Chemical engineering education ( Journal Site )

Material Information

Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publication Date:
annual[ former 1960-1961]


Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )


Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:

This item is only available as the following downloads:

Full Text


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Chemical Engineering Education
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
PHONE and FAX: 904-392-0861
Ray W. Fahien
T. J. Anderson
Mack Tyner
Carole Yocum
James O. Wilkes and Mark A. Burns
University of Michigan
William J. Koros
University of Texas, Austin

E. Dendy Sloan, Jr.
Colorado School of Mines
Gary Poehlein
Georgia Institute of Technology
Klaus Timmerhaus
University of Colorado
George Burnet
Iowa State University
Anthony T. DiBenedetto
University of Connecticut
Thomas F. Edgar
University of Texas at Austin
Richard M. Felder
North Carolina State University
Bruce A. Finlayson
University of Washington
H. Scott Fogler
University of Michigan
J. David Hellums
Rice University
Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Stanley I Sandier
University of Delaware
Richard C. Seagrave
Iowa State University
M. Sami Selim
Colorado School of Mines
James E. Stice
University of Texas at Austin
Phillip C. Wankat
Purdue University
Donald R. Woods
McMaster University

Chemical Engineering Education

Volume 28

Number 4

Fall 1994

232 Dimensional Analysis for Hydrodynamic Electrochemical Systems,
J.L. Guini6n, R. Grima, J. Garcia-Ant6n, V. Pirez-Herranz

244 Topics in Transport and Reaction in Multiphase Systems,
Pedro Arce

Fundamentals of Adsorption, D.B. Shah

Electrokinetic Transport Phenomena, Jacob H. Masliyah

270 Creativity and Innovation for Chemical Engineers, G. Graham Allan

226 Chemical Engineering: Notes on Its Past and Its Future,
Donald A. Dahlstrom

236 Scaling Initial and Boundary Value Problems: A Tool in Engineering
Teaching and Practice,
William B. Krantz, Jeffrey G. Sczechowski

242 Academic Ethics of Graduate Engineering Students, Bob S. Brown

262 Langmuir as Chemical Engineer: ...Or, From Danckwerts to
Bodenstein and Damk6hler,
Sol A. Weller

Industrial Involvement in Graduate Research, Robert H. Davis

Easy Writing Makes Hard Reading, J.M. Haile

Teaching in the First Few Years: From the Perspective of a New
Faculty Member,
Christopher N. Bowman

284 Michael Faraday: Contributions to Chemical Engineering,
James W. Gentry

290 The Impact of Chemical Engineering Research: Is Anyone Reading What
is Published? Maggie Johnson, C.E. Hamrin, Jr.

258 Experience-The Eastman Way: A Wealth of Cooperative Chemical
Engineering Under One Roof,
Ryan C. Schad, Warren S. Wells

266 Design of a Pilot Plant to Leach Platinum from Catalytic Converters,
Pamela M. Brown

264 ChE Division News
269 Book Review

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering
Division, American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2022. Copyright 1994 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American
Society for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and
not necessarily those of the ChE Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced
if notified within 120 days of publication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and
availability. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department., University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611.

Fall 1994


e, perspective


Notes on Its Past and Its Future

University of Utah
Salt Lake City, UT 84112

he history of chemical engineering education is im-
portant and should be recorded for the benefit of
future generations of chemical engineers. It is equally
important for us to consider where the future of chemical
engineering education lies and what its demands will be.
Both of these facets will be addressed in this paper.
Olaf Hougen gave an excellent account of the first seventy
years of chemical engineering education at the 82nd
National Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical
Engineers,[1 and James Westwater later traced the roots
of chemical engineering departments over the same
general period in another well-researched paper.12] Since
these two papers give us an outstanding early history of
chemical engineering education, I will use them to summa-
rize the first seventy years.

Hougen gave an interesting description of his own early
experiences in chemical engineering education in the intro-
ductory pages of his paper. When he began his studies,
chemical engineering was unknown to the public and only
feebly recognized by industry. The discipline had no resem-
blance to today's field of study. When he went to the Univer-
sity of Washington in 1911, he found there were no filter
presses, no evaporators, and no distillation columns; there
were no courses in unit operations, or in material and energy
balances, or in heat and mass transfer, or thermodynamics,
chemical kinetics, catalysis, process design, process control,
and there was no equipment in the laboratory!
Hougen also indicated that "the use of higher mathematics
beyond calculus was too time-consuming to be of practical
value in solving engineering problems." There were no high-
speed calculators, and the slide rule was a novelty. The
library had some books on industrial technology, but they
Donald A. Dahlstrom joined the chemical engineering department at the
University of Utah in 1984 after having worked several years in industry in
addition to teaching for ten years at Northwestern University. He received
his BS in chemical engineering from the University of Minnesota in 1942
and his PhD from Northwestern University in 1949.
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1994

were written in German and required a reading knowledge
of that language.
Hougen attempted to enroll in a course in the new field of
biochemistry, but was shunted into a hydraulics course where
he was told to design a sewerage system for a fictitious city.
Hougen relates that his professor's instruction "consisted of
trying to plan, and at times to solve, independent trouble-
shooting problems through literature surveys, followed by
experiments of our own devising." Some of the problems
the students were given concerned finding out what caused
corrosion of pipelines in the streets of Seattle, how
acetone could be produced from the huge piles of sawdust
in Washington, and how SO2 could be recovered from
Tacoma's smelter gases. On another occasion the stu-
dents were asked "to determine the alcohol content of
Ranier Beer"; Hougen reports that many bottles were re-
quired to complete this assignment (a distinct advantage
over modern chromatography).
This method of teaching, and learning, was both challeng-
ing and stimulating. It taxed the students' ingenuity and
resourcefulness, and it sustained their interest. It is one of the
best methods of teaching, but as Hougen concluded, "large
enrollments today, with strenuous lessons in theory, rarely
permit this type of undergraduate instruction."
Massachusetts Institute of Technology is recognized as
the first chemical engineering department (1888), with the
University of Pennsylvania (1892), Tulane University (1894),
and the University of Michigan (1898) all predating 1900.
Hougen and Westwater agree on this time frame and defined
the "beginning" of a chemical engineering department to
mean that information in the university catalogs indicated
that a degree could be obtained in the discipline.
Chemical engineering largely evolved from chemistry. If
one accepts the term "industrial chemistry" to mean chemi-
cal engineering, then New Jersey Institute of Technology in
1881 and Case Western Reserve University in 1884 would
be the first and second departments.
The developmental path of chemical engineering in many
universities has been quite similar since most modern de-
Chemical Engineering Education

apartments are outgrowths of chemistry departments. It took
M.I.T. twenty years to become independently identified, and
Westwater points out that at the University of Illinois it took
sixty-nine years for chemical engineering to become an in-
dependent department.
Faculties were small in the early years. As late as 1909,
Michigan had only two chemical engineering professors and
one metallurgical engineering instructor. The Dean reported
to the Regents, "No addition to the teaching force will be
needed, and it is not expected that the number of students
will be large."
Westwater also conducted a survey to determine how many
departments had developed from chemistry departments, and
to his list of fifty-five (shown in the first section of Table 1) I
have added the University of Utah. He also found some
chemical engineering departments that arose from depart-
ments other than chemistry, and they are listed in the second
part of Table 1 with their origins noted in parentheses.
The University of Colorado's department, for example,
came from mechanical engineering, offering a four-year cur-
riculum in mechanical and chemical engineering. There was

a common program for the first two years, followed by an
option in chemical engineering. At Louisiana State Univer-
sity, the Audubon Sugar School was begun in 1897 with a
curriculum in sugar chemistry and sugar engineering. It gradu-
ally shifted to chemical engineering and granted its first ChE
degree in 1905. Sugar chemistry was also started at Tulane
University, but it was not a success and was later abandoned.
One of the most interesting off-shoot departments is Cleve-
land State and its origins from a YMCA Extension program.
Pre-evening classes were popular, and in 1890 engineering
as mechanical drawing was added to the curriculum. In 1909
it became the Technical School and was later renamed YMCA
School of Technology. In 1926 the school bulletin listed
chemical engineering as a discipline with twenty-nine courses
(twenty-five of them in chemistry, metallurgy, mineralogy,
and metallography). It subsequently became known as Fenn
College, and finally, Cleveland State University.
Westwater also found eighteen departments that were "free
standing" from the beginning, and they are listed in the third
section of Table 1.
Curriculum changes through the years were well docu-

University of Alabama
Arizona State University
University of Arkansas
Brigham Young University
University of California, Berkeley
California Institute of Technology
Carnegie-Mellon University
Case Western Reserve University
University of Cincinnati
Cornell University
University of Detroit
Drexel University
University of Illinois
University of Iowa

Kansas State University
Lafayette College
Lehigh University
University of Massachusetts
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
University of Michigan
Michigan State University
Michigan Technological University
University of Minnesota
University of Mississippi
University of Missouri, Rolla
Montana State University
University of Nebraska
New Jersey Institute of Technology

New Mexico State University
North Carolina State University
Ohio State University
University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma State University
University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania State University
University of Pittsburgh
Polytechnic University of New York
Pratt Institute
Princeton University
Purdue University
Rensselaer University
Rice University

University of Rhode Island
University of South Carolina
Stanford University
University of Tennessee
University of Texas, Austin
Texas A&M University
Tri-State University
Tufts University
Tulane University
University of Utah
Vanderbilt University
University of Virginia
University of Washington
Washington University

ChE Departments Originating from Other Departments
University of Colorado (Mechanical Engineering) University of Rochester (Mechanical Engineering)
Cleveland State University (YMCA Extension) University of Toledo (General Engineering)
University of Illinois, Chicago (Energy Engineering) University of Tulsa (Petroleum Engineering)
Iowa State University (Ceramics & Mining Engineering) University of Wisconsin (Electrical Engineering)
Louisiana State University (Sugar Engineering) University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (Energy Engineering)
Lowell University (Paper Engineering) University of Wyoming (Petroleum Engineering)
McNeese State University (General Engineering)

-ChE Departments That Were "Free-Standing" From Their Beginning
University of California, Santa Barbara University of Houston Montana State University State University of New York
University of Southern California Howard University Oregon State University South Dakota School of Mines
University of Connecticut University of Kentucky Rutgers University Syracuse University
University of Delaware Lamar University University of Southwestern Louisiana West Virginia University
Yale University

Fall 1994 22


- ChE Departments Originating from Chemistry Departments

mented by Hougen. He looked at seven continuous decades
and listed the new courses or increased emphasis that was
apparent in each of the decades. He also listed the courses
that were dropped and the principal developments of each
decade. His list is shown in Table 2.
Hougen also identified what he felt were the three prin-
ciple areas of chemical engineering over those seven de-
cades: 1) industrial chemistry until 1920; 2) the major devel-
opment of unit operations from 1920 to 1950; 3) chemical
engineering sciences beginning in 1950.
It is also interesting to note the textbooks that appeared at
the beginning of new specialized branches of chemical engi-
neering over the six decades. Many of them helped initiate
important developments during those years. They are:

vironmental, biomedical, polymers and plastics, and food
processing. He closed with a consideration of the growth of
science with a new teaching emphasis on research, largely
scientific in nature. He stated in his bicentennial lecture
Seventy years ago chemical engineering was 99% art
and 1% science. Today the profession is 50% art. There
is a current tendency, especially among young instruc-
tors, to restrict engineering instruction to courses in
mathematics and basic sciences, omitting conjecture
based upon judgment, economics, and experiences. If
this procedure were valid, there would be no need for
colleges of engineering: all technical training could be
left to the departments of mathematics and the basic
sciences. In spite of the high confidence of sciences and
mathematicians in their own specialties, they have rarely
been entrusted with or interested in industrial design,

N Industrial Chemistry:
Outlines of Industrial
Chemistry, by Thorpe
Unit Operations:
Principles of Chemical
Engineering, by
Walker, Lewis, and
McAdams (1923)
Material and Energy
Advances: Metallur-
gical Calculations, by
Richards, and Applied
Stoichiometry, by
Lewis and Radasch
> Thermodynamics and
Process Control:
Thermodynamics for
Chemical Engineers,
by Weber (1939)
Applied Kinetics and
Process Design:
Kinetics and Catalysis,
by Hougen and
Watson (1947)
Transport Phenomena
and Computer
Technology: Trans-
port Phenomena, by
Bird, Stewart and
Lightfoot (1960)
Hougen also looked at the
seventh decade of 1965-1975,
but only at the University of
Wisconsin, and found option
courses in four branches: en-

Important Changes in Undergraduate Education

Courses Added Developments Courses Dropped

Decade : 1905-1915
Industrial Chemistry Industrial Chemistry Hydraulics
Metallography Surveying
Applied Electrochemistry Gas Manufacture and Distribution
Technical Analysis Foreign Languages
Pyrometry Reduction in Mechanics
Shopwork Quantitative Chemistry
Chemical Manufacture
Decade H: 1915-1925
Unit Operations Unit Operations Descriptive Geometry
Decade 11: 1925-1935
Material and Energy Balances Material and Energy Balances Contracts and Specifications
Fundamentals Reduction in Mechanics
Machine Design
Decade IV: 1935-1945
Che Thermodynamics ChE Thermodyanmics Reduction in Shopwork
Process Control Process Measurements/Control Industrial Chemistry
Increase in Physical Chemistry Mechanics
Increase in Unit Operations Steam and Gas Technology
Increase in General Chemistry Applied Electrochemistry
Decade V: 1945-1955
Applied Kinetics Applied Kinetics Industrial Chemistry
Process Design Process Design Metallography
Report Writing Machine Design
Speech Steam and Gas Technology

Decade VI: 1955-1965
Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena Graphics
Physical Measurements Process Dynamics Shopwork
Differential Equations Process Engineering Reduction in Unit Operations
Computer Programming Computer Technology Material and Energy Balances

Chemical Engineering Education

construction, and plant operations. These responsibili-
ties belong to the engineer.
He also quoted Bob Marshall, former Dean of Engineering
at Wisconsin, who said

The science syndrome among some of our engineering
faculty has resulted in engineering graduates being
unprepared and unmotivated to participate in the real
world of engineering practice. Engineering is substantially
broader and more challenging in scope than the sciences!
I am sure that this argument and concern in chemical
engineering is not finished and will continue on far into

the future.

Hougen also set out a list of twelve principles of teaching
which have since become well known as "Hougen's Prin-
ciples." They are enumerated in Table 3 with corresponding
comments by R. Byron Bird, originally written as a Memo-
riam to Olaf Andrus Hougen.

What has happened to chemical engineering education
since 1965. A lot! First we have greatly increased the breadth
of the technology we cover in our individual discipline. At
the same time, we compete with many other engineering

Hougen's Principles and Bird's Memmoriam Comments

Hougen's Principles

1. The undergraduate program should be practical and conser-
vative, whereas the graduate program should be imaginative
and exploratory.

2. There should be a smooth flow of information from gradu-
ate research to graduate teaching to undergraduate teaching.

Bird's Memoriam Comments

1. Professor Hougen clearly recognized that we have an obligation to train most of our
undergraduates so that they can assume responsible jobs in industry. However, he
also made it clear that at the graduate level we must be boldly pioneering in new
2. We should not experiment on undergraduates by giving them untested material.
Professor Hougen felt that every undergraduate course should be backed up by
graduate course instruction and research so that the undergraduate program would
always be under pressure to be modernized.

3. If you can't find relevant problems to give the student, then 3. Professor Hougen felt strongly that our teaching should emphasize topics which are
you shouldn't be teaching the material to the students. useful for solving the industrial problems of the present and future.

4. Use the best available information from the modem sci-
5. Well-founded and well-tested empiricisms are to be pre-
ferred over theories that have only a limited range of appli-
6. It is vital for engineers to know how to solve problems with
lirmted and incomplete data.

7. Students are impressionable and learn quickly, and therefore
a professor must make certain that he teaches in a respon-
sible way.

8. It is important that the students have a good grounding m the
basic fundamentals: there's nothing worse than a student
who has a thin \eneer of high-powered theory.

9. We must always recognize that our students and our teach-
ing assistants are young professionals

10 Recognize that faculty members have an obligation to assist
colleagues to other institutions.

I We hase. as faculty members in a state-supported institu-
tion, a responsibility to serve the taxpayers by performing
our job well.
12 Do not show emotions of bitterness or beratement or be-
littlement; ascribe the best motives to your associates; say
nothing derogatory.

4. Good engineering analysis and design must utilize the most Up-to-date material from
chemistry, physics, and mathematics.
5. He felt very strongly that every effort should be made to present results in the form
that could be easily used by practicing engineers..

6. One tnme Professor Hougen gave a sermnar entitled "From Cork to Molher." Every-
one knew who Mr. Mollier was, but all efforts to discover the identify of Mr. Cork
failed. The seminar dealt with the problem of predicting the Mollier diagram b>
sniffing the cork of the bottle containing the material! Professor Hougen's students
certainly came away from his thermodynamics course fully aware of many clever
methods for physical property estimation.
7. One time Professor Hougen called me on the carpet because, in a graduate seminar
introduction, I had suggested that the speaker's new theoretical methods would soon
replace the tried-and-true engineering correlations He took issue with this. and 'aid I
had no right to make an unqualified statement of that sort in front of the graduate
students and that I had left them with a totally incorrect impression.

8. Whether or not students go mto industry or on to graduate school, they appreciate
being well grounded in the elementary ideas of the undergraduate subjects

9. Students and young engineers of Professor Hougen always fell that he wanted them
to share with him in the responsibility for the development of chemical engineering
as a profession.
10. He recognized that the preparation of textbooks was a key responsibility for profes-
sors in leading research departments and he made substantial contributions to that
area along with his colleagues Professors K. M. Watson and R. A. Ragatz.
1 I. Professor Hougen often said that he felt that the citizens of the State of Wisconsin had
been very generous in supporting our unersity and that we have a duty to perform
our assignments as well as we can with the limited resources available
12 Those words, written in a note to himself, are sterling words of advice for the creation
of a collegial atmosphere within a department.

Fall 1994

disciplines. Table 4 shows the number of accredited U.S. engineering
programs as of November 1991. There are 31 disciplines with 1432
accredited departments at the BS level. Engineering has become "splin-
tered," and it is obvious that the disciplines compete with each other in
many aspects.
In the mid 60s, we substantially reduced the number of credits
required for graduation. Before the reduction, we required an average
of around 18 credits per quarter, or around 216 quarter credits, for the
BS degree. Today the average is about 16 credits per quarter, or
around 192 credits in the quarter system. That is a 11.1% cut in the
number of credits required for the BS degree-at the same time that
we have more knowledge to impart!
This has led to the development of options in the curriculum. For
example, at the University of Utah we have seven (down from a
previous figure of nine) options: the Standard Chemical Engineering
Curriculum, Fuels and Combusion, Applied Math and Physical Sci-
ences, Biochemical Engineering, Environmental and Waste Engineer-
ing, Management, and Materials. While the reduction in required
credits was engineered to remain competitive with other institutions,
we must satisfy ABET requirements in all of the options.
The cost of education has also escalated dramatically. The Univer-
sity of Utah is on the lower end of tuition costs for state universities,
but while the average rate of inflation for the years 1974 to 1992,
according to the Comsumer Price Index, was 5.98%, the cost of tuition
at the University of Utah during the same time period rose 8.56%.
Even more dramatic, for the last 11 years (1982-1993) the inflation
rate for tuition was 106% higher than the Consumer Price Index. Also,
surveys indicated that over 70% of the students at the University of
Utah had to work in order to attend school, and in engineering, it is
even higher. The average number of years to obtain a bachelor's

degree is 6.5 years-we
seldom see engineering
students graduating in 4
years. We are exces-
sively extending the time
it takes for a student to
begin his or her working
career, while at the same
time injuring the quality
of education they obtain
by unnatural cost in-
Another influence on
today's education is the
seriously fluctuating en-
rollments. Figure 1
shows the freshmen en-
rollment and the number
of BS graduates in
chemical engineering
from 1973 to 1991. The
figures are taken from

FnSumahOE llmoentnMd BacheorfScienDegr p
\ ChemiA Egi g moa 140 Dep-nme
S \
1 /

/ /

/ [ "1 Nubr of F hmen

.5, I /
M.s L i 1 \
^ i Numbr Aof GraduA c \


Figure 1. Comparison of the number
of freshmen and the number of
graduates between 1973-1991.

the last survey reported by AIChE.
There is also a perception on the part of many
professors that because of the present-day domi-
nance of the federal government in education,
through research grants, that promotions and sal-
ary increases now come from research, not teach-
ing, that good teachers involved in research do
less teaching, that too much time must be spent
in proposal writing, effectively reducing teach-
ing time, and that educators often emphasize
their research area when teaching, sacrificing
instruction in applications.

Any survey asking the question of how chemi-
cal engineering education should adapt itself to
the future will have as many suggestions and

Accredited Engineering Programs
as of November 1991
(Source: 1991 Annual Report,
ABET Engineering Accreditation Commision)

Bachelor's Master's
Program Area Level Level Total
Aerospace 57 4 61
Agriculture 46 0 46
SArchitecture 13 0 13
Bioengineering (incl. Biomedical) 20 0 20
Ceramic 12 0 12
Chemical 145 1 146
Civil, Construction 212 1 213
Computer 69 2 71
SElecmcal. Electromc 255 3 251
Engineering (Undesignated) 31 0 31
Engineering Management 2 I 3
Engineering Mechanics 9 0 9
Engineering Physics, Science 28 0 28
Environmental 11 8 19
Forest 2 0 2
Geological, Geophysical 18 0 18
SIndustrial 93 1 94
Manufacturing 10 3 13
SMalenals 30 0 30
Mechancal 234 2 236
Metallurgical 30 ) 30
Mineral I II
INaval Architecure and Marine 12 0 12
Nuclear 25 1 26
SOcean 6 2 8
Petroleum 21 0 21
Plastics 1 0 1
Surveying 6 0 6
SSystems 11 1 12
Welding 1 0 1
Other 6 0 6
Less Dual Titles Counted Twice -5 0 -5

Total Accredited Programs 1,432 30 1,462

Chemical Engineering Education

ideas as it does interviewees, but some basic ideas emerge. It
is interesting to compare Table 5, which summarizes the
ABET chemical engineering curriculum requirements of to-
day, with Table 6, which lists the results of a poll of two
hundred chemical engineering faculty conducted by AIChE
Education Advisory Board in 1990. There seems to be good
agreement between the two. But there are additional consid-

Summary of ABET Curriculum Requirements in
Chemical Engineering

1.0 year of Mathematics (beyond Trigonometry and through
Differential Equations) and Basic Science (including Chemistry
and Physics)
1.0 year of Engineering Science
0.5 year of Engineering Design
0.5 year of Humanities and Social Science
0.5 year of Advanced Chemistry

Appropriate Laboratory Experience
Appropriate Computer Experience
Knowledge of Probability and Statistics
Competency in Written and Oral Communication
Understanding of Ethical, Social, Economic and Safety Issues

Poll of Two Hundred Chemical Engineering Faculty
Members on What The Accreditation Criteria Should Be
(Source: 1990 Poll, AIChE Eductional Advisory Board)

% Favoring
OvemallRequirements Should Include at Least
0.5 year, Humanities and Social Science 86%
1.0 year, Mathematics and Basic Science 92%
1.5 years, Engineering 87%
1.0 year, Engineering Science 70%
0.5 year, Engineering Design 62%

Basic Courses Should Include at Least
Mathematics through Differential Equations 96%
General Chemistry 93%
General Physics 89%
One Design Course 88%
Mass and Energy Balances 93%
Fluid Mechanics 94%
Heat and Mass Transfer 94%
Separation Processes 88%
Reaction Engineenng 93%
One Process Control Course 83%
One Engineering Thermodynamics Course 74%
0.5 year, Advanced Chemistry 63%
One Materials Course 54%
One Biology Course 22%

Fall 1994

erations along the lines of what to include within the various
courses. For example, in the teaching of design there have
been suggestions that we need to emphasize more problems
and applications, that we need more open-ended problems
with more than one answer, and that interaction with practic-
ing engineers can help prepare our students for their careers.
How do we maintain increasing opportunities for chemi-
cal engineers in the global marketplace? Primarily by fur-
nishing an outstanding education. It must have sufficient
breadth and depth to prepare them for the ever-widening
technology. Some of the many suggestions that have been
advanced for effective teaching in the coming years include
More efficient use of education technology such as
audio and video equipment
> A warning not to chase the emergingfields (biomedi-
cal, bioengineering, etc,) but to concentrate on
chemical engineering-it's going to be around for a
long time.
0 Work more effectively with industry
1 Go back to basics-every department doesn't need a
course in control technology
> The global marketplace is the marketplace of the future
and should be considered in all aspects of curriculum
decision making
> The role of government intrusion, through research
grants, into education should be carefully reviewed
Give more consideration to the economic and political
aspects of chemical engineering
Be more flexible in scheduling for evening and part-
time students

Obviously, there are many areas of chemical engineering
education which can and should be restructured to meet the
demands of the future. We should also have a better under-
standing of what product quality should be and better input
from the users of our products when making curriculum

Chemical engineering education has a rich history of
progress, achievement, and success. This has come about
because the profession and its educators have kept the tech-
nology and its application equal to the changes and chal-
lenges that have emerged. If we continue into the future with
the same enthusiasm and concerted effort, we can maintain a
strong, vigorous, and progressive system that serves it stu-
dents, industry, and society well.

1. Hougen, Olaf A., "Seven Decades of Chemical Engineering,"
Bicentiennial Lecture of Chemical Engineering History,
AIChE 82nd National Meeting, Atlantic City, NJ
2. Westwater, J.W., "The Beginning of Chemical Engineering
Education in the USA," Advances in Chemistry Series, No.
199, History of Chemical Engineering, American Chemical
Society (1980)
3. Bird, R. Byron, "Hougen's Principles," Chem. Eng. Ed., 20(4),
161 (1986) 0




Universidad Politicnica de Valencia*
E-46071 Valencia, Spain

lectrochemical engineering as an independent sub-
ject has been well established since the early 1970s,
and today it can be found in the curriculum of a
number of chemical engineering departments. There are sev-
eral books which can be used as introductory-level text-
books for a senior-level undergraduate course 1-41 and other
books that can be used at the graduate level by those who
want to delve deeper into the subject.l5t-"'
According to Ibl,"11 the mass transport for hydrodynamic
electrochemical systems is characterized by a correlation
between dimensionless groups of the form
Sh=f(Re,Sc) (1)
where Sh, Re, and Sc are the Sherwood, Reynolds, and
Schmidt dimensionless numbers, respectively (see Table 1).
A complete table of type (1) equations, generally empirical,
for mass transport rate in selected electrode geometries com-
monly occurring in an electrochemical reactor can be found
in a monograph by Fahidy.171

The rigorous derivation of these correlations
quires complicated differential equations that are 1
fundamental transport and conservation equations wl
lytical resolution is only possible in a few exar
electrodes with simple geometry in which the bound
editions are well determined. This occurs, for
instance, with a rotating disk (RDE). This de-
vice is frequently used to determine kinetic pa-
rameters, diffusivity of ionic species, and as a
diagnostic to determine if the electrode reaction

is controlled by mass transport.
The expression for the mass-transport rate at

* Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear,
E.T.S.I. Industriales, P.O. Box 22012
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1994

)ften re-
based on
here ana-
nples of
lary con-

a RDE is given by the Levich equation1121

Sh = 0.62 Re/2 Sc1/3 (2)
Then, substituting the values of the dimensionless num-
bers (Table 1), we obtain the following equation for the
limiting current density:

i = 0.62 nFDA 3 v-1/6 (o1/2 CA (3)
The Levich equation serves many purposes since it is valid
under laminar flow up to a Reynolds number of 2-105. The
global theoretical treatment of the Levich equation can be
found in the original sources as well as (partially) in some
monographs,',10"31 but its derivation in the classroom is cum-
bersome and therefore it is usually avoided. Most books give
only the final equation. In teaching electrochemical mass
transport we have noticed that the students are not always
able to remember the Levich equation because it includes
variables raised to uncommon exponents.
In this paper we will relate a simple derivation of the
Levich equation based on the application of dimensional
analysis and will propose a laboratory exercise to solve the
above problem.

The applicability of dimensional analysis requires prior
knowledge of the various parameters affecting the problem.
This knowledge is gained from analysis of the system or
from experiments. Thus, in an electrochemical system with
electrodes in motion, the Navier-Stokes hydrodynamic equa-

Chemical Engineering Education

Dimensionless Groups in
Electrochemical Hydrodynamic Transport
Group Name Mechanism Ratio
Sh = Kc- =ii A Sherwood number effective mass transport/mass
D transport by molecular diffusion
Sc= Schmidt number momentum transport/mass
L L2 transport by molecular diffusion
Re = u-= c- Reynolds number inertia forces/viscous forces
V v

tion (Eq. 4), the convection-diffusion equation (Eq. 5), and
the relationship between flux and current density (Eq. 6)
should be fulfilled.
Du 1
u VP + vV2u+g (4)
Dt p

-VJA CA = DAV2CA u VCA (5)

i, = -nFDA A (6)
SY )y=0O
Equation (6) applies when migration is negligible due to
the fact that the solution contains an excess of supporting
electrolytes.[34'10 Assuming that pressure forces and gravity
force fields are absent, VP = 0 and g = 0, and under condi-
tions of steady-state, du/dt = 0 and dCA/dt = 0. With these
assumptions, and using the variables of Eqs. (4-6), we as-
sume that at the RDE the current density is a function of
Faraday's constant F, the diffusion coefficient DA, the con-
centration of species CA, the kinematic viscosity v, the angu-
lar velocity o = u/R, and the disk radius, R. Hence, the
following functional relationship may be written:

Kinematic Viscosity of Several Aqueous Electrolytes*
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
v 102,
cm2/s 1.004 1.008 0.995 0.992 1.002

s" l/cm"3 2.153 2.151 2.156 2.157 2.154
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, Inc., Florida

Jose L. Guifin is professor of chemical engi-
neering at Polytechnical University of Valencia.
His major research focus has been in the ar-
eas of chemical equilibrium, surface analysis,
and electrochemical engineering

Jose Garcia-Ant6n is an associate professor
of chemical engineering at Politechnical Uni-
versity of Valencia. His research interests are
primarily in the areas of surface analysis, cor-
rosion, and electrochemical engineering.

Valentin Perez-Herranz received his chemical
engineering degree in 1989. He is currently do-
ing research and working for his PhD in the area
of pulsating electrochemical reactors.

Rosario Grima is a chemical technician. She collaborates in the teaching
and research of the chemical engineering department at Polytechnical
University of Valencia. (Photo not available.)

Fall 1994

ii =
According to dimensional analysis, Eq. (7) can be expressed
as a power series:
i, = K, Fa DA vc Od CCA Rf (8)
where a, b, c, d, e, and f are constant exponents, and K, is a
dimensionless constant of proportionality. Since Eq. (8) has
to be dimensionally consistent, the left- and right-hand terms
must have the same dimensions. By substituting the appro-
priate dimensions for each variable in Eq. (8), we obtain

L-QT- = KI(QM-)a L2T-)b(L2T-)c(T-)d (ML-3)e(L)
To be dimensionally consistent, the sum of the exponents on
each fundamental unit must be the same on both sides of the

X oftheexponentsforL:-2 = 2b+2c-3e+f

Sof theexponentsforM:0 = -a+e

Sof theexponentsforQ: = a

V of theexponents for T:-l = -b-c-d (10)

The linear equation, Eq. 10, can be solved by taking into
account that a=e= 1. Then, we obtain

1= 2b + 2c + f
-1=-b-c-d (11)
Many mathematical solutions are possible with Eq. 11,
depending upon the values of b, c, d, and f. Since there are
two equations in four unknowns, they can be solved for two
of the unknowns in terms of the other two. Since the kine-
matic viscosity of the aqueous electrolytes is almost constant
(see Table 2), it is more meaningful to take the diffusion
coefficient and the disk radius as independent variables.
Solving for c and d in terms of b and f gives

c= (1- 2b- f)/2
d =(1 + f)/2 (12)
By substituting the values of exponents in Eq. (8), we
i, = KFDbv(1-2b-f)/20(l+f)/2CARf (13)
Since there are seven variables and four primary dimen-
sions in Eq. (8), there should be (7-4=) three dimensionless
groups. Mass transport is usually characterized by the
Sherwood, Reynolds, and Schmidt dimensionless numbers
given in Table 1. Thus, the terms of Eq. 13 may be collected
in groups:

i1R K(R2 (l+f)/2 V -b
Kl | L (14)
FCADA v (14)
The value of f may be obtained experimentally by keeping

A, v, co, and CA constant and measuring the variation of
current, I, with the disk radius for a given ion. Analogously,
the value of b may be obtained experimentally by keeping A,
v, and CA constant and measuring the variation of current, I,
with diffusion coefficient DA, using various ions.
Once we have obtained the values of f and b, we can
obtain the value of c (the exponent of the kinematic viscos-
ity) and d (the exponent of the angular velocity) from Eq.
The value of the constant, K, can be obtained from the
intercept at the origin, p, of the plot of log I versus log DA
K = FAv6(+f)/2CAR(15)

Equipment and Procedure
The I-E curves were recorded with a Metrohm E-626
polarecord. The working electrode was a rotating disk elec-
trode with platinum surface of 2.72 mm in diameter or a
glassy carbon surface 3.08 mm in diameter, connected to a
Metrohm 628 rotation unit. The reference electrode was an
Ag-AgCl electrode with 3M potassium chloride solution,
and the auxiliary electrode was a platinum wire. Dissolved
oxygen was removed from the solutions by bubbling nitro-
gen for ten minutes. Prior to each polarization experiment,
the RDE was repolished with 0.05 ptm alumina. All experi-
ments were carried out at 250C with the help of a Selecta
Frigitem S-32 thermostat.
The measurements of the electrode diameter (0.01 mm)
were obtained with a Shimadzu M microhardness tester, and
the electrode rotation velocity was tested with a Movistrob
revolutions counter.
All chemicals were reagent grade. The following solutions
were prepared: ImM in KI; K3Fe(CN)6, K4Fe(CN) 3H20,
and 0.1M in KC1; and ImM Fe'3 (from iron titrisolR, stan-
dard solution, Merck) and 0.1 M in HNO3.


Figure 1 shows a
typical polarization
curve of a given spe-
cies at a certain rota-
tion speed. To mea-
sure the limiting cur-
rent, one should se-
lect a working poten-
tial in a region over
which the plateau of
the wave, a, is fairly
parallel to the re-
sidual current, b, cor-

responding to the supporting electrolyte. In Figure 1, this
may be anywhere between -0.1 V and the end of the wave at
-0.4 V.
Table 3 shows the results obtained with several ions at the
platinum and the glassy-carbon RDE. The differences in
current are obviously due to the different electrode surfaces.
Current density values are almost equal for a given ion in
both electrodes, although these values are slightly higher for
platinum than for glassy carbon. These results show that for
a given species in laminar flow, the flux (i.e., the average
current density, Eq. 6) is independent of disk diameter, so
the exponent of the disk radius is f=0.
The difference in limiting current observed for the various
ions (Table 3) is due to the different values of the diffusion
coefficient (see Eq. 6). The diffusion coefficient may be
described by the Stockes-Einstein equation
DA -- (16)
6 nTrI
k Boltzmann constant
T absolute temperature
t viscosity of the solution
r radius of the diffusing ion.

Hence, in an experiment with the same supporting electro-
lyte, the limiting current is inversely proportional to the
hydrated radius of the electroactive species, the current den-
sity decreasing from iodide ion to ferric ion.
As indicated above, it is necessary to have the values of
the logarithm of the diffusion coefficient in order to deter-
mine the exponent in the Levich equation. The diffusion

Limiting Current of Various Ions at a Rotating Disk Electrode
SRotation speed of the electrode, 103 rpm
Pt-electrode surface, 5.80 x 102 cm2
C-electrode surface, 7.44 x 10-2 cm2

i Pt, iC,
pA/cm2 gA/cm2

I 0.1 M KCI 53 67 914 900
Fe(CN) 0.1 M KCI 30 35 517 470
Fe(CN)6, 0.1 M KCI 26 32 448 430
Fe3 0.1 M HNO, 23.5 29.5 405 396

Diffusion Coefficient, cm2/s, at 25C
Ion /Z"5' D 106 Electrolyte D xplO06161" (c.P) (p-.Dxp)106
I 76.8 20.50 0.1M KCI 17.20 0.9979 17.16
Fe(CN)-3 33.6 8.97 0.1M KCI 7.63 0.9979 7.61
Fe(CN)64 27.6 7.37 0.1M KCl 6.32 0.9979 6.30
Fe3 22.6 6.03 0.1M HNO, 5.20 0.9964 5.18

Chemical Engineering Education

ion electrolyte

Figure 1. Polarization curves at a plati-
num RDE at 103rpm
a. 103M Fe(CN)63 + 10M KCl
b. 10-1MKCl

coefficient can be calculated from the equivalent conduc-
tance at infinite dilution, X0, by means of the Nernst equa-

D = 2.67x10- at 25C (17)
ZF Z s
or it can be obtained from experimental data in the literature,
Dexp. Table 4 shows the values of the diffusion coefficient
obtained either way.
The difference in the values of D? and Dexp is due to the
fact that the former corresponds to infinite dilution, whereas
the latter corresponds to a given concentration of supporting
electrolyte. In fact, the best way to compare various experi-
mental data for Di in solutions with different supporting
electrolytes is by means of the mobility product gDi/T.11i6
But under our experimental conditions, at constant tempera-
ture and taking into account that the viscosities of the sup-
porting electrolytes are very similar, the values of Di and gDi
are almost identical, as can be seen in Table 4.
Figures 2 and 3 show that the plots of log I versus log DA
actually have a linear variation. These figures show the

Results of Regression Line by Least-Squares in Plot
of log I vs. log D at Rotating Disk Electrode
Theoretical slope: b = 2/3 = 0.666

Slope Difference Intercept Coefficient
RDE line b (%) p
Pt logl-v-logD. 0.675 1.3 0.8362 0.9991
Pt logI-v-logDp 0.685 2.8 0.8756 0.9988
Glassy-C logI-v-logD. 0.692 3.9 0.9090 0.9922
Glassy-C logI-v-logD,'p 0.702 5.3 0.9494 0.9922

absolute current instead of the current densities for a better
comparison at a specific value of the diffusion coefficient.
Table 5 shows the results of the corresponding regression
lines by least-squares. The slope obtained is closer to the
theoretical value, 2/3, when using Dx values than when using
D,,p values, probably due to the fact that the latter come from
different authors. On the other hand, the slope values are
more accurate for platinum RDE than for glassy-carbon
Substituting the values f=0 and b=2/3 into Eq. (12), we
obtain values of c=-1/6 and d=l/2 for the exponents of the
kinematic viscosity and the angular velocity, respectively.
In Figure 4, experimental data of I versus f"2 is plotted for
I- and Fe(CN)6-3respectively at platinum RDE. Least-square
treatment of the data yields a straight line with the following
For 1-3M KI

I,(pA)= 1.836 f/2(rpm)l2 -4.36 r = 0.9986 (18)

For 10-M KFe(CN)6

1,(tA) = 0.786 fl/2(rpm)l/2 +3.59 r = 0.9942 (19)

Similar results are obtained at the glassy-carbon RDE. In
the plot of I versus o)/2 (or f"2), the deviation from a straight
line intersecting the origin shows some kinetic step involved
in the electron transfer reaction rather than being totally
controlled by mass transport.1131
The value of constant K, in the Levich equation can be
obtained from the intercept at the origin in the plot of log I
versus log DA. By taking these values from Table 5 and
substituting values of
Continued on page 257


Figure 2. Plot of log I vs log DA of
10-3M Fe+3, Fe(CN)64, Fe(CN)6-3, and
I. Diffusion coefficient values calcu-
lated from the equivalent conductance
at infinite dilution.
(1) Glassy-carbon RDE (2) Platinum RDE.
Rotation speed of electrode, f=103 rpm.
Fall 1994

log 1, pA







07 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3
log (Dexp-10'),cm I/s.
Figure 3. Plot of log I vs log Dexp of
10W3M Fe3, Fe(CN)64, Fe(CN)6-3, and
I. Experimental diffusion coefficient
(1) Glassy-carbon RDE. (2) Platinum RDE.
Rotation speed of electrode, f = 103 rpm.

I 1/2 rpm"2

Figure 4. Plot of current as a function
of the rotation speed at platinum RDE.
(1) 10 3M (2) 103M Fe(CN)63

log I, pA





1.3 P
0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3
log (D -106), cmls.



A Tool in Engineering Teaching and Practice

University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0424

Scaling in the context of this paper refers to the system-
atic method whereby one nondimensionalizes a sys-
tem of equations describing a transport and/or chemi-
cal reaction process in order to determine the minimum
parametric representation; that is, the description of the pro-
cess in terms of the minimum number of dimensionless
groups. This permits assessing how the system of equations
can be simplified for very large or very small values of the
dimensionless groups. For example, the equations of motion
can be appropriately nondimensionalized so.that the inertial
terms can be neglected for very small Reynolds numbers
which is the familiar creeping flow approximation.
Textbooks on transport and chemical reaction processes
generally justify simplifying assumptions leading to the creep-
ing flow, boundary layer, penetration theory, plug-flow re-
actor, etc., equations via ad hoc arguments rather than by a
systematic approach such as scaling analysis provides. Hence,
the student might not see the interrelationship between the
various approximations made in describing transport and
reactor-design processes such as the analogy between bound-
ary-layer theory in fluid mechanics and penetration theory in
heat or mass transfer. Moreover, the ad hoc approach to
simplifying the equations describing transport and chemical

William B. Krantz is Professor of Chemical Engi-
neering at the University of Colorado, where he has
been a faculty member for twenty-six years. He
received a BA (chemistry, 1961) from Saint Joseph's
College, a BS (chemical engineering, 1962) from
the University of Illinois-Urbana, and his PhD in
1968 from the University of California, Berkeley.

Jeffrey G. Sczechowski is
of Civil and Environmental E
nia Polytechnic State Unive

n Assistant Professor
engineeringg at Califor-
rsitv. He received his

BS from the University of Colorado, an MS from
North Carolina State University, and his PhD in
1994 from the University of Colorado, all in chemi-
f cal engineering.
* Presently at the Department of Civil and Environmental
Engineering, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis
Obispo, CA 93407

reaction processes does not provide the student with any
basis for simplifying more complex problems which are not
described in textbooks.
In an earlier article in this journal, Krantzl11 described how
scaling analysis can be used to simplify the initial and bound-
ary value problems encountered in teaching transport phe-
nomena. The present article builds upon this earlier paper by
showing how scaling analysis can be used to justify the
quasi-steady-state approximation and by demonstrating the
application of this technique to simplifying problems in-
volving entry-region flows, moving boundaries, porous me-
dia flows, and mass transfer with chemical reaction.

Scaling analysis can be reduced to the following stepwise
1 1. Write down the dimensional differential equations and their initial
and boundary conditions appropriate to the transport or reactor-
design process being considered.
> 2. Form dimensionless variables by introducing unspecified scale
factors for each dependent and independent variable; this also
may involve introducing unspecified reference factors for some
variables whose values we seek to normalize to zero.
> 3. Introduce these dimensionless variables into the describing
differential equations and their initial and boundary conditions.
D 4. Divide through by the dimensional coefficient of one of the terms
(preferably one which will be retained) in each of the describing
equations and their initial and boundary conditions.
O 5. Determine the scale and reference factors by insuring that the
principal terms in the describing equations are of order one;
identifying the principal terms is dependent on the particular
conditions for which the scaling is being done (e.g., a highly
viscous flow, a conductive heat-transfer process, etc.; this step
may require introducing a "region-of-influence" wherein the
dependent variable(s) goes through a characteristic change in
0 6. The preceding steps result in the minimum parametric representa-
tion of the problem (i.e., in terms of the minimum number of
dimensionless groups); appropriate simplification of the
describing equations can now be explored for very small or very
large values of these dimensionless groups.
Application of scaling analysis now will be illustrated via
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1994
Chemical Engineering Education

several example problems. The first problem will be shown
in detail to illustrate the scaling method, whereas the other
examples will only be outlined.


1. Laminar Flow Between Parallel Plates

Figure 1 shows a schematic of steady-state, fully devel-
oped, laminar flow between two infinitely wide parallel
plates. The lower plate is stationary and the upper plate
moves at a constant velocity Vp. This flow is also subject to
a constant axial pressure gradient such that AP > 0. We seek
to determine the conditions for which the effect of the upper
plate velocity Vp can be neglected.
The appropriate equations of motion and their boundary
conditions are given by

aP d2V2
0= --- + 2 (1.1)
x dy
0= +pg (1.2)

vx =0 at y=0 (1.3)
v, = Vp at y=H (1.4)
Equation (1.2) can be integrated and combined with Eq.
(1.1) to obtain
AP d 2 V
0= -+t-- (1.5)
L dy2
where AP Pl=o -P Ix=L. Define the following dimensionless

Vx" and y (1.6)
Us Ys
Substituting these into Eqs. (1.3), (1.4) and (1.5) then yields

0AP +Us d x
0= --+ 2 dy*2 (1.7)
L ys dy*2

Usv = 0 at yy= 0 (1.8)
UsV = Vp at ysy = H (1.9)

Since the viscous term in Eq. (1.7) must be retained in order
to satisfy the two no-slip conditions at the solid boundaries,
divide through by its dimensional coefficient. Similarly, in
the two boundary conditions divide through by the dimen-
sional coefficient of the dimensionless dependent variable.
This yields

Ys0AP d2*v
0= +
pUL dy*2

vx =0 at y =0
vUs = at y =-
us Ys




Since we are scaling this problem for conditions such that
the flow is caused principally by the pressure gradient, we
Fall 1994

balance the pressure force with the viscous term in Eq.
(1.10) as follows



Note that this insures that the magnitude of the dimension-
less derivative, d2vx*/dy*2, is of order one. Furthermore, the
dimensionless independent variable y* will be bounded of
order one if we demand that

-= 1

S Ys =H

Hence, from Eq. (1.13) we obtain

U 2 =



Note that this velocity scale is directly proportional to the
maximum velocity for flow between two flat plates driven
only by a pressure gradient. This scaling insures that the
dimensionless velocity goes through a change of order one
over a dimensionless distance of order one. Note that "a
change of order one" implies that the dimensionless variable
goes from its minimum value of zero to its maximum value
which has a magnitude of order one.
Our dimensionless equations now become

vx =0 at y =0
Vx = -- at y =1




Hence, in order to ignore the effect of the moving upper
plate on the flow relative to that of the imposed pressure
gradient, we must satisfy the criterion that
<< 1 (1.19)
One could also scale this problem for conditions such that
the flow is caused principally by the upper moving bound-
ary. In this case, we determine our velocity scale from Eq.
(1.12) and obtain

US = V
Hence, our dimensionless equations become
H2AP d2vx
0=-L + -2
lVL dy*2




\*-----~----- L --~----------

Figure 1.Schematic of steady-state, full developed, lami-
nar flow between two infinitely wide parallel plates; the
lower plate is stationary and the upper plate moves at a
constant velocity Vp.

In order to ignore the effect of the pressure gradient on
the flow, we must satisfy the criterion

<< 1L

This simple example problem can be solved analyti-
cally, which permits assessing the error incurred by
ignoring the plate velocity under the condition that Eq.
(1.19) is satisfied, or ignoring the pressure gradient
under the condition that Eq. (1.22) is satisfied. For
example, if
H2 < 0.1P
comparison with the exact analytical solution shows
that we will incur a maximum error of 20% in the drag
at the wall. A maximum error of 2% in the drag at the
wall is implied by
S< 0.01
One sees that scaling not only provides the criteria for
simplifying the equations describing transport and
chemical reaction processes, but also provides a
measure of the error incurred in making these simplifi-
cations. This illustrates the advantages of scaling
the principal dimensionless terms to be of order one;
that is, the error incurred is of the same order as the
dimensionless group which must be small to ignore
the term in question.

2. Entry Region for Flow Between Parallel Plates

Figure 2 shows a schematic of pressure-driven, steady-
state, laminar entry-region flow between two infinitely
wide stationary parallel plates; the flow velocity at the
entrance is assumed to be constant at a value v, = V.
We seek to determine the condition required to attain
fully developed laminar flow. This example will
illustrate how to handle a boundary condition that
introduces an unknown region-of-influence [in this
case, 8(x)]. Scaling will allow us to determine the func-
tional form of 8(x) to within a multiplicative constant
of order one.



.------- -- ----

Figure 2. Schematic of pressure-driven, steady-state,
laminar entry-region flow between two infinitely wide
stationary parallel plates.


The appropriate equations-of-motion and their boundary condi-
tions are given by

-av ap a2v, a2VX
pvx ay ax ax2 ay+

av av ap a2v a2v
pvx +PvY =--+g +g
ay ay ax2 ay2

aVx + =0
ax ay

v, =V and Vy=0 at x=0 (2.4)
v, =Vx(y) and vy = vy(y) at x=L (2.5)
v, =0 and Vy =0 at y=H (2.6)
x=Vx,(x) and Vy=Vy(x) at y =+(H- ) (2.7)

We have elected to use the complete form of the two-dimensional
equations-of-motion rather than the boundary-layer approxima-
tion. The manner in which the latter can be derived via scaling
analysis is discussed by Krantz.[l] The boundary condition given
by Eq. (2.7) introduces the region of influence variable 5(x) which
defines the boundary layer thickness near the wall wherein the
viscous effects are confined and hence in which the development
of the velocity profile occurs. Equation (2.5) is included for
completeness and indicates that the velocity profiles must be speci-
fied at some downstream point x = L in order to solve the
complete form of these equations. Equation (2.7) merely indicates
that there is acceleration of the core fluid outside of the boundary
layer. It is not necessary to specify any boundary conditions on
the pressure since specifying the constant inlet velocity determines
the required pressure gradient.
Define the following dimensionless variables:

S _Vy P x .y-Yr (2.8)
Vx-;, Vy=-, --- ; x _- y- ()
us s Ps Xs Ys
We have introduced a reference scale yr in the definition of y* in
order to reference this dimensionless variable to zero at the wall;
the symmetry of this problem permits considering only the region
-H < y < 0. Substituting these dimensionless variables into Eqs.
(2.1) through (2.7) and dividing through by the dimensional coef-
ficient of one of the principal terms in each equation then yields

pUSy: dv pV"', dv; PyZ sP ,2a d2v, d2v
PXS p Y day*= gU,X, x* X X*2 aY*2
PUSYS av pVVy *dv* P y, ap* Y2 2V d2V*
V + VY_ + V + V
gXs Vx* 9 YY* gLV a7y* x2 ax*2 ay*2
dv + V
U* V aY*

v, = and v* =0 at x 0

x X= nd V =v(y= ) at X =L






-H yr(2.14)
vx =0 and vy =0 at y -H (2.14)
Chemical Engineering Education

v=v(x and vy = v at y = (2.15)
We can normalize y* between the values of 0 and 1 by
requiring the following:

-H -r =0

length Le required for the flow to become fully developed;
this is obtained by setting 5 = H in Eq. (2.28) to obtain

e ~


A boundary-layer analysis yields the following solution for
(2.16) the entry length:[2]

pV0.16 H2
L- = 0.16

-(H-5)-yr =
= 1

S Yr = -H

= ys =


In order for the dimensionless axial velocity and axial coor-
dinate to be bounded between 0 and 1, we require that

- =1

=> Us =V

=> xs =L



Since this is a developing flow, both terms in the dimension-
less continuity equation should be of order one; hence, we
require that
Vx, UL -
= -- = 1 = V = V- (2.20)
UsYs V6 L
Since this is a pressure-driven, viscous flow, the dimension-
less pressure term should be of the same order as the princi-
pal viscous term, 2v* /y*2; hence, we require that

PsY2 _Psj2=
gUsxs tVL

s 8 2


Substituting these values of the scale and reference factors
yields the minimum parametric representation given by

6 8 .v 6 av ap* 62 a2* a2*
SRev +Re V8vx +P* 2 2v* 2+ x (2.22)
L x* L y xy* 3x L2 3x*2 y*2
Re av 6 3v* L2 ap* 82 a2V 2v*
R +Re y --v + + 2 y (2.23)
L 8x* L + y* 3 2 8 y* L *x *y

v- =1 and Vy =0 at x =0
vx = v(Y) and v = v(y ) at x =1
v = 0 and v = 0 at y =0
v = v x and v = v x at y =1


Hence, we see that scaling analysis gives the correct result
for the entry length to within a multiplicative constant of
order one.

[ 3. Flow Through a Porous Medium
in a Cylindrical Tube

Figure 3 shows a schematic of pressure-driven, steady-
state flow of a fluid having viscosity g. through a porous
medium having a permeability K confined in a horizontal
tube of radius R and length L. We seek to determine the
criterion for ignoring the drag on the tube wall when deter-
mining the volumetric flow rate and the thickness of the
region of influence near the wall wherein this approximation
is not valid. The appropriate forms of the equations of mo-
tion and boundary conditions are given by[3]

AP p 1 d (dv
0= v +u.- Ir -
L K r dr dr)
v= 0 at r = R

dv = 0 at r = 0

where AP is the pressure drop across the length of the tube.
The second term on the right in Eq. (3.1) is referred to as the
Darcy flow term.
Define the following dimensionless variables:
v, r (
vz = z- and r -- (3.4
W, r,
Introducing these dimensionless variables into Eqs. (3.1)
through (3.3) and dividing through by the dimensional coef-
ficient of one of the principal terms in each equation yields

gWL *IWL 1 d ( dvj
P0 = 1 + r (3.5)
KAP r2AP r* dr dr

where Re-=pV/g.
Since this is a developing flow, the intertial terms must be
of the same magnitude as the pressure and principal viscous
term, 32v* /y*2, in Eq. (2.22); hence, we require that

Re = 1 8=
L pV


Hence, we see that scaling analysis gives us the boundary-
layer thickness to within a multiplicative constant of order
one. Scaling also can provide a reliable estimate of the entry
Fall 1994

Figure 3. Schematic of pressure-driven, steady-state flow
of a viscous fluid through a porous medium confined within
a horizontal tube of radius R and length L.


vz = 0 at r = (3.6)
= 0 at r* = 0 (3.7)
If the porous medium is the principal resistance to flow,
then we require that
Ll w, KA (3.8)
If the drag at the tube wall were important, the velocity
would change significantly over a length scale of the same
order as the tube radius R. Hence, in order to assess the
effect of the drag at the tube wall on the volumetric flow
rate, we determine our length scale by demanding that


> rs =R


heat conduction.
This example
will illustrate
how to apply
scaling analysis
to an unsteady-
state moving
boundary prob-
lem. The appro-
priate forms of
the energy equa-
tion, initial,
boundary, and
auxiliary condi-
tions are given by

Figure 4. Schematic of unsteady-state,
one-dimensional heat conduction into
an initially frozen semi-infinite slab of
soil subjected to a constant temperature
To at its surface.

which bounds r* between 0 and 1. Substituting Eqs. (3.8)
and (3.9) into Eq. (3.5) then yields

K 1 d (. dv,
0=1- vz R2 r dr* d-r


Hence, in order to ignore the drag at the tube wall, we
require that

-j <<1


Ignoring the viscous term when the criterion given by Eq.
(3.11) is satisfied yields a very accurate prediction for the
volumetric flow rate through the porous media; but it will
not predict the velocity profile accurately throughout the
flow since clearly the velocity must be zero at the tube wall.
This implies that there is a region of influence having a
thickness 8 near the tube wall wherein the last term in
Eq. (3.5) is of the same magnitude as the pressure and
Darcy flow terms. Within this boundary layer the radial
coordinate must be scaled with 8 rather than R to insure that
the dimensionless velocity gradient is of order one. The
thickness of this boundary layer region can be determined by
exploring the conditions for which the last term in Eq. (3.5)
is also of order one; that is, when
gWsL K_
p -= -= 8=-K (3.12)

Hence the thickness of the region of influence wherein the
walls of the tube influence the flow through the porous
medium is of the order XK-.

4. Unsteady-State NWt Conduofton
with Phase OCltge

Figure 4 shows a schematic of unsteady-state, one-dimen-
sional heat conduction into an initially frozen semi-infinite
slab of soil subjected to a constant temperature To (To > Tf)
at its surface. The soil is assumed to be initially at its freez-
ing temperature Tf. We seek to determine when this heat-
transfer process can be approximated by quasi-steady-state

_T 32T
at ax2
T = Tf and L = 0 at t = 0
T = T at x = 0 for t> 0
T =Tf at x = L(t)
dL k aT
-= at x = L(t)
dt p axx

where (, k, and p are the thermal diffusivity, thermal con-
ductivity, and density of the frozen soil, respectively, and k
is the latent heat of fusion of water; L(t) is the instantaneous
thaw depth.
Define the following dimensionless variables:
T* T Tr x t
T ----T =- and t (4.6)
Ts xs t,
Introducing these dimensionless variables into Eqs. (4.1)
through (4.5) and dividing through by the dimensional coef-
ficient of one of the principal terms in each equation then

_,2 aT* a2_T*
CtXt at* ax*2
T*=TT at t

T* To -Tr at
T _____ at
T* = Tf -Tr at

x =0

x* = L*

dL* kTsts T* *
-= ----- at x =L
dt pk x ax*

In order to insure that the dimensionless
bounded between 0 and 1, we demand that

T* T= = Tr = Tf

T* T l T = To Tf





temperature is



Chemical Engineering Education

In unsteady problems for which we seek to determine the
applicability of the quasi-steady-state approximation, the
time scale is the observation time, to; that is

ts =to (4.14)
Since the two terms in Eq. (4.11) must balance for a moving
boundary problem, we require that

kTts k(To-Tf)to ,
px 2 pix 2

S k(T Tf)t (4.15)

Note this length scale insures that the characteristic rate of
heat removal by conduction balances the heat released ow-
ing to melting a thickness xs of ice. Equation (4.7) then
assumes the form

k(T0 -Tf) aT* a2T
p --t = "--- (4.16)
IS at' ax-\
Hence, the criterion for invoking the quasi-steady-state ap-
proximation is given by

k(T -Tf)<<


5. Laminar Flow with Heterogeneous Reaction
at the Wall 7

Figure 5 shows a schematic of steady-state laminar flow in
a tube of radius R at which a solute A contained in the fluid
undergoes a first-order irreversible reaction along length L.
We seek to determine the conditions required to justify two
different approximations: to assume that the reaction causes
total depletion of A at the pipe wall; and, to make the
classical "plug flow reactor" approximation for which the
radial concentration gradient is ignored and the flow is as-
sumed to be pluglike and equal to the average velocity.
The appropriate form of the conservation of species equa-
tion and its boundary conditions is given by

-DAB A =kCA at r=R 0 ar
in which DAB is the binary diffusion coefficient, CA0 is the
initial concentration of the reactant A, ki is the first-order
reaction-rate constant, and v, is the laminar flow velocity
given by

V I (r =23 (5.5)
2 R)

where V is the average velocity. Note that we have ignored
axial diffusion relative to convection of species A.
Introduce the following dimensionless variables:

c -CA

* r
r --

and z -

and divide through by the dimensional coefficient of one
term to obtain

3[ rs 2 21cA DAB s (1 cA
21 R) r = V r r*r* ar*

CA at z=0
S=0 at r =0
acA krs R L
-= s cA at r = 0 r DAB rs Zs





The dimensionless groups suggest the following choices for
the scale factors:

CA01 = C = CA0
s=1 > rs = R
-=1 zs =L




Hence, our describing equations become

_CA r 1 D rDCA
Vz =DABI aI r aC
az (r ar ar
CA =CAO at z=0
"CA =0 at r=0

3l [ 2_ CA DAB L (1 *A
1- a' -r* ar ar

cA=1 at z =0

C =0 at r =0
acA klR r* z 0 _
r =-CA at =1 0





If klR/DAB >> 1, then we must have cA = 0 in order to assure
that ac* /ar* is of order one at r* = 1. Hence, for this limiting
case corresponding to a very fast heterogeneous reaction, the
boundary condition given by Eq. (5.17) can be replaced by

A =0 at r*=1


If, in contrast, kIR/DAB << 1, then since cA is of order one,
Continued on tare 253.

Figure 5. Schematic of steady-state laminar flow in a tube
of radius R at which a solute A contained in the fluid
undergoes a first-order irreversible reaction along length L.
Fall 1994

R survey




West Virginia Graduate College
Institute, WV25112-1003
he level of attention being given to ethics in
many types of institutions in our society, includ-
ing colleges and universities, is on the increase.
The academic ethics of college and university students
have been widely discussed in the news media and
academic journals. This article reports the findings of a
survey of graduate engineering students on the issue of
academic ethics.

While numerous studies of academic ethics have been
published, only three were found that used engineering
students as subjects. Singhal"' reported a survey of 364
engineering, agricultural, and technical students in 1982,
but did not reveal their status as undergraduate or gradu-
ate. He found that 56% answered "Yes" when asked if
they had cheated on schoolwork while in college. Sixty-
two percent had copied homework or lab reports, 27%
would allow another student to copy during an exami-
nation, 24% had used crib sheets on an exam, 13% had
turned in another's report as his/her own, 12% had seen
an advance copy of an exam, 10% had given another
student help on a take-home exam, and 7% had copied
off another student's exam.
Sisson and Todd-McMancillas'2] found in a 1984 sur-
vey of 287 undergraduate engineering students that 56%
had worked with other students on individual home-
work assignments, while 18% had used crib sheets on
an exam. Meade131 reported in a 1992 survey of 6,000
engineering students at thirty-one top-ranked schools,
that 74% had used crib sheets, looked at another student's
exam, "fudged" results, or plagiarized. One-fifth of the

Bob S. Brown is an associate professor of marketing and economics
at the West Virginia Graduate College. He received his BS and MBA
degrees from West Virginia University and his PhD from The Ameri-
can University. His recent research has been on the academic ethics
of graduate students in various disciplines.
Copyright ChE Diviston ofASEE 1994

respondents admitted to having cheated three or more times.
While no studies of graduate engineering students were found,
two studies were found of graduate students in other disciplines.
Sierles, Hendrix, and Circle'[4 surveyed medical students about the
extent of their participation in unethical academic and patient care
practices as both undergraduates and medical students. Eighty-eight
percent had cheated while in college, but the proportion dropped to

Participation in and Ratings of
the Ethical Level of Academic Practices

Rank Practice

1. Having someone check over a paper before turning
2. Asking about the content of an exam from someone
who has taken it
3. Giving information about the content of an exam
to someone who has not yet taken it
4. Working with others on an individual project
5. Using a false excuse to delay an exam or paper
6. Plagiarism
7. Having information programmed into a calculator
during an exam
8. Padding a bibliography
9. Visiting a professor to influence grade
10. Taking credit for full participation in a group
project without doing a fair share of the work
11. Allowing another to see exam answers
12. Copying oft another's exam
13. Turning in work done b. someone else as one's own
14. Using eam crib notes
15. Passing answers during an exam

Overall Mean

'Scale: I=frequently; 5=infrequently
2 Scale: I=very unethical; 5=not at all unethical

Parncipation Ethial Ethical
Mean' Mean' Rank

3.45 3.80 15

4.41 2.38 14

4.83 1.91 9
4.85 1.88 8
4.86 1.96 11

4.86 1.92 10
4.87 1.34 4
4.92 1.22 1
4.93 1.25 3
4.93 1.48 5
4.96 1.25 2

4.69 1.89

Chemical Engineering Education

58% while in medical school. Kalichman and Friedman151
surveyed biomedical graduate students, medical stu-
dents, residents, and postdoctoral fellows about their partici-
pation in four unethical practices. A surprisingly low
15% admitted to having cheated to get a higher exam
grade, modifying research data, reporting untrue research
results, or plagiarism.

Questionnaires were mailed to all of the 189 engineering
school students enrolled in courses for the Fall 1993 se-
mester at an eastern masters-degree-only college. About
half (50.8%) of the students were environmental engin-
eering or environmental science students, almost one-third
(31.2%) were enrolled in information systems, and 9.5%
were in engineering management. The remainder (8.5%)
included chemical, industrial, and non-degree engineering
students. Respondents were assured anonymity. After
one reminder, 101 questionnaires were returned, for a re-
sponse rate of 53.4%.
Fifteen academic practices were selected from previous
studies for inclusion on the questionnaire. Respondents were
asked to rate on 5-point scales the ethical level of each
practice and the extent of their participation in each while
in graduate school.
Eleven reasons for participating in unethical academic
behavior were selected from previous studies. Respondents
were asked to think of the typical graduate student who

Percent Participating in Practices More than Infrequently
1. Having someone check over a paper before turning it in 66.0
2. Working with others on an individual project 32.0
3. Asking about the content of an exam from someone
whohastakenit 31.0
4. Giving information about the content of an exam to
someone who has not yet taken it 30.0
5. Plagiarism 18.2
6. Using a false excuse to delay an exam or paper 16.0
7. Padding a bibliography 11.0
8. Taking credit for full participation in a group project
when a fair share of the work was not done 9.0
9. Having information programmed into a calculator
during an exam 8.0
10. Visiting a professor to influence grade 7.1
11. Allowing another to see exam answers 7.0
12. Using exam crib notes 4.0
13. Turning in work done by someone else as one's own 4.0
14. Copying off another's exam 3.0
15. Passing answers during an exam 1.0

Percent reporting havingparticipated in at least one
practice more than infrequently 80.2

Fall 1994

engages in such behavior and rate on a 5-point scale
the likelihood that each item would be a reason for the
behavior. Respondents were also asked to rate on a 5-point
scale how they believed the ethical level of the aca-
demic behavior of graduate students compared overall to
that of undergraduate students. Questions were asked about
respondent characteristics.

The survey results are presented here in three tables. Table
1 shows the mean scale values and ranks for the extent of
participation in the practices and ratings of their ethical
level. The reported frequency of participation in the prac-
tices was generally low, with an overall mean of 4.69. Hav-
ing someone else check over a paper before turning it in was
the practice engaged in most frequently (with a mean of
3.45), while passing answers on an exam was the practice
engaged in least frequently (with a mean of 4.96). The range
of means for the ethical levels of the practices was much
greater. Having someone else check over a paper was rated
least unethical at 3.80, and copying off another student's
exam was rated most unethical at 1.22. The overall mean of
the ethical level of the fifteen practices was 1.89.
The data show a general tendency for students to partici-
pate more in practices they believe are less unethical. Hav-
ing someone check over a paper before turning it in, asking
someone who has already taken an exam about its content,
giving information about an exam to someone who has not
yet taken it, and working with others on an individual project
were the practices engaged in most frequently-these same
four practices were rated as the least unethical. Allowing
another student to see exam answers, copying off another
person's exam, turning in work done by someone else as
one's own, using exam crib notes, and passing answers dur-
ing an exam were the practices engaged in least frequently-
these practices were rated as the five most unethical.
Use of the "infrequently" label rather than "never"
precluded calculation of an overall percent reporting partici-
pation in unethical graduate-student behavior, but some
insight into the extent of participation is still possible. Table
2 shows the percent reporting having engaged in each
practice more than infrequently, as well as the percent
reporting having engaged in at least one practice more
than infrequently. These percentages provide conser-
vative estimates of the extent of participation by graduate
engineering students.
The reported percentages of more than infrequent partici-
pation ranged from 66% for having someone check over a
paper before turning it in to 1.0% for passing answers on an
exam. Working with other students on an individual project,
asking about the content of an exam from someone who has
taken it, and giving information about an exam to someone
who has not yet taken it all had been engaged in more than
Continued on page 265.

A Course in...




Tallahassee, FL 32316-2175

Chemical reaction engineering is a subject that re-
quires a combination of thermodynamics, chemical
kinetics, transport phenomena, and computational
and applied mathematics in order to be fully understood.
Furthermore, the physical systems of interest to the subject
usually involve two or more phases, several components,
and a strong coupling between mass, momentum, and heat
transport and the chemical kinetics. Moreover, current
industrial applications and government demands for en-
vironmental regulations have brought about a plethora
of new problems where the fundamentals of chemical
reaction engineering play a crucial role in searching
for potential solutions.
Understanding the processes of transport and reaction in
soils has become a crucial aspect of cleanup efforts in a wide
variety of contaminated sites. The knowledge of how chemi-
cal reactions interplay with processes of mass, momentum,
and energy transport is a helpful tool in identifying new
strategies for air and water pollution control and for achiev-
ing better quality in microelectronics processes, coating, and
cure techniques in material synthesis and processing. These
few examples illustrate dramatically the importance of hav-
ing a solid training in the subject of chemical reaction engi-
neering. The applications, of course, do not diminish the
importance of the subject in perhaps more traditional appli-
cations such as catalytic reaction engineering where the search
for better yield and an improved selectivity still continues.
Based on the framework given above, it seems logical and

Pedro Arce received his ChE diploma at the
Universidad Nacional del Literal, UNL (Santa Fe,
Argentina) and his MS and PhD degrees from
Purdue University (1987, 1990). His research in-
terests include transport and reaction in multiphase
systems, thermodynamics and transport mechan-
ics in material processing, and applied computa-
tional mathematics. Prior to joining the faculty at
FAMU/FSU he was a ChE lecturer at UNL for
several years.
@ Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1994

timely to devote some effort to put together a graduate-level
course that focuses on teaching topics that integrate trans-
port phenomena with chemical reactions. The need for such
integration has been pointed out in workshops related to new
demands in chemical engineering education" and in interna-
tional seminars on modeling chemical reactors.12] Early ef-
forts in trying to teach transport phenomena coupled with
reactions from "first principles" can be found in Whitaker
and Carbonellm31 and in Slattery,'4] and some integration
can be found in the text by Rosner.J51 The contents of Table 1
in that text deviate considerably from those discussed by
this author, however.
The lack of textbooks on the subject, the rich variety of
phenomena found within the domain of chemical reactions
and diffusion,16'81 and the widespread use of simplified reac-
tor models in chemical engineering,"91 among other things,
have kept the realization of this course from reaching full
development. In addition to the important technological
applications, the framework previously described identifies
a rich learning environment for chemical engineering
graduate students.
This paper describes a course on topics in "Transport and
Reaction in Multiphase Systems." In the following sections
the reader will find some thoughts about the ideas behind the
course and the teaching technique, a description of the out-
line and how it is implemented, the course requirements and
its supporting materials, and some concluding remarks.

A general outline of the course is given in Table 1. The
course covers topics ranging from basic concepts in fluid
mechanics and kinetics to concepts in boundary layers, con-
vective mixing, transport and reaction in porous media, and
applications in fluid interfaces. One of the course goals is to
introduce students to the various aspects of the subject rather
than producing a specialist, and in this sense the course has
more breadth than depth. The key problems in each unit,
however, are discussed in detail, and homework and exer-

Chemical Engineering Education

cises are designed to give the student an opportunity to work
on the (physical and algebraic) details. Furthermore, a
term paper requires additional work. It is chosen with
strong input from the student and provides an excellent
opportunity for the student to become knowledgeable in a
particular aspect of the course.
The course is largely based on literature published in
scientific journals, thus giving students an opportunity to
read a paper critically and to propose alternative methods of
attacking a problem. Justifying steps and discussing the va-
lidity of an author's hypothesis provide a good vehicle for
students to evaluate an author's work. Another goal of the
course is to foster attacking a given problem from a "re-
search point of view" and, therefore, increasing the student's
skills in investigating new problems. At the end of the course,
and if this goal is achieved, the students will be better pre-
pared for their own research.
The course is taught in an active-learning environment
called "The Colloquial Approach."' "1" In this mode of
instruction, the student is the center of the learning process
and the professor becomes a vehicle for organizing and
providing material for the discussions. The professor con-

ducts the discussions in a way that everyone partici-
pates fully in the process.-"the lecturer" is replaced by "the
coach." In general, students regard the technique as a
powerful and effective way for learning new material, for
building confidence to attack problems, and for providing an
environment where the many aspects of a problem are ex-
posed to critical analysis.

The course begins with a discussion of the vectorial and/or
tensorial formulation of fundamental quantities such as di-
vergence, gradient, and basic integral theorems such as the
Green and Stokes theorems. The geometrical interpretation
of these concepts and their potential application to the analy-
sis of different systems is introduced. Different types of
coordinate systems are reviewed and their relevance to fluid
mechanics and transport phenomena is brought into perspec-
tive. The Leibnitz rule is used to motivate introduction to the
Reynolds and general transport theorems, and the students
are challenged to identify potential uses of such a tool.
Next, introduction to the concept of a continuum is ad-
dressed from a particle dynamic point of view.'12 Students


Course Synopsis
Rigorous analysis of transport phenomena at the micro- and macro-
scale levels in systems with mixtures of several components and
featuring more than one phase. Topics include, for example: 1-
Boundary layer flows with surface reactions; 2-Analysis of the
mixing effect from a (fundamental) mechanical point-of-view, and
with and without chemical reactions; 3-Analysis of the transport in
porous and structure media; use of the surface and volume averaging
techniques; 4-Analysis of the transport process at interfaces with and
without chemical reactions; rigid and flexible fluid-fluid interfaces; 5-
Special applications.

Course Ouline
1. Fluid Mechanics, Transport Phenomena, and Kinetics
Review of veclor and tensor algebra; index notation; review of
fundamental concepts in fluid mechanics; Eulerian and Langragian
coordinate systems; constitutive equations; stress tensor; Reynolds
transport theorem; general transport theorem; conservation equations
from an axiomatic point of view; connection between conservation
equations and kinetics, concept of a continuum and the relation to
mulncomponent mixtures: Cauchy equation of motion. Navier-Stokes
equation; continuity and energy equations
2. Boundary Layer Theory with Reaction
Hydrodynamics boundary layer model; Prandtl's differential model;
Von Karman's integral approximation; integral formulation for the
case with reaction on the surface (Cambre and Acrivos analysis);
different types of reactions; first-order and Langmuir-Hinshelwood
kinetics; Rosner's analysis of diffusional falsification of activation
energy and reaction order; extension to include non-isothermal
systems; equations for multicomponent systems
3. Miring Processes and Reactions
Laminar flow systems, consecuve-diffusive transport, Taylor-Aris
problems, and the area averaging procedure: effective diffusivity and
effective connective elocity; effect of reaction on the wall; single

component formulation and extension to multiphase reaction
systems; derivation of averaged equations and closure procedures;
applications to network of reactions; introduction to the theory of
moments; introduction to lamellar mixing models; fluid mechanics
of mixing in single extruders; macro- and micro-mixing and the
problem of averages; concept of material surfaces and description of
mixing coupled with diffusion and reaction; mixing in premixed
reactors and the effect on conversion and selectivity; mixing and
polymeric reactgions; introduction to chaotic mixing.
4. Heterogeneous Catalytic Systems
Introduction to the method of spatial (volume) averaging-
definitions, concepts, and procedures; connections with the area-
averaging procedure; diffusion and reaction problems in a pellet;
derivation of averaged equations; equation of motion in porous
media; different geometrical scales; Darcy's law; permeability
tensor; extensions to analyze isothermal packed-bed reactors;
introduction to averaging procedures; homogenization method-
Stokes flow in periodic structures: multiple scale analysis of
effective transport; averaging methods using tools from molecular
hydrodynamics and linear filtering theory (Cushman's analN sis):
periodic porous structures (Brenner's analysis)
5. Introduction to Interfacial Transport and Reaction
Surface coordinates; algebra of surface tensors, differenual operators
in the surface; Green and Stokes' theorems in the surface; Reynolds
transport theorem for surfaces; kinematics of the surface; surface
stress tensor, equations of motion in the surface; boundary
conditions and the relation to surroundings; effect of reaction in the
formulation of transpon (I. e momentum, energy, and mass)
equations for the surface. application of surface-averaging
techmques to dense surface macrotransport equations; introduction
to the theological aspects on the interface, introduction to theory of
mixtures for the analysis of transpon and reaction on the surface

Fall 1994
Fall 1994 24

are generally familiar with analysis of the dynamics of single body or
collection of bodies, and these ideas are used along with concepts of
summation, limits, and Riemann's integrals to build up the ideas of a
continuum. Then concepts such as linear momentum, angular mo-
mentum, and torque are reinterpreted in terms of their new concept of
the continuum. At this point, the molecular description of transport
phenomena is discussed as an alternative to the continuum descrip-
tion. An organization introduced by Rosnerl"31 and a paper by Pe-
ters 141 on molecular engineering are useful references. Students are
asked to compare both alternatives and their potential advantages and
disadvantages and to think how they are related. The idea of "aver-
age" is briefly discussed.
Conservation principles of mass are introduced from an axiomatic
point of view115-181 and integral balances are derived. Conservation of
total mass of a system and conservation of mass of one component are
discussed and the role of chemical reaction is analyzed in detail.
Students are questioned about their views for the cases when the
reaction is homogeneous or when it is at the boundaries of the system,
and whether or not each case requires a separate conservation axiom.
Microscopic equations are derived and the relation between "balance
equation" and "chemical reaction" is discussed. A paper by Cassano '91
is helpful in bringing students on track for the analysis. Most of the
discussion is centered on isothermal systems of one component, but
generalization to non-isothermal and multi-component systems is
addressed. Also, organization of the transport processes used here
follow the ideas of Cerro 171 (see Figure 1). Applications of the differ-
ent (integral and differential) models to the various kinds of reactors
is performed in homework, exercises, and additional reading.
After the fundamentals have been introduced in the first unit, vari-
ous applications where convective-diffusive transport is coupled with
reaction are analyzed in the second unit. I believe that from the
students' point of view, it is simpler to analyze cases where the
reaction occurs at the boundaries of the system rather than in the bulk.
In this regard, boundary layer flows offer an excellent choice for
learning prototypes.El10 These types of systems have been analyzed by
Chambre and Acrivos,[20-241 among others, and their analysis stresses
understanding of the phenomenon by using approximate methods.
This type of approach is not only useful to gain a deeper understand-
ing of the behavior of the system, but it also provides the student with
a very rich environment for developing research abilities.
After the students have mastered the basic ideas of a problem, they
can always extend them to include cases where, perhaps, numerical
computation is the only choice for the solution of velocity, concentra-
tion, and temperature field equations. The basic concepts play an
important role in guiding the calculations- this aspect seems trivial
to an experienced professor, but the new generation of researchers
needs to learn how useful it is. Boundary layer flows also offer a
possibility of being studied by using integral balances-a concept
that was introduced in Unit 1. These integral balances play a key
role in Von Karman type approximations for momentum transfer
and, by extension, mass and energy transfer. Integral equations offer
a useful way to analyze and model sophisticated reactor models
in heterogeneous media.[25-26]


The analysis of convective-diffusive transport
and reaction following the work of Acrivos and
Chambre is complemented by discussing the ef-
forts of Rosner127-281 on studying the effect of trans-
port on the falsification of activation energy and
reaction order. The work by Rosner also uses ap-
proximate solution methods for a variety of exter-
nal and internal flows and for flat plate geometry.
Students are asked to compare the different analy-
ses (i.e., Chambre and Acrivos vs. Rosner's work)
and to identify general and specific aspects in the
study that could be useful in other physical situa-
tions and geometry. For example, homework sets
and exercises are designed to apply the concepts to
boundary layer flows in cylindrical catalytic sur-
faces and the students are encouraged to propose
simplifications that could lead to approximate so-
lutions. At the end of the unit several situations are
addressed to motivate the extension to include mul-
ticomponent and multiphase systems. Among these
examples, chemical vapor deposition1291 and het-
erogeneous combustion"15 are useful systems.
The next unit focuses on processes of mixing
with chemical reactions. Here, the idea of studying
mixing relies on kinematic and/or mechanistic ap-
proaches rather than on empirical concepts. The
book by Ottino,1301 and some of his papers as well
as papers by Ranz,1311 offer interesting points of
view and a framework useful for student discus-
sion. In the course, the study of this perspective is
preceded by analysis of dispersive mixing in tubu-
lar Poiseuille flows following a Taylor-Aris ap-

Froda_ tnl Conepto

(~) Mamheralicl

GCeral Balanno
E q u a ohI


Trosfpoo Eqmrfoos

y- ~

A ppl cau on lo B. 3 Probleor
cod eogineeeng.r Dig

LovI of




Figure 1

Chemical Engineering Education

proach.'32-36] The effect of different types of convection (e.g.,
Couette, squeezing, and plug flows) and the roles played by
surface and bulk reactions are discussed.
A process of area averaging to derive simplified or effec-
tive transport equations is used and compared with the Tay-
lor-Aris approach. Students are asked to compare this type
of analysis with the ideas behind the methodology pro-
posed by Ranz and Ottino and to think about new aspects of
the technique. Provoking questions such as, "Is it true
that everything that the Ottino approach is able to explain
in convective-mixing can also be achieved by a Taylor-
Aris technique?" help to keep the students busy thinking
and exploring. As in the other unit, papers are assigned
to read, and homework and exercises are designed to
cover important details.
After the class has been exposed to area averaging ap-
proaches and has derived effective or macrotransport equa-
tions, the students are ready to move on to analyzing trans-
port and reaction in heterogeneous catalytic systems (see
Unit 4 in Table 1). Students are first introduced to the differ-
ent types of media (e.g., disordered and ordered) and to
the different mathematical and geometrical descriptions
that researchers use to describe transport and reaction in
these media. Chapters from Adler's book[371 and the review
paper by Sahimi, et al.,"'8 are useful in giving students an
introduction and perspective of the amount of work found on
this topic in the literature.
Once the introduction and preliminary ideas have been
finished, the class focuses on the volume-averaging approach
following Whitaker,[39'401 Carbonell,'411 and Slattery.[42,43] The
volume averaging theorem is derived following arguments
borrowed from differential geometry'44"45 and then applied to
a catalytic pellet with transport and reaction.1461 Reading
material from the papers referred to above is assigned, as
well as from Whitaker. 21 Other methodologies for averaging
purposes that are available in the literature are briefly men-

Sample Term Papers

SIsothermal Squeezing Flows with Chemical Reaction
> Convective-Diffusive Transport and Reaction in Couette Flows
Basic Kinetics in Modeling a Gas-Liquid Phase Pulsed Corona
Batch Reactor
Effect of a Surfactant on the Mass Transfer with Reaction in an
Ascending Bubble
> Convective-Diffusive Transport and Reaction in a Membrane
Reactor: An Integral-Spectral Approach
> Effectiveness Factors in Boundary Layer Flows with a Chemical
> Modeling of a Single Pellet Diffusion Reactor
> The Spatial Volume Average Theorem Applied to Transport and
Reaction in a Catalytic Pellet

Fall 1994

tioned, and their differences are compared with the volume-
averaging technique. For example, the homogenization
method described by Sanchez-Palencial471 and the averaging
technique based on molecular hydrodynamics and the linear
filtering theory[481 are introduced.
Finally, the ideas of deriving macrotransport equa-
tions and the relation with Green functions following
Brenner's procedures[49] is brought into perspective. The rela-
tive amount of time spent in the different techniques
depends on the interest of the students in the class and varies
from year to year.
The final unit of the course is devoted to analysis of
transport and reaction in fluid-fluid interfaces (see Unit 5,
Table 1). These topics are offered on an optional basis. An
appropriate background for the mathematics and mechanics
required to understand transport phenomena in systems with
fluid-fluid interfaces can be found in Chapters 8 and 9 of
Aris,150] and the study of fluid mechanics of surfaces in units
follows closely the exposition in Chapter 10 of that text.
This presentation is largely based on the analysis by
Scriven.s15 The author believes that if the students master
this material, they will have an excellent introduction to a
variety of interesting applications where surface transport
phenomena and reaction are important.152-53


The coursework includes one midterm exam, one final
exam, several quizzes, and a term paper (see Table 2 for
sample term papers). It also requires submission of
homework sets and exercises as well as reading specific
assigned material from the various literature sources. These
reading assignments may be "formal" and replace the
homework set in a particular week, and in that case, the
assignment may also include questions to be answered and
problems to be solved. The assignment is not graded, but
students are strongly encouraged to write notes and to pre-
pare material for submission.
After the regular class time, the instructor is usually avail-
able for individual discussions related to the formal assign-
ments. Following the philosophy of the "Colloquial Ap-
proach," students are not given an answer to a particular
question, but are motivated to look at the problem from
different angles and to propose their own conclusions. Dis-
cussion among classmates is strongly encouraged and should
be conducted in a professional manner.
An important aspect of this course is that every student
must submit a complete folder for evaluation. This is a
portfolio type of evaluation1541 that is very effective in keep-
ing the student highly motivated to perform activities that
are not graded. All of them must be included in the folder,
where they are reviewed by the instructor.
The term paper (or project) is usually selected by follow

ing one of two alternative routes: the students may choose a
particular topic that interests them, but one that is suitable
for the integration of concepts from transport and reaction
along the lines of the course, or the instructor proposes
topics to the students. In either case, the student is given a
few weeks to prepare and submit a prospectus with a rela-
tively well-defined scope that includes main references. Dur-
ing this period the student receives feedback from the in-
structor in order to identify a problem that looks reasonable
for the purpose and extension of the course.
Students are encouraged to start writing a progress report
in parallel with the analysis of the project problem. A pre-
liminary version of this report is due a few weeks before the
final submission at the end of the semester. The instructor
meets with the student to discuss the status of the project and
to suggest alternatives. A final fifteen-minute presentation
in front of the class is peer-evaluated, and the comments
and remarks of classmates are considered as part of the
grade-this motivates students to be as professional in their
presentations as possible. Faculty members and other stu-
dents are invited to these report presentations. Some of the
projects have been successfully continued and expanded
into Master of Science theses with the submission of papers
to refereed journals.

Students are admitted to this course only after they have
been exposed to an advanced course in fluid mechanics.
Typically, students have taken a fluid mechanics course in
the applied mathematics program at FSU (using the text
Introduction to Fluid Dynamics by Batchelor1551) or a course
on transport phenomena in the chemical engineering depart-
ment (using the text Energy, Momentum, and Mass Transfer
in Continue). Chemical engineering students have also taken
the applied mathematics and chemical thermodynamics
graduate-level courses. In addition to the texts mentioned
above, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, by Whitaker,l"'
is helpful in several aspects of this course. Many of the
students have copies of these textbooks from previous
graduate-level courses or from their undergraduate studies.
All of the papers cited in the previous sections are also
used as references by the students of the course and,
therefore, they end up with a body of references that can
be useful in future work.
As the reader may conclude, there is currently no textbook
that includes all the aspects of this course, but we suggest
that the students use the texts by Brenner and Edwards1491
and by Levich1561 as references.

The course has been successful in introducing students to
advanced concepts and fundamentals of transport and reac-
tion in a variety of physical systems that are relevant for

current chemical reaction engineering applications. Feed-
back from the students indicates that the intense level of
involvement in the various aspects of the different units has
helped them considerably in understanding the behavior of
the systems that have been studied. They have also pointed
out that they feel more confident in their ability to attack
research problems in their own projects. Students who have
the proper background in fluid mechanics and in chemical
reactor design and kinetics at the undergraduate level are the
ones that benefit the most, and they are also the strongest
supporters of the course.
Although the contents of this course cover a wide variety
of topics, the author has been able to develop a coherent and
systematic way of delivering the material by focusing on
fundamental principles and theories. There is a smooth flow
of ideas and applications to which the student is constantly
exposed during discussions and exercises. Some students
have also pointed out that the course has been useful in
helping them to acquire an idea of "structure" or "frame-
work" and a level of hierarchy among the different topics
covered during the semester.
The author believes that the course is a helpful introduc-
tion for students who need (or desire) to be involved in
further studies of multiphase problems such as dispersions1571
and other disordered15" or ordered systems with the interplay
of more than one phase. A good complement to this course
would be a course focussing on the fundamentals of cataly-
sis and kinetics from a theoretical and experimental point of

The author is indebted to Professor S. Whitaker (UC-
Davis) for many useful discussions, suggestions, and refer-
ences, and to Professor J.C. Slattery (TA&MU) for papers
cited in the bibliography. He is also grateful to Paula Arce-
Trigatti for helpful suggestions for improving the manu-
script, and to Dr. B.R. Locke and Dr. M. H. Peters for
motivating conversations on teaching transport phenomena.

1. Ramkrishna, D., R. Kumar, P.B. Deshpande, and M.M.
Sharma, "Chemical Engineering Education: Curricula for
the Future," proceedings of the Indo-US Seminar, Indian
Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, January 1-4, 1988
2. Cassano, A.E., and S. Whitaker (eds), Concepts and Design
of Chemical Reactors, Gordon and Breach Sci. Pub., Cooper
Station, NY (1986)
3. Whitaker, S., and R.G. Carbonell, "Transport Phenomena
in Multicomponent, Multiphase, Reacting Systems," Chem.
End. Ed., 12(4), 182 (1978)
4. Slattery, J.C., "Thoughts About our First Graduate Courses
in Momentum, Energy, and Mass Transfer," Chem. Eng.
Ed., 6(4), 174 (1972)
5. Rosner, D., Transport Processes in Chemically Reacting Flow
Systems, Butterworth Pub., Stoneham, MA (1986)
6. Gavalas, G., "Non-Linear Differential Equations of Chemi-

Chemical Engineering Education

cally Reacting Systems," Springer Tracts of Nat. Phil., 17,
Springer-Verlag, NY (1968)
7. Aris, R., The Mathematical Theory of Diffusion and Reac-
tion in Permeable Catalysis, Oxford Univ. Press, UK (1975)
8. Hlavacek, V., (ed), Dynamics of Nonlinear Systems, Gordon
and Breach Pub., Cooper Station, NY (1986)
9. Carberry, J.J., and A. Varma, (eds) Chemical Reaction and
Reactor Engineering, Chem. Industries Series, Marcel
Dekker, Inc., Pub., NY (1987)
10. Arce, P., "The Colloquial Approach: An Active Learning
Technique," J. of Sci. Ed. and Tech., (to appear) (1994)
11. Arce, P., "You Can't Hide in This Class," Teaching at FSU,
2(2), Program of Inst. Excell. (PIE), Office of the Provost,
FSU (1994)
12. Arce, P., "How Do We Introduce Continuum Mechanics
Concepts to Engineering Undergrads?" AIChE Annual Meet-
ing, San Francisco, CA, accepted November (1994)
13. Rosner, D., "Energy, Mass, and Momentum Transport: The
Treatment of Jump Conditions at Phase Boundaries and
Fluid-Dynamics Discontinuities," Chem. Eng. Ed., 10(4),
14. Peters, M.H., "An Introduction to Molecular Transport Phe-
nomena," Chem. Eng. Ed., 25(4), 175 (1991)
15. Whitaker, S., Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Krieger Pub.,
Melbourne, FL (1981)
16. Whitaker, S., "The Formulation of Integral Balances From
an Axiomatic Point of View," private communication (1994)
17. Cerro, R., "Apuntes Sobre Operaciones I 1/2," Universidad
Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina (1976)
18. Cerro, R., Levels of Physical Information: Axioms, Constitu-
tive Equations, and Models, ASEE Ann. Conf. Proc. (1989)
19. Cassano, A.E., "The Rate of Reaction: A Definition Or the
Result of a Conservative Equation?" Chem. Eng. Ed., 14
20. Chambre, P.L., "On Chemical Surface Reactions in Hydro-
dynamic Flows," Appl. Sci. Res., A6, 97 (1956)
21. Acrivos, A., and P.L. Chambre, "Laminar Boundry Layer
Flows with Surface Reactions," Ind. Eng. Chem., 49(6), 1025
22. Chambre, P.L., and A. Acrivos, "On Chemical Reactions in
Laminar Boundary Flows," J. ofAppl. Physics, 27(11), 1322
23. Acrivos, A., "Solution of the Laminar Boundary Layer En-
ergy Equation at High Prandtl Numbers," Physics ofFluids,
24. Acrivos, A., "On the Solution of the Convection Equation in
Laminar Boundary Flows," Chem. Eng. Sci., 17, 457 (1962)
25. Stewart, W.E., D. Marr, T.T. Nam, and A.M. Gola-Galimidi,
"Transport Modeling of Packed-Tube Reactors: I. Frame-
work for a Data-Based Approach," Chem. Eng. Sci., 2705
26. Arce, P., and B.R. Locke, "Transport and Reaction: An Inte-
gral-Equation Approach: Mathematical Formulation and
Computational Techniques," chapter in Chemical Engineer-
ing Research Trends, J. Menon, ed., Counc. of Sci. Int., India
27. Rosner, D., "Apparent Chemical Kinetics of Surface Reac-
tions in External Flow Systems: Diffusional Falsification of
Activation: Energy and Reaction Order," AIChE J., 9(3),
28. Rosner, D., "Effects of Convective Diffusion on the Apparent
Kinetics of Zeroth Order Surface-Catalyzed Chemical Reac-
tions," Chem. Eng. Sci., 21 223 (1966)
29. Jensen, K., "Fluid Mechanics of Chemical Vapor Deposi-
tion," Am. Physics Soc. Bullet., 38(12), 2255 (1993)
30. Ottino. J.M., The Kinematics of Mixing, Cambridge Univer-
sity Press, Cambridge, UK (1989)

31. Ranz, W.E., "Fluid Mechanical Mixing-Lamellar Descrip-
tion," in Mixing of Liquids by Mech. Agitation, Ulbretch,
J.J., and G.K. Paterson, eds, Gordon and Breach Pub., Coo-
per Station, NY (1985)
32. Taylor, G.I., "Dispersion of Soluble Matter in Solvent Flow-
ing Slowly Through a Tube," Proc. Royal Soc., A219, 186
33. Taylor, G.I., "The Dispersion of Matter in Turbulent Flow
Through a Pipe," Proc. Royal Soc., A 223, 446 (1954)
34. Taylor, G.I., "Conditions Under Which Dispersion of a Sol-
ute in a Stream of Solvent Can Be Used to Measure Molecu-
lar Diffusion," Proc. Royal Soc., A225, 473 (1954)
35. Aris, R., "On the Dispersion of a Solute in a Fluid Flowing
Through a Tube," Proc. Royal Soc., A235, 67 (1956)
36. Aris, R., "On the Dispersion of a Solute in Pulsating Flow
Through a Tube," Proc. Royal Soc., A259, 370 (1960)
37. Adler, P.M., Porous Media, Geometry, and Transport,"
Butterworths, Boston, MA (1992)
38. Sahimi, M., G.R. Gavalas, and T. T. Tsotis, "Statistical and
Continuum Models of Fluid-Solid Reactions in Porous Me-
dia," Chem. Eng. Sci., 45(6), 1443 (1990)
39. Whitaker, S., "Diffusion and Dispersion in Porous Media,"
AIChE J., 13, 420 (1967)
40. Whitaker, S., "The Transport Equations for Multiphase Sys-
tems," Chem. Eng. Sci., 28, 139 (1973)
41. Zanotti, F., and R.G. Carbonell, "Developments of Trans-
port Equations for Multiphase Systems-I," Chem. Eng. Sci.,
39(2), 263 (1984)
42. Slattery, J.C., "Flow of Viscoelastic Fluids Through Porous
Media," AIChE J., 13(6), 1066 (1967)
43. Slattery, J.C., Mass, Momentum, and Energy Transfer in
Continue, Krieger Publishing Co., Melbourne, FL (1981)
44. Whitaker, S., "Transport in Porous Media," notes from a
graduate-level course, INTEC, Santa Fe, Argentina (1982)
45. Whitaker, S., "A Simple Geometrical Derivation of the Spa-
tial Averaging Theorem," Chem. Eng. Ed., 19(1), 18 (1985)
46. Ryan, D., R.G. Carbonell, and S. Whitaker, "A Theory of
Diffusion and Reaction in Porous Media," AIChE Symp.
Series, 71(202), 46 (1981)
47. Sanchez-Palencia, E., "Non-Homogeneous Media and Vi-
bration Theory," Lecture Notes in Physics, 127, Springer-
Verlag, Heidleberg, Germany (1980)
48. Cushman, J.H., "An Introduction to Hierarchical Porous
Media," Chapter 1 in Dynamics of Fluids in Hierarchical
Porous Media, J.H. Cushman, ed., Acad. Press, San Diego,
CA (1990)
49. Brenner, H., and D. Edwards, Macrotransport Processes,
Butterworth Pub., Boston, MA (1991)
50. Aris, R., Vectors, Tensors, and the Equations of Fluid Me-
chanics, Dover Pub. Inc., New York (1989)
51. Scriven, L.E., "Dynamics of a Fluid Interface," Chem. Eng.
Sci., 12, 98 (1960)
52. Slattery, J.C., Interfacial Transport Phenomena, Springer-
Verlag, Heidleberg, Germany (1990)
53. Edwards, D.A., H. Brenner, and D.T. Wasan, Interfacial
Transport Phenomena and Rheology, Butterworths, Boston,
MA (1991)
54. Gardner, H., The Unschooled Mind: How Children Think
and How Schools Should Teach, Basic Books, NY (1991)
55. Batchelor, G., Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, U.K. (1970)
56. Levich, Physicochemical Hydrodynamics, Prentice Hall.,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1962)
57. Davis, R.H., "Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions," Chem. Eng.
Ed., 23, 228 (1989)
58. Glandt, E.D., "Topics in Random Media," Chem. Eng. Ed.,
22,192 (1988) O

Fall 1994

A Graduate Course in...


Cleveland State University
Cleveland, OH 44115

dsorption is a unit operation that exploits the ability
A of solid surfaces to concentrate species from fluid
phase onto its surface. It is used quite extensively in
the chemical processing industry for purification (drying
of gaseous and liquid streams, recovery of solvents) and
for bulk separation of mixtures such as normal and
iso-paraffins, and air into nitrogen and oxygen by pressure
swing adsorption.
The course on fundamentals of adsorption was first devel-
oped in 1986 to complement our department's research inter-
ests in the areas of zeolite sorption, kinetics, and applica-
tions.111 It is taken by chemical engineering graduate students
nearing completion of the master's degree program or who
are in the early stages of the doctoral program. They have
previously had graduate-level courses in transport phenom-
ena, thermodynamics, reactor design, and application of nu-
merical methods in engineering. The course is offered once
every two years and averages about ten students.

The course has two main objectives:
To provide a fundamental background in adsorption,
including adsorbent characterization, adsorption
equilibria, kinetics of adsorption, adsorption column
dynamics, and industrial applications of adsorption.
To provide an understanding of the present state-of-the-
art of adsorption research.
The course is offered over a ten-week period, with two
classes each week of 110 minutes duration. It emphasizes
zeolites or molecular sieves as adsorbents, with only a brief
treatment of other adsorbents. The course content is divided
into five parts, described in Table 1.
Introduction The course begins with an introduction to
the general concepts of adsorption. The selectivity param-
eter is defined in a manner similar to the definition of the
relative volatility parameter in distillation. The unit opera-
tion of distillation is compared with adsorption, and some
general criteria are developed regarding when the adsorption
process is a viable unit operation for separation.
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1994

D. B. Shah is Associate Professor of Chemical
Engineering at Cleveland State University. He ob-
tained his BChE degree from the University of
Bombay and his Master's and PhD degrees in
chemical engineering from Michigan State Univer-
sity. His research interests are in adsorption and
diffusion in zeolites, simulation and modeling of
adsorption column dynamics, and applications of
adsorption in separation and purification.

This introduction is followed by a discussion of common
adsorbents, such as activated carbon, alumina, silica, and
zeolites. The main focus during these introductory lectures
is an emphasis on the differences between zeolites and other
commonly encountered adsorbents, both in terms of their
physical characteristics (monodispersed versus bidispersed),
adsorptive properties (differences in shape of the sorption
equilibrium isotherms), and diffusive properties (con-
figurational diffusion in zeolites versus molecular and
Knudsen diffusion in other microporous adsorbents). These
differences also bring into focus the unique features of zeo-
lites, such as their ability to differentiate molecules based on
their size and shape.
These lectures are followed by a brief discussion on syn-
thesis of various adsorbents. The crystal structures of com-
monly used zeolites such as A, X, Y, and pentasil zeolites
are also discussed. At this point in the course we emphasize
that the main focus of the course will be zeolites as adsorbents.
Sorption Equilibria Van der Waals forces and various
electrostatic forces arising from polarization, dipole, and
quadrupole interactions are responsible for physical adsorp-
tion. Atom-atom interactions are used to calculate the poten-
tial function between an adsorbate molecule and an adsor-
bent surface. The potential function is then used to calculate
the heat of adsorption and the Henry's constant. These theo-
retical calculations are compared with the experimental data
reported in the literature for inert gases on zeolite X and a
variety of hydrocarbons in 5A.'2] The Brunauer classification
of isotherms (Type I through V) is discussed next. Langmuir's
theoretical model for monolayer adsorption is derived and
experimental data for zeolite systems that conform to the
Langmuir formulation are presented. The multilayer BET
adsorption isotherm is discussed along with a qualitative
explanation of the relationship between the type of isotherm
and the pore-size distribution.

Chemical Engineering Education

A thermodynamic approach is then used to study the sorp-
tion equilibrium. The concept of spreading pressure is intro-
duced, and it is shown that four independent variables need
to be specified to define an extensive thermodynamic prop-
erty for the two-dimensional adsorbed phase. Gibbs formu-
lation is used to derive the Gibbs adsorption isotherm which
is used to derive different adsorption isotherms by assuming
different equations of state for the adsorbed phase. The
Dubinin-Polanyi concept of correlating experimental data in
terms of adsorption potential is also developed.
The major underlying assumptions, the advantages, and
the limitations of each adsorption isotherm are discussed in
depth. Prediction of binary sorption equilibria from single
component equilibria is explored along with the ideal ad-
sorbed solution theory,'3 the vacancy solution theory,141 and
the statistical thermodynamic approach.51 Examples of ad-
sorbent-adsorbate systems that fit the underlying physical
principles of each isotherm model (for pure component as
well as binary mixtures) are provided. The advantages and
limitations of experimental methods of measuring pure com-
ponent and binary equilibria are then discussed."61

Course Outline

1. Introduction
Nature of adsorption: physisorption, chemisorption
Microporous adsorbents and their characterization
2. Sorption Equilibrium
Energetics of adsorption
Thermodynamics of adsorption
Different isotherm equations
Adsorption of mixtures
Correlation, analysis, and prediction of adsorption equilibria
Experimental techniques
3. Sorption Kinetics
Different Types of diffusivities
Experimental techniques
Models for kinetics of sorption
Review of diffusion in zeolites
4. Adsorption Column Dynamics
Mathematical models for single-transition systems
General model
Linear driving-force approximation
Chromatographic response of packed columns
Constant pattern behavior
Mathematical models for multiple-transition systems
General model for isothermal systems
General model for nonisothermal systems
Equilibrium theory
5. Adsorption Process Applications
Cyclic processes
Thermal-swing adsorption
Pressure-swing adsorption
Displacement desorption
Chromatographic processes
Continuous processes
Simulated countercurrent process

Fall 1994

Sorption Kinetics Design of adsorption columns requires
information on kinetics of sorption. Different types of diffu-
sivities (molecular, Knudsen, configurational) that charac-
terize transport in a porous material are brought out from the
semi-logarithmic plot of the values of diffusivity versus pore
opening.1'7 The various types of configuration diffusivities in
zeolites are defined at this point. The transport diffusivity is
defined in terms of concentration gradient, whereas the cor-
rected diffusivity is defined in terms of the chemical poten-
tial gradient. These two diffusivities are then related to one
another by the Darken's correction factor. The self-diffusiv-
ity is defined in terms of the rate of tracer exchange of
tagged molecules under no net concentration gradient.
The macroscopic and microscopic experimental techniques
of measuring diffusivities in zeolites are discussed next. The
macroscopic static methods that are discussed at length in-
clude gravimetric, volumetric, and single-crystal membrane
methods. The macroscopic dynamic methods that students
are exposed to include pulse chromatography, zero-length
column, and breakthrough experiments. The basic principles
behind each one of these methods are outlined, and students
are given a tour of our laboratories where they can examine
the experimental setups associated with these methods. Both
the advantages and the limitations of each experimental tech-
nique are discussed, and the guidelines on the range of
diffusivities that can be measured with any given method
and the precautions that have to be taken in the analysis of
data are given. The microscopic methods such as Nuclear
Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and pulsed-field gradient meth-
ods are discussed at a more introductory level.
The experimental data on micropore diffusion of various
gases in A, X, Y, and pentasil zeolites, and carbon molecular
sieves are then reviewed. The monograph of Karger and
Ruthvenl8' on diffusion in zeolites thoroughly reviews the
field and provides an extensive bibliography of the work
done in the field until 1990. The discussion on micropore
diffusion in class focuses on variation of transport and cor-
rected diffusivities with 1) loading and 2) temperature. Ex-
perimental data for adsorbent-adsorbate systems that exhibit
constant corrected diffusivity (i.e., n-heptane-5A, CO2-4A)'2'
and varying corrected diffusivity with loading (benzene-
silicalite)"8l are presented.
The dispute in the literature on the several orders of mag-
nitude difference in the values of micropore diffusivities
determined by NMR and by other macroscopic techniques is
highlighted next. This has spawned a debate in the literature
on whether the diffusivities determined by the macroscopic
techniques are truly micropore diffusivities or some other
extraneous mass or heat transfer resistance masks the effect
of micropore diffusion. There are numerous cases in the
literature where the data were interpreted under the assump-
tion of intracrystalline diffusion control, but further analysis
showed that other resistances controlled the overall transport

process. Ruthven, et a.,[9] showed that the results from the
uptake experiments carried out with small crystals are more
likely to be affected by the intrusion of heat transfer resistance
than those obtained with large crystals. Another system where
the combined effects of heat transfer and bed diffusion
controlled the uptake curve was i-octane-13X zeolite.1101
Concerted efforts have been made over the last fifteen
years to reconcile the differences between NMR diffu-
sivities and those determined from macroscopic method.[2'8'"1
Some adsorbent-adsorbate systems have been identified for
which diffusivities determined by both NMR and macro-
scopic techniques are consistent (Xe and CO2 in 5A).[r21
There are, however, a number of systems for which dis-
crepancies still exist.8.18'1
Adsorption Column Dynamics Since most industrial
applications of adsorption processes are performed in a
packed-bed configuration with a cyclic mode of operation
(adsorption and regeneration), it is imperative that we be
able to predict the time of the breakthrough and the shape of
the breakthrough curve. In this section of the course, the
most commonly used mathematical models are developed to
describe the dynamic behavior of an adsorption column.
A realistic mathematical model should account for the
nature of the isotherm (linear or nonlinear), feed concentra-
tion (dilute or concentrated), nature of adsorption (one com-
ponent or multicomponent, isothermal or nonisothermal),
nature of the fluid flow (plug flow or dispersed-plug flow),
and the mass-transfer resistances present in the system (ex-
ternal, macropore, and micropore diffusional resistance). The
pedagogical development of the mathematical model is started
with the simplest model that assumes
linear adsorption isotherm
dilute system
no external mass transfer resistance
*fluid in plug flow
adsorption of a single component
isothermal operation
linear driving force approximation
When these assumptions are relaxed one by one, the math-
ematical models become progressively more complex.
For linear isotherms, analytical solutions are available for
many of these models, but they involve evaluating oscillat-
ing integrals which converge rather slowly.'[6 Therefore, it is
emphasized that for a linear or a nearly linear isotherm the
numerical solution of the simplest model equations with the
linear driving force approximation provides a reasonably
good representation of the dynamic behavior of an adsorp-
tion column. The constant-pattern behavior of the mass trans-
fer zone for a favorable isotherm is discussed for isothermal
and non-isothermal conditions. For a nonlinear isotherm,
numerical solution of the mass balance equations is required.
The complexities introduced by the presence of more than

one adsorbable component and non-isothermal adsorption
are discussed. These include: difficulty in representing
multicomponent equilibria; variation of sorption equili-
brium and transport parameters with temperature; and the
increase in number of differential equations that need to be
solved since the energy balance and several mass balances
have to be included.
For multicomponent systems, the use of equilibrium theory
to understand the movement of solutes through the column
under isothermal conditions is emphasized. A cursory treat-
ment of equilibrium theory is presented for adiabatic systems.
Process Applications The process applications of ad-
sorption are divided into
Batch cyclic processes that include pressure-swing
adsorption (PSA), temperature-swing adsorption (TSA),
and displacement desorption
Chromatographic processes
Continuous countercurrent processes
Simulated moving bed processes
The PSA processes (especially separation of air into nitro-
gen and oxygen) and TSA processes (sweetening of sour
gas) are treated more fully with a detailed discussion of
theory, experimental data, and design considerations. The
treatment of other processes is limited to a qualitative dis-
cussion of principles and design aspects and their applica-
tions in the process industry. Examples of the chromato-
graphic separation processes discussed are separation of xy-
lene isomers, pinenes, and linear paraffins. The continuous
process discussed is the now-obsolete hypersorption pro-
cess, and the simulated moving-bed system represented by
Sorbex processes.

In general, it is difficult to find a book that will cover the
majority of the material covered in a graduate course. Fortu-
nately, several excellent books in the area of adsorption have
recently been published that cover many of the topics dis-
cussed in this course. Ruthven's book1[2 covers the major
sections of the course and, hence, is used as a textbook.
Since it was published in 1984, its material is complemented
with other more recently published books.[[6.8'13'15 These books
also provide a listing of appropriate journal articles.

Grading is based on student performance in homework
assignments, an in-class midterm examination, a take-home
final examination, and an end-of-the-term project. The project
requires the students to review a state-of-the-art re-
search subject that is of interest to the student and that
falls within the scope of the course. Since the number of
students in the class is small, active student participation
is encouraged and sought.

Chemical Engineering Education

Adsorption represents an important unit operation in the
chemical industry. It is a fertile area with research opportu-
nities in both fundamental and applied aspects. For those
students who are interested in pursuing research in this area,
the course is designed to provide sufficient fundamental
background and an appreciation of the status of current
research efforts in different areas. After taking the course,
the graduate students are in a better position to identify an
area of research interest. For others, it provides an under-
standing of the fundamentals of adsorption and its place in
industrial applications for separation and purification. The
course has been well received by the students.

1. Shah, D.B., and D.T. Hayhurst, Chem. Eng. Ed., 19, 198
2. Ruthven, D.M., Principles of Adsorption and Adsorption

Processes, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY (1984)
3. Myers, A.L., and J.M. Prausnitz, AIChE J., 11, 121 (1965)
4. Suwanayuen, S., and R.P. Danner, AIChE J., 26, 68 and 76
5. Ruthven, D.M., Nature Phys. Sci., 232(29), 70 (1971)
6. Yang, R.T., Gas Separation by Adsorption Processes,
Butterworth Publishers, Boston, MA 1987
7. Weisz, P.B., Chemtech, 3, 498 (1973)
8. Karger, J., and D.M. Ruthven, Diffusion in Zeolites and
Other Microporous Solids, John Wiley & Sons, New York,
NY (1991)
9. Ruthven, D.M., L-K. Lee, and H. Yucel, AIChE J., 26, 16
10. Ruthven, D.M., and L-K. Lee, AIChE J., 27, 654 (1981)
11. Karger, J., and D.M. Ruthven, Zeolites, 9, 267 (1989)
12. Ruthven, D.M., Zeolites, 13, 594 (1993)
13. Wankat, P.C., Large Scale Adsorption and Chromatogra-
phy, Vol. I and II, CRC Press (1986)
14. Wankat, P.C., Rate Controlled Separations, Chapman and
Hall, London, England (1990)
15. Suzuki, M., Adsorption Engineering, Elsevier Science Pub-
lishing Co., New York, NY (1990) 0

Scaling Initial and Boundary Value Problems

Continued from page 241

we must have 3c /ar* <<1 at r* = 1. But a3c /ar* is largest at
r* = 1; hence c4 /3r* <<1 throughout the tube, and we con-
clude that CA =CA(Z*). Since the radial concentration gradi-
ent is negligible, we can incorporate the heterogeneous reac-
tion term directly into the species mass balance to obtain the
classical plug flow reaction equation

-dcA 2k
Vdc cA for 0 z L
dz R
CA =CAo at z=0



where V is the average velocity.

Hopefully these five examples have convinced the reader
that the systematic approach to scaling analysis described
here has real utility in teaching transport-related engineering
courses as well as in engineering practice. Additional ex-
amples of scaling analysis were given in the earlier article by
Krantz.ll Reprints of the latter article can be obtained by
contacting the authors.

cA molar concentration of component A
CA0 initial molar concentration of component A
DAB binary diffusion coefficient of A in B
g gravitational acceleration
H spacing or half-spacing between parallel plates
k thermal conductivity
k first-order heterogeneous reaction-rate constant
K Darcy permeability of porous media
L length of parallel plates or cylindrical tube
L entry length to achieve fully developed laminar flow
P pressure
Fall 1994

AP pressure drop over length L
r radial coordinate in cylindrical coordinate system
R radius of cylindrical tube
Re Reynolds number
t time
T temperature
T, freezing temperature
TO surface temperature
Us scale for velocity component in x-direction
v. velocity component in the i-direction
V mass-average velocity
Vp velocity of the plate
Vs scale for velocity component in y-direction
W scale for velocity component in z-direction
x,y rectangular coordinates
z axial coordinate in cylindrical coordinate system
r denotes a reference factor
s denotes a scale factor
denotes a dimensionless variable
ox thermal diffusivity
5 boundary-layer or region of influence thickness
X latent heat of fusion of water
p. shear viscosity
p mass density

1. Krantz, W.B., "Scaling Initial and Boundary Value Prob-
lems as a Teaching Tool for a Course in Transport Phenom-
ena," Chem. Eng. Edu., 4(3), 145 (1970)
2. Schlichting, H., Boundary Layer Theory, 4th ed., McGraw-
Hill Book Co., New York, 168 (1980)
3. Bird, R.B., W.E. Stewart, and E.N. Lightfoot, Transport
Phenomena, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 150 (1960)

A Course in...



University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6

In the chemical engineering curriculum, both at the un-
dergraduate and graduate levels, we spend much time
teaching fluid mechanics, mass and heat transfer. Most
texts approach these topics from a traditional viewpoint. The
mass transferring material is assumed to be point-like mol-
ecules of negligible size, and the stationary "transferring to"
surface has the usual no-slip boundary condition with no
other characteristics that might affect the flow field or the
mass transfer process. When dealing with a large-scale sys-
tem (e.g., a pipe of one millimeter diameter or larger) and
with point-like particles (e.g., molecules or ions), the tradi-
tional approach is quite adequate. But when dealing with
sub-micron particles and with charged surfaces, the tradi-
tional approach to transport phenomena is not appropriate.
This is simply because other forces become significant as
compared to, say, viscous forces.
In this paper I give two examples to illustrate that the
traditional graduate teaching of transport phenomenon is not
as complete as it should be, and I will suggest a theme to
cover the essentials of electrokinetic transport phenomena in
order to supplement the graduate teaching of traditional trans-
port phenomena.


Let us construct a simple thought experiment. Assume that
a capillary tube of about one millimeter in diameter is at-
tached to two reservoirs containing tap water initially held at

Jacob H. Masliyah is Professor of Chemical
Engineering at the University of Alberta. He
received his BSc degree from University Col-
lege, London, and his PhD from the University
of British Columbia in 1970. He has published
extensively in the areas of transport phenom-
ena and numerical analysis, and in 1994 he
completed a book in the area of electrokinetic
transport phenomena.


Figure 1. Capillary tube connecting two reservoirs.

different levels, as shown in Figure 1. Making use of a
precise stopwatch and a graduated scale, we can measure the
rate of change of the water level in reservoir A. From a
knowledge of the cross-sectional area of reservoir A, we can
evaluate the volumetric flow rate, Q, of the water in the tube.
We calculate the Reynolds number in the tube and we find
that it is well below 10. To a good approximation, we find
that the water volumetric flow rate and the difference in the
water levels, h, are governed by Poiseuille's equation.
Let us now replace the tube with a very small capillary,
say one tenth of a micron in diameter, and then repeat
the flow experiment. To our dismay (or surprise), we dis-
cover that Poiseuille's equation does not correlate well
with our measurements. Moreover, when we replace the tap
water with distilled water using the same small capillary,
we obtain a different relationship between Q and h,
although the viscosity and density of the two types of
water are essentially the same. So why is there a deviation
from Poiseuille's equation?
The deviation of our experimental data in the flow experi-
ment is due simply to the fact that the capillary surface is
charged. Most substances acquire a surface electric charge
when brought into contact with an aqueous or a non-aqueous
medium. Direct evidence for the existence of charge on the
surface of a particle comes from the phenomenon of particle
movement under an applied electric field and from experi-
ments similar to the one suggested here. Surfaces may be-

Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1994

Chemical Engineering Education

When dealing with a large-scale system .. and with point-like particles ..., the traditional approach is
quite adequate. But when dealing with sub-micron particles and with charged surfaces, the
traditional approach to transport phenomena is not appropriate. This is simply
because other forces become significant as compared to, say, viscous forces.

come electrically charged by a variety of mechanisms. For
now, let us accept that surfaces in an aqueous medium are
charged. So, what if surfaces are charged? Why should tap
water flow be affected by the charged capillary surface?
Water contains electrolytes (i.e., ions). For our thought
experiment let us assume that the capillary surface is posi-
tively charged. It is reasonable to assume that the distribu-
tion of the ions in an aqueous solution will be affected by the
presence of a charged surface. Ions of opposite charge to that
of the surface are attracted to the proximity of the surface,
while ions of like charge are repelled from the surface.
Away from the surface, one can safely assume that the
charged surface has no influence on the ionic distribution.
So our capillary charged surface creates an ionic concentra-
tion distribution in the radial direction of the capillary. Due
to the different water levels in the reservoirs, there is a
pressure difference at the capillary ends, causing the water to
flow. Since the concentration of the negative ions close to
the surface is higher than that of the positive ions, a fluid
flow to the left reservoir would mean that a net current has to
flow in the same direction. But the two reservoirs are not
connected together by an "external linkage," (i.e., we have
an open electric circuit). Hence, physically no net current
can flow. Nature must do something to prevent the current
from flowing in the capillary. In order to counterbalance the
convective transport of the ions in the capillary, a potential
gradient is established within the capillary such that no net
current can flow. This induced potential retards the motion
of the ions and hence creates an additional flow resistance.
That is why Poiseuille's equation is not applicable. We are
dealing with additional forces not accounted for in our for-
mulation of laminar flow in capillaries.
From a practical viewpoint, our capillary can represent a
narrow pore in a sand-pack where groundwater flows within
the pack under a pressure gradient. Conversely, one can
make water flow through the sand-pack by imposing an
electric potential gradient. In both cases, the water flow is
affected by the presence of ions in the water and by the
charged sand surface.


A good example of the application of the Navier-Stokes
equation is to solve for Stokes flow over a single sphere
where we do not consider the presence of a surface charge
on the sphere. We can then make use of Stokes' solution
together with the boundary layer concept to solve the Levich
problem of mass transfer from the sphere. Depending on the

Fall 1994

approximations used, we arrive at an equation for the dimen-
sionless mass transfer relating Sherwood number with Peclet
Sh=0.624 Pe/3 (1)
The radius of the sphere is used here as the characteristic
The above equation is strictly valid for mass transfer of
point-like molecules or ions where only convection and dif-
fusion interactions are present. If one is to replace the point-
like particles with particles having a finite radius, would the
above equation still be valid? In other words, can Eq. (1)
describe particle deposition? After all, deposition of par-
ticles on a surface is simply a mass-transfer process. What
happens if the particles are charged? Since we are dealing
with the approach of a finite particle to a surface, surely
London-van der Waals attractive forces become important
when the gap between the particle and the surface is very
small. How does this potential affect the mass transfer? Even
a more profound question would be why we did not concern
ourselves with the attractive London-van der Waals forces
when we derived the mass transfer equation above for the
point-like particles.
The questions raised above can be appropriately answered
when we include in our analysis the electrical body force
term in the momentum equation, the migration term in the
convection-diffusion transport equation, and the electrostatic
and London-van der Waals forces in the force balance equa-
tions. Electrokinetic transport phenomena deals with these
very terms which must be added to our already established
and understood transport equations.
There are many situations where the presence of a surface
charge and the effect of London-van der Waals forces need
to be addressed in the analysis of a transport process. Such
situations may arise in groundwater flow, desalination, elec-
troosmosis, dialysis, membrane separation, flocculation of
particles, deposition of particles on surfaces within packed
beds or fibre mats, movement of blood cells, oil extraction,
DNA fractionation, pollution control, and rheology.

Teaching electrokinetic phenomena is simply an extension
of what we normally teach in our traditional transport phe-
nomena courses. It may be clear at this stage that in order to
study the two problems suggested above and the various
applications previously listed, we need to expand our basic
transport equations to include interaction forces other than
viscous, inertial, pressure, gravitational, and Brownian inter-

actions. The classical text in the general area of physico-
chemical hydrodynamics covering the various aspects of
electrokinetic transport is due to Levich.111 In the last few
years, several excellent books appeared in the area of colloi-
dal dispersions and electrokinetic phenomena. Probstein[2]
gives a very good introduction to the general area of physi-
cochemical hydrodynamics where he combines the tradi-
tional transport phenomena with the additional potentials
arising from surface charge and London-van der Waals forces.
In another book, Russel, et al., [ give an excellent detailed
analysis on colloidal dispersions where they treat particle
stabilization, capture, sedimentation, and motion under an
electric potential together with a treatise on the electroviscous
effects of charged colloidal particles. The mathematical de-
mand of their book is much higher than that presented by
Probstein. A comprehensive treatise on the behaviour of
colloidal particles under the influence of hydrodynamic forces
is given in van de Ven's text.[14
In a recent book by Masliyah,t51 the transport equations as
applied to electrokinetics are summarized with detailed analy-
sis of electrolyte flow in a narrow capillary, motion of a
single charged sphere and swarms of particles, particle cap-
ture, and deposition, and London-van der Waals dispersion
forces, together with some selected applications to the elec-
trokinetic phenomena. Books by Hiemenz[6] and Hunter[7'
give good exposure to the general area of colloids and sur-
face chemistry.
Electrokinetic phenomena can be considered as a follow-
up course to fluid mechanics and mass transfer graduate
courses. The student should be familiar with some of the
classical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations such as
laminar flow in channels, simple and shear flows over a
single sphere and a cylinder, two spheres in shear flow, and
flow models for packed beds. The concept of mass transfer
from single bodies for small and large Peclet numbers should
also be familiar to the student.
In teaching the electrokinetic transport phenomena course
I found it necessary to cover the following areas:
- Introduction to the colloidal state and its implica-
tion. Discussions center on the various forms of
typical dispersions, the magnitudes of the charac-
teristic forces as applied to a colloidal particle, and
methods of preparing colloidal dispersions.
1 Introduction to electrostatics as applied to a
dielectric medium. The Poisson-Boltzmann
equation is used to evaluate the thickness of the
electric double layer near a charged surface and the
electrostatic force between different surfaces
within a dielectric medium. The origin of interfa-
cial charge can also be included.
> Transport equations in electrolytic solutions:
Conservation of mass for an electrolyte solution

Conservation of ionic species
Conservation of current
Momentum equation including the electric body
force term
Poisson equation (relating the local potential
and the local charge density)
Nernst-Planck equation (a generalized convec-
tion-diffusion equation that contains ionic
migration due to an electric potential)
Various relationships defining diffusivity (e.g.,
mobility) of a particle
Electrolyte flow in a channel. This section makes
use of most of the equations discussed in the
previous section.
I Motion of a single sphere under an applied electric
field. This section can be expanded to include
swarms of spheres.
A brief introduction to London-van der Waals
forces and their implication to colloidal stability as
given by the DLVO theory.
> Coagulation of particles. Here one can introduce
Brownian coagulation, effect of field forces (e.g.,
electric and London-van der Waals forces), and the
effect of shear on particle coagulation.
Deposition of particles on surfaces. The various
modes of deposition can be discussed both in the
Lagrangian (applying a force balance on a particle
and following its motion) and in the Eulerian
(using the Nernst-Planck equation that represents
the generalized convection-diffusion equation)
frames of reference.
My experience in teaching this type of a course is that it
enhances and sharpens the students' understanding of previ-
ously learned transport phenomena concepts. With the ex-
cellent texts now available, we have no reason to ignore this
important area of the chemical engineering curriculum, es-
pecially at the graduate level.

1. Levich, V.G., Physicochemical Hydrodynamics, Prentice-
Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1962)
2. Probstein, R.F., Physicochemical Hydrodynamics,
Butterworths, Boston, MA (1989)
3. Russel, W.B., D.A. Saville, and W.R. Schowalter, Colloidal
Dispersions, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, En-
gland (1989)
4. van de Ven, Theo G.M., Colloidal Hydrodynamics, Aca-
demic Press, London, England (1989)
5. Masliyah, J.H., Electrokinetic Transport Phenomena,
AOSTRA, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (1994)
6. Hiemenz, P.C., Principles of Colloid and Surface Chemistry,
2nd ed., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY (1986)
7. Hunter, R.J., Foundation of Colloid Science, Vols. I and II,
Oxford University Press, Oxford, England (1991) 0

Chemical Engineering Education

Hydrodynamic Electrochemical Systems
Continued from page 235.

F = 96487; A, = 5.80 x 10-2cm2s-;
Ac = 7.44 x 102cm2; v = 10-2 cm2/s;
v 1/6 = 2.15 s1/6/cm/3; f = 10rpm;
Co = 104s-'; c0/2 = 10.2s/"2
we obtain the values of the constant K,. Table 6 shows that
the K, values are closer to the theoretical value (0.62) when
the plot of log I versus log Dexp is used than when log I versus
log Dx is used. The plot is also more accurate for platinum
than for glassy-carbon electrodes. In other papers reporting
glassy-carbon RDE data, a value of about 0.57 for K, was
The differences are even less if we take into account that
the value of the Levich constant depends on the number of
terms taken in the velocity expression. Thus, when two
terms are included, the result is1181
Levich constant:

K, = (D (21)
1.6125 + 0.5704 -

By substituting typical values
VKC = 9.95 x 102 cm2/s and D = 6.10-6 cm2/s
a value of K, = 0.60 is obtained, versus a value of 0.62 when
the second term in Eq. (21) is neglected. The slight differ-
ence of K, from the theoretical values is due to the use of
different electrode materials (platinum, glassy-carbon, etc.)
depending on whether the surface state catalyzes the elec-
trode reaction rate to a greater or a lesser extent.[141

This electrochemical engineering experiment involves ba-
sic principles of mass transfer at an RDE. Although the
experimental technique was developed as a research experi-
ment, it is possible to offer it to students in an undergraduate
laboratory. The interpretation of the experiment requires the
use of dimensional analysis, which is a well-established tool
available to engineering students. The students must handle
values of theoretical and experimental diffusivity coeffi-
cients and compare the results obtained with two types of
electrodes-platinum and glassy-carbon. Students have
shown great interest in this teaching project.

Experimental Values of Constant K, in the Levich Equation
Theoretical Value: K, = 0.62, 0.60

line Pt-RDE Glassy C-RDE
logI-v-logD, 0.56 0.52
logI-v-logDxp 0.61 0.57

Fall 1994

We thank Maria Asunci6n Jaime for her help in translating
this paper into English.


electrode surface, cm2
solution concentration, mM
solution density, g/cm3
diffusion coefficient, cm2/s
frequency, rpm
Faraday constant, 96487 C/equiv.
gravity, 9.8 m/s2
limiting current density, pA/cm2
limiting current, pA
mass flux, mol/cm2s
Levich constant
characteristic length, cm
number of electrons transferred in reaction
pressure, dyne/cm2
disk radius, cm
time, s
velocity, cm/s
angular velocity, radians/s
equivalent conductance at infinite dilution,
kinematic viscosity of solution, cm /s


1. Coeuret, F., Introducci6n a la Ingenieria Electroquimica,
Revertd, Barcelona, Spain (1992)
2. Prentice, G., Electrochemical Engineering Principles,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1991)
3. Heitz, E., and G. Kreysa, Principles of Electrochemical En-
gineering, VCH, Weinheim, Germany (1986)
4. Hine, F., Electrode Processes and Electrochemical Engineer-
ing, Plenum Press, New York, NY (1985)
5. Rousar, I., K. Micka, and A. Kimla, Electrochemical Engi-
neering, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (1985)
6. Ismail, M., ed., Electrochemical Reactors: Their Science and
Technology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (1989)
7. Fahidy, T.Z., Principles of Electrochemical Reactor Analy-
sis, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (1985)
8. Coeuret, F., and A. Storck, Elements de Genie
Electrochimique, Lavosier, Paris, France (1984)
9. Pickett, D.J., Electrochemical Reactor Design, Elsevier,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands (1979)
10. Newman, J.S., Electrochemical Systems, Prentice-Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1973)
11. Ibl, N., Electrochim. Acta., 1, 117 (1959)
12. Levich, V.G., Physicochemical Hydrodynamics, Prentice-
Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1962)
13. Bard, A.J., and L.R. Faulkner, Electrochemical Methods,
John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY (1980)
14. Meites, L., Polarographic Techniques, 2nd ed., John Wiley,
New York, NY (1965)
15. Perry, R.H., and C.H. Chilton, Chemical Engineers' Hand-
book, McGraw-Hill, Kogasuka (1973)
16. Selman, J.R., and C.W. Tobias, Adv. Chem. Eng., 10, 211
17. Town, J.L., F. MacLaren, and H.D. Dewald, J. Chem. Ed.,
68,352 (1991)
18. Gregory, D.P., and Riddiford, A.C., J. Chem. Soc., 3756
(1956) 0

Sf M learning in industry

This column provides examples of cases in which students have gained knowledge, insight, and
experience in the practice of chemical engineering while in an industrial setting. Summer interns and co-
op assignments typify such experiences; however, reports of more unusual cases are also welcome.
Description of analytical tools used and the skills developed during the project should be emphasized.
These examples should stimulate innovative approaches to bring real world tools and experiences back to
campus for integration into the curriculum. Please submit manuscripts to Professor W. J Koros, Chemical
Engineering Department, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712.


A Wealth of Cooperative Chemical Engineering

Under One Roof

with contributions by Catherine Flanders and
Susanne Smith
Eastman Chemical Company
Kingsport, TN 37662-5054
A cooperative educational experience at Eastman
Chemical Company's large integrated headquarters
facility offers special opportunities not available at
smaller, less diverse sites. An overview of the Eastman
program and the types of assignments available are the
subjects of this paper. We will also summarize the makeup
of our co-op work force by discipline and cooperating uni-
versity location and will illustrate the specific educational
growth and development opportunities within this special
environment with two examples involving chemical engi-
neering co-op students.

Eastman Chemical Company, recently spun off from
Eastman Kodak Company to form an independent company,
has its headquarters located in the foothills of the Appala-
chian Mountains in eastern Tennessee. The location of a
chemical company is usually determined by some economic

Ryan C. Schad is an Advanced Chemical Engineer in the Process Engi-
neering Department at Eastman Chemical Company. Although his spe-
cialty is process simulation, his assignments have included the full range of
process engineering. A registered Professional Engineer in Tennessee,
Ryan received his BSChE from Purdue University.
Warren S. Wells is a Chemical Engineer within Eastman Chemical
Company's Engineering Division. His specialties include Clean Air Act Title
V consulting and vacuum systems technology. Warren holds a BSChE
from the University of Alabama.
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 1994

advantage, and Eastman is no exception. The abundance of
hardwood trees in the Appalachian Mountains provided a
rich feedstock for Eastman's production of methyl alcohol in
the 1920s by a then-new process of wood distillation. At that
time, methyl alcohol was important to Eastman Kodak Com-
pany in the manufacture of photographic film. More re-
cently, coal from nearby locations, which is gasified to form
syngas, has become a rich source of chemicals for Eastman.
Cooperative education is now widely accepted as a desir-
able complement to a traditional chemical engineering edu-
cation. Universities have the unenviable task of equipping a
chemical engineering student with a huge amount of theory
and basic concepts in a relatively short period of time. It is
tempting but inappropriate for those of us in industry
to assess the practical skills learned from experience and
chastise universities for not providing those skills up
front. Cooperative chemical engineering is the solution-
it allows students to gain practical experience from an
industrial setting while allowing universities to focus on
continually upgrading their curriculum to include new
tools and technologies.
So what is unique about cooperative chemical engineering
at Eastman? Diverse industrial experience can be provided
by dozens of large chemical companies. What sets Eastman
apart, however, is the fact that in Kingsport, Tennessee,*
there are hundreds of manufacturing processes, including
* Eastman also has manufacturing facilities in Texas, Arkansas,
New York, and South Carolina.
Chemical Engineering Education

management, administration, engineering, marketing, and
research facilities. This enables both cooperative education
interns' and regular employees to share in a common culture
while experiencing diverse job opportunities. Common
culture is a subtle advantage which is difficult, if not
impossible, for a company with many manufacturing sites
and a separate head office location to maintain. It allows an
Eastman intern to quickly learn how to succeed in the
industrial setting by making personal contacts, familiarizing
himself/herself2 with technical tools, working on processes,
and focusing on safety by using procedures and resources
which will not change throughout his entire cooperative
engineering tenure.
Included in the following paragraphs is a summary of
the cooperative engineering program, including types of
general assignments an engineering intern is likely to en-
counter at Eastman as he becomes more experienced in
his classwork and industrial experience. Following the job
summaries are two case studies which will illustrate some
of the unique skills an Eastman intern can acquire apart
from the classroom.

Cooperative engineering at Eastman operates similarly to
other companies: after a complete freshman year, the student
begins alternating work with school every other semester or
quarter. Students are interviewed on campus for cooperative
intern positions and once selected, serve at least three work
sessions (typically four to five work sessions). Eastman gen-
erally enrolls between fifty and a hundred interns at a given
time, including those at work and in school. Historically,
after graduating from college a high percentage of coopera-
tive interns later become full-time employees with Eastman.
Figure 1 illustrates the variety of universities represented in

Figure 1. Eastman co-op engineering students attend a variety
of universities.

Eastman's co-op program, and Figure 2 shows the break-
down of engineering disciplines represented in the coopera-
tive engineering program.
Interning with Eastman offers a wide variety of work
experience, and as a student progresses in his education, job
assignments become more challenging. Typical beginning-
level assignments include maintenance, research and devel-
opment (R&D), and technical services.
In maintenance jobs the intern works with a skilled main-
tenance crew and is exposed to many different areas in the
chemical plant. For many, this will be the first time inside a
processing facility, and this job familiarizes them with
equipment, layout, terminology, and basic repair. In R&D
and technical service jobs, the student intern works as a
lab technician, learning basic research procedures and lab
work documentation. Typically, the student becomes famil-
iar with business software such as word processors, spread-
sheets, and graphics packages which will likely be used
throughout his career.
Representative intermediate-level assignments include
marketing, power and services, and some manufacturing
assignments. By this time a cooperative engineering
student should be into his sophomore or possibly his junior-
level classes.
Jobs in marketing expose students to business and sales
aspects of the chemical industry. These jobs demonstrate
other opportunities for engineers outside of typical engineer-
ing assignments. Power and service jobs include work in
wastewater treatment, powerhouses, and refrigeration ser-
vices. These jobs impress upon the student the role of utili-
ties in a chemical plant and how utilities are managed. This
opportunity also gives a chemical engineering student a
chance to work on an assignment that is not typical chemical


Figure 2. Breakdown of cooperative
education disciplines at Eastman.

'A difference exists at Eastman between cooperative engineering students and interns. For this paper, both groups will be
referred to as "Cooperative Engineering interns" or more simply, "interns."
2 For simplicity, the masculine pronoun will be used to describe the "typical" intern.
Fall 1994

Electrical Engineering
Engineering 6% Chemistry/Other


engineering work, giving the student an understanding of
other engineering disciplines.
Intermediate manufacturing assignments are relatively
flexible and can be tailored to the individual, depending on
his interest and progress in school. Manufacturing assign-
ments include Eastman Chemical divisions such as Poly-
mers, Cellulose Esters, and Acid. In these assignments, the
student is a member of the engineering process improvement
group for the area and is given responsibility for his own
engineering projects.
Manufacturing assignments and process engineering jobs
are final-level job assignments. The process engineering
assignment includes traditional chemical process design and
capital project work. By this time an intern has completed
most of his junior-year classes and work given the student is
similar to that of a newly hired engineer.

A profile of one of Eastman's summer interns can illustrate
more clearly the types of skills one can obtain by working in
a practical industrial setting. Projects in industry often re-
quire a broad focus-a variety of resources must be used to
reach an effective solution. Eastman interns have the advan-
tage that company experts are close by to help them immedi-
ately solve problems in the field, office, or laboratory.
Greg Dickerson is a chemical engineering graduate from
the University of Alabama. He currently works in the Ad-
vanced Process Technology group for Eastman's Engineer-
ing Division. As a former summer intern, Greg acknowl-
edges the intern program as a valuable learning experience
that not only translates into marketable technical skills, but
also facilitates classroom learning. In particular, Greg recog-
nizes teamwork as one of the most beneficial skills devel-
oped through an internship. As he see it, "No project falls
neatly into a single [academic] discipline. Projects require
the contribution of several individuals working toward a
common goal. In industry, problems are solved by network-
ing with people from various backgrounds-from operators
to technical specialists."
During his internship with the Organic Chemicals Devel-
opment and Control Group, Greg was assigned to a capital
project start-up team which was established as part of a
process feasibility study. The start-up team had bi-weekly
meetings to discuss safety issues, ergonomics, and equip-
ment limitations. During these meetings, the team members
had process walk-downs where each piece of equipment was
inspected and evaluated for intended use and operability.
One such walk-down revealed a possible problem. The
team identified an unsafe situation where production opera-
tors would have to lift a 250-pound manway (which sealed
the entry port on a carbon treatment tank) at least five times a

day as part of the processing. As a result of the field evalua-
tion, the team established an action item to address this
concern. Greg was assigned to champion an effort that re-
quired an engineering evaluation, a design proposal, and a
recommended course of action.
In proceeding with his evaluation, Greg wanted to deter-
mine how difficult it would be for operators to lift the
manway. To do this he employed the assistance of two
operators who helped him perform the task of unbolting and
removing the manway. This gave Greg a hands-on apprecia-
tion of the task's difficulty as well as an understanding of the
operability constraints faced by the workers. Since the engi-
neering evaluation was intended to determine the most ef-
fective way of mitigating the difficulties of using the tank as
a processing unit, Greg had to determine the best solution
that addressed the operability, materials compatibility, struc-
tural integrity, and economic feasibility constraints.
First, Greg considered having the manway constructed of
a lighter material. He determined what types of chemicals
would be processed in the carbon treatment tank and pre-
sented this information to Eastman's materials engineers.
They in turn provided him with a list of available materials
that would be compatible with the process chemicals. After
consulting the pressure vessel specialists, however, Greg
found that only a few of the materials could be fabricated in
a way that would make the manway lighter while also safely
maintaining the vessel's pressure rating. In addition, a cost
analysis indicated that specialty alloys were not economi-
cally feasible for the application. Eastman Chemical's plant
site has a high degree of integration which simplified this
preliminary evaluation since obtaining the assistance of these
specialists required only a short walk to Engineering
Division's on-site offices.
As is often the case in industry, Greg returned to the
drawing board to consider another alternative. Since con-
struction material was found to be a set constraint, he evalu-
ated ways of improving the manway's current design. As
before, Greg was faced with the pressure rating constraint;
therefore, he needed a creative way of making the manway
easier to handle without sacrificing its structural integrity.
Realizing that the existing flat manway would not be as
structurally sound as an elliptical one, Greg investigated the
possibility of designing a domed manway fabricated from
light gauge steel. With the assistance of computer-aided
design, Greg evaluated the structural integrity of the manway
for various thicknesses of steel. This idea proved to be an
economically effective way of reducing the manway's weight
while maintaining the vessel's pressure rating.
Once Greg had decided on the design he would recom-
mend, he used a graphics software package and a word
processor to generate a technical presentation to be deliv-
ered to the start-up team and his supervisor. Greg received
pointers from colleagues about different types of presenta-
Chemical Engineering Education

tion media that help make technical presentations effective.
He presented his methods of evaluation and his basis for
design. Upon reviewing Greg's proposal, the team concurred
with his recommendations and decided to implement the
design. Greg then followed up the presentation with an in-
house archived technical report that detailed his finding and
Throughout this project Greg developed several essential
skills and used a diversity of resources to prepare him for his
professional career. The experience of managing a small
project allowed him to work with a variety of people with
diverse backgrounds, which improved his interpersonal skills.
In addition, the project gave him an opportunity to refine his
communication skills since he had to prepare and present
technical information to his peers and supervisor for their
approval. Finally, in the process of completing his assign-
ment and preparing his findings, Greg gained valuable expe-
rience with high-level analysis and presentation software,
which further developed key computer skills. All these de-
velopmental opportunities were certainly beneficial, but per-
haps the most valuable aspect of Greg's experience was the
teamwork setting in which he completed his project.

Other cooperative engineering assignments require analy-
sis similar to a classroom example but with more significant
implications than a letter grade. Wayne Chastain, a graduate
of Clemson University, is now an Eastman chemical engi-
neer specializing in safety engineering. He works for the
Engineering Division, helping to ensure that processes from
all divisions are designed, operated, and maintained safely.
When he was a co-op student, Wayne had a chance to
work in the Coal Gasification Department. He was to evalu-
ate a new type of coal in the gasification process. The high-
priced coal could potentially pay for itself through lower by-
product disposal costs, but many other factors needed to be
considered before a decision could be made.

Ash and Slag
Figure 3. Schematic of Eastman's coal gasification
Fall 1994

In the coal gasification plant at the Kingsport site, coal
from nearby mines is gasified at high temperatures and
pressures to produce synthesis gas. This syn-gas can
subsequently be converted into more valuable chemicals
like methanol, acetic acid, and acetic anhydride. Figure 3
shows a simplified schematic of the front-end process. A
by-product of the gasification is ash and other unburnable
solids known as slag, which must be isolated and disposed of
(at some cost). Wayne was asked to evaluate a new coal
which was lower in ash content that typical coal but which
was priced higher.
He began by writing a proposal detailing the scope of his
evaluation, how it would affect operation of the gasifier, and
what the potential benefits were. After this proposal was
approved, Wayne had the responsibility of executing it and
analyzing the results. Some of the challenges included
gaining cooperation from other Eastman personnel.
Wayne worked with production operators-they knew how
to set conditions of the gasifier to insure that syn-gas
made from low-ash coal was of a high quality. Wayne
acquired coal through the Purchasing Department, and
other process improvement engineers provided him
with process consultation.
The scope of the project was simple: conduct a two-week
run of the gasifier using low-ash coal; evaluate the effect on
the gasifier, syn-gas production, solids removal, and de-
creased solids load; and finally, put together an economic
comparison of the trade-offs. Wayne had to access on-line
analyzers and a plant-wide database to compile data he needed
to perform the analysis. Some manipulation of the data using
a mainframe computer was needed to determine which re-
sults were statistically significant and which were not.
The main factors were the high initial price of the coal
versus reduced landfill cost. Complications included the fol-
lowing considerations:

How would syn-gas quality change?
Would the gasifier need to operate at a higher
temperature that would compromise its mechani-
cal design?
How would the solids removal process be affected
by different ash composition?
How does one quantify long-term environmental
benefits from reduced ash and therefore reduced
heavy metals in the landfill?
Wayne used a complex model to evaluate benefits and
costs associated with these factors for the two different coal
In his presentation to management, Wayne showed that
low-ash coal was' only marginally economically attractive.
Management chose to go with the low-ash coal on a long-
Continued on page 269.



...or, From Danckwerts to Bodenstein and Damkdhler

State University at Buffalo
Buffalo, NY 14260

he Danckwerts boundary conditions, derived during
the course of a notable 1953 paper on residence time
distribution, describe the inlet and outlet boundary
conditions for a "closed-closed" flow reactor with axial dis-
persion."1 Footnotes in texts by Bischoff and Froment121 and
by Aris'31 mention that these conditions had also appeared in
a 1908 paper by Langmuir.141 This is true, but the 1908 paper
contains more: it is a harbinger of contemporary chemical
engineering, written in the year that the AIChE was first

Irving Langmuir (1881-1957) was,a scientist of remark-
able versatility. Chemical engineers recognize the Langmuir
isotherm, basic for the kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic
reactions; chemists know the Lewis-Langmiur theory of the
chemical bond and the Langmuir trough for studying oil
films on water; and the layman may remember his pioneer-
ing work on cloud-seeding. Not as widely known are his
discovery of atomic hydrogen and his inventions of the
modem gas-filled electric light bulb, the mercury condensa-
tion vacuum pump, the atomic hydrogen welding torch, and
the Langmuir probe for characterizing plasmas. (Langmuir
introduced the word "plasma" into the physics literature in
1923; in 1929 he and Tonks published their landmark theory
explaining the existence of plasma oscillations.161 The char-

Sol W. Weller received his BS degree from
Wayne University in 1938 and his PhD from
the University of Chicago in 1941. From 1961
to 1965 he was Director of the Chemistry Labo-
ratory and Acting Director of the Materials Re-
search Laboratory of Philco-Ford. In 1965 he
moved to SUNY-Buffalo, became the first C. C.
Fumas Memorial Professor in 1983, and nomi-
nally retired in January of 1989.

acteristic plasma-electron frequency is known as the
Langmuir frequency.)
Langmuir's undergraduate degree (from Columbia Uni-
versity, 1903) was in metallurgical engineering.171 His PhD
research, however, was with the physical chemist Walther
Nernst in Gottingen. The title of Langmuir's dissertation was
"On the Partial Recombination of Dissociated Gases in the
Process of Cooling" (rough translation from the German).
Involved in the research was the use of a hot Pt wire to act
both as a catalyst to dissociate gases and as a temperature
probe by measurement of the electrical resistance; account
had to be taken of heat transfer by conduction and convec-
tion from the hot surface. Langmuir's doctorate was awarded
in 1906-the year in which Nernst proposed the Third Law
of Thermodynamics.

The title of Langmuir's 1908 paper[41 was "The Velocity of
Reactions in Gases Moving Through Heated Vessels and the
Effect of Convection and Diffusion." Langmuir starts by
noting that a 1908 paper of Bodenstein and Wolgast a) had
already pointed out that the rate equations used for station-
ary gases (e.g., a batch reactor) can be justified for flowing
gases only if there is no mixing (e.g., a plug flow reactor),
and b) had developed formulas which hold if there is com-
plete mixing (e.g., a CSTR).19-121 The Bodenstein-Wolgast
paper contains no quantitative treatment of a reactor with
axial dispersion.
Langmuir proceeds to derive the differential equation de-
scribing a reactor with axial dispersion from a material bal-
ance (for a single reactant) over a differential reactor ele-
ment. He guarantees a "closed-closed" pattern by postulat-
ing that the reactor section is bounded by thin porous plugs,
as illustrated in Figure 1. The reactant gases move with such
high velocity through the pores of the plugs that the quantity
carried by diffusion is negligible compared with that carried
hE Division ofASEE 1994

Chemical Engineering Education

by mass movement of the gas. For an n-th order reaction,
Langmuir arrives at the differential equation

d2C dC
D u-- kCn = 0 (1)
dy2 dy

Although Langmuir calls D the "diffusion coefficient," it is clear
that he intends D to mean the effective axial dispersion coeffi-
cient and not D, the molecular diffusion coefficient.
After pointing out that the equation "can only be integrated, as
it stands, when n = 1," Langmuir suggests "let us be content, for
the present, with approximate results." Then approximations are
introduced, such as expansion of exponentials with cutting off
after the first term, for n-th order kinetics. Two boundary condi-
tions are still needed, and Langmuir arrives at the Danckwerts
conditions with reasoning identical to that of Danckwerts. For n-
th order reactions, Langmuir arrives at the approximate solution

nCo (n 1)C = C exp[-P]{coshM + [(N + P)/ MsinhM} (2)

For the first-order reactions, Eq. (2) becomes

Co = C exp[-P] {cosh M + [(N + P)/ M] sinh M} (3)

In these equations, the symbols are:
Co inlet concentration of feed to reactor
C concentration of feed at outlet
n reaction order
P uL/2D
N nkC"-'L/u
M (2 + 2 PN)"/2
k reaction rate constant
D axial dispersion coefficient
u linear velocity of reacting gas through the reactor
L reactor length
Langmuir next derives approximation formulas for the limit-
ing cases of a) mixing almost complete and b) only slight mix-
ing. Furthermore, he derives criteria, in terms of the dimension-
less parameters P, N, and M, for deciding when the PFR and
CSTR equations may be used and when the approximation for-
mulas will give reasonably good answers.
To illustrate the application of Eq. (3), a comparison is
made here of the conversions predicted from the dispersion
model for an example worked out in the text of Levenspiel.1131
Levenspiel proposed nonideal flow in a reaction system with
D/uL = 0.12, first-order kinetics with k = 0.307 min ', and
L/u = T = 15 min. In an ideal PFR, the fraction of feed remaining
would be C/Co =0.01.[13;p.270]
For the nonideal reactor, Levenspiel uses his Figure 22 and
page 289 to arrive at C/Co = (approximately) 0.035. An approxi-
mation formula derived from the exact solution, Levenspiel's
Eq. (43) gives C/Co = 0.127. A second approximation formula,
taken from the treatment by Pasquon and Dente'151 of n-th order
reactions gives (Levenspiel, Eq. 48) for this case C/Co = 0.0354.
Levenspiel's Eq. (46) for small deviations from plug flow also

A. PP' B

!<---y-- i;

-I L
K ----y-y--->! ;

K--------- ^--------

Figure 1

gives C/Co = 0.0354. The above Eq. (3) of Langmuir
gives C/Co = 0.0339, as does the exact solution to Eq. (1)
given by Danckwerts"1 and by Wehner and Wilhelm. '41

What is the significance of Langmuir's dimensionless
constants P, N, and M? Since M is defined by Langmuir
as a function solely of P and N, there are only two
independent dimensionless groups, P and N. Let us first
consider Langmuir's P.
Langmuir defines P as P = 1/2 (uL/D). There is dis-
agreement concerning the name which should be at-
tached to the group (uL/D). The 1966 summary of di-
mensionless groups by Catchpole and Fulford,t'61 a
convenient but secondary source, offers the term
"Bodenstein number" for the group uL/D, where D is the
effective axial diffusivity.
The reference given by Catchpole and Fulford for the
Bodenstein number is another secondary source-the
1963 compilation by Boucher and Alves.'"7 This started
an instructive and cautionary chase through the litera-
ture: Boucher and Alves use a 1961 article by Hofmann
as their source for "Bodenstein number";""81 Hofmann
simply quotes a 1958 article by van Krevelen;1'81
astonishingly, as his source van Krevelen refers back
to the 1908 article by Bodenstein and Wolgast191 that
started Langmuir on his theoretical treatment of
nonideal reactors; and the Bodenstein-Wolgast article
contains no mention of a group (uL/D)-or any other
dimensionless group!
The use of "mass transfer analog of the Peclet number"
(or its reciprocal) is quite common for this group in texts,
notwithstanding the fact that in the definition of the
Peclet number the molecular diffusion coefficient, D,
appears, not the axial dispersion coefficient, D.
Levenspiel, a major contributor to the modeling of non-
ideal reactors, is outspoken in his opposition to this use.
In his 1979 text, The Chemical Reactor Omnibook, 20] he
has this to say about (D/uL):
This is a new and different type of dimensionless
group introduced by workers in chemical engineer-

Fall 1994

ASEE-ChE Division News

Officers of the Chemical Engineering Division of
ASEE for the 1994-1995 term are: Chairman, F.
Scott Fogler (University of Michigan); Chairman-
Elect, Andrew J. Wilson (Tri-State University);
Secretary-Treasurer, William Conger (Virginia
Polytechnic University); and Directors Gary
Patterson (University of Missouri-Rolla) and James
E. Townsend (Dow Chemical USA ).
The 32nd Annual Division Lectureship Award
winner was G. V. Reklaitis. His lecture "Computer
Aided Design and Operation of Batch Processes,"
will be published in one of the 1995 issues of CEE.
The 1993 Martin Award for best presentation at
the annual ASEE meeting went to William K.
Durphee for "The MIT New Products Program."
The Corcoran Award, recognizing the best paper
published in CEE in 1993, was given to a group of
authors for their individual contributions to a series
of papers on "Knowledge Structure in Chemical
Engineering." Those authors and their contributions
were: Donald R. Woods and Rebecca J. Sawchuk
for "Fundamentals of Chemical Engineering"; Stuart
W. Churchill for "Mathematics"; Richard M.
Felder, for "Knowledge Structure of the Stoichiom-
etry Course"; John P. O'Connell for "Thermody-
namics"; R. Byron Bird for "The Basic Concepts in
Transport Phenomena"; and H. Scott Fogler for
"An Appetizing Structure of Chemical Reaction En-
gineering for Undergraduates."

ing. Unfortunately someone started calling the
reciprocal of this group the Peclet number. This is
wrong. It is neither the Peclet number nor its mass
transfer analog, which is widely called the Bodenstein
number in Europe. The difference rests in the use of D
instead of D, hence these groups have completely
different meanings.1211 A name is needed for this group.
The author suggests that "Langmuir group I" (Lal) may be
an appropriate name for Langmuir's P.
What about Langmuir's N, defined as nkC" 'L/u? In his
unifying treatment of mass and heat transfer effects in flow
reactors, Damkihler defined four dimensionless groups.[221
The first of these, Da1, is defined as UL/uC, where U is the
chemical reaction rate and C is reactant concentration. For
an n-th order reaction, this become kC"L/uC or kC" 'L/u.
This is Langmuir's N except for the factor n. Damk6hler
does not mention Langmuir's 1908 paper. It serves no pur-
pose to change an established term (Dal) at this late stage,
but considering the priorities (1908 vs. 1936), it would have
been appropriate to call Langmuir's term N the "Langmuir

group II" (Lan). As a matter of interest, for first-order reac-
tions, this group reduces simply to kr.

1. Danckwerts, P.V., Chem. Eng. Sci., 2, 1 (1953)
2. Bischoff, K.B., and G. Froment, Chemical Reactor Analysis,
John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY; p. 624 (1979)
3. Aris, R., The Mathematical Theory of Diffusion and Reac-
tion in Permeable Catalysts, Vol. 1, Clarendon Press, Ox-
ford, England; p. 38 (1975)
4. Langmuir, I., J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 30, 1742 (1908)
5. In 1907 a "Committee of Six" circularized some 300 promi-
nent chemists about possible creation of a society. From the
responses a "Committee of Fifty" was selected and invited to
meet (January 1908); after the meeting a mail ballot was
sent to all members of the Committee of Fifty. Forty re-
sponses were received, with the following distribution of
vote: 22 affirmative; 7 negative, 7 neutral, 2 "had not had
time to consider," 1 member abroad, and 1 death. The "Com-
mittee of Six" considered this vote as a mandate to organize
the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Also of pos-
sible interest: the first five volumes of Trans. A.I.Ch.E.
(1908-1913) contain no papers which can be described as
mathematical modeling, in the sense that Langmuir's 1908
paper is mathematical modeling of reactor behavior.
6. Tonks, L., and I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev., 33, 195, 990 (1929)
7. Langmuir explained his choice of undergraduate major by
noting: "The course was strong in chemistry. It had more
physics than the chemical course, and more mathematics
than the course in physics-and I wanted all three."
8. Langmuir, disillusioned with his teaching situation, was
successfully wooed by GE in 1909; he spent the remaining
decades of his professional life at GE. He was awarded the
Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1932.
9. Bodenstein, M., and K. Wolgast, Z. Phys. Chem., 61, 422
10. Bodenstein, a noted kineticist, had earlier published (1906)
with his student Lind the classic study of H2-Br2 reaction
kinetics. It was Bodenstein who introduced in 1913 the
"stationary-state approximation" that is commonly used for
the analysis of complex reaction mechanisms.
11. The paper of Bodenstein and Wolgast was published in
1908. Langmuir submitted his paper in September, 1908,
and it was published in 1908. Publication times like this
must be the envy of authors and editors nowadays.
12. The pioneering paper of K.G. Denbigh on the CSTR ("Veloc-
ity and Yield in Continuous Reaction Systems," Trans. Far.
Soc., 40, 352 [1944]) contains the statement "There appears
to be no treatment in the literature of the distinctive fea-
tures of the continuous process."
13. Levenspiel, 0., Chemical Reaction Engineering, 2nd ed.,
Wiley, New York, NY (1972)
14. Wehner, J.F., and R.H. Wilhelm, Chem. Eng. Sci., 6, 89
15. Pasquon, I., and M. Dente, J. Catalysis, 1, 508 (1962)
16. Catchpole, J.P., and G. Fulford, Ind. Eng. Chem., 58, 46
17. Boucher, D.F., and G.D. Alves, Chem. Eng. Prof., 59(8), 75
18. Hofmann, H., Chem. Eng. Sci., 14, 193 (1961)
19. van Krevelen, D.W., Chem. -Ing. -Tech., 30, 523 (1958)
20. Levenspiel, O., The Chemical Reactor Omnibook, Oregon
State University, Corvallis, OR; 100.6 (1979)
21. Levenspiel uses D for molecular diffusivity and D for longi-
tudinal dispersion. He refers to (D/uL) as a "vessel disper-
sion coefficient."
22. Damk6hler, G., Z. Elektrochem., 42, 846 (1936) 0

Chemical Engineering Education

Academic Ethics
Continued from page 243.

infrequently by greater than 20% of the respondents. Eighty
percent of respondents reported participating in at least one
practice more than infrequently.
Table 3 shows the mean scale values and ranks for the
reasons graduate engineering students were perceived to
participate in unethical academic behavior. The table sug-
gests a profile of a student who wants high grades but either
does not have the time to study or chooses not to allocate
enough of the available time to studying in order to attain the
grade desired. The unethical student tends to feel no one is
hurt by his or her behavior and that the risk of getting caught
is low. It is unlikely that peer pressure or thrill seeking are
motives for the behavior.
The mean answer to the question asking respondents to
compare the ethics of graduate students to undergraduate
students was 4.25. Respondents rated graduate students about
one-quarter of the way between "somewhat more ethical"
and "much more ethical" than undergraduates.
An analysis was performed to determine if the ethics of
respondents varied by credit hours completed, hours worked
per week, age, GPA, or gender. The number of significant
relationships was one greater than would be expected by
chance. It was concluded that the classification variables
were not generally related to the academic ethics of the

A recent study of business students that compared unethi-
cal behavior in college and in the workplace[61 concluded
that such behavior is not an artifact of the undergraduate
environment. This study supports that conclusion. The
extent of participation of graduate engineering students in
unethical academic practices reported here is greater than
that found in a study of undergraduate engineering stu-
dents conducted in the early 1980s,'3] and is comparable to
that found in recent studies of engineering[4] and other
undergraduate students.
Giving or asking for information about exams and work-
ing with others on individual assignments have been among
the most reported practices in undergraduate surveys. These
practices were among the top four reported here. An inverse
relationship observed among undergraduates between the
frequency of participation in unethical practices and the
rating of their ethical level was also found in this study.
Earlier researchers, while acknowledging that the direction
of causality between these variables is unknown, have
recommended that instructors make their ethical expecta-
tions clear to students. This recommendation is further
supported by the fact that the most frequently practiced
forms of unethical academic behavior are actions that can

Reasons for Unethical Behavior
Rank Reason Mean'
1. To get a high grade 3.85
2. Has the time but does not study 3.79
3. Feels no one is hurt by behavior 3.64
4. Does not have time to study 3.55
5. Low risk of getting caught 3.38
6. Difficulty of material 3.30
7. Feels work is irrelevant 2.83
8. Instructor is poor or indifferent 2.78
9. Everyone does it 2.58
10. Was a challengeorthrill 20f)
11. Peer pressure to do it 1.73
Scale: 1=not at all likely to 5 =very likely

take place outside the classroom, away from the scrutiny
of the instructor.
Graduate engineering students saw themselves, as a group,
to be more ethical than undergraduates, despite the similar
frequencies of participation in unethical practices. The rea-
sons for graduate participation in unethical behavior were
that students want good grades but often do not have or take
the time to adequately prepare to earn them.
The findings presented here suggest the potential of an
ethics problem among at least graduate engineering stu-
dents, if not graduate students in general. These findings
must be regarded as tentative, however. Additional studies
are needed at other graduate engineering schools and of
graduate students in other disciplines to provide more infor-
mation about the extent of the problem. Surveys of graduate
faculty would also be of value in assessing the magnitude of
the problem and the desire of faculty to attempt to bring
about change in graduate student behavior.

Financial support for this study was provided by the West
Virginia Graduate College Faculty Research Fund.
1. Singhal, A.C., "Factors in Student Dishonesty," Psychol.
Repts., 51, 776 (1982)
2. Sisson, E., and W. Todd-McMancillas, "Cheating in Engi-
neering Courses: Short and Long-Term Consequences," pa-
per presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Section
of the ASEE, March, Wichita, NE (Eric Doc. No. 242523)
3. Meade, J., "Cheating: Is Academic Dishonesty Par for the
Course?" Prism, 1(7), 31 (1992)
4. Sierles, F., I. Hendrix, and S. Circle, "Cheating in Medical
School," J. ofMed. Ed., 55(2), 125 (1980)
5. Kalichman, M.W., and P.J. Friedman, "A Pilot Study of
Biomedical Trainees' Perceptions Regarding Research Eth-
ics," Academic Med., 67(11), 771 (1992)
6. Sims, R.L., "The Relationship Between Academic Dishon-
esty and Unethical Business Practices," J. of Ed. for Busi-
ness, 68(4), 209 (1993) J

Fall 1994

[f class and home problems

The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collections of interesting and novel
problems in chemical engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student
by presenting a particular principle in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel
home problem, are requested, as well as those that are more traditional in nature and which
elucidate difficult concepts. Please submit them to Professor James O. Wilkes (e-mail: or Mark A. Burns (e-mail:, Chemical
Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136.




Stevens Institute of Technology
Hoboken, NJ 07030

he transition from academia to industry can cause
much anxiety for students. The following problem
can be assigned in kinetics and reactor-design courses
after the completion of material on ideal isothermal batch
reactors, plug-flow reactors, and continuous-flow stirred-
tank reactors, or as a take-home problem in a senior design
This problem should demonstrate to the students that they
have acquired the ability to solve real-life problems on a
scale that they can visualize. It also points out the value of
reference books and the complexity of design.

Joe Agman, Jr., is the owner of a small chemical plant in
Pennsylvania that recovers silver from used photographic
material such as negatives and X-ray plates. After the coat-
ings have been removed, the plastic strips are shredded and
sold to a recycler.
Joe is worried that his business may become obsolete
because the Environmental Protection Agency has declared
silver to be a hazardous substance, and also because Polaroid
and Kodak are researching selenium-based photography and

pictures stored on CDs.
Joe would like to diversify, so he read with interest an
article about a new process that the U.S. Bureau of Mines
developed for recovering platinum-group metals (PGMs)
from used catalytic converters. Platinum-group metals in-
clude platinum, palladium, and rhodium. Joe is seriously
considering the purchase of license rights for the process,
but first needs to perform pilot-plant studies to determine if
he can make a reasonable profit on his investment.
Unfortunately for Joe, he never received his chemical
engineering degree. His father owned the plant before he
died, and Joe, knowing he had a guaranteed job, never worked
very hard in college. He preferred to skip classes, ignore
homework assignments, and watch reruns of the first Star

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 1994

Chemical Engineering Education

Pamela M. Brown is Visiting Assistant Professor
of Chemical Engineering at Stevens Institute of
Technology. She holds a PhD degree in Chemi-
cal Engineering from the Polytechnic University.
Her research interests include crystallization and
separations. In her leisure periods she enjoys
spending time with her children, Heather,
Vanessa, and William.

Joe has hired you to design a pilot plant, then to supervise
its operation. Pictorial information on the process is given in
Figure 1.'" For design purposes, you may assume that 100%
of the PGMs are platinum and that one mole of NaCN
complexes with one mole of Pt. The catalyst is 0.2 wt.% Pt,
the remainder being mainly alumina (A1203), with trace con-
taminants such as Pb found in gasoline. The density of
alumina is 3.9 gm/cm3. The weight of catalyst in one cata-
lytic converter is about 10 pounds.

You decide to recover the PGMs from a single catalytic
converter in six hours so that work can be completed in one
shift. First, you produce a flow diagram and equipment list,
and then you contact vendors found in the Thomas Register
to determine equipment costs. A technician will be hired to
help you assemble and operate the pilot plant. You make a
list of proposed experiments, develop a timetable, and sub-
mit a proposal and budget to Joe. He approves the project,
and you begin to order equipment.

A screw feeder will supply the crushed catalyst and other
solids to a leaching vessel, which is a batch reactor. The
operations of crushing and feeding take about fifteen min-
utes. Ten pounds of water, adjusted to a pH of 10 with
sodium hydroxide is next added to the leaching vessel. Twice
the stoichiometric amount of sodium cyanide is then added






w Cy...d.


Figure 1. Pictorial depiction of platinum recovery.

(2 moles NaCN added per mole of Pt in the feed), taking an
additional fifteen minutes. The catalyst is leached for one
hour at 320'F, and virtually 100% of the platinum is
completed with the cyanide in solution.

The charge from the leaching vessel is then filtered and
washed with another 10 pounds of water. The mother liquor
and wash water are pumped into the precipitation vessel,
taking another fifteen minutes. The contents of the precipita-
tion vessel-which contains platinum-cyanide complexes
and unreacted NaCN-are heated to destroy 99.99% of the
NaCN and Pt-CN, causing the Pt to precipitate out of the
solution. The destruction of the CN occurs according to the

CN- +2H-O -* NH3 +HCOO-

The rate of destruction of NaCN is known to be

[NaCN] = kl [NaCN]
kI = 3.78x 108 exp(-11,320/T(oK))sec-i

Tan and Teol21 indicate that it takes longer to destroy the Pt-
CN complex. The corresponding rate can be taken as

[Pt-CN] k2[P-CN
k2 = 5.0 x107 exp(-13,720/T('K))sec-1

The charge from the precipitation vessel is then filtered
and washed, consuming yet another fifteen minutes. The
precipitate is cyanide-free and contains 70 wt.% Pt, the
remainder being inerts. The waste water is treated to remove
lead and other impurities before being discharged.

You must
1. Draw a flow diagram of the process. Where can you
find the names of companies that sell equipment such
as pumps?
2. Determine the size of the leaching vessel.
3. Decide whether the precipitation vessel should be a
plug-flow reactor, a batch reactor, or a CSTR.
Calculate the size of the vessel and the temperature
that is needed to complete one batch in the specified
time period. Estimate the vapor pressure, assuming
that it is the same as saturated water at this tempera-
4. Determine what safety precautions you should take.
Obtain a copy of the Material Safety and Data Sheets
from the department.

Fall 1994


1. The flow diagram is shown in Figure 2. The process is
semi-automated-the operator must introduce solids and
control the volume of distilled water added to the system.
Temperature is controlled automatically, but the operator
must initiate leaching, filtering, and precipitation, and
must remove the solids from the filter. As already men-
tioned, students can locate companies that manufacture
equipment such as pumps from the Thomas Register.
2. The leaching vessel should be large enough to accommo-
date the 10 pounds of crushed catalyst, the 10 pounds of
water, and the added NaCN and NaOH. Since the volume
of NaOH and NaCN are negligible, the corresponding
volume is

V = 10lb H20 454- 1 cm3 + 10lb Al203(454)(1
l2 Ib )[ gm 2 ,3.9)

= 5,700 cm3 =1.5 gal (4)
a. To estimate the amount of NaOH required, note that at
a pH of 10, [OH-] = 1 x 10-4 M (gm moles/liter). Thus the
moles or mass of NaOh to be added are

( x 10-4 M)(10gal) 3.785 lit = 0.003785 gm moles = 0.15 gm
*g I) ~gal )

b. The required amount of NaCN is

0.002 gmPt 454m(10 lb catalyst) 1 gmmolePt
0.002 gm catalyst lb 195.08 gmPt

S49.007 gmmNaCN = 2.2 gm NaCN (6)
gm mole NaCN)

Thus, the actual amount of NaCN added is twice this, or
4.4 gm.


Key: PR = Pressure Relief Valve
TC = Thermocouple
TR =Temperature Regulator

Figure 2. Flow Diagram

3. The two reactions must be considered independently.
Since destruction of the Pt-CN complex is slower than
destruction of the NaCN, and they are initially at the same
concentration, destruction of the Pt-CN complex is the
rate-limiting step. The residence time can be up to four
hours when all steps are taken into account. For a batch
x x x
t= f C0 CAC dx = k2CAO(lx) (7)
0 0 0 A 0 2CAO
t time (sec)
CAO initial concentration of Pt-CN (gm moles/liter)
CA concentration of Pt-CN (gm moles/liter) at time t
x conversion (0.9999)
k2(sec-') given in Equation (3)
Integration, rearrangement, and solution yields a tem-
perature inside the batch reactor of 547K or 5250F. From
steam tables, the pressure in the precipitation vessel will
be approximately 850 psia. The batch reactor is the best
choice-too long a plug-flow reactor would be required
for a residence time of four hours and the temperature in a
CSTR would be above the critical temperature of water
due to the high conversion required.
The precipitation vessel must be large enough to
accommodate the original 10 pounds of water and the
10 pounds of wash water. Head space is also necessary
for vaporization. The volume should be at least three
4. Students obtained the Material Safety Data Sheets from a
computer in the department. They verified that no gas-
eous compounds were being produced that could increase
the pressures. Vessels were designed
with pressure-relief valves venting to
a safe container. Recommended pro-
TR tective clothing would be obtained.
) From the safety data, the students
Learned that when NaCN reacts with
S Tj o acid it forms deadly HCN gas. On-
---J wastater
treatment line pH analysis should be employed
to verify that the solutions are basic.
1. Private communication from G.B.
pump Atkinson and R.J. Kuczynski, U.S.
Pt Bureau of Mines, Reno Research
Solids Center, Reno. NV
2. Tan, T.C., and W.K. Teo, "Destruc-
tion of Cyanides by Thermal Hy-
drolysis," Plating and Finishing, p.
70, April (1987) 0

Chemical Engineering Education

Experience: The Eastman Way
Continued from page 261.
term basis, perhaps more from a positive environmental
standpoint than a driving economic advantage. Wayne fol-
lowed up his project by documenting his planning, execu-
tion, and final analysis in a technical report.
One of the benefits of Wayne's assignments was that it
exposed him to "the big picture" of solving real-world chemi-
cal engineering problems. As Wayne puts it, "Using a broad
range of engineering resources to complete my study not
only gave me an appreciation for my [undergraduate] chemi-
cal engineering courses, but also helped prepare me for my
current assignment as a process engineer." By managing a
variety of resources, Wayne learned how to plan and coordi-
nate a project in which he required assistance and interaction
from operators, purchasing, other process improvement en-
gineers, and even management.
The "hands-on" nature of Wayne's project clearly differ-
entiates it from a classroom setup. More than just compiling
data from a variety of sources, Wayne worked side-by-side
with operators during actual operation of the gasifier;
additionally, he was required to gather cost and other data
for a variety of operating scenarios. When too much in-
formation was available, Wayne determined which data were
applicable for his investigation. When information was
scarce, he ascertained the best method to generate or esti-
mate required data.

The true value of cooperative chemical engineering does
not lie solely in acquisition of technical skills, but rather
is the variety of job-related experiences. From safety
issues and analysis to interpersonal skills and project man-
agement, an industrial setting is an efficient means of
gaining practical skills that are not easily attained through
classroom experience.
In the professional environment, interns develop team-
work skills and learn how to solve problems where scope
must be quantified, the basis determined, and constraints
identified. These assignments cultivate industrial experience
by interaction with diverse groups including technical
specialists, financial analysts, production operators,
supervision, and peers. A recent study's finding specifically
point to benefits of cooperative learning and the type of
education gained through a cooperative engineering pro-
gram. Frequency of group work has a positive correlation
with most areas of self-reported satisfaction and education
growth.'l Furthermore, solving real-world problems allows
students to see "the big picture" by requiring them to use a
variety of engineering resources. This view of the overall
picture can enable students to gain an appreciation of
their chemical engineering courses by showing how key
concepts are interrelated.
Fall 1994

Although universities could emphasize some of these con-
cepts within their curricula, many of the skills are more
effectively acquired through the hands-on experiences of
cooperative internships. Additionally, Eastman's highly in-
tegrated site provides a common culture and broad scope of
resources to accomplish challenging technical assignments.
It is apparent that cooperative education is an effective way
to acquire practical industrial skills through diverse assign-
ments within a common culture-this is the essence of expe-
rience, the Eastman Way.

We wish to express our gratitude for the contributions
provided by two current Eastman cooperative engineering
students: Catherine Flanders, who attends Auburn Univer-
sity, and Susanne Smith from Mississippi State University.
We would also like to thank Greg and Wayne for allowing
us to showcase their practical and beneficial experiences.

1. Astin, A.W., What Matters in College: Four Critical Years
Revisited, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA (1993) O

M book review

by Sidney Lipton and Jeremiah Lynch
Wiley Interscience, New York, NY; 1003 pages, $89.95

Reviewed by
Daniel A. Crowl
Michigan Technological University

When I was originally asked to review this book, the title
strongly indicated to me that I would be reviewing another
industrial hygiene book. I was pleasantly surprised to find
that I was wrong! This 1003-page tome contains a wealth of
detailed information in a new area (at least to me) of "health
hazard control." This area relates to exposure control
from both fugitive emission sources and process hazards for
both workers and the community. The main emphasis of the
book is clearly on traditional industrial hygiene-type
exposures, i.e., chemical exposures which occur mostly
on a continuous basis during routine chemical operations
and handling. A few short sections toward the back of the
book are devoted to episodic releases which occur during
an accident scenario.
The book also contains a wealth of practical process infor-
Continued on page 283

A Course In...



The University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195



Reading this article can be hazardous to your
mental health. Stop at the end of this sentence to
avoid having to change your way of thinking

In spite of the potential hazard, you really must read on.
The world is rapidly changing and chemical engineering
is changing with it. If you can't adapt, you may be
thrown aside and left behind.
Why is this?
In the past, having a degree in chemical engineering was
evidence that the recipient had acquired a certain set of
intellectual tools which were widely regarded as quite use-
ful. Until recently, such a degree was sufficient to secure
employment and support a lifetime career with a major com-
pany. But this is no longer the case. We all know capable
engineers who cannot find a job. One of the reasons for this
transformation is that the evolution of technology is chang-
ing dramatically. The changes are now so rapid that even
large corporations cannot keep pace with them, one reason
being because their organizations are so big and clumsy. The
present troubles of IBM, GM, and Eastman Kodak exem-
plify this. Even the legendary permanence of employment in
a Japanese megacompany is crumbling.
How does this affect chemical engineers and their educa-

SG. Graham Allan was educated in Scotland. He
received his PhD from the University of Glasgow
and was later awarded the first DSc conferred by
the University of Strathclyde for Distinguished Re-
search in Fiber and Polymer Science. He has
authored more than 200 articles, some 20 book
chapters, and holds 62 patents. He is currently
most active in ecotechnology, investigating a new
and more environmentally sensitive way to make
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 1994

Because of this clumsiness in the makeup of large corpo-
rations, a thriving technology can quickly become obsolete
before new and dangerous competition is recognized and a
suitable response is organized. This failure of management
to promptly deal with marketplace changes often leads to the
layoff of many of its good technical people. It follows that
today's employee should place less reliance on the prospect
of a lifetime career with a single employer. It is inevitable
that the current trend of down-sizing businesses to make
them more focused, alert, and agile will continue. Chemical
engineers should be alert to the possibility of having to
confront the sudden loss of employment at any time.

What can a chemical engineer do about these changes?
The first thing is to recognize that chemical engineers are
valuable not for what they know but for what they can do.
This is really why a professional is hired. Accordingly, chemi-
cal engineers should think of themselves as problem solvers
and not just as engineers who know a lot about chemicals.
How can chemical engineers become better problem solv-
The best answer is, "Use your creativity!" The insatiable
demand for this attribute became apparent to me on the first
day of my first job in the U.S. when I was introduced to a
General Manager at du Pont. His first question to me was,
"What direction do you think du Pont should be taking?" I
was so completely surprised by the question that I couldn't
answer decisively. As my career at du Pont progressed, the
direct value of creativity became more and more clear to
me-those who were making creative contributions were
advancing professionally, while promotions were denied to
those who were not.
After four years I was given an assignment which changed
my whole perception of science. I was asked to review the
archives to discover how the great inventions made at du
Pont had come about, and thereafter I was to recommend
ways of repeating these breakthroughs. This experience ex-
posed me to the processes of creative thinking and raised me
to a whole new plane of creativity. Five years later, when I

Chemical Engineering Education

returned to teaching, I passed on to my graduate students the
creativity concepts I had developed at du Pont, and later, at
their suggestion, a formal course was offered.

The course begins with the assumption that a flame of
creativity burns in everyone. This assumption can be vali-
dated by simple observation of preschool children at play.
But the subsequent educational process has a general effect
of suppressing creativity, and by the time adulthood is reached
the flame can be at a very low level. But it never totally goes
out. Accordingly, the goal of the class is not so much to
teach creativity as it is to turn up the existing flame.

The class begins by defining the difference between cre-
ativity and innovation. Creativity is an attribute of the mind.
It is the ability to conjure up new arrangements of ideas,
sounds, images, etc. Innovation, on the other hand, is the
physical act of bringing the creative idea into reality. Thus,
Leonardo da Vinci's idea of picturing the expressions of the
disciples as Jesus forecast his betrayal by one of them was
the creative act, while actually getting the pigments, the
varnishes, the brushes, the substrate, etc., to produce The

Lecture Topics in Creative Thinking Course

> Why Creativity is Important
> Life, Creativity, and Work as a Continuum
> Keeping a Creativity Diary
> Where Creativity Occurs
> Humor and Creativity
> Why Innovation is Necessary in Moder Society
> Phases of Creativity
> Discussion of Techniques for Developing Creativity
> Vertical and Lateral Thinking
> The Mind as a Pattern Maker
t> Generation of Ideas by Brainstorming
> Creative Idea Evaluation by the PNI Technique
> Generation of Ideas by the Use of Synectics
> Creative Idea Screening by Spectrum Analysis
> Generation of Ideas by Random Association
> Computer-Aided Creativity
> Generation of Ideas by Morphological Changes
1> Imaging Ideas by Generative Graphics
> Creative Games
> Creation, Protection, and Exploitation of Ideas
> Patents, Copyright, Trademarks, and Trade Secrets
> Negoating the Sale of Ideas or Innovations
1> Finding Your Own Rainbow
> Starting Your Own Company
t> Location of Venture Capital
> Creative Advertising and Promotion
1> Using Creativity to Find a Job or Make a Career

Last Supper represents the innovative process.
Of course, many successive small creative actions may be
required during the innovation process and it should not be
construed that creativity and innovation must be kept rigidly
separate. In real life they are usually intertwined. Never-
theless, it is important to appreciate the differences
between them because while everyone is capable of creative
thoughts, not everyone has the ability, determination, and
fortitude to turn those thoughts into reality. While no class
can confer these characteristics on an individual, helpful
supporting legal, financial, and negotiation information is
provided later in the course.
From the outset of the course, creativity is characterized as
a self-defining process. That means an idea is good if the
creator thinks it is good. It really doesn't matter what anyone
else thinks. This is an important initial concept, particularly
for chemical engineers. New ideas are very fragile; they can
be killed off forever by a frown, a pursing of the lips, or a
shake of the head. If an idea has little merit, the creator will
find that out for himself soon enough. He doesn't need to be
humiliated by instant rejection.
The class strives to build up the students' belief and confi-
dence in the merit of their own ideas. The students are
reminded of the story of how the original idea of the Xerox
copier was rejected for years by all the major companies.
Everyone laughed at the idea of replacing a cheap piece of
carbon paper with an extremely costly and complicated ma-
chine. Today, of course, it is difficult even to imagine a
society without copy machines. It is fortunate that the origi-
nal inventor was the person defining the merit of that cre-
ation! It is also vital that young chemical engineers realize
that the people who really know how to run a piece of plant
equipment are the workers who do it every day. An arrogant
dismissal of their creative suggestions as valueless, even
once, can mean that other information which could be cru-
cial will never be proffered.

The formal lectures include the topics shown in Table 1.
Assignments are given to the students on the various topics.
They are required to read a book (of their choice) on creativ-
ity, and they must turn in a brief report on how the book
changed their views on creativity.

Obviously, it is difficult to grade a creativity class. My
solution is to ask the student to submit a one-page confiden-
tial contract by midterm. The first section of the contract
should consist of a simple short description of a creative idea
that the student has conceived, and the second section should
be a concise statement of the single first step that the student
will take to clothe the creative idea with the fabric of reality.
This step represents the beginning of the innovation process

Fall 1994

and must be attempted by the end of the course.
The final exam consists of a five-minute verbal presenta-
tion by the student. The presentation is begun by reading
both parts of the midterm contract out loud to the rest of
the class. This is the first time the idea will have been
made public. The written version prevents the idea, or the
first step, from subtly changing during the course. The
student will then go on to relate his experiences in trying to
take that first step.
The spectrum of ideas presented is usually an awesome
and humbling display of creativity-often with a leavening
of humor. One memorable example was an electric spaghetti
fork-a working model rotated the tines and wound up the
strands of pasta neatly for worry-free eating. Just what every
Italian restaurant needs! The inventor also brought a huge
bowl of tepid spaghetti for demonstration purposes and as a
mid-exam snack for the students. My personal all-time
favorite was an idea for personalized postage stamps where
the purchaser would have his or her own likeness printed on
a blank stamp. The creator surreptitiously photographed me
during class, made a gigantic stamp with my likeness, and
surprised me with it at the final exam.
After a presentation, each of the students separately awards
a grade based on their own individual assessment sys-
tems. The average of those grades forms the basis for
the final course grade together with a professorial input
derived from attendance, participation during class, and
completion of assignments.
The final exam is probably the best learning experience of
the entire course, because it demonstrates to each of the
students that all of them are creative and that they all en-
counter difficulties in reaching their modest first innovative
goal. The students also experience talking in front of a large
group of people to publicly present their idea for the first
time and to relate their implementation failures. The ideas
and the headaches of the innovative step frequently evoke
laughter in the audience.

The stress of presenting ideas and dealing with the laugh-
ter that is often engendered is diminished by the very real
connection between humor and creativity. This is discussed
during the course with frequent references to newspaper
cartoons, TV comedies, and movies. Furthermore, each class
begins with two or three students being called upon at ran-
dom to tell a joke or to describe some aspect of creativity
that they have seen in their everyday activities. Besides
giving the students an opportunity to practice their public
speaking techniques, the humor creates a positive friendly
atmosphere which is absolutely essential for creativity. It
also helps the students to understand why an especially
creative far-out idea can be met with laughter-and why this
is a good sign rather than a negative.

Your Name is Your Label In the second session, student
interactions with one another begin with an original mental
game called "Musical Names." The students write their name
on one side of a sheet of paper and the sheets are then passed
from hand to hand among the students while music plays
(best provided by the professor singing a comic song or
playing a musical instrument!). When the music stops the
students look at the name on the piece of paper in front of
them, think about it for a few seconds, and then turn the
sheet over and write down any thought they may have about
that name. (If the name is familiar the sheet should be
exchanged with a neighbor since it is vital that the name is
being seen for the first time-this exercise could not be used
in a class where everyone knows one another). The music is
then restarted and the sheets are turned over and passed
around again until the music stops. The process is repeated
until there are three sets of comments on the back of the
sheet. The name from the opposite side is then printed clearly
above the comments and the sheets are posted on the class-
room wall at eye level for all to examine.
Since your name is your own personal label and is usually
the first thing that others know about you, most people are
quite interested to learn how their name is perceived by
others. The students crowd around to read the comments;
some are funny, some are clever, some are insightful, and an
occasional one is rude. This demonstrates that if the simple
presentation of a name can invoke such a variety of emo-
tional responses, surely a creative idea will do no less. People
who repeatedly put forward ideas must expect to hear an
occasional unpleasant reaction and must learn to cope with it
and keep their equanimity. This exercise also serves the
practical function of helping the students learn their class-
mates' names and breaks down the communication barriers
of shyness and reserve.

Brainstorming The major interactive class exercise is
based on a well-known concept-"brainstorming." This has
been chosen rather than some other group technique because
it is easier to explain and manage with a group of, say, fifty
students in the normal fifty-minute class period After ex-
plaining the rules of brainstorming in the first session, the
class breaks up into five groups and the teams move their
chairs into circles. Two of each group act as scribes. Each
team tackles the same problem, which is usually one of
current interest on campus (i.e., how can a wave of computer
thefts be reduced?). After fifteen minutes, the resulting lists
of ideas from this warm-up are collected and discussed. This
exercise demonstrates to the students that ideas can be readily
generated by a group, and it boosts their confidence in the
process and in their team.
A second topic is then selected for a full-scale, profes-
Chemical Engineering Education

sional-type effort. The topic should be selected with care
and should be one of importance. The brainstorming tech-
nique is only of value if it is carried through to completion.
A trivial topic will not sustain the interest and commitment
of the students over the three class meetings needed for this
exercise. The initial fun of idea generation must be fol-
lowed by the grind of organization and evaluation. A sig-
nificant topic to tackle could be something like, "How can
the automobile be improved?" because in structure the car
has evolved essentially unchanged from the horse-drawn
carriage and nearly everyone has had an intimate involve-
ment with a car. Again, the lists of ideas are collected after
about fifteen minutes. Before the next class meeting, they
must be combined to eliminate duplicate ideas and subse-
quently typed up. Each student is then given a clear copy of
the composite list of ideas to work with at the second
brainstorming session.
At the second session the students break up into five new
(different member) groups. The new teams attempt to add
to the composite list of ideas for about fifteen minutes.
Again, the lists are collected, combined to eliminate dupli-
cates, added to the previous list, typed up, and copies made.
This can easily provide a list of over one hundred ideas for
the final evaluation.
At the third session, the students again form into five new
groups. This time they roughly rate the ideas on the list as
AAA (suitable for immediate innovation), AA (requires a
longer term effort), and A (needs a long period of research).
One student from each team then presents their AAA ideas
at the blackboard. This procedure usually generates about
thirty ideas which can then be reduced by open class discus-
sion to the most exciting and promising half-dozen.
In order to make all the student effort that has been
expended over three class meetings meaningful, a letter is
sent to the president of a suitable company offering the six
ideas for possible adoption. This demonstrates to the
students that their self-defined creative ideas have merit.
The letter should be sent early enough in the course to
allow enough time for a response before the final exam.
The difficulty of communicating ideas to a large com-
pany which will most probably occur, will tie in well with
the subsequent discussion of intellectual property, patents,
and negotiation.
The first-period homework assignment asks the students
to write a page describing themselves, their major, and why
they are taking the class. Since the course is open to all
students and not only to chemical engineers, the responses
to this assignment help the professor to plan the class cover-
age to encompass a variety of student interests.

In addition to the regular lectures, there are presentations
Fall 1994

by several guest speakers, usually about six in number. Their
talks are held later in the course when the students have
learned enough about creativity and innovation to ask tough
questions. These speakers are usually not professors. Speaker
selection is often made after reading the newspaper. When I
see stories about local or visiting creative people, I tele-
phone, tell them about the class, and ask if they will come
and simply talk about their creativity. I have never had an
invitation turned down. Without exception, these guest speak-
ers have talked extemporaneously and with great enthusiasm
and fluency, even though they usually have no speaking or
teaching background.
As an assignment, the students are asked to write an ac-
count of how the presentation has affected their own view of
creativity. Knowing they must write a report encourages the
student to pay attention during the presentation and to think
about the personalized meaning of what is being said. It has
the benefit of giving the students more practice in writing
essays, which is always helpful. The reports are graded by
the professor and sent on to the guest speaker. The speakers
usually call, or write, to say how much they enjoyed coming
to the class and how they benefited from thinking, talking,
and later reading about their own creativity.

Another key assignment (that must be given early in the
course) is for each class member to begin a creativity diary
or notebook. A personal creative idea or some observation
about creativity should be written down every day. This has
the effect of generating an appreciation for the creativity all
around us. The diary should be maintained throughout the
course and can be optionally submitted for extra credit near
the end of the course. Hopefully, chemical engineers can be
persuaded of the professional merit of keeping a lifetime
diary as a permanent record of the history of their reading
and the growth of their thinking.

When the course is finished and the students have
departed, what do we hope to have accomplished for the
education of chemical engineers? Once the existence of
the flame of creativity has been drawn to the students'
attention and then turned up, it probably can never easily
be turned down again. That increase in creativity conscious-
ness should be of great value in assisting and protecting
budding chemical engineers in their future careers or, even
more important, in starting their own companies. It can help
in family life, in maintaining good relationships therein, and
in keeping appropriate balances with the demands of work.
It can unleash a flood of innovation, enjoyment, and fun
which will last a lifetime.
Creativity is clearly America's greatest renewable natural
resource. 0



University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0424
here are many opportunities and incentives for indus-
trial involvement in academic research. The past de-
cade has seen substantial growth in focused research
centers, with industrial participation and sponsorship a usual
prerequisite. Presidential Young Investigator Awards and
their spin-offs have provided direct incentives for new fac-
ulty to engage in industry-supported research. More recent
programs aimed at knowledge transfer and enhanced na-
tional competitiveness include the National Science
Foundation's (NSF) Grant Opportunities for Academic
Liaison with Industry (GOALI) program, the National
Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) Ad-
vanced Technology Program (ATP), and the Department of
Defense's (DoD) Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP).
These and other opportunities for industry/university
partnerships may expand even further, especially if the trend
toward reduction or elimination of industry central research
departments continues.
Not all industrial problems are appropriate for involve-
ment of university personnel; some are too applied toward
the development of specific commercial products, and some
would prevent communication of results because of their
proprietary nature. Similarly, not all academic research is of
industrial interest; a significant portion involves abstract or
basic research where commercial value is neither apparent
nor near-term. But there is an overlap where scientific and
technical issues need to be addressed from a fundamental
perspective in order to provide understanding which can
improve existing products or processes, or to make new ones
possible. Figure 1 is a simple visualization of the overlap of
industrial problems and academic research. Specific areas
with appropriate overlap may be identified through good
communication by both parties.
Since graduate students play key roles in the majority of
chemical engineering research projects, it is essential that
we consider the pros and cons of industrial involvement in
graduate research from their perspective. In this article, I

Robert H. Davis is Professor and Chair of Chemi-
cal Engineering at the University of Colorado in
Boulder and is also Director of the Interdiscipli-
nary Biotechnology Program there. His under-
graduate degree is from the University of Califor-
nia at Davis, and his graduate degrees are from
Stanford University. He enjoys teaching and has
an active research program in biotechnology, fluid
mechanics, and membrane separations.

describe several mechanisms by which companies and their
representatives are involved with graduate student research
in the Chemical Engineering Department at the University
of Colorado, and will follow that with the students' perspec-
tives on their experiences.

Much of the recent industrial involvement in graduate
research in our department has been facilitated by two orga-
nized programs: the Center for Separations Using Thin Films
(CSTF) and the Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Program
(IBP). The CSTF is an NSF Industry/University Cooperative
Research Center directed by Professors Rich Noble and Bill
Krantz which has about one dozen industry or government
sponsors. The sponsors pay annual membership fees and
choose the projects which the Center supports. The IBP is
directed by myself and is funded by the Colorado Advanced
Technology Institute (a state-supported technology transfer
agency) and by a biotechnology training grant from the
National Institutes of Health (NIH). Companies do not pay
annual sponsor fees, but they instead support biotechnology
research and student internships on projects of direct corpo-
rate interest. Although the examples which I describe below
are specific to these programs, the general principles and
mechanisms are readily transferable.

Cooperative Research Projects
The most direct mechanism for industrial involvement in
graduate research is through cooperative research projects.
Each year the CSTF sponsors develop a list of possible

Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1994

Chemical Engineering Education

research areas or problems of interest which faculty mem-
bers respond to, usually after discussing the proposals with
appropriate industrial representatives. Once the projects are
chosen, at least one industrial mentor is assigned to each
project. The mentors often participate actively in the re-
search by providing membranes and other materials, making
suggestions on experimental protocols, and recommending
relevant model systems to explore. One of our PhD students
who is studying the thermally induced phase separation (TIPS)
process for membrane formation benefited greatly from her
industrial mentor who suggested which polymer system to
use and then made a critical contribution by showing her a
technique to measure the surface temperatures on both sides
of the thin polymeric film.
Another cooperative research project selected by the In-
dustrial Advisory Board of the CSTF involves analysis of
fixed-site carrier membranes for the removal of heavy met-
als from contaminated aqueous streams. Instead of a com-
pany, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is the
outside participant. Students and faculty visited LANL sev-
eral times and found that their contact there "has been a
tremendous help by providing information on the conditions
of the streams to be treated and the chemistry involved, in
addition to hosting our visits."
The Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Program promotes
cooperative research by providing state matching funds for
industrially supported academic research projects. Most of-
ten, the industrial support is more than money. A recent PhD
student used microfiltration membranes for separating a
recombinant protein product from bacterial cell debris
formed when the cells were lysed to release the intra-
cellular protein. One sponsor of his project was a local
company which supplied the necessary cells harvested
from fermentation broth. The company contacts were readily
available to provide information not otherwise available on
how best to lyse the cells and store the resulting cell lysates.
A second sponsor provided a bench-scale filter and specialty
membranes to test.

Figure 1. Overlap of industry problems and university

In all three of the examples cited above, industrial (or
governmental) representatives served on the students' thesis

Industrial Internships
When we think of industrial internships, we usually think
of undergraduates. Internship programs are popular with
undergraduates because they provide financial support for
the students' education as well as career guidance and oppor-
tunities. But these benefits are also relevant for graduate-
student internships, and they offer the additional advantage
of providing the graduate student with tools and perspectives
which may be used in their research.
Our Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Program includes an
industrial internship as a key feature of the training program
for each student. The internship is typically undertaken dur-
ing the summer after the first year of graduate study and is
often directly related to the student's thesis research.
For example, one of our students did an internship on the use
of chromatography as a preparative-scale technique for puri-
fying ribonucleic acids. She then completed an MS thesis
on this subject and performed all of the experimental work
at the company.
Internships not directly related to the students' thesis re-
search provide broadening experiences. Near the end of my
first year as a graduate student, I asked my newly-chosen
advisor if I could spend the summer working in industry. He
seemed surprised, but gave me his permission. I worked at
Shell Development Company on adapting to fluid mechanic
applications a finite-element code written for solid elasticity
problems. My graduate research did not involve finite-ele-
ment analysis or solid elasticity, but I did learn some useful
things (such as that Poisson's ratio is not related to fish!)
which I have used in my subsequent research.

Graduate Student Symposia
Further contact between graduate students and industrial
representatives occurs through symposia or meetings which
showcase graduate research. The CSTF holds two meetings
of its Industrial Advisory Board each year. A very effective
method for promoting interaction is used: a written progress
report is provided in advance, and then a ten-minute oral
summary is given on each project by the graduate student
involved. These summaries are followed by a poster
session where there is ample time for the sponsors and other
interested parties to discuss the research with the students.
The discussions provide students with industrial perspec-
tives and "tricks of the trade" that they do not learn in the
classroom or from their academic advisors. Moreover, the
students also gain formal and informal communication skills
through these experiences.
The IBP also provides opportunities for students to present

Fall 1994

their work locally and to discuss it with representatives from
industry. An annual Colorado Biotechnology Symposium is
held one day each September, with the 300-plus attendees
almost evenly divided between industrial representatives and
academia, including graduate students. A plenary session
with invited speakers is held in the morning, and during the
first part of the afternoon there are parallel technical sessions
which include many contributed talks by graduate students.
These are followed by a poster/social session at which gradu-
ate students discuss their research with other attendees in a
relaxed atmosphere. As an added incentive, a group of in-
dustrial judges presents small cash awards to the authors of
three top posters. In the summer, the students organize bio-
technology student summer seminars which are held in the
evening and include pizza and beer. Industrial representa-
tives are invited to attend and to speak.

The graduate students who have had industrial involve-
ment in their thesis research feel that the benefits of the
program far outweigh any potential drawbacks. Moreover,
they generally agree that the primary benefits are

Encouragement and care
Real-world problems
> Different point of view
0 Facilitation of research
I Exposure to different careers
> Contacts

The benefit of industrial participation in graduate research
which students mention the most, "encouragement and care,"
surprised me. I expected it would be something practical,
such as access to specialized equipment or the potential for a
future job. Instead, the students are quick to note their de-
light to find someone who cares about their projects (besides
their academic advisors who "have" to care, and who are
viewed as a bit eccentric anyway!).
Another benefit cited by students is the different perspec-
tive or point of view on research offered by industry. For
example, one of our students began her research by trying to
model the TIPS membrane process, but her industrial men-
tor suggested that she first focus on developing experimental
protocols and obtaining data which would help provide un-
derstanding of the process and underlying physical phenom-
ena. This proved to be good advice, as the experimental
findings led to fundamental changes in the model. Another
student had a similar experience in his project on interfacial
polymerization of membranes when his industrial mentor
recommended that the modeling work follow initial experi-
ments. This "refocused" the research so that improved mem-

brane performance was the result of fundamental transport
phenomena studies of the linkage between membrane for-
mation and structure.
Another practical benefit of industrial involvement in gradu-
ate research is the enhancement or facilitation provided by
the availability of industrial resources. In addition to knowl-
edge and advice, these resources include specialized equip-
ment and materials. One of our students chose to do her
experiments at the cooperating company because it had sev-
eral chromatographic columns on site. Another student, who
began his project on a novel design of a membrane-based
oxygenator by conducting initial experiments with water at
the University of Colorado, carried out the second phase of
experiments (involving whole blood) at a local company
because of its available equipment and analytical facilities.
One of our students who is conducting RNA transcription
research at a local company notes that "the facilities and
resources at the company are unmatched. When I need sup-
plies, they are usually in stock or are shipped by next-day
air. If an instrument breaks, a repair person arrives the next
day, if not sooner."
Industrial involvement in research may also have spin-off
benefits. A student working on a microlithography optimiza-
tion problem with a local company used an optical technique
for probing thin films which he later shared with one of his
classmates who ended up using it in his studies of membrane
formation and structure.
Industrial involvement in graduate research also provides
exposure to different careers and role models. One student,
who did two internships during the course of his PhD train-
ing, noted that the experience had horizon-expanding ben-
efits much like undergraduate co-op programs, and that he
had gained valuable insight and information while looking
over the shoulders of a research scientist, a process engineer,
and a research manager during his internships.
A final benefit to industrial participation is that it provides
useful contacts and potential job opportunities for the stu-
dents. There has been a reduction in on-campus recruiting in
recent years. At the undergraduate level some companies are
only hiring those students who have undertaken internships.
Such experience and inside contacts are becoming important
for graduate students as well.

This article has focused on methods of industrial involve-
ment in graduate research and the associated benefits to the
students. There are also benefits to the participating compa-
nies, and they include
Contact with highly motivated graduate students
Long-term research accomplished without major

Chemical Engineering Education

time commitment of company personnel
Technology transfer from academic laboratories,
with focused graduate students playing key roles

Of course, there are also potential pitfalls which both
parties should be aware of before entering into a cooperative
university/industry research project. One pitfall is the matter
of expectations: graduate research has time scales of 1-2
years for MS theses, and 3-5 years for PhD theses, and it
usually seeks fundamental understanding of a phenomenon
or process, while industrial research sometimes has shorter
time scales and pragmatic goals of finding processes or
materials which meet company goals. Another pitfall could
occur when a company becomes too involved and overdirects
the project, taking away the student's freedom to explore
alternative ideas and to do independent research. Students
also note that projects with industrial participation often
have additional reporting requirements, but that the added
value of communication skills gained from preparing writ-
ten reports and oral and poster presentations outweighs the
time required.
Intellectual property rights and publication or presentation
delays may have a direct impact on the graduate student
involved in a cooperative research project, especially if the
student seeks a position upon graduation for which his or her
publication record is evaluated. One of our students, with a
reputation for comic relief among our graduate students,
remarked, "In industry, only mediocre research gets pub-
lished in a timely manner, poor research is unacceptable, and
good research is kept secret or withheld for patenting!" Any
negative impact can be minimized, however, by having a
prior written agreement that the company sponsor is to be
provided with an advance copy of any proposed publication
or presentation and given a short period (thirty days is typi-
cal) to indicate whether it wants the communication delayed
for an additional period (sixty days is reasonable) while any
patent applications are filed.
Most chemical engineering departments are already par-
ticipating in cooperative research projects with industry. It is
important that these interactions provide the best possible
experiences for the graduate students involved in them. The
following suggestions may help in this regard.

> Organize a Graduate Student Mini-symposium
on one or two afternoons each year.
Invite, at no charge, any local or nonlocal
industrial representatives who have an existing
relationship with the department, plus other local
representatives who may be interested in learning
about ongoing graduate research. A suggested
format is to have selected students make brief
oral presentations in the first part of the after-
noon, followed by a poster/social session where

these and other students are available to discuss
poster displays of their work. Informal lab tours
could also be arranged.
Invite industrial representatives to serve on
thesis committees.
Committee members from industry can provide
perspectives of significant value to the projects
and graduate students, whether or not financial
support is provided by industry.

0 Prepare a shortflier describing opportunities
and expectationsfor industrial involvement in
graduate research.
The flier should briefly describe the department
and its research capabilities, explain opportuni-
ties and benefits of industrial involvement in
graduate research, provide contact names and
phone numbers, and summarize expectations on
issues such as intellectual property rights,
publications, and the time-scale and nature of
graduate research. The university's technology-
transfer or grants office can provide guidelines
on intellectual property and publication rights,
but I recommend that this information be summa-
rized by someone in the department.

Consider promoting a graduate-student indus-
trial internships program.
A company already supporting a cooperative
research project may see the mutual benefit of
having the involved graduate student spend a few
weeks or months at the company. Local compa-
nies may also view a graduate internship pro-
gram as an opportunity to get special projects
done, to have contact with motivated graduate
students, and to build a relationship with the
university. I suggest that a possible internship
program start small and first be discussed with
industrial representatives with which the depart-
ment already has contact.

I appreciate the support of the companies and mentors
which made this article possible: Tom Carroll at StorageTek,
Roger Elgas and Marc Voorhees at Cobe, Rich Fibiger at
Dow, Dave Gagnon and Phil Radovanovic at 3M,
Gordon Jarvinen at LANL, Bob Kuhn and Scott Rudge at
Synergen, Susan Grimm at Ribozyme Pharmaceuticals, and
Wolfgang Pieken at Nexagen. I also thank the faculty and
students who related their experiences: Chris Bowman, Tanya
Chavez-Cropp, Kris Hickey, Vivek Khare, Bill Krantz, Rich
Noble, Charles Parham, Saeed Shojaie, Minnie Solis, Li
Tan, and Barry Vant-Hull. C

Fall 1994



Clemson University
Clemson, SC 29634

A wind of dissatisfaction now blows across academia
in reaction to the discovery that many college stu-
dents cannot write a coherent paragraph. This defi-
ciency is being addressed in educationally progressive ways:
workshops and seminars are being held for instructors,
English departments are revising syllabi, and in some
universities writing activities are being imposed in tech-
nical courses. In short, many educators are talking about it,
but few are doing anything about it-anything with students,
I mean. Oft unrecognized exceptions are the engineering
instructors, many of whom still mark reports from labora-
tory experiments and design projects. In fact, at some insti-
tutions the engineering professors, not the liberal arts profes-
sors, are the ones who most often help students improve
their writing skills.
But can we do more? Perhaps we can, but not by attending
to those abstractions that are often given prominence in
committees, workshops, and focus groups. In one such ab-
straction we are asked to view the act of writing as a kind of
problem, in large part the mechanical problem of getting
words onto paper, as if writing were synonymous with word
processing. Here we may have encountered a red herring.
In one of his elegant essays on education, Jacques Barzun
has noted that we mislead ourselves by regarding most edu-
cational issues as problems, because "problem" brings to
mind "solution"-the problem of poor writing can be solved,
if only we do such-and-such. In fact, the act of writing is not
so much a problem to be solved as it is a difficulty to be
overcome. A problem, once solved, ceases to be an issue,
and we can move on to other things. But a difficulty, like
writing (and teaching), has no solution; the difficulty must
be faced and overcome, again and again.

J.M. Haile, a professor of chemical engineering at Clemson University,
is the author of Molecular Dynamics Simulation, published by John Wiley
& Sons in 1992.

* The title is a slight corruption of a line
from Richard Sheridan.

But even if we accept that writing is invariably dif-
ficult, we can hope to alleviate the difficulties by certain
activities. One help is to encourage good editing, for editing
means self-criticism, which in turn can lead to self-
improvement. Editing often provides much of the pedagogi-
cal value in writing, for it is during editing that writers
confront their understanding of the subject and decide how
the message can be presented so as to be most easily grasped
by their readers.
A second help is to encourage good reading; no one has
written well who failed to read well. It is here that students
of science and engineering may seem most deprived, for
what technical literature is well written? Can we identify a
body of writing that will inspire young scientists and engi-
neers? Should we allow students to graduate having read
nothing technical, nothing except textbooks? If we subscribe
to the idea that engineers must synthesize knowledge from
diverse areas, shouldn't engineering students read technical
material beyond their specialties? If students must now as-
similate more information than can be fit into a four-year
degree program, won't their chances for future success be
improved by the habit of reading?
In grappling with such questions, it seemed worthwhile to
compile a short list of books, books well-written and with a
technical bent. The list, or some part of it, would implicitly
illustrate good writing, and further, it might lead students to
see that it is possible to take delight, both serious and whim-
sical, in technical things.
My list evolves; the current version is given below. The
principal criterion for inclusion is only this: the play of
ideas, coupled with the author's use of language, must be
such that the book sustains interest on second and even third
readings. Most of the books are appropriate for readers above
the sophomore level. Few readers will develop a liking for
every book listed here, but many should find at least two or
three congenial companions.
One purpose of the list is to illustrate that a body of well-
written literature exists and is accessible to the technically

Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1994

Chemical Engineering Education

informed reader. A second purpose is to inspire readers to technical veins. A third purpose is an attempt, however
explore the literature-know your library. My list is only a modest, to encourage scholarly activity. We in academia
small, idiosyncratic set from a growing collection. Students seem to have misplaced the idea that a primary purpose of
can start their explorations with the authors listed below; all advanced study is scholarship, and all scholarly activity is
have written other books, some in similar, other in more rooted in reading.

> P. W. Adkins, Molecules, W. H. Freeman and Company, New York (1987)
Volume 21 in the Scientific American Library Series
This volume has the trappings of a coffee-table book for the pretentious-slick paper and glossy photographs with
nary an equation. But the text admirably exceeds expectations and the photos are pretty.

> A. G. Cairns-Smith, Seven Clues to the Origin of Life, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1985)
Recently Cambridge University Press has begun to reprint selected scientific classics in paperback form. Such an
educationally worthwhile practice should be encouraged. This selection by Professor Cairns-Smith may serve as a
peerless example of expository writing. You need not agree with the author's thesis in order to appreciate the wit and
clarity with which that thesis is presented.

> Philip J. Davis, The Thread, 2nd Ed., Harcourt Brace Javanovich, Boston (1989)
In this largely true tale, a mathematician pursues minutia to lengths far beyond the bounds of necessity or any logical

> Loren Eiseley, The Immense Journey, Random House, New York (1957)
The historical progression of great essayists in science includes Francis Bacon, J.B.S. Haldane, Loren Eiseley, Peter
Medawar, Lewis Thomas, and Steven Jay Gould. Of these, Professor Eiseley's use of language is most eloquent.

> Richard P. Feynman, Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman, Bantam, New York (1986)
Here is a rousing collection of anecdotes that belies the stereotype that researchers need be dull, boring, or worse.
All PhD students in science and engineering will find value in the three volumes of The Feynman Lectures on Physics.

> Douglas R. Hofstadter, Godel, Escher, Bach, Vintage Books, New York (1980)
In this synthesis of art, music, mathematics, and artificial intelligence, Dr. Hofstadter makes a compelling case for
unity in apparent diversity. Sections of the book that use formal logical systems are heavy going, but throughout the
text ideas are combined in striking ways.

> Henry Petroski, The Evolution of Useful Things, Vintage Books, New York (1994)
In engineering design, does form follow function, or are the shapes of things driven by more pragmatic consider-
ations? And given the current tendency toward increasing complexity, what can we learn from studies of simple

> Robert Scott Root-Bernstein, Discovering, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1989)
This extraordinary book employs dialog, historical case studies, and broad scholarship to probe the way researchers
practice their craft. The conclusions generally flout conventional wisdom about the scientific method, the value of
teaching, and the ability of research universities to produce original research.

> Lewis Thomas, The Medusa and the Snail, Viking Press, New York (1979)
Through these gracefully written essays, Dr. Thomas reflects on the degree to which our biological heritage has
influenced modern human culture.

> E. R. Tufte, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, Graphics Press, Cheshire, Connecticut (1983)
We communicate not only by words and equations, but also by charts, plots, and histograms. This physically beautiful
book reminds us that effective figures, like effective writing, cannot be created mindlessly.

> Steven Vogel, Life's Devices, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey (1988)
In language conversational yet precise, this text shows how structural mechanics, fluid mechanics, and energetic
explain and limit the functions of living things. By seeing familiar concepts applied to biological situations, tradition-
ally trained engineers may find new interests in old ideas. 0

Fall 1994




From the Perspective of a New Faculty Member

University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309

In January of 1992, when I walked into a classroom for
the first time, I had a sinking feeling that I had just taken
on one of the biggest jobs in my life. Unfortunately, I
had almost no training in how to be an educator, and in many
other universities the situation is similar. Faculty members
are hired mainly because of their outstanding research abili-
ties, and they are expected to be excellent educators as well,
often with little or no training. Since arriving at the Univer-
sity of Colorado, I have had an opportunity to learn a great
deal about teaching-most of it the hard way. Hopefully, the
following top-ten list of hints for new faculty will ease the
transition from graduate student to educator for some who
are taking that step.


Get instruction and assistance from as
many sources as possible.

As pointed out at the beginning of this article, new faculty
members have usually not received a great deal of training
prior to initiating their teaching careers. This fact makes it
imperative for new faculty to seek out input from knowl-
edgeable sources on such things as methods of instruction,
how to involve students actively, and how to budget time.
One of the greatest resources available to new faculty is the
older faculty. If the department has a formal mentoring
program, take full advantage of it. Ask your mentor to visit
your classroom and prepare a critique of your lecture. The
mentor should also examine your homework assignments,
the course syllabus, exams, course structure and grading, as

Christopher Bowman is an assistant profes-
sor of chemical engineering at the University of
Colorado. He received both his BS and PhD
from Purdue University. His current research
interests include characterization of multifunc-
tional monomer polymerization reactions and
development of facilitated transport membranes.

well as student evaluations. The mentor's perspective, based
on experience, will prove invaluable in interpreting what is
going well and determining what requires improvement. If
your department does not have a formal mentoring program,
seek out a mentor on your own-someone who cares about
both you and the students you are teaching. Some of the
benefits of mentoring, especially team-teaching with older
faculty, were discussed in a recent paper by Scriven.P[l
In addition to senior faculty input, seek out assistance
from other sources. Excellent reference materials have been
written on teaching engineering[2'3] and on learning styles.[4'5]
Having had the experience of sitting in on a course which
followed closely the book by Wankat and Oreovitz,[2] I can
say that it was very helpful. Other possible sources include
teaching resource centers at your university. Many of these
programs will videotape your class period or group-
interview your students to provide input on your teaching.
Having participated in the group interview process, I can
attest to the value of the input that the students are willing to
provide to an impartial observer. In short, to combat our lack
of experience and education when starting out, we need to
seek out information that will help us become the educators
we want to be.

Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1994

Chemical Engineering Education

Spend time with students.

Nothing says more about how you value your students and
their education than how much of your time you are willing
to spend with them. In my experience, I have often had
students who are unable to follow lectures as fast as they
come to them. These students are often bright, but they
simply do not assimilate material during a lecture. I have
noticed that when these students are given the chance to ask
questions and receive instruction outside of class, they will
often perform much better than students who were able to
follow the material presented in lectures.
Time is a precious commodity to a new faculty member,
and it is often difficult to find the necessary time to assist
students. Fortunately, there are ways around this problem.
First, find time to work on research projects when you know
students will not be present. For myself, these times come
very early in the morning (students in general tend to be late
risers). For others it may be late in the evening, or it may
mean a trip to the library, or a day at home working on a
laptop computer. Whatever it is, find this time without turn-
ing students away. If you insist on only being available
during office hours, make sure that you are courteous and
helpful with students who attempt to see you outside of
office hours (e.g., set up a specific appointment time with
the student). Truly caring about your students and spending
extra time with them will go further than almost anything
else in helping you to achieve your goal in the classroom-
educating students.

Set high, but reasonable, goals for
yourself and your students.

In organizing classes, developing homework assignments,
and preparing tests, we should always consider what it is that
we want to accomplish. For example, is the purpose of a
homework assignment simply to have the student practice
what they should already know, or is it designed to stretch
the students and teach them something not yet seen? Should
an exam simply be a method for evaluating student compe-
tence, or can it also be a way of teaching the students? When
preparing a syllabus, how much material can realistically be
All of these questions, and many others, are important in
developing our goals for students and for ourselves. In most
cases it is a good idea to communicate your goals to stu-
dents. For example, in the case of a homework assignment,
if it partially involves areas that aren't covered in the class or
in reading, provide that information to the students. Telling

students about your goals and your ideas clarifies what is
expected of them. I have found that if students know what to
expect, they are often excited by the opportunity to learn
something on their own, something that they must work at
and accomplish, something they might otherwise complain
about! This sense of accomplishment is probably the most
important aspect of setting goals-students who feel that
they have accomplished something develop self-confidence
and a positive attitude about the class and the subject.

Seek input regarding class progress
and respond to that input.

Halfway through my first semester of teaching I was
shocked to find out that more than 85% of the students
thought that I had been going too quickly in lectures. This
fact came as a surprise to me because I had failed to ask for
input from the students and was thus unaware of their
progress, or lack of it. By the time my end-of-the-semester
teaching evaluation came around, it would have been much
too late to help the students in that class. It is important,
especially for new faculty, to receive as much input as pos-
sible regarding class progress. The input should come from
the students themselves, from faculty mentors, or from pro-
fessional evaluators. More importantly, this input should
always be responded to. If students provide input and give
suggestions, their suggestions should be considered seri-
ously. Addressing their concerns does not necessarily mean
giving in to them, but it does mean discussing those con-
cerns and why you will, or will not (or maybe cannot), do
something about the situation.
Obtaining input from students can be a delicate issue-
many students feel uncomfortable criticizing the person who
will be giving them a grade. This problem can be circum-
vented by taking anonymous written surveys or by appoint-
ing class representatives (one representative for each eight to
ten students works well) who will meet with you on a monthly
or biweekly basis. By appointing class representatives, stu-
dents can anonymously convey their feelings, good and bad,
to the representatives who can then convey them to you.

Actively involve students in each class

It has been well documented that students who participate
actively in class learn more. It is thus especially important
for us to encourage students to participate. Posing questions
that students are required to attempt, forming small groups
for two-to-three-minute discussions, having brief student
presentations, and giving short simple quizzes are all excel-

Fall 1994

lent methods for helping students to learn actively. These
types of activities are especially necessary in courses that are
longer than fifty minutes and are recommended even for
fifty-minute courses. For example, in the first course I taught,
which met for an hour and fifteen minutes, I presented solely
in a lecture format and found that I often had to repeat
information from the last half of the previous class. Since
incorporating example problems or discussions in the middle
of each lecture, I have found that students not only learn
more effectively, but I am also actually able to cover mate-
rial at a more rapid pace.
In finding what activities work best, one should consider
the other suggestions in this list. A great deal of assistance
can also be obtained from books on the subject, from articles
in educational journals, and from teachers in your own and
other departments. Each individual must apply and adapt the
methods that work best for him or her.

Respect, though necessary, is
an earned commodity.

Few things conflict with student interaction more than an
egotistical professor. Do not expect that when you walk into
class on the first day, students will automatically have a
great deal of admiration or respect for you. Your image will
be formed rapidly by what you do and how you treat the
students, both inside and outside of the classroom.
For a new instructor, there are few things more important
than having the respect of your students and your peers. In
the long run, respect is earned through time and interaction,
through honesty and dependability, through courteousness
and consideration, and through evaluation of the quality of
your work.

Remember that counseling
is part of the job.

Within the first month of my first class, I encountered two
students with emotional problems. I was shocked when both
of these students brought their problems to me with the
expectation that I could help in some way. Right or wrong,
students often look to their teacher for assistance in every-
thing from coursework to finding a job to assistance with
emotional or physical problems. In the case of personal
problems, I have learned that it is best to refer students to
professional counselors. These services are usually available
on campus at little or no cost to the student.
In offering advice to students, I have observed that often I
subconsciously expect my students to have the same priori-
ties that I do. They don't. When offering advice, it is essen-

tial to find out what the student's priorities are and what they
want. For example, I have noted that when selecting a gradu-
ate school a student's priorities can range from the quality of
the education they will receive to the weather in some par-
ticular area. As advisors and counselors, it is not our job to
judge whether their priorities are correct or to tell them what
they should do. Rather, our job is to provide them with
information and to ask them enough questions so that they
themselves arrive at the best decision.

Be clear in what you expect.

One problem that I have had at the beginning of almost
every semester is creating assignments in which the problem
description is clear. In preparing both homework assign-
ments and tests for students, it is imperative that we are
testing the students' abilities and knowledge, as opposed to
their ability to determine what the question is asking. If
possible, have your teaching assistant or mentor read assign-
ments, especially quizzes and exams.
A second area where clarity is important is grading. From
the very beginning of the class, make it clear exactly what
the grading policies will be and how grading will be done-
and do not sway from what you have set forth as your policy.
Although changing the grading system or the type and num-
ber of exams may make some students happy, others will
feel betrayed. If you are worried that something may need to
be changed as the class progresses, remember that it is better
not to have a policy than to change it in midstream.

Be helpful and available for students.

Although there are times when it will not be possible,
interactions with students should typically have a positive
tone associated with them. When students ask questions in
class, be helpful and don't act as if you are frustrated by their
questions. Outside of class, greet your students by name.
Always remember that their education and the opportunity
to instruct them is the reason you are there. I have found that
by being helpful and respecting students, I have not only
taught them but in many cases I have also become their
friend. In my role as a professor, there is nothing I treasure
more than my interactions with the students.

Be actively involved in selecting
which courses you teach.

Teaching the courses you feel comfortable with and are
excited about is important, especially at the start of a teach-
ing career. In the first or second semester of teaching there is
Chemical Engineering Education

enough to worry about with respect to how to teach-if you
also must gain excitement and knowledge about the area, it
makes the burden and the time commitment all that much
Because I was not involved in selecting what I taught in
my first semester, I ended up teaching a class with which I
felt uncomfortable. If it is possible, I would suggest that you
have a discussion with the person responsible for teaching
assignments before your first semester on the job. Discuss
the courses you would enjoy and feel qualified to teach, as
well as the ones that you would not feel comfortable teach-
ing (at least, not right away). It is also helpful to teach the
same course from year to year (up to three times) to lower
the time commitment. Teaching the same course several
times will allow you to develop a style that is most comfort-
able and effective for you.

As I stated earlier, there is nothing I value more from my

first years as a teacher than the interactions I had with
students. The joy and satisfaction of watching someone learn
and develop is infinitely more than satisfying. Unfortunately,
there are also a number of obstacles and failures that occur
along the way-but it is always challenging to focus on the
accomplishments and to learn from the failures.

1. Scriven, L.E., "A Vision of Exceptional Teaching Amidst
Exceptional Research," Chem. Eng. Ed., 28, 104 (1994)
2. Wankat, P.C., and F.S. Oreovicz, Teaching Engineering,
McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1993)
3. McKeachie, W.J., Teaching Tips: A Guidebook for the Begin-
ning College Teacher, 8th ed., D.C. Heath and Company,
Lexington, MA (1986)
4. Kolb, D.A., Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source
of Learning and Development, Prentice-Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ (1984)
5. Kolb, D.A., Learning Style Inventory, McBer and Company,
Boston, MA (1985)

REVIEW: Handbook of Hazard Control
Continued from page 269

mation not readily available to academics. For instance,
Chapter 13 provides substantial information on floating-roof
tanks, including detailed drawings (overall tank design, seal
design, etc.) and also gives the basis for estimating emission
rates from these units. Similarly, substantial chapters and
sections are provided on seals, flanges, valves, rotating equip-
ment, sampling ports, transfer equipment, manual opera-
tions, etc. The copious drawings are also very helpful.
The book contains a total of 16 chapters. Chapter 1 pro-
vides the standard introduction to industrial hygiene, includ-
ing dose response, health effects, etc. Chapter 2 is on sources
of exposure and describes (in a general sense) the various
ways people are exposed to chemicals. Chapter 3 describes
quantitative methods for evaluating exposures, including
workplace sampling methods and analytical techniques, while
Chapter 4 is a substantial chapter on emission regulations,
including EPA and OSHA regulations.
Chapter 5 is on emissions measurement and estimation; it
discusses continuous leaks from process equipment rather
than episodic emissions which occur during an accident.
Chapter 6 is an introduction to hazard control and discusses
the various alternatives which are available once an expo-
sure has been identified.
Chapters 7 through 10 are on valves, control valves,
flanges and connections, and rotating equipment (pumps,
compressors), respectively. The 300 pages allotted to
these four chapters provide a huge resource of practical
detail on emissions from these units, seal and bearing

construction, regulations, etc.
Chapter 11 is on sampling, showing the various methods
available to withdraw samples from process equipment and
the resulting worker exposure hazards. Chapter 12 discusses
drains, sewers, and wastewater emissions control; it presents
information on these emission sources which are frequently
overlooked since they are often considered utility areas.
Certainly, toxic fugitive emissions from these areas can rep-
resent a significant source of exposure.
Chapter 13 is on liquid storage and transfer; significant
design details on various types of storage tanks and transfer
systems, along with emission information, is presented. Chap-
ter 14 is on dust control and describes the various methods
used to handle dusts and to reduce exposures.
Chapter 15 is on major process hazards and discusses
episodic releases, emergency response and planning, and
applicable regulations. Chapter 16 presents a discussion of
exposure assessment, providing a number of simple
calculational methods to estimate workplace exposures.
This book would certainly be appropriate as a reference
for an upper-level chemical engineering class on process
safety, for a course on chemical engineering design, or
for an environmental course discussing fugitive emis-
sions. No homework problems are provided and only a
few calculational procedures are presented using equations
with fixed units. The book would also serve as an excel-
lent reference on emissions from process equipment for
practicing engineers. 0

Fall 1994

r] M. historical perspective


Contributions to Chemical Engineering

University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20754-2111

Although Michael Faraday is best known for his con-
tributions to electromagnetism, he made a number
of important contributions to areas which are now
included in the academic programs peculiar to chemical
engineering departments, but the usual teaching of chemical
engineering gives little weight to its historical roots. This is
unfortunate since it leaves most graduates with no under-
standing of the thought processes leading to the more pro-
found developments.
In evaluating historical accomplishments, a good place to
begin is with the contributions of Michael Faraday."' His
contributions during his active research period between 1814
to 1862 included the development or refinement of the test
tube and prototypes of the electrical motor, transformer, and
generator. From 1816 to 1830, however, most of his work
was in applied chemistry and its related technology It in-
cluded a number of studies which either led to industrial
processes or were academic research which are now compo-
nents of the chemical engineering core curriculum.
The first study by Faraday (which appears in his diary)
was on the chemical luminescence of glow worms. While
there'are two or three of these early reports in his role as
assistant to Sir Humphrey Davy, the first paper written only
by Faraday was "On the Native Caustic Lime of Tuscany,"
published in 1816.
The first truly significant papers published by Faraday
coauthoredd by Stodart) appeared in 1818 and 1820 and
dealt with the production of stainless steel. The most impor-

James W. Gentry is professor of chemical engi-
neering at the University of Maryland in College
Park. He received his BS from Oklahoma State
University, his MS from the University of Birming-
ham, and his PhD from the University of Texas.
He teaches courses in transport phenomena, ap-
plied mathematics, and air pollution control. His
research interests are in aerosol physics and
chemistry, with emphasis on electrostatic and
aerodynamic properties of non-spherical particles,
aggregates, and untrafine aerosols.
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 1994

tant of the studies prior to 1821 concerned the systematic use
of photochemistry to enhance the rate of reaction, the chlori-
nation of ethylene (which historically was one of the
key studies in the development of the theory of substitution
and additional chemical reactions), and in the manufacture
of rust-free steel.
Two studies, liquefaction of substances which were gases
at normal temperatures (1823) and the discovery of mag-
netic rotation (1821) established Faraday's reputation as a
leading chemist and physicist in Europe. Then, beginning in
1830 with the discovery of induction there were a number of
results-induction, electrolysis, di and para magnetism, the
dielectric constant-that established his reputation as the
world's leading scientist. This period of seminal discoveries
lasted until 1850.
From 1850 to 1862 the frequency of great discoveries
declined and Faraday concentrated on more speculative stud-
ies: the interrelation of gravity and electro-magnitism, the
discharge of gases in vacuum, the regulation of ice, the effect
of small particles and thin metal layers on light. During this
period several series of lectures were transcribed and pub-
lished, including the six-lecture series Natural History of a
Candle. His last published work (1862) was a report on an
unsuccessful experiment examining the effect of magnetic
fields on the spectral lines. The experiment was repeated by
Zeeman with better instrumentation (e.g., diffraction gradi-
ents rather than lens) and with positive results more than
thirty years later.
It is not inappropriate to characterize Faraday as one of the
founders of chemical engineering. (Six contributions, dis-
cussed in this paper, are of particular relevance to chemical
engineers.) Moreover, the specific research areas (liquefac-
tion and cryogenic behavior of gases, colloids and aerosols,
hydrocarbon mixtures, kinetics and catalysis, industrial pro-
cesses, and rubber and polymers) fit into chemical engineer-
ing better than they do into any other academic discipline.
The six papers in the rank order that I have selected are:
* "Liquefaction and Solidification of Bodies Generally Existing
as Gases," in Experimental Researches in Chemistry and
Physics, 96 (1845)

Chemical Engineering Education

* "Experimental Relations of Gold (and Other Metals) to Light," in
Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics, 391 (1857)
"On New Compounds of Carbon and Hydrogen ...," in Experimen-
tal Researches in Chemical and Physics, 154 (1825)
"On the Power of Metals and Other Solids to Induce the Combina-
tion of Gaseous Bodies," in Experimental Researches in Electric-
ity, 564 (1834)
"On the Manufacture of Glass for Optical Purposes," in Experi-
mental Researches in Chemistry and Physics, 231 (1829)
"On Pure Caoutchouc," in Experimental Researches in Chemistry
and Physics,, 174 (1826)
The original versions of most of Faraday's papers are readily
available in Experimental Researches in Chemistry and
Physics,[21 and the three-volume series Experimental Re-
searches in Electricity. 3
In several of the following sections I have included short tables
showing studies which can be regarded as especially noteworthy
within their genre.141

In my opinion, shared by others,1561 the liquefaction of gases is
the most significant of the studies listed here.The work is con-
tained in three papers, two of which were published in 1823178]
and the last having been published almost twenty years later191.
Arguably, the earlier papers are of greater historical significance,
but it is the later paper which fits more closely the style of
contemporary academic chemical engineering papers. A sub-
stantial body of data is presented, a new instrumental design
is developed, and provocative conjectures are proposed. One
could argue that this paper set the agenda and the metho-
dology for the liquefaction of gases for the next seventy years,
that it was the first truly significant paper on cryogenics, that it
linked for the first time the critical point with gas liquefaction,

Key Historical Development in Gas Liquefaction

Year Researeher
1822 Cagniard de la Tour
1823 Faraday
1835 Thilorier
1844 Faraday

1868 Andrews
1873 Vander
1877 Pictet, C
1895 Linde,H
1895 Olszewsl
1898 Dewar
1908 Kammer]
1926 Keesom



Discovered critical point
Liquefied chlorine and eight other gases
Production of solid CO2 in bulk
Lower temperature by evaporation, vapor
pressure data
Continuity of gas and liquid states
Equation of state
Liquefaction of oxygen
Commercial liquefaction of air
Liquefaction of Argon, critical pressure of H2
Liquefaction and solidification of hydrogen
Liquefaction of helium
Solidification of helium

and that it influenced the subsequent studies of Andrewso10l
and Van der Waals.1"1 If one paper can be credited with
establishing contemporary chemical engineering science,
this is that paper.
The 1823 Faraday papers were the first important stud-
ies in gas liquefaction (Faraday subsequently reviewed
possible liquefactions before 182012]). They were the first
to definitively establish that materials which are gases at
normal temperatures could be liquefied, the first to couple
simultaneous pressurization and cooling in a general ap-
proach, and the first to present limited data (the density of
the liquid and one pressure-temperature pair). The lique-
faction of nine gases with critical temperatures in the
vicinity of 1000C was reported.
The 1844 paper describes the liquefaction of six new
gases and the freezing of seven previously liquefied gases.
In addition, data are presented of the vapor pressure of
eleven materials as a function of temperature. The re-
ported values for the melting point stand up well with the
values which are currently accepted. Essentially, the work
in this paper dealt with liquefaction of gases with critical
temperatures in the range of-10C to 100C.
All three papers are clearly written and can be given to
undergraduates with only a few caveats: before 1850
there was no standardized nomenclature, so carbonic and
sulfurous acid are CO, and SO2, respectively; also, Fara-
day defines an atmosphere not in the absolute sense used
now but as the reciprocal of the compressed volume. The
1844 paper is, I believe, well suited for supplemental
reading in an undergraduate thermodynamics class.
In the twenty-year interim between the papers, there
were two technology developments of great importance
(see Table 1). Thilorier produced large quantities of
solid CO2 and developed the CO2-ether bath allowing
one to reach temperatures of -1000F; secondly, Cagniard
de la Tour[131 discovered the critical point with ether
at elevated pressures.
The key to the 1844 paper is a clever procedure for
reducing the temperature to much lower temperatures.
The trick that Faraday used was to pull a vacuum on the
ether-CO2 mixture. Since evaporation of the ether lowers
the temperature of the bath, he was able to lower his
operating temperature by 600F to -166'F. To obtain higher
pressures, the glass tubes were replaced with metal tubes,
and reciprocal volumes of up to 50 Amagats (labeled as
atmospheres in the original paper) could be obtained.
Faraday suggested that temperatures lower than the
critical point may be necessary to liquefy the gases and
indicated his failure to liquify H2, 02, N2, CH4, CO, and
NO. To liquefy these gases became the primary objective
for cryogenic studies. The method Faraday developed
was generalized by Pictet[141 to isolate liquid oxygen for

Fall 1994

the first time (1877) and by Olszewski 5156' to obtain liquid
Argon and possibly liquid hydrogen (in the 1890s). Eventu-
ally the Joule-Thomson effect was exploited to obtain
liquid hydrogen by Dewar and in commercial liquefaction
processes by Linde and others. It is difficult to argue with
the conclusion that Faraday's three papers constitute
the most significant cryogenic work of the first half of the
19th century.
In the cryogenic engineering literature, cryogenic work is
conventionally defined as being at temperatures of 1200K.
Using this definition, the cryogenic era begins with the stud-
ies of Caillet"'7 and Pictet, but their virtually simultaneous
studies produced only mists of liquid air. It was more than
ten years later before sufficient liquid oxygen or nitrogen
was produced so that their properties could be determined. I
believe that both Thilorier and Faraday have stronger claims
for initiating cryogenic studies-Thilorier reached a tem-
perature of 2000K (but produced large amounts of solid
CO2) and Faraday made measurements at temperatures as
low as 165'K.

The second paper I have selected is "Experimental Rela-
tions of Gold (and Other Metals) to Light,""'8 and it can be
regarded as the first significant paper discussing colloids.
The study reported in this lecture occupied almost all of
Faraday's research time during 1856. Colloids and aerosols
generated by the methods described in this paper were later
used by Miel'91 to examine the optical properties of dispersed
particles, and the subsequent studies on light scattering of
colloids and aerosols followed from this study. From the
perspective of the late 20th century, however, the paper
seems incomplete since interpretation of the experiments
was left for Tyndall[201, Mie, and Graham,121] among others,
to complete. But the methods Faraday developed for gener-
ating aerosols and colloids are still the methods of choice
today. Perhaps as much as half of the particulate aggregates
pictured in the recent literature on fractals are generated
using Faraday's method. Similarly, use of the "exploding
wire" technique for generating aggregated aerosols had its
origin in this paper.
Although the paper is comparatively long, it is quite com-
pact since six to ten different studies, each with many varia-
tions, are compressed into it. The paper presents four major
* Small particles of gold scatter and transmit light of different
colors depending on their size. The same optical laws are
applicable for gold produced by (a) beaten golden leaves, (b)
aerosols from exploding gold wires, (c) films of gold produced
from [AuCl4] solutions, (d) colloidal particles of gold in
aqueous solutions, (f) metal stains in animal tissue, and (e)
colloidal particles which were produced in gels.
* The particles in all cases were established as finely divided
gold. In the case of the film and solutions it was shown that no

other forms of gold remained in solution for all the gold was
in the form of fine particles consisting of elemental gold and
not gold compounds. Faraday conjectures that the color in the
ruby glass developed in 1674 by Kunckel'221 is due to finely
divided gold analogous to the color which he produced in
The transmitted color was established as a property of the size
of the particles as the transmitted color changed from ruby to
blue as the particles aggregated. The finer particles (e.g.,
those that transmitted light as ruby) were the slowest to settle,
remaining in suspension for months. It is interesting to
examine the experimental results with the Mie theory
calculations reported by Van de Hulstf23 which provides a
striking verification of light scattering theory.
The effect of thefive types of suspended goldparticles on
polarized light was examined and a number of special
experimental techniques were developed. These included
procedures for producing the gold colloids in aqueous
solutions and gels, the procedure for producing the gold films,
and the preparation of supports for the gold leaves, aerosols,
and films.
This is an impressive array of results, especially since each
of the preparation methods are completely independent. Al-
though the paper misses the bold, sweeping conclusions
typical of Faraday's best work, it is far more than a bag of
tricks. The paper clearly distinguishes between the light
transmitted, the light reflected at 900, and the light reflected
at 1800. The relationship between wavelength and particle
size is implied, but not definitively stated.
From our perspective it is clear that this study leads di-
rectly to the exploitation of the Tyndall effect and was a
forerunner to the work of Rayleigh1241 and Mie on light
scattering. Similarly, the study of colloidal suspensions
clearly indicates that there is a repulsive force between the
fine gold particles which significantly hinders sedimenta-
tion, that this repulsive force is operable in conducting solu-
tions but not in non-conductors, and that the suspensions can
even be regenerated in the case of gels. Yet the dominant

Key Historical Developments in Colloids

Year Researcher
1827 Brown
1857 Faraday
1861 Graham
1869 Tyndall
1871 Rayleigh
1879 Nagelli
1883 Schulze
1903 Zsigmondy
1905-6 Einstein and
1908 Mie
1916 Smoluchoaslu

Chemical Engineering Education

Brownian motion
Gold colloids, size effect on light scattering
Concept of colloids
Light scattering of colloids, Tyndall effect
Light scattenng of %ery small particles
Concept of micelle
Floccuianon depends on electrol.te condiuon
Development of ultramicroscope
Kinetic theory of Brownian motion

Light scattering of colloids
Coagulanon theory

role played by electrical forces in colloid stability1251 was not
recognized, nor were practical applications of the amount of
light transmitted with concentration and the wave length
dependence of light on particle size exploited[261 in the devel-
opment of instrumentation.
The paper is clearly one of the seminal papers in colloid
science (see Table 2). It was cited by Ostwald as one of the
classical papers in colloids and was honored by being repub-
lished as an Ostwald Classic. Among the works published
before 1860 in the development of colloidal science, it is
second only to the discovery of Brownian motion. I believe
it plays an equally key role in chemical engineering. Aerosol
and colloidal science are substantial components in contem-
porary chemical engineering, and light extinction measure-
ments are a mainstay in a number of chemical engineering
processes. Several of the methods developed in this work for
production of aerosols and colloidal dispersions are used
today, almost without change.


The third paper, "On New Compounds of Carbon and
Hydrogen .," 271 has more significance to organic chemis-
try than to chemical engineering. It is included in the half
dozen significant papers because it was one of the first
studies of hydrocarbon mixtures which raised the question
as to when and how two key steps in petroleum distillation
arose: when were side streams and reflux introduced in
distillation, and when did methods developed for character-
izing hydrocarbon mixtures according to the temperature of
constant boiling fractures and their aromatic content become
standard practice? The paper includes three contributions:
the discovery of butene, the discovery of benzene, and one
of the earliest studies examining the H:C ratio of different
boiling fraction and the fraction of aromatic and unsaturated
hydrocarbons in mixtures.
From a historical perspective, the most significant contri-
bution in this paper was the isolation of butene, the determi-
nation of its molecular weight, and the determination of its
H:C ratio. Faraday found a liquid density of 0.627, which
was the lightest liquid then known, and formed addition and
substitution compounds with cholorine, but did not obtain
pure chlorocarbons as he had for ethylene. Schorlemmer1281
cites the definition of isobutene as one of the key studies in
clarifying the concept of isomerism. Prior to 1932 the term
"isomer" was quite broad and included compounds which
had different crystal structures, compounds with the same
elemental composition but different molecular weights, and
compounds with the same elemental composition and mo-
lecular weight but different properties. Berzelius coined the
expression polymericc compounds" in 1831 to account for
substances such as butene and ethylene. The designation did
not stick, and in this summary these compounds are charac-
Fall 1994

terized as belonging to the same homologous series.
The second major contribution of the paper was the dis-
covery and development of benzene. Benzene (as was butene)
was obtained from the fractional distillation of the residual
oil from illuminating gas. Mitscherlich1291 subsequently pro-
duced benzene from calcium benzoate and studied its reac-
tions, and Kekule1301 proposed the ring structure. It is at least
arguable that these contributions are more important than the
results on benzene reported in the Faraday paper.
The third significant contribution, less well known but
more directly related to chemical engineering, was the char-
acterization of hydrocarbon mixtures. The illuminating gas
residual was divided into constant boiling fractions. The first
innovation was determining the H:C ratios for each of the
constant boiling fractions, and the second innovation was
attempting to characterize hydrocarbon mixtures by the
amount of hydrocarbon "absorbed" by the sulfuric acid.
Faraday noted the effectiveness of ethylene and benzene in
absorbing sulfuric acid and compared gases from three fuels
where the absorption varied for 3% to 22%.
In summary, this paper played a substantial role in the
clarification of chemical structure and was recognized as
one of the seminal papers in the foundation of organic chem-
istry. Because it first isolated and analyzed two key hydro-
carbons (benzene and isobutene) it is of great historical
significance. Finally, it contains substantial hints to the ori-
gin of key developments in the characterization of petro-
leum-based hydrocarbons-the mainstay of the chemical
engineering profession.

In conducting his study on electrolysis, Faraday developed
an instrument for measuring the rate of current passing
through electrolytes that worked on the principal of measur-
ing the volume of 02 and H2 that was liberated. When the
electrodes were platinum the gases slowly recombined at
room temperature. In this paper, Faraday1311 showed that the
reaction was catalyzed by the platinum surface. This was not
the first study of catalyzed reactions' but the prior reports
were all qualitative and it was not until 1857 that
Wilhelmy[32'331 reported the first quantitative measurements
on rates of reaction.
In the first section of the paper, Faraday demonstrated that
the catalytic effect depends only on a clean platinum surface
and carried out experiments which eliminated all other pre-
vious explanations. In the second section he proposed a
mechanism for the catalytic reaction, describing those
experiments that had been reported. And in the third
section there is a discussion of experiments investigating the
suppression of the reaction by trace gases. It is this third
section which has the most direct relation with contempo-
rary chemical engineering kinetics and catalysis. He demon-
strated the poisoning of catalysts, he showed that ethylene

and carbon monoxide would suppress the reaction, but that
the catalyst was only temporarily deactivated, and he showed
that phosphine and hydrogen sulfide permanently deacti-
vated the catalyst.
The part of this paper which is most clearly in the scope of
chemical engineering is a short section on the effect of trace
gases on the oxidation reaction. Faraday reported three quali-
tatively different effects: several gases had no detectable
effect on the reaction even when the dilutent gas composi-
tion was as high as 80%; several other gases would prevent
the oxidation from occurring if their concentration was suffi-
ciently high; and two gases (PH3 and H2S) not only pre-
vented oxidation, but also caused permanent damage to the
catalytic behavior of the plates.
The paper is not usually included in short lists of seminal
papers in kinetics and catalysis, and of the most widely used
kinetics and catalysis monographs written for chemical en-
gineers, only Boudart and Djega-Mariadassoul341 references
the paper. It is not easy to explain why the paper did not have
more impact on the history of catalysis. It was one of the
papers published in the Experimental Researches in Elec-
tricity, it is clearly written, and it involves no difficult con-
cepts. I think the explanation is that the time simply was not
right to aggressively pursue catalysis. But notwithstanding
this lack of direct impact on the growth of chemical engi-
neering science, I believe it to be one of the five most
significant Faraday papers related to chemical engineering.

In my opinion, an area neglected in many chemical engi-
neering curricula is an in-depth discussion of an engineering
process. Faraday's paper "On the Manufacture of Glass
for Optical Purposes"'351 is by far the most interesting, infor-
mative, and well-written paper on the technology of a chemi-
cal process that I have read. It is most suitable for a
reading list in chemical processes, but would also fit well
into a design course.
The paper outlines the major problems that had to be
overcome before satisfactory optical glass could be made.
They included, but were not limited to: examination of the
compositions of the components used to make the glass
(Faraday developed special optical glasses with twice the
density of normal optical glass); the finding that platinum
worked best for the composition of the liner holding the
glass because it could be easily separated from the glass; a
discussion of how to mix the molten glass without splatter-
ing it over the bottom of the furnace; and a description of the
composition of the earthenware crucibles (how many stu-
dents or faculty would dream that there is a meaningful
difference in the clays used for the melting pots?).
This paper has that rare quality of engaging the interest
and mind of the student as it describes the development of a

process that overcame the obstacles for a satisfactory glass
product. In my experience in chemical engineering educa-
tion I can recall seeing few analogous descriptions of other
engineering processes, and it is for that reason that I have
included this paper on the list.

The comparatively short paper "On Pure Caoutchouc "[36
reports on an investigation of a tree sap from South Mexico
from which rubber caoutchoucc) could be isolated. Faraday
divided the sap into five components, and the general prop-
erties of three residual products were examined and de-
scribed. He reported that interesting solutions of rubber with
olive oil and with turpentine were made and speculated that
these could be useful in varnishes and adhesives. He showed
that rubber is a hydrocarbon and is credited with first deter-
mining its elemental composition C5H8.
There is no doubt that the paper is regarded as very signifi-
cant in the rubber and (perhaps) the polymer literature. If
not regarded as a seminal paper in the development of
rubber chemistry, it is at least considered as one of the
more important precursors. It is clear that the paper played
a significant role in the early history of polymers in, first,
representing the most accurate determinations of rubber com-
position up to 1860 and second, by clearly serving as a
stimulus to subsequent study

Each of the six papers discussed in this article described a
separate research topic, each of which has an extensive
literature. The criteria I used in selecting the papers were 1)
that they have stood the test of time, 2) that they made a
substantial contribution to chemical engineering science, and
3) that I like them.
I believe that the first three papers have proven to be of the
greatest importance to posterity. The paper on liquefaction
established cryogenics as a research area, set the agenda for
the next half century in gas liquefaction, and permanently
linked the concept of the critical point with gas liquefaction.
Both the cryogenic and gas liquefaction industries can trace
their origin to this paper. The paper on the optical properties
of gold showed that the optical properties of particles are
related to their size, and it led directly to Tyndall's work on
light scattering of finely divided particles, played a signifi-
cant role in our understanding of colloids, and introduced
methods of generating aerosols and monodisperse colloidal
particles. The historical importance of the paper on the hy-
drocarbon products from illuminating gas lies in the first
separation and definition of isobutene and benzene and in
definitively establishing that there are organic compounds
which have the same elemental ratios but different molecu-
lar weights and properties. The paper includes what is, per-
haps, the first attempt to characterize the properties of hy-
drocarbon mixtures.
Chemical Engineering Education

The second group of three papers had less impact on
chemical engineering science but are nonetheless important.
The paper on oxidation of hydrogen in the presence of plati-
num showed that the catalytic reaction depends only on a
clean platinum surface and presented experiments showing
the poisoning of catalysts. The first of these has been recog-
nized as one of the seminal results in 19th century surface
science, although the catalytic poisoning study seems to
have played no subsequent role in kinetics and catalysis. It is
a classical example of a paper published "before it's time."
While the paper on the manufacture of glass broke little new
scientific ground, it has value in its thorough and com-
plete description of the manufacture of optical glass in the
early 19th century. It was chosen because it is the best
representative of a generic class important in engineering
education. The last paper, on the other hand, played a key
role in the early work on the structure of rubber, especially
the description of isoprene.
There are other contributions from Faraday of equal or
greater importance to those described here. First in this
regard is the set of papers on electrochemistry,137'381 and
second are the papers on the development of substitution and
addition reactions.1391 Another interesting paper is the study
on conduction of various solids and molten liquids.1401 Its
historical importance lies in the fact that this paper reports
the temperature property of semiconductors for the first
time. I also think the paper on the a( and p forms of naphtha-
lene sulfonic acid,4] the resistance to flow of gases under
different conditions,[42'431 and the making of rust-free steel
alloys are historically important. Finally, the Faraday paper I
think is the most shocking and provocative, and worth men-
tioning here, is titled "On the Character and Direction of
Electric Force of the Gymnotus.""441

1. Williams, L.P., Michael Faraday, Da Capo (1965)
2. Faraday, M., Experimental Researches in Chemistry and
Physics, (1991)
3. Faraday, M., Experimental Researches in Electricity, Vol I-
III, Richard and John Edward Taylor, London, England
4. Engels, S., et al., A B C Geschichte der Chemie, VEB
Deutscher Verlay, Leipzig (1989)
5. Brdicka, R., Fundamentals of Physical Chemistry, (in Ger-
man), VEB German Press for Science (1985)
6. Cajori, F., History of Physics, Dover, 210 (1962)
7. Faraday, M., "On Fluid Chlorine," Phil. Trans., p.160 (1823)
and page 85 of Ref. 2.
8. Faraday, M., "On the Condensation of Several Gases into
Liquids," Phil. Trans., p. 89 (1823), and page 89 ofRef. 2
9. Faraday, M., "On the Liquefaction and Solidification of Bod-
ies Generally Regarded as Gases," Phil Trans., p. 155 (1845),
and page 96 of Ref. 2
10. Andrews, T. "About the Continuity of the Gaseous and Liq-
uid State of Matter," Ostwald Klassiker #98, Akad. Verlag,
Leipzig (1869)
11. Van der Waals, J.D., "About the Continuity of the Gaseous
and Liquid States," dissertation, Den Haagees
Fall 1994

12. Faraday, M., "Historical Statement Respecting the Lique-
faction of Gases," Quart. J. of Sci., 16 229 (1824), and page
124 of Ref. 2
13. Cagniard de la Tour, Ann. Chim. Phys, 21, 127 (1822)
14. Pictet, R., Compt. Ren., 85, 1213 (1877)
15. Wrolewski, S., and K. Olszewski, Ann. Physik., 20, 243
16. Olszewski, C., Phil. Mag., 39, 188 (1895)
17. Caillet, L., Compt. Ren., 85, 1213 (1877)
18. Faraday, M., Phil. Mag., 14, 512 (1857)
19. Mie, G.,Ann. Phsik, 25, 377 (1908)
20. Tyndall, J., Proc. Royal Soc., 17, 223 (1869)
21. Graham, T., Phil. Trans. Royal Soc., 151, 183 (1861)
22. Kunckel, J., Ars. Vitraria Experimentalls, oder Volkommene
Glasmacherkunst (1679)
23. Van de Hulst, H.C., Light Scattering by Small Particles,
24. Rayleigh, Lord, Phil. Mag, 41, 107, 274, 447 (1871)
25. Schulze, H., in Classical Works in Colloidal Solutions, edi-
tor, E. Hatscheuch (1926) in Ostwald Klassiker #172
26. Kerker, M., The Scattering of Light and Other Electromag-
netic Radiation, Academic Press, New York, NY (1969)
27. Faraday, M., "On New Compounds of Carbon and Hydrogen
... ," in Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics,
154 (1825)
28. Schorlemmer, C., Rise and Development of Organic Chemis-
try, reprinted as Ostwald Classic #259, Akadamische
Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig (1879)
29. Mitscherlich, E., About Benzene and Its Derivatives, Ostwald
Klassiker #94, Acad. Verlag., Leipzig (1834)
30. Kekule, A., About the Constitution and Metamorphis of
Chemical Compounds, Ostwald Klassiker #145, Acad.
Verlag., Leipzig
31. Faraday, M., "On the Power of Metals and Other Solids to
Induce the Combination of Gaseous Bodies," in Experimen-
tal Researches in Electricity, 564 (1834)
32. Wilhelmy, L., Ann. Physik, 74, 269 (1823)
33. Wilhelmy, L., About the Law Describing the Effect of Acids
on Cane Sugar, Ostawald Klassiker #28, Acad. Verlag.,
Leipzig (1850)
34. Boudart, M., and G. Djega-Mariadassou, Kinetics of Hetero-
geneous Catalytic Reactions, Princeton (1984)
35. Faraday, M., "On the Manufacture of Glass for Optical
Purposes," Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Phys-
ics, 231 (1829)
36. Faraday, M., "On Pure Caoutchouc," Experimental Re-
searches in Chemistry and Physics, 174 (1826)
37. Faraday, M., "Electro-chemical Deposition,", Experimental
Researches in Electricity, 450 (1933)
38. Faraday, M., "Electro-chemical Deposition Continued," Ex-
perimental Researches in Electricity, 660 (1933)
39. Faraday, M., "On Two New Compounds of Chlorine and
Carbon," Philosophical Transactions, 41 (1821) or Phil. Mag.,
59, 337 (1821)
40. Faraday, M., "On Conducting Power Generally," Experi-
mental Researches in Electricity, 418 (1933)
41. Faraday, M., "On the Mutual Action of Sulphuric Acid and
Naphthaline," Philosophical Trans., 140 (1826)
42. Faraday, M., "On the Escape Through Capillary Tubes,"
Quart. J. of Sci., 3, 354 (1817
43. Faraday, M., "Experimental Observations on the Passage of
Gases Through Tubes," Quart. J. of Sci., 7, 106 (1818)
44. Faraday, M., "On the Character and Direction of Electric
Force of the Gymnotus," Experimental Researches in Elec-
tricity, 1749 (1939) 0



Is Anyone Reading What is Published?

University of Kentucky
Lexington, KY 40506

A t the request of Science, I1 David Pendlebury of the Institute for
Scientific Information analyzed the citation rate of papers in
various scientific disciplines and found that 72% of all papers
published in engineering had no citations at all.[21 Pendlebury looked at all
the engineering papers in the Institute for Scientific Information database
published in 1984 and then searched for citations of these papers through
1988. Using the same methodology, he found that physics and chemistry
had the lowest rate of "uncitedness": 36.7% and 38.8%, respectively. The
average for all hard sciences, including engineering, was 47.4%, and the
average uncitedness for chemical engineering was 65.8%.
These numbers, if truly representative, are very discouraging for those
of us in the research arena. Even more important, they present compelling
data for those who make the case that the irrelevance of much graduate
research demands its deemphasis in academe.
In this paper we will present pub-
lication/citation data for the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering at the
University of Kentucky. Based on Summary of Current
these data, we will show the distri- Publications (1977
bution of citations by year from pub-
Net # Papers # Papers
location date for the most cited pa- Faculty Citations Published Indexed
pers. We will also examine the rela-
Professor A 137 27' 17
tionship, if any, between the journal Professor B 13 4 2
in which the paper was published Professor C 66 14 11
and the number of citations based Professor D 47 143 11
on the journal's impact factor for Professor E 34 10 8
1988. In addition, we will list the Professor F 71 28 17
top eighteen U.S. chemical engineer- Professor G 54 143 14
ing departments by citations per pa- Professor H 88 303 23
per published recently in a low-cir- Professor I 15 53 4
culation publication and tabulate Professor J 149 51 42
many benchmark statistics for cita- Professor K 10 14 12
tion comparisons of papers, faculty, Totals 684 211 161
and departments. Finally, we will Average 62 19 ---
present the procedures for determin-
ing the citations of a given paper, Source of Publications: ACS Directory o
2 Source of Citations: SSI Data Bases (File
both by hand and by computer. 34, 1989-'90 Wk 48)
The phenomenon of uncitedness Includes papers published before faculty
4 Modifi ,e Pendler hrUn, itfednes Ind

Maggie Johnson is Head of the Chem-
istry/Physics Library at the University
of Kentucky. She received her M.Libn
from the University of Washington and
an MBA from Lincoln University. Prior
to coming to the University of Kentucky
she was a reference librarian at Kan-
sas City Public Library and the Coordi-
nator of Government Documents for the
Missouri State Library.
Charles E. Hamrin, Jr., received his
BS, MS, and PhD degrees in chemical
engineering from Northwestern Univer-
sity. He has been at the University of
Kentucky for twenty-six years and
served as Department Chairperson for
four years. His research interests are in
catalysis, chemical vapor deposition,
and in "soft data" such as that in this

University of Kentucky ChE Faculty
-1988)1 and Citations (1977-1990)2

# Papers Indexed/ # Papers # Papers Uncited/ Net Citations/
# Papers Published% Cited # Papers Indexed4% # Papers Indexed
63.0 13 23.5 8.06
50.0 2 0.0 6.50
78.6 8 27.3 6.00
78.6 11 0.0 4.27
80.0 8 0.0 4.25
60.7 15 11.8 4.18
100.0 12 14.3 3.86
76.7 21 8.7 3.83
80.0 4 0.0 3.75
82.4 29 31.0 3.55
85.7 6 50.0 0.83
--- 129 --- --
76.3 --- 19.9 4.25

f Graduate Research, 1979, '81, '83, '85, '87, '89
* 432, 1974-'79; File 433, 1980-'86; File 434, 1987-'89; File


Chemical Engineering Education

Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1994

I -Y

was investigated for papers published over a much longer
time period than the Pendlebury Study and covered citations
made over a more extended period. The study was carried
out using publications of the current chemical engineering
faculty at the University of Kentucky and the computer
database for Science Citation Index on Dialog.

Publication lists were compiled for each of the faculty
members based on listings in the ACS Directory of Gradu-
ate Research published in 1979, 1981, 1983, 1985, 1987,
and 1989. Since the entries are for the two preceding years
except for new faculty, the publication span was the twelve-
year period from 1977 to 1988. At present, the database is
divided into two groups: File 34 covers entries from 1988 to
the present, while File 434 now covers entries from 1974 to
the present. (The files at the time of the search are listed in
Table 1.) The database is updated weekly, and the search
period for the articles extended to December 31, 1990.
Since most published work from chemical engineering
departments is the result of graduate student effort toward an
MS thesis or a PhD dissertation, most professors follow
tradition in putting the graduate student's name first. This
requires a search for that name since only first-author names
are available in the database. When the reference was found
in a file, the number of citations was given to the left and
the actual citations including authors, titles, journals,
and affiliations were then printed out. This list was then
searched by eye to see if any of the listed publications
were written by any of the authors in the originally cited
article. These items were subtracted from the total to give
"non-self" or "net" citations. The details of this procedure

"Top 15"
(Most Frequently Cited Papers Published 1977-88 by
University of Kentucky Chemical Engineering Faculty)

Papers Citations Date
A 36 1980
B 33 1978
C 29 1978
D 22 1978
E 21 1977
F 21 1981
G 21 1986
H 18 1984
I 17 1977
J 14 1977
K 13 1985
L 11 1988
M 10 1979
N 10 1979
0 9 1984

J. Colloid Interface Science
J. Aerosol Science
Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev.
Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev.
Chem. Eng. Science
Adv. Colloid Interface Science
Atmos. Environ.
Atmos. Environ.
Atmos. Environ.
J. Chem. Phys.
Prep. Pap.-Am.Chem.Soc., Div Fuel Chem.
Sep. Sci Technology
Atmos. Environ.
J. ElectroanaL Chem. Interfac. Electrochem.

Fall 1994

done online are illustrated in the Appendix to this paper.

Papers Published, Indexed, Cited The number of papers
published by current University of Kentucky faculty as listed
in the ACS Directories of 1979 to 1989 total 211, as shown
in Table 1. Of these, only 161 (76.3%) were found in the ISI
database as of December 31, 1990. The percent of papers
published to papers in the database ranged from 50% for
Professor B to 100% for Professor G. All subsequent figures
will be based on the papers that were found in the database.
Of the 161 papers indexed, 129 were cited by others, for a
79.5% citedness-or using Pendlebury's terminology, 21.5%
united. This is a much more encouraging result than the
65.8% uncitedness reported by Pendlebury mentioned
earlier (this discrepancy will be discussed later in this
paper). As shown in the table, four researchers had all
their papers cited while the more prolific authors ranged
from 8.7% to 31% united.
Another interesting number is the net citations per paper
indexed by author. In this study the average was found to be
4.25 and ranged from 0.83 citations/paper indexed to a high
of 8.06 citations/paper indexed.
Most Cited Papers The "Top 15" papers cited that were
written by University of Kentucky chemical engineering
faculty are grouped in Table 2. The total net citations range
from 36 for Paper A (published in 1980) to 9 for Paper O. In
all, there are 285 net citations for the fifteen papers, giving a
mean of 19.0 citations/paper. For the "Top 10" papers the
mean number of citations is 23.3.
Time Distribution of Citations An interesting question is
"When do papers get cited following their publication?" The
answer is indicated by a distribution plot (Figure 1) where 0
on the abscissa represents the year of publication, 1 the


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Years) After Publication
Figure 1. Distribution of net citations of "Top 15" papers
by University of Kentucky chemical engineering faculty
by year after publication.

following year, etc. The distribution of the 285 citations garnered by
the "Top 15" papers shows a peak in the second year. Individual
results for the papers indicated that wide variations were possible:
Paper L had 27% of its citations in the first year and 73% in the second
year. In the jargon of citedness, this would be labeled a "high impact"
paper. Its half-life is 1.5 years (calculated as the year or fraction
thereof when one-half the total number of citations occurred). Paper G
showed similar behavior, with a half-life of 2.5 years. By contrast,
Paper J had the longest half-life of 9.6 years. For the fifteen most-cited
papers the mean half-life was 4.5 years.
Citations of Chemistry Papers ISI has published"'3 a list of the Top
101 chemistry papers published in 1986 and cited from 1986 to 1990.
The average number of citations for this period was 87.8, and the mean
half-life of the papers was 1.94. Obviously, this number would in-
crease as the period of citation collection is lengthened. These half-life
differences probably explain Pendlebury's higher uncitedness for chemi-
cal engineering compared to chemistry, as well as the high value of
uncitedness. As we all know, getting a paper in print can be a frustrat-
ingly long procedure.
Journal Rankings by Citedness Another question is, "Does the
number of citations depend on the journal in which the article is
published?" The Journal of Citation Research reports an impact factor
for all the journals in the ISI database at regular intervals: "The impact
factor of Journal X would be calculated by dividing the number of all
current citations of source items published in Journal X during the
previous two years by the number of articles Journal X published in
those two years." Table 3 lists the top twenty-five chemical engineer-
ing journals by impact factor in 1991.[4] The highest impact factor is
2.39 for the Journal of Catalysis. By contrast, the impact factor for
Science is 19.61 and for Nature is 19.34. A plot of the number of
citations for the "Top 15" University of Kentucky papers versus the
1988 impact factor for the journal in which they were published is
shown in Figure 2. (Only fourteen papers are analyzed here because
one of the "Top 15" appeared in a journal that had no impact factor
available in 1988.)
The most interesting observation is that six of the most highly cited
articles were in journals with an impact factor below the mean value.
This would suggest that these articles "rose above" expectations for
the journal in which they were published. For the three articles in
journals with impact factors above 2.2, one had slightly more than the
mean number of citations while the other two had less. Based on this
limited information, one can tentatively conclude that publishing in
high impact factor journals in chemical engineering does not guaran-
tee many citations and that significant papers will be highly cited
regardless of the journal in which they are published.
Benchmark Data While this paper was in preparation, an article
was published listing the "Top 25 Universities in Three Different
Fields of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering" based on the number
of total (not net) citations in 1984-1991 for papers published in 1984-
1990.151 A minimum of seventy papers (average of 10 a year) had to be
published by the department for inclusion. Seven of the top twenty-
five were chemical engineering departments at non-U.S. universities.

Mi a
M...M N..ber of CQmtoo
107 M *M


0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
JCR Impact Factor, 1988

3.5 4.C

Figure 2. Number of citations for Top 15
papers by University of Kentucky chemical
engineering faculty versus JCR impact factor
Chemical Engineering Education

Top 25 ChE Journals Ranked by
Impact Factor*

Rank Tide Fa~to

1 JCatal 2.386
2 Plasma Chem Plasma P 1.507
3 Prog Energ Combust 1.467
4 Rev Environ Contam T 1.325
5 Energ Fuel 1.199
6 AIChE J 1.196
7 J Membrane Sci 0.961
8 Transport Porous Med 0.872
9 Chem Eng Sci 0.870
10 Fuel 0.838
11 Comput Chem Eng 0.833
12 Fluid Phase Equilibria 0.786
13 J Chem Eng Data 0.785
14 Ind Eng Chem Res 0.773
15 IntJ Miner Process 0.739
16 Environ Prog 0.693
17 Separ PurifMethod 0.667
18 Color Res Appl 0.641
19 Fuel Process Technol 0.640
20 Powder Technol 0.615
21 J. .4dhes Sci Technol 0.614
22 Chem Eng Res Des 0.595
23 Chem ZTG 0.570
24 J Chem Technol Bot 0.566
25 JAdhesion 0.359

* Categoriation and abbre viatons
used by SCI"'

Although the time span does not match that selected for this
paper, many benchmarks are now available for comparison.
A listing of the eighteen U.S. universities with the papers
published, citations made, and the ratio of total citations per
paper is shown in Table 4. Data are based on 34,708 articles
published in fifty-eight journals with 62,569 citations. This
gives a worldwide citation rate of 1.80 citations/article. As
noted in the table, the top U.S. departments range from
greater than three times to about twice the world citation
rate. The top eighteen U.S. universities published 5.73% of
the papers but garnered 15.7% of the citations, with a mean
value of 4.95 total citations/paper.
Finally, the question of what constitutes a highly cited
paper in chemical engineering is answered. For the eighteen
U.S. universities, sixty-two papers were published over the
seven-year period that had more than fifty citations (includ-
ing self-citations). (This contrasts to the 101 chemisty pa-
pers published in one year (1986) that had a mean citation
rate of 87.8.) There is the possibility that there were other
highly cited papers at unlisted schools. Assuming there were
very few such papers, one can infer that about eight papers
per year receive fifty or more total citations in chemical
engineering. This means that only 0.2% of the articles pub-
lished worldwide in chemical engineering receive fifty or
more citations. Half of the U.S. schools had from five to
eight papers cited fifty or more times. Assuming exactly
fifty citations, one can calculate that the remaining papers
from those schools had a mean value of 2.9 total citations/

paper, a modest figure. These benchmarks are summarized
in Table 5. It is surprising that less than one paper per faculty
member per year is the publication rate for the top depart-
ments. This number is possibly 25% low; the data for Ken-
tucky in Table 1 indicates that only 76.3 of its published
papers were found in the ISI database.

Cautions in Use of Citation Data Extreme caution must
be taken in comparing any of the numbers in Table 1 with
the above results. The table does not include five faculty
members who contributed significantly to the research of the
department during this time period but who are no longer in
the department; therefore these are not departmental aver-
ages. The value of 4.25 net citations/paper indexed com-
pares favorably to the 4.95 total citations/paper for the top
eighteen U.S. universities, even though the citation time
periods are different.

Finally, many red flags have been raised about the indis-
criminate use of citation data. MacRoberts and MacRoberts161
present a critical review of seven problems in citation analy-
sis, one of which is that the total number of citations varies
with the number of workers in the field. Life sciences domi-
nate, as evidenced by the list of the one-hundred most-cited
papers of all time. Only a few were not in this field. The
same can be said for branches of chemical engineering:
some are characterized by considerable activity and others
are not. Other precautions, discussed by Garfield and
Welljams-Dorof,[71 include:

Top 18 U.S. Chemical Engineering Departments Based on Citations/Paper'

Papers Citations Citations Papers/Faculty Citations/Faculty
Rank Department (1984-90) (1984-'91) perPaper Faculty' perYear perYear


Carnegie Mellon University 98
University of Wisconsin, Madison 106
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 125
University of Texas, Austin 132
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 205
University of Delaware 126
California Institute of Technology 76
Notre Dame University 74
Liniersity of Houston 98
Syracuse University 80
Pennsylvania State University 189
University of California, Berkeley 94
University of California, Davis 100
Northwestern University 88
Lehigh University 106
University of Illinois, Urbana 81
University of Massachusetts 117
Ohio State University 93
Total (Mean) 1,988




Reference 5
2 Average number of faculty reported in Chemical Engineering Faculties 1983-84 and 1990-91 (Emeritus excluded)
S1988/7 x 312.5 = 0.91 papers/faculty-year
4 9838/8 x 312.5 = 3.94 citations/faculty-year

Fall 1994

Publication and Citation Benchmarks
for Chemical Engineering, Based on
ISI data*
(Total Citations Include Self-Citations)

1.8 citations/paper
approximately 0.2% papers cited
more than fifty times

Top Eighteen U.S. Departments
Published 5.73% of all papers;
garnered 15.7% of all citations
15.8 papers/department per year
0.91 papers/faculty member per year
S4.95 citations/paper
3.94 citations/faculty member per year
approximately 7-8 papers/year cited
more than fifty times
approximately 3.1% papers cited
more than fifty times/papers published
by these departments
less than 2.9 citations/paper if the
highly cited papers are subtracted
from the totals

Papers published 1984-1990 wu lh 70 mnu maum for
Chemewal Engmeering Departmenr to be included
Ctatons for 1984-1991 Source, reference 5.


> Whether citations reflect agreement or disagreement. In the
hard sciences they say disagreement is relatively rare and is
generally widely known; (e.g., the cold fusion controversy).

> Self-citation in excess is usually handled in the peer review or
editorial process. It can be corrected for, as was done in the
study for the University of Kentucky data.

> Citation circles "conspire" to cite preferentially the work of
authors in the group. Such authors must be very prolific to
skew citation numbers.

> Papers focusing on experimental methods, which are not typi-
cally found in chemical engineering publications, tend to be
cited far more frequently than theoretical papers.
> Obliteration phenomenon which refers to breakthrough ad-
vances (e.g., Einstein's theory of relativity paper) is cited less
frequently over time. A similar fate might befall good "learn-
ing papers" which, after the learning by students and faculty,
are not cited.

Aware of these limitations, the authors state that citation
analysis can still be used and has been used as a quantitative
measure to determine the "relative impact of individuals,
journals, departments, institutions, and nations. In addition,
citation data can be used to identify emerging specialties,
new technologies, and even the structure of various research
disciplines, fields, and sciences as a whole."


The answer to the question posed in the title of this paper
is "yes." For the top eighteen U.S. chemical engineering
departments, the papers published from 1984 to 1990 were
cited (1984-1991) from 6.84 to 3.82 total citations/paper
published by the various departments. For the current chemi-
cal engineering faculty at the University of Kentucky, the
papers published from 1977 to 1988 and indexed by ISI from
1977 to 1990 averaged 4.25 net citations.


The authors wish to acknowledge the help of Brian Flynn
in working up the data, and Dale Amett and David Schieche
in the preparation of the figures of this paper. Thanks are
also expressed to Professor Richard Felder (North Carolina
State University) and Arnett for their constructive sugges-
tions for improving this manuscript, and to Professor John
Anderson (Carnegie-Mellon) for supplying a copy of Refer-
ence 5.

1. Hamilton, D.P., Science 250, 1331 (1990)
2. Hamilton, D.P. Science, 251, 25 (1991)
3. Szafran, Z., Current Contents, Physical, Chemical and Earth
Sciences, 31(27), 4 (1991)
4. JCR, Journal Citation Reports, Institute for Scientific In-
formation (1991)
5. Science Watch, 3(3), 1 (1992)
6. MacRoberts, M.H., and B.R. MacRoberts, J. Am. Soc. Infor.
Sci., 40(5), 342 (1989)

7. Garfield, E., and A. Welljams-Dorof, Current Contents, Physi-
cal, Chemical, and Earth Sciences, 32(4a), 5 (1992)

Searching for Citations : Online via Dialog
File 434:SCISEARCH(R) 1974-9306W3
(c) 1993 ISI Inc.
**File434: Contains complete, merged SciSearch file
**Includes abstracts as of 1991
Set Items Description

?-e cr=hamrin ce
It is necessary to expand on the cr (cited reference=first author) search
command since the way the citations are entered may not be consistent. E16-
E19 are examples of the same report being entered different ways. There may
also be differences in the way pages or volumes are listed. And, due to the
nature of the database there are often typos.

Ref Items
El 2
E2 1
E3 0
E4 1
E5 1
E6 3
E7 1
E8 2
E9 I
E10 1
Ell 2
E12 3
E13 17
E14 1
E15 1
El6 1
E17 1
E18 1
E19 1
E20 1
E21 1
E22 1
E23 1
E24 1
E25 1
E26 13
E27 6
?4 s e26

CR=HAMRIN CE, 1961, V35, P899, J CHEM PHYS
CR=HAMRIN CE, 1967, P243, 1967 P C CHEM VAP DE
CR=HAMRIN CE, 1971, VI10, P422, AM J OBST G
CR=HAMRIN CE, 1975, V54, P288, FUEL
CR=HAMRIN CE, 1975, V54, P70, FUEL
CR=HAMRIN CE, 1976, EX76C012233 ERDA CON
CR=HAMRIN CE, 1976, FE22332 REP
CR=HAMRIN CE, 1977, FE22332 REP
CR=HAMRIN CE, 1978, V57, P776, FUEL
CR=HAMRIN CE, 1979, V58, P48, FUEL

The entry for the 1979 paper by CE Hamrin was chosen.
S1 13 CR="HAMRIN CE, 1979, V58, P48, FUEL"
?4 s au=hamrin ce
Searched for Hamrin as an author. Set 2 (S2) is all papers in the data base
where he is author.
?.1 s sl not s2
S1 not S2 eliminated any papers where Hamrin cited his own work.
13 SI
S3 11 SI NOTS2
There were 11 articles which cited Hamrin's 1979 paper that were not self
citations. These could have been printed with bibliographic information and the
bibliographies or papers the eleven papers cited could also have been printed.
To eliminate co-authors' self-citations each co-author would have to be searched
individually and a "not" search done.

Doing the same search in the paper copy of Science Citation Index is a much more
time consuming proposition. Unless one is lucky enough to have a library with funds
to purchase the five-year cumulations, one would have to look in each year of SCI in
the Citation Index to see what papers by Hamrin were cited. Again, one must search
by first author. Then one would check the Source Index for each year to see what
papers Hamrin had written. In the paper copy the Hamrin entry for each year would
refer to co-authors who would have to be searched. One would then have to get
copies of the cited articles to check if there were any self citations listed. This work
makes the cost of an online search very reasonable. It should also be kept in mind
that the online version of Science Citation Index is supplemented by records from
Current Contents which are not also source journals in SCI. 0

Chemical Engineering Education

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Coa..Sc c= W avet

Interfacial hadaOrels
C Mass a aeaaTsanspeio

* Proies ModehingaOnd Ideteficadion
* Process Sinutaton

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* Surface Mi a encat
TProces yntbesois

*Transpoe Pheboniena

Robert P. C(Umbeu
(UnLvrsity uofC rnia, 1965)
(CasUgle MBoa, 1965) u.
(Pla.o UNuri S wUstif 1976) .
IMdWWsM at pt wa
(CA, 1990)
(UiWarsly 4 Tcwas. 1970)
A. fI*sumpair a
(Onivemsy of Maife, 1976)
S oJay. u of
(Calfornia Laaue ofTednology. 1991)

For Information and appli
DrR. chambers
Chemical Engineering
Auburn University, AL

Get yeao .s arA.. dePw fn Mee of de f4arstp ring ukemid engineer
delrmabtk*s fl sant Lyer ow search ei~dads toppd $3 mfoln Oe
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VY., Lee
(Iowa Stam Unwsty. 1972)
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(u (d s e i PapA Chisty 1913)
(Ukversity of mcm ky; 1978)

aL Urcer '
.* (PBatefULBINpHy. 2973)
Bruce J.' tmna*k
: (UbiafityfdrWisciuin, 111



T-, ,,






in the beautiful Rocky Mountains

Biomedical Engineering

Chemical Propulsion

Coal Combustion & Gasification

Computer Simulation



Fluid Mechanics


of Utah

Kinetics & Catalysis

Mathematical Modeling


Transport Phenomena

Molecular Dynamics

Process Design

Process Control

For additional information write to:
Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering, 350 CB
Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah 84602
Tel: (801) 378-2586



R. G. Moore, Head (Alberta)
A. Badakhshan (Birmingham, U.K.)
L. A. Behie (Western Ontario)
J. D. M. Belgrave (Calgary)
F. Berruti (Waterloo)
P. R. Bishnoi (Alberta)
R. M. Butler (Imperial College, U.K.)
A. Chakma (UBC)
R. A. Heidemann (Washington U.)
A. A. Jeje (MIT)
N. Kalogerakis (Toronto)
A. K. Mehrotra (Calgary)
B. B. Pruden (McGill)
P. M. Sigmund (Texas)
J. Stanislav (Prague)
W. Y. Svrcek (Alberta)
E. L. Tollefson (Toronto)
M. A. Trebble (Calgary)

The Department offers graduate programs leading to the M.Sc. and
Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering (full-time) and the M.Eng.
degree in Chemical Engineering, Petroleum Reservoir Engineering or
Engineering for the Environment (part-time) in the following areas:
Biochemical Engineering & Biotechnology
Biomedical Engineering
Environmental Engineering
Modeling, Simulation & Control
Petroleum Recovery & Reservoir Engineering
Process Development
Reaction Engineering/Kinetics
Transport Phenomena

Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available to all qualified applicants.

For Additional Information Write *
Dr. A. K. Mehrotra Chair, Graduate Studies Committee
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
The University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4

The University is located in the City of Calgary, the Oil capital of Canada, the home of the world famous Calgary Stampede and the
1988 Winter Olympics. The City combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication of a modern urban center. Beautiful
Banff National Park is 110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of Banff Lake Louise,and Kananaskis areas are readily accessible. In
the above photo the University Campus is shown with the Olympic Oval and the student residences in the foreground. The Engineering
complex is on the left of the picture.



Chemical Engineering Education







. offers graduate programs leading to the
Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy.
Both programs involve joint faculty-student
research as well as courses and seminars within
and outside the department. Students have the
opportunity to take part in the many cultural
offerings of the San Francisco Bay Area and
the recreational activities of California's north-
ern coast and mountains.

Biochemical Engineering
Electrochemical Engineering
Electronic Materials Processing
Energy Utilization
Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics and Catalysis
Polymer Science and Technology
Process Design and Development
Separation Processes
Surface and Colloid Science








SIMON L. GOREN (Chairman)













Fall 1994 303



Graduate Studies in

Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

Materials Science and Engineering

Chemical Engineering, Engineering, and Science Majors


Offers degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels. Research in frontier areas in
chemical engineering, including biochemical engineering, biotechnol-
ogy and materials science and engineering. Strong physical and life
science and engineering groups on campus.


The 1,510-acre UC Irvine campus is in Orange County, five miles from
the Pacific Ocean and 40 miles south of Los Angeles. Irvine is one of the
nation's fastest growing residential, industrial, and business areas. Nearby
beaches, mountain and desert area recreational activities, and local
cultural activities make Irvine a pleasant city in which to live and study.


Nancy A. Da Silva (California Institute of Technology)
James C. Earthman (Stanford University)
G. Wesley Hatfield (Purdue University)
Juan Hong (Purdue University)
James T. Kellis, Jr. (University of California, Irvine)
Enrique J. Lavernia(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
Henry C. Lim (Northwestern University)
Martha L. Mecartney (Stanford University)
Farghalli A. Mohamed (University of California, Berkeley)
Betty H. Olson (University of California, Berkeley)
Frank G. Shi (California Institute of Technology)
Jeffrey B. Wolfenstine (Cornell University)
Thomas K. Wood (North Carolina State University)


Bioreactor Engineering
Control and Optimization
Environmental Engineering
Interfacial Engineering
Materials Processing
Mechanical Properties
Metabolic Engineering
Microstructure of Materials
Protein Engineering
Recombinant Cell Technology
Separation Processes
Sol-Gel Processing
Water Pollution Control

For further information and
application forms,
Department of Chemical and
Biochemical Engineering
School of Engineering
University of California
Irvine, CA 92717-2575
Chemical Engineering Education



* Thermodynamics and
* Process Design, Dynamics,
and Control
* Polymer Processing and
Transport Phenomena
* Kinetics, Combustion, and
* Surface and Interface Engi-
* Electrochemistry and
* Biochemical Engineering
* Aerosol Science and
* Air Pollution Control and
Environmental Engineering

D. T. Allen
Y. Cohen
T. H. K. Frederking
S. K. Friedlander
R. F. Hicks
E. L. Knuth
(Prof. Emeritus)
V. Manousiouthakis
H. G. Monbouquette
K. Nobe
L. B. Robinson
(Prof Emeritus)
S. M. Senkan
O. Smith
W. D. Van Vorst
(Prof Emeritus)
V. L. Vilker
A. R. Wazzan


UCLA's Chemical Engineering Department of-
fers a program of teaching and research linking
fundamental engineering science and industrial prac-
tice. Our Department has strong graduate research
programs in environmental chemical engineering,
biotechnology, and materials processing. With the
support of the Parsons Foundation and EPA, we are
pioneering the development of methods for the de-
sign of clean chemical technologies, both in gradu-
ate research and engineering education.

Fellowships are available for outstanding ap-
plicants in both M.S. and Ph.D. degree programs.
A fellowship includes a waiver of tuition and fees
plus a stipend.
Located five miles from the Pacific Coast,
UCLA's attractive 417-acre campus extends from
Bel Air to Westwood Village. Students have ac-
cess to the highly regarded science programs and
to a variety of experiences in theatre, music, art,
and sports on campus.

A. O h e c- -prmn

Fall 1994 305



L. GARY LEAL Ph.D. (Stanford) (Chairman) Experimental and Computational Fluid Mechanics; Suspension and Polymer
ERAY S. AYDIL Ph.D. (University of Houston) Microelectronics and Plasma Processing
SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo) Two-Phase Flow, Chemical & Nuclear Safety, Computational Fluid Dynamics,
BRADLEY F. CHMELKA Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Guest/Host Interactions in Molecular Sieves, Dispersal of Metals in Oxide
Catalysts, Molecular Structure and Dynamics in Polymeric Solids, Properties of Partially Ordered Materials, Solid-State NMR.
GLENN H. FREDRICKSON Ph.D. (Stanford) Electronic Transport, Glasses, Polymers, Composites, Phase Separation.
JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph.D. (Cambridge) Surface and Interfacial Phenomena, Adhesion, Colloidal Systems, Surface
FRED F. LANGE Ph.D. (Penn State) Powder Processing of Composite Ceramics; Liquid Precursors for Ceramics;
Superconducting Oxides.
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.) (Vice Chairman) Mechanics of Materials, Radiation Damage.
DIMITRIOS MAROUDAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Computational Simulation of Structure, Dynamics in Heterogeneous Materials.
ERIC McFARLAND Ph.D. (M.I.T.) M.D. (Harvard) Biomedical Engineering, NMR and Neutron Imaging, Transport
Phenomena in Complex Liquids, Radiation Interactions.
DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph.D. (Purdue) Computer Control, Process Dynamics, Real-Time Computing.
G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D. (M.I.T.) High Performance Structural Materials
PHILIP ALAN PINCUS Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Theory of Surfactant Aggregates, Colloid Systems.
ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Transport Phenomena, Separation Processes.
DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. (Princeton) Process Control, Computer Control, Process Identification.
PAUL SMITH Ph.D. (State University of Groningen, Netherlands) High Performance Fibers; Processing of Conducting
Polymers; Polymer Processing.
T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D. (Minnesota) Nuclear and Chemical Plant Safety, Multiphase Flow, Thermalhydraulics.
W. HENRY WEINBERG Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Surface Chemistry; Heterogeneous Catalysis; Electronic Materials
JOSEPH A. N. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D. (Minnesota) Surface and Interfacial Phenomen, Structure of Microemulsions.

The Department offers M.S. and
Ph.D. degree programs Finan-
cial aid, including fellowships,
teaching assistantships, and re-
search assistantships, is avail-
One of the world's few seashore
campuses, UCSB is located on
the Pacific Coast 100 miles
northwest of Los Angeles. The
student enrollment is over
18,000. The metropolitan Santa
Barbara area has over 150,000
residents and is famous for its
mild, even climate.
For additional information
and applications, write to
Chair Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of California Santa Barbara, CA 93106
Chemical Engineering Education

Chemical Engineering at the





"At the Leading Edge"

Frances H. Arnold
John F. Brady
Mark E. Davis
Richard C. Flagan

George R. Gavalas
Konstantinos P. Giapis
Julia A. Kornfield
Manfred Morari

John H. Seinfeld
Nicholas W. Tschoegl (Emeritus)
Zhen-Gang Wang

Aerosol Science
Applied Mathematics
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Biocatalysis and Bioreactor Engineering
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Colloid Physics

Fluid Mechanics
Materials Processing
Microelectronics Processing
Microstructured Fluids
Polymer Science
Process Control and Synthesis
Protein Engineering
Statistical Mechanics of Heterogeneous

For further information, write
Director of Graduate Studies
Chemical Engineering 210-41 California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125





F 9

Fall 19!

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John L. Rnderson
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Paul A. DiMilla
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Michael M. Domath
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Andreui J. Gellman
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Ignario [. Giossmann

Ulilliam S. Hammatk

Annetle M. Jacobson
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Myung S. Jhon
ililhi l, I. 1 lli I r a'i %. .1 .. 1I 1. 5
Edmond I. Ko

Spyros N. Pandis

Gary J. Pou'ers

Dennis C. Prielie
Ir 111 .11 .1 IIn. I nlnn. il n s lln.1 ,. hI .i
Paul J. Sides
I I In ... ',n ..1 I I n i in l .. nir i. n,1
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Jennifer L. Sinclair
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Roberl D. lillon

Herberl L. Toor
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Arlhur Ill. Uiesleiberg
D I k n ess fil) dstise !
B. Erik Ydstie
Self lCarninq d))d dt)ptitVli >tontol

S Carnegie Mellon

i f n Io at'ion please write:
*e %bf Graduate Admissions
im of Chemical Engineering

4Qarnpgt kMellon University
h, PA 15213-3890

"TE-I- -i- I"""n "



Research Opportunities in:
Advanced Energy Conversion 4
> Chemical/Biological Sensors 4
> Intelligent Control 4
Micro- and Nano-Materials 4
1 Novel Separations/Processing 4

For more information, contact
Graduate Coordinator At CWRU, graduate students, faculty, and alumni teamed
Department of Chemical Engineering together to develop CWRU's electric race car. Chemical En-
Case Western Reserve University gineers were responsible for the design of the battery systems
Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7217 used to power the vehicle.

Faculty and Specializations

John C. Angus
Diamond and diamond-like films, redox equilibria
Coleman B. Brosilow
Adaptive inferential control, multi-variable
control, coordination algorithms
Robert V. Edwards
Laser anemometry, mathematical modeling, data
Donald L. Feke
Colloidal phenomena, ceramic dispersions, fine-
particle processing
Nelson C. Gardner
High-gravity separations, sulfur removal processes
Uziel Landau
Electrochemical engineering, current distributions,
Chung-Chiun Liu
Electrochemical sensors, electrochemical synthesis,
electrochemistry related to electronic materials

J. Adin Mann, Jr.
Interfacial structure and dynamics, light scattering,
Langmuir-Blodgett films, stochastic processes

Philip W. Morrison, Jr.
Materials synthesis, semiconductor processing, in-
situ diagnostics

Syed Qutubuddin
Surfactant and polymer solutions, metal extraction,
enhanced oil recovery

Robert F. Savinell
Applied electrochemistry, electrochemical systems
simulation and optimization, electrode processes


Fall 1994 30M

Opportunities for Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at the

M.S. and PhD Degrees in Chemical Engineering

Financial Aid Available *

The city of Cincinnati is the 23rd largest city in the United
States, with a greater metropolitan population of 1.7 million.
The city offers numerous sites of architectural and historical
interest, as well as a full range of cultural attractions, such as
an outstanding art museum, botanical gardens, a world-famous
zoo, theaters, symphony, and opera. The city is also home to
the Cincinnati Bengals and the Cincinnati Reds. The business
and industrial base of the city includes pharmaceutics, chemi-
cals, jet engines, autoworks, electronics, printing and publish-
ing, insurance, investment banking, and health care. A number
of Fortune 500 companies are located in the city.


Amy Ciric

Joel Fried

Stevin Gehrke

Rakesh Govind

David Greenberg

Daniel Hershey

Sun-Tak Hwang

Robert Jenkins

Yuen-Koh Kao

Soon-Jai Khang

Y. S. Lin

Neville Pinto

Sotiris Pratsinis

a Biotechnology (Bioseparations)
Novel bioseparation techniques, chromatography, affinity separations, biodegradation
of toxic wastes, controlled drug delivery, two-phase flow, suspension rheology.
a Chemical Reaction Engineering and Heterogeneous Catalysis
Modeling and design of chemical reactors, deactivation of catalysts, flow pattern and
mixing in chemical equipment, laser induced effects.
a Coal Research
New technology for coal combustion power plant, desulfurization and denitritication.
o Material Synthesis
Manufacture of advanced ceramics, opticalfibers and pigments by aerosol processes.
o Membrane Separations
Membrane gas separations, membrane reactors, sensors and probes, pervaporation,
dynamic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characteriza-
tion for polymeric and inorganic materials, inorganic membranes.
a Particle Technology
Flocculation of liquid suspensions, granulation offine powders, grinding ofagglomerate
a Polymers
Thermodynamics, polymer blends and composites, high-temperaturepolymers, hydrogels,
rheology, computational polymer science.
a Process Synthesis
Computer-aided design methodologies, design for waste minimization, design for dy-
namic stability, separation system synthesis.

For Admission Information *
Director, Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering, PO Box 210171
University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0171
Chemical Engineering Education

Graduate Study in

Chemical Engineering


c'1 S01

* Teaching and Research
Assistantships available to
M.S. and Ph.D. students
Research Areas:
electrochemicall Engineering
Chemical Hinetics
Chemical Metallurgq
Corrosion Engineering
Crqstal Grouth
J"'rocef itrol
Flui IcS
Bubble Dqnnmics
Heat Transfer
SMass Transfer
SLaser and Plasma Technologq
Polqmer Processing and Rheologq
Biochemical Engineering
Process Design
Solid State Reactions

- jfor information write to:
S Dr. Suzanne Liberty
Dean of the Graduate School
P.O. Box 5625
S Potsdam, NY 13699-5625
Fax 315-268-7994
Clarkson University is an nondiscrimi-
natory,.affirmative action, equal
opportunity educator and employer.

Clemson University

in Chemical Egei

No matter where you
do your graduate
work, your nose will be
in your books and your
mind on your
research. But at
Clemson University,
there's something for
you when you can
stretch out for a break.
Like enjoying the
beautiful mountain
scenery. Or fishing,
swimming, sailing, and
water skiing in the
clean lakes. Or hiking
in the nearby Blue
Ridge Mountains. Or

driving to South Caro-
lina's famous beaches
for a weekend. Some-
thing that can really
relax you.
All this and a top-
notch Chemical
Engineering Depart-
ment, too.
With active research
and teaching in poly-
mer processing, com-
posite materials, pro-
cess automation, ther-
modynamics, catalysis,
and membrane applica-
tions what more do
you need?

nLU ft1ttJ. tty Z) I- TXY_ Lg

The Universityy t- c ,,6
Clemson, the land-grant university of South Carolina, offers 72 undergraduate and 70 graduate fields of study
in its nine academic colleges. Present on-campus enrollment is about 17,000 students, one-third of whom are in the
College of Engineering. There are about 4,100 graduate students. The 1,400-acre campus is located on the shores of
Lake Hartwell in South Carolina's Piedmont, and is midway between Charlotte, N.C., and Atlanta, Ga.
The Faculty
Charles H. Barron, Jr. Charles H. Gooding Amod A. Ogale
John N. Beard James M. Haile Richard W. Rice
Dan D. Edie Douglas E. Hirt Mark C. Thies

Stephen S. Melsheimer
Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
Financial aid, including fellowships and assistantships, is available.
For further information and a descriptive brochure, contact:
Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical Engineering
Clemson University Clemson, South Carolina 29634-0909 (803) 656-3055

College of Engineering

Chemical Engineering Education



Assistant Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1991
Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1975
Professor and Chair
Co-Director of Colorado Institute for Research in Biotechnology
Ph.D., Stanford University, 1983
James and Catherine Patten Professor
Ph.D., Stanford University, 1974
Assistant Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1990
Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1967
Professor Adjoint
Ph.D., University of London, 1963
Associate Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1984
Professor and President's Teaching Scholar,
Co-Director ofNSF I/UCRC Center for Separations Using Thin I
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1968
Co-Director ofNSF I/UCRC Center for Separations Using Thin F
Ph.D., University of California, Davis, 1976
Ph.D., Tulane University, 1965
Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1987
Director of Center for Low-gravity Fluid Mechanics and Transpom
Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1963
Assistant Professor
Ph.D., University of Massachusetts, 1989
Professor and President's Teaching Scholar
Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1951
Research Professor
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1964
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1958 Director, Gra

Fall 1994 31.



> Graduate students in the Department of
Chemical Engineering may also participate in the
popular interdisciplinary Biotechnology Training Program
at the University
of Colorado and
in the inter-
NSF Industry/
Research Center
for Separations
Using Thin

Biotechnology and Bioengineering
SBioreactor Design and Optimization
Mammalian Cell Cultures
Protein Folding and Purification
Chemical Environmental Engineering
s Global Change
Pollution Remediation
Materials Science and Engineering
Catalysis and Surface Science
Colloidal Phenomena
Polymerization Reaction Engineering
Membrane Science
Chemically Specific Separations
Membrane Transport and Separations
Polymeric Membrane Morphology
r Phenomena
Modeling and Control
Expert Systems
Process Control and Identification
Statistical Mechanics
Supercritical Fluids
Transport Phenomena
Fluid Dunamics and Suspension Mechanics
Materials Processing in Low-G

Iduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering
versity of Colorado, Boulder Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424
FAX (303) 492-4341






a- "

R. M. BALDWIN, Professor and Head; Ph.D., Colorado School of Mines. Mechanisms and kinetics of coal liquefaction, catalysis, oil shale processing, fuels science.
A. L. BUNGE, Professor; Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley. Membrane transport and separations, mass transfer in porous media, ion exchange and
adsorption chromatography, in place remediation of contaminated soils, percutaneous absorption.
J.R. DORGAN, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley. Polymer science and engineering.
J. F. ELY, Professor; Ph.D., Indiana University. Molecular thermodynamics and transport properties offluids.
J. H. GARY, Professor Emeritus; Ph.D., University of Florida. Petroleum refinery processing operations, heavy oil processing, thermal cracking, visbreaking and
solvent extraction.
J.O. GOLDEN, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State University. Hazardous waste processing, polymers, fluidization engineering
M.S. GRABOSKI, Research Professor; Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University. Fuels Synthesis and evaluation, engine technology, alternate fuels
A. J. KIDNAY, Professor and Graduate Dean; D.Sc., Colorado School of Mines. Thermodynamic properties of gases and liquids, vapor-liquid equilibria, cryogenic
J.T. McKINNON, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. High temperature gas phase chemical kinetics, combustion, hazardous waste
R. L. MILLER, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Colorado School of Mines. Liquefaction co-processing of coal and heavy oil, low severity coal liquefaction, particulate
removal with venturi scrubbers, interdisciplinary educational methods
M. S. SELIM, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State University. Heat and mass transfer with a moving boundary, sedimentation and diffusion of colloidal suspensions, heat
effects in gas absorption with chemical reaction, entrance region flow and heat transfer, gas hydrate dissociation modeling.
E. D. SLOAN, JR., Professor; Ph.D. Clemson University. Phase equilibrium measurements of natural gas fluids and hydrates, thermal conductivity of coal derived
fluids, adsorption equilibria, education methods research.
J. D. WAY, Associate Professor; Ph.D. University of Colorado. Novel separation processes, membrane science and technology, membrane reactors, ceramic and metal
membranes, biopolymer adsorbents for adsorption of heavy metals.
V. F. YESAVAGE, Professor; Ph.D., University of Michigan. Vapor liquid equilibrium and enthalpy of polar associating fluids, equations of state for highly non-ideal
systems, flow calorimetry.

314 Chemical Engineering Education

j university of


Graduate Study in
Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs for Scientists and Engineers

Luke E.K. Achenie, Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University
Modeling and Optimization, Neural Networks, Process Control
Thomas F. Anderson, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Modeling of Separation Processes, Fluid-Phase Equilibria
James P. Bell, Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Structure-Property Relations in Polymers and Composites, Adhesion
Carroll O. Bennett, Professor Emeritus, Ph.D., Yale University
Catalysis, Chemical Reaction Engineering
Douglas J. Cooper, Ph.D., University of Colorado
Process Control, Neural Networks, Fluidization Technology
Robert W. Coughlin, Ph.D., Cornell University
Biotechnology, Biochemical and Environmental Engineering, Catalysis,
Kinetics, Separations, Surface Science
Michael B. Cutlip, Ph.D., University of Colorado
Kinetics and Catalysis, Electrochemical Reaction Engineering, Numerical Methods
Anthony T. DiBenedetto, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin
Composite Materials, Mechanical Properties of Polymers
James M. Fenton, Ph.D., University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Electrochemical and Environmental Engineering, Mass Transfer Processes,
Electronic Materials, Energy Systems
Suzanne (Schadel) Fenton, Ph.D., University of Illinois
Computational Fluid Dynamics, Turbulence, Two-Phase Flow
Robert J. Fisher, Ph.D., University of Delaware
Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Biotechnology
G. Michael Howard, Ph.D., University of Connecticut
Process Systems Analysis and Modeling, Process Safety, Engineering Education
Herbert E. Klei, Professor Emeritus, Ph.D., University of Connecticut
Biochemical Engineering, Environmental Engineering
Jeffrey T. Koberstein, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts
Polymer Blends/Compatibilization, Polymer Morphology,
Polymer Surface and Interfaces
Harold R. Kunz, Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Fuel Cells, Electrochemical Energy Systems
Montgomery T. Shaw, Ph.D., Princeton University
Polymer Rheology and Processing, Polymer-solution Thermodynamics
Richard M. Stephenson, Professor Emeritus, Ph.D., Cornell University
Mutual Solubility Measurements, Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium
Donald W. Sundstrom, Professor Emeritus, Ph.D. University of Michigan
Environmental Engineering, Hazardous Wastes, Biochemical Engineering
Robert A. Weiss, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts
Polymer Structure-Property Relationships, Ion-Containing and
Liquid Crystal Polymers, Polymer Blends

Graduate Admissions, 191 Auditorium Road
University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3222
Tel (203) 486-4020


U N I V E R S I T Ye

At Cornell University, graduate students in chemical engineering have the
flexibility to design research programs that take full advantage of Cornell's
unique interdisciplinary environment and enable them to pursue individual-
ized plans of study.
Cornell graduate programs may draw upon the resources of many
excellent departments and NSF-sponsored research centers such as the
Biotechnology Center, the Cornell National Supercomputing Facility, and the
Materials Science Center.
Degrees granted include Master of Engineering, Master of Science, and
Doctor of Philosophy. All M.S. and Ph.D. students are fully funded with
attractive stipends and tuition waivers.
Research Areas
* Advanced Materials Processing
* Biochemical and Biomedical
* Fluid Dynamics, Stability, and Rheology
* Molecular Thermodynamics and
Computer Simulation
* Polymer Science and Engineering
* Reaction Engineering: Surface Science,
Kinetics, and Reactor Design

Situated in the scenic Finger Lakes region of
New York State, the Cornell campus is one of
the most beautiful in the country. Students
enjoy sailing, skiing, fishing, hiking, bicycling,
boating, wine-tasting, and many other activities
in this popular vacation region.

Distinguished Faculty

A. Brad Anton
Paulette Clancy
Claude Cohen
T. Michael Duncan
James R. Engstrom*
Keith E. Gubbins'
Daniel A. Hammer*
Peter Harriott
Donald L. Koch*
Robert P. Merrill
William L. Olbricht
Athanassios Panagiotopoulos*
Ferdinand Rodriguezt
Michael L. Shulert
Paul H. Steen
William B. Street
John A. Zollweg

* recipient, NSF PYI Award
t member, National Academy of Engineering
t member, AIChE

For further information, write:
Graduate Field Representative, School of Chemical Engineering, Cornell University, 120 Olin Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-5201

Chemical Engineering at

The Faculty
Giovanni Astarita
Mark A. Barteau
Antony N. Beris
Kenneth B. Bischoff
Douglas J. Buttrey
Stuart L. Cooper
Costel D. Denson
Prasad S. Dhurjati
Henry C. Foley
Marylin Huff
Eric W. Kaler
Michael T. Klein
Abraham M. Lenhoff
Raul Lobo
Roy L. McCullough
Arthur B. Metzner
Jon H. Olson
Michael E. Paulaitis
T.W. Fraser Russell
Stanley I. Sandler
Jerold M. Schultz
Annette D. Shine
Norman J. Wagner
AndrewL. Zydney T he University of Delaware offers M.ChE and Ph.D.

degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course
work in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strong
interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current
fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science and
Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena, Materials
Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction Kinetics,
Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photovoltaic
Processing, Biomedical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering, and Colloid
and Surfactant Science.

For more information and application materials, write:
Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware 19716

The University of

Fall 1994





Chemical Engineering
Graduate Study
Leading to the MS and PhD

TIM ANDERSON Semiconductor Processing, Thermodynamics
IOANNIS BITSANIS Molecular Modeling of Interfaces
OSCAR D. CRISALLE Electronic Materials, Process Control
RICHARD B. DICKINSON Biomedical Engineering
ARTHUR L. FRICKE Polymers, Pulp & Paper Characterization
GAR HOFLUND Catalysis, Surface Science
LEW JOHNS Applied Mathematics, Dispersion
DALE KIRMSE Computer Aided Design, Process Control
RANGA NARAYANAN Transport Phenomena, Low Gravity Fluid Mechanics
MARK E. ORAZEM Electrochemical Engineering, Semiconductor Processing
CHANG-WON PARK Fluid Mechanics, Polymer Processing
DINESH 0. SHAH Surface Sciences, Biomedical Engineering
SPYROS SVORONOS Process Control, Biochemical Engineering
GERALD WESTERMANN-CLARK Electrochemical Engineering, Bioseparations

For more information, please write:
Graduate Admissions Coordinator U Department of Chemical Engineering
P.O. Box 11605 E University of Florida U Gainesville, Florida 32611-6005
or call (904) 392-0881
318 Chemical Engineering Education

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GVU Tech


The Faculty and Their Research

S. Abhiram;

illiam R. Ern

ter J. Ludovi

science and




modeling of


design and

ItthewJ. Realff

.II a .I .

-c Ie li p n,

Pradeep K. Agrawal

Mechanics of
plumes and jets

LarryJ. Forney


Michael J. Matteson

mass transfer

Mary E. Rezac

design and

Yaman ArKun

FHeat transport

Charles W. Gorton

John D. Muzzy


mass transfer,
reactor design


Konnie S. Roberts

ics, polymer

Sue Ann Bidstrup

Pulp and

Jeffrey S. Hsieh

cell structures

lobert M. Nerem

S crystallization

Ronald W. Rousseau

Paul A. Kohl


Athanassios Samb

science and

,bertJ. Samuels

tion, reactor
F. Joseph Schork

namic and
gas extraction

reactor design

Mass transfer,
mixing, non-

A. H. Peter Skelland


Timothy M. Wick

Process design
and simulation

Jude T. Sommerfeld

ics, air

Pr(4essor Ronald Rousseau, director
School of Chemical Engineering
Georgia Institute offechnolog)
Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100
(404) 894-2861

iyn n. lela

Mark G. White

Jack Winnick

Ajit P. Yoganathan

What do graduate students say about the

University of Houston

Department of Chemical Engineering?

"It's great!"

"Houston is a university on the move. The chemical engineering department is ranked among
the top ten schools, and you can work in the specialty of your choice. The choice of advisor is
yours, too, and you're given enough time to make the right decision. You can see your advisor
almost anytime you want because the student-to-teacher ratio is low."

If you'd like to be part of this team, let us hear from you!

Biochemical & TissueEngineering
Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Electronic and Ceramic Materials
Environmental Remediation
Improved Oil Recovery
Multiphase Flow
Nonlinear Dynamics
Polymer & Macromolecular Systems

Neal Amundson
Vemuri Balakotaiah
Demetre Economou
Ernest Henley
John Killough
Dan Luss
Kishore Mohanty

Richard Pollard
William Prengle
Raj Rajagopalan
Jim Richardson
Jay Schieber
Cynthia Stokes

Frank Tiller
Richard Willson
Frank Worley

For an application, write: Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204-4792, or call 713/743-4300.
The University is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Institution
Fall 1994

Chemical Engineering at

Where modern instructional and research laboratories,
together with computing facilities, support both student
and faculty research pursuits on an eighty-nine acre main
campus three miles north of the heart of Washington, DC.

- Faculty and Research Interests

Mobolaji E. Aluko, Professor and Chair
PhD, University of California, Santa Barbara
Reactor modeling crystallization microelectronic and ceramic materials pro-
cessing process control

Joseph N. Cannon, Professor PhD, University of Colorado
Transport phenomena in environmental systems computational fluid mechanics heat transfer

Ramesh C. Chawla, Professor PhD, Wayne State University
Mass transfer and kinetics in environmental systems thermal processes biodegradation- bioremediation incineration environ-
mental engineering

William E. Collins, Assistant Professor PhD, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Polymer science biomaterials bioseparations surface science and instrumentation

M. Gopala Rao, Professor PhD, University of Washington, Seattle
Adsorption and ion exchange process energy systems radioactive waste management

John P. Tharakan, Assistant Professor PhD University of California, San Diego
Bioprocess engineering protein separations biological hazardous waste treatment environmental engineering

Robert J. Lutz, Visiting Professor PhD, University of Pennsylvania
Hemodynamics intra-arterial drug delivery M .S.

Herbert M. Katz, Professor Emeritus PhD, University of Cincinnati I Program
Environmental engineering
For further information and applications, write to

322 Chemical Engineering Education

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