Chemical engineering education

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Chemical engineering education
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CEE
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Chem. eng. educ.
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v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
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Chemical abstracts
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Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
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Full Text










chemical engineering education


VOLUME 29


NUMBER 4


* FALL 1995


GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE


Union Carbide Award Lecture
Modeling Flows in Films, Jets, and Drops .page 210) Stanley Middleman


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Articles on Graduate Education
The Research Proposition (page 222)
Ollis
A Course in Process Dynamics and Control (page 218)
Rhinehart, Natarajan, Anderson
Seminar Series on Academic Careers for ChE Grad Students (page 230)
Ko
Chemical and Environmental Engineering: A Logical Combination page 234)
Ogden, Peterson, Sinclair


Feature Articles
Overview: ChE Education at a Mid-Sized University (page 256)
Dranoff
Random Thoughts: Meel Your Students: Tony and Frank (page 244)
Felder
Classroom: Spreadsheets for Thermodynamics Instruction (page 262)
Savage
Class and Home Problem: Distillation Column Performance (page 240)
Shaeiwitz
Learning in Industry: The Chemical Engineering Practice School at Tulane (page 246)
Walz
Classroom: Create Virtual Unit Operations with Your Data Acquisition Software (page 270)
Davis
Historical Perspective: The 19th Century Legacy to Distillation from Kidd to Young (page 2501
Gentry












Raymond W Fahien (1923-1995)


Raymond W. Fahien, born on Decem- ;;. .,
ber 26th. 1923, in St. Louis. Missouri, ;*-;
died on August 26, 1995, after a long
illness. He was Professor Emeritus in the
Chemical Engineering Department at the
University of Florida where he had taught
and been an integral force in departmen-
tal development and policies since 1964.
Family members that survive him are his
sister, Lorraine Fischer (St. Louis, Mis-
souri), his brother Dr. Leonard Fahien
(Madison, Wisconsin), and several neices
and nephews.
Ray received his BS degree from Wash-
ington University in 1947, his MS from
Missouri School of Mines in 1950. and
his PhD from Purdue University in 1954,
all in chemical engineering.
Ray's notable technical and scholarly
contributions to chemical engineering be-
gan with his PhD thesis on turbulent mass transfer in
packed beds. which he completed under the direction of
professor J.M. Smith at Purdue in 1954. After receiving
his degree and serving as a process design engineer with
Ethyl Corporation in Baton Rouge, Ray joined the faculty
at Iowa State University in 1954. He spent the next ten
years there, teaching graduate and undergraduate courses
and directing research in turbulent transport phenomena.
A signal event during those years was the academic year
1959-60 when Ray was a visiting professor at the Univer-
sity of Wisconsin. He not only spent his time there work-
ing and forging what would become a life-long friendship
with Professor Bob Bird, but he was also "present at the
creation" of the landmark transport phenomena text by
Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot. He continued to develop the
ideas generated from that association after his return to
Iowa State; his resulting graduate course in transport phe-
nomena. one of the first in the U.S. when it was offered in
1960 to twenty PhD students, eventually produced twelve
chemical engineering faculty members.
Following a term as a Fulbright Lecturer at the Univer-
sity of Brazil in 1964. Ray assumed the position of Profes-
sor and Chairman of the Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment at the University of Florida, where he spent the
remainder of his career except for two brief exceptions:
in1957 he was a UNESCO Consultant at the University de
Oriente in Puerto La Cruz, Venezuela, and in 1978-79 he
was a Visiting Professor at the University of Minnesota.


.- While serving as Chairman of
Florida'sChemical Engineering De-
partment, Ray was responsible for
assembling a world-class group of
faculty members and for fostering
the department's growth and devel-
opment into a leading educational
contender, taking it from the dusty
confines of an old converted air-
plane hanger into a four-story, state-
of-the-art edifice on the University
of Florida campus.
While continuing his interests in
turbulent transport phenomena, ap-
plied mathematics, kinetics, and
thermodynamics, Ray also investi-
F gated turbulent diffusion in the at-
mosphere and stochastic models of
turbulence. His students remember
him as a supportive, stimulating, and
intellectually challenging mentor, while his colleagues re-
call his quiet and determined pursuit of excellence.
In addition to his professorial duties, in 1967 Ray also
became Editor of Chemical Engineering Education, an
international pedagogical journal, and as a result of that
affiliation, he began turning his energies and'enthusiasm
more to pedagogical issues in chemical engineering edu-
cation. The culmination of the two overriding professional
interests, transport phenomena and teaching, was the even-
tual publication of his own widely accepted textbook,
Fundamentals of Transport Phenomena, in 1983.
Ray has been recognized by his peers throughout his
professional years by a number of awards and citations, a
few of which are: U of F's College of Engineering "Teacher
of the Year" for 1974: selection as a Fellow of the Ameri-
can Association of Engineering Education. 1985: recipi-
ent of ASEE's Distinguished Service Citation, 1990; se-
lection as a Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engi-
neers. 1991; and recipient of the AIChE's coveted Warren
K. Lewis Award, 1992.
Ray's concern for his fellow man, his generosity and his
understanding, were the hallmarks of his life and they will
live on in the memories of those who knew him. In that
vein. a scholarship fund, the "Ray W. Fahien Teaching
Scholarship." has been established in his memory at the
University of Florida's Chemical Engineering Department.
It is designed to aid graduate students in their pursuit of a
career in teaching chemical engineering.


I _












EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS:
Chemical Engineering Education
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
PHONE and FAX: 904-392-0861
e-mail: cee@che.ufl.edu

EDITOR
Ray W. Fahien
ASSOCIATE EDITOR
T. J. Anderson
CONSULTING EDITOR
Mack Tyner
MANAGING EDITOR
Carole Yocum
PROBLEM EDITORS
James 0. Wilkes and Mark A. Burns
University of Michigan
LEARNING IN INDUSTRY EDITOR
William J. Koros
University of Texas, Austin
-PUBLICATIONS BOARD

CHAIRMAN *
E. Dendy Sloan, Jr.
Colorado School of Mines

PAST CHAIRMEN *
Gary Poehlein
Georgia Institute of Technology
Klaus Timmerhaus
University of Colorado

MEMBERS
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University of Connecticut
Thomas F. Edgar
University of Texas at Austin
Richard M. Felder
North Carolina State University
Bruce A. Finlayson
University of Washington
H. Scott Fogler
University of Michigan
J. David Hellums
Rice University
Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Stanley I Sandler
University of Delaware
Richard C. Seagrave
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Colorado School of Mines
James E. Stice
University of Texas at Austin
Phillip C. Wankat
Purdue University
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McMaster University


Chemical Engineering Education

Volume 29 Number 4 Fall 1995



> AWARD LECTURE
210 Modeling Flows in Films, Jets, and Drops,
Stanley Middleman

> GRADUATE EDUCATION
218 A Course in Process Dynamics and Control: An Experience to
Bridge the Gap Between Theory and Industrial Practice,
R. Russell Rhinehart, Siva Natarajan, J. Joseph Anderson
222 The Research Proposition,
David F. Ollis
230 A Seminar Series on Academic Careers for Chemical Engineer-
ing Graduate Students,
Edmond I. Ko
234 Chemical and Environmental Engineering: A Logical Combina-
tion,
Kimberly L. Ogden, Thomas W. Peterson, Jennifer L. Sinclair

> CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS
240 Distillation Column Performance,
Joseph A. Shaeiwitz

> RANDOM THOUGHTS
244 Meet Your Students: 6. Tony and Frank
Richard M. Felder

> LEARNING IN INDUSTRY
246 The Chemical Engineering Practice School Program at Tulane
University,
John Y. Walz

> FEATURE ARTICLES
250 Historical Perspective The 19th Century Legacy to Distillation
from Kidd to Young,
James W. Gentry
256 Overview ChE Education at a Mid-Sized Private University,
Joshua S. Dranoff
262 Classroom Spreadsheets for Thermodynamics Instruction,
Phillip E. Savage
270 Classroom Create Virtual Unit Operations with Your Data
Acquisition Software,
Richard A. Davis

229, 232,243 Book Reviews


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering
Division, American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2022. Copyright 1995 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American
Societyfor Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and
not necessarily those of the ChE Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibilityfor them. Defective copies replaced
if notified within 120 days of publication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and
availability. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department., University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611.


Fall 1995









Award Lecture


MODELING FLOWS IN


FILMS, JETS, AND DROPS


Stanley Middleman is Professor of Chemical
Engineering at the University of California. San
Diego (UCSD). He earned his B.E.S. in Chemi-
cal Engineering in 1958 and his Dr. Eng. in 1961,
both from The Johns Hopkins University. His
teaching career began in 1960 at the University
of Rochester, and in 1969 he accepted joint ap-
pointments at the University of Massachusetts,
Amherst, as Professor of Chemical Engineering
and Professor of Polymer Science and Engineering. In 1979 he went to
UCSD to create an academic program in chemical engineering.
Middleman's Doctoral research with Jerome Gavis addressed a num-
ber of issues associated with the dynamics of laminar liquid jets and began
his long-term interest in all aspects of this flow, including the role of com-
plex theological behavior. In 1968 his first book, The Flow of High Poly-
mers, was published. While at Rochester, he also became interested in ap-
plications of chemical engineering principles to problems in physiology.
This led to the 1972 publication of Transport Phenomena in the Cardio-
vascular System.
At UMass, much of Middleman's research effort was devoted to prob-
lems in theology and polymer processing. In 1978 his textbook, Funda-
mentals of Polymer Processing, was published. During this period he also
began studying the fluid dynamics of films, drops, and bubbles.
After moving to San Diego, Middleman continued to direct research
in the areas of fluid dynamics and initiated a study of applications of ChE
principles to the semiconductor industries. This led to publication, in 1992,
of Process Engineering Analysis in Semiconductor Device Fabrication,
which he coauthored with A.K. Hochberg.
Although Middleman's research has covered a broad range of topics in
chemical engineering, the central issues in his work relate to applied fluid
dynamics-the application of theory to the development of predictive mod-
els of complex flows. His new textbook (to appear in August, 1995) is
Modeling Axisymmetric Flows: Films, Jets, and Drops. The Award Lec-
ture will illustrate material from that text.
Professor Middleman has twice received the Outstanding Teaching
Award of Warren College, UCSD, and in 1993 was voted Best Engineer-
ing Teacher by the members of Tau Beta Pi, the undergraduate engineering
honor society. Each year he serves as mentor to a number of undergraduate
students who carry on research projects in his laboratories. While he has
taught everything in the undergraduate curriculum during his career, he
returns most frequently and with enthusiasm to the teaching of transport
phenomena. His next textbook (under contract to John Wiley & Sons, and
nearly completed) will be an undergraduate transport phenomena text that
draws its illustrative material from the many fields that define the profes-
sion of chemical engineering. O
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1995


STANLEY MIDDLEMAN
University of California, San Diego
La Jolla, CA 92093-0411

I am very pleased and proud to have been selected as
winner of the Union Carbide Lectureship Award this
year, my 35'" year of teaching. As I reflect on the areas
of research that I have directed during this period, it is clear
that much of my effort and interest has been focused on
problems in the fluid dynamics of thin films, the stability
and shape of liquid jets, and the formation and fate of small
droplets-by and large, problems in which surface tension
plays a strong role.
With that in mind, I thought it would be appropriate to
build my lecture around these topics. I will describe recent
work that reflects these long-term interests. In all cases, our
goal is to develop mathematical models of the physical phe-
nomena of interest, beginning with the simplest possible
viable assumptions. If the simplistic models do not mimic
reality well enough, then one moves ahead with more com-
plex analyses. The approach, however, is always to proceed
from simplicity to complexity, with reality as the arbiter.

DROP WICKING
When a small liquid droplet sits on a porous surface that it
wets, the droplet eventually disappears into the porous me-
dium by a process that we will call wickingg." There are
various areas of technology in which wicking is important.
Ink jet printing is one; the delivery of pesticides to agricul-
tural targets is another.
Wicking is a complex phenomenon that depends upon the
structure of the porous medium through which fluid moves.
By "structure" we mean factors such as porosity, the size
and orientation of the fibers or particles that make up the
consolidated medium, and possibly the surface chemistry of
the structural material itself. One of the simplest models of
wicking into a porous substrate begins with the picture sug-
gested in Figure 1.
Our goal is to find the volume flowrate of liquid across the
surface, and in particular we want to calculate the time
required for the drop to disappear across that surface. We
assume that if the drop is small enough, gravity has no effect
on the wicking process. As a first approximation, we regard
Chemical Engineering Education









Award Lecture


the contact area to be independent of time, to be of radius R,,
and to be open to a bundle of capillaries of radius r.. The
surface is characterized by a fractional open area given by
e=Nc Krd/7R (1)
where Nc is the number of capillaries that open into the
"footprint" of the drop. For each individual capillary, the
velocity of flow is taken from the classical solution for
wicking of a liquid into a long capillary tube."'' It is assumed
here that the liquid completely wets the substrate, and hence
has a zero contact angle. Then the average velocity at any
time t is given by


8vpt (2)
where p is the liquid viscosity, which corresponds to a
volume flowrate Q of
SdV
cRve =Q = (3)
d dt
where V(t) is the volume of the drop, above the porous
surface, at any time after wicking begins. We obtain a differ-
ential equation for V(t) by combining Eqs. (2) and (3). The
solution is easily found in the form

V(t)= V TR E tC (4)

where V, is the initial volume of the drop and a is the
surface tension of the liquid.
The time for the wicking process to be complete follows
upon setting V(t)=0 in Eq. (4). This assumes that all of the
drop is wicked into the porous medium. We find, after some
algebraic rearrangement, that a nondimensional wicking time
may be written in the form

t ( V )2 2(5)
tiL TR L (5rL

where t, is the actual wickingg time." A length scale L
appears in this nondimensionalization, but we do not define
L at this point. We do not need to define it because although


Figure 1. A small drop sits on a porous surface
composed of parallel capillaries.
Fall 1995


S. much of my effort and interest has been
focused on problems in the fluid dynamics of
thin films, the stability and shape of liquid jets,
and the formation and fate of small droplets-by
and large, problems in which surface
tension plays a strong role.

L appears in Eq. (5), it divides out of both sides of the
equation.
According to this model, the wicking time should depend
on the initial drop size, through the terms V, and Rd. The
wick properties enter through the porous medium param-
eters r. and e, neither of which is known a priori. The model
predicts that when the wicking time is nondimensionalized
as

T = (6)

we should find T, to vary as V2 / R for a given porous
medium. Since Vo and Rd are likely to be related to the same
length scale L, we see from Eq. (5) that T, varies as L, when
L is defined as some characteristic length scale such as v /3
Data on the wicking times of drops of varying initial size,
viscosity, and surface tension were obtained to provide a test
of Eq. (6). Since the parameters that characterize the wicking
material are not known, we can only test the proposition to a
limited extent. In what follows, L is defined specifically as
the "equivalent" drop radius, calculated from the drop vol-
ume V, as

L 3 V
L =- (7)

The initial drop footprint radius Rd depends upon the drop
volume Vo or, equivalently, on L. In a separate set of experi-
ments, the relationship was observed to be approximately
linear, and within 10% was given by
Rd = L (8)
If we adopt this approximation, we may write Eq. (5) in the
form

S (1/3 7 /3

Note that the term in parentheses contains all of the un-
known information about the structure of the porous me-
dium, represented as a simple bed of parallel capillaries of a
single uniform radius.
Figure 2 (next page) shows the data we have obtained,
which indicate that the model is in good agreement with the
observations. The data on t, are plotted against V,,, in accor-
dance with Eq. (9). The data shown were obtained using a
single medium (a porous ultra-high molecular weight poly-
ethylene filter available in 1/8-inch thick sheets) as the model









Award Lecture


for the wick or paper. Most of the data are for drops of
silicone oils of various initial volumes. Silicone oils are
available in a range of viscosities, with other physical prop-
erties such as surface tension and contact angle essentially
independent of viscosity. A substantial set of data for an-
other liquid, castor oil, is also shown. For each liquid the
viscosity is fixed, and the only variable is the drop size.
The dependence of the wicking time on surface tension,
viscosity, and drop size is approximately accounted for by
the theory when plotted in this format. When, as in this case,
a single porous medium is studied (so that e and rc are
fixed), then the simple model outlined here predicts that all
of the data for a particular liquid should fall on a single
curve. Considering the range of viscosities (8 to 34 Poise)
and surface tensions (19 to 58 dyne/cm), each of the sets of
data may be regarded as clustering about a single line. The
predicted slope (from Eq. 9) of 1/3 is not observed exactly,
but the observed values are close to that expected from the
simple model presented here. The observation that the data
for the two types of liquids separate into two "lines" sug-
gests the failure of the assumption that the wicking liquid
completely wets the porous material (i.e., that the contact
angle 0d =0). Contact angles were not measured on this
porous material.
We have studied other features of the wicking problem as
well. One of special interest is the final "spot size" that the
droplet produces after it has wicked into the porous sub-
strate. In order to model this, we must make assumptions
regarding the manner in which the liquid moves radially, and
hence the model of parallel capillaries must be abandoned in
favor of a more complex two-dimensional axisymmetric
structure, such as a randomly packed bed of particles with
isotropic character.

THE HYDRAULIC JUMP
The interaction of liquid jets with
rigid surfaces occurs in a number of
areas of technology. Jets are used
to promote heat and mass transfer
to or from surfaces.14'5 Liquid jets
are also used to remove contami-
nants such as microscopic particles
or residual oil films from surfaces.'67 r
In all cases, the general picture that
emerges is that the liquid jet, if it is
to be effective, must exert large
shear stresses on the surface. Fig- r d
ure 3 illustrates some features of
the complex flow field in a liquid
jet impinging on a rigid surface. Of
special note is the presence of a
perimeter across which the radial
outflow suddenly slows down, lead- Figure 3a, 3b.


10o



Castoroil

Sto, I I I T I



iA SiliconeoilA
IA Silicone oil AB
10 0 Silicone oil C
10-4 10-3 102 10-1 10

Vo (cm3)

Figure 2. Data for wicking time as a test of Eq. (9).

ing to an abrupt increase in liquid film thickness. This phe-
nomenon is known as the hydraulic jump, and r, is called the
hydraulic jump radius. Large radial shear stresses exist only
within the hydraulic jump radius, e.g., only in the region r <
rh.
The problem of the impact of a cylindrical liquid jet on a
rigid surface and its subsequent flow across that surface is a
classical problem in fluid dynamics, and the work of Watson'8'
forms the basis for most subsequent studies of this problem.
See, for example, Craik, et al.[9] More recently, numerical
analysis has been used to describe some detailed features of
the neighborhood of the jump.""
We have studied the behavior of a coherent vertical jet that
impinges continuously on a rigid planar surface that is nor-
mal to the axis of the jet. Figure 3a is a schematic that shows
the key features of the dynamics of such a system. Figure 3b
is a high-speed flash photograph of such a jet. The primary
issue here is with respect to the thickness of the liquid film
that flows radially across the planar surface.


A liquid jet impinges on a planar surface (Photo by Mario Errico).


Chemical Engineering Education









Award Lecture


We assume that the planar surface is a smooth disk con-
centric with the axis of the jet, or else a plane of infinite
extent. Of particular interest is the dependence of the jump
radius r, on the flow rate Q and radius of the jet r,, the radius
of the disk rd, and of course on the physical properties of the
liquid. We will see that this is a very complex problem
which in certain respects has largely defied analysis, despite
the existence of a classical theory due to Watson"'8 and recent
work of Higuera."01
The analysis of Watson is based on a boundary layer
approximation to the radial flow field centered at the stagna-
tion point. Implicit in Watson's analysis is the idea that the
jet flow is at a high enough Reynolds number that the stag-
nation region is inviscid, and that viscous effects occur in a
boundary layer near the solid surface as the radial flow is
retarded. The details of the boundary layer analysis are pre-
sented in Watson, and the results for the radius of the hy-
draulic jump are

(rhYh 1 i+rj rrj (rh3 -
Ir hJ J + = 1 0.260 rh | Re- '+0.287J
rj Frj 2 r h rh J


rh "Re 130.272
TiJ


(rh)(h 1 1-1.02 r (r r (
[ rj Fr, 2rhJh j Re 1/
for
Kre _X (lOb)
rh ReJ 113 >0.272 (10b)

Here, a Froude number based on the downstream height h-
and the volume flow rate Q is defined as
Q2
Fr ,. (11)
Fr -= 2rgh-

and the Reynolds number for this flow may be written as
Re =2Q (12)
7trju

Whichever the regime of the two choices in Eqs. (10a) and
(10b) above, the prediction is that the hydraulic jump radius
satisfies a complex functional relationship in the form
rhh grj rj2 = Re l (13/3
2 Q +hg2 92 -F (13)
Q2 2rh lrj h_ J

The data available in the prior literature agree reasonably
well with the predicted behavior. Watson's theory seems to
account for the primary physical phenomena that control the
dynamics of this flow. More detailed studies indicate some
Fall 1995


failures of the model and outline approaches to its improve-
ment."]
A problem that we have been addressing is that Watson's
theory takes h- as a known or fixed parameter, but in reality
it is determined by the flow field and the geometry of the
surface upon which the jet impacts. There is no extant theory
for a priori prediction of h, (or equivalently, the Froude
number) from knowledge of the Reynolds number and the
geometry of the flow. Hence, one of our goals has been a
reexamination of the application of Watson's theory, and an
attempt at understanding the factors that control the down-
stream film thickness, h,.
It should be clear from this discussion that a knowledge of
the film thickness h. is essential to development of a predic-
tive model for the jump radius. Numerical modeling of this
feature of the flow exists,"2' but is essentially untested.
(Bowles and Smith"" predict the film thickness profile in the
neighborhood of the jump, but use the position of the jump,
based on the experiments of Craik, et al.,'9' as input to their
model.) Part of the effort reported here is the development of
a data base from which a correlation of this film thickness
may be obtained.
We note, first, that we anticipate that conditions at the
downstream edge of the surface upon which the jet impacts
could affect the film thickness. For example, in the case of a
cylindrical surface, liquid would leave the planar horizontal
region by flowing down the vertical cylindrical surface,
under the action of gravity. Thus, we might expect a cou-
pling of some kind between the flows approaching and leav-
ing the edge of the cylinder. In the case of a disklike surface
(as suggested in Figure 3a), at high enough flowrates the
liquid would leave the surface as a separated and free-falling
sheet. For low flowrates, and especially with liquids that do
not wet the solid surface, the exiting conditions could be
much more complex and could include time-varying behav-
ior.
Indeed, in the case of the cylindrical surface we typically
observe liquid overflowing as discrete rivulets down the
vertical face of the cylinder, at flowrates such that the liquid
does not move fast enough to leave the surface as a free
sheet. For this nearly static overflow case, we may estimate
the film thickness at the edge from a simple force balance.
With reference to Figure 4 (next page), we equate the hydro-
static pressure at the cylinder edge to the opposing stress due
to surface tension. The mean hydrostatic pressure is simply

Pg = g- (14)
while surface tension acts in the opposite direction with a
pressure, from the Young-Laplace equation, given by

p 2 2a (15)
0 h1 /2 rd h_









A ward Lecture

where we take note of the fact that the cylinder radius is
much greater than the film thickness. Upon equating these
two pressures as a condition of overflow, we find the film --- -
thickness as =

h =2 =2L- (16) s r
pg .3.6 L1.4
which defines a length scale La. This should serve as a 8
reasonable estimate for flows such that the liquid "dribbles" 1
slowly over the edge. Departure from this simple model
should depend on the relative magnitudes or ratio of some !
kind of a dynamic pressure to the pressure due to surface
tension.
A dynamic pressure would be of the order of .1
2 104 10-3 10-2 10-1
Pd =pUd (17) S
where Ud is the average radial film velocity at the edge of the
disk. From conservation of mass we can write this in terms Figure 4. Empirical correlation of downstream film thickness. The inse
of the jet velocity and the downstream film thickness as shows a schematic of the static film at the cylinder edge.
2nrdhUd =rjvUj (18)
10
Thus, we would expect to find that the ratio h_/L, would H
depend on the ratio Pd /PO" This leads, after some algebra, to ll10
30
the expectation that o

h (Frjrj5 ( ) 1
L0 Lo-r I (19) 11 ,: :::::
L, It I o'll [
where we now introduce a Froude number that uses the jet -
radius r, i.e.,
Q2 0.1
Frj =-S (20) 010-' 100 10' 102 10'
j g Fr /H
Data obtained over a wide range of conditions (varying rj, ,__
r,, Q, and o) have been tested against the expectation im- Figure 5. Solutions to Eq. (21a).
plied in Eq. (19), and the resulting correlation is not exactly
as expected. However, a good empirical correlation of the rd/rj
data is obtained in terms of these parameters with different 100 :: I 100
exponents, and the result is shown in Figure 4. As expected,
for small values of S, which is simply a measure of the I 1 L C so50
relative importance of inertia to surface tension forces, the
static result (Eq. 16) is a good approximation. As S increases E- 2 25
the downstream film thickness decreases significantly. At
this stage we have a fairly good predictive (though empiri-
cal) model for h_. 10
At this point we can return to the question of the validity
of Watson's theory. Equations (10a) and (10b) can be rear- --
ranged algebraically to the forms --
RH 1 0.26
RH +1 0.26 for R >0.27 (21a)
Frj, 2RH R +0.287
and 14 15 106 107 108 10
RH +--=1-1.02R3/2 for R<0.27 (21b) G
Frj, 2RH
Figure 6. Comparison of experimental data on radius of the
by defining hydraulic jump to Eq. (24).


et


Chemical Engineering Education


214









Award Lecture


R R-113 (22)

and

H I )Re3 (23)

In what follows, we will work with jets for which the
Reynolds number satisfies the restriction on Eq. (21a).
Figure 5 shows the behavior of the hydraulic jump radius,
as predicted from Watson's analysis, in the form of a plot of
Rvs. Frj /H, with H itself as a parameter. We see that for
sufficiently large values of H, the curves become indepen-
dent of H. This observation suggests a simpler form of
solution to Eq. (21a), explicit in rh, for the dependence of the
jump radius on parameters. When both H and R are large, a
good approximation to Eq. (21a) leads to the result

S= 0.714 G14 (24)

where a new dimensionless group G is defined as


Figure 7. Film profile for a laminar impinging jet on a cylinder.
(Photo by Dan Otto.)


I r rd
Figure 8. Viscous flow over a disk.
Fall 1995


G Rej Frj r (25)
h-

This result is shown in Figure 6, along with data we have
obtained recently. In plotting our data, we have used measured
values of h_, but we could also use Figure 4 in the absence of
such data. It would appear that for cases where the planar
surface is very large in relation to the jet radius, Watson's
theory is quite good over a very wide range in the parameter G.
In all cases, deviations from the theory set in when the radius of
the hydraulic jump gets to be about 60% of the disk radius.

LAMINAR FILM FLOW OVER A DISK
When a high viscosity jet impinges on a disk or cylinder, a
very different picture emerges. Figure 7 shows the film
profile under laminar flow conditions, where Re=0(1). It is
possible to develop a model of the film profile using the
classical lubrication theory as a basis. Figure 8 shows a
schematic of the flow field. If we assume that somewhere
downstream of the stagnation region the flow is nearly paral-
lel to the disk, the axial momentum equation reduces to

0 -pg (26)
az
The solution is found immediately in the form
p =-pgz+pgH(r) (27)
The radial momentum equation takes the form (if we neglect
inertial effects)

0= -P + (28)
or az-
(We have used the Continuity equation and the assumption
that the flow is nearly parallel to the disk in simplifying the
viscous terms.) Global conservation of mass can be written as
H(r)

Q = 2 rurdz (29)
0
When Eqs. (27) and (28) are combined, we find

0=-pg H aU (30)
dr + z2
This may be integrated to find the velocity profile, and when
the boundary conditions

AU =0 at z=H(r) (31)
az


u, =0 at z=0
are used, the result is
pg(dH z2 dH
r = H-z
S dr 2 dr
When Eq. (29) is used, we find
pQ H3 dH
27trpg 3 dr










A ad Le


This is a differential equation for H(r), and the solution is

H4 -H4 en rQ (35)
VPg rd
The problem that we have to deal with now is how we
obtain a value for Hd, the film thickness at the edge of the
disk. A second issue is the behavior of this solution near the
jet axis, where the model predicts that H grows unbounded.
The failure of the model in this region is not unexpected
since we assumed that the flow was nearly parallel to the
disk downstream from the stagnation region. In effect, we
excluded the stagnation region from the model.
We might expect on physical grounds that Hd depends
upon the flowrate Q and the size of the disk. One way to deal
with this is to introduce an ad hoc hypothesis and examine
the degree to which the resulting model mimics observation.
As an example, we will assume that there is no viscous
dissipation of energy when the liquid "turns the corner" at
the edge r=rd of the disk. If this is true, then we have a
laminar film flowing down a vertical cylinder, with no change
in speed and film thickness, since the energy flux is con-
served. We will assume now that the disk of Figure 8 is
actually a cylinder with a vertical (axial) length sufficient
that the film on the vertical face is in fully developed flow.
We know that for a laminar falling film along a vertical
surface the film thickness H, and the flowrate are related
by"13
S 3jQ H3
H -= Q if H << 1 (36)
2 rpgrd rd
(This is just the solution for the planar falling film.) With the
assumption that the two film thicknesses H, and Hd are the
same, we find


H4_ 3_Q 4/3 6pgn
S2 ipgrd 1 pg rd


H(r) 43 J r
rd rd


where


Equation (38)
parameter A.


A 3 IQ (39)
2 tpgrd

is plotted in Figure 9 for three values of the


Regardless of our reservations in deriving this result, this
is a testable model. In Figure 10 we show a comparison of
film profile data to the theory, for one value of the parameter
A. For the case shown, the measured film thickness profile is
in good agreement with the predicted shape from Eq. (38).
According to Eq. (38), we should find
Hd = A/3 (40)
rd


Data obtained over a range of A values, and for jet Reynolds
numbers from approximately 1 to 6, show that the film
thickness at the edge of the disk agrees reasonably well with
the prediction of Eq. (40), as demonstrated in Figure 11.
Of course, the model still fails to address the issue of the
behavior of H(r) as r approaches the jet axis. We should
expect that a model for that region will require some as-
sumptions about how the liquid is introduced along the axis.
In the case of interest to us, where the liquid is supplied as a
jet from a capillary, we would have to solve the problem of a
free surface viscous stagnation flow. Certainly a numerical
solution would be required.
Figure 12 shows an example of the free surface shape
observed at a low flowrate. In the viscous-dominated re-
gime, the surface shape is very sensitive to the flowrate as
well as to the stand-off distance of the exit of the capillary
from the disk. The "bell-shaped" surface is characteristic of
very low flowrates and small stand-off distances. It appears
that under this combination of conditions, "information"
about the flow in the stagnation region can be propagated
upstream to the jet, and under some conditions all the way to
the capillary exit. At higher flowrates, the surface profile is
smoother and well-described by the analysis of this section.
Our limited experimental studies indicate that a "dimpled"
surface exists when the flowrate exceeds some critical value.

0.3 1


0.2
A= 10- 4

0. A= 1.26 x 10-


A= 10 -
0.0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
r/r
d
Figure 9. Film thickness across a disk; laminar flow.

0.5
0.4- 0 A= 5.09 x 10
'- 0-3
0 measured profile
0.2-
0 theory
0.1
0.o

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
r/rd

Figure 10. Experimental test of Eq. (38). Re, =1.52;
rd = 1.27 cm; r, = 0.05 cm. Liquid is shampoo, with
1 = 1.48 Pa-s; o = 0.038 N/m.

Chemical Engineering Education


Award


Lecture










Award


An attempt at correlating data for the critical dimple flow-
rate is currently in progress. Additional work, both computa-
tional as well as experimental, will be required before this
complex flow field is better understood. In particular, one
would like to be able to predict the conditions that corre-
spond to transitions from one surface profile to another.

SUMMARY
I want to end with two commentaries on the studies that I
have reviewed here. Both derive from my sense of the role
that research can, and should, play in the education of under-
graduate students. The first is that we need to present to our
undergraduates, at every opportunity, examples of the appli-
cation of simple physical principles to the development of
mathematical models of interesting physical phenomena.
The models should be simple enough, physically and math-
ematically, that the students can follow the development
toward the final result, which is a testable relationship. The
students need to be exposed to the idea that simple physical
arguments lead naturally to the development of a model in
nondimensional terms, and that the resulting nondimensional


10 0 I I I H l | 1 1

O 1.25 cm
O 2.54 cm
10- A 5.08 cm



10. rJ .




100r
10 10-6 10" 10 10 102 10 t
A
Figure 11. Experimental test ofII = H,.


- -T. -


Figure 12. Free surface shape observed at a lowflowrate,
for a viscous jet impinging on a planar disk. (Photo by Dan Otto.)
Fall 1995


Lecture


format has within it the directions for carrying out an appro-
priate experimental testing program. The second comment is
made with a sense of pride: all of the data presented in this
lecture were obtained by undergraduate students working in
my laboratories during the past few years. In particular, I
want to acknowledge the efforts of Shelley Chien and Jainie
Mandrusov (drop wicking), Tom Lesniewski, Saul Ovalle,
and Juan Alfredo Zepeda (hydraulic jump), and Humphrey
Chow and Raul Mancera laminarr film flows). Similarly
successful studies, for which there is no room to review here,
include the published works of Yeckel, et al.," and Yu and
Middleman."5
Finally, while it seems hardly necessary, it is appropriate to
point out that there is a wealth of fluid dynamics problems of
such complexity that simple modeling exercises will fail.
One holds out hope that in the next decade, the considerable
progress that has been realized in the field of computational
fluid dynamics will enable one to simulate such flows. Sev-
eral examples of such challenging problems, and successful
solutions to some of them, can be found in Middleman."6'

REFERENCES
1. Joos, P., P. van Remoortere, and M. Bracke, "The Kinetics of Wet-
ting in a Capillary," J. Coll. Int. Sci., 136, 189 (1990)
2. Batten, G.L., Jr., "Liquid Imbibition in Capillaries and Packed Beds,"
J. Coll. Int. Sci., 102, 513 (1984)
3. Good, R.J., and N.-J. Lin, "Rate of Penetration of a Fluid into a
Porous Body," J. Coll. Int. Sci., 54, 52 (1976)
4. Chin, D-T., and C-H. Tsang, "Mass Transfer to an Impinging Jet
Electrode," J. Electrochem. Soc., 125, 1461 (1978)
5. Lienhard V, J.H., X. Liu, and L.A. Gabour, "Splattering and Heat
Transfer During Impingement of a Turbulent Liquid Jet," ASME J.
Heat Transfer, 114, 362 (1992)
6. Middleman, S., and A.K. Hochberg, Process Engineering Analysis in
Semiconductor Device Fabrication, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY
(1993)
7. Yeckel, A., and S. Middleman, "Removal of a Viscous Film from a
Rigid Plane Surface by an Impinging Liquid Jet," Chem. Eng.
Commun., 50, 165 (1987)
8. Watson, E.J., "The Radial Spread of a Liquid Jet Over a Horizontal
Plane," J. Fluid Mech., 20, 481 (1964)
9. Craik, A.D.D., R.C. Latham, M.J. Fawkes, and P.W.F. Gribbon, "The
Circular Hydraulic Jump," J. Fluid Mech., 112,347 (1981)
10. Higuera, F.J., "The Hydraulic Jump in a Viscous Laminar Flow," J.
Fluid Mech., 274, 69 (1994)
11. Bowles, R.I., and F.T. Smith, "The Standing Hydraulic Jump: Theory,
Computations and Comparisons with Experiments," J. Fluid Mech.,
242, 145 (1992)
12. Rahman, M.M., W.L. Hankey, and A. Faghri, "Analysis of the Fluid
Flow and Heat Transfer in a Thin Liquid Film in the Presence and
Absence of Gravity," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 34, 103 (1991)
13. Bird, R.B., W.E. Stewart, and E.N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena,
Wiley, New York, NY (1960)
14. Yeckel, A., L. Strong, and S. Middleman, "Removal of a Thin Viscous
Film from the Stagnation Region of an Axisymmetric Jet Impinging
on a Planar Surface," AIChE J., 40, 1611 (1994)
15. Yu, M-C., and S. Middleman, "Air Entrapment During Liquid Infil-
tration of Porous Media," Chem. Eng. Comm., 123, 61 (1993)
16. Middleman, S., Modeling Axisymmetric Flows: Dynamics of Films,
Jets and Drops, Academic Press, San Diego, CA (1995)
7I









Graduate Education



A Course In...



PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL

An Experience to Bridge the Gap

Between Theory and Industrial Practice


R. RUSSELL RHINEHART, SIVA NATARAJAN, J. JOSEPH ANDERSON
Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX 79409-3121


0 I'm the professor.
- And we're the students... together we'd like to tell you about a
graduate course in process dynamics and control that emphasizes
the application offundamentals to industrial practice.

here is only so much experience that can be crammed

into a three-credit course...
It was worth five credits!
... and every professor must choose the subject matter that
best balances what he or she can provide with what the
students need. Most of our MS and PhD students enter
industrial practice where 90% of the loops use conventional
control techniques, where the KISS principle guides engi-
neering, and where employers value those who can "make-
it-happen" within the commercial environment. Industry

R. Russell Rhinehart is a professor in the De-
partment of Chemical Engineering at Texas Tech
University. After receiving his BS in Chemical
Engineering and his MS in Nuclear Engineering
from the University of Maryland, he worked for
thirteen years in industry before obtaining his PhD
in Chemical Engineering from North Carolina State
University.


Siva Natarajan received his B-Tech in Chemical
Engineering from the Institute of Technology,
Banaras Hindu University, India, in 1990, after
which he worked for a year with Reliance Indus-
tries in India. He received his MS in Chemical
Engineering from Texas Tech University in 1993
I and is currently working toward his PhD there.


J. Joseph Anderson received his BS and MS
degrees in Chemical Engineering from Oklahoma
State University and is presently working toward
his PhD at Texas Tech University. His current
research focuses on distillation control systems,
and he has a strong interest in computer applica-
tions in chemical engineering. j


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1995


needs people who can practice the theory, and this course
attempts to do just that.
Students implement, tune, and explore the issues associated
with control in MIMO systems on a realistically noisy, non-
stationary, nonlinear simulator of a chemical process.
Realistically noisy? The feed flow and composition ranged 50%
of their nominal values over a several hour period. Setting up PI
controls for such a wide control span was difficult, to say the least.
With this experience, the concepts and issues that justify the
subject matter of subsequent control courses and laboratories
are unambiguously a part of the student's experience. They
understand the fundamentals, analyze the relevant issues, make
the right design choices, and implement the design.
My first goal for graduate education was to gain the knowledge
that would make me successful as a process control engineer. Ana-
lyzing something for an ideal situation doesn't help industry. Practi-
cality and applicability is what I sought.

A NONSTANDARD CLASSROOM APPROACH
Leam by doing is the approach used. There are no tests or
home assignments-only eight projects.
Having no homework or tests was a refreshing idea at the begin-
ning of the semester, but those "only eight" projects took quite a bit
of time.
The projects progress from understanding the process simu-
lator, to analyzing the dynamic responses, to adding primitive
controls, to finally implementing an integrated control system
and to reconsidering the process design.
Projects were much like laboratory exercises. We got a maximum
grade of B if the control technique was implemented, demonstrated
by simulation, and explained in the report. To obtain an A, we were
expected to explore the relative merits of alternative techniques and
to use simulation experiments to confirm their theoretical analyses.
Since the major objective of the course is to make people
functional as control engineers, I want every student to get at
least a B. To make this happen, discussions with the professor,
Chemical Engineering Education









Graduate Education)

Industry needs people who can practice the theory, and this course attempts to do just that... The
projects progress from understanding the process simulator, to analyzing the dynamic responses, to adding
primitive controls, to finally implementing an integrated control system and to reconsidering the process design.


the teaching assistant, and with each other are encouraged
to help students debug their routines and to overcome
conceptual errors. And, except for late submissions, any
project with a grade of C or less can be resubmitted for
a maximum grade of B.

PROCESS DESCRIPTION
The process is a two-component adiabatic flash (see Fig-
ure 1). The objective is to control liquid composition; neces-
sarily, liquid level must also be controlled. The simulator
proceeds in five stages. Stage I is the adiabatic flash at the
inlet valve and is dependent on the tank pressure as well as
the inlet composition and temperature. Flashed vapor enters
the tank vapor space, Stage II, where ideal, well-mixed
dynamic energy and material balances determine the tank
vapor space pressure, composition, and temperature.
Unflashed liquid similarly mixes with the tank liquid in
Stage III. Evaporation and condensation at the tank liquid-
vapor interface and heat transfer between the tank walls and
liquid contents are included. The vapor exit rate, Stage IV,
depends on the valve characteristic, stem position, and the
downstream pressure. The vapor exit rate influences tank
pressure, which in turn influences the results in Stage I. The
liquid exit rate, Stage V, similarly depends on the valve
characteristic, stem position, and the hydrostatic head.
Both the vapor and liquid valves include the dynamic
responses to their pneumatic systems. The vapor valve is air-
to-close and the liquid valve is air-to-open. The liquid com-
position analyzer suffers from a considerable lag. Environ-
mental influences are simulated by ARMA drifts on the inlet
flow rate, feed temperature, feed composition, downstream
vapor pressure, and downstream liquid pressure. Further,
Gaussian distributed noise is added to all measurements.
Section IV- J


I -1 g


Figure 1. Schematic of the flash tank.
Fall 1995


The components and the process conditions used are fictitious,
but are an adequate representation of a real process.
The experience I got from simulating valve lags, noise, and drifts
really made this work fin. It was a learning experience that I shall
apply to my distillation column research.
The process automatically shuts down and plays the "Death
March" from Chopin's Saul if any of the three constraints are
hit: high tank pressure, low liquid level, or high liquid level.
The high tank pressure constraint is necessary for safe opera-
tion of the flash tank, the low liquid level constraint is neces-
sary to prevent the gas from getting into the liquid product, and
the high liquid level constraint is necessary to prevent the
liquid from covering the flashing inlet.
The simulator was programmed in Microsoft Quick BASIC
for several reasons. It provides a convenient mechanism for
operator-initiated keyboard entries to toggle between control-
ler modes CAS/AUTO/MAN, to adjust tuning coefficients,
and to switch environmental influences ON/OFF. The key-
board feature also allows one to make setpoint changes in the
controlled variables and step/ramp disturbances in the feed
flow rate, feed temperature, and feed composition. The simula-
tor also provides a real-time strip chart and displays the pro-
cess status on the screen. The simulator source code, EXE file,
and detailed description are available by sending a blank 3.5"
diskette to the corresponding author of this article (RRR).
While others abandoned ship and programmed in FORTRAN,
the Quick BASIC source code made interaction with this simula-
tion fun, except when the level jumped to 0.8 meters and shut the
system down and everyone else heard my computer laugh the "Death
March" at me.
The best part of the program was the graphical interface. We could
watch the system as it worked. Interactive monitoring of the level,
pressure, and composition helped us understand the Laplace trans-
form descriptions of those behaviors.

STUDENT PROJECTS
The report on each project must demonstrate the student's
understanding of the technique and the results of the imple-
mentation.
For project I, we added various so-called "small" features to the
deterministic simulator (to force familiarity with it) and modeled
several dynamic responses with customary empirical fits to the ap-
propriate, simple transfer functions. Nonlinear behavior and shut-
down imposed limits on operator freedom became obvious to us.
For project II, we added noise, disturbances, signal conversion and
transmission features, control device dynamics, and modification of
the process model. The confounding effects of non-stationary process


-eL-eSection II


5 -Section III
SSc


T


Section I


-Section V

t i









Graduate Education)


behavior and difficulty of manual control were experienced-much
to our chagrin but to the professor's amusement.
Imagine-they even pay me to participate in such fun!
Imagine-we even paid to participate in "such fun."
In project III, a primitive PID control scheme from LT to LRC to
FCV02 and from AT to ARC to FCVO1 was implemented, with
bumpless transfer features for changes from MAN to AUTO or back.
The controllers were tuned and found to work satisfactorily most of
the time, but we found that sometimes disturbances caused integral
windup and consequential loss of control, triggering automatic shut-
downs. We added goodness of control measures such as ISE and
cumulative valve travel to evaluate the control system responses.
Project IV required the use of internal reset feedback to prevent
windup. We demonstrated that this modification works as desired
with "bad drifts."
Cascading LT to LRC to FRC to FCV02 and AT to ARC to PRC to
FCVO1 was the objective of project V. Here, external reset feedback
was used to prevent windup and output tracking was added for
bumpless transfer. ISE was used to quantify the benefits of cascade
control.
In project VI, ratio and feedforward additions were implemented,


requiring minor changes to the reset feedback signals. We actually
found feedforward control to be of very little benefit for our case
with cascade and ratio functioning, and so removed it. But we kept
the cascade and the ratio features in place.
In project VII, a one-way decoupler was added to alleviate the
interaction between the composition and the level loops, and this
was also found to be inconsequential. But the override of the
composition controller by a high-pressure limit prevented occa-
sional shutdowns caused by the high-tank-pressure constraint.
Finally, project VIII required the addition of a supervisory
optimizer to determine the composition setpoint that maximized the
net product value.
In each of the projects IV through VII, the students also
had to submit an annotated P&ID. Figure 2 typifies one
author's (JJA) work. Enjoy. I required the students to put
cartoon balloons on the P&IDs so they would be able to
characterize the function of the elements and the signal
"conversations."
In order to obtain an "A" grade, the students had to experi-
ence additional control technology. Typical criteria are listed
in Table 1.


Figure 2. Annotated P&ID (typical)
Chemical Engineering Education


o)A Om tiFin SP

OM-r. -suu,` ^
i set pressure
at 203.4 kPa,










Graduate


ILLUSTRATION


As an illustration of the results, Figure 3 is the screen print of the
display for project VII (cascade+ratio+override shown in Figure
2). The "wrap-around" strip chart shows the past ten hours of
simulated process and controller response. At about 210 minutes,
events caused the analyzer controller to ask for a high-pressure
setpoint, and the pressure override took effect. At around 450
minutes, events changed-the override was no longer necessary
and control was immediately resumed with no windup.

EVALUATION OF THE CLASS
AND TEACHING METHODS

Because the course content is progressively structured, and
because projects make us fully experience the techniques, we feel
that we are capable of applying advanced control in the real
world. Further, the course covered a wide gamut of topics in
process control practice. The projects are thought provoking,


TABLE 1
Typical Additional Criteria to Obtain an "A" Grade

Explore the influence of ARMA coefficients
Compare methods to obtain model coefficients
Test if the filtered signal noise reduction matched analytical
expectations.
Develop a procedure to fit SOPDT models
Compare standard running recipes to heuristic methods
Investigate the benefits of statistically-based filters.
Compare theoretical and actual propagation of variance through the
P, I, and D terms.
Compare theoretical and actual limits of controlled-system stability.
N Compare different anti-windup methods.
Investigate controller modifications (gain scheduling, ele, P-on-X).
Implement tertiary cascade control strategies.
Investigate the effect of process equipment sizing on goodness of
control.
Add high- and low-level override controllers.
Compare linear valves with equal-percentage valves.
Calculate RGA elements for a variety ofMV/CV choices.
Implement a method for automatic identification of steady state.


I's (freation of fll scale) UEEIS TIE (fration of window z 600.0 minutes)
1.60

o.ao ------ '-,----'--'---'-- --- ---


0.00
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 O.SO 0.60 0.70 0.00 0.90 1.00
TIE = 600.00 min
Prss ~.= 201.0 kPa
FE I = Z.51 el/.in Pres SP = 201.6 Pa Prs HI SP = 300.0
FED m = 43B.3 I DEE i s = O 1 = 5.9
---------- ---S lIl -------- X-- --- >
1-1 = 0.17 I 1_ I "A3 as = 0.901 ..I f.=.
I- SP= 0.2D0 = ILDE i I W SP = 0.900 I frac.
I-LIQ-I nMME = (lU
LIU nI = 1.53 l/.in I >X--
LIQ SP 1.43 Iml/min 1DE = CI S 66.2.

Figure 3. Interactive screen display of the system.
Fall 1995


Education


and more often than not entail coming up with independent and
clever solutions.

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER IMPROVEMENT

Additions can easily be made to the relatively simple
process simulator. The liquid and vapor heat capacities can
be made temperature dependent and the feed could be multi-
component. Incorporating an in-tank or feed heating/cooling
device can facilitate more flexibility in controlling liquid
composition. The process behavior can easily be changed by
changing the feed constituents, inlet flow range, tank size,
and valve characteristics. But too much rigor may mask the
control aspects for non-ChEs who may take the course.

Having less disturbing disturbances, especially in the feed rate,
would be the biggest improvement. The "relatively simple" flash
tank definitely represents a nonlinear problem. It appears simple
from the outside, but is deceptively difficult to control.

CONCLUSIONS

From the perspectives of the professor, the teaching assis-
tant, and the students, it is collectively felt that this approach
is an excellent method for training people to implement
advanced control strategies and to be prepared for subse-
quent courses in control theory and model-based controllers.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors appreciate the technical guidance from the
industrial members of the Texas Tech Process Control and
Optimization Consortium.

NOMENCLATURE


ARC
ARMA
AT
AUTO
CAS
CV
FCV01
FCV02
FRC
ISE
KISS
LRC
LT
MAN
MIMO
MV
P&ID
P-on-X
PID
PRC
RGA
SOPDT


Analysis Recording Controller
Autoregressive Moving Average
Analyzer Transmitter
Automatic
Cascade
Controlled Variable
Flow Control Valve #1
Flow Control Valve #2
Flow Recording Controller
Integral of Squared Error
Keep It Simple, Stupid
Level Recording Controller
Level Transmitter
Manual
Multiple-Input Multiple-Output
Manipulated Variable
Piping and Instrument Diagram
Proportional-on-Measurement
Proportional Integral and Derivative
Pressure Recording Controller
Relative Gain Array
Second Order Plus Dead Time 0









Graduate Education


THE RESEARCH PROPOSITION



DAVID F. OLLIS
North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695-7905


If the defining difference between undergraduate and
graduate study is the presence and preeminence of re-
search, why doesn't every department offer a graduate
course to define research and to teach the mechanics of
writing proposals (hypotheses) and papers (results)? This
paper relates the experience of a department that did pre-
cisely that.
At North Carolina State University, we jettisoned the PhD
written qualifier exam four years ago because the faculty
finally discerned what every graduate student already knew:
the written qualifier, typically composed by the same faculty
who offer the required graduate courses, resulted in a test
that looked, smelled, and tasted like a graduate course final
exam. The faculty further discovered a logically associated
result: qualifier performance is largely predictable from first-
year course grades.
Our new-found faculty wisdom is: "The mastery of first-
year graduate coursework is but one positive indicator of a
student's potential to perform well in the PhD program.
Equally important is the ability to apply classroom knowl-
edge to recognize, define, plan, and undertake a research
program. The synthesis skills required to do so are typically
not exercised in classwork, but are indispensable tools for
the conception and execution of independent research."'"

THE RESEARCH PROPOSITION COURSE
In place of the written qualifier, a formal course on the
presentation and oral defense of a written proposal was
required of all first-year students seeking the PhD. This
"Research Proposition" course is outlined in Table 1.


we jettisoned the PhD written qualifier
exam four years ago because the faculty finally
discerned what every graduate student already
knew: the written qualifier, typically composed
by the same faculty who offer the required
graduate courses, resulted in a test that
looked, smelled, and tasted like a
graduate course final exam.

What is a research proposition? It is both a partisan argu-
ment and an evenhanded, scholarly inquiry! This require-
ment to combine apparently opposing stances of bias and
disinterest is evident in the individual words "research" and
"proposition":[21
Research: "Careful, patient, systematic, diligent inquiry
or examination in some field of knowledge, undertaken
to establish facts or principles. "
Proposition: "In rhetoric, a subject to be discussed or a
statement to be upheld."
The synthesis of the "Research Proposition" is accom-
plished through meeting a closely scheduled set of reading
and writing tasks (see Table 1), with each including feed-
back from the instructor through either individual discussion
or written comments.

GETTING STARTED:
SOURCES FOR PROPOSITION IDEAS
"To get a good idea, get a lot of ideas!" advised Linus
Pauling. Following Linus' lead, we allowed that "Ideas for
the Proposition might originate from a number of sources-
for example, seminars, industrial experience, coursework,
literature articles, previous PhD theses, or discussions with
technical experts." (I dumped this last possibility immedi-
ately to preserve the student's independence of effort.) "A
Proposition might be:
1. A new experimental or theoretical approach to investi-
gate or solve a scientific or engineering problem.
2. A possible solution to a technological need or problem.


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1995


Chemical Engineering Education


David Ollis is Distinguished Professor of Chemi-
cal Engineering at North Carolina State Univer-
sity. He has advised PhD and MS graduate
students, coauthored their papers, and edited
their prose for more than twenty-five years. This
course is dedicated to their research writing and
to their advisors' eyes and endurance.










Graduate


3. A significant process improvement
Whatever the topic, the proposition should demonstrate
the student's ability to define a research problem and design
a program to determine a potential solution using the funda-
mental principles of our discipline.""'
How to get started on the research proposition? "Read in
an area of research that interests you."'' These initial read-
ings should include review articles or chapters-they define
the technical vocabulary, indicate the knowledge structure


TABLE 1
The One-Semester "Research Proposition" Course

1. Scope of Chemical Engineering (Amundsen report, 1 lecture)
2. Read and Discuss: Writing a Thesis-Substance and Style
"How to Write a Thesis" chapter and literature searching at
NCSU (hour)
"Research Introduction" and "Method" sections (1 hr)
"Methods and Results, and Writing with Style (1 hr)
(Discussion periods)
3. After three weeks...
Initial Literature Search is due
List of articles read is discussed with Instructor (has adequate
literature been identified? understood?, etc.)
4. After four weeks...
Proposition Outline is due, including a one-paragraph problem
statement and a list of probable headings and subheadings
indicating where individual references will be cited.
Individual discussions with Instructor.
5. After seven weeks ...
Proposition typed Rough Draft is due. The Instructor and a
second reader knowledgable in the proposition field review the
draft, identify weaknesses, and suggest (through written
extended questions and comments) locations for further
development. Citations of any additional specific references to
be consulted are NOT provided.
6. Eighth week...
Revision. Two lectures, with examples, from Revising Business
Prose, by Lanham.
Rough Draft with written comments returned at week's end.
7. Tenth week...
Final Draft is due; reviewed by Instructor only, for format and
grammar errors; then returned to student.
8. Eleventh week...
Final Proposition is due; distributed along with Evaluation
Form to committee of four (Instructor plus three other faculty-
student'_ PhD advisor may not serve)
9. Twelfth week...
Prepare Transparencies; review them with Instructor.
10. Thineenth week .
Practice Presentations (20 minutes each) in class. with
questions (5-10 minutes) from other students and written
comments from Instructor
SI. Fourteenth week .
Formal Presentations to faculty committees: (20-minute
presentation: 20 minutes for faculty questions; 10 minutes for
completion of proposition evaluatons and commiuee delibera-
tions.)


Education


of the topic(s), and often note any outstanding needs or
unresolved issues. Such readings lead naturally into the origi-
nal literature, which provides the scholarly support for the
problem proposed.
When have I found a problem? "Calling a collection of
words a "Research Problem" does not make it so. Your
words must show an understanding of certain phenomena,
and your proposal must have some promise of revealing
convincing evidence that this understanding is correct."'13
As a final screening test for each of the potential research
problems initially considered, the student should reflect on
the questions listed in Table 2. They will help assess both the
problem's quality and the student's fitness to attack it.

GETTING ORGANIZED:
A PROPOSITION TEXTBOOK
Four years ago, when our department first declared war on
the written qualifier and decided upon the campaign for the
Research Proposition, I volunteered to be the private first
class (grunt) for this proposition instruction experience. I
chose the text Writing a Thesis: Substance and Style"' as my
combat map for this new teaching terrain, in part due to the
opening remarks in Lee Myerson's "Forward" to the book:
While serving on students' supervisor committees, I
received proposals in which, even in first draft, students
offered well-structured, well-reasoned, and answerable
questions as the focus of their studies. That experience
was strikingly different from others in which students did
not explain their research problems or show how the
anticipated results might cast light on a problem not then
understood. I was curious about what accounted for the
difference.
It turned out that almost all of the students whose
proposals had caught my attention and who seemed well
prepared for the research endeavor had taken Professor
van Wegenen's course "Expository Writing and Research

TABLE 2
Questions to Determine if a
Satisfactory Research Problem Has Been Identified

Can the research problem be enthusiastically pursued?
Can interest be sustained by the problem?
Is the problem solvable?
Is the problem worth doing?
Will it lead to other research problems?
What is the problem's potential for making original contribu-
tions to the literature?
If the problem is solved, will it be reviewed well by scholars in
your field?
By solving the problem, will you hate demonstrated indepen-
dent skills in your discipline?
Will the necessary research prepare you in an area of demand or
Promise for a future in your field?


Fall 1995









o Graduate Education


Heuristics," or they had studied a mimeographed ver-
sion of this book.

State the Problem Immediately
van Wegenen counsels that the earliest paragraph(s) of a
research proposition must present a "problem statement which
identifies the proposition's focus," and which reveals the
writer's purposes:
"to understand a restricted set of phenomena (more
restricted or limited than is commonly believed);
"to describe the interrelations between variables that
are named in the statement;
"to offer in the problem statement a potential or
hypothetical solution to the problem;
"to limit the range of the problem to a single question
or issue (set boundaries on the problem)"

van Wegenen elaborates on the problem statement and the
methods proposed for finding solutions in sections dealing
successively with an explanatory problem statement (the
hypothesis and its supporting literature), an operational state-
ment (identification of the specific system used to test the
hypothesis), methods (establishment of the feasibility of find-
ing the solution), and expected results (discussion of pos-
sible outcomes and their consequences for verification or
refutation of the proposition).
Five of van Wegenen's chapters on thesis writing are well
suited to our research proposition course. They are "About
You as a Writer," the "how to write" chapters on the Disser-
tation Proposal, the Research Introduction, and the Method
Section, and a closing piece on "Writing with Style." Addi-
tional chapters on completed research ("How to Write a
Results Section" and "Discussion") are replaced in our course
with an "Anticipated Results" and a "Discussion" section.

Structure the Introduction
The introduction should contain two distinct versions of
the problem. The longer, explanatory portion establishes the
problem; it identifies key vocabulary and concepts, states
the hypothesis to be tested, and lays out the presuppositions
that underlie the hypothesis. This presentation structure in-
vites literature citations primarily in the guise of presupposi-
tions and supporting documentation. It has therefore the
advantage of limiting literature cited to only material that is
directly supportive of, or relevant to, the hypothesis.
The shorter, operational, expression concludes the intro-
duction; it "describes concretely what you as an investigator
[will do], and thereby it reveals what particular aspect of the
larger problem [will be] attacked. Operational expressions
are carefully chosen physical transactions that reveal re-
search strategy."'31
A simple technical illustration of explanatory and opera-


tional statements is outlined in Table 3; the actual version
includes references and full discussions.
Two types of propositions are presented. At the outset,
students receive a copy of a strong proposal from a previous
class, and then during the course, excerpts from faculty
research proposals provide illustrations.

Make Methods Convincing
The "Method" section may at first promise to be the dullest
of proposition topics. But the proposition is an argument, a
persuasive presentation that a problem has been found and
that a solution can be constructed or deduced. The method
section is the key portion for demonstrating to the reviewer
and the reader that the investigator has designed a mecha-
nism of inquiry that can uncover the information needed to
test the hypothesis.
The level of detail with which the procedures and
methods are presented must convince a reviewer knowl-
edgeable in the area that the investigator is qualified to
perform the research indicated, not merely to identify the
problem of interest.
While the details of the technique and the specific materi-



TABLE 3
Example Brief Explanatory and Operational Statements

Explanatory Statement
Hypothesis: A chemical oxidation followed by a biological
oxidaton provides a more efficient and less costly process for
remediation of recalcitrant contaminants in water than either
process alone.
Presupposition 1. Chemical oidants, especially hydroxyl
radicals, can oxidize and even mineralize most recalcitrant
orgamc contaminants in water.
Presupposition 2. When either operation can be applied.
chemical oxidation is more costly than biological oxidation.
Presupposition 3. Biological oxidations are not effective for
recalcitrant contaminants.
Presupposition 4. Partial-oxidation of a recalcitrant contaminant
yields increasingly biodegradable reaction intermediates.
Thus, the chemical partial 6xidaton of recalcitrant contaminants
followedbya biologicalcor efi-on of-contaminant oxidation will
provide more effectiveandiess expensive contaminant conversion.
Operational Statement -
We will establish that fdrdestuction of trace, multichlorinated
phenols in water, a two-step chemicall followed by biological)
oxidation sequence canbe be- it lan either step alone. We will
i use ulrioler-ydro 6 pernid&ahemical oxidation-and an
actiateda slue biological xidi on.individuly and in sequence,
t o etenietheqfftiepre e iciea enaomi so '
adaw-e--0-0jltiSn 0101n2o -


u t-efChormiallthe4nhleintErdeuaio -

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Graduate


als to be used appear in the method section, these items
should have been previously identified in the explanatory
section. The reader should know in advance what to expect
and look for in the method section.

Anticipated Results: What Do I Expect to Find?
A thesis has results, whereas a proposition can only give
expectations (excepting cases with preliminary data). Such a
proposition section, however short, provides the writer with
an opportunity to indicate how data will be plotted, corre-
lated, or analyzed, and what behaviors are expected or pos-
sible. A final discussion should interpret the various possible
experimental outcomes and indicate which ones will form
support or refutation of the hypothesis. If we are to invest
substantial effort investigating the original assertion, the
return will be worthwhile only if an outcome is obtained.

Write for the Reader: You Need His/Her Vote!
van Wegenen's final chapter, "Writing with Style," urges
the student to consider finer, but important, points:
Take a Reader's Perspective. "Give information in
direct order of importance." "Success in
writing...means that a reader will know all that is
important to know in the shortest possible time."
Attack Immediately. "Begin with the concept that
will give the reader the most encompassing idea."
"Do not hold back information in the belief that
readers will need background first." "Open with
sentences that show intensity...but use temperate
words; do not exaggerate."
Use Enough Headings (and Subheadings). "Most
writers use too few." "Headings reveal organization.
Look at the order of your headings and correctly
subordinate them." "Make the heading bring out the
main concept to follow." "Write headings that are
long enough to be understood."

Persuade!
Finally, a proposition is an argument FOR a particular
assertion: the hypothesis. It is persuasive, not passive, van
Wegenen's closing advice on "Writing with Style" is to be
"definite and forceful, make interpretations, use specific lan-
guage, avoid prolixity, be brief, emphasize the active voice,"
and, yes, be yourself-create "an honest image."

THE NEED FOR A PROPOSITION ROUGH DRAFT

The 1992 pilot offering of this course required no first
draft. Students and faculty subsequently concluded that a
mid-course technical evaluation of the structure and weak-
nesses of each proposition in draft form would allow time
for revision and response prior to the final presentation and
defense. This technical review, in place since 1993, also


Education


9


gives the writer time to readjust if a problem has not yet been
adequately identified and attacked. Further, from instructor
and second-reader written comments and questions, the stu-
dent receives a preview of the style of committee inquiry
that will follow the formal oral presentation. Such a review/
preview natably improved both the final written proposition
and the student oral presentations to their committees.
Revision for content usually requires revision for style as
well. The style problem is noted in "Sounder Thinking
Through Clearer Writing,"4' a 1967 attack on technical writ-
ing:
All are agreed that the articles in our journals-even the
journals with the highest standards-are, by and large,
poorly written. Some of the worst are produced by the kind
of author who conscientiously pretends to a "scientific
scholarly" style. He takes what should be lively, inspiring,
and beautiful, and, in an attempt to make it seem dignified,
chokes it to death with stately abstract nouns; next, in the
name of scientific impartiality, he fits it with a complete set
of passive constructions to drain away any remaining life's
blood or excitement; then he embalms the remains in
molasses of polysyllable, wraps the corpse in an impen-
etrable veil of vogue words, and buries the stiff old mummy
with much pomp and circumstance in the most distin-
guished journal that will take it. Considered either as a
piece of scholarly work or as a vehicle of communication,
the product is appalling.

"ALL WRITING IS REVISION"
The need is thus established to revise frequently both the
ideas and the prose. We sought a second guide, preferably
utilitarian and entertaining, the latter to motivate engineers
to read about prose revision! During the week required for
faculty review of the draft proposition, we read and dis-
cussed Lanham's Revising Business Prose"'s and wrote and
compared, in class, several revision exercises. The short
(140-page) book takes a tough but humorous approach to
revision, first through attacks on individual sentences, then
on paragraphs, and finally on style.
The author's premise appears in his first paragraph:
What should business writing be like? It ought to be fast,
concrete, and responsible. It should show someone acting,
doing something. .. Business prose ought, therefore, to be
verb-dominated prose, lining up actor, action, and object in
a causal chain and lining them up fast.
Intriguing? After twenty-five years of experience in paper
and proposal reviewing, this description is my dream of a
good technical proposition!
To shorten, clarify, and enliven the rhetoric, Lanham pro-
poses actions summarized in his amusing eight-step "Para-
medic Method" of "resuscitating dead prose." For individual
sentences, take the draft writing at hand and quickly identify
the extraneous phrasing and weak action by administering a


Fall 1995


1


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\.


225









Graduate Education


four-step antidote:
1. Circle the prepositions (there are usually too many).
2. Circle the "is" forms (too weak).
3. Ask "Where's the action?" "Who's kicking whom?"
4. Put this "kicking" action in a simple (not compound) active
verb.
Lest the reader protest that business and technical writing
are different, unrelated activities, consider the following only-
too-familiar construction:
Original Sentence
The substantial growth (of) the rate (of) the chemical
reaction (was) mainly a result (of) the increase (in) the tem-
perature (of) the reactor (23 words)
Lanham's directives locate the trouble spots, indicated
here by parentheses. Among many revision possibilities, an
example follows that contains no prepositions or form of the
weak verb "is."
Revised Sentence
The higher reactor temperature increased the chemical
reaction rate substantially. (10 words)
The revision is shorter, clearer, and more forceful.
Lanham's coup de grace performance indicator for each
editorial effort is the calculation of a "Lard Factor," or the
percent of word reduction, in engineering parlance. For the
reaction rate example above
Lard Factor = 100 x (23 10)/23 = 56%
Graduate students appear to have no difficulty recalling
horrible prose examples encountered in their literature read-
ings. Armed with Lanham's pointed directives, the students
next administer a "paramedic" attack on their own proposi-
tion draft, identifying opportunities for tightening and
strengthening their prose.
Lanahan's next recommendation is to be direct:
5. Start fast-no slow windups.
The student may object, recalling that Webster defined
research as "careful, patient, systematic, diligent .." We
reply that research writing can possess all of these qualities
and still "start fast," as illustrated in Table 4 by several
chapter titles and corresponding leadoff sentences from An
Introduction to Scientific Research, the careful, patient, sys-
tematic, diligent text by Wilson.6'
In his final chapter, titled "Why Bother?" Lanham re-
minds us of two powerful motivations for revision: First,
efficiency: revision sharpens thinking, shortens the text, and
thus delivers the message to the reader more accurately and
more quickly. The grateful reader will doubtless hold the
author in higher regard. Second, ego: "Writing is a way to
clarify, strengthen, and energize the self, to render individu-
ality rich, full, and social."
226


Lanham also appreciates author individuality in composi-
tion, but insists on substantial commonality in revision:
People often argue that writing cannot be taught, and if
they mean that inspiration cannot be commanded nor lazi-
ness banished, then of course they are right. But stylistic
analysis-REVISION-is something else, a method, not a
mystical rite. How we compose-pray for the muse, marshal
our thought, find willpower to glue backside to chair-these
may be idiosyncratic, but revision belongs to the public
domain. Anyone can learn it.
The "Final Version" is copied and distributed to the fac-
ulty committee two weeks prior to the oral presentations.

ON THE MAKEUP OF FACULTY COMMITTEES
The formal regulations for the course instructor indicate
that each four-member committee be composed of two fac-
ulty knowledgeable in the general area and two other se-
lected at random. To insure uniformity of procedure, the
instructor serves on all proposition committees and chairs
each presentation.
Justice further demands that the instructor create each
committee so as to contain a balance between known or
perceived faculty "hardballs" and "softies." These widely
presumed qualities were largely illusive: for the most recent
class of eighteen students, the faculty average evaluation
grade differed by only 0.1 from the four-member average
grade for that committee. Using the evaluation data from
each of the 3-4 committees on which nearly every
faculty member served, I calculated first the grading
"bias" of the individual faculty and then the expected "bias"
of each committee from summing these individual values.


TABLE 4
Titles and Lead Sentences Ilustrating the "Fast Start'""

Choice and Statement of a Research Problem
Mlany scientists one their greatness not to their skill in solving
problems hI to their K wisdom iri choosing them.

Searching the Literature
S. hours in the library may isae sir months n the laboratory

The Design of Apparatus
An experiment involves the examination of some part of the
universe under specially contrived conditions.

Errors of Measurement
A measurement whose acc uracy. is comprleel\ unknown has no
use whatever.

The Analysis of Experimental Data
Observanons are useless until they have been interpreted

Reporting the Results of Research
Re search is not completed until it has been reported and. if
possible. published.

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The average committee bias was only +0.03, and no "Com-
mittee from Hell" was in evidence! Thus, the calcu-
lated "bias" of each committee was insufficient to affect any
proposition outcome.

PRESENTATIONS MATERIALS AND PRACTICE
As a guide for good transparencies and good technical-
presentation speaking habits, I distribute a brief two-page
exhortation written by my colleague Richard Felder. Prepar-
ing transparencies (or slides) is a most underrated task, as
any conference audience will attest. In an individual review
session with each student, transparency drafts are treated
critically: Does each have an informative title? Are figure
legends, axes, and labels rewritten and redrawn to be brief
and readable even to the aging eyes of elderly committee
members? (Consider your audience!) Is all extraneous
material removed? Is the whole proposition story outlined
evenly and smoothly in 12-16 transparencies? Has a
theme and clear vocabulary been chosen to transmit the
argument forcefully?
During each twenty-minute oral practice presentation,
the class acts as the "faculty committee." The students
quickly see the utility of posing questions, even tough and
unfriendly ones, since these identify weaknesses and alert
the presenter to opportunities for improvement. Questions
also indicate audience interest, for which every speaker is
always grateful!


TABLE 5
Evaluation Form for Research Proposition
(Each segment is graded up to 100% of its relative weight;
a "pass" mark is a total mark of 75% or higher.)

Written Document
1. Knowledge of "state-of-the-engineering-science"; perspective;
critical analysis of existing body of literature (10%)
2. Suitability of selected research problem; originality; feasibility
of success (10%)
3. Effectiveness of proposed research plan; understanding of
relevant physical and chemical phenomena; chance of success,
methodology current and viable (10%)
4. Quality and effectiveness of writing; conciseness; logic; clarity
(20%)
5. Creauvity; degree of innoianon in proposed research (15%)

Oral Presentation
6. Quality and effectiveness of presentation; conciseness; logic;
clarity; impact; thoroughness (24%)
7. Knowledge of field of research topic (5%)
8. Master of chemical engineering principles (5%)
9. Creaoivly in responding to questions (abdit to think on one's
feet (5%)

Fall 1995


FORMAL PRESENTATION AND DEFENSE
Audience attendance by some class members is encour-
aged at each formal presentation to the faculty committee.
The student's PhD advisor is never present as either audi-
ence or committee member. In the one-hour exam, the stu-
dent gives a twenty-minute uninterrupted presentation,
responds to about twenty minutes of faculty questions, and
is then excused.
Using an evaluation form (see Table 5) that provides
weighting of various performance dimensions, committee
members evaluate the written proposition in advance. Imme-
diately after the presentation, faculty evaluate both the oral
presentation and the responses to questions. Following a ten-
minute committee discussion, the final faculty evaluations
are averaged and a pass/no pass determination is made.
Regardless of the outcome, the itemized evaluation averages
are returned to the student for future reference.

A LEVEL PLAYING FIELD
Fairness to all aspiring PhD students during the semester
dictates the establishment of a policy regarding allowable
conversations with other graduate students, faculty, research
professionals, etc., about the individual propositions. I have
taken the simplest path-no such conversations are allowed.

INSTRUCTOR ROLES
The course structure demands various roles for the instruc-
tor. He or she must be a lecturer/discussion leader for the
two texts by van Wegenen and Lanham, an advisor in indi-
vidual sessions to discuss literature reviews, outlines, and
draft transparencies, a proposal reviewer of the draft and
final versions, and a critic at the practice oral presentation.
Providing occasional comic relief is also an asset, to relieve
the tension arising from the obvious fact that the course
outcome is substantial for each student. Class sizes have
ranged from 10 to 18, and the total instructor time commit-
ment is comparable to that for any 3-unit course.

OUTCOMES
The Proposition should demonstrate the student's
ability to define a research problem and design a
program to determine a potential solution using the
fundamental principles of our discipline. "'2
The pass rate for the approximately fifty students who
have taken the course is about 85%. Those who pass enter
PhD candidacy and are expected to prepare and defend their
written PhD preliminary proposition by the end of their
second year in residence. Students judged not yet ready are
invited to pursue a Master's thesis, and upon completion this
second work may, at the student's and advisor's request, be
presented to a committee of four faculty (not including the
research advisor) to allow reconsideration for PhD program
admission.
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(iradu ate Educatio-n


It may be only slight exaggeration to say that the research
proposition course welds each class of students together,
much as does joint passage through any other crisis or sub-
stantial challenge in life.
The proposition evaluation (Table 5) invites measurement
of qualities presumed indicative of research potential and
technical maturity. The four years of experience with this
class indicate that the research proposition committee grades
correlate only weakly with graduate grade-point average,
and not at all with GRE verbal or quantitative scores. That
PhD achievement does not correlate well with GPA or GRE
is not new; early on, I tell students the anecdote about the
one NSF fellowship application variable that correlated most
strongly with eventual achievement of the PhD-early
completion and submission of the application!

FEEDBACK FROM CURRENT AND FORMER
GRADUATE STUDENTS
Previous graduate student suggestions led to including
both a rough draft, with feedback on technical content, and a
sample oral presentation by a previous-year student.
Next year we will augment the presentation by the senior
PhD student by including a faculty committee question
period, inserting more illustrations of good technical
writing (van Wegenen's text offers only social science ex-
amples), and providing a fall discussion to initiate earlier
idea development.
Student consultation with faculty or other students in the
department remains an issue. I have allowed none, but will
try one feedback conversation with the second faculty reader
of the draft proposition.

EVALUATIONS
A survey conducted this spring of our proposition course
participants, currently in years 1-4 of their graduate study,
provided the responses summarized below.
Among learning to formulate research problems, to im-
prove writing, or to improve public speaking, problem for-
mulation was the dominant outcome selected by all four
classes: 79% (1st year), 85% (2nd year), 67% (3rd and 4th
years).
Higher-rated individual aspects of the course were
* extremely valuable:
writing the rough draft; comments received on the
rough draft; giving a practice talk
* generally helpful:
doing a literature review; writing the proposal
outline (with references); preparing the technical
presentation; class questions after the practice talk
(Other available responses were "somewhat helpful," "not
particularly helpful," and "not helpful at all.")


The distribution of course evaluations from 41 of 52 stu-
dents follows:
My attitude toward the class is:
liked it and benefited from it 68%
hated it, but benefited from it 20%
neutral 5%
hated it and didn't benefit 5%
liked it, but no benefit 2%
Hours per week spent on the class were:
less than 10 10%
11-20 44%
*21-30 29%
more than 30 17%
The effect of this course on my desire to do research is:
very positive 27%
somewhat positive 44%
neutral 24%
somewhat negative 0%
very negative 5%
As a result of this course, my writing ability is now
much higher 5%
higher 49%
about the same 44%
lower 2%
As a result of this course, my initiative to start my
research is now
much higher 15%
higher 44%
about the same 39%
lower 2%
Men and women responded similarly to many of the forty-
four questions. The following exceptions to this generality
are also informative:
Initiative to start my own research is now rated "higher"
or "much higher": men (65%), women (38%)
0 Starting my own research after taking this course has
been "somewhat difficult" to "very difficult": men (15%),
women (63%)
> Giving a practice talk was "helpful" to "extremely valu-
able": men (71%), women (92%)
> Attitude toward class? "liked it and benefited": men
(61%), women (85%)
Rate effort in class above or very much above average?
men (56%), women (85%)
but
- Workload of course rated as reasonable?: men (75%),
women (100%)
- Subject more interesting than expected? men (37%),
women (54%)
> Most frequent hrs/week on course effort? men (11-20),
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women (21-30),
- Anxious about taking the course? men (60%), women
(76%)
Women were more positive than men about all activities
involving communication, including writing and receiving
comments on the rough draft and giving the practice talk and
responding to class questions. Eleven of thirteen women
liked the course (regardless of benefit), but eight of twenty-
eight men hated it!

FACULTY RESPONSE
All faculty participate in and are strongly supportive of the
course in its current state, although possible improvements
always beckon.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I am pleased to thank George Roberts who, as department
head, encouraged the formation of the founding committee
for the Research Proposition course and who provided teach-


Education


ing recognition for it. Peter Fedkiw originally noted the very
strong correlations between graduate GPA and written PhD
qualifier scores, and thus the disutility of the latter. Peter,
Ruben Carbonell, and Peter Kilpatrick devised the original
PhD proposition requirements and evaluation criteria. Diane
Beaudoin, PhD candidate, created (with Rich Felder's assis-
tance), administered, and summarized the course evaluation
questionnaire.

REFERENCES
1. Graduate Policy Statement, North Carolina State Univer-
sity, Chemical Engineering (1995)
2. Webster's New Universal Unabridged Dictionary, New World/
Simon and Schuster (1983)
3. van Wegenen, R. Keith, Writing a Thesis: Substance and
Style, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1991)
4. Woodford, F.P., "Sounder Thinking Through Clearer Writ-
ing," Science 156, 743 (1967)
5. Lanham, Richard A., Revising Business Prose, 3rd ed.,
Macmillan Publishing Co., New York, NY
6. Wilson, Jr., E. Bright, An Introduction to Scientific Re-
search, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, NY (1990) O


book review


STUDYING ENGINEERING:
A Road Map to a Rewarding Career
by Raymond B. Landis
Published by Discovery Press, Burbank CA: Distributed by Legal
Books Distributing, 4247 Whiteside St., Los Angeles, CA 90063;
236 pages, $22.95 (1995)

Reviewed by
Phillip C. Wankat
Purdue University

There is considerable current interest in courses for first-
year students in engineering. Two major approaches have
been used. One approach is a design course, preferably with
hands-on experience (e.g., see Beaudoin and Ollis, J. Engr.
Ed., 84, 279, July, 1995). The second approach is an orienta-
tion course which helps students learn how to survive and
then to thrive in engineering. Ray Landis, the Dean of Engi-
neering at California State University-Los Angeles, has writ-
ten a textbook for this second approach. This book is written
for a course with students who will be going into all disci-
plines, but it easily could be used for a course for chemical
engineering students.
The introductory chapter on "Keys to Success in Engi-
neering Study" is an important part of the book that students
should not just skim over. This chapter firmly makes the
point that it is up to the student to succeed-determination
and effort are often more important than "smarts." Based on
Fall 1995


my experience with freshman engineers, I feel this is abso-
lutely true. But how do we get students to believe it? Dean
Landis has a very convincing argument and discussion of
this point. He notes that a combination of determination,
effort, and proper approach is all important.
Chapter 2, "The Engineering Profession," is supposed to
explain what engineers do. Unfortunately, the descriptions
of different engineering disciplines and different engineer-
ing job functions are just too short. For example, there is
only one-half a page on chemical engineering, six lines on
materials science engineering, and three lines on petroleum
engineering. A better approach would have been to present
scenarios on a typical day at work for different engineers.
The general information on what is important in selecting a
career will be very useful to the students. At universities
where students select chemical engineering before their first
year, the shortcomings of this chapter will not be critical
since the professor can easily supplement the section on
chemical engineering. At universities where students start in
a general engineering program or a university college, how-
ever, a major function of the orientation course is to help the
students select a major. Chapter 2 is inadequate for this
purpose.
Chapter 3, "Academic Success Strategies," is a strong and
useful chapter. Section 3.2 on structuring one's life situation
is particularly critical and shows that the author has worked
with many students. The guide for course loads and hours of
Continued on page 274.
229


L








( Graduate Education




A SEMINAR SERIES ON

ACADEMIC CAREERS

FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

GRADUATE STUDENTS


EDMOND I. Ko
Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890


he primary focus of an engineering education tends
to be on honing the technical skills of our students
and not on dealing with their career development, at
least not in an explicit way. Consequently, many (if not the
majority of) engineering students at both the undergraduate
and graduate levels are not well informed about various
career options available to them at the end of their study.
One particularly difficult decision PhD students face is
whether or not they should pursue an academic career.
Students often have unrealistic or distorted views on the
advantages, disadvantages, and responsibilities of a faculty
position. In order to help our students understand what
an academic career entails, I initiated an informal seminar
series in the summer of 1994 to take an honest look at
the professoriate.
The purpose of the seminar series was to inform, not to
entice, our students about becoming a professor. But for
those who would decide to pursue this career path, the semi-
nar series also aimed at providing them with concrete tips
and resources. At a more fundamental level, this activity
represented our attempt at exposing explicitly our graduate
students to nontechnical issues that are important in a well-
rounded education.
We are fortunate at Carnegie Mellon to have formal pro-


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1995


Students often have unrealistic
or distorted views on the advantages,
disadvantages, and responsibilities of a faculty
position.... The purpose of the seminar series
was to inform, not to entice, our students
about becoming a professor.

grams at the university and college levels that help prepare
our graduate students for academic careers. The University
Teaching Center (UTC) offers a program that prepares gradu-
ate students to be confident and effective teachers. It also
sponsors a series of seminars on topics ranging from over-
views of student cognition and motivation to course and
syllabus design.
Our College of Engineering offers a course (0 units, graded
pass/fail) that consists of 12 seminars over a two-year pe-
riod. There are six seminars on teaching (e.g., how students
learn, lecturing) and six on research (e.g., writing proposals,
delivering presentations). Our departmental seminar series
was designed to complement these ongoing programs by
focusing on issues that are unique to the chemical engineer-
ing academic community and inviting only chemical engi-
neering graduate students to participate.

ORGANIZATION OF THE SEMINAR SERIES
Since the purpose of the seminar series was to provide
students with the pertinent information, my first step was to
meet with four graduate students to simply write down as
many questions on an academic career as they could come
up with. Then, together we grouped these questions into
seven themes that became the seven seminar topics summa-
rized in Table 1.
We met once every two weeks in the summer of 1994 to
discuss these seven topics. Invitations to attend any or all of


Chemical Engineering Education


Edmond I. Ko is Professor of Chemical Engi-
neering at Carnegie Mellon University, where
he has been since 1980. He received his BS
from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and
his MS and PhD from Stanford University, all
in chemical engineering. His research inter-
ests are in the preparation and characteriza-
tion of catalytic and electronic materials.










Graduate Education


the seminars were sent to the entire chemical engineering
graduate student body. Throughout the summer, the atten-
dance fluctuated between 15 and 20 people, most of whom
were third- or fourth-year students. Each participant was
given some reading materials at least several days before the
meeting so they could come prepared with comments and
questions (and many of them did). References of selected
handout materials are shown in Table 2. Note that some of
the materials appeared after the seminar series and are in-
cluded here for completeness.
Each meeting started with
a lunch that lasted about thirty T
minutes. I, or one or more in- Topis of th
vited guests, then made some
opening remarks that lasted Seminar 1: Is an Academic Car
between ten and thirty min- Why are you thinking abo
utes, after which the floor was of schools are you interest
required to be a faculty m
open for discussion. I played require to be a faculty b
What are the differences b
the role of moderator and researchers? What are the
timekeeper and tried to limit careers?
each meeting to ninety min- Seminar 2: Putting an Applicati
utes, which was not always What can I do to make my
easy because of the lively dis- include in the packet? Sh
appointment first? What i,
cussions we had. teaching/research plans be
One important feature of the Seminar 3: Going Through an I
seminars was that each had What are people looking f
one or two invited guests. In be asked? What are the qu
Seminar 1, when we talked Seminar 4: About Teaching
about the differences between Is teaching really import
at it? What can I do to be
academic and industrial re- classroom activities? If no
search, I invited two indus- Seminar5: Communicating Res
trial researchers to share their How do I give a good talk
experiences with the students, successful proposal? How
In Seminar 2 on applying for general?
an academic job, our two most Seminar 6: Sustaining a Resear
How do I attract students
recently hired junior faculty to support them? How she
talked about what they went coming up with new resea
through in their job search. In Seminar 7: Getting Tenured
Seminar 3 on interview skills, What are the criteria for u
a professional recruiter came one institution to the next
and discussed some common process? Is there life after
questions that are asked and
what interviewers usually


look for. In Seminar 4 on teaching, the Director of UTC
described her efforts in improving the teaching of faculty in
a research university.
I invited senior faculty members, including our Depart-
ment Head, for Seminars 5-7 so that students could hear
from people who have extensive experiences with
these processes. My overall intent was to expose the students
to a wide variety of viewpoints by experts other than chemi-
cal engineering professors. All the guests told me after-


ward that they enjoyed interacting with our students in this
format, and the feedback from students on this aspect
was equally positive.

STUDENT'S REACTIONS TO THE SERIES
Several students stopped attending the series after the first
couple of meetings because, as one put it, "I now know for
sure that I do not want to be a professor." I view this
comment as a measure of the success of the series since it
helped some students to make
career decisions. Two fifth-
year students who attended
E 1 this series ended up interview-
oinar Series ing for academic jobs over the
last year. One of them went to
*You?
academic career? At what types visit three schools, received
teaching? What are the skills one offer, and eventually ac-
at various types of schools? cepted an industrial offer. The
n academic and industrial other student interviewed at
ds in academic versus industrial
five universities but did not
cket Together receive an offer.
cket Together
cation stand out? What should I At the last meeting I gave
ursue a post-doctoral each student a copy of the
ming? How specific should my book by Davidson and
Ambrose (see Table 2, next
ew
hat are the questions that I will page) as a gift and asked them
s thatI should ask? to fill out a questionnaire that
was designed to solicit open-
ill I be rewarded for being good ended comments. Below are
at it? Is teaching limited to some responses:
it else is there?
ideas "This seminar series has
tea good paper? Write a provided exactly what I sought
excite people about what I do in to know about an academic
career. I did not seek to find
oup that being a faculty member is
k with me? To find the funding easier or nicer than what it
act as an advisor? How do I keep s r
eas?ounds; rather, I wanted to
know what the position does
SHow are they different from in fact require. Knowing that I
Should I step through the tenure can make informed decisions
e? during graduate school and at
the beginning of my career."
"The series provided the
kind of information I had hoped it would. Ifound especially
helpful the faculty members' descriptions of some of the
'academic nuances' that are not really understood until
after becoming a member of the academic community."
"I have a much more realistic picture of what a career in
academia entails now that I participated in this series. Al-
though I have not made a decision between academia and
industry as of yet, this opportunity will allow me to make a
more informed decision in the future."


Fall 1995


BL
e Se

eerfor
ut an
edin t
,mber
etwee
rewar

on Pa
appli
iuld I
sthe ti
;?
interview
or? W
lestion

t? Wi
good
t, wha
each
? Wrii
do I

ch Gr
to wor
,uld I
irch id

tenure?
?How
tenure









Graduate Education

insufficient condition for being an effective teacher.


TABLE 2
Recommended Reading Materials

Raymond B. Landis, "An Academic Career: It Could Be
for You." American Society for Engineering Education
(1989)
Philip C. Wankat and-Frank S. Oreovicz, "The Graduate
Student's-Guide to Academic Job Hunting," Chem. Eng.
Ed., 17(4), 178(1983)
ChristopherN.-Bowman, "Teaching in the First Few Years:
From the Perspective of a New Faculty Member," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 28(4), 280 (1994)
Deborah Olsen and Mary Deane Soprcinelli, "The Pretenure
Years: A Longitudinal Perspective," New Directions for
Teaching and Learning, 50, 15 (1992)
Jeff Meade, "Life Before Tenure," ASEE Prism, November
(1992)
"How to Write a Scholarly Paper," ASEE Prism, February
(1994)
"Survi valKit for New Engineering Educators," ASEE Prism,
October (1994)
Anne Eisenberg, Effective Technical Communication,
McGraw-Hill (1982)
Philip C.- Wanl -and Frank S. Oriovicz, Teaching Engi-
neering, McGra w-Hil (1993)
Kenneth :. Ebfe, 7iw Craoft of Teaching, 2nd ed., Jossey-
Bass.(1988)
Cliff I.- Davida ad- Sus an A. Ambrose, The New
Professor's Ifandbook, Anker Publishing (1994)
"SurvivalSkiflsAor Scholers," aseres of fourteen volumes
published m-in-g3L-9 W Sage Pillicatipos Inc., coveing
a wide iraf topics dated loai academic career. Some
exnmpln&Wbne-tJripxavii urQasar&in Teacb-

GetdgTientrtoiitl, Su-cestuislfingin Sebol-
l- -- -. -. .


"I would like to thank you and all the guests for sharing
your experiences. It is always rewarding to be reminded that
graduate school is not only confined to science."

SUMMARY
It has often been said that being a university professor is
the only profession that requires no formal training. While
this may be an overstatement, it does underscore the fact that
almost the entire graduate education is geared toward pre-
paring our students to be research scholars, which is just one
of the many roles a faculty member plays. Even though such
preparation is indeed critically important, it should not pre-
clude development of other skills. After all, as most people
would agree, having content expertise is a necessary but


Our seminar series is a small step, but in our view a step in
the right direction, toward making our students aware of
both the multifaceted nature of a faculty career and the
wide array of skills that are necessary to succeed in it.
Together with the college and university programs
mentioned earlier, we have made available to our students
ample resources that will better prepare them to become the
next generation of chemical engineering educators.
As a result of our positive experience, we intend to offer
the same seminar series in the future, most likely once every
two years, so that different groups of students can partici-
pate. It is my hope that this article will lead to the develop-
ment of similar activities in other chemical engineering de-
partments.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The seminar series described in this article was supported
by a W. M. Keck Foundation Engineering Teaching Excel-
lence Award. 0



f book review


PROCESS ENGINEERING ANALYSIS IN
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE FABRICATION
by S. Middleman and A.K. Hochberg
McGraw Hill, New York, NY; $60.50 (1992)

Reviewed by
Bridget R. Rogers; Timothy S. Cale
Motorola, Inc.; Arizona State University

The authors of this text state that their goal is to demon-
strate that chemical technology plays a central role in micro-
electronic device fabrication. The text fulfills this stated
purpose and is relatively complete for use in an undergradu-
ate course focused on process analysis. It not only provides
focus for a course, but also helps convince the reader/student
that chemical engineering fundamentals can and should be
applied in the microelectronics industry. The demand for
courses that introduce students to microelectronic devices,
industrial terminology, and the unit operations associated
with device fabrication has increased as more and more
chemical engineering graduates are employed in the micro-
electronics industry.
The first two chapters serve to introduce solid state phys-
ics and its application to solid state device operation and
performance. These chapters motivate much of the process-
ing analyzed in the remainder of the text, and the basic
bipolar process flow presented emphasizes the complexity
Chemical Engineering Education










of semiconductor device fabrication. These chapters also
help chemical engineering students learn more of the termi-
nology used in the industry. The material covered is impor-
tant to chemical engineering graduates who enter the micro-
electronics industry; they will be expected to know the ba-
sics of device operation. Considering the brevity of these
chapters, supplemental material from other books should be
used; for example, material from selected volumes in the
Modular Series on Solid State Devices edited by G.W.
Neudeck and R.F. Pierret (Addison-Wesley).
Chapter 3 is a quick review of undergraduate transport
phenomena particularly relevant to microelectronic materi-
als processing. It also tells the reader that the text is oriented
toward (at least simple) mathematical models of processes.
Material in this chapter can be referred to as needed while
covering other material. In addition to being useful as a
review, this chapter also provides some (much needed) dis-
cussion on modeling and its role in process development.
Chapters 4 and 5 deal with the cleanliness of the fabrica-
tion environment and generation, transport, and removal of
particles, while Chapter 6 deals with chemical purity. These
three chapters are interesting, and much of the material
presented will be new and/or enlightening to chemical engi-
neering majors. But they are not as important to an entry-
level process engineer as the last eight chapters.
The remaining eight chapters of the text discuss some of
the unit operations used in manufacturing microelectronic
devices, as indicated in the Table of Contents listed below.
These chapters form the core of a course on process engi-
neering analysis of semiconductor device fabrication. The
material in these chapters can be supplemented by a text
such as Silicon Processing for the VLSI Era: Vol. 1. Process
Technology, by Wolf and Tauber (Lattice Press), which pro-
vides more detailed process as well as materials properties
and performance information.
Table of Contents
1. Some Background in the Physics of Solids
2. Device Background
3. Process Modeling
4. Cleanliness and Purity in the Process Environ-
ment: Filtration of Particulates
5. Particle Deposition and Removal
6. Production and Maintenance of Purity on Process
Chemicals
7. Silicon Production
8. Oxidation of Silicon
9. Microlithography
10. Doping
11. Etching
12. Chemical Vapor Deposition
13. Ion Implantation
14. Metallization
The authors provide helpful guidance in their lists of refer-
Fall 1995


ences at the end of each chapter; however, they list very few
references more recent than 1989, with only three references
more recent than 1990. This is adequate for a text designed
to introduce students to some of the chemistry in microelec-
tronics processing and to many unit operations currently
used in mass production. Thus, with supplemental material,
it is useful for graduates who enter a production facility.
The text certainly serves as an introduction to engineering
analysis of semiconductor device fabrication for graduate
students. Because they are more likely to work in process
development and perhaps even research, much of the cover-
age is out of date and many currently hot topics are not
addressed; e.g., conformality or step coverage of deposited
films and high-density plasmas. In addition, photoresist ex-
posure and wavelength trends in lithography and wafer clean-
ing are not addressed. On the other hand, the material that is
covered in some detail is generally well presented, and there
are good problems which support the learning process.
The authors devoted considerable effort to developing
relevant and useful examples and problems that demonstrate
the application of the theory presented in the text. A solu-
tions manual is available; however, it presents solutions to
less than half of the problems, and some of the solutions are
cursory. As the book is adopted for courses, the solutions
manual should become more complete. A nice feature of the
solutions manual is that it contains errata to the text.
Whether the emphasis of an introductory course is on
process engineering analysis or on process materials sci-
ence, the two topics should not be taught separately. Skill in
engineering analysis and knowledge of processes and mate-
rials are essential to semiconductor materials process engi-
neers. Whereas previous texts have fallen short on engineer-
ing analysis, this text falls short on processes and materials.
For example, the space allotted to metal deposition by evapo-
ration and production of high-purity chemicals might be
more effectively used for information on specific processes
and materials properties and performance.
The text has been adopted for use in the introductory
semiconductor materials processing class offered in the De-
partment of Chemical, Bio, & Materials Engineering at Ari-
zona State University for the fall of 1995. This is a three-
semester-hour course designed for undergraduate and gradu-
ate students. Students with majors other than chemical engi-
neering also take the course, particularly students majoring
in materials engineering. Wolf and Tauber's text has been
used as the class text in previous semesters, with supplemen-
tal notes covering process engineering analyses. In the fall
1995 semester, Wolf and Tauber and instructor notes will
provide information on specific processes and materials prop-
erties. Having the more mathematically oriented information
provided in the reviewed text should be particularly benefi-
cial and enlightening to the non-chemical engineering ma-
jors in the class. 0









Graduate Education




CHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING

A Logical Combination



KIMBERLY L. OGDEN, THOMAS W. PETERSON, JENNIFER L. SINCLAIR
University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721


An often-debated subject among academia's engi-
neers who are conducting environmental research is
what to do with environmental engineering. Where
does it belong in the engineering curriculum? What are the
"core" environmental engineering subjects? Should the "first
degree" in environmental engineering be a Bachelor's de-
gree or a Master's degree?
While many engineering schools have chosen to combine
environmental engineering with civil engineering to address
these issues, at the University of Arizona we have taken a
different approach by merging environmental engineering
with chemical engineering. This unique merger was initiated
on July 1, 1993. As the difficult environmental problems
facing this country and the world shift from a focus on "end-
of-pipe" solutions to a focus on process modifications for
pollution prevention and waste minimization, engineers with
process and unit operations backgrounds will become in-
creasingly important. For this reason, environmental engi-
neering education within the context of a chemical engineer-
ing department is a logical organizational structure. So too,
the emphasis on the chemistry and transport processes in
many aspects of environmental concern points to chemical
engineering as a logical department within which to align
environmental engineering.
Two very important advantages exist in a combined pro-
gram of this type:
Environmental engineering is taught from a chemical
engineering perspective, focusing particularly on process
design and control in industrial applications and their
environmental impact
Chemical engineers are taught that environmental concerns
are not an "aside" in the design process, but rather must be
considered from the outset, just as safety and economic issues
are
Many of the environmental research concerns of today are
directed toward problems of air and groundwater transport,
@ Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1995


chemistry, and physics. Numerous departments (including
chemical engineering, civil engineering, hydrology and wa-
ter resources, and mining/geological engineering) have ma-
jor research efforts in these areas. But industries and govern-
mental agencies with environmental mandates are concen-
trating ever more substantial efforts in the areas of pollution
prevention and minimization. To properly address these is-
sues, a process engineering approach must be taken. The
concept of environmental management and control must
become part and parcel of an engineer's education from the
outset; design courses, unit operations, reaction engineering,
and transport phenomena all must be taught with consider-
ation for the environmental impact of the overall process (as
well as safety, economics, quality control, etc.).
A phrase in industry describing this new paradigm is "de-
sign for environmentability," or DFE. Many engineering

Kimberly Ogden has been Assistant Profes-
sor in the ChEE Department at the University
of Arizona since 1992. She obtained her PhD
from Colorado and is very active in the college's
outreach activities to future engineering stu-
dents.





Thomas Peterson is Professor and Head of
the ChEE Department at the University of
Arizona. He has been on the faculty at UA
since 1977. He received his PhD from Caltech.




Jennifer Sinclair has been Associate Profes-
sor in the ChEE Department at the University
of Arizona since the summer of 1995. Prior to
joining the faculty at UA, she was Associate
Professor of Chemical Engineering at Carnegie
Mellon University. She holds a PhD from
i Princeton University.


Chemical Engineering Education










Graduate Education


fields provide varying levels of emphasis in the process or
unit operations fields-chemical engineering is not alone.
But no engineering field is more deeply rooted or more
thoroughly exposed to the fundamental process engineering
principles and applications than is chemical engineering.
It is apparent that a great deal of syner-
gism is possible by combining environ-
mental and chemical engineering pro- As the
grams into one department. Not only are enviro.
similar research objectives more readily problems
pursued, but graduate and undergraduate country an
students also have the opportunity to pur- shiftfron
sue engineering degrees identified directly -
with the environmental field, drawing on end-of-pil
the expertise of faculty with both chemi- to a focus
cal engineering and environmental engi- modific
neering perspectives, pollution
First we will describe the key elements and
for a successful merging of two existing minim
programs, and second, representative re-
search and coursework areas related to engineers
environmental issues will be detailed. Fi- and unit
nally, examples of new directions in re- backgrt
search and curriculum development within become i
a combined chemical/environmental en- impo
gineering program will be given. desc
describe
KEY ELEMENTS FOR eleme
A SUCCESSFUL MERGER success


diffic
nmen
facin
d the
a foc
pe" so
on pi
nations
preve
waste
izatio
.nlth 1


oper
und
cre


ethi
its
d mI
emi
mne


ams


11
n

I'
n




i


Reorganizations and mergers of depart- of two [ch
ments, especially involving smaller de- enviro
apartments, are commonplace as universi-
ties continue to study alternative struc- engieern
tures to reduce administrative overhead, progr
But any merger of this type must make
sense from a programmatic point of view.
The successful merger of existing and well-established chemi-
cal and environmental engineering programs requires
certain key elements. The merger at the UA involved
two programs that were each in existence for over thirty
years. While specific circumstances will obviously vary
from one institution to another, success is greatly enhanced
if the following factors are a part of the current admin-
istrative structure:
Faculty in both programs are totally supportive of the
merger. Each faculty member recognizes the benefits from
such a merger, even if it may not directly affect his/her
research, teaching responsibilities, etc.
A large portion of the faculty are involved in complementary
research programs. Collaborative research can certainly be
conducted across departmental boundaries, but having
complementary research projects involving chemical- and
environmental-engineering faculty within the same depart-
Fall 1995


ment greatly strengthens research activities in these areas.
SFaculty in both programs comefrom complementary
educational backgrounds. Rarely do environmental engineer-
ing graduate students have undergraduate degrees in
environmental engineering. Much more common are degrees
in "classical" engineering fields such as
chemical, civil, or mechanical engineering.
Among our environmental engineering faculty,
ult half have degrees in chemical engineering.
tal Faculty in both programs bring comparable
g this strengths to all aspects of the educational
world enterprise. All faculty are active in research,
all participate in teaching undergraduate and
;us on graduate students, and all are involved in the
lutions various service aspects of the program,
including outreach to pre-college students
ocesS and the community. At Arizona, the research
for activities of the department (about $2 million
nationn annually) equitably support both chemical
and environmental engineering graduate
? study, and a strong and rigorous undergradu-
in, ate chemical engineering program exists
S,,-, (over 260 students).


The newl formed program has the strong
rations
support of the College, especially the Dean.
S will In reorganizing existing programs, strong
singly administrative leadership is a prerequisite to
will dealing smoothly with issues such as space
we and resource reallocation, faculty gover-
3 key nance, etc.
or a The university offers an MS program that is
more than a "consolation prize." As will be
e g described below, the MS program is most often
cal and the "entry level" degree in environmental
ntal engineering. Providing a rigorous research and
sig coursework curriculum at the MS level is
existing difficult if the MS program at an institution is
. predominately a vehicle for students who cannot
complete the PhD program. In the Arizona
program, approximately half of the seventy
graduate students in chemical and environmental engineering
initially pursue a rigorous, research-oriented MS as the first
graduate degree.
RESEARCH ACTIVITIES
In this section we will discuss ongoing research activities
at the University of Arizona. These research topics are repre-
sentative of the types of areas in which chemical and envi-
ronmental engineering can both contribute in a synergistic
fashion. These topics are typically funded by EPA, NSF,
DOE, USGS, NIH, ONR, ACS, water utilities, local govern-
mental agencies and various utilities, consulting firms, and
industries. At the UA, about one-third of our research sup-
port comes from industry.

Transport Through Porous Media
Capillary Phase Separation and Transport of Hydro-
phobic Contaminants in Microporous Sorbents Nu-
235









Graduate Education


medical modeling of contaminant transport and aquifer
remediation suffers from a deficiency of inadequate descrip-
tion of soil-contaminant interactions. Past models have at-
tempted to describe soil particles as porous spheres charac-
terized by representative, average properties. This research
investigates the effects of intra-particle micropores smaller
than 30 A in diameter on contaminant desorption rates and
adsorption/desorption hysteresis.
Microbial Transport The attenuation of suspended mi-
croorganisms during advective flow through porous media
is of environmental interest from the perspectives of disease
transmission, dispersion of microbes with novel metabolic
properties for in-situ remediation of hazardous wastes, oil
field repressurization, and origin of bacteria in deep subsur-
face habitats. Of particular interest are the effects of chemi-
cally modifying bacterial surfaces, air sparging, iron content
in sediments, groundwater chemistry, and NAPLs (non-aque-
ous phase liquids) in groundwater on bacterial transport in
both saturated and unsaturated soils. A novel method in
which bacteria are labelled with radioisotopes is used to
study these and other aspects of bacterial transport.
Optimization of Pumping Rates and Extraction Well
Spacing During Contaminated Aquifer Remediation *
Laboratory-measured mass transfer parameters are used for
the optimization of pumping rates and extraction well
spacing during contaminated aquifer remediation. Rates of
TCE desorption from aquifer sediments obtained from a
local Superfund site are measured to determine the effect
of intra-granular mass transfer limitations on contam-
inant remediation. Numerical modeling is used to optimize
pumping rates, thereby reducing the volume of water
requiring treatment.

Bioremediation
Biodegradation of Aromatic Chemicals Biological treat-
ment of highly toxic aromatic compounds is a cost-effective
method of pollutant destruction. Current research focuses
include: biodegradation of BTEX (benzene, toluene,
ethylbenzene, and xylene) by chlorate-reducing microorgan-
isms (those anaerobic microorganisms capable of using chlo-
rate as an electron acceptor); pentachlorophenol degradation
by various species of white rot fungi, and cometabolic deg-
radation of high-energy explosives.
Anaerobic Bacterial Respiration As in higher organ-
isms, respiration is among the primary avenues of energy
generation by bacteria. But bacteria are frequently able to
respire anaerobically by substituting a variety of terminal
electron acceptors for molecular oxygen. Denitrification is
an example of such a process. In this case, nitrate ion serves
as an external electron acceptor for respiration. Work has
centered on the use of alternate electron acceptors such as
ferric and manganic oxides for bacterial respiration.


Fixed-Film Bioreactors The degradation of wastewa-
ters in fixed-film bioreactors, such as trickling filters, is
limited by the mass flux of organic components into the
biofilm. Computer models of trickling filters have been de-
veloped that use the size distribution of biodegradable dis-
solved organic compounds in wastewaters. Procedures have
been developed to separate soluble organic matter present in
wastewater into apparent molecular weight fractions using
ultrafiltration techniques. Biodegradability of size fraction-
ated organic is determined using BOD and HBOD tests.
The HBOD Test The biodegradability of wastewaters


Associate Professor Bob Arnold and graduate student
Kara Warren study microbial transport through
porous media.

entering and leaving every wastewater treatment plant in the
country is evaluated using a cumbersome and time-consum-
ing dilution technique developed in the early 1900s called
the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) test. We have
developed a new method of determining BOD, called the
Headspace BOD (HBOD) test, that is based on sealing known
volumes of air in the headspace of test tubes.
Combined Adsorbent-Oxidation Processes The capa-
bilities of activated carbon to remove a wide range of or-
ganic molecules even in dilute solution is well documented.
Our research focuses on biological activity on the exterior of
activated carbon surfaces, the combinatorial use of sorption
and oxidation, both chemically and biologically, and the
maximization of the pollutant removal capability of each
unit process while minimizing system processing costs.

Oxidative-Reductive Methods for Remediation
Remediation of Chlorinated Groundwater Contami-
nants via Reductive Dechlorination Metallic iron may
serve as a reductant for the dehalogenation of chlorinated
contaminants in aqueous systems. For many contaminants,
such as TCE, the available iron surface area limits the rate of
Chemical Engineering Education









' Graduate Education


Assistant Professor Kimberly Ogden (right) and PhD
student Doug Young determine the rate of
degradation of TNT by bacteria.

transformation, and extended contact periods on the order of
days are required to achieve practical levels of transforma-
tion. By employing high specific surface area iron-impreg-
nated silica gels, and palladized iron in column reactors, the
rates of transformation can be increased. This research ex-
amines the potential application of these iron-impregnated
silica gels and palladized iron for use in in-situ wellbore
reactors and surface treatment systems.
Subsurface Remediation Using Air Sparging The in-
jection of air directly into contaminated aquifers, termed air
sparging, can accelerate the rate of aquifer remediation. In
laboratory column experiments, we are determining mass
transfer coefficients for air sparging by measuring the ef-
fects of sparging on remediation times of NAPLs in con-
taminated porous media.
Membrane Processes Filtration processes employing
microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse os-
mosis are subject to fouling with concomitant loss of pro-
ductivity and permeate quality. Therefore, proper pretreat-
ment of membrane process influent is essential. Reduction
in fouling potential by particle electric charge manipulation,
partial oxidation of polymeric materials of both natural and
man-made origin, and use of various filtration devices will
provide the required level of pretreatment. Research into the
proper selection and sequence of unit processes is an ongo-
ing area of study.

Chemical/Physical Methods for Remediation
Heterogeneous Catalysis Adsorbed toxic or hazardous
compounds are converted to innocuous compounds using
either solar or synthetic illumination to photoexcite surfaces
such as semiconductors (e.g., titanium dioxide). Solar para-
bolic troughs and laboratory-size reactors with ultraviolet
Fall 1995


lights are employed to study reaction mechanisms. Inactiva-
tion of microbials, especially viruses, has been demonstrated
to be a viable treatment option in drinking-water production.
Polishing Wastewater Effluents Using Soil-Aquifer
Treatment Indirect potable reuse of treated wastewater is
a strategy for meeting projected water supply needs in semi-
arid regions like the American Southwest. Such reuse relies
upon natural biochemical and physical processes that ac-
company percolation of treated wastewaters through
unsaturated sediments and subsequent transport through
aquifer material. Work investigates the mechanisms by which
soil-aquifer treatment removes and/or transforms residual
organic, nitrogen species, and pathogens or indicator
organisms from treated wastewater during simulations of
soil-aquifer treatment.
Chemical and Biological Destruction of Explosives and
Propellants Demilitarization agreements require the dis-
posal of weapons that contain mixtures of explosives and
metals. A combined process involving base hydrolysis and
biodegradation is currently being investigated. To date, solid
explosives consisting of TNT (2,4,6-trinitro-toluene), HMX
(1,3,5,7-tetra-aza-l,3,5,7,tetranitrocyclo octane), and RDX
(hexahydro 1,3,5 trinitro 1,3,5 triazine) have been studied.
Recovery and Recycle of Metals Metals are frequently
removed from industrial waste streams with nonselective
resins or polymers. Specific water soluble chelators are be-
ing developed for recovery of arsenic and proteins. Kinetic
binding rates and transport of these chelators in porous me-
dia are under investigation.

Combustion-Generated Air Pollutants

NOx Abatement by Combustion Modification In the
combustion of fossil fuels, a large fraction of the NOx origi-
nates from fuel-nitrogen, and the fuel stoichiometric ratio
plays a major role in determining NOx levels. Research
on the fundamental mechanisms of NOx formation has
helped elucidate the role stoichiometric ratio plays. Practical
control strategies, such as low-NOx burners, returning,
and combined thermal/catalytic methods are being studied
and developed.
Thermal Treatment of Hazardous Wastes Incinera-
tion has received substantial negative publicity as a pollution
control methodology, in spite of its proven success in treat-
ing a large class of hazardous wastes. Research focuses on
methods for scaling up models describing gas phase tran-
sient mixing. Particular emphasis is placed on products of
incomplete combustion (pics) and toxic metals emissions.
Mechanisms and Control of Toxic Metals from Coal
Combustion As with incineration of municipal and haz-
ardous wastes, the combustion of pulverized coal potentially
generates airborne toxic metals, particularly from more vola-









Graduate Education


tile species such as alkalis, Pb, and Hg. Emissions potential
is influenced in part by interactions between the various
inorganic constituents in the coal. Additionally, at various
stages in the combustion process, inorganic sorbents that
interact with more volatile species can be added, rendering
those species more easily collectable by conventional pollu-
tion control devices.

Pollution Prevention by Industrial
Process Modifications
Traditionally, semiconductor manufacturing has been con-
sidered a light, modern, and clean industry with little envi-
ronmental impact. This has led to a high density of this
industry in the west and the southwest areas of the US where
water is scarce. Until recently, the usage was small and the
treatments were considered adequate. But the water usage
has increased significantly, and the potential contamination
by a variety of chemicals is also increasing.
The long-terms goal of our research program is to develop
the tools and techniques needed to overcome the technical
obstacles and problems of water recycle. We have presented
a systematic and realistic strategy for implementation of
water recycling in semiconductor fabs in three "phases" and
the research/development plan needed for each phase. The
specific objectives are: 1) characterization of key impurity
compositions; 2) development of new purification methods
for removing recalcitrant impurities; 3) optimization of puri-
fication methods in each recycling phase; 4) simulating the
dynamics of contaminant distributions and the effect of re-
cycle; 5) recovery and reuse of certain process chemicals.

COURSEWORK IN ENVIRONMENTAL TOPICS
A chemical and environmental engineering department
should offer a variety of courses with an environmental
emphasis. Both required and elective courses should stress
fundamental concepts in chemical engineering. An MS or
PhD student in chemical engineering typically begins the
program with courses in the fundamental areas of transport
phenomena, thermodynamics, and kinetics. Similarly, a
student entering the environmental engineering MS or
PhD program begins with a set of required courses focusing
on transport phenomena, water chemistry, microbiology for
hazardous waste treatment, water treatment, wastewater
treatment, and water reclamation and reuse. In addition to
required courses, a number of elective courses with an
environmental focus should be available to students in
both programs.
A major research focus of the department has been air
pollution and aerosols, and graduate-level courses relating to
these fields are regularly offered. The aerosols course fo-
cuses on those processes that give rise to, and influence the
behavior of, particulate pollutants in the atmosphere and in
industrial processes. One aspect of the combustion course


deals with pollutants generated from all types of combustion
processes. Finally, the air pollution course presents a broad
perspective on the atmospheric transport and chemistry of
air pollutants.
Another typical focus in an environmental program is
biocolloid transport and bioremediation. A course on bio-
degradation of hazardous materials is offered. It discusses
the chemical and microbiological considerations that affect
the thermodynamics and kinetics of hazardous waste trans-
formations. Two more general biotechnology courses are
also offered, one in bioreactor engineering and the other in
bioseparations. The bioreactor course covers both pharma-
ceutical applications of bioreactor theory and biodegrada-
tion processes. The bioseparations course also integrates
biotechnology and environmental remediation.
The last area of environmental electives involves environ-
mental policy and law. One course, Introduction to Haz-
ardous Waste, covers all aspects of liquid and solid hazard-
ous waste treatment and disposal. Another course, Law for
Engineers and Scientists, covers a multitude of legal mat-
ters important to chemical and environmental engineers.
Faculty routinely offer one-credit seminar courses for
graduate students. Recent seminars have been in combustion
engineering, bioreactors, bioseparations, ultrapure water and
gas, electrochemical transport, and anaerobic respiration by
facultative anaerobes.

NEW RESEARCH THRUSTS
In order to bring prominence to a merged chemical and
environmental engineering program, it is important to estab-
lish an identifiable research thrust on which many of the
faculty can focus. One major departmental initiative in the
past five years has been in developing the expertise to apply
DFE tools to the microelectronics/semiconductor industry.
In semiconductor fabrication, the manufacture, use, and fi-
nal disposition of each device must be considered with re-
gard to its environmental impact. In order to effectively
accomplish this, semiconductor device manufacturers must
develop a specific set of measurable quantities that define
improvements in DFE objectives and develop the expertise
(through DFE tools) to assess specific DFE objectives.
At the top of the list of desirable assessment tools for DFE
are material and energy balance models. Unlike many other
industries, the semiconductor industry is not routinely able
to balance energy and material usage around either indi-
vidual manufacturing tools or around the entire factory. For
example, quantitative chemical usage in plasma etch sys-
tems is not well understood. While chemical input rates can
be readily obtained, estimation of usage within the process
and subsequent discharge of unused chemicals or chemical
by-products is sometimes difficult. Process models, verified
by selected measurements, must be developed in order to


Chemical Engineering Education










GrdaeEdcto


reliably close energy and material balances around the indi-
vidual processes and the fab as a whole.
In addition to developing reliable material and energy
balance models, real-time metrology/monitoring methods
are also being developed. By so doing, process-specific opti-
mization and control strategies can be incorporated.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN EDUCATION
As stated previously, the primary objective in a merger of
this type should be to broaden the perspective of under-
graduate and graduate students. At the University of Arizona
we have an exciting opportunity to be a model that many
other chemical engineering departments can follow. In order
to enhance the education of our students, we plan on effect-
ing innovations that all have as a common theme the in-
creased integration of the chemical and environmental engi-
neering disciplines. Formal lines delineating the two disci-
plines will become more and more blurred with time. This
change will take place via several avenues:
1. Initiating a minor program in environmental engineering for our
BS chemical engineering recipients.
Based on extended discussion with our Industrial
Advisory Committee and their subsequent recommenda-
tion, we have decided not to initiate a BS Environmental
Engineering program. According to the IAC, BS
chemical engineering recipients with an environmental
engineering focus would be capable of tackling a
broader range of problems in industry than students with
the more focused environmental engineering degree. A
four-course environmental engineering option is already
available within a BS chemical engineering program at
UA, and a minor will be available within the next
academic year.
2. Offering more core chemical engineering courses taught by the
environmental engineering faculty and more environmental engi-
neering courses taught by the chemical engineering faculty.
Our level of educational success and effectiveness will
depend on a paradigm shift in the attitude of our faculty,
e.g., a shift that eliminates the mindset dictating that
chemical engineers teach only chemical engineering
courses and environmental engineers teach only environ-
mental engineering courses. An open and receptive
attitude toward these changes prevails in our relatively
young department and faculty.
3. Increasing the number of joint projects that involve both chemi-
cal and environmental engineering students and faculty.
Already a number of faculty from both sides have
successfully proposed collaborative research projects.
The two most recently funded joint efforts involve work
on Superfund (supported by NIEHS) and on bacterial
transport in porous media (supported by DOE). These
joint projects afford a number of positive benefits to the
education of our students and to the quality of our
research program. First, students are exposed to the
Fall 1995


systems approach to research in which different perspec-
tives are brought to the table in order to solve an
engineering problem. Second, students have the
opportunity to perform research in teams and to gain that
experience in academia before entering industry. Finally,
our current projects have benefited in terms of the way
research results are analyzed and additional insight is
gained through the collaboration between chemical and
environmental engineers.
4. Expanding our seminar series that focuses on environmental
concerns in chemical engineering design.
For the past two years our weekly seminar series has been
equally populated by chemical and environmental
engineering speakers. This year, particular topical
emphasis will be given to areas such as environmental
concerns in the microelectronics industry since the bulk
of this industry is located in the southwestern United
States, and much of our ongoing environmental research
is applied to this industry.

SUMMARY
The combination of chemical and environmental engi-
neering is indeed a logical decision. Our department has
already seen added benefits by formalizing the tie between
the two disciplines. Benefits from this merger include an
increase in the number of research projects involving joint
supervision of students, a breakdown of the artificial barriers
that often typically exist between departments (i.e., barriers
that inhibit communication and a free flow of ideas), and a
blending of the teaching responsibilities between the chemi-
cal and environmental engineering faculty.
At the beginning of this article we asked a number of
questions regarding the role of chemical engineering in an
environmental engineering education. We have tried to show
that environmental engineering can be an ideal complemen-
tary discipline for the chemical engineer, both at the under-
graduate and graduate levels. At the undergraduate level,
chemical engineering students are exposed to environmental
concerns in the design process and learn to incorporate these
factors from the outset. At the graduate level, the additional
perspective gained by chemical and environmental engi-
neers addressing the same research problem is invaluable.
Core subjects, in our opinion, expose students to the prin-
ciples of water and wastewater treatment, air pollution, haz-
ardous waste treatment, environmental biology, and envi-
ronmental transport phenomena.
We believe that the formation of a Chemical and Environ-
mental Engineering Department at the University of Arizona
presents unique opportunities to significantly influence the
education of our students. Additionally, our program can
serve as a model for change in terms of the role of environ-
mental concerns in chemical engineering design and process
control and the education of environmental engineers from a
chemical engineering perspective. O


239


Graduate


Education











re, R1class and home problems




The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collections of interesting and
problems in chemical engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the sti
by presenting a particular principle in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a
home problem, are requested, as well as those that are more traditional in nature and v
elucidate difficult concepts. Please submit them to Professor James O. Wilkes (e-i
wilkes@engin.umich.edu) or Mark A. Burs (e-mail: maburns@engin.umich.edu), Chei
Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136.




DISTILLATION COLUMN

PERFORMANCE


JOSEPH A. SHAEIWITZ
West Virginia University Morgantown, WV 26506-6102


Performance problems involve determination of new
output conditions based on the response of existing
equipment to changes in process input. The strategies
used in approaching problems involving existing equipment
differ significantly from those used in equipment design.
Performance problem solutions require an understanding of
how operating units behave over a range of operating condi-
tions. Additionally, performance problems complement de-
sign problems as part of undergraduate chemical engineer-
ing education. While design problems allow students to be
creative in solving open-ended problems involving a new
process, performance problems allow students to be creative
within the constraints of existing equipment operation.
The problem presented here combines aspects of distilla-
tion and heat transfer. As such, it is suitable for either a
separations class taken after heat transfer, or for a capstone
design class. It forces students to use knowledge usually
gained from two separate courses. Examples of performance
problems based on material learned in a single course are
presented elsewhere."'

PROBLEM )

Consider the distillation column illustrated in Figure 1.
The feed consists of phthalic anhydride (pa) and maleic
anhydride (ma) to be separated into essentially pure prod-


Joseph A. Shaeiwitz received his degrees in
chemical engineering from the University of
Delaware (BS in 1974) and Carnegie Mellon
University (MS in 1976 and PhD in 1978). His
research interests are in design, design educa-
tion, and outcomes assessment in higher edu-
cation.

ucts. The distillation column operates under vacuum and
consists of 33 real sieve trays. (The vacuum conditions,
typical in industry, are not relevant to this problem; al-
though, the low absolute pressures make for an interesting
design problem.) The reflux ratio is 0.27, the tray spacing is
12 inches, and the trays have 2-inch weirs.
In order to estimate the temperatures at the top and bottom
of the column, the bottom product may be assumed to be
pure, saturated phthalic anhydride at 30 kPa (T=233C) and
the distillate may be assumed to be pure, saturated maleic
anhydride at 11 kPa (T=1300C). The saturation temperatures
are not generally given to the student with the problem. The
values shown in parentheses were calculated by interpolat-
ing tabulated data.12' Cooling water is used in the condenser
and under current operating conditions enters at 300C and
leaves at 450C. High pressure, saturated steam at 254C
(4.24 MPa) is used in the reboiler, and it leaves as saturated


@ Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1995


Chemical Engineering Education


novel
dent
novel
ihich
mail:
nical










liquid at the same temperature and pressure.
The problem is to scale down production by 50%. How
can this be accomplished? What must the new operating
conditions be in order to maintain product purity with only
half of the process throughput?

( SOLUTION

An attractive strategy is to maintain the same reflux ratio
in the column, thereby reducing the heat duties of both the
condenser and reboiler by 50%. The outlet temperatures of
all streams from the condenser and reboiler will be affected.
Furthermore, due to the 50% decrease of the process side
flowrates in both the condenser and the reboiler, the overall
heat transfer coefficients may also be affected. It is neces-
sary to analyze simultaneously the energy balance and the
performance (design) equation for each heat exchanger in
order to determine the proper operating conditions.
It turns out that analysis of the reboiler is best done first.
Assuming that pure phthalic anhydride vaporizes in the
reboiler, the energy balances for the original case, with sub-
script 1, are

Q1 = ,stm stm (1)
Q1 =lpapa (2)
and the performance equation is
Q1 = UIAAT, (3)
where the logarithmic mean driving force has been replaced
by the linear driving force in Eq. (3) because the tempera-


Figure 1. Distillation column for performance
problem.
Fall 1995


tures on both sides of the heat exchanger are constant. The
exact same relationships can be written for the scaled-down
case, with subscript 2.
The next step is to take the ratio of the heat duty in the
scaled-down case to that for the original case. Here it is
assumed that the latent heats remain constant over the range
of conditions considered. It is also assumed that the overall
heat transfer coefficient remains constant because individual
boiling and condensation heat transfer coefficients are not
strong functions of flowrate. It is further assumed that the
reboiler is in the natural convection (low temperature differ-
ence) boiling regime (h AT1/4) so that the boiling heat
transfer coefficient is not a strong function of the tempera-
ture difference. From the energy balances, the results are

2 2,stm m2,pa
= 0.5 = -2stm (4)
QI mil,stm l,pa
meaning that since the heat duties are reduced by 50% due to
the reduction in the phthalic anhydride flowrate, only half
the steam flowrate is required. From the performance equa-
tion, the result is

0.5 2 2AT2 AT2 (5)
Q, UIAAT1 21
which means that AT, is 10.50C. Therefore, in order to
reduce the vaporization of pa by 50%, AT in the reboiler
must be reduced by 50%, which can be accomplished in two
ways. The high-pressure steam feed could be throttled to
whatever lower pressure would result in a temperature of
243.50C, or the column pressure could be adjusted so that
the saturated phthalic anhydride is at 243.50C. The second
possibility will be pursued, and the resulting pressure at the
bottom of the column is 39 kPa. The temperature profiles for
the reboiler are illustrated in Figure 2.



high pressure steam 2540C



reboiled pa scaled-down case
T ------------- 243.50C



reboiled pa original case
233C




Q
Figure 2. Temperature profiles for original and
scaled-down cases for reboiler.


distillate
pure ma









Bottoms
pure pa










It is now necessary to calculate the pressure at the top of
the column. If the height of liquid on the tray, which is
determined primarily by the weir height, is assumed to be
the only contribution to the pressure drop, the column pres-
sure drop remains constant at 19 kPa, and the new pressure
at the top of the column is 20 kPa. But if the contributions of
the height of the liquid over the weir or of the pressure losses
through the holes in the sieve trays are included, the result is
not so simple, but can be calculated.?~ In order to proceed,
the column pressure drop is assumed to be constant. There-
fore, the temperature of the saturated maleic anhydride at the
top of the column is now 147C.
The condenser analysis is more complex than the reboiler
analysis because the cooling-water heat transfer coefficient
is affected by changes in cooling-water flowrate. A reason-
able simplifying assumption is that the limiting resistance in
the condenser is on the cooling-water side, so the overall
heat transfer coefficient equals the cooling-water-side heat
transfer coefficient. Therefore, for turbulent flow, and as-
suming the water flows on the tube side, the overall heat
transfer coefficient scales with the 0.8 power of the cooling-
water flowrate.
For the condenser, the energy balances for the original
case, subscript 1, are

Q1 = wCp (Tout Tin) = rllma(ma (6)

and the performance equation is

Q1 = UAAT1,n (7)

We observe that, for the original case, AT,,n = 92.3C. If the
same equations are written for the scaled-down case, sub-
script 2, and if the ratio of the heat duty for the scaled-down
case to that for the original case is taken, the results are


05= cw (T2ou -30)
il.cw(15)

0.5 =UAT2
U,(92.3)


for the energy balance and the performance equation, re-
spectively. By defining


.2,cw
S- cw
m.cw


and since U rho08, it can be seen that


U2 = 08 (11)
UI

The resulting two equations to be solved simultaneously are


0.5 =s2o -30)
15


05 s(30 T2 t)
147 Tout
92.3 en ,1 out
S117


The results are
s = 0.35
T = 51C
Therefore, the outlet cooling water is at a higher tempera-
ture, and the cooling-water rate must be reduced by more
than the 50% scale-down factor. The temperature profiles
for the condenser are illustrated in Figure 3.

Discussion

When first confronted with performance problems such as
this one, students are often befuddled by the lack of data.
They often spend most of their time worrying about how to
calculate parameters and physical properties based on the
original case that remain unchanged in the new case. The
physical-property values will not change significantly as
long as the process disturbance does not change the tempera-
ture or pressure by a large amount. Therefore, it is usually a
good idea to go over some simpler cases to illustrate that
numerical values for data are not needed as long as the
dependence on key process variables is known, and to illus-


condensing ma scaled-down case
147C

condensing ma original case
130C


T


cooling water scaled-down case 51 C

----450C
30oc
cooling water original case


Q

Figure 3. Temperature profiles for original and scaled-
down cases for condenser.


Chemical Engineering Education











trate how physical properties remain constant over the range
of small process disturbances. The important point to illus-
trate is the use of the ratio of the heat duty in the new case to
that in the old case. Then it is seen that physical properties,
which are assumed invariant, drop out of the ratio. It can
also be shown that the ratios are actually easier to imple-
ment when using the LMTD method, as was used here,
rather than the NTU method, even though the NTU method
is often touted as the method of choice when outlet tempera-
tures are unknown.
Students initially have two other misconceptions when
confronted with this type of problem. One is the use of the
energy balance alone, without the performance (design) equa-
tion. A key point is that there is existing equipment that
behaves in accordance with the performance equation. There-
fore, this equation must be included in the analysis.
The second misconception deals with the area of the heat
exchanger. Another way to pose the problem is to ask whether
the equipment can be used after the upset conditions, subject
to a constraint. Let us assume that the constraint for the
condenser is that the cooling-water return temperature may
not exceed 500C. A typical, initial student solution is to
calculate the condenser area needed for the new case with
the exit cooling-water temperature set to 500C. If the
calculated area is less than the existing area, then it is
assumed that the equipment can be used. This is not
true, however, since the solution to the problem shows that
actual equipment performance will result in a temperature
violating the constraint.
This type of problem can also be used as a creativity
exercise since there are several ways to respond to the need
for scale-down. As has already been seen (in the reboiler),
the need to reduce the temperature difference can be accom-
plished by raising the pressure at the bottom of the column
or by throttling the steam. Another possible response is to
increase the reflux ratio to maintain constant flows and heat
loads through the reboiler and condenser. Increasing the
reflux ratio will result in increased product purity, which
should not be a problem. Of course, this is not an economi-
cally attractive solution since the energy cost would remain
constant with only half of the product revenue generated.

NOMENCLATURE
A heat exchanger area (m')
C heat capacity (kJ/kgC)
rh mass flowrate (kg/sec)
Q heat duty (W)
s parameter defined in Eq. (10)
T temperature (oC)
k latent heat (kJ/kg)
subscripts
1 refers to "original" case
2 refers to "new" case
cw cooling water


refers to log mean temperature difference
maleic anhydride
refers to outlet temperature
phthalic anhydride
steam


REFERENCES
1. Bailie, R.C., and J.A. Shaeiwitz, "Performance Problems,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 28, 198 (1994)
2. Perry, R.H., and D. Green, Perry's Chemical Engineer's Hand-
book, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, pp 3-57, 3-59
(1984)
3. McCabe, W.L., J.C. Smith, and P. Harriott, Unit Operations
of Chemical Engineering, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York,
NY, pp 560-568 (1993) 1




book review



PROCESS HEAT TRANSFER
by G.F. Hewitt, G.L. Shires, T.R. Bott
Published by Begell House, CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd.,
Boca Raton, FL 33431; 1042 pages, $75 (1994)

Reviewed by
Stuart W. Churchill
The University of Pennsylvania

The first two authors are located at Imperial College of
Science, Technology and Medicine, and the third at the
University of Birmingham. Despite their academic posi-
tions, they are well known for their expertise in applied heat
transfer.
The objective of the authors is stated in the Preface to be
S. to provide a book that will serve as a textbook at the
undergraduate and postgraduate level and that can also
serve as a general source of information for engineers in
the process industry.
In the view of this reviewer, the book completely misses
the target in the first respect, but is a worthwhile contribu-
tion in the second. The long second chapter on "Mechanisms
of Heat Transfer" is intended to provide a background in the
fundamental aspects as an introduction to students and as a
review and source of reference for practitioners. The treat-
ment is inferior to that of most true textbooks on heat trans-
fer and even to that in competitive books, such as the Heat
Exchange Design Handbook."' Since most curricula in the
United States offer only limited instruction in the detailed
design of heat exchangers, this book does not appear to have
much of a role as a textbook in that context either. It will,
however, be an essential reference book for courses in pro-
cess design at both the undergraduate and postgraduate lev-
els.
Continued on page 275.


Fall 1995












Random Thoughts...




MEET YOUR STUDENTS

6. Tony and Frank


RICHARD M. FIELDER
North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695-7905


Tony and Frank are second-year chemical engineering
students. They knew each other in high school and
have worked on homework and studied for tests to-
gether since they started college. Both of them got high
averages in their first year and scored in the low 80s on the
first stoichiometry test, but on the second test Tony got a 47
and Frank a 53, by far the lowest test grades either had ever
received. The day after they got their tests back they met in
the student lounge to start on the next homework assign-
ment, which is where we find them.
Tony: "OK, look at Problem 1 we got benzene and nitrogen
coming in and we're cooling and condensing, so we'll probably
have to..."
Frank: "I still don't know why Talbot took off 20 points in Problem
2. He had to see that I knew how to do it but I just ran out of
time."
T: "Get a grip-it's only one test grade... I figured out that if we get
somewhere in the high 80s or 90s on the next test and the final,
with our homework grade figured in we can easily pull Bs and
maybe even get up to ..."
F: "&#%$&, Tony-there are bleeding bodies all over the place and
you go into calculator mode! The point is that I knew that stuff
cold and got trashed anyway-I could have come in knowing
nothing, written pure garbage, and gotten the same lousy five
points for that problem. I'm working my butt off here-I even
spent three hours the day before the test tutoring Helen and those
friends of hers who flunked the first test, and all I get for it is..."
T: "You sound like my girlfriend--'Don't get logical with me,' she
says every time she's losing an argument. Look, we're in engi-
neering, not psychology ... an engineer designs something and
either gets it right or wrong, and if it's wrong they don't give him
partial credit and pat him on the back for how hard he worked
and neither does Talbot ... I'd rather have him any day than
Sloan with all that touchy-feely group stuff he's always dumping
on us in organic ..."
F: "Yeah, well at least Sloan treats us something like human beings
and not centrifugal pumps-all Talbot and most of these other
professors want to do is tear us down and weed us out. I've been
at this place for over a year now and I've never once had one of
them except Sloan tell me I did a good job, even when I got the
high grade in the class."
T: "Me either, but that's cool... I don't need gold stars-as long as
244


I know the rules and the rules make sense, no problem. Talbot's job
is to get us ready to be chemical engineers, not to make us feel
good, and if someone can't make the grade he should probably go
into another field because ..."
F: "I've been thinking about going into another field, to tell you the
truth-I'm not sure I need three more years of these 10-hour
assignments and all this grief from these stonefaces just so I can go
out and separate benzene from nitrogen-fat lot of good that will
do the world."
T: Come on, save the world on your own time-right now just stick a
bandaid on that bleeding heart of yours and let's see if we can draw
the flow chart for this one." (Frank starts to reply, shakes his head,
and turns to begin work on Problem 1.)
Tony is a thinker and Frank is a feeler.* Thinkers tend to
base decisions primarily on objective reasoning and will stick
to their opinions until they are proven wrong logically. People
with a strong preference for thinking are often thought of as
impartial and rational, tend to be more truthful than tactful,
and often consider strong feelers indecisive and overly senti-
mental ("Stick a bandaid on that bleeding heart!"). Feelers
are inclined to give more weight to subjective, personal con-
siderations in making decisions and place great value on build-
ing consensus and maintaining harmony. People with a strong
preference for feeling are often thought of as warm and
empathetic, tend to be more tactful than truthful, and often
consider strong thinkers insensitive and overly analytical ("At
least Sloan treats us something like human beings and not
centrifugal pumps!").
The fact that people have a preference for one judgment
mode (thinking or feeling) says nothing about their ability in

Thinking and feeling are the two poles of thejudgment or decision-
making function in Carl Jung's theory of psychological type. The
degree to which someone prefers thinking or feeling can be deter-
mined with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, a personality inven-
tory based on Jung's theory.'11 About 60% of the U.S. male popula-
tion, 77% of male engineering students, 40% of the female popula-
tion, and 61% of female engineering students show a preference for
thinking.f2' Thinking and feeling are not mutually exclusive catego-
ries but preferences that may be mild, moderate, or strong, and all
people exhibit characteristics of both types to differing degrees.
While Tony is a representative thinker and Frank a representative
feeler, not all thinkers are just like Tony and not all feelers are just
like Frank.
Chemical Engineering Education










the other mode-feelers may be logical and decisive, think-
ers may be sensitive and compassionate, and both types have
strengths that make them equally capable of becoming ex-
cellent engineers and scientists. As engineering and science
students, however, the two types have different needs and
difficulties, which manifest themselves in almost every as-
pect of education.
Course content and instructional format Most engi-
neering and science students and professors are thinkers, and
these subjects tend to be presented (incorrectly) as being free
of subjective considerations. This distortion generally poses
no problems to the thinkers, as long as the course material is
well organized and accurately presented. On the other hand,
the impersonal nature of most technical instruction may
alienate feelers, inducing them to switch to what they per-
ceive as more humanistic subjects when in fact they could
have been highly successful as engineers and scientists. Since
proportionally more women than men are feelers, this alien-
ation can have particularly unfortunate effects on the reten-
tion of women in technical fields.
The comfort level of feelers in technical courses can be
raised by (a) bringing out the social relevance of the course
material-e.g., applications to environmental or biological
sciences or to anything related to quality of life, (b) address-
ing some nontechnical topics-ethics, writing and oral pre-
sentation, teamwork and leadership skills, etc., and (c) using
student-centered instructional approaches like cooperative
learning. While the thinkers in the class may grumble about
that "touchy-feely stuff," they will tolerate it if the instructor
can explain its relevance to their career objectives-for ex-
ample, by showing them one of the many published surveys
of employers listing teamwork and communication skills at
the top of their wish list for new engineers, or by citing
research demonstrating the effectiveness of cooperative learn-
ing in promoting academic success and employability.23
Instructional policies Every course involves a large
number of policies regarding attendance, lateness, home-
work, tests, group work on assignments (forbidden, optional,
mandatory), etc. The dynamics of a course are dictated in
large measure by the degree to which the students believe
the policies are reasonable. If they don't believe it, their
resentment can make the course a dreary and unproductive
experience for everyone concerned.
Thinkers resent treatment they regard as arbitrary or un-
fair, but will adjust to almost any policy they consider ratio-
nal and consistently administered. ("As long as I know the
rules and the rules make sense, no problem. ") For example,
they may protest bitterly if instructors test them on material
in assigned readings that was never lectured on, but they will
accept it (albeit grudgingly) if the instructors announce their
intention to do so early in the course, explain why they are
doing it, and always provide a clear picture of what the
students will be held accountable for. ("You're responsible
Fall 1995


for everything in this 485-page text" doesn't quite do it.)
Feelers also benefit if the policies are made clear from the
beginning, but their buy-in depends less on the logical ratio-
nale for the policies than on a sense that the policies are
intended to help them in some way and that the instructor can
be flexible when circumstances warrant it. Some instructors
who equate supportive policies and flexibility with "spoon-
feeding" or "hand-holding" may have trouble conveying this
sense. Feelers among the students may find classes taught by
these instructors particularly difficult and stressful.
Feedback and evaluation Thinkers want to be evaluated
on the basis of what they do, feelers want to be valued for who
they are. Thinkers are quicker than feelers to criticize and
better than feelers at taking criticism as long as it seems fair to
them; feelers thrive on praise and tend to take criticism per-
sonally. Tony didn't like his low test grade but he can deal
with it since the strongly critical Professor Talbot (probably a
thinker himself) gave a fair test and graded it strictly but
consistently, while Frank takes the low test grade as a per-
sonal rejection and reacts emotionally to it. More generally,
Frank resents the fact that his professors never compliment his
good work but are always ready to point out his mistakes.
The most effective devices for helping feelers are acknowl-
edgment and praise. Feelers are strongly motivated to
perform well for instructors who can address them by name,
establish a personal rapport with them, and offer an occasional
"nice work" when they come up with a good question or
problem solution or test score. The thinkers also appreciate
compliments as long as they are really based on good work
and are not too effusive.
Epilogue: 15 years later Tony and Frank both recovered
from their initial setback in the stoichiometry course, did
extremely well throughout the rest of the curriculum, went on
to get PhDs in chemical engineering, and eventually joined
the same faculty. Tony achieved international recognition for
his research on heterogeneous catalysis and went on to be-
come department head. He has done a great deal to help build
the department's size and national reputation, although some
of his faculty find him insensitive and unappreciative of their
contributions. Frank does good research in environmental en-
gineering but in his department he is better known as an
outstanding teacher and advisor, and a large collection of
students can usually be seen outside his office door waiting to
talk to him. The two men still enjoy getting together fre-
quently. Their arguments and insults have changed very little
since they were sophomores.

REFERENCES
1. Lawrence, G., People Types and Tiger Stripes, 3rd ed., Center
for Applications of Psychological Type, Gainesville, FL (1993)
2. Wankat, P., and F.S. Oreovicz, Teaching Engineering,
McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1993)
3. McKeachie, W., Teaching Tips, 9th ed., D.C. Heath, Lexing-
ton, MA (1994) 0










e M learning in industry


This column provides examples of cases in which students have gained knowledge, insight, and
experience in the practice of chemical engineering while in an industrial setting. Summer interns and
coop assignments typify such experiences; however, reports of more unusual cases are also welcome.
Description of analytical tools used and the skills developed during the project should be emphasized.
These examples should stimulate innovative approaches to bring real world tools and experiences
back to campus for integration into the curriculum. Please submit manuscripts to Professor W. J.
Koros, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712.




THE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PRACTICE SCHOOL PROGRAM

AT TULANE UNIVERSITY

JOHN Y. WALZ
Tulane University New Orleans, LA 70118


he Chemical Engineering Practice School Program
at Tulane University was established in 1951 to serve
as a means of introducing undergraduate students to
the types of problems encountered by practicing engineers."'
The program, which consists of one six-credit course, is
required for all students during the spring semester of their
senior year. The students are divided into groups of three or
four, and each group is assigned a unique project provided
by a local industrial firm. Each group has both a faculty
advisor and an industrial contact engineer. The program thus
gives the students experience in solving an industrial prob-
lem while still under the guidance of the chemical engineer-
ing faculty. The program differs from a traditional co-op
program in that it is taken as part of the regular sequence of
courses. Unlike other programs, such as the one at M.I.T.,m2'
the Tulane program is restricted to undergraduates.

INDUSTRIAL PARTICIPATION
Probably the most important factor in the continuing suc-
cess of the program is the extensive degree of industrial
participation (being located in the heart of this country's oil
and chemical industry is, of course, helpful). The Chemical
Engineering Department maintains a pool of approximately
fifteen companies that have either previously participated in
the program or expressed a desire to do so. The current pool
is comprised of large oil and chemical companies as well as
smaller manufacturing firms. Although not a strict require-


ment, most of the companies in the pool have a facility
located within a one-hour drive of the New Orleans area.
(The students must make a minimum of two visits to the
company's facilities-at the beginning of the project for an
initial kickoff meeting and again at the end of the semester
for a final presentation of results.)
Each October, one faculty member (designated as the Prac-
tice School Coordinator) begins contacting companies in the
pool about possible participation for the spring semester.
Typically, several new companies are also contacted in or-
der to maintain a diverse and dynamic pool. The number of
projects solicited depends on the number of students who
will be participating in the program. The typical class size is
approximately thirty students (average over the past five
years) and our experience has indicated that three students
per group is about optimal. (Some of the projects involve too


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1995


Chemical Engineering Education


John Y. Walz has been an Assistant Professor
at Tulane since 1992 and is currently the Prac-
tice School Coordinator. He holds a PhD in
chemical engineering from Carnegie Mellon Uni-
versity and has six years experience in the oil
and chemical industries.











The program, which consists of one six-credit course, is required for all students during the spring
semester of their senior year. The students are divided into groups of three or four, and each group is
assigned a unique project provided by a local industrial firm. Each group has both a faculty advisor and
an industrial contact engineer... [giving] the students experience in solving an industrial problem
while still under the guidance of the chemical engineering faculty. The program differs from a
traditional co-op program in that it is taken as part of the regular sequence of courses.


much work for two students, while having four or more
students leads to uneven work loads.) Usually, several po-
tential projects are requested from each company, and the
one best suited to the program is chosen, although more than
one project per company has been used on occasion. We
stress that the most desirable projects are those that would be
of some real benefit to the company as opposed to simple
exercises. Students typically respond much better to projects
that have some actual value.
The types of projects provided are quite varied. With the
larger firms the projects are frequently those that are
"good ideas" but not of high enough priority to justify exten-
sive use of company personnel. With the increasing trend
toward downsizing, the Practice School thus provides addi-
tional resources for a company to supplement a reduced
engineering staff. On the other hand, some of the smaller
companies (especially those in manufacturing) may not
even employ a full-time chemical engineer. In these cases,
the Practice School provides a cost-effective means of study-
ing a problem that is outside the areas of expertise of
the company employees.
Because the Practice School is considered a design course,
all projects must be design oriented. Projects that involve an
extensive amount of laboratory work or projects that are
merely literature searches are thus not acceptable. (Note that
the Practice School is not a part of the "capstone" design
course, which is taken in the fall semester.)
Once the projects have been chosen, each is assigned a
faculty advisor. A typical faculty teaching load during the
spring semester would be one lecture course plus one Prac-
tice School project. When possible, the projects are matched
to the faculty members' interests or experiences. In addition,
each company is asked to identify one person at the plant
who will serve as the industrial contact for the students. This
is typically a young engineer (five to ten years of experi-
ence) who is familiar with the group's project.

REQUIREMENTS OF STUDENTS
As mentioned earlier, the Practice School consists of a six-
credit course-twice as much as a regular lecture course.
Each student is therefore expected to devote 15 to 18 hours
per week to his or her project. Every group is required to
have an initial kickoff meeting with company personnel at
the start of the semester and to give a final oral presentation
of its results at both the plant site and Tulane. The students
must also submit a final written report to both the faculty


advisor and the industrial contact. All other requirements
are generally determined by the faculty advisor and the
specific nature of the project. Most faculty require weekly
reports and meetings to discuss progress; more detailed mid-
term reports may also be required. Each student's grade is
determined by the group's faculty advisor, with possible
input from the industrial contact. Normally, each student's
individual contribution and the overall performance of the
group are considered.
The nature and extent of the interaction with the company
personnel varies from project to project. In some cases, the
majority of the work can be performed on Tulane's campus
and the group may need to make only one or two additional
trips to the company-an example would be a project in-
volving a large amount of computer simulation. In other
projects, the students have had to visit the plant site as often
as twice a week.
While on location, the students are required to follow all
rules and regulations imposed by the company. This in-
cludes using all required safety apparel (e.g., hard hats,
safety glasses, hearing protection, flame-retardant clothing,
etc.), obeying smoking and vehicle restrictions, and follow-
ing any specific requirements set by the local operations
manager. (All specialized safety equipment is supplied by
the company.) Some companies also require the students to
undergo several days of safety training at the start of the
project. The students are clearly told that while on site, they
are to conduct themselves in a manner consistent with that
expected of the company's full-time engineers.

EXAMPLE PROJECTS
Ten projects that have been recently used in the Practice
School are listed in Table 1 (next page), and more detailed
descriptions of three of these projects are given below. These
projects, which are quite diverse, illustrate the range of train-
ing that the students receive in the program.

Flow Meter Comparison Study The engineering staff at
a local refinery was interested in improving the flow-meter-
ing capabilities of the plant. The staff felt that advances in
metering technology could be used to improve performance
monitoring throughout the refinery. The company contact
engineer wanted the group to first develop an overview of
the existing level of technology in this area and summarize
the advantages and disadvantages of various meters in tabu-
lar form for easy access by plant personnel. The students


Fall 1995










were then to make recommendations on the type of meters
that should be installed at specific places within the plant, TABLE 1
given the desired accuracy level at each location. Recent Projects Used in the Practice School
In collecting information, the students used both technical
journals and information supplied by instrumentation ven- 1 Develop an overview of the existing level of
dors and also attended a local trade exposition. Using this technology in flow metering and make recommenda-
material, the group provided detailed descriptions of seven ons or secifc applications.
different flow meters, ranging from the traditional differen- > Develop a hydraulic model of a fuel pipeline and
tial pressure meter to more elaborate devices such as vortex make recommendations for improving capacity.
shedding meters. The group then reviewed the use of each of Evaluate the performance of a waste-water treatment
the meters at the various locations specified by the company. facility and recommend changes for improvement.
Where applicable, a total cost value for each meter was > Develop a finite element model to predict the flow
calculated, consisting of the installation, replacement, cali- of ground water around a large plant.
bration, and inspection costs, as well as the energy costs D a l o
> Develop a list of recommendations for optimizing
associated with pressure losses through the meter. the cycle time in a batch filtration process.

Fuel Pipeline Capacity Study This project involved 1 Investigate the potential use of an idle distillation
column for additional product recovery.
evaluating the capacity of a fuel transport pipeline extending
from a refinery to a distribution terminal. The company Analyze the performance of an on-line computer
wanted the students to develop at least two alternatives for control system and develop a set of maintenance
increasing the capacity of the line to a target flow rate and to piorines.
provide a detailed cost analysis of each option. > Develop a set of spreadsheets for use by plant
The gro first developing a engineers in material balancing and performance
The group approached the problem by first developing a
rigorous hydraulic model of the pipeline. A detailed descrip-
tion of the pipeline and all associated equipment, such as 0 Investigate alternatives for reducing corrosion in a
valves, fittings, and pumps, was produced. This information water punfication system.
was then input to a generic fluid-flow program supplied by Determine an effective and environmentally friendly
the company. Given a flow rate and inlet pressure, the model solvent for a degreasing application.
could predict the pressure at any point along the pipeline.
Two field verifications were then performed to validate the
model. (These verifications also allowed the group to deter-
mine if any significant obstructions, such as a plugged filter 1.5 i i
or damaged valve, were present.)
Once an accurate model was available the group simulated
the effect of various modifications to the system. It was 1.4
found that a substantial increase in capacity could be ob-
tained by simply rearranging two pumps to operate in series.
This change, involving only a minor capital expense, still 1.3
did not produce the target flow rate, however. To reach the
desired capacity, the group recommended installing a new
booster pump near the refinery. A third alternative was the 1.2 -
injection of a drag-reducing polymer into the fuel. The group
worked with an outside vendor to determine the cost for this
proposal and the resulting increase in throughput (see Figure
.0 1.1
1). All three ideas were presented to company management. 1

Waste-Water Treatment Facility Evaluation In this
project, the students were to evaluate the performance of the 1.0
0 20 40 60 80 1i0 120
waste-water treatment facility of a local plant. The facility
Rate of Polymer Injection (gallons per day)
had an ongoing problem with sludge accumulating at vari----------------
ous holding tanks in the system. The group's objectives were Figure 1. The dimensionless pipeline capacity (relative to
1) to evaluate the performance of the various components of current capacity) as a function of the injection rate of drag-
the system, and 2) to develop a list of recommendations for reducing polymer.


Chemical Engineering Education










reducing sludge buildup.
The group first performed a material balance around the
water treatment facility. Using a flow chart, the students
pinpointed exactly where flow measurements and water
samples should be taken for the balance and then worked
with unit operations personnel to collect the data. The
results of the material balance were used to determine the
sources of sludge entering the facility. It was also deter-
mined that the sludge thickening tanks, long thought to be
a possible problem, were actually working as designed. At
the conclusion of the project, a series of recommendations,
including installing mixers on specific tanks and rerouting
several streams, was developed and presented to the plant's
management staff.

BENEFITS OF THE PROGRAM
As illustrated by these examples, the Practice School re-
quires students to use a wide array of technical, organiza-
tional, and personal skills. Many of these skills (e.g., group
interactions, written and oral communication) are of course
also required in more traditional group design projects. '
What makes the Practice School unique, however, is the
integration of a classroom design project with the experi-
ences associated with working in an industrial environment.
This latter component provides training in a completely dif-
ferent set of skills (see Table 2). For example, students are
commonly required to work with a variety of personnel at


TABLE 2
Training Provided to Practice School Students

Common to traditional group design courses
Assimilating and using range of chemical engineering
topics m a single problem
I- Focusing on a specific objective
1> Working together in groups on a large project
> Giving oral presentations
> Preparing a large and detailed written report


Unique to the Practice School
p Working in an operating or manufacturing environment
0 Working \ ith a variety of industrial personnel (e.g.
managers, engineers, technicians)
Learning other engineering fields (e.g., corrosion, instru-
mentation, mechanical equipment) and using the informa-
tion to solve a problem
i- Meeting deadlines imposed by different sources
I- Evaluating the accuracy of plant data
1 Solving problems ith limited data and resources


the plant, including engineers, managers, laboratory techni-
cians, and operators--each with a different set of priorities.
Instead of simply requesting that a series of samples be taken
for component analysis, for example, the group may have to
convince a manager that the samples are truly needed. The
students are also faced with evaluating the accuracy of plant
data. Students quickly learn that even the simple task of
performing a material balance can be difficult in the plant.
Finally, the students are frequently faced with questions or
problems for which an answer is not known and cannot be
determined. As an example, in performing a mass or energy
balance, the flow rate and/or composition of certain streams
may not be measurable. The students must then either devise
an alternate method for performing the balance or, in the
worst case, use their best engineering judgment.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
Although the program has undergone several minor modi-
fications since its inception (e.g., size of groups, number of
credit hours, types of companies involved, etc.), the basic
format has remained the same. The response of the partici-
pating companies has been overwhelmingly favorable. In
fact, very few companies have totally dropped out of the
pool. On the occasions when a company has declined to
participate, it has generally been the result of a temporary
circumstance at the plant, such as an extended maintenance
turnaround or a possible work stoppage by union employees.
The students also tend to be pleased with the program.
This is especially true when the company shows a great deal
of interest in their project, further enforcing the idea that the
work is indeed valuable. For many students, the Practice
School is their first exposure to an actual operating environ-
ment and thus it is their first opportunity to see that the
fundamental concepts they have been learning for years will
actually be needed on the job.
If there is a disadvantage to the program, it is the large
variability in the work required for the specific projects.
Projects that at first appear worthwhile may actually require
only a limited effort by the group members. Other projects
may require either an extensive research effort or significant
laboratory work, both of which are inconsistent with the
objectives of the program. In such cases, it is the responsibil-
ity of the faculty advisor, in conjunction with the industrial
contact, to revise the scope and objectives of the project to
satisfy the design requirements of the course.

REFERENCES
1. Harris, H.G., and D.U. von Rosenberg, "A Chemical Engi-
neering Practice Division," Chem. Eng. Prog., 69(6), 59 (1973)
2. Johnston, B.S., T.A. Meadowcroft, A.J. Franz, and T.A.
Hatton, "The M.I.T. Practice School," Chem. Eng. Ed., 28(1),
38(1994)
3. Bailie, R.C., J.A. Shaeiwitz, and W.B. Whiting, "An Inte-
grated Design Sequence," Chem. Eng. Ed., 28(1), 52 (1994) 0


Fall 1995










q historical perspective


THE 19TH CENTURY

LEGACY TO DISTILLATION

FROM KIDD TO YOUNG


JAMES W. GENTRY
University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742-2111


Arguably the most important unit operation in the
definition of the chemical engineering industry is
distillation, especially the distillation of petroleum.
In the pamphlet The First Century of Chemical Engineer-
ing"' the authors cite the development of distillation theory
by Ernst Sorel in 1889, the development of azeotropic distil-
lation by Sidney Young in 1898, and the translation of
Eugen Hausbrand's text in 1903 as major developments
prior to 1905. Yet distillation is one of the oldest of unit
operations, with alembic (still head) distillation having been
introduced more than a millennium ago. In fact, Ulstadius
(1553) introduced a still head with five alembics presumably
giving distillates of different proof.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the 19th century
developments that describe the transition from a limited use
of distillation for the production of alcoholic spirits to the
foundations of the petroleum and chemical industries. It
should be noted that Fair121 provides an extended discussion
of the development of distillation equipment, with emphasis
on developments after 1925. Also, Underwood'" provides an
extensive review that focuses on the development of distilla-
tion in Europe prior to the 19th century, but also discusses
the work of Coffey and Cellier-Blumenthal in the early
1800s. In chemical engineering, the founders of fractional
distillation are regarded as Hausbrand,14] Sorel,"'5 and Young,'6]

James W. Gentry is professor of chemical en-
gineering at the University of Maryland. He re-
ceived his BS from Oklahoma State University,
his MS from the University of Birmingham, and
his PhD from the University of Texas. He teaches
courses in transport phenomena, applied math-
ematics, and air pollution control. His research
interests are in aerosol physics and chemistry,
with emphasis on electrostatic and aerodynamic
properties of non-spherical particles, aggregates,
and ultrafine aerosols..


all of whom were active at the beginning of the 20th century.
The discussion below leans heavily on the work of Sidney
Young on fractional distillation.
The key developments during the 19th century that are
primarily associated with distillation could be summarized
as
The use of distillation to obtain chemicals from coal
tar and petroleum
The redesign of the still head for better control and
vapor-liquid contact, including the introduction of
reflux in the distillation process
The development of relations between liquid and
vapor in equilibrium
In the following sections the key developments in each of
these categories are discussed.

Distillation of Coal Tar and Petroleum

The distillation of alcohol and the use of steam distilla-
tion'7' to obtain essences were established well before the
development of commercial distillation of coal tar and crude
oil in the 19th century. Dschabir ibn Hajjan ibn Abdallah
describes the production of plant oils with distillation as
early as 800 A.D.,"8' and the distillation into two components
of crude petroleum from seepage was reported by al Razi in
the 9th century. The products were called black and white
naft,"' and David of Antioch reported the distillation of the
higher boiling fraction (i.e., black naft) to obtain more white
naft. Arguably, this could be regarded as the origin of frac-
tional distillation. Prior to the 19th century, distillation had
been used for obtaining oil of turpentine from rosin, for
production of fresh water at sea, and by Greek alchemists for
the preparation of mercury. Underwood states that there was


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1995


Chemical Engineering Education


250










no evidence of fractional distillation by the Greeks.
In the early 19th century, the driving force for develop-
ment of distillation processes was the distillation of brandy.'""
As pointed out by Underwood, the 18th and early 19th
centuries saw a number of technological innovations for
the distillation of alcohol and spirits that included the


introduction of preheaters by Argand in
multiple stages in which a vapor is en-
riched by contact with liquid (by Adam),
and the use of controlled partial conden-
sation (by Berard).
These innovations culminated in the de-
velopment of the continuous distillation
column by Cellier-Blumenthal and Coffey.
In 1813, Cellier-Blumenthal constructed
the first continuous distillation column,
exploiting the idea of a partial condenser
proposed by Adam. In 1830, Coffey""'
placed the condenser above the boiler,
introducing a surprising modem version
of a plate-to-plate distillation column.


1780, the use of



The purpo
paper is to
19th ce
develop
describe the
from a limi
distillation
production o


The chemical industry, however, had p
its origin in the fractional distillation of found(
coal tar and petroleum. The industrial sig-
nificance of the coal tar industry as a petr
source of chemicals is usually dated from chemical
the Bethel process for producing an oil
for preserving timber by the distillation
of coal oil in 1838.""' There are early re-
ports of a patent by Haskins in 1746, a distillery in Leith,
Scotland, in 1822, and a manufacturing plant near Manches-
ter in 1834. But after 1838, the technical progress in coal tar
distillation was continuous.


The petroleum industry was slower to develop, with the
date given for the introduction of continuous distillation of
crude oil as 1883 in Persia. In the petroleum industry, dis-
continuous columns dated from 1880 and continuous col-
umns with tubular preheaters from the 1920s. The distilla-
tion technology developed for the "spirit" industries was not
incorporated into the coal tar and petroleum industries until
the 20th century.
By 1820, standard procedures for obtaining comparatively
pure natural products (i.e., benzoic acid, oxalic acid, etc.)
were developed."' The material was distilled, often steam
distilled, and then crystallized. The morphology of the crys-
tal was described and its boiling point determined. Begin-
ning with Berzelius in 1814, serious attempts""' were made
to establish the elemental composition of these substances. It
was by analogy to this method that four investigators-
Brande,"5' Kidd,"16 Garden,'7' and Chamberlain'"8-indepen-
dently isolated naphthalene from coal tar during the time
period between 1819 and 1823. Brande published his results


first, but usually Garden and Kidd share the distinction of
being credited as the first to isolate a chemical from coal tar.
The study by Kidd provides the best discussion of the method
and is the most frequently cited of these early investigations.
John Kidd (1755-1851) was a physician who was a lec-
turer in chemistry at Oxford, the first professor of chemistry
at Aldrich, and a director of a hospital in Oxford. He lectured
in mineralogy and geology and carried
out studies on the electrolysis of heavy
se of this metal salts. He is best known for his
discovery of naphthalene in 1819 and
discuss the its purification in 1821. It is clear that
ntur his work influenced Pelletier,"9'
ty Mansfield,'o12 and Faraday,"'2 among oth-
ents that ers. He found that coal tar distilled into
transition four basic groups, and by cooling be-
low the point of crystallization, melt-
ted use of ing, and then recrystallization he was
n for the able to obtain a white, crystalline mate-
rial, which he named naphthalene. The
f alcoholic importance of Kidd's study is three-
to the fold: he demonstrated that one could
obtain pure components from coal tar
ns of the by distillation, followed by subsequent
Un and crystallization; he characterized the
product naphthalene; and his descrip-
ndustries. tion of the study influenced Faraday,
who made the next major step.
The 1826 Faraday paper"12 is cel-
ebrated for the first isolation of benzene and isobutene and
for the demonstration and identification of "polymerization"
(compounds with the same elemental composition but with
different molecular weights, such as the alkenes). But for
our purposes, the role of this paper was in describing the use
of fractional distillation to separate benzene. The residual oil
from the compression of illuminating gas was systematically
distilled into fractions according to their boiling tempera-
ture. These fractions were redistilled and the appropriate
fractions added together. The fraction was then cooled to
0F and the liquid decanted from the solid fraction. By this
tedious procedure, Faraday was able to obtain benzene and
isobutene. He was unable to obtain benzene from coal tar.
The method of repeated rectification seems clumsy, and
from the perspective of almost 170 years it was primitive
and dated. The method was an extension of Kidd's ap-
proach, but it introduced repeated rectifications to obtain
pure components and it demonstrated a general method for
obtaining pure compounds.
Between Faraday and Mansfield there were a number of
important studies in which certain hydrocarbons were iso-
lated from coal tar: phenol and aniline by Runge"22; an-
thracene by Dumas and Laurent1231; a-picoline by Ander-
son'24; and in 1845, benzene by Hofmann.'"5 I believe the


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itioj
oleu
al i











1848 study of Mansfield to be the most important of the
early 19th century contributions to distillation.
Charles Blanchford Mansfield (1819-1855) was a student
of Hofmann. His most important technical work was in the
distillation of coal tar, for which he patented a process. He
did not exploit the patent, however, for he was too busy with
social work among the laboring class in London and in
projects for settlement in Gran
Chaco, Argentina. He died in a
fire while producing pure ben-
zene for the World Fair in Paris. Important 19th
His paper had two major con- Investigator Year
tributions: a much improved
Brande, Garden, Kidd 1819-2
distillation technique, and a
modification in the still head. F 1826
He was able to isolate and char-
Runge. Lauremn. 1832-4
acterize benzene, toluene (for Runge. Laure. 1832
Anderson, Hofmann
the first time from coal tar), Anderson Homann
and xylene. His study was the Mansfield 1848
first that led to the production Young 1902
of large amounts of benzene. Schrememakers 1897-01
Most important, his study fo-
cused attention on the problem


of an improved distillation unit operation and eventually led
to the work of Sidney Young.
By the turn of the century, the process for fractional distil-
lation had become established. The distillate from coal tar
was subdivided into five classes. It was not useful to subdi-
vide the fuel further since the distillates formed complex
azeotropic mixtures and further distillation did not result in
finer divisions. It is interesting to note that the residual oil
studied by Faraday was the lighter part of No. 1, the coal tar
oil studied by Mansfield was essentially No. 1 and No. 2
oils, and the oil analyzed by Brande and Kidd was mostly in
the No. 4 category. Kidd did report a yellowish compound
which is consistent with the No. 5 fraction, but he did not
separate and analyze its components. Since normally the
most abundant fraction is No. 4, or creosote oil, which is rich
in naphthalene, it was not surprising that naphthalene was
the first to be analyzed. Similarly, various compounds that
were isolated in the 1830s by Laurent, Runge, and Anderson
were mostly in the last three cuts. It was only after the
technique of distillation was perfected by Mansfield that one
could obtain fractionation of the first two cuts.
Arguably, the main contribution of Sidney Young was the
development of azeotropic distillation.12627" His example prob-
lem was the separation of a mixture of butyl alcohol and
benzene containing 10% butyl alcohol. This mixture forms
an azeotrope at 79.930C containing 9.3% isobutyl alcohol,
but no further separation was possible. Young suggested a
procedure of adding a small amount of water to form an
azeotrope of benzene and water (9.8% water), which boils at
69.250C. The separation then consists of the lower boiling


ABL
Cent


1 Is
Is

5 Is


Chemical Engineering Education


benzene-water azeotrope and pure butyl alcohol. These stud-
ies were carried out in 1898, but the definitive literature
references did not appear until 1902.
Another important contributor to the development of theory
for multicomponent azeotropic distillation was the Dutch
physicist F.A.H. Schreinemakers,128 who extensively exam-
ined the vapor pressure of ternary mixtures at the turn of the
century, simultaneous with the
investigations of Young.
E 1
ury Developments The 19th century witnessed
the beginning of our modern
Accomplishment chemical, coal tar, and petro-
olauon of naphthalene (coal tar leum industries. Prior to the
olauon of benzene (illuminaung 19th century, distillation had
gas> been used to produce essential
olation of various organic oils and alcohol, but its use for
compound from coal tar obtaining the range of solvents
control of distillation of coal tar and the basic chemicals of the
zeotropic distillation chemical and fuel industries
S was an innovation of the 19th
theory for apor pressure of
mulucomponent mixtures century. Other developments of
the time period include the dis-
covery of naphthalene and ben-
zene, the isolation of benzene, the lower boiling aromatics
from coal tar, and the development of azeotropic distillation
(see Table 1).

DESIGN OF STILL HEAD

Sidney Young (1857-1937), professor of chemistry at
Bristol and Dublin, is one of the seminal figures in the
history of distillation. After graduating from University Col-
lege London he went first to Bristol, where he was chair
from 1887 to 1903, and then to Trinity College in Dublin
where he was chair from 1903 to 1928. From 1880 to 1887
he worked closely with William Ramsay on the relationship
between molecular composition and the thermodynamic prop-
erties of substances.
From 1887 Young's work followed two principal branches:
fractional distillation and thermodynamic measurements,
especially the properties of alkanes, the thermodynamic
properties of liquids and vapors, the behavior of liquids
and vapors at the critical point, and the conditions for which
the boiling temperature and critical temperature could be
correlated. In thermodynamics, especially important is
his classical study of the limitations of the Theory of
Corresponding States.
In his distillation work, Young is noted for his develop-
ment of azeotropic distillation, for the separation of hexane
isomers, and for two classical monographs: "Fractional Dis-
tillation" in 1903 and "Distillation Principles" in 1922. Along
with Ernst Sorel and Eugen Hausbrand, he is regarded as one
of the founders of hydrocarbon distillation and was one of


C
A
Tl


0


252











the first to systematically analyze the design of the still head
in improving the separation of compounds. His work is the
core of this section.

The "still head" is everything that sits above the batch still,
including any column arrangement, condenser, or reflux
system that might be there. Key steps in the development
of the still head are listed in Table 2. Priority for the first use
of reflux for laboratory distilla-
tion was claimed by Frankland
and Kolbe in 184712"' with their
statement that "the use of Develop
the inverted Liebig's condenser
is for the first time described." Invesagator Ye Acconmpl
(Partington'"' points out, how- Perrier 1822 Bubble
ever, that Mohre'o" had antici- Coffey 1830 Continu
pated this development and col
described a "reflux Liebig's Mohr 1836 Liebigc
condenser" in 1836.) By the Mansfield 1848 Partialc
1850s, it appears that the use Wurtz 1852 Pear-sh,
of rectification in distillation Brown 1881 Separat
was the state of science, as indi- Hempel 1882 Introdu
Hempel 1882 Introdm
cated in the study of isobutyl
alcohol by Wurtz.Young 1895 Improvi
alcohol by Wurtz.'3'

The simplest model of the ver-
tical still head is the inverted Liebig condenser. Although
some vapor condenses and falls back into the still, the
concept is very different from the still head of Mansfield,
where the temperature of the condenser is controlled and
where all the condensed liquid is recycled. The first set
improvement on the simpler model is to introduce constric-
tions into the still head so that the gas-liquid contact is better.
The earliest practical design was that of Wurtz, mentioned
above, where the column consists of pear-shaped constric-
tions. Arguably, the cleverest is the "evaporator" still head
of Young."32 It consists of multiple sections of glass "evapo-
rators" in which the rising vapor is forced down by an
inverted glass tube through entrained liquid before it can
proceed to the next stage.

An innovation of great practical utility was suggested by
Hempel,"33 who packed the still head with glass spheres-
the origin of the packed column. (Coffey had designed a
plate column for the distillation of alcohol as early as 1832.)
The schematics of this design in Young look surprisingly
modern, but the laboratory analogs that were developed
were primitive, consisting of gauze cups placed in constric-
tions. The models developed by Linnemann in 1871,'1'3
Glinsky in 1873,"1" and Le Bel and Henniger in 1874,[361 now
only of historical interest, essentially consisted of a cup with
overflow lines connected to adjacent stages.
Again, the best design of these early still heads is due to
Young and Thomas in 1899.'32' Young compared the Wurtz
(pear-shaped constrictions) design, the packed column, two


TA]
ents

stmes
cap
ous d
umns
;onde
:onde
aped
ed pa
action
d still


Fall 1995


of his designs, and a model with simple constrictions with
the straight reflux condenser. His unit of measure was the
number of distillations with the inverted Liebig condenser
necessary to obtain the same split as obtained with the test
column. Three and four distillations were required to equal
the fractionation with a Wurtz and a Hempel (packed col-
umn) still head, respectively. Six and nine fractional distilla-
tions were required for the
same efficiency as with the
BLE 2 "evaporator" constriction
of the Still Head of Young and the column
with the Young and Tho-
t mas head, respectively.
A second development
istillation with perforated plate that improved control of
the separation was inde-
nsorreflux pendently controlling the
nser temperature of the still
till head head. This innovation, by
Mansfield, made possible
rtial condenser
the effective distillation of
of laboratory scale packed columns coal tar to obtain benzene.
l head The condenser stage, in
essence a straight tube, was
surrounded by a liquid bath, and as a consequence, the still
head was maintained at a constant temperature that could be
controlled. The liquid that condensed was then allowed to
run back into the boiler.
Mansfield's design was quite successful since he was able
to obtain benzene, toluene, and xylene as distillation prod-
ucts. Several important modifications of his process were
subsequently made, improving performance. In 1873, War-
ren137' substituted an elongated spiral for the tube and suc-
cessfully used his instrument for the distillation of petroleum
in the laboratory. A more complicated still head was devel-
oped by Brown in 1881.'"3 He designed an instrument where
the condenser was separated from the boiler and where the
temperature was more controlled. He showed that the com-
position of the distillate was constant and equaled the vapor
composition at the temperature of the still head.
By 1910, distillation columns for the separation of the
lighter fraction could be divided into three groups: packed
columns, plate columns, and the bubble cap column of
Heckmann. Hempel introduced the packed column for distil-
lation in the laboratory. The first packed column patent
dated from 1889, with miscellaneous rubble as the packing.
It was improved by using specific shapes, such as the pro-
cesses patented by Raschig in 1914. Underwood cites sev-
eral early reports of suggested applications and possible use
of packed columns before 1850. The perforated plate col-
umn dates back to Coffey and Savalle. These columns were
perfected between 1832 and 1870. Bubble cap columns were
patented just before 1920 for use in hydrocarbon fraction-










ation, although prototypes existed from 1890.1"' Both
Underwood and Fair point out that Perrier o4 patented the
bubble cap design for applications in the distillation of alco-
hol in 1822, almost a century earlier. All three types of
columns were available early in the 20th century.

CONCEPT OF IDEAL SOLUTION
The condition for equilibrium between mixtures for the
liquid and gas phases was set forth by Gibbs'42' between 1876
and 1878. The convenient relation that at equilibrium the
fugacities of the gas phase and liquid phase for each compo-
nent are equal, expressed as

AY YAXAPA (1)
seems so logical that it comes as a surprise that the relation
dates from the 20th century.'43 The expression for an ideal
solution where the activity coefficients in the gas, OA, and
liquid, YA, phases are equal to unity, resulting in

A P=XA A
is commonly known as Raoult's Law. But responsibility for
the development of the law postdated Raoult by almost
twenty years.
The earliest expressions were empirical, independently
developed by Wanklyn'14 and Bertheolot[45] in 1863. Using
their relationship as a starting point, Brown'46 proposed in
1879 that the ratio

(YA YE)/K(XA/XE)=K
is a constant. This relation is consistent with the use of a K
value, defined as
YA = KAXA
or with Eq. (1), with

K YAOBPA
YBOAPB
The Brown expression, unlike Eq. (1), is entirely empirical.
It proved to be sufficiently versatile to incorporate the con-
cepts of equilibrium. The idea of an ideal solution, defined
by
P=XAP +X P (2)
seems to be due to Speyers (1900).'471 The relation is clearly a
consequence of the ideal solution law commonly referred to
as Raoult's Law. But the law as formulated by Raoult ap-
plied only to the solvent for dilute solutions and did not treat
fluids which had more than one miscible component.
The starting point for Raoult was the work from Babol481
dating back to 1847 (seeTable 3). Babo found that the rela-
tive pressure decrease for an aqueous solution was indepen-
dent of temperature and proportional to concentration.
Raoult,'49' working with slightly soluble compounds in water
and ether, showed that for some solutions the difference in
vapor pressure between the solution and the solvent is pro-

254


TABLE 3
Key Steps in Vapor Liquid Equilibrium
Investigator Year Accomplishment
Babo 1847 Relative lowering of vapor pressure for salt
solution is independent of temperature
Brown 1879 Relations between mole fractions in liquid and
vapor phases; precursor of K values
Raoult 1887 Vapor pressure of solvent is proportional to mole
fraction solute
Speyers 1900 Definition of ideal solution
Lewis, G.N. 1901 Criteria for equilibrium is the fugacity of liquid
and vapor phase are equal

portional to the mole fraction of solute. For dilute solutions,
this is equivalent to an ideal solution relation for the solvent.
Raoult had carried out his research in the context of the
behavior of salt solutions and would not have obtained a
relation of the form

PYB = X BPB
where B is the solutes that were in general non-volatile. It is
not clear when the ideal solution concept was associated
with Raoult. Young does not mention Raoult, but Robinson
and Gilliland refer to the ideal solution as Raoult's Law. The
first edition of Robinson and Gilliland is contemporaneous
with Young. The introduction of liquid and gas phase fugaci-
ties is due to G.N. Lewis.'1o0

CONCLUSION
The growth of the chemical engineering profession in the
United States is strongly related to the growth of the petro-
leum industry, especially in the distillation of fuels.'"" Othmer
(1980)1'" has placed the role of distillation in this develop-
ment in perspective. The development of thermal cracking
by Burton in 1912, the development of the equations needed
for stagewise distillation by Lewis in 1909'~5' (building on
the pioneering studies of Sorel), the development of graphi-
cal methods for predicting the number of theoretical stages
by McCabe and Thiele in 1925, the association of an equiva-
lent height of a packed tower with a theoretical tray by
Peters in 1922, and the introduction of catalytic cracking are
among the major accomplishments of American engineer-
ing. But I believe it is at least arguable that it was during the
19th century that the groundwork for the body of knowledge
required in the chemical engineering approach had its devel-
opment. I believe that the work of John Kidd, Charles
Mansfield, F. Brown, and (particularly) Sidney Young, was
just as fundamental to the history of chemical engineering as
was the later work of Clark Robinson, Warren Lewis, and
Warren McCabe.

NOTATION
K, Ratio of gas to liquid phase mole fractions of component A


Chemical Engineering Education












PA Partial pressure of component A in gas phase

PA Equilibrium vapor pressure of component A at system
temperature and pressure

YA Mole fraction of component A in gas phase
XA Mole fraction of component A in liquid phase
Greek Letters
7A Activity coefficient in liquid phase
OA Activity coefficient fugacityy coefficient) in vapor or gas
phase

REFERENCES
1. Bohning, J.J., The First Century of Chemical Engineering,
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3. Underwood, A.J.V., "The Historical Development of Distill-
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13,34(1935)
4. Hausbrand, E., Principles and Practice of Industrial Distil-
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(1926)
5. Sorel, E., La Rectification de l'alcohol, Paris, France (1893)
6. Young, S., Distillation Principles and Processes, Macmillan,
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8. Pbtsch, W.R., Lexikon Bedeutender Chemiker, Verlag Harri
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Fall 1995


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43. Lewis, G.N., Proc. Amer. Acad., 37, 49 (1901)
44. Wanklyn, J.A., "On the Distillation of Mixtures: A Contri-
bution to the Theory of Fractional Distillation," Proc. Royal
Soc., 12, 534(1863)
45. Berthelot, M.P.E., "On the Distillation of Liquid Mixtures,"
in French, Compt. Rend., 57, 430 (1863)
46. Brown. F.D., "Fractional Distillation with a Still Head on
Uniform Temperature," Trans. Chem. Soc., 39, 517 (1881)
47. Speyers, "Some Boiling Point Curves," Amer. Jour. of Sci.,
9,341 (1900)
48. Babo, L.H.J. von, "Uber die Spannkraft des Wasserdampf
in Salzloesungen," Jahresbuch 1847-48 Uber die Fortshritte
der Chemie, 93 (1849)
49. Raoult, F.M., "Loi Generale des Tensions de Vapeur des
Dissolvants," Compt. Rend., 104, 1430 (1887)
50. Lewis, G.N., Proc. Amer. Acad., 43, 259 (1907)
51. Hirsch, Alcan, "Differential Condensation in Distillation
and Rectification of Binary Liquid Mixtures," Ind. Eng.
Chem., 2, 409 (1910)
52. Othmer, D.F., "Distillation-Some Steps in Its Develop-
ment," in A Century of Chemical Engineering, W.F.Furter,
ed., Plenum Press, 259 (1980)
53. Lewis, W.K., "The Theory of Fractional Distillation," Ind.
Eng. Chem., 1, 522 (1909) [


255











11" overview


ChE EDUCATION AT A

MID-SIZED PRIVATE UNIVERSITY*


JOSHUA S. DRANOFF
Northwestern University Evanston, IL 60208-3120
Education concerning the underlying principles of
chemical engineering and their application to prac-
tice has been underway for approximately a hundred
years in the United States. During that time, many institu-
tions of higher education have contributed to the develop-
ment of programs and curricula in the field and have pro-
duced a steady stream of bachelor's-degree graduates who
have, in turn, continued the profession's development in
industry, government, and academia.
Today there are approximately 146 ABET-accredited U.S.
undergraduate programs in chemical engineering, divided
roughly in a 2-to-1 ratio between public and private univer-
sities and colleges. The significance of this division, if any,
was the subject of a symposium at the 208th National Meet-
ing of the American Chemical Society in August of 1994.
The specific focus of this paper is primarily the program in
a private university with which the author is intimately fa-
miliar-Northwestern University; but the question of whether
or not there is a dichotomy between public and private
education in this field is also explored. It should be under-
stood at the outset that the author's entire professional career
of more than thirty-five years has been spent in private
academic institutions. I believe, however, that I have devel-
oped a reasonably balanced point of view during that time,
formed through contacts with many colleagues and gradu-
ates of both public and private universities and by my ser-
vice in the last decade as an evaluator of chemical engineer-


* Based on Paper #278 presented at the 208th National Meeting,
American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, August 1994
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1995


The specific focus of this paper is primarily the
program in a private university with which the
author is intimately familiar-Northwestern
University; but the question of whether or not
there is a dichotomy between public and private
education in this field is also explored.

ing programs for the Accreditation Board for Engineering
and Technology (ABET).
When one considers the relative merits of public and pri-
vate chemical engineering education, a number of opera-
tional questions come to mind:
Are the overall programs in public and private universities
substantially different in content, organization, or delivery?
Are there significant differences in individual courses?
Are there differences in the students in both kinds of institu-
tions?
Are there differences in the faculties?
Is the teaching methodology different?
Do public and private universities have differing goals or
objectives insofar as chemical engineering education is
concerned?
Are there differences in the essential quality of the programs
or the graduates they produce?
To put some of these questions into perspective, it will be
helpful to consider first some data concerning the numbers
of graduates being produced by the various U.S. chemical
engineering programs. Therefore, the details of Northwest-
ern University's program will be presented and the factors
that contribute most to its success will be discussed. Finally,
the question of whether or not public and private education
in this field differ significantly will be considered.

BS DEGREE PRODUCTION IN THE U.S.-1992-93
There are several sources of information available con-
cerning the number of chemical engineering degrees granted
each year. Perhaps the most complete and comprehensive is
the Directory of Engineering and Engineering Technology
Undergraduate Programs,m which provides information on
all engineering fields. The 1994 issue contains data on de-
Chemical Engineering Education


Joshua Dranoff is Professor of Chemical En-
gineering at Northwestern University, where he
has been on the faculty since 1958. He re-
ceived his BE degree from Yale University and
his PhD from Princeton University. His research
interests are in chemical reaction engineering
and chromatographic separations.











grees granted during the 1992-93 academic
year, along with other information about the
various institutions listed, including the num-
ber of faculty in the program and the aver-
age length of time taken by BS graduates to
complete the program. It indicates that there
were 146 ABET-accredited chemical engi-
neering programs (BS level), with 140 re-
porting data for 1992-93. The largest of these
programs was at the University of Puerto
Rico (a public university), which graduated
124 BS chemical engineers in 1992-93, fol-
lowed by Purdue University (public) with
120; the smallest was at Hampton Univer-
sity (private), which granted 3 BS degrees.
Some salient data from the tabulations are
given in Table 1 for the undergraduate de-
grees and in Table 2 for graduate degrees.
These data show that there are twice as
many chemical engineering programs in
public institutions as in private ones and
that they granted about twice as many MS
and PhD degrees and approximately three
times as many undergraduate degrees in
1992-93. It is also clear that the average
time for completion of the BS degree is
about one-half year longer at public schools
than at private schools. (Incidentally, a num-
ber of departments offer cooperative educa-
tion programs which typically require more
than four years for completion.) Reasons
for this difference in completion time are
undoubtedly varied, but might well include
the relatively larger proportion of part-time,

TABLE 1
Selected Data on BS in ChE 1992-93111


Program Numbir Degree" Faculty Time
Public 93 3278 1126.3 4.61 yrs
Private 47 1142 493.1 4.18 yrs
Totals 140 4420 16194


TABLE 2-
Data on Advanced Degreesin ChE
1992-93"'

Type o MS PhD
Program Number Degreei Degrees
Public 93 651 426
Private 47 312 212
Totals 140 963 638

Fall 1995


working students who enroll in public universities as well as the tendency of
students at high-tuition private schools to minimize total tuition by finishing the
BS program as early as possible.
Some indication of the range in size of BS programs in 1992-93 is given in
Figure 1, which shows the distribution of both public and private school pro-
grams. The median number of BS degrees granted per program by public
institutions was 27, while that for private institutions was 22. Clearly, trends at
the lower end of the distribution are quite similar for both types of program,
while the larger programs (more than sixty degrees per year) are (with one
exception) in public universities.

ONE MEASURE OF PROGRAM QUALITY
Any correlation of degree productivity and "quality" of the programs is both
extremely interesting and extremely difficult to establish. The difficulty arises
because the appropriate measures of quality of any program are essentially in the
mind of the individual observer. For example, suitable measures might include
one or more of the following rather disparate factors.
0 The cumulative earnings of program graduates at various times during their working
careers
0 The number of engineering projects completed, scholarly papers written, or patents granted
to graduates
The number of professional society awards or memberships in national academies that they
have received
> The number of graduates listed in "Who's Who directories
D The number who have remained working in the chemical engineering profession (however
that is defined) for a specified number of years
> The number who have continued their formal education beyond the BS degree (in any field)
0 The degree of personal satisfaction with their chosen careers reported by graduates
surveyed at various points in individual careers
> The number who have devoted their professional careers to teaching or to government
service
> The number who have contributed personally to their communities in elected or appointed
positions
The number who have started their own businesses
The breadth of courses taken during the undergraduate program
> etc.
It appears to the author that it would be easy to skew the results of any analysis
in a desired direction by careful selection of the factors to be considered, thus
making the question of quality judgment difficult, if not impossible, to resolve.
Despite this argument, let us consider one attempt to investigate the quality
factor based on one individual's perception of what might be regarded as some


1to 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 101 111 121
10 to to to to to to to to to to to to
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130
B.S. Degrees Per Program
Figure 1. Distribution of BS degrees per program (1992-93)


U Public


Type of


BS Number of Completion











of the leading chemical engineering programs in this country. To that end,
a group of thirty selected schools (approximately twenty percent of the
total) has been chosen. The names of those institutions are indicated in
Table 3, and some relevant data for their programs are listed in Table 4.
It should be emphasized that the selection of the programs listed in Table
3 represents the author's subjective and somewhat arbitrary decisions.
Others would undoubtedly make some different selections to be included
or omitted. Nonetheless, this group of thirty does include those institutions
that generally figure in any top-twenty ranking of U.S. chemical engineer-
ing programs that have been produced by various surveys and published in
societal, governmental, or public media from time to time.
As Table 4 shows, the thirty selected programs, with approximately 30%
of the total faculty members, produced 36% of the BS degrees, 36% of the
MS degrees, and 58% of the PhD degrees earned in 1992-93. Since most
common perceptions of quality generally reflect the vitality and productiv-
ity of the PhD programs, it is not surprising that these leading institutions
produced a disproportionate share of the PhD degrees. At the same time,
they produced somewhat more than their prorated share of BS and MS
degrees as well (based on faculty size).
At the risk of redundancy, it must be emphasized that the author's view
of the leading (high quality) programs in chemical engineering reflects a
heavy weighting toward research universities. Such a bias minimizes the
very important role played by many institutions whose programs are aimed
primarily at educating chemical engineers at the undergraduate level. Fur-
thermore, one may well question whether or not a high production of PhD
graduates has any bearing at all on the quality of the undergraduate pro-
gram. The usual answer to this question, and one to which the author
subscribes, is that a faculty active in research and scholarly activity is more
likely than not to be technically up-to-date and to enhance their teaching
efforts with some of the scholar's enthusiasm and skill-to the ultimate
benefit of the undergraduate.


TABLE 3
Thirty Selected Institutions
Listed in order of number of H5 dcgret i e awarded in 1992-9?
(in parenlhe ves) in each lrale or


Public Universities
Purdue Llniversty I 11201
Pennsylhania State Uruversit) 1114i
Uninersitr of Texas, Ausnn 11061
North Carolina Statdle Liniersi) 121
Uni\ersir\ of Minnesota (911
Uni ersitr of Michigan i871
Llruierrit of Califormna. Berkeles (85?i
lJrnver;, N of Wisconsin 1801
Texa.i A&M LUnnersiiy 17-4
LrUnersitr of llinoi]. Lirbanj 1661
Limversir\ of Waqhington (521
Unriersaii of Delaware (371
Unlmersitr of Houston 35I
Lniversiry of Virginia i311
State lrnnersitr of New York, Buffalo (30)
LUnicrsity of Masachuuetts 1211


Private ULniversities
Massachuserts Insiruit of Technolog 1831
Rennselaer Polytechnic Insuluie i5Si
Cornell Linnrersri 153i
Nornh\'estiem rn Ier.itr 1431
Camrege-Mellon Unnuersity 1421
Pnnceton Universt\ u I II
Case-W.estern Reerse Lni~ errltN 1 i3
Unnersityr ol Noce Dame i291
Washington Uniersity i24i
Unn erity of Rocheiter I211
Lninersity of Pennsylvania 19i
Rice Limversiry -1)
Stanford Unitersatly 121
California Institute of Technolog y 61


TRENDS IN BS DEGREE PRODUCTIVITY
The data presented so far have given a one-
year snapshot of degree productivity in the U.S.
To examine trends over time, data obtained from
annual surveys reported by the American Chemi-
cal Society's Committee on Professional Train-
ing and published in Chemical and Engineering
News will be considered next. Data for the last
twenty-eight years have been extracted and are
presented in a number of following figures.
It should be noted first, however, that there is
some difference in the data reported by the ACS
and that already presented in this paper. The ACS
tables record only data for those institutions that
respond to the annual survey; since completion
of the survey is optional, data are not always
reported for the same number of institutions each
year. Nonetheless, there is enough consistency in
the data to permit some useful comparisons. For
example, Table 5 compares the number of pro-


TABLE 4
Degree Productivity Data for Thirty Selected
Programs (listed in Table 3) in 1992-93"'

B5 MS PhD T,.i,l

Thmin Selected
Progrim-ITable 3) 158h 44-1 371 4-18.2
Toial Public
and Pnmaie 442' 963 638 1619 4
Thin\ Selecied
o I' of Total 35 9 35 7 s52 30 2


TABLE
Comparison of ACS and ASEE-ENMC BS
Degree Productirity Reports


" Reported b .4SEE 1992 Directors
'' Report d b\. Engieiecnrng iManpow er Commin s ion ot
American .Asociation of Engineermi S,..-ceries
" Reported by A SEE 1994 L)rectorv

Chemical Engineerine Education


hrn
Engineering Socier)


Report, 36511'" 3788'-' -46!''
Number of ABET
Xccrediied Programs 139' 143 146
ACS PT Committee
Reports 3087 3060 3164
Number of Programs
in ACS Report 121 I12 104
r of Engineering Socier, BS
Degree. Reported by ACS 84.4 8J 8 70.9
r, oif ARFT Ar.-er.,loid


19.h1.vi Iow .v.y 1997.9.,


Programs Reported by ACS


87.1 78.3 71.2












8000
7000 # .
00 #MS

3000


2000

1000










10
Academic Year (Ending)

Figure 2. ACS data: All degrees










70 -
50














7N / "\ /.

i 40
0
.* .


20
0

o0 I-- I-- 0----0---- 0-
Academic Year (Ending)

Figure 3. ACS data: Number ofBS degrees per school.


70 T


500 #NU BS






120
0 0

Academic Year (Ending)

Figure 4. Northwestern University data: All degrees


700


data, BS dNUS e




20.0 .
100 -

S300
Academic Year(Ending)

Figure 5. ACS Data: BS/school and Northwestern University
data, BS degrees

Fall 1995


grams responding to the survey and the corresponding
number of BS degrees granted reported for the last three
years.

From Table 5 we can see that the fraction of ABET
accredited programs that have reported their data to the
ACS surveys in a timely fashion varies somewhat from
year to year. But the fraction of the total number of
degrees actually granted, which is reported by the ACS
survey, is generally close to 80%. Thus, we might ex-
pect the trends shown by the ACS surveys to be at least
qualitatively correct. Incidentally, the average number
of programs reported by the ACS survey between 1966
and 1993 was 115, ranging from a low of 104 (1966 and
1993) to a high of 128 (1988).

With these factors in mind, consider now the ACS-
reported data shown in Figures 2 and 3. Figure 2 shows
the total number of BS, MS, and PhD degrees in chemi-
cal engineering reported from 1966 to 1993. Since our
immediate interest is in BS-degree production, the BS
degrees per reporting program are plotted alone in Fig-
ure 3. Comparison of Figures 2 and 3 shows that the
data per program follow exactly the same trends over
time as the total number of BS degrees, remaining rela-
tively constant at a little less than 30 from 1966 through
1976, increasing to a maximum of more than 60 in
1983, and then dropping back again to the 30 range by
1988. More recent data show another modest upturn
that began in 1991.


THE BS PROGRAM
AT NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

Before examining the details of the program at North-
western University (NU), let us consider degree produc-
tivity data for NU that are shown in Figures 4 and 5.
Figure 4 shows the trends for all three degrees over the
period 1969 through 1993. Figure 5 compares the ACS
and Northwestern BS data per program and illustrates
that the Northwestern experience closely follows that of
the average of all ACS reporting institutions and, by
implication, of the overall national trends. Of some
keen local interest is the fact that our BS degree produc-
tivity has shown a larger-than-average increase in the
last two years, and current enrollment at Northwestern
indicates that this trend is continuing.

Given the data already presented, it appears that the
description of the NU program as "mid-sized" may not
be as appropriate today as it has been in the past; we
awarded 43 BS degrees in 1992-93, when the median
for all private schools was 22. On the other hand, over
the last five years, our average graduating class size was
about 28. In any case, it may be a little too soon to come
to any firm conclusion on the long-term aptness of this
designation. (In 1992-93, NU ranked seventh among 47

259











private universities, tied with three other schools for 29th
among 140 public and private universities, in number of BS
degrees awarded.)
The chemical engineering program at NU began formally
in 1939 and has operated continuously with ABET (or equiva-
lent) accreditation since then. Our program has continued to
evolve over time in accord with changes in the profession as
well as university and external accreditation regulations. An
outline of the essential elements of our current program is
presented in Table 6, which indicates the number of quarter
courses normally taken in each of several areas. Note that all
courses bear equal credit and the total number required for
the BS degree in engineering at NU is 48.
Comparison of the Northwestern curriculum with those of
other accredited programs will reveal no significant differ-
ences. Indeed, when one considers the basic ABET program
criteria for chemical engineering and the customary sets of
basic courses and prerequisites for advanced courses, it is
difficult to see how any program could deviate very much
from this outline. Some may have more specific required
courses, others may have fewer, but topical coverage will
not differ significantly.
What then, if anything, distinguishes the Northwestern
program from that of other institutions? To this observer, the
two distinguishing factors are the quality of our undergradu-
ate students and the dedication of our faculty to the under-
graduate program.
NU is highly selective in its admissions process, with the
result that our entering freshmen students typically have
very high rankings and test scores as well as strong personal
motivation. Our ability to attract and enroll such students
rests on many factors, including

The McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science is well
recognized nationally and provides strong engineering education
within a comprehensive, nationally prominent university offering
students opportunities to take courses in a wide variety of areas
outside of the sciences and engineering
NU is highly selective, insuring that incoming students will have
opportunities to interact and associate with a broad spectrum of
talented and similarly strong students
NU is situated in a uniquely attractive suburban setting on the
shores of Lake Michigan, while still being close to the major urban
center of Chicago with all it offers to supplement academic life.

NU works hard to recruit outstanding high school stu-
dents and includes many loyal alumni in this effort. The
university has taken pains and put resources into maintain-
ing the attractiveness of the campus environment and the
student housing units. It has also invested resources in main-
taining and upgrading teaching facilities that are not only
effective but which also incorporate emerging educational
technologies, such as television and networked computer
systems. In addition, the university has long had an ongoing
commitment to provide financial aid as necessary to ensure


that academically qualified students are not prevented from
attending NU because of limited financial resources. Engi-
neering students typically benefit significantly from such
financial assistance in the form of grants, loans, and work-
study opportunities.
The other major distinguishing feature of our program has
been the dedication of the faculty to our undergraduate pro-
gram. While NU sees itself as a major research university,
there is an ongoing commitment to undergraduate teaching
that permeates McCormick and other schools of the univer-
sity. This influences not only the initial recruitment of fac-
ulty but also the importance given to successful teaching in
the subsequent evaluations leading to their promotion and
tenure. The dedication to teaching effectiveness results in
decisions to ensure 1) that full-time faculty maintain respon-
sibility for teaching the basic undergraduate courses rather
than using graduate students or part-time instructors, 2) that
multiple sections of undergraduate courses are provided when
class sizes begin to grow too large, and 3) that adequate
numbers of graduate teaching assistants are available to tutor
students in basic courses and to provide laboratory and prob-
lem session assistance in other engineering courses. NU also

TABLE 6
Outline of BS Chemical Engineering Program at
Northwestern University

C,ur C" OfI
topi. L'r, i Tfi,-il
Basic Sciences 12 25.0
Include- Chemiltr 3
*Ph sic. 3
MNlahematic, 6
Humanities and Social Sciences 9 18.75
Include, Oral Communicaton I
Wrinen Conmmunicaon I
Engineering Sciences (Non-ChE 2 4.2
Includes Mechanic I
MaterialJ Science I
Computer Programming I 2.1
Advanced Sciences 6 12.5
Include- Ad.anced Chemistry 5
iPhysical. Orgnic. olher I
Chemical Engineering Courses 11 22.9
Includes Material and Energ) BalanLes
SThermedynamnj..
SSeparation Processes
SHeal Transler
Fluid Mechanics
Mass Transfer
Reactor De-ign
SProcess Dynanucs & Control
SLaboratory
SDesign (2 units)
Engineering and Science Electives 3 6.25
Free Electives 4 8.3

TOTALS 48 100.0


Chemical Engineering Education










maintains the Searle Center for Teaching Excellence, which
provides ongoing stimulation and guidance to faculty mem-
bers seeking to monitor and improve their teaching effec-
tiveness.
Maintaining these distinguishing features is becoming in-
creasingly difficult, however. Our ability to continue to at-
tract the very best undergraduate applicants is challenged by
the high cost associated with attending NU as well as other
private universities. Escalation in tuition and other charges,
combined with the frequently uncertain nature of the na-
tional economy, threaten to make private university educa-
tion much less available to all but the most wealthy members
of our society. The general economic situation also makes it
increasingly difficult for any university to provide the neces-
sary resources, supplies, and facilities needed for modern
engineering education. Finally, uncertainties in the employ-
ment prospects for engineers that the nation has been experi-
encing recently leads to similar uncertainties concerning
career prospects for entering students and lessens the poten-
tial attractiveness of an engineering education.
These and other factors also pose serious challenges to the
maintenance of faculty morale and effectiveness. Economic
uncertainties and changing demands for engineering gradu-
ates create fluctuations in student interest that normally are
not in phase with job opportunities, adding to the stress
placed on faculty members in dealing with variations in
class size and the problems encountered by graduating stu-
dents in finding suitable employment. In addition, under-
graduate education remains but one part of the duties and
responsibilities of faculty members at research universities
today. Other responsibilities include research and scholarly
activities, participation in professional society programs, and
administration of academic and research programs. All of
these place increasing demands on the time and energy of
the faculty, leading to working lives that are increasingly
fragmented and busy to the point where time for contempla-
tion and personal development is rarely available. (Inciden-
tally, there is no indication that the situation is any different
at public and private universities in this regard.) These fac-
tors lead to what many experience as a decrease in the
quality of faculty life today.
The challenge for my university, and indeed for all institu-
tions of higher education, public or private, is to find ways to
continue to be attractive and stimulating places for under-
graduates to study and for dedicated teachers and scholars to
help educate students and to pursue their own professional
development in the face of these factors.

PUBLIC VS. PRIVATE: IS THERE A DICHOTOMY?
Finally, let us consider the questions posed at the begin-
ning of this paper. Is there an essential dichotomy between
the kind or quality of education that undergraduate chemical
engineering students receive at the public and private institu-
Fall 1995


tions in this country? To this observer, the answer is a
qualified "no." The breadth and depth of the typical chemi-
cal engineering undergraduate program is not really a func-
tion of the public or private status of the institution. The
details of the academic programs are not significantly differ-
ence since all ABET-accredited institutions follow essen-
tially the same criteria and teach courses that are substan-
tially the same, using teaching methods and approaches that
are similar. Furthermore, there are no obvious differences in
the qualifications, productivity, or professionalism of facul-
ties at public and private universities, all of whom are re-
cruited from the same pool of available candidates.
To be sure, there are some clear differences that have
already been indicated. Public university programs are gen-
erally larger, implying larger classes and potentially less
personal attention to the typical undergraduate. In addition,
the better-known private universities are generally more se-
lective in admitting students and consequently may be more
committed to seeing those students succeed; therefore, they
are more likely to devote significant effort to providing
individual attention to the students once enrolled than the
larger, perhaps somewhat more impersonal, public universi-
ties. These conclusions are, of course, very broad generali-
zations that hopefully apply "on the average," but which
undoubtedly fail to represent accurately the essence of any
specific program at either public or private institutions.
In the final analysis, then, it is the care with which the
students are selected initially and the attention that they are
given as individuals once enrolled that are the overriding
factors that differentiate the various programs. Insofar as the
ultimate success (however measured) of program graduates
is concerned, it is the author's belief that this is primarily
dependent on the inherent intellectual skills and personal
motivation of each individual. The opportunities for techni-
cal as well as nontechnical education are present at virtually
all of our universities, public or private; it is the drive and
willingness to partake fully of such opportunities that ulti-
mately determines the "quality" of the educational experi-
ence that any individual student receives while pursuing the
chemical engineering degree. Our task as faculty members is
to ensure that we provide the basic tools and experiences that
will inform and stimulate students to avail themselves of
these opportunities while they are enrolled in our programs,
wherever they may be.

REFERENCES
1. 1994 Directory ofEngineering and Engineering Technology Under-
graduate Programs, American Society for Engineering Education,
Washington, DC (1994)
2. 1992 Engineering and Technology Degrees, Engineering Manpower
Commission of the American Association of Engineering Societies,
Inc.. Washington, DC (1992)
3. 1992 Directory of Engineering and Engineering Technology Under-
graduate Programs, American Society for Engineering Education,
Washington. DC (1992) 0











Mw. classroom


SPREADSHEETS FOR

THERMODYNAMICS INSTRUCTION



PHILLIP E. SAVAGE
University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136


hermodynamics, the study of energy, entropy, and
equilibrium, is central to science and engineering.
The laws of thermodynamics provide mathematical
relationships that form the basis for understanding nature
and for developing, analyzing, and optimizing chemical and
physical processes. These relationships involve thermody-
namic properties such as internal energy (U), enthalpy (H),
entropy (S), Gibb's free energy (G), and fugacity (f). Nu-
merical values of these properties must be determined for
many different materials to solve engineering problems.
Equations of state (EOS), which relate the P-V-T behavior
of fluids, can be used to evaluate thermodynamic properties
for many substances. For example, the specific molar en-
thalpy (H) of a pure fluid can be computed from an EOS as

v T

HTp=-RT(Z-1)+I T(PJ -P dV+ CdT (1)
Tref
where the enthalpy was taken to be zero at an ideal-gas
reference state of nearly zero pressure (infinite molar vol-
ume) and Tre,. To use Eq. (1) with an EOS, one must differ-
entiate the pressure-explicit equation of state with respect to
temperature at constant V, then perform the integration over
volume indicated in Eq. (1), and then finally solve the origi-
nal EOS for the compressibility factor, Z, at the conditions
of interest to determine the fluid's enthalpy at the conditions
of interest. These mathematical manipulations become in-

Phillip Savage is an Associate Professor in the
Chemical Engineering Department at the Univer-
sity of Michigan. He received his BS from Penn
State and his MChE and PhD degrees from the
University of Delaware, all in chemical engineer-
ing. His research focuses on applied chemical
kinetics, and he has taught undergraduate, gradu-
ate, and continuing education courses on kinet-
ics, reaction engineering, catalysis, and thermo-
dynamics.

Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1995


creasingly tedious as the form of the EOS become more
complex.
Keep in mind that Eq. (1) is completely general. It can be
used with any EOS. This general approach is the one I
emphasize in my thermodynamics classes. We use general
expressions such as Eq. (1) and then evaluate the thermody-
namic properties for a specific fluid of interest by employing
an EOS that is valid for that fluid. In some cases, the ideal
gas EOS (PV = RT) can be used. Evaluating thermodynamic
properties using the ideal gas law is simple. Compact, closed-
form analytical expressions can be readily obtained for all
thermodynamic properties. In other cases the ideal gas ap-
proximation is a poor one, but a generalized cubic EOS can
be applied. Examples of generalized cubic EOS include the
Peng-Robinsonm' and Soave-Redlich-Kwong'12 equations,
shown below.
Peng-Robinson


SRT aa(T)
P-
V-b V +2bV-b2
Soave-Redlich-Kwong


p= RT aa(T)
V -b V( + b)
These are termed cubic EOS because they are cubic in V (or
Z). This cubic form causes the mathematics associated with
calculating thermodynamic properties to be tedious. Finally,
in yet other cases, no cubic EOS is adequate and some other
EOS or some other approach is required to evaluate thermo-
dynamic properties.
One benefit of using the general approach described above
is that it presents the ideal gas law as just another EOS, valid
for some materials under certain conditions. It also re-
moves the need to discuss thermodynamic properties for
real fluids in terms of their departure from ideal gas behav-
ior, a concept that is prevalent in thermodynamics texts.
Departure functions (or residual properties) were popular-
ized many years ago by the corresponding states charts


Chemical Engineering Education










for enthalpy and entropy.
My goal was to fin
Ideal gases are frequently used M al was to fi
to introduce students to thermo- ideal fluids duri
dynamics principles because the class consider
math does not get in the way of property estimatio
the thermodynamics. There are hands-on expel
sound pedagogical reasons,
however, for not emphasizing
ideal gases to illustrate the
evaluation of thermodynamic Summary
properties."" Feeding students Author Programs and C
a diet rich in ideal-gas examples Sandle~ PRI.BAS: Peng-l
and problems may leave the stu- VLMU.BAS: Per
dents ill prepared to analyze sys- ponent VLE cal
teams of practical interest where UNIFAC.BAS: P
CHEMEQ.BAS.:
few fluids are ideal gases. Fur- CHEME.BAS.:
thermore, an overemphasis of Kylel9 PENGROB.BAS
WILEQFIT.BAS
ideal gases gives students an Wilson equation
unrealistic view of engineering Sonntag & Corresponding st
applications. Finally, the expo- Van Wylent' entropy depart
sure to ideal gases and the sim-
plicity of the mathematics prove
to be an irresistible temptation for some students, who treat
every fluid they encounter as an ideal gas. Indeed, under-
graduate students in my thermodynamics and reaction engi-
neering classes have (on more than one occasion) used ideal-
gas relationships to calculate thermodynamic property
changes for high-pressure saturated steam and for liquids,
fluids that are certainly not ideal gases!
This firsthand exposure to a problem in thermodynamics
instruction has motivated the work described in this paper.
My goal was to find a way to introduce non-ideal fluids
during the early stages of the class' consideration of thermo-
dynamic property estimation and to give the students
hands-on experience with cubic EOS. It is true that some
thermodynamics texts'"5 include diskettes with correspond-
ing states methods and with thermodynamic properties for
specific fluids such as steam and refrigerants, but only
Sandler"' and Kyle' 9 include computer programs to cal-
culate thermodynamics properties using a cubic EOS. (See
Table 1 for a summary of existing programs for thermody-
namics instruction involving equations of state.) It is also
true, however, that some popular texts"0' do not include a
diskette for EOS calculations. Moreover, I felt that using
spreadsheets offers some unique advantages (more later)
over these existing programs.
To this end, we developed computer spreadsheets (using
Microsoft Excel) that students can easily use to calculate
thermodynamics properties for real fluids using a general-
ized cubic EOS. Having these spreadsheets allows one to
teach the general approach involved in evaluating thermody-
namic properties without relying heavily on the ideal gas
law. Moreover, the spreadsheets (and BASIC programs) equip


da
ig t
!tiol
n a
rien


TA
of T

apabi
Robin
g Ro
culati
predict
K as
:Penj
:Use

ates
re fu


Fall 1995


the students to solve
way to introduce non- more realistic engineer-
he early stages of the ing problems.
n of thermodynamic Previous generations of
nd to give the students engineering students
ce with cubic EOS. were taught to use the
generalized correspond-
ing states charts to evalu-
BLE 1 ate properties for non-
extbook Programs ideal fluids. These charts
cities were developed in the
son EOS for pure fluids 1940s, and they correlate
binson EOS for mixture and multicom- thermodynamic proper-
ons ties for pure fluids as a
t activity coefficients using UNIFAC function of the reduced
Sa function of temperature
pressure and temperature.
g-Robinson EOS for pure fluids Some implementations of
VLE data to find parameters in the oe ipleetatios o
this approach also use the
critical compressibility or
method to estimate Z and enthalpy and critical compressibility or
actions the acentric factor as a
third correlating param-
eter. These charts cer-
tainly possess engineering utility, and the concept of corre-
sponding states is an important one. We need not force our
students to solve today's problems using 1940s methods,
however, when alternative and more industrially relevant
EOS methods are available.

THE ADVANTAGES OF SPREADSHEETS
The spreadsheets described herein have some unique ad-
vantages over the computer programs that accompany engi-
neering thermodynamics texts. Perhaps the biggest advan-
tage is the flexibility of spreadsheets and their ability to
solve nonlinear problems. The existing textbook BASIC
programs require that both temperature and pressure be speci-
fied to fix the state of the fluid. Of course, the Gibbs phase
rule mandates that two properties of a pure single-phase
fluid be specified to fix its state. After the state is estab-
lished, all other thermodynamic properties can be calculated.
Note, however, that there is no thermodynamic requirement
that T and P be the specified properties. Indeed, any two
properties would suffice.
The spreadsheet-based methods described herein differ
from the existing BASIC programs in that they allow any
two properties to be specified, not temperature and pressure
only. This flexibility is important because one often encoun-
ters thermodynamics problems wherein the temperature or
pressure is unknown. For example, cases are common where
pressure and entropy are known (e.g., isentropic compres-
sion) or where pressure and enthalpy are known (e.g.,
isenthalpic Joule-Thomson expansion) but where tempera-
ture is unknown. With existing textbook programs, the stu-
dent must adopt a manual trial-and-error procedure to find














the temperature corresponding to this final state. With a

spreadsheet, however, the student can specify any two known

thermodynamic properties (e.g., S and P) and then quickly

find the temperature and all of the other properties using the

spreadsheet's Solver algorithm.

Most commercial spreadsheet programs include a routine

that one can use to solve for unknowns in an equation or set

of equations. In Microsoft Excel (the program used to de-

velop the spreadsheets described herein) this routine is named

the Solver. This feature allows the user to specify a cell or

set of cells whose numerical values are to be varied such that

another cell achieves a specified value. The user can also


can be used in conjunction with any engineering thermody-

namics text. Copies of the spreadsheets are available from

the author. Although developed with Microsoft Excel, the

spreadsheets can also be read by other popular spreadsheet

programs. Finally, the spreadsheets described herein can

solve a wider variety of thermodynamics problems than can

any of the existing textbook programs.


DESCRIPTION OF THE SPREADSHEETS

This paper describes three different spreadsheets for ther-

modynamics instruction. One calculates thermodynamic prop-

erties for a pure fluid using both the Peng-Robinson and the


place constraints on the solu-

tion. For example, an illustra-

tion that will appear later used

the Solver to do a bubble point

pressure calculation for a four-

component mixture. The liquid

composition and system tem-

perature were known, and the

vapor composition and system

pressure were sought. The

Solver varied the values of the

system pressure and the vapor-

phase mole fractions until the

sum of these mole fractions was

equal to unity and the constraints

that the ratio of the vapor- to

liquid-phase fugacities for each

component had to equal unity

were satisfied.

A second advantage of

spreadsheets over computer

codes is that our undergraduate

students have extensive experi-

ence with spreadsheets. This fa-

miliarity and a spreadsheet's

open structure enable students

to look at the formula in a given

cell and see the equation used

and the information required to

use it. The student can gain an

appreciation for the methods

behind the calculations. They

also have the opportunity to

modify the spreadsheet.

To summarize, the existing

BASIC programs are available

only with specific textbooks,

and some popular texts do not

include any programs at all. The

spreadsheets described in this

paper are not text specific. They


264


Thermodynamic Properties from Cubic Equations of State


Enter data Into outlined cells only

T = 0


Compound = Prone
T = 369. K
Pc= 4.246 =a
o 0.152
CpR= 6.80E,81 J/mol-K
Cpd 2.6E01 J/rrol-K'



Reference state: ideal gas at Tref & Pref
T ref = 273. K
P ref = 0.001 MPa
R= 8.314E-06 rm3 MPa/mol K


SOAVE-REDUCH-KWONG
Phase(s) VAPOR


0.90289
9.06E-01
8.84E+03
-2.78E+01
1.86E+04
1.59E+04
6.21E+03
2.63E-03


MPa
J/mol
J/mol-K
J/mol
J/mol
J/mol
m^3/mol


Calculate Parameters in SRK Equation of State
a = 9.52E-07 m^6 MPa/mol2
b = 6.27E-05 m^3/mol
m= 0.717
a= 1.039
A= 0.112
B= 0.022

Solve Soave-Redlich-Kwong EOS for Z
a = -1.00E+00 Q= 8.1E-02
a2= 9.04E-02 R= -2.3E-02
a3 = -2.42E-03 Q3-R^2 = -6.4E-06

Single Phase: Only One Real Root Exists
Z= 0.9029


PENG-ROBINSON
Phase(s) VAPOR


0.88826
8.98E-01
8.79E+03
-2.79E+01
1.85E+04
1.60E+04
6.21E+03
2.58E-03


MPa
J/mol
J/mol-K

Jlmol
J/mol
m^3/mol


Calculate Parameters in Peng-Robinson EOS
a = 1 05E-06 mr6 MPa/mol^2
b = 5.63E-05 m^3/mol
o= 0.603
a= 1.033
A = 0.124
B= 0.019

Solve Peng-Robinson EOS for Z
al = -9.81E-01 0= 7.87E-02
a2= 8.43E-02 R= -2.22E-02
a3 = -2.02E-03 A3-R^2 = -2.66E-06

Single Phase: Only One Real Root Exists
Z= 0.8883


Thermodynamic Properties from Cubic Equations of State


Enter data Into outlined cells only


F- Li10

Compound P
Tc = 3.80 K
Pc 4.246 MPa
o 0.152
Cp 6.8 J/mol-K
Cpb= J/mol-K^2
Cpc= 1.31E4 J/mol-K^
Cpd= 3.1 8 J/mol-K^4

Reference state: ideal gas at Tref & Pref
Tret= 273. K
Pref= 0001 1Pa
R= 8.314E-06 n3S MPa/mol K


SOAVE-REDUCH-KWONG
Phase(s) VAPOR


0.97671
9.82E-02
-5.07E+03
-5.84E+01
8.40E+03
6.53E+03
-6.95E+03
1.85E-02


wPa
J/mol
J/mol-K
J/mol

J/mol
m^3/mol


Calculate Parameters in SRK Equation of State
a = 9.52E-07 m^6 MPa/mol^
b = 6.27E-05 m^3/mol
m= 0.717
= 1.324
A= 0.026
B= 0.003

Solve Soave-Redlich-Kwong EOS for Z
al = -1.00E+00 Q= 1 0E-01
a2 = 2.28E-02 R= -3.3E-02
a3 = -8.66E-05 Q^3-R^2= 1.5E-06


Three Real Roots Exist
theta= 3.1047
Z1 00048
Z2= 0.9767
Z3 0= .0185


Zmln=
fugacity =
Z max
fugacity =
fug. ratio =
Iratio-1 =
tolerance =


PENG-ROBINSON
Phase(s) VAPOR LIQUID


0.96657
9.80E-02
-5.09E+03
-5.84E+01
8.40E+03
6.54E+03
-6.95E+03
1.83E-02


0.004
9.80E-02 MPa
-2 38E+04 J/mol
-1.39E+02 J/mol-K
8.40E+03 J/mol
8.39E+03 Jlmol
-2.38E+04 J/mol
7.10E-05 m^3/mol


Calculate Parameters in Peng-Robinson EOS
a = 1.29E-06 m^6 MPa/morv 2
b = 5.63E-05 m^3/mol
K= 0.603
a= 1.269
A= 0.036
B= 0.003

Solve Peng-Robinson EOS for Z
al = -9.97E-01 0= 1.01E-01
a2= 2.95E-02 R= -3.18E-02
a3= 9 67E-05 QA3-R^2 = 4.00E-06


Three Real Roots Exist
theta 3 0789
Z1 0.0037
Z2 = 0.9666
Z3 0.0267


Z rin =
fugacity =
Zmax =
fugacity =
fug. ratio
Iratlo-1 =
tolerance =


0.0037
9.80E-02
0.9666
9.80E-02
1.00E+00
0.0000
0.010


Figure 1. Properties of propane from cubic equations of state: a) at 350K and 10 bar
b) at the normal boiling point as determined from the Peng-Robinson EOS

Chemical Engineering Education














Soave-Redlich-Kwong EOS. The second spreadsheet, which
is an extension of the first, calculates thermodynamic prof
erties for mixtures using the Peng-Robinson EOS. The fin,
spreadsheet performs chemical equilibrium calculations fe
single reactions occurring in ideal and non-ideal fluid phase
Each of these spreadsheets is described in more detail in th
following subsections.


Pure Fluids

Figure 1 displays the spreadsheet that calculates pun
component thermodynamics properties. In this and all sul
sequent figures, the cell gridlines and the column and ro
headings were not printed. The user enters values for tw
properties (say T and P), and then provides data (T,. P,,
and the constants in the ideal gas heat capacity equatic

C*(T)=a+bT+cT'+dT') for the fluid of interest. The spread
p

P Thermodynamic Properties from Cubic Equations of State


Enter data into outlined cells only


P=| 10.000||MPa


To = 12.200K
Pc = MPa

Cpa= J/mol-K
Cpb= J/m1o-K^2
Cpc= J/mol-K^3
Cpd .O J/ol-K^4

Reference state: ideal gas at Tref & Pref
T ref = 273. K
Pref= 0.001 MWa
R= 8.314E-06 m*3 MPa/mol K


SOAVE-REDUCH-KWONG
Phase(s) SCF


0.58309
7 O1E+00
-5.54E+03
-1.03E+02
1.19E+04
1.11E+04
-6.37E+03
8.24E-05


we

J/mol-K
J/nol
J/mol
Jlmol
rn03/100


Calculate Parameters in SRK Equation of State
a= 1.39E-07 m6 MPa/mol^2
b 2 68E-05 m^3/mol
m= 0.547
a= 0.832
A 0.694
B= 0.190
Solve Soave-Redlich-Kwong EOS for Z
al = -1.00E+00 Q= -4.5E-00
a2= 4.69E-01 R= -2.5E-0;
a3 = -1 32E-01 0A3-R^2 = -7 0E-0
Single Phase: Only One Real Root Exists
Z= 05831


SThermodynamic Properties from Cubic Equations of State


Enter data into outlined cells only

T=| 134.659 K
P=| 4.Z0561Pa

Compound N
Tc = 126.200 K
Pc= 3.394 MPa

Cpa= 2 J/mol-K
Cpb= J/moi-K^2
p= .E00 J/mol-K^3
Cpd= J/mol-K^4
Reference state: ideal gas at Tref & Pref
T ref = 273. K
P ref 0.001 MPa
R= 8.314E-06 mA3 MPamol


SOAVE-REDUCH-KWONG
Phase(s) SC


0.46631
2.77E+00
.5.97E+03
.1.01E,02
7.66E+03
7.14E+03
-6.49E+03
1.29E-04


MPa
J/mol
J/roI-K
J/mol
J/mol
m^3/mol


Calculate Parameters in SRK Equation of State
a= 1.39E-07 m^6 MPa/mor^2
b = 2.68E-05 m^3/mol
m = 0.547
a= 0 964
A= 0.449
B= 0.097
Solve Soave-Redlich-Kwong EOS for Z
al = -1.00E+00 = -3.0E-03
a2= 3.42E-01 R= -1.8E-03
a3 = -4.35E-02 QA3-R2 = -3.1E-0E
Single Phase: Only One Real Root Exists
Z= 0.4863


:h
p-

al
or
s.
ie


sheet then uses an analytical solution for the cubic equation
to calculate the values) of Z that satisfy the EOS. The value
of Z is then used to compute all of the thermodynamic
properties for the fluid. Figure la shows results of these
calculations for propane at 350K and 10 bar, which is a pure
vapor at these conditions.


When multiple real roots exist for the cubic EOS, the
spreadsheet calculates the fugacity corresponding to the high-
est and lowest value of Z. If these fugacities are equal (to
e- within a user-specified tolerance), then two phases exist and

b- the spreadsheet provides all of the properties for each phase
w (see Peng-Robinson results in Figure lb). This ability to
'o identify vapor-liquid equilibrium conditions provides a con-

0, venient means of estimating vapor pressures, saturation tem-
in peratures, and heats of vaporization from an EOS. For ex-

d- ample, the results in Figure lb were obtained by setting the
pressure to 0.101325 MPa (1
atm) and using the Solver to
find the temperature that re-

PENG-ROBINSN suited in the fugacities in the
Phae(s) SCF two phases being equal. This

S= 0.67689 temperature, of course, is the
f = 6.55E+00 WPa
H = 5.06E+03 J/mol normal boiling point, given as
S = -991E+01 J/molt-K
G = 1.18E+04 J/mol 231.1 K for propane." The nor-
A = 1.oE+o0 2r.. mal boiling point of 230.9 K
U= -6 01E+03 J/mol
v = 9.57E-05 m^3/mol estimated by the Peng-Robinson

Calculate Parameter in Peng-Robinson EOS EOS is in good agreement.
a = 1.28E-07 m16 MPa/mol^2
.= 2.4"^E0 m^3mo If there are multiple real roots
0.436
A= 0.642 in the cubic EOS and the fugaci-
B= 0170 ties corresponding to the high-

S te P 3nRobnsoE f 4.88E-03 est and lowest value of Z are
a 2= 2.15E-01 R= -2.91E-02
a3 = 7.54E-02 03-R2 -8 49E-04 not equal, then but a single
Singl Pha: Only OneReal Root Exists phase exists. The spreadsheet
Z= 06769 selects the value of Z that gives

the lower fugacity as the cor-
rect root (see Soave-Redlich-
PENGROBINSoN Kwong results in Figure lb).
Phase(s) SCF
The spreadsheet also checks for
Z 0.50890
f = 2.66E,00 a values of Z less than zero and

S -71E,3 J-K rejects these as possible solu-
G = 761E+03 J/mol tions to the EOS.


7.05E+03
-6.30E+03
1.40E-04


J/mol
J/mol
m^3/mol


Calcuate Parameters in Peng-Robinson EOS
a= 1.44E-07 m^6 MPa/moI^2
b= 2.41E-05 ^3/1mo0
= 0.436
o= 0971
A 0.466
= 0.087

Solve Peng-Robinson EOS for Z
al -9.13E-01 Q= 2.86E-03
a2= 2.69E-01 R= -3.40E-03
a3 = -3.24E-02 Q3-R"2 = -1.16E-05
Single Phase: Only One Real Root Exishl
Z = 0.5089


As noted previously, one of
the advantages of spreadsheets
over existing BASIC programs
is their ability to solve prob-
lems wherein T or P is one of
the unknowns. To illustrate this
capability, we will use the
spreadsheet to do Illustration
4.7-1 on page 184 of Sandler's
text."s1 This problem involves the
removal of 10 mol/min of N2
from a 0.15 m3 gas cylinder ini-


Fall 1995


Figure 2. Spreadsheets with properties of N, used to solve Illustration 4.7-1 in Sandier:
a) at the initial conditions, and b) at the final conditions.














tially at 100 bar and 170K. The student is given the ideal gas

heat capacity equation as


C*(J / mol K) = 27.2 + 4.2 x 103(T in K)


and is asked to use the Peng-Robinson EOS to find the

temperature and pressure and the number of moles of N, in

the cylinder after 50 minutes.

The number of moles remaining after 50 minutes is readily

calculated from a mass balance after the initial number of

moles present has been determined from a knowledge of the

tank volume and the molar volume of the gas at the initial

conditions. Figure 2a shows the spreadsheet with the T and P

corresponding to the initial conditions. The molar volume is

9.567 x 105 m'/mol, which leads to 1567.9 moles of N2 being

present initially and 1067.9 moles of N2 being present after

50 minutes. Therefore, the molar volume of the gas in the

cylinder after the expansion is 0.15 m/1067.9 mol = 1.4046

x 104 m3/mol. Moreover, since the process is isentropic, we

know that the specific molar entropy at the final state is

equal to that of the initial state, namely -99.069 J/mol-K.

Two thermodynamic properties (V, S) of the final state are

now known, so, in principle, all of the other thermodynamic

properties (such as T and P) can be determined.


2b displays the results. No manual trial-and-error was in-

volved.

We note that the results given in Figure 2b (T=134.7K,

P=40.56 bar) differ from those given as the solution

in Illustration 4.7-1 (T=143.6K, P=48.6 bar). The solu-

tion in the text is incorrect because the same pair of

state variables was not used consistently throughout the en-

tire solution.

We also note that the T and P obtained from the

Peng-Robinson EOS are closer to the values (138K, 41

bar) determined from a thermodynamic property chart

for N, than are the values determined from the cor-

responding states charts. Using a more complete ideal

gas heat capacity equation improves the agreement even

further. Moreover, the corresponding states charts are

tedious to use for this problem (see Illustrations 4.5-1 and

4.6-2 in Sandler).

To summarize, this illustration shows that the spreadsheet-

based EOS approach provides the twin benefits of leading to

a more accurate solution and doing so more quickly than the

corresponding states chart approach. Additionally, the Excel

spreadsheet we developed for pure fluids can solve some

thermodynamics problems more easily than can the BASIC


The solution in Sandler's text uses one of

the BASIC programs that accompanies his

text. The suggested procedure is to employ a

nested trial-and-error approach wherein one

first guesses the final temperature, and then

varies the final pressure entered in the BA-

SIC program until the desired molar volume

is obtained. Next, one uses the value of the

entropy departure function calculated at the

final state to check whether the two states are

truly isentropic. If they are, the assumed T

and P are correct. If they are not, one must

guess a new T and again vary the pressure to

get the correct molar volume. This process is

repeated until the assumed T and P provide

the desired values of V and S.

The solution procedure using our spread-

sheet is simpler, quicker, and more direct be-

cause one can use the Solver feature in Excel.

Here we specify the desired value of the mo-

lar volume (1.4046 x 10" m3/mol) and enter

the requirement that the process be isentropic

as a constraint in the Solver Dialog box. We

then instruct the Solver to vary T and P until

the molar volume attains the value desired

and such that the process is isentropic. As

Sandler did in Illustration 4.7-1, I used the

ideal gas results for T and P as the initial

guesses. The Solver converged to the solu-

tion in 30 seconds (on a Mac IIsi), and Figure


Thermodynamic Properties for Mixtures from the Peng-Roblnson Equation


Enter data Into outlined cells only
Tj 50000 K
P 5.=E01
use binary Iaonameters?

Z = 1.09E+00
I = 4.79E+01 MRa
H = 6.25E03 J/mol
S -7.13E+01 J/mol-K
G 4.19E+04 1Jmol
A 374E+04 J/mor
U 1 72E+03 J/mol
V 9 06E-05 m^3/mol
H-HIgm -2.93E+03 J/mol
S-Sigm -551E+00 J/mol-K
G-G0m, -1.80E+02 J/mol
Higm = 9.18E+03 J/mol
Slgm = -658E+01 J/mol-K


PseudocrtiCal Propertes from Kays Rules
T'c 247,45 K
P = 5.99 Ma
T'r 2.0206
P'= 8.3500


Compound Mole
Frc
Argon 000
C02 0.500
0 0 .000
Elane 0.000
Methane 0,500
Methanol 0.000
N2 0.000
02 0 000
Propane 0 000
Water 0.000
1.000


fugaclty
(MPa)
OOOE+OO


0.00E00
0 OOE+00
0.00E00
0.00E+00
O.OOE+OO


Compound Mole In TC PA 0 Contants in Cp=bT+cT^2+dT^3 (J/mo1-K)
Miatu (K) (K) apl CpO Cpb Cp. Cpd


Aon 0O00 150.8 4.74 -0.004 208E+01 O.OOE+0 O.OOE+00 0.00E+00
S 50.000 3042 7.376 0.225 22E+01 5 98E-02 350E-0 7.46E-09
0.000 133.0 3.496 0.049 2.71E+01 6.55E-03 -9 99E-0 O.OOE+00
ane 0.000 305.4 4.8 6.90E+00 1.73E-0 -6.40E-05 7.28E-09
Methane 50.000 190.7 460 0.008 1.99E+01 5.02E-02 1.27E-05 -1.10E-08
thanol 0.000 513.2 7.954 0.559 1 E+01 .15E-0 -1.22E-05 -.03E-09
S 0.000 126.2 3.394 0.040 289E+01 -1.57E-0 808E-06 2.87E-09
2 0.000 154.4 5.046 2 .82E01 6.30E-0 -749E-07 O.OE+OD
Pne 0.000 369.8 4 246 0.152 6.80E01 2.26E-0 -1.31E-0 3.17E-08
Water 0.000 647.3 22.048 0.344 2 92E+01 1.45E-02 -2.02E-0 O.OOE+00


TOTAL 100.000


Argon

002
aO
Ethane
Methane
Methanol
N2
02
Prpane
Water


Binary Interaction Parameters:
Argon CO2 CO Ethane
0 0 0 0
0 0 0.3 0.13
0 0.3 0 0.026
0 0.13 0.026 02
S 0.0 003 0003 O


R= 8.31E-06 ra3 MPa/mol-K
T ref = 273 159 K
Pref 0001 MPa

Calculat arameters in PanR.obinson EOS
am= 1 87E07 m6 MPa/mol2
bm = 2 67E-05 m^3/mol
Am 5.40E-01
Bmr 3.22E-01
dam/nT = 374E-10 mr6 MPa/mo2-K
SoNlva Pena-Roblnson EOS for Z
1 = -678E-01 0= 1.9E-01
2= -4 13E.01 R= -7.7E-02
a3 = 3 71E-02 Q3-R2= 8.4E-04

Three Real Roots Exist
Theta 2 7804 Z mn = -0.2959
S= -0.2959 fugaclly = NUM1
Z2 1.0892 Z max = 1,0892
23 .0 1150 fugaciy 4 79E+01
Flag for Z< 1 fug ratio = NUMI
b a


2.00E-05
2.67E-05
2.46E-05
4.04E-05
2 68E-05
4.17E-05
2.41E-05
1.98E-05
5.63E-05
1.90E-05


0
0.03
O3
-0.003
-o .


0 -0.02 0 012 0,044 0.03
0 0 0 o o o


0.12 I 0.03 0.0011 0.016 I 0


Figure 3. Properties of mixtures from the Peng-Robinson EOS with
solution to Illustration 7.7-2 in Sandier.


Chemical Engineering Education


2.11E+01 5.50E-02 -1.12E05 -1 77E-09



Methane Methanol N2 02 Propane


0 0 0 0
0 -0.02 0 012
0 0.012 0 003
0 0.044 0 0.001
0 0.03 0 0 016
o o o
0 0 0 078
0 0 o 0 0 078
01010 10


S0.078 0 I 0 I


0 G I o o 1 0 1 I 0 II 0


--


n













programs that accompany some thermodynamics texts.

Fluid Mixtures

The second spreadsheet we developed uses the Peng-
Robinson EOS to calculate thermodynamic properties for
mixtures. It is an extension of the spreadsheet described
above for pure fluids. In its current form, the mixtures spread-
sheet can handle up to 10 components. Figure 3 displays the
mixtures spreadsheet, with substances often encountered in
combustion problems as the components in the mixture. Of
course, the user is free to specify any set of compounds of
interest. The user must supply the number of moles and To,
P, and o, for each component, as well as the constants in the
ideal gas heat capacity equation. The spreadsheet will also
incorporate binary interaction parameters, and the user should
enter these when they are available. The spreadsheet calcu-
lates all of the thermodynamic properties of the fluid mix-
ture and also calculates the fugacity for each of the indi-
vidual components in the mixture. Pseudo-critical values are
displayed, as are the values of the enthalpy and entropy
departure functions. Figure 3 displays the solution to Illus-
tration 7.7-2 in Sandler, which involves estimating the fugac-
ity of each component in a equimolar binary mixture.

In addition to calculating thermodynamic properties, the
mixtures spreadsheet can also be used as the basis for solv-


Thermodynamic Properties for Mixtures from the Peng-Robinson Equation
Entr. d into ou1lined clls* ly Pseuocr11al Prope e frm Kay's Rules
1. 2 K r' 315 15 K
P 35E Pc = 4 7 MPa
wn br I t P'r = 0 4934
Coo Moo lu. apor g. liqud Ra40o
Z. 7 40E-01 F. (MP*) (nPa)
I = 1,E+00 MPa C2H4 0438 8 E-01 89E-01 1 00
H= 0VALUEI J/mo1 Bute 0 47 6 18E-02 18E-02 1 00
S = VAUE J/mol-K 0 000 0 00E+00 00E+00
VA1LUEI Jlmol Eth 0 0295 568E-01 58E-01 1 00
VALUEI J/ml MIthane 0 00 00E00 00E+00
V- 7 B3E-04 m3mol N2 '000 O`,E+O 000 E+00
02 0000 00E+00 000E+00
H-Him -1 92E03 Jmol popa 0 221 3 4E-01 345E-01 1 00
Sgm0 -.4 43E+00 Jlmol-K Water 00 0 E+00 0 00E+00
G-m= -5 2E+02 J/mol
SHlgm = VALUE! J/l 1 000
S1gm = *VALUEI 1mo1.-K


CJ 2 Jlpob c dlo
Jlmol-. J/mol-1-2 J/mol-K"3 -/mol-K-4


C2Ha4 i 3z4 252. so3 as I I 3 E-05
80, 4.11 4= 3 80 0 1931 I L E-S5
0 0000 1330 340 0040 2 4E 05
EMane 29 159 2 30s 4 084 0 098 4 -0E05
... ... .... ...a.... | ......a
Mohfl II 0-000 II 3 7 559 4 17E 05
2 0.000 126.2 3.394 0040 241E-05
02 0.o0o I 1 5 04 0020 I 1 98E-05
p !.. 218 2B 36 .. .20 0.1524 o S. E-OS
Walr 0 000 647 3 2 04 E 0,3 44 1 90Q E-05
TOTAL 98 053 IVALUEI aVALUEI IVALUEI IVALUEI

Binary Interacllon Parameters:
C2H4 Butane C Ethe Methane M.h.. o 1 02 Propan
C2H41 0 0002 0 001 0 0 0
Bun 1 0092 0 0 001 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Me hafio O o a J o O 0 a a
0M0n 00 0 00 0 0 0 0
eto h0 0 0
N2 UfI 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sron 0003 .001 I 0 0 I
Watsr 0 0 0 003 0 I


Figure 4. Spreadsheet for vapor phase of vapor-liquid equilibrium mixture
used to solve Example 9.6 in Kyle.


Fall 1995


CmpMd Mo1 In T PC'
MIrun (K) (MPa)


ing problems such as isothermal flash calculations and dew
point and bubble point determinations. For example, one can
tackle a problem with two phases present by linking two
copies of the spreadsheet: one for the liquid phase and the
second for the vapor phase.

I used this approach to solve Example 9-6 in Kyle.'1 The
problem is to calculate the bubble point pressure and vapor
composition for a mixture of ethane, ethylene, propane, and
butane given the liquid-phase composition and the system
temperature. One can link the spreadsheets such that the
pressure entered in the spreadsheet for the vapor phase also
appears as the pressure in the spreadsheet for the liquid
phase. After this pressure is specified, one can calculate the
fugacities of all of the liquid-phase components. These liq-
uid-phase fugacities were then copied to and linked with the
vapor-phase spreadsheet so they could be compared with the
vapor-phase fugacities for the same components.

After the spreadsheets for the two phases were linked as
just described, I entered initial guesses for the vapor-phase
mole fractions. I then instructed the Solver to vary these
vapor compositions and the pressure until the vapor mole
fractions summed to unity subject to the constraints that the
ratio of vapor- to liquid-phase fugacities for each component
must also equal unity. Figure 4 displays the final results in
the vapor-phase spreadsheet. This solution required about
Stwo minutes using a Mac IIsi.


Another application of the mixtures
spreadsheet is to link it with a spreadsheet
that does chemical equilibrium calculations
so that chemical equilibrium in non-ideal
phases can be treated. This application is
discussed in the next section.

Chemical Equilibrium

The final spreadsheet we developed per-
forms chemical equilibrium calculations
for single reactions occurring in either ideal
or non-ideal fluid phases (see Figure 5,
next page). The user supplies the stoichio-
metric coefficients (positive for products,
negative for reactants), initial numbers of
moles, chemical identities, standard heats
and free energies of formation, and the
constants in the heat capacity equation for
all species involved in the reaction. Inert
compounds are so indicated by using a
stoichiometric coefficient of zero. The
compound entered in the first row must be
the limiting reactant. The user must also
specify whether each component is in the
gas, liquid, or solid phase, so that the ac-
tivity of each component will be calcu-
lated properly. The spreadsheet can handle

267


o I


R = 831E-06 1 3 MPi/m-K
T raf= 23 159 K
Pral 0001 MPa

am* 691E-07m"6 MPadmo^2
bm = 4 36E-05 m^31mol
-t 2 52E-01
Bm= 4 12E-02

al = 59E01 Q= 4 4E-02
a2 = 174E01 R -9 E-03
3 = -9 02E-03 Q3-R2 = -1 0E-06
IS.~8


S70 4 sE- 07
- 224 1 B4E.o
0 00 95tEO-
1 010 6 09E-07
013 203E-07
S ,617 .60E.O
0B4 S66E-08
0. 05 1.05E-07
1 124 1 14E.-06
1 9 82E-07














problems involving heterogeneous reactions. The user can
also indicate whether the reaction occurs at constant volume,
constant temperature, constant pressure, or adiabatically. Re-
actions occurring in an ideal gas phase can be so indicated.
Finally, the user can specify the initial temperature and
pressure of the system.

The spreadsheet uses the thermochemical S spreadsheet f
data to calculate the change in free energy Compound v
for the reaction and subsequently the equi- B I I
librium constant at any specified tempera- E Fi 0e
ture. This value appears in the cell labeled

K,(T,,,,) from Delta G(T,,,,). The spread-
sheet also calculates the activity of each
component in the reacting mixture (includ- CONSTANT V?
ing fluid-phase non-idealities), and subse- CONSTANTT?
ADIABATIC?
quently the value of nlai which must CONSTANTP?
IDEAL GAS?
Po =
equal the value of K, calculated from ther- To =
modynamics when chemical equilibrium is pfino
T 10fina:
achieved. The spreadsheet will also calcu- Z fin=
late the amount of heat transferred during Coersion"=
the reaction. This calculation neglects any
work done on or by the system, and it as-
sumes that all components enter the system omoun
Compound In C
at the same temperature and that all compo- Bezene 1
Ethylene 1
nents leave the system at the same tempera- Ethylbenz 0
0
ture. The spreadsheet also neglects solution 0 0
0 0
non-idealities (e.g., we take Hi = Hi). o

The types of chemical equilibrium prob- ( Spreadsheet f
lems typically encountered are those where Compund v
temperature is known and the equilibrium
composition (or conversion) and Q are Eyene
sought, or those where Q is known and the E .
equilibrium composition and temperature are
sought. The spreadsheet can solve both types
of problems and their variations, as shown CONSTANT V?
in Figure 5. CONSTANT T?
ADIABATIC?
Figure 5a gives the solution to Problem COSTANPL
9.24 in Sandler. The student is given a gas- po =
phase chemical reaction (the addition of eth- o =
ylene to benzene to make ethylbenzene) and T fina =
Zfinal
told that it occurs isothermally at 600K in a converson =
constant-volume batch reactor. He is then

asked to determine the equilibrium conver-
sion and the amount of heat transferred dur- Mes
ing the reaction. This is an example of the Be"oed 1
Ethylene 1
first type of chemical equilibrium problem, Eylbenz 0
wherein T is known and Q and X are sought. 0 0
After the data were entered into the spread- 0
sheet, I solved the problem by instructing TOTAL 2
the Solver to vary the conversion such that Figure 5.
the value of K. computed from the compo-
nents' activities became equal to the equi- a) T

268


librium constant determined from the thermochemical data.
After the conversion was determined, Q was calculated from
an energy balance.

Figure 5b shows a variation of Problem 9.24, which illus-
trates the second type of chemical equilibrium problem.


>r Chemical Reaction Equilibrium Calculations
Moles Phase Gf(298) Hf(298) Constants in Cp (cal/mol-K) = a+bT+cT'^2dT^3 '
In (gl,s) (cal/mol) (cal/mol) a b c d
1 I l 3098911 198201 -8.65E.00] 1.16E-0111 -7.54E-050 1.85E-0 0.0E+00


496 9.44E-01 3.74E-02 -1.99E-05 4.22E-09
3120811 712 0 40E 1.59E-01 -1.00E-04 2.40E-08

[I-6 1 r H


A -6.92E-01 6.22E-03 -4.70E-06 1.19E-09


260


Tref = 298.15
R= 1.9872
Q= -21860
A Grxn (298K) = -16063
A Hxn (298K) = -25196
Ka (298K) = 5.95E+11
A Hrxn (T final) = -24822
A Grxn (T final) = 6942
Ka (T final) = 3.38E+02
Ka (T final) = 3.38E+02
Ratio of K's = 1.00


for closed systems (batch reactors)
Solve for X (at Constant T) (G17)

S X (at Constant T)= 0.92
T final =
1 atm
600 K
1
0.54 atm
600 K
1
0.926


O.OE+00
O.OE+00

O.OE+00
0.OE+00
O.OE+00


K
cal/mol-K
cal/mol
cal/mol
callmol
from Delta G (298)
cal/mol
cal/mol
from Delta G(T final)
from activities


Moles MoleFrac Gas-Phase Liquid-Phase
change Out Out Activity Fug. Coef. Activity Coef.
-0.926 0.074 0.069 0.037 1.000 1.000
-0.926 0.074 0.069 0.037 1.000 1.000
0.926 0.926 0.862 0.463 1.000 1.000
0.000 0.000 0.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
0.000 0.000 0.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
0.000 0.000 0.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
0.000 0.000 0.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
1.074


or Chemical Reaction Equilibrium Calculations
Moles Phase Gf(298) H1(298) Constants in Cp (cal/mol-K) = a+bT+cT^2+dT^3


In (g,l,s) (cal/mol) (cal/mol) a b c d
=I F- B 30989 19820 -8.65E.00 1.16E01 -7.54E-05 1.E-08 4
1 16282 12496 9.44E-01 3.74E-02 -1.994-05 4.22E-09 1
9 31208 7120 -8.40E.0 1.S9E-01 -1.00E-04 2.40E-08 6



-- -692-01 6.22E-03 -4.70-06 1.19E-09
A -6.92E-01 6.22E-03 -4.70E-06 1.19E-09


for closed systems (batch reactors)
no Solve for T final (G18)

S(at Constant T) = 0 6900
T final = 707.72
1 atm A
600 K
1
0.65 atm A
708 K A
1
0690


Moles Mole Frac
Change Out Out


Tref = 298 15
R= 1.9872
0= -10000
Grxn (298K) = -16063
Hrxn (298K) = -25196
Ka (298K) = 5.95E+11
Hrxn (T final) = -24640
G0rn (T final)= -3747
Ka (T final)= 1.44E+01
Ka (T final) = 1.44E+01
Ratio of K's = 1.00


Gas-Phase Liquid-Phase
Activity Fun Comf Antiv it n-


'C;dT
.3E+03
.9E+03
.4E+03

.OE+00
.OE+00


K
cal/mol-K
cal/mol
cal/mol
cal/mol
from Delta G (298)
cal/mol
cal/mol
from Delta G(T final)
from activities


-0.690 0.310 0.237 0.155 1.000 1.000
-0.690 0310 0.237 0.155 1.000 1.000
0.690 0.690 0.527 0.345 1 000 1.000
0.000 0.000 0.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
0.000 0.000 0.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
0.000 0.000 0.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
0.000 0.000 0.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
1.310

Solution of the two common types of chemical equilibrium
problems, based on Problem 9.24 in Sandler:
given, X and Q sought, b) Q given, T and X sought.


Chemical Engineering Education


rr'











Here I assumed that the amount of heat transferred was
known (-10 kcal/mol) and that the final temperature and
conversion were sought. I solved this variation by instruct-
ing the Solver to vary the final temperature and conversion
until the ratio of equilibrium constants was equal to unity
subject to the constraint of Q = 10,000 cal/mol. Note that for
an adiabatic equilibrium problem (Q=0), the user needs only
to vary the final temperature. The spreadsheet will automati-
cally calculate the conversion from the energy balance.
One final application of the chemical equilibrium spread-
sheet we will describe is its ability to solve problems involv-
ing reactions in non-ideal fluid phases. Such problems can
be solved by linking the chemical equilibrium spreadsheet
with the mixtures spreadsheet described earlier. We use
Sandler's Illustration 9.1-7, which considers the water-gas
shift reaction and computes the equilibrium mole fractions
for CO, CO,, H,, and H,O at 1000K and a pressure of 500
atm, as an example. At these conditions the gas phase is
slightly non-ideal. I copied the temperature, pressure, and
mole fractions appearing in the chemical equilibrium spread-
sheet into the mixtures spreadsheet so that fugacity coeffi-
cients could be calculated. These fugacity coefficients were
then copied into the chemical equilibrium spreadsheet and
used to calculate the components' activities. The balance of
the solution proceeded along the lines described above. (Al-
though space considerations prevent reproduction here of
the figure displaying the final results on both the mixtures
and the chemical equilibrium spreadsheets, a copy can be
obtained by contacting the author.) We note too that the
chemical equilibrium spreadsheet can also handle reactions
in non-ideal liquid phases. Here the user can specify an
activity coefficient model (e.g., van Laar, Wilson, Margules)
to calculate the activity coefficients for each component
from a knowledge of the mixture composition.

SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK
This paper described spreadsheets for personal computers
that solve chemical equilibrium problems and use cubic
equations of state to calculate thermodynamics properties
for pure fluids and for mixtures. These spreadsheets can be
used to solve thermodynamics problems involving real flu-
ids. As such, engineering students can work on more realis-
tic problems, and instructors need not rely so heavily upon
the ideal gas law to teach the applications of equations of
state for property evaluation. These spreadsheets have been
profitably employed at the University of Michigan.
With laptop and notebook computers becoming more pow-
erful and less expensive every year, the day that students
will routinely bring computers to class rather than calcula-
tors may not be far away. Consequently, computer-based
methods for evaluating thermodynamics properties for real
fluids may soon replace the generalized corresponding states
charts that have been used for over forty years to teach
students about real fluids. The spreadsheets described in this
Fall 1995


paper are consistent with this paradigm shift in thermody-
namics instruction. These spreadsheets are available to other
engineering educators upon request to the author.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Professor Brice Carnahan introduced me to the idea of
using spreadsheets for equation-of-state calculations. As a
result, students in my chemical engineering thermodynamics
classes were given the assignment of developing their own
spreadsheets for pure component properties. Two of these
students, Nobu Itoh and Douglas VanEeuwen, then did much
of the subsequent development work for the mixtures and
chemical equilibrium spreadsheets. This project was par-
tially supported by the University of Michigan Center for
Research on Learning and Teaching.

NOTATION
a activity of component i
a parameter in cubic EOS, constant in ideal gas heat
capacity equation
b parameter in cubic EOS, constant in ideal gas heat
capacity equation
c constant in ideal gas heat capacity equation
C ideal gas heat capacity
d constant in ideal gas heat capacity equation
f fugacity
G Gibbs free energy
H enthalpy
P pressure
P. critical pressure
R gas constant
S entropy
T. critical temperature
T temperature
U internal energy
V molar volume
Z compressibility factor (Z=PV/RT)
Greek
ot(T) parameter in cubic EOS
ii stoichiometric coefficient for component i
co acentric factor
REFERENCES
1. Peng, D.Y., and D.B. Robinson, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund., 15 59 (1976)
2. Soave, G., Chem. Eng. Sci., 27, 1197 (1972)
3. Brainard, A.J., Chem. Eng. Ed., 28, 62 (1994)
4. Nitsche, J.M., Chem. Eng. Ed., 28, 168 (1994)
5. Black, W.Z., and J.G. Hartley, Thermodynamics, 2nd ed., Harper Collins
(1991)
6. Burghardt, M.D., and J.A. Harbach, Engineering Thermodynamics, 4th
ed., Harper Collins (1993)
7. Sonntag, R.E., and G.J. Van Wylen, Introduction to Thermodynamics:
Classical and Statistical, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons (1991)
8. Sandler, S.I. Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics, 2nd ed., John
Wiley & Sons (1989)
9. Kyle, B.G., Chemical and Process Thermodynamics, 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall
(1992)
10. Smith, J.M., and H.C. Van Ness, Introduction to Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill (1987) O










n classroom


CREATE

VIRTUAL UNIT OPERATIONS

WITH YOUR

DATA ACQUISITION SOFTWARE



RICHARD A. DAVIS
University of Minnesota Duluth Duluth, MN 55812


he latest generation of computer data acquisition soft-
ware and hardware for personal computers allows for
simple and inexpensive, yet powerful, automation
of laboratory experiments and process control.'4"' But
modem data acquisition software can also serve as a conve-
nient tool for quickly developing computer simulations of
chemical engineering unit operations for use in class-
room demonstrations.
Recently, several different types of computer data acquisi-
tion software with a graphical user interface (GUI) have
become commercially available, including National
Instrument's LabVIEW, VIEWDAC from Keithly Metra-
byte, Labtech Notebook and Control, and Kmax from
Sparrow, among others. These computer applications are
designed to replace physical instrumentation with virtual
instruments (VI).
A VI permits the user to access the functions of computer
data acquisition hardware (e.g., plug-in cards) with pro-
grammable software that graphically portrays the controls
and output as knobs, buttons, switches, thermometers, and
strip charts on the computer's video display. The advantage
of creating simulations using data acquisition software with
a GUI over traditional programming languages like FOR-
TRAN or BASIC, or even mathematical analysis applica-
tions such as Mathematica or Mathcad, is the availability of
pre-drawn controls and output devices,5'6 similar to those
found in visualization and simulation software packages like
SIMULINK and VisSim.
A typical example of a GUI is shown in Figure 1, where
the general feel and appearance of physical instrumentation
is created with computer graphics. The controls, however,
are manipulated with the "click and drag" of a computer


Richard Davis is an assistant professor in the
Department of Chemical Engineering at the Uni-
versity of Minnesota Duluth. He received his
degrees in chemical engineering from Brigham
Young University (BS) and the University of Cali-
fornia, Santa Barbara (PhD). His teaching and
research interests are in the areas of transport
phenomena and separation processes.



mouse. All of these features make data acquisition software
ideal for creating VIs of unit operations. The powerful pro-
gramming, analysis tools, graphical interface, and presenta-
tion graphics can be combined to simulate, in real time, the
operation and dynamic behavior of several different unit
operations involving fluid dynamics, heat transfer, separa-
tions, or reactor design.
We purchased LabVIEW for use in a research setting,
but found it particularly well suited for creating VIs of
unit operations for classroom demonstrations as well.
LabVIEW is essentially a high-level programming language,
available for Macintosh, Windows, and UNIX platforms.
LabVIEW replaces text-based programming with icons
or object-oriented programming. In addition to objects for
data acquisition and control, LabVIEW comes with an ex-
tensive library of numerical and statistical analysis tools.
With the latest version of LabVIEW, software developers
can create stand-alone, executable only applications that can
be distributed freely.
Goodney"71 first reported success using LabVIEW in the
analytical chemistry classroom for simulating the collection
and analysis of absorption peaks from chromatographic sepa-
rations. More recently, using similar data-acquisition soft-


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1995


Chemical Engineering Education











ware, LabWindows (also from National Instruments),
Dempster'8' developed a series of simulated laboratory ex-
periments for physiology and pharmacology undergraduate
students, such as drug delivery in a cat. While our needs are
not so animated, with relatively little programming effort,
VIs of unit operations such as heat exchangers, stirred reac-
tors, and absorption towers were created with LabVIEW for
use as classroom demonstrations. One VI of a stirred tank
reactor (STR) is presented here in order to illustrate the
features of simulation with data-acquisition software. This
simulation is designed to demonstrate the effects of several
process parameters on temperature and reaction conversion
in a stirred tank reactor.

VIRTUAL STIRRED TANK REACTOR
A dynamic simulation of a stirred tank reactor is devel-
oped to demonstrate both batch versus continuous operation
(or chemical equilibrium versus steady state), non-ideal mix-
ing, and residence time effects on temperature and conver-
sion in a reactor. The details of the model derivation may be
found in any standard textbook on reactor design."'
For simplicity, the model is formulated for the simple case
of an elementary, first-order, reversible, constant density,
exothermic reaction:


kA
k-1


Jacket Temperature
Flowrate (L/min) (K)
Volume
(L) 1000 -
Feed Temperature 100 840 -
(K) 80 100 680-
1000- 60 4 520-
840- 40 360-
680- 200-
S2 0 52
360- 0 36
200 20



Conversion Temperature
Fe 0.961 r737
Feed
Delta Beta
I I I I I
0.2 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Figure 1. Simulation graphical user interface.


Recently, several different types of computer
data acquisition software with a graphical user
interface have become commercially
available. ... These computer applications are
designed to replace physical instrumentation
with virtual instruments (VI).


The elementary rate law for this reaction is

-rA =k, CA (2)

The first-order rate constant taken to be Arrhenius tempera-
ture dependent is
ex(E)
ki = k expE (3)

where k, is the forward rate constant and K is the reaction
equilibrium constant, defined as

k
K = (4)
k
-I
An Arrhenius temperature dependence is also assumed for
the equilibrium constant

K = K0 exp( R (5)

Conservation Equations Several assumptions are intro-
duced into the model to keep the derivation simple. The feed
is pure A and the density of the reactant and product are
constant and uniform. Under these conditions, the unsteady-
state material balance for species A is

VdC(6)
dt A(CA C A)+VrA (6)
where
V = reactor volume
S= volumetric feed rate
CA, CA. = reactor and feed concentrations, respectively
r, = reaction rate of species A
The concentration of each species is defined in terms of
the conversion of species A:

CA= CA (1- X) (7)

CB = CAo (8)

The species conservation Eq. (6) reduces to the following
first-order ordinary differential equation in conversion:

dX k x[k ++1+ (9)
dt = k -X k1 KI) V

Deviations from perfect mixing are illustrated with this model
by modifying Eq. (9) to account for non-ideal behavior. One


Fall 1995


Conversion Temperature (K)










simple two-parameter model of a non-ideal mixing is a stirred
tank reactor with a bypass stream and dead volume, as
illustrated in Figure 2. In this case, the modifications to the
conservation equation for dead volume and bypass give

ib = (1- P)U (10)
d = (1- 6)V (11)
dX, 1 11+( P
d-k -Kl k 1+ +K (12)
dt '=k I| \ K) 5V
X2 = pX (13)

where X, is the conversion in the non-ideal reactor and X2 is
the total conversion, including the effects of bypass. The
reactor model is also set up with a uniform temperature
jacket for temperature control. The thermal energy conser-
vation equation is

dT US(T,-T) pu XH
-=- -T+ ,To T)- Xr (14)
dt CAoc pV '5V 1 (14)

where
US = product of the overall heat transfer coefficient and
area available for heat transfer
T, T = jacket and reactor temperatures, respectively
H, = heat of reaction
cp = heat capacity of the fluid
Simulator The STR VI simulation's controls and results
are displayed graphically by LabVIEW on a Macintosh com-
puter as shown in Figure 1. The model equations are solved
numerically in a LabVIEW program shown in Figure 3. In
order to keep the programming compact, a simple
first-order Euler's method is used to solve the sys-
tem of first-order ordinary differential equations
for this example. The discrete form of Eqs. (12) and
(14) are contained in a formula node that is placed
inside an overall while-loop structure. A feature of
this simulation is the ability to run in real time,
accomplished by controlling the time elapsed be-
tween while-loop iterations with a wait period (rep-
resented by the small clock in the lower right-hand
comer) equal to the Euler time step. The time elapsed
is controlled by the internal clock on board the
computer. The smaller formula node is used to
calculate values for the Arrhenius temperature de-
pendent reaction rate and equilibrium constants.
LabVIEW comes with several pre-drawn control
and output options. Virtual thermometers are used
for temperature indicators and controllers. In this []
particular VI, the temperatures of the feed stream
and jacket are controlled directly from the screen
by dragging the virtual mercury up and down the
272


thermometers, using the computer's mouse. A virtual filled
tank is used to represent the reactor and its volume is con-
trolled in a similar fashion, using the computer's mouse to
drag the volume level in the icon up or down. The feed flow
rate is controlled with a virtual knob. A rotameter indicates
the value of the flow rate. Slide bars are used for changing
the bypass and dead volume fractions for incorporating non-
ideal mixing into the simulation. Strip charts record the
dynamic results for conversion and temperature from the
reactor simulation. Controls and strip charts are "wired" to
their respective variables used in the formula nodes in Fig-
ure 3. Although not shown in Figure 1, the values of all the
parameters, such as activation energy and heat of reaction,
may be changed by typing the appropriate numbers in digital


Figure 2. Schematic of jacketed stirred tank reactor with
by-pass stream and dead volume.


Figure 3. Icon-based program for STR simulation.


Chemical Engineering Education










control boxes. The values of the parameters chosen for this
simulation are listed in Table 1.
Computer simulations of unit operations allow us to inves-
tigate the effect of changing parameters that would other-
wise be impossible. For example, the effect of activation
energy on temperature dependence is demonstrated on-line
by varying the activation energy and temperature over a
range of values and plotting the results in the strip charts
created by the software.

SAMPLE SIMULATIONS
Several simulations are possible with this single STR VI.
They range from the simple investigation of the transient
temperature of a batch re-
actor to the effects of
Table 1 mixing on the conversion
Parameter values for STR of a first-order reaction.
simulation Students often have dif-
ficulty distinguishing be-
Reatin aamt tween the concepts of
k, 50 rinu' steady state and equilib-
K 150 rium operation. By turn-
CAO 0.1 mol.L' ing off the feed flow rate
E/R 1234 K in the STR simulation, the
E/R 1357 K continuous reactor be-
c 100 JmotlKt comes a batch reactor.
H -10 J-moT' The strip charts in Figure
US 1500 J.K- 1 show the results of the
dynamic effects on con-
Sversion and temperature
when the feed is set to


Conversion Temperature (K)
1.0 -1000
0.8 840
0.6 680
0.4 520
0.2 360
0.0 200

Figure 4. Temperature effects on equilibrium in a
batch reactor.


Figure 5. Non-ideal mixing effects on conversion
and temperature.

Fall 1995


zero. At early times, the reactor is operating under steady-
state conditions, represented by the flat concentration
and temperature profiles. When the feed is stopped, the
steady-state conditions become the initial conditions for
batch operation. At this point in time, conversion and tem-
perature in the reactor begin to increase asymptotically
toward their equilibrium state, illustrating the transient
nature of batch operation. Unfortunately, the figures
shown here are only still snapshots of the output, diminish-
ing the visual impact of the dynamic computer video output
that students see in class.
The effect of temperature on equilibrium is demonstrated
by adjusting the temperature of the heat exchanger fluid in
the jacket. Figure 4 shows the strip charts for conversion and
reactor temperature under batch operation when the jacket
temperature is increased from 350 to 800 K. The conversion
gradually increased from 75% to 96%.
The influence of residence time on conversion and tem-
perature is illustrated by changing either the feed flow rate or
the reactor volume. A lower flow rate increases conversion
while decreasing production rate. Depending on the tem-
perature of the feed stream, the temperature in the reactor
decreases or increases as the residence time is changed.
Students can explore different scenarios in class by asking
"What if ... ?" questions about the effects of each control-
lable parameter on conversion or temperature in the reactor.
For example, students ask how the production rate can
be increased without loss of conversion. One possibility is
to increase the reactor volume while increasing the feed
rate, but this may have an effect on the degree of mixing,
which leads into a discussion of mixing models. The ideal
mixing model is altered to account for stagnant regions and
channeling in the reactors. Step changes from 1.0 to 0.5 in p
and 6 result in the transient conversion and temperature
plots in Figure 5.
Another typical question concerns the activation energy
effects on the temperature dependence of the reaction. This
is typically demonstrated in the physical chemistry or unit
operations laboratories only by choosing different reacting
compounds for study. In this dynamic simulation, the activa-
tion energy as well as the temperature can be changed "on-
line" while the program is running. The simple model devel-
oped here may be modified to include higher order reactions
or other non-ideal reactor models as desired.

DISCUSSION
Although originally intended for automating data collec-
tion from a laboratory experiment or process control, mod-
em data acquisition software with a GUI is also a useful and
convenient tool for developing computer demonstrations of
unit operations. Many chemical engineering departments
may have plans for acquiring data acquisition software for
automating the unit operations laboratory that can also serve











as a programming aid for computer simulations (giving you
twice the bang for your educational or research buck!).
Mathematical models can be programmed with graphical
displays for control and output to illustrate the salient
features of many unit operations, such as the stirred tank
reactor demonstrated here.
Of particular benefit to students is the ability to demon-
strate unsteady-state behavior in real time. I have found that
the difference between equilibrium and steady state is often
a difficult concept for students to grasp. The student re-
sponse to this simulation is generally favorable. The com-
puter demonstrations are portable, inexpensive when coupled
with laboratory use, and require minimal effort to customize
for particular needs. National Instruments offers special aca-
demic pricing on LabVIEW as well as a low-cost student
edition. Interested departments should contact National In-
struments directly for more information.""0

NOTATION


CA
CA()

c
C,

C
H
E
E
K
k,,k,
k,0
R
rA
S
t
T
T_
U
V
Vd
X
8

At
1)
Ub


concentration of species A
feed concentration
concentration of species B
heat capacity
heat of reaction per mole of species A
activation energy for reaction rate constant
activation energy for equilibrium constant
reaction equilibrium constant
first-order forward and reverse reaction rate constants
pre-exponential factor for k,
ideal gas constant
reaction production rate of species A
heat transfer area
time
reactor temperature
heat exchanger fluid temperature
overall heat transfer coefficient
total reactor volume
dead volume
conversion of species A from an ideal reactor
fraction of volume converted to dead volume
fraction of feed converted to by-pass stream
Euler step size in numerical solution
volumetric feed flow rate
by-pass volumetric flow rate


REFERENCES
1. Razdan, A., "Simplify Data Acquisition and Control Pro-
gramming," Chem. Eng. Prog., 90, 57 (1994)
2. Davis, R.A., O.C. Sandall, and J. Doyle, "Liquid-Phase Axial
Dispersion in a Packed Gas Absorption Column," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 27(1), 20 (1993)
3. Doubrava, C., and M. Kay, "Advanced Laboratory Applica-
tions of PCs," Amer. Lab., Sept. 1 (1993)
4. Christoper, D., R.A. Merz, D.R. Jenkins, and M.A. Mindock,
"Computerized Data Acquisition in an Undergraduate Labo-
ratory," Proceedings of the 1987 ASEE Annual Conference,
495
5. Mosterman, P.J., M.A.M. Dorlandt, J.O. Campbell, C. Burow,

274


A.J. Broderson, and J.R. Bourne, "Virtual Engineering Labo-
ratories: Design and Experiments," J. Eng. Ed., 83, 279
(1994)
6. Fogler, H.S., and S.M. Montgomery, Chemical Reaction Ki-
netics, Interactive Computer Modules for IBM-PC, Univer-
sity of Michigan (1993)
7. Goodney, D.E., "Using Icon-Based Programming for Class-
room Demonstrations," J. Chem. Ed., 69, 811 (1992)
8. Dempster, J. "Teaching Pharmacology with LabWindows,"
National Instruments Instrumentation Newsletter, 7(1), A-1
(1995)
9. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering,
2nd ed., Prentice-Hall, Engelwood Cliffs, NJ (1992)
10. National Instruments Corp., 6504 Bridge Point Parkway,
Austin, TX 78730 O



REVIEW: Studying Engineering
Continued from page 229.

part-time work agrees with my experience. The book en-
courages students to seek help and to work together in col-
laborative groups with an optimum size of two. His sugges-
tions on how to get help from professors is good, but will
drive professors at research universities crazy if a large
number of students start to follow his suggestions. The study
skills will be useful if the students practice them. The prob-
lems at the end of the chapter will be helpful here, particu-
larly if assigned as homework.
Chapter 4, "Developing Yourself Personally," presents
one major message-think positively. A section on the three
steps to overcoming barriers is outstanding. These three
steps (Knowledge, know what to do; Commit, want to do it;
and Implement, do it) will be useful to professors as well as
to students. Unfortunately, five pages on Maslow and self-
esteem, two pages on the Myers (which he misspells)-Briggs
Type Indicator, and four pages on brain dominance are all
too short and would have to be supplemented by the instruc-
tor.
Chapter 4 seems to be a catch-all chapter. It includes
sixteen pages on communication skills, with many helpful
hints. But since freshman engineers typically take English
and speech, why devote so much space to communication?
A short section to provide motivation would have been suffi-
cient. A section on understanding and respecting differences
reflects the author's experience as director of a minority
engineering program. Because of the importance of this
topic, I wish it were longer and that it included role plays or
scenarios. The final section on motivating yourself could be
moved to Chapter 1 where it fits naturally.
Chapter 5, "Broadening Your Education," suggests that
students participate in campus life, participate in engineer-
ing student projects, obtain preprofessional employment, and
give something back to the school. These are all obviously
useful suggestions. The sections on campus life and student
projects try to be specific in areas where different schools


Chemical Engineering Education











obviously have different resources and could result in frus-
tration when the students find that some opportunities are
not available at their school. This chapter also includes sec-
tions on resumes and interviewing techniques that are im-
portant to freshmen, but which are often not covered.
Much of the last chapter, "Orientation to the Engineering
Education System," appears to go beyond the freshman's
need to know. This includes information on ABET, commu-
nity colleges, grading systems, and the role of research. The
statement
The first two years of engineering study at a community
college are similar in almost every regard to the first two
years of engineering study at a four-year institution.
may mislead students. In my experience, students find study-
ing engineering at a major research institution much more
intense than at a community college. The sections on advis-
ing (it is a student's responsibility to find out), the impor-
tance of grades (since it is quantitative, GPA is heavily
weighted), academic dishonesty (ethics is not always clear-
cut), and graduate study (never too early to think about it)
are well done.
The general quality of this book is high. It is nicely printed
with a pleasant soft cover. Many of the problems at the end
of the chapters are well thought out and will be thought-
provoking, although a few ask for too much ("write a 500- to
750-word essay ."). The lack of an index will unfortu-
nately discourage browsing. The price seems reasonable.
Engineering professors teaching engineering orientation
courses should obtain and read a copy of this book. I would
strongly recommend it to engineering students for supple-
mental reading of Chapters 1, 3, and 4. O


REVIEW: Process Heat Transfer
Continued from page 243.
The book is perhaps best interpreted as an update of the
book of the same name by D.Q. Kern.m2 In this regard, it is
highly to be recommended. Conventional heat exchangers
are described in structure and function, and their design is
well illustrated by detailed examples. A few illustrative prob-
lems are included with most chapters.
The coverage and focus of the book is perhaps best indi-
cated by the following chapter headings:
3. Basic Theory of Heat Exchangers
4. Selection of Heat Exchangers
5. Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers
6. Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
7. Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers
8. Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchangers
9. Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
10. Two-Phase Flow
11. Boiling Heat Transfer
12. Heat Exchangers with Vapor Generation
Fall 1995


13. Steam Generators
14. Reboilers
15. Evaporators
16. Condensation
17. Heat Exchangers with Vapor Condensation
18. Shell-and-Tube Condensers
19. Air-Cooled Condensers
20. Condensation in Plate-and-Frame Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers
21. Direct Contact Heat Transfer
22. Direct Contact Condensers
23. Water Cooling Towers
24. Furnaces
25. Heat Transfer Associated with Thermodynamic Cycles
26. Process Integration
27. Fouling of Heat Exchangers
28. Enhancement of Heat Transfer
29. Regenerative Heat Exchangers
30. Electrical Heating
31. Heat Transfer in Agitated Vessels
Some topics are conspicuous by their absence or by their
minimal treatment, including: flow and heat transfer in po-
rous media and in fluidized beds; heat transfer to liquid
metals, in particular in nuclear reactors; heat transfer in
high-velocity (compressible) flows; heat transfer with freez-
ing; and materials of construction. The new frontiers of heat
transfer such as solid-state processing, biological process-
ing, and atmospheric modeling are not mentioned. Most
surprising is the absence of any discussion of computer
simulation of design except for a brief reference in the
chapter on process integration. Qualitative considerations
and rules of experience are given only minimal attention.
The book by Gupta3'' provides a valuable supplement in
that regard.
The book uses SI units and the new international standards
on nomenclature. This may prove to be a nuisance for the
present generation of practitioners, but is appropriate for
future use since most students are now being instructed in
these terms.
Although this review has focused on the contents and
particularly on the omissions, the authors are to be com-
mended on their achievement in the practical sphere. The
book is well written, relatively free of errors, and readily
accessible at all points without back-referencing. It deserves
to be on the shelf of every designer of heat exchangers, of
every teacher of heat transfer, and of every engineering
library. In this regard it is a completely successful and essen-
tial replacement for its predecessor."
References
1. Kern, D.Q., Process Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
New York, NY (1950)
2. Schlinder, E.U., Editor in Chief, Heat Exchanger Design
Handbook, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., Washington, DC
(1983)
3. Gupta, J.P., Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger and Pressure
Vessel Technology, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., Washing-
ton, DC (1986) 3














he.



of 1ersV
O 0on.


FIAT LUX
`W G


DEPARTMENT

OF

CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING


GRADUATE PROGRAM


Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $7,800.
Industrially sponsored fellowships available up to $17,000.
In addition to stipends, tuition and fees are waived. Ph.D. students may get some incentive scholarships.
The deadline for assistantship applications is February 15th.

F FACULTY RESEARCH INTERESTS


G. A. ATWOOD *
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H. M. CHEUNG *
S. C. CHUANG *
J.R. ELLIOTT *
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S. LEE *
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H. C. QAMMAR *
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Digital Control, Mass Transfer, Multicomponent Adsorption
Multiphase Processes, Heat Transfer, Interfacial Phenomena
Colloids, Light Scattering Techniques
Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Combustion
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Fixed Bed Adsorption, Process Design
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Biochemical Engineering, Environmental Biotechnology
Biochemical Engineering, Enzyme and Fermentation Technology
Fuel and Chemical Process Engineering, Reactive Polymers, Waste Clean-Up
Homogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics
Bioengineering, Polymer Chemistry, Pharmacodynamics
Polymerization Reaction Engineering
Hazardous Waste Treatment, Nonlinear Dynamics
Plastics Processing, Polymer Films, System Design
Environmental Engineering, Flow Phenomena
Multiphase Transport Theory, Filtration, Interfacial Phenomena


\^ ---^---~- -- -- -
SProfessor Emeritus 2 Adjunct Faculty Member

Cooperative Graduate Education Program is also available.
For Additional Information, Write *



276 Chemical Engineering Education


*^
















The


University


of


Alabama


The University ofAlabama, located
in the sunny South, offers
excellent programs leading to
M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical
Engineering.
Our research emphasis areas
are concentrated in environmental
studies, reaction kinetics and catalysis,
alternate fuels, and related processes.
The faculty has extensive industrial
experience, which gives a
distinctive engineering flavor
to our programs.


For further information, contact the
Director of Graduate Studies
Department of Chemical Engineering
Box 870203
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0203
(205-348-6450). An
Fall 1995


ual employment/equ
opportunity instill


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W.C.







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D. W. Arnold, Ph.D. (Purdue)
Clements, Jr., Ph.D. (Vanderbilt)
R. A. Griffin, Ph.D. (Utah State)
L A. Jefcoat, Ph.D. (Clemson)
M. Lane, Ph.D. (Massachusetts)
M.D. McKinley, Ph.D. (Florida)
L. Y. Sadler III, Ph.D. (Alabama)
:hrodt, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania State)
Viest, Ph.D. (Wisconsin-Madison)


s Conversion, Modeling Transport
'hermodynamics, Coal-Water Fuel
nt, Process Dynamics and Control,
ter Hardware, Catalysis, Chemical
design, Reaction Kinetics, Environ-
ynfuels, Alternate Chemical Feed-
vass Transfer, Energy Conversion
;ses, Ceramics, Rheology, Mineral
processing Separations, Computer
Applications, and Bioprocessing.














I UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA


Degrees: M.Sc., Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering and in Process Control

FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS


K. T. CHUANG, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Mass Transfer Catalysis Separation Processes Pollution
Control
I. G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (University of Minnesota)
EMERITUS Chemical Reaction Engineering *
Heterogeneous Catalysis Hydroprocessing
D. G. FISHER, Ph.D. (University of Michigan)
Process Dynamics and Control Real-Time Computer
Applications
M. R. GRAY, Ph.D. (California Institute of Technology)
DEAN OF GRADUATE STUDIES Bioreactors Chemical
Kinetics Characterization of Complex Organic Mixtures
R. E. HAYES, Ph.D. (University of Bath)
Numerical Analysis Reactor Modeling Conputational
Fluid Dynamics
S. M. KRESTA, Ph.D. (McMaster University)
Fluid Mechanics Turbulence Mixing
D. T. LYNCH, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Catalysis Kinetic Modeling Numerical Methods Reactor
Modeling and Design Polymerization
J. H. MASLIYAH, Ph.D. (University of British Columbia)
Transport Phenomena Numerical Analysis Particle-Fluid
Dynamics
A. E. MATHER, Ph.D. (University of Michigan)
Phase Equilibria Fluid Properties at High Pressures *
Thermodynamics


W. K. NADER, Dr. Phil. (Vienna) EMERITUS
Heat Transfer Transport Phenomena in Porous Media *
Applied Mathematics
K. NANDAKUMAR, Ph.D. (Princeton University)
Transport Phenomena Multicomponent Distillation *
Computational Fluid Dynamics
F. D. OTTO, Ph.D. (Michigan)
Mass Transfer Gas-Liquid Reactions Separation Processes
M. RAO, Ph.D. (Rutgers University)
AI Intelligent Control Process Control
D. B. ROBINSON, Ph.D. (University of Michigan)
EMERITUS Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids *
Phase Equilibria Thermodynamics
J. T. RYAN, Ph.D. (University of Missouri)
Energy Economics and Supply Porous Media
S. L. SHAH, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Computer Process Control System Identification Adaptive
Control
U. SUNDARARAJ, Ph.D. (University of Minnesota)
Polymer Processing Reactive Polymer Blending Interfacial
Phenomena
S. E. WANKE, Ph.D. (University of California, Davis) CHAIR
Heterogeneous Catalysis Kinetics Polymerization
M. C. WILLIAMS, Ph.D. (University of Wisconsin)
Rheology Polymer Characterization Polymer Processing
R. K. WOOD, Ph.D. (Northwestern University)
Process Modeling and Dynamic Simulation Distillation
Column Control Dynamics and Control of Grinding Circuits


For further information, contact
Graduate Program Officer SYK Department of Chemical Engineering
University ofAlberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6
PHONE (403) 492-4221 FAX (403) 492-2881
7R Chemical Engineering Education














ROBERT ARNOLD, Associate Professor (Caltech)
Microbiological Hazardous Waste Treatment, Metals Speciation and Toxicit
JAMES BAYGENTS, Assistant Professor (Princeton)
Fluid Mechanics, Transport and Colloidal Phenomena, Bioseparations,
Electrokinetics
MILAN BIER, Professor Emeritus (Fordham)
Protein Separation, Electrophoresis, Membrane Transport
WILLIAM P. COSART, Associate Professor and Associate Dean (Oregon Sti
Heat Transfer in Biological Systems, Blood Processing
JAMES FARRELL, Assistant Professor (Stanford)
Sorption/desorbtion of Organics in Soils
EDWARD FREEH, Adjunct Professor (Ohio State)
Process Control, Computer Applications
JOSEPH GROSS, Professor Emeritus (Purdue)
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Microcirculation, Biorheology
ROBERTO GUZMAN, Assistant Professor (North Carolina State)
Protein Separation, Affinity Methods
ARTHUR HUMPHREY, Visiting Professor (Columbia)
Biotechnology
BRUCE E. LOGAN, Associate Professor (Berkeley)
Bioremediation, Biological Wastewater Treatment, Fixed Film Bioreactors
KIMBERLY OGDEN, Assistant Professor (Colorado)
Bioreactors, Bioremediation, Organics Removal from Soils
THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor and Head (CalTech)
Aerosols, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Microcontamination
ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor Emeritus (Iowa State)
Crystallization Processes, Nucleation, Particulate Processes
THOMAS R. REHM, Professor (Washington)
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Computer Aided Design
FARHANG SHADMAN, Professor (Berkeley)
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactive Membranes,
Microcontamination
RAYMOND A. SIERKA, Professor (Oklahoma)
Adsorption, Oxidation, Membranes, Solar Catalyzed Detox Reactions
JENNIFER SINCLAIR, Associate Professor (Princeton)
Gas/solid Flows, Solids Mixing and Transport
JOST 0. L. WENDT, Professor (Johns Hopkins)
Combustion-Generated Air Pollution, Incineration, Waste
Management
DON H. WHITE, Professor Emeritus (Iowa State)
Polymers, Microbial and Enzymatic Processes
DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor (Technion)
Fermentation, Mixing, Energy, Biomass Conversion


For further information, write to
Chairman,
Graduate Study Committee
Department of Chemical and
Environmental Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721
The University of Arizona is an equal
opportunity educational institution/equal
opportunity employer.
Women and minorities are encouraged
to apply.


THE


UNIVERSITY
UNIVERSITY


OF




ARIZONA


The Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department
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opportunities in all major areas of chemical engineering and
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Fall 1995










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Beckman, James R., Ph.D., University of Arizona e *
Crystallization and Solar Cooling o a *
Bellamy, Lynn, Ph.D., Tulane Process Simulation o
Beaudoin, Stephen P., Ph.D., North Carolina State I
University Transport Phenomena and Surface Science 0,
concerning Pollution Prevention, Waste Minimization, and *
Pollution Remediation e
Berman, Neil S., Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin Fluid
Dynamics and Air Pollution *
Burrows, Veronica A., Ph.D., Princeton University Surface
Science, Semiconductor Processing
Cale, Timothy S., Ph.D., University of Houston Catalysis,
Semiconductor Processing
Garcia, Antonio A., Ph.D., U.C., Berkeley Acid-Base Interactions,
Biochemical Separation, Colloid Chemistry
Henry, Joseph D., Jr., Ph.D., University of Michigan Biochemical,
Molecular Recognition, Surface and Colloid Phenomena
Kuester, James L., Ph.D., Texas A&M University Thermochemical Conversion,
Complex Reaction Systems S
Raupp, Gregory B., Ph.D., University of Wisconsin Semiconductor Materials
Processing, Surface Science, Catalysis
Rivera, Daniel, Ph.D., Cal Tech Process Control and Design
Sater, Vernon E., Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Tech Heavy Metal Removal from Waste Water,
Process Control
Torrest, Robert S., Ph.D., University of Minnesota Multiphase Flow, Filtration, Flow in Porous Media,
Pollution Control
Zwiebel, Imre, Ph.D., Yale University Adsorption of Macromolecules, Biochemical Separations

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Dorson, William J., Ph.D., University of Cincinnati Physicochemical Phenomena, Transport Processes
Guilbeau, Eric J., Ph.D., Louisiana Tech University Biosensors, Physiological Systems, Biomaterials
He, Jiping, Ph.D., University of Maryland Biomechanics, Robotics, Computational Neuroscience, Optimal Control, System Dynamics and Control
Kipke, Daryl R., Ph.D., University of Michigan Computation Neuroscience Machine Vision, Speech Recognition, Robotics Neural Networks
Pizziconi, Vincent B., Ph.D. Arizona State University- Artificial Organs, Biomaterials, Bioseparations
Sweeney, James D., Ph.D., Case-Western Reserve University- Rehab Engineering, Applied Neural Control
Towe, Bruce C., Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University- Bioelectric Phenomena, Biosensors, Biomedical Imaging
Yamaguchi, Gary T., Ph.D., Stanford University Biomechanics, Rehab Engineering, Computer-Aided Surgery


Alford, Terry L., Ph.D., Cornell University Electronic Materials Physical Metallurgy Electronic Thin Films Surface/Thin Film
Carpenter, Ray W., Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley Atomic Structure and Chemistry of Interfaces and Boundaries in Solids; Phase
Transformation Mechanisms in Metals and Ceramics; Electron Microscopy Methods and Instrumentation
Dey, Sandwip K., Ph.D., NYSC of Ceramics, Alfred University Ceramics, Sol-Gel Processing
Hendrickson, Lester E., Ph.D., University of Illinois Fracture and Failure Analysis, Physical and Chemical Metallurgy
Jacobson, Dean L., Ph.D., UCLA Thermionic Energy Conversion, High Temperature Materials
Krause, Stephen L., Ph.D., University of Michigan Ordered Polymers, Electronic Materials, Electron X-ray Diffraction, Electron Microscopy
Mayer, James, Ph.D., Purdue University -Thin Film Processing Ion Bean Modification of Materials
Stanley, James T., Ph.D., University of Illinois Phase Transformations, Corrosion





280 Chemical Engineering Education


SGraduate

Research in a

High Technology

Environment




.-w'.- rr -rr '= q; h- r.' -p".-.-- -" .


hit


We want you to be yourself..

The Department of Chemical Engineering
at Auburn University knows you have
unique talents and ideas to contribute to
our research programs. And because you
are an individual, we will value you as an
individual. That is what makes our
department one of the top 20 in the nation.
Don't become just another graduate
student at some other institution. Come to
Auburn and discover your potential.


if^New wU -L

AV be-

#ol 1


.ur


-t


TrE FACULTY


OiWm. Culbp


S lowasda Se Uvesity. 1976)
- i m ,,PdWHlfl.....
(UCiA 1970)
(Un1E~ttusy oftltb. 1970)
A. li elAi
(Unirsi*y of 4Man, 1976)
Jaf Lee
:iCaftna bnita ofaTdhology, 1991)


.Y. L
(Iowa Stae Univerty, 1972)
G ha Mes..
(Miuissaii Stae Univeity, 1966)
auttdt D. Nte
(diae o PSpr Cheupsy, 1973
(Univerily of Ktnmdky. 1978)
Chtelraobed
(Notr Da~ 1994)
A.jl.'r rM'r
.(Prdue W uveity. 1973)
Bruce J. 'btrdwk
S (Uvdesny ofw Wiscousin, l98t!


For ijoodutina andappl
IRP. Chan*teES
Chemiical Engineering
Auburn Univeisity, AL


Vyar ".r Wark p *pidirS opped $3 m"A O
Jinrki atof national inre, whst*at
sl-(/^Wrg^^aMB^ (^ro^/aandto


ovation write:


E 36849-5127











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BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY

T H E W O R L D I S O U R C A M P U S


GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
in the beautiful Rocky Mountains of Utah


Biomedical Engineering

Chemical Propulsion

Coal Combustion & Gasification

Computer Simulation

Electrochemistry

Thermodynamics

Fluid Mechanics


Kinetics & Catalysis

Mathematical Modeling

Materials

Transport Phenomena

Molecular Dynamics

Process Design

Process Control


For additional information write to:
Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering, 350 CB
Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah 84602
Tel: (801) 378-2586


AIM

7- ^.^


---


*01-7










U


DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL

AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING


FACULTY
R. G. Moore, Head (Alberta)
A. Badakhshan (Birmingham, U.K.)
L. A. Behie (Western Ontario)
J. D. M. Belgrave (Calgary)
F. Berruti (Waterloo)
P. R. Bishnoi (Alberta)
R. M. Butler (Imperial College, U.K.)
A. Chakma (UBC)
R. A. Heidemann (Washington U.)
C. Hyndman (Ecole Polytechnique)
A. A. Jeje (MIT)
N. Kalogerakis (Toronto)
A. K. Mehrotra (Calgary)
B. B. Pruden (McGill)
P. M. Sigmund (Texas)
J. Stanislav (Prague)
W. Y. Svrcek (Alberta)
E. L. Tollefson (Toronto)
M. A. Trebble (Calgary)
L. Zanzotto (Slovak Tech. Univ., Czechoslovakia)


The Department offers graduate programs leading to the M.Sc. and Ph.D. de-
grees in Chemical Engineering (full-time) and the M.Eng. degree in Chemical
Engineering, Petroleum Reservoir Engineering or Engineering for the Environ-
ment (part-time) in the following areas:
Biochemical Engineering & Biotechnology
Biomedical Engineering
Environmental Engineering
Modeling, Simulation & Control
Petroleum Recovery & Reservoir Engineering
Process Development
Reaction Engineering/Kinetics
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena

Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available to all qualified applicants.

SFor Additional Information Write *
Dr. A. K. Mehrotra Chair, Graduate Studies Committee
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
The University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4
E ~he nivesityof Clgar


The University is located in the City of Calgary, the Oil capital of Canada, the home of the world famous Calgary Stampede and the
1988 Winter Olympics. The City combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication of a modern urban center. Beautiful
Banff National Park is 110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of Banff Lake Louise,and Kananaskis areas are readily accessible. In
the above photo the University Campus is shown with the Olympic Oval and the student residences in the foreground. The Engineering
complex is on the left of the picture.


THE UNIVERSITY OF

U CALGARY


Fall 1995


I-










The


UNIVERSITY


OF


CALIFORNIA


at


BERKELEY


. offers graduate programs leading to the
Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy.
Both programs involve joint faculty-student
research as well as courses and seminars within
and outside the department. Students have the
opportunity to take part in the many cultural
offerings of the San Francisco Bay Area and
the recreational activities of California's north-
ern coast and mountains.


RESEARCH INTERESTS
Biochemical Engineering
Electrochemical Engineering
Electronic Materials Processing
Energy Utilization
Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics and Catalysis
Polymer Science and Technology
Process Design and Development
Separation Processes
Surface and Colloid Science
Thermodynamics


FACULTY


ALEXIS T. BELL

HARVEY W. BLANCH

ELTON J. CAIRNS

ARUP K. CHAKRABORTY

DOUGLAS S. CLARK

MORTON M. DENN

SIMON L. GOREN (Chairman)

DAVID B. GRAVES


JAY D. KEASLING

C. JUDSON KING

ROYA MABOUDIAN

SUSAN J. MULLER

JOHN S. NEWMAN

JOHN M. PRAUSNITZ

CLAYTON J. RADKE

JEFFREY A. REIMER


ENRIQUE IGLESIA


PLEASE WRITE:
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA 94720-1462 A

284 Chemical Engineering Education


I










UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


I.R .VI.N.E

Graduate Studies in

Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
and

Materials Science and Engineering

for
Chemical Engineering, Engineering, and Science Majors


PROGRAM
Offers degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels. Research in frontier areas in
chemical engineering, biochemical engineering, biotechnology and ma-
terials science and engineering. Strong physical and life science and
engineering groups on campus.
LOCATION
The 1,510-acre UC Irvine campus is in Orange County, five miles from
the Pacific Ocean and 40 miles south of Los Angeles. Irvine is one of the
nation's fastest growing residential, industrial, and business areas. Nearby
beaches, mountain and desert area recreational activities, and local
cultural activities make Irvine a pleasant city in which to live and study.

FACULTY


Nancy A. Da Silva (California Institute of Technology)
James C. Earthman (Stanford University)
Steven George (University of Washington)
G. Wesley Hatfield (Purdue University)
Juan Hong (Purdue University)
Enrique J. Lavernia(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
Henry C. Lim (Northwestern University)
Martha L. Mecartney (Stanford University)
Farghalli A. Mohamed (University of California, Berkeley)
Betty H. Olson (University of California, Berkeley)
Roger H. Rangel (University of California, Berkeley)
Frank G. Shi (California Institute of Technology)
William A. Sirignano (Princeton University)
Jeffrey B. Wolfenstine (Cornell University)
Thomas K. Wood (North Carolina State University)
Fall 1995


RESEARCH
AREAS

Biomedical Engineering
Bioreactor Engineering
Bioremediation
Combustion
Control and Optimization
Environmental Engineering
Two-Phase Flow
Interfacial Engineering
Materials Processing
Mechanical Properties
Metabolic Engineering
Microstructure of Materials
Protein Engineering
Recombinant Cell Technology
Separation Processes
Sol-Gel Processing
Water Pollution Control

For further information and
application forms,
contact


Department of Chemical and Biochemical
Engineering and Materials Science
School of Engineering
University of California
Irvine, CA 92717-2575








CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT


I UCA


RESEARCH
AREAS
Thermodynamics and
Cryogenics
* Process Design, Dynamics,
and Control
* Polymer Processing and
Transport Phenomena
* Kinetics, Combustion, and
Catalysis
* Surface and Interface Engi-
neering
* Electrochemistry and
Corrosion
* Biochemical Engineering
* Aerosol Science and
Technology
* Air Pollution Control and
Environmental Engineering


FACULTY
Y. Cohen
T. H. K. Frederking
S. K. Friedlander
R. F. Hicks
E. L. Knuth
(Prof Emeritus)
V. Manousiouthakis
H. G. Monbouquette
K. Nobe
L. B. Robinson
(Prof. Emeritus)
S. M. Senkan
W. D. Van Vorst
(Prof. Emeritus)
V. L. Vilker

A. R. Wazzan


PROGRAMS


UCLA's Chemical Engineering Department offers a
program of teaching and research linking fundamental
engineering science and industrial practice. Our Depart-
ment has strong graduate research programs in environ-
mental chemical engineering, biotechnology, and materi-
als processing. With the support of the Parsons Founda-
tion and the U.S. Department of Education, we are pio-
neering the development of methods for the design of
clean chemical technologies, both in graduate research


and engineering education.
Fellowships are available for outstanding applicants
in both M.S. and Ph.D. degree programs. A fellowship
includes a waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend.
Located five miles from the Pacific Coast, UCLA's
attractive 417-acre campus extends from Bel Air to
Westwood Village. Students have access to the highly
regarded science programs and to a variety of experi-
ences in theatre, music, art, and sports on campus.


CONTACT



(30 825*906


Chemical Engineering Education














UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


SANTA BARBARA


L. GARY LEAL Ph.D. (Stanford) (Chairman) Experimental and Computational Fluid Mechanics; Suspension and Polymer
Physics.
ERAY S. AYDIL Ph.D. (University of Houston) Microelectronics and Plasma Processing
SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo) Two-Phase Flow, Chemical & Nuclear Safety, Computational Fluid Dynamics,
Turbulence.
BRADLEY F. CHMELKA Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Guest/Host Interactions in Molecular Sieves, Dispersal of Metals in Oxide
Catalysts, Molecular Structure and Dynamics in Polymeric Solids, Properties of Partially Ordered Materials, Solid-State NMR.
GLENN H. FREDRICKSON Ph.D. (Stanford) Electronic Transport, Glasses, Polymers, Composites, Phase Separation.
JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph.D. (Cambridge) Surface and Interfacial Phenomena, Adhesion, Colloidal Systems, Surface
Forces.
FRED F. LANGE Ph.D. (Penn State) Powder Processing of Composite Ceramics; Liquid Precursors for Ceramics;
Superconducting Oxides.
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.) (Vice Chairman) Mechanics of Materials, Radiation Damage.
DIMITRIOS MAROUDAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Computational Simulation of Structure, Dynamics in Heterogeneous Materials.
ERIC McFARLAND Ph.D. (M.I.T.) M.D. (Harvard) Biomedical Engineering, NMR and Neutron Imaging, Transport
Phenomena in Complex Liquids, Radiation Interactions.
DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph.D. (Purdue) Computer Control, Process Dynamics, Real-Time Computing.
G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D. (M.I.T.) High Performance Structural Materials
PHILIP ALAN PINCUS Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Theory of Surfactant Aggregates, Colloid Systems.
DAVID J. PINE Ph.D. (Cornell) Polymer, Surfactant, and Colloidal Physics; Multiple Light Scattering
ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Transport Phenomena, Separation Processes.
DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. (Princeton) Process Control, Computer Control, Process Identification.
T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D. (Minnesota) Nuclear and Chemical Plant Safety, Multiphase Flow, Thermalhydraulics.
W. HENRY WEINBERG Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Surface Chemistry; Heterogeneous Catalysis; Electronic Materials
JOSEPH A. N. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D. (Minnesota) Surface and Interfacial Phenomen, Structure of Microemulsions.


PROGRAMS
AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT
The Department offers M.S. and
Ph.D. degree programs Finan-
cial aid, including fellowships,
teaching assistantships, and re-
search assistantships, is avail-
able.
THE UNIVERSITY
One of the world's few seashore
campuses, UCSB is located on
the Pacific Coast 100 miles
northwest of Los Angeles. The
student enrollment is over
18,000. The metropolitan Santa
Barbara area has over 150,000
residents and is famous for its
mild, even climate.
For additional information
and applications, write to
Chair Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of California Santa Barbara, CA 93106


Fall 1995








Chemical Engineering at the


CALIFORNIA


INSTITUTE


OF


TECHNOLOGY

"At the Leading Edge"


Frances H. Arnold
John F. Brady
Mark E. Davis
Richard C. Flagan


George R. Gavalas
Konstantinos P. Giapis
Jeffrey A. Hubbell
Julia A. Kornfield


Manfred Morari
John H. Seinfeld
Nicholas W. Tschoegl (Emeritus)
Zhen-Gang Wang


Aerosol Science
Applied Mathematics
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Biocatalysis and Bioreactor Engineering
Biomaterials
Bioseparations
Catalysis
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Combustion
Colloid Physics


Fluid Mechanics
Materials Processing
Microelectronics Processing
Microstructured Fluids
Polymer Science
Process Control and Synthesis
Protein Engineering
Statistical Mechanics of Heterogeneous
Systems
Tissue Engineering


For further information, write
Director of Graduate Studies
Chemical Engineering 210-41 California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125
Also, visit us on the World Wide Web for an on-line brochure: http://www.che.caltech.edu


Chemical Engineering Education


(3
U.







Come Click with an -


~Ii-i1. I -


allF


SCarnegie Mellon


John L. Anderson

1 il -l I n, ll s 11 I1
Lorenz i. Biegler
I'1 1% ,IIn i l II ri 1.. .1 ..1 i ri, 111 ,11
Paul R. DIMilla
I II I.i 1h 1111lln. n n I II e 1 .4 1.. .h l .
MI(hael M. Domath


Andrew J. Gellman
I, r r.1. I l nuI r if 11 I- I
Ignacio E. Grossmann
[ I ti II .. ., l .. I-n,1 I n.
Uilliam S. Hamma(k
[ I I '.* I I II'I I'% Inl I lln' r nileln '.I I '
IHl 11, I 1,1II
Annetle M. Jacobson
% il-lunh nh .1i.I 1 11n i *.. n 'II I .1
Lill lin i
Myung S. Jhon
|li hi r i, i..i.. .'ii 1.j, II
Edmond I. Ko
ii .II11.i iij iIl I n I I
Spyros N. Pandis
1 hl l.i ITi~ ..l I III II I I "' '. I
Gary J. Powers
LI.*. lasu .1 III l1 I III 1II lill I=* IIII I l
I I 'lll11 I( .r 41 ..
Dennis (. Prieve
I'.11 .11 I iiii i I jii,, ii.1 .....
Paul J. Sides

ill i,, ,, .i, lI *. I .. 1 f1 r ir ,1 s1
Jennifer L. Sinclair
l 1 .II I I i i I I i I1
Roberl D. Iillon
I II i I I i i l l r.:.l, ), I ,, 1 1,,I i1 ,,,

Herberl L. floor
,II il Il ll I ,1 illi 1 I l .1 :,I

Arthur W. Westerberg
\n(lineeiinq desliin
B. Erik Ydstie
Self lodnianq dfrd oiddptliie (ontfol


C)


~raw-h. WnaIFon pleasue writ.
*Vtreor. cFGraduate Admissions


lrnt of Chemical
HlMelon Univeisity

h; PA 15213-3890

z,,rri


Engineering


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it












CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY "
CWRU


Research Opportunities in:
Novel Separations/Processing 4
Chemical/Biological Sensors 4
> Intelligent Control 4
Micro- and Nano-Materials 4
Advanced Energy Conversion 4


For more information, contact:
Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7217
or check our WWW home page at:
http://k2.scl.cwru.edu/cse/eche/


The dark features are the nuclei of bilayer domains formed during the
compression ofa monolayer ofa 4'-alkyl-[, 1 '-biphenyl]-4-carbonitrile
liquid crystal. Photo taken by graduate student Marc de Mul using
Brewster angle microscopy.


Faculty and Specializations


John C. Angus
Diamond and diamond-like films, redox equilibria

Coleman B. Brosilow
Adaptive inferential control, multi-variable control,
coordination algorithms

Robert V. Edwards
Laser anemometry, mathematical modeling, data
acquisition

Donald L. Feke
Colloidal phenomena, ceramic dispersions, fine-particle
processing

Nelson C. Gardner
High-gravity separations, sulfur removal processes

Uziel Landau
Electrochemical engineering, current distributions,
electrodeposition


Chung-Chiun Liu
Electrochemical sensors, electrochemical synthesis,
electrochemistry related to electronic materials

J. Adin Mann, Jr.
Interfacial structure and dynamics, light scattering,
Langmuir-Blodgettfilms, stochastic processes

Philip W. Morrison, Jr.
Mlternals synthesis, semiconductor processing, in-situ
diagnostic

Syed Qutubuddin
Surfactant and polymer solutions, metal extraction,
enhanced oil recovery


Robert F. Savinell
Applied electrochemistry, electrochemical nsstems
simulation and optimi.ation, electrode processes


290 Chemical Engineering Education









Opportunities for Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at the




M.S. and PhD Degrees in Chemical Engineering
Financial Aid Available *

Location
The city of Cincinnati is the 23rd largest city in the United
States, with a greater metropolitan population of 1.7 million.
The city offers numerous sites of architectural and historical
interest, as well as a full range of cultural attractions, such as
an outstanding art museum, botanical gardens, a world-famous
zoo, theaters, symphony, and opera. The city is also home to
the Cincinnati Bengals and the Cincinnati Reds. The business
and industrial base of the city includes pharmaceutics, chemi-
cals, jet engines, autoworks, electronics, printing and publish-
ing, insurance, investment banking, and health care. A number
of Fortune 500 companies are located in the city.


, Faculty

Amy Ciric

Joel Fried

Stevin Gehrke

Rakesh Govind

David Greenberg

Daniel Hershey

Sun-Tak Hwang

Robert Jenkins

Yuen-Koh Kao

Soon-Jai Khang

Y. S. Lin

Neville Pinto

Sotiris Pratsinis

Peter Smirniotis


Fall 1995


a Biotechnology (Bioseparations)
Novel bioseparation techniques, chromatography, affinity separations, biodegradation
of toxic wastes, controlled drug delivery, two-phase flow, suspension rheology.
a Chemical Reaction Engineering and Heterogeneous Catalysis
Modeling and design of chemical reactors, deactivation of catalysts, flow pattern and
mixing in chemical equipment, laser induced effects.
a Coal Research
New technology for coal combustion power plant, desulfurization and denitritication.
a Material Synthesis
Manufacture of advanced ceramics, opticalfibers and pigments by aerosol processes.
a Membrane Separations
Membrane gas separations, membrane reactors, sensors and probes, pervaporation,
dynamic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characteriza-
tion for polymeric and inorganic materials, inorganic membranes.
a Particle Technology
Flocculation of liquid suspensions, granulation offine powders, grinding ofagglomerate
particles.
a Polymers
Thermodynamics, polymer blends and composites, high-temperature polymers, hydrogels,
rheology, computational polymer science.
a Process Synthesis
Computer-aided design methodologies, design for waste minimization, design for dy-
namic stability, separation system synthesis.

For Admission Information *
Director, Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering, PO Box 210171
University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0171
291






IGradu4gStudy in

Chemical Engineering
at


Sla rkson

"ni

M.S., wfIt., AND PH.D. PROGRAMS
STeaching arriResearch
Assistantships available to
M.S. and Ph.D. students
Reserch Areas:
-Ifqtrochemical Engineering
g C ical Hinetics
SCheicol Metallurgq
NuclPtion
SCorroSion Engineering
SCrqstGfrowth
SSpa cessing
Eroc trol


uu W|um vuqJi a
* Heat Transfer
* Mass Transfe
* Laser and PliJna Technoloq
*Polqmer Processing and Rheologq
* Biochemical Engneering
* Process Design
* Solid State Reactions


b


k


or information write to:
or. Suzanne Liberty
-Dean of the Graduate School
CLARKSON UNIVERSITY
P.O. Box 5625
Potsdam, NY 13699-5625
_ 315-268-6442
Fax 315-268-7994
Clarkson University is an nondiscrmi-
S natory,.afirmative action, equal
opportunity educator and employer






Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at


Tradition and Excellence Meet


For more than 100 years, engineering at Clemson University has distinguished itself by pursuing excellence
through the combination of traditional education and innovative research programs. The Department of
Chemical Engineering has continued in that vein by building very active research programs aimed at devel-
oping basic scientific understanding of critical engineering materials and technology. Additionally, students
can participate in the department's M.S. Industrial Residency Program, which combines on-campus course
work with practical work assignments in industry. Students can conduct their thesis research under joint
faculty and industrial supervision.
Clemson is a land-grant institution with an enrollment of more than 16,300 students, including 3,700 gradu-
ate students. The 1,400-acre main campus is located in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains, on the
shores of Lake Hartwell, midway between Atlanta, Ga., and Charlotte, N.C.


The Faculty


Research Areas


Charles H. Barron, Jr.
John N. Beard
Dan D. Edie
Charles H. Gooding
James M. Haile


Douglas E. Hirt
Stephen S. Melsheimer
Amod A. Ogale
Richard W. Rice
Mark C. Thies


Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
Current research areas include the following:
* Catalysis Composite Materials
* Engineering Fibers Molecular Dynamics
* Process Modeling/Control Polymer Processing
* Membrane Separations Supercritical Fluids


For More Information, Contact: Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical Engineering, Clemson University,
Box 340909, Clemson, SC 29634-0909, Telephone (803) 656-3055, E-mail address: che@eng.clemson.edu










UNIVERSITY OF


KRISTI S. ANSETH
Assistant Professor
Polymers, Biomaterials

CHRISTOPHER N. BOWMAN
Associate Professor
Polymers, Membrane Materials

DAVID E. CLOUGH
Professor
Process Control, Water Resources

ROBERT H. DAVIS
Professor and Chair
Fluid Mechanics, Biotechnology, Membranes

JOHN L. FALCONER
James and Catherine Patten Professor
Catalysis, Reaction Engineering

R. IGOR GAMOV
Associate Professor
Biophysics

DHINAKAR S. KOMPALA
Associate Professor
Biotechnology, Bioprocess Engineering

WILLIAM B. KRANTZ
Professor and President's Teaching Scholar
Transport Phenomena, Membranes

RICHARD D. NOBLE
Professor
Membranes, Separations

W. FRED RAMIREZ
Professor
Process Control, Biotechnology

THEODORE W. RANDOLPH
Associate Professor
Biotechnology, Supercritical Fluids

ROBERT L. SANI
Professor
Transport Phenomena, Applied Mathematics

EDITH M. SEVICK
Assistant Professor
Polymer Physics and Thermodynamics

KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS
Professor and President's Teaching Scholar
Thermodynamics, Cryogenics

PAUL W. TODD
Research Professor
Biotechnology, Bioseparations


COLORADO

BOULDER


Graduate students in the Department of
Chemical Engineering may also participate in the
popular interdisciplinary Biotechnology Training Program
at the University
of Colorado and
in the inter-
disciplinary
NSF Industry/
University
Cooperative
Research Center
for Separations
Using Thin
Films.
RESEARCH INTERESTS
Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Bioreactor Design and Optimization
Mammalian Cell Cultures
Protein Folding and Purification
Chemical Environmental Engineering
Global Change
Pollution Remediation
Materials Science and Engineering
Catalysis and Surface Science
Colloidal Phenomena
Polymerization Reaction Engineering
Membrane Science
Chemically Specific Separations
Membrane Transport and Separations
Polymeric Membrane Morphology
Modeling and Control
Expert Systems
Process Control and Identification
Thermodynamics
Cryogenics
Statistical Mechanics
Supercritical Fluids
Transport Phenomena
Fluid Dynamics and Suspension Mechanics
Materials Processing in Low-G


FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE TO
Director, Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Colorado, Boulder Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424
FAX (303) 492-4341
Further information is also available on our URL page on the World Wide Web at
http://spot.colorado. edu/-chemeng/Home. html


Chemical Engineering Education


_-Mimi









COLORADO


SCHOOL


OF


MINES


R. M. BALDWIN, Professor and Head; Ph.D., Colorado School of Mines. Fuels science and catalysis.
A. L. BUNGE, Professor; Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley. Absorption of chemicals in skin, pharmacokinetic modeling, risk assessment.
J.R. DORGAN, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley. Polymer science and engineering.
J. F. ELY, Professor; Ph.D., Indiana University. Molecular thermodynamics and transport properties offluids.
J. H. GARY, Professor Emeritus; Ph.D., University of Florida. Petroleum refinery processing operations, heavy oil processing, thermal cracking, visbreaking
and solvent extraction.
J.O. GOLDEN, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State University. Hazardous waste processing, fluidization engineering, incineration.
M.S. GRABOSKI, Research Professor; Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University. Fuels synthesis and evaluation, engine technology, alternate fuels.
A. J. KIDNAY, Professor and Graduate Dean; D.Sc., Colorado School of Mines. Thermodynamic properties of gases and liquids, vapor-liquid equilibria,
cryogenic engineering.
D.W.M. MARR, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Stanford. Interfacial statistical mechanics, complex fluids.
R.L. McCORMICK, Research Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Wyoming. Catalysis in fuel synthesis, air pollution control, fuel cells, low emissions fuels for
internal combustion engines, coal science and processing, ion conducting solid catalysts and electrolytes, reactor design andfluidization.
J.T. McKINNON, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. High temperature gas phase chemical kinetics, combustion,
hazardous waste destruction.
R. L. MILLER, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Colorado School of Mines. Interdisciplinary curriculum development, innovative pedagogies, measures of
intellectual development, psychological theories of learning, multiphase fluid mechanics.
M. S. SELIM, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State University. Heat and mass transfer with a moving boundary, sedimentation and diffusion of colloidal suspensions,
heat effects in gas absorption with chemical reaction, entrance region flow and heat transfer, gas hydrate dissociation modeling, sweetening of natural gas using
mixed amines, ink jet printing, synthesis of nano-size magnetic particles for color toner and laserjet printing applications, modeling of hydrocarbon cracking
furnaces and simulation of ethylene plants.
E. D. SLOAN, JR., Weaver Distinguished Professor; Ph.D. Clemson University. Natural gas hydrates, phase equilibria, education methods research.
J. D. WAY, Associate Professor; Ph.D. University of Colorado. Novel separation processes, membrane science and technology, membrane reactors, ceramic
and metal membranes, biopolymer adsorbents for adsorption of heavy metals.
V. F. YESAVAGE, Professor; Ph.D., University of Michigan. Vapor liquid equilibrium and enthalpy of polar associating fluids, equations of state for highly
non-ideal systems, process simulation, environmental engineering, gas-liquid reactions.

1,'r ppictinsan frterin'onitio o MS.an P.D pogam, it


Fall 1995












tate University


CSU is located in Fort Collins, a pleasant commu-
nity of 100,000people with the spirit of the West, the
vitality of a growing metropolitan area, and the
friendliness of a small town. Fort Collins is located
about 65 miles north of Denver and is adjacent to
the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. The climate is
excellent, with 300 sunny days per year, mild tem
peratures, and low humidity. Opportunities for hik-
ing, biking, camping, boating, fishing, and skiing
abound in the immediate and nearby areas. The
campus is within easy walking or biking distance of
the town's shopping areas and its Center for the
Performing Arts.

M.S. and Ph.D. programs in FACULTY

chemical engineering Laurence A. Belfiore, Ph.D.
University of Wisconsin
RESEARCH IN... David S. Dandy, Ph.D.
1 Advanced Process Control California Institute of Technology
Eric H. Dunlop, Ph.D.
10 Biochemical Engineering Uni of Strathcld
University of StrathU vyde
Biofuels Deanna S. Durnford, Ph.D.
Catalysis Colorado State Universit
I Chemical Thermodynamics M. Nazmul Karim, Ph.D.
> Chemical Vapor Deposition Universir? of Manchester
No Contaminant Transport Terry G. Lenz, Ph.D.
Iowa State University
1 Computational Fluid Dynamics
James C. Linden, Ph.D.
I' Environmental Biotechnology lowa State Univerri~.
N Environmental Engineering Jim C. Loftis, Ph.D.
D Polymeric Materials Colorado State University
0- Solar Cooling Systems Carol M. McConica, Ph.D.
i Semiconductor Processing Stanford University
1 Thin Films David B. McWhorter, Ph.D.
0- Water Quality Monitoring Colorado State University
Vincent G. Murphy, Ph.D.
FINANCIAL AID AVAILABLE University of Massachusens
Allen L. Rakow, Sc.D.
Teaching and research assistantships paying a Washington University
monthly stipend plus tuition reimbursement.


For applications and further information, write
Department of Chemical and Bioresource Engineering
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523-1370


296


Kenneth F. Reardon, Ph.D.
California Institute of Technology
Robert C. Ward, Ph.D.
North Carolina State University


Chemical Engineering Education


J~Ff~b`~C~P~a~


i









UNIVERSITY OF



CONNECTICUT


Graduate Study in
Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs for Scientists and Engineers
FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS
Luke E.K. Achenie, Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University
Modeling and Optimization, Neural Networks, Process Control
Thomas F. Anderson, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Modeling of Separation Processes, Fluid-Phase Equilibria
James P. Bell, Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Structure-Property Relations in Polymers and Composites, Adhesion
Carroll 0. Bennett, Professor Emeritus, Ph.D., Yale University
Catalysis, Chemical Reaction Engineering
Douglas J. Cooper, Ph.D., University of Colorado
Process Modeling, Monitoring and Control
Robert W. Coughlin, Ph.D., Cornell University
Biotechnology, Biochemical and Environmental Engineering, Catalysis,
Kinetics, Separations, Surface Science
Michael B. Cutlip, Ph.D., University of Colorado
Kinetics and Catalysis, Electrochemical Reaction Engineering, Numerical Methods
Anthony T. DiBenedetto, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin
Composite Materials, Mechanical Properties of Polymers
Can Erkey, Ph.D., Texas A&M University
Supercritical Fluids, Environmental Engineering, Multicomponent Diffusion
and Mass Transfer
James M. Fenton, Ph.D., University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Electrochemical and Environmental Engineering, Mass Transfer Processes,
Electronic Materials, Energy Systems
Suzanne (Schadel) Fenton, Ph.D., University of Illinois
Computational Fluid Dynamics, Turbulence, Two-Phase Flow
Robert J. Fisher, Ph.D., University of Delaware
Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Biotechnology
Joseph J. Helble, Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Air Pollution, Nanoscale Materials Synthesis and Characterization, Combustion
G. Michael Howard, Ph.D., University of Connecticut
ProcessSystemsAnalysisand Modeling, ProcessSafety, Engineering Education
Herbert E. Klei, Professor Emeritus, Ph.D., University of Connecticut
Biochemical Engineering, Environmental Engineering
Jeffrey T. Koberstein, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts
Polymer Blends/Compatibilization, Polymer Morphology, Polymer Surface
and Interfaces
Harold R. Kunz, Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Fuel Cells, Electrochemical Energy Systems
Montgomery T. Shaw, Ph.D., Princeton University
Polymer Rheology and Processing, Polymer-solution Thermodynamics
Donald W. Sundstrom, Professor Emeritus, Ph.D., UniversityofMichigan
Environmental Engineering, Hazardous Wastes, Biochemical Engineering
Robert A. Weiss, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts
Polymer Structure-Property Relationships, Ion-Containing and Liquid Crystal
Polymers, Polymer Blends

FOR MORE INFORMATION
Graduate Admissions, 191 Auditorium Road, U-122
University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3222
Tel. (203) 486-4020


Fall 1995














CORN0LL

U N I V F R S I T


At Cornell University, graduate students in chemical engineering have the flexibility to
design research programs that take full advantage of Cornell's unique interdisciplinary
environment and enable them to pursue individualized plans of study.
Cornell graduate programs may draw upon the resources of many excellent depart-
ments and NSF-sponsored research centers such as the Biotechnology Center, the Cornell
National Supercomputing Facility, and the Materials Science Center.
Degrees granted include Master of Engineering, Master of Science, and Doctor of
Philosophy. All M.S. and Ph.D. students are fully funded with attractive stipends and
tuition waivers.


Distinguished Faculty

A. Brad Anton
Paulette Clancy
Claude Cohen
T. Michael Duncan
James R. Engstrom*
Keith E. Gubbins'
Daniel A. Hammer*
Peter Harriott
Donald L. Koch*
Robert P. Merrill
William L. Olbricht
Athanassios Panagiotopoulos*
Ferdinand Rodriguez
Michael L. Shuler'
Paul H. Steen
* recipient, NSF PYI Award
member, National Academy of Engineering


Research Areas
* Advanced Materials Processing
* Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
* Fluid Dynamics, Stability, and Rheology
* Molecular Thermodynamics and
Computer Simulation
* Polymer Science and Engineering
* Reaction Engineering: Surface Science,
Kinetics, and Reactor Design

Situated in the scenic Finger Lakes region of
New York State, the Cornell campus is one of
the most beautiful in the country. Students
enjoy sailing, skiing, fishing, hiking, bicycling,
boating, wine-tasting, and many other
activities.


Chemical Engineering Education


For further information, write:
Graduate Field Representative, School of Chemical Engineering, Cornell University, 120 Olin Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-5201,
e-mail: GFR@CHEME.CORNELL.EDU. or "visit" our World Wide Web server at: http://www.cheme.corell.edu


4 .








Chemical Engineering at


The Faculty


Giovanni Astarita
Mark A. Barteau
Antony N. Beris
Kenneth B. Bischoff
Douglas J. Buttrey
Stuart L. Cooper
Nily R. Dan
Costel D. Denson
Prasad S. Dhurjati
Henry C. Foley
Marylin C. Huff
Eric W. Kaler
Michael T. Klein


Abraham M. Lenhoff
Raul F. Lobo
Roy L. McCullough
Arthur B. Metzner
Jon H. Olson
Michael E. Paulaitis
T.W. Fraser Russell
Stanley I. Sandler
Jerold M. Schultz
Annette D. Shine
Norman J. Wagner
Richard P. Wool
Andrew L. Zydney


T -
T he University of Delaware offers M.ChE and Ph.D.
degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course
work in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strong
interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current
fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science and
Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena, Materials
Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction Kinetics,
Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photovoltaic
Processing, Biomedical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering, and Colloid
and Surfactant Science.


For more information and application materials, write:
Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware 19716


The University of
Delaware


Fall 1995











university

of
of Modern

0orida Applications
of

Chemical Engineering

Graduate Study
Leading to the MS and PhD

FACULTY *
TIM ANDERSON Semiconductor Processing, Thermodynamics
IOANNIS BITSANIS Molecular Modeling of Interfaces
OSCAR D. CRISALLE Electronic Materials, Process Control
RICHARD B. DICKINSON Biomedical Engineering
ARTHUR L. FRICKE Polymers, Pulp & Paper Characterization
GAR HOFLUND Catalysis, Surface Science
LEW JOHNS Applied Mathematics, Dispersion
DALE KIRMSE Computer Aided Design, Process Control
RANGA NARA YANAN Transport Phenomena, Low Gravity Fluid Mechanics
MARK E. ORAZEM Electrochemical Engineering, Semiconductor Processing
CHANG-WON PARK Fluid Mechanics, Polymer Processing
DINESH 0. SHAH Surface Sciences, Biomedical Engineering
SPYROS SVORONOS Process Control, Biochemical Engineering
GERALD WESTERMANN-CLARK Electrochemical Engineering, Bioseparations
For more information, please write:
Graduate Admissions Coordinator U Department of Chemical Engineering
P.O. Box 11605 U University of Florida U Gainesville, Florida 32611-6005
or call (904) 392-0881
300 Chemical Engineering Education






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Electrophoretic separation of biological .


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Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering
Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy
Join a small, vibrant campus on Florida's Space Coast to reach your
full academic and professional potential. Florida Tech, the only
independent scientific and technological university in the South-
east, has grown to become a university of international standing.


Graduate Student Assistantships/
Tuition Remission available


R.G. Barile, Ph.D.
P.A. Jennings, Ph.D.
P.L. Mangonon, Ph.D.
D.R. Mason, Ph.D.
M.E. Pozo de Fernandez, Ph.D.
M.R. Shaffer, Ph.D.
M.M. Tomadakis, Ph.D.
J.E. Whitlow, Ph.D .i"

Research Partners

* NASA/Kennedy Space
Center
* Florida Solar Energy Center .
* Energy Partners
* Florida Institute of
Phosphate Research
* Florida Department
of Energy
* Harris Semiconductor

For more information, contact

Florida Institute
of Technology 1-
Chemical Engineering Program *
College of Engineering
Division of Engineering Sciences
150 West University Boulevard
Melbourne, Florida 32901-6988
(407) 768-8000, ext. 8068


EN-276-595


Flo
^^^^^~iyyi


Faculty











SD OI
Givo^^^^v) rpBH^^^^ a e Tech^^^


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

The Faculty and Their Research


Polymer
science and
engineering


A. S. Abhiraman


Heterogeneous
catalysis,
surface
chemistry,
reaction
kinetics

Pradeep K. Agrawal


Process
design and
control,
spouted-bed
reactors


I ianau ArKunI


- Microelectron-
ics, polymer
processing

Sue Ann Bidstrup


Molecular
thermo-
dynamics,
chemical
kinetics,
separations
arles A. Eckert


Reactor
design,
catalysis


William R. Ernst


'- Mechanics of
aerosols,
buoyant
Splumes and jets

LarryJ. Forney


Pulp and
paper

Jeffrey S. Hsieh


Photochemical
processing,
chemical
vapor
deposition


Molecular
modeling of
polymeric
materials


Fluid
mechanics,
two phase
flows,
complex fluids


MichaelJ. Matteson


. Biomaterials,
controlled
release
mechanisms

Mark Prausnitz


Jeff Morris


Polymer
engineering,
energy
conservation,
economics


John D. Muzzy


Optimal
process
design and
scheduling

Matthew J. Realff


Membrane
separations,
mass transfer


Mary E. Rezac


Biomechanics,
mammalian
cell structures


Robert M. Nerem


SBiochemical
engineering,
mass transfer,
reactor design

Ronnie S. Roberts


SEmulsion
polymeriza-
tion, latex
technology

Gary W. Poehlein


ISeparation
processes,
crystallization

Rousseau


Biochemical
engineering,
microbial
and animal
cell cultures

Athanassios Sambanis


Membranes,
polymers,
ArnoSt process
j11 economics
Arnold Stancell


Reactor
engineering,
process Mass transfer,
control, extraction,
Polymer polymeriza- mixing, non-
science and tion, reactor Newtonian
engineering dynamics flow

Robert J. Samuels F. Joseph Schork A. H. Peter Skelland


Process
synthesis and
simulation,
chemical
separation,
waste manage-
ment, resource
recovery

D. William Tedder


Thermody-
namic and
transport
properties,
phase
equilibria,
supercritical
gas extraction


Amyn S. Teja


Catalysis,
kinetics,
reactor design


Markx wmrte


Process design
and simulation

Jude T. Sommerfeld



Biochemical
engineering,
cell-cell
interactions,
biofluid
dynamics

Timothy M. Wick


Electrochemical
engineering,
thermodynam-
ics, air
pollution
control


Jack Winnick


AjitP. Yoganathan
Ajit P. Yoganathan


Biofluid
dynamics,
rheology,
transport
phenomena


Peter J. Ludovice


Professor Ronald Roussciu, director
School ot'Clicinical Engincerim,
Georgia Institute of TeclinolosN
kdanul. Georgia 30332-0 100








What do graduate students say about the

University of Houston

Department of Chemical Engineering?


"It's great!"
"Houston is a university on the move. The chemical engineering department is ranked among
the top ten schools, and you can work in the specialty of your choice. The choice of advisor is
yours, too, and you're given enough time to make the right decision. You can see your advisor
almost anytime you want because the student-to-teacher ratio is low."


If you'd like to be part of this team, let us hear from you!

AREAS OF RESEARCH STRENGTH FACULTY


Biochemical & TissueEngineering
Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Electronic and Ceramic Materials
Environmental Remediation
Improved Oil Recovery
Multiphase Flow
Nonlinear Dynamics
Polymer & Macromolecular Systems


Neal Amundson
Vemuri Balakotaiah
Demetre Economou
Ernest Henley
John Killough
Dan Luss
Kishore Mohanty


Richard Pollard
William Prengle
Raj Rajagopalan
Jim Richardson
Jay Schieber
Cynthia Stokes


Frank Tiller
Richard Willson
Frank Worley


For an application, write:
Graduate Admissions Coordinator, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204-4792, or call 713/743-4311.
The University is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Institution
I Chemical Engineering Education









Chemical Engineering at


Where modern instructional and research laboratories,
together with computing facilities, support both student
and faculty research pursuits on an eighty-nine acre main
campus three miles north of the heart of Washington, DC.


-- Faculty and Research Interests


Mobolaji E. Aluko, Professor and Chair
PhD, University of California, Santa Barbara
Reactor modeling crystallization microelectronic and ceramic materials pro-
cessing process control

Joseph N. Cannon, Professor PhD, University of Colorado
Transport phenomena in environmental systems computational fluid mechanics heat transfer

Ramesh C. Chawla, Professor PhD, Wayne State University
Mass transfer and kinetics in environmental systems biodegradation- bioremediation incineration air and water pollution control
environmental engineering
William E. Collins, Assistant Professor PhD, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Polymer science biomaterials bioseparations surface science and instrumentation

M. Gopala Rao, Professor PhD, University of Washington, Seattle
Adsorption and ion exchange process energy systems radioactive waste management remediation of contaminated soils and
groundwater

John P. Tharakan, AssociateProfessor PhD University of California, San Diego
Bioprocess engineering protein separations biological hazardous waste treatment environmental engineering

Robert J. Lutz, Visiting Professor PhD, University of Pennsylvania
Hemodynamics intra-arterial drug delivery I M .S.

Herbert M. Katz, Professor Emeritus PhD, University of Cincinnati Program
Environmental engineering

For further information and applications, write to






Fall 1995 305















UIC


The University of Illinois at Chicago

Department of Chemical Engineering


* MS and PhD Graduate Program *


FACULTY

John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Professor and Acting Head

G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Professor

Sohail Murad
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
Professor

Ludwig C. Nitsche
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1989
Assistant Professor

John Regalbuto
Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986
Associate Professor

Hector R. Reyes
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1991
Assistant Professor

Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Professor

Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor

Raffi M. Turian
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
Professor


Transport Phenomena: Slurry transport, multiphase fluid flow
and heat transfer, fixed and fluidized bed combustion, indirect
coal liquefaction, porous media.
Thermodynamics: Transport properties of fluids, statistical
mechanics of liquid mixtures, bioseparations, superficial fluid
extraction/retrograde condensation, asphaltene characterization.
Kinetics and Reaction Engineering: Gas-solid reaction
kinetics, diffusion and adsorption phenomena, energy transfer
processes, laser diagnostics, combustion chemistry, environmental
technology, surface chemistry, optimization, catalyst preparation
and characterization, structure sensitivity, supported metals.

Bioengineering: Membrane transport, pulmonary deposition
and clearance, biorheology, physiological control systems,
bioinstrumentation.


For more information, write to
Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago Box 4348 Chicago, IL 60680 (312) 996-3424


Chemical Engineering Education




Full Text


















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