to provide
a real-life test or quiz and its evaluation. In our multimedia
text, however, there is a quiz at the end of most chapters that
comes on-screen by clicking the 'Quiz' button (see Figure
9). The quizzes contain yes-or-no questions, multiple-choice
questions with a single correct answer, and multiple-choice
questions with multiple correct answers. Just as in a class-
room test, the question appears only when the student clicks
the 'Start' button. The computer clock begins timing the
exercise and if the student fails to solve the problem and
enter the answer within the allowed time, the multimedia
declares 'Time-out." Marks are given to each correct an-
swer; incorrect answers get either a zero or a negative
mark. Numerical problems do not always give exact an-
swers, so full marks are given if the result is within a
given percentage tolerance. For larger variations, a pro-
portionate penalty is assigned.

MULTIMEDIA TOOLS USED
A multimedia-based instructional program assembles sev-
eral media elements together and backs them into a com-
puter disk. It combines motion video, pictures, graphics,
animation, sound, text, quiz, and equation solutions through
appropriate interfacing tools used for the multimedia hard-
ware and software. The hardware includes:

An Intel 80486 processor based PC
A video camera
A video recorder with TV
A sound card and microphone
A scanner
A video capture board


Si1,i.... I Heal T.I.riici]
Fie EvIl Bolokmark Help


3-2-3 Theory


CI,







[---- --M -
*
I. I ,r ,




I. ... ..e



Figure 7. Animation demonstrates phenomena that are
obscured by video and difficult to explain in written text.


Figure 8. Example of a "pop-up" illustration showing
information at different levels, depending on the user's
interest.


= (_Chapler 1 Heal TiraIr -J
Flr Ed.' BIounmalk Help
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timed problem

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I I.-e I I Fals

I lue I I Fal.

U F.aui aholn Vye' l
SBed tempratuie
O Cilculaion rate
D Suspension density


i-]


Figure 9. A quiz for the students to test themselves on the
material in the chapter.


Chemical Engineering Education










SOFTWARE USED
Several commercial multimedia authoring tools were used
for developing the multimedia-based instructional programs.
The software is capable of organizing and manipulating
texts, audio bites, video clips, graphic images, photographs,
animation, and interactivity. Each authoring tool provides a
unique set of capabilities and is much less Mordandized than
the word processor. A graphical interface provides a visual
environment that holds the environment together. Some of
the commercial authoring tools are Toolbook, Ntergaid Hyper
Writer, Microsoft Multimedia Viewer, Lenen Media Work
Development Kit, Asymetrix Multimedia Toolbook, Tem-
pera Media Author, and HSC Interactive.
The list of authoring tools is growing fast, but multimedia
developers have yet to devise an industry standard. So, in-
stead of committing ourselves to a specific authoring tool,
we decided to use generic tools, leaving the option of adopt-
ing the "industry standard" when it comes up. Our work was
developed using:
Microsoft Word with a special template
Microsoft Video-for video capture
Visual Basic-for number crunching
Excel-for spreadsheets and graphs
Photostyler and Paint Brush-for animation
Everything was composed on Microsoft Word using a
Helpass.dot template developed by Techknow-logic,
Sackville, NS, Canada. Helpass.dot has a provision for edit-
ing existing files, adding existing files to a project, creating
new files from the projects, and is equipped with the follow-
ing features:
Jump to Topic This shows the text selection that will be
used for a hot spot. The text selection is underlined in green
and by clicking on it the reader is taken to the section or
chapter attached to the underlined item. The reader can
return to the original section by clicking on a 'Back' button.
Pop-Up Topic Text selections, figures, tables, equa-
tions, examples, quizzes, etc., are used as hot spots. Clicking
on any of these colored hot spots brings a pop-up screen into
view. Another click anywhere on the box frame removes the
pop-up box, leaving the original text on the screen. These
files can be text, video, pictures, or other programs.
Bitmap Insertion This recognizes BMP, SHG, WMF,
MRB, and DIB, provides a list of bitmaps available in the
format selected, specifies justification, and can launch graphic
editor form BMP and SHG from within Winword.
Video for Window This provides a list of AVI files in the
project directory, specifies justification, and automatically
inserts the embedded playback windows.
File Management Files for still pictures, animation,
audio, and video are usually large; a five-minute audio con-
versation or a five-second video can often take up twenty
megabytes of disk space. So it is imperative that the files be


compressed for use in average sized personal computers.
Audio files are usually large due to their recording qual-
ity. So the audio was first recorded at 44.1 kHz along with
16-bit stereo recording to achieve CD quality. Then, using
the program Wave Editor, the file was resampled at 11 kHz
and 8-bit mono recording. Using the Wave Editor, we were
able to emphasize portions of the speech that were in danger
of not being heard.
Still picture files can also be large. So instead of using
256 colors, we used 16 or even 2. Another simple way of
reducing the file size is to change the picture's size. If the
emphasis is on a single component in a boiler, it is not
necessary to show the entire boiler. Cropping everything
around the tube dramatically decreases the file size.
Animation can take up significant amounts of disk space.
The easiest way to reduce it is to drop the frame rate or
reduce the animation screen size. Dropping the frame rate is
usually the responsibility of the animation program used.
Most of our animations were done by coding Visual Basic
programs.
Video files are the largest files. We first record a video
file at the highest possible setting, then reduce it depending
on which things need to be emphasized. File reduction can
be achieved by: dropping the frame rate (a rate of 20 or less
frames will not dramatically alter the video's quality); re-
ducing the color palette, which improves space consump-
tion and playback speed; and reducing the size of the
video screen. We used Microsoft's Vid Edit program,
which has the added capability of compression directly
into the video file.

STUDENT FEEDBACK
Due to the above difficulties with storage, it was not
possible to put this course on the University network and
regular use by the students was not possible. But individual
students were allowed to use the system in the developer's
computer, and they were much impressed. When we gave
demonstrations in short courses at several universities, we
found that younger students liked the system more than did
mature professors. It appears that the new generation indeed
feels more at ease with a computer screen.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This work was carried out as part of an institutional link-
age program between the Technical University of Nova Scotia
and the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur. It was
funded by the Canadian International Development Agency.

REFERENCES
1. Felder, R.M., and L. Silverman, "Learning and Teaching
Styles in Engineering Education," Eng. Ed., 78(7), 674 (1988)
2. Basu, P., and S. Fraser, Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers:
Design & Operations, Butterworth Heinemann, Stoneham,
MA (1991) 0


Fall 1996











Random Thoughts...




S. .AND IF YOU BELIEVE THAT,


I'VE GOT A BRIDGE TO SELL YOU



RICHARD M. FIELDER
North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695-7905


" I know you're busy, but this committee will probably
meet only once or twice a year and won't take any real
time.
E It's true we take 65% of your direct costs and your
department only gets 2% back, but the overhead goes
only to vital university functions that benefit you far
more than you're contributing.
U ... and I can assure this legislative budget committee
that the new two hundred fifty million dollar stadium
will be a bargain for the taxpayers-it will pay for itself
and help support our teaching program.
E I understand that your department has only one secre-
tary for 36 faculty members, but we're under severe
budget constraints and all of us from my office on down
have to tighten our belts.
and I can assure the Faculty Senate that all vice
chancellors, associate provosts, associate deans, assis-
tant deans, assistants to the chancellor and provost,
deputy assistants to the associate provosts, and deputy
assistant associates to the associate and assistant deans
are critically important to the functioning of this institu-
tion-and of course they all need their own administra-
tive assistants and secretaries.
Physical Plant-we live to serve what's that? ...
your lab air conditioner died?... and fumes are coming
from the sink and the lab smells like a hog waste la-
goon? .. and there are sparks coming from the circuit
breaker box? and a greenish liquid is leaking from
the ceiling onto the Mr. Coffee machine and dissolving
it? ... sorry about that-we'll get right on it and have it
taken care of by tomorrow morning.
Effective immediately, this university is fully commit-
ted to continuous quality improvement, bottom-up ad-
ministration, and staff empowerment.*

* Decision made at the Chancellor's retreat, attended by no one of
rank lower than Dean.


Richard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese Pro-
fessor of Chemical Engineering at North Caro-
lina State University. He received his BChE from
City College of CUNY and his PhD from
Princeton. He has presented courses on chemi-
cal engineering principles, reactor design, pro-
cess optimization, and effective teaching to vari-
ous American and foreign industries and institu-
tions. He is coauthor of the text Elementary
Principles of Chemical Processes (Wiley, 1986).

B We don't count dollars and papers when we evaluate
faculty performance-we only require that the profes-
sor be a kind and caring human being.
* and I can assure you gentlemen of the press that
Roger Frobish was appointed Chairman of the Univer-
sity Board of Trustees because of his deep love and
understanding of higher education. The fact that he
gave $250,000 to the State Senate majority leader's
re-election campaign fund last year had nothing to
do with it.
* I know you had to redo your proposal budget three
times because we changed the forms and then the asso-
ciate dean for graduate programs signed instead of the
associate dean for research and then we changed the
overhead rate and then we weren't sure about the match-
ing fund requirements so we sat on the proposal for a
month and then lost it, but our budget office is really
here to help you.
U .and I can assure this accreditation board that the
power forward who averaged 27 points a game last
year is first a scholar, then an athlete. Grades don't
mean everything, you know, and don't forget he was
acquitted.
] $400 a year for a faculty parking permit isn't that much-
it barely covers the cost of handing out parking tickets.
U ... and as chancellor, I can assure you that teaching is
the most important and valued function on this campus.
7


Chemical Engineering Education












ChE Division Shines at

Annual ASEE Convention
Chemical Engineers attending the annual convention of the American Society for Engineering Education last June came away with
the lion's share of awards and special recognition. Our congratulations go to those who were recognized for their singular
contributions to the profession as a whole and to chemical engineering education in particular.


Named as ASEE Fellows
Richard M. Felder North Carolina State University
Thomas W. Weber State University of New York at Buffalo



* The Chester F. Carlson Award for Innovation in Engineering Education
Thomas M. Regan University of Maryland, College Park ChE Division Awards

" General Electric Senior Research Award
Howard Brenner Massachusetts Institute of Technology
CACHE Award
* Curtis W. McGraw Research Award Kenneth R. Jolls
Lorenz T. Biegler Carnegie Mellon University Iowa State University

* Meriam-Wiley Distinguished Author Award
H. Scott Fogler University of Michigan
Steven LeBlanc University of Toledo William H. Corcoran
Award
" George Westinghouse Award
David F. Ollis
C. Stewart Slater Rowan College David F. is
North Carolina State University
" College-Industry Partnership Division: Best Session Award
Thomas R. Hanley University of Louisville
Joseph J. Martin
* College-Industry Education Conference: Best Presenter Joseph J. Martin
Award
Thomas R. Hanley University of Louisville
Dennis J. Miller
* Woody Everett Award Michigan State Universty
Michael L. Mavrovouniotis Northwestern University

" Delos Division: Best Paper Award
Robert D. Knecht Colorado School of Mines Union Carbide
Lectureship Award
* Outstanding Campus Representative Award: Midwest Section
Robert Ybarra University of Missouri-Rolla Thomas F. Edgar
University of Texas at Austin
9 Outstanding Campus Representative Award: New England Section
Ralph Buonopane Northeastern University


Fall 1996


279













REAL-TIME, SENSOR-BASED

COMPUTING IN THE

LABORATORY



0.0. BADMUS, D. GRANT FISHER, SIRISH L. SHAH
University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6


his paper is based on experiences in the Department
of Chemical Engineering at the University of Alberta
over the past thirty years. The original computer
system (1966) was an IBM-1800 system with several hun-
dred process input/output points connected to student and
research labs throughout the building. Over the years, this
system evolved into the current network of PCs and work-
stations running a variety of application software (such
as Real-Time Matlab/Simulink,r' Labview,121 G2,31) in
addition to user-developed software packages for pro-
cess identification, multivariable optimal control, etc.
This paper will describe:
*The experimental processes used in our undergraduate CPC
laboratory
*The process instrumentation and process-computer interface
*The computer and communication systems
*Typical software: operating system, application, and process
control
A complete description of all our applications is impos-
sible because of space limitations, but sufficient detail will
be given so that the reader can see what type of hardware and
software is required for process applications of real-time,
sensor-based (RTSB) computers and also to evaluate the
importance of RTSB computing in the engineering curricu-
lum and to engineers in industry. After the following brief
overview, there will be more detail on the hardware and
software, followed by a discussion of some applications.

Lanre Badmus completed his BSc, MSc at the University of Lagos
(Nigeria), and his PhD at Georgia Tech. He is currently a post-doctoral
fellow and a sessional instructor at the University of Alberta working in the
area of RTSB computer control and system identification.
Grant Fisher worked for Union Carbide Canada Ltd. for five years, com-
pleted his PhD at the University of Michigan, and has been teaching and
doing research in the areas of process control and RTSB applications for
the past thirty-two years.
Sirish Shah completed his MSc at UMIST (England), his PhD at the
University of Alberta, worked at Esso Petroleum, and returned to teach at
the University of Alberta in 1979. His principal teaching and research
interests are in identification, control, and multivariable statistical analysis.
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1996


PILOT PLANT PROCESSES
The process shown in Figure 1 is one of nine processes in
the computer process control (CPC) lab. It was designed and
built to provide students with "hands-on" experience with
the type of equipment and processes found in introductory
control textbooks"e.g.4-5 and in the process industries. All
processes are equipped with industrial instrumentation and
PID controllers and are interfaced to PC-based RTSB com-
puter systems for more advanced, user-defined applications.
Thus, it is possible to run each process manually, with local
industrial controllers and/or via computer software.
The three-tank process in Figure 1 can be configured to
provide a wide variety of level, flow, and temperature pro-
cesses that are familiar to most users and are reasonably easy
to model using either first principles (e.g., material and
energy balances) or empirical process identification. Pos-
sible process configurations include first-, second-, and third-
order systems, with self-regulating, integrating, non-mini-
mum phase or non-linear characteristics with or without
time delays. Possible control schemes include almost all the
conventional (PID) feedback, feedforward, cascade, ratio,
interaction compensation, etc., schemes described in text-
books and widely used in industry.16] More advanced identi-
fication and control applications, some of which are de-
scribed later, include discrete computer control algorithms,
transfer function or state space identification, internal model
control (IMC), generalized predictive control (GPC), and
model based (SISO or MIMO) optimal constrained control
algorithms (MOCCA) similar to the dynamic matrix control
(DMC) algorithms widely used in industry.

PROCESS COMPUTER INTERFACES
Process computer interfaces are provided so that analog
and/or digital signals can be read from, or sent to, each pilot-
plant process using an industry-standard personal computer.
The interface hardware in our CPC lab includes Opto-22
subsystems, National Instrument, and Computer Boards in-


Chemical Engineering Education


280










terface cards (described below) chosen to provide the flex-
ibility required to implement a wide range of undergraduate
and graduate applications. They also illustrate important
interface concepts such as handling low-level signals,
different digital codes, differential analog inputs, anti-
aliasing filters, etc.
Computer Software Once again, the emphasis is on
establishing a flexible environment that provides experience
with basic concepts as well as with commercial products
used in industry and in lab automation. The CPC lab in-
cludes a relatively large Bailey Network 90 system to pro-
vide experience with industrial distributed control systems
(DCS), but most of the student lab and research work is done
using the Matlab and Simulink Real-Time Workshop,"'
Labview,121 G2 expert system development software,[31 or
conventional programming languages such as Visual Basic
or C++ running under operating systems such as QNX,


Figure 1. Three-tank level plus temperature system (Instrument
Trainer P-7)


Figure 2. Signal transformations in typical data acquisition and
control system.


DOS, Windows, UNIX, and OS2. As our later discussion
will show, the application software systems and the user
interface are the most important functional components for
most students.
Figure 2 shows the signal transformations in a typical data
acquisition and control system. It shows nine steps starting
with data acquisition from analog sensors and ending with
actuation of process equipment (e.g., control valves) by out-
put signals from the computer. In the figure, transmission of
field signals is accomplished in the analog mode, while data
analysis is performed in the digital mode. In light of the new
Fieldbus technology"9] being rapidly adopted by industry,
however, this may no longer be the rule-of-thumb. The ad-
vantage of analog signal transmission is its inherent infinite
spectral content as compared to discrete (digitally) sampled
data, which has a finite frequency spectrum. But analog
signal transmission often involves lengthy, dedicated ca-
bling, and high maintenance and overhead costs.
The newest industrial impetus is toward digital
signal transmission via fieldbuses, with smart
digital sensors that implicitly (and automati-
cally) perform signal conditioning, quantiza-
1 tion, etc., in the field.


RTSB SYSTEMS
In this section we will provide more detailed
descriptions of the pilot plant process, computer
interface, and computer hardware and software
used in the UA/CPC RTSB systems.
A Pilot Plant Process for Control Applications
* The three-tank level plus temperature system
shown in Figure 1 is designed to be versatile and
representative of typical chemical process plants.
It consists of two cylindrical and one conical glass
tanks, each having an internal diameter of 16 cm
and a height of 50 cm. The system is equipped
with several transducers (sensors): three differen-
tial pressure (d/p) cell transducers for measuring
level (LT1, LT2, and LT3); three industrial flow
transducers (FT1, FT2, and FT3) for measuring
the flow rates of steam and water; and five ther-
mocouples (TT1, TT2, TT3, TT4, and TT5) for
measuring water temperature at various points in
the system. In addition, there are three control
valves (CV1, CV2, and CV3) for manipulating
the flow rates of water and steam into the tanks.
As mentioned in the overview, this process equip-
ment can be readily configured to demonstrate the
performance of different process systems and con-
trol schemes. All sensors and actuators are con-
nected to the computer via the computer-process
interface described below. Current-to-pressure (I/
P) converters are used, where necessary, to con-


Fall 1996


manual
PC keyboard
inputs











vert (4-20mA) current signals to (3-15psi) air pressure, e.g.,
to actuate the control valves.
A large number of different first-, second-, and third-order
processes and control configurations can be obtained by
careful selection of process inputs and outputs. For example:

* The temperature control in tank 1 is a first-order process with
delay (TT2, 3, or 4) or without delay (TT1). The 2 x 2 process
(level via cold water flow, CV1, and temperature via steam
flow, CV2) has "one-way interaction"'"6 while the use of hot
water in place of steam gives "two-way interaction" (a full
transfer function matrix).
A number of different first-, second-, or third-order level and
temperature processes can be configured. Time-delays can be
introduced into the temperature control system as above. Use
of a pump rather than gravity for outlet water flow generates an
integrating (unstable) process and control of level in the
tapered region of tank 3 introduces strong nonlinearities.
The interconnection between the sensors, actuators, computer
interfaces, etc., is NOT fixed. The students use electrical cords
with banana plugs and/or plastic instrument-air tubing with
quick-disconnect fittings to configure each application, e.g.,
simple data acquisition or feedback, feedforward, cascade,
ratio, multiloop, multivariable, etc., control. The large number
of alternatives overwhelms some beginning students, but the
fact that the students select from several realistic control
strategies, must use different design methods, and actually
physically implement (connect) the hardware is an extremely
important feature. It significantly improves the educational
aspects of the applications and is much more realistic from an
industrial perspective than one in which the components are
"hardwired" to perform a single function.

Process Computer Interface The data acquisition and
control system shown functionally in Figure 2 is imple-
mented as a PC-based, portable RTSB system that uses data
acquisition boards that plug into the computer's I/O bus. The
primary data acquisition board provides sixteen A/D chan-
nels and two D/A channels, along with thirty-two DIO (digi-
tal I/O) channels. There is also an auxiliary board that pro-
vides two additional D/A channels (see Appendix for de-
tails). There is also an additional integrated circuit board for
thermocouple measurements that provides cold junction com-
pensation (CJC), signal conditioning, open thermocouple
detect (OTD), and lowpass filtering. A software driver
controls the I/O operations between the interface and the
user code (in Matlab/Simulink, Labview, or other con-
ventional high-level programming languages). Our (four)
RTSB computer systems are mounted on small carts and
are versatile enough to be compatible with a number of
laboratory pilot plants.
Four of the processes are equipped with an external (stand
alone) data acquisition subsystem (OPTO-22) that can be
linked to the PC via a standard RS-232 serial port connec-
tion. This approach makes the interface more visible to the
student, illustrates how data can be digitized "in the field,"


and has the advantage that it can be connected to any PC
(including a laptop brought in by the user).

Hardware Selection The selection of an appropriate
process-computer interface is application specific, that is,
the appropriateness of a data acquisition board (and its sig-
nal processing components) depends not only on the process
but also on the requirements of the application. The avail-
ability of a variety of computer-process interfaces with var-
ied functionalities (including PC-cards for laptop comput-
ers) complicates the selection process, partly due to incom-
patibility of products from different vendors.
In general, the considerations for the selection of a data
acquisition board for an application depend on three specific
requirements-the process, the computer, and the data ac-
quisition requirements:

Process Requirements When a process has a single mode of
operation with well-defined measurements (process outputs)
and manipulated (process inputs) variables, it is straightfor-
ward to determine the number of analog input and output
points required on the interface. In university applications,
however, flexibility is important and a single RTSB system
may be used for multiple applications. Therefore, our
interfaces are larger than required for most student labs, have
provision for a full range of analog and digital I/O connec-
tions, and include provision for low-level (e.g., thermocouple)
and/or differential analog inputs. (Differential inputs are more
expensive, but are much better for handling common mode
voltages, noisy signals, multiple grounds, etc.) Separate
converters are used to handle the milliamp, voltage, pneu-
matic, pulse, etc., signal conversions associated with different
sensors/actuators. It is extremely important to provide
electrical "isolation" (e.g., optical) between the process and
the computer, plus overload/electrical-shorting, etc., protec-
tion, especiallyfor applications where students configure their
own applications.
Computer Requirements A desktop PC is commonly used
because it is cost effective, versatile, and reliable enough for
most university applications. The recent offering of PCMCIA
cards that can handle process input/output signals has further
reinforced the concept of portable data acquisition platforms.
A laptop computer has the portability edge and may be
preferred for field studies, classroom demonstrations, or in
situations where students have their own laptop. It should be
noted that many popular operating systems (e.g., Windows)
and some application software packages are not "real-time" in
the strict definition of the term (e.g., cannot handle multiple,
high-speed, pre-emptive interrupts), but are adequate for most
single-user, student lab applications.
Data Acquisition Board Requirements The primary consider-
ations when purchasing a data acquisition board are (a) user
preference, (b) accuracy, and (c) sampling rate. The user
preference is exercised in making the choice between a plug-
in board and a standalone subsystem. Plug-in cards are less
expensive, have a high data throughput, and use up less space
(since they are resident in the PC). The standalone subsystems,
on the other hand, are easily expandable (since they can be


Chemical Engineering Education











daisy-chained to one another), do not require expansion slots,
and are built to be rugged enough to withstand industrial
environments. High data throughput can also be achieved in
standalone data acquisition boards that use parallel or
proprietary interfaces (as opposed to serial interfaces).
Considerations regarding the accuracy of a data acquisition
board come about when specifying the acceptable resolution or
number of bits used to represent a process signal, e.g., a 12-bit
analog-to-digital converter (ADC) has 4096 (or 2'" quantiza-
tion levels). A 12-bit ADC applied with 0-5Vdc range signal
and a gain of two has a code width of 0.61mV/bit. The value
0.61mV is the signal value represented by 1 bit, the Least
Significant Bit, and can be interpreted as the sensitivity of the
system. For more critical applications it is also important to
consider the settling time, drift, temperature sensitivity, etc., of
the converters, amplifiers, multiplexers, etc.
The sampling rate and anti-aliasing filters for the analog
signals are also important specifications. The Nyquist theorem
stipulates that sampling should be done at a rate that is more
than twice the process bandwidth, i.e., >2 samples per period
of the highest frequency of interest. This is not a limitation in
most chemical process applications because of their relative
slow response rates. Analog anti-aliasing filters are required to
prevent high frequencies (e.g, noise) from "folding over" and
distorting the lower frequency process measurements.
Computer Software Many software packages currently
exist that facilitate the implementation of data acquisition
and control algorithms in real-time applications."8 Note the
difference between packages that perform a specific func-
tion with a minimum of user-effort (e.g., simple specifica-
tion of parameters or options with no user programming)
versus those that facilitate the development of a user-de-
signed and implemented application. Student-computer in-
terfaces and data processing algorithms are usually applica-
tion and hardware specific and hence are best developed by
the students using a program development environment pro-
vided by a commercial package (e.g., Matlab, Labview, G2,
C-compilers, etc.) plus libraries of numerical and signal
processing algorithms. "Low-level software" such as drivers
for the process I/O interface are much more difficult to write
because they require detailed knowledge of the operating
system plus the computing and interface hardware. There-
fore, it is strongly recommended that hardware (e.g., com-
puter interface boards) be selected that has flexible, reliable
drivers supplied by the hardware supplier or third-party
software developers. Note that the drivers do not always
support all the features contained in the hardware or the
functional compatibilities desired by the user.
SGraphics and Presentation (GUI) Capabilities The visual
display and presentation of variables are a critical part of RTSB
applications. There are often a large number of process
variables, e.g., temperature values, pressure values, valve
positions, etc., that the operator must constantly monitor and
compare with their limiting or constraint values. Hence, data
acquisition and control software must provide an effective
computer/user interface. (Note the important differences


between software that can display/plot data in real-time as it is
received rather than handling file data after a run is completed.)
The Labview software, for example, offers extensive libraries of
"virtual instruments" for operator inputs, displays, signal
processing, etc., that can be selected from function libraries and
arranged and interconnected graphically to construct a RTSB
computer-user interface. The authors' experience with the
current versions of the software is that real-time Matlab/
Simulink is ideal for applications where the emphasis is on
individual user implementations of data processing or control
applications and is the most popular choice for theses and
course projects. Labview, however, provides more insight and
options for users developing industrial-type interfaces (espe-
cially for use by others) and is therefore used in our RTSB
applications courses. The most important factors in selecting the
application software are normally the user requirements (e.g., a
quick, convenient way to do a single thesis or lab implementa-
tion versus a vehicle to develop a more industrial-type system
for use by others) and user experience (e.g., are they already
familiar with some software from other courses). As shown by
the later examples, if the hardware and software drivers have
already been developed and installed, then all a user has to do to
change a simulation into an experimental application is to
substitute the appropriate data 1/O blocks into the Matlab/
Simulink diagram in place of the process simulation blocks.
SAnalysis and Design Capabilities The application development
software should provide an efficient computing environment
along with a suite of common process control functions and
utilities. The availability of function libraries for signal
processing, statistical evaluations, frequency analysis, array
data manipulations, etc., greatly enhances the utility of the
software for real-time control applications. Due to the specific
requirements of most RTSB applications and/or the desirability
of students using software developed in other courses, it is
desirable to be able to include user-written functions developed
in conventional high-level programming, e.g., Basic, C/C++,
FORTRAN, etc. This can be more difficult than one would
expect because it requires acquiring an understanding of the
application software structure, interfacing (data passing)
conventions, timing considerations, etc., in order to successfully
integrate the user's code with the application software. In our
view, the capability of easily integrating user-written functions
and subprograms into the application software is essential for
student labs.

APPLICATIONS
The specific applications discussed below assume that a
process similar to that in Figure 1 is used along with a
process interface (Figure 2 and Appendix) and real-time
Matlab/Simulink software. Similar applications, however,
could also be done with other hardware/software. Details
will depend on the actual requirements, but most applica-
tions will include the following steps:
Build a Simulink diagram that will do the necessary data I/O,
calculations, and display.
Code (in C) the sections of the algorithm that are not readily
generated from Simulink blocks, e.g., For-loops. Then
compile the C-code as MEX files and integrate them into


Fall 1996










Simulink as S-function blocks.
Set the real-time options and build the real-time code (these are
selections on the pull-down menu 'Code' in the Simulink window).
Verify that all I/O connections and hardware options are correct.
Test the generated EXE file and then implement it on the experi-
mental process.
Perform the necessary on-line (e.g., control) and off-line (e.g., file
processing) operations.
The following five application examples demonstrate specific
features and advantages of RTSB computer applications. They
range from simple data logging to multivariable predictive control.
In addition, each example is illustrated with a different subsystem
of the process equipment (in Figure 1). Because the Matlab/Simulink
Real-Time Workshop11 lacks a convenient user-accessible timing
routine, applications were run in a quasi-real-time mode in which
the timing operations were controlled from a user 'timer.m' file.
The simplest implementation in this mode is to halt the entire
system for the duration of the "wait" between control calculations
rather than using multitasking or interrupts. This is obviously
realistic only when using a dedicated PC and when the sampling
period is significantly larger than the computation time.
Open Loop Data Acquisition Figure 3 shows the Simulink
block diagrams developed for a simple data logging and display
application. The process response (level measurement, LT-1) to a
step input change in the inlet water flow rate (FT-1) is recorded
and plotted as a function of time. The data can be used for process
identification, comparison of data processing options (e.g., filtering,
spectral analysis), comparison with simulations, fault detection, etc.
For example, this step response data can be used to compute a first-
order continuous transfer function model for the process

ke-S
G(s)=-- wherek=6.67, T=240s, 0=100
t's+l
Students in courses such as Statistics and ChE Unit Operations
were more highly motivated and learned better when required to
work interactively with RTSB data than when hypothetical data
were used as part of a homework problem.
Multiloop PID Control Figure 4 illustrates the implementation
of multiloop PID control of the process level and temperature
using the manipulated variables-inlet water flow rate (FT-1) and
steam (FT-2) respectively. This process exhibits a triangular (or
one-way) interaction, in the sense that a change in the inlet water
flow affects both level and temperature, while a change in the
steam flowrate influences only the temperature and not the level.
The main advantage of an RTSB application like this is not in
obtaining a single set of data as shown in Figure 4, but the ease of
implementing and evaluating different control strategies (e.g., the
advantages of feedforward); different control algorithms or PID-
tuning methodologies; data processing options (e.g., filtering); or
different model-based control strategies.
System Identification Figure 5 compares the measured process
variables (temperature and level) with the corresponding simu-
lated process variables. The simulated process outputs are from a


Figure 3. Open-loop data acquisition (data log-
ging): process response (level measurements) to
an input step change in inlet water flowrate.


Figure 4. Multiloop control of process level and
temperature using inlet water flowrate and steam
flowrate, respectively. A step change in level
setpoint causes a disturbance in temperature that
is quickly rejected by the temperature loop con-
troller.


Chemical Engineering Education













Clock T



20 I mux DAC ADC y2
u2 y2





60 ,-, __ measure
estlmaed

0 500 1000 1500 2000

150 ~------ ------ i------ -----

0 500 1000 1500 2000



0 500 1000 1500 2000

i J--LL-nnLj
u2 5
20
010KP HFF l


0 So0 1000
me (seconds)


1500 2000


Figure 5. System identification; comparison of
the process level and temperature measurements
with corresponding simulated process variables
using an MVSSID'7 identified state-space model.

Example 5 Smulink Block Digram

Mn o -.
SDAC ADC outp



AO)


50
45
40 b o 0oo


60 0
100 [-,--
S5-0
0 b 500 1o00 1500
10
so
time (seconds)

Figure 6. Multivariable state space generalized
predictive controller (tuning parameters: predic-
tion horizon=10; control horizon=2; input sup-
pression parameters=[0.05 0.05].


Example 3- Simulnk Block Diagram


Fall 1996


state-space model generated with the identification package
MVSSID.7' The package is an identification software program
that has been developed to generate multivariable state-space
models from discrete input-output process data. The generated
state-space model for the I/O data in Figure 5 is

x [0.98357 -0.02175Fx1[-0.55116 -0.70521]u
x?+1 L0.00086 0.87232 Lxj -0.03065 0.32403J u

I HY 0.00313 -0.55015 [x

y= [-0.46075 -0.03016] x

Once again, it is easy to compare different identification algo-
rithms, different model structures, the effect of input excitation,
and/or data processing options. It is particularly instructive for
students to plot the simulated and experimental data in the same
figure and to explore the significance of assumptions made dur-
ing the derivation of the model.
Multivariable GPC Implementation Figure 6 illustrates the
real-time implementation of a multivariable generalized predic-
tive controller. The process variables are the temperature and
level of water in tank 1 (Figure 1) by manipulating the inlet hot
water and inlet cold water flowrates. This subsystem forms a full
(and sometimes highly) interacting model since a change in
either of the manipulated variables influences both of the process
variables. Note that the Simulink diagram necessary to imple-
ment this experiment is easily interpreted (or even developed) by
users who are not familiar with the details or theory "hidden"
inside the functional blocks, e.g., the GPC controller.
The control algorithm is just an example of how RTSB com-
puter systems can be used to demonstrate and evaluate course
material (in this case, a first-level graduate control course). Obvi-
ously, a similar approach could be used in conjunction with
courses focusing on optimization, expert systems, numerical analy-
sis, statistics, unit operations, etc.

CONCLUSIONS
Specific control applications using personal computers, com-
mercial process-computer interfaces, simple processes, and
Matlab/Simulink software are described in enough detail that
they can be replicated by others. The real purpose of this
paper, however, is to demonstrate the importance of RTSB
computing and how it can be easily and effectively integrated
into university student laboratories. The details of any appli-
cation should vary with each combination of course, instruc-
tor, student, and hardware/software system. Therefore, the
authors strongly recommend
> The development of flexible, mobile RTSB systems that can be
easily interfaced to any experiment the students are required, or can
be motivated, to do.
> A focus on fundamentals, theory, and concepts rather than on the
operation of a specific piece of hardware or on completing a series
Continued on page 289.


I















TEACHING


BIOCHEMICAL SEPARATIONS

TO ENGINEERS



PAUL TODD, ROGER G. HARRISON, JR.,1 ERIC H. DUNLOP2
University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309


A course in bioseparations for chemical engineers must
be approached from a unique interdisciplinary per-
spective; a course developed from traditional chemi-
cal engineering and applied to, for example, proteins, like a
course built on bench-scale biochemistry scaled to industrial
quantities, is insufficient. Creating a course that synthesizes
these traditional perspectives while embracing the unique-
ness of the biochemical engineering environment and the
materials it processes is the subject of a collaboration among
the institutions of the three authors. A course package con-
sisting of classroom instruction, syllabus, homework prob-
lems, multimedia, and laboratory exercises has been devel-
oped for the training of chemical engineers, environmental
engineers, and biochemists in the field of Biochemical Sepa-

Paul Todd is Research Professor of Chemical Engineering at the Uni-
versity of Colorado, Boulder. He received baccalaureate degrees from
Bowdoin College and Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a PhD
in biophysics at the University of California, Berkeley. He has served as
Professor of Biophysics at the Penn State University and as director of
the Bioprocessing and Pharmaceutical Research Center, Philadelphia.
He teaches and conducts research in the downstream processing areas
of aqueous extraction, electrophoresis, and crystallization, and has co-
edited four books of conference proceedings in bioprocessing.
Roger G. Harrison, Jr., is Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering
in the School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science at the
University of Oklahoma, Norman. He received a BS at the University of
Oklahoma, followed by MS and PhD degrees in chemical engineering at
the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He has held engineering research
positions at Chevron Research Company, Upjohn Company, and Phillips
Petroleum Company's Biotechnology Division. He has edited a book on
the engineering of protein purification processes and publishes in the
area of expression and purification of recombinant proteins.
Eric H. Dunlop is Professor of Chemical Engineering at Colorado State
University (currently on leave at the University of New South Wales,
Australia). He received his BSc and PhD degrees in chemical engineer-
ing from the University of Strathclyde, Scotland. He has served in
positions of engineering leadership at Imperial Chemical Industries,
Washington University, Solar Energy Research Institute, and the Colo-
rado Bioprocessing Center. He publishes in the area of fluid forces and
micromixing in cell culture systems.

Address: University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019
2 Address: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523


ration Science and Technology.
The intense interdisciplinary nature of the subject raises a
number of questions, but an integrated assessment of the
three institutions reveals that more than one of the issues has
been addressed in each case. Some pertinent questions and
their answers, gleaned from the past few years of teaching
the subject at the senior and graduate levels, are:
How much fundamental biochemistry should be
taught to chemical engineers? Engineers need to
learn about biological molecules of all types, to-
gether with a little about the cells and tissues that
produce them; ordinary organic molecules are in
their normal repertoire.
How much engineering, and at what level, should
be taught to scientists? Scientists can quickly pick
up the basic principles of engineering analysis by
using equilibria, material balances, and transport
phenomena in a universal analytical paradigm.
How much breadth to provide in the form of a
variety of unit operations? One or two important
unit operations in the following categories should be
subjected to engineering analysis: solid-liquid sepa-
rations; solute-solid separations; solute-solute sepa-
rations; and solute-liquid separations.
How much depth to provide in single operations,
especially chromatography? Each operation pre-
sented should be covered in enough depth to enable
critical engineering calculations (yield, purity, etc.).
How can too much or too little emphasis on pro-
teins as target products be avoided? Every oppor-
tunity should be seized to illustrate the unique re-
quirements of macromolecule separations.
How much process development, plant design, and
economics should be included? The basic rules for


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1996


Chemical Engineering Education













Creating a course that synthesizes traditional perspectives while embracing the uniqueness
of the biochemical engineering environment and the materials it processes is the subject of a
collaboration among the institutions of the three authors. A package... has been developed
for the training of chemical engineers, environmental engineers, and biochemists
in the field of Biochemical Separation Science and Technology.


calculating cost of steps
and process and for se-
1994 Survey of 84
quencing operations Departmes in te
Departments in the
should be incorporated in
process design. Departments with a course in bi
SWhat should be taught Total annual enrollment in biocl
in the laboratory? Stan- Departments with a course in bi
dard unit operations Total annual enrollment in biosl
should be covered in labo-
ratory exercises; for ex-
ample, filtration, sedimentation, extraction and chro-
matography; electrophoresis is also a good experi-
ence for engineers.
In a continuing effort, additional lectures, notes, home-
work, text, and laboratory exercises are being developed to
implement the above issues.

STATUS OF
TEACHING BIOCHEMICAL SEPARATIONS
Courses Offered In 1994, a survey of 84 North
American chemical engineering departments was
conducted. The results indicate that while over one
thousand students in North American universities are
taking a course in biochemical engineering, only about
two hundred enroll in biochemical separations courses.
Because about half as many departments offer bio-
chemical separations courses as offer biochemical
engineering courses, there is evidence that an unmet
demand exists. These important findings from the
survey are summarized in Table 1.
Textbooks and Literature While volumes on the
subject of biochemical engineering separations are
abundant,i.e.1'4] to date only one has been specifically
written as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate
students in chemical engineering and other technical
majors.151 Text material also exists in chapters of more
general biochemical engineering textbooks.1671
Economic Significance There is a strong and
growing likelihood that intrinsically value-added
biotech products will stop working economic miracles,
and income from selling them will have to be earned
(as it is from standard products) for at least four
reasons: trends in health-care legislation, regulatory
costs, competition, and recovery of research costs.


.BL
SChe
Unite

ochen
hemic;
osepar
eparati


Fall 1996


Processing in general, and
S1 downstream processing in
mical Enginaeering particular, will have to be
ed States and Canada
performed on a competi-
ical engineering 65 tive basis. Humulin"
al engineering courses 1214 (recombinant human
rations 29 insulin) is already purified
ions courses 211 by a modified process, but
Epogen'" (recombinant
erythropoietin) and
Abokinase"' (natural human urokinase) are still
produced in roller-bottle animal cell cultures. Likewise,
much of the purification of these products depends on
increasing the volume at which elution chromatography
is practiced-the workhorse of the bench-scale
biochemist. The trend toward ever larger chromato-
graphs has at least three effects on engineering educa-
tion: scale-up is becoming more sophisticated and must
be learned (hence taught), scale-up is getting too
expensive and must be carefully costed, and chroma-
tography should be replaced by a more efficient process
in high-volume applications. All are reasons for
creating a population of engineers to support the
forthcoming downstream processing infrastructure in
which traditional chemical engineering unit operations
cannot be applied and traditional biochemical proce-
dures cannot be afforded.
The issues faced by the engineering educator in this field
are the items mentioned in the first part of this article. The
following paragraphs attempt to respond to those issues with
a syllabus and a style that is suitable for the preparation of
engineering students for the downstream biochemical engi-
neering profession.

INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL

Biochemistry for Engineers
Process engineers do not need to know a great deal about
intermediate metabolism, but the physical properties of the
materials they must purify constitute essential knowledge. In
the field of traditional pharmaceuticals this means: antibiot-
ics (the birthplace of bioprocessing), hormones (from natu-
ral to synthetic), vitamins, neurotropics, chemotherapeutics,
and vaccines. In the field of biotechnology and
biopharmaceutical products this means proteins, nucleic ac-










ids, complexes, antibodies, subcellular particles, and whole
cells. A sufficiently detailed understanding of cell structure
and function is necessary for the intelligent choice of early
post-fermentation processes.

Review of Engineering Analysis
An attempt should be made to make this subject accessible
to biochemists, who need to be introduced to principles of
engineering analysis. It has also been found useful to review
principles for seasoned engineering students. In general, this
means reviewing the derivation and solution of simple dif-
ferential equations, including the establishment of initial and
boundary conditions, and the definitions of a few relevant
dimensionless numbers. Three main elements are empha-
sized: equilibria (equations of state are not directly useful),
material balances (energy balances are seldom needed), and
flux and transport relationships, including non-equilibrium
driving forces and chemical potentials. Examples of each, as
applied to biochemical separations, are:

Equilibria: partition coefficients, adsorption
isotherms, solubility
Material Balances: shell balances on a column
element; balances on solutes between phases
Transport: Ohm's law, Hagen-Poiseuille flow,
Darcy's law, and Stokes flow in inertial fields;
brief review of dimensionless numbers

The goal of engineering analysis should be made clear:
how do the above elements combine to analyze a process for
how much per what, how fast, what cost, how big, etc. Cost
of step calculations can be introduced at this stage to stimu-
late interest in the unit operations that are to follow and in
process synthesis, which will require process analysis.

UNIT OPERATIONS
Sequence An approach that foreshadows process syn-
thesis can be used, and there is a choice of the order in which
to present the unit operations of biochemical purification.
One could didactically build one process on the lower com-
plexity of another-simplest first, or one could present them
in the order in which they would typically be applied in a
process scheme. There are, however, no hard rules about
the order (Asenjo says, for example, to use the highest-
purification-factor process first" ). But one must also teach
that particulates and impurities might foul high-purification
units, such as chromatography, ultrafiltration, differential
precipitation, etc. A reasonable choice of sequence appears
to be liquid-solids separations followed by solute-solute sepa-
rations and solute-liquid separations, similar to the recovery-
isolation-purification-polishing (RIPP) paradigm.151
Content for each unit operation In each case, an outline
is used that combines descriptive and analytical learning.
The following subjects are covered in most cases:


Objective: the purpose of the unit operation, product
examples
Underlying physics and chemistry: what reactions
and physical and statistical principles are applied"2'3
Governing equations: what analytical relationships
describe the process
Engineering analysis: "bottom-line" calculations
using the governing equations'51
Applications: examples of applications to specific
products at specific stages
Example problems: worked problems amplifying
engineering analysis and numerical examples using
the governing equations
Homework: routine and mind-stretching calcula-
tions, spreadsheets, and/or programming problems
Literature
A few unit operations not readily familiar to engineers are
included. Preparative and analytical electrophoresis and ex-
traction using aqueous two-phase systems, for example, en-
able new professionals to consider meaningful alternatives
when scale-up becomes costly or purification factors be-
come inadequate. They also learn novel ways of using mem-
branes to replace or augment major unit operations, such as
adsorption and crystallization.

PRACTICUMS
Laboratory exercises are chosen to try to span the range of
basic separations and engineering problems: separating liq-
uids from solids involves filtration and centrifugation; sepa-
rating solutes from solutes with liquid handling means ex-
traction; and purification (solute-solute separation) means
chromatography and preparative electrophoresis.
Each of five practicums we have used is summarized
below.
1. Filtration Measure flow rates and flux decline
using pilot-scale equipment (ca. 50 liters/hour)
filtering a suspension of microorganisms in batch
concentration mode. Scale this process for a large
fermentation plant in feed-and-bleed mode.
2. Sedimentation Measure flow rates and particle
breakthrough using a pilot-scale disk-stack
centrifuge at constant speed with and without
flocculation of a suspension of microorganisms.
Scale this process for a large fermentation plant in
continuous mode.
3. Extraction Determine partition coefficients of a
protein in an aqueous two-phase system at bench
(10-gram) scale. Write a report about the proper-
ties of this process and its governing equations.
4. Chromatography Obtain ion-exchange or size-


Chemical Engineering Education











exclusion chromatograms of two or three proteins
in a mixture at pilot (1-gram) scale using three
combinations of column dimensions, elution
gradient, and elution flow rate. Scale this process
to a specified level of production and resolution
using Yamamoto's principles.181
5. Electrophoresis Purify milligram quantities of an
oligonucleotide from a mixture of in vitro tran-
scripts and evaluate purity and yield using prepara-
tive polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Scale this
process to the kilogram level and calculate the cost
of step.
The above scaling exercises are, of course, calculations
only. The students are expected in each case to write a
formal report as if it were intended for a client.

ADDITIONAL ASSIGNMENTS
Homework is assigned just as it is in any engineering
course. A few open-ended problems are assigned in which
students must find or estimate extensive and/or intensive
properties; spreadsheet calculations and some derivations
are included. In some cases a term paper must be written in
the form of a critique of a single published paper or as an in-
depth summary of a single subject (chosen by the student)
based on the reading of recent literature. Both descriptive
and analytical questions are included on examinations.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Drs. Geoffrey Slaff, Dale Gyure, Robert J. Todd, Brian
Batt, and Mr. Michael Sportiello in Colorado contributed to
the development of practicums. Participating companies in-
cluded Amgen, Synergen, and Zeagen. Drs. John J.
Pellegrino of the National Institute of Standards and Tech-
nology, Robert H. Davis of the University of Colorado,
and Dr. Charles Glatz of the Iowa State University par-
ticipated in the development of the survey, lecture mate-
rials and homework problems.

REFERENCES
1. Asenjo, J.A., and J. Hong, "Separation, Recovery, and Puri-
fication in Biotechnology," ACS Symp. Series 314, American
Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1986)
2. Scopes, R.K., Protein Purification: Principles and Practice,
Springer Verlag, Berline (1982)
3. Giddings, J.C., Unified Separation Science, John Wiley &
Sons, New York, NY (1991)
4. Bruno, T.J., Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1991)
5. Belter, P.A., E.L. Cussler, and W.-S. Hu, Bioseparations:
Downstream Processing for Biotechnology, Wiley
Interscience, New York, NY (1988)
6. Bailey, J.E., and D.F. Ollis, Biochemical Engineering Fun-
damentals, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1986)
7. Schuler, M.L., and F. Kargi, Bioprocess Engineering,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1992)
8. Yamamoto, S., M. Nomura, and Y. Sano, J. Chromatogra-
phy, 409, 101 (1987) 0


Computing
Continued from page 285.

of steps set out in the lab handout. The applications should be
interactive and open-ended, requiring the students to use
engineering analysis and methodology during the lab, e.g.,
they should figure out which one of several possible control
schemes for level and/or temperature in tank 1 of Figure 1 is
"best" for their application.
Integrating the RTSB computing with other course material,
e.g., using real-time Simulink software in the lab if the
students have used Matlab/Simulink in other courses.
> The applications, i.e., the process instrumentation and
computer system, should be realistic enough that the relevance
to course material and industrial requirements is obvious.
However, the application should be more flexible and easier to
program than most commercial systems designed for industrial
operations.

REFERENCES
1. Matlab Real Time Workshop Toolbox. The Mathworks, Inc.
http://www.mathworks.com (1995)
2. Labview for Windows. National Instrument. http://
www.natinst.com (1993)
3. G2-Expert Systems Development Software, Gensym Cor-
poration. http://www.gensym.com
4. Seborg, D.E., T.F. Edgar, and D.A. Mellicamp, Process Dy-
namics and Control (1989)
5. Ogunnaike, B.A., and W.H. Ray, Process Dynamics, Model-
ing, and Control, Oxford University Press, Inc., New York,
NY (1994)
6. Fisher, D.G., "Process Control: An Overview and Personal
Perspective," CJChE, 69, Feb. (1991)
7. Badmus, O.O., D.G. Fisher, and S.L. Shah, Computer Pro-
gram for Generating Multivariable State Space Models from
Process I/O Data (1996)
8. House, R., "Choosing the Right Software for Data Acquisi-
tion, IEEE Spectrum, May (1995)
9. Bialkowski, W.L., and A.D. Weldon, "The Digital Future of
Process Control: Its Possibilities, Limitations, and Ramifi-
cations," TAPPI J., 77(10), Oct (1994)
APPENDIX
The specifications of the computer-process interface used
to generate the results presented in this paper are:
Hardware
CIO-DAS16/F (primary data acquisition board with 16 single-
ended (8 differential) 12-bit A/D, 2 D/A, 32 DIO and 3, 16-bit
counters
CIO-EXP16: Expansion board with 16 A.I. multiplexing and
thermocouple signal conditioning
CIO-DAC02: (add-on board with 2 12-bit D/A for voltage or
current output) (Source: Computer Boards, Inc.)
Software
Labview drivers (Source: National Instruments)
Matlab/Simulink drivers (Source: Mathworks)
C++ drivers (Source: Mathworks, Inc., and user written)
Host Computer
PC (486 with 16Mb memory, 1.2Gb HDD)
Running Microsoft Windows 3.1 C


Fall 1996












INDEX


1992-1996

VOLUMES 26 THROUGH 30
(Note: Author Index Begins on Page 297.)


Title Index
Note: Titles in italic type are books reviewed.


EA
Absorption Column, Liquid Phase; Axial Dispersion
in a Packed .................................... .......................... 27(1),20
Academia, The Changing Role of ................................. 27(4),168
Academic Careers for Chemical Engineering Graduate
Students, A Seminar Series on .............................. 29(4),230
Accident and Emergency Management ......................... 28(2),102
Accreditation, A Jungle Guide Through ......................... 27(1),14
Acid Rain in a High School Outreach Program,
A U nit on .................................... .............. 27(3),210
Adsorption, Fundamentals of ........................................ 28(4),250
Adsorption Calculations and Modeling......................... 30(4),271
Advising, Undergraduate Academic ............................. 30(2),156
Agitation Experiment, Add Some Flavor to Your........... 26(3),156
Agitation on Oxygen Mass Transfer in a Fermentor,
The Effect of....................................................... 26(3),142
AMPL, and MINOS for Optimization, Comparison
of GAM S ............................................................. 30(3),220
Application of quality Management Techniques
to ChE Processes ....................................................... 30(1),30
Applications and Examples in Undergraduate
Thermodynamics, Alternative ............................... 29(3),150
Applications of Some Moder Management Tools
in Education ......................................................... 30(1),26
Applied Bifurcation Theory .......................................... 27(4),154
Applied Math Problems on Vessel Draining................... 26(1),30
Applied Statistics: Are ChE Educators Meeting
the Challenge? ......................... ...... .................. 30(2)122
Applied Stochastics for Engineering ............................. 27(4),170
ASEE Annual Meeting: Program, ChE Division ............ 29(2),100
ASEE ChE Division Awards ......................................... 30(4),279
ASEE ChE Division Lectureship Award, The .............. 27(4),196
Axial Disperson in a Packed Gas Absorption
Column, Liquid-Phase ............................................ 27(1),20

AWARD LECTURES

Axial Dispersion in a Packed Gas Absorption
Column, Liquid-Phase .......................................... 27(1),20
Computer-Aided Design and Operation of
Batch Processes................................................... 29(2),76
Computing in Engineering Education:
Part 2: Education and the Future......................... 26(1),52


Interactive Dynamics of Convection and
Crystal Growth ................................................ 27(4),198
Interfacial Transport Processes and Rheology ....... 26(2),104
Modeling Flows in Films, Jets, and Drops............. 29(4),210
Polymer Flow Instabilities: A Picaresque Tale...... 28(3),162

* B
Basic Chemical Engineering Experiments ...................... 27(1),52
Batch Processes, Computer-Aided Design and
O operation of............................. ......................... 29(2),76
Bifurcation Theory, Applied ......................................... 27(4),154
Biochemical Engineering Laboratory, A Project-
Oriented Approach to an Undergraduate................. 28(2),98
Biochemical Separations to Engineers, Teaching ........... 30(4),286
Biochromatography, A Tool for Teaching: Solid
Phase Extraction Columns......................................... 27(1),34
Bio(Molecular) Engineering, An Introduction to the
Fundamentals of ...................... ........................ 26(4),194
Bioprocessing ............................... .......... ......... .. 28(3),193
Bioreaction Engineering Principles .............................. 30(3),173
Bioreactor Experiment for the Senior Laboratory, A........ 28(1),24
Bioseparation via Cross-Flow Membrane
Filtration ................................................................. 29(2),86
Biotechnology and Society, A Course on...................... 28(2),140
Boundary Element Methods in Transport
Phenom ena ................................ ........................... 30(1),19
Boundary Perturbation to Linearize a System of
Nonlinear PDEs, On Using a................................... 30(1),58
Boundary Value Problems, Scaling Initial and ............. 28(4),236
Brine Crystallization, Practical Applications of Mass
Balances and Phase Equilibria in .......................... 28(2),136
BS/Master's Industry Program in ChE, Accelerated ....... 28(3),194

mc
Calculations, Helping Students Develop a Critical
Attitude Towards Chemical Process ....................... 26(2),88
Calculators, Advanced Engineering: Don't Overlook
Them .......................................................... ............. 27(1),60
Catalysts on Thermodynamic Equilibrium,
Influence of.......................................................... 26(4),180
Catalytic Converters, Design of a Pilot Plant to Leach
Platinum from ....................................................... 28(4),266
CESL: Chemical Engineering Simulation Laboratory .... 30(2),114


Chemical Engineering Education











Changing Role of Academia, The ................................. 27(4),168
Chemical and Environmental Engineering: A Logical
Com bination .......................................... .......... 29(4),234
Chemical and Process Thermodynamics......................... 26(3),133
Chemical Engineering: Notes on Its Past and
Its Future ............................................................... 28(4),226
Chemical Engineering: Vol. 1. Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer
and Mass Transfer ................................................ 27(3),182
Chemical Engineering: Vol. 2. Particle Technology
and Separation Processes...................................... 27(3), 183
Chemical Engineering Design Project ............................ 26(4),174
Chemical Engineering Simulation Laboratory: CESL ..... 30(2)114
Chemical Kinetics and Dynamics....................................... 26(1),33
Chemical Process Calculation, Helping Students
Develop a Critical Attitude Towards....................... 26(2),88
Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with
Applications ......................................................... 26(2),75
Chemical Reaction Engineering .................................... 26(4),184
Chemical Reaction Engineering Education, Current
Trends in ............................................................... 30(2),146
Chemical Reaction Engineering, Elements of ............... 27(4),161
Chemical Reaction Engineering for Undergraduates,
An Appetizing Structure of ................................... 27(2),110
Chemical Thermodynamics: Basic Theory and
M ethods ........................................ 30(1),69

CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS

"An Ode to That Distillation Tower" and Other
Poetry: A Creative Writing Assignment.......... 30(3),180
Czochralski Crystal Growth Modeling............. 27(2),122
Environmental Impact of Paper and Plastic
Grocery Sacks .................................................. 26(2),82
Influence of Catalysts on Thermodynamic
Equilibrium ..................................................... 26(4), 180
More Applied Math Problems on Vessel
Draining .......................................................... 26(1),30
Practical Applications of Mass Balances and
Phase Equilibria in Brine Crystallization ........ 28(2),136
Problems on Fluids in Motion and at Rest ......... 29(2),130
Solving Chemical Kinetics Problems by the
Markov-Chain Approach............................... 27(1),42
Thermodynamics and Common Sense ............. 27(4),206
Three Problems in Fluid Mechanics................. 26(3),130
Unusual Three-Phase Flash Equilibrium
Problem s ........................................................ 29(3),192
When is a Theoretical Stage not Always a
Theoretical Stage? ......................................... 27(3),178
Wind-Chill Paradox: Four Problems in
Heat Transfer ...................... ..................... 30(4),256

Collaborative Study Groups: A Learning Aid................. 27(1),38
Colloid and Surface Phenomena-1995; Teaching ........... 30(3),190
Colloquium Series in Chemical Engineering, A ........... 26(4),200
Communicate Technical Material, Helping Students...... 27(2),144
Communication Skills, A Course in .............................. 29(3),158
Communication Training into Laboratory and
Design Courses, Integrating .................................. 27(3),188
Competition for Second-Year Students, Design ........... 30(2),102


Compleat Chemical Engineer, The................................ 29(2),125
Computational Methods for Process Simulation............. 26(2),87
Computational Results: How Reliable Are They? ............ 30(1),20
Computer-Aided Design and Operation of
Batch Processes ....................................................... 29(2),76
Computer Control of a Distillation Experiment .............. 26(1),38
Computer Graphics, Teaching Staged-Process Design
Through Interactive ............................................... 28(2),110
Computers in Engineering Education, Role and
Impact ..................................................................... 29(1),46
Computers in Undergraduate ChE Education ................. 29(1),50
Computers to the Nintendo Generation, Teaching
Transport Phenomena with Interactive.................... 30(1),40
Computing, A Course on Parallel.................................. 26(4),172
Computing in Engineering Education: Part 2.................. 26(1),52
Computing in the Laboratory, Real-Time,
Sensor-Based ......................................................... 30(4),280
Computing in the Undergraduate ChE Curriculum......... 29(3),198
Computing Teaching with FORTRAN 90 .................... 27(3),216
Control Valves for Pipework Systems; On
Selecting Appropriate .............................................. 30(1),54
Controllers at Drexel, Microprocessor-Based ............... 27(4),188
Convection and Crystal Growth, Interactive
Dynamics of.......................................................... 27(4),198
Convective-Diffusive Transport With Reaction,
Pattern Formation in .............................................. 26(4),214
Cooling Water Explained by Mass and Heat
Transfer, An Ancient Method for ............................ 29(2),96
Corcoran Award, The William H.: Past, Present,
Future ...................................................................... 28(2),90
Correlation and Overcorrelation of Heterogeneous
Reaction Rate Data .................................................. 29(1),22
Coulson and Richardson's Chemical Engineering .......... 29(2),111
Course Sequence for Instrumentation and
Control, A ............................................................ 26(3),136
Creativity and Innovation for Chemical Engineers ......... 28(4),270
Critical State, Designs to Demonstrate the ...................... 28(1),44
Cryogenic Hydrogen Reactive Cooling Process,
Simulating the Air Products .................................... 29(1),26
Crystal Growth, Interactive Dynamics of
Convection and .................................................. 27(4),198
Crystal Growth Modeling, Czochralski......................... 27(2),122
CSTRs, Exotherm ic ......................................................... 28(1),30
CSTR; Dynamic and Steady-State Behavior of a............ 30(2),132
CSTRs In Tandem Revisited, Design of ....................... 26(3),164
Curriculum, Ideas About ...................... ..................... 26(1),34
Curriculum, Mathematica in the ChE............................ 30(2),136
Curriculum, Molecular Enrichment of the Core.............. 26(3),160
Curriculum-1994; The Chemical Engineering .............. 30(3),184
Czochralski Crystal Growth Modeling.......................... 27(2),122

SD
Demonstrations to Complement a Course in
General Engineering Thermodynamics......... 30(2),108

DEPARTMENTS

Arizona State University ....................................28(3),154
FAM U/FSU ........................................... 27(1),8


Fall 1996











Howard University .............................................. 27(2),72
Institute Tecnologico de Celaya............................. 26(1),8
M.I.T.'s School of Chemical Engineering
Practice ............................. ........ ............. 27(3),154
New Mexico State University ............................29(3),138
Northeastern University........................................29(2),70
Pittsburgh, University of ......................................28(2),86
South Carolina, University of .................................30(1),2
SUNY Buffalo .............................................28(1),6
Tennessee, The University of .................................29(1),2
Toledo, University of................................................ 26(2),58
Virginia, University of........................................ 26(3),114
Washington, University of ....................................30(2),82

Design, Chemical Engineering: Problem-Solving
Strategy .............................. ..... ...... ........... 26(1),44
Design, The Technically Feasible ................................. 27(3),166
Design Competition for Second-Year Students ............ 30(2),102
Design Course, Implementation of Multiple
Interrelated Projects Within a Senior .................... 30(3),204
Design Course for Chemical Engineers, Freshman........... 30(1),76
Design Courses, Integrating Communication Training
into Laboratory and ............................................... 27(3),188
Design Experience, A Large-Group Senior..................... 30(1),70
Design of CSTRs in Tandem Revisited......................... 26(3),164
Design Problem in Mass Transfer Operations,
A Conceptual .......................................... 29(3),182
Design Sequence, An Integrated ..................................... 28(1),52
Design Through Interactive Computer Graphics,
Teaching Staged-Process ....................................... 28(2),110
Designs to Demonstrate the Critical State ....................... 28(1),44
Differential Equations in Chemical Engineering,
Modeling With ...................................................... 26(4),213
Dimensional Analysis for Hydrodynamic
Electrochemical Systems ....................................... 28(4),232
Discrete Linear Control Systems, Analysis and
Design of............................................................. ....... 29(1),16
Discrete Mathematics, A Course in............................... 30(4),240
Distillation Column, Changing Vapor-Liquid
Traffic in a ........................ ....... ........... 30(1),36
Distillation Column Performance.................................. 29(4),240
Distillation Experiment, Computer Control of a ............. 26(1),38
Distillation from Kidd to Young, The 19th Century
Legacy to ........................................................... 29(4),250

Division Activities ............. 26(4),170: 27(2),77; 28(4),264:
.............................................................................. 30(4),279

DuPont Design Internship in Industrial Pollution
Prevention ............................................................. 28(2),116
DuPont Teaching Fellowship Program, The ................. 27(4),212


HE
Eastman Way, Experience the ............................ 28(4),258


/EDUCATORS


Burnet, George; Iowa State University ............... 26(2),62
Carnahan, Brice; University of Michigan ........... 30(3),162
Cutlip, Michael B.; University of Connecticut.... 27(3),160


Denn, Morton M.; U. California, Berkeley ........... 30(2),88
Duda, Larry; Penn State ...................................... 27(2),66
Edgar, Thomas F.; University of Texas, Austin ......... 26(1)
Hanesian, Deran; New Jersey Inst. of
Technology ......................................................... 30(1),8
Heist, Richard; University of Rochester............ 29(3),144
Hollein, Helen C.; Manhattan College ................ 29(2),66
Jolls, Kenneth R.; Iowa State University.............. 28(1), 2
Ollis, David F.; North Carolina State
University ...................................................... 28(3),158
Sandler, Stan; University of Delaware .................... 29(1),8
Seinfeld, John H.; California Institute of Tech...... 28(2),82
Wankat, Phillip C.; Purdue University .............. 26(3),120
Wasan, Darsh; Illinois Institute of
Technology ........................................................ 27(1),2
Wilkes, James O.; University of Michigan ......... 30(3), 162

Electrochemical Engineering Principles......................... 26(2),102
Electrochemical Systems, Dimensional Analysis for
Hydrodynamic ......................... .. ................ 28(4),232
Electrokinetic Transport Phenomena ............................ 28(4),254
Elliptic Integrals, ChE Applications of ........................... 30(3),214
Engineering Your Future............................................... 29(3),197
Environmental Auditing, A Graduate Certificate in........ 30(4),252
Environmental Awareness, A Laboratory Experiment
that Enhances .......................................................... 30(2),98
Environmental Engineering, Chemical and: A
Logical Combination ............................................ 29(4),234
Environmental Impact of Paper and Plastic Grocery
Sacks ....................................................................... 26(2),82
Environmental Remediation, A Course on .................... 26(4),204
EPIC: The Engineering Program for International
Careers .................................................................... 30(1),46
Equilibrium, Calculation of Vapor-Liquid .................... 29(3),204
Equilibrium, Influence of Catalysts on
Therm odynam ic..................................................... 26(4),180
Equilibrium Problems, Unusual Three-Phase Flash........ 29(3),192
Equilibrium Staged Operations, Separations in
Chemical Engineering ............................................ 27(1),26
Error Bars in Process Simulation .................................... 28(1),58
Ethics of Graduate Engineering Students, Academic...... 28(4),242
Evolution for Chemical Engineers ................................ 30(3),168
Excellence in Teaching, The Quest for ......................... 27(4),182
Excess Functions, A Field Guide to ............................. 28(1), 18
Exothermic CSTRs: Just How Stable are the Multiple
Steady States? .......................................................... 28(1),30
Experiment, Add Some Flavor to Your Agitation........... 26(3),156
Experiment, An Interesting and Inexpensive
M odeling ............................................................... 27(2),150
Experiment, An Inexpensive and Quick Fluid
M echanics ............................................................. 27(2),140
Experiment that Enhances Environmental Awareness,
A Laboratory .......................................................... 30(2),98
Experimental Methods to Characterize and Control
Liquid-Liquid Processes ...................................... 26,(2)66
Experiments, Basic Chemical Engineering ....................... 27(1),52
Experiments in Mass Transfer, Low-Cost: Part 1 ........... 30(1),50
Experiments in Mass Transfer, Low-Cost: Part 2 ........... 30(2),142
Extraction Columns, Solid Phase: A Tool for Teaching
Biochrom atography ............................................. 27(1),34


Chemical Engineering Education











* F
Faculty, Mentoring Junior ......................................... 30(4),244
Faraday, Michael: Contributions to ChE....................... 28(4),284
Fed-Batch Fermentation, Monitoring and Control of a..... 26(2),94
Fermentor, The Effect of Agitation on Oxygen Mass
Transfer in a .................................. ... ......... 26(3), 142
Field Guide to the Excess Functions, A ............................ 28(1),18
Films, Jets, and Drops; Modeling Flows in ................... 29(4),210
Finite Transfer Rate, The Mass Transfer Boundary
Rate with ................................... ..... ........... ... 30(2),94
First Few Years, Teaching in the................................... 28(4),280
First-Year Introductory Seminar, A ................................ 28(1),74
Fluids in Motion and at Rest, Problems on ................... 29(2),130
Fluid Mechanics, Three Problems in............................. 26(3),130
Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Fun Ways
to Learn ................................................................. 28(3),188
Fluid Mechanics Experiment, An Inexpensive
and Quick .................................. ............... 27(2),140
Fluid Structure for Sophomores ...................................... 27(1),44
Fluidization Engineering ................................................ 27(2),85
Fluidized-Bed Experiment, A Simple but Effective........ 28(3),214
Fluids in Motion and at Rest, Problems on ................... 29(2),130
FORTRAN 90, Computing Teaching with ................... 27(3),216
Free Energy of Wetting, The ......................................... 27(4),184
Freshman Design Course for Chemical Engineers ............ 30(1),76
Fundamentals of Bio(Molecular) Engineering, An
Introduction to the .................................................. 26(4),194
Fundamentals of Adsorption ......................................... 28(4),250
Fundamentals of Chemical Engineering ......................... 27(2),80


N G
GAMS, AMPL, and MINOS for Optimization,
Comparison of ...................................................... 30(3),220
Grading Student Reports, A Pragmatic Approach to ........ 28(1),78
Graduate Certificate in Environmental Auditing, A........ 30(4),252
Graduate Education, Some Thoughts on ....................... 26(4),210
Graduate Research, Industrial Involvement in .............. 28(4),274
Graduate-Recruiting Program, A Pilot ............................ 26(4),190
Graduate Student Recruiter, Confessions of a............... 30(4),262
Grand Words, But So Hard to Read: Diction and
Structure in Student Writing.................................. 27(3),200


* H
Hazard Control in the Chemical Process Industry,
Handbook of Health ......................................... 28(4),269
Hazardous Waste Management ....................................... 30(1),19
Hazardous Waste Processing: In the ChE Curriculum.... 29(3),178
HAZOP and HAZAN; Identifying and Assessing
Process Industry Hazards...................................... 27(4),167
Heat and Its Transfer, Magic Unveiled Through
the Concept of................................ .................... 28(3),180
Heat Transfer, Fun Ways to Learn Fluid
M echanics and ........................................ ......... 28(3),188
Helping Students Communicate Technical Material....... 27(2),144
Heterogeneous Reaction Rate Data, Correlation and
Overcorrelation of ................................................ 29(1),22
High School Outreach Program, A Unit on
Acid Rain in a ........................ .... .................. 27(3),210


High School Students and Science Teachers to
Chemical Engineering, Introducing......................... 26(1),24
Holistic Approach to ChE Education: Part 1.
Professional and Issue-Oriented Approach ........... 28(2),122
Holistic Approach to ChE Education: Part 2.
Approach at the Introductory Level ...................... 28(3),204
Hydrodynamic Electrochemical Systems,
Dimensional Analysis for ...................................... 28(4),232


0I
Ideal Gas, Beware the Use of an ....................................... 28(1),62
Ideas About Curriculum ................................................. 26(1),34
Industrial Experience Program, Phillips Petroleum
Company ................................................................. 29(1),18
Industrial Involvement in Graduate Research ............... 28(4),274
Industrial Practice in the Unit Operations Lab,
Introducing ........................................................... 28(2),128
Industry Program in ChE, Accelerated BS/Master's....... 28(3),194
Instabilities, Polymer Flow ............................................ 28(3),162
Instrumentation and Control, A Course Sequence for..... 26(3),136
Interfacial Transport Processes and Rheology .............. 26(3),104
International Careers: EPIC, the Engineering
Program for ................................................................ 30(1),46
International Engineering Internship Program .............. 30(2),126
Internship in Industrial Pollution Prevention, DuPont
D esign .............................. .................................... 28(2),l 16
Internship Program, International Engineering .............. 30(2),126
Introducing High School Students and Science Teachers
to Chemical Engineering ......................................... 26(1),24
Introducing Water-Treatment Subjects into Chemical
Engineering Education ......................................... 26(1),20




Journals, Student: Are they Beneficial in Lecture
C ourses? .............................................................. 29(1),62

SK
Kidd to Young, The 19th Century Legacy to Distillation
from ...................................................................... 29(4),250
Kinetics Problems by the Markov-Chain Approach,
Solving Chemical ....................... ... ................. 27(1),42

KNOWLEDGE STRUCTURE

Chemical Reaction Engineering for
Undergraduates, An Appetizing Structure of .... 27(2),110
Fundamentals of Chemical Engineering ............. 27(2),80
Knowledge Structure of the Stoichiometry
C ourse .............................................. ............. 27(2),92
M mathematics ....................................................... 27(2),86
Thermodynamics: A Structure for Teaching
and Learning About Much of Reality............... 27(2),96
Transport Phenomena, The Basic Concepts in.... 27(2),102

SL
Laboratories, Quality in Teaching ................................. 29(3),186
Laboratory, A Bioreactor Experiment for the Senior........ 28(1),24
Laboratory, Introducing Statistical Concepts in the


Fall 1996











Undergraduate ....................................................... 27(2),130
Laboratory and Design Courses, Integrating
Communication Training into ............................... 27(3),188
Laboratory Course, A Comprehensive Process Control.. 27(3),184
Laboratory Development, A Systematic Approach
for Long-Range ...................................................... 26(2),98
Laboratory Experiment that Enhances Environmental
Awareness............................................................... 30(2),98
Laboratory Projects: Should Students Do Them or
Design Them ? ...................................................... 29(1),34
Langmuir as Chemical Engineer ................................... 28(4),262

LEARNING IN INDUSTRY
Accelerated BS/Master's Industry Program
in ChE ............................................. .......... 28(3),194
Chemical Engineering Practice School Program
at Tulane University, The ............................... 29(4),246
Create a Successful Summer Engineering
Project ............................................................ 29(3),168
DuPont Design Internship in Industrial
Pollution Prevention ....................................... 28(2),116
Industry, Academe, and Government: Building
a New Relationship........................................ 30(3),174
M.I.T. Practice School, The................................. 28(1),38
Phillips Petroleum Company Industrial
Experience Program ......................................... 29(1), 18
Semiconductor Wafer Fabrication..................... 30(4),266
WPI Projects Globalize Engineering Education
in the Pacific Rim .......................................... 29(2), 12

Learning Principles, A Quick Guide to: What Works..... 27(2),120
Learning Through Doing: A Course on Writing
a Textbook Chapter ....................................... ... 27(4),108
Lectureship Award, The ASEE Chemical Engineering
Division .............................................. ... ........... 27(4),196
Letter to the Editor.......... 26(1),7;(1)23: 29(1),7;(2),104;(3),161:
30(3),182,183
Liquid-Liquid Processes, Experimental Methods to
Characterize and Control ......................................... 26(2),66
Liquid-Phase Axial Dispersion in a Packed Gas
Absorption Column ................................................ 27(1),20

SM
Macromolecular Science, Introduction to..................... 26(4),182
Management Techniques to ChE Processes, Applictions
of Quality ................................................................ 30(1),30
Management Tools in Education, Application sof
Some M modern ...................................................... 30(1),26
Maple, Chemical Engineering With ................................ 29(1),56
M argins, Terse W ords in Tight ....................................... 29(2),134
Markov-Chain Approach, Solving Chemical Kinetics
Problem s by the .............................. ..................... 27(1),42
M ass Transfer ....................................... ..................... 27(2),117
Mass Transfer, Low-Cost Experiments in: Part 1 ............. 30(1),50
Mass Transfer, Low-Cost Experiments in: Part 2 ........... 30(2),142
Mass Transfer Boundary Layer with Finite Transfer
Rate ......................................................................... 30(2),94
Mass Transfer Operations, A Conceptual
Design Problem in ............................................. 29(3),182


Master's Industry Program in ChE, Accelerated BS/ ...... 28(3),194
Math Problems on Vessel Draining, More Applied .......... 26(1),30
M athematica, M moments W ith ........................................ 26(1),12
Mathematica in the ChE Curriculum............................. 30(2),136
Mathematical Modeling of an Experimental
Reaction System ....................................................... 28(1),48
M them atics ................................ ... ......... .......... 27(2),86
Mathematics, A Course in Discrete ............................... 30(4),240
Maxwell's Demon, Exorcising ........................................ 29(2),94
Membrane Filtration, Bioseparation via Cross-Flow ........ 29(2),86
M entering Junior Faculty .............................................. 30(4),244
Microhydrodynamics: Principles and Selected
Applications ................................. .. ......... 28(3),166
Microprocesor-Based Controllers at Drexel
U university .............................................................. 27(4),188
Mid-Sized Private University, ChE Education at a ......... 29(4),256
MINOS for Optimization, Comparison of GAMS,
AM PL, and ........................................... 30(3),220
M .I.T. Practice School, The............................................ 28(1),38
Model Development and Validation: An
Iterative Process....................................................... 26(2),72
Modeling Experiment, An Interesting and
Inexpensive ........................................................... 27(2),150
Modeling Flows in Films, Jets, and Drops .................... 29(4),210
Molecular Enrichment of the Core Curriculum............. 26(3),160
Molecular Level Measurements in
Chemical Engineering ..................... .................... 27(4),162
M moments W ith M athematica ........................................... 26(1),12
Monitoring and Control of a Fed-Batch Fermentation ...... 26(2),94
Multimedia-Based Instructional Program,
Development of a; For Graduate and
Senior-Level Class................................................. 30(4),272
Multiphase Systems, Topics in Transport and
Reaction in .................................. ... ......... 28(4),244

EN
Natural Gas Engineering: Production and Storage........ 27(2),109
Networking: How to Enrich Your Life and Get
Things Done.......................................................... 28(2),119
Neural Networks, Optimization, and Process
C control ......................................................... ......... 26(4),176
Nintendo Generation, Teaching Transport Phenomena
with Interaction Computers to the ........................... 30(1),40
Nonlinear Convection-Reaction Models, Structural
Stability of ........................................................... 30(4),234
Nonlinear PDEs, On Using a Boundary Perturbation
to Linearize a System of ............................................ 30(1),58
Numerical Methods for Chemical Engineers, An
Introduction to .................................. ......... 26(3),168

NO
ODE Simulation Program in Process Control
Education, Application of an Interactive ............... 28(2),130
On Letting the Inmates Run the Asylum ....................... 27(2),118
Optimization, Comparison of GAMS, AMPL, and
MINOS for............................................................ 30(3),220
Optimization, and Process Control; Neural Networks, ... 26(4),176
Oral Presentations, A Program for Teaching ................ 28(2),150
Oscillations and Instabilities, Chemical.......................... 28(1),16


Chemical Engineering Education











Other Three Rs, The: Rehearsal, Recitation, Argument.... 27(1),30
Oxygen Mass Transfer in a Fermentor, The Effect of
A gitation on ...................................................... ....... 26(3),142

SP
Pacific Rim, WPI Projects Globalize Engineering
Education in the ..................... .... ................. 29(2),112
Parallel Computing, A Course on............................... 26(4),172
Particle Technology, Teach 'Em...................................... 29(1),12
Pattern Formation in Convective-Diffusive Transport
W ith Reaction ..................................................... 26(4),214
Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology ....................... 29(1),17
Penn, Process Design Curriculum at ............................... 28(2),92
Performance Problems.................................................. 28(3),198
Phase Equilibria in Brine Crystallization, Practical
Applications of Mass Balances and....................... 28(2),136
Phillips Petroleum Industrial Experience Program ........... 29(1),38
Physical Polymer Science, Introduction to ................... 28(2),149
PICLES: A Simulator for Teaching the Real World
of Process Control ............................... .... 27(4),176
Pilot Graduate-Recruiting Program, A ....................... 26(4),190
Pilot Plant to Leach Platinum from Catalytic
Converters, Design of a ......................................... 28(4),266
Pipework Systems, On Selecting Appropriate
Control Valves for ................................. ......... 30(1),54
Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers ... 26(3), 119
Plastic Grocery Sacks, Environmental Impact of
Paper and ................................ .......... ......... 26(2),82
Plastics Recycling: Products and Processes ................. 27(4),199
Platinum from Catalytic Converters, Design of a
Pilot Plant to Leach .............................................. 28(4),266
Poetry: A Creative Writing Assignment; "An Ode to
That Distillation Tower" and Other ....................... 30(3),180
Pollution Prevention, A Graduate Course on ................ 30(4),246
Polymer Flow Instabilities: A Picaresque Tale ............. 28(3),162
Polymer Molecules, The Science of................................. 29(2),93
Polymer Processing for the Undergraduate Unit
Operations Laboratory ...................... .................. 29(2),120
Polymer Science and Engineering................................. 29(3),191
Powder Technology Option at CCNY, Development
of a ..................................... ........... .. 29(3),172
Practice School, The M .I.T.............................................. 28(1),38
Practice School Program at Tulane University, The
Chemical Engineering ........................................... 29(4),246
Presentations, Assessing Student..................................... 28(1),70
Pressure Swing Adsorption ........................................... 28(3),192
Private University, ChE Education at a Mid-Sized ......... 29(4),256
Problem-Based Learning.............................................. 29(3),157
Problem-Centered Teaching of Process Control ........... 30(3),228
Problem Solving, Strategies for Creative ...................... 29(3),157
Problems, How to Solve ............................................ 29(3),157
Process Analysis, Teaching ........................................... 28(3),218
Process Control; Neural Networks, Optimization, and ... 26(4),176
Process Control: PICLES, A Simulator for Teaching
the Real W orld of .................................................. 27(4),176
Process Control and Dynamics, Problem-Centered
Teaching of........................................ .............. 30(3),228
Process Control Education: A Quality
Control Perspective .......................................... 27(3),170


Process Control Education, Application of an
Interactive ODE Simulation Program in ............... 28(2),130
Process Control Laboratory Course, A
Comprehensive ..................................................... 27(3),184
Process Design Curriculum at Penn: Adapting for
the 1990s .................................................... ........... 28(2),92
Process Dynamics and Control .................................... 27(1),32
Process Dynamics and Control: An Experience to Bridge
the Gap Between Theory and Industrial Practice .... 29(4),218
Process Engineering Analysis in Semiconductor
Davice Fabrication...................... .................... 29(4),232
Process Heat Transfer.......................... ..................... 29(4),243
Process Simulation, Error Bars in ................................... 28(1),58
Process Simulator in a Senior Process Control
Laboratory, Experience with ................................. 27(3),194
Process Synthesis, Education in: Application to
Inorganic Processes .............................................. .. 26(1),50
Process Systems, Determining Residence Time
Distributions in Complex ...................................... 29(2),106
Process Systems Engineering: The Cornerstone of a
Modern ChE Curriculum ....................................... 28(3),210
Process Thermodynamics, Chemical and...................... 26(3),133
"Product in the Way" Processes .................................... 26(3),146
Project Management, Teaching as an Exercise in ............. 28(1),68
Project-Oriented Approach to an Undergraduate
Biochemical Engineering Laboratory, A................. 28(2),98
Pseudo-Steady-State Approximation in Solving
Chemical Engineering Problems, Application of...... 30(1),14
Purdue-Industry Computer Simulation Modules: 2. The
Eastman Chemical Reactive Distillation Process .... 27(2),136

SQ
Quality in Teaching Laboratories .................................. 29(3),186

mR

RANDOM THOUGHTS

...And if You Believe That, I've Got a Bridge
To Sell You................................................. 30(4),278
A ny Questions? ............................................. 28(3),174
G getting Started............................................... 29(3),166
How About a Quick One? .....................................26(1),18
If You've Got It, Flaunt It: Uses and Abuses of
Teaching Portfolios ........................................ 30(3),188
Just Another Day at the Office .......................... 29(2),102
Meet Your Students: 5. Edward and Irving........... 28(1),36
Meet Your Students: 6. Tony and Frank ............. 29(4),244
Sorry, Pal-It Doesn't Work That Way............. 26(4),175
Speaking of Education......................................... 27(2),128
Speaking of Everything ..................................... 30(2),120
Teaching Teachers to Teach: The Case for
M entering .................................................... 27(3),176
Things I Wish They Had Told Me .................... 28(2),108
There's Nothing Wrong with the Material ........... 26(2),76
We Never Said It Would Be Easy .........................29(1),32
Warm Winds of Change, The ..............................30(1),34
What Do They Know, Anyway? ......................... 26(3),134
What Do They Know, Anyway? 2. Making


Fall 1996











S Evaluations Effective...................................... 27(1),28
W hat M matters in College.................................... 27(4),194

Rate Constant, Judging the Speed of a Reaction
From Its Funny-Looking ....................................... 28(3),184
Reaction System, Mathematical Modeling of
an Experimental .............................. ................ 28(1),48
Reading, Easy Writing Makes Hard .............................. 28(4),278
Real-Time, Sensor-Based Computing in the
Laboratory ............................................................. 30(4),280
Recruiter, Confessions of a Graduate Student............... 30(4),262
Remediation, A Course on Environmental.................... 26(4),204
Research, The Impact of ChE: Is Anyone Reading
W hat is Published .............................................. 28(4),290
Research Proposition, The ............................................. 29(4),222
Residence Time Distributions in Complex Process
Systems, Determining........................................... 29(2),106
Rheology, Interfacial Transport Processes and ............. 26(2),104
Rs, The Other Three: Rehearsal, Recitation,
and A rgum ent ........ ................. .. ................. ... 27(1),30
Rules for Teaching, Seven............................................ 27(3),164

mS
Safety and Writing: Do They Mix? ................................. 27(3),204
Second Law of Thermodynamics, How a Clever
Demon Nearly Blew Up the .................................... 26(2,)78
Second-Year Students, Design Competition for ........... 30(2),102
Semiconductor Wafer Fabrication................................... 30(4),266
Seminar, A First-Year Introductory ................................ 28(1),74
Seminar Series on Academic Careers for Chemical
Engineering Grad Students, A ............................... 29(4),230
Senior Design Course, Implementation of Multiple
Interrelated Projects Within a ................................ 30(3),204
Senior Design Experience, A Large-Group..................... 30(1),70
Senior Process Control Laboratory, Experience with
a Process Simulator in a ........................................ 27(4),194
Separation in Chemical Engineering: Equilibrium
Staged Operations ................................................... 27(1),26
Separation Units Using Spreadsheets, Design of ............ 30(1),62
Separations: What to Teach Undergraduates .................. 28(1),12
Separations Technologies into the Undergraduate
Curriculum, Integrating New................................. 30(3),198
Scaling Initial and Boundary Value Problems .............. 28(4),236
Simulation in the Chemical Engineering Classroom....... 27(3),220
Solid Phase Extration Columns: A Tool for Teaching
Biochromatograph ............................................... 27(1),34
Sophomores, Fluid Structure for ..................................... 27(1),44
Speed of a Reaction from Its Funny-Looking Rate
Constant, Judging the ......................................... 28(3),184
Spreadsheets, Design of Separation Units Using .............. 30(1),62
Spreadsheets for Thermodynamics Instruction ............. 29(4),262
Stability, Confirming Thermodynamic ......................... 26(3),124
Staged-Process Design Through Interactive Computer
Graphics, Teaching ................................................. 28(2),110
Statistical Concepts in the Undergraduate Laboratory,
Introducing ........................................................... 27(2),130
Statistical Look at Significant Figures, A...................... 26(3),152
Statistics, Applied: Are ChE Educators Meeting
the Challenge? .................................................. 30(2),122


Statistics for Engineering Problem Solving .................... 29(1),39
Steady-State Approximation in Solving Chemical
Engineering Problems, Application of Pseudo- ........ 30(1),14
Steady-State Behavior of a CSTR; Dynamic and............ 30(2),132
Stochastics for Engineering, Applied ............................ 27(4),170
Stoichiometry Course, Knowledge Structure of the.......... 27(2),92
Structural Stability of Nonlinear Convection-Reaction
M odels .............................. ..... ... ............. 30(4),234
Student Presentations, Assessing..................................... 28(1),70
Study Groups, Collaborative: A Learning Aid ................. 27(1)38
Studying Engineering: A Road May to a Rewarding
Career ..................................... ........................... 29(4),229
Summer Engineering Project, Create a Successful ......... 29(3),168
Surface Phenomena-1995; Teaching Colloid and ........... 30(3),190
Symbols in Search of a Location, Three ......................... 28(2),97
Synthetic-Data Method, The ......................................... 28(2),146
Systematic Approach for Long-Range Laboratory
Developm ent, A ................................................... 26(2),98

ST
Teaching, Seven Rules for............................................. 27(3),164
Teaching, The Quest for Excellence in ......................... 27(4),182
Teaching Amidst Exceptional Research, A Vision
of Exceptional ........................................................ 28(2),104
Teaching as an Exercise in Project Management ............ 28(1),68
Teaching Engineering ............................ ..................... 28(1),29
Teaching in the First Few Years.................................... 28(4),280
Teaching Thermo with the Help of Friends .................. 28(3),168
Theoretical Stage not Always a Theoretical Stage?
W hen is a .............................................................. 27(3),178
Thermo with the Help of Friends, Teaching ................. 28(3),168
Thermodynamic Equilibrium, Influence of Catalysts
on ...................................................... ..................... .. 26(4),180
Thermodynamic Stability, Confirming ......................... 26(3),124
Thermodynamics, Demonstrations to Complement a
Course in General Engineering ............................. 30(2),108
Thermodynamics, Alternative Applications and
Examples in Undergraduate .................................. 29(3),150
Thermodynamics: A Structure for Teaching and
Learning About Much of Reality ............................ 27(2),96
Thermodynamics, How a Clever Demon Nearly
Blew up the Second Law of..................................... 26(2),78
Thermodynamics, The Third Law of............................. 28(3),176
Thermodynamics and Common Sense .......................... 27(4),106
Thermodynamics and Common Sense, A Second
Look at .................................................................. 28(3),183
Thermodynamics Instruction, Spreadsheets for ............ 29(4),262
Third Law of Thermodynamics, The............................. 28(3),176
Tissue Engineering, A Course on.................................. 29(2),126
Transfer, Magic Unveiled Through the Concept of
Heat and Its ........................................................... 28(3),180
Transport and Reaction in Multiphase Systems,
Topics in ...................................................... 28(4),244
Transport Phenomena, Electrokinetic ........................... 28(4),254
Transport Phenomena, The Basic Concepts in.............. 27(2),102
Transport Phenomena with Interactive Computers to
the Nintendo Generation, Teaching........................... 30(1),40
Troubleshooting in the Unit Operations Laboratory ....... 28(2),120
Turkey and the United States, ChE Education in ............ 30(2),150


Chemical Engineering Education












mu
Undergraduate Academic Advising ................... 30(2),156
Unit Operations Handbook: Vol 1. Mass Transfer ........... 28(1),43
Unit Operations Lab, Introducing Industrial
Practice in the ....................................................... 28(2),128
Unit Operations Laboratory, Polymer Processing for
the Undergraduate ................................................. 29(2),120
Unit Operations Laboratory, Putting Commercial
Relevance into the ................................................... 29(1),40
Unit Operations Laboratory, Troubleshooting in the ...... 28(2),120
Unit Operations With Your Data Acquisitions
Software, Creat Virtual.......................................... 29(4),270
Unsteady-State Heat Transfer from a Steam-Heated
Coil to a Tank of W ater ......................................... 29(2),116


m V
Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, Calculation of .................... 29(3),204
Vapor-Liquid Traffic in a Distillation Column,
Changing ................................................................. 30(1),36
Vessel Draining, More Applied Math Problems on .......... 26(1),30
Virtual Unit Operations With Your Data Acquisition
Software, Create ................................................... 29(4),270
Vision of Exceptional Teaching Amidst Exceptional
Research, A ........................................................ 28(2),104


NW
Wafer Fabrication, Semiconductor................................ 30(4),266
Wake-Up to Engineering .............................................. 30(3),210
Waste Processing, Hazardous; In the ChE
Curriculum ............................................................ 29(3),178
Water, Unsteady-State Heat Transfer from a Steam-
Heated Coil to a Tank of Water............................. 29(2),116
Water Explained by Mass and Heat Transfer, An
Ancient Method for Cooling ................................... 29(2),96
Water-Treatment Subjects into Chemical Engineering
Education, Introducing ......................................... 26(1),20
Wetting, The Free Energy of ......................................... 27(4),184
What Works: A Quick Guide to Learning Principles...... 27(2),120
Wind-Chill Paradox: Four Problems in Heat
Transfer ......................................... ..................... 30(4),256
Words in Tight Margins, Terse ..................................... 29(2),134
World Wide Web, The: For Teaching ChE................... 29(3),162
WPI Projects Globalize Engineering Education in
the Pacific Rim ........................ .... ................. 29(2),112
Writing, Safety and; Do They Mix? ................................ 27(3),204
Writing a Textbook Chapter: Learning Through
Doing, A Course on ............................................. 27(4),108
Writing Assignment, A Creative; "An Ode to That
Distillation Tower: and Other Poetry .................... 30(3),180
Writing Makes Hard Reading, Easy .............................. 28(4),278


A AUTHOR INDEX


HA
Abbott, M.M. ........................................ 28(1), 18
Abu-Khalaf, Aziz M............. 28(1),48: 30(2),132
Achenie, Luke E.K. ............................ 26(4),176
Adesina, A.A. ..................................... 26(3),164
Aguado, M.A. ....................................... 26(1),50
Aguirre, Fernando J. ............................ 26(1),24
Ahmad, Maqsood ............................. 26(3),142
Al-Dahhan, Muthanna H. ..................... 29(3),198
Al-Harbi, Dulaihan ........................ 30(2), 146
Alkire, Richard C. ........................... 27(3),188
Allan, G. Graham ............................. 28(4),270
Allen, D.T. ......................................... 26(2),82
Al-Saleh, Muhammad .......................... 30(2), 146
Amiridis, Michael D................. ......... 30(1),2
Anderson, J. Joseph ............................ 29(4),218
Andersen, P.K. .................................... 27(2),136
Arce, Pedro ........... 26(4),214: 27(1),8: 28(4),244
Ariyapadi, M.V. .................................... 28(1),18
Atherley, Katherine .............................. 29(1),56
Azevedo, Sebastido Feyo de ................... 26(2),94
EB
Badmus, 0.0. ..................................... 30(4),280
Baer, Alva D .................................... 27(2),118
Bailie, Richard C. ..... 26(1),44: 28(1),52; (3),198
Baird, M.H.I. .......................... 30(1),50; (2),142
Bakshani, N. ........................................ 26(2),82
Balakotaiah, Vemuri .......... 27(4),154: 30(4), 234
Baldwin, R.M. .................................... 26(4),190
Balsara, N .................... .................... 28(1),18
Barbari, Timothy A. ............................. 29(2),93


Baria, Dorab N. .................................. 29(3),178
Barron, Charles H. ................................ 29(1),39
Barrufet, Maria A. .............................. 29(3),192
Barton, G.W. ..................................... 26(2),72
Basu, A. ......................................... 30(4),272
Basu, P. ........................................ ... 30(4),272
Bayles, Taryn Melkus ........................... 26(1),24
Beatty, Charles .............................. 27(3),199
Beaudoin, Stephen P ........................... 30(40,246
Bedle, Robert W. ................................ 29(3),168
Bell, John T. ....................................... 30(3),204
Beltramini, Jorge ................................ 30(2),146
Bequette, B. Wayne .............................. 29(1),16
Berman, Neil ...................................... 28(3),154
Bethea, Robert M. .............................. 28(2),102
Bike, Stacy G .................................. 26(3),130
Binous, H. ...................................... 26(1),12
Bird, R. Byron .................... 27(2),102: 27(3),164
Blau, Gary E. ......................... .... 29(1),50
Bowers, Tom .................................. 30(4),266
Bowman, Christopher N ...................... 28(4),280
Brainard, Alan J................. 28(1),62: 28(2),86,97
Brauner, N. ........... 28(1),30; (2),130: 29(1),7,22:
.................................................. 30(1),20 ; (4),256
Brent, Rebecca.................. 29(3),166: 30(3),188
Brereton, Robert A. ............................ 28(3),188
Broadbelt, Linda J. ............................. 27(4),215
Brown, Bob S. .................................... 28(4),242
Brown, Pamela M............. 28(4),266: 30(3),198
Bungay, Henry .................................... 29(3),162
Buonopane, Ralph A. ........................... 29(2),70


Burke, Annette L. ............................... 27(2),130
Burkett, William J. ............................. 28(2),128
Bumet, George ................................... 27(4),196
Bur s, M ark A. ..................................... 30(1),62
Butterbaugh, Jeffrey L........................ 26(3),124
NC
CAceres, L. ............................................ 26(1),20
Cale, Timothy S. ................................. 29(4),232
Cameron, I.T ....................................... 28(3),210
Cannon, Joseph N. ................................ 27(2),72
Carnahan, Brice ................................ 26(1),52
Carr, Robert W .................................... 26(1),33
Chakraborty, Arup K. ........................... 30(2),88
Chakraborty, Reena ............................ 26(3),119
Chapin, Robin A. .................................. 28(1),68
Chawla, Ramesh C. .............................. 27(2),72
Chen, Daniel H. .................................. 27(3),194
Chen, Xueyu ....................................... 30(3),220
Christy, John R.E. ................................. 30(1),54
Churchill, Stuart W. 27(2),86: 29(2),133; (4),243
Cobb, James ............ ......................... 28(2),86
Collier, John R. .................................. 29(2),120
Colomb, Gregory G. ........................... 27(2),144
Cooper, Douglas J. ............. 26(4),176: 27(4),176
Coughanowr, D.R............................... 27(4),188
Counce, R.M ...................................... 28(2),116
Crane, Laura J. ...................................... 27(1),34
Crickmore, P.J. ................................... 27(2),140
Crowl, Daniel A. .............. 27(4),167: 28(4),269
Cummings, Peter T. ............................ 26(3),114
Cussler, E.L. .......................................... 27(1),14


Fall 1996












Cutlip, M.B... 28(1),30;(2),130: 29(1),7: 30(1),20

ED
Dahlstrom, Donald A. ........................ 28(4),226
D'Aquino, Rita L. ................................. 29(2),86
Darby, Ron ......................................... 28(3),194
Dasgupta, S ................................... .... 28(1),18
Davies, Reg ..................................... 29(1),12
Davies, W.A. ................... 29(1),40: 30(2),102
Davis, James F ...................................... 29(1),50
Davis, Richard A ................ 27(1),20: 29(4),270
Davis, Robert H. ................................. 28(4),274
D aw son, M ary .......................................... 27(1),2
De, D .S. .................... ..................... 30(4),272
Debenedetti, Pablo G.............................. 30(1),69
Delgass, W .N. ..................................... 27(4),162
de Nevers, Noel ....... 26(2),88; (3)146: 29(3),161
Denn, Morton M................. 28(3),162: 30(2),94
Deshpande, Pradeep B........................ 27(3),170
Diamond, Scott L. .............................. 28(2),140
Donaldson, Michael.............................. 28(1),24
Doraiswamy, L. K. ............................. 26(3),184
Dorland, Dianne ................................. 29(3),178
Dorgan, John R. .................................. 30(2),136
Douglas, P.L. ................................... 28(3),210
Doyle, Joe H ........................................ 27(1),20
Dranoff, Joshua S. ................ 29(4),256: 30(2),98
Dudgeon, Douglas J. .......................... 30(2),108
Dunlop, Eric H. .................................. 30(4),286

HE
Eakman, James M ................................ 29(3),138
Eckert, Roger E. ................................. 30(2),122
Edgar, Thomas F. ............................... 29(2),105
Edwards, David W ................. 27(1),2: 28(1),70
Eisenberg, Arnold M. ......................... 30(3),174
Eldridge, R. Bruce ................................ 29(1),18
Elliott, Jr., J. Richard ............ 27(1),44: 30(2),150
Enick, Robert ........................................ 28(2),86
Ernst, William R. ................................ 27(2),144
Etienne, Dorian ..................................... 27(2),72

*F
Fabregat, A. ................................... 28(3),204
Farriol, X. ............................... ......... 28(3),204
Fahidy, Thomas Z............... 27(1),42: 30(4),240
Fair, James R. .................................. 26(4),174
Falconer, John L. ................................ 26(4),180
Fee, Conan J. ...................... 27(1),60: 28(3),214
Fehr, M anfred ....................................... 28(1),78
Felder, Richard M. 26(1),18;(2)76;(3)134;(4)175:
.................... 27(1),28; (2)92,128; (3)176; (4)194:
.................................... 28(1),36; (2),108; (3),174:
................. 29(1),32; (2),102; (3),157,166; (4),244
........................30(1),34; (2),130; (3),188; (4),278
Fiedler, D.J.T. ..................................... 26(4),190
Finlayson, Bruce A. .............................. 30(1),19
Fisher, D. Grant .................................. 30(4),280
Fisher, Greg ......................................... 27(4),213
Flach, Lawrance ................................... 28(1),74
Fogler, H. Scott ................. 27(2),110: 29(2)104
Ford, Roseanne M. ............. 26(3),114: 27(1),26
Franz, Aleksander J. ............................. 28(1),38
Fraser, Duncan M. ................................ 27(1),38
Friedly, John C. .................. 28(2),90: 29(2),105
Furno, J.S. ............................................ 28(1),18
Furzer, lan ......................................... 27(3),216


Futerko, P. ............................................ 28(1),18
HG
Gadala-Maria, Francis A. ....................... 30(1),2
Gapinski, D.P. ...................................... 28(1),18
Garcia-Ant6n, J. ................................. 28(4),232
Gentry, James W. ............... 28(4),284: 29(4),250
Ghorashi, Anne M. ........................... 30(1),30
Ghorashi, Bahman ................ 26(2),98: 30(1),30
Gidaspow, Dimitri .............................. 27(1),2
Gilbert, Richard A. ......................... 26(3),136
Gill, William N. .............................. 27(4),198
Gim6nez, J. ........................................ 26(1),50
Giralt, Francesc ...................... 28(2),122; (3),204
Giralt, J. .......................................... 28(3),204
Gollapudi, Sreenivas ........................ 30(2),114
G6mez-Silva, B. .............................. 26(1),20
Gossen, Paul D. .............................. 29(2),106
Graber, T.A .............................. ..... 28(2),136
Grandin, John M... ......................... 30(2),126
Grant, Christine S. ......................... 30(4),246
Grassi, K.S. .................................... 29(1),26
Grau, F.X. ......................... 28(2),122; (3),204
Greenkorn, R.A. ......................... ..... 27(2),109
Greenlee, Robert D ......................... 28(3),188
Greisch, Janet Rohler ............... 26(2),62: 28(1),2
Grim a, R. ....................... ..................... 28(4),232
Grocela, T.A. ................................... 28(1),18
Grosjean, Am y ....................................... 28(1),74
Grosso, Marc R. ................................... 30(2),114
Grulke, Eric A. ................................... 28(2),149
Gruttner, E. ......................................... 26(1),20
Guifi6n, J.L. ........................................ 28(4),232
Gutierrez, J.M......................................... 26,(1)50
l H
H aile, J.M ..................... ..................... 28(4),278
Hamrin, C.E., Jr. ................................. 28(4),290
Harris, W .J. .......................................... 26(1),7
Harrison, Roger G. ............. 28(2),150: 30(4),286
Hart, Peter W. .................................. 30(3),214
Hatton, T. Alan ................................ 28(1),38
Hawley, Martin C. .............................. 26(3),119
Helfferich, Friedrich G. ...................... 26(1),23
Hesketh, R.P. .................. 28(1),12: 30(3),210
Himmelblau, David M.......................... 29(1),46
Hirt, Douglas E. .................................... 29(1),62
Hirtzel, Cynthia S. .............................. 26(4),200
Holland, W .D. .................................... 27(2),150
Hollein, Helen C. .................................. 29(2),86
Holmes, J.M ...................................... 28(2),116
Hooker, Brian S. ................................... 28(2),98
Hopper, Jack R. .................................. 27(3),194
Hou, Hui-Min ..................................... 28(2),146
Hudgins, Robert R.27(2),130; (3),200: 28(3),184:
............................................................... 29(2),134
Hughes, Colleen ................................. 30(4),252

*I
Ishuag, Susan L. ............................. 29(2),126


*J
Jackson, Monique ............................... 29(3),150
Jackson, Roy ......................................... 27(2),85
Jacob, Karl ......................................... 29(1),12
Jayakumar, S. ..................... 27(2),136: 29(1),26


Jim 6nez, Arturo ........................................ 26(1),8
Johnson, Barry S. .................................. 28(1),38
Johnson, Maggie,................................. 28(4),290
Jolls, Kenneth R. .............. 26(3),124: 28(2),110
Jones, W.E................ 27(1),52; (3)178: 30(1),36;
30(3),183

EK
Kaminsky, R.D. .................................... 28(1),18
Kannan, Rangaramanujam M............... 26(4),210
Kantor, Jeffrey C. ................................. 27(1),32
Karlsruher, S.G. .................................... 28(1),18
Kastner, James R. ............................... 26(3),142
Kelly, Robert M. ................................. 30(4),262
Kiewra, E.W. ................................. ..... 28(1),18
Kim, Sangtae ........... 26(2),87; (4)172: 29(2),105
Kivnick, Arnold .................................... 28(2),92
Kmit, Jordan M ..................................... 30(1),14
Ko, Edmond I. .................................... 29(4),230
Kofke, David A. ....... 28(1),6: 30(2),114; (3),183
Konak, A.R. ...................... 28(3),180: 29(2),130
Kozak, Arnold I. ................................. 28(2),140
Krantz, William B. ............................. 28(4),236
Kuchinski, William ............................ 29(3),162
Kummler, Ralph H. .................. 30(1),19; (4),252
Kyle, B.G.............................. 28(3),176: 29(2),94

SL
Langrish, T.A.G ................................ 29(1),40
Lant, Paul ......................................... 30(3),228
Lee, P. L. ....................................... .. 28(3),210
LeVan, M. Douglas ............................ 30(4),271
Levenspiel, Octave ............. 27(4),206: 28(3),183
Liao, James C. .................................... 30(3),173
Lightfoot, E.N. .................................... 30(3),168
Lira, Carl T. ............................................ 26(1),38
Liu, Kai .............................................. 29(3),192
Locke, Bruce R.......... 26(4),194; (4)214: 27(1),8
Loney, N.W. .......................................... 30(1),58
Loureiro, Jos6 Miguel............................. 29(1),6
Lumba, Deepak .................................. 28(2),110
Lund, Carl R.F. ................................... 30(2),114
Luyben, Michael ............................ 27(4),214
Lynn, Scott ....................................... 28(1),43

*M
M a, Y .H ................. ... .................... 29(2),112
Mah, Richard S.H. ................................ 29(1),46
M arand, Eva ....................................... 29(3),150
Marcotte, Ronald E. .............................. 28(1),44
M arsh, D ........................................... 30(4),272
Masliyah, Jacob H. ............................. 28(4),254
Matthews, Michael A. ........................ 27(3),210
M attill, John I. .................................... 27(3),154
Marrero, Thomas R. ........................... 28(2),128
Marsh, John A. ................................... 27(3),210
Mavrovouniotis, Michael L ................ 30(2),156
McCarty, Gordon.................................. 28(2),90
McCluney, Steven A. ......................... 27(4),212
McConica, Carol ................ 29(3),158: 30(1),76
McCoy, B.J. ..................... 26(1),12: 27(3),183
McGee, John C. ............................... 27(2),150
McGee Jr., Henry A. .......................... 26(3),160
McKinnon, J.T.................. 26(4),190: 30(2),136
McMicking, James H. ........................ 30(4),252
Meadowcroft, Thomas A...................... 28(1),38
Medir, M. .............................. 28(2),122; (3),204
Melsheimer, S.S. .................................. 30(1),46


Chemical Engineering Education












Metzner, Arthur B. ............................... 30(2),88
Middleberg, Anton P. J......................... 29(1),34
Middleman, Stanley ............................ 29(4),210
Mikos, Antonios G. ............................ 29(2),126
M iller, R .L. ............................................ 26(4),190
Monardes, R. ........................................ 26(1),20
Morbidelli, Massimo ............................ 28(1),16
Moss, E.R. .......................................... 28(2),116
Mota, Manuel ........................................ 26(2),94
Mufti, Naheed ....................................... 28(1),24
Mungala, Suresh ................................. 27(3),194
Munson-McGee, Stuart H. ................. 29(3),138
Myers, Kevin J. ...... 26(3),156: 28(1),74; (2),120

ON
N arayan, A .S. ....................................... 28(1),18
Narayanan, R. ..................................... 26(3),168
Nass, K.K ............................................ 28(1),18
Natarajan, Siva ................................. 29(4),218
Nau, David R. ....................................... 27(1),34
Nelson, Michelle ................................ 28(2),110
Nelson, Ralph D. .................................. 29(1),12
Newell, Bob ........................................ 30(3),228
Nirdosh, I. ............................... 30(1),50; (2),142
Nitsche, Johannes M........................... 28(3),168

HO
Occhiogrosso, Ronald N..................... 30(3),184
O'Connell, John P. 26(3),114: 27(2),96: 28(1),18
Ogden, Kimberly L............................. 29(4),234
Ollis, David F. .................... 27(1),30: 29(4),222
Orbey, N. ....................................... .. 27(3),166
Oreovicz, Frank ............................... 26(3),120
Ottino, Julio M ................. 27(4),168: 30(4),244
Overcash, Michael .............................. 30(4),246

HP
Palmer, Harvey J. ............................... 29(3),144
Park, Chang-Won ............................... 27(3),182
Parks, C.J. ............................................ 28(1),18
Partin, L.R. ........................................ 27(2),136
Pendse, Ajit V. .................................... 29(2),120
Perna, Angelo J. ...................................... 30(1),8
Pesce, L.D............................................ 28(2),l 16
Peters, M ............................................ 27(1),8
Peterson, Thomas W........................... 29(4),234
Pettit, Karen R. ................................... 27(3),188
Phatak, Aloke ....................... 27(2),130; (3),200
Pickner, Mary Ann ............................... 30(1),30
Pike, Ralph W..................................... 30(3),220
Pinto, Gabriel ........................................ 29(2),96
Pitt, William G. .................................. 27(4),184
Plunkett, Kathryn................................ 29(3),150
Poling, Bruce E. .................................... 26(2),58
Pollard, Richard .................................... 30(1),26
Poshusta, Joe C. .................................. 28(3),188
Pozrikidis, C. ...................................... 28(3),166
Prados, John W. ...................... 27(1),14: 29(1),2
Przirembel, C.E.G. ............................... 30(1),46

OR
Rana, Banita ....................................... 30(3),184
Rao, Krishnaraj S. .............................. 30(3),220
Rastogi, Sanjeev ................................... 26(2),78
Reilly, Park M .................. 26(3),152: 27(2),130
Reilly, Peter J. .................................... 28(3),193
Reim er, R.A ....................................... 28(2),1 16
Reklaitis, G.V.27(2),136: 29(1),26,50; (2),76,105


Rhinehart, R. Russell .......................... 29(4),218
Rice, Peter .......................................... 29(2),116
Roberts, Ronnie S. .............................. 26(3),142
Robinson, Ken K. ................................. 30(2),98
Robinson-Piergiovanni, Polly S. ............ 27(1),34
Rogers, Bridget R. .............................. 29(4),232
Rogers, Jr., J.W. ................................. 30(2),108
Rogowski, D.F. ..................................... 28(1),18
Rorrer, Gregory L. .............................. 30(3),180
Roth, G.S. .................... .................... 28(1),18
Russell, Alan ....................................... 28(2),86
Russell, TW Fraser ............... 27(3),166: 30(2),88
Ryan, J.T. ........................................... 27(2),140

Es
Sandall, Orville C. ................................ 27(1),20
Sarian, Zabel .......................................... 30(1),8
Sarsfield, M.B. ...................................... 28(1),18
Sater, Gene ......................................... 28(3),154
Savage, Phillip E. ............................... 29(4),262
Sawchuk, Rebecca J. ............................ 27(2),80
Schachterle, L. ...................................... 29(2),l 12
Schad, Ryan C. ................................... 28(4),258
Schieber, Jay D. .................................. 27(4),170
Schork, F. Joseph.................................. 29(2),106
Schulz, K.H. ......................................... 28(1),12
Schruben, Dale L. ................................. 28(1),44
Scott, Elaine P. ................................... 29(3),150
Scriven, L.E. .......................................... 28(2),104
Sc2echowski, Jeffrey G. ..................... 28(4),236
Seader, J.D. .......................................... 26(2),88
Seeloff, Eugene R. .............................. 28(2),119
Seider, Warren D. ................................. 28(2),92
Selim, M. Sami ............................... 26(4),213
Senol, Dennis E. ................................. 29(3),204
Sensel, M. Elizabeth ........................... 26(3),156
Shaeiwitz, Joseph A. ............ 28(1),52; 30(3),183
Shacham, M............ 28(1),30; (2),30: 29(1),7,22;
................................................... 30(1),20; (4),256
Shaeiwitz, Joseph A. ......... 28(3),198: 29(4),240:
................................................................. 30(1),70
Shah, D.B. .......................... 28(4),250: 30(1),14
Shah, Sirish L. .................................... 30(4),280
Shalabi, Mazen ................................... 30(2),146
Shaver, Ronald D. .............................. 27(4),213
Shuler, Michael L. ................................ 28(1),24
Simon, Sindee ....................................... 28(2),86
Sinclair, Jennifer L. ............................ 29(4),234
Slater, C.S.......... 28(1),12: 28(1),29: 29(2),66,86
Sloan, E. Dendy .................... 26(3),133; (4),190
Smiley, R.J. ........................................ 27(4),162
Smith, Carlos A. ................................. 26(3),136
Smith, K.M. ........................................ 28(1),18
Smith, Terence N. ............................... 28(3),218
Sommerfeld, Jude T. ............ 26(1),30: 30(3),214
Sousa, Maria L. .................................... 26(2),94
Squires, R.G. ........................ 27(2),136: 29(1),26
Sriniwas, G. Ravi.................................. 29(2),106
Stokes, Cynthia L. .............................. 26(4),204
Stubington, John F. ............................. 29(3),186
Stuve, Eric M. ......................................... 30(2),82
Sung, James C. ..................................... 30(1),62
Sujanani, M. .......................................... 28(1),18

*T
Taboada, Maria E. .............................. 28(2),136
Tad6, Moses ..................................... 28(3),218


Tardos, Gabriel I. ................................ 29(3),172
Taticek, Ronald .................................... 28(1),24
Tavlarides, L.L. .................................... 26(2),66
Taylor, Ross ...................... .................... 29(1),56
Tedder, D. William ............................. 26(3), 142
T ee, J.J. ............................................. 28(1),18
Teixeira, Jos6 A. ................................... 26(2),94
Thier, H ............................................. 28(2),122
Thompson, D.W. .................................. 28(1),58
Timmerhaus, Klaus D........................... 29(1), 17
Tirrell, Matthew .................................. 26(4),182
Todd, Paul .......................................... 30(4),286
Trainham, James A............................. 30(3),174
Tsouris; C. .............................. 26(2),66; (4),200
Turian, Raffi M................................... 27(4),182
Turton, Richard .................................... 26(1),44
Tzouvaras, N ....................................... 28(1),18

i V
Van Wie, Bernard J. ........................... 28(3),188
Varma, Arvind ...................................... 28(1),16
Vasudevan, P.T................................... 27(3),184
Velegol, Darrell .................................... 30(1),70
Venerus, David C. .............................. 27(2),122
Verduchi, Kristen L. ........................... 30(2),126
Vifials, Jorge ....................................... 26(4),214


*W
Walz, John Y. ..................................... 29(4),246
Wang, Shao-Hwa................................ 28(2),146
Wankat, Phillip C. ... 27(2),117; (2),120; (4),208:
................................. 28(1),12: 29(3),197; (4),229
Wasan, Darsh T. ............... 26(2),104: 30(3),190
Weber, Fred E. .......................................... 29(1),2
Weiss, Lucinda ................................... 27(3),160
Welker, J. Reed .................................... 26(2),75
Weller, Sol S. ...................................... 28(4),262
Wells, Warren S. ................................ 28(4),258
Westmoreland, P.R. ............................ 27(4),161
White, Ralph E. .................................. 26(2),102
Whiting, Wallace B. 27(3),220: 28(1),52; (2),146
........................... ................................. 3 0 (1),70
Wilkes, James O. ................................ 26(3),130
Williams, John A. ............................... 29(2),111
Wilson, J.A. ........................................... 30(1),36
Winnick, Jack ..................................... 29(3),204
Witt, Annmarie L. ................................ 29(2),86
Wolf, Eduardo E. .................................. 30(1),40
Wolf, Juan Eduardo .............................. 30(1),40
W ood, R.K........................................... 27(2),140
Woods, Donald R. 26(1),34: 27(2),90: 29(2),125
30(3),190

EY
Yang, Ralph T. ................................... 28(3),192
Ybarra, Robert M. .............................. 27(3),204
Yiacoumi, Sotira................................. 26(4),200
Yu, Jufang ........................................... 30(3),220


SZ
Zepeda, Luis C. .................................... 28(1),44
Zeugner, J.F ........................................ 29(2),112
Zubizarreta, J. Ignacio .......................... 29(2),96
Zydney, Andrew ................................. 29(3),182


Fall 1996








Chemical Engineering

at the


University



of


Alabama



A dedicated faculty with state-of-the-art facilities
offer research programs leading to Master of
Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees.


Faculty


Research Interests:


Biomass Conversion, Catalysis and Reactor
Design, Energy Conversion Processes,
Environmental Studies, Interfacial Transport,
Magnetic Storage Media, Mass Transfer, Metal
Casting, Polymer Rheology, Process Dynamics
and Control, Reservoir Modeling, Suspension
and Slurry Rheology, Thermodynamics,
Transport Process Modeling


For Information Contact:
Director of Graduate Studies
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Alabama
Box 870203
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0203
An
Phone: (205) 348-6450


equal employment/equal e
opportunity institution


G.C. April, Ph.D. (Louisiana State)
D. W. Arnold, Ph.D. (Purdue)
E. S. Carlson, Ph.D. (Wyoming)
P. E. Clark, Ph.D. (Oklahoma State)
W. C. Clements, Jr., Ph.D. (Vanderbilt)
R. W. Flumerfelt, Ph.D. (Northwestern)
R. A. Griffin, Ph.D. (Utah State)
I. A. Jefcoat, Ph.D. (Clemson)
P. W. Johnson, Ph.D. (New Mexico Tech.)
A. M. Lane, Ph.D. (Massachusetts)
M. D. McKinley, Ph.D. (Florida)
R. G. Reddy, Ph.D. (Utah)
L. Y. Sadler III, Ph.D. (Alabama)
V. N. Schrodt, Ph.D. (Penn. State)
educational
n. J. M. Wiest, Ph.D. (Wisconsin)


Chemical Engineering Education


300













% UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA


Degrees: M.Sc., Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering and in Process Control

FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS


R.P. BATYCKY, Ph.D. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology)
Transport Processes in Porous Media Biological Transport Processes *
Macrotransport Processes Fluid Mechanics
K. T. CHUANG, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Mass Transfer Catalysis Separation Processes Pollution Control
I. G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (Univ. of Minnesota) EMERITUS
Chemical Reaction Engineering Heterogeneous Catalysis Hydroprocessing
JA.W. ELLIOTT, Ph.D. (University of Toronto)
Thermodynamics Statistical Thermodynamics Interfacial Phenomena
D. G. FISHER, Ph.D. (University of Michigan) EMERITUS
Process Dynamics and Control Real-Time Computer Applications
J.F. FORBES, Ph.D. (McMaster University)
Real-Time Optimization Process Control Process Modeling
M. R. GRAY, Ph.D. (California Institute of Technology) DEAN
OF GRADUATE STUDIES Bioreactors Chemical Kinetics Characterization
of Complex Organic Mixtures
R. E. HAYES, Ph.D. (University of Bath)
Numerical Analysis Reactor Modeling Computational Fluid Dynamics
S. M. KRESTA, Ph.D. (McMaster University)
Fluid Mechanics Turbulence Mixing
D. T. LYNCH, Ph.D. (University of Alberta) DEAN OF ENGINEERING
Catalysis Kinetic Modeling Numerical Methods Reactor Modeling and
Design Polymerization


J. H. MASLIYAH, Ph.D. (University of British Columbia)
Transport Phenomena Numerical Analysis Particle-Fluid Dynamics
A. E. MATHER, Ph.D. (University of Michigan)
Phase Equilibria Fluid Properties at High Pressures Thermodynamics
P. A. J. MEES, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics Transport Phenomena *
Pulp and Paper
K. NANDAKUMAR, Ph.D. (Princeton University)
Transport Phenomena Multicomponent Distillation Computational Fluid
Dynamics
F. D. OTTO, Ph.D. (University of Michigan) EMERITIS
Mass Transfer Gas-Liquid Reactions Separation Processes
M. RAO, Ph.D. (Rutgers University)
Al Intelligent Control Process Control
S. L. SHAH, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Computer Process Control System Identification Adaptive Control
S. E. WANKE, Ph.D. (University of California, Davis) CHAIR
Heterogeneous Catalysis Kinetics Polymerization
M. C. WILLIAMS, Ph.D. (University of Wisconsin)
Rheology Polymer Characterization Polymer Processing
R. K. WOOD, Ph.D. (Northwestern University)
Process Modeling and Dynamic Simulation Distillation Column Control
Dynamics and Control of Grinding Circuits


For further information, contact
Graduate Program Officer MCW Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
University ofAlberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6
PHONE (403) 492-3962 FAX (403) 492-2881


Fall 1996











I ACUT / RSARC INEET


ROBERT ARNOLD, Associate Professor (Caltech)
Microbiological Hazardous Waste Treatment, Metals Speciation and Tc
JAMES BAYGENTS, Assistant Professor (Princeton)
Fluid Mechanics, Transport and Colloidal Phenomena, Bioseparations,
Electrokinetics
MILAN BIER, Professor Emeritus (Fordham)
Protein Separation, Electrophoresis, Membrane Transport
WILLIAM P. COSART, Associate Professor and Associate Dean (Oregc
Heat Transfer in Biological Systems, Blood Processing
JAMES FARRELL, Assistant Professor (Stanford)
Sorption/desorbtion of Organics in Soils
EDWARD FREEH, Adjunct Professor (Ohio State)
Process Control, Computer Applications
JOSEPH GROSS, Professor Emeritus (Purdue)
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Microcirculation, Biorheol
ROBERTO GUZMAN, Associate Professor (North Carolina State)
Protein Separation, Affinity Methods
ARTHUR HUMPHREY, Visiting Professor (Columbia)
Biotechnology
BRUCE E. LOGAN, Associate Professor (Berkeley)
Bioremediation, Biological Wastewater Treatment, Fixed Film Bioreaci
KIMBERLY OGDEN, Assistant Professor (Colorado)
Bioreactors, Bioremediation, Organics Removal from Soils
THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor and Head (CalTech)
Aerosols, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Microcontamination
ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor Emeritus (Iowa State)
Crystallization Processes, Nucleation, Particulate Processes
THOMAS R. REHM, Professor (Washington)
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Computer Aided Design
FARHANG SHADMAN, Professor (Berkeley)
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactive Membranes,
Microcontamination
RAYMOND A. SIERKA, Professor (Oklahoma)
Adsorption, Oxidation, Membranes, Solar Catalyzed Detox Reactions
JENNIFER SINCLAIR, Associate Professor (Princeton)
Gas/solid Flows, Solids Mixing and Transport
JOST 0. L. WENDT, Professor (Johns Hopkins)
Combustion-Generated Air Pollution, Incineration, Waste
Management
DON H. WHITE, Professor Emeritus (Iowa State)
Polymers, Microbial and Enzymatic Processes
DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor (Technion)
Fermentation, Mixing, Energy, Biomass Conversion


For further information, write to
Chairman,
Graduate Study Committee
Department of Chemical and
Environmental Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721
The University of Arizona is an equal
opportunity educational institution/equal
opportunity employer.
Women and minorities are encouraged
to apply.


CHEMICAL AND
ty

ENVIRONMENTAL


ate) ENGINEERING
at


THE


UNIVERSITY

OF

ARIZONA

The Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department
at the University of Arizona offers a wide range of research
opportunities in all major areas of chemical engineering and
environmental engineering, and graduate courses are offered in
most of the research areas listed here. The department offers a fully
accredited undergraduate degree as well as MS and PhD graduate
degrees. Strong interdisciplinary programs exist in bioprocessing
and bioseparations, microcontamination in electronics manu-
facture, and environmental process modification.
Financial support is available through fellowships, government
and industrial grants and contracts, teaching and
research assistantships.


Tucson has an excellent climate and many
recreational opportunities. It is a growing modern city of
450,000 that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere.


Chemical Engineering Education










CHEMICAL, BIO, AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING AT




ARIZONA



STATE



UNIVERSITY


a 0
0 io C4MICAL '


-.10 : oce800
0 "1 *


6%0 COmr*0


Beaudoin, Stephen P., Ph.D., North Carolina State a *
University Transport Phenomena and Surface Science a *
concerning Pollution Prevention, Waste Minimization, and

Beckman, James R., Ph.D., University of Arizona Crystalli- I, '
zation and Solar Cooling
Bellamy, Lynn, Ph.D., Tulane Process Simulation *
Berman, Neil S., Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin Fluid o *
Dynamics and Air Pollution a *
Burrows, Veronica A., Ph.D., Princeton University Surface e
Science, Semiconductor Processing *
Cale, Timothy S., Ph.D., University of Houston Catalysis, .
Semiconductor Processing
Garcia, Antonio A., Ph.D., U.C., Berkeley Acid-Base Interactions, ra a
Biochemical Separation, Colloid Chemistry G a t
Kuester, James L., Ph.D., Texas A&M University Thermochemical
Conversion, Complex Reaction Systems Research in a
Raupp, Gregory B., Ph.D., University of Wisconsin Semiconductor Materials
Processing, Surface Science, Catalysis H igh Technology
Rivera, Daniel, Ph.D., Cal Tech Process Control and Design
Sater, Vernon E., Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Tech Heavy Metal Removal from Waste
Water, Process Control Environment
Torrest, Robert S., Ph.D., University of Minnesota Multiphase Flow, Filtration, Flow in
Porous Media, Pollution Control
Zwiebel, Imre, Ph.D., Yale University Adsorption of Macromolecules, Biochemical Separations



Dorson, William J., Ph.D., University of Cincinnati Physicochemical Phenomena, Transport Processes
Guilbeau, Eric J., Ph.D., Louisiana Tech University Biosensors, Physiological Systems, Biomaterials
He, Jiping, Ph.D., University of Maryland Biomechanics, Robotics, Computational Neuroscience, Optimal Control, System Dynamics and Control
Kipke, Daryl R., Ph.D., University of Michigan Computation Neuroscience Machine Vision, Speech Recognition. Robotics Neural Networks
Pizziconi, Vincent B., Ph.D. Arizona State University- Artificial Organs, Biomaterials, Bioseparations
Sweeney, James D., Ph.D., Case-Western Reserve University- Rehab Engineering, Applied Neural Control
Towe, Bruce C., Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University- Bioelectric Phenomena, Biosensors, Biomedical Imaging
Yamaguchi, Gary T., Ph.D., Stanford University Biomechanics, Rehab Engineering, Computer-Aided Surgery



Adams, James, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison Atomistic Simulation of Metallic Surfaces Grain Boundaries Automobile Catalysts *
Polymer-Metal Adhesion
Alford, Terry L., Ph.D., Cornell University Electronic Materials Physical Metallurgy Electronic Thin Films Surface/Thin Film
Carpenter, Ray W., Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley Atomic Structure and Chemistry of Interfaces and Boundaries in Solids; Phase
Transformation Mechanisms in Metals and Ceramics; Electron Microscopy Methods and Instrumentation
Dey, Sandwip K., Ph.D., NYSC of Ceramics, Alfred University Ceramics, Sol-Gel Processing
Jacobson, Dean L., Ph.D., UCLA Thermionic Energy Conversion, High Temperature Materials
Krause, Stephen L., Ph.D., University of Michigan Ordered Polymers, Electronic Materials, Electron X-ray Diffraction, Electron Microscopy
Mayer, James, Ph.D., Purdue University *Thin Film Processing Ion Bean Modification of Materials
Stanley, James T., Ph.D., University of Illinois Phase Transformations, Corrosion


Fall 1996


, Chemical Engineerin


*I "W








-A!-



We want you to be yourself..

SThe Department of Chemical Engineering
at Auburn University knows you have
S unique talents and ideas to contribute to
our research programs. And because you
are an individual, we will value you as an

department one of the top 20 in the nation.
Don't become just another graduate student
at some other institution. Come to Auburn
anid discover your potential.


We wvaaywa

tobe


We hve a research area
tailored to you!
RESEARCH APPLICATION AREAS
* Asphalt Chemistry
* Biotechnology
* Carbon Chemistry E
* Coal Science and Conversion
* Chemical Engineering of Composites
* Environmental Chemical Engineering
* Pulp and Paper Chemical Engineering

FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH AREAS
* Biochemical Engineering
* Catalysis
* Fluid Mechanics
* Interfacial Fundamentals
* Mass and Heat Transport
* Optimization
* Process Modeling and Identification
* Process and Control
* Process Simulation
* Process Synthesis
* Computer Aided Process Design
* Reaction Kinetics and Engineering
* Surface Science
* Thermodynamics
* Transport Phenomena


THE FACULTY
Robert P. Chambers
(Uni\rsity of Caliiomia. 1965'
Harry Cullinan
(Canegie MeUon. 1965)
S Christine W. Curtis
't Flonda State Universir, 1976i
Mahmoud M. EI-Halwagi
(UCLA. 19901
James A. Gain
(Umsersoiy of Texas. 1970)
Ram B. Gupta
University of Texas at Austin, 1993)
A. Krishnagopalan
iUniersiry of Maine. 19761

For information and application write:
Dr R P Chanmhbers


Chemical Engineering
Auburn University, AL


Get your M.S. or Ph.D. degree from one of the fastest growing chemicall engineering
departments in the Southeast. Last year our research expenditures topped $3 million. Ou
research emphasizes experimental and theoretical work in areas of nationalinterest, with state
of-ihe-art research equipment. Generous financial assistance is available to qualified students


Jay H. Lee
tCaliforrua nstiruie of Iechnology. 1991
V. Y. Lee
Ilowa State Limversirv. 19721
Glenn Maples
i.Mishrsippi Stare University. 1966)
Ronald D. Neuman
S[nstitute of Piper Chemistr\. 19731
Timothy D. Place
(Uni\ersitl of Kenruck,. 19781
Chris Roberts
(Nore Dame. 19941
A.R. Tarrer
(Purdue Uni'ersiy. 19731
Bruce J. TatarchuL
(Lirrineriqt ol Wisron~in. 191 i


36849-5127









r
whemical
u t. ENGINEERING^^^


r ^^^^^^^^T^


1


-Sit 4- .
*j "-' ***-" -- -:


'
r












DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL

AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING


FACULTY
R. G. Moore, Head (Alberta)
A. Badakhshan (Binningham, U.K.)
L. A. Behie (Western Ontario)
F. Berruti (Waterloo)
P. R. Bishnoi (Alberta)
A. Chakma (UBC)
R. A. Heidemann (Washington U.)
C. Hyndman (Ecole Polytechnique)
A. A. Jeje (MIT)
N. Kalogerakis (Toronto)
A. K. Mehrotra (Calgar')
B. B. Pruden (McGill)
J. Stanislav (Prague)
W. Y. Svrcek (Alberta)
E. L. Tollefson (Toronto)
M. A. Trebble (Calgary)
L. Zanzotto (Slovak Tech. Univ., Czechoslovakia)


The Department offers graduate programs leading to the M.Sc. and Ph.D. de-
grees in Chemical Engineering (full-time) and the M.Eng. degree in Chemical
Engineering, Petroleum Reservoir Engineering or Engineering for the Environ-
ment (part-time) in the following areas:
Biochemical Engineering & Biotechnology
Biomedical Engineering
Environmental Engineering
Modeling, Simulation & Control
Petroleum Recovery & Reservoir Engineering
Process Development
Reaction Engineering/Kinetics
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena

Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available to all qualified applicants.

For Additional Information Write *
Dr. A. K. Mehrotra Chair, Graduate Studies Committee
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
The University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4


The University is located in the City of Calgary, the Oil capital of Canada, the home of the world famous Calgary Stampede and the
1988 Winter Olympics. The City combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication of a modern urban center. Beautiful
Banff National Park is 110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of Banff Lake Louise,and Kananaskis areas are readily accessible. In
the above photo the University Campus is shown with the Olympic Oval and the student residences in the foreground. The Engineering
complex is on the left of the picture.


THE UNIVERSITY OF

* CALGARY


Fall 1996










The


UNIVERSITY


OF


CALIFORNIA


at


BERKELEY


. offers graduate programs leading to the
Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy.
Both programs involve joint faculty-student
research as well as courses and seminars within
and outside the department. Students have the
opportunity to take part in the many cultural
offerings of the San Francisco Bay Area and
the recreational activities of California's north-
ern coast and mountains.


RESEARCH INTERESTS
Biochemical Engineering
Electrochemical Engineering
Electronic Materials Processing
Energy Utilization
Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics and Catalysis
Polymer Science and Technology
Process Design and Development
Separation Processes
Surface and Colloid Science
Thermodynamics


FACULTY


ALEXIS T. BELL

HARVEY W. BLANCH

ELTON J. CAIRNS

ARUP K. CHAKRABORTY

DOUGLAS S. CLARK

MORTON M. DENN

SIMON L. GOREN (Chairman)

DAVID B. GRAVES


JAY D. KEASLING

C. JUDSON KING

ROYA MABOUDIAN

SUSAN J. MULLER

JOHN S. NEWMAN

JOHN M. PRAUSNITZ

CLAYTON J. RADKE

JEFFREY A. REIMER


ENRIQUE IGLESIA


PLEASE WRITE:
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA 94720-1462

306 Chemical Engineering Education











UC DAVI S Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science
Offering M.S. and Ph.D. degree programs in both Chemical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering

Faculty


Nicholas L. Abbott, Assistant Professor Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1991 Nanostructured
fluids, surfactants, molecular assemblies, liquid crystals
David E. Block, Assistant Professor Ph.D.. University of Minnesota, 1992 Industrial fermentation,
biochemical processes in pharmaceutical industry
Roger B. Boulton, Professor Ph.D., University of Melbourne. 1976 Fermentation and reaction kinetics,
crystallization
Stephanie R. Dungan, Assistant Professor Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1992 Micelle trans-
port, colloid and interfacial science in food processing
Bruce C. Gates, Professor Ph.D., University of Washington, Seattle, 1966 Catalysis, solid superacid
catalysis, zeolite catalysts, bimetallic catalysts, catalysis by metal clusters
Jeffery C. Gibeling, Professor Ph.D., Stanford University, 1979 Deformation and fatigue of metals and
metal matrix composites
Joanna R. Groza, Associate Professor Ph.D., Polytechnic Institute, Bucharest. 1972 Plasma activated
sintering and processing of nanostructured materials
Brian G. Higgins, Professor Ph.D.. University of Minnesota. 1980 Fluid mechanics and interfacial
phenomena, sol gel processing, coating flows
David G. Howitt, Professor Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley. 1976 Radiation effects, film
growth, electron microscopy and image processing
Alan P. Jackman, Professor Ph.D.. University of Minnesota, 1968 Protein production in plant cell
cultures, bioremediation
Marjorie L. Longo, Assistant Professor Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara, 1993 Mechanical
and colloidal aspects of viral infection; micropipette aspiration technique
Benjamin J. McCoy, Professor Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1967 Supercritical extraction, pollutant
transport
Karen A. McDonald, Associate Professor Ph.D., University of Maryland, College Park, 1985 Plant cell
culture bioprocessing algal cell cultures
Amiya K. Mukherjee, Professor D.Phil.. University of Oxford. 1962 Superplasticity of intennetallic
alloys and ceramics, high temperature creep deformation
Zuhair A. Munir, Professor Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley. 1963 Combustion synthesis,
multilayer combustion systems, functionally gradient materials
Ahmet N. Palazoglu, Professor Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1984 Process control andprocess
design of environmentally benign processes
Ronald J. Phillips, Assistant Professor Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1989 Transport
processes in bioseparations, Newtonian and non-Newtonian suspension mechanics
Robert L. Powell, Professor Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1978 Rheology, suspension mechanics,
magnetic resonance imaging of suspensions
Subhash H. Risbud, Professor and Chair Ph.D., University of California. Berkeley, 1976 Semiconductor
quantum dots, high T superconducting ceramics, polymer composites for optics
Dewey D.Y. Ryu, Professor Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1967 Biomolecular process
engineering and recombinant bioprocess technology
James F. Shackelford, Professor Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1971 Structure of materials,
biomaterials, nondestructive testing of engineering materials
J.M. Smith, Professor Emeritus Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1943 Chemical kinetics
and reactor design
Pieter Stroeve, Professor Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1973 Membrane separations,
Langmuir Blti... r r colloid and surface science
Stephen Whitaker, Professor Ph.D., University of Delaware, 1959 Multiphase transport phenomena


SAN /
FRANCISCO
LOS ANGELES


SAN IEGO

LOCATION:
Sacramento: 17 miles
San Francisco: 72 miles
Lake Tahoe: 90 miles

Davis is a small, bike-friendly university town located
17 miles west of Sacramento and 72 miles northeast of
San Francisco, within driving distance of a multitude
of recreational activities in Yosemite, Lake Tahoe,
Monterey, and San Francisco Bay Area.

For information and a preliminary application, look
up our web site at lipr .. ... 1, ,,.1 .., ,,
or contact us via e-mail at
chmsgradasst@ engr. ucdavis. edu

Graduate Admission Chair
Professor Ronald J. Phillips
Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science
University of Calijbrnia, Davis
Davis, CA 95616-5294, USA
Phone (916) 752-2803 Fax (916) 752-1031


Fall 1996


The multifaceted graduate study experience in the De-
partment of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
allows students to choose research projects and thesis advi-
sors from any of our faculty with expertise in chemical
engineering and/or materials science and engineering.
Our department faculty provide excellent access to the
scientists and facilities at nearby National Laboratories (LBL
and LLNL) and industry in the Silicon Valley and San
Francisco Bay Area.


307












UNIVERSITY OF



CALIFORNIA


IRVINE


PROGRAM
Offers degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D.
levels. Research in frontier areas in
chemical engineering, biochemical en-
gineering, biotechnology and materials
science and engineering. Strong physi-
cal and life science and engineering
groups on campus.



LOCATION
The 1,510-acre UC Irvine campus is in
Orange County, five miles from the Pa-
cific Ocean and 40 miles south of Los
Angeles. Irvine is one of the nation's
fastest growing residential, industrial,
and business areas. Nearby beaches,
mountain and desert area recreational
activities, and local cultural activities
make Irvine a pleasant city in which to
live and study.


For further information and
application forms,
contact

Department of Chemical and Biochemical
Engineering and Materials Science
School of Engineering
University of California
Irvine, CA 92717-2575


Graduate Studies in

Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
and
Materials Science and Engineering

for Chemical Engineering, Engineering, and Science Majors


FACULTY

Nancy A. Da Silva (California Institute of Technology)
James C. Earthman (Stanford University)
Steven C. George (University of Washington)
Juan Hong (Purdue University)
Enrique J. Lavernia(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
Henry C. Lim (Northwestern University)
Martha L. Mecartney (Stanford University)
Farghalli A. Mohamed (University of California, Berkeley)
Roger H. Rangel (University of California, Berkeley)
Frank G. Shi (California Institute of Technology)
William A. Sirignano (Princeton University)
Jeffrey B. Wolfenstine (Cornell University)
Thomas K. Wood (North Carolina State University)



RESEARCH AREAS


* Biomedical Engineering
* Bioreactor Engineering
* Bioremediation
* Ceramics
* Combustion
* Composite Materials
* Control and Optimization
* Environmental Engineering
* Fuel Cells and Batteries
* Interfacial Engineering
* Materials Processing
* Mechanical Properties
* Metabolic Engineering


308


* Microelectronics Processing and
Modeling
* Microstructure of Materials
* Nanocrystalline Materials
* Nucleation, Chrystallization and
Glass Transition Process
* Pharmaceutical Processing and
Modeling
* Protein Engineering
* Recombinant Cell Technology
* Separation Processes
* Sol-Gel Processing
* Two-Phase Flow
* Water Pollution Control

Chemical Engineering Education








CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT


U C sfAI


RESEARCH

AREAS

* Molecular Simulations
* Thermodynamics and
Cryogenics
* Process Design, Dynamics, and
Control
* Polymer Processing and Transport
Phenomena
* Kinetics, Combustion, and
Catalysis
* Surface and Interface Engineering
* Electrochemistry and Corrosion
* Biochemical Engineering
* Aerosol Science and
Technology
* Air Pollution Control and Environ-
mental Engineering


FACULTY
Y. Cohen
M. W. Deem
T. H. K. Frederking
S. K. Friedlander
R. F. Hicks
E. L. Knuth
(Prof. Emeritus)
V. Manousiouthakis
H. G. Monbouquette
K. Nobe
L. B. Robinson
(Prof. Emeritus)
S. M. Senkan
W. D. Van Vorst
(Prof Emeritus)
V. L. Vilker
A. R. Wazzan


PROGRAMS


UCLA's Chemical Engineering Department offers a pro-
gram of teaching and research linking fundamental engineer-
ing science and industrial practice. Our Department has strong
graduate research programs in environmental chemical engi-
neering, biotechnology, and materials processing. With the
support of the Parsons Foundation, The National Science
Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Education, we are
pioneering the development of methods for the design of
clean chemical technologies, both in graduate research and


engineering education.
Fellowships are available for outstanding applicants in
both M.S. and Ph.D. degree programs. A fellowship in-
cludes a waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend.
Located five miles from the Pacific Coast, UCLA's
attractive 417-acre campus extends from Bel Air to
Westwood Village. Students have access to the highly
regarded science programs and to a variety of experiences
in theatre, music, art, and sports on campus.


CONTACT


Fall 1996 3H9ll UCLA Los Angeles, CA 90095-1592
(31) 25-06


Fall 1996


309














UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


SANTA BARBARA


L. GARY LEAL Ph.D. (Stanford) (Chairman) Experimental and Computational Fluid Mechanics; Suspension and Polymer
Physics.
ERAY S. AYDIL Ph.D. (University of Houston) Microelectronics and Plasma Processing
SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo) Two-Phase Flow, Chemical & Nuclear Safety, Computational Fluid Dynamics,
Turbulence.
BRADLEY F. CHMELKA Ph.D. (U. C. Berkeley) Guest/Host Interactions in Molecular Sieves, Dispersal of Metals in Oxide
Catalysts, Molecular Structure and Dynamics in Polymeric Solids, Properties of Partially Ordered Materials, Solid-State NMR.
GLENN H. FREDRICKSON Ph.D. (Stanford) Electronic Transport, Glasses, Polymers, Composites, Phase Separation.
JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph.D. (Cambridge) Surface and Interfacial Phenomena, Adhesion, Colloidal Systems, Surface
Forces.
FRED F. LANGE Ph.D. (Penn State) Powder Processing of Composite Ceramics; Liquid Precursors for Ceramics;
Superconducting Oxides.
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.) (Vice Chairman) Mechanics of Materials, Radiation Damage.
DIMITRIOS MAROUDAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Computational Simulation of Structure, Dynamics in Heterogeneous Materials.
ERIC McFARLAND Ph.D. (M.I.T.) M.D. (Harvard) Biomedical Engineering, NMR and Neutron Imaging, Transport
Phenomena in Complex Liquids, Radiation Interactions.
DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph.D. (Purdue) Computer Control, Process Dynamics, Real-Time Computing.
G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D. (M.I.T.) High Performance Structural Materials
PHILIP ALAN PINCUS Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Theory of Surfactant Aggregates, Colloid Systems.
DAVID J. PINE Ph.D. (Cornell) Polymer, Surfactant, and Colloidal Physics; Multiple Light Scattering
ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Transport Phenomena, Separation Processes.
DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. (Princeton) Process Control, Computer Control, Process Identification.
T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D. (Minnesota) Nuclear and Chemical Plant Safety, Multiphase Flow, Thermalhydraulics.
W. HENRY WEINBERG Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Surface Chemistry; Heterogeneous Catalysis; Electronic Materials
JOSEPH A. N. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D. (Minnesota) Surface and Interfacial Phenomen, Structure of Microemulsions.


PROGRAMS
AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT
The Department offers M.S. and
Ph.D. degree programs Finan-
cial aid, including fellowships,
teaching assistantships, and re-
search assistantships, is avail-
able.
THE UNIVERSITY
One of the world's few seashore
campuses, UCSB is located on
the Pacific Coast 100 miles
northwest of Los Angeles. The
student enrollment is over
18,000. The metropolitan Santa .
Barbara area has over 150,000 -'
residents and is famous for its
mild, even climate.
For additional information
and applications, write to
Chair Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of California Santa Barbara, CA 93106


Chemical Engineering Education







Chemical Engineering at the


SCALIFORNIA


INSTITUTE


OF


TECHNOLOGY

"At the Leading Edge"


Frances H. Arnold
John F. Brady
Mark E. Davis
Richard C. Flagan


George R. Gavalas
Konstantinos P. Giapis
Jeffrey A. Hubbell
Julia A. Kornfield


John H. Seinfeld
Nicholas W. Tschoegl
(Emeritus)
Zhen-Gang Wang


Aerosol Science
Applied Mathematics
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Biocatalysis and Bioreactor Engineering
Biomaterials
Bioseparations
Catalysis
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Combustion
Colloid Physics


Fluid Mechanics
Materials Processing
Microelectronics Processing
Microstructured Fluids
Polymer Science
Protein Engineering
Statistical Mechanics of Heterogeneous
Systems
Tissue Engineering


For further information, write
Director of Graduate Studies
Chemical Engineering 210-41 California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125
Also, visit us on the World Wide Web for an on-line brochure: http://www.che.caltech.edu


Fall 1996


HI.






Come Click with an Icon


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lm


Carnegie Mellon

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John L. Anderson
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Lorenz I. Bieglei

Paul A. DiMilla
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Michael M. Domach
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Andreu' J. Gellman
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Ignaclo E. Grossmann
I1:,ll 1I ll 1 I 11lll' l 1l 1l 1
lilliam S. Hammark
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Annelle M. Jacobson
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Myung S. Jhon
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[dmond I. Ko
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Spyros N. Pandis

Gary J. Powers

Dennis C. Prieue
Ir i,,,i, ,lI l ,h r,,, ,., i ..I ,,,, ,.,I.
Paul J. Sides

Jennifer L. Sinclair
% I l l. 1, p I -
Roberl D. lilton
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Herberl L. floor
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Arlhui W. l ieslerbeig
B. Elik Ydstie
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S. ta-or information please write:
s .4 director of Graduate Admissions
Department of Chemical Engineering
S.; ,' Camegie Mellon University
^it PA 15213-3890

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CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY
CWRU


Research Opportunities in:
0 Novel Separations/Processing 4
Chemical/Biological Sensors 4
> Intelligent Control 4
Micro- and Nano-Materials 4
Advanced Energy Conversion 4


For more information, contact:
Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7217
or check our WWW home page at:
http://k2.scl.cwru.edu/cse/eche/


The dark features are the nuclei of bilayer domains formed during the
compression ofa monolayer ofa 4'-alkyl-[1,1 '-biphenyl]-4-carbonitrile
liquid crystal. Photo taken by graduate student Marc de Mul using
Brewster angle microscopy.


Faculty and Specializations


John C. Angus
Diamond and diamond-like films, redox equilibria

Coleman B. Brosilow
Adaptive inferential control, multi-variable control,
coordination algorithms

Robert V. Edwards
Laser anemometry, mathematical modeling, data
acquisition

Donald L. Feke
Colloidal phenomena, ceramic dispersions, fine-particle
processing

Nelson C. Gardner
High-gravity separations, sulfur removal processes

Uziel Landau
Electrochemical engineering, current distributions,
electrodeposition


Chung-Chiun Liu
Electrochemical sensors, electrochemical synthesis,
electrochemistry related to electronic materials

J. Adin Mann, Jr.
Interfacial structure and dynamics, light scattering,
Langmuir-Blodgett films, stochastic processes

Philip W. Morrison, Jr.
Materials synthesis, semiconductor processing, in-situ
diagnostics


Syed Qutubuddin
Surfactant and polymer solutions, metal extraction,
enhanced oil recovery


Robert F. Savinell
Applied electrochemistry, electrochemical systems
simulation and optimization, electrode processes


Fall 1996










Opportunities for Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at the






M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in Chemical Engineering


Faculty

Amy Ciric

Joel Fried

Stevin Gehrke

Rakesh Govind

David Greenberg

Daniel Hershey

Sun-Tak Hwang

Robert Jenkins

Yuen-Koh Kao

Soon-Jai Khang

Y. S. Lin

Neville Pinto

Sotiris Pratsinis

Peter Smirniotis


Financial
Aid
Available

The University of Cincinnati is
committed to a policy of
non-discrimination
in
awarding financial aid.

For Admission Information
Director, Graduate Studies
Department of Chemical Engineering
PO Box 210171
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0171
e-mail: char@alpha.che.uc.edu


The faculty and students in the Department of Chemical Engineering are engaged in a diverse
range of exciting research topics. A limited number of assistantships and tuition scholarships are
available to highly qualified applicants to the MS and PhD degree programs.

D Biotechnology (Bioseparations)
Novel bioseparation techniques, chromatography, affinity separations, biodegradation of
toxic wastes, controlled drug delivery, two-phase flow, suspension rheology.
D Chemical Reaction Engineering and Heterogeneous Catalysis
Modeling and design of chemical reactors, deactivation of catalysts, flow pattern and
mixing in chemical equipment, laser induced effects.
O Coal Research
New technology for coal combustion power plant, desulfurization and denitritication.

D Material Synthesis
Manufacture of advanced ceramics, opticalfibers and pigments by aerosol processes.
D Membrane Separations
Membrane gas separations, membrane reactors, sensors and probes, pervaporation,
dynamic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characteriza-
tion for polymeric and inorganic materials, inorganic membranes.
E Particle Technology
Flocculation of liquid suspensions, granulation of fine powders, grinding of agglomerate
particles.
E Polymers
Thermodynamics, polymer blends and composites, high-temperature polymers,
hydrogels, theology, computational polymer science.
D Process Synthesis
Computer-aided design methodologies, design for waste minimization, design for
dynamic stability, separation system synthesis.


Chemical Engineering Education








Graduate Study in

Chemical Engineering
at


Clarkson


University

M.S., M.ENG., and PH.D.
Programs
Teaching and Research
Assistantships available to
M.S. and Ph.D. students

Research Areas:
> Electrochemical Engineering
1 Chemical Kinetics
1 Chemical Metallurgy
N Nucleation
l Corrosion Engineering
> Crystal Growth
- Space Processing
1 Process Control For information, write to:
- Fluid Mechanics Dr. Anthony G. Collins
D Bubble Dynamics Dean of Engineering
0 Heat Transfer Clarkson University
0 Mass Transfer P.O. Box 5700
1 Laser and Plasma Technology Potsdam, New York 13699-5700
O Polymer Processing and Rheology 315-268-7929
> Biochemical Engineering Fax: 315-268-3841
O Process Design Email: schofeng@agent.clarkson.edu
0 Solid State Reactions World Wide Web: http://www.clarkson.edu
Clarkson University is a nondiscriminatory, affirmative action, equal opportunity educator and employer.


Fall 1996






Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at


Tradition and Excellence Meet


For more than 100 years, engineering at Clemson University has distinguished itself by pursuing excellence
through the combination of traditional education and innovative research programs. The Department of
Chemical Engineering has continued in that vein by building very active research programs aimed at devel-
oping basic scientific understanding of critical engineering materials and technology. Additionally, students
can participate in the department's M.S. Industrial Residency Program, which combines on-campus course
work with practical work assignments in industry. Students can conduct their thesis research under joint
faculty and industrial supervision.
Clemson is a land-grant institution with an enrollment of more than 16,300 students, including 3,700 gradu-
ate students. The 1,400-acre main campus is located in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains, on the
shores of Lake Hartwell, midway between Atlanta, Ga., and Charlotte, N.C.


The Faculty


Research Areas


Charles H. Barron, Jr.
John N. Beard
David A. Bruce
Dan D. Edie
Charles H. Gooding
James M. Haile


Douglas E. Hirt
S. Michael Kilbey II
Stephen S. Melsheimer
Amod A. Ogale
Richard W. Rice
Mark C. Thies


* Engineering Fibers & Films Catalysis
* Polymers & Composites Membrane Separations
* Interfacial Engineering Molecular Dynamics
* Process Modeling/Control Supercritical Fluids

Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.


For More Information, Contact: Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical Engineering, Clemson University,
Box 340909, Clemson, SC 29634-0909, Telephone (864) 656-3055, E-mail address: che@ces.clemson.edu










UNIVERSITY OF


KRISTI S. ANSETH
Assistant Professor
Polymers, Biomaterials

VICTOR H. BAROCAS


Assistant Professor
Biomechanics, Biomedical Engineering, Fluid Mechanics

CHRISTOPHER N. BOWMAN
Associate Professor
Polymers, Membrane Materials

DAVID E. CLOUGH
Professor
Process Control, Water Resources

ROBERT H. DAVIS
Professor and Chair
Fluid Mechanics, Biotechnology, Membranes

JOHN L. FALCONER
James and Catherine Patten Professor
Catalysis, Reaction Engineering

R. IGOR GAMOW
Associate Professor
Biophysics
DHINAKAR S. KOMPALA
Associate Professor
Biotechnology, Bioprocess Engineering

WILLIAM B. KRANTZ
Professor and President's Teaching Scholar,
Transport Phenomena, Membranes

RICHARD D. NOBLE
Professor
Membranes, Separations
W. FRED RAMIREZ
Professor
Process Control, Biotechnology

THEODORE W. RANDOLPH
Associate Professor
Biotechnology, Supercritical Fluids
ROBERT L. SANI
Professor
Transport Phenomena, Applied Mathematics


COLORADO

BOULDER


Graduate students in the Department of
Chemical Engineering may also participate in the
popular interdisciplinary Biotechnology Training Program
at the University
of Colorado and
in the inter-
disciplinary
NSF Industry/
University
Cooperative
Research Center
for Separations
Using Thin
Films.

RESEARCH INTERESTS
Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Biomaterials and Biomechanics
Biomedical Engineering
Bioreactor Design and Optimization
Purification and Formulation
Chemical Environmental Engineering
Global Change
Pollution Remediation
Materials Science and Engineering
Catalysis and Surface Science
Ceramics Synthesis
Colloidal Phenomena
Polymerization Reaction Engineering
Membrane Science
Chemically Specific Separations
Membrane Transport and Separations
Polymeric Membrane Morphology
Modeling and Control
Expert Systems
Mathematical Modeling
Process Control and Identification
Transport Phenomena and Thermodynamics
Fluid Dynamics
Suspensions and Complex Fluids
Supercritical Fluids


PAUL W. TODD
Research Professor
Biotechnology, Bioseparations

ALAN W. WEIMER
Professor
Ceramic Materials, Pollution Remediation


FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE TO
Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Colorado, Boulder Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424
PHONE (303) 492-7471 FAX (303) 492-4341 E-MAIL Chemeng@spot.Colorado.edu
Further information is also available on our URL page on the World Wide Web at
http://spot.colorado.edu/-chemeng/Home.html


Fall 1996









COLORADO


SCHOOL


OF


MINES


R. M. BALDWIN, Professor and Head; Ph.D., Colorado School of Mines. Fuels science and catalysis.
A. L. BUNGE, Professor; Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley. Absorption of chemicals in skin, pharmacokinetic modeling, risk assessment.
J.R. DORGAN, Associate Professor; Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley. Polymer science and engineering.
J. F. ELY, Professor; Ph.D., Indiana University. Molecular thermodynamics and transport properties offluids.
J. H. GARY, Professor Emeritus; Ph.D., University of Florida. Petroleum refinery processing operations, heavy oil processing, thermal cracking, visbreaking and
solvent extraction.
J.O. GOLDEN, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State University. Hazardous waste processing, fluidization engineering, incineration.
M.S. GRABOSKI, Research Professor; Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University. Fuels synthesis and evaluation, engine technology, alternate fuels
A. J. KIDNAY, Professor and Graduate Dean; D.Sc., Colorado School of Mines. Thermodynamic properties of gases and liquids, vapor-liquid equilibria, cryogenic
engineering.
D.W.M. MARR, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Stanford. Interfacial statistical mechanics, complex fluids.
R.L. McCORMICK, Research Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Wyoming. Catalysis in fuel synthesis, air pollution control, fuel cells, low emissions fuels for internal
combustion engines, coal science and processing, ion conducting solid catalysts and electrolytes, reactor design and fluidization.
J.T. McKINNON, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. High temperature gas phase chemical kinetics, combustion, hazardous waste
destruction.
R. L. MILLER, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Colorado School of Mines. Interdisciplinary curriculum development, innovative pedagogies, measures of intellectual
development, psychological theories of learning, multiphase fluid mechanics
M. S. SELIM, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State University. Heat and mass transfer with a moving boundary, sedimentation and diffusion of colloidal suspensions, heat
effects in gas absorption with chemical reaction, entrance region flow and heat transfer, gas hydrate dissociation modeling, sweetening of natural gas using mixed
amines, inkjet printing, synthesis of nano-size magnetic particles for color toner and laserjet printing applications, modeling of hydrocarbon cracking furnaces
and simulation of ethylene plants.
E. D. SLOAN, JR., Weaver Distinguished Professor; Ph.D. Clemson University. Natural gas hydrates, phase equilibria, education methods research.
J. D. WAY, Associate Professor; Ph.D. University of Colorado. Novel separation processes, membrane science and technology, membrane reactors, ceramic and
metal membranes, biopolymer adsorbents for adsorption of heavy metals.
D. T. Wu, Assistant Professor; Ph.D. University of Ccalifomia, Berkeley. Polymers, powders, theory and simulation of complex fluids and materials, phase equilibria,
controlled self-assembly.
V. F. YESAVAGE, Professor; Ph.D., University of Michigan. Vapor liquid equilibrium and enthalpy of polar associating fluids, equations of state for highly non-ideal
systems, process simulation, environmental engineering, gas-liquid reactions.


Chemical Engineering Education


318











(ninrA


'tate University


CSU is located in Fort Collins, a pleasant commu-
nity of 100,000 people with the spirit of the West, the
vitality of a growing metropolitan area, and the
friendliness of a small town. Fort Collins is located
about 65 miles north of Denver and is adjacent to
the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. The climate is
Excellent, with 300 sunny days per year, mild tem-
peratures, and low humidity. Opportunities for hik-
ing, biking, camping, boating, fishing, and skiing
abound in the immediate and nearby areas. The
campus is within easy walking or biking distance of
the town's shopping areas and its Center for the
Performing Arts.

M.S. and Ph.D. programs in FACULTY

chemical engineering Laurence A. Belfiore, Ph.D.
University of Wisconsin
RESEARCH IN... David S. Dandy, Ph.D.
IN Advanced Process Control California Institute of Technology
Eric H. Dunlop, Ph.D.
l' Biochemical Engineering University of Strathclyde
0- Biofuels Deanna S. Durnford, Ph.D.
Catalysis Colorado State University
Chemical Thermodynamics M. Nazmul Karim, Ph.D.
N Chemical Vapor Deposition University ofManchester
> Contaminant Transport Terry G. Lenz, Ph.D.
Iowa State University
No Computational Fluid Dynamics
James C. Linden, Ph.D.
0 Environmental Biotechnology Iowa State University
0 Environmental Engineering Jim C. Loftis, Ph.D.
Do Polymeric Materials Colorado State University
0- Solar Cooling Systems Carol M. McConica, Ph.D.
N Semiconductor Processing Stanford University
0 Thin Films David B. McWhorter, Ph.D.
Colorado State University
Water Quality Monitoring
Vincent G. Murphy, Ph.D.
University of Massachusetts
FINANCIAL AID AVAILABLE
Allen L. Rakow, Sc.D.
Teaching and research assistantships paying a Washington University
monthly stipend plus tuition reimbursement.


For applications and further information, write
Department of Chemical and Bioresource Engineering
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523-1370


Fall 1996


Kennelltil RetaidUOni, 1"Ph.D.
California Institute of Technology
Robert C. Ward, Ph.D.
North Carolina State University









UNIVERSITY OF



CONNECTICUT


Graduate Study in
Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs for Scientists and Engineers
FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS
Luke E.K. Achenie, Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University
Modeling and Optimization, Neural Networks, Process Control
Thomas F Anderson, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Modeling of Separation Processes, Fluid-Phase Equilibria
James P. Bell, Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Structure-Property Relations in Polymers and Composites, Adhesion
Carroll 0. Bennett, Professor Emeritus, Ph.D., Yale University
Catalysis, Chemical Reaction Engineering
Douglas J. Cooper, Ph.D., University of Colorado
Process Modeling, Monitoring and Control
Robert W. Coughlin, Ph.D., Cornell University
Biotechnology, Biochemical and Environmental Engineering, Catalysis,
Kinetics, Separations, Surface Science
Michael B. Cutlip, Ph.D., University of Colorado
Kinetics and Catalysis, Electrochemical Reaction Engineering, NumericalMethods
Anthony T. DiBenedetto, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin
Composite Materials, Mechanical Properties of Polymers
Can Erkey, Ph.D., Texas A&M University
Supercritical Fluids, Environmental Engineering, Multicomponent Diffusion
and Mass Transfer
James M. Fenton, Ph.D., University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Electrochemical and Environmental Engineering, Mass Transfer Processes,
Electronic Materials, Energy Systems
Suzanne (Schadel) Fenton, Ph.D., University of Illinois
Computational Fluid Dynamics, Turbulence, Two-Phase Flow
Robert J. Fisher, Ph.D., University of Delaware
Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Biotechnology
Joseph J. Helble, Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Air Pollution, Nanoscale Materials Synthesis and Characterization, Combustion
G. Michael Howard, Ph.D., University of Connecticut
Process SystemsAnalysis and Modeling, Process Safety, Engineering Education
Herbert E. Klei, Professor Emeritus, Ph.D., University of Connecticut
Biochemical Engineering, Environmental Engineering
Jeffrey T Koberstein, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts
Polymer Blends/Compatibilization, Polymer Morphology, Polymer Surface
and Interfaces
Harold R. Kunz, Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Fuel Cells, Electrochemical Energy Systems
Montgomery T Shaw, Ph.D., Princeton University
Polymer Rheology and Processing, Polymer-solution Thermodynamics
Donald W Sundstrom, Professor Emeritus, Ph.D., University of Michigan
Environmental Engineering, Hazardous Wastes, Biochemical Engineering
Robert A. Weiss, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts
Polymer Structure-Properly Relationships, Ion-Containing and Liquid Crystal
Polymers, Polymer Blends

FOR MORE INFORMATION
Graduate Admissions, 191 Auditorium Road, U-122
University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3222
Tel. (203) 486-4020


Chemical Engineering Education














CORNSLL

U N I V F R S I T Y~


At Cornell University, graduate students in chemical engineering have the flexibility to
design research programs that take full advantage of Cornell's unique interdisciplinary
environment and enable them to pursue individualized plans of study.
Comell graduate programs may draw upon the resources of many excellent depart-
ments and NSF-sponsored research centers such as the Biotechnology Center, the Cornell
National Supercomputing Facility, and the Materials Science Center.
Degrees granted include Master of Engineering, Master of Science, and Doctor of
Philosophy. All Ph.D. students are fully funded with attractive stipends and tuition
waivers.


Distinguished Faculty
A. Brad Anton
Paulette Clancy
Claude Cohen
T. Michael Duncan
James R. Engstrom*
Keith E. Gubbins'
Peter Harriott
Donald L. Koch*
Robert P. Merrill
William L. Olbricht
Athanassios Panagiotopoulos*
Ferdinand Rodriguez
W. Mark Saltzman
Michael L. Shuler',
Paul H. Steen
* recipient, NSF PYI Award
member, National Academy of Engineering
member, American Academy of
Arts & Sciences


Research Areas
* Advanced Materials Processing
* Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
* Fluid Dynamics, Stability, and Rheology
* Molecular Thermodynamics and
Computer Simulation
* Polymer Science and Engineering
* Reaction Engineering: Surface Science,
Kinetics, and Reactor Design

Situated in the scenic Finger Lakes region of
New York State, the Cornell campus is one of
the most beautiful in the country. Students
enjoy sailing, skiing, fishing, hiking, bicycling,
boating, wine-tasting, and many other
activities.
For further information, write:
Graduate Field Representative, School of Chemical Engineering, Cornell University, 120 Olin Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-5201,
e-mail: GFR@CHEME.CORNELL.EDU, or "visit" our World Wide Web server at: http://www.cheme.cornell.edu

Fall 1996 2








Chemical Engineering at


The Faculty


Giovanni Astarita
Mark A. Barteau
Antony N. Beris
Kenneth B. Bischoff
Douglas J. Buttrey
Stuart L. Cooper
Nily R. Dan
Costel D. Denson
Prasad S. Dhurjati
Henry C. Foley
Marylin C. Huff
Eric W. Kaler
Michael T. Klein


Abraham M. Lenhoff
Raul F. Lobo
Roy L. McCullough
Arthur B. Metzner
Jon H. Olson
Michael E. Paulaitis
T.W. Fraser Russell
Stanley I. Sandler
Jerold M. Schultz
Annette D. Shine
Norman J. Wagner
Richard P. Wool
Andrew L. Zydney


The University of Delaware offers M.ChE and Ph.D.
degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course
work in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strong
interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current
fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science and
Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena, Materials
Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction Kinetics,
Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photovoltaic
Processing, Biomedical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering, and Colloid
and Surfactant Science.


For more information and application materials, write:
Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware 19716


The University of
Delaware


Chemical Engineering Education


The Un~~Ivriyo









Un
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iversit

of

lorida


For more information, please write:
Graduate Admissions Coordinator U Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida N P.O. Box 116005 E Gainesville, Florida 32611-6005
Phone (904) 392-0881 E-mail, chemical@eng.ufl.edu Website, http://www.che.ufl.edulche


Fall 1996


y
Modern
Applications
of
Chemical Engineering
Graduate Study
Leading to the MS and PhD

FACULTY*
TIM ANDERSON Semiconductor Processing, Thermodynamics
IOANNIS BITSANIS Molecular Modeling of Interfaces
OSCAR D. CRISALLE Electronic Materials, Process Control
RICHARD B. DICKINSON Biomedical Engineering
ARTHUR L. FRICKE Polymers, Pulp & Paper Characterization
GAR HOFLUND Catalysis, Surface Science
LEW JOHNS *Applied Mathematics, Dispersion
DALE KIRMSE Computer Aided Design, Process Control
RANGA NARAYANAN Transport Phenomena, Low Gravity Fluid Mechanics
MARK E. ORAZEM Electrochemical Engineering, Semiconductor Processing
CHANG-WON PARK Fluid Mechanics, Polymer Processing
RAJ RAJAGOPALAN Colloid Physics, Particle Science
DINESH 0. SHAH Surface Sciences, Biomedical Engineering
SPYROS SVORONOS Process Control, Biochemical Engineering







Lr


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Madrid


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ht-finney
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Stephen J. Gibbs
University of Wisconsin
Eric Klu
S Texas A&M University
Bruce R. Locke
North Carolina State University
Srinivas Palanki
University of Michigan
Michaes H. Peersf
Ohio State Universio"
Samuel i ri
Ohio Stat _
John
U rivers


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B iem


Faculty


Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering
Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy
Join a small, vibrant campus on Florida's Space Coast to reach your
full academic and professional potential. Florida Tech, the only
independent scientific and technological university in the South-
east, has grown to become a university of international standing.

Graduate Student Assistantships/
Tuition Remission available


R.G. Barile, Ph.D.
P.A. Jennings, Ph.D.
P.L. Mangonon, Ph.D.
D.R. Mason, Ph.D.
M.E. Pozo de Fernandez, Ph.D.
M.R. Shaffer, Ph.D.
M.M. Tomadakis, Ph.D.
J.E. Whitlow, Ph.D

Research Partners

* NASA/Kennedy Space
Center
* Florida Solar Energy Center
* Energy Partners
* Florida Institute of
Phosphate Research
* Florida Department
of Energy
* Harris Semiconductor

For more information, contact

Florida Institute
of Technology
Chemical Engineering Program
College of Engineering
Division of Engineering Sciences
150 West University Boulevard
Melbourne, Florida 32901-6988
(407) 768-8000, ext. 8068


Fall 1996











US?||f/j?|
G o, n ^^^^rp^B^ a T ch^^^^^^


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

The Faculty and Their Research


Polymer
science and
engineering


A. S. Abhiraman


Hcre rogeneous
,, it. I% sis,

_h miltry,
reaction
kinetics

Pradeep K. Agrawal


Process
design and
control,
spouted-bed
reactors


I1 ut I aiLnu,,


Microelectron-
ics, polymer
processing

Sue Ann Bidstrup


SMolecular
thermo-
dynamics,
chemical
kinetics,
separations
Charles A. Eckert


Reactor
design,
catalysis


William R. Ernst


Mechanics of
aerosols,
buoyant
plumes and jets

LarryJ. Forney


E Pulp and
paper

Jeffrey S. Hsieh


Photochemical
processing,
chemical
vapor
deposition


Molecular
modeling c
polymeric
materials


Aerocolloidal
systems,
interfacial
phenomena,
fine-particle
technology

MichaelJ. Matteson


Fluid
mechanics,
two phase
flows,
complex fluids


Polymer
engineering,
energy
conservation,
economics


Jeff Morris


Biomechanics,
mammalian
cell structures

Robert M. Nerem


Emulsion
polymeriza
tion, latex
technology


Gary W. Poehlein


y *Biomaterials,
controlled
release
mechanisms

Mark Prausnitz




Biochemical
engineering,
microbial
and animal
cell cultures

Athanassios Sambanis


Membranes,
polymers,
process
economics
I



Electrochemical
engineering,
thermodynam-
ics, air
pollution
control


Optimal
process
design and
scheduling

MatthewJ. Realff


V Polymer
science and
engineering
Robert J. Samuels

Process
synthesis and
simulation,
chemical
separation,
waste manage-
ment, resource
recovery

D. William Tedder



Biofluid
dynamics,
theology,
transport
phenomena

Ajit P. Yoganathan


Mary E. Reza


Membrane
separations,
mass transfer

c


Reactor
engineering,
process
control,
polymeriza-
tion, reactor
dynamics

tork

Thermody-
namic and
transport
properties,
phase
equilibria,
supercritical
gas extraction


Amyn S. Teja


Biochemical
engineering,
mass transfer,
reactor design


Ronnie S. Roberts


L flow
A. H. Peter Skelland


Catalysis,
kinetics,
reactor design


Mark G. White


I Separation
processes,
crystallizatic
Ronald W. Rousseau







Process desi
and simulati

Jude T. Sommerfeld



Biochemical
engineering,
cell-cell
interactions,
biofluid
dynamics

Timothy M. Wick


Peter J. Ludovice


Arnold Stancel


Jack Winnick


Professor Ronald Rous"Cau, director
School ot'Cheinical Engineering
Georgia histillitu of 1'cclinolog
Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100








What do graduate students say about the


University of Houston

Department of Chemical Engineering?


"It's great!"

"Houston is a university on the move. The chemical engineering department is ranked among
the top ten schools, and you can work in the specialty of your choice. The choice of advisor is
yours, too, and you're given enough time to make the right decision. You can see your advisor
almost anytime you want because the student-to-teacher ratio is low."


If you'd like to be part of this team, let us hear from you!

AREAS OF RESEARCH STRENGTH FACULTY


Biochemical & TissueEngineering
Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Electronic and Ceramic Materials
Environmental Remediation
Improved Oil Recovery
Multiphase Flow
Nonlinear Dynamics
Polymer & Macromolecular Systems


Neal Amundson
Vemuri Balakotaiah
Demetre Economou
Ernest Henley
John Killough
Ramanan Krishnamoorti
Dan Luss


Kishore Mohanty
Richard Pollard
William Prengle
Raj Rajagopalan
Jim Richardson
Jay Schieber


Cynthia Stokes
Frank Tiller
Richard Willson
Frank Worley


For an application, write:
Graduate Admissions Coordinator, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204-4792, or call 713/743-4311.
The University is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Institution


Fall 1996









Chemical Engineering at

|* r^ ^ .^ ; :-'-.:i'


II'here modern inr lrlciional and research laboratories.
together with coimlplin facilitiess. iuipport bolh sltiiudetni
aid f1acirty researdcli piriuirs on ain eig'Iiry-nine acre I ain
camipuls iihre mile northli ot'thle heart of Wa shinglon. DC.

-- Faculty and Research Interests

Mobolaji E. Aluko, Professor and Chair
PhD, University of California, Santa Barbara
Reactor modeling crystallization microelectronic and ceramic materials pro-
cessing process control reaction engineering analysis


Joseph N. Cannon, Professor PhD, University of Colorado
Transport phenomena in environmental systems computational fluid mechanics heat transfer

Ramesh C. Chawla, Professor PhD, Wayne State University
Mass transfer and kinetics in environmental systems* bioremediation incineration air and water pollution control

William E. Collins, Assistant Professor PhD, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Polymer deformation, rheology, and surface science biomaterials bioseparations materials science

M. Gopala Rao, Professor PhD, University of Washington, Seattle
Adsorption and ion exchange process energy systems radioactive waste management remediation of contaminated soils and
groundwater
John P. Tharakan, AssociateProfessor PhD University of California, San Diego
Bioprocess engineering protein separations biological hazardous waste treatment bio-environmental engineering


Robert J. Lutz, Visiting Professor PhD, University of Pennsylvania
Biomedical engineering hemodynamics drug delivery pharmacokinetics

Herbert M. Katz, Professor Emeritus PhD, University of Cincinnati
Environmental engineering

For further information and applications, write to


M.S.
Program


Direcor, Gaduat Studes hernial 1gineein eatit
mwtard University-- Wasington, DC20059
L~~~~~~ Ple2286624Fx228643


Chemical Engineering Education











U I The University of Illinois at Chicago

SDepartment of Chemical Engineering


MS and PhD Graduate Program *


FACULTY

John H. Kiefer, Professor and Head
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
E-Mail: Kiefer@UIC.EDU
Kenneth Brezinsky, Professor
Ph.D., City University of New York, 1978
E-Mail: Kenbrez@UIC.EDU
G. Ali Mansoori, Professor
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
E-Mail: Mansoori@UIC.EDU

Sohail Murad, Professor
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
E-Mail: Murad@UIC.EDU
Ludwig C. Nitsche, Associate Professor
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1989
E-Mail: LCN@UIC.EDU
John Regalbuto, Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986
E-Mail: JRR@UIC.EDU
Hector R. Reyes, Assistant Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1991
E-Mail: HReyes@UIC.EDU
Satish C. Saxena, Professor
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
E-Mail: Saxena@UIC.EDU

Stephen Szepe, Associate Professor
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
E-Mail: SSzepe@UIC.EDU
Christos Takoudis, Professor
Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1982
E-Mail: Takoudis@UIC.EDU
Raffi M. Turian, Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
E-Mail: Turian@UIC.EDU


Transport Phenomena: Transport properties of fluids, slurry
transport, multiphase fluid flow and heat transfer, fixed and fluidized bed
combustion, indirect coal liquefaction, porous media.
Thermodynamics: Molecular simulation and statistical mechanics of
liquid mixtures. Superficial fluid extraction/retrograde condensation,
asphaltene characterization.
Kinetics and Reaction Engineering: Gas-solid reaction kinetics,
diffusion and adsorption phenomena. Energy transfer processes, laser
diagnostics, and combustion chemistry. Environmental technology,
surface chemistry, and optimization. Catalyst preparation and
characterization, structure sensitivity, and supported metals. Chemical
kinetics in automotive engine emissions. Enzyme Kinetics
Biochemicalengineering: Bioninstrumentation. Bioseparations.
Biodegradable polymers. Nonaqueous enzymology. Optimization of
mycobacterial fermentations.
Materials: Microelectronic materials and processing, heteroepitaxy in
group IV materials, and in situ surface spectroscopies at interfaces.
Combustion synthesis of ceramics and synthesis in supercritical fluids.


For more information, write to
Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago 810 S. Clinton Chicago, IL 60607-7000 (312) 996-3424 Fax (312) 996-0808
URL: http://www.uic.edu/depts/chme/


Fall 1996










Chemical Engineering at the


University of Illinois

at Urbana-Champaign

The combination of distinguished faculty, outstanding facilities and a
diversity of research interests results in exceptional opportunities for
graduate education.
The chemical engineering department offers graduate programs leading
to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.


Richard C. Alkire
Richard D. Braatz
Vinay K. Gupta

Thomas J. Hanratty
Jonathan J. L. Higdon
Deborah E. Leckband
Richard I. Masel

Anthony J. McHugh
William R. Schowalter
Edmund G. Seebauer
K. Dane Wittrup
Charles F. Zukoski


Electrochemical Engineering
Advanced Process Control
Interfacial Phenomena: Structure and
Dynamics in Thin Films
Fluid Dynamics
Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena
Biomolecular Recognition
Fundamental Studies of Catalytic
Processes and Semiconductor Growth
Polymer Science and Engineering
Mechanics of Complex Fluids
Laser Studies of Semiconductor Growth
Biochemical Engineering
Colloid and Interfacial Science

---V


For information
and
application forms
write:

Department of
Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign
Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab
600 S. Mathews Ave.
Urbana, Illinois 61801-3792


TRADITION




OF




EXCELLENCE


Chemical Engineering Education


330




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