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Chemical engineering education

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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
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American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
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Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
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English
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v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

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Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
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periodical ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )

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Chemical abstracts
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Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
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Title from cover.
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Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
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TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

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Chemical Engineering Documents

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Ilmmcaln Z^in3^meerin education



VOLUME 26 NUMBER 4 FALL 1992



GRADUATE EDUCATION

ISSUE


| Featuring ...
U
A Course on Parallel Computing
0 Kim
A Pilot Graduate-Recruiting Program
Z Sloan Baldwin, Fiedler,McKinntn, Miller
o A Course on Environmental Remediation
Stokes
A Colloquium Series in Chemical Engineering
Tsouris, Yiacoumi, Hirtzel
Research on Neural Networks, Optimization, and Process Control
Cooper, Aehenie
Chemical Reaction Engineering: A Story of Continuing Fascination
Z Doraiswamy
a Pattern Formation in Convective-Diffusive Transport With Reaction
m Arce, Locke, Vifals
An Introduction to the Fundamentals of Bio(Molecular) Engineering
** Locke
Z Some Thoughts on Graduate Education: A Graduate Student's Perspective
O Kannan

o And also...
z
a Problem: The Influence of Catalysts on Thermodynamic Equilibrium
U Falconer
Random Thoughts: Sorry, Pal-It Doesn't Work That Way
Felder
-a


U
6 )

u












ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


DEPARTMENTAL SPONSORS

The following 153 departments contribute to the support of CEE with bulk subscriptions.

If your department is not a contributor, write to
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION,
c/o Chemical Engineering Department University of Florida *Gainesville, FL 32611
for information on bulk subscriptions

I


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SEditor's Note to Seniors ...


Fall 1991
Carnahan Computing in Engineering Education: From There,
To Here, To Where? (Award Lecture, Part 1)
Deshpande, Krishnaswamy A Graduate Course in Digital Com-
puter Process Control
Churchill Chemical Kinetics, Fluid Mechanics and Heat Trans-
fer in the Fast Lane
Fleischman Risk Reduction in the Chemical Engineering Cur-
riculum
Kodas, et al. Research Opportunities in Ceramics Science and
Engineering
Peters An Introduction to Molecular Transport Phenomena

Fall 1990
Austin, Beronio, Taso Biochemical Engineering Education
Through Videotapes
Ramkrishna Applied Mathematics
Rice Dispersion Model Differential Equation for Packed Beds
Bhada, et al. Consortium on Waste Management
Felder Stoichiometry Without Tears
Cohen, Tsai, Chetty Multimedia Environmental Transport,
Exposure, and Risk Assessment
Schulz, Benge ChE Summer Series at Virginia Polytechnic
Roberge Transferring Knowledge
Coulman ChE Curriculum, 1989
Frey Numerical Simulation of Multicomponent Chroma-
tography Using Spreadsheets
Fried Polymer Science and Engineering at Cincinnati

Fall 1989
San, McIntire Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Kummler, McMicking, Powitz Hazardous Waste Management
Bienkowski, et al. Multidisciplinary Course in Bioengineering
Lauffenburger Cellular Bioengineering
Randolph Particulate Processes
Kumar, Bennett, Gudivaka Hazardous Chemical Spills
Davis Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions
Wang Applied Linear Algebra
Kisaalita, et al. Crossdisciplinary Research: The Neuron-Based
Chemical Sensor Project
Kyle The Essence of Entropy
Rao Secrets of My Success in Graduate School

Fall 1988
Arkun, Charos, Reeves Model Predictive Control
Briedis Technical Communications for Grad Students
Deshpande Multivariable Control Methods
Glandt Topics in Random Media
Ng, Gonzalez, Hu Biochemical Engineering
Goosen Research: Animal Cell Culture in Microcapsules
Teja, Schaeffer Research: Thermodynamics and Fluid
Properties
Duda Graduation: The Beginning of Your Education


Fall 1987
Amundson American University Graduate Work
DeCoursey Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction
Takoudis Microelectronics Processing
McCready, Leighton Transport Phenomena
Seider, Ungar Nonlinear Systems
Skaates Polymerization Reactor Engineering
Edie, Dunham Research: Advanced Engineering Fibers
Allen, Petit Research: Unit Operations in Microgravity
Bartusiak, Price Process Modeling and Control
Bartholomew Advanced Combustion Engineering

Fall 1986
Bird Hougen's Principles
Amundson Research Landmarks for Chemical Engineers
Duda Graduate Studies: The Middle Way
Jorne Chemical Engineering: A Crisis of Maturity
Stephanopoulis Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering
Venkatasubramanian A Course in Artificial Intelligence in
Process Engineering
Moo-Young Biochemical Engineering and Industrial Biotech-
nology
Babu, Sukanek The Processing of Electronic Materials
Datye, Smith, Williams Characterization of Porous Materials
and Powders
Blackmond A Workshop in Graduate Education

Fall 1985
Bailey, Ollis Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals
Belfort Separation and Recovery Processes
Graham, Jutan Teaching Time Series
Soong Polymer Processing
Van Zee Electrochemical and Corrosion Engineering
Radovic Coal Utilization and Conversion Processes
Shah, Hayhurst Molecular Sieve Technology
Bailie, Kono, Henry Fluidization
Kauffman Is Grad School Worth It?
Felder The Generic Quiz

Fall 1984
Lauffenburger, et al, Applied Mathematics
Marnell Graduate Plant Design
Scamehorn Colloid and Surface Science
Shah Heterogeneous Catalysis with Video-Based Seminars
Zygourakis Linear Algebra
Bartholomew, Hecker Research on Catalysis
Converse, et al. Bio-Chemical Conversion of Biomass
Fair Separations Research
Edie Graduate Residency at Clemson
McConica Semiconductor Processing
Duda Misconceptions Concerning Grad School


Fall 1992


This is the 26th graduate education issue published by CEE. It is distributed to chemical engineering seniors
interested in and qualified for graduate school. We include articles on graduate courses and research at various
universities, along with departmental announcements on graduate programs. In order for you to obtain a broad idea of the
nature of graduate work, we encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue, but also those in previous issues. A list
of the papers from recent years follows. If you would like a copy of a previous fall issue, please write to CEE.
Ray W. Fahien, Editor


'I









Chemical Engineering Division

Activities
SHAI


THIRTIETH ANNUAL LECTURESHIP AWARD TO
WILLIAM N. GILL
The 1992 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division
Lecturer is William N. Gill of Rensselaer Polytech-
nic Institute. The purpose of this award is to recog-
nize and encourage outstanding achievement in an
important field of fundamental chemical engineer-
ing theory or practice.
The award, an engraved certificate, is bestowed
annually upon a distinguished engineering educator
who delivers the annual lecture of the Chemical
Engineering Division. This year it was presented to
the winner at the Division's summer school, held at
Montana State University in August. The award is
made on an annual basis, with nominations wel-
comed through February 1, 1993.
Dr. Gill's lecture was entitled "Interactive Dynam-
ics of Convection and Crystal Growth." It will be
published in a forthcoming issue of CEE.

Award Winners
There were a number of significant awards pre-
sented to chemical engineering faculty members dur-
ing the annual conference held at the University of
Toledo in June, 1992. Robert A. Greenkorn (Purdue
University) was named a Fellow of ASEE, having
met the requirements of Fellow Grade membership
as stated in the ASEE Constitution. The Fred
Merryfield Design Award was presented to Klaus
D. Timmerhaus (University of Colorado), recogniz-
ing his sustained excellent in engineering education
and particularly his contributions to teaching chemi-
cal engineering design.
Douglas A. Lauffenburger (University of Illi-


nois, Urbana-Champaign) received the Curtis W.
McGraw Research Award in recognition of his many
outstanding achievements and, in particular, for ex-
panding the boundaries of engineering research and
education by using engineering principles and ap-
proaches in cell biology research. The George
Westinghouse Award was presented to Nicholas A.
Peppas (Purdue University) for his outstanding,
innovative contributions to engineering education
during his fifteen-year tenure at Purdue University.
C. Stewart Slater (Manhattan College) received
the Fluke Award for Excellence in Laboratory In-
struction, recognizing his contributions in the pro-
motion of excellence in experimentation and labora-
tory instruction. The Dow Outstanding Young Fac-
ulty Award for the North Central Section went to J.
Richard Elliot, Jr. (University of Akron), and Rob-
ert M. Ybarra (University of Missouri, Rolla) re-
ceived a plaque naming him as an Outstanding Zone
Campus Representative for Zone III.

ChE Division Officers
The 1992-93 officers for the Chemical Engineering
Division of ASEE are:
Past Chairman Tim Anderson
(University of Florida)
Chairman John C. Friedly
(University of Rochester)
Chairman-Elect L. Davis Clements
(University of Nebraska)
Secretary-Treasurer William L. Conger
(Virginia Polytechnic University)
Directors Thomas R. Hanley
(University of Louisville)
Charles H. Barron
(Clemson University)


Note to Our Readers:
It is with pride that we announce that our editor, Ray W. Fahien, is the 1992 recipient of
the prestigious AIChE Warren K. Lewis award. This singular recognition for his contribu-
tions to chemical engineering over the years is well deserved and gives due testimony to his
devotion to the profession and his adherence to its highest standards of excellence. Those of
us who work closely with him want to add our congratulations and appreciation for his
unselfish and high-minded leadership through the years, and the grace with which he has
conducted himself in all matters.
Tim Anderson, Associate Editor

70 Chemical Engineering Education











EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS:
Chemical Engineering Education
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
FAX 904-392-0861

EDITOR
Ray W. Fahien (904) 392-0857
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Carole Yocum (904) 392-0861
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University of Michigan

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Colorado School of Mines

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University of Texas at Austin
Phillip C. Wankat
Purdue University
Donald R. Woods
McMaster University


Fall 1992


Chemical Engineering Education


Volume 26


Number 4


Fall 1992


FEATURES
172 A Course on Parallel Computing, Sangtae Kim

176 Research on Neural Networks, Optimization, and
Process Control,
Douglas J. Cooper, Luke E.K. Achenie

184 Chemical Reaction Engineering: A Story of
Continuing Fascination, L.K. Doraiswamy

190 A Pilot Graduate-Recruiting Program,
E.D. Sloan, R.M. Baldwin, D.J.T. Fiedler,
J.T. McKinnon, R.L. Miller

194 An Introduction to the Fundamentals of
Bio(Molecular) Engineering, Bruce R. Locke

200 A Colloquium Series in Chemical Engineering,
Costas Tsouris, Sotira Yiacoumi, Cynthia S. Hirtzel

204 A Course on Environmental Remediation,
Cynthia L. Stokes

210 Some Thoughts on Graduate Education: A Graduate
Student's Perspective,
Rangaramanujam M. Kannan

214 Pattern Formation in Convective-Diffusive
Transport With Reaction,
Pedro Arce, Bruce R. Locke, Jorge Virials

CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS
180 The Influence of Catalysts on Thermodynamic
Equilibrium, John L. Falconer

RANDOM THOUGHTS
175 Sorry, Pal-It Doesn't Work That Way,
Richard M. Felder


169 Editorial
170 Division Activities
183 Positions Available
174, 182, 213 Book Reviews

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the
University of Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of
address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville,
FL 32611. Copyright 1992 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Societyfor Engineering
Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and
not necessarily those of the ChE Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them.
Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days of publication. Write for information on
subscription costs and for back copy costs and availability. POSTMASTER: Send address changes
to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department., University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.









A Course on .


PARALLEL COMPUTING


SANGTAE KIM
University of Wisconsin
Madison, WI 53706

Parallel computing has received considerable

and favorable attention in sources ranging
from chemical engineering literaturell" to the
popular media (see Figure 1). A new course on paral-
lel computing has been developed at the University
of Wisconsin that meets the needs of both graduate
and advanced undergraduate engineering students.
Why the sudden surge in interest in parallel com-
puting? As a concept, parallel computing has been
around for several decades. As early as 1966, Flynni[2
delineated some of the key features found in a paral-
lel computer. However, the rapid evolution of
uniprocessor speeds squeezed the window for design
and development of parallel computers. The reason-
ing went that during the three to five years over
which a system was designed and developed, its
processor components would be outclassed by a new
generation of uniprocessors. But the pace of
uniprocessor evolution is certainly slowing at the
high end. Figure 2 compares the evolution in com-
puting capabilities of the fastest uniprocessors and a
square inch of silicon during the 1980s.
The performance of a single fast superprocessor is
ultimately bound by fundamental physical con-
straints, such as the speed of light. So we turn
instead to the idea of connecting very many rela-


S Sangtae Kim holds a Wisconsin Distinguished
Professorship, with appointments in both chemi-
cal engineering and computer science at the
University of Wisconsin. He received his BSc
(1979) and MSc (1979) at Caltech and his PhD
(1983) at Princeton. His research interests in
computational microhydrodynamics encompass
S parallel computing solutions to problems in sus-
pension rheology, colloidal hydrodynamics, and
Protein folding.

tively inexpensive processors, an idea that becomes
increasingly more practical as the processing capa-
bility on a square inch of silicon approaches the
100 MegaFLOPS benchmark-a traditional unit
measure of supercomputing performance. Indeed,
with shrinking semiconductor dimensions, it is
quite likely that in the near future a square inch of
silicon will house four, and then sixteen, such pro-
cessors. Thus, in Figure 2 one could extrapolate
the upward slope of the semiconductor processor
curve well into the 1990s.
The emergence of the high-performance parallel
computer creates new opportunities for science and
engineering, and new courses must be developed to
train the next generation of scientists and engineers.
The challenge is twofold: to map currently pop-
ular solution methodologies to parallel algorithms
and to develop new solution methods that naturally
lead to parallel algorithms.


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Figure 1.Doonesbury cartoon
(DOONESBURY copyright 1992 G.B. Trudeau. Reprinted with permission
of UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. All rights reserved.)
Chemical Engineering Education










The course consists of three parts,... an introduction to parallel computing architectures, followed by an
overview of parallel computing extensions of high-level languages .... [and] term projects on various
parallel computers in which students get first-hand opportunities to implement the ideas ...


[+ 80287 8
1980 82 84 86 88 1990
Figure 2. Evolution of floating point performance during
the 1980s. 1000 x 1000 LINPACK, from Dongarra. 31

The course consists of three parts, starting with an
introduction to parallel computing architectures, fol-
lowed by an overview of parallel computing exten-
sions of high-level languages like Fortran. The third
part consists of term projects on various parallel
computers in which students get first-hand opportu-
nities to implement the ideas discussed in the first
and second parts of the course.
The course begins with a survey of historical and
philosophical perspectives on parallel computing, as
summarized in an excellent series of essays in
DAEDALUS, the Journal of the American Academy
of Arts and Sciences.[41 Some essays compare and
contrast the development and societal impact of
the first digital electronic computers and the corre-
sponding changes wrought by the emergence of the
massively parallel computer. Other essays provide
benchmark comparisons of conventional vector
supercomputers, RISC workstations, and parallel
machines on a suite of computational tasks.
Students are also directed to historical accounts of
the founding of the major players in the parallel
computing market. 51
The course then shifts into an introductory de-
scription of parallel computer architectures. The con-
cept of algorithm and machine granularity (fine grain
and coarse grain parallelism) styles of control (SIMD,
MIMD), and memory layout (Shared, Distributed-
Message Passing) are reviewed. The book by
Fall 1992


Bertsekas and Tsitsiklis16I is used as a guide. The
concepts are illustrated with specific examples in-
volving Bus-based architectures (Cray, Alliant),
SIMD computing on the Thinking Machine Corpora-
tion CM2, and message passing on the Intel iPSC/
860 hypercube.
The discussion on parallel computing with high-
level languages centers around parallel extensions
of the Fortran language. The paradigm for shared
memory machines (shared common blocks, forking
of child processes, barrier synchronization, spin locks)
follows the discussion in Brawer,171 and his stan-
dards are then compared with example Fortran codes
on real machines (Sequent Symmetry, IBM 3090).
Fortran extensions on message passing systems (node
programs, host programs, synchronous and asyn-
chronous sends and receives, waiting for messages)
are illustrated with examples from the Intel iPSC/
860 hypercube. Students monitor program perfor-
mance on the iPSC/860 with execution trace files
created by PICLs8 and subsequent visualization on
Unix workstations with the ParaGraph software de-
veloped by Heath and coworkers.191
This section of the course then concludes with a
discussion of Fortran90 and its close relative, CM
Fortran. A four-hour videotape on CM Fortran imple-
mentation on the CM5 provided by the Thinking
Machines Corporation was used. The coverage of
Fortran90 was partly hampered by the lack of an
inexpensive compiler for the workstation environ-
ment. However, we recently obtained the NAG For-
tran90 compiler for our NeXTstations and plan to
use it in the course next year.
A required project takes the last five weeks of the
semester. A list of suggested projects is announced
at the start of the semester so that students have ten
weeks to pick their project and find their partner.
Students are grouped in teams of two, and as far as
possible undergraduates are paired with graduate
students. Since twelve students (including five se-
niors) took the course in the spring of 1992, we had
six teams and projects (see Table 1, next page). In
general, project topics range from the adventurous
(review and reproduction of parallel algorithms from
the burgeoning literature on parallel computing) to
the pragmatic (parallelization of codes from disser-
tation research) implementations on the iPSC/860
or the CM5. One team used both machines.










TABLE 1
Term Projects: Spring 1992
Parallel branch and bound for mixed integer linear
programs
Numerical implementation of conjugate gradient and
Gaussian elimination methods on parallel computers
Parallel computational solutions of hyperbolic PDEs
(humidification waves in solar energy desiccants)
Polyhedra in Stokes flow (particle simulations on the
iPSC/860 and CM5)
Molecular dynamics on the hypercube (simulation of
Lennard-Jones fluids)
Wavelet transforms for signal analysis (signal data
compression)


Oral presentations, conducted during the last two
weeks of the course, present students with the
opportunity to learn from each other. A number
of established techniques in the literature, as well
as new tricks on a particular machine, are dis-
seminated in these discussions. Course grades are
computed on the basis of the oral presentation and
written report.
At the end of the semester, the student evalua-
tions were collected. On the basis of a very favorable
response, it appears that this course will be a regu-
lar spring semester offering in the department
(and in the college of engineering). Work is
also underway to integrate this course into a
multicourse sequence in parallel computing in the
Computer Sciences Department. A two-day version


of the course is also available from the AIChE Con-
tinuing Education Division.l101
One final note: computer programs developed for
the term projects are archived on a file server for
future reference. It is my intention to document the
growth of the parallel computing culture by monitor-
ing the evolution of student projects, in terms of
style and level of sophistication, starting with what
future generations may view as the dawn of the age
of parallel computing.

REFERENCES
1. Amundson, N.R. (Committee Chairman), Frontiers in Chemi-
cal Engineering Research Needs and Opportunities, National
Academy Press (1988)
2. Flynn, M.J., "Very High-Speed Computers," Proc. IEEE, 54,
1901 (1966)
3. Dongarra, J.J., "Performance of Various Computers Using
Standard Linear Equations Software," Supercomputing Re-
view, 3, 49 (1990)
4. Graubard, S.R. (Ed.), DEDALUS (J. Amer. Acad. Arts and
Sci.), Winter (1992)
5. Trew, A., and G. Wilson (Eds.), Past, Present, Parallel: A
Survey of Available Parallel Computing Systems, Springer-
Verlag (1991)
6. Bertsekas, D.P., and J.N. Tsitsiklis, Parallel and Distrib-
uted Computation Numerical Methods, Prentice Hall (1989)
7. Brawer, S., Introduction to Parallel Programming, Academic
Press (1989)
8. Geist, G.A., M.T. Heath, B.W. Peyton, and P.H. Worley, "A
Users' Guide to PICL: A Portable Instrumented Communi-
cation Library," ORNL/TM, 1161Q March (1992)
9. Heath, M.T., and J.A. Etheridge, "ParaGraph: A Tool for
Visualizing Performance of Parallel Programs," ORNL/ TM,
11813 May (1991)
10. Kim, S., A.N. Beris, and J.F. Pekny, "Methodology of Paral-
lel Computing," AIChE Today Series, AIChE (1990) O


Book review


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN
PROJECT: A CASE STUDY APPROACH
by Martyn S. Ray and David W. Johnson
Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York;
357 pages, $90 hardbound, $65 softbound (1989)

Reviewed by
James R. Fair
The University of Texas at Austin

This text is intended for use in the senior design
course for chemical engineering students. It offers
an approach that is different from that of the usual
design course text; whereas the others provide a
general overview of the design process, this text
deals in considerable depth with just one project-
the development and design of a plant to produce
174


nitric acid from ammonia and air. The factors
supporting this project are dealt with in con-
siderably more detail than would be the case for
the usual text.
The book is divided into two main parts plus a
lengthy appendix. Part I covers general aspects of a
proposed nitric acid plant: feasibility study, process
selection, site location, preliminary process design,
and economic evaluation. Part II covers detailed de-
sign aspects, with sub-case studies of the absorption
column, the steam superheater, and a pump to re-
move liquid from the absorber. Appendix contents
include supporting property and cost data and ex-
ample equipment calculations. Notable, the book con-
tains no information on capital or manufacturing
cost estimating or profitability analysis. No mention
is made of discounted cash flow, for example. How-
Continued on page 189
Chemical Engineering Education









Random Thoughts...


SORRY, PAL-

IT DOESN'T WORK THAT WAY

RICHARD M. FIELDER
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-7905


* Dear Professor Felder: Kindly review the enclosed
47-page manuscript, "A New and Much Longer Deri-
vation of the Quantum Correction to Klezmer's Ten-
sor Correlation for Nonnewtonian Flow of Molten
Cheese in an Octagonal Orifice. Part 7: Effects of
Sunspots." Sincerely, W. Schlepper, Editor, Journal
ofPretentious Fluid Mechanics.
P.S. We are attempting to clear our inventory of
back papers and so I would appreciate your re-
turning the review by next Tuesday.

M ... and I know I got a 36 on the final exam, Dr.
Felder, and I know it was my high grade for the
semester, but I really think I should get an A in the
course because I really worked hard on it and I
really understand the material and ...

M Dear Professor Felder: I am a chemical engineer-
ing student at East Indiana Tech. We are using your
book, Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes,
this semester. I think I would learn much better if I
could check my solutions against yours. Please send
me a solution manual. Sincerely yours, Alvin
Wimbish.
P.S. Please send it by Federal Express.

* Um, Dr. Felder-the TA missed this here test
page completely on that quiz we took last January
and it's got everything right on it-I think I should
get full credit.

M Hey, am I speaking to the Chemical Engineering
Department at State? ... Who's this? ... How you
doin', Professor? ... You don't know me, but my wife
got some black crud on our white linoleum floor and
the 409 won't get rid of it, and I said, I'll bet you one
of them chemical engineering fellers over at State
Fall 1992


will know just the thing to clean it up ... so what
should I get, Doc?

* Rich, do me a favor. I just got this manuscript to
review from JPFM and I'm tied up with a proposal
deadline .it's right up your alley-Snaveley's
latest work on nonnewtonian cheese flow ... pick up
this one for me, ok-I'll owe you. Thanks. Walt.
P.S. By the way, could you get it out by Tuesday?

* Hello, is this Dr. Felder? ... This is one of your 205
students...I know it's past midnight, but I can't fig-
ure out the recycle problem that's due tomorrow and
I thought you might ...

* Dear Professor Felder: We have received the re-
views of the paper you submitted in April 1991. All
of the reviewers agree that the work is publishable
but only after major revisions are made. Reviewer 1
wants you to expand the experimental section con-
siderably, providing details of all the sample prepa-
ration steps and adding a glossary of the terms in
Figure 6. Reviewer 2 wants the experimental section
shortened and Figure 6 replaced with a simple flow
chart. Reviewer 3 proposes deleting the experimen-
tal section, since everyone knows how to do this sort
of measurement, and substituting a Far Side car-
toon for Figure 6. I agree with the reviewers' sugges-
tions and request that you comply with all of them.
Sincerely, E. Wombat, Editor.
P.S. We're trying to clear our inventory of back
papers and so I'd like to get the revision back by
next Tuesday.

* Hello, is this Dick Felder? ... Dick, you don't know
me but I've got a fantastic opportunity for you to
earn big bucks. Let me just have a few minutes of
your time to explain ... O









Research on...


NEURAL NETWORKS,

OPTIMIZATION,

AND PROCESS CONTROL

DOUGLAS J. COOPER, LUKE E.K. ACHENIE
University of Connecticut
Storrs, CT 06269-3139
PROCESS
CONTROL
Research into the use of artificial neural net-
works (ANNs) in process control systems has
increased dramatically in recent years. Op-
timization methods play a fundamental role in the
training of ANNs as well as in the implementation of
modern strategies for multivariable process control.
Hence, as illustrated in Figure 1, there is a philo- NEURAL OPTIMIZA1
sophical relationship among ANNs, optimization, and N EWO RKS M ETH O
process control that guides our research program at
the University of Connecticut (UConn).


In this article we will present an overview of
several research projects that focus on these subject
areas. Our goal is to stir the interest and in-
crease the motivation of those students who are
considering graduate studies in chemical engineer-
ing, and in particular, in neural networks, optimiza-
tion, and process control.
The research at UConn is conducted in the Intelli-
gent Process Systems Laboratory (IPS Lab), a lab
associated with the Department of Chemical Engi-
neering. Both the IPS Lab and the department are
located at the UConn campus in Storrs, where about
Douglas J. Cooper is Associate Professor of
Chemical Engineering and Director of the Intelli-
gent Process Systems Laboratory. He received a
BS from the University of Massachusetts (1977), 4
an MS from the University of Michigan (1978),
and after three years of industrial experience
with Chevron Research Company, a PhD from
the University of Colorado (1985).


Luke E. K. Achenie is Assistant Professor of
Chemical Engineering and Associate Director of
the Intelligent Process Systems Laboratory. He
received a BS from MIT in chemical engineering
(1981), an MS from Northwestern in engineering
science (1982), and an MS inappliedmath (1984)
and a PhD in chemical engineering (1988) from
Carnegie Mellon University.


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1992


Figure 1. Philosophical relationship guiding
research program.
12,500 undergraduates and 3,500 graduate students
study under the guidance of some 1,200 faculty mem-
bers. The Department of Chemical Engineering has
about 120 undergraduates, 50 graduate students,
and 13 faculty.
The IPS Lab is a relatively new facility that houses
researchers and equipment for a number of inter-
disciplinary projects. A myriad of computer equip-
ment, including RISC-based workstations and
the newest personal computers, are available for use
by student and faculty researchers. Access to the
Cornell Supercomputer Center and high-end com-
puters, such as the Sequent Symmetry S27 parallel
computer and IBM vector machines, is possible
through high speed networks.
Current projects range from fundamental theo-
retical studies to applied process implementations
and include faculty from chemical, electrical, and
mechanical engineering as well as researchers from
local industry. The IPS Lab also interacts with other
research programs at UConn, including the Biotech-
nology Center, the Booth Center for Computer Ap-
plications Research, the Environmental Research
Center, the Institute of Material Science, and the
Precision Manufacturing Center.
Chemical Engineering Education









CURRENT RESEARCH IN THE IPS LAB
The number and direction of individual research projects
are influenced by technological needs of government agen-
cies and industry, as well as developments in science and
technology. Some of the research projects currently re-
ceiving attention by IPS Lab researchers are discussed in
the following paragraphs.
Neural Network Architectures for Control
ANNs are computing tools made up of many simple,
highly interconnected processing elements. ANNs are
generating excitement both because they are able to
model a wide range of complex and nonlinear problems
with relative ease and because they have proven to be
powerful and easy-to-implement tools for pattern recogni-
tion applications.
ANNs hold additional promise that make them particu-
larly interesting to the process control researcher. For
example, ANNs can be used to model complex processes
without requiring the engineer to possess a fundamental
understanding of the underlying physical phenomena.
Further, they can model processes and recognize patterns
when the data is imprecise or corrupted with "noise."
Finally, ANNs are relatively easy for practitioners to em-
ploy in solving real-world problems compared to more
traditional statistical and first-principles approaches.
In process control research, investigators have proposed
using ANNs for modeling nonlinear process dynamics,
for filtering noisy signals, for modeling the actions of
human operators, for interpreting advanced sensor data,
and for fault detection and diagnosis. Despite these
efforts, there are still a number of issues which must
be addressed if ANNs are to fulfill their promise in pro-
cess control applications.
Knowledge is stored in ANNs by the choice of function
used in each processing element (or neuron), by the way
the neurons are connected to each other, and by the weight-
ing values used in each neuron connection. These choices,
taken together, comprise the network architecture. Three
architectures receiving attention by researchers include
feed forward nets such as the backpropagation ANN shown
in Figure 2, recurrent nets such as the single layer Hopfield
ANN shown in Figure 3, and vector quantizing nets such
as the Kohonen ANN shown in Figure 4.
Each of these architectures has a number of variations.
For example, when considering the backpropagation ANN,
the number of neurons in the input and output layer is
typically determined by the application. However,
the number of hidden layers and the number of neurons
within each hidden layer must be chosen by the engineer
and is often determined by trial-and-error. In one
research project, we are employing analysis tools such
as singular value decomposition and variational ap-
Fall 1992


INPur SIGNALS ro NEr
Figure 2. Backpropagation neural network.

OUTPUT SIGNALS FROM NET


INPUT SIGNALS TO NET
Figure 3. Single layer Hopfield neural network.

OUTPTr SIGNALS FROM NET


NEURONS
FORM V
PA TTERN





EACH NEURON
RECEIVES ENTIRE
S. 1 wNPU PA rERN

NPUTr SIGNALS TO NET
Figure 4. Kohonen neural network.


OUTPUT SIGNALS FROM NEr









proacheswi to develop a theoretically sound method-
ology for determining appropriate net architectures
for particular applications.
Once an architecture is chosen, the engineer must
make decisions about ANN training. Typically,
training data is either historical data from the ac-
tual process or simulated data generated from
computer models of the process. A network is repeat-
edly exposed to this data until it "learns by example"
as it converges on the process relationships con-
tained in the data.
Thus, the engineer must decide how much train-
ing data is adequate, whether this data properly
spans the entire range of expected operation, and
how much training is required before the ANN
can be considered converged. The answers to these
and similar questions, especially as they pertain to
ANN applications in process control, are also under
study at the IPS Lab. In one recent effort,[2I we
compared the strengths and weaknesses to two
ANN architectures when employed for pattern-based
adaptive process control.
A current investigation considers the use of faster
optimization algorithms such as successive quadratic
programming and conjugate gradients coupled with
efficient trust region techniques to sig-
nificantly speed up training times of
ANNs. Implementation of these tech-
niques on parallel computers will also
be investigated.[3]


Pattern-Based Adaptive Process Control
A controller continually adjusts a pro-
cess input variable so that the controlled
output variable successfully tracks a de-
sired value or set point. A well-tuned
controller manipulates the input vari-
able both to minimize the impact of
unplanned disturbances and to track any
changes in the set point value.
Many chemical processes are nonlinear
and/or have a process character which
changes with time. A process may have
a changing character, for example, due
to fouling or catalyst deactivation over
time. Hence the tuning of a controller
on such processes must be self-adjust-
ing or adaptive if desirable performance
is to be maintained.
One approach for making process con-
trollers adaptive is to employ a process
model internal to the controller archi-
tecture which describes the dynamic be-


havior of the process. If, whenever the process char-
acter changes, this model is updated so that it re-
mains descriptive of the current process dynamics,
then a wide variety of popular model-based control
algorithms such as Internal Model Control or Dy-
namic Matrix Control can be used to maintain desir-
able process control performance.
The traditional method for updating the controller
process model is through regression of recently
sampled process input-output data. The result is a
correlative model between the manipulated variable
and controlled variable that can be used in many
adaptive algorithms. This traditional architecture is
illustrated in Figure 5.
In the IPS Lab, a different approach to controller
model updating is under study that may ultimately
prove easier for industrial practitioners to employ.
In this research, the performance of the controller is
assessed by evaluating the patterns exhibited in the
controller error, which is the difference between the
desired set point and the measured value of the
controlled variable. The pattern recognition capa-
bilities of a neural network are exploited to perform
this analysis and to relate observed patterns to re-
quired updates in controller model parameters. A


FEEDBACK SIGNAL
Figure 5. Model-based adaptive process control architecture.



PERFORMANCE
EVALUATION
L NETWORK

CONTROLLER
L DESIGN

--- CONTROLLER -- PROCESS
SET POINT PROCESS PROCESS
CONTROLLER INPUT OUTPUT
S ERROR
UNMEASURED
DISTURBANCE

FEEDBACK SIGNAL
Figure 6. Pattern-based performance feedback adaptive controller.
Chemical Engineering Education










The design of a neural network which can recognize both the oscillatory
and non-oscillatory patterns that are associated with aggressive, desirable, and sluggish
controller performance is reasonably straightforward.


pattern-based performance analysis architecture is
illustrated in Figure 6.
Take as an example a process that responds to a
set point change with a large overshoot, followed by
slowly damping oscillations. One possible explana-
tion is that the gain and/or time constant of the
controller model is small relative to that of the
actual process. Alternatively, an explanation for a
slow response after a set point change is that the
gain and/or time constant of the controller model is
too large. Hence, the manner in which a poorly
performing controller is mistuned can be inferred
from the patterns displayed in the recent history of
the controller error.
The design of a neural network which can recog-
nize both the oscillatory and non-oscillatory patterns
that are associated with aggressive, desirable, and
sluggish controller performance is reasonably
straightforward. The challenge is to associate these
transient patterns with the required updating of the
controller model parameters in order to restore de-
sired performance. Methods for achieving this are
under study in the IPS Lab, and recent successes are
based on approximating all real processes with a
generic or "ideal" simulated process.12,4,51

Pattern-Based Process Excitation Diagnostics
The traditional method for updating the process
model internal to an adaptive controller (as illus-
trated in Figure 5) is based on regression of recently
sampled process input-output data. To ensure that a
properly descriptive process model results from the
regression, data samples must be collected when the
process is experiencing a meaningful or "sufficiently
exciting" dynamic event. During such an event, the
changes in the manipulated process input must im-
part changes to the process output variable that
clearly dominate both the measurement noise and
any dynamics resulting from unmeasured distur-
bances.
The engineer often uses simple criteria for excita-
tion, such as when the difference between the model-
predicted estimate of the output variable
and the actual measurement of that variable exceed
some minimum value. Unfortunately, such an
approach is not very reliable for detecting when
the process is experiencing input-output excitation
Fall 1992


and fails altogether when the disturbance dynamics
dominate the event.
Thus, we are studying innovative methods for
the diagnosis of process excitation that are reliable
and easy to use. In this work, we initially focused
on patterns exhibited in the process input variable
alone under the assumption that if the process in-
put was experiencing significant dynamics, then
the process will be sufficiently excited for reliable
data regression.li6
Building on this idea, current research exploits the
pattern recognition capabilities of ANNs to construct
an improved excitation diagnostic tool. The approach
under study considers the recent histories of both
the input and output sampled data patterns together
as a complete process "snapshot." The neural net-
work is being trained to observe the behavior of both
variables simultaneously and to signal whenever a
dynamic event that is producing process input-out-
put data suitable for model regression is in progress.

Control Design with Objective Prioritization
Controller designs based on the use of an internal
controller model, such as Dynamic Matrix Control
(DMC), are finding their way into industrial prac-
tice. One advantage to the DMC architecture is that
in many applications, relatively simple process mod-
els are adequate to achieve good control performance.
Further, DMC can handle soft control constraints in
a straightforward and systematic manner.
A multivariable DMC implementation where con-
trol objectives are to be balanced against economic
objectives may be achieved through the use of
weights.[71 However, this strategy forces the engi-
neer to specify a large number of weights, which is
equivalent to specifying a large number of tuning
parameters. The problem is compounded when engi-
neers are responsible for many control loops in a
large plant, compelling them to resort to ad hoc or
trial-and-error tuning.
A method for circumventing this problem is the
modular multivariable controller design methodol-
ogy. In this approach, manipulated variables are
designated as primary or secondary, where primary
variables are the last to be allowed to achieve a
desired optimum level. Unfortunately, in order to
Continued on page 221.
179










Inr class and home problems


The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems in
chemical engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a
particular principle in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel home problem, are
requested, as well as those that are more traditional in nature and which elucidate difficult concepts. Please
submit them to Professors James O. Wilkes and Mark A. Burns, Chemical Engineering Department, Univer-
sity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Ml 48109-2136.




THE INFLUENCE OF CATALYSTS ON

THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM


JOHN L. FALCONER
University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0424

he influence of heterogeneous catalysts on how
chemical equilibrium calculations are carried
out is demonstrated by the following short
problem, which will be viewed as a simplified repre-
sentation of methanol synthesis.

Problem Statement
The inlet feed to a catalytic reactor is pure A. What
is the maximum mole fraction of B that can be ob-
tained in a catalytic reactor for the parallel, revers-
ible reactions with the indicated equilibrium con-
stants
A B K, =1.5 (1)
A
Solution)
A reasonable approach is to solve the two equilib-
rium equations simultaneously


K,= XB
K1
XA


K2 XA
XA


to obtain the following mole fractions

x = 0.08
xB = 0.12
xc = 0.80
But if the appropriate catalyst was chosen so as
to accelerate Reaction (1) preferentially, then a
much higher mole fraction of B could be obtained
(xB = 0.60). That is, the mole fraction as a function of
time would follow a pathway such as that shown
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1992


John L. Falconer is professor of chemical engi-
neering at the University of Colorado at Boulder,
where he has been since 1975. He received his
BS degree from the Johns Hopkins University
and his PhD from Stanford University. He
teaches courses in reactor design, thermody-
namics, and catalysis. His research interests
are in the areas of heterogeneous catalysis on
supported metals and oxides, solid-catalyzed
gas-solid reactions, photocatalysis, and cata-
lytic membrane reactors.

in Figure 1, and the above mole fractions would only
be obtained at long times. To simplify generation
of Figure 1, the forward rate constant of Reaction
(1) was assumed to be 100 times the forward rate
constant of Reaction (2). In an actual catalytic
system these rate constants can differ by many
more orders of magnitude. If the reactor residence
time was chosen in the broad region in Figure 1
where product B is favored, then a much higher
concentration of B could be obtained than expected
based on consideration of both equilibrium reactions
simultaneously. Because of its larger rate con-
stants, Reaction (1) reaches equilibrium so rapidly
that it is not affected significantly by Reaction (2)
until longer reaction times.
Discussion
Most undergraduate textbooks in kinetics and re-
actor design discuss heterogeneous catalysis because
the majority of chemical processes use a catalyst to
obtain desired products at high rates. Many of these
textbooks, however, either do not mention the inter-
action between catalysts and thermodynamic equi-
librium, or they give a false impression of how cata-
lysts affect practical equilibrium obtained in a chemi-
cal reactor. For example, typical statements from
reactor design textbooks about this topic are1r-31
SThe thermodynamic equilibrium is unaltered by the presence
Chemical Engineering Education









oJ a catalyst
A catalyst changes only the rate of reaction; it does not
effect the equilibrium.
The position of equilibrium in a reversible reaction is not
changed by the presence of a catalyst.
Equilibrium conversion isO not altered by catalysis.
These statements are all correct, but they may
give the wrong impression because they only apply
at times that may be long compared to the reactor
residence time. They do not indicate that catalysts
give us the option of deciding which reactions to
consider in the equilibrium calculations.
Methanol synthesis from CO and H2 clearly dem-
onstrates this point. Consider the two reactions


CO + 2 H<=> CH OH


Equilibrium
Constant at 500 K
5.3 x10-3


2CO+4H2 = C2HOH+H20 32.8 (4)
At first glance, it would not appear worthwhile
to build a methanol synthesis reactor; indeed,
an ideal equilibrium calculation[41 at 20 atm and
500 K for a 1:1 feed composition yields the following
mole fractions:

X = 0.50

XH 6x 10-3

H30H = 4 x 10

XC2HOH = 0.25
Xo = 0.25

For this feed composition, the equilibrium cal-
culation indicates that H2 is almost completely
consumed and the main products are ethanol and
water. Almost no CH3OH is predicted to form based
on thermodynamic equilibrium for these two reac-
tions. Of course, commercial plants exist that make
methanol on a large scale from CO and H2, and the
undesired reactions are the formation of C2H5OH
and hydrocarbons.
If only Reaction (3) is considered in the equilib-
rium calculation, however, then a reasonable yield
of CHOH is predicted:
xco = 0.50
xH2 = 0.36

[XCHoH = 0.14
In this case, only a fraction of the H2 is consumed.
Clearly this is the correct equilibrium calculation for
the industrial process; even though C2H5OH also
forms,15.6e we do not consider Reaction (4) in the
equilibrium calculation because Reaction (3) is so
Fall 1992


II..




(.4


(.2


,oo B
A-
C
7' "c


0.0. 1
0.1 1.0 10 10: 103 104 105
Figure 1. Mole fractions of A,B,C versus reaction time for
the parallel, reversible decomposition of A to form B
and C. Rate constants in inverse minutes are
indicatedforfirst-order reactions.

much faster. If we did, we would conclude that the
measured methanol conversion is significantly higher
than the equilibrium conversion. The formation of
CH3OH from CO and H2 follows the same type path-
way as shown for component B in Figure 1, except
that the equilibrium constants differ by almost four
orders of magnitude for Reactions (3) and (4) instead
of one order of magnitude for Reactions (1) and (2).
The interaction between catalysis and thermody-
namics was discussed by Hamilton and Greenwald,t71
but their ideas are not addressed in most of the
reactor kinetics or thermodynamics textbooks; only
a few textbooks on heterogeneous catalysis discuss
the influence of thermodynamic equilibrium.lsi
Hamilton and Greenwald distinguished between true
equilibrium (infinite time) and practical equilibrium.
Indeed, if the methanol synthesis reaction is run for
extremely long contact times, then almost no CH3OH
remains.16' Hamilton and Greenwald emphasized that
the catalyst constrains possible reaction pathways
so that the uncatalyzed reaction is essentially for-
bidden. Thus, the minimum Gibbs free energy is not
obtained; instead the minimum along a highly con-
strained path is obtained.
As pointed out by Satterfield,'s8 a selective catalyst
directs one reaction essentially to completion while
having little or no effect on other reactions. Thus,
the most stable products are not formed. What the
reaction to synthesize methanol from synthesis gas
shows is that in calculating equilibrium conversion,
we must consider the two reactions separately be-
cause the rates of reaction differ significantly. That
is, the Gibbs free energy is not minimized for the
system; instead, each equilibrium calculation is done
independently of the other. For our example, this


i


//









means that the maximum mole fraction for CH3OH
is 0.14, not 4 x 10-5.
Thus, catalysts can modify practical thermody-
namic equilibrium by dictating that equilibrium for
each reaction be considered separately. Catalysts do
not change equilibrium constants, but the properly
chosen catalyst allows us to ignore many of the reac-
tions in equilibrium calculations because their rates
are low. As pointed out by Hamilton and Greenwald17]
Of all the compounds that might theoretically form, it is well known
that it is necessary to have thermodynamic information on only CO,
1,, and CH,OH to calculate equilibrium concentrations and yields
in such a selectively catalyzed system.
We ignore an entire class of reactions when we
calculate the equilibrium yield for methanol without
also considering the equilibrium for paraffins forma-
tion, even though AG > 0 for methanol formation,
and AG < 0 for methane and higher paraffin forma-
tion. All the higher alcohols and all the paraffins are
more thermodynamically favored than methanol,1'9
but they are formed in very low concentrations over
the typical ZnO/Cr20 catalyst.
In summary, catalysts affect practical equilibrium


conversions because conversions much higher than
those calculated from equilibrium can be obtained in
catalytic reactors.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I wish to thank Prof. William B. Krantz for very
fruitful discussions about this topic and Prof. Scott
H. Fogler for some useful suggestions. Thanks also
to Eric M. Cordi for generating Figure 1.
REFERENCES
1. Holland, C.D., and R.G. Antony, Fundamentals of Chemical
Reaction Engineering, Prentice Hall (1979)
2. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering,
2nd ed. Prentice Hall (1992)
3. Smith, J.M., Chemical Engineering Kinetics, McGraw-Hill
(1981)
4. O'Brien, J.A., REACT!, Version 2.0 program
5. Campbell, I.M., Catalysis at Surfaces, Chapman and Hall
(1988)
6. Chinchen, G.C., P.J. Denny, J.R. Jennings, M.S. Spencer,
and K.C. Waugh, Appl. Catal., 36, 1 (1988)
7. Hamilton, B.K., and M.J. Greenwald, J. Chem. Ed., 51, 732
(1974)
8. Satterfield, C.N., Heterogeneous Catalysis, McGraw-Hill
(1980)
9. Klier, K., Adv. in Catal., 31, 243 (1982) 0


book review

INTRODUCTION TO
MACROMOLECULAR SCIENCE
by Peter Munk
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York; 522 pages,
$44.95 (1989)
Reviewed by
Matthew Tirrell
University of Minnesota
As a research field, polymer science has flourished
within chemical engineering more than in any other
traditional academic discipline and, while I have not
surveyed this quantitatively, I feel confident in as-
serting that many more courses on aspects of poly-
mer science and technology are taught in chemical
engineering than in any other kind of department.
That fact alone makes the appearance of a new text-
book on polymer science a noteworthy event for
chemical engineering. On top of that, there is the
fact that polymer science has become so broad a
topic that there are many ways to approach its pre-
sentation and concomitant, there is a general dissat-
isfaction with the books available for instruction
during the last five years. It was precisely this feel-
ing that led Professor Munk to write this book, as he
explains in the Preface; for this, I salute him, since
complaining is certainly easier and more immedi-
182


ately gratifying than bookwriting.
The book is intended for a first course in polymer
science but is at a level that would be appropriate for
introducing the subject to either seniors or graduate
students. It comprises five chapters, the first four of
them quite large and broad in themselves: Structure
of Macromolecules, Techniques for Synthesis of Poly-
mers, Macromolecules in Solution, and Bulk Poly-
mers. These are solid, information-rich chapters. The
fifth chapter, Technology of Polymeric Materials, is
but ten pages long and is not really up to the job
announced by its title.
The flow of topics, beginning with a detailed dis-
cussion of the ways that macromolecules can be put
together, followed by a second detailed chapter on
synthetic methods is, in my view, exactly appropri-
ate for an introductory book. Connections made be-
tween uncharged, synthetic polymers, which are the
main subject of the book, and important related top-
ics, such as polyelectrolytes, micelles, proteins, and
polynucleotides, are very well done and useful. Par-
ticular care has gone into placing polymer science in
a proper context, which is both educational for the
reader and likely to stimulate student interest by
helping them see connections.
The third chapter on polymers in solution is also
filled with important and useful information on the
basic physical chemistry of mixture of polymers with
solvents. I begin to find divergence between the
Chemical Engineering Education










author's point of view and mine in the heart of this
chapter. The presentation of experimental methods,
when viewed from the perspective of current prac-
tice, overemphasizes membrane osmometry and ul-
tracentrifugation and underemphasizes scattering
of light and, particularly, of neutrons. Neutron scat-
tering goes unmentioned in this chapter on solutions
and only makes a brief appearance in the fourth
chapter on bulk polymers. The section on equation-
of-state solution theories misses a great opportunity
to highlight the work of Professor Munk's colleague
in chemical engineering, Isaac Sanchez who, with
Bob Lacombe, showed (in the late seventies) how the
Flory-Huggins lattice model could be extended in a
simple but powerful way to comprehend PVT effects
in the phase behavior of polymer mixtures. Nonethe-
less, this is a perfectly usable chapter by any in-
structor of polymer science, no matter what his or
her personal prejudice might be.
Up to this point, this book ranks, in my estima-
tion, with Paul Flory's first book, Principles of Poly-
mer Chemistry, in terms of the sequence and balance
of coverage. (I should add, so that you can calibrate
me and my judgment, that I insist that any new
graduate student working with me become completely
conversant with the entirety of Flory.)
The gap of Professor Munk's divergence from my
ideal path widens in Chapter 4 on bulk polymers. I
suspect that this is related to a divergence from
Professor Munk's own interests, as he is a widely
respected physical chemist with interests in polymer
solutions. Chapter 4 still contains considerable use-
ful information, and most of what is in it is impor-
tant. However, it is the omissions to which I object.
Perhaps the single most important development in
bulk polymers during the eighties has been the elabo-
ration of the concept of reputation. This word is men-
tioned exactly once in this book. Rubber elasticity,
classical viscoelasticity of polymers, and mechanical
properties of semicrystalline polymers are all well
covered in this book, making it very suitable for a
course that deals significantly with physical proper-
ties of polymers. On the other hand, modern poly-
mer melt rheology is essentially absent.
Another point of omission in this book (with which
I disagree, but which is done explicitly and inten-
tionally by the author) is the absence of primary
references. No references are given in the text (ex-
cept for figure captions); references, to other books
exclusively, are given in lists for all chapters at the
end of the book. I don't mind the collection of all
references at the end, or even the lack of references
inserted in the text-but I think it is a mistake not
to tell students where the primary literature is. They
Fall 1992


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The Chemical Engineering Department at Virginia Tech is seeking appli-
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design and modeling, and thermodynamics. However, qualified appli-
cants with other areas of interest will also be considered. Duties include
teaching at the undergraduate and graduate levels, establishing and con-
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cants should send a resume, a statement of research and teaching interests,
and the names and addresses of three references familiar with their work
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Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0211. Applications will be accepted until
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only U.S. citizens and lawfully authorized alien workers. Virginia Tech is
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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
A tenure-track Assistant or Associate Professor position is available for
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miss seeing the origins of textbook facts, complete
with all the experimental considerations, errors, etc.
Without that exposure, some students develop ei-
ther an unwarranted reverence, or an insufficient
appreciation, for the achievement behind what they
read in their textbooks.
On balance, this is a very good, solid, usable text-
book for many variations on polymer science and
engineering courses likely to be taught in chemical
engineering departments. I have used it for the last
year to introduce new graduate students to the re-
search field. As mentioned earlier, complaining about
books is a favorite pastime among instructors of
polymer science. Professor Munk's book should di-
minish the complaints and raise the standard for
those who would aspire to do better. 1










CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING

A Story of Continuing Fascination


L. K. DORAISWAMY
Iowa State University
Ames, IA 50011

C chemical engineering in its most general sense
is broadly centered on two aspects of chemical
processing: transformation engineering and
separation engineering. Transformation engineering
addresses the engineering of physical and chemical
change, while separation engineering deals with the
principles and tools by which the products of trans-
formation can be obtained at stated levels of purity.
The engineering of chemical change constitutes the
core of chemical reaction engineering. Given the cen-
trality of chemical change in any chemical process, it
is surprising that the principles and practices of
chemical change did not coalesce into a well-defined
area until the late 1950s. It was called "applied ki-
netics" before that time. Part 3 of Chemical Process
Principles, by Hougen and Watson,[l1 was perhaps
the first book to attempt a coherent educational pre-
sentation of the principles of reactor design.
The subsequent development of chemical reaction
engineering (CRE) was rapid, almost dramatic, in
the 1960s and 1970s. The increasing use of sophisti-
cated methods, so aptly and appropriately discussed
by Aris,L21 provides a reflective backdrop to the con-
tinuing research in this area. The field has expanded
so vastly and so heterogeneously, through the export
of its basic theme (interaction between chemical and
physical factors) to other areas of chemical transfor-
mation, that its own scope-if one can conceive of a
scope for this "moving boundary problem"-is
now being increasingly linked ("confined" is not
the right word) to chemical and petrochemical pro-
cesses. Among these are biochemical reaction
engineering, microelectronic reaction engineering,
polymer reaction engineering, and electrochemical
reaction engineering.
In the author's opinion, this is an irreversible change
(perhaps in the right direction), and chemical reac-
tion engineering will continue to grow vertically within
its own province, but always overlapping interac-
tively with the boundaries of its progeny. In any case,
considering the quick dispersal of knowledge that is
evident today and the commonality of many prin-
184


ciples, one can only conceive of different disciplines
of CRE. The areas mentioned above are precisely
that. If all of them are to come under a single um-
brella, then CRE, already interdisciplinary, would
be truly ubiquitous.
Over the years, chemical reaction engineering has
progressed along two rather different paths. In Eu-
rope the emphasis has been more on the application
of new and exciting concepts to conventional tech-
nologies, including the "bread and butter" conven-
tions. On the other hand, in the United States
conventional technologies have not normally held
much attraction for academia, except perhaps in
some areas such as catalysis. There is much to be
said in favor of both approaches, but what is likely to
emerge as we move into the 21st Century is a bal-
anced synthesis of the two paths.

UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CRE
Concepts of CRE are taught in different courses.
The emphasis in undergraduate curricula usually
tends to be on homogeneous reactions, catalytic re-
actions, and occasionally on multiphase reactions
involving two or more reactive phases. It is impor-
tant that students get a broad exposure to various
areas and systems covered by CRE in the junior
year-in addition to a more rigorous course involv-
ing a few selected systems (depending on the inter-
est and expertise of the instructor). It is not uncom-
mon in today's world to find a graduating student
who has had little or no exposure to the emerging
areas of a subject, including CRE. This is a situation
that must be addressed immediately. Students must
be given a firmer grounding in order to cope with the
challenges of the next century.

SL. K. Doraiswamy received his BS from Ma-
dras University and his MS and PhD from the
University of Wisconsin. He is presently the
Herbert L. Stiles professor at Iowa State Univer-
sity, where he came after retiring as director of
India's National Chemical Laboratory. His re-
search has spanned several areas of chemical
reaction engineering: gas-solid (catalytic and
noncatalytic) reactions, stochastic analysis, and
surface science approach to catalytic reactor
design.
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1992
Chemical Engineering Education









It is not uncommon in today's world to find a graduating student
who has had little or no exposure to the emerging areas of a subject,
including CRE. This is a situation that must be addressed immediately. Students
must be given a firmer grounding in order to cope with the challenges of the next century.


Another concept that should be implemented is a
scaled-down version of the think-tank concept in
which the student is given a design problem and
makes no a priori assumption as to the type of reac-
tor to be used. This is beautifully brought out in a
Danckwerts Memorial Lecture by O. Levenspiell3l
where he illustrates the concept with a specific ex-
ample. This approach stimulates thinking and analy-
sis, and every effort should be made to provide a
course, or some kind of an individualized or tutorial
mechanism, to foster an "educational think tank" of
the type proposed.

COMPLEMENTARY ROLES
OF ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION
All too often, at the end of a course the student has
learned most of the principles but has no clue as to
the systems (existing or potential) where they might
be used. Sharma and Doraiswamyl4' addressed this
problem in their book, where many examples are
given which illustrate principles or design situa-
tions. Furthermore, the student should acquire a
feel for numbers, e.g., What is a "slow" reaction?
What is the range of effective thermal conductivities
of common catalysts? What is the range of liquid-
side mass transfer coefficients in some real systems?
The argument that these concepts can be acquired
later is moot and less than comforting.
This brings us to the pedagogic problem of analy-
sis vs. application. Many books, including Bird,
Stewart, and Lightfoot's Transport Phenomena,L5l
tend to be analysis oriented. There is great merit in
that approach-it was certainly the correct approach
at a time when there was an overdose of empiricism
and when descriptive and "experience" aspects of
process technology held sway. But it is increasingly
evident that analysis and application must comple-
ment each other. In CRE courses, for example, one
can talk of controlling regimes and can present
detailed analytical methods for discerning the
controlling regimes, but it should be supplemented
with industrial (or even laboratory) examples of
reactions conforming to those regimes. Thus, if
one is considering the mass transfer regime, it
would be instructive to illustrate with examples
such as dehydrogenation of cyclohexane, decom-
position of hydrogen peroxide, and hydrogenation
of phenol (to name a few).
Fall 1992


It should also be mentioned that a regular gradu-
ate course in CRE should involve a problem where
the student is required to design a reactor for a
selected reaction, starting from the base level-a
literature search for getting the correct rate equa-
tion. (This is slightly different from Levenspiel's
concept where the reaction is new and no infor-
mation is available.) Rase's Chemical Reactor De-
sign for Process Plantsl61 contains such examples in
its second volume. In today's context, however, these
examples should have a higher content of analysis
and modeling.

MORE CHEMISTRY IN CRE
And-let's face it-the basis of all chemical engi-
neering is, after all, chemistry, and the average
chemical engineering student's knowledge of chem-
istry is less than it should be. Either during a course
in CRE or by additional coursework in chemistry,
students must be required to gain a firmer feel for
chemistry-definitely for inorganic and organic chem-
istry, and biochemistry and polymer chemistry in
special cases. Here, students of biochemical engi-
neering or polymer reaction engineering are at an
advantage since they enjoy greater exposure to the
chemistry aspects of the subject than do students in
a regular CRE course in chemical engineering. Such
exposure at an early stage enhances the student's
ability not only to deal with everyday problems sub-
sequently encountered on the job, but also in later
years to formulate exciting problems of current or
potential relevance. The need for more chemistry in
chemical engineering was stressed by the author in
a lecture (delivered at Wisconsin some years agol71)
which included a number of examples to strengthen
the argument.

SOME RESEARCH AREAS
In a field that covers such a large mix of possibili-
ties, it would be presumptuous to list areas for con-
tinued or future attention. Even so, there are certain
areas which have the potential for significant im-
pact on the chemical industry (used in its broadest
sense). The following suggestions are perceptions
not uncolored by the author's personal fancy or evalu-
ation, and should therefore be viewed in that light.
Catalysis and Catalytic Reaction Engineering
In an age where there is an increasing tendency to
185








frown on conventional topics, catalysis is a refresh-
ing exception. It is among the oldest areas in chem-
istry, and yet it continues to be new. Perhaps its
main driving forces are the omnipotence of catalysis
and the intriguing fact that, in spite of its long run,
it is just beginning to emerge from the shadows of
empiricism. We are still a long way from answering
the question "Can one design a catalyst for a given
requirement?"-this could be the main reason for
the unrelenting research in this area. With the help
of sophisticated instruments, we are now looking at
catalysis at its most fundamental level, particularly
with the objectives of identifying the participating
sites, mapping their energy levels, and understand-
ing the basis of selectivity. Iowa State University
has a strong school of research in these areas.
From the point of view of catalytic reaction engi-
neering and starting with the early publications of
Amundson,r8s we seem to have almost reached the
end of the line where steady-state analysis is con-
cerned, and the state-of-the-art has been fully cov-
ered by Aris[l (also see Levenspiello10 and Froment
and Bischofftm). That is not so, however, with re-
spect to unsteady state analysis (including multi-
plicity), for which some new mathematical tools have
been developed.[12] The role of adsorption and the use
of nonideal isotherms has all but evaded the atten-
tion of reaction engineers, and only recently have
we started to look at adsorption, catalysis, and reac-
tor design in their totality.l'13 This is presently an
active area of research at Iowa State University, and
a recent conference in Poland addressed the prob-
lem, perhaps for the first time in an international
forum. Another approach that is gaining ground in
catalytic processes is the simultaneous consideration
of feedstock, catalyst, reactor, selectivity, and sepa-
ration. I believe that these trends will continue well
into the 21st Century.
An area of catalytic reactor design that will gain
momentum is gas phase polymerization in fluidized
bed reactors. Following the first flush of success
of fluidized beds in the petroleum and petro-
chemical industries, interest in the area waned
when it was found that fluidization was no panacea
for reactor evils. It began to wax again when coal
conversion processes revived attention-but with a
difference: fluidization of large particles. Perhaps
the stage is now set for another revival-in the area
of polymerization.
In addition to heterogeneous catalysis, we have
homogeneous catalysis, where innovative coordina-
tion chemistry and catalyst recovery play vital roles.
An exciting example is reductive carbonylation of


methanol. It is here that early exposure to inorganic
chemistry would be most useful. It would also be
useful in catalyst preparation technology, and it is
in this area that our ignorance coefficient is woefully
high. Impregnation and drying of catalysts are still
almost entirely empirical operations. The analysis of
Varma and collaborators in a series of ten papers
(see, for example, Part 9 which contains all previous
references141 and Part 10, to appear soon) shows that
an optimum catalyst profile in the pellet can in-
crease catalyst activity and selectivity in many reac-
tions. This underscores the need for a more rigorous
espousal of catalyst manufacturing science.
Solid State Reaction Engineering
Today, research in solid state materials is a fron-
tier of enquiry. Solid-solid reactions were first men-
tioned in the mid-80s[41 as an area of interest in
chemical reaction engineering. With the increasing
participation of chemical engineers in materials
development, this interest has grown to an astonish-
ing level today. Materials of interest include struc-
tural composites, ceramic materials, new metal
compositions, and microelectronic materials. The
engineering science analysis of the reactions in-
volved in these preparations has been late in com-
ing, but it now appears to have taken root. There is
little doubt that this interest will rise exponentially
in the years ahead. Take microelectronics as an ex-
ample of the role of CRE in these materials; here we
have processes such as deposition, etching, diffu-
sion, and implantation, in which different types of
reactors are employed to carry out both homoge-
neous and heterogeneous reactions. CRE inputs are
just beginning to flow into the analysis of these
operations. There is a need to introduce electronic
materials concepts at the undergraduate level, per-
haps as an elective.
Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using
a variety of techniques is an important method of
preparing solid state materials, particularly cata-
lytic materials. A strong school of research as Iowa
State University is exploring the preparation, char-
acterization, and use of such materials.

Reaction-Cum-Separation
(or the reactor-separator combo)
One way to cut capital costs (and increase conver-
sion and selectivity in some cases) is to carry out the
reaction and separation steps in a single piece of
equipment, or to devise technologies where useful
side-products are formed. The earliest example of
the first kind is the well-known Solvay tower in
which a number of operations occur simultaneously
Chemical Engineering Education









to ultimately produce soda ash. Indeed, the Solvay
tower is a veritable combo of multiple operations.
Although this reactor combo is no longer a complete
black box, many aspects of it still are. But that is
only one major example. A number of other, less
complicated, examples of reaction-cum-recovery can
be cited: the removal/recovery of acid gases such as
CO2, H2S, SO2, recovery of valuable products from
waste or dilute streams, or reaction-cum-crystalliza-
tion in the manufacture of such important products
as citric and adipic acids.
There is increasing interest, particularly in schools
outside the United States, in the analysis of combo
reactors. The type of research involved here is
usually concerned with the application of new
and innovative ideas in the so-called conventional
manufacturing processes. At Iowa State, research
in crystallization has been in progress since the
1950s, and more recently the problem of reaction-
cum-crystallization has been added to this continu-
ing program.
In the removal of oxygen present in levels below
2% in gases like CO2, it would be desirable to de-
velop absorbents with the ability to mimic hemoglo-
bin-type regenerative action. Some manganese com-
pounds probably have such an ability. In the separa-
tion of p- and m-xylenes the difference in reactivity
of the two can be successfully exploited. Thus, one
can selectively alkylate m-xylene (with the para iso-
mer untouched) using acetaldehyde to give
dixylylethane (DXE).IIS5 DXE, when cracked, gives
half the amount of the meta isomer back along with
the industrially useful side-product dimethylstyrene.
Innumerable other instances can be quoted involv-
ing reactive extraction, dissociation extraction re-
action, and dissociation extraction crystallization
to buttress the contention that this is indeed an
exciting area of research with unlimited scope for
the use of novel concepts.
This area of research can serve as an example to
strengthen the point made earlier that there should
be more chemistry in CRE education and research.
In a lecture the author heard some years ago, the
point was made that many companies do not expect
significant chemistry input from chemical engineers.
It would seem that chemistry input of the kind men-
tioned here must come primarily from reaction engi-
neers exposed to a lot of chemistry. (Here, chemistry
means the chemistry of relatively large and complex
molecules encountered in, say, drugs and pesticides
manufacture.) It is significant that one sees a greater
degree of chemistry orientation in biotechnology and
polymer science and engineering.
Fall 1992


Microphase Reaction Engineering
Reaction of a component from a liquid phase (which
we will call Phase 1) with another reactant of lim-
ited solubility diffusing from a second phase can be
hastened if a small quantity of a microphase can be
added to the system. If the particle size of the
microphase is smaller than the diffusion scale of the
reactant, then these particles can get inside the liq-
uid film and transport more of the reactant from
Phase 2 intoPhase 1. From two excellent reviews on
the subject,t16.171 it seems clear that the use of a
microphase (which may be a simple adsorbent like
active carbon, a catalyst, or a liquid dispersed as a
colloid) can in some cases enhance the reaction rate
by almost an order of magnitude.
Extension of this concept to include (1) sparingly
soluble solute in Phase 1 itself, (2) a precipitated
product with particles small enough to enter the
liquid film (or the fluid element in the language of
the penetration theory), capture more of the reac-
tant from the neighborhood of the second phase and
discharge it into the bulk of Phase 1, and (3) micellar
catalysis, has shown interesting possibilities. Par-
ticularly in cases like the production of citric acid
(where each of the two major steps involved contains
a precipitating product phase), control of conditions
to reduce particle size to microphase levels can lead
to remarkable enhancements in the precipitation
rate. This is obviously a kind of precipitate-induced
autocatalysis and offers much challenge both for the
theoretician and the experimentalist.

Organic Synthesis Engineering
(selectivity engineering?)
Much of the progress in CRE has been in areas
relating to the production of high tonnage chemicals.
It is only in the last ten to fifteen years that another
focus has emerged: reaction engineering of small
volume chemicals. It is surprising that most of the
hundreds of reactions involved in organic synthesis
have remained outside the pale of CRE. Indeed,
one is hard put to think of more than a few impor-
tant organic name reactions that have been sub-
jected to rigorous analysis. Examples are: Henkel
reaction by Doraiswamy and collaborators,r18l191
Grignard reagent preparation by Hammerschmidt
and Richarz,1201 and Kolbe-Schmitt reaction by
Phadtare and Doraiswamy.[21
With the increasing importance of small-volume
chemicals, particularly in the field of drugs and drug
intermediates, one would be greatly surprised if re-
action engineers do not, almost as a natural course,
extend their domain to include this area as a formal









part of CRE research. One sees considerable activity
in Europe (particularly in Bourne's school) and in
some industrial research and development centers
in Europe and the USA, but a more pronounced
involvement of CRE groups in academia is desirable.
Several ways of improving selectivity have been
used by chemists,[221 some of which are being pur-
sued vigorously by chemical engineers. Phase trans-
fer catalysis is an outstanding example of the former
in which some reaction engineering groups are evinc-
ing keen interest. Other means of increasing selec-
tivity are through the use of micelles, microphases,
catalysts like zeolites and molecularly engineered
layered structures, and controlled levels of
micromixing. The last is particularly attractive from
an engineering science point of view, as attested to
by the extensive publications of Bourne and collabo-
rators (for example, Baldyga and Bournel231). An-
other rewarding line of approach is the use of ultra-
sonics. The finding by Luche and Damiero[241 that
ultrasonification can enhance yields in the Barbier
reaction augers well for the increasing role of ultra-
sonics in synthesis engineering.
A field of research in organic synthesis with great
potential for enhanced selectivity and ease of opera-
tion is the possibility of extending the concept of
supported liquid-phase catalysts to include supported
reagents-with all the attendant advantages. The
edited book of Hodge and Sherrington[251 provides
clear evidence of the favorable role of the solid sup-
port. With the extensive knowledge we now have of
fluid-solid (catalytic and noncatalytic) reactions, this
field offers great scope for innovative approaches to,
among other things, the reaction-diffusion problems
inherent in such systems. Use of photochemistry
and enzymes in organic synthesis can also greatly
enhance specificity. These are well-known areas to
the chemist and biochemist, but there is a definite
need for increased CRE input.
Other Areas
There are many other areas that merit attention
and where there is bound to be continuing interest.
Among these are
interfacial engineering, an area that covers a mul-
titude of systems, including catalysis, colloids, and
micellar action
multiphase reactions (which involve at least one
liquid phase) extensively used in the manufacture
of fine chemicals
gas-solid noncatalytic reactions, so common in pol-
lution abatement, preservation of monuments, ore
processing, and catalyst regeneration
analysis of operation "at the edge" in solid cata-
188


lyzed reactions, meaning operating under condi-
tions where the diffusion and kinetic effects are
balanced to maximum advantage
increased attention to forced cycling
use of appropriate solvents (for liquid phase reac-
tions) such as dimethylsulfoxide to increase reac-
tivity
use of ion exchange resins to replace liquid phase
acid/base catalysts
control strategies in multistep synthesis of phar-
maceuticals (including computerized optimization
of the synthetic route)
use of aqueous-aqueous extraction in reactive sepa-
ration
reaction-cum-separation strategies for recovery of
valuable products from dilute solutions, or removal
of polluting components therefrom
hazard analysis and prevention
Many of the areas listed are not "new topics," but
certainly all of them thrive on the use of innovative
concepts. Areas such as recovery of valuable prod-
ucts from dilute solutions are replete with examples
of the use of reaction as a tool for separation and
recovery. A general strategy of intensification in
which isolated studies have been reported, and which
has the potential for treatment as an area of re-
search, is the role of dilution in process technology.
An attempt was made by the author some years
agol7n to put together the various aspects of intensifi-
cation by dilution, i.e., dilution of the gas and solid
phases in catalytic reactions, dilution of solid in gas-
solid reactions, and "natural intensification" due to
dilution in biological systems. Increased effort in
this area could be very rewarding.

CONCLUSION
Education in CRE must explore new possibilities,
some of which have been described in this article.
Among these are a mini think-tank, a broad expo-
sure to the reaction engineering of a variety of sys-
tems to supplement the prevailing practice of en-
larging on a few, and initiation of electives in some
emerging areas such as solid-state reaction engi-
neering and interface engineering.
The overview presented here with respect to re-
search is indicative of the areas of present/potential
relevance. The element of challenge will continue,
whether the areas are new or traditional. While
the researcher in CRE, like his counterparts in
many other areas, must continue to vigorously ex-
plore new and emerging fields, let us not throw the
conventional areas overboard. Recovery of value-
added products from dilute solutions (or waste
Chemical Engineering Education









streams) is an outstanding example of applying new
concepts to old problems. Whether or not they at-
tract one's fancy, their importance will continue
undiminished. So the educator, the researcher, and
the funding agencies must look at new concepts in
traditional areas with almost the same enthusiasm
as at the emerging areas. Nucleation and growth
must remain simultaneous.
The chemical industry, notwithstanding the strains
and vicissitudes imposed by a fluctuating economy
and an increasing appreciation of environmental con-
cerns, permeates practically every facet of our lives
and depends for its continued development on inven-
tion as well as innovation. Invention is getting a
novel idea which works; innovation is overcoming all
hurdles to its economic use.i261 There is scope for both
in CRE. To ensure continued dominance, academic
research must become increasingly bold, industrial
research must be supported rather than managed,
and both must be more accommodative of shifts in
approach and the delays they entail.

REFERENCES
1. Hougen, O.A., and K.M. Watson, Chemical Process Prin-
ciples, Part 3, Kinetics and Catalysis, Wiley, NY (1947)
2. Aris, R., "Is Sophistication Really Necessary?" Ind. Eng.
Chem., 58, 32(9) (1966)
3. Levenspiel, O., "Chemical Engineering's Grand Adventure,"
P.V. Danckwerts Memorial Lecture, Chem. Eng. Sci., 43,
1427 (1988)
4. Doraiswamy, L.K., and M.M. Sharma, Heterogeneous Reac-
tions: Analysis, Examples, and Reactor Design, Vols. 1, 2,
Wiley, NY (1984)
5. Bird, R.B., W.E. Stewart, and E.N. Lightfoot, Transport
Phenomena, Wiley, NY (1960)
6. Rase, H.F., Chemical Reactor Design for Process Plants,
Vols. 1,2, Wiley, NY (1977)
7. Doraiswamy, L.K., "Across Millenia: Some Thoughts on An-
cient and Contemporary Science and Engineering," Hougen
Lecture Series, Dept. of Chem. Engineering, University of
Wisconsin, Madison, WI (1987)
8. Aris, R., and A. Varma, eds., The Mathematical Under-
standing of Chemical Engineering Systems: Selected Papers
ofNeal R. Amundson, Pergamon Press, NY (1980)
9. Aris, R., The Mathematical Theory of Diffusion and Reac-
tion in Permeable Catalysts, Vols 1,2, Oxford Univ. Press,
London, UK (1975) (The reference here is to Vol. 1)
10. Levenspiel, O., Chemical Reaction Engineering, Wiley, NY
(1972)
11. Froment, G.F., and K.B. Bischoff, Chemical Reactor Analy-
sis and Design, Wiley, NY (1990)
12. Luss, D., "Steady State Multiplicity Features of Chemically
Reacting Systems," Chem. Eng. Ed., 20, 12 (1986)
13. Doraiswamy, L.K., "Chemical Reactions and Reactors: A
Surface Science Approach," Prog. Surf. Sci., 4, Nos. 1-4, 1-
277 (1991)
14. Gavriilidis, A., and A. Varma, "Optimum Catalyst Activity
Profiles in Pellets: 9. Study of Ethylene Oxidation," AIChE
J., 38,291 (1992)
15. Sharma, M.M., "Separations Through Reaction," J. Separ.
Proc. Tech., 6, 9 (1985)
16. Sharma, M.M., "The Fascinating Role of Microphases in
Fall 1992


Multiphase Reactions," Proc. Indian Natnl. Sci. Acad., 57A,
No. 1, 99 (1991)
17. Mehra, A., "Intensification of Multiphase Reactions Through
the Use of a Microphase: 1, Theoretical," Chem. Eng. Sci.,
43, 899 (1988)
18. Gokhale, M.V., A.T. Naik, and L.K. Doraiswamy, "An Un-
usual Observation in the Disproportionation of Potassium
Benzoate to Terephthalate," Chem. Eng. Sci., 28, 401 (1975)
19. Revankar, V.V.S., and L.K. Doraiswamy, "Kinetics of Ther-
mal Conversion of Potassium Salts of Benzene (di- and tri-)
Carboxylic Acids to Terephthalic Acid," Ind. Eng. Chem.
Res., 31, 781 (1992)
20. Hammerschmidt, W.W., and W. Richarz, "Influence of Mass
Transfer and Chemical Reaction on the Kinetics of Grignard
Reagent-Formation for the Example of the Reaction of
Bromocyclopentane with a Rotating Disk of Magnesium,"
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 30, 82 (1991)
21. Phadtare, P.G., and L.K. Doraiswamy, "Kolbe-Schmitt Car-
bonation of 2-naphthol," Ind. Eng. Chem. IProc. Des. & Dev.,
8, 165 (1969)
22. Sharma, M.M., Lecture: "Selectivity Engineering," published
by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New
Delhi, India (1990)
23. Baldyga, J., and J.R. Bourne, "A Fluid Mechanical Ap-
proach to Turbulent Mixing and Chemical Reaction," Chem.
Eng. Commun., 28, 231 (1984)
24. Luche, J.L., and J.C. Damiero, "Ultrasonics in Organic Syn-
thesis: 1, Effect on the Formation of Lithium Organometal-
lic Reagents," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 102, 7926 (1980)
25. Hodge, P., and D.C. Sherrington, eds., Polymer Supported
Reactions in Organic Synthesis, Wiley, NY (1980)
26. Brown, A.V., "Invention and Innovation-Who and How,"
Chemtech (Dec), 709 (1973) O


REVIEW: Design Project
Continued from page 174.
ever, the authors do provide some insight into haz-
ardous operations analysis and general safety con-
siderations.
The nitric acid process selected is the traditional
one without the more modern modification of reac-
tion gas compression. Surprisingly little is said about
the need for cleanup of the tail gases from the ab-
sorber. The authors have provided a relatively simple
process with a great deal of supporting data. This
should have appeal to faculty members who under-
stand quite well that it is an onerous chore to dig up
all the supporting information for a realistic case
study.
The use of this text in the design course should
follow an introductory design course which treats
such matters as equipment cost estimating, profit-
ability studies, profit and loss statements, and the
like. The authors point this out in the introductory
material. If only one semester is allocated to design,
it is the opinion of this reviewer that adoption of this
book would be a mistake. On the other hand, if a
second semester (or quarter) is available, material
in the book can support one or more worthwhile case
study projects. O
189













A PILOT

GRADUATE-RECRUITING PROGRAM


E.D. SLOAN, R.M. BALDWIN, D.J.T. FIEDLER,
J.T. MCKINNON, R.L. MILLER
Colorado School of Mines
Golden, CO 80401

D orothy and John are two outstanding seniors

who are beginning to anticipate graduation.
Dorothy has worked in a chemical engineer-
ing summer job with a company that is eager to have
her take a permanent position, while John has
worked summers helping professors in various re-
search projects in his department. Both students are
vital learners and want to investigate graduate school
as a career option.
As they look through graduate school ads and bro-
chures, talk to other students and professors, and
read the fall issue of this journal, Dorothy and John
begin to generate a list of candidate schools. They
notice several marked differences in regard to re-
search emphasis, size of programs, and location, but
they are particularly interested in the differences in
graduate stipends. Although it appears that the fund-
ing differential is less than 10% for the best candi-
date schools, small discrepancies become significant
when their own current budgets are considered.
In early fall both students mail "inquiry forms" to
various graduate schools, and a few weeks later they
begin to receive the requested information/applica-
tion packets. By October or November they have
submitted several applications (limited somewhat
by their student budgets of time and money). Of
course, since neither Dorothy nor John want to re-
strict their other options, they also interview several
companies that come to campus. They are interested
to note that industrial salaries are a factor of three
greater than academic stipends, and that some in-

As they look through graduate school ads and
brochures... [the seniors] begin to generate a list
of candidate schools. They notice several marked
differences in regard to research emphasis, size
of programs, and location...
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1992


Dendy Sloan has three degrees from Clemson University and did
postdoctoral work at Rice University. He spent five years in industry at
four DuPont locations. He has been at the Colorado School of Mines
since 1976.
Bob Baldwin is a native of Iowa. He received his BS and MS from
Iowa State University and his PhD from the Colorado School of Mines,
all in chemical engineering. He joined the faculty in 1975 and is cur-
rently starting his third year as Department Head.
D.J.T. Fiedler has worked as administrative assistant in the chemical
engineering department at the Colorado School of Mines for the last
two years. Prior to that she spent three years at California Institute of
Technology in the Environmental Engineering Department
Tom McKinnon has been an assistant professor at the Colorado
School of Mines since August of 1991. He received his BS from Cornell
in 1979 and his PhD from MIT in 1989. His research interests are in
gas-phase chemical kinetics, combustion, hazardous waste destruc-
tion, and fullerene synthesis.
Ron Miller obtained his BS and MS at the University of Wyoming and
his PhD from the Colorado School of Mines, all in chemical engineer-
ing. He is currently associate professor on the CSM faculty, where he
has taught since 1986.

terviewers discourage participation in graduate work.
The company interviews go well, and both stu-
dents are subsequently invited for several site visits,
at which time challenging and exciting work is dis-
played. The companies are quite aggressive in their
personal contacts. In fact, Dorothy is contacted ev-
ery month or so by her former summer supervisor
for a friendly chat, during which they discuss
Dorothy's future plans. In late November, while they
are waiting for the first personal contact from a
university, both students are being pressed for posi-
tive answers to job offers from several companies.
Dorothy, under some pressure for financial secu-
rity from her family, accepts an offer from a mid-
western biochemical firm, and in her natural excite-
ment she tells her friends of her decision. When she
subsequently receives a call from Professor Jones of
Whatsamatta U. about an interesting research
project, she feels she cannot change her mind con-
cerning the industrial position without embarrass-
ment before her peers. The graduate school option is
closed in her mind.
John, however, has not applied to the same gradu-
ate schools as Dorothy. One graduate school has
sent him a video tape of their program, along with
Chemical Engineering Education









their application packet. A few weeks later the mail
brings a follow-up letter and a research summary
from the school, inquiring if he has received the
packet and requesting the completion of a card that
ranks his interests in various research projects.
Because John seems to be an excellent candidate,
the department continues to communicate with him
about every three weeks. Faculty members (includ-
ing the department head) call John several times to
express their interest in his application. A depart-
ment administrative assistant, who seems genuinely
interested in John's application, serves as the focal
point for all written communications. In each letter
John receives from the department, he is asked to
return some kind of information (in a postpaid enve-
lope) which then provides the department with a
progressive exploration of his personal interest in
graduate school. With this kind of communication,
John keeps the possibility of graduate school alive,
though he makes no definite commitments either to
industry or academia.
In December the department extends an invita-
tion for John to visit the campus in January, at
the school's expense. When John's plane arrives on
Thursday evening, he is met by Dr. Chehead,
the department head, who takes him directly to a
bed-and-breakfast lodging on the edge of campus.
Friday is spent in taking departmental tours and in
discussions with faculty. Then John's faculty host
takes him to dinner on Friday evening, and they
discuss all the possibilities and questions raised
during the day. John spends Saturday skiing
with prospective colleagues who are already gradu-
ate students in the department, and a pizza dinner
completes an exhausting, but fun-filled, day. Early
Sunday morning, Dr. Chehead takes John to the
airport for his return flight.
A week later a letter of admission and a stipend
offer is sent to John, preceded by a call from Dr.
Chehead telling him that the faculty was impressed
with his potential. Another faculty, Dr. Egghead,
also calls John to discuss concepts in reprints which
interested him during his visit. After deliberating
for another week, John formally accepts the
department's offer and tells friends of his decision.

PLANNING REVISIONS
TO GRADUATE RECRUITING
The above composite case studies of Dorothy and
John emphasize recent applicant contact changes in
our graduate recruiting program at the Colorado
School of Mines. Our program objectives were to
increase the number and quality of accepted appli-
Fall 1992


cants to both our traditional program and to a new
non-thesis MS program for industrial engineers in
the Denver area. Our target population was stu-
dents with a traditional or a non-traditional back-
ground allied to chemical engineering.
Graduate study is no exception to the heuristic
that the quality of the supply material dictates the
quality of the product. Our recruiting program was
organized in an effort to combat the demographics of
future shortages of incoming graduate students. For

Graduate study is no exception to the heuristic
that the quality of the supply material dictates the
quality of the product. Our recruiting program
was organized... to combat the demographics of
future shortages of incoming graduate students.

example, the national number of PhDs in science
and engineering has been forecast by Atkinsonm to
have an annual shortfall from 1,000 to 10,000 de-
grees during the period from 1995 to 2010. Atkinson
indicates that this will be the result of a "cumulative
shortfall of several hundred thousand scientists and
engineers at the baccalaureate level by the turn of
the century." While many such studies differ in quan-
titative predictions, the qualitative trends are al-
most always similar.
The basis for our recruiting changes was obtained
from a study by P.B. Brownl2] of 250 graduate pro-
grams which ranked the reasons that resulted in a
graduate student's choice of a particular school (other
considerations being equal). The five criteria highest
on the list were:
Competitivefinancial assistance
Personal contact (letters, phone, etc.)
Referrals exchanged with colleagues
Promotional materials on programs
Subsidized visits for promising students
Most academics could easily list other, less tan-
gible and perhaps more vital, criteria-such as ex-
pertise in a research area, size of faculty and pro-
gram, reputation, location, etc. However, such
changes are more far-reaching and less easily ad-
dressed by a pilot program than the five criteria
listed above.
The principal ingredient of our program was
the intellectual and energetic commitment of de-
partment personnel. Since the faculty were al-
ready occupied with other important projects, our
first step was to determine resources in the form
of time and funds. These were obtained by a re-










organization of department committee priorities and
through the funding of a two-year pilot program by
the Graduate Dean.
The departmental involvement in graduate recruit-
ing increased from 10% to 40% of the faculty during
this period. Most importantly, an able administra-
tive assistant consistently managed the program de-
tails (communications, record keeping, expenses, etc.)
as one of her primary functions. For example, letters
progressively tailored to an individual's interest are
initiated by the administrative assistant to ensure
that only a small amount of time separates commu-
nications between an inquirer/applicant and the de-
partment. Any student who has his/her GRE scores
sent directly to the school is automatically sent an
application packet.
The Graduate Dean was naturally concerned about
graduate recruiting across the institution. He agreed
to fund our two-year pilot program with two
provisos: (1) that we obtain a mid-point pro-
gram evaluation by a consultant, and (2) that
we make the results of the pilot program available
to the entire campus.

HIGHLIGHTS OF THE PROGRAM
In addition to our efforts to address Brown's five
criteria for cost-effective recruiting, some innovative
aspects of our program are:
We made a professional-quality video tape, complete with music
and voice-overs, that describes faculty research, the department,
the school, and the living environment. As a rule-of-thumb, the
cost of such a tape is $1000/minute for a nominal fifteen-minute
tape. At the suggestion of our consultant, we shipped a copy of
this tape to every U.S. inquirer.
Each year we took part in the Student Career Fair held at the
annual AIChE conference, via a visually at-
tractive display booth staffed by a faculty
member. About five hundred students attend
this event each year.
We held an annual Department Open House,
principally for people from local industry who
hold undergraduate degrees in chemical engi- Year
neering or chemistry. The event included brief
presentations, a poster session highlighting Total Applicants
departmental research, and laboratory tours. a. National C
About 1500 letters of invitation were sent to r,-ir,.gn
members of AIChE and ACS in the Denver U.S. Ap]
area, resulting in twenty attendees and about
forty requests for more written information. b. Graduate
Verbal S
We identified sister institutions which might Analytic
be sources of incoming students and began Quantita
an exchange program of seminar speakers
with them. At each seminar away from cam- c. TOEFL Sc
pus, faculty invited interested students for a Total Applications
meal to discuss graduate school. Total Accepting O
We revised the review process so that each of Total Registering i:
three faculty members independently evalu-
ated the completed applications, both for ad-


mission and for financial support. Soon after each application
was evaluated, the review committee met to finalize admission/
aid decisions and to resolve discrepancies between recommend
dations.
SWe began to be more consistent in obtaining international stu-
dents. Two examples: we began record-keeping on applicant
performance from schools abroad, and we began to organize
recruiting visits to fine chemical engineering schools in Eastern
Europe and the Middle East.

THE PERSONAL TOUCH:
CAMPUS VISIT AND FOLLOW-UP
Of all the components of our enhanced recruiting
program, one of the most important to its success
was the visit of prospective graduate students to our
campus. The close faculty interaction with prospec-
tive students and our location both make us think
the campus visit deserves a ranking close to the top
of Brown's list of cost-effective recruiting measures.
Prior to designing our procedures, we spoke with
several of our own students regarding their experi-
ences in interviewing at other universities as pro-
spective graduate students. Several of the key points
that emerged from these conversations which later
guided the construction of our campus visits were:
It is vital to have close personal interaction with at least one host
faculty member who, ideally, should have the same responsibilities
that were fulfilled by Dr. Chehead in the opening case study.
Efforts should be made to have the student interview the faculty
regarding his or her own research interests and programs; visits
dominated by interviews with other graduate students and post-docs
were not perceived as useful.
Individual student visits are more useful than one group visit. Indi-
vidual students relate to individual faculty, but students visiting in a
group have more in common with each other than with the host
institution.
Quick departmental follow-up after the visit was a key in solidifying
the student's interest and commitment


TABLE 1
CEPR Graduate Recruiting Results

1992 1991 1990 1989

103 51 30 26
)rigin
Applicants 90 41 ? ?
plicants 13 10 ? ?
Record Exam
core 511 497 510 427
al Score 622 576 587 527
itive Score 753 739 725 698
ore (Foreign Appl.) 601 592 575 581
Accepted 50 38 27 19
offer 15 17 15 8
n Fall not avail. 14 12 7


Chemical Engineering Education









Immediately following the student's visit, a recom-
mendation concerning an offer was solicited from
each faculty. Within one week, each qualified visitor
received a personal letter from the Chair of the
Graduate Affairs Committee (GAC) notifying the stu-
dent that an offer would be forthcoming and re-
counting highlights of our research and educational
programs. This letter was also used to remind the
prospective student of acceptance deadlines. Official
graduate school notification of the offer followed
within one to two weeks.
Closing on prospective students was accomplished
by two different mechanisms. Some candidates sim-
ply accepted the offer by returning the required
materials. For others, further follow-up involved
personal calls from the GAC Chair inquiring about
the student's status and time-frame for a final deci-
sion. Again, the personal touch was perceived to be
a key to successfully closing with our more highly
recruited candidates.

PROGRAM EVALUATION
The evaluation of the success of the two-year pilot
recruiting program is quantified in Table 1. From
the data in the table we conclude that our applicant
pool has increased substantially both in quantity
and quality over the course of the program. After the
initial year of the program we invited a graduate
recruiting consultant, Donald G. Dickason, to cri-
tique the program and to provide a campus-wide
seminar on graduate recruiting.

FUTURE PLANS:
FEEDING THE PYRAMID
As outlined above, our effort at turning inquiries
into applications, and applications into new students
has been fairly successful. One area for future im-
provement is what we call "feeding the bottom of the
pyramid," based on a metaphor by Don Dickason.
The pyramid consists of the layers involved in the
graduate school process, starting with inquiries and
ending with degrees granted, each layer being smaller
than the one below it.
We plan two additional recruiting efforts in the
future. The first is to begin a summer internship
program for juniors who are considering graduate
school. This will provide exposure to challenging
research problems and lead to more graduate appli-
cations, both to other institutions and to CSM. The
summer research program will also be used to
strengthen our women and minorities recruiting pro-
grams. NSF has an active program which funds
such undergraduate research.
Fall 1992


The second plan is to develop a hypertext recruit-
ing document for distribution to prospective students.
Hypertext is a method of communicating informa-
tion in which the reader can move freely through a
document, pausing only at interesting points by
"clicking" on "buttons." (Modern Windows or Macin-
tosh help systems are an example of hypertext.)
The hypertext document, which will complement
our recruiting video, has a number of advantages.
The first is that it can be modified quickly and at
little cost; in contrast, our video has a shelf life of
two years, with significant modification costs.
The second advantage of our hypertext document
is that the reader can be highly selective from among
a vast amount of information. For example, a reader
could easily locate the syllabus of an interesting
course, consider a research area in detail, or skip
over these in favor of learning about living or recre-
ational conditions in the Golden area. Such a wealth
of information might be a boring read in a conven-
tional document, but we believe that hypertext will
render it manageable for both the reader and the
producer. Our plan is to develop the document using
existing hypertext shell/hardware for the Macintosh
before porting it to a Windows hypertext system
such as Toolbook.
The programs listed above have the potential, not
just of increasing CSM's share of a fixed pool of
applicants, but of increasing the size of the pool. Our
observation, which we are sure is not unique, is that
many talented students never consider graduate
school simply because they have had little or no
exposure to what faculty and graduate students do
when they disappear behind their laboratory doors.
Increased marketing efforts will, at a minimum, help
students make more-informed decisions.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We gratefully acknowledge the financial support
of Dean Arthur J. Kidnay and former Dean John A.
Cordes for this pilot program. Donald G. Dickason
was, at the time of his consultancy, Vice President
for Higher Education, Peterson's Guides; he is cur-
rently Vice Provost for Enrollment Management,
Drexel University.

REFERENCES
1. Atkinson, R.C., "Supply and Demand for Scientists and
Engineers: A National Crisis in the Making," Science, 248,
425 (1990)
2. Brown, P.B., "Cost Effectiveness of Common Recruitment
Tools," Western Association of Graduate Schools Confer-
ence, Banff, Canada, March 4-6 (1989) 0










AN INTRODUCTION TO THE

FUNDAMENTALS OF

BIO(MOLECULAR) ENGINEERING


BRUCE R. LOCKE
Florida State University, Florida A&M University
Tallahassee, FL 32316-2175

his is a course intended for first-year gradu-
ate students or seniors in chemical engineer-
ing and the physical and chemical sciences
who may have a minimal background in the biologi-
cal sciences and who have strong quantitative skills,
including knowledge of linear algebra, calculus, and
ordinary and partial differential equations. The
course emphasis is on combining fundamental prin-
ciples from physical chemistry, including thermody-
namics and (non-linear) chemical kinetics (including
irreversible thermodynamics), transport phenomena,
and colloidal, interfacial, and molecular science to
understanding a wide range of phenomena in bio-
logical and biochemical systems that are important
in the current applications of biotechnology and in
our understanding of living systems for future appli-
cations of biotechnology.
The goals of the present approach are
to provide an overview of a wide open and rapidly developing
field that encompasses material from subjects in the biological
sciences, the physical and chemical sciences, and engineering
to give the student the necessary fundamental information and
skills to understand current developments
to motivate the student to investigate areas that need further
development, particularly in the area of molecular level design.
The design of structural and functional features of
materials on the molecular scale is essential for mod-
ern developments in biotechnology and materials
science. Examples include the development of new
catalysts and sensors. The general philosophy of the
course used to reach these goals involves the consid-
eration of a hierarchy of structure from the molecu-

IBruce R. Locke is an assistant chemical engi-
neering professor at FAMU/FSU. He received
his BE from Vanderbilt University in 1980, his
MS from the University of Houston in 1982, and
has four years of research experience at the
Research Triangle Institute (North Carolina). He
completed his PhD at North Carolina State in
1989. His research interests are in the dynam-
ics of transport and reaction of biological mac-
S romolecules in multicomponent and multidomain
Composite systems.
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1992


lar to the supracellular in light of known organiza-
tional features to illuminate gaps in our knowledge
and to illustrate how our current understanding may
lead to the design of functional units from the mo-
lecular to the supracellular levels.
Fundamental aspects are stressed in order to pro-
vide a framework for further study of bioengineering
in such areas as biochemical engineering, biomedi-
cal engineering, molecular (protein) engineering,
metabolic engineering, and cellular engineering. This
course differs considerably from conventional bio-
chemical engineering courses offered in chemical en-
gineering in that molecular-level concepts are incor-
porated within a framework of fundamental con-
cepts of (non-linear) chemical kinetics, transport phe-
nomena viscoelasticc fluids), and interfacial and col-
loidal science. In the modern chemical engineering
curriculum it has become necessary for students to
understand the relationships between the functional
and structural properties of macromolecules; this
includes not only conventional treatments of single
macromolecules in solution but also dynamic sys-
tems of macromolecules functioning together in su-
pramolecular and hierarchal structures.
The merging of chemistry and biology through rapid
advances in our understanding of molecular scale
events opens up the possibility for rational design of
materials on the molecular level. The drive for high
specificity, high selectivity, high purity, and increased
quality control in the production and processing of
many materials has stimulated chemists and engi-
neers to look closely at living systems as models for
building materials that have never occurred in na-
ture. The diversity of life on earth provides a frame-
work upon which new developments are being made.
For example, our ability to develop new enzymes
through site-directed mutagenesis and our under-
standing of molecular structure and function is giv-
ing rise to the creation of completely new artificial
catalysts that promote reactions not found in natu-
ral systems.[1"
A recent work by Peacockel21 reviews the literature
on biochemical and biological organization that has
Chemical Engineering Education










arisen through the initial work of Hinshelwood in
the 1940s and 1950s,131 the work of A. Turing in the
1950s,141 and the Brussels school of Prigogine in the
1960s to the present.i5s Peacocke overlooks the pio-
neering work of Rashevsky.i1.71 The emphasis of these
researchers is on the use of chemical reaction kinet-
ics and transport phenomena to describe spatial and
temporal pattern formation in biochemical pathways
and cellular structures. It is very revealing to the
chemical engineering student that major contribu-
tions to this area have been made by chemical engi-
neers through the analysis of chemical reactionsl8-111
and that the students' own fundamental knowledge
of chemical reaction kinetics and transport phenom-
ena can be used to describe, for example, slime mold
aggregation,112,131 cell cycle oscillations,,l41 the forma-
tion of zebra and leopard spots,1121 the spread of a
contagious disease,l121 the functioning of the immune
systems15' and cardiac arrhythmia.1161 Important de-
velopments in the analysis of chemical reactions' lo111
have also aided the advancement of the compart-
mental analysis of biological systems.1171 Peacocke
only reveals part of the story, however, by not clearly
illustrating the connection between the kinetic and
systems ideas and the vast wealth of knowledge on
the molecular structure of biological macromolecules
that has been developed in the last twenty to thirty
years. In addition, very recent developments in

TABLE 1
Outline and Major Topics
Overall lnr.,'ihn ni.'
Part I: Introduction to the structure and organization of life and living
systems
Biodiversity-sources of materials and inspiration
Structure of cells and subcellular components
Molecular components of living systems
Part II: Molecular level uin raiii -irc ~,ilh'i.iu
*Phi .,c.aL'chcmc.l property: ol'i mat romiolecuile
InteiTrolecular forces that stabilize mrcromolec.ular

*Biological recoigriiiinn-relationrisiipbeit\ eern in~ cture and
function
.lcrrnmolecular Inlerjcinons with surfaces and surface
forces that govern these interactions
Part III: Intracellular phenomena-The dynamics of multiple
interacting t,,.ir, c.
Metabolic path& a -, multiple macromolecules working
loge't'her in equernc or pirillel
Design and development of complex. artificial mrnerhbolic
systems
Part IV: Eluracil lular phtnoin-rti-Til d\ uInn. s ot mulfupl
il, rUcii n cpr tll
MulNlcellular proce..e.--chemical communication
between cells
Towards a hierarchy of direct and indirect interactions


Fundamental aspects are stressed in order to provide
aframeworkforfurther study of bioengineering in
such areas as biochemical engineering, biomedical
engineering, molecular (protein) engineering,
metabolic engineering, and cellular engineering

mechanochemical theory that links mechanical mo-
tion of molecular structures such as muscle and gel
fibers to the chemical composition of the molecular
structure1ls.191 and solution are not fully addressed.
The details of molecular structure and function
arise through introductions to molecular biology,[20,211
macromolecular science,[22-241 intermolecular inter-
actions,1251 and recent studies on mechanochemical
coupling.1181 Intermolecular forces are responsible for
the specificity and functioning of most biological
macromolecules by giving rise to biomolecular
recognition. Biomolecular recognition arises through
the simultaneous action of a large number of fairly
weak hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals, electro-
static, and hydrophobic interactions arrayed in
unique geometrical configurations and acting coop-
eratively. This is a key concept that is stressed
throughout the course because it is the basis for
substrate binding to, for example, enzymes, cell sur-
faces, and antibodies.
The overall structure of the course consists of four
parts that progress from a description of structure to
the analysis of function (see Table 1). The first part
of the course begins with an overall view of life and
living systems and progresses to descriptions of cel-
lular and molecular level features. The second part
of the course seeks to develop the fundamental prin-
ciples governing the interactions between macro-
molecules and small molecules, macromolecules and
other macromolecules, and macromolecules and sur-
faces. The third part seeks to explore the dynamic
features of many macromolecules interacting in meta-
bolic pathways, and the fourth part seeks to explore
the area of multiple interacting cells, or other sub-
units such as organelles, through introductions to
multicellular communication through direct and in-
direct interactions and population models.
The mechanics of the course relies heavily on stu-
dent involvement through term projects and class
reports. Table 2 (next page) shows some examples of
term papers. Each student is also responsible for
presenting the general background material neces-
sary for understanding the subject of their term
paper. For example, the student discussing delivery
of drugs to the brain also presents an introductory
lecture on the analysis of facilitated diffusion.


Fall 1992








COURSE OUTLINE AND DISCUSSION OF TOPICS
The introductory material for this course reflects a
very broad and open-minded perspective on the field
of biotechnology. In a general sense, one may con-
sider biotechnology as the use of biomaterials (i.e.,
molecules, combinations of molecules, cells, and tis-
sues derived from living creatures) for feedstocks,
processing tools, products, and as prototype models
for new materials. Although we do not use the nar-
row definition of biotechnology that includes only
the products of genetic engineering methods, it is
clear that recombinant technology is making great
inroads in a wide variety of new applications and
that an understanding of recombinant methods is
crucial. Perhaps the unique feature of this course is
the concept that known biomaterials can be consid-
ered as models for the development of new materi-
als. Protein engineering is the best known example
of this; however, other examples include
biomineralization, facilitated transport processes, and
metabolic engineering.
From an engineering perspective, our major inter-
est in biotechnology arises from the use of biomateri-
als as feedstocks, as processing tools, as products,
and as an inspiration for creating new materials.
Biomaterials encompass a large range of entities,
from relatively simple organic compounds such as
penicillin and amino acids, to complex macromol-
ecules such as proteins and vitamins, to complete
organisms such as yeasts, plants, and animals. Bio-
mass as a feedstock for the production of alcohol and
microorganisms as processing tools for food produc-
tion and waste treatment have long been used. New
bioprocessing tools include immobilized enzymes as
industrial and consumer catalysts, recombinant bac-
teria for the production of eucaryotic proteins, and
transgenic cows for producing human proteins.
From a long-range view, the most exciting devel-
opments use biomaterials to create new materials
that have never occurred in nature. A very interest-
ing example is the development of synthetic heme
for the extraction of oxygen from water for life sup-
port in the ocean.i[2z Biomimicry for synthesizing
new materials is also rapidly advancing.[271 The 1988
Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to D.J. Cram
for his work on the design of molecular hosts and
complexes. This merges synthetic organic chemistry
and biochemistry to create new and exciting materi-
als. Cram states that "evolution has produced
chemical compounds that are exquisitely organized
to accomplish the most complicated and delicate of
tasks ." and his achievements demonstrate that
we can build upon what evolution has produced.
196


TABLE 2
Sample Term Paper Projects
The Role of Recombinant DNA Technology in the Degrada-
tion of Pesticides and Herbicides
Biological Pattern Formation: Temporal Oscillations in the
Eucaryotic Cell Cycle
Drug Delivery to the Brain: Fd':t.iat, d Transport
Enz\m.,,Engineerirn
Biodegradation of Oil Spills
Genetic Engineering for Enhanced Separation Processes

PART
Introduction to the Structure and Organization of Life
and Living Systems
The diversity of life that currently exists on earth,
and that has ever existed on earth, is a tremendous
source of substances and inspiration for the develop-
ment of new materials. Prior to describing and dis-
cussing this diversity it is useful to consider the
unique features of living organisms. Students gener-
ally recall from high school biology that all creatures
grow, reproduce, consume, and excrete materials and
energy from and to the environment, and that all
living things eventually die. This is a useful begin-
ning for the analysis of life, and the students may
even recognize that there are entities such as vi-
ruses that are on the boundary of living and non-
living that are difficult to clearly classify. Other
general features of life that students will easily come
up with are the cell theory and the theory of evolu-
tion. The detailed discussion of these two theories is
of central importance for understanding and analyz-
ing the structure and dynamics of living systems.
Students trained in the physical and chemical sci-
ences should be motivated at this point to ask ques-
tions such as: Do living systems obey the basic laws
of physics? Certainly material and energy balances
apply-but what about the second law? These ideas
are succinctly expressed by Schrodinger,128Iwho specu-
lated that the dynamic aspects of living systems are
related to structural aspects through large molecules,
and that these structural molecules and relation-
ships are of special significance for living systems.
"...it has been explained that the laws of physics, as we know them are
statistical laws. They have a lot to do with the natural tendency of
things to go over into disorder. But, to reconcile the high durability
of the hereditary substance with its minute size, we had to evade the
tendency to disorder by 'inventing the molecule,' in fact, an unusu-
ally large molecule which has to be a masterpiece of highly differ-
entiated order, safeguarded by the conjuring rod of quantum theory.
The laws of chance are not invalidated by this 'invention,' but their
outcome is modified. The physicist is familiar with the fact that the
classical laws of physics are modified by quantum theory, espe-
cially at low temperature. There are many instances of this. Life
seems to be one of them, a particularly striking one. Life seems to
Chemical Engineering Education









be orderly and lawful behavior of matter, not based exclusively on
its tendency to go over from order to disorder, but based partly on
existing order that is kept up ...
Further aspects of ideas from irreversible thermo-
dynamics[l5 will arise later in the course. However,
the main idea in the beginning is to stress that there
are important connections, as Schrodinger stated,
between the need for macromolecules of "highly dif-
ferentiated order" and dynamics of living systems,
i.e., the organisms' struggle against the forces of
entropy. Although he referred primarily to macro-
molecules that carry genetic information (DNA's role
and structure were unknown at the time) and the
need for the long-term stability of such macromol-
ecules, it is clear that the general ideas include other
macromolecules that make up living organisms.
(More recent criticisms of several other aspects of
Schrodinger's ideas can be found in Kilmister.1291)
Macromolecules make up the 'first' level of struc-
tural 'order' in living systems. They are held to-
gether first of all by covalent bonds and secondly
their active structure arises through a number of
intermolecular forces and solution mediated interac-
tions. Introduction to the basic classes of macromol-
ecules, i.e., nucleic acids, proteins and carbohydrates,
can stress the relationship between structure and
function. The assembly of lipids into membrane struc-
tures is a good example where the molecular struc-
ture of individual lipids gives rise to the structure
and function of the membranes that they form. Mem-
brane structure and the organization of lipids into
micelles, liposomes, and other structures is an im-
portant area to consider in detail since it is the basis
of all 'higher level' compartments organelless) in liv-
ing systems, and it has major applications in separa-
tion and reaction processes.3al0
Mere descriptions of the hierarchal structure of
taxonomy,311l cells, subcellular organelles,[321 and mo-
lecular components of living systems can be some-
what dry without constant reference to questions
such as: Why are plants, animals, and cells of par-
ticular sizes? What type of interactions (i.e., direct or
indirect) govern the relationships between different
hierarchical levels? (For this latter point, see Part
IV.) The engineering student, trained in transport
and kinetics and scale-up principles, should be able
to postulate and test ideas to explain these and
other physical biology features.133-351 Concepts from
mass transfer and fluid dynamics can be used to
describe the structure of various sea creatures.[361 In
addition, it benefits the student greatly if key fea-
tures of various levels of description are illustrated.
For example, in discussing the taxonomic levels of
living organisms it is useful to describe which organ-
Fall 1992


isms are used directly by man and for what purpose
they are used and why they are used. When discuss-
ing the structure of eucaryotic organisms, aspects of
intracellular processing such as in the secretion and
post translational processing ofinsulin[37l or the trans-
port of materials in and out of the cells3sl can be
considered in light of their effects on producing eu-
caryotic proteins in procaryotic cells and in analogy
to the processing required in chemical plants (i.e.,
well-defined regions for reactions and extensive ma-
terial sorting and purification structuresl391).

PARTII
Molecular Level Interactions-Biorecognition
Once the student has a clear idea of the multiple
levels of hierarchal structure of living systems from
the molecular to organelle to cellular to organism
discussed above, it is useful to continue with a study
of the physical/chemical properties of biological mac-
romolecules. Basic ideas from colloidal science in-
cluding thermodynamic, hydrodynamic, and electro-
kinetic properties can be introduced within the con-
text of the student's understanding of transport phe-
nomena and physical chemistry. There are a num-
ber of excellent references for this area.I22-24,401 Gen-
eral physical/chemical features of macromolecules
such as size, surface area, charge, and shape should
be considered in light of their effects on separation
(chromatography, filtration, solubility) and reaction
(immobilized enzymes and cell) processes, and in
addition to point to further study of how these mac-
romolecules function in groups or assemblages such
as membranes, and sub-cellular organelles.
Intermolecular forces that stabilize macromolecu-
lar structure can be presented by first considering
the nature and origin of intermolecular forces.1251
Many aspects of fundamental importance such as
the nature of van der Waals forces, hydrogen bond-
ing, and dipole and hydrophobic interactions can be
considered. Many of the fundamental aspects have
been well developed and current experimentsl411 us-
ing the atomic force microscope have led to interest-
ing advances in, for example, molecular rearrange-
ments upon receptor ligand binding. One major area
that needs further development is a quantitative
treatment for the hydrophobic effects.
Biological recognition and the relationships be-
tween structure and function are key areas that can
be considered in much detail. Qualitative examples
such as enzyme catalysis (e.g., a serine protease
such as chymotrypsin[421), antibody binding (avidin/
biotin affinity chromatographyl43l), cell surface inter-
actions, and facilitated membrane transport (oxygen
binding by hemoglobin and myoglobinl441) can be de-
197









scribed in detail. The quantitative description of these
systems can be considered first from the thermody-
namic approach145-471 where binding equilibria are
developed and second from the kinetic approach
through Michaelis Menten type kinetics.
Smoluchowski theory and Brownian motionl481 can
be used to discuss diffusional limitations. In addi-
tion, recent work on the induced fitr49, and directed
binding is useful in developing the dynamic approach
to macromolecular recognition.
Macromolecular interactions with surfaces and sur-
face forces that govern these interactions are vital
for understanding many biochemical separation and
reaction processes such as affinity chromatography
and enzyme immobilization procedures. An under-
standing of surface interactions is also necessary for
biofouling in industry, commerce, and biomedical
devices. The molecular basis for adhesion of biologi-
cal macromolecules on cell surfaces to inorganic ma-
trices can be approached from the fundamental per-
spective as developed by Israelachvilil25s and in light
of recent advances in active site directed binding.1411

PARTIII
Intracellular Phenomena: The Dynamics of Multiple
Interacting Macromolecules
One of the main goals of this course is to foster
development of links between the dynamics of mac-
romolecules working together and the structural fea-
tures of the macromolecules and their complexes.
The chemical engineering perspective for analyzing
multiple linear and nonlinear chemical reactions in
convective-diffusion processes can be used as a basis
for analyzing metabolic pathways (lumping analy-
sis,s101 modal analysis,ls51 metabolic models,152l cyber-
netic modelss53l such as glycolysis, the regulation of
protein synthesis, and the energetic of active trans-
port in cell membranesl44'). This is exemplified in the
development of reaction-diffusion work from both
chemical engineering and biological literature. The
view of the reaction processes, however, must go
beyond treating the reactants as species without
structure since biological structures are dynamic en-
tities that, for example, change shape on substrate
binding and that exhibit a wide range of allosteric
and cooperative behaviors.
Biomechanical theories for the chemomechanical
aspects of structure formation such as muscle action
and cell motion can be considered within the context
of advanced transport phenomena as elaborated by
Murray, et al.1181 The swelling of (bio)polymers and
the electrokinetic effects of applied electrical fields
on (bio)polymers can be treated within the context of
the engineering students' background in continuum
198


mechanics as is appropriate for an introductory
class.54,551 This area is also important for the devel-
opment of devices to convert chemical energy to me-
chanical work with little heat generation. Both of
the above chemical and mechanochemical theories
are useful for the design and development of com-
plex artificial metabolic systems and structural units.

PARTIV
Extracellular Phenomena: The Dynamics of Multiple
Interacting Cells and Subunits
The last level considers direct and indirect interac-
tions for multicellular and multi-subunit (e.g., or-
ganelles) processes. Figure 1, a schematic view of
such interactions, shows features very similar to the
structure of a eucaryotic cell. Direct interactions
between cells is important for a full understanding
of tissue function and development as well as for
such systems as immobilized cells or enzymes in
membranes. Indirect interactions are important for
bioreactor systems where cells, particles of immobi-
lized cells, and particles of immobilized enzymes
communicate through the bulk solution of well-mixed
reactors. This area is currently not covered in detail
for undergraduates; however, graduate students can
appreciate these aspects through comparison to ad-
vances in chemical reactor analysis.i56s In addition,
an introduction to population modelsl52.57,581 is neces-
sary for understanding the growth of microbial or-
ganisms in natural and reactor processes.

CONCLUSIONS
There is currently a need for an introductory-level
course for the engineering and physical and chemi-
cal sciences student that will develop the molecular
and hierarchical organizational features of biotech-
nology, herein considered in a broad sense as the use
ofbiomaterials (i.e., molecules, combinations of mol-
ecules, cells, and tissues derived from living crea-
tures) for feedstocks, processing tools, products, and
as models for new materials. The course described in
this paper seeks to integrate current and past devel-
opments from a wide range of fields into the chemi-
cal engineering curricula, to instill in the student
the necessity for reading and understanding materi-
als from a broad range of subjects and to inspire
students to seek answers to unknown questions about
the applications of the biosciences for improving our
quality of life. This approach can be accomplished by
building upon a fundamental understanding of trans-
port phenomena and chemical kinetics through the
introduction of analysis of non-linear chemical reac-
tion-convective-diffusion processes, non-Newtonian
and viscoelastic mechanics, colloid and interfacial
Chemical Engineering Education





































Figure 1. Hierarchy of direct and indirect interactions
science, and population balance approaches. This
approach will lead to additional coursework to intro-
duce molecular transport theories,1591 statistical me-
chanics, and even quantum mechanics for further
study ofbio(molecular) design.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I would like to thank Dr. Pedro Arce for his invalu-
able comments on the text of this manuscript and for
many useful conversations on the general subject of
direct and indirect interactions in systems with
hierarchial levels of structure.

REFERENCES
1. Chen, C.-H.B., and D.S. Sigman, "Chemical Conversion of a
DNA-Binding Protein into a Site-Specific Nuclease, Science,
237, 1197 (1987)
2. Peacocke, A.R., An Introduction to the Physical Chemistry of
Biological Organization, Oxford Science Publications,
Clarendon Press, Oxford (1989)
3. Dean, A.C.R., and C. Hinshelwood, Growth, Function and
Regulation in Bacterial Cells, Oxford at the Clarendon Press
(1966)
4. Turing, A., "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis, Proc.
Roy. Soc. London, B237, 5 (1952)
5. Nicolis G., and I. Prigogine, Self-Organization in
Nonequilibrium Systems, Wiley-Interscience, New York
(1977)
6. Rachevsky, N., "An Approach to the Mathematical Biophys-
ics of Biological Self-Regulation and of the Cell Polarity,
Bull. Math. Biophy., 2, 15 (1940)
7. Rachevsky, N., Mathematical Biophysics, University of Chi-
cago Press, Chicago, IL (1948)
8. Othmer, H.G., and L.E. Scriven, "Interactions of Reaction
and Diffusion in Open Systems," I. & E.C. Fund., 8, 302
(1969)
9. Gmitro, J.I., and L.E. Scriven, "A Physicochemical Basis for
Fall 1992


Pattern and Rhythm," in Intracellular Transport, K.B. War-
ren, Ed., Academic Press, New York (1966)
10. Wei, J., and C.D. Prater, "The Structure and Analysis of
Complex Reaction Systems," Chap. 5 in Advances in Cataly-
sis, Vol. 13, Academic Press, New York (1962)
11. Aris, R., "Compartmental Analysis and the Theory of Resi-
dence Time," in Intracellular Transport, K.B. Warren, Ed.,
Academic Press, New York (1966)
12. Murray, J.D., Mathematical Biology, Springer-Verlag, Ber-
lin (1989)
13. Segel, L.A., Modeling Dynamic Phenomena in Molecular
and Cellular Biology, Cambridge University Press, Cam-
bridge (1984)
14. Norel, R., and Z. Agur, "A Model for the Adjustment of the
Mitotic Clock by Cyclin and MPF Levels, Science, 251, 1076
(1991)
15. Marchuk, G.I., Mathematical Models in Immunology, Opti-
mization Software Inc., New York (1983)
16. Winfree, A.T., When Time Breaks Down: The Three-Dimen-
sional Dynamics of Electrochemical Waves and Cardiac
Arrhythmias, Princeton University Press (1987)
17. Anderson, D.H., Compartmental Modeling and Tracer Ki-
netics, Lecture Notes in Biomathematics, Vol. 50, Springer-
Verlag (1983)
18. Murray, J.D., P.K. Maini, and R.T. Tranquillo, "Mechano-
chemical Models for Generating Biological Pattern and Form
in Development," Physics Reports, 171, 59 (1988)
19. Osada, Y., H. Okuzaki, and H. Hori, "A Polymer Gel with
Electrically Driven Motility," Nature, 355, 242 (1992)
20. Stryer, L., Molecular Design of Life, W. H. Freeman, New
York (1989)
21. Primrose, S.B., Molecular Biotechnology, 2nd ed., Blackwell
Scientific Publications, London (1991)
22. van Holde, K.E., Physical Biochemistry, 2nd ed., Prentice
Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1985)
23. Tanford, C., Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules, John
Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York (1966)
24. Cantor, C.R., and R. Schimmel, Biophysical Chemistry, Vols.
1-3, W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, CA (1980)
25. Israelachvili, J., Intermolecular and Surface Forces, 2nd
ed., Academic Press, London (1991)
26. De Castro, E.S., "Breathing Under Water," Chemtech, 682,
Nov (1990)
27. Berman, A., et al., "Intercalation of Sea Urchin Proteins in
Calcite: Study of a Crystalline Composite Material, Science,
250, 664 (1990)
28. Schrodinger, E., What is Life? The Physical Aspect of the
Living Cell and Mind and Matter, Cambridge University
Press (1944) (1966 reprint)
29. Kilmister, C.W., ed., Schrodinger, Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge (1987)
30. Lasic, D. "Liposomes," Amer. Sci., 80, 20 (1992)
31. Margulis, L., and K. U. Schwartz, An Illustrated Guide to
the Phyla of Life on Earth, 2nd ed., W.H. Freeman and
Company, New York (1988)
32. de Duve, A Guided Tour of the Living Cell, Vols. 1 and 2,
Scientific American Library (1984)
33. Vogel, S., "Life in Moving Fluids," The Physical Biology of
Flow, Princeton University Press (1981)
34. Vogel, S., Life's Devices: The Physical World of Animals and
Plants, Princeton University Press (1988)
35. McMahon, T.A., and J.T. Bonner, On Size and Life,
Scientific American Library (1983)
36. Patterson, M.R., "A Mass Transfer Explanation of Meta-
bolic Scaling Relations in Some Aquatic Invertebrates and
Algae," Science, 225, 1421 (1992)
Continued on page 203.












A COLLOQUIUM SERIES

IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


COSTAS TSOURIS, SOTIRA YIACOUMI,
CYNTHIA S. HIRTZEL
Syracuse University
Syracuse, NY 13244-1190


In describing a course on technical talks, Felderil
points out the importance of communication skills
for all practicing engineers. The significance of
effective communication skills is also underlined by
Hanzevack and McKeanl2i in a discussion of effective
oral presentations as part of the senior design course
for chemical engineers. In both references, the reader
can find suggestions for successful oral presenta-
tions. Furthermore, in the latter paper a "pre-
sentation feedback form" is illustrated which can be
used not only for evaluation of an oral technical
presentation but also for drawing the attention of
the speaker to some important points during the
organization of the presentation.
Most undergraduate programs in chemical engi-
neering include a course on how to improve oral
communication skills, and some graduate programs
further develop those skills through technical pre-
sentations as part of a course. Good written and oral
communication skills are the goals of the Depart-

Costas Tsouris recently received his PhD in
chemical engineering at Syracuse University. He
worked with Professor L. L. Tavlarides in the
area of liquid dispersions.





Sotira Yiacoumi is finishing her PhD in civil
engineering at Syracuse University. She works
with Professor Chi Tien in the area of uptake of
metal ions and organic compounds by natural
systems.
Cynthia S. Hirtzel is Professor and Chairperson of the Department of
Chemical Engineering and Materials Science at Syracuse University. Her
research interests are in the areas of colloidal and interracial phenomena,
adsorption/desorption phenomena, and stochastic analysis of modeling of
engineering systems. She is also actively involved in technical outreach to
pre-college students. (Photo not available)
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1992


The presentations are designed
to simulate a thesis or dissertation oral
examination. The duration of each seminar
(which the speakers are encouraged not to
exceed) is about thirty minutes.

ment of Chemical Engineering and Materials Sci-
ence at Syracuse University. Faculty and students
are both concerned with the student's ability to com-
municate technical expertise.
A seminar program called "Colloquium Series in
Chemical Engineering and Materials Science"
(ColCEMS) has been initiated and is run by the
students in collaboration with the faculty to satisfy
this mutual concern. The ColCEMS operates during
the fall and spring semesters of the academic year,
as well as during the summer sessions. It is a step
beyond the summer seminar program which was
initiated at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University.[31 The purpose of this article is to de-
scribe all the activities within the colloquium series
and to provide an example for students in other
schools to follow.

OBJECTIVES
The main objectives of ColCEMS are
to improve the communication skills of graduate students
to share knowledge obtained from recent research activities
to exchange ideas and develop constructive criticism.
Although the above objectives are all equally impor-
tant, good communication skills are necessary in
order for a speaker to share ideas and results with
an audience and to receive feedback in the form
of constructive criticism. This is a reality that is
recognized by all students, and it serves to strengthen
their determination to improve their own com-
munication effectiveness.
The departmental seminar program that runs in
parallel is a rich source for examples of both good
and bad presentations. Although the main objective
of the department program is the exchange of ideas,
due to the ColCEMS students are able to see beyond
Chemical Engineering Education










the speaker's ideas and findings. In this way they
develop a rounded critical opinion of both the speaker
and the presented work.

SCHEDULE
Preparation for the subsequent seminar schedule
starts even before the current one ends. The coordi-
nators encourage all graduate students to submit a
seminar title and a preferred date for its presenta-
tion, although participation is voluntary for both
speakers and audience members. Not many students
come forward, however, until they have a consider-
able amount of information to share, usually in the
second or later year of their graduate studies.
To complete the schedule (which consists of ap-
proximately twelve seminars) the coordinators in-
vite research associates, faculty members, and even
some students and faculty from other departments
who have similar backgrounds and interests. In this
way the seminar program covers many research ar-
eas and attracts people with diverse backgrounds.
The participation of research associates and fac-
ulty, both as speakers and as audience, is very im-
portant for the ColCEMS since it engenders more


departmental attention and encourages the speak-
ers to carefully prepare their presentations. A good
balance between graduate students, research associ-
ates, and faculty (corresponding to the number of
people in each category within the department) is
maintained.
The seminar schedule is announced two weeks
before the first presentation. Each speaker and each
member of the department receives a copy of the
schedule, and additional copies are distributed to
faculty members in other departments at Syracuse
and at SUNY/Environmental Science and Forestry
where chemical engineering faculty members col-
laborate on joint research projects. Finally, a copy of
the schedule is sent to the Syracuse Record, a weekly
campus newspaper.

The seminar topics for 1991 are shown in Table 1.
The table also serves to demonstrate the diversity of
research interests in the department. Seminars of
general interest, such as "All You Wanted to Know
About Physics and Were Afraid to Ask," "Quantum
Gravity," and "The Human/Animal Bond: Interac-
tion Among Pets and People" are exciting and well
received by the audience. Our goal is to have such


TABLE 1
Topics: 1991 Colloquium Series in Chemical Engineering and Materials Science


Spring 1991
Modeling of the Electrostatic Corona Discharge Reactor
rprr,, wiitil. Sl. lrnll.'l. r Intraparticle DiTil t IquLn.,. i
TrLnr.p.,rl rl t ill. Nher Fractal Electrodes
Sof. ,ill 'E tra. II. Sepai'iit 'i '/l VowI Gr i'p Elenr it ii a I ,1'1o -
r, t- it Po'l\ i /ic'r'
Ad.i.rpti',il f Al / hil ) fromt, Aqueous Solutions
D. "i ,t P 'lI\r ,hlnipiro %.Il .r Superior s, rparauii, Properties
Precipitation from Homogeneous Solution: A New Technique for
the Preparation of Catalysts and Catalyst Supports
Application of Impregnated Ceramic Membranes for Metal Ion
Separation from Hazardous Waste Streams
Monte Carlo Experiments for Desorption of Molecules from Solid
Surfaces
Computer Modeling of IL re r.m,granrit'i
Design of a Laboratory Supercritical Extraction and Oxidation
') t irn for PCBs
Membrane Processes for Gas Separations
*A Membrane Process for l SiJ iR, mr,rval of ( l -. -,i Du. -r .J J. oi
Diving Atmospheres

Summer 1991
Droplet Breakup in Liquid Dispersions
All You Wanted to Know About Physics and Were Afraid to Ask
Rl ir,,ihi ;p. B, rl t ili' Chemical Structure of Fluorine-Con-
taining Polyimide Membranes and Their Gas Permeability
Quantum Gravity
An I p ~riie. Nlhil L, outri ,irtl. i of I ,llhiiLtl and Active Trans-
port in the Human Placenta
Properties i -lnfplhi. r,. tI Ju.t Surface Charge l., l.pir. pi .


Aqueous Solution and pH Dependence of Metal Ion Adsorption
Deposition of Diffusive Aerosols
Evaluation of Adsorption Energy Distribution for Hii. ., lt.' ii.t ls
Surfaces
Simulation ofBubble Dynamics
Electrical Breakdown of Polymers
Acoustics of Bubbly Liquids
The Human/Animal Bond: Interaction Among Pets and People

Fall 1991
Analysis of Cake Formation and Growth: Formulation and Pos-
sible Solutions
Control of Extraction Columns
I Effect of Intrasegmental Mobility on Gas P,:,.iiail,/,r of
Polyimide Membranes
11. R, pr, ,cairii-n ,,fGas Solubility aol Dlttio,, tan i, (loi, Poly-
mers
Estimation of Parameters in Differential Models by Infeasible Path
Optimization
Interrelationship Between the Source Material for Activated Car-
bons: Its Structure and Chemical Effects During Hydrogen
Adsorption
Water in Polyimides: Solubility and Transport
Aerosol Deposition in Fibrous Systems
Sulfate Adsorption on Mineral Soils
Magnetism in Thin Films
Computer Simulation for Adsorption of Molecules on Solid Sur-
faces
Development of Inorganic Chemically Active Beads for Metal Ion
Separation from Hazardous Waste Streams


Fall 1992 201









seminars not only in the summer but also during the
two academic semesters.

FORMAT
The ColCEMS presentations are designed to simu-
late a thesis or dissertation oral examination. The
duration of each seminar (which the speakers are
encouraged not to exceed) is about thirty minutes.
Overhead and slide projectors are usually used as
visual aids, and some speakers include video-tape
shows and laboratory equipment to make their talk
more understandable. Due to the diversity of back-
grounds in the audience, the seminars usually start
with a relatively long introduction. Only clarifica-
tion questions are allowed during the seminar, but
the presentation is followed by a question-and-an-
swer session directed by the seminar coordinators.
The duration of this session is not fixed-it depends
on the number of questions and may last anywhere
from five to twenty minutes.
There are two seminar coordinators elected at the
end of the summer colloquium series. They are re-
sponsible for preparing the seminar schedule at the
beginning of each semester, arranging for financial
support, arranging for refreshments, announcing
each weekly seminar, arranging for the room and


TABLE 2
Typical Announcement

COLLOQUIUM SERIES
in
CHEMICAL ENGINE ERING AND MA TER IALS SCIENCE

SPEAKER: Ai Chen
Graduate Student
Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
TOPIC: Computer Simulation for
Adsorption of Molecules on Solid Surface,
DATE: Friday, November 22, 1991
TIME: 12:15 PM
PLACE: 017 Hinds Hall

Adsorption of -n'leiuleC orn 'colie li has been -iudled ,iing Monte
Carlo simulations. Site-site potential energies were used to model the
adsorbate-zeolite and adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. In the potential
energy model, the dispersion, repulsion and electrostatic induction ener-
gies have been taken into account for monatomic molecules. In addition
to the above terms, the quadrupole-quadrupole and ion-quadrupole in-
teractions have been taken into account for diatomic molecules. A new
Monte Carlo simulallon model is proposed hbed in, stochastic Markov
process theory to carry out the simulations. A prominent advantage of
the model is that it is suitable for massively parallel implementation.
The preliminary results for the pure-component isotherms are in good
.gr-ee meni % iibi e~%pe'rimcntri data. The study for multicomponent sys-
:emni, -till undergoing.


any visual aids needed, introducing the speakers,
announcing the following week's speaker, and di-
recting the question-and-answer session at the end
of each seminar.

ANNOUNCEMENT
Each seminar is announced in the weekly campus
newspaper Syracuse Record, and an announcement
is also made in the department by the coordinators.
The coordinators ask the speaker for an abstract of
no more than three hundred words, which is then
typed on a special form with the seminar title,
speaker's name, and date, time, and place (see Table
2). Copies of this announcement are placed in the
mailboxes of students, research associates, faculty,
and staff, usually one day before the seminar. An-
nouncement copies are also placed on bulletin boards
where everyone can see them.

SEMINAR DAY
The seminars are usually scheduled for Fridays,
although in the summer of 1991 they were on Thurs-
days. The meeting time of 12 noon is set to avoid
class conflicts. Between 12:00 and 12:15, attendees
can socialize, and at 12:15 the seminar begins with
the introduction of the speaker by one of the coordi-
nators. A question-and-answer session, directed by
the coordinator, is held after the seminar, usually
between 12:45 and 1:00.
Refreshments, usually juice and fruit, are pur-
chased with Graduate Student Organization or
departmental funds just before the seminar. One
of the two coordinators is responsible for pro-
curing the refreshments, while the other readies
the room and arranges for any visual aids the
speaker may require.
Just before the seminar, a sign-up sheet is passed
around the audience, solely for statistical purposes.
These sign-up sheets, along with the abstracts and
seminar schedules, are kept in the ColCEMS files.
From the data obtained during the first year,
we have been able to determine that the audience
primarily consists of chemical engineering grad-
uate students, research associates, and faculty-with
occasional participation of graduate students and
faculty from other engineering and science depart-
ments. A number of faculty members attend all
seminars, and the remainder attend according to
their research interests.

AWARDS
At the end of the last seminar of each semester,
the audience is asked to vote for their choice of the
Chemical Engineering Education










two best seminars. The awards are usually books
provided by the department and presented to
the winners at the first seminar of the following
semester. Also, pointers (useful for seminars) are
given to all speakers.
The gifts express the appreciation of all depart-
ment members for the effort the speakers put
into their presentations. They also serve as a moti-
vation for the graduate students to come forward
and give a seminar.

SUMMARY
The graduate students in the Department of Chemi-
cal Engineering and Materials Science at Syracuse
University, in collaboration with the faculty, have
developed a seminar program called the "Colloquium
Series in Chemical Engineering and Materials Sci-
ence," with the objectives of improving the commu-
nication skills of graduate students, sharing knowl-
edge, and exchanging ideas. Our experience has been
that those objectives have been met. Furthermore,
the ColCEMS program has also served as a catalyst
for bringing all members of the department closer
together. Intellectual relations among graduate stu-
dents, research associates, and faculty have been
enhanced, and everyone has had the opportunity to
see beyond the technical skills of the speakers.
We feel that in an academic setting, where people
are constantly coming and going over a rela-
tively short period of time, this kind of activity is
important for both educators and students. We
wanted to share this experience with the readers
and to urge graduate students at other schools to
initiate a similar program.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors acknowledge and thank the Grad-
uate Student Organization and the Department of
Chemical Engineering and Materials Science for fi-
nancial support of this seminar program. The help of
the seminar coordinators for the academic year 1991-
92, Kaaeid Lokhandwala and Michael Norato, is
also appreciated. In addition, we wish to thank Ms.
Nicole Jones for her expert assistance in preparing
this manuscript.

REFERENCES
1. Felder, R.M., "A Course on Presenting Technical Talks,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 22, 84 (1988)
2. Hanzevack, E.L., and R.A. McKean, "Teaching Effective
Oral Presentations as a Part of the Senior Design Course,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 25, 28 (1991)
3. Schulz, K.H., and G.G. Benge, "The Chemical Engineering
Summer Seminar Series at Virginia Polytechnic Institute
and State University," Chem. Eng. Ed., 24, 220 (1990) O
Fall 1992


BIO(MOLECULAR) ENGINEERING
Continued from page 199.

37. Orci, L., J.-D. Vassalli, and A. Perrelet, "The Insulin Fac-
tory," Sci. Am., Sept (1988)
38. Dautry-Varsat, A., and H.F. Lodish, "How Receptors Bring
Proteins and Particles into Cells," Sci. American, 250, 52
(1984)
39. Rothman, J.E., and L. Orci, "Molecular Dissection of the
Secretory Pathway," Nature, 355, 409 (1992)
40. Hiemenz, P.C. Principles of Colloid and Surface Chemistry,
2nd ed., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York (1986)
41. Leckband, D.E., J.N. Israelachvili, F.-J. Schmitt, and W.
Knoll, "Long Range Attraction and Molecular Rearrange-
ments in Receptor-Ligand Interactions," Science, 225, 1419
(1992)
42. Dressier, D., and H. Potter, Discovering Enzymes, Scientific
American Library, W.H. Freeman (1991)
43. Wilchek, M., and E.A. Bayer, "The Avidin-Biotin Complex
in Bioanalytical Applications," Anal. Biochem., 171, 1 (1988)
44. Segel, L.A., ed., Mathematical Models in Molecular and
Cellular Biology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
(1980)
45. Monod, J., J.-P. Changeux, and F. Jacob, "Allosteric Pro-
teins and Cellular Control Systems, J. Mol. Biol., 6 306
(1963)
46. Monod, J., J. Wyman, and J.-P. Changeux, "On the Nature
of Allosteric Transitions: A Plausible Model," J. Mol. Biol.,
12 88 (1965)
47. Wyman, J., and S.J. Gill, Binding and Linkage: Functional
Chemistry of Biological Macromolecules, University Science
Books (1990)
48. McCammon, J.A., and S.C. Harvey, Dynamics of Proteins
and Nucleic Acids, Cambridge University Press (1987)
49. Rini, J.M., U. Schulze-Gahmen, and I.A. Wilson, "Struc-
tural Evidence for Induced Fit as a Mechanism for Anti-
body-Antigen Recognition," Science, 225, 959 (1992)
50. Liao, J.C., and E.N. Lightfoot, "Lumping Analysis of Bio-
chemical Reaction Systems with Time Scale Separation,"
Biotech. and Bioeng., 31, 869 (1988)
51. Palsson, B., H. Palsson, and E.N. Lightfoot, "Mathematical
Modeling of Dynamics and Control in Metabolic Networks,"
J. Theor. Biol., 113 231 (1985)
52. Shuler, M.L., and M.M. Domach, "Mathematical Models of
the Growth of Individual Cells: Tools for Testing Biochemi-
cal Mechanisms," in Foundations of Biochemical Engineer-
ing, H.W. Blanch, E.T. Papoutsakis, and G. Staphanopoulos,
eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 207, 93 (1983)
53. Straight, J.V., and D. Ramkrishna, "Complex Dynamics in
Batch Cultures: Experiments and cybernetic Models,"
Biotech. and Bioen., 37, 895 (1991)
54. Bereiter-Hahn, J., O.R. Anderson, and W.-E Reif, eds,
Cytomechanics: The Mechanical Basis of Cell Form and
Structure, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1987)
55. Derossi, D., K. Kajiwara, Y. Osada, and A. Yamauchi, Poly-
mer Gels: Fundamentals, Biomedical Applications, Plenum
Press, New York (1991)
56. Arce, P., and D. Ramkrishna, "Pattern Formation in Cata-
lytic Reactors," Latin Am. App. Res., in press (1992)
57. Ramkrishna, D., A.G. Fredrickson, and H.M. Tsuchiya, "Sta-
tistics and Dynamics of Procaryotic Cell Populations, Math.
Biosci., 1, 327 (1967)
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nomena," Chem. Eng. Ed., 25, 210 (1991) J










A Course on ...



ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION


CYNTHIA L. STOKES
University of Houston
Houston, TX 77204-4792


Anew course has been developed at the Univer-
sity of Houston for graduate students and
seniors in chemical engineering on the topic
of environmental remediation. There are numerous
areas throughout the country where soils, surface
water, and/or groundwater are contaminated to such
a degree that they are unsafe for us to use for busi-
ness, to reside near, or to consume the water. This
has created an increasingly stringent regulatory cli-
mate for industry with respect to waste disposal.
These conditions were the motivation for develop-
ment of this course. Today's students must be made
aware of waste treatment and environmental recla-
mation issues in order to function effectively as de-
sign, process, and research engineers and managers.
A number of our faculty have also begun working on
research projects on contaminant transport in soils,
dechlorination processes, and bioremediation, evinc-
ing the widespread interest in environmental issues
within the department.
The purpose of the course is to introduce the stu-
dents to both the traditional and the developmental
methods for removal or destruction of hazardous
wastes at contaminated sites and from industrial
waste streams. The emphasis of the course is not on
hazardous waste management and regulatory issues,
but rather on the destruction, removal, and contain-
ment methods themselves.
The timeliness of the course was demonstrated by
the student enrollment this past spring, the first
time the course was offered; with no advertisement,
we attracted forty-two graduate students and half of


@ (Copyvght ChE DIi.umfl ofASEE 1992


The course concentrates on several aspects of the
hazardous waste problem while touching on
others only superficially. We are mainly
concerned with hazardous wastes in soils,
groundwater, and waste-water ponds and tanks.

the graduating seniors for the course. The graduates
included Master's and doctoral candidates in chemi-
cal (twenty-seven), petroleum (one), civil (two), and
environmental (ten) engineering, as well as geology
(two). Many of the Master's degree candidates were
employed full-time in local industry and hence made
many interesting and useful contributions regard-
ing problems with waste generation, treatment, and
disposal in their companies. The course fulfills a
technical elective requirement for undergraduates
who have selected the environmental specialty, one
of several fields of specialization they can choose.

COURSE CONTENT
An outline of the course is shown in Table 1. The
course concentrates on several aspects of the haz-
ardous waste problem while touching on others only
superficially. We are mainly concerned with hazard-
ous wastes in soils, groundwater, and waste-water
ponds and tanks. Air pollution is not covered (a
separate course on air pollution control is offered in
our department).
A typical scenario considered during the course is,
for instance, a hydrocarbon spill in subsurface soil,
such as from a leaking underground storage tank.
The hydrocarbon may be lighter or heavier than
water, and hence it may float on or sink below the
water table. It may be carried with or dissolve in the
groundwater, adsorb to the soil, break down by ther-
mal, chemical or biological means, or volatilize. Ob-
viously, many physical, chemical, and biological pro-
cesses influence the fate of the spill and our ability
to clean it up. Our discussion of various remediation
methods includes consideration of these issues.
We concentrate on hydrocarbon wastes, though
some discussion of heavy metals and radioactive
waste is included. Hydrocarbons are of particular
Chemical Engineering Education


Cynthia Stokes is an assistant professor in
chemical engineering at the University of Hous-
ton. She received her BS from Michigan State
University and her PhD from the University of
Pennsylvania. She spent eighteen months as a
post-doctoral fellow at the National Institutes of
Health prior to arriving in Houston. Her major
research focus has been in the area of cellular
bioengineering.









interest because of the concentration of the petro-
leum industry in Texas, and because they are com-
mon contaminants throughout the rest of the coun-
try as well. Of the various methods of contaminant
recovery or destruction, we cover bioremediation in
the most depth. Though many bioremediation tech-
niques (other than the long-practiced landfarming)
are still generally considered developmental, the po-
tential for contaminant destruction rather than re-
moval, the in situ treatment options, and the favor
bioremediation is gaining with regulatory agencies
motivated this selection.
We begin the semester with a brief overview of the
origins and the biological and ecological effects of
various types of hazardous wastes, including hydro-
carbons (oil industry, agricultural chemicals, wood-
treatment chemicals, etc.), heavy metals, and radio-
nuclides. These lectures are designed to help the
students understand why certain wastes are consid-
ered hazardous and why we must be concerned about
their uncontrolled release.
We next cover analytical methods that are
commonly used to detect and quantify concentra-
tions of contaminants. The methods include gas
chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC), and various types of de-


TABLE 1
Course Outline

Introduction
Hazardous wastes-types and origins
Biological and ecological effects of hazardous wastes
Introduction to environmental remediation methods
Analytical methods
Contaminant Transport Mechanisms
Physicochemical and geologic factors
Mathematical analysis
Bioremediation
Microbiology and growth kinetics
Methods-in situ, surface, bioreactors
Remedy screening
Case studies
Chemical, Thermal and Physical Remediation Methods
In situ volatilization
Low temperature thermal
High temperature thermal
Supercritical oxidation
Extraction
Adsorption
Case studies
Regulations

Fall 1992


The purpose of the course is to
introduce the students to both the traditional
and the developmental methods for removal or
destruction of hazardous wastes at contaminated
sites and from industrial waste streams.


tectors used with them; mass spectrometry and
its use with GC and HPLC; and atomic absorption
spectrometry. There are numerous reference mate-
rials on these techniques.i1-41
We also illustrate the methods by which one can
measure the concentration of organic matter in
waters, such as Biochemical Oxygen Demand
(BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Or-
ganic Carbon (TOC), and Total Oxygen Demand
(TOD). Chapter 2 of a book on water quality by
Tchobanoglous and Schroederis5 is used, though
nearly all such books will include a section on
these measurements. We also introduce the exist-
ence of the standard numbered analytical methods
that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
requires for detection of various substances in dif-
ferent media (e.g., drinking water or plant effluent
water to be released to a river). A recent paper'6'
discusses the need to consolidate and revise these
prescribed methods.
Following these introductory lectures, we take a
quantitative look at contaminant transport in po-
rous media, such as in a diesel fuel spill in soil.
Professor Kishore Mohanty, an expert in transport
processes in porous media, was a guest lecturer for
this part of the course last spring. He covered math-
ematical models that can be used to calculate the
rate of movement of a fluid, illustrating its depen-
dence on such parameters as groundwater velocity,
soil porosity, tortuosity of pore structure, molecular
diffusivity, and capillary pressure. He also explained
the mechanisms of drainage and imbibition of ground-
water and how these processes affect the movement
of nonaqueous phase liquids. A recent review'l7 is
used as a reference, and several other books serve as
additional resources for the interested student.l8,9e
Since this course concentrates on methods that chemi-
cal engineers might utilize to remediate a site, these
topics are covered only briefly. However, because
one must locate a contaminant before devising an
optimal cleanup strategy, this part of the course will
likely be expanded in the future.
At this point we begin to examine the various
techniques that we can apply to reclaim a contami-
nated site. We begin with the bioremediation meth-
ods, spending four to five weeks on the topic.










The coursework included two take-home exams in
which the students had a week to answer two to
three problems. Both conceptual and
quantitative problems were used.

Because most engineering students have little or
no microbiological background, the first couple of
lectures cover the basics on bacterial growth kinet-
ics, substrate and oxygen utilization, co-metabolism,
and the variety of substances that microbes are
known to metabolize. These lectures were given by
Professor Richard Willson, who conducts biochemi-
cal separations research. He stressed that there is a
maximum rate at which microbes can metabolize a
substrate and that the rate of metabolism will slow
down as substrate concentration decreases. In addi-
tion, the concentration of contaminants that can be
achieved with biodegradation may not be as low as
we require, and many contaminants are not biode-
gradable or degrade very slowly. The latter includes
many chlorinated compounds that, unfortunately,
are usually highly toxic and difficult to remove or
degrade by other methods as well. Anaerobic mi-
crobes appear to dechlorinate hydrocarbons better
than aerobic microbes, but the rate is very slow.
Standard microbiology textbooks can be used as
references, and Biochemical Engineering Fundamen-
talsIlol includes mathematical descriptions of sub-
strate utilization and growth rates. Numerous over-
views of the use of microbes to degrade environmen-
tal contaminants exist; we use a publication by the
Office of Technology Assessmentrll and several other
recent reviews.112-141
Following this introduction, we examine the vari-
ous methods by which we can utilize biodegradation
for waste removal. These include landfarming and
its variations (composting, bioleaching), in situ bio-
remediation with and without additional microbes,
and several types of bioreactors.112-151
Landfarming (the practice of periodically adding
fertilizer and moisture, and tilling to expose the
contaminated soil to oxygen) has been used in the oil
and chemical industries for many years to treat rela-
tively small spills on soil.115 The idea to use in situ
bioremediation has gained favor in recent years be-
cause of its noninvasive nature and typically low
cost. In this method, one only has to inject aqueous
solutions of nutrients (typically nitrogen and phos-
phorous sources), oxygen, and sometimes exogenous
microbes into the area to facilitate the in situ degra-
dation of the offending contaminants. Contaminated
groundwater may be treated simultaneously by
206


pumping it to the surface, treating it through phase
separation, carbon adsorption, or other methods, and
then typically using it as the water source for the
nutrient solution.
We stress that although in situ bioremediation has
the advantages that excavation is not required, con-
taminated soils and groundwater can be treated,
and manpower and maintenance requirements are
low, it also has numerous major limitations. In situ
bioremediation is typically very slow, so cleaning up
a site may take years, low cleanup levels may not be
possible, confirmation of cleanup may be difficult (so
monitoring may have to be continued for several
decades), contaminant migration may occur, low per-
meability areas may be bypassed and not treated, or
the soil may get plugged by the increase in biomass.
An alternative to in situ bioremediation that by-
passes many of these limitations is the use of biore-
actors. We examine several types: the stirred tank
reactor can be used for treatment of liquids as well
as slurries, whereas trickle bed reactors with a grow-
ing biofilm on the packing medium are used with
liquid waste streams.nls-18l Bioreactors are typically
the most expensive method of bioremediation, but
are also the most controlled. Treatment times for the
same amount of waste are typically shorter than
either surface treatment or in situ methods, less
space is required, and air emissions can be con-
trolled. As with other types of bioremediation, low
cleanup levels may not be possible. If soils are to be
treated, a significant water source is required to
form a slurry. An electrical source is also required.
The bioreactor is much easier to study quantita-
tively than either in situ or surface bioremediation
methods, and we derive some bioreactor models that
utilize the substrate utilization and growth kinetics
in this part of the course.
At this point, when the students have several
choices of remediation methods in mind, pro-
cedures for remedy screening and design are intro-
duced. The critical idea is that one must design and
carry out appropriate laboratory studies to test
whether proposed remediation methods are likely to
fulfill one's requirements. These studies must pro-
vide enough information to narrow the choices of
remedy, provide data for pilot-scale studies if neces-
sary, and eventually allow one to obtain the neces-
sary permits and design a full-scale process. The
EPA provides various guideline documents for
treatability studies; we used one for aerobic biodeg-
radation remedy screening.1191
Several case studies are used to illustrate the imple-
mentation of bioremediation methods, the decision
Chemical Engineering Education









processes that lead to their utilization, and the pos-
sible pitfalls involved. A well-documented site that
is on the National Priorities List (Superfund) is an
abandoned wood-treatment facility in Montana.117,181
Both soils and an aquifer are contaminated from
uncontrolled releases of creosote and pentachloro-
phenol during its twenty-three years of operation. In
situ bioremediation, landfarming in contained land
treatment units, and bioreactors for the most con-
taminated groundwater are all being used. Another
wood-treatment facility in Minnesota that has con-
taminated water with pentachlorophenol is being
remediated with a fixed-film bioreactor.1161 Numer-
ous other reports of bioremediation application can
be found in the waste treatment, water quality, and
environmental literature.
Professionals in local industry are also invited to
speak to the class about their involvement in biore-
mediation activities. We had two such guests last
spring. The first, Joseph Jennings (President of
Waste Microbes, Inc.), presented his company's in-
volvement in treating wastewater ponds and tanks.
The company has developed a consortium of mi-
crobes that they add along with nutrients and
sparging air at the bottom of a body of water. His
presentation helped us focus on the common and
important issues of whether aqueous contaminants
may be stripped into the atmosphere rather than
degraded, and whether the addition of exogenous
microbes is necessary or helpful.
The second speaker, Sara McMillen (a microbiolo-
gist at Exxon Production Research), gave a presen-
tation on bioremediation in general which included
her work on composting and Exxon's experimenta-
tion with bioremediation in Prince William Sound
following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (also described
in reference 11).
Following bioremediation, we move on to other
remediation methods. They are grouped in terms of
the physical or chemical means of contaminant sepa-
ration or destruction utilized. We start with in situ
volatilization or soil venting, the removal of organic
compounds from subsurface soils (and possibly
groundwater) by mechanically drawing or venting
air through the soil matrix.[1si We stress the physical
parameters that determine the success of this
method, which include the volatility of the com-
pounds, their adsorption into the soil, and the ease
of drawing or venting air through the soil.
We next cover low temperature thermal treatment
because it also utilizes volatilization, though in a
controlled, heated chamber.[15,20o In this case, excava-
tion of the contaminated soils is required. In both
Fall 1992


methods the off-gases are typically burned or ad-
sorbed on activated carbon or water in scrubbers,
depending on the concentration and type of contami-
nant. An advantage of low temperature thermal is
that it allows the recovery of the hydrocarbon if
desired.
High temperature thermal operations are consid-
ered next. We discuss methods, design parameters,
and operating conditions of incineration, vitrifica-


Some problems on both exams were
designed to illustrate the idea ... that one
has many types of remediation methods to choose
from and one must weigh the advantages
and limitations of each on scientific,
social, and economic scales ...

tion, and pyrolysis. A major advantage of high tem-
perature methods is the greater than 99% destruc-
tion of organic contaminants that is usually attain-
able.[15,201 Major scientific limitations include the need
for substantial air emissions equipment if elevated
levels of halogenated organic compounds or volatile
metals are present, and the production of residual
ash that might need additional treatment or special
disposal. A nonscientific limitation is the societal
objection to incinerators near residential areas. High
temperature methods are typically very expensive
because of the high energy usage, and the permit-
ting process can be extremely lengthy and costly.
Supercritical water oxidation is also included. Last
spring this was discussed by Professor Vemuri
Balakotaiah, who specializes in analysis of various
chemical reactors and reaction mechanisms. He dem-
onstrated how oxidation in supercritical water can
provide very high destruction efficiencies-in many
cases greater than 99.99%, even with very dilute
waste streams.l21,221 He also compared the operation
and destruction efficiencies of supercritical water
oxidation processes with several typical incinerator
designs to illustrate their similarities and differ-
ences.
The last major technology that we study is separa-
tions, specifically adsorption and extraction. An un-
published review by D. W. Tedder at the Georgia
Institute of Technology, entitled "Separations in Haz-
ardous Waste Management," is used as an overview
of the topic. Activated carbon adsorption is discussed
in some detail because of its extensive and long-time
use for air emissions control and polishing wastewa-
ter.[23,241 We also discuss several chemical extraction
methods that are used to separate contaminated









sludges and soils into their respective phase frac-
tions: organic, water, and particulate solids. These
include the supercritical fluid extraction processes
based on carbon dioxide or propane and the Basic
Extraction Sludge Treatment (B.E.S.T.) process of
the Resources Conservation Company (Bellevue, WA)
based on the temperature-dependent separation of
water and aliphatic amines. 115
In situ soil leaching and the potential use of sur-
factants are also briefly discussed. While separa-
tions processes for soil and sludge decontamination
may be considered developmental, they have the
advantages of obtaining a reusable oil phase, can be
used with high moisture content soils and oil con-
centrations up to forty percent, and are usually less
expensive than incineration or commercial landfilling.
The potentially limiting problems include not being
able to handle soil clay content above about twenty-
to-thirty percent and high volatiles content, and dif-
ficulty in handling soils that have been contami-
nated for extended periods of time because of weath-
ering and adsorption. Again, case studies are in-
cluded where possible.
Following our study of these major areas, we briefly
introduce a number of other methods so that the
students are aware of the many options that have
been used or are in development. We include solidifi-
cation and stabilization, which involve the addition
of materials that combine physically and/or chemi-
cally to decrease the mobility of the original waste
constituents. Next are in situ and ex situ isolation
and containment, which involve isolating the con-
taminated soil from the surrounding environment
with physical barriers such as clay caps, synthetic
liners, slurry cut-off walls, and grout curtains. Fi-
nally, we describe the idea of beneficial reuse, such
as incorporating soils containing petroleum hydro-
carbons in hot asphalt mix, or using contaminated
soil as road base material or construction material
for structures such as containment berms.
Regulatory issues are not covered in depth be-
cause of time constraints, though the major national
legislation is introduced early in the course. It in-
cludes the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Re-
sponse Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA),
the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act
of 1986 (SARA), the Clean Water Act (CWA), the
Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and Under-
ground Storage Tank (UST) regulations. In addi-
tion, the process of obtaining a Record of Decision by
the EPA for a remediation plan is described.
We also bring in an outside expert to discuss the


regulatory climate in Texas. Last spring Marilyn
Long (Senior Geologist at the Texas Water Commis-
sion, Texas' partial equivalent of the EPA), gave a
lecture on dealing with hazardous wastes in Texas.
She described the various regulatory agencies in
Texas and their jurisdictions. She discussed the le-
gal ramifications of statutes, rules, and guidelines,
and how a company must work with the regulations
and regulators. She also discussed her involvement
in several bioremediation and low temperature ther-
mal treatment projects.
COURSEWORK
The coursework included two take-home exams in
which the students had a week to answer two to
three problems. Both conceptual and quantitative
problems were used. For example, one problem on
the first exam gave a sketchy description of a
"superfund" site, including volumes of contaminated
surface water, groundwater, soils, and sludge at the
bottom of a pond, types of contaminants (hydrocar-
bons and some heavy metals), and a history of the
site. An "approved" clean-up scenario was described,
which consisted of incineration of the contaminated
soils and sludges, use of ash as backfill, natural
attenuation of the aquifer (to be monitored), and
discharge of the water to a nearby river after polish-
ing. The problem then stated that the responsible
party is requesting permission to evaluate the use of
bioremediation for the site as an alternative to the
selected remedy. The student, as the company's ex-
pert on bioremediation, was to outline the types of
bioremediation that may be appropriate for each of
the contaminated media, outline a laboratory rem-
edy screening study to test the feasibility of his
suggestions in the first part, and then describe how
he would actually implement an overall reclamation
plan utilizing bioremediation for the site. Some as-
pects of the site description were purposely left vague
so that the student could make assumptions or speci-
fications about anything that was not explicitly
stated. His solution then had to be consistent with
the assumptions made.
Some problems on both exams were designed to
illustrate the idea, emphasized throughout the
course, that one has many types ofremediation meth-
ods to choose from and one must weigh the advan-
tages and limitations of each on scientific, social,
and economic scales in order to devise an optimal
solution.
The students also complete a term paper or project
of their choosing. The topics are allowed to range
from site characterizations, critical reviews of ongo-
ing site cleanup, critiques of particular remediation
Chemical Engineering Education










methods, and mathematical models of a method (e.g.,
reaction kinetics in an incinerator) or contaminant
transport. A major requirement for the paper is a
critical evaluation of the selected topic. Last spring,
specific titles included "Dioxin formation in pulp
bleach plants," "Naturally occurring radioactive ma-
terial accumulated as a result of hydrocarbon pro-
duction-waste minimization technology," "The
MOTCO superfund site: an evaluation," and "Dis-
tributed control in wastewater treatment systems."
Several students selected topics that were relevant
to their present jobs so they could learn something
that might help them immediately, whereas others
chose such popular topics as the use of bioremedia-
tion for the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska.

RESOURCE MATERIALS
Because of the broad nature of the material that is
covered, we do not use a specific textbook. Rather, a
number of papers from the literature, as well as
chapters from several books, are used (a number of
which are cited herein). Literature papers are espe-
cially useful for case studies.
A particularly useful resource is a manual pre-
pared by Environmental Solutions, Inc., under con-
tract by the Western States Petroleum Association,
entitled Onsite Treatment: Hydrocarbon Contami-
nated Soil.l5i It is used extensively for summaries of
the various soil-treatment methods. While the
manual does not deal with design of the processes, it
includes excellent qualitative summaries of various
methods, their applicability, advantages and limita-
tions, permitting requirements, whether a method is
developmental or proven, costs, capacity and man-
power estimates, and references for actual usage of
the method. It also provides guidelines for selecting
the best method for site-specific conditions, which is
very useful. Most of the remediation methods the
manual discusses were mentioned above and are
touched on at least briefly during our course.

SUMMARY
The environmental remediation field is changing
rapidly as new methods are developed to handle the
numerous hazardous substances that pollute the soils
and groundwater in many areas of the country.
Chemical engineers are ideally suited to work in this
field because of our expertise in transport phenom-
ena, thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, and unit
operations-all of which are required to quantify the
movement of contaminants in the subsurface and
devise optimal methods of remediation.
This course is designed to introduce both gradu-
ates and seniors to the field. We expect the course
Fall 1992


will evolve to include more emphasis on hydrogeology
and contaminant transport calculations and in-
creased use of models and design equations to evalu-
ate the applicability and efficiency of methods in
different contexts.

Inviting outside speakers from local industry will
continue. The speakers were well received and the
students welcomed the chance to hear from people
experienced with specific remediation technologies.

REFERENCES
1. Hassan, S.S.M., Analysis Using Atomic Absorption Spec-
trometry, Ellis Horwood Limited, Chichester (1984)
2. Howe, I., D.H. Williams, and R.D. Bowen, Mass Spectrom-
etry Principles and Applications, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New
York (1981)
3. Jennings, W., Analytical Gas Chromatography, Academic
Press, Orlando, FL (1987)
4. Miller, J.M., Chromatography: Concepts and Contrasts, John
Wiley and Sons, New York (1988)
5. Tchobanoglous, G., and E.D. Schroeder, Water Quality: Char-
acteristics-Modeling-Modification, Addison-Wesley, Reading,
MA (1985)
6. Hites, R.A., and W.L. Budde, Env. Sci. Tech., 25, 998 (1991)
7. Mercer, J.W., and R.M. Cohen, J. Contam. Hydrol., 6, 107
(1990)
8. Dullien, F.A.L., Porous Media, Fluid Transport and Pore
Structure, Academic Press (1979)
9. Lake, L.W., Enhanced Oil Recovery, Prentice-Hall, New
York (1989)
10. Bailey, J.E., and D.F. Ollis, Biochemical Engineering Fun-
damentals, McGraw-Hill, New York (1986)
11. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Bioreme-
diation for Marine Oil Spills-Background Paper OTA-BP-
0-70 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)
(1991)
12. Nichols, A.B., Water Env. Tech., p. 52, February (1992)
13. Saylor, G.S., J. Haz. Mat., 28, 13 (1991)
14. Shorthouse, B.T., Remediation, 1, 31 (1990)
15. Onsite Treatment: Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils, Envi-
ronmental Solutions, Inc., Irvine, CA (1991)
16. Frick, T.D., R.L. Crawford, M. Martinson, T. Chresand, and
G. Bateson, Environmental Biotechnology, G.S. Omenn, Ed.,
Plenum Press, New York, pp. 173-192 (1988)
17. Piotrowski, M.R., Hydrocarbon Contam. Soils, 1, 433 (1991)
18. Piotrowski, M.R., and J.W. Carraway, "Full-Scale Bioreme-
diation of Soil and Groundwater at a Superfund Site: A
Progress Report," presented to HazMat South '91, Atlanta,
GA (1991)
19. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Guide for Conduct-
ing Treatability Studies Under CERCLA: Aerobic Biodegra-
dation Remedy Screening, Interim Guidance, EPA/540/2-
91/013A (1991)
20. Freeman, H., Innovative Thermal Hazardous Organic Waste
Treatment Processes, Noyes Publication, Park Ridge, NJ
(1985)
21. Helling, R.K., and J.W. Tester, Environ. Sci. Tech., 22, 1319
(1988)
22. Thomason, T.B., and M. Modell, Haz. Waste, 1, 453 (1984)
23. Perrich, J.R., Activated Carbon Adsorption for Wastewater
Treatment, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1981)
24. Voice, T.C., in Standard Handbook of Hazardous Waste
Treatment and Disposal, H.M. Freeman, Ed., p. 6.3, McGraw-
Hill, New York (1989) 0











SOME THOUGHTS

ON GRADUATE EDUCATION

A Graduate Student's Perspective


RANGARAMANUJAM M. KANNAN
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, CA 91125

chemical engineering may well be the most
diverse of the engineering disciplines, and it
is getting broader every year, with practi-
tioners working in such far-removed areas as mo-
lecular genetics, microelectronics, and artificial in-
telligence. In fact diversity and adaptability may be
the main advantages we have over other engineers.
In the future, chemical engineers will have to be
creative thinkers, using their knowledge to expand
the frontiers of science, and we must give consider-
able thought right now to how we can prepare stu-
dents to face that challenge. In response to this
future need, quite a few changes have already been
incorporated in the curriculum, but additional im-
provements will also be necessary if we are to keep
pace with future developments and demands.
A natural consequence of progress is the increase
in the standard at each level of education. For ex-
ample, while I was not introduced to computers un-
til the twelfth grade, today's eighth-grade students
are already using computers. At the college level, it
seems to me that converting chemical engineering
into a multidisciplinary field has been reasonably
well accomplished in the undergraduate curriculum,
and that the curriculum has become more flexible.
In order to prepare students for the next step (either
graduate school or industry) a number of changes
have occurred-undergraduate research being the
most significant, in my opinion, since it gives the
student a flavor of graduate school and research.
The logical sequence now is for graduate education
to follow suit and to introduce students to some of
the characteristics of faculty/industrial research ca-
reers. I do not claim that this has not already been
done, but I do wish to explore opportunities for fur-
ther improvements. I realize that there are profes-
sors who are better qualified and more experienced
to address this issue than I am, but I would like to


Rangaramanujam M. Kannan is a graduate
student in chemical engineering at the Califor-
nia Institute of Technology. He received his BE
(Hons.) from the Birla Institute of Technology
and Science (India) and his MS degrees from
Penn State and Caltech. His primary research
interests are in polymer physics and fluid me-
chanics, with special emphasis on understand-
S ing polymer dynamics from a molecular level.
His other interests include sports, Tamil music,
and movies.

offer my ideas-from a student's point of view.
By coming to graduate school, a student has
already made a strong commitment to developing
a deep understanding of some particular subject.
The student has to have been motivated as an
undergraduate; he or she is not there merely to
get a degree. After completing the PhD, that
student intends to be a leader in teaching, research,
and/or development.
In order to prepare a student to face the diverse
world of chemical engineering, some improvements
in the curriculum are necessary. I will focus on
three important areas-they are related to each other
in the sense that success in one depends on suc-
cess in the other:
Teaching and Course Work
Research
Communication and Motivation Skills

TEACHING AND COURSE WORK
When I was an undergraduate, I participated in a
debate on "education is what you remember, after
you forget what you learned." It sounded odd at first,
but I understood and supported it wholeheartedly
later. University education teaches us many details
(which most students forget as time goes by), but it
is the basics (which are taught as a small fraction of
the total duration) that must be retained. That we
do not remember the details may not be a problem at
all. In fact, the purpose of education is exactly what
my debate topic was-to teach the "collective wis-


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1992
Chemical Engineering Education









dom." However, many students do not realize
this and lose their motivation, especially at the grad-
uate level, when they take what they think are
irrelevant classes. While it is clear that details are
necessary in certain situations, it is important to
recognize that the collective wisdom is what helps
us in the long run.
If the above statements are valid for undergradu-
ate education, they are even more pertinent at the
graduate level. It is imperative that the graduate
curriculum emphasize new and abstract ideas in
diverse areas. I will expand on a couple of sugges-
tions in the following sections.

Encourage Creativity in the Graduate Classroom
There are two phases to any scientific idea: giving
birth to a creative idea, and having the analytical
ability to carry that idea to conclusion. Our educa-
tion helps us to excel in the latter aspect, but not in
the former. Some people even contend that creativ-
ity cannot be taught. While I cannot make a ruling
on that, I do feel that it can be encouraged. In
an article on graduate education, J. L. Dudaill
said, "...our educational system stifles creativity."
We often see graduate classes where the student
is asked to solve sophisticated versions of prob-
lems such as "given x and y, solve for z"-essen-
tially similar to undergraduate classes. Such prob-
lems are illustrative in the short run, but do not help
a lot in the long run.
Many students agree that the best thing (some-
times the only thing!) we remember from our under-
graduate classes is the design project. However, most
of us do not remember the details of Wei-Prater
analysis. Why? Because the design project was open-
ended and made us think about the practical aspects
of what we learned, thus motivating us to under-
stand and engrave it in our memory.
We should have at least a couple of classes in the
graduate curriculum that are devoted to discussion
of creative, open-ended problems. R. M. Felder[2l has
had great success in such attempts in a graduate
class. For example, he posed the problem, "You are
faced with the task of measuring the volumetric flow
rate of a liquid in a large pipeline. Come up with as
many different ways to do the job as possible." There
were some constraintsr[3 which I shall not list here,
but he received two hundred different responses,
illustrating that a seemingly straightforward ques-
tion posed in an open way elucidates creative an-
swers. It is not important that some of the responses
were not commercially viable; what is important is
that students were able to think creatively and to
Fall 1992


apply their acquired knowledge to the problem. Since
graduate students have already had the basic courses,
the problems need not be confined to one subject, but
can be open and general. They may include case
studies, previously solved problems, and unsolved
problems.
The advantage of such a class is that it encourages
students to think creatively, it stimulates learning
from others' lines of thought (and improving on
them), and it brings various aspects of chemical en-
gineering together in a classroom setting. Some

When I was an undergraduate,
I participated in a debate on "education
is what you remember, after you forget what you
learned." It sounded odd at first, but I understood
and supported it wholeheartedly later.

disadvantages could be that the students may be
initially reluctant to participate because they are
not used to such an approach (Professor Felder states,
"...with a little practice the students become very
enthusiastic"), it may take some time for faculty to
create the right set problems for the course, and the
evaluation method is subjective. (The fact that the
graduate class is small helps in this respect, and at
any rate, grades are not supposed to be that critical
in graduate school.)

Less Material, More Discussions
Classes should be more like James Bond movies.
There should be something in them for everyone.
Involving students in active discussions is a must,
but unfortunately, many classes are simply mono-
logues. There is usually some level of student
interest in every class, and it is important that all
the students get something out of the class. Even
basic things such as explaining the day's topic
in the beginning and summarizing major points
in the end will ensure that students leave the
class with some newly gained knowledge. It might
reduce the amount of material covered in class, but
it would be worth it because students would retain
more of what was taught.
RESEARCH
These days one often hears of the importance of
research with regard to on-the-job success. Upon
graduation, the student is expected to come up with
creative ideas, to write proposals, and to attract co-
workers, among other things, and the first few ideas
and proposals lay the foundation for his or her long-
term survival. A badly written proposal in the









initial stages of a career can have drastic implica-
tions. Even though post-doctoral research provides
time for working on these aspects of a career, it is
better to begin at the graduate level where one has
five years to learn and correct mistakes.
In most cases, a graduate student learns to take a
single task to its conclusion while the research advi-
sor dominates selection of the primary task itself.
Efforts should be made to give the student practice
in identifying new and important problems in
multidisciplinary areas. This would provide students
with the opportunity to test and use their creative
skills. The following sections offer a few suggestions
along this line.
Make Research Proposals Mandatory
Two-time Nobel Laureate at Caltech, Professor
Linus Pauling, once said, "The best way to come up
with great ideas is to come up with many ideas and
later eliminate the bad ones." Every student should
be required to write at least two original research
proposals and to present them to the PhD com-
mittee. This requirement already exists in some
schools. It challenges students to think about com-
pletely new ideas in related areas and opens them
up to many new possibilities. To gauge the student's
improvement, the proposals should be presented one
year apart-once in the third year and once in the
fourth, for example.
The disadvantage, if any, of making proposals com-
pulsory may be that it takes away from the student's
available time during his 'prime' and might impede
his research progress. However, it helps in the over-
all growth of the student, and that is, after all, the
primary purpose of graduate education.
Involve Students in Proposal Writing
It is common knowledge that the competition for
research dollars is getting stiffer every year. This
makes life for a new professor even tougher than it
normally is. Graduate school could be a good start-
ing point for training. If students are exposed to
proposal writing, presentation, and potential fund-
ing agencies during the latter part of their PhD
work, the experience will serve them immensely later
on in their careers. While the ACS guide on proposal
writing is helpful, real-life experience and examples
are certainly more useful. In fact, it may also help
the faculty since the students can critique technical
content and improve the presentation to "outsiders."
I understand that many faculty already do this.
Hold Student Seminars on Common Topics
This does not refer to the usual group seminars
which are held to discuss research progress. It refers
212


to seminars that could serve as vehicles for identify-
ing good research. The emphasis should be on how to
critically analyze a paper and to learn from its con-
tents. The papers should be chosen such that they
are either pioneering or classical, very good or very
bad. In this way the salient features of ground-break-
ing research, good research, or bad research can be
easily illustrated. A very good or very bad paper is
like Madonna-it makes a statement and the point
is easy to see. A just-okay paper is more like a
politician-it is tough to learn anything quantitative
from what it says. In order to add weight to the
seminar and make it even more effective, it could
involve only a small number of students. It might be
more valuable to the students if it is offered toward
the end of the first year or at the beginning of the
second year when they are about to embark on their
research projects. The meetings should be informal
and should be filled with constructive discussions.

COMMUNICATION AND MOTIVATIONAL SKILLS
Communication skills are important for everyone.
However, special emphasis on communication and
motivational skills should be a part of graduate
school. While it is incorrect to generalize, it can be
said that most graduate students are relatively re-
served and introverted. In fact, that may be one of
their strengths! But after graduating and becoming
professors, they will have to deal on a day-to-day
basis with students, faculty and industrial groups,
and as leaders in industry, they will have to interact
with coworkers and other research groups. A leader
must be able to motivate coworkers in order to achieve
the desired results. The importance of communica-
tion and motivational skills for success in the real
world cannot be overstated. It is imperative to stress
their importance in the graduate curriculum. The
best method for achieving this may be hard to iden-
tify, but some possibilities would involve a class on
communication as part of the curriculum (taught by
a communications expert), periodic communication
and motivational workshops (with case studies), and
an elective class on "How to Teach."

CONCLUSIONS
The growing diversity of chemical engineering de-
mands constant readjustment of the graduate cur-
riculum. In order to produce creative leaders who
can survive the changing environment, I have sug-
gested some curriculum improvements as seen from
a student's perspective. I feel the most important
aspect to be considered is to encourage creative think-
ing in teaching and research. In teaching, the value
of discussion-filled, creative classes is stressed, and
Chemical Engineering Education









in order to increase effectiveness in illustrating a
concept, use of open-ended problems is suggested. In
research, the requirement of original research pro-
posals as part of the degree requirements and fac-
ulty-student interaction in proposal writing are ad-
ditional suggestions for consideration. Efforts should
be made to improve student communication and mo-
tivational skills since they play a vital role in later
careers, whether in teaching or in industry.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to thank Professor Richard
Felder (North Carolina State University) for being
the inspiration behind this paper. The comments
and suggestions of Professor J.A. Kornfield (Caltech),
Professor D. Kompala (Colorado), Jeff Moore
(Caltech), and Rajesh Panchanathan (Caltech) are
appreciated.

REFERENCES
1. Duda, J.L., "Graduate Studies: The Middle Way," Chem.
Eng. Edn., 20(4), 164 (1986)
2. Felder, R.M., "On Creating Creative Engineers," Eng. Edn.,
p.222, Jan (1987)
3. Felder, R.M., "A Generic Quiz: A Device to Stimulate Cre-
ativity and Higher-Level Thinking Skills," Chem. Eng. Edn.,
19(4), 176 (1985) 0


book review

MODELING WITH
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
by Stanley M. Walas
Butterworth-Heinemann, Stoneham, MA; $145, (1991)

Reviewed by
M. Sami Selim
Colorado School of Mines
Today there is a recognized need for teaching a
course in mathematical methods to undergraduate
chemical engineers, and several schools have begun
offering such courses. But there are only a few text-
books available that are primarily addressed to
chemical engineering students. This book by Walas
is therefore a very timely addition to the literature.
It is an excellent book.
The book consists of fifteen chapters and an ap-
pendix. Chapters 1 to 7 focus on mathematical meth-
ods of solutions of ordinary and partial differential
equations. Integral equations are briefly treated in
Chapter 6. Theoretical discussions, such as exist-
ence and uniqueness of solutions, have been skipped
Fall 1992


and instead, emphasis has been placed on solution
techniques and detailed applications. All classical
methods of solution are covered in detail. Numerical
and approximate methods are emphasized early on
throughout the presentation. The material is well
presented, and a wealth of references for further
reading are provided. These chapters give the stu-
dent a good background in the different methods
(analytical, numerical, and approximate) for solving
ODEs and PDEs. Limitations of the techniques are
clearly explained, and methods for overcoming the
difficulties are presented.
After the mathematics of differential equations
has been presented, there is a chapter devoted to the
principles of the mathematical formulation of engi-
neering processes. What follows next is the distinc-
tive part of this book-the derivations and solutions
of differential equations of some of the major disci-
plines of chemical engineering. The topics covered
include thermodynamics, mass transfer, fluid flow,
heat transfer, chemical reactions and reactor design,
and process control. Attention is restricted primarily
to the differential equations that occur in these pro-
cesses. Many of the topics are reinforced by math-
ematical or numerical examples as well as problems
for the reader, most of them with answers provided.
Throughout the book the author guides the reader
toward more comprehensive sources of information,
and the reference list is excellent and up to date.
Little mathematics beyond calculus is expected
of the reader. Computer usage by the examples
and problems is restricted to readily available
user-friendly PC diskettes. The treatment of most
topics is fairly complete, and beginning students
will not need to relearn the material as their sophis-
tication advances.
Overall, this book will satisfy the demands of un-
dergraduate and first-year graduate chemical engi-
neering students who usually have difficulty in un-
derstanding the presentations in more general math-
ematics texts. The book may also be of value to those
who have already mastered the typical chemical en-
gineering curriculum, e.g., the chemical engineering
practitioner, and who are now involved in some as-
pect of computational or mathematical modeling of
chemical engineering processes.
In summary, this is a highly recommendable text-
book for senior and beginning graduate students,
set apart by an easy style, a healthy amount of
exercises, lots of references, and a wide coverage of
topics. The author is to be commended for his excel-
lent effort and contribution to the chemical engi-
neering literature. 1










PATTERN FORMATION IN

CONVECTIVE-DIFFUSIVE TRANSPORT

WITH REACTION


PEDRO ARCE, BRUCE R. LOCKE, JORGE VIALS
FAMU/FSU
Tallahassee, FL 32316-2175

t has long been recognized in the chemical engi-
neering profession and in the physical and chemi-
al sciences that material and energy transport
play a central role in both the processing of materi-
als and in chemical reactor performance. Much of
the theoretical and numerical modeling efforts for
transport and reaction, however, has traditionally
been restricted to linearized models (e.g., linear rates
of reactions, linear irreversible thermodynamics for
transport and dissipation, and neglecting convection
as a source of nonlinearity).
It is now clear that approaches solely based on
linear theories fail to describe many interesting prop-
erties of these systems; namely, spatial and tempo-
ral organization, the formation of patterns, and the
existence of time-dependent, periodic states. In fact,
the field of nonlinear dynamics (which encompasses
a variety of distinct disciplines) has emerged as a

Pedro Arce received his ChE degree at
Universidad Nacional del Literal (Santa Fe, Ar-
gentina), and his MS and PhD degrees from
Purdue University (1987, 1990). His main re-
c search interests are in applied computational
mathematics, transport and reaction in multiphase
systems, and molecular transport mechanics in
material design.


Bruce R. Locke received his BE from Vanderbilt
University (1980) and has four years of research
experience at the Research Triangle Institute
(North Carolina). He completed his PhD at North
Carolina State in 1989. His research interests
are in the dynamics of transport and reaction of
biological macromolecules in multicomponent
and multidomain composite systems.



Jorge Vifials received his BS in Physics at the
University de Barcelona, Spain (1981) and his
PhD in Physics-Material Science at the same uni-
versity in 1983. His main areas of research are in
kinetics of first-order transitions, morphological sta-
bility and crystal growth, and pattern formation in
convective instabilities.
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1992
214


coherent subfield of science in the last decade. In the
field of chemical engineering, pioneering efforts in
the study of strongly nonlinear reaction-diffusion
systems have been pursued by Amundson, Aris, and
collaborators.i1,21
In general, when a system that is initially placed
in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium is forced
(and sometimes maintained) away from that state,
its evolution can lead to a rich variety of phenomena,
quite distinct from systems that are in, or close to,
equilibrium. In some cases the system goes through
a number of instabilities that lead to chaotic behav-
ior. In others the evolution is through a succession of
spatiotemporal patterns that may lead to compli-
cated, albeit stationary, structures.
From a fundamental point of view, the common
feature of all these systems is the essential role
played by the nonlinearities in the relevant equa-
tions of the models. In most cases, the nonlinearities
cannot be studied as perturbations around some well-
characterized state, but rather they lead to qualita-
tively different behavior.
Our research focuses on several complementary
aspects of problems that encompass convective-
diffusive transport (with and without chemical reac-
tions) in a variety of applications of current interest
in chemical engineering. Four main areas of research
will be reviewed here: 1) chemical and catalytic re-
acting systems, 2) biological and biochemical inter-
acting systems, 3) convective instabilities in fluids
and liquid crystals, and 4) crystal growth from the
melt. They share a common methodology based on
nonlinear dynamics, but since a general formulation
(let alone a general solution) to all of the problems is
out of the question at the present time, each re-
search area focuses on the most relevant mecha-
nisms and nonlinearities for the case at hand.
For example, the study of chemical and catalytic
reacting systems is conducted in one spatial dimen-
sion and with considerably simplified convection. In
the study of convective instabilities, only convectiv e
and diffusive transport is considered. In the latter
case the system is also kept not too far above the
Chemical Engineering Education









threshold for the primary convective instability so
that the emerging patterns are relatively simple
(away from a turbulent state). The study of crystal
growth from the melt allows for moving boundaries
of arbitrary shape separating the various phases,
but neglects convection.
The main goals of the research in all cases are
characterization of all possible stationary states
of the system (uniform and, more importantly,
states which are non-uniform in space), determina-
tion of the stability of these stationary states when
the parameters that can be controlled experimen-
tally are changed (e.g., the composition of the reac-
tants and the temperature of the reactor), and the
calculation of the transient evolution between these
stationary states.

HIERARCHICAL APPROACH
FOR INTERACTIONS IN CHEMICAL,
BIOCHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
The overall objective of this part of our research is
to investigate the chemical, biological, and biochemi-
cal structures and functions that arise from the re-
action, diffusion, and convection of molecular spe-
cies. The emphasis is on applying operator-theoretic
techniques and inverse integral formulations to ana-
lyze the dynamics of transport and reaction prob-
lems with multicomponents and in multidimensional
domains of hierarchical structure (shown, for ex-
ample, schematically in Figure 1). Furthermore, the
analysis is aided by group-theoretic methodsts3 and
simulations performed in conventional and parallel
supercomputers. A very wide range of naturally oc-
curring or synthetically constructed chemical, bio-
logical, and biochemical phenomena can be studied
within the framework of reaction and convective-
diffusive transport.
Direct interactions result from the diffusive or con-
vective coupling through adjoining boundaries be-
tween macromolecules, catalyst particles, organelles,
and cells. Indirect interactions refer to interactions
mediated by intervening fluid regions. Within the
framework of the direct and indirect interactions,
we seek to analyze the dynamic behavior of hetero-
geneous populations of macromolecules, catalyst par-
ticles, organelles, cells, and multicellular organisms
from a hierarchical point of view.
In this hierarchical approach, a domain (e.g., a
population of cells or organelles) is considered in
terms of sub-domains (e.g., organelles or macromol-
ecules) and the mathematical description accounts
for the transport and reaction processes that occur
inside these domains, as well as for those occurring
Fall 1992


It is now clear that approaches solely
based on linear theories fail to describe
many interesting properties of these systems;
namely, spatial and temporal organization, the
formation of patterns, and the existence of
time-dependent, periodic states.


Ss3-


44 44
++ +
+# #+


Figure 1. A single domain (which could itself be a
subdomain of a larger domain), showing M subdivisions or
layers such as the ones discussed in the text, and that
corresponds to the model given in Eq. (1).

between the domains throughout the environmental
media. This hierarchical description features an as-
semblage (or superstructure) based on units of
"smaller" dimensions which may, in turn, display
different degrees (or levels) of description.
This approach (although not entirely new) has not
previously been fully exploited to describe the dy-
namics of biological and biochemical systems. Past
efforts have focused almost completely on extend-
ing the Rashevsky-Turingi4,51 ideas to a variety of
situations, but have failed to account for the indirect
interactions which have been shown to be as impor-
tant as the Rashevsky-Turing interactions in gener-
ating a rich variety of behaviors in catalytic reac-
tors.6'1 Our research aims at elucidating the roles of
both types of interactions.
The operator-theoretic technique allows a full char-
acterization of the dynainic behavior of systems with-
out the complete numerical solution to the govern-
ing differential models. This also allows for a cou-
pling of different levels of information in a given
system and thus leads to the analysis of the compos-
ite system in terms of the simpler systems. Further-
more, the inverse integral formulation allows for a
very efficient numerical strategy to solve the com-
plete nonlinear differential model using information
provided by the operator formulation.

Chemical and Catalytic Reacting Systems
The field of pattern formation in catalytic reactors
has been reviewed recently in the framework of di-
215









rect and indirect interactions.m71 The analysis ad-
dresses a wide variety of aspects, including the in-
troduction of a hierarchy of reactor models, math-
ematical techniques, previous work done in the field,
and important problems to be investigated in future
research efforts.
Direct Interactions Recently, Locke and ArcetS~,13
have considered one-dimensional diffusion, reaction,
and convection in a system of M-layers where the
diffusion coefficients, the phase distribution coeffi-
cients, reaction rate constants, and convective trans-
port coefficients were allowed to vary from one layer
to the next. Coupling between the layers was mod-
eled through equilibrium and flux boundary condi-
tions, where the flux condition included both convec-
tion and diffusion. For one-dimensional transport
which may include electrophoretic transport in rect-
angular coordinates, the general molar species con-
tinuity equation for the mth layer is
ac c 2C
-t U \ m + D +kmf (cm) (1)
at L x m dx m
where
c = cross sectional area average molar species con-
centration
(V/L) = applied voltage per unit length
u = electrophoretic mobility
k = reaction rate constant
D = diffusion coefficient
f = function that contains the concentration and spa-
tial variations of the reaction rate.
In the above model formulation, each layer is as-
sumed to be a different phase, and therefore flux
and equilibrium boundary conditions are required at
the M 1 interfaces. A general approach would re-
quire the addition of a material balance over well-
mixed external regions in analogy with the approach
of Ramkrishna and Amundsonl9-111 and Parulekar
and Ramkrishna.,l21 This would give

dc a -,( -x() L i(xo+)
Vo dt cofFo-coFo+a[D -x )o+-uVc (x=O+ )


VL =c FLc. L LF -aD -uM c(x=L )]
L dt LfL LL M'M(
(3)

where
V = volume
c = molar concentration
F = volumetric flow into the mixed cells
a = cross sectional area of the membrane surfaces


The subscripts 0 and L represent the two well-mixed
external regions, and f represents the feed streams
into the two external regions (shown schematically
in Figure 1).
The interactions between the different layers in
this model can be considered to be direct interac-
tions since the layers are physically and geometri-
cally coupled at their (phase) boundaries. This is in
contrast to coupling through indirect interactions
that rely on an intermediate phase, such as a bulk
fluid, to mediate the interactions between the two
systems not physically adjacent. The model described
here may be viewed as a prototype to investigate the
behavior of cells immersed in a fluid environment.
The system will feature an assemblage of domains
as shown in Figure 1. The solution to the above
models is being undertaken by using operator-theo-
retic methods.18-131 Current work is concerned with
performing linear stability analysis for the case of
reacting systems coupled with hydrodynamic and
electrophoretic transport and diffusion.

Indirect Interactions In a series of recent stud-
ies, Arce and Ramkrishna[6,7,141 and Ramkrishna and
Arcel15-17 considered transport and reaction problems
in catalytic reactors. This research has shown that
indirect interactions are as important as the direct
interactions in producing a wide variety of very in-
teresting steady state and dynamic behaviors in cata-
lytic reacting systems. Moreover, assemblies of cata-
lyst particles showing only interactions mediated by
the fluid medium are able to display a broader class
of collaborative phenomena (i.e., behaviors caused
by the mutual interactions among the particles) than
those found in assemblies showing only direct inter-
actions. Assemblages of catalyst particles with only
indirect interactionsl6.7] have uniform steady states
that can show collaborative multiplicity and collabo-
rative reversal of instability before breaking the sym-
metry. This allows the particle to preserve, partially,
the stability inside the reactor. Pattern formation is
displayed when the assembly of catalyst particles
breaks the symmetry of the uniform steady state
(see Figure 2).


Collaborative multiplicity and collaborative rever-
sal of stability can also be observed in patterns;
however, it is impossible for the assembly to show
collaborative reversal of stability. The mathematical
analysis that is used to study this multitude of phe-
nomena is based on a theory that exploits the com-
plete understanding of the isolated particle (or cell)
in an operator-theoretic framework. Furthermore,
the analysis has been pursued further by using sin-


Chemical Engineering Education
































5 6
Figure 2. Pattern formation in a well-mixed system show-
ing two individual interacting catalytic particles or cells.
Configurations 2, 4, and 5 clearly show the cells in two
different steady states. Different steady states inside each
cell are schematically depicted with different patterns.

gularity theory and group-operator methods.118 In
addition, the investigation has been extended to cata-
lytic packed-bed reactorsl161 where indirect interac-
tions among particles (with internal diffusion) are
accounted for in an axial diffusive convective fluid.
This investigation is very relevant for describing
the behavior of assemblies (or superstructures) of
cells in terms of smaller domains (or units). These
computations, which include the determination of
regions of different behaviors in the parameter space
and the identification of all the steady states, can be
efficiently performed using an inverse integral for-
mulation.1191 This inverse integral formulation uses a
non-linear integral operator of the Hammerstein-
Volterra type with a kernel given by the Green func-
tion of the differential problem. The Green function
can be computed in terms of the eigenvalues and
eigenvectors of the differential linear (transport) op-
erator without the reaction terms. This approach
greatly simplifies the computations of steady states
for different kinds of non-linear sources. Further-
more, the integral formulation is very suitable for
implementation by parallel computer architectures
and, therefore, the process of obtaining steady states
from complex assemblages composed of several units
(cells) can be greatly accelerated.
Fall 1992


Biological and Biochemical Interacting Systems
Rapid advances in molecular and cellular biology
over the last ten to twenty years have inspired re-
search efforts in the development of molecular and
metabolic engineering. In order to advance our abili-
ties to create artificial systems through molecular
and metabolic engineering, it is necessary to have a
full understanding of the fundamental dynamics of
living systems. Dynamical aspects of living systems
include subcellular enzymatic reactions for cell
growth and reproduction, enzymatic and genetic-
level control processes, supracellular morphological
development, cell cycles, and evolutionary processes.
In addition to developing an understanding of how
each separate level of process works, it is necessary
to integrate different levels of structure into an over-
all framework that describes the interactions be-
tween these different levels.
The interplay ofconvective-diffusive transport with
reaction yields a wide variety of steady-state and
dynamic behavior in biochemical and biological sys-
tems. This includes oscillations, wave propagation,
multiplicity of uniform stationary states, and (tem-
poral and spatial) pattern formation. Oscillations
occur in enzyme reactions, protein synthesis, cell
cycles, muscle contraction, and many other cellular
and physiological processes.1201 Oscillations in the
glycolytic pathway have been extensively studied
both experimentally and theoretically. Most of the
efforts in the literature have been devoted primarily
to temporal variations and to the determination of
stability conditions for non-linear chemical reactions
with several components. 20,21' Generally, in isother-
mal systems, it is necessary for the chemical reac-
tions to exhibit non-linear kinetics in order for tem-
poral patterns to occur. Higgensl221 considered the
general types of autocatalytic chemical reactions with
positive or negative feedback that give rise to oscilla-
tory variations of species concentrations. Some very
current applications of temporal pattern formation
involves modeling cell cycles via the recently deter-
mined key metabolic component cyclin.L231
Temporal variation alone, however, since it ne-
glects all geometrical and spatial structure, cannot
describe systems where spatial structure is impor-
tant. Reaction/diffusion problems have been used to
consider problems in biological morphological devel-
opment, biochemical reactions, and population ecol-
ogy since the ideas introduced by Rashevsky[4,241 and
Turing.1s5 Turing considered reaction and diffusion
in a two-component and one-dimensional system.
Scriven and coworkersl25,261 have developed a gen-
eral analysis of multicomponent reaction and diffu-
217









sion in a single region coupled to other regions
through indirect transfer expressions.
A large number of phenomena have subsequently
been investigated from the perspectivel20,271 of reac-
tion and diffusion within a single phase. What re-
mains to be considered is a comprehensive approach
to include systems ofmulticomponents in multiphase
domains and a hierarchy of both direct and indirect
interactions. The main goal of our research is the
development of such a comprehensive approach.
Biological and biochemical systems can be broken
down into a number of functional and structural
units (e.g., macromolecules, organelles, cells, tissues,
populations, and communities). These units can in
turn interact through direct or indirect means in
analogy to the chemical reactor and separation mod-
els given above. Martin, et al.,128s have formulated a
one-dimensional multiple layer diffusion and con-
vection model for the transport of auxin, a plant
hormone, up the stem of a plant. Their model is
simpler than the one considered above by Locke and
Arcelsi131 and they have solved it using the cumber-
some method of Laplace transform. This methodol-
ogy gives no indication of the role of the different
parameters on the dynamics of the process.
From a more general perspective, Almirantis
and Papageorgioul291 have considered reaction bound-
ary coupling between multiple layers in a one-
dimensional system as a model of intercellular
communication. They developed a stability analysis
to determine the conditions for pattern forma-
tion. Operator theoretic methods can give a much
clearer view of the stability criteria through an analy-
sis of the spectrum of the operators. Currently,
several geometrical configurations of cell systems
are being investigated to determine their steady-
state structure, linear stability, and pattern forma-
tion characteristics.
CONVECTIVE INSTABILITIES
IN FLUIDS AND LIQUID CRYSTALS
The Rayleigh-B6nard instability in simple fluids is
a classical fluid instability that has been well char-
acterized both theoretically and experimentally, at
least when the Rayleigh number is not too far from
the critical Rayleigh number and the aspect ratio of
the experimental cell is not too large.Iaoa311 Under
these conditions, when the system is brought above
threshold, a convective instability occurs and the
familiar pattern of convective rolls appears.
Although this is a simplified situation, it is very
important in our understanding of nonlinear phe-
nomena because the equations describing the sys-


tem are well known and the fluid parameters that
appear in them can be measured with sufficient
accuracy. Furthermore, experiments can be con-
ducted under well controlled conditions. It therefore
provides a good testing ground for many of the ideas
of pattern formation in nonlinear systems and an
opportunity for detailed and precise comparisons be-
tween the predictions given by well defined models
and the experiments.
Unfortunately, for most commonly studied fluids
the parameters of the fluid are such that systems
comprising only a few convective rolls can be studied
under normal laboratory conditions. The emerging
structures are therefore greatly influenced by the
geometry and size of the experimental cell. More
recently, however, experiments have been conducted
on gases[32' or on the electro-hydrodynamic instabil-
ity in nematic liquid crystals.r33a The scale of the
convective rolls in these cases is much smaller than
the size of the cell and the issues discussed above are
beginning to be studied in greater detail.
We have concentrated on the analysis of the sto-
chastic Swift-Hohenberg equation.[341 This equation
describes the evolution of a scalar field, function of
position r and time t, that can be written in dimen-
sionless form as


t =-(V 1)2] + (r,t) (4)
The quantity e acts as control parameter. From
e < 0 the solution y = 0 is linearly stable, whereas at
e = 0 it becomes unstable to periodic solutions. The
stochastic function, 4(r, t), is normally assumed to be
gaussian distributed and delta-correlated. This equa-
tion has been shown to be equivalent in the long-
wavelength, long-time limit the Boussinesq approxi-
mation to the hydrodynamic equations that described
convection in a simple fluid close to the convective
instability. In that case, the stochastic contribution
is related to the underlying thermal fluctuations in
the fluid. More generally, this equation can be con-
sidered as a generic model that describes the forma-
tion of spatially periodic structures.
Three main issues are investigated. First, the ques-
tion of pattern selection, namely which, out of the
infinitely many linearly stable stationary states, is
dynamically selected from typical initial conditions.
Second, convective patterns are effectively one- or
two-dimensional. Fluctuations might be expected to
destroy the long-range order implicit in the convec-
tive pattern. The third issue is the transient dynam-
ics of roll formation. Eq. (4) has been solved numeri-
cally on the Connection Machine 2 at SCRI. The
Chemical Engineering Education









aspect ratio of the systems studied ranges in the
hundreds (i.e., several hundred convective rolls),
much larger than systems that are experimentally
feasible in simple fluids. As discussed above, recent
experiments in nematic liquid crystals are begin-
ning to be able to measure thermal fluctuations and
to study ratios comparable to the sizes that we have
used in our solutions. We expect that our predictions
will be tested in these latter systems.
Figure 3 shows an example of our resultsr35s with
the various structures of the stationary solutions.
The configurations shown are typical examples of
stationary solutions obtained numerically (only a
portion of the system size studied is shown for clar-
ity). At zero amplitude of the fluctuations, F = 0
(states labeled smectic), configurations of rolls pos-
sess both positional and orientational long-range or-
der. At low values of F' (states labeled nematic)
orientational correlations are long-ranged but the
system is positionally disordered. Above the solid
line in the figure, the pattern is completely disor-
dered. The location of the solid line in the figure has
been found numerically for one value of E. A theoreti-
cal analysis that we have developed predicts that it
is given by F V E, which is what is plotted in the
figure.
Work is now in progress to explore more complex
situations with convection in non-Boussinesq sys-


0.15

Isotro ic
I



0.1 o
Nematic



To
0.05 -
Smectic

0


0
0 0.2 0.4

Figure 3. Portions of typical configurations obtained as
stationary solutions of Eq. (4). The configurations labeled
isotropic, nematic, and smectic correspond to intensities
of the fluctuations F' = 0.075, 0.05, and 0, respectively. In
all these plots the lines drawn are the lines of W(r) = 0.
Fall 1992


teams, the decay of a long-wavelength instability of
periodic patterns known as the Eckhaus instability,
extensions to non-gradient systems, etc. The combi-
nation of experimental work and detailed numerical
solutions to model systems is providing a number of
very interesting results on the pattern forming prop-
erties of systems that are far from thermodynamic
equilibrium.

CRYSTAL GROWTH FROM THE MELT
Crystal growth is but one example in the study of
the evolution of the shape of the interfaces that
separate domains of various phases during a phase
transformation. Although this is one of the most
studied examples, the same phenomenology also
occurs in all phase transformations in which diffu-
sive transport plays a dominant role in controlling
the transformation rate (i.e., diffusion of heat or
of some chemical species). Examples are num-
erous, including the growth of semiconductor crys-
tals from the melt, metal alloy casting, and the growth
of protein crystals.
In the more general formulation, one is confronted
with a nonlinear free boundary problem for which
analytic solutions are rare.[361 Even in the simpler
case in which convective motion in the fluid phase is
neglected, limited progress has been achieved in
determining stable propagating solutions of the front
that separates the different phases. A great deal is
known about the existence of steady states and about
their stability in systems that undergo some type or
morphological instability to a finger-like or cellular
structure.a37 These studies have focused on models of
directional or dendritic solidification of single com-
ponent or multicomponent systems and models of
viscous fingering in fluids. Intricate asymptotic analy-
ses have yielded the stationary solutions of various
models and, in some cases, the stability condition of
such solutions to infinitesimal perturbations.
The approach that we have taken involves recasting
the partial differential equations that describe mass
diffusion in the phases and the appropriate bound-
ary conditions on the moving interface, by an
integrodifferential equation involving the coordinates
of the interface alone, or "interface equation."r38,391
This is accomplished by the introduction of the Green
function for the diffusion operator in the various
phases. The interface equation is then solved as an
initial value problem for a given initial position of
the interface. Studies to date have focused on the
analysis of the evolution of the interface shape fol-
lowing the instability of a planar front. Recent stud-
ies by us and othersL39,40J are focusing on the tran-









sient dynamics of formation of periodic cellular struc-
tures (an example of such evolution is shown in
Figure 4). Numerical studies reveal the existence of
conventional stationary states in addition to travel-
ing wave states or even chaotic structures. This rich
behavior can be observed within a surprisingly nar-
row range of material and control parameters.

CONCLUSION
We have summarized a variety of problems con-
cerning instabilities and the formation of patterns in
convective-diffusive systems, with or without chemi-
cal reactions, that are being addressed in the chemi-
cal engineering department at FAMU/FSU. We fo-
cus our attention on novel mathematical approaches
that combine analytical techniques and numerical
work performed on conventional and parallel
supercomputers. The analytic techniques center
around operator-theoretic, group-theoretic, and Green
function methods to study a variety of nonlinear
processes in chemical and catalytic reacting systems,
and pattern-forming instabilities in fluids and crys-
tal growth. These methods allow the implementa-
tion of powerful numerical algorithms on vector and
massively parallel supercomputers, such as those
presently available at Florida State University.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Part of this work has been conducted in collabora-
tion with other colleagues and former academic ad-
visors. It is a pleasure to acknowledge K. Elder, D.
Jasnow, M. Grant, H. Irazoqui, and D. Ramkrishna
for very fruitful collaborations. One of us (PA) wants
to thank Professor R.G. Carbonell for very interest-
ing discussions and observations. PA and BL ac-


' I' i ij I'

Iii


-00 7 0n 400 60o 0oo 1000 .'ro 14

Figure 4. Example of the temporal evolution of an interfa-
cial pattern separating the solid and fluid phases during
directional solidification. The lines shown are different
times following the instability of a planar front.
220


knowledge support from NASA-TRDA-204 and the
FAMU/FSU College of Engineering. JV is supported
by the Microgravity Science and Applications Divi-
sion of the NASA under contract No. NAG3-1284
and by the Supercomputer Computations Research
Institute, which is partially funded by the U.S. De-
partment of Energy Contract No. DE-FC05-
85ER25000.

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11rl1 I/




i..i










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NEURAL NETWORKS
Continued from page 179.

obtain the correct ordering for both the manipulated
and the controlled variables, the engineer requires a
great deal of process understanding.
An alternative methodology under study in the
IPS Lab is very ambitious in that it seeks to pose the
multivariable control design with objective
prioritization as a multilevel optimization problem
with binary variables. Binary variables can be visu-
alized as on-off keys that switch controller and eco-
nomic objectives and constraints on or off as appro-
priate to achieve the desired prioritization.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS

As our research in neural networks, optimization,
and process control matures, the focus in the IPS
Lab is shifting to demonstration of the methods in
collaboration with local industry. One project has
begun which seeks to use neural network-based meth-
ods for controlling the quality of parts produced from
an injection molding process. A second project is
employing similar methods for controlling the incin-
eration of hazardous wastes. A third effort is explor-
ing the use of neural networks for optimizing the
efficiency of combustion of pulverized coal.
Such real-world implementations are important in
process control research. When developments are
restricted to simulated processes, the complete pro-
cess character can be specified by the same researcher
Fall 1992


who is responsible for the control system develop-
ments. Real plants, on the other hand, have a pro-
cess character that is specified by nature, thereby
truly testing the effectiveness of new developments.
Perhaps the most important aspect, however, is
that real-world demonstrations permit developments
to be tested by the ultimate user of the technology-
the industrial practitioner. It is only when the tech-
nology is in the practitioner's hands that laboratory
developments receive the critical evaluations which
help guide subsequent improvements and refine-
ments, and define new avenues for fruitful research.

REFERENCES

1. Achenie, L.E., and L.T. Biegler, "A Superstructure Based
Approach to Chemical Reactor Network Synthesis," Comp.
Chem. Eng., 14, 23 (1990)
2. Cooper, D.J., L. Megan, and R.F. Hinde, Jr., "Comparing
Two Neural Networks for Pattern Based Adaptive Process
Control," AIChE J., 38, 41 (1992)
3. Vegeais, J.A., D.B. Garrison, and L.E.K. Achenie, "Parallel
NCUBE Implementation of a Layered, Feed-Forward Neu-
ral Network," AIChE meeting, Los Angeles, CA; Nov. (1991)
4. Cooper, D.J., L. Megan, and R.F. Hinde, Jr., "Disturbance
Pattern Classification and Neuro-Adaptive Control," IEEE
Cont. Sys., 12, 42 (1992)
5. Hinde, R.F., Jr., and D.J. Cooper, "Adaptive Process Control
Using Pattern-Based Performance Feedback," J. of Proc.
Cont., 1, 228 (1991)
6. Cooper, D.J., and A.M. Lalonde, "Process Behavior Diagnos-
tics and Adaptive Process Control," Computers and Chem.
Eng., 14, 541 (1990)
7. Prett, D.M., C.E. Garcia, and B.L. Ramaker, The Second
Shell Process Control Workshop, Butterworths (1990) 1











T.he


o university

oAkron sO.. DEPARTMENT OF


-=. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
GRADUATE PROGRAM

GRADUATE PROGRAM


FACULTY
G. A. ATWOOD 1
G. G. CHASE
H. M. CHEUNG
S. C. CHUANG
J.R. ELLIOTT
L. G. FOCHT
K. L. FULLERTON
M. A. GENCER2
H. L. GREENE1
L.K. JU
S. LEE
D. MAHAJAN2
J. W. MILLER2
H. C. QAMMAR
R. W. ROBERTS1
N.D. SYLVESTER
M. S. WILLIS


RESEARCH INTERESTS


Digital Control, Mass Transfer, Multicomponent Adsorption
Multiphase Processes, Heat Transfer, Interfacial Phenomena
Colloids, Light Scattering Techniques
Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Combustion
Thermodynamics, Material Properties
Fixed Bed Adsorption, Process Design
Fuel Technology, Process Engineering, Environmental Engineering
Biochemical Engineering, Environmental Biotechnology
Oxidative Catalysis, Reactor Design, Mixing
Biochemical Engineering, Enzyme and Fermentation Technology
Fuel and Chemical Process Engineering, Reactive Polymers, Waste Clean-Up
Homogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics
Polymerization Reaction Engineering
Hazardous Waste Treatment, Nonlinear Dynamics
Plastics Processing, Polymer Films, System Design
Environmental Engineering, Flow Phenomena
Multiphase Transport Theory, Filtration, Interfacial Phenomena


I Professor Emeritus
2 Adjunct Faculty Member


Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $7,800.
Industrially sponsored fellowships available up to $17,000.
In addition to stipends, tuition and fees are waived.
Ph.D. students may get some incentive scholarships.


Cooperative Graduate Education Program is also available.
The deadline for assistantship applications is February 15th.
For Additional Information, Write *
Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Akron Akron, OH 44325-3906
Chemical Engineering Education









CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PROGRAMS AT

THE UNIVERSITY OF

ALABAMA

The University of Alabama, located in the
sunny South, offers excellent programs lead-
ing to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical
Engineering.
Our research emphasis areas are concentrated
in environmental studies, reaction kinetics
and catalysis, alternate fuels, and related
processes. The faculty has extensive indus-
trial experience, which gives a distinctive
engineering flavor to our programs.
For further information, contact the Director
of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemi-
cal Engineering, Box 870203, Tuscaloosa, AL
35487-0203; (205-348-6450).

FACULTY
G. C. April, Ph.D. (Louisiana State)
D. W. Arnold, Ph.D. (Purdue)
W. C. Clements, Jr., Ph.D. (Vanderbilt)
R. A. Griffin, Ph.D. (Utah State)
W. J. Hatcher, Jr., Ph.D. (Louisiana State)
I. A. Jefcoat, Ph.D. (Clemson)
A. M. Lane, Ph.D. (Massachusetts)
M. D. McKinley, Ph.D. (Florida)
L. Y. Sadler III, Ph.D. (Alabama)
V. N. Schrodt, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania State)

RESEARCH INTERESTS
Biomass Conversion, Modeling Transport Processes, Thermodynamics, Coal-Water Fuel Development,
Process Dynamics and Control, Microcomputer Hardware, Catalysis,
Chemical Reactor Design, Reaction Kinetics, Environmental,
Synfuels, Alternate Chemical Feedstocks, Mass Transfer,
Energy Conversion Processes, Ceramics, Rheology, Mineral Processing,
Separations, Computer Applications, and Bioprocessing.
An equal employment/equal educational
opportunity institution.












UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA




^^y-'^'Pb i R


Degrees: M.Sc., Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering and in Process Control

FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS


K. T. CHUANG, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Mass Transfer Catalysis Separation Processes *
Pollution Control
P. J. CRICKMORE, Ph.D. (Queen's University)
Fractal Analysis Cellular Automata Utilization of Oil
Sand and Coal
I. G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (University of Minnesota)
EMERITUS Chemical Reaction Engineering *
Heterogeneous Catalysis Hydroprocessing
D. G. FISHER, Ph.D. (University of Michigan)
Process Dynamics and Control Real-Time Computer
Applications
M. R. GRAY, Ph.D. (California Institute of Technology)
CHAIRMAN Bioreactors Chemical Kinetics Charac-
terization of Complex Organic Mixtures
R. E. HAYES, Ph.D. (University of Bath)
Numerical Analysis Reactor Modeling Conputational
Fluid Dynamics
S. M. KRESTA, Ph.D. (McMaster University)
Fluid Mechanics Turbulence Mixing
D. T. LYNCH, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Catalysis Kinetic Modeling Numerical Methods *
Reactor Modeling and Design Polymerization
J. H. MASLIYAH, Ph.D. (University of British Columbia)
Transport Phenomena Numerical Analysis Particle-
Fluid Dynamics


A. E. MATHER, Ph.D. (University of Michigan)
Phase Equilibria Fluid Properties at High Pressures *
Thermodynamics
W. K. NADER, Dr. Phil. (Vienna) EMERITUS
Heat Transfer Transport Phenomena in Porous Media *
Applied Mathematics
K. NANDAKUMAR, Ph.D. (Princeton University)
Transport Phenomena Multicomponent Distillation *
Computational Fluid Dynamics
F. D. OTTO, Ph.D. (Michigan) DEAN OF ENGINEERING
Mass Transfer Gas-Liquid Reactions Separation Processes
M. RAO, Ph.D. (Rutgers University)
AI Intelligent Control Process Control
D. B. ROBINSON, Ph.D. (University of Michigan)
EMERITUS Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids *
Phase Equilibria Thermodynamics
J. T. RYAN, Ph.D. (University of Missouri)
Energy Economics and Supply Porous Media
S. L. SHAH, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Computer Process Control System Identification Adaptive
Control
S. E. WANKE, Ph.D. (University of California, Davis)
Heterogeneous Catalysis Kinetics Polymerization
M. C. WILLIAMS, Ph.D. (University of Wisconsin)
Rheology Polymer Characterization Polymer Processing
R. K. WOOD, Ph.D. (Northwestern University)
Process Modeling and Dynamic Simulation Distillation
Column Control Dynamics and Control of Grinding Circuits


Forfurther information, contact
Graduate Program Officer MCY, Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6
PHONE (403) 492-3962 FAX (403) 492-2881

,24 Chemical Engineering Education










THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

TUCSON, AZ

SThe Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona offers a wide range of
research opportunities in all major areas of chemical engineering, and graduate courses are
-II offered in most of the research areas listed below. The department offers a fully accredited
undergraduate degree as well as MS and PhD graduate degrees. Strong interdisciplinary pro-
grams exist in bioprocessing and bioseparations, microcontamination in electronics manufac-
ture, and environmental process modification. Financial support is available through fellow-
ships, government and industrial grants and contracts, teaching and research assistantships.

THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS
ROBERT ARNOLD, Associate Professor"[' (Caltech) BRUCE E. LOGAN, Associate Professor"'' (Berkeley)
Microbiological Hazardous Waste Treatment, Metals Speciation and Bioremediation, Biological Wastewater Treatment, Fixed Film Bioreactors
Toxicity KIMBERLY OGDEN, Assistant Professor (Colorado)
JAMES BAYGENTS, Assistant Professor (Princeton) Bioreactors, Bioremediation, Organics Removal from Soils
Fluid Mechanics, Transport and Colloidal Phenomena, Bioseparations, THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor and Head (CalTech)
Electrokinetics Aerosols, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Microcontamination
MILAN BIER, Professor (Fordham) ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor (Iowa State)
Protein Separation, Electrophoresis, Membrane Transport Crystallization Processes, Nucleation, Particulate Processes
CURTIS W. BRYANT, Associate Professor"' (Clemson) THOMAS R. REHM, Professor (Washington)
Biological Wastewater Treatment, Industrial Waste Treatment Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Computer Aided Design
HERIBERTO CABEZAS, Assistant Professor (Florida) FARHANG SHADMAN, Professor (Berkeley)
Statistical Thermodynamics, Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction, Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactive Membranes,
Protein Separation Microcontamination
WILLIAM P. COSART, Associate Professor (Oregon State) RAYMOND A. SIERKA, Professor"' (Oklahoma)
Heat Transfer in Biological Systems, Blood Processing Adsorption, Oxidation, Membranes, Solar Catalyzed Detox Reactions
EDWARD FREEH, Adjunct Professor (Ohio State) JOST 0. L. WENDT, Professor (Johns Hopkins)
Process Control, Computer Applications Combustion-Generated Air Pollution, Incineration, Waste Management
JOSEPH GROSS, Professor (Purdue) DON H. WHITE, Professor Emeritus (Iowa State)
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Microcirculation, Biorheology Polymers, Microbial and Enzymatic Processes
DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor (Technion)
ROBERTO GUZMAN, Assistant Professor (North Carolina State) DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor (Technion)
Fermentation, Mixing, Energy, Biomass Conversion
Protein Separation, Affinity Methods
"1 Joint appointment with Environmental Engineering Program, CEEM.


Tucson has an excellent climate
and many recreational opportuni-
ties. It is a growing modern city of
450,000 that retains much of the
old Southwestern atmosphere.

For further information, write to

Chairman,
Graduate Study Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721


The University of Arizona is an equal
opportunity educational institution/equal
opportunity employer.
Women and minorities are encouraged
to apply.
Fall 1992 225












ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY


CHEMICAL, BIO, AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING


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Graduate Research in a High Technology Environment


Chemical Engineering
Beckman, James R., Ph.D., U. of
Arizona Crystallization and Solar
Cooling
Bellamy, Lynn, Ph.D., Tulane Process
Simulation
Berman, Neil S., Ph.D., U. of Texas,
Austin Fluid Dynamics and Air
Pollution
Burrows, Veronica A., Ph.D., Princeton
Surface Science, Semiconductor
Processing
Cale, Timothy S., Ph.D., U. of Houston *
Catalysis, Semiconductor Processing
Garcia, Antonio A., Ph.D., U.C.,
Berkeley Acid-Base Interactions.
Biochemical Separation, Colloid
Chemistry
Henry, Joseph D., Jr., Ph.D., U. of
Michigan Biochemical, Molecular
Recognition, Surface and Colloid
Phenomena


Kuester, James L., Ph.D., Texas A&M *
Thermochemical Conversion, Complex
Reaction Systems
Raupp, Gregory B., Ph.D., U. of
Wisconsin Semiconductor Materials
Processing, Surface Science, Catalysis
Rivera, Daniel, Ph.D., Cal Tech Process
Control and Design
Sater, Vernon E., Ph.D., Illinois Institute
of Tech Heavy Metal Removal from
Waste Water, Process Control
Torrest, Robert S., Ph.D., U. of
Minnesota Multiphase Flow, Filtration,
Flow in Porous Media, Pollution Control
Zwiebel, Imre, Ph.D., Yale Adsorption
of Macromolecules, Biochemical
Separations


Bioengineering
Dorson, William J., Ph.D., U. of
Cincinnati Physicochemical
Phenomena, Transport Processes
Guilbeau, Eric J., Ph.D., Louisiana Tech *
Biosensors, Physiological Systems,
Biomaterials
Kipke, Daryl R., Ph.D., University of
Michigan Computation Neuroscience *
Machine Vision, Speech Recognition,
Robotics Neural Networks
Pizziconi, Vincent B., Ph.D. Arizona State
Artificial Organs, Biomaterials,
Bioseparations
Sweeney, James D., Ph.D., Case-Western
Reserve Rehab Engineering, Applied
Neural Control
Towe, Bruce C., Ph.D., Penn State *
Bioelectric Phenomena, Biosensors,
Biomedical Imaging
Yamaguchi, Gary T., Ph.D., Stanford *
Biomechanics, Rehab Engineering,
Computer-Aided Surgery


Materials Science & Engineering
Dey, Sandwip K., Ph.D., NYSC of
Ceramics, Alfred U. Ceramics, Sol-Gel
Processing

Hendrickson, Lester E., Ph.D., U. of
Illinois Fracture and Failure Analysis,
Physical and Chemical Metallurgy

Jacobson, Dean L., Ph.D., UCLA *
Thermionic Energy Conversion, High
Temperature Materials

Krause, Stephen L., Ph.D., U. of Michigan
* Ordered Polymers, Electronic Materials,
Electron X-ray Diffraction, Electron
Microscopy

Mayer, James, Ph.D., Purdue *Thin Film
Processing Ion Bean Modification of
Materials

Stanley, James T., Ph.D., U. of Illinois *
Phase Transformations, Corrosion


For more details regarding the graduate degree programs in the Department of Chemical, Bio, and Materials Engineering,
please call (602) 965-3313 or (602) 965-3676, or write to: Dr. Eric Guilbeau, Chair of the Graduate Committee, Department of
Chemical, Bio, and Materials Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6006.

Chemical Engineering Education


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Leadership inengi eering


isan Anonatradition.


As an Industrial Fellow
at ASU, Mike Wall earned
his master's degree
while working for a major
corporation. It's a unique
opportunity, continuing a
tradition of engineering
excellence that began here
hundreds of years ago.


Hopi Pattern Mathematics, 6th century


Program sponsors include
American Express,
Honeywell, Intel, McDonne
Douglas Helicopter, Motoro
and US WEST Small
Business Services. They're
helping engineers like Sus
Ferreira invest in the future


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Hohokam Acid-Baked Etching, 10th century


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Sinaguan Metate Manufacturing, 13th century


Opportunities to earn a master's degree are
available in computer science, or chemical,
electrical, industrial or mechanical engineering.
MBA opportunities are also available. U.S.,
Canadian or Mexican citizenship required.
Call 602-965-2276
orwrite for more information. 1993 program
applications are due by December 1,1992
(early bird) or January 15,1993 (final).


In the next two years,
Kim Solomon will be able
to complete an advanced
degree and earn over
$55,000 in salaries, awards
and benefits. She'll also
participate in 6ne of the
nation's top leadership
development programs for
engineers.


Industrial Fellows Program
ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY
A Part Of The ASU Corporate Leaders Program
College of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Tempe, Arizona 85287-7406
(602) 965-2276 FAX (602) 965-2267


Arizona State Universityvigorously pursues affirmative action and equal opportunity in its employment, activities, and programs.


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We want you to be yourself...

The Department of Chemical Engineering
at A uburn i universityy knows you have
unique talents and ideas to contribute to
our research programs. A nd because you
are an individual, we will value you as an
individual. That is what makes our
department one of the lop 20 in the nation.
Don't become just another graduate
student at some other institution. Come to
.4A burn and disco ver your potential.


We have a research area THE FACULTY
tailored to you!


RESEARCH APPLICATION AREAS
* Asphalt Chemlitrvy
* Biotechnology
Carbon Chemistry
* Coal Science and Conversion
* Chemical Engineering of Composites
* En ironmentl Chemical Engineering
* Pulp and Paper Chemical Engineering

FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH AREAS
* Biochemical Engineering
* Caialysis
* Fluid Mechanic.
* Inrerfacial Fandamentals
* Mas,, and Heat Transport
* Optimization
* Proces. Mldeling and Identificalion
* Process and Contml
* Process Simulation
* Process Synthelsi
* Comptuer Aided Process Design
* Reaction Kinenice and Engineering
* Surface Science
* Thermod-namric.
* Transport Phenomena


Rl, rr P. Chamber
lin.-r S. Cqhfi'.rri. 4L,
Chriatne W. ('unrt
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Ntahmnud NM. l--Hltutagi
't'CLA. 1994
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For information and application write:
Dr. R.P. Chambers
Chmir al PnoinPerinna


Aubur University, AL


Gel your MS. or Ph.D. degree from one of the fastest growing chemical engineer
departments in the Southeast. Last yer our research tepenidftur topped $3 milwl. 0;
research emiphasi:es e.tpcrimental ad theoretical work inm adres ~ll' ional iterc.st, wuith st
of:-the-ar rcseart h equipiient. Generousinatntial assidtalne i qi aildale to qiiallified student


We want yoi

to be

Your best!


SA. Y. I-
\.Sr\re LnrrniL,. Ue'I
Rn Satd n. Neuman
. '.Inri fMca W ier Chem!ir., ;9.Il
Thn tby D. p cek
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S DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND

M, PETROLEUM ENGINEERING
THE
TH The Department offers graduate programs leading to the M.Sc. and
UNIVERSITY Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering (full-time) and the M.Eng.
OF CALGARY degree in Chemical Engineering or Petroleum Reservoir Engineering
(part-time) in the following areas:


FACULTY
R. G. Moore, Head (Alberta)
A. Badakhshan (Birmingham, U.K.)
L. A. Behie (Western Ontario)
J. D. M. Belgrave (Calgary)
F. Berruti (Waterloo)
P. R. Bishnoi (Alberta)
R. M. Butler (Imperial College, U.K.)
A. Chakma (UBC)
M. A. Hastaoglu (SUNY)
R. A. Heidemann (Washington U.)
A. A. Jeje (MIT)
N. Kalogerakis (Toronto)
A. K. Mehrotra (Calgary)
E. Rhodes (Manchester, U.K.)
P. M. Sigmund (Texas)
J. Stanislav (Prague)
W. Y. Svrcek (Alberta)
E. L. Tollefson (Toronto)
M. A. Trebble (Calgary)


Biochemical Engineering
& Biotechnology
Biomedical Engineering
Environmental Engineering
Modeling, Simulation & Control
Petroleum Recovery
& Reservoir Engineering
Process Development
Reaction Engineering/Kinetics
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena

Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available to all qualified applicants.

SFor Additional Information Write *
Dr. A. K. Mehrotra Chair, Graduate Studies Committee
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
The University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4


The University is located in the City of Calgary, the Oil capital of Canada, the home of the world famous Calgary Stampede
and the 1988 Winter Olympics. The City combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication of a modern urban
center. Beautiful Banff National Park is 110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of Banff, Lake Louise,and Kananaskis
areas are readily accessible. In the above photo the University Campus is shown with the Olympic Oval and the student
residences in the foreground. The Engineering complex is on the left of the picture


Fall 1992


229










THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT


BERKELEY...
... offers graduate programs leading to the
Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy.
Both programs involve joint faculty-student
research as well as courses and seminars within
and outside the department. Students have
-_ the opportunity to take part in the many cul-
tural offerings of the San Francisco Bay Area
and the recreational activities of California's
northern coast and mountains.


FACULTY

ALEXIS T. BELL
HARVEY W. BLANCH
ELTON J. CAIRNS
ARUP K. CHAKRABORTY
DOUGLAS S. CLARK
MORTON M. DENN (CHAIRMAN)
ALAN S. FOSS
SIMON L. GOREN
RESEARCH INTERESTS
DAVID B. GRAVES


BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING
ENERGY UTILIZATION
FLUID MECHANICS
KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
POLYMER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
SEPARATION PROCESSES
SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE
THERMODYNAMICS


JAY D. KEASLING
C. JUDSON KING
SCOTT LYNN
SUSAN J. MULLER
JOHN S. NEWMAN
JOHN M. PRAUSNITZ
CLAYTON J. RADKE
JEFFREY A. REIMER
DAVID S. SOANE
DOROS N. THEODOROU


PLEASE WRITE: DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA 94720


Chemical Engineering Education









UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


RVI


NE


Graduate Studies in

Biochemical and Chemical Engineering)

for
Chemical Engineering, Engineering, and Science Majors


PROGRAM

Offers degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels. Research in
frontier areas in chemical engineering, including biochemi-
cal engineering, biotechnology and materials science and
engineering. Strong biology, biochemistry, microbiology,
material science and engineering, molecular biology, and
other engineering and science research groups.

LOCATION

The 1,510-acre UC Irvine campus is in Orange County, five
miles from the Pacific Ocean and 40 miles south of Los
Angeles. Irvine is one of the nation's fastest growing resi-
dential, industrial, and business areas. Nearby beaches,
mountain and desert area recreational activities, and local
cultural activities make Irvine a pleasant city in which to
live and study.

FACULTY

Nancy A. Da Silva (California Institute of Technology)
G. Wesley Hatfield (Purdue University)
Juan Hong (Purdue University)
James T. Kellis, Jr. (University of California, Irvine)
Henry C. Lim (Northwestern University)
Betty H. Olson (University of California, Berkeley)
Matha L. Mecartney (Stanford University)
Frank G. Shi (California Institute of Technology)
Thomas K. Wood (North Carolina State University)
Fall 1992


RESEARCH
AREAS

Biochemical Processes
Bioreactor Engineering
Bioremediation
Biopesticides
Bioseparations
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering
Interfacial Engineering
Materials Processing
Metabolic Engineering
Microstructure of Materials
Molecular Mechanisms of
Biological Control Systems
Optimization
Process Control
Protein Engineering
Recombinant Cell Technology
Separation Processes
Sol-Gel Processing
Water Pollution Control


For further information
and application forms, contact

Biochemical Engineering Program
School of Engineering
University of California
Irvine, CA 92717









CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT


UCLA


FACULTY

D. T. Allen H. G. Monbouquette


R.L. Bell
(Visiting Professor)


K. Nobe


L. B. Robinson
Y. Cohen (Prof. Emeritus)


T. H. K. Frederking
S. K. Friedlander


S. M. Senkan
0. I. Smith


R. F. Hicks W. D. Van Vorst
(Prof. Emeritus)


E. L. Knuth
(Prof. Emeritus)
V. Manousiouthakis


PROGRAMS
UCLA's Chemical Engineering Department of-
fers a program of teaching and research linking
fundamental engineering science and industrial
practice. Our Department has strong graduate
research programs in environmental chemical
engineering, biotechnology, and materials
processing. With the support of the Parsons
Foundation and EPA, we are pioneering the de-
velopment of methods for the design of clean
chemical technologies, both in graduate research
and engineering education
Fellowships are available for outstanding appli-
cants in both M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. A fellow-
ship includes a waiver of tuition and fees plus a
stipend.
Located five miles from the Pacific Coast,
UCLA's attractive 417-acre campus extends from
Bel Air to Westwood Village. Students have ac-
cess to the highly regarded science programs and
to a variety of experiences in theatre, music, art,
and sports on campus.


V. L. Vilker
A. R. Wazzan


RESEARCH AREAS

Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Process Design and Process Control
Polymer Processing and Rheology
Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics, Combustion, and Catalysis
Semiconductor Device Chemistry and Surface
Science
Electrochemistry and Corrosion
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Aerosol Science and Technology
Air Pollution Control and Environmental Engineering

CONTACT
Admissions Officer
Chemical Engineering Department
5531 Boelter Hall
UCLA
Los Angeles, CA 90024-1592
(310) 825-9063


Chemical Engineering Education













UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA



SANTA BARBARA


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS *
L. GARY LEAL Ph.D. (Stanford) (Chairman) Fluid Mechanics; Transport Phenomena; Polymer Physics.
ERAY S. AYDIL Ph.D. (University of Houston) Microelectronics Materials Processing
SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo) Two-Phase Flow, Chemical & Nuclear Safety, Computational Fluid Dynamics,
Turbulence.
BRADLEY F. CHMELKA Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Guest/Host Interactions in Molecular Sieves, Dispersal of Metals in
Oxide Catalysts, Molecular Structure and Dynamics in Polymeric Solids, Properties of Partially Ordered Materials,
Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.
HENRI FENECH Ph.D. (M.I.T.) (Professor Emeritus) Nuclear Systems Design and Safety. Nuclear Fuel Cycles. Two-
Phase Flow. Heat Transfer.
GLENN H. FREDRICKSON Ph.D. (Stanford) Electronic Transport. Glasses. Polymers. Composites, Phase Separation.
OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Piurdue) Theoretical Methods, Chemical Reactor Analysis. Transport Phenomena.
JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph.D. (Cambridge) Surface and Interfacial Phenomena, Adhesion, Colloidal Systems,
Surface Forces.
FRED F. LANGE Ph.D. (Penn State) Powder Processing of Composite Ceramics: Liquid Precursors for Ceramics;
Superconducting Oxides.
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.) (Vice Chairman) Radiation Damage, Mechanics of Materials.
ERIC McFARLAND Ph.D. (M.I.T) M.D. (Harvard) Biomedical Engineering, NMR and Neutron Imaging, Transport
Phenomena in Complex Liquids. Radiation Interactions.
DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph.D. (Purdue) Computer Control, Process Dynamics. Real-Time Computing.
JOHN E. MYERS Ph.D. (Michigan) (Professor Emeritus) Boiling Heat Transfer.
G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D. (MI. T.) Radiation Effects in Solids. Energy Related Materials Development
DALE S. PEARSON Ph.D. (Northiwestern) Rheological and Optical Properties of Polymer Liquids and Colloidal
Dispersions.
PHILIP ALAN PINCUS Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Theory of Surfactant Aggregates. Colloid Systems.
A. EDWARD PROFIO Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Biomedical Engineering. Reactor Physics. Radiation Transport Analysis.
ROBERT G. RINKER Ph.D. (Caltech) Chemical Reactor Design. Catalysis. Energy Conversion, Air Pollution.
ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Transport Phenomena, Separation Processes.
DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. (Princeton) Process Control, Computer Control. Process Identification.
PAUL SMITH Ph.D. (State University of'Groningen. Netherlands) High Performance Fibers; Processing of Conducting
Polymers; Polymer Processing.
T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D. (Minnesota) Nuclear and Chemical Plant Safety. Multiphase Flow. Thermalhydraulics.
W. HENRY WEINBERG Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Surface Chemistry; Heterogeneous Catalysis; Electronic Materials
JOSEPH A. N. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D. (Minnesota) Surface and Interfacial Phenomen. Structure of Microemulsions.
Fall 1992


PROGRAMS
AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT

The Department offers M.S. and
Ph.D. degree programs Financial
aid, including fellowships, teaching
assistantships, and research assis-
tantships, is available.



THE UNIVERSITY

One of the world's few seashore cam-
puses, UCSB is located on the Pa-
cific Coast 100 miles northwest of
Los Angeles. The student enrollment
is over 18.000. The metropolitan
Santa Barbara area has over
150,000 residents and is famous for
its mild, even climate.


For additional information
and applications,
write to

Chair
Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical and
Nuclear Engineering
University ofCalifornia
Santa Barbara, CA 93106







CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

at the

CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

"At the Leading Edge"


FACULTY
Frances H. Arnold
John F Brady
Mark E. Davis
Richard C. Flagan
George R. Gavalas
Konstantinos P Giapis
Julia A. Kornfield
Manfred Morari
C. Dwight Prater (Visiting)
John H. Seinfeld
Nicholas W. Tschoegl (Emeritus)
Zhen-Gang Wang


RESEARCH INTERESTS
Aerosol Science
Applied Mathematics
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Biocatalysis and Bioreactor Engineering
Bioseparations
Catalysis
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Combustion
Colloid Physics
Fluid Mechanics
Materials Processing
Microelectronics Processing
Microstructured Fluids
Polymer Science
Process Control and Synthesis
Protein Engineering
Statistical Mechanics of Heterogeneous
Systems


* for further information, write *
Professor Mark E. Davis
Department of Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125


Chemical Engineering Education















Joh L. Anderson


Loen T. B**i-eg *-.9

Pau A. DiE e 9






Igai E. Grossmann-

Wila S. Hammack .5.
Chrcerzto of amrpou

maeias pressure-indce amorphorizto

Anet M. Jacobson
Souiizto and surf n as orto

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Gar J. Powers .




JenifeL S incai

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Chemical Engineering in


the 21st Century?


Diamond crystals synthesized by graduate student C. Kovach.


For more information contact:

The Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106


Want to learn what the future holds for
chemical engineers?

Consider graduate study at


CASE

WESTERN

RESERVE

UNIVERSITY

Opportunities for Innovative Research in

Advanced Energy Conversion *
Chemical/Biological Sensors
Intelligent Control *
Micro- and Nano-Materials *
Novel Separations/Processing *


Faculty and Specializations


John C. Angus, Ph.D. 1960, University of Michigan
Redox equilibria, diamond and diamond-like films, modulated
electroplating

Coleman B. Brosilow, Ph.D. 1962, Polytechnic Institute of
Brooklyn
Adaptive inferential control, multi-variable control, coordination
algorithms

Robert V. Edwards, Ph.D. 1968, Johns Hopkins University
Laser anemometry, mathematical modeling, data acquisition
Donald L. Feke, Ph.D. 1981, Princeton University
Colloidal phenomena, ceramic dispersions, fine-particle
processing

Nelson C. Gardner, Ph.D. 1966, Iowa State University
High-gravity separations, sulfur removal processes


Uziel Landau, Ph.D. 1975, University of California (Berkeley)
Electrochemical engineering, current distributions, electro-
deposition
Chung-Chiun Liu, Ph.D. 1968, Case Western Reserve Univer-
sity
Electrochemical sensors, electrochemical synthesis, electro-
chemistry related to electronic materials
J. Adin Mann, Jr., Ph.D. 1962, Iowa State University
Interfacial structure and dynamics, light scattering,
Langmuir-Blodgett films, stochastic processes
Syed Qutubuddin, Ph.D. 1983, Carnegie-Mellon University
Surfactant and polymer solutions, metal extraction, enhanced
oil recovery
Robert F. Savinell, Ph.D. 1977, University of Pittsburgh
Applied electrochemistry, electrochemical system simulation
Sand optimization, electrode processes


CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY


Chemical Engineering Education








The

UNI


OF

CINC


Opportunities for


TY


NNATI


GRADUATE STUDY
in Chemical Engineering

M.S. and PhD Degrees
in Chemical Engineering


* Financial Aid Available *

Faculty


The city of Cincinnati is the 23rd largest city in the United States, with a greater
metropolitan population of 1.7 million. The city offers numerous sites of architec-
tural and historical interest, as well as a full range of cultural attractions, such as
an outstanding art museum, botanical gardens, a world-famous zoo, theaters,
symphony, and opera. The city is also home to the Cincinnati Bengals and the
Cincinnati Reds. The business and industrial base of the city includes pharmaceu-
tics, chemicals, jet engines, autoworks, electronics, printing and publishing, insur-
ance, investment banking, and health care. A number of Fortune 500 companies
are located in the city.


Amy Ciric Robert Jenkins
Joel Fried Yuen-Koh Kao


Stevin Gehrke
Rakesh Govind
David Greenberg
Daniel Hershey
Sun-Tak Hwang


Soon-Jai Khang
Jerry Lin
Glenn Lipscomb
Neville Pinto
Sotiris Pratsinis


o Air Pollution
Modeling and design of gas cleaning devices and systems, source apportionment of air pollutants.
a Biotechnology (Bioseparations)
Novel bioseparation techniques, chromatography, affinity separations, biodegradation of toxic wastes, controlled drug
delivery, two-phase flow, suspension rheology.
a Chemical Reaction Engineering and Heterogeneous Catalysis
Modeling and design of chemical reactors, deactivation of catalysts, flow pattern and mixing in chemical equipment, laser
induced effects.


o Coal Research
New technology for coal combustion power plant, desulfuriza-
tion and denitritication.
a Material Synthesis
Manufacture of advanced ceramics, optical fibers and pigments
by aerosol processes.
a Membrane Separations
Membrane gas separations, membrane reactors, sensors and
probes, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dynamic simulation of
membrane separators, membrane preparation and characteri-
zation for polymeric and inorganic materials.


a Polymers
Thermodynamics, thermal analysis and morphology of polymer blends, high-temperature polymers, hydrogels, polymer
processing.
a Process Synthesis
Computer-aided design, modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit operations,
prediction of reaction by-products.
For Admission Information *
Director, Graduate Studies
Department of Chemical Engineering, # 0171
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0171
Fall 1992 237


VERS


Location







Graduate Study in

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


AT CLARKSON

* CENTER FOR ADVANCED MATERIALS PROCESSING
* NASA CENTER FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF
COMMERCIAL CRYSTAL GROWTH IN SPACE
INSTITUTE OF COLLOID AND SURFACE SCIENCE
For details, please write to:
Dean of the Graduate School
U gi CClarkson University
Potsdam, New York 13699


238


Clarkson University is a nondiscriminatory, equal opportunity, affirmative action educator and employer.
Chemical Engineering Education








Graduate Study at



Clemson University

in Chemical Engineering

Coming Up for Air
No matter where you do your graduate work,
your nose will be in your books and your mind on
your research. But at Clemson University, there's
something for you when you can stretch out for a
break.
Like breathing good air. Or swimming, fish-
ing, sailing, and water skiing in the clean lakes. Or
hiking in the nearby Blue Ridge Mountains. Or
driving to South Carolina's famous beaches for a
weekend. Something that can really relax you.
All this and a top-notch Chemical Engineer-
ing Department, too.
With active research and teaching in poly-
Smer processing, composite materials, process auto-
mation, thermodynamics, catalysis, and membrane
applications what more do you need?
The University
Clemson, the land-grant university of South Carolina, offers 62 undergraduate and 61
graduate fields of study in its nine academic colleges. Present on-campus enrollment is
about 16,000 students, one-third of whom are in the College of Engineering. There are about
3,000 graduate students. The 1,400-acre campus is located on the shores of Lake Hartwell in
South Carolina's Piedmont, and is midway between Charlotte, N.C., and Atlanta, Ga.


The Faculty
Charles H. Barron, Jr.
John N. Beard
Dan D. Edie
Charles H. Gooding


James M. Haile
Douglas E. Hirt
Stephen S. Melsheimer
Joseph C. Mullins


Amod A. Ogale
Richard W. Rice
Mark C. Thies


Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
Financial aid, including fellowships and assistantships, is available

For Further Information and a descriptive brochure, contact:
Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical Engineering
Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina 29634-0909
(803) 656-3055


CLEMgSOf
T7NITvERSIY
College of Engineering


Fall 1992











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO


BOULDER


Graduate students in the Department of Chemical Engineering may also participate in the popular,
interdisciplinary Biotechnology Training Program at the University of Colorado
and in the interdisciplinary NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Center for Separations Using Thin Films.


FACULTY
CHRISTOPHER N. BOWMAN
Assistant Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1991
DAVID E. CLOUGH
Professor, Associate Dean for Academic Affairs
Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1975
ROBERT H. DAVIS
Professor and Acting Chair
Co-Director of Colorado Institute for Research in Biotechnology
Ph.D., Stanford University, 1983
JOHN L. FALCONER
Professor and Patten Chair
Ph.D., Stanford University, 1974
YURIS O. FUENTES
Assistant Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1990
R. IGOR GAMOW
Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1967
HOWARD J. M. HANLEY
Professor Adjoint
Ph.D., University of London, 1963
DHINAKAR S. KOMPALA
Associate Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1984
WILLIAM B. KRANTZ
Professor and President's Teaching Scholar,
Co-Director ofNSF I/UCRC Center for Separations Using Thin Films
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1968
RICHARD D. NOBLE
Professor
Co-Director of NSF I/UCRC Center for Separations Using Thin Films
Ph.D., University of California, Davis, 1976
W. FRED RAMIREZ
Professor
Ph.D., Tulane University, 1965
ROBERT L. SANI
Professor
Director of Center for Low-gravity Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena
Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1963
EDITH M. SEVICK
Assistant Professor
Ph.D., University of Massachusetts, 1989
KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS
Professor and President's Teaching Scholar
Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1951
PAUL W. TODD
Research Professor
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1964 FOR
RONALD E. WEST Director, Graduate Ad
Professor University of
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1958


RESEARCH INTERESTS
Alternative Energy Sources
Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Chemically Specific Separations
Colloidal Phenomena
Enhanced Oil Recovery
Environmental Engineering
Expert Systems and Fault Detection
Fluid Dynamics and Suspension Mechanics
Geophysical Modeling
Global Change
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Interfacial and Surface Phenomena
Mammalian Cell Culture
Materials Processing in Low-G
Mass Transfer
Membrane Transport and Separations
Non-Linear Optical Materials
Numerical and Analytical Modeling
Polymer Reaction Engineering
Polymeric Membrane Morphology
Process Control and Identification
Semiconductor Processing
Statistical Mechanics
Surface Chemistry and Surface Science
Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Thin Films Science


INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE TO
missions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering
Colorado, Boulder Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424
*FAX (303) 492-4341
Chemical Engineering Education













COLORADO oF




SCHOOL OF




MINES Ro



THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH

R. M. BALDWIN, Professor and Head; Ph.D., Colorado School of
Mines. Mechanisms and kinetics of coal liquefaction, catalysis,
oil shale processing, fuels science.
A. L. BUNGE, Professor; Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley.
Membrane transport and separations, mass transfer in porous
media, ion exchange and adsorption chromatography, in place
remediation of contaminated soils, percutaneous absorption.
J.R. DORGAN, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., University of California,
Berkeley. Polymer science and engineering.
J. F. ELY, Professor; Ph.D., Indiana University. Molecular thermo-
dynamics and transport properties offluids.
J. H. GARY, Professor Emeritus; Ph.D., University of Florida. Pe-
troleum refinery processing operations, heavy oil processing,
thermal cracking, visbreaking and solvent extraction.
J.O. GOLDEN, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State University. Hazardous
waste processing, polymers, fluidization engineering
M.S. GRABOSKI, Research Professor; Ph.D., Pennsylvania State
University. Fuels Synthesis and evaluation, engine technology,
alternate fuels
A. J. KIDNAY, Professor and Graduate Dean; D.Sc., Colorado
School of Mines. Thermodynamic properties of gases and liq-
uids, vapor-liquid equilibria, cryogenic engineering.
J.T. McKINNON, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Massachusetts Insti-
tute of Technology. High temperature gas phase chemical kinet-
ics, combustion, hazardous waste destruction.
R. L. MILLER, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Colorado School of
Mines. Liquefaction co-processing of coal and heavy oil, low
severity coal liquefaction, particulate removal with venturi scrub-
bers, interdisciplinary educational methods
M. S. SELIM, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State University. Heat and
mass transfer with a moving boundary, sedimentation and diffu-
sion of colloidal suspensions, heat effects in gas absorption with
chemical reaction, entrance region flow and heat transfer, gas
hydrate dissociation modeling.
E. D. SLOAN, JR., Professor; Ph.D. Clemson University. Phase
equilibrium measurements of natural gas fluids and hydrates,
thermal conductivity of coal derived fluids, adsorption equilib-
ria, education methods research.
V. F. YESAVAGE, Professor; Ph.D., University of Michigan. Vapor
liquid equilibrium and enthalpy ofpolar associating fluids, equa-
tions of state for highly non-ideal systems, flow calorimetry.


For Applications and Further Information
on M.S. and Ph.D. Programs, Write

Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining
Colorado School of Mines
Golden, CO 80401


Fall 1992













university of



onnecticut

Graduate
Study in
Chemical
Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. Programs for
Scientists and Engineers

***FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS+**
Luke E. K. Achenie
Modeling and Optimization, Neural Networks, Process Control
Thomas F. Anderson
Modeling of Separation Processes, Fluid-Phase Equilibria
James P. Bell
Structure-Property Relations in Polymers and Composites, Adhesion
Douglas J. Cooper
Process Control, Artificial Intelligence, Fluidization Technology
Robert W. Couglin
Biotechnology, Biochemical and Environmental Engineering
Catalysis, Kinetics, Separations, Surface Science
Michael B. Cutip
Kinetics and Catalysis, Electrochemical Reaction Engineering,
Numerical Methods
Anthony T. Di Benedetto
Composite Materials, Mechanical Properties of Polymers
James M. Fenton
Electrochemical and Environmental Engineering, Mass Transfer
Processes, Electronic Materials, Energy Systems
G. Michael Howard
Process Systems Analysis and Modeling. Process Safety,
Engineering Education
Jetery T. Koberstein
Polymer Blends/Compatibilization, Polymer Morphology,
Polymer Surface and Interfaces
Montgomery T. Shaw
Polymer Rheology and Processing, Polymer-Solution
Thermodynamics
Donald W. undstrom
Environmental Engineering, Hazardous Wastes, Biochemical
Engineering
Robert A. Weiss
Polymer Structure-Property Relationships, Ion-Containing
And Liquid Crystal Polymers, Polymer Blends

***FOR MORE INFORMATION,,o
Graduate Admissions, 191 Auditorium Road
University of Connecticut, Storrs. CT 06269-3139
Tel. (203) 486-4020









CHEMICAL ENGINEERING



CORNELL


U N I V E R


S I T Y


At Cornell University students have the flexibility to design
interdisciplinary research programs that draw upon the resources of
many excellent departments and NSF-sponsored interdisciplinary
centers such as the Biotechnology Center, the Cornell National
Supercomputing Center, the National Nanofabrication Facility, and
the Materials Science Center. Degrees granted include the Master of
Engineering, Master of Science, and Doctor of Philosophy. All MS
and PhD students are fully funded with attractive stipends and
tuition waivers. Situated in the scenic Finger Lakes region of New
York State, the Cornell campus is one of the most beautiful in the
country. Students enjoy sailing, skiing, fishing, hiking, bicycling,
boating, wine-tasting and many more activities in this popular
vacation region.


Distinguished Faculty ...
A. Brad Anton Robert P. Merrill
Paulette Clancy William L. Olbricht
Claude Cohen A. Panagiotopoulos
T. Michael Duncan Ferdinand Rodriguez
James R. Engstrom George F. Scheele
Keith E. Gubbins Michael L. Shuler
Daniel A. Hammer Paul H. Steen
Peter Harriott William B. Street
Donald L. Koch John A. Zollweg


... With Research In
Biochemical Engineering
Applied Mathematics
Computer Simulation
Environmental Engineering
Kinetics and Catalysis
Surface Science
Heat and Mass Transfer


Polymer Science
Fluid Dynamics
Rheology and Biorheology
Process Control
Molecular Thermodynamics
Statistical Mechanics
Computer-Aided Design


For Further Information, Write:
Professor William L. Olbricht Cornell University Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering Ithaca, NY 14853-5201

Fall 1992 oA









Chemical
The Faculty
Giovanni Astarita
Mark A. Barteau
Antony N. Beris
Kenneth B. Bischoff
Douglas J. Buttrey
Costel D. Denson
Prasad S. Dhurjati
Henry C. Foley
Bruce C. Gates
Eric W. Kaler
Michael T. Klein
Abraham M. Lenhoff
Roy L. McCullough
Arthur B. Metzner
Jon H. Olson
Michael E. Paulaitis
T.W. Fraser Russell
Stanley I. Sandler
Jerold M. Schultz
Annette D. Shine
Norman i. Wagner


Engineering


Andrew L. Zydney |
AndrewL.Zydy The University of Delaware offers M.ChE and Ph.D.
degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course
work in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strong
interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current
fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science and
Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena, Materials
Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction Kinetics,
Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photovoltaic
Processing, Biomedical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering, and Colloid
and Surfactant Science.


For more information and application materials, write:
Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware 19716


The University of
Delaware


Chemical Engineering Education


I










Modern Applications of

Chemical Engineering

at the



University of Florida


Graduate Study Leading to the MS and PhD


FACULTY
TIM ANDERSON Semiconductor Processing, Thermodynamics
IOANNIS BITSANIS Molecular Modeling of Interfaces
SEYMOUR S. BLOCK Biotechnology
OSCAR D. CRISALLE Electronic Materials, Process Control
RAY W. FAHIEN Transport Phenomena, Reactor Design
ARTHUR L. FRICKE Polymers, Pulp & Paper Characterization
GAR HOFLUND Catalysis, Surface Science
LEW JOHNS Applied Design, Process Control, Energy Systems
DALE KIRMSE Computer Aided Design, Process Control
HONG H. LEE Semiconductor Processing, Reaction Engineering
GERASIMOS L YBERA TOS Biochemical Engineering, Chemical Reaction Engineering
FRANK MAY Computer Aided Learning
RANGA NARA YANAN Transport Phenomena, Semiconductor Processing
MARK E. ORAZEM Electrochemical Engineering, Semiconductor Processing
CHANG-WON PARK Fluid Mechanics, Polymer Processing
DINESH 0. SHAH Surface Sciences, Biomedical Engineering
SPYROS SVORONOS Process Control, Biochemical Engineering
GERALD WESTERMANN-CLARK Electrochemical Engineering, Bioseparations

For more information, please write:

Graduate Admissions Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
or call (904) 392-0881


Fall 1992















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Arag gf Rsarc a nd Researc Inteaea


Advnce Maeil (Crmis Colidsn Poly es

Brow~nian Motion
3 iii I^^u^f^^f^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^g. 3 9^^^^^^^^^^iiiIT'^^
Chemical Vapor Deposition Faculty

Co Ma' eria s.351
Cml Fluids Pedro 3* ce Ph.D3
Phas Transitions Purdue Uni versity, 1990
M o e Ph mR i6 Ph. D.
313 T i Polymer GelMediaUivesito
P y Pr ocessin
S in c and Superconducto Processin David Edelsn P
T m a YaeI University, 199I

31'1'' 3amid 3 armestani, Ph.D.*

Bictayi Corel Ui vriy *1989

Bisp3 ain Pete I 3 3. P.D.+3
33ifrm c Z, 3hi Stt Unvriy 196* 7
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Heterogenou5 Caayi and RecoDsg
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Air an Wate Plu ioCnt l
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Jorg *i l PhD.






















CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


The Faculty and Their Research


SHeterogeneous
catalysis, sur-
face chemistry,
f reaction kinetics
Pradeep K. Agrawal


Microelectron-
ics, polymer
processing
Sue Ann Bidstrup


SMolecular
thermodynam-
ics, chemical
kinetics.
separations
Charles A. Eckert


A Heat transport
phenomena,
k fl uidization
Charles W. Gorton


Photochemical
processing,
chemical
vapor
deposition


Pulp and paper


Jeffrey S. Hsleh


Paul A. Kohl


Aerocolloidal
systems, inter-
facial phe-
nomena, fine-
Mhl particle
Technology
MichaelJ. Matteson


W Biomechanics,
mammalian
cell cultures
Robert M. Nerem


Gary W. Poehlein


Polymer sci-
ence and r
engineering
Robert J. Samuels F. Joseph Schork


Emulsion
polymeriza-
ion, latex
technology







Reactor engi-
neering, proc-
ess control,
polymerization
eactor
dynamics


Biochemical
engineering,
mass transfer,
K1 reactor design
Ronnie S. Roberts






Mass transfer,
extraction,
mixing, non-
Newtonian
flow
A. H. Peter Skelland


Al Separation
processes,
crystallization
Ronald W. Rousseau










Process design
\ i L and simulation
Jude T. Sommerfeld


Biochemical
engineering,
microbial and
animal cell
cultures
Athanassios Sambanis




Process synthe-
sis and simula-
tion, chemical
separation,
waste manage-
ment, resource
recovery
D. William Tedder


Thermody-
namic and
transport prop-
erties, phase
equilibria,
supercritical
gas extraction
Mark G. White


Catalysis, ki-
netics, reactor
design


U BBiochemical
engineering,
cell-cell inter-
actions,
biofluid
dynamics
Timothy M. Wick


Electrochemi-
cal engineer-
ing, thermo-
dynamics, air
pollution
control


Jack Winnick


SBiofluid dynam-
ics, rheology,
transport
phenomena
Ajit P. Yoganathan


Polymer
science and
engineering


A.S. Abhiraman


Process
design and
control,
spouted-bed
reactors


Yaman Arxun


Reactor
design.
catalysis


William R Ernst


Mechanics of
aerosols, buoy-
ant plumes and
jets


Polymer engi-
neering, energy
conservation,
economics


John D. Muzzy


Amyn S. Teja


t
I
t








What do graduate students say about the

University of Houston

Department of Chemical Engineering? "It's great!"
"Houston is a university on the move. The chemical engineering department is ranked among
the top ten schools, and you can work in the specialty of your choice: semiconductor processing,
biochemical engineering, the traditional areas. The choice of advisor is yours, too, and you're given enough time
to make the right decision. You can see your advisor almost any time you want to because the student-to-teacher ratio is low.
"Houston is the center of the petrochemical industry, which puts the 'real world' of research within reach.
And Houston is one of the few schools with a major research program in superconductivity.
"The UH campus is really nice, and city life is just 15 minutes away for concerts, plays, nightclubs,
professional sports-everything. Galveston beach is just 40 minutes away.
"The faculty are dedicated and always friendly. People work hard here, but there is time for
intramural sports and Friday-night get-togethers."
If you'd like to be part of this team, let us hear from you.


at


a)!I


aN 4y


+ O A = RA


Y IVz
VI, V
1~v '- +
~d )--4 t


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:/


AREAS OF RESEARCH STRENGTH
Biochemical Engineering Chemical Reaction Engineering
Electronic. Ceramic and Applied Transport Phenomena
Superconducting Materials Thermodynamics
Improved Oil Recovery Polymer Rheology


FACULTY
Neal Amundson Ernest Henley
Vemuri Balakotaiah John Killough
Abe Dukler Dan Luss
Demetre Economou Kishore Mohanty


Richard Pollard
William Prengle
Raj Rajagopalan
Jim Richardson


For an application, write: Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204-4792, or call collect
Tie University' is in compliance with Title IX.


Jay Schieber
Cynthia Stokes
Frank Tiller
Richard Willson
Frank Worley
713/743-4300.


Chemical Engineering Education














The University of Illinois at Chicago

Department of Chemical Engineering



MS and PhD Graduate Program *


FACULTY

Irving F. Miller
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1960
Professor and Head
John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Professor
G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Professor
Sohail Murad
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
Professor
Ludwig C. Nitsche
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1989
Assistant Professor
John Regalbuto
Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986
Associate Professor RESEARCH AREAS


Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Professor
Gina Shreve
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1991
Assistant Professor
Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor
Raffi M. Turian
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
Professor
Bert L. Zuber
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1965
Professor


Transport Phenomena: Slurry transport, multiphase fluid flow
and heat transfer, fixed and fluidized bed combustion, indirect
coal liquefaction, porous media.

Thermodynamics: Transport properties of fluids, statistical
mechanics of liquid mixtures, bioseparations, superficial fluid
extraction/retrograde condensation, asphaltene characterization.

Kinetics and Reaction Engineering: Gas-solid reaction
kinetics, diffusion and adsorption phenomena, energy transfer
processes, laser diagnostics, combustion chemistry, environmental
technology, surface chemistry, optimization, catalyst preparation
and characterization, structure sensitivity, supported metals.

Bioengineering: Membrane transport, pulmonary deposition
and clearance, biorheology, physiological control systems,
bioinstrumentation.


For more information, write to
Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago Box 4348 Chicago, IL 60680 (312) 996-3424


Fall 1992









Chemical Engineering at the

University of Illinois

at Urbana-Champaign


The combination of distinguished
faculty, outstanding facilities and a
diversity of research interests results
in exceptional opportunities for
graduate education.
The chemical engineering department
A offers graduate programs leading to the
M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
ON
Richard C. Alkire Electrochel
OF Thomas J. Hanratty Fluid Dyna
Jonathan J. L. Higdon Fluid Mech
[CE Douglas A. Lauffenburger Cellular Bi
Richard I. Masel Fundamen
Semicond
Anthony J. McHugh Polymer Sc
William R. Schowalter Mechanics
Edmund G. Seebauer Laser Studi
Mark A. Stadtherr Chemical P
Optimizat
Frank B. van Swol Computer
K. Dane Wittrup Biochemic,
Charles F. Zukoski IV Colloid an

For information and application forms write:
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab
1209 West California Street
Urbana, Illinois 61801


mical Engineering
mics
lanics and Transport Phenomena
engineering
tal Studies of Catalytic Processes and
uctor Growth
:ience and Engineering
of Complex Fluids
ies of Semiconductor Growth
processs Flowsheeting and
ion
Simulation and Interfacial Studies
al Engineering
I Interfacial Science


Chemical Engineering Education


TRADITI




EXCELLENT








GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT


Illinois Institute of Technology


THE UNIVERSITY


* Private, coeducational and research university
* 4800 undergraduate students
* 5400 graduate students
* 3 miles from downtown Chicago and 1 mile west of
Lake Michigan
* Campus recognized as an architectural landmark


THE CITY


* One of the largest cities in the world
* National and international center of business and
industry
* Enormous variety of cultural resources
* Excellent recreational facilities
* Industrial collaboration and job opportunities


THE DEPARTMENT
* One of the oldest in the nation
* Approximately 40 full-time and 40 part-time
graduate students
* M.Ch.E., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees
* Financially attractive fellowships and assistant-
ships available to outstanding students


THE FACULTY

* HAMID ARASTOOPOUR (Ph.D., IIT)
Multiphase flow and fluidization, powder and material
processing, environmental engineering

* RICHARD A. BEISSINGER (D.E.Sc., Columbia)
Transport processes in chemical and biological
systems, rheology of polymeric and biological fluids

* ALI CINAR (Ph.D., Texas A& M)
Chemical process control, distributed parameter
systems, expert systems

* DIMITRI GIDASPOW (Ph.D., IIT)
Hydrodynamics of fluidization, multiphase flow,
separations processes

* HENRY R. LINDEN (Ph.D., IIT)
Energy policy, planning, and forecasting

* SATISH J. PARULEKAR (Ph.D., Purdue)
Biochemical engineering, chemical reaction engineering

* J. ROBERT SELMAN (Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Electrochemical engineering and electrochemical
energy storage

* FYODOR A. SHUTOV (Ph.D., Institute for Chemical
Physics, Moscow)
Polymer composite materials and plastic recycling

* DAVID C. VENERUS (Ph.D., Pennsylvania State U)
Polymer rheology and processing, and transport
phenomena

* DARSH T. WASAN (Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Interfacial phenomena, separation processes,
enhanced oil recovery


* APPLICATIONS *
Dr. A. Cinar
Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
Illinois Institute of Technology
1.I.T. Center
Chicago, IL 60616


Fall 1992






GRADUATE PROGRAM FOR M.S. & PH.D. DEGREES
IN CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

FACULTY


GREG CARMICHAEL
Chair; U. of Kentucky,
1979, Global Change/
Supercomputing


RAVI DATTA
UCSB, 1981
Reaction Engineering/
Catalyst Design


DAVID MURHAMMER
U. of Houston, 1989
Animal Cell Culture


J. KEITH BEDDOW
U. of Cambridge, 1959
Particle Morphological
Analysis


JONATHAN DORDICK
MIT, 1986,
Biocatalysis and
Bioprocessing


DAVID RETHWISCH
U. of Wisconsin, 1984
Membrane Science/
Catalysis and Cluster
Science


AUDREY BUTLER
U. of Iowa, 1989
Chemical Precipita-
tion Processes


DAVID LUERKENS
U. of Iowa, 1980
Fine Particle Science


V.G.J. RODGERS
Washington U., 1989
Transport Phenomena
in Bioseparations


For information and application write to:
GRADUATE ADMISSIONS
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
The University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa 52242
319-335-1400


THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA








IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


0.__


For additional
information, please write
Graduate Office
Department of
Chemical Engineering
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011
or call 515 294-7643
E-Mail N2.TSK@ISUMVS.BITNET


Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Charles E. Glaut. Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1975.
Peter J. Reilly, Ph.D., Pennl\ kIania, 1964.
Richard C. Seagrave, Ph.D lo\\a State, 1961.


Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
L. K Dorais\\amn, Ph.D., \Wisconsin, 1952.
Terry S. King, Ph.D., M.I.T.. 1070.
Glenn L. Schrader, Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1976.


Energy and Environmental
George Burnet. Ph.D Io\a State. 1951.
Thomas D. \Vheelock, Ph.D., lo\\a State, 1958


Materials and Crystallization
Kurt R. Hebert, Ph.D., Illinois. 1985.
Maurice A. Larson, Ph.D., lo\\a State, 1958.
Gordon R. Youngquist, Ph.D., Illinois, 1962.


Process Design and Control
W'illiam H. Abraham, Ph.D., Purdue, 1957.
Derrick K. Rollins. Ph.D., Ohio State, 1990.
Dean L. Ulrichson, Ph.D., Iowa State, 1970.

Transport Phenomena and Thermodynamics
James C. Hill, Ph.D., Washington. 1968.
Kenneth R. Jolls, Ph.D., Illinois, 1966.


m


Al


p-...


_W^W"


riu,~~~-cl-~-' ~f~L~I









Graduate Study and Research in



Chemical


Engineering


TIMOTHY A. BARBARI
Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin
Membrane Science
Sorption and Diffusion in Polymers
Polymeric Thin Films

MICHAEL J. BETENBAUGH
Ph.D., University of Delaware
Biochemical Kinetics
Insect Cell Culture
Recombinant DNA Technology

MARC D. DONOHUE
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Equations of State
Statistical Thermodynamics
Phase Equilibria

JOSEPH L. KATZ
Ph.D., University of Chicago
Nucleation
Crystallization
Flame Generation of Ceramic Powders


MARK A. MCHUGH
Ph.D., University of Delaware
High-Pressure Thermodynamics
Polymer Solution Thermodynamics
Supercritical Solvent Extraction

W. MARK SALTZMAN
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Transport in Biological Systems
Polymeric Controlled Release
Cell-Surface Interactions

W. H. SCHWARZ
Dr. Engr., The Johns Hopkins University
Rheology
Non-Newtonian Fluid Dynamics
Physical Acoustics and Fluids
Turbulence

KATHLEEN J. STEBE
Ph.D., The City University of New York
Interfacial Phenomena
Electropermeability of Biological Membranes
Surface Effects at Fluid-Droplet Interfaces


For further information contact:


The Johns Hopkins University
SG. W C. Whiting School of Engineering
Department of Chemical Engineering
o hs 34th and Charles Streets
Baltimore, MD 21218
H (301) 338-7137


HopmkIs E.O.E./A.A.


Chemical Engineering Education















GRADUATE STUDY

IN CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING


GRADUATE PROGRAMS
* M.S. degree with a thesis requirement in both chemical and
petroleum engineering
* M.S. degree with a major in petroleum management offered jointly
with the School of Business
* Ph.D. degree characterized by moderate and flexible course
requirements and a strong research emphasis
* Typical completion times are 16-18 months for a M.S. degree and
4 1/2 years for a Ph.D. degree (from B.S.)

RESEARCH AREAS
Catalytic Kinetics and Reaction Engineering
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Controlled Drug Delivery
Corrosion
Economic Evaluation
Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes
Fluid Phase Equilibria and Process Design
Kinetics and Homogeneous Catalysis for Polymer Reactions
Plasma Modeling and Plasma Reactor Design
Phase Behavior
Process Control
Supercomputer Applications
Supercritical Fluid Applications
Waste Heat and Pollution of Combustion Processes

FINANCIAL AID
Financial aid is available in the form of fellowships and research and
teaching assistantships ($13,000 to $14,000 a year)

THE UNIVERSITY
The University of Kansas is the largest and most comprehensive
university in Kansas. It has an enrollment of more than 28,000 and
almost 2,000 faculty members. KU offers more than 100 bachelors',
nearly ninety masters', and more than fifty doctoral programs. The
main campus is in Lawrence, Kansas, with other campuses in Kansas
City, Wichita, Topeka, and Overland Park, Kansas.


FACULTY
Kenneth A. Bishop (Ph.D., Oklahoma)
John C. Davis (Ph.D., Wyoming)
Don W. Green (Ph.D., Oklahoma)
Colin S. Howat (Ph.D., Kansas)
Carl E. Locke, Jr., Dean (Ph.D., Texas)
Russell D. Osterman (Ph.D., Kansas)
Marylee Z. Southard (Ph.D., Kansas)
Bala Subramaniam (Ph.D., Notre Dame)
Galen J. Suppes (PH.D., Johns Hopkins)
George W. Swift (Ph.D., Kansas)
Brian E. Thompson (Ph.D., MIT)
Shapour Vossoughi (Ph.D., Alberta, Canada)
G. Paul Willhite, Chairman (Ph.D., Northwestern)

RESEARCH FACILITIES
Excellent facilities are available for research and instruction.
Extensive equipment and shop facilities are available for
research in such areas as enhanced oil recovery processes, fluid
phase equilibria, catalytic kinetics, plasma processing, and
supercritical fluid applications. The VAX 9000, along with a
network of Macintosh personal computers and IBM, Apollo,
and Sun workstations, support computational and graphical
needs.

For more information and application
material, write or call
The University of Kansas
The Graduate Adviser
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
4006 Learned Hall
Lawrence, KS 66045-2223


Fall 1992



















































M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
* Chemical Engineering
* Interdisciplinary Areas of Systems Engineering
* Food Science
* Environmental Engineering

Financial Aid Available
Up to $17,000 Per Year

For More Information Write To
Professor B.G. Kyle
Durland Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS 66506


Areas of Study and Research
Transport Phenomena
Energy Engineering
Coal and Biomass Conversion
Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibrium
Biochemical Engineering
Proces Dynamics and Control
Chemical Reaction Engineering
Materials Science
Catalysis and Fuel Synthesis
Process System Engineering and Artificial Intelligence
Environmental Pollution Control
Fluidization and Solid Mixing
Hazardous Waste Treatment


Chemical Engineering Education


KANSAS
STARTER
UJNVERSITY


256


~'4~i~"~,~-/~F~~;-







UnvestyofKntck6


Far From An
Ordinary Ball
Research with advanced
materials (carbon fibers,
nitride catalysts, supercon-
ducting thin films, and liquid
crystalline polymers) and with
Buckyballs is ongoing here in
Lexington.

Anything But An
Ordinary University
At the University of Kentucky-designated by
the Carnegie Foundation as a Research
University of the First Class, and included in
the NSF's prestigious list-
ing of Top 100 research
institutions in America-
CHOICES for Chem. E. grad-
o uate students are anything
but ordinary. There are
joint projects with Pharmacy, the Medical
School, the Markey Cancer Center, and
Chemistry researchers. And abundant opportu-
nities for intense interaction with extraordinary
faculty, as well as access to state-of-the-art
facilities and equipment, including an IBM ES
3900/600J Supercomputer.

With Out-Of-The-
Ordinary
Chem. E.
Specialties
Aerosol Chemistry and
Physics-Weighing picogram
particles in electrodynamic balance,
measuring monolayer adsorption, data
with seven significant figures.
Cellular Bioengineering-Rheological and
transport properties of cell membranes; cell
adhesion, cancer research, transport of drugs
across membranes, and membrane biofouling.
Computational Engineering-Modeling turbulent
diffusion in atmospheric convective boundary


/
/
/


layers; modeling growth of multi-
component aerosol systems.
Environmental Engineering-
EPA-approved analytical labora-
tory; global atmospheric
transport models; atmospheric
photochemistry; control of
heavy metals and hazardous
organic; water pollution research.
Membrane Science-Development of
low pressure charged membranes; thin
film composite membranes; development of bio-
functional synthetic membranes.

From A
Uniquely
Un-Ordinary
Faculty
Recent national awards won by our faculty
include: Larry K. Cecil AIChE Environmental
Division; AIChE Outstanding Counselor Award,
1983, 1991; ASM Henry Marion Howe Medal;
AAAR Kenneth T. Whitby Memorial Award; BMES
Dr. Harold Lamport Award for a Young Investiga-
tor; and two NSF-Presidential Young Investigators.
Recent University-wide awards by faculty include:
Great Teacher;
Research Professor;
Excellence in Under-
graduate Education;
and Alumni Professor.


All Of Which
Create Some
Extraordinary
Opportunities For You
Doctoral incentie-s elli worth your consideration:
up to $20,000 per year stipends plus tuition,
books, research supplies, travel allowances.
Interested in obtaining a degree of extraordinary
worth? Contact Dr. R.I. Kermode, Department of
Chemical Engineering, University of Kentucky,
Lexington, KY 40506-0046.


606-257-4956
University of Kentucky Department of Chemical Engineering










UNIVERSITY




LAVAL

Quebec, Canada


Ph.D. and M.Sc.

in Chemical Engineering

Research Areas

* CATALYSIS (S. Kaliaguine, A. Sayari)

* BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING (L. Choplin, A. LeDuy,
J. -R. Moreau, J. Thibault)

* ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING ( C. Roy)

* COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING (P. A. Tanguy)

* TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT (P. -H. Roy)

* MODELLING AND CONTROL (J. Thibault)

* RHEOLOGY AND POLYMER ENGINEERING
(A. Ait-Kadi, L. Choplin, P. A. Tanguy)

* THERMODYNAMICS (S. Kaliaguine)

* CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL UPGRADING
OF BIOMASS (S. Kaliaguine, A. LeDuy, C. Roy)

* FLUIDISA TION AND SEPARATIONS BY
MEMBRANES (B. Grandjean)
University Laval is a French speaking University. It provides the
graduate student with the opportunity of learning French and
becoming acquainted with French culture.
Please write to:
Le Responsable du Comit6 d'Admission et de Supervision
Departement de genie chimique
Faculty des sciences et de g6nie
University Laval
Sainte-Foy, Qu6bec, Canada G1K 7P4


The Faculty

ABDELLATIF AIT-KADI
Ph.D. Ecole Poly. Montreal
Professeur agregd
LIONEL CHOPLIN
Ph.D. Ecole Poly. Montreal
Professeur titulaire
BERNARD GRANDJEAN
Ph.D. Ecole Poly. Montreal
Professeur adjoint
SERGE KALIAGUINE
D.Ing. I.G.C. Toulouse
Professeur titulaire
ANH LEDUY
Ph.D. Western Ontario
Professeur titulaire
J. -CLAUDE METHOT
D.Sc. Laval
Professeur titulaire
JEAN-R. MOREAU
Ph.D. M.I.T.
Professeur titulaire
CHRISTIAN ROY
Ph.D. Sherbrooke
Professeur titulaire
PAUL-H. ROY
Ph.D. Illinois Inst. of Technology
Professeur titulaire
ABDELHAMID SAYARI
Ph.D. Tunis/Lyon
Professeur adjoint
PHILLIPPE A. TANGUY
Ph.D. Laval
Professeur titulaire
JULES THIBAULT
Ph.D. McMaster
Professeur titulaire
Chemical Engineering Education











1 LEHIGH UNIVERSITY


Synergistic, interdisciplinary research in.
Biochemical Engineering
Catalytic Science & Reaction Engineering
Environmental Engineering
Interfacial Transport
Materials Synthesis Characterization & Processing
Microelectronics Processing
Polymer Science & Engineering
Process Modeling & Control
Thermodynamic Properties
Two-Phase Flow & Heat Transfer

... leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees
in chemical engineering and
polymer science and engineering


Highly attractive financial aid packages, which
provide tuition and stipend,
are available.

Living in Bethlehem, PA, allows easy ac-
cess to cultural and recreational opportu-
nities in the New York-Philadelphia area.

Additional information and applications may b
obtained by writing to:
Dr. Hugo S. Caram
Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
Lehigh University
111 Research Drive
Iacocca Hall
Bethlehem, PA 18015
Fall 1992


We promise the challenge ...

Philip A. Blythe (University of Manchester)
fluid mechanics heat transfer applied mathematics
Hugo S. Caram (University of Minnesota)
gas-solid and gas-liquid systems optical techniques reaction
engineering
Marvin Charles (Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn)
biochemical engineering bioseparations
John C. Chen (University of Michigan)
two-phase vapor-liquid flow fluidization radiative heat transfer *
environmental technology
Mohamed S. El-Aasser (McGill University)
polymer colloids and films emulsion copolymerization polymer
synthesis and characterization
Christos Georgakis (University of Minnesota)
process modeling and control chemical reaction engineering *
batchreactors
Dennis W. Hess (Lehigh University)
microelectronics processing thin film science and technology
James T. Hsu (Northwestern University)
separation processes adsorption and catalysis in zeolites
Arthur E. Humphrey, Emeritus (Columbia University)
biochemical processes
Andrew J. Klein (North Carolina State University)
emulsion polymerization colloidal and surface effects in polymer-
ization
William L. Luyben (University of Delaware)
process design and control distillation
Janice A. Phillips (University of Pennsylvania)
biochemical engineering instrumentation/control of bioreactors *
mammalian cell culture
Maria M. Santore (Princeton University)
polymers adsorption processes and blend stability
William E. Schiesser (Princeton University)
numerical algorithms and software in chemical engineering
Cesar A. Silebi (Lehigh University)
separation of colloidal particles electrophoresis mass transfer
Leslie H. Sperling (Duke University)
mechanical and morphological properties of polymers interpen-
etrating polymer networks
e Fred P. Stein (University of Michigan)
thermodynamic properties of mixtures
Harvey G. Stenger, Jr. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
reactor engineering
Israel E. Wachs (Stanford University)
materials synthesis and characterization surface chemistry *
heterogeneous catalysis
Leonard A. Wenzel, Emeritus (University of Michigan)
thermodynamics






































THE CITY
Baton Rouge is the state capitol and home of the major
state institution for higher education LSU. Situated in the
Acadian region, Baton Rouge blends the Old South and
Cajun Cultures. The Port of Baton Rouge is a main chemi-
cal shipping point, and the city's economy rests heavily on
the chemical and agricultural industries. The great outdoors
provide excellent recreational activities year-round. The
proximity of New Orleans provides for superb nightlife,
especially during Mardi Gras.

THE DEPARTMENT
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
Approximately 70 Graduate Students
DEPARTMENTAL FACILITIES
IBM 4341 and 9370 with more than 70 color graphics
terminals and PC's
Analytical Facilities including GC/MS, FTIR, FT-NMR,
LC, GC, AA, XRD ....
Vacuum to High Pressure Facilities for kinetics,
catalysis, thermodynamics, supercritical processing
Shock Tube and Combustion Laboratories
Laser Doppler Velocimeter Facility
Bench Scale Fermentation Facilities
Polymer Processing Equipment

TO APPLY, CONTACT
DIRECTOR OF GRADUATE INSTRUCTION
Department of Chemical Engineering
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, LA 70803


FACULTY
J.R. COLLIER (Ph.D., Case Institute)
Polymers, Textiles, Fluid Flow
A.B. CORRIPIO (Ph.D., Louisiana State University)
Control, Simulation, Computer-Aided Design
K.M. DOOLEY (Ph.D., University of Delaware)
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering
G.L. GRIFFIN (Ph.D., Princeton University)
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surfaces, Materials Processing
F.R. GROVES (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin)
Control, Modeling, Separation Processes
D.P. HARRISON (Ph.D., University of Texas)
Fluid-Solid Reactions, Hazardous Wastes
M. HJORTSO (Ph.D., University of Houston)
Biotechnology, Applied Mathematics
F.C. KNOPF (Ph.D., Purdue University)
Computer-Aided Design, Supercritical Processing
E. McLAUGHLIN (D.Sc., University of London)
Thermodynamics, High Pressures, Physical Properties
R.W. PIKE (Ph.D., Georgia Institute of Technology)
Fluid Dynamics, Reaction Engineering, Optimization
G.L. PRICE (Ph.D., Rice University)
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surfaces
D.D. REIBLE (Ph.D., California Institute of Technology)
Environmental Chemodynamics, Transport Modeling
R.G. RICE (Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania)
Mass Transfer, Separation Processes
A.M. STERLING (Ph.D., University of Washington)
Transport Phenomena, Combustion
L.J. THIBODEAUX (Ph.D., Louisiana State University)
Chemodynamics, Hazardous Waste
R.D. WESSON (Ph.D., University of Michigan)
Semi-Crystalline Polymer Processing
D.M. WETZEL (Ph.D., University of Delaware)
Physical Properties, Hazardous Wastes


FINANCIAL AID
* Assistantships at $14,400 (waiver of out-of-state tuition)
* Dean's Fellowships at $17,000 per year plus tuition and a
travel grant
Special industrial and alumni fellowships for outstanding
students
Some part-time teaching experience available for graduate
students interested in an academic career
Chemical Engineering Education


LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE SCHOOL














University of Maine


* Faculty and Research Interests Programs and

Financial Support *


DOUGLAS BOUSFIELD Ph.D. (U.C.Berkeley)
Fluid Mechanics, Rheology, Coating Processes,
Particle Motion Modeling

WILLIAM H. CECKLER Sc.D. (M.I.T.)
Heat Transfer, Pressing & Drying Operations,
Energy from Low BTU Fuels, Process Simulation
& Modeling

ALBERT CO Ph.D. (Wisconsin)
Polymeric Fluid Dynamics, Rheology, Transport
Phenomena, Numerical Methods

JOSEPH M. GENCO Ph.D. (Ohio State)
Process Engineering, Pulp and Paper Technology,
Wood Delignification

JOHN C. HASSLER Ph.D. (Kansas State)
Process Control, Numerical Methods,
Instrumentation and Real Time Computer
Applications

MARQUITA K HILL Ph.D. (U.C. Davis)
Environmental Science, Waste Management
Technology

JOHN. HWALEK Ph.D. (Illinois)
Liquid Metal Natural Convection, Electronics
Cooling, Process Control Systems


ERDOGANKIRAN Ph.D. (Princeton)
Polymer Physics & Chemistry, Supercritical
Fluids, Thermal Analysis & Pyrolysis, Pulp &
Paper Science

DAVID J. KRASKE (Chairman)
Ph.D. (Inst. Paper Chemistry)
Pulp, Paper & Coating Technology, Additive
Chemistry, Cellulose & Wood Chemistry

PIERRE LEPOUTRE Ph.D. (North Carolina
State University)
Surface Physics and Chemistry, Materials
Science, Adhesion Phenomena

KENNETH L MUMME Ph.D. (Maine)
Process Simulation and Control, System
Identification & Optimization

HEMANTPENDSE Ph.D. (Syracuse)
Colloidal Phenomena, Particulate & Multiphase
Processes, Porous Media Modeling

EDWARD V. THOMPSON Ph.D., (Polytechnic
Institute of Brooklyn)
Thermal & Mechanical Properties of Polymers,
Papermaking and Fiber Physics, Recycle Paper


Eighteen research groups attack fundamental
problems leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
Industrial fellowships, university fellowships,
research assistantships and teaching assistantships
are available. Presidential fellowships provide
$4,000 per year in addition to the regular stipend
and free tuition.


The University *

The spacious campus is situated on 1,200 acres
overlooking the Penobscot and Stillwater Rivers.
Present enrollment of 12,000 offers the diversity of
a large school, while preserving close personal
contact between peers and faculty. The University's
Maine Center for the Arts, the Hauck Auditorium,
and Pavilion Theatre provide many cultural
opportunities, in addition to those in the nearby city
of Bangor. Less than an hour away from campus
are the beautiful Maine Coast and Acadia National
park, alpine and cross-country ski resorts, and
northern wilderness areas of Baxter State Park
and Mount Katahdin.

Enjoy life, work hard and earn your graduate degree
in one of the most beautiful spots in the world.


Call Collect or Write
Doug Bousfield
Department of Chemical Engineering
Jenness Hall, Box B University of Maine
Orono, Maine 04469-0135
(207) 581-2300


Fall 1992 261












UMBC
UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND
BALTIMORE COUNTY


GRADUATE STDYI





FOR ENIERN AN SCEC MAJR


Emphasis
The UMBC Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Program offers graduate programs leading to M.S.
and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering with a primary research focus in biochemical engineering.

Facilities
The 6000 square feet of space dedicated to faculty and graduate student research includes state-of-the-
art laboratory facilities. The BioProcess Scale-Up Facility on the College Park Campus is also available for
use with classical microbial systems. A new Engineering and Computer Science building with an addi-
tional 7,000 square feet of laboratory space for Chemical and Biochemical Engineering will open in the fall
of 1992.
Faculty


D.F. Bruley, Ph.D. Tennessee
Biodownstream processing and transport pro-
cesses in the microcirculation; Process simula-
tion and control.
T. W. Cadman, Ph.D. Carnegie Mellon
Bioprocess modeling, control, and optimization;
Educational software development
A. Gomezplata, Ph.D. Rensselaer
Heterogeneous flow systems; Simultaneous mass
transfer and chemical reactions
C. S. Lee, Ph.D. Rensselaer
Bioseparations; Biosensors; Protein adsorption
at interfaces
J. A. Lumpkin, Ph.D. Pennsylvania
Analytical chemi- and bioluminescence; Kinetics
of enzymatic reactions; Protein oxidation





FO 1R G 1 I A A


262


A. R. Moreira, Ph.D.* Pennsylvania
rDNA fermentation; Regulatory issues; Scale-up;
Downstream processing
G. F. Payne, Ph.D.* Michigan
Plant cell tissue culture; Streptomyces bioprocessing;
Adsorptive separations; Toxic waste treatment
G. Rao, Ph.D.* Drexel
Animal cell culture; Oxygen toxicity; Biosensing
J. Rosenblatt, Ph.D. Berkeley
Biomedical engineering; Drug delivery; Collagen
applications
M. R. Sierks, Ph.D. Iowa State
Protein engineering; Site-directed mutagenesis;
Catalytic antibodies
D. I C. Wang, Ph.D.** Pennsylvania
Bioreactors; Bioinstrumentation; Protein refolding
*Joint appointment with the Maryland Biotechnology Institute
Adjunct professor/Eminent scholar

S For further information contact:


Dr. A. R. Moreira
Department of Chemical and Biochemical
Engineering
University of Maryland Baltimore County
Baltimore, Maryland 21288
(301) 455-3400

Chemical Engineering Education


I









University of Maryland


Faculty:
William E. Bentley
Richard V. Calabrese

Kyu Yong Choi
Larry L. Gasner
James W. Gentry
Michael L. Mavrovouniotis
Thomas J. McAvoy


College Park

Location:
The University of Maryland College Park is located approximately
ten miles from the heart of the nation, Washington, D.C. Excellent
public transportation permits easy access to points of interest such
as the Smithsonian, National Gallery, Congress, White House,
Arlington Cemetery, and the Kennedy Center. A short drive west
produces some of the finest mountain scenery and recreational
opportunities on the east coast. An even shorter drive brings one to
the historic Chesapeake Bay.
E Degrees Offered:
M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering
STrl Financial Aid Available:
Teaching and Research Assistantships
A Aj at $12,880/yr., plus tuition


~*-~s
'~"tm b


Thomas M. Regan
Theodore G. Smith
Nam Sun Wang
William A. Weigand
Evanghelos Zafiriou


For Applications and
Further Information,
Write:


Chemical Engineering Graduate
Studies
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742-2111


Research Areas:
Aerosol Science
Artificial Intelligence
Biochemical Engineering
Fermentation
Neural Computation
Polymer Processing
Polymer Reaction Engineering
Process Control
Recombinant DNA Technology
Separation Processes
Systems Engineering
Turbulence and Mixing


Fall 1992











University of Massachusetts


at Amherst


M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in

Chemical Engineering

Faculty
M. F. Doherty, Ph.D. (Cambridge), Head
W. C. Conner, Ph.D. (Johns Hopkins)
M. R. Cook, Ph.D. (Harvard)
J. M. Douglas, Ph.D. (Delaware)
V. Haensel, Ph.D. (Northwestern)
M. P. Harold, Ph.D. (Houston)
R. L. Laurence, Ph.D. (Northwestern)
M. F. Malone, Ph.D. (Massachusetts)
P. A. Monson, Ph.D. (London)
K. M. Ng, Ph.D. (Houston)
J. W. van Egmond (Stanford)
P. R. Westmoreland, Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
H. H. Winter, Ph.D. (Stuttgart)

Current Areas of Research F
Fin
* Combustion, Plasma Processing All
* Process Synthesis, Design of Polymer and Solids Processes nat
* Statistical Thermodynamics, Phase Behavior
* Control System Synthesis Loc
* Fluid Mechanics, Rheology ThE
* Polymer Processing, Composites smt
sett
* Catalysis and Kinetics, Reaction Dynamics sett
are.
* Design of Multiphase and Polymerization Reactors siv
* Nonideal Distillation, Adsorption, Crystallization
* Computer Aided Design, Optimization onj
SComnutational Chemistry


Design and Control Center
The Department has a research center in design and
control, which is sponsored by industrial companies.


I


ancial Support


students are awarded full financial aid at a
ionally competitive rate.

ation
SAmherst Campus of the University is in a
ill New England town in Western Massachu-
s. Set amid farmland and rolling hills, the
a offers pleasant living conditions and exten-
e recreational facilities.
For application forms and further information
fellowships and assistantships, academic and research
programs, and student housing, write:
GRADUATE PROGRAM DIRECTOR
DEPARTMENTT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
159 GOESSMANN LABORATORY
UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS
AMHERST, MA 01003


The University of Massachusetts at Amherst prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, creed, sex, sexual orientation,
age, marital status, national origin, disability or handicap, political belief or affiliation, membership or non-membership in
any organization, or veteran status, in any aspect of the admission or treatment of students or in employment.


Chemical Engineering Education










CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT


With the largest chemical engineering research faculty in the country, the
Department of Chemical Engineering at MIT offers programs of research and
teaching which span the breadth of chemical engineering with unprecedented
depth in fundamentals and applications. The Department offers three levels
of graduate programs, leading to Master's, Engineer's, and Doctor's degrees.
In addition, graduate students may earn a Master's degree through the
David H. Koch School of Chemical Engineering Practice, a unique
internship program that stresses defining and solving industrial problems by
applying chemical engineering fundamentals. Students in this program spend
half a semester at each of two Practice School Stations, including Dow Chemi-
cal in Midland, Michigan, and Merck Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Division
in West Point, Pennsylvania, in addition to one or two semesters at MIT.



RESEARCH AREAS

Artificial Intelligence Biomedical Engineering
Biotechnology
Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
Combustion Computer-Aided Design
Electrochemistry Energy Conversion
Environmental Engineering Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics and Reaction Engineering
Microelectronic Materials Processing
Polymers Process Dynamics and Control
Surfaces and Colloids Transport Phenomena


FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT
Chemical Engineering Graduate Office, 66-366
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307
Phone: (617) 253-4579; FAX: (617) 253-9695
Fall 1992


MIT


MIT is located in Cambridge, just across the
Charles River from Boston, a few minutes by
subway from downtown Boston
on the one hand and Harvard Square on the
other. The heavy concentration of colleges,
hospitals, research facilities,
and high technology industry provides a
populace that demands and finds an unending
variety of theaters, concerts, restaurants,
museums, bookstores, sporting events,
libraries, and recreational facilities.


FACULTY


R.A. Brown, Department Head
R.C. Armstrong
P.I. Barton
J.M. Beer
E.D. Blankschtein
H. Brenner
L.G. Cima
R.E. Cohen
C.K. Colton
C.L. Cooney
W.M. Deen
K.K. Gleason
J.G. Harris
T.A. Hatton
J.B. Howard
K.F. Jensen
R.S. Langer
G.J. McRae
E.W. Merrill
C.M. Mohr
G.C. Rutledge
A.F. Sarofim
H.H. Sawin
K.A. Smith
Ge. Stephanopoulos
Gr. Stephanopoulos
M.F. Stephanopoulos
J.W. Tester
P.S. Virk
D.I.C. Wang
J.Y. Ying






Chemical Engineering at




The University of Michigan


Faculty

1. Johannes Schwank Chair, Hetero-
geneous catalysis, surface science
2. Stacy G. Bike Colloids, transport,
electrokinetic phenomena
3. Dale E. Briggs Coal processes
4. Mark A. Burns Biochemical and
field-enhanced separations
5. Brice Carnahan Numerical
methods, process simulation
6. Rane L. Curl Rate processes,
mathematical modeling
7. Frank M. Donahue Electro-
chemical engineering
8. H. Scott Fogler Flow in porous
media, microelectronics processing
9. John L. Gland Surface science
10. Erdogan Gulari Interfacial
phenomena, catalysis, surface science
11. Robert H. Kadlec Ecosystems,
process dynamics
12. Costas Kravaris Nonlinear process
control, system identification
13. Jennifer J. Linderman Engi-
neering approaches to cell biology
14. Bernhard O. Palsson Cellular
bioengineering
15. Phillip E. Savage Reaction
pathways in complex systems
16. Levi T. Thompson, Jr. Catalysis,
processing materials in space
17. Henry Y. Wang Biotechnology
processes, industrial biology
18. James O. Wilkes Numerical
methods, polymer processing
19. Robert M. Ziff Aggregation
processes, statistical mechanics


1 2


*

6


18 19


4








f
8


For More Information, Contact:
Graduate Program Office, Department of Chemical Engineering / The University of Michigan / Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136 / 313 763-1148




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PAGE 1

z 0 u :::> C w C) z a2 w w z C) 0:: 2 IL 0 z 0 in > c C) z a2 w w z C) z w -' < u l: u chemical engineering education VOLUME26 NUMBER4 FALL 1992 GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE Featuring ... A Course on Parallel Computing Kim A Pilot Graduate-Recruiting Program Sloan, Baldwin, Fiedler, McKinnon, Miller A Course on Environmental Remediation Stokes A Colloquium Series in Chemical Engineering Tsouris, Yiacoumi, Hirtzel Research on Neural Networks, Optimization, and Process Control Cooper, Achenie Chemical Reaction Engineering: A Story of Continuing Fascination Doraiswamy Pattern Formation in Convective-Diffusive Transport With Reaction Arce, Locke, Viiials An Introduction to the Fundamentals of Bio(Molecular) Engineering Locke Some Thoughts on Graduate Education: A Graduate Student's Perspective Kannan And also ... Problem: The Influence of Catalysts on Thermodynamic Equilibrium Falconer Random Thoughts: Sorry, Pal-It Doesn't Work That Way Felder

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT DEPARTME NT AL SPO N S OR S The foll o wing 153 departments contribute to the support of GEE with bulk subscriptions. If your department is not a contributor, write to CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION, c/o Chemical Engineering Department University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 for information on bulk subscriptions University of Akron University of Alabama University of Alberta University of Arizona Arizona State University University of Arkansas Auburn University Brigham Young University University of British Columbia Brown University Bucknell University University of Calgary University of California, Berkeley University of California, Davis University of California, Irvine University of California, Los Angeles University of California, San Diego University of California, Santa Barabara California Institute of Technology California State Poly Institute Carnegie-Mellon University Case Western Reserve University University of Cincinnati Clarkson College of Technology Clemson University Cleveland State University University of Colorado Co l orado School of Mines Colorado State University Columbia University University of Connecticut Cooper Union Cornell University Dartmouth College University of Dayton University of Delaware Drexel University University of Edinburgh University of Florida Florida Institute of Technology Florida State/Florida A&M University Georgia Institute of Technology University of Houston Howard University University of Idaho University of Illinois, Chicago University of Illinois, Urbana Illinois Institute of Technology Imperial College, London University of Iowa Iowa State University Johns Hopkins University University of Kansas Kansas State University University of Kentucky Lafayette College Lakehead University Lamar University Laval University Lehigh University Loughborough University Louisiana State University Louisiana Technical University University of Louisville Lowell University Manhattan College University of Maryland University of Maryland, Baltimore County University of Massachusetts McGill University McMaster University McNeese State University University of Michigan Michigan State University Michigan Technical University University of Minnesota University of Mississippi Mississippi State University University of Missouri, Columbia University of Missouri, Rolla Montana State University University of Nebraska University of New Hampshire University of New Haven New Jersey Institute of Technology University of New Mexico New Mexico State University North Carolina A & T University North Carolina State University University of North Dakota Northeastern University Northwestern University University of Notre Dame Technical University of Nova Scotia Ohio State University Ohio University University of Oklahoma Oklahoma State University Oregon State University University of Ottawa University of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania State University University of Pittsburgh Polytechnic Institute of New York Princeton University Purdue University Queen s University Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute University of Rhode Island Rice University University of Rochester Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology Rutgers The State University University of Saskatchewan University of Sherbrooke University of South Alabama University of South Carolina South Dakota School of Mines University of South Florida University of Southern California University of Southwestern Louisiana State University of New York, Buffalo Stevens Institute of Technology University of Syracuse University of Tennessee Tennessee Technological University University of Texas Texas A & M University Texas Tech University University of Toledo Tri-State University Tufts University University of Tulsa Tuskegee Institute University of Utah Vanderbilt University Villanova University University of Virginia Virginia Polytechnic Institute University of Washington Washington State University Washington University University of Waterloo Wayne State University West Virginia College of Grad Studies West Virginia Institute of Technology West Virginia University Widener University University of Wisconsin Worcester Polytechnic Institute University of Wyoming Yale University Youngstown State University

PAGE 3

Editor's Note to Seniors ... Th i s i s the 26th graduate education issue published by GEE. I t i s distributed to chemical eng i neer i ng seniors i nterested i n and qualified for graduate school. We include articles on graduate courses and research at various universities along w i th departmental announcements on graduate programs In order for you to obta i n a broad idea of the nature of graduate work we encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue but also those in previous issues. A list of the papers from recent years follows If you would like a copy of a previous fall issue please write to GEE. Fall1991 Carnahan Computing in Engineering Education: From There To Here, To Where? (Award Lecture, Part 1 ) Deshpan d e, Krishnaswamy A G r aduate Course in Digital Com puter Process Control Churc h ill Chemical Kinetics, Fluid Mechanics and Heat Trans fer in the Fast Lane Fleischman Risk Reduction in the Chemical Engineering Cur riculum Kodas, et al Research Opportuniti es in Ceramics Science and Engineering Peters An Introduction to Molecular Transport Phenomena Fall 1990 Austin, B e r onio, Taso Biochemical Enginee r ing Education Th r ough Videotapes Ramkrishna Applied Mathematics Rice D ispersion Model Differential Equation fo r Packed B eds Bh a d a, et al. Conso r tium on Waste Management Felder Stoichiometry Without Tears Cohen T sai Chetty Multimedia Environmental Transport, Exposure, and Risk Assessment Schulz, B enge ChE Summer Se r ies at Virginia Polytechnic R oberge Transferring Knowledge Coulman ChE Cu rr icu l um, 1989 F r ey Numerical Simulation of Multicom p onent Ch r oma tograp h y Using Spreadsheets Fried Polymer Science and Engineering at Cincinnati Fall 1989 San, McInt i re Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering Kummler, M c M icking, Powitz Hazardous Waste Management B ienkows ki et al Multidisciplinary Course in Bioengineering Lauffenb ur ger Cellular B ioengineering R ando lph Particulate Processes Kumar, B ennett Gudivaka Haza r dous Chemical Spills D avis Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions W ang Ap p lied Linea r A l ge b ra Kisaalita et al. Crossdisciplinary Research: The NeuronB ased Chemical Sensor Project Ky l e The Essence of Entropy Rao Secrets of My Success in Graduate School Fall1988 Arkun, Charos, Reeves Model Predictive Cont r ol Briedis Tec h nical Communications for Grad Students Des h pan d e Multivariable Control Methods Glandt Topics in Random Media Ng, Gonzalez, H u Biochemical Enginee r ing Goosen R esearch: A n imal Cell Culture in Mic r ocapsules Teja, Sc h ae ff e r Research: The r modynamics and Fluid Pro p e r ties D ud a Graduation: The B eginning of Your Education Fall 1992 Ray W. Fahien Ed i tor Fall1987 Amundson American Unive r sity Graduate Work DeCo ur sey Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction Tako u dis Microelectronics Processing McCready, Leighton Transpo r t Phenomena Sei d er, Ungar Nonlinea r Systems S k aates Polyme r ization Reacto r Engineering Edie Dunham Research : Advanced Engine e ring F i bers Allen Petit Research: Unit Operations in Microgravity Bartusiak, Price Process Modeling and Control Bartholomew Advanced Combustion Engineering Fall 1986 Bir d Hougen 's Principles Amun d son Research Landmarks fo r Chemical Enginee r s Duda Graduate Studies: The Middle Way Jome Chemical Enginee r ing: A Crisis of Mat u rity Ste p ha n o p oulis Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering Venkatas u bramanian A Course in Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering Moo-Young Biochemical Enginee r ing and I ndustrial Biotech nology Babu, Sukanek The Processing of Electronic Mate r ials Datye, Smith, Williams Characte r ization of Porous M ateri a ls and Powde r s Bla c kmon d A Workshop in Graduate Education Fall1985 Bailey Ollis Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals Belfort Sepa r ation and Recovery Processes Graham, Jutan Teaching Time Series Soo n g Polyme r Processing Van Z ee Elect r ochemical and Co rr osion Engineering Ra d ovic Coal Utilization and Conversion Processes Shah, Hay h urst Molecula r Sieve Tec h nology B ailie, Kono, Henry Fluidization Ka uffm an I s G r ad Sc h ool Wo r t h I t? F el d er T he Gene r ic Q uiz Fall1984 Lauffenburger, et al, Applied Mathematics Marnell G r aduate Plant D esign Sca m ehorn Colloid and Surface Science Shah Heterogeneous Catalysis with Video Based Semina r s Zygourakis Linea r Algebra Bartholomew H ec k e r Resea r ch on Catalysis Converse, et al. Bio-Chemical Conve r sion of Biomass Fai r Separations Research E d ie Graduate R esidency at Clemson McConica Semico n ductor P r ocessing D ud a Misconceptions Concerning G ra d School 169

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Chemical Engineering Division Activities /Jl.P./ ----------------------SHAPING OUR WORLD CENTURY II THIRTIETH ANNUAL LECTURESHIP AWARD TO WILLIAM N. GILL The 1992 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division Lecturer is William N. Gill of Rensselaer Polytech nic Institute. The purpose of this award is to recog nize and encourage outstanding achievement in an important field of fundamental chemical engineer ing theory or practice. The award, an engraved certificate, is bestowed annually upon a distinguished engineering educator who delivers the annual lecture of the Chemical Engineering Division This year it was presented to the winner at the Division's summer school, held at Montana State University in August. The award is made on an annual basis, with nominations wel comed through February 1, 1993 Dr. Gill's lecture was entitled "Interactive Dynam ics of Convection and Crystal Growth." It will be published in a forthcoming issue of CEE. Award Winners There were a number of significant awards pre sented to chemical engineering faculty members dur ing the annual conference held at the University of Toledo in June, 1992. Robert A. Greenkorn ( Purdue University) was named a Fellow of ASEE, having met the requirements of Fellow Grade membership as stated in the ASEE Constitution. The Fred Merryfield Design Award was presented to Klaus D. Timmerhaus (University of Colorado), recogniz ing his sustained excellent in engineering education and particularly his contributions to teaching chemi cal engineering design. Douglas A. Lauffenburger (University of IlliNote to Our Readers: nois, Urbana-Champaign) received the Curtis W. McGraw Research Award in recognition of his many outstanding achievements and, in particular, for ex panding the boundaries of engineering research and education by using engineering principles and ap proaches in cell biology research. The George Westinghouse Award was presented to Nicholas A. Peppas (Purdue University) for his outstanding, innovative contributions to engineering education during his fifteen-year tenure at Purdue University. C. Stewart Slater (Manhattan College) received the Fluke Award for Excellence in Laboratory In struction, recognizing his contributions in the pro motion of excellence in experimentation and labora tory instruction The Dow Outstanding Young Fac ulty Award for the North Central Section went to J. Richard Elliot, Jr. (University of Akron), and Rob ert M. Ybarra (University of Missouri, Rolla) re ceived a plaque naming him as an Outstanding Zone Campus Representative for Zone III. ChE Division Officers T4e 1992-93 officers for the Chemical Engineering Division of ASEE are: Past Chairman Tim Anderson (U niv e rsity of Fl o rida ) Chairman John C Friedl y (University of Roch ester) Chairman-Elect L. Davis Clements (University of Nebraska ) Secretary-Treasurer William L. Conger (Virginia Polytechnic University) Directors Thomas R. Hanley (University of Louisvill e) Charles H Barron (C l e mson University ) It is with pride that we announce that our editor, Ray W. Fahien is the 1992 recipient of the prestigious AJChE Warren K. Lewis award. This singular recognition for his contribu tions to chemical engineering over the years is well deserved and gives due testimony to his devotion to the profession and his adherence to its highest standards of excellence. Those of us who work closely with him want to add our congratulations and appreciation for his unselfish and high-minded leadership through the years, and the grace with which he has conducted himself in all matters. Tim Anderson, Associate Editor 170 Chemical Engineering Education

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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS: Chemical Engineering Education Deparbnent of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville FL 32611 FAX 9 04392 -086 1 EDITOR Ray W. Fahien (904) 392-0857 ASSOCIATE EDITOR T. J Anderson (904) 392-2591 CONSUL TING EDITOR Mack Tyner MANAGING EDITOR Carole Yocum (904) 392-0861 PROBLEM EDITORS James 0. Wilkes and Mark A. Burns U ni versity of Michigan PUBLICATIONS BOARD Fall 199 2 CHAIRMAN E. Dendy Sloan Jr Colorado School of Mines PAST CHAIRMEN Gary Poehlein Geo r g ia Institut e of T ec hnology Klaus Timmerhaus U ni ve r sity of Colorado MEMBERS George Burnet Iowa State University Anthony T DiBenedetto University of Connecticut Thomas F. Edgar U n iversity of Texas at Austin Richard M Felder Nort h Caro lina Sta t e University Bruce A. Finlayson U ni versity of Washington H Scott Fogler University of Michigan J David Hellums Rice University Carol M. McConica Colorado State University Angelo J. Perna New Jersey In stitute of Technology Stanley I Sandler U niv ers it y of Delaware Richard C. Seagrave Iowa S tat e Univers it y M. Sami Selim Colora d o School of Mines James E. Stice University of Texas at Austin Phillip C. Wankat Purdu e University Donald R Woods M c Master Univers i ty Chemical Engineering Education Volume 26 Number 4 Fall 1992 FEATURES 172 A Course on Parallel Computing, Sangtae Kim 176 Research on Neural Networks Optimization, and Process Control, Douglas J. Cooper Luk e E.K. A c h e ni e 184 Chemical Reaction Engineering : A Story of Continuing Fascination, L.K. Doraiswam y 190 A Pilot Graduate-Recruiting Program E.D. Sloan R M. Baldwin D.J. T Fiedl e r J T. McKinnon R.L. Mill e r 194 An Introduction to the Fundamentals of Bio ( Molecular ) Engineering Bruce R Lock e 200 A Colloquium Series in Chemical Engineering Costas Tsouris Sotira Yiacoumi Cynthia S. Hirt zel 204 A Course on Environmental Remediation Cynthia L. Stokes 210 Some Thoughts on Graduate Education : A Graduate Student's Perspective Rangaramanujam M Kannan 214 Pattern Formation in Convective-Diffusive Transport With Reaction Pedro Arce Bruce R Lock e, Jorg e Vinals CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS 180 The Influence of Catalysts on Thermodynamic Equilibrium, John L. Falconer RANDOM THOUGHTS 175 Sorry, Pal-It Doesn't Work That Way, Richard M. Felder 169 Editorial 170 Division Activities 183 Positions Available 174, 182, 213 Book Reviews CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISS N 0009 -247 9) is publi s h e d quarterl y b y th e Chemical Engineering Di visio n American Society for E n g in ee rin g E du c ation and is e dit e d al th e University of Florida Co rr es ponden ce r eg ardin g e ditorial matt e r circ ulation and c han ges of addre ss s hould b e se nt to CEE, C h e mi c al Engineering D e partment U niv ers i ty of Florida, Gainesvill e, FL 326 11 Co p yr i g ht 1992 b y th e C h e mi c al E n g in ee rin g Di vis ion American Society for Engineering Education. The s tatem e nt s and opinions ex pr esse d in thi s periodical are tho se of th e writ ers and not n ecess aril y those of th e C h E Di v i s ion ASEE whi c h bod y a ss um es no responsibility for th e m Defe c tive c opi es re plac e d if notifi e d within 120 da ys of publication Write for information on s ub sc ription costs and for back c op y c osts and availabilit y. POSTMA STE R : Send address c hang es to CEE, C hemi c al E ngin ee rin g D e partment. U niv ers i ty of Florida Gainesville, FL 326 11. 171

PAGE 6

A Course on. PARALLEL COMPUTING SANGTAE KIM University of Wisconsin Madison, WI 53706 P arallel computing has received considerable and favorable attention in sources ranging from chemical engineering literature111 to the popular media (see Figure 1). A new course on paral lel computing has been developed at the University of Wisconsin that meets the needs of both graduate and advanced undergraduate engineering students. Why the sudden surge in interest in parallel com puting? As a concept, parallel computing has been around for several decades. As early as 1966, Flynn 121 delineated some of the key features found in a paral lel computer. However, the rapid evolution of uniprocessor speeds squeezed the win d ow for design and d evelopment of parallel com pu ters The reason ing went that d u ring the three to five years over which a system was d esigned and d eveloped, its processor components would be outclassed by a new generation of uniprocessors. But the pace of uniprocessor evolution is certainly slowing at the high end. Figure 2 com p ares the evolution in com puting ca p abi l ities of the fastest uniprocessors and a sq u are inch of silicon d u ring the 1980s. The performance of a single fast superprocessor is ultimately bo u n d by fundamental physical con straints, such as the speed of light. So we turn instead to the idea of connecting very many rela/WYONe EXPfKT I N /~Qjf?Ji!B,ICf /9SU/Jf31 Qt:AY, JW;OVe IN ~P I.A5/R5r IWY PAllAUtl. COWfJT!R ENGI IBR!Sr HIV ti'/~? S a ngta e K i m holds a Wisconsin Distinguished Professorship, with appointments in both chemi cal engineering and computer science at the University of Wisconsin He received his BSc (1979) and MSc (1979) at Caltech and his PhD (1983) at Princeton His research interests in computational microhydrodynamics encompass parallel computing solutions to problems in sus pensio n rheology colloidal hydrody n a m ics and protein foldi n g tively inexpensive processors, an idea that becomes increasingly more practical as the processing capa bility on a square inch of silicon approaches the 100 MegaFLOPS benchmark-a traditional unit measure of supercomputing performance. Indeed, with shrinking semicon d uctor dimensions, it is quite likely that in the near future a square inch of silicon will house four, and then sixteen, such pro cessors. Thus, in Figure 2 one could extrapolate the upward slope of the semiconductor processor curve well into the 1990s. The emergence of the high-performance parallel computer creates new opportunities for science and engineering, and new courses must be develope d to train the next generation of scientists and engineers The challenge is twofo l d: to map currently pop ular solution metho d ologies to parallel algorithms and to develop new solution methods that naturally lead to parallel algorithms. (ll(AY,NOO, NT" {)f;5Rt)JR .. I Fig u re 1.Doonesbury cartoon 172 (DOONESBURY copyright 1992 G B Trudeau. Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE All rights reserved.) Chemical Engin ee ring Edu cat ion

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The course consists of three parts, ... an introduction to parallel computing architectures, followed by an overview of parallel computing extensions of high-level languages .... [ and] term projects on various parallel computers in which students get first-hand opportunities to implement the ideas ... ... I Cray 2S X MP 100 i860 10 WT3364 MFLOP 0 1 Figure 2. E v olution o f floatin g p o int p e rforman ce durin g th e 1980 s 1000 x 1000 LINP A CK from Dongarra ./31 The course consists of three parts, starting with an introduction to parallel computing architectures, fol lowed by an overview of parallel computing exten sions of high-level languages like Fortran. The third part consists of term project s on various parallel computers in which students get first hand opportu nities to implement the ideas discussed in the first and second parts of the course. The course begins with a survey of historical and philosophical perspectives on parallel computing, as summarized in an excellent series of essays in DIEDALUS, the Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences .f 4 J Some essay s compare and contrast the development and s ocietal impact of the first digital electronic computers and the corre sponding changes wrought by the emergence of the massively parallel computer. Other essays provide benchmark comparisons of conventional vector supercomputers RISC workstations, and parallel machines on a suite of computational tasks. Students are also directed to historical accounts of the founding of the major players in the parallel computing market.c sJ The course then shifts into an introductory de scription of parallel computer architectures The con cept of algorithm and machine granularity ( fine grain and coarse grain parallelism ) styles of control ( SIMD, MIMD ) and memory layout ( Shared Distributed Message Passing ) are reviewed The book by Fall 1992 Bertsekas and Tsitsiklis 1 s 1 is used as a guide. The concepts are illustrated with specific examples in volving Bus-based architectures ( Cray Alliant ) SIMD computing on the Thinking Machine Corpora tion CM2 and message passing on the Intel iPSC / 860 hypercube. The discussion on parallel computing with high level languages centers around parallel extensions of the Fortran language. The paradigm for shared memory machines (shared common blocks, forking of child processes, barrier synchronization spin locks ) follows the discussion in Brawer ,1 1 1 and his stan dards are then compared with example Fortran codes on real machines ( Sequent Symmetry IBM 3090 ) Fortran extensions on message passing systems ( node programs host programs synchronous and asyn chronous sends and receives waiting for messages ) are illustrated with examples from the Intel iPSC/ 860 hypercube. Students monitor program perfor mance on the iPSC/860 with execution trace files created by PICLf s J and subsequent visualization on Unix workstations with the ParaGraph software de veloped by Heath and coworkers. 19 1 Thi s section of the course then concludes with a discussion of Fortran90 and it s close relative CM Fortran. A four-hour videotape on CM Fortran imple mentation on the CM5 provided by the Thinking Machines Corporation wa s used. The coverage of Fortran90 was partly hampered by the lack of an inexpensive compiler for the workstation environ ment However we recently obtained the NAG For tran90 compiler for our NeXTstations and plan to use it in the course next y ear. A required project takes the last five weeks of the semester. A list of suggested projects is announced at the start of the semester so that students have ten weeks to pick their project and find their partner. Students are grouped in teams of two and as far as pos s ible undergraduates are paired with graduate students. Since twelve students ( including five se nior s) took the course in the spring of 1992 we had six teams and projects ( see Table 1, next page ) In general, project topics range from the adventurous ( review and reproduction of parallel algorithms from the burgeoning literature on parallel computing ) to the pragmatic ( parallelization of codes from disser tation research ) implementations on the iPSC/860 or the CM5. One team used both machines. 17 3

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TABLE 1 Term Projects: Spring 1992 Parallel branch and bound for mixed integer linear programs Numerical implementation of conjugate gradient and Gaussian elimination methods on parallel computers Parallel computational solutions of hyperbolic PDEs (humidification waves in solar energy desiccants) Polyhedra in Stokes flow (particle simulati on s on the iPSC/860 and CM5) Molecular dynamics on the hypercube (simulation of Lennard-Jones fluids) Wavelet transforms for signal analysis (signal data compression) Oral presentations conducted during the last two weeks of the course, present students with the opportunity to learn from each other. A number of established techniques in the literature, as well as new tricks on a particular machine, are dis seminated in these discussions Course grades are computed on the basis of the oral presentation and written report. At the end of the semester, the student evalua tions were collected. On the basis of a very favorable response, it appears that this course will be a regu lar spring semester offering in the department (an d in the college of engineering) Work is also underway to integrate this course into a multicourse sequence in parallel computing in the Computer Sciences Department. A two-day version 161 book review ) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN PROJECT:ACASESTUDYAPPROACH by Martyn S. Ray and David W. Johnson Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York; 357 pages, $90 hardbound, $65 softbound (1 989 ) Reviewed by James R. Fair The University of Texas at Austin This text is intended for use in the senior design course for chemical engineering students. It offers an approach that is different from that of the usual design course text; whereas the others provid~ a general overview of the design process this text deals in considerable depth with just one project the development and design of a plant to produce 174 of the course is also available from the AIChE Con tinuing Education Divi sion.t 1 01 One final note: computer programs developed for the term projects are archived on a file server for future reference. It is my intention to document the growth of the parallel computing culture by monitor ing the evolution of stu dent projects, in terms of style and level of sophistication, starting with what future generations may view as the dawn of the age of parallel computing. REFERENCES 1. Amundson, N R. (Committee Chairman ) Frontiers in Chemi cal Engineering Research Needs and Opportunities, National Academy Press (1988 ) 2. Flynn M J ., Very High-Speed Computers," Proc. IEEE, 54 1901 ( 1966 ) 3. Dongarra, J.J., Performance of Various Computers Using Standard Linear Equations Software Supercomputing Re uiew, 3, 49 ( 1990 ) 4 Graubard, S.R. ( Ed. ) DIEDALUS ( J. Amer Acad. Arts and Sci. ), Winter (1992 ) 5 Trew, A., and G. Wilson ( Eds. ) Past, Present, Parallel: A Suruey of Auailable Parallel Computing Systems Springer Verlag (1991 ) 6. Bertsekas, D P ., and J N. Tsitsiklis, Parallel and Distrib uted Computation Numerical Methods, Prentice Hall (1989 ) 7 Brawer S., Introduction to Parallel Programming Academic Press (1989) 8 Geist, G.A., M T. Heath, B W Peyton and P H Worley, A Users Guide to PICL: A Portable Instrumented Communi cation Library ORNL/TM 116l(j March (1992) 9. Heath, M T., and J.A. Etheridge ParaGraph : A Tool for Visualizing Performance of Parallel Programs," ORNL/TM 1181:i May (1991) 10 Kim, S., A.N. Beris, and J.F Pekny, Methodology of Paral lel Computing," AIChE Today Series, AIChE (1990) 0 nitric acid from ammonia and air. The factors supporting this project are dealt with in con siderably more detail than would be the case for the usual text. The book is divided into two main parts plus a lengthy appendix. Part I covers general aspects of a proposed nitric acid plant: feasibility study, process selection, site location, preliminary process design and economic evaluation. Part II covers detailed de sign aspects, with sub-case studies of the absorption column, the steam superheater, and a pump to re move liquid from the absorber. Appendix contents include supporting property and cost data and ex ample equipment calculations. Notable, the book con tains no information on capital or manufacturing cost estimating or profitability analysis. No mention is made of discounted cash flow, for example. How Continued on page 189 Chemical Engineering Education

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Random Thoughts SORRY PALIT DOESN 1 T WORK THAT WAY RICHARD M. FELDER North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695 7905 Dear Professor Felder: Kindly review the enclosed 47-page manuscript, "A New and Much Longer Deri vation of the Quantum Correction to Klezmer s Ten sor Correlation for Nonnewtonian Flow of Molten Cheese in an Octagonal Orifice Part 7 : Effects of Sunspots." Sincerely, W. Schlepper, Editor, Journal of Pretentious Fluid Mechanics. P.S We are attempting to clear our inventory of back papers and so I would appreciate your re turning the review by next Tuesday ... and I know I got a 36 on the final exam Dr. Felder, and I know it was my high grade for the semester, but I really think I should get an A in the course because I really worked hard on it and I really understand the material and Dear Professor Felder: I am a chemical engineer ing student at East Indiana Tech. We are using your book, Elementary Principl e s of Ch e mical Processes, this semester I think I would learn much better ifl could check my solutions against yours Please send me a solution manual. Sincerely yours, Alvin Wimbish. P.S. Please send it by Federal Express. Um, Dr Felder-the TA missed this here test page completely on that quiz we took last January and it's got everything right on it-I think I should get full credit. Hey, am I speaking to the Chemical Engineering Department at State? ... Who's this? ... How you doin', Professor? .. You don't know me, but my wife got some black crud on our white linoleum floor and the 409 won't get rid of it, and I said, I'll bet you one of them chemical engineering fellers over at State Fall 1992 will know just the thing to clean it up ... so what should I get Doc? Rich do me a favor I just got this manuscript to review from JPFM and I'm tied up with a proposal deadline ... it's right up your alley-Snaveley s latest work on nonnewtonian cheese flow .. pick up this one for me, ok-I'll owe you. Thanks Walt. P.S. By the way could you get it out by Tuesday? Hello is this Dr. Felder? This is one of your 205 students .! know it's past midnight but I can't fig ure out the recycle problem that s due tomorrow and I thought you might .. Dear Professor Felder: We have received the re views of the paper you submitted in April 1991. All of the reviewers agree that the work is publishable but only after major revisions are made. Reviewer 1 wants you to expand the experimental section con siderably, providing details of all the sample prepa ration steps and adding a glossary of the terms in Figure 6. Reviewer 2 wants the experimental section shortened and Figure 6 replaced with a simple flow chart. Reviewer 3 proposes deleting the experimen tal section, since everyone knows how to do this sort of measurement, and substituting a Far Side car toon for Figure 6 I agree with the reviewers' sugges tions and request that you comply with all of them. Sincerely, E. Wombat, Editor. P.S. We re trying to clear our inventory of back papers and so I'd like to get the revision back by next Tuesday. Hello, is this Dick Felder? .. Dick, you don't know me but I've got a fantastic opportunity for you to earn big bucks. Let me just have a few minutes of your time to explain 0 175

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Research on NEURAL NETWORKS OPTIMIZATION, AND PROCESS CONTROL DOUGLAS J. COOPER, LUKE E.K. ACHENIE University of Connecticut Storrs CT 06269-3139 R esearch into the use of artificial neural net works ( ANN s ) in process control systems has increased dramatically in recent years. Op timization methods play a fundamental role in the training of ANNs as well as in the implementation of modern strategies for multivariable process control. Hence as illustrated in Figure 1 there is a philo sophical relationship among ANNs, optimization and process control that guides our research program at the University of Connecticut (UConn ). In this article we will present an overview of several research projects that focus on these subject areas. Our goal is to stir the interest and in crease the motivation of those students who are considering graduate studies in chemical engineer ing, and in particular, in neural networks optimiza tion, and process control. The research at UConn is conducted in the Intelli gent Process Systems Laboratory ( IPS Lab ), a lab associated with the Department of Chemical Engi neering Both the IPS Lab and the department are located at the UConn campus in Storrs, where about Douglas J. Cooper is Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering and Director of the Intelli gent Process Systems Laboratory He received a BS from the University of Massachusetts (197 7 ) an MS from the University of Michigan ( 1978) and after three y ears of industrial experience with Chevron Research Company a PhD from the University of Colorado (1985 ). 176 Luke E. K. Achenie is Assistant Professor of Chemical Eng i neering and Associate Dire c t o r o f the Intelligent Process Systems Laboratory He received a BS from MIT in chemical engineering (1981) an MS from Northwestern in engineering science (1982 ) and an MS in applied math (1984) and a PhD in chemical engineer i ng (1988) from Carnegie Mellon University Copyright ChE D ivision of ASEE 1992 NEURAL NETWORKS PROC E SS CONTRO L OPTIMIZATION METHODS Figure 1. Philosophical relationship g uidin g r e sear c h program. 12 500 undergraduates and 3,500 graduate students study under the guidance of some 1 200 faculty mem bers. The Department of Chemical Engineering has about 120 undergraduates 50 graduate students, and 13 faculty. The IPS Lab is a relatively new facility that houses researchers and equipment for a number of inter disciplinary projects. A myriad of computer equip ment, including RISC-based workstations and the newest personal computers are available for use by student and faculty researchers. Access to the Cornell Supercomputer Center and high-end com puters such as the Sequent Symmetry S27 parallel computer and IBM vector machines, is possible through high speed networks. Current projects range from fundamental theo retical studies to applied process implementations and include faculty from chemical, electrical, and mechanical engineering as well as researchers from local industry. The IPS Lab also interacts with other research programs at UConn, including the Biotech nology Center, the Booth Center for Computer Ap plications Research, the Environmental Research Center, the Institute of Material Science, and the Precision Manufacturing Center. Ch e m i cal En g in ee ring Education

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CURRENT RESEARCH IN THE IPS LAB The number and direction of individual research projects are influenced by technological needs of government agen cies and industry, as well as developments in science and technology. Some of the research projects currently re ceiving attention by IPS Lab researchers are discussed in the following paragraphs. Neural Network Arch i tectures for Contro l ANN s are computing tools made up of many simple highly interconnected processing elements ANNs are generating excitement both because they are able to model a wide range of complex and nonlinear problems with relative ease and because they have proven to be powerful and easy-to-implement tools for pattern recogni tion applications. ANNs hold additional promise that make them particu larly interesting to the process control researcher. For example, ANNs can be used to model complex processes without requiring the engineer to possess a fundamental understanding of the underlying physical phenomena. Further, they can model processes and recognize patterns when the data is imprecise or corrupted with noise. Finally, ANNs are relatively easy for practitioners to em ploy in solving real-world problems compared to more traditional statistical and first-principles approaches In process control research, investigators have proposed using ANNs for modeling nonlinear process dynamics, for filtering noisy signals, for modeling the actions of human operators, for interpreting advanced sensor data and for fault detection and diagnosis. Despite these efforts there are still a number of issues which must be addressed if ANN s are to fulfill their promise in pro cess control applications. Knowledge is stored in ANNs by the choice of function used in each processing element (or neuron), by the way the neurons are connected to each other, and by the weight ing values used in each neuron connection. These choices taken together comprise the network architecture. Three architectures receiving attention by researchers include feed forward nets such as the backpropagation ANN shown in Figure 2, recurrent nets such as the single layer Hopfield ANN shown in Figure 3, and vector quantizing nets such as the Kohonen ANN shown in Figure 4. Each of these architectures has a number of variations For example, when considering the backpropagation ANN, the number of neurons in the input and output layer is typically determined by the application However the number of hidden layers and the number of neurons within each hidden layer must be chosen by the engineer and is often determined by trial and-error In one research project, we are employing analysis tools such as singular value decomposition and variational apFall 1992 OUTPU T S /GNA L S F ROM NET /NPU T S / GNALS T O NET Fig u re 2. Backpropagation n e ural network. OVTPVT S/GNA L S FROM NET /NPVT S/GNALS TO NET Fig ur e 3. Single lay e r Hopfield neural network. OUTPUT S/GNALS FROM NET E ACH NEURON RECE/VES ENT/RE /NPUT PATTERN /NPUT S/GNALS TO NET Figu r e 4. Kohon e n neural n e twork. 177

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proaches [ 1 l to develop a theoretically sound method ology for determining appropriate net architectures for particular applications. Once an architecture is chosen, the engineer must make decisions about ANN training. Typically training data is either historical data from the ac tual process or simulated data generated from computer models of the process. A network is repeat edly exposed to this data until it "learns by example" as it converges on the process relationships con tained in the data. Thus the engineer must decide how much train ing data is adequate, whether this data properly spans the entire range of expected operation and how much training is required before the ANN can be considered converged. The answers to these and similar questions, especially as they pertain to ANN applications in process control, are also under study at the IPS Lab In one recent effort p1 we compared the strengths and weaknesses to two ANN architectures when employed for pattern-based adaptive process control. A current investigation considers the use of faster optimization algorithms such as successive quadratic programming and conjugate gradients coupled with efficient trust region techniques to sig nificantly speed up training times of ANN s. Implementation of these tech niques on parallel computers will also be investigatedJ 3J Pa tt ern-Based Adaptive Process Cont r ol A controller continually adjusts a pro cess input variable so that the controlled output variable successfully tracks a desired value or set point. A well-tuned havior of the process. If, whenever the process char acter changes, this model is updated so that it re mains descriptive of the current process dynamics, then a wide variety of popular model-based control algorithms such as Internal Model Control or Dy namic Matrix Control can be used to maintain desir able process control performance. The traditional method for updating the controller process model is through regression of recently sampled process input output data. The result is a correlative model between the manipulated variable and controlled variable that can be used in many adaptive algorithms This traditional architecture is illustrated in Figure 5 In the IPS Lab a different approach to controller model updating is under study that may ultimately prove easier for industrial practitioners to employ. In this research the performance of the controller is assessed by evaluating the patterns exhibited in the controller error, which is the difference between the desired set point and the measured value of the controlled variable The pattern recognition capa bilities of a neural network are exploited to perform this analysis and to relate observed patterns to re quired updates in controller model parameters A PROCESS IN P UT MODELING ALGORITHM UNMEASURED DISTURBANCE PROCESS OUTPUT --------FEEDBACK S I G N A L controller manipulates the input vari able both to minimize the impact of unplanned disturbances and to track any Figure 5. Mod e l-based adapti ve pro cess co ntrol architecture. changes in the set point value. Many chemical processes are nonlinear and/or have a process character which changes with time. A process may have a changing character, for example, due to fouling or catalyst deactivation over time. Hence the tuning of a controller on such processes must be self-adjust ing or adaptive if desirable performance is to be maintained. One approach for making process con trollers adaptive is to employ a process model internal to the controller archi tecture which describes the dynamic be178 PERFORMANCE E V ALUATION NETWORK l--'--CON T RO L L E R <----.., PROCESS <---~ SET PO I N T '----PROCESS L--~ _J PROCESS CONTROLLER INPUT OUTPUT ERROR UNMEASURED DISTURBANCE --------------------FEEDBACK SIGNAL Figure 6. Pattern-bas e d performance feedback adaptive co ntroll e r Chemical En gineeri n g Edu ca t ion

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The d esign of a ne u r a l network which can recognize both the oscillatory an d non-oscillatory p a tterns th a t are associated with aggressive, desirable, and sl u ggish c on tr o ller perform a nce is reas o nably straightf o rwar d pattern-based performance analysis architecture is illustrated in Figure 6 Take as an e x ample a proces s that responds to a set point change with a larg e overshoot followed b y slowly damping oscillation s. On e possible explana tion is that the gain and/or time constant of the controller model is small relative to that of the actual process. Alternatively, an explanation for a slow response after a set point change is that the gain and/or time constant of the controller model is too large. Hence, the manner in which a poorly performing controller i s mistun e d can be inferred from the patterns displayed in th e recent history of the controller error The design of a neural network which can recog nize both the oscillatory and non-oscillatory patterns that are associated with aggressive, desirable, and sluggish controller performance is reasonably straightforward. The challenge is to associate these transient patterns with the required updating of the controller model parameters in order to restore de sired performance Methods for achieving this are under study in the IPS Lab and recent successes are based on approximating all real processes with a generic or ideal simulated process. 1 2 4 51 Pattern Based Process Exc it ation Diagnostics The traditional method for updating the process model internal to an adaptive controller ( as illus trated in Figure 5 ) is based on regression ofrecently sampled process input-output data. To ensure that a properly descriptive process model results from th e regression data samples must be collected when the process is experiencing a meaningful or sufficiently exciting" dynamic event. During such an e vent, the changes in the manipulated process input must im part changes to the process output variable that clearly dominate both the measurement noise and any dynamics resulting from unmeasured distur bances. The engineer often uses simple criteria for excita tion such as when the difference between the model predicted estimate of the output variable and the actual measurement of that variable exceed some minimum value. Unfortunatel y, such an approach is not very reliable for detecting when the process is experiencing input-output excitation Fall 199 2 and fails altogether when the disturbance dynamics dominate the event. Thus we are studying innovative methods for the diagnosis of process excitation that are reliable and eas y to use. In this work we initially focused on patterns exhibited in the process input variable alone under the assumption that if the process in put was experiencing significant dynamics, then the process will be sufficiently excited for reliable data regression .l6J Building on this idea current research exploits the pattern recognition capabilities of ANNs to construct an improved excitation diagnosti c tool. The approach under study considers t he rec e nt histories of both the input and output sampled data patterns together as a complete process snapshot. The neural net work is being trained to observe the behavior of both variables simultaneously and to signal whenever a dynamic event that is producing process input-out put data suitable for model regression is in progress. Control Des i gn w i th Objec ti ve Pr i oritizat i o n Controller designs based on the use of an internal controller model, such as Dynamic Matrix Control ( DMC ) are finding their way into industrial prac tice One advantage to the DMC architecture is that in many applications, relatively simple process mod els are adequate to achieve good control performance Further DMC can handle soft control constraints in a straightforward and systematic manner. A multivariable DMC implementation where con trol objectives are to be balanced against economic objectives may be achieved through the use of weights .t1 1 However this strategy forces the engi neer to specify a large number of weights which is equivalent to specifying a large number of tuning parameters. The problem is compounded when engi neers are responsible for many control loops in a large plant, compelling them to resort to ad hoc or trial-and-error tuning. A method for circumventing this problem is the modular multivariable controller design methodol ogy In this approach manipulated variables are designated as primary or secondary, where primary variables are the last to be allowed to achieve a desired optimum level. Unfortunately in order to Cont i nued on p age 22 1. 179

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tin class and home problems ) The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems in chemical engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a particular principle in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel home problem, are requested, as well as those that are more traditional in nature and which elucidate difficult concepts. Please submit them to Professors James 0. Wilkes and Mark A. Burns, Chemical Engineering Department, Univer sity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Ml 48109-2136. THE INFLUENCE OF CATALYSTS ON THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM JOHN L. FALCONER University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309-0424 T he influence of heterogeneous catalysts on how chemical equilibrium calculations are carried out is demonstrated by the following short problem, which will be viewed as a simplified repre sentation of methanol synthesis. (_P_r_o_b_l_e_m_S_ta_t_e_m_e_n_t ___________ ) The inlet feed to a catalytic reactor is pure A. What is the maximum mole fraction of B that can be ob tained in a catalytic reactor for the parallel, revers ible reactions with the indicated equilibrium con stants ( 1 ) ( 2 ) (_s_o_lu_t_io_n ________________ ~) A reasonable approach is to solve the two equilib rium equations simultaneously to obtain the following mole fractions X A = 0 08 x 8 = 0.12 X e= 0 80 But if the appropriate catalyst was chosen so as to accelerate Reaction ( 1 ) preferentially then a much higher mole fraction of B could be obtained ( x 8 = 0.60 ) That is, the mole fraction as a function of time would follow a pathway such as that shown Copyright ChE D iuision of ASEE 1 992 1 8 0 John L. Falconer is prolessor of chemical engi neering at the University of Colorado at Boulder, where he has been since 1975 He received his BS degree from the Johns Hopkins University and his PhD from Stanford University He teaches courses in reactor design thermody namics and catalysis His research interests are in the areas of heterogeneous catalysis on supported metals and oxides so/id-cataly z ed gas solid reactions photocatalysis and cata lytic membrane reactors in Figure 1 and the above mole fractions would only be obtained at long times. To simplify generation of Figure 1, the forward rate constant of Reaction ( 1) was assumed to be 100 times the forward rate constant of Reaction (2). In an actual catalytic system these rate constants can differ by many more orders of magnitude. If the reactor residence time was chosen in the broad region in Figure 1 where product B is favored, then a much higher concentration of B could be obtained than expected based on consideration of both equilibrium reactions simultaneously. Because of its larger rate con stants, Reaction (1) reaches equilibrium so rapidly that it is not affected significantly by Reaction ( 2) until longer reaction times Discussion Most undergraduate textbooks in kinetics and re actor design discuss heterogeneous catalysis because the majority of chemical processes use a catalyst to obtain desired products at high rates. Many of these textbooks, however, either do not mention the inter action between catalysts and thermodynamic equi librium, or they give a false impression of how cata lysts affect practical equilibrium obtained in a chemi cal reactor. For example, typical statements from reactor design textbooks about this topic are l 1 -31 Th e th e rm o d y nami c e quilibrium i s unalt e r e d b y th e pr esen ce Ch e mi c al En g in ee rin g Edu c ation

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o f a ca tal ys t A ca t a l ys t c han ges o nl y th e ra t e of r eac ti on; i t d oes n o t effec t th e e quilibri u m Th e p os iti o n of e quil ib r i um in a r eve rs i b l e r e ac t io n i s n o t c han ge d b y th e pr esence of a ca ta l ys t. E quilibrium co n ve r sio n i s n o t a lt e r e d b y c at a l ysis. These statements are all correct but they may give the wrong impression because they only apply at times that may be long compared to the reactor residence time They do not indicate that catalysts give us the option of deciding which reactions to consider in the equilibrium calculations. Methanol synthesis from CO and H 2 clearly dem onstrates this point. Consider the two reactions Equilibrium C onst a nt at 500 K CO + 2 H 2 CHpH 5. 3 x 10 3 (3) 2C0+4H 2 ~ C 2 H 5 0H+H 2 0 32 8 (4) At first glance, it would not appear worthwhile to build a methanol synthesis reactor; indeed, an ideal equilibrium calculation l 4 1 at 20 atm and 500 K for a 1 : 1 feed composition yields the following mole fractions: X co = 0 50 XH 2 = 6 X 10 3 X C2 H 50 H = 0 25 XH 2 0 = 0 25 For this feed composition the equilibrium cal culation indicates that H 2 is almost completely consumed and the main products are ethanol and water. Almost no CH 3 OH is predicted to form based on thermodynamic equilibrium for these two reac tions. Of course, commercial plants exist that make methanol on a large scale from CO and H 2 and the undesired reactions are the formation of C 2 H 5 OH and hydrocarbons. If only Reaction ( 3 ) is considered in the equilib rium calculation, however, then a reasonable yield of CH 3 OH is predicted: X co = 0 50 XH 2 = 0 36 In this case only a fraction of the H 2 is consumed Clearly this is the correct equilibrium calculation for the industrial process; even though C 2 H 5 OH also forms, 15 ,6 1 we do not consider Reaction ( 4 ) in the equilibrium calculation because Reaction ( 3 ) is so Fall 199 2 1.0 ,oo r B A &<> "1 11.8 1 A o., ':::::C C: C 2 0.6 B ti "' .... u..
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means that the maximum mole fraction for CH 3 0H is 0.14, not 4 x 10 -5 Thus, catalysts can modify practical thermody namic equilibrium by dictating that equilibrium for each reaction be considered separately. Catalysts do not change equilibrium constants, but the properly chosen catalyst allows us to ignore many of the reac tions in equilibrium calculations because their rates are low. As pointed out by Hamilton and Greenwald1 7 1 Of all th e compo und s that might th eo r e ti ca ll y form, it is well known that it is ne cessary t o have th e rmod y nami c information on only CO, H 2 and C H 1 OH to ca irn/ate equilibrium co n ce ntrations and y ields in suc h a selectively c atal yze d sys t e m. We ignore an entire class of reactions when we calculate the equilibrium yield for methanol without also considering the equilibrium for paraffins forma tion, even though 11G > 0 for methanol formation, and 11G < 0 for methane and higher paraffin forma tion. All the higher alcohols and all the paraffins are more thermodynamically favored than methanol, 1 9 1 but they are formed in very low concentrations over the typical ZnO/Cr 2 0 3 catalyst. In summary, catalysts affect practical equilibrium lfii book review INTRODUCTION TO MACROMOLECULAR SCIENCE by Peter Munk John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York; 522 pages, $44.95 (1989) Reviewed by Matthew Tirrell University of Minnesota ) As a research field, polymer science has flourished within chemical engineering more than in any other traditional academic discipline and, while I have not surveyed this quantitatively I feel confident in as serting that many more courses on aspects of poly mer science and technology are taught in chemical engineering than in any other kind of department. That fact alone makes the appearance of a new text book on polymer science a noteworthy event for chemical engineering On top of that, there is the fact that polymer science has become so broad a topic that there are many ways to approach its pre sentation and concomitant, there is a general dissat isfaction with the books available for instruction during the last five years. It was precisely this feel ing that led Professor Munk to write this book, as he explains in the Preface; for this, I salute him since complaining is certainly easier and more immedi182 conversions because conversions much higher than those calculated from equilibrium can be obtained in catalytic reactors. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to thank Prof. William B Krantz for very fruitful discussions about this topic and Prof. Scott H Fogler for some useful suggestions. Thanks also to Eric M. Cordi for generating Figure 1. REFERENCES L Holland C D. and R.G Antony Fundam e nta ls of C h emical Rea ctio n Engin ee r i n g, Prentice Hall ( 1979 ) 2. Fogler H.S El e m ents of Chemical R eaction En gi ne e rin g, 2nd ed. Prentic e Hall ( 1992 ) 3 Smith J M ., Chemi cal E ngi neering Kin et i cs McGraw-Hill (1981 ) 4. O'Brien, J .A., REACT !, Version 2 0 progr am 5. Campbell, J.M., Cataly sis at Surfa ces, Chapman a nd Hall ( 1988 ) 6 Chinche n G.C ., P J. D enny, J.R. Jennings M.S Spencer and K.C Waugh App l. Catal., 36 1 ( 19 88 ) 7 Hamilton, B.K. and M.J Gree nwald J Ch em. E d 51 732 ( 1974 ) 8. Satterfield, C N. H e terogeneous Catalysis M cG raw-Hill ( 1980 ) 9. Klier, K. Adv in Catal ., 31, 243 ( 1982 ) 0 ately gratifying than bookwriting. The book is intended for a first course in polymer science but is at a level that would be appropriate for introducing the subject to either seniors or graduate students. It comprises five chapters, the first four of them quite large and broad in themselves: Structure of Macromolecules, Techniques for Synthesis of Poly mers, Macromolecules in Solution, and Bulk Poly mers. These are solid, information-rich chapters. The fifth chapter, Technology of Polymeric Materials, is but ten pages long and is not really up to the job announced by its title The flow of topics, beginning with a detailed dis cussion of the ways that macromolecules can be put together followed by a second detailed chapter on synthetic methods is, in my view, exactly appropri ate for an introductory book. Connections made be tween uncharged, synthetic polymers, which are the main subject of the book, and important related top ics, such as polyelectrolytes micelles, proteins, and polynucleotides, are very well done and useful. Par ticular care has gone into placing polymer science in a proper context, which is both educational for the reader and likely to stimulate student interest by helping them see connections. The third chapter on polymers in solution is also filled with important and useful information on the basic physical chemistry of mixture of polymers with solvents. I begin to find divergence between the Chemical Engin ee r ing Edu c ation

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author's point of view and m i ne in the heart of this chapter The presentation of experimental methods when viewed from the perspective of current prac tice, overemphasizes membrane osmometry and ul tracentrifugation and underemphasizes scattering oflight and, particularly, of neutrons. Neutron scat tering goes unmentioned in this chapter on solutions and only makes a brief appearance in the fourth chapter on bulk polymers. The section on equation of-state solution theories misses a great opportunity to highlight the work of Professor Munk 's colleague in chemical engineering, Isaac Sanchez who, with Bob Lacombe, showed ( in the late seventies) how the Flory-Huggins lattice model could be extended in a simple but powerful way to comprehend PVT effects in the phase behavior of polymer mixtures Nonethe less, this is a perfectly usable chapter by any in structor of polymer science no matter what his or her personal prejudice might be. Up to this point this book ranks in my estima tion with Paul Flory's first book Principles of Pol mer Chemistry in terms of the sequence and balance of coverage. ( I should add so that you can calibrate me and my judgment, that I insist that any new graduate student working with me become completely conversant with the entirety of Flory. ) The gap of Professor Munk's divergence from my ideal path widens in Chapter 4 on bulk polymers I su s pect that this is related to a divergence from Professor Munk's own interests as he is a widely respected physical chemist with interests in polymer solutions Chapter 4 still contains considerable use ful information and most of what is in it is impor tant. However it is the omissions to which I object Perhaps the single most important development in bulk polymers during the eighties has been the elabo ration of the concept of reptation. This word is men tioned exactly once in this book. Rubber elasticity, classical viscoelasticity of polymers, and mechanical properties of semicrystalline polymers are all well covered in this book, making it very suitable for a course that deals significantly with physical proper ties of polymers On the other hand, modern poly mer melt rheology is essentially absent Another point of omission in this book ( with which I disagree, but which is done explicitly and inten tionally by the author ) is the absence of primary references. No references are given in the text ( ex cept for figure captions ); references to other books exclusively, are given in lists for all chapters at the end of the book. I don't mind the collection of all references at the end or even the lack of references inserted in the text-but I think it is a mistake not to tell students where the primary literature is They Fall 1992 rPOSITIONS AV AILABL E """""' Use CEE's rea sona ble rat es to advertise. Minimum r ate, 1 / 8 page, $100; Each additional column inch or portion thereof, $40. VIRGINIA PO LYTECHNIC INSTITUTE AND STATE UNIVERSITY T h e C h e mi ca l E n gi n eeri n g Department at Vi r gin i a Tec h i s see kin g app li can t s fo r a f ull time tenure-track facu lt y position. The department is l ooki n g for ap pli cants w ith r esearc h a nd teaching interests in any of the areas of biotechnology materia l s environme nt a l e n gi n eering process design a nd modeling a nd thermodynamics However, qu alified app li ca nt s with o th e r areas of i nt eres t wi ll also be co n si d ered. Duti es includ e teaching at the und e r gra du a t e a nd gra du a t e l eve l s, es t a bli s hin g a nd co n ducting a funded re searc h pro g r a m a nd departmental se r v i ce. R a nk a nd sa l ary co mm e n s urate with qualifications. Virginia Tech ha s a pp rox im ately 20,000 undergraduates (5, 000 in th e Co ll ege of E ngin ee rin g, includin g 17 0 in C h e mic a l Engineering) a nd 4,000 gra du a t e s tud e nt s ( 1 ,300 in th e College of E n gi n eer in g including 50 in C h e mi c al Eng in ee rin g) Appli can t s s h o uld se nd a r es um e a s t a t e m e nt of research and teaching int e r es t s a nd the n ames a nd a ddr esses of three references fami li ar wi th th e ir work to : C h air Departmental Search Committee, Chemical Engineering De partme n t, Virginia Polytechnic Institute a n d State U ni ve r s i ty 1 33 R ando lph H a ll Blacksburg VA 24061-02 11. Applicatio n s w ill be acce pt ed until November 30, 1992, o r until the position is filled. Virginia Tech hir es o nl y U.S. c iti ze n s a nd l awfu ll y a uth o ri ze d a li e n wo rk e r s Virginia Tech i s a n Affi rm a tiv e Action/Equal Opportunity Emp l oye r and e n co ur ages quali fied women a nd min o riti es t o ap pl y UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA A t en u re-track Assistant or Associa t e Professor position i s available for A u g u st 1 993 a t th e Un i ve r si t y of F l o rid a. PhD degree r eq uir e d in Chemi cal Engi n eer in g or r e l a t ed fie ld. The preferred research area is bi oc h em i ca l e n gi n ee rin g; h owever o ut s t anding candidates in any area wi ll be co n si d ered. Job duties include teaching und e r grad u ate and gra du ate co ur ses developing a nd co ndu cti n g spo n so r ed a nd unsponsored research, supe r v i s in g a nd directing the ed u ca ti o n a l a nd research pro gra m s of gra du a t e s tud e nt s, a nd participatin g in d epart m e nt a l co ll ege, and uni ve r s it y affa ir s. Applicants s h o uld s ubmit a bri ef resume, a description of r esea r c h objec ti ves, a nd th e n ames of three r efe r e n ces t o: Fac ul ty Search Com mitt ee, Department of C h e mi ca l Engineering, Univers it y of Florida, Gainesville FL 326 11 The d ea dlin e is 1 2/3 1 /92 T h e U ni vers it y of Florida is a n Eq u a l Opportunity/Affirmative Ac ti o n E mpl oyer miss seeing the origins of textbook facts, complete with all the experimental considerations, errors, etc. Without that exposure, some students develop ei ther an unwarranted reverence or an insufficient appreciation, for the achievement behind what they read in their textbooks. On balance, this is a very good solid, usable text book for many variations on polymer science and engineering courses likely to be taught in chemical engineering departments. I have used it for the last year to introduce new graduate students to the re search field. As mentioned earlier complaining about books is a favorite pastime among instructors of polymer science. Professor Munk s book should di minish the complaints and raise the standard for those who would aspire to do better. 0 1 83

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CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING A Story of Continuing Fascination L. K. DoRAISWAMY Iowa State Universit y Ames IA 50011 C hemical engineering in its most general sense is broadly centered on two aspects of chemical processing: transformation engineering and separation engineering Transformation engineering addresses the engineering of physical and chemical change, while separation engineering deals with the principles and tools by which the products of trans formation can be obtained at stated levels of purity. The engineering of chemical change constitutes the core of chemical reaction engineering. Given the cen trality of chemical change in any chemical process, it is surprising that the principles and practices of chemical change did not coalesce into a well-defined area until the late 1950s. It was called "applied ki netics" before that time. Part 3 of Chemical Process Principles, by Hougen and Watson,111 was perhaps the first book to attempt a coherent educational pre sentation of the principles of reactor design The subsequent development of chemical reaction engineering (CRE) was rapid, almost dramatic, in the 1960s and 1970s. The increasing use of sophisti cated methods, so aptly and appropriately discussed by Aris,t 21 provides a reflective backdrop to the con tinuing research in this area. The field has expanded so vastly and so heterogeneously, through the export of its basic theme ( interaction between chemical and physical factors) to other areas of chemical transfor mation, that its own scope-if one can conceive of a scope for this "moving boundary problem"-is now being increasingly linked (" confined is not the right word) to chemical and petrochemical pro cesses. Among these are biochemical reaction engineering, microelectronic reaction engineering, polymer reaction engineering, and electrochemical reaction engineering. In the author's opinion, this is an irreversible change ( perhaps in the right direction ), and chemical reac tion engineering will continue to grow vertically within its own province, but always overlapping interac tively with the boundaries of its progeny. In any case, considering the quick dispersal of knowledge that is evident today and the commonality of many prin184 ciples, one can only conceive of different disciplines of CRE. The areas mentioned above are precisely that. If all of them are to come under a single um brella, then CRE, already interdisciplinary, would be truly ubiquitous. Over the years, chemical reaction engineering has progressed along two rather different paths. In Eu rope the emphasis has been more on the application of new and exciting concepts to conventional tech nologies, including the "bread and butter conven tions On the other hand, in the United States conventional technologies have not normally held much attraction for academia except perhaps in some areas such as catalysis There is much to be said in favor of both approaches, but what is likely to emerge as we move into the 21st Century is a bal anced synthesis of the two paths. UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CRE Concepts of CRE are taught in different courses. The emphasis in undergraduate curricula usually tends to be on homogeneous reactions catalytic re actions, and occasionally on multiphase reactions involving two or more reactive phases. It is impor tant that students get a broad exposure to various areas and systems covered by CRE in the junior year-in addition to a more rigorous course involv ing a few selected systems ( depending on the inter est and expertise of the instructor ). It is not uncom mon in today's world to find a graduating student who has had little or no exposure to the emerging areas of a subject, including CRE. This is a situation that must be addressed immediately. Students must be given a firmer grounding in order to cope with the challenges of the next century. L. K. Doraiswamy received his BS from Ma dras University and his MS and PhD from the University of Wisconsin. He is presently the Herbert L. Stiles professor at Iowa State Univer sity where he came after retiring as director of India 's National Chemical Laboratory. His re search has spanned several areas of chemical reaction engineering : gas-solid (catalytic and noncatalytic) reactions stochastic analysis, and surface science approach to catalytic reactor design Copy r ig ht ChE Di vision of ASEE 199 2 Chemical Engineering Education

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It is not uncommon in today's world to find a graduating student who has had little or no exposure to the emerging areas of a subject, incl ud ing CRE. This is a situation that must be addressed immediately. Students must be given a firmer grounding in order to cope with the challenges of the next century. Another concept that should be implemented is a scaled-down version of the think-tank concept in which the student is given a design problem and makes no a priori assumption as to the type of reac tor to be used. This is beautifully brought out in a Danckwerts Memorial Lecture by 0. Levenspiel 13J where he illustrates the concept with a specific ex ample. This approach stimulates thinking and anal y sis and every effort should be made to provide a course, or some kind of an individualized or tutorial mechanism, to foster an "educational think tank of the type proposed. COMPLEMENTARY ROLES O F ANALYSIS AND APPLIC ATI O N All too often, at the end of a course the student has learned most of the principles but has no clue as to the systems ( existing or potential) where they might be used. Sharma and Doraiswamy 141 addressed this problem in their book where many examples are given which illustrate principles or design situa tions. Furthermore, the student should acquire a feel for numbers, e.g., What is a slow" reaction? What is the range of effective thermal conductivities of common catalysts? What is the range of liquid side mass transfer coefficients in some real systems? The argument that these concepts can be acquired later is moot and less than comforting. This brings us to the pedagogic problem of analy sis vs. application. Many books including Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot's Transport Phenomena ,L 5 1 tend to be analysis oriented. There is great merit in that approach it was certainly the correct approach at a time when there was an overdose of empiricism and when descriptive and "experience" aspects of process technology held sway. But i t is increasingl y evident that analysis and application must comple ment each other. In CRE courses, for example, one can talk of controlling regimes and can present detailed analytical methods for discerning the controlling regimes, but it should be supplemented with industrial (or even laboratory ) examples of reactions conforming to those regimes Thus, if one is considering the mass transfer regime, it would be instructive to illustrate with examples such as dehydrogenation of cyclohexane, decom position of hydrogen peroxide, and hydrogenation of phenol (to name a few). Fall 1992 It should al s o be mentioned t hat a regular gradu ate course in CRE should invol v e a problem where the student is required to design a reactor for a selected reaction, starting from the base level-a literature search for getting the correct rate equa tion. ( This is slightly different from Levenspie l's concept where the reaction is new and no infor mation is available. ) Rase s Ch e mical Reactor D e sign for Proc e ss Plants rs1 contains such examples in its second volume. In toda y' s context, however, these examples should have a higher content of analysis and modeling. MORE CHEM I STRY IN CRE And-let s face it-the basis of all chemical engi neering is, after all, chemistr y, and the average chemical engineering student s knowledge of chem istry is less than it should be. Ei t her during a course in CRE or by additional course w ork in chemistr y, students must be required to gain a firmer feel for chemistry-definitely for inorganic and organic chem istry, and biochemistry and polymer chemistry in special cases Here, students of biochemical engi neering or polymer reaction engineering are a t an advantage since they enjoy greater exposure to the chemistry aspects of the subject than do students in a regular CRE course in chemical engineering. Such exposure at an early stage enhances the student s ability not only to deal with ever y day problems sub sequently encountered on the job but also in later years to formulate exciting problems of current or potential relevance The need for more chemistr y in chemical engineering was stressed by the author in a lecture ( delivered at Wiscons i n some years ago 1 1 1 ) which included a number of examples to strengthen the argument. SOME RESEARCH AREAS In a field that covers such a large mix of possibili ties it would be presumptuous to list areas for con tinued or future attention. Even so, there are certain areas which have the potential for significant im pact on the chemical industr y ( used in its broades t sense ). The following suggestions are perceptions not uncolored by the author s personal fancy or evalu ation, and should therefore be viewed in that light. Catalys i s and Catalyt i c React i o n Eng i neer i ng In an age where there is an increasing tendenc y to 1 85

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frown on conventional topics, catalysis is a refresh ing exception. It is among the oldest areas in chem istry, and yet it continues to be new. Perhaps its main driving forces are the omnipotence of catalysis and the intriguing fact that, in spite of its long run, it is just beginning to emerge from the shadows of empiricism. We are still a long way from answering the question "Can one design a catalyst for a given requirement?"-this could be the main reason for the unrelenting research in this area. With the help of sophisticated instruments, we are now looking at catalysis at its most fundamental level, particularly with the objectives of identifying the participating sites, mapping their energy levels, and understand ing the basis of selectivity. Iowa State University has a strong school of research in these areas. From the point of view of catalytic reaction engi neering and starting with the early publications of Amundson, rs1 we seem to have almost reached the end of the line where steady-state analysis is con cerned, and the state-of-the-art has been fully cov ered by Aris r 9 1 (also see Levenspielr 1 01 and Froment and BischofltUJ). That is not so, however, with re spect to unsteady state analysis (including multi plicity), for which some new mathematical tools have been develope d. [12J The role of adsorption and the use of noni d eal isotherms has all but evaded the atten tion of reaction engineers, and only recently have we started to look at adsorption, catalysis, and reac tor design in their totality.t 1 a1 This is presently an active area ofresearch at Iowa State University, and a recent conference in Poland addressed the prob lem, perhaps for the first time in an international forum. Another approach that is gaining ground in catalytic processes is the simultaneous consideration of feedstock, catalyst, reactor, selectivity, and sepa ration. I believe that these trends will continue well into the 21st Century. An area of catalytic reactor design that will gain momentum is gas phase polymerization in fluidized bed reactors. Following the first flush of success of fl u idized beds in the petroleum and petro chemical ind u stries, interest in the area waned when it was found that fluidization was no panacea for reactor evils. It began to wax again when coal conversion processes revived attention-but with a difference: fluidization of large particles. Perhaps the stage is now set for another revival-in the area of polymerization In a d dition to heterogeneous catalysis, we have homogeneous catalysis, where innovative coordina tion chemistry and catalyst recovery play vital roles. An exciting example is reductive carbonylation of 186 methanol. It is here that early exposure to inorganic chemistry would be most useful. It would also be useful in catalyst preparation technology and it is in this area that our ignorance coefficient is woefully high. Impregnation and drying of catalysts are still almost entirely empirical operations. The analysis of Varma and collaborators in a series of ten papers (see, for example, Part 9 which contains all previous references t 14 1 and Part 10, to appear soon ) shows that an optimum catalyst profile in the pellet can in crease catalyst activity and selectivity in many reac tions. This underscores the need for a more rigorous espousal of catalyst manufacturing science. So li d Sta te Reac ti o n Engi nee ring Today, research in solid state materials is a fron tier of enquiry. Solid-solid reactions were first men tioned in the mid-80s 1 4 1 as an area of interest in chemical reaction engineering. With the increasing participation of chemical engineers in materials development, this interest has grown to an astonish ing level today. Materials of interest include struc tural composites, ceramic materials, new metal compositions and microelectronic materials. The engineering science analysis of the reactions in volved in these preparations has been late in com ing, but it now appears to have taken root. There is little doubt that this interest will rise exponentially in the years ahead. Take microelectronics as an ex ample of the role of CRE in these materials; here we have processes such as deposition, etching, diffu sion, and implantation, in which different types of reactors are employed to carry out both homoge neous and heterogeneous reactions. CRE inputs are just beginning to flow into the analysis of these operations. There is a need to introduce electronic materials concepts at the undergraduate level, per haps as an elective. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using a variety of techniques is an important method of preparing solid state materials, particularly cata lytic materials A strong school of research as Iowa State University is exploring the preparation, char acterization, and use of such materials. React i on Cum Separat i o n ( o r t he rea c tor-separator combo ) One way to cut capital costs ( and increase conver sion and selectivity in some cases ) is to carry out the reaction and separation steps in a single piece of equipment, or to devise technologies where useful side-products are formed. The earliest example of the first kind is the well-known Solvay tower in which a number of operations occur simultaneously Chemical Engin ee rin g Edu c ati on

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to ultimately produce soda ash Indeed the Solvay tower is a veritable combo of multiple operations Although this reactor combo i s no longer a complete black bo x, many aspects of it s till are. But that is only one major example A number of other less complicated, examples of reaction-cum-recovery can be cited: the removal/recovery of acid gases such as CO 2 H 2 S, SO 2 recovery of valuable products from waste or dilute streams, or reaction-cum-crystalliza tion in the manufacture of such important products as citric and adipic acids. There is increasing intere s t particularly in schools outside the United States in the analysis of combo reactors. The type of research involved here is usually concerned with the application of new and innovative ideas in the so-called conventional manufacturing processes. At Iowa State research in crystallization has been in progress since the 1950s and more recently the problem of reaction cum-crystallization has been added to this continu ing program In the removal of oxygen present in levels below 2 % in gases like CO 2 it would be desirable to de velop absorbents with the ability to mimic hemoglo bin-type regenerative action Some manganese com pounds probably have such an ability In the separa tion of pand m-xylenes the difference in reactivity of the two can be successfully exploited. Thus, one can selectively alkylate m-xylene ( with the para iso mer untouched ) using acetaldehyde to give dixylylethane ( DXE ) 1 1 51 DXE, when cracked, gives half the amount of the meta isomer back along with the industrially useful side-product dimethylstyrene. Innumerable other instances can be quoted involv ing reactive extraction dissociation extraction re action and dissociation extraction crystallization to buttress the contention that this is indeed an exciting area of research with unlimited scope for the use of novel concepts. This area of research can serve as an example to strengthen the point made earlier that there should be more chemistry in CRE education and research In a lecture the author heard some years ago, the point was made that many companies do not expect significant chemistry input from chemical engineers. It would seem that chemistry input of the kind men tioned here must come primarily from reaction engi neers exposed to a lot of chemistry. ( Here, chemistry means the chemistry ofrelatively large and complex molecules encountered in, say, drugs and pesticides manufacture .) It is significant that one sees a greater degree of chemistry orientation in biotechnology and polymer science and engineering. F a ll 1 9 9 2 Microphase Reaction Engineering Reaction of a component from a liquid phase ( which we will call Phase 1 ) with another reactant of lim ited solubility diffusing from a second phase can be hastened if a small quantity of a microphase can be added to the system. If the particle size of the micro phase is smaller than the diffusion scale of the reactant, then these particles can get inside the liq uid film and transport more of the reactant from Phase 2 intoPhase 1. From two excellent reviews on the subject ,[16 11 1 it seems clear that the use of a microphase ( which may be a simple adsorbent like active carbon, a catalyst or a liquid dispersed as a colloid ) can in some cases enhance the reaction rate by almost an order of magnitude. Extension of this concept to include ( 1 ) sparingly soluble solute in Phase 1 itself, ( 2 ) a precipitated product with particles small enough to enter the liquid film ( or the fluid element in the language of the penetration theor y) capture more of the reac tant from the neighborhood of the second phase and discharge it into the bulk of Phase 1, and ( 3 ) micellar catalysis, has shown interesting possibilities. Par ticularly in cases like the production of citric acid ( where each of the two major steps involved contains a precipitating product phase ) control of conditions to reduce particle size to microphase levels can lead to remarkable enhancements in the precipitation rate. This is obviously a kind of precipitate-induced autocatalysis and offers much challenge both for the theoretician and the experimentalist. Organic Synthesis Engineering (selectivity engineering?) Much of the progress in CRE has been in areas relating to the production of high tonnage chemicals. It is only in the last ten to fifteen years that another focus has emerged: reaction engineering of small volume chemicals It is surprising that most of the hundreds of reactions involved in organic synthesis have remained outside the pale of CRE. Indeed, one is hard put to think of more than a few impor tant organic name reactions that have been sub jected to rigorous analysis. Examples are : Henkel reaction by Doraiswamy and collaboratorsp a. 1 s 1 Grignard reagent preparation by Hammerschmidt and Richarz ,(20 1 and Kolbe-Schmitt reaction by Phadtare and Doraiswamy .c2 1 1 With the increasing importance of small-volume chemicals particularly in the field of drugs and drug intermediates one would be greatly surprised if re action engineers do not, almost as a natural course extend their domain to include this area as a formal 187

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part ofCRE research. One sees considerable activity in Europe (particularly in Bourne's school) and in some industrial research and development centers in Europe and the USA, but a more pronounced involvement of CRE groups in academia is desirable. Several ways of improving selectivity have been used by chemists,r 22 1 some of which are being pur sued vigorously by chemical engineers. Phase trans fer catalysis is an outstanding example of the former in which some reaction engineering groups are evinc ing keen interest. Other means of increasing selec tivity are through the use of micelles, microphases, catalysts like zeolites and molecularly engineered layered structures, and controlled levels of micromixing. The last is particularly attractive from an engineering science point of view, as attested to by the extensive publications of Bourne and collabo rators (for example, Baldyga and Bourner 2a1). An other rewarding line of approach is the use of ultra sonics. The finding by Luche and Damiero r2 4 1 that ultrasonification can enhance yields in the Barbier reaction augers well for the increasing role of ultra sonics in synthesis engineering. A field of research in organic synthesis with great potential for enhanced selectivity and ease of opera tion is the possibility of extending the concept of supported liquid-phase catalysts to include supported reagents-with all the attendant advantages. The edited book of Hodge and Sherringtonr2 s1 provides clear evidence of the favorable role of the solid sup port. With the extensive knowledge we now have of fluid-solid (catalytic and noncatalytic) reactions, this field offers great scope for innovative approaches to, among other things, the reaction-diffusion problems inherent in such systems. Use of photochemistry and enzymes in organic synthesis can also greatly enhance specificity. These are well-known areas to the chemist and biochemist, but there is a definite need for increased CRE input Other Areas There are many other areas that merit attention and where there is bound to be continuing interest. Among these are interfacial engineering, an area that covers a mul titude of systems, including catalysis, colloids, and micellar action multiphase reactions (which involve at least one liquid phase) extensively used in the manufacture of fine chemicals gas-solid noncatalytic reactions, so common in pol lution abatement, preservation of monuments, ore processing, and catalyst regeneration analysis of operation "at the edge" in solid cata188 lyzed reactions meaning operating under condi tions where the diffusion and kinetic effects are balanced to maximum advantage increased attention to forced cycling use of appropriate solvents (for liquid phase reac tions ) such as dimethylsulfoxide to increase reac tivity use of ion exchange resins to replace liquid phase acid/base catalysts control strategies in multistep synthesis of phar maceuticals (including computerized optimization of the synthetic route) use of aqueous-aqueous extraction in reactive sepa ration reaction-cum-separation strategies for recovery of valuable products from dilute solutions, or removal of polluting components therefrom hazard analysis and prevention Many of the areas listed are not "new topics," but certainly all of them thrive on the use of innovative concepts. Areas such as recovery of valuable prod ucts from dilute solutions are replete with examples of the use of reaction as a tool for separation and recovery. A general strategy of intensification in which isolated studies have been reported, and which has the potential for treatment as an area of re search, is the role of dilution in process technology. An attempt was made by the author some years agol 7 J to put together the various aspects of intensifi cation by dilution, i.e., dilution of the gas and solid phases in catalytic reactions, dilution of solid in gas solid reactions, and "natural intensification" due to dilution in biological systems. Increased effort in this area could be very rewarding. CONCLUSION Education in CRE must explore new possibilities, some of which have been described in this article. Among these are a mini think-tank, a broad expo sure to the reaction engineering of a variety of sys tems to supplement the prevailing practice of en larging on a few, and initiation of electives in some emerging areas such as solid-state reaction engi neering and interface engineering. The overview presented here with respect to re search is indicative of the areas of present/potential relevance. The element of challenge will continue, whether the areas are new or traditional. While the researcher in CRE, like his counterparts in many other areas, must continue to vigorously ex plore new and emerging fields, let us not throw the conventional areas overboard. Recovery of value added products from dilute solutions (or waste Chemical Engineering Education

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streams) is an outstanding example of applying new concepts to old problems. Whether or not they at tract one's fancy, their importance will continue undiminished. So the educator, the researcher, and the funding agencies must look at new concepts in traditional areas with almost the same enthusiasm as at the emerging areas. Nucleation and growth must remain simultaneous. The chemical industry, notwithstanding the strains and vicissitudes imposed by a fluctuating economy and an increasing appreciation of environmental con cerns, permeates practically every facet of our lives and depends for its continued development on inven tion as well as innovation. Invention is getting a novel idea which works; innovation is overcoming all hurdles to its economic use.1 261 There is scope for both in CRE. To ensure continued dominance, academic research must become increasingly bold, industrial research must be supported rather than managed, and both must be more accommodative of shifts in approach and the delays they entail. REFERENCES 1. Houg e n O A ., and KM. Watson Ch e mical Process Pr in ci pl es, Part 3, Kinetics and Catalysis, Wiley NY ( 1947 ) 2. Aris, R. Is Sophistication Really Necessary ?" Ind Eng. Chem 58, 32(9) (1966) 3. Lev e nspi e l 0 ., "C hemical Engineering s Grand Adventur e," P.V. Danckwerts Memorial Lectur e, Chem. Eng Sci., 43 1427 (1988 ) 4. Doraisw a my L.K. and M M. Sharma, H e t eroge n eo us R e ac tions: Analysi s, Exampl es, and Reactor D esign, Vols 1 2 Wiley NY (1984 ) 5. Bird, R.B ., W.E. Stewart, and E.N Lightfoot Transport Phenomena, Wil ey, NY ( 1960 ) 6. Rase, H F. Chemical Reactor Design for Process Plant s, Vols 1 2 Wiley NY ( 1977 ) 7. Doraiswamy L.K. Acro ss Mill e ni a: Some Thought s on An cient and Contemporary Science and Engineering Hougen L e ctur e Series, Dept. of Chem Engineering University of Wisconsin Madison, WI ( 1987 ) 8 Aris R. and A. Varma eds ., Th e Mathematical Under sta ndin g of Chemical En ginee rin g Syst e m s: S e l ecte d Pap ers of Neal R Amundson Pergamon Press NY ( 1980) 9. Aris R. Th e M at h e mati ca l Th eo ry of Diffu sion and R eac tion in Permeable Catal ys ts Vols 1 2, Oxford Univ. Press London, UK (1975) ( The r efere nc e h ere is to Vol. 1 ) 10. Leven spie l, 0 ., Ch e mical Rea c tion Engin ee ring Wiley NY ( 1972) 11 Froment, G F ., an d KB Bischoff Chemical R eac tor Analy sis and D esig n Wiley NY ( 1990 ) 12. Lus s, D. "Stea dy State Multiplicit y Features of Chemically Reacting Systems," Chem. Eng. Ed., 20 12 ( 1986 ) 13 Doraiswamy L.K. "Chemical Reactions and R eacto rs : A Surface Science Approach," Prag. Surf S ci., 4 No s. 1 4, 1 277 ( 1991 ) 14 Gavriilidi s, A. an d A. Varma Optimum Cata l yst Activity Profiles in Pellets: 9 Study of Ethylene Oxidation, AJChE J ., 38 291 ( 1992 ) 15. Sharma M.M. Separations Through Reaction, J Separ. Pro c. T ec h ., 6 9 ( 1985 ) 16 Sharma M.M. Th e Fascinating Role of Microphases in Fall 1992 Multiphase Reaction s," Proc. Indian Natnl. Sci. Acad ., 57A, No 1 99 ( 1991 ) 17 M e hra A., Intensification of Multiphase Reaction s Through the Use of a Microphas e: 1 Theoretical," Chem. Eng Sci ., 43 89 9 ( 1988 ) 18. Gokhale M.V ., A T Naik, and L.K. Dorai s wamy An Un usual Observation in the Disproportionation of Potassium Benzoate to Ter e phthalat e," Ch e m. Eng. Sci ., 28 401 ( 1975 ) 19. R eva nkar V.V.S., and L K. Do raiswa my Kinetics of Th e mal Co nv e rsion of Potassium Salts of Benz e n e ( dia nd tri) Carboxylic Acids to Terephthalic Acid, Ind En g. Chem R es 31, 781 ( 1992 ) 20. Hammerschmidt W W ., and W Richarz Influence of Mas s Tran sfe r and Chemical Reaction on th e Kin etics ofGrignard Reagent-Formation for the Example of the Reaction of Bromoc yclo pentan e with a Rotatin g Disk of Magne sium," Ind. Eng Chem Res. 30 82 ( 1991 ) 21. Phadtare P G. and L K. Dorai swa m y, Kolbe-Schmitt Car bonation of 2 naphthol ," Ind En g. Ch e m. I Proc D es. & D ev., 8, 165 (1969 ) 22. Sharma, M.M., Lectur e: "Se lectivity Engineering ," published by the Council of Scientific and Indu strial Res earc h New Delhi India ( 1990 ) 23. Baldyga J ., and J R. Bourne A Fluid Mechanical Ap proach to Turbulent Mixing and Chemical Reaction Chem. Eng. Commun ., 28 231 ( 1984 ) 24. Luch e, J.L. and J.C. Damiero Ultrasonics in Organic Syn thesis : 1 Effect on the Formation of Lithium Organom etal lic R eagents," J. Am Chem. Soc ., 102, 7926 ( 1980 ) 25. Hodg e, P. and D.C. Sherrington, e d s., Pol y m e r Supported R e a ctio n s in Organi c Synthesis, Wile y, NY ( 1980 ) 26 Brown A.V ., Invention and Innovation Who and How ," Chemtech ( Dec ), 709 (1973) 0 REVIEW: Design Project Continued from pag e 174. ever, the authors do provide some insight into haz ardous operations analysis and general safety con siderations The nitric acid process selected is the traditional one without the more modern modification of reac tion gas compression. Surprisingly little is said about the need for cleanup of the tail gases from the ab sorber. The authors have provided a relatively simple process with a great deal of supporting data This should have appeal to faculty members who under stand quite well that it is an onerous chore to dig up all the supporting information for a realistic case study. The use of this text in the design course should follow an introductory design course which treats such matters as equipment cost estimating, profit ability studies, profit and loss statements, and the like. The authors point this out in the introductory material. If only one semester is allocated to design it is the opinion of this reviewer that adoption of this book would be a mistake. On the other hand, if a second semester ( or quarter ) is available, material in the book can support one or more worthwhile case study projects. 0 189

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A PILOT GRADUATE-RECRUITING PROGRAM E.D. SLOAN, R.M. BALDWIN, D.J.T. FIEDLER, J.T. McKINNON, R.L. MILLER Colorado School of Mines Golden CO 80401 D orothy and John are two outstanding seniors who are beginning to anticipate graduation. Dorothy has worked in a chemical engineer ing summer job with a company that is eager to have her take a permanent position while John has worked summers helping professors in various re search projects in his department. Both students are vital learners and want to investigate graduate school as a career option. As they look through graduate school ads and bro chures, talk to other students and professors, and read the fall issue of this journal, Dorothy and John begin to generate a list of candidate schools They notice several marked differences in regard to re search emphasis, size of programs, and location but they are particularly interested in the differences in graduate stipends. Although it appears that the fund ing differential is less than 10 % for the best candi date schools small discrepancies become significant when their own current budgets are considered. In early fall both students mail "inquiry forms" to various graduate schools and a f(;lw weeks later they begin to receive the requested information/applica tion packets. By October or November they have submitted several applications (limited somewhat by their student budgets of time and money). Of course, since neither Dorothy nor John want to re strict their other options, they also interview several companies that come to campus. They are interested to note that industrial salaries are a factor of three greater than academic stipends, and that some inAs they look through graduate school ads and brochures ... [the seniors] begin to generate a list of candidate schools. They notice several marked differences in regard to research emphasis, size of programs and locution .. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 1992 190 Dendy Sloan has thr ee degrees from Clemson Un iversity and did postdoctoral work at Rice Universit y. He spent five years in industry at four DuPont locations He has been at the Colorado School of Mines since 1976 Bob Baldwin is a native of Iowa He received his BS and MS from Iowa State University and his PhD from the Colorado School of Mines all in chemical engineering. He joined the faculty in 19 75 and is cur rently starting his third year as Department Head D.J T. Fiedler has worked as administrative assistant in the chemical engineering department at the Colorado School of Mines for the last two years. Prior to that she spent three years at California Institute of Technology in the Env ironmental Engineering Department Tom McKinnon has been an assistant professor at the Colorado School of Mines since August of 1991 He received his BS from Cornell in 1979 and his PhD from MIT in 1989. His research interests are in gas-phase chemical kinetics combustion, hazardous waste destruc tion and fullerene synthesis Ron Miller obtained his BS and MS at the University of Wyoming and his PhD from the Colorado School of Mines all in chemical engineer ing. He is currently associate professor on the CSM faculty where he has taught since 1986 terviewers discourage participation in graduate work. The company interviews go well, and both stu dents are subsequently invited for several site visits, at which time challenging and exciting work is dis played. The companies are quite aggressive in their personal contacts. In fact, Dorothy is contacted ev ery month or so by her former summer supervisor for a friendly chat, during which they discuss Dorothy's future plans In late November while they are waiting for the first personal contact from a university, both students are being pressed for posi tive answers to job offers from several companies. Dorothy, under some pressure for financial secu rity from her family, accepts an offer from a mid western biochemical firm, and in her natural excite ment she tells her friends of her decision. When she subsequently receives a call from Professor Jones of Whatsamatta U. about an interesting research project, she feels she cannot change her mind con cerning the industrial position without embarrass ment before her peers. The graduate school option is closed in her mind. John, however has not applied to the same gradu ate schools as Dorothy. One graduate school has sent him a video tape of their program, along with Chemical Engineering Education

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their application packet. A few weeks later the mail brings a follow-up letter and a research summary from the school, inquiring if he has received the packet and requesting the completion of a card that ranks his interests in various research projects. Because John seems to be an excellent candidate, the department continues to communicate with him about every three weeks. Faculty members ( includ ing the department head ) call John several times to express their interest in his application. A depart ment administrative assistant who seems genuinely interested in John s application serves as the focal point for all written communications In each letter John receives from the department, he is asked to return some kind of information ( in a postpaid enve lope ) which then provides the department with a progressive exploration of his personal interest in graduate school. With this kind of communication John keeps the possibility of graduate school alive, though he makes no definite commitments either to industry or academia. In December the department extends an invita tion for John to visit the campus in January at the school's expense When John's plane arrives on Thursday evening, he is met by Dr. Chehead, the department head who takes him directly to a bed-and-breakfast lodging on the edge of campus. Friday is spent in taking departmental tours and in discussions with faculty. Then John s faculty host takes him to dinner on Friday evening and they discuss all the possibilities and questions raised during the day John spends Saturday skiing with prospective colleagues who are already gradu ate students in the department, and a pizza dinner completes an exhausting but fun-filled, day Early Sunday morning Dr Chehead takes John to the airport for his return flight. A week later a letter of admission and a stipend offer is sent to John preceded by a call from Dr. Chehead telling him that the faculty was impressed with his potential. Another faculty Dr. Egghead, also calls John to discuss concepts in reprints which interested him during his visit After deliberating for another week John formally accepts the department s offer and tells friends of his decision. PLANNING REVISIONS TO GRADUATE RECRUITING Th e above composite case studies of Dorothy and John emphasize recent applicant contact changes in our graduate recruiting program at the Colorado School of Mines. Our program objectives were to increase the number and quality of accepted appli Fall 199 2 cants to both our traditional program and to a new non-thesis MS program for industrial engineers in the Denver area. Our target population was stu dents with a traditional or a non-traditional back ground allied to chemical engineering. Graduate study is no exception to the heuristic that the quality of the supply material dictates the quality of the product. Our recruiting program was organized in an effort to combat the demographics of future shortages of incoming graduate students For Graduate study is no exception to the heuristic that the quality of the supply material dictates the quality of the product. Our recruiting program was organized .. to combat the demographics of future shortages of incoming graduate students. example the national number of PhDs in science and engineering has been forecast by Atkinson l1 1 to have an annual shortfall from 1,000 to 10 000 de grees during the period from 1995 to 2010. Atkinson indicates that this will be the result of a "cumulative shortfall of several hundred thousand scientists and engineers at the baccalaureate level by the turn of the century ." While many such studies differ in quan titative predictions the qualitative trends are al most always similar The basis for our recruiting changes was obtained from a study by P.B. Brownt 21 of 250 graduate pro grams which ranked the reasons that resulted in a graduate student s choice of a particular school ( other considerations being equal). The five criteria highest on the list were: C o mp e titiv e finan c ial as s i s tan ce P e rsonal c o nta c t (l e tt e r s, phon e, e t c .) R efe rral s exc han ge d w ith c oll e a g u es Pr o moti o n a l mat e rial s on pro g ram s Subsidi ze d v i s its for promisin g s tud e nt s Most academics could easily list other less tan gible and perhaps more vital, criteria-such as ex pertise in a research area, size of faculty and pro gram reputation, location etc. However, such changes are more far-reaching and less easily ad dressed by a pilot program than the five criteria listed above The principal ingredient of our program was the intellectual and energetic commitment of de partment personnel. Since the faculty were al ready occupied with other important projects our first step was to determine resources in the form of time and funds. These were obtained by a re191

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organization of department committee priorities and through the funding of a two-year pilot program by the Graduate Dean. The departmental involvement in graduate recruit ing increased from 10% to 40% of the faculty during this period. Most importantly an able administra tive assistant consistently managed the program de tails (comm unications record keeping, expenses, etc.) as one of her primary functions. For example, letters progressively tailored to an individual's interest are initiated by the administrative assistant to ensure that only a small amount of time separates commu nications between an inquirer/applicant and the de partment. Any student who has his/her GRE scores sent directly to the school is automatically sent an application packet. The Graduate Dean was naturally concerned about graduate recruiting across the institution. He agreed to fund our two-year pilot program with two provisos: (1) that we obtain a mid-point pro gram evaluation by a consultant, and (2) that we make the results of the pilot program available to the entire campus. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE PROGRAM In addition to our efforts to address Brown's five criteria for cost-effective recruiting, some innovative aspects of our program are: We made a professional-quality video tape complete with music and voice-overs, that describes faculty research the department the schoo l and the living environment. As a rule-of-thumb the cost of s uch a tape is$ IO00/minute for a nominal fifteen-minute tape At the s uggestion of our consultant, we s hipped a copy of this tape to every U.S. inquirer. Each year we took part in the Student Career Fair held a t the ann u al AIChE conference via a visually attractive di s play booth s taffed by a faculty member. About five hundred s tudents attend mission and for fin a ncial support. Soon after each a pplication was evaluated, th e review committee met t o finalize admission/ a id de c i s ion s and t o resolve di sc repan c i es between recommen dations. We be gan t o be more consistent in ob tainin g international stu dents. Two exa mpl es: we b ega n record k ee pin g on applicant performance from sc hool s abroad, a nd we be ga n to orga ni ze r ec ruiting visits to fin e chemical e n gi n ee rin g sc h oo l s in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. THE PERSONAL TOUCH: CAMPUS VISIT AND FOLLOW-UP Of all the components of our enhanced recruiting program, one of the most important to its success was the visit of prospective graduate students to our campus. The close faculty interaction with prospec tive students and our location both make us think the campus visit deserves a ranking close to the top of Brown's list of cost-effective recruiting measures. Prior to designing our procedures, we spoke with several of our own students regarding their experi ences in interviewing at other universities as pro spective graduate students. Several of the key points that emerged from these conversations which later guided the construction of our campus visits were: It is vital to have close personal interaction with at le as t o n e host faculty member who, ideally shou ld hav e the s am e re s pon s ibilities that were fulfilled by Dr. Chehead in the opening case s tudy Efforts s hould b e made to have th e s tudent inter v i ew th e faculty regarding his or her own research inter es t s and pro gra m s; visits dominated by int erv i ews with other graduate st udent s and post docs were not perceived as useful. [ndividual student visits are more u sef ul than one gro up visit. Ind vidual st udent s relate to individual faculty, but s tud e nt s visiting in a gro up hav e more in co mmon with eac h other than with the ho s t institution. Quick departmental follow-up after th e visit was a key in so lidifying the student's int e r es t a nd commitment. TABLE 1 this event each year. We held an annual Department Open Hou se, CEPR Graduate Recruiting Results principally for people from local indu s try who hold undergraduate degrees in chemical engi neering or chemistry. The event included brief pre se ntations, a poster session hi ghlighting departmental research and laboratory tours About 1500 letter s of invitation were sent to members of AIChE and ACS in the Denver area, resulting in twenty attendees and about forty reque s ts for more written information. We identified sister in s titutions which might be so ur ces of incomin g s tudents and began an exc han ge program o f se minar s p eakers with them. At each seminar away from ca m pu s, faculty invited int e re ste d s tudents for a meal to discuss grad u ate sc hool. We r ev i se d the review pro cess so that each of thr ee facu lt y member s independently eva lu ated the completed applications both for ad192 Year Total Applicants a. National Origin Foreign Applicants U.S. Applicants b. Graduate Record Exam Verbal Score Analytical Score Quantitative Score 1992 103 90 13 511 622 753 c. TOEFL Score (Foreign Appl.) 601 Total Applications Accepted Total Accepting Offer Total Registering in Fall 50 15 not avail. 1991 1990 1989 51 30 26 41 ? ? 10 ? ? 497 510 427 576 587 527 739 725 698 592 575 581 38 27 19 17 15 8 14 12 7 Chemical Engineering Education

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Immediately following the student s visit a recom mendation concerning an offer was solicited from each faculty. Within one week, each qualified visitor received a personal letter from the Chair of the Graduate Affairs Committee ( GAC ) notifying the stu dent that an offer would be forthcoming and re counting highlights of our research and educational programs. This letter was also used to remind the prospective student of acceptance deadlines. Official graduate school notification of the offer followed within one to two weeks. Closing on prospective students was accomplished by two different mechanisms. Some candidates sim ply accepted the offer by returning the required materials For others, further follow up involved personal calls from the GAC Chair inquiring about the student's status and time-frame for a final deci sion Again, the personal touch was perceived to be a key to successfully closing with our more highly recruited candidates. PROGRAM EVALUATION The evaluation of the success of the two-year pilot recruiting program is quantified in Table 1. From the data in the table we conclude that our applicant pool has increased substantially both in quantity and quality over the course of the program. After the initial year of the program we invited a graduate recruiting consultant, Donald G. Dickason, to cri tique the program and to provide a campus-wide seminar on graduate recruiting. FUTURE PLANS : FEEDING THE PYRAMID As outlined above, our effort at turning inquiries into applications, and applications into new students has been fairly successful. One area for future im provement is what we call "feeding the bottom of the pyramid," based on a metaphor by Don Dickason. The pyramid consists of the layers involved in the graduate school process starting with inquiries and ending with degrees granted, each layer being smaller than the one below it. We plan two additional recruiting efforts in the future. The first is to begin a summer internship program for juniors who are considering graduate school. This will provide exposure to challenging research problems and lead to more graduate appli cations, both to other institutions and to CSM. The summer research program will also be used to strengthen our women and minorities recruiting pro grams. NSF has an active program which funds such undergraduate research Fall 1992 The second plan is to develop a hypertext recruit ing document for distribution to prospective students. Hypertext is a method of communicating informa tion in which the reader can move freely through a document, pausing only at interesting points by clicking" on "buttons ." ( Modern Windows or Macin tosh help systems are an example of hypertext.) The hypertext document, which will complement our recruiting video has a number of advantages The first is that it can be modified quickly and at little cost ; in contrast our video has a shelf life of two years with significant modification costs. The second advantage of our hypertext document is that the reader can be highly selective from among a vast amount of information For example a reader could easily locate the syllabus of an interesting course, consider a research area in detail, or skip over these in favor of learning about living or recre ational conditions in the Golden area. Such a wealth of information might be a boring read in a conven tional document but we believe that hypertext will render it manageable for both the reader and the producer Our plan is to develop the document using existing hypertext shell/hardware for the Macintosh before porting it to a Windows hypertext system such as Toolbook The programs listed above have the potential, not just of increasing CSM's share of a fixed pool of applicants, but of increasing the size of the pool. Our observation, which we are sure is not unique, is that many talented students never consider graduate school simply because they have had little or no exposure to what faculty and graduate students do when they disappear behind their laboratory doors. Increased marketing efforts will, at a minimum, help students make more-informed decisions. ACKNOWLEDGMENT We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of Dean Arthur J. Kidnay and former Dean John A. Cordes for this pilot program. Donald G. Dickason was, at the time of his consultancy Vice President for Higher Education Peterson's Guides; he is cur rently Vice Provost for Enrollment Management, Drexel University REFERENCES 1. Atkinson R.C. Suppl y a nd D e m a nd for Sci e nti s ts and Engin ee rs : A National C risi s in th e Making ," S c i e n ce, 248, 4 25 ( 1990 ) 2. Brown P.B ., "Cos t Eff e ctiv e ness of Common Recruitment Tools ," W e stern Association of Graduat e Schools C onfer e nc e, Banff Canada M a rch 4 -6 ( 1989 ) 0 19 3

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AN INTRODUCTION TO THE FUNDAMENTALS OF BIO(MOLECULAR) ENGINEERING BRUCE R. LO C KE Florida State Univ e r s it y, Florida A&M Uni v ersity Tallahassee FL 32316-2175 T his is a course intended for first-year gradu ate students or seniors in chemical engineer ing and the physical and chemical s ciences who may have a minimal background in the biologi cal sciences and who have strong quantitative s kill s, including knowledge oflinear algebra calculus and ordinary and partial differential equations. The course emphasis is on combining fundamental prin ciples from physical chemistry including thermody namics and ( non-linear ) chemical kinetics ( including irreversible thermodynamics ), transport phenomena, and colloidal interfacial and molecular science to understanding a wide range of phenomena in bio logical and biochemical systems that are important in the current applications of biotechnology and in our understanding ofliving systems for future appli cations of biotechnology. The goals of the present approach are t o p rov id e a n ove r v i ew of a w id e o p e n a nd ra pidl y d eve l o pin g fi e ld th a t e ncomp asses m a t e ri a l fr o m s ubj ec t s in th e bi o l og i ca l sc i e n ces th e ph ys i ca l a nd c h e mi ca l sc i e n ces, a nd e n g in ee rin g t o give th e s tud e nt th e n ecessa r y fundam e n ta l in fo rm a ti o n a n d s kill s t o und e r sta nd c urr e nt d eve l o pm e nt s t o m o ti v at e th e s tud e nt t o in ves ti g at e ar eas that n e ed furth er d eve l o pm e nt parti c ul ar l y in th e area o f m o l ec ul ar l eve l d es i g n. The design of structural and functional features of materials on the molecular scale is essential for mod ern developments in biotechnology and materials science. Examples include the development of new catalysts and sensors The general philosophy of the course used to reach these goals involves the consid eration of a hierarchy of structure from the molecu19 4 Bruce R Locke is an assistant chemical engi neering professor at FAMU/FSU He received his BE from Vanderbilt University in 1980 his MS from the Un i versity o f Houston i n 1982 and has four years of research experience at the Research Triangle Institute (North Carolina). He completed his PhD at North Carolina State in 1989 His research interests are in the dynam ics of transport and reaction of biological mac romolecules in multicomponent and multidomain composite systems Co p yrigh t C h E D ivi sio n of ASEE 1 992 lar to the supracellular in light of kno w n organiza tional features to illuminate gap s in our knowledge and to illustrate how our current understanding ma y lead to the design of functional units from the mo lecular to the supracellular le v el s. Fundamental aspect s are stre s sed in order to pro vide a framework for further stud y of bio e ngin e ering in such areas as biochemical engineerin g, biomedi cal engineering, molecular ( protein ) engineering metabolic engineering and cellular engineering. Thi s course differs considerably from conventional bio chemical engineering courses offered in chemical en gineering in that molecular-level concepts are incor porated within a framework of fundamental con cepts of ( non-linear ) chemical kinetics transport phe nomena ( viscoelastic fluids ), and interfacial and col loidal science In the modern chemical e ngineering curriculum it has become necessary for students to understand the relationships between the functional and structural properties of macromolecules; this includes not only conventional treatments of single macromolecules in solution but also dynamic sys tems of macromolecules functioning together in su pramolecular and hierarchal structure s The merging of chemistry and biology through rapid advances in our understanding of molecular scale events opens up the possibility for rational design of materials on the molecular level. The drive for high specificity, high selectivity, high purity, and increased quality control in the production and processing of many materials has stimulated chemists and engi neers to look closely at living systems as models for building materials that have never occurred in na ture. The diversit y oflife on earth provid e s a frame work upon which new developments are being made. For example, our ability to develop new enzymes through site-directed mutagenesis and our under standing of molecular structure and function is giv ing rise to the creation of completely new artificial catalysts that promote reactions not found in natu ral systems. 111 A recent work by Peacocke 1 2 1 reviews the literature on biochemical and biological organization that ha s C h em i ca l En gi n ee r i n g E d u c a tio n

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arisen through the initial work of Hinshelwood in the 1940s and 1950s, 1 3 1 the work of A. Turing in the 1950s,1 4 1 and the Brussels school of Prigogine in the 1960s to the present.1 5 1 Peacocke overlooks the pio neering work ofRashevsky.1 6 7 1 The emphasis of these researchers is on the use of chemical reaction kinet ics and transport phenomena to describe spatial and temporal pattern formation in biochemical pathways and cellular structures. It is very revealing to the chemical engineering student that major contribu tions to this area have been made by chemical engi neers through the analysis of chemical reactionsts 11 1 and that the students' own fundamental knowledge of chemical reaction kinetics and transport phenom ena can be used to describe, for example, slime mold aggregation,1 1 2 1 3 1 cell cycle oscillations,1 1 41 the forma tion of zebra and leopard spots,1 12 1 the spread of a contagious disease,1 1 2 1 the functioning of the immune system1 15 1 and cardiac arrhythmia. 1 1 s 1 Important de velopments in the analysis of chemical reactions1 1 0 111 have also aided the advancement of the compart mental analysis of biological systems.1 17 1 Peacocke only reveals part of the story, however, by not clearly illustrating the connection between the kinetic and systems ideas and the vast wealth of knowledge on the molecular structure of biological macromolecules that has been developed in the last twenty to thirty years. In addition, very recent developments in TABLE 1 Outline and Major Topics Overall Introduction Part I: Introduction to the structure and organi z ation of life and living systems Biodiversity-sources of materials and inspiration Structure of cells and subcellular components Molecular components of living systems Part II: Molecular level interactions-biorecognition Physical/chemical properties of macromolecules Intermolecular forces that stabilize macromolecular structure Biological recognition-relationship between structure and function Macromolecular interactions with surfaces and surface forces that govern these interactions Part Ill: Intracellular phenomena The dynamics of multipl e interacting macromolecules Metabolic pathways-multiple macromolecules working together in sequence or parallel Design and development of complex artificial metabolic systems Part IV: Extracellular phenomena The dynamics of multiple interacting cells Fall 1992 Multicellular processes----chemical communication between cells Towards a hierarchy of direct and indirect interactions Fundamental aspects are stressed in order to provide a framework for further study of bioengineering in such areas as biochemical engineering, biomedical engineering, molecular (protein) engineering, metabolic engineering, and cellular engineering mechanochemical theory that links mechanical mo tion of molecular structures such as muscle and gel fibers to the chemical composition of the molecular structure 1 1 a 19 1 and solution are not fully addressed. The details of molecular structure and function arise through introductions to molecular biologypo 211 macromolecular science,c 2 22 4 1 intermolecular inter actions,1 25 1 and recent studies on mechanochemical coupling.c 1 a1 Intermolecular forces are responsible for the specificity and functioning of most biological macromolecules by giving rise to biomolecular recognition. Biomolecular recognition arises through the simultaneous action of a large number of fairly weak hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals, electro static, and hydrophobic interactions arrayed in unique geometrical configurations and acting coop eratively. This is a key concept that is stressed throughout the course because it is the basis for substrate binding to, for example, enzymes, cell sur faces, and antibodies. The overall structure of the course consists of four parts that progress from a description of structure to the analysis of function (see Table 1). The first part of the course begins with an overall view oflife and living systems and progresses to descriptions of cel lular and molecular level features. The second part of the course seeks to develop the fundamental prin ciples governing the interactions between macro molecules and small molecules, macromolecules and other macromolecules, and macromolecules and sur faces. The third part seeks to explore the dynamic features of many macromolecules interacting in meta bolic pathways, and the fourth part seeks to explore the area of multiple interacting cells, or other sub units such as organelles, through introductions to multicellular communication through direct and in direct interactions and population models. The mechanics of the course relies heavily on stu dent involvement through term projects and class reports. Table 2 (next page) shows some examples of term papers. Each student is also responsible for presenting the general background material neces sary for understanding the subject of their term paper. For example, the student discussing delivery of drugs to the brain also presents an introductory lecture on the analysis of facilitated diffusion. 195

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COURSE OUTLINE AND DISCUSSION OF TOPICS The introductory material for this course reflects a very broad and open-minded perspective on the field of biotechnology. In a general sense, one may con sider biotechnology as the use of biomaterial s ( i .e., molecules, combinations of molecules, cells, and tis sues derived from living creatures ) for feedstocks, processing tools products and as prototype models for new materials. Although we do not use the nar row definition of biotechnology that includes only the products of genetic engineering methods, it is clear that recombinant technology is making great inroads in a wide variety of new applications and that an understanding of recombinant methods is crucial. Perhaps the unique feature of this course is the concept that known biomaterials can be consid ered as models for the development of new materi als. Protein engineering is the best known example of this; however, other examples include biomineralization, facilitated transport processes, and metabolic engineering From an engineering perspective our major inter est in biotechnology arises from the use ofbiomateri als as feedstocks, as processing tools, as products, and as an inspiration for creating new materials. Biomaterials encompass a large range of entities, from relatively simple organic compounds such as penicillin and amino acids to complex macromol ecules such as proteins and vitamins, to complete organisms such as yeasts, plants, and animals Bio mass as a feedstock for the production of alcohol and microorganisms as processing tools for food produc tion and waste treatment have long been used New bioprocessing tools include immobilized enzymes as industrial and consumer catalysts, recombinant bac teria for the production of eucaryotic proteins, and transgenic cows for producing human proteins. From a long-range view, the most exciting devel opments use biomaterials to create new materials that have never occurred in nature. A very interest ing example is the development of synthetic heme for the extraction of oxygen from water for life sup port in the ocean .r2s1 Biomimicry for synthesizing new materials is also rapidly advancing .r 21 1 The 1988 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to D J Cram for his work on the design of molecular hosts and complexes. This merges synthetic organic chemistry and biochemistry to create new and exciting materi als. Cram states that "evolution has produced chemical compounds that are exquisitely organized to accomplish the most complicated and delicate of tasks .. and his achievements demonstrate that we can build upon what evolution has produced 196 TABLE2 Sample Term Paper Projects Th e Rol e of R eco mbinant DNA T ec hnolo gy in th e De g rada tion of P est i cides and Herbicides Biolo gic al Pattern Formation: Temporal O sci ll ations in the Eucaryotic Cell Cycle Drug Deliver y t o the Br ain: Facilitated Transport Enzyme Eng i n ee ring Biodegradation of Oil Spills G e n e ti c Engineering for E nhanced S epara tion Processe s PART/ Introduction to the Structure and Organization of Life and Living Systems The diversity oflife that currently exists on earth, and that has ever existed on earth, is a tremendous source of substances and inspiration for the develop ment of new materials. Prior to describing and di cussing this diversity it is useful to consider the unique features ofliving organisms. Students gener ally recall from high school biology that all creatures grow, reproduce, consume, and excrete materials and energy from and to the environment, and that all living things eventually die. This is a useful begin ning for the analysis of life, and the students may even recognize that there are entities such as vi ruses that are on the boundary of living and non living that are difficult to clearly classify. Other general features oflife that students will easily come up with are the cell theory and the theory of evolu tion The detailed discussion of these two theories is of central importance for understanding and analyz ing the structure and dynamics ofliving systems. Students trained in the physical and chemical sci ences should be motivated at this point to ask ques tions such as: Do living systems obey the basic laws of physics? Certainly material and energy balances apply-but what about the second law? These ideas are succinctly expressed by Schrodinger ,12s1 who specu lated that the dynamic aspects ofliving systems are related to structural aspects through large molecules, and that these structural molecules and relation ships are of special significance for living systems. .. it h as been ex pl ai n ed that th e l aws of physics, as we know th e m are s t a ti s tical l aws. Th ey h ave a l o t t o do w ith th e n a tural t e nd e n cy of thin gs to go ove r into di so rder But to reconci l e th e hi g h durabilit y of th e h e r e dit ary s ub s tan ce with it s minut e s i ze, we h a d t o eva d e th e t e nd e n cy t o di so rd e r b y 'i n ve ntin g th e m o l ec ul e,' in fact, a n unu s u a ll y lar ge m o l ec ul e w h ich h as to b e a m as terpiece of hi g hl y differ e nti a t e d o rd er safeg uard e d b y th e co n j urin g r o d of quantum th eo r y. The law s of c h a n ce a re n o t in va lid a t e d by thi s in ve nti o n ,' but th e ir o ut co m e i s m o difi e d. The ph ys i c i s t is fa mili ar w ith the fact th a t th e cl ass i ca l law s of physi cs a r e modified by qu a ntum th eory, espe cia ll y a t l o w t e mp era tur e There a r e many in s t a n ces o f thi s. Lif e see m s to b e one of them a particularly s triking on e. Li fe see m s to Chemical Engin ee rin g Education

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b e orderly a nd l awf ul b e h av i or of m a tt e r n o t b ase d excl u s i ve l y o n its t e nd e n cy t o go ove r fro m o rd er t o disorder, b ut base d p a rtl y o n ex i s tin g o rd e r th a t is k e pt up ... Further aspects of ideas from irreversible thermo dynamicsc s1 will arise later in the course However the main idea in the beginning is to stress that there are important connections, as Schrodinger stated between the need for macromolecules of highly dif ferentiated order and dynamics of living systems i.e., the organisms' struggle against the forces of entropy. Although he referred primarily to macro molecules that carry genetic information ( DNA s role and structure were unknown at the time ) and the need for the long-term stability of such macromol ecules, it is clear that the general ideas include other macromolecules that make up living organisms. ( More recent criticisms of several other aspects of Schrodinger's ideas can be found in Kilmister. t291) Macromolecules make up the first' level of struc tural 'order' in living systems They are held to gether first of all by covalent bonds and secondly their active structure arises through a number of intermolecular forces and solution mediated interac tions. Introduction to the basic classes of macromol ecules, i.e., nucleic acids, proteins and carbohydrates can stress the relationship between structure and function. The assembly oflipids into membrane struc tures is a good example where the molecular struc ture of individual lipids gives rise to the structure and function of the membranes that they form. Mem brane structure and the organization of lipids into micelles, liposomes, and other structures is an im portant area to consider in detail since it is the basis of all 'hig her level' compartments ( organelles) in liv ing systems, and it has major applications in separa tion and reaction processes.t aoi Mere descriptions of the hierarchal structure of taxonomy ,rall cells subcellular organelles ,ra21 and mo lecular components of living systems can be some what dry without constant reference to questions such as: Why are plants animals, and cells of par ticular sizes? What type of interactions (i e direct or indirect) govern the relationships between different hierarchical levels? (For this latter point, see Part IV. ) The engineering student, trained in transport and kinetics and scale-up principles should be able to postulate and test ideas to explain these and other physical biology features. 1 33 35 1 Concepts from mass transfer and fluid dynamics can be used to describe the structure of various sea creatures .(361 In addition, it benefits the student greatly if key fea tures of various levels of description are illustrated. For example, in discussing the taxonomic levels of living organisms it is useful to describe which organFall 1992 isms are used directl y by man and for what purpose they are used and why they are used When discuss ing the structure of eucaryotic organisms aspects of intracellular processing such as in the secretion and post translational processing of insulin l 3 7 1 or the trans port of materials in and out of the cell tas, can be considered in light of their effects on producing eu caryotic proteins in procaryotic cells and in analogy to the processing required in chemical plants ( i. e well-defined regions for reactions and extensive ma terial sorting and purification structures l391). PART/I Molecular Level lnteractions-Biorecognition Once the student has a clear idea of the multiple levels of hierarchal structure of living systems from the molecular to organelle to cellular to organism discussed above, it is useful to continue with a study of the physical/chemical properties of biological mac romolecules Basic ideas from colloidal science in cluding thermodynamic hydrodynamic, and electro kinetic properties can be introduced within the con text of the student 's understanding of transport phe nomena and physical chemistry. There are a num ber of excellent references for this area .122-24,401 Gen eral physical/chemical features of macromolecules s uch as size, surface area, charge, and shape should be considered in light of their effects on separation ( chromatography filtration solubility) and reaction ( immobilized enzymes and cell ) processes, and in addition to point to further study of how these mac romolecules function in groups or assemblages such as membranes and sub-cellular organelles. Intermolecular forces that stabilize macromolecu lar structure can be presented by first considering the nature and origin of intermolecular forces .f 25 1 Many aspects of fundamental importance such as the nature of van der Waals forces, hydrogen bond ing and dipole and hydrophobic interactions can be considered. Many of the fundamental aspects have been well developed and current experiments1 41 1 us ing the atomic force microscope have led to interest ing advances in for example, molecular rearrange ments upon receptor ligand binding. One major area that needs further development is a quantitative treatment for the hydrophobic effects. Biological recognition and the relationships be tween structure and function are key areas that can be considered in much detail. Qualitative examples such as enzyme catalysis (e. g., a serine protease such as chymotrypsin1 4 21), antibody binding (avidin/ biotin affinity chromatography f4aJ), cell surface inter actions and facilitated membrane transport ( oxygen binding by hemoglobin and myoglobin l 44 1) can be de197

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scribed in detail The quantitative description of these systems can be considered first from the thermody namic approach 1 4 s. 47 1 where binding equilibria are developed and second from the kinetic approach through Michaelis Menten type kinetics. Smoluchowski theory and Brownian motion1 4 s1 can be used to discuss diffusional limitations. In addi tion, recent work on the induced fit 1 4 91 and directed binding is useful in developing the dynamic approach to macromolecular recognition. Macromolecular interactions with surfaces and sur face forces that govern these interactions are vital for understanding many biochemical separation and reaction processes such as affinity chromatography and enzyme immobilization procedures. An under standing of surface interactions is also necessary for biofouling in industry, commerce, and biomedical devices The molecular basis for adhesion of biologi cal macromolecules on cell surfaces to inorganic ma trices can be approached from the fundamental per spective as developed by Israelachvili r 2 s1 and in light of recent advances in active site directed binding.1 41 1 PART/II Intracellular Phenomena : The Dynamics of Mult i p l e Interacting Macromolecules One of the main goals of this course is to foster development of links between the dynamics of mac romolecules working together and the structural fea tures of the macromolecules an d their complexes. The chemical engineering perspective for analyzing multiple linear and nonlinear chemical reactions in convective-diffusion processes can be used as a basis for analyzing metabolic pathways (lumping analy sis,1 so 1 modal analysis,1 s 11 metabolic models,1 s2 1 cyber netic models1 5a 1 such as glycolysis, the regulation of protein synthesis, and the energetics of active trans port in cell membranes l 44 1) This is exemplified in the development of reaction-diffusion work from both chemical engineering and biological literature. The view of the reaction processes, however, must go beyond treating the reactants as species without structure since biological structures are dynamic en tities that, for example, change shape on substrate binding and that exhibit a wide range of allosteric and cooperative behaviors. Biomechanical theories for the chemomechanical aspects of structure formation such as muscle action and cell motion can be considered within the context of advanced transport phenomena as elaborated by Murray, et al .1 1 s1 The swelling of (bio)polymers and the electrokinetic effects of applied electrical fields on (bio)polymers can be treated within the context of the engineering students' background in continuum 198 mechanics as is appropriate for an introductory class .rs 4 ,ss1 This area is also important for the devel opment of devices to convert chemical energy to me chanical work with little heat generation Both of the above chemical and mechanochemical theories are useful for the design and development of com plex artificial metabolic systems and structural units. PART IV E xtracellular Phenomena : The Dynam i cs o f Mu lti p l e I nteract i ng Cells and Subuni t s The last level considers direct and indirect interac tions for multicellular and multi-subunit (e.g., or ganelles ) processes Figure 1 a schematic view of such interactions, shows features very similar to the structure of a eucaryotic cell. Direct interactions between cells is important for a full understanding of tissue function and development as well as for such systems as immobilized cells or enzymes in membranes. Indirect interactions are important for bioreactor systems where cells, particles of immobi lized cells, and particles of immobilized enzymes communicate through the bulk solution of well-mixed reactors. This area is currently not covered in detail for undergraduates; however, graduate students can appreciate these aspects through comparison to ad vances in chemical reactor analysis .l 5 6J In addition, an introduction to population models rs2,s1,ss1 is neces sary for understanding the growth of microbial or ganisms in natural and reactor processes. CONCLUSIONS There is currently a need for an introductory-level course for the engineering and physical and chemi cal sciences student that will develop the molecular and hierarchical organizational features of biotech nology, herein considered in a broad sense as the use ofbiomaterials (i e., molecules, combinations of mol ecules, cells, and tissues derived from living crea tures) for feedstocks, processing tools, products, and as models for new materials. The course described in this paper seeks to integrate current and past devel opments from a wide range of fields into the chemi cal engineering curricula, to instill in the student the necessity for reading and understanding materi als from a broad range of subjects and to inspire students to seek answers to unknown questions about the applications of the biosciences for improving our quality oflife. This approach can be accomplished by building upon a fundamental understanding of trans port phenomena and chemical kinetics through the introduction of analysis of non-linear chemical reac tion-convective-diffusion processes non-Newtonian and viscoelastic mechanics, colloid and interfacial Chemical Engin eeri ng Education

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Fig u re 1. Hierarchy of direct and indirect interactions science and population balance approaches. This approach will lead to additional coursework to intro duce molecular transport theories, r s9J statistical me chanics, and even quantum mechanics for further study ofbio(molecular) design. ACKNOWEDGMENT I would like to thank Dr. Pedro Arce for his invalu able comments on the text of this manuscript and for many useful conversations on the general subject of direct and indirect interactions in systems with hierarchial levels of structure. REFERENCES 1. Chen, C.-H.B., and D S Sigman, "C hemical Conversion of a DNA-Binding Protein into a Site-Specific Nuclease, Science 237, 1197 (1987) 2 Peacocke, A.R.,An Intr oduction to the.Physical Chemistry of Biological Organi z ation, Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, Oxford (1989) 3. Dean, A .C .R. and C. Hinshelwood, Growth, Function and Regulation in Bacterial Cells, Oxford at the Clarendon Press ( 1966) 4. Turing, A., "T he Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis Proc. Roy. Soc. London B237 5 (1952) 5 Nicolis G., and I. Prigogine, S e lf-Organization in Nonequilibrium Systems, Wiley-Interscience, New York ( 1977 ) 6 Rachevsky, N., "An Approach to the Mathematical Biophys ics of Biological Self-Regulation and of the Ce ll Polarity Bull. Math. Biophy. 2 15 (1940) 7. Rachevsky, N. Mathematical Biophysi cs, University of Chi cago Press, Chicago IL (1948) 8 Othmer H G., and L.E. Scriven "Interactions of R eaction and Diffu sion in Open Systems ," I. & E G Fund ., 8 302 ( 1969) 9 Gmitro, J I., and L.E. Scriven "A Physicochemical Basis for Fall 1992 Pattern and Rhythm ," in Intra ce llu l ar Transport K.B War ren, Ed., Academic Pre ss, New York ( 1966 ) 10. Wei J., and C D. Prater "The Structure and Anal ysi s of Complex Reaction Systems ," Chap. 5 in Advances in Cataly sis, Vol. 13 Academic Press New York (1 962 ) 11. Aris R., "C ompartmental Ana ly sis and the Theor y of Resi dence Time," in Intrac ellular Tran sport, K.B. Warren Ed., Academic Press New York ( 1966 ) 12. Murray, J.D., Math e mati c al B iology, Springer-Verlag Ber lin ( 1989 ) 13. Segel, L.A., Modeling Dynamic Phenom ena in Mol ecula r and Cellula r Biolog y, Cambridge University Pr es s Cam bridge ( 1984 ) 14. Norel, R. a nd z. Agur A Model for the Adjustm e nt of the Mitotic Clock by Cyclin and MPF Levels S cience, 251 1076 ( 1991 ) 15. Marchuk G.I. Math e mat ic al Mod els in Imm u no logy, Opti mization Software Inc. N ew York (1 983 ) 16. Winfree, A.T. When Tim e Br ea ks Down: Th e Thr ee -D imen sional D ynamics of Electroch e m ica l Wav e s and Cardia c Arrhythmias Princeton University Press ( 1987 ) 17 Anderson D H. Compartmental Mod eli ng and Tra ce r K i netics Lecture Notes in Biomathematics Vol. 50 Springer Verlag (1983) 18. Murray J D ., P K. Maini, and R.T. Tranquillo, Mechano chemical Models for Generating Bio logical Pat tern a nd Form in Development," Ph ysics R epo rts 171, 59 ( 1988 ) 19 Osada, Y., H Okuzaki and H. H ori, A Polymer Gel with Electrically Dri ven Motility ," Nature, 355 242 (1 992 ) 20. Stryer, L ., Mol ec ular Des ig n of Lif e, W. H. Freeman New York ( 1989 ) 21. Primrose S.B. Mol ec ular Bi otechnology, 2nd ed ., Blackwell Scientific Publications, London ( 1991) 22. van Holde, K.E ., Physica l Bi oc he mistry, 2nd ed. Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ ( 1985 ) 23. Tanford, C Physical Chemistry of Ma c rom o l ecules, John Wiley and Sons Inc ., New York ( 1966 ) 24 Cantor, C R., an d R Schimmel Biophys ic al Ch emistry, Vols. 1-3 W.H Freeman and Company San Francisco, CA ( 1980 ) 25. Israelachvili J ., Int e rmol ecula r and S u rfa ce F o r ce s 2nd e d ., Academic Press London ( 1991 ) 26. De Castro, E.S., Breathing Under Water ," Chemt e ch, 682, Nov (19 90 ) 27. Berman, A., et al., Int erca lation of Sea Urchin Pr oteins in Calcite: Study of a Crystalline Composite M aterial, Sci e n ce, 250 664 ( 1990 ) 28 Schrodinger, E., What i s Li fe ? Th e Ph y si c a l Asp ec t of th e Living C ell and Mind and Matt e r Cambridge Univers it y Press (1944) ( 1966 reprint) 29. Kilmister C W e d ., S ch rod inge r Cambridge University Press, Cambridge ( 1987 ) 30. Lasic D. Liposomes ," A me r S c i. 80 20 ( 199 2) 31. Margulis, L ., and K. U. Schwart z, An Illustrated Guid e to the Phyla of Lif e on Earth 2nd e d ., W H. Freeman and Company, New York ( 1988 ) 32 de Duve A Guided Tour of th e L ivi n g Cell Vols 1 an d 2 Scientific American Library ( 1984 ) 33. Vogel, S. Life in Moving Fluids ," Th e Physi c a l B iology of Flow Princeton Un iv ersit y Press ( 1981 ) 34. Vog el, S ., Lif e's D evices: The Physi ca l World of Animals and P l ant s, Princeton University Press ( 198 8) 35 McMahon, T.A. and J T. Bonner On S ize and Lif e, Scuientifi c Am e rican Librar y ( 1983 ) 36. Patterson M.R. A Mass Transfer Explana t ion o f Meta bolic Scaling Relations in Som e Aquatic In vertebrates and Algae Sci e n ce, 225 1421 ( 1992 ) Continued on page 203 1 99

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A COLLOQUIUM SERIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING COSTAS TSOURI S, SOTIRA YIA COUMI, CYNTHIA S HIRTZEL Syracuse University Syracuse,NY13244-1190 I n describing a course on technical talks, Felder111 points out the importance of communication skills for all practicing engineers. The significance of effective communication skills is also underlined by Hanzevack and McKean1 21 in a discussion of effective oral presentations as part of the senior design course for chemical engineers. In both references, the reader can find suggestions for successful oral presenta tions. Furthermore, in the latter paper a "pre sentation feedback form" is illustrated which can be used not only for evaluation of an oral technical presentation but also for drawing the attention of the speaker to some important points during the organization of the presentation Most undergraduate programs in chemical engi neering include a course on how to improve oral communication skills, and some graduate programs further develop those skills through technical pre sentations as part of a course. Good written and oral communication skills are the goals of the DepartCostas Tsouris recently received his PhD in chemical engineering at Syracuse Univers ity. He worked with Professor L. L. Tavlarides in the area of liquid dispersions Sotira Yiacoumi is finishing her PhD in civil engineering at Syracuse University She works with Professor Chi Tien in the area of uptake of metal ions and organic compounds by natural systems Cynthia S Hirtzel is Professor and Chairperson of the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science at Syracuse University. Her research interests are in the areas of colloidal and interfacial phenomena adsorption/desorption phenomena and stochastic analysis of modeling of engineering systems. She is also actively involved in technical outreach to pre-college students (Pho to not available) Copyright ChE Di v isi on of ASEE 199 2 200 The presentations are designed to simulate a thesis or dissertation oral examination. The duration of each seminar (which the speakers are encouraged not to exceed) is about thirty minutes. ment of Chemical Engineering and Materials Sci ence at Syracuse University. Faculty and students are both concerned with the student's ability to com municate technical expertise. A seminar program called Colloquium Series in Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (ColCE MS ) has been initiated and is run by the students in collaboration with the faculty to satisfy this mutual concern. The ColCEMS operates during the fall and spring semesters of the academic year, as well as during the summer sessions. It is a step beyond the summer seminar program which was initiated at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityJa1 The purpose of this article is to de scribe all the activities within the colloquium series and to provide an example for students in other schools to follow. OBJECTIVES The main objectives of ColCEMS are to improve the communication skills of graduate students to share knowledge obtained from re ce nt research activities to exc hang e ideas and develop constructive criticism. Although the above objectives are all equally impor tant, good communication skills are necessary in order for a speaker to share ideas and results with an audience and to receive feedback in the form of constructive criticism. This is a reality that is recognized by all students, and it serves to strengthen their determination to improve their own com munication effectiveness. The departmental seminar program that runs in parallel is a rich source for examples of both good and bad presentations. Although the main objective of the department program is the exchange of ideas, due to the ColCEMS students are able to see beyond Chemical Engin ee rin g Education

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the speaker s ideas and findings In this way they develop a rounded critical opinion of both the speaker and the presented work. SCHEDULE Preparation for the subsequent seminar schedule starts even before the current one ends. The coordi nators encourage all graduate students to submit a seminar title and a preferred date for its presenta tion although participation is voluntary for both speakers and audience members. Not many students come forward however, until they have a consider able amount of information to share, usually in the second or later year of their graduate studies. To complete the schedule ( which consists of ap proximately twelve seminars) the coordinators in vite research associates, faculty members, and even some students and faculty from other departments who have similar backgrounds and interests. In this way the seminar program covers many research ar eas and attracts people with diverse backgrounds. The participation of research associates and fac ulty, both as speakers and as audience is very im portant for the ColCEMS since it engenders more departmental attention and encourages the speak ers to carefully prepare their presentations. A good balance between graduate students research associ ates and faculty ( corresponding to the number of people in each category within the department) is maintained. The seminar schedule is announced two weeks before the first presentation. Each speaker and each member of the department receives a copy of the schedule, and additional copies are distributed to faculty members in other departments at Syracuse and at SUNY/Environmental Science and Forestry where chemical engineering faculty members col laborate on joint research projects. Finally, a copy of the schedule is sent to the Syracuse Record, a weekly campus newspaper. The seminar topics for 1991 are shown in Table 1. The table also serves to demonstrate the diversity of research interests in the department. Seminars of general interest, such as All You Wanted to Know About Physics and Were Afraid to Ask," "Quantum Gravity ," and "The Human/Animal Bond: Interac tion Among Pets and People are exciting and well received by the audience. Our goal is to have such TABLE 1 Topics: 1991 Colloquium Series in Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Spri11g 1991 M o d e ling o f th e El ec trostati c Cor o na Dis c har ge R eac t o r Approximat e Solutions to lntraparticl e Diffus i on Equations Transport of /011s Near Fra c tal Ele c trod es Solvent Extra c tion Separation of Main Group El e ments with Ma cro cy cli c Pol ye th e rs Adsorption of M e tal Ions from Aqu e ous S o lution s D e si g n of Pol y m e r M e mbran e s for Sup e rior S e paration Prop e rti e s Pr e cipitation fr o m Homo ge n e ou s S o luti o n: A N ew T ec hniqu e f o r th e Pr e parati o n a /Catal ys t s and C a t a l ys t Supp o rt s A ppli c ati o n of Impr eg nat e d C e rami c M e mbra ne s for M e tal / 0 11 S e paration/ram Ha z ard o us Wast e Str e ams M o nt e Carlo E x p e rim e nt s fo r D es orpti o n o f M o l ec ul es f rom S o lid Su,fa ces Comput e r Mod e lin g o f El ec tr o mi g ration D es ign of a Laborato ry Sup e r c riti c al Extra c ti o n a nd O x idation S y stem.f o r PCB s M e mbran e Pr oces s es f o r Ga s S e parati o n s A M e mbran e Pr oces s.f o r /11 Situ R e m ov al o f C a rbon Di ox id e fr o m Di v in g Atm os ph e r es Summer 1991 Droplet Br e akup in Liquid Di s p e r s i o n s All Y o u Wa11t e d t o Kn o w A b o ut Ph ys i cs a nd W e r e A fra id to A s k R e lationships B e tween th e Ch e mi c al Stru c tur e o f Flu o rine-C o tainin g Pol y itnid e M e mbran es and Th e ir G as P e rm e abili ty Quantum Gr av ir y An E x p e rim e ntal D e monstrati o n o f F ac ilitat e d and A c ti ve Tran s p o rt in th e Human Pla ce nta Pr o p e rties of Amph o t e ri c O x id e s: Surfa ce Char ge D eve lopment in Fall 199 2 A qu eo u s S o luri on a nd pH D e p e nd e n ce of M e t a l Ion Adso,pti o n D e p os iti o n of Diffu s i ve A e r oso l s Evaluati o n of Adsorption. En e r gy Di s trib11ti o nfor H e t e rog e ne o us Surfa ces Simulati o n of Bubbl e D y nami cs El ec tri c al Br e akdo w n o f P o l y m e r s A co u s ti cs o f Bubbl y Liquids Th e Human/Animal Bond : Int e ra c tion Am o ng P e ts and Peopl e Fall 1991 A n a l ys i s of C a k e F or mati o n a 11d Gr ow th : F o rmulat io n and P os s ibl e So lution s Co ntr o l of E x tr ac ti o n Co lumn s I. E ffec t of lntras eg m e ntal M o bili ry 0 11 Gas P e rm e abili ry o f Pol y imid e M e mbran es II R e pr e s e ntati o n of Ga s Solubility and Diffusi v ity in Glass y P o l y m e rs Es timati o n of Param e t e r s i11 Diff e r e mial M o d e ls b y Inf e asibl e Path Op t imi za ti on Int e rr e l a t io n s h i p B etwee n th e S o ur ce Mat e rial f o r A c ti va t e d C ar b o n s : It s Stru c tur e a nd C h e mi c al Eff ec t s D11ri11 g H y dr oge n A d so r p ti o n W a t e r in P o l y imid es : S o lubilit y and T ra n s p o rt A e r oso l D e p os iti on in F ibr o u s S ys t e m s S u ( fat e Ads o rpti o n 0 11 Min e ral Soils M ag n e ri s m in Thin Film s C o mput e r Simulation fo r Ad so rpti o n of M o lecul e s 0 11 Solid Sur f a ces D eve lopm e nt o f /11.or g a11i c Ch e mi c all y A c ti ve B e ad s for M e tal I o n Se p a rati o n f r o m Ha za rd o u s Wa s t e Str e am s 2 01

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seminars not only in the summer but also during the two academic semesters. FORMAT The ColCEMS presentations are designed to simu late a thesis or dissertation oral examination. The duration of each seminar (which the speakers are encouraged not to exceed) is about thirty minutes. Overhead and slide projectors are usually used as visual aids, and some speakers include video-tape shows and laboratory equipment to make their talk more understandable. Due to the diversity of back grounds in the audience, the seminars usually start with a relatively long introduction. Only clarifica tion questions are allowed during the seminar, but the presentation is followed by a question-and-an swer session directed by the seminar coordinators. The duration of this session is not fixed-it depends on the number of questions and may last anywhere from five to twenty minutes. There are two seminar coordinators elected at the end of the summer colloquium series. They are re sponsible for preparing the seminar schedule at the beginning of each semester, arranging for financial support, arranging for refreshments, announcing each weekly seminar, arranging for the room and TABLE 2 Typical Announcement COLLOQUIUM SERIES in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND MATERIALS SCIENCE SPEAKER: Ai Chen Graduate Student Chemical Engineering and Materials Science TOPIC: Computer Simulation for Adsorption of Molecules on Solid Surfaces DATE: Friday, November 22, 1991 TIME: 12:15 PM PLACE: 017 Hinds Hall Adsorption of molecules on zeolite SA has been st udi ed using Monte Carlo simulations. Site-site potential energies were used to model the adsorbate-zeo lit e and adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. In the potential energy model. the dispersion repulsion and e l ectrostatic induction ener gies have been taken into account for monatomic molecules. In addition to the above terms the quadrupole-quadrupole and ion-quadrupole in teractions have been taken into account for diatomic molecules. A new Monte Carlo simulation model is proposed based on stochastic Markov process theory to carry out the simulations. A prorn.inent advantage of the model is that it is suitable for ma ss ively parallel implementation. The preliminary results for the pure -co mponent isotherms are in good agreement with experimental data. The study for multicomponent sys tems is s till undergoing 202 any visual aids needed, introducing the speakers, announcing the following week's speaker, and di recting the question-and-answer session at the end of each seminar. ANNOUNCEMENT Each seminar is announced in the weekly campus newspaper Syracuse Record, and an announcement is also made in the department by the coordinators. The coordinators ask the speaker for an abstract of no more than three hundred words, which is then typed on a special form with the seminar title, speaker 's name, and date time, and place (see Table 2). Copies of this announcement are placed in the mailboxes of students, research associates, faculty, and staff, usually one day before the seminar. An nouncement copies are also placed on bulletin boards where everyone can see them. SEMINAR DAY The seminars are usually scheduled for Fridays, although in the summer of 1991 they were on Thurs days. The meeting time of 12 noon is set to avoid class conflicts. Between 12:00 and 12:15, attendees can socialize, and at 12:15 the seminar begins with the introduction of the speaker by one of the coordi nators. A question-and-answer session, directed by the coordinator, is held after the seminar, usually between 12:45 and 1:00. Refreshments, usually juice and fruit, are pur chased with Graduate Student Organization or departmental funds just before the seminar. One of the two coordinators is responsible for pro curing the refreshments, while the other readies the room and arranges for any visual aids the speaker may require. Just before the seminar, a sign-up sheet is passed around the audience, solely for statistical purposes. These sign-up sheets, along with the abstracts and seminar schedules, are kept in the ColCEMS files. From the data obtained during the first year, we have been able to determine that the audience primarily consists of chemical engineering grad uate students, research associates, and faculty-with occasional participation of graduate students and faculty from other engineering and science depart ments. A number of faculty members attend all seminars, and the remainder attend according to their research interests. AWARDS At the end of the last seminar of each semester, the audience is asked to vote for their choice of the Chemical En ginee ring Education

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two best seminars. The awards are usually books provi d ed by the department and presented to the winners at the first seminar of the following semester. Also, pointers (useful for seminars) are given to all speakers. The gifts express the appreciation of all depart ment members for the effort the speakers put into their presentations. They also serve as a moti vation for the graduate students to come forward and give a seminar. SUMMARY The graduate students in the Department of Chemi cal Engineering and Materials Science at Syracuse University, in collaboration with the faculty, have developed a seminar program called the "Co lloquium Series in Chemical Engineering and Materials Sci ence," with the objectives of improving the commu nication skills of graduate students, sharing knowl edge and exchanging ideas Our experience has been that those objectives have been met Furthermore, the ColCEMS program has also served as a catalyst for bringing all members of the department closer together. Intellectual relations among graduate stu dents research associates, and faculty have been enhanced, and everyone has had the opportunity to see beyond the technical skills of the speakers We feel that in an academic setting, where people are constantly coming and going over a rela tively short period of time, this kind of activity is important for both educators and students. We wanted to share this experience with the readers and to urge graduate students at other schools to initiate a similar program. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors acknowledge and thank the Grad uate Stu d ent Organization and the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science for fi nancial support of this seminar program. The help of the seminar coordinators for the academic year 199192, Kaaeid Lokhandwala and Michael Norato is also appreciated. In addition we wish to thank Ms. Nicole Jones for her expert assistance in preparing this manuscript. REFERENCES 1. Felder R.M. "A Course on Presenting T ec hnical Talks ," Chem Eng Ed ., 22 84 ( 1988 ) 2 Hanzevack E.L., and R.A. McK ean, "Teac hin g Effective Oral Presentations as a Part of the Senior Design Co ur se," Chem. En g. Ed ., 25 28 ( 1991 ) 3. Schulz, K.H. and G G. Benge The C h emica l Engineering Summer Seminar S eries at Virginia Polytechnic Institut e and State Unive r sity," Ch e m. Eng. Ed ., 24 220 ( 1990 ) 0 Fall 1992 BIO ( MOLECULAR ) E NGINEERING Continued from pag e 199. 37. Orci L ., J .D Vassalli and A. Perrelet, The In su lin Fac tory ," Sci. Am. Sept ( 1988 ) 38. Dautry-Varsat A. an d H.F Lodish How Receptors Bring Prot e in s and Particles into Cells," Sci Am e r ica n 250 52 ( 1984 ) 3 9. Rothman, J E. and L. Orci Molecular Dissection of the Secretory Pathway ," Natur e, 355 4 09 ( 1992 ) 40 Hiemenz P.C. Principl es of Colloid and Surface Chemistry, 2nd ed., Marcel Dekker In c ., New York ( 1986 ) 41. L eckband, D.E ., J N Israelachvili F -J. Schm it t, and W. Knoll "Long Rang e Attraction a nd Mol ec ular Rearrange ments in Receptor Ligand Interactions ," S cie nc e, 225 1419 ( 1992 ) 42. Dressler D ., and H Potter Di scove rin g En zymes, Scientific American Library W.H. Freeman ( 1991 ) 43. Wilchek M. and E.A. Ba ye r "T h e Avidin -B iotin Comp l ex in Bio analytical App li cations," Anal. Bio che m. 171, 1 ( 1988 ) 44. Segel, L A. ed., Math e mat ical Models in Mol ec ular and Cellu l ar Biology Cambri dg e University Press, Cambridge ( 1980 ) 45. Monod J. J -P. C h angeux, and F. Jacob Allo steric Pro teins a nd Cell ular Control Systems J Mol. Biol. 6 306 ( 1963 ) 46 Monod J., J. Wyman a nd J.-P. C hang eux, On the N a tur e of Allo steric Transitions : A Plausible Mod e l ," J Mol. Biol. 12, 88 ( 1965 ) 47 Wym an, J ., and S J Gill, B i ndin g and Linkag e: Fun ctiona l Chemistry of Biological Ma c r omolecules, University Science Books ( 1990 ) 48. McCammon J.A. an d S.C. Harvey D y nami cs of Prot e in s and Nucleic Acid s, Cambri d ge University Press ( 19 87) 49. Rini, J.M., U. Schulze-Gahmen, a nd I.A. Wilson Struc tural Evidence for Induced Fit as a M ec h anis m for Anti body-Antigen Recognition ," Sci e n ce, 225 959 ( 1992 ) 50 Liao J C ., and E.N Li g htfoo t, "L umping Anal ys i s of Bio c h emical Reaction Systems with Time Scale Separation, Biotech. and Bio e ng. 31 869 ( 19 88) 51. Palsson B. H. Palsson and E.N Lightfoot Math e matical Modeling of Dynamics and Control in Metabolic Networks ," J Th eo r. Biol. 11::\ 231 ( 1985 ) 52 Shuler, M.L. and M M Dom ac h Math e matical Mod e l s of t h e Growth of Individual Cells : Tools for T esting Bioch emi cal M ec h anis ms ," in F oundations of Bi oc h emica l Engineer ing, H W Blanch E T. Papoutsakis and G. Staphanopoulos e ds., A CS Symp. Ser. 207, 93 ( 1983) 53 Straight, J V ., and D R am kri s hn a, "C omplex D y nami cs in Batch C ultures : Exp e rim e nt s an d cybernet ic Mod e l s," Biot ec h. and Bio e n. 37 895 (1991 ) 54. Bereiter Hahn J ., O R. Anderson, an d W.-E Reif, eds, Cytomechanics: Th e M ec hani cal Basi s of Cell Form and St ru cture, Springer-Verlag Berlin ( 1987 ) 55. Derossi D ., K. Kajiwara Y. Osada and A. Yamauchi Poly mer G e ls : Fundam e ntal s Bi omedical Appli c ations, Pl e num Press, N e w York ( 1991 ) 56 Arce, P. a nd D. Ramkrishn a, "Patte rn Formation in Cata lytic R eactors, Latin Am. App. R es., in press ( 199 2) 57. Ramkrishna D ., A.G. Fredrickson a nd H.M. Tsuchiya Sta tistics a nd Dynamics of Procaryotic Cell Populations Math Biosc i 1 327 ( 196 7) 58. M e tz J A.J ., and 0. Di e kmann Th e D ynamics of Physi ologically Structur e d Population s, Lecture Notes in Biomath e ma tics, Vol. 68, S p ringer-Ver l ag, Berlin (1986) 59 Peters M.H ., An Introducti on to Molecular Tr a nsport Ph e nomena ," Chem. Eng Ed., 25 210 ( 1991 ) 0 203

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A Course on ENVIRONMENTAL REME DIATION CYNTHIA L STOKE S University of Houston Houston, TX 77204-4792 A ew course has been developed at the Univer sity of Houston for graduate students and seniors in chemical engineering on the topic of environmental remediation. There are numerous areas throughout the country where soils, surface water, and/or groundwater are contaminated to such a degree that they are unsafe for us to use for busi ness to reside near, or to consume the water. This has created an increasingly stringent regulatory cli mate for industry with respect to waste disposal. These conditions were the motivation for develop ment of this course. Today's students must be made aware of waste treatment and environmental recla mation issues in order to function effectively as de sign, process, an d research engineers and managers. A number of our faculty have also begun working on research projects on contaminant transport in soils dechlorination processes, and bioremediation, evinc ing the widespread interest in environmental issues within the department The purpose of the course is to introduce the stu dents to both the traditional and the developmental methods for removal or destruction of hazardous wastes at contaminated sites and from industrial waste streams The emphasis of the course is not on hazardous waste management and regulatory issues but rather on the destruction removal, and contain ment methods themselves. The timeliness of the course was demonstrated by the student enrollment this past spring the first time the course was offered ; with no advertisement, we attracted forty-two graduate students and half of Cy nth ia S t oke s is an assistant prof ess or in c hemical engineering at the University of Hous ton She r e ceived her BS from Michigan State University and her PhD from the Univ e rsity of Pennsylvania She spent eighteen months as a post-doctoral fellow at the National Institutes of Health prior to a rriving in Houston Her major research fo c us has been in the area of c ellular bioengineering Copyrigh t ChE D ivision of A SEE 1992 2 0 4 The course concentrates on several aspects of the hazardous waste problem while touching on others only superficially. We are mainly concerned with hazardous wastes in soils, gr o undwater, and waste-water ponds and tanks. the graduating seniors for the course. The graduates included Master's and doctoral candidates in chemi cal (twenty-seven ), petroleum ( one ), civil ( two ), and environmental ( ten ) engineering, as well as geology ( two ) Many of the Master s degree candidates were employed full-time in local industry and hence made many interesting and useful contributions regard ing problems with waste generation treatment and disposal in their companies The course fulfills a technical elective requirement for undergraduates who have selected the environmental specialty, one of several fields of specialization they can choose. C OURS E CONT ENT An outline of the course is shown in Table 1. The course concentrates on several aspects of the haz ardous waste problem while touching on others only superficially. We are mainly concerned with hazard ous wastes in soils, groundwater and waste-water ponds and tanks. Air pollution is not covered ( a separate course on air pollution control is offered in our department ) A typical scenario considered during the course is, for instance, a hydrocarbon spill in subsurface soil such as from a leaking underground storage tank. The hydrocarbon may be lighter or heavier than water and hence it may float on or sink below the water table. It may be carried with or dissolve in the groundwater, adsorb to the soil break down b y ther mal, chemical or biological means or volatilize Ob viously many physical chemical, and biological pro cesses influence the fate of the spill and our abilit y to clean it up Our discussion of various remediation methods includes consideration of these issues We concentrate on hydrocarbon wastes though some discussion of heavy metals and radioactive waste is included. Hydrocarbons are of particular C h e m ical Engineeri n g E d u cation

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interest because of the concentration of the petro leum industry in Texas, and because they are com mon contaminants throughout the rest of the coun try as well. Of the various methods of contaminant recovery or destruction, we cover bioremediation in the most depth. Though many bioremediation tech niques (other than the long-practiced landfarming) are still generally considered developmental, the po tential for contaminant destruction rather than re moval, the in situ treatment options, and the favor bioremediation is gaining with regulatory agencies motivated this selection. We begin the semester with a brief overview of the origins and the biological and ecological effects of various types of hazardous wastes, including hydro carbons (oil industry, agricultural chemicals, wood treatment chemicals, etc.), heavy metals, and radio nuclides. These lectures are designed to help the students understand why certain wastes are consid ered hazardous and why we must be concerned about their uncontrolled release. We next cover analytical methods that are commonly used to detect and quantify concentra tions of contaminants. The methods include gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and various types of dellltroductio11 TABLE 1 Course Outline Hazardous wastes-types and origins Biological and ecological effects of hazardous wastes Introduction to environmental remediation methods Analytical methods Contaminant Transport Mechanisms Physicochemical and geologic factors Mathematical analysis Bioremediation Microbiology and growth kinetics Methods-in situ, surface, bioreactors Remedy screening Case studies Chemical, Thermal and Physical Remediation Methods In situ volatilization Low temperature thermal High temperature thermal Supercritical oxidation Extraction Adsorption Case studies Regulations Fall 1992 The purpose of the course is to introduce the students to both the traditional and the developmental methods for removal or destruction of hazardous wastes at contaminated sites and from industrial waste streams. tectors used with them; mass spectrometry and its use with GC and HPLC; and atomic absorption spectrometry. There are numerous reference mate rials on these techniques.11 -41 We also illustrate the methods by which one can measure the concentration of organic matter in waters, such as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Or ganic Carbon (TOC), and Total Oxygen Demand (TOD). Chapter 2 of a book on water quality by Tchobanoglous and Schroeder1 s1 is used, though nearly all such books will include a section on these measurements. We also introduce the exist ence of the standard numbered analytical methods that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires for detection of various substances in dif ferent media (e.g., drinking water or plant effluent water to be released to a river). A recent paperl 6 1 discusses the need to consolidate and revise these prescribed methods. Following these introductory lectures, we take a quantitative look at contaminant transport in po rous media, such as in a diesel fuel spill in soil. Professor Kishore Mohanty, an expert in transport processes in porous media, was a guest lecturer for this part of the course last spring. He covered math ematical models that can be used to calculate the rate of movement of a fluid, illustrating its depen dence on such parameters as groundwater velocity, soil porosity, tortuosity of pore structure, molecular diffusivity, and capillary pressure. He also explained the mechanisms of drainage and imbibition of ground water and how these processes affect the movement of nonaqueous phase liquids. A recent review1 1 1 is used as a reference, and several other books serve as additional resources for the interested student.1 8 9 1 Since this course concentrates on methods that chemi cal engineers might utilize to remediate a site, these topics are covered only briefly. However, because one must locate a contaminant before devising an optimal cleanup strategy, this part of the course will likely be expanded in the future. At this point we begin to examine the various techniques that we can apply to reclaim a contami nated site. We begin with the bioremediation meth ods, spending four to five weeks on the topic. 205

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The coursework included two take-home exams in which the students had a week to answer two to three problems. Both conceptual and quantitative problems were used. Because most engineering students have little or no microbiological background, the first couple of lectures cover the basics on bacterial growth kinet ics, substrate and oxygen utilization, co-metabolism and the variety of substances that microbes are known to metabolize. These lectures were given by Professor Richard Willson, who conducts biochemi cal separations research. He stressed that there is a maximum rate at which microbes can metabolize a substrate and that the rate of metabolism will slow down as substrate concentration decreases. In addi tion, the concentration of contaminants that can be achieved with biodegradation may not be as low as we require, and many contaminants are not biode gradable or degrade very slowly. The latter includes many chlorinated compounds that unfortunately are usually highly toxic and difficult to remove or degrade by other methods as well Anaerobic mi crobes appear to dechlorinate hydrocarbons better than aerobic microbes but the rate is very slow. Standard microbiology textbooks can be used as references and Biochemical Engineering Fundamen tals I 1 0 1 includes mathematical descriptions of sub strate utilization and growth rates. Numerous over views of the use of microbes to degrade environmen tal contaminants exist; we use a publication by the Office of Technology Assessmentr 11 1 and several other recent reviews .1121 41 Following this introduction, we examine the vari ous methods by which we can utilize biodegradation for waste removal. These include landfarming and i ts variations ( composting bioleaching ), in situ bio remediation with and without additional microbes and several types of bioreactors.r1 2 1 s1 Landfarming ( the practice of periodically adding fertilizer and moisture, and tilling to expose the contaminated soil to oxygen ) has been used in the oil and chemical industries for many years to treat rela tively small spills on soil.I 1 5 1 The idea to use in situ bioremediation has gained favor in recent years be cause of its noninvasive nature and typically low cost. In this method, one only has to inject aqueous solutions of nutrients (typically nitrogen and phos phorous sources ) oxygen and sometimes exogenous microbes into the area to facilitate the in situ degra dation of the offending contaminants. Contaminated groundwater may be treated simultaneously by 2 06 pumping it to the s urface treating it through phase separation, carbon adsorption, or other methods and then typically using it as the water source for the nutrient solution We stress that although in situ bioremediation has the advantages that excavation is not required, con taminated soil s and groundwater can be tr e ated and manpower and maintenance requirements are low, it also has numerous major limitations In situ bioremediation is typically very slow, so cleaning up a site may take years low cleanup levels may not be possible confirmation of cleanup may be difficult ( so monitoring may have to be continued for several decades ) contaminant migration may occur, low per meability areas may be bypassed and not treated, or the soil may get plugged by the increase in biomass. An alternative to in s itu bioremediation that b y passes many of these limitations is the use of biore actors We examine several types : the stirred tank reactor can be used for treatment of liquids as well as slurries whereas trickle bed reactors with a grow ing biofilm on the packing medium are used with liquid waste streams .c 1 s 1 a1 Bioreactors are typically the most expensive method of bioremediation, but are also the most controlled. Treatment times for the same amount of waste are typically shorter than either surface treatment or in s itu methods less space is required, and air emissions can be con trolled. As with other types of bioremediation, low cleanup levels may not be possible. If soils are to be treated a significant water source is required to form a slurry An electrical source is also required The bioreactor is much easier to study quantita tively than either in situ or surface bioremediation methods and we derive some bioreactor models that utilize the substrate utilization and growth kinetics in this part of the course. At this point when the students have several choices of remediation methods in mind, pro cedures for remedy screening and design are intro duced. The critical idea is that one must design and carry out appropriate laboratory studies to test whether proposed remediation methods are likely to fulfill one s requirements. These studies must pro vide enough information to narrow the choices of remedy, provide data for pilot-scale studies if neces sary, and eventually allow one to obtain the neces sary permits and design a full-scale process The EPA provides various guideline documents for treatability studies; we used one for aerobic biodeg radation remedy screening .c 1 9 1 Several case studies are used to illustrate the imple mentation of bioremediation methods, the decision C h e m ic al En gi n ee r i n g E d u ca tion

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processes that lead to their utilization, and the pos sible pitfalls involved. A well-documented site that is on the National Priorities List ( Superfund) is an abandoned wood-treatment facility in Montana.c 1 1, 1 s1 Both soils and an aquifer are contaminated from uncontrolled releases of creosote and pentachloro phenol during its twenty-three years of operation. In situ bioremediation, landfarming in contained land treatment units, and bioreactors for the most con taminated groundwater are all being used Another wood-treatment facility in Minnesota that has con taminated water with pentachlorophenol is being remediated with a fixed-film bioreactor. 1 16 1 Numer ous other reports of bioremediation application can be found in the waste treatment, water quality, and environmental literature. Professionals in local industry are also invited to speak to the class about their involvement in biore mediation activities We had two such guests last spring. The first, Joseph Jennings ( President of Waste Microbes, Inc.), presented his company s in volvement in treating wastewater ponds and tanks. The company has developed a consortium of mi crobes that they add along with nutrients and sparging air at the bottom of a body of water. His presentation helped us focus on the common and important issues of whether aqueous contaminants may be stripped into the atmosphere rather than degraded, and whether the addition of exogenous microbes is necessary or helpful. The second speaker Sara McMillen (a microbiolo gist at Exxon Production Research ), gave a presen tation on bioremediation in general which included her work on composting and Exxon's experimenta tion with bioremediation in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (also described in reference 11) Following bioremediation we move on to other remediation methods. They are grouped in terms of the physical or chemical means of contaminant sepa ration or destruction utilized We start with in situ volatilization or soil venting, the removal of organic compounds from subsurface soils (and possibly groundwater) by mechanically drawing or venting air through the soil matrix.c1 s 1 We stress the physical parameters that determine the success of this method, which include the volatility of the com pounds their adsorption into the soil, and the ease of drawing or venting air through the soil. We next cover low temperature thermal treatment because it also utilizes volatilization, though in a controlled, heated chamber.ti s,201 In this case, excava tion of the contaminated soils is required. In both Fall 1992 methods the off-gases are typically burned or ad sorbed on activated carbon or water in scrubbers, depending on the concentration and type of contami nant. An advantage of low temperature thermal is that it allows the recovery of the hydrocarbon if desired. High temperature thermal operations are consid ered next. We discuss methods design parameters, and operating conditions of incineration, vitrificaSome problems on both exams were designed to illustrate the idea ... that one has many types of remediation methods to choose from and one must weigh the advantages and limitations of each on scientific, social, and economic scales .. tion, and pyrolysis. A major advantage of high tem perature methods is the greater than 99 % destruc tion of organic contaminants that is usually attain able. 11s 20 1 Major scientific limitations include the need for substantial air emissions equipment if elevated levels of halogenated organic compounds or volatile metals are present, and the production of residual ash that might need additional treatment or special disposal. A nonscientific limitation is the societal objection to incinerators near residential areas. High temperature methods are typically very expensive because of the high energy usage, and the permit ting process can be extremely lengthy and costly. Supercritical water oxidation is also included. Last spring this was discussed by Professor Vemuri Balakotaiah, who specializes in analysis of various chemical reactors and reaction mechanisms. He dem onstrated how oxidation in supercritical water can provide very high destruction efficiencies-in many cases greater than 99.99 %, even with very dilute waste streams.c21 221 He also compared the operation and destruction efficiencies of supercritical water oxidation processes with several typical incinerator designs to illustrate their similarities and differ ences. The last major technology that we study is separa tions, specifically adsorption and extraction. An un published review by D. W. Tedder at the Georgia Institute of Technology, entitled "Separations in Haz ardous Waste Management, is used as an overview of the topic. Activated carbon adsorption is discussed in some detail because of its extensive and long-time use for air emissions control and polishing wastewa ter .L23 24J We also discuss several chemical extraction methods that are used to separate contaminated 207

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sludges and soils into their respective phase frac tions: organics, water, and particulate solids. These include the supercritical fluid extraction processes based on carbon dioxide or propane and the Basic Extraction Sludge Treatment (B.E.S T ) process of the Resources Conservation Company (Bellevue, WA) based on the temperature-dependent separation of water and aliphatic amines. I 1 5 1 In situ soil leaching and the potential use of sur factants are also briefly discussed. While separa tions processes for soil and sludge decontamination may be considered developmental, they have the advantages of obtaining a reusable oil phase, can be used with high moisture content soils and oil con centrations up to forty percent, and are usually less expensive than incineration or commercial landfilling. The potentially limiting problems include not being able to handle soil clay content above about twenty to-thirty percent and high volatiles content, and dif ficulty in handling soils that have been contami nated for extended periods of time because of weath ering and adsorption. Again, case studies are in cluded where possible. Following our study of these major areas, we briefly introduce a number of other methods so that the students are aware of the many options that have been used or are in development. We include solidifi cation and stabilization, which involve the addition of materials that combine physically and/or chemi cally to decrease the mobility of the original waste constituents. Next are in situ and ex situ isolation and containment, which involve isolating the con taminated soil from the surrounding environment with physical barriers such as clay caps, synthetic liners, slurry cut-off walls, and grout curtains. Fi nally we describe the idea of beneficial reuse, such as incorporating soils containing petroleum hydro carbons in hot asphalt mix, or using contaminated soil as road base material or construction material for structures such as containment berms. Regulatory issues are not covered in depth be cause of time constraints, though the major national legislation is introduced early in the course. It in cludes the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Re sponse Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and Under ground Storage Tank (UST) regulations. In addi tion the process of obtaining a Record of Decision by the EPA for a remediation plan is described. We also bring in an outside expert to discuss the 208 regulatory climate in Texas Last spring Marilyn Long (Senior Geologist at the Texas Water Commis sion, Texas partial equivalent of the EPA ) gave a lecture on dealing with hazardous wastes in Texas. She described the various regulatory agencies in Texas and their jurisdictions. She discussed the le gal ramifications of statutes rules, and guidelines, and how a company must work with the regulations and regulators. She also discussed her involvement in several bioremediation and low temperature ther mal treatment projects. COURSEWORK The coursework included two take-home exams in which the students had a week to answer two to three problems. Both conceptual and quantitative problems were used. For example, one problem on the first exam gave a sketchy description of a "superfund" site, including volumes of contaminated surface water, groundwater, soils, and sludge at the bottom of a pond, types of contaminants (hydrocar bons and some heavy metals ), and a history of the site. An "approved clean-up scenario was described, which consisted of incineration of the contaminated soils and sludges, use of ash as backfill, natural attenuation of the aquifer (to be monitored), and discharge of the water to a nearby river after polish ing. The problem then stated that the responsible party is requesting permission to evaluate the use of bioremediation for the site as an alternative to the selected remedy. The student, as the company's ex pert on bioremediation, was to outline the types of bioremediation that may be appropriate for each of the contaminated media, outline a laboratory rem edy screening study to test the feasibility of his suggestions in the first part, and then describe how he would actually implement an overall reclamation plan utilizing bioremediation for the site. Some as pects of the site description were purposely left vague so that the student could make assumptions or speci fications about anything that was not explicitly stated. His solution then had to be consistent with the assumptions made. Some problems on both exams were designed to illustrate the idea, emphasized throughout the course, that one has many types ofremediation meth ods to choose from and one must weigh the advan tages and limitations of each on scientific, social, and economic scales in order to devise an optimal solution. The students also complete a term paper or project of their choosing. The topics are allowed to range from site characterizations, critical reviews of ongo ing site cleanups, critiques of particular remediation Ch e mical Engineering Education

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methods, and mathematical models of a method (e.g., reaction kinetics in an incinerator) or contaminant transport. A major requirement for the paper is a critical evaluation of the selected topic. Last spring, specific titles included "Dioxin formation in pulp bleach plants ," "Naturally occurring radioactive ma terial accumulated as a result of hydrocarbon pro duction-waste minimization technology," "The MOTCO superfund site: an evaluation," and "Dis tributed control in wastewater treatment systems." Several students selected topics that were relevant to their present jobs so they could learn something that might help them immediately, whereas others chose such popular topics as the use of bioremedia tion for the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska. RESOURCE MATERIALS Because of the broad nature of the material that is covered, we do not use a specific textbook. Rather, a number of papers from the literature, as well as chapters from several books, are used (a number of which are cited herein). Literature papers are espe cially useful for case studies. A particularly useful resource is a manual pre pared by Environmental Solutions, Inc., under con tract by the Western States Petroleum Association, entitled Onsite Treatment: Hydrocarbon Contami nated Soil.l 1 5 J It is used extensively for summaries of the various soil-treatment methods. While the manual does not deal with design of the processes, it includes excellent qualitative summaries of various methods, their applicability, advantages and limita tions, permitting requirements, whether a method is developmental or proven costs, capacity and man power estimates, and references for actual usage of the method. It also provides guidelines for selecting the best method for site-specific conditions, which is very useful. Most of the remediation methods the manual discusses were mentioned above and are touched on at least briefly during our course. SUMMARY The environmental remediation field is changing rapidly as new methods are developed to handle the numerous hazardous substances that pollute the soils and groundwater in many areas of the country. Chemical engineers are ideally suited to work in this field because of our expertise in transport phenom ena, thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, and unit operations-all of which are required to quantify the movement of contaminants in the subsurface and devise optimal methods ofremediation. This course is designed to introduce both gradu ates and seniors to the field. We expect the course Fall 1992 will evolve to include more emphasis on hydrogeology and contaminant transport calculations and in creased use of models and design equations to evalu ate the applicability and efficiency of methods in different contexts. Inviting outside speakers from local industry will continue. The speakers were well received and the students welcomed the chance to hear from people experienced with specific remediation technologies. REFERENCES 1. Hassan S.S.M. Analysis Using Atomic Absorption Spec trometry, Ellis Horwood Limited, Chichester (1984) 2 Howe, I., D H. Williams, and R.D. Bowen Mass Spectrom etry Principles and Applications 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York ( 1981 ) 3. Jennings, W ., Analytical Gas Chromatography, Academic Press Orlando, FL ( 1987 ) 4 Miller, J.M., Chromatography: Concepts and Contrasts, John Wiley and Sons, New York ( 1988 ) 5. Tchobanoglous, G., and E.D. Schroeder, Water Quality: Char acteristics-Modeling-Modification, Addison-Wesley, Reading MA ( 1985 ) 6. Hites, R.A., and W.L Budde, Env. Sci. Tech., 25 998 (1991) 7. Mercer, J W ., and R.M. Cohen, J Contam. Hydrol. 6, 107 (1990) 8. Dullien, F.A.L., Porous Media, Fluid Transport and Pore Structure, Academic Press (1979) 9 Lake, L W ., Enhanced Oil Recovery Prentice-Hall, New York (1989) 10. Bailey, J E ., and D F Ollis, Bioch e mical Engineering Fun damentals, McGraw-Hill New York ( 1986 ) 11. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Bioreme diation for Marine Oil Spills-Background Paper OTA-BP O-70 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office) ( 1991) 12 Nichols, A.B., Water Env. Tech., p. 52, February (1992) 13 Saylor, G.S. J. Haz. Mat., 28 13 (1991) 14. Shorthouse B.T. Remediation 1 31 (1990) 15. Onsite Treatment: Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils, Envi ronmental Solutions, Inc., Irvine, CA (1991) 16. Frick, T.D ., R.L. Crawford, M. Martinson, T. Chresand and G. Bateson, Environmental Biotechnology, G S. Omenn Ed., Plenum Press, New York, pp 173-192 (1988) 17. Piotrowski M.R. Hydrocarbon Contam. Soils, 1 433 (1991) 18. Piotrowski, M.R., and J W. Carraway, Full-Scale Bioreme diation of Soil and Groundwater at a Superfund Site: A Progress Report," presented to HazMat South 91, Atlanta, GA (1991) 19. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Guide for Conduct ing Treatability Studies Under CERCLA: Aerobic Biodegra dation Remedy Screening, Interim Guidance, EPA/540/291/013A (1991) 20. Freeman, H ., Innovative Thermal Hazardous Organic Waste Treatment Processes, Noyes Publication, Park Ridge, NJ ( 1985) 21. Helling R.K., and J.W. Tester, Environ. Sci Tech ., 22 1319 ( 1988) 22 Thomason, T.B., and M. Modell, Haz Waste, 1 453 (1984) 23. Perrich, J R., Activated Carbon Adsorption for Wastewater Treatment CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1981) 24. Voice, T.C ., in Standard Handbook of Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal H M Freeman Ed p. 6.3, McGraw Hill, New York (1989) 0 209

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SOME THOUGHTS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION A Graduate Student's Perspective RANGARAMANUJAM M. KANNAN California Institute of T echnology Pa sadena, CA 91125 C hemical engineering may well be the most diverse of the engineering disciplines, and it is getting broader every year, with practi tioners working in such far-removed areas as mo lecular genetics, microelectronics, and artificial in telligence. In fact diversity and adaptability may be the main advantages we have over other engineers. In the future, chemical engineers will have to be creative thinkers, using their knowledge to expand the frontiers of science and we must give consider able thought right now to how we can prepare stu dents to face that challenge. In response to this future need, quite a few changes have already been incorporated in the curriculum, but additional im provements will also be necessary if we are to keep pace with future developments and demands. A natural consequence of progress is the increase in the standard at each level of education. For ex ample, while I was not introduced to computers un til the twelfth grade, today's eighth-grade students are already using computers. At the college level, it seems to me that converting chemical engineering into a multidisciplinary field has been reasonably well accomplished in the undergraduate curriculum, and that the curriculum has become more flexible. In order to prepare students for the next step (either graduate school or industry ) a number of changes have occurred-undergraduate research being the most significant, in my opinion, since it gives the student a flavor of graduate school and research. The logical sequence now is for graduate education to follow suit and to introduce students to some of the characteristics of faculty/industrial research ca reers. I do not claim that this has not already been done, but I do wish to explore opportunities for fur ther improvements. I realize that there are profes sors who are better qualified and more experienced to address this issue than I am, but I would like to 'f Rangaramanujam M. Kannan is a graduate student in chemical engineering at the Califor nia Institute of Technology He received his BE (Hons.) from the Bir/a Institute of Technology and Science {India) and his MS degrees from Penn State and Caltech. His primary research interests are in polymer physics a nd fluid me chanics with special emphasis on understand ing polymer dynamics from a molecular level His other interests include sports Tamil music and movies offer my ideas-from a student's point of view. By coming to graduate school, a student has already made a strong commitment to developing a deep understanding of some particular subject The student has to have been motivated as an undergraduate; he or she is not there merely to get a degree. After completing the PhD, that student intends to be a leader in teaching, research, and/or development In order to prepare a student to face the diverse world of chemical engineering, some improvements in the curriculum are necessary. I will focus on three important areas-they are related to each other in the sense that success in one depends on suc cess in the other: Teaching and Course Work Research Communication and Motivation Skills TEACHING AND COURSE WORK When I was an undergraduate, I participated in a debate on "education is what you remember after you forget what you learned." It sounded odd at first, but I understood and supported it wholeheartedly later. University education teaches us many details (which most students forget as time goes by), but it is the basics (which are taught as a small fraction of the total duration ) that must be retained. That we do not remember the details may not be a problem at all. In fact, the purpose of education is exactly what my debate topic was-to teach the "collective wisCopy r ig h t C /iE D ivision of A SE E 1 992 210 Ch e mical Engineering Education

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dom. However, many students do not realize this and lose their motivation especially at the grad uate level when they take what they think are irrelevant classes. While it is clear that details are necessary in certain situations, it is important to recognize that the coll e ctiv e wisdom is what helps us in the long run If the above statements are valid for undergradu ate education they are even more pertinent at the graduate level. It is imperative that the graduate curriculum emphasize new and abstract ideas in diverse areas. I will expand on a couple of sugges tions in the following sections. Encourage Creativity in the Graduate Classroom There are two phases to an y scientific idea: giving birth to a creative idea and having the analytical ability to carry that idea to conclusion. Our educa tion helps us to excel in the latter aspect, but not in the former. Some people even contend that creativ ity cannot be taught While I cannot make a ruling on that, I do feel that it can be encouraged In an article on graduate education J. L Duda c 1 1 said ... our educational system stifles creativity. We often see graduate classes where the student is asked to solve sophisticated versions of prob lems such as "given x and y, solve for z"-essen tially similar to undergraduate classes. Such prob lems are illustrative in the short run, but do not help a lot in the long run. Many students agree that the best thing (some times the only thing! ) we remember from our under graduate classes is the design project However most of us do not remember the details of Wei-Prater analysis. Why? Because the design project was open ended and made us think about the practical aspects of what we learned, thus motivating us to under stand and engrave it in our memory. We should have at least a couple of classes in the graduate curriculum that are devoted to discussion of creative, open-ended problems R. M. Felder1 21 has had great success in such attempts in a graduate class. For example he posed the problem "You are faced with the task of measuring the volumetric flow rate of a liquid in a large pipeline Come up with as many different ways to do the job as possible." There were some constraints l 3 1 which I shall not list here, but he received two hundred different responses illustrating that a seemingly straightforward ques tion posed in an open way elucidates creative an swers. It is not important that some of the responses were not commercially viable ; what is important is that students were able to think creatively and to Fall 1992 apply their acquired knowledge to the problem. Since graduate students have already had the basic courses the problems need not be confined to one subject but can be open and general. They may include case studies previously solved probl e ms and unsolved problems. The advantage of such a class is that it encourages students to think creatively it s timulates learning from others lines of thought ( and improving on them ), and it brings various aspects of chemical en gineering together in a classroom setting. Some When I was an undergraduate, I participated in a debate on "education is what you remember after you forget what you learned." It sounded odd at first, but I understood and supported it wholeheartedly later. disadvantages could be that the students may be initially reluctant to participate because they are not used to such an approach ( Professor Felder states, ... with a little practice the students become very enthusiastic" ) it may take some time for faculty to create the right set problems for the course, and the evaluation method is subjective ( The fact that the graduate class is small helps in this respect and at any rate, grades are not supposed to be that critical in graduate school. ) Less Material More Discussions Classes should be more like James Bond movies. There should be something in them for everyone. Involving students in active discussions is a must but unfortunately, many classes are simply mono logues There is usually some level of student interest in every class, and it is important that all the students get something out of the class. Even basic things such as explaining the day's topic in the beginning and summarizing major points in the end will ensure that students leave the class with some newly gained knowledge. It might reduce the amount of material covered in class but it would be worth it because students would retain more of what was taught. RESEARCH These days one often hears of the importance of research with regard to on-the-job success Upon graduation the student is expected to come up with creative ideas to write proposals, and to attract co workers among other things, and the first few ideas and proposals lay the foundation for his or her long term survival. A badly written proposal in the 211

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initial s tag es of a career can have dra s tic implica tion s Even though post doctoral research provides tim e for working on thes e a s pects of a career it is b e tter to begin at the graduate level where one has five years to learn and correct mistakes. In most cases a graduate student learns to take a single task to its conclusion while the research advi sor dominates selection of the p rimary task itself Efforts should be made to give the stu d ent practice in identifying new and important problems in multidisciplinary areas. This would provide students with the opportunity to test and use their creativ e s kills. The following sections off er a few suggestions along this line Make Research Proposals Mandatory Two-time Nobel Laureate at Caltech, Professor Linus Pauling, once said The best way to come up with great ideas is to come up with many ideas and later eliminate the bad ones ." Every student should be required to write at least two original research proposals and to present them to the PhD com mittee This requirement already exists in some schools. It challenges students to think about com pletely new ideas in related areas and o p ens them up to many new possibilities. To gauge the st u dent's improvement the proposals shoul d be presented one year apart-once in the third year and once in the fourth for example. The disadvantage, if any, of making proposals com pulsory may be that it takes away from the student s available time d uring his 'prime' and might impede his research progress However, it helps i n the over all growth of the student, and that is after all the primary purpose of gra d uate e d ucation. Involve Students in Proposal Writing It is common knowledge that the competition for research dollars is getting stiffer every year. This makes life for a new professor even tougher than it normally is Graduate school could be a good start ing point for training If students are expo s ed to proposal writing, presentation and potential fund ing agencies during the latter part of their PhD work the experience will serve them immensely later on in their careers. While the ACS guide on proposal writing is helpful, real-life experience and examples are certainly more useful. In fact it may also help the faculty since the students can critique technical content and improve the presentation to "outsiders." I understand that many faculty already do this Hold Student Seminars on Common Topics This does not refer to the usual group seminars which are held to discuss research progress. It refers 2 1 2 to seminars that could serve as vehicles for identify ing good research. The emphasis should be on how to critically analyze a paper and to learn from it s con tents. The papers should be chosen such that they are either pioneering or classical, very good or very bad. In this way the salient features of ground-break ing research, good research, or bad research can be easily illustrated. A very good or very bad paper is like Madonna-it makes a statement and the point is easy to see. A just-okay paper is more like a politician-it i s tough to learn anything quantitative from what it says. In order to add weight to the seminar and make it even more effective it could involve only a small number of students It might be more valuable to the students if it is offered toward the end of the first year or at the beginning of the second year when they are about to embark on their research projects. The meetings should be informal and should be filled with constructive discussions. COMMUNICATION AND MOTIVATIONAL SKILLS Communication skills are important for everyone. However special emphasis on communication and motivational skills should be a part of graduate school. While it is incorrect to generalize, it can be said that most grad u ate students are relatively re served and introverted In fact, that may be one of their strengths! But after graduating and becoming professors they will have to deal on a day-to day basis with students, faculty and industrial groups, and as leaders in industry, they will have to interact with coworkers and other research groups A leader must be able to motivate coworkers in order to achieve the desired results. Th e importance of communica tion and motivational skills for success in the real world cannot be overstated. It is imperative to stress their importance in the graduate curriculum. The best method for achieving this may be hard to iden tify, but some possibilities would involve a class on communication as part of the curriculum ( taught by a communications expert ), periodic communication and motivational workshops (with case studies ) an d an elective class on "How to Teach." CONCLUSIONS The growing diversity of chemical engineering de mands constant readjustment of the graduate cur riculum. In order to produce creative leaders who can survive the changing environment I have sug gested some curriculum improvements as seen from a student s perspective. I feel the most important aspect to be considered is to encourage creative think ing in teaching an d research. In teaching, the value of discussion-filled creative classes is stressed, and C h e m ic al E ng in ee r i n g E d u c ati o n

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in order to increase effectiveness in illustrating a concept, use of open-ended problems is suggested. In research, the requirement of original research pro posals as part of the degree requirements and fac ulty-student interaction in proposal writing are ad ditional suggestions for consideration. Efforts should be made to improve student communication and mo tivational skills since they play a vital role in later careers, whether in teaching or in industry. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to thank Professor Richard Felder (North Carolina State University) for being the inspiration behind this paper. The comments and suggestions of Professor J.A. Kornfield (Caltech), Professor D. Kompala (Colorado), Jeff Moore (Caltech), and Rajesh Panchanathan (Caltech) are appreciated. REFERENCES 1. Duda J.L. "Graduate Studies : The Middle Way ," Chem. Eng. Edn. 20(4 ), 164 ( 1986 ) 2 Felder, R.M. "On Creating Creative Engineers ," Eng Edn p. 222, Jan ( 1987 ) 3. Felder, R.M., "A Generic Quiz : A Device to Stimulate Cre ativity and Higher-Level Thinking Skills," Chem. Eng. Edn 19:4 ) 176 ( 1985 ) 0 161 book review MODELING WITH DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING by Stanley M. Walas Butterworth-Heinemann, Stoneham, MA; $145, (1991) Reviewed by M. Sarni Selim Colorado School of Mines ) Today there is a recognized need for teaching a course in mathematical methods to undergraduate chemical engineers, and several schools have begun offering such courses. But there are only a few text books available that are primarily addressed to chemical engineering students. This book by Walas is therefore a very timely addition to the literature. It is an excellent book. The book consists of fifteen chapters and an ap pendix. Chapters 1 to 7 focus on mathematical meth ods of solutions of ordinary and partial differential equations. Integral equations are briefly treated in Chapter 6. Theoretical discussions, such as exist ence and uniqueness of solutions, have been skipped Fall 1992 and instead, emphasis has been placed on solution techniques and detailed applications. All classical methods of solution are covered in detail. Numerical and approximate methods are emphasized early on throughout the presentation. The material is well presented, and a wealth of references for further reading are provided. These chapters give the stu dent a good background in the different methods ( analytical numerical, and approximate ) for solving ODEs and PD Es. Limitations of the techniques are clearly explained, and methods for overcoming the difficulties are presented. After the mathematics of differential equations has been presented, there is a chapter devoted to the principles of the mathematical formulation of engi neering processes. What follows next is the distinc tive part of this book-the derivations and solutions of differential equations of some of the major disci plines of chemical engineering. The topics covered include thermodynamics mass transfer, fluid flow, heat transfer, chemical reactions and reactor design, and process control. Attention is restricted primarily to the differential equations that occur in these pro cesses. Many of the topics are reinforced by math ematical or numerical examples as well as problems for the reader, most of them with answers provided. Throughout the book the author guides the reader toward more comprehensive sources of information and the reference list is excellent and up to date. Little mathematics beyond calculus is expected of the reader. Computer usage by the examples and problems is restricted to readily available user-friendly PC diskettes The treatment of most topics is fairly complete, and beginning students will not need to relearn the material as their sophis tication advances. Overall, this book will satisfy the demands of un dergraduate and first-year graduate chemical engi neering students who usually have difficulty in un derstanding the presentations in more general math ematics texts. The book may also be of value to those who have already mastered the typical chemical en gineering curriculum, e.g., the chemical engineering practitioner, and who are now involved in some as pect of computational or mathematical modeling of chemical engineering processes. In summary, this is a highly recommendable text book for senior and beginning graduate students, set apart by an easy style, a healthy amount of exercises, lots of references, and a wide coverage of topics The author is to be commended for his excel lent effort and contribution to the chemical engi neering literature. 0 213

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PATTERN FORMATION IN CONVECTIVE-DIFFUSIVE TRANSPORT WITH REACTION PEDRO ARCE, BRUCE R. LOCKE, JORGE VINALS FAMU/FSU Tallahassee, FL 32316-2175 I has long been recognized in the chemical engi neering profession and in the physical and chemi al sciences that material and energy transport play a central role in both the processing of materi als and in chemical reactor performance Much of the theoretical and numerical modeling efforts for transport and reaction, however, has traditionally been restricted to linearized models (e.g., linear rates of reactions, linear irreversible thermodynamics for transport and dissipation, and neglecting convection as a source of nonlinearity). It is now clear that approaches solely based on linear theories fail to describe many interesting prop erties of these systems; namely, spatial and tempo ral organization, the formation of patterns, and the existence of time-dependent, aperiodic states. In fact, the field of nonlinear dynamics (which encompasses a variety of distinct disciplines) has emerged as a P e d ro Arce received his ChE degree at Universidad Nacional de/ Litoral (Santa Fe Ar gentina) and his MS and PhD degrees from Purdue University (1987 1990) His main re search interests are in applied computational mathematics transport and reaction in multiphase systems and molecular transport mechanics in material design Br uc e R L o c k e received his BE from Vanderbilt University (1980) and has four years of research experience at the Research Triangle Institute (North Carolina) He completed his PhD at North Carolina State in 1989. His research interests are in the dynamics of transport and reaction of biological macromolecules in multicomponent and multidomain composite systems 214 Jorg e Vinals received his BS in Physics at the University de Barcelona Spain (1981) and his PhD in Physics-Material Science at the same uni versity in 1983 His main areas of research are in kinetics of first-order transitions morphological sta bility and crystal growth and pattern formation in convective instabilities Co p y r ig h t C h E D iv i sion of ASEE 199 2 coherent subfield of science in the last decade In the field of chemical engineering, pioneering efforts in the study of strongly nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems have been pursued by Amundson, Aris, and collaborators .r 1 ,21 In general, when a system that is initially placed in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium is forced (and sometimes maintained) away from that state, its evolution can lead to a rich variety of phenomena, quite distinct from systems that are in, or close to, equilibrium. In some cases the system goes through a number of instabilities that lead to chaotic behav ior. In others the evolution is through a succession of spatiotemporal patterns that may lead to compli cated, albeit stationary, structures. From a fundamental point of view, the common feature of all these systems is the essential role played by the nonlinearities in the relevant equa tions of the models In most cases, the nonlinearities cannot be studied as perturbations around some well characterized state, but rather they lead to qualita tively different behavior. Our research focuses on several complementary aspects of problems that encompass convective diffusive transport (with and without chemical reac tions) in a variety of applications of current interest in chemical engineering. Four main areas of research will be reviewed here: 1) chemical and catalytic re acting systems, 2) biological and biochemical inter acting systems, 3) convective instabilities in fluids and liquid crystals, and 4) crystal growth from the melt. They share a common methodology based on nonlinear dynamics, but since a general formulation (let alone a general solution) to all of the problems is out of the question at the present time, each re search area focuses on the most relevant mecha nisms and nonlinearities for the case at hand. For example, the study of chemical and catalytic reacting systems is conducted in one spatial dimen sion and with considerably simplified convection. In the study of convective instabilities, only convective and diffusive transport is considered. In the latter case the system is also kept not too far above the Chemical Engineering Education

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threshold for the primary convective instability so that the emerging patterns are relatively simple ( away from a turbulent state ) The study of crystal growth from the melt allows for moving boundaries of arbitrary shape separating the various phases, but neglects convection. The main goals of the research in all cases are characterization of all possible stationary states of the system ( uniform and more importantly, states which are non-uniform in space) determina tion of the stability of these stationary states when the parameters that can be controlled experimen tally are changed ( e.g., the composition of the reac tants and the temperature of the reactor ) and the calculation of the transient evolution between these stationary states. HIERARCHICAL APPROACH FOR INTERACTIONS IN CHEMICAL BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS The overall objective of this part of our research is to investigate the chemical biological, and biochemi cal structures and functions that arise from the re action diffusion and convection of molecular spe cies. The emphasis is on applying operator-theoretic techniques and inverse integral formulations to ana lyze the dynamics of transport and reaction prob lems with multicomponents and in multidimensional domains of hierarchical structure ( shown, for ex ample, schematically in Figure 1 ). Furthermore, the analysis is aided by group-theoretic methods L 31 and simulations performed in conventional and parallel supercomputers A very wide range of naturally oc curring or synthetically constructed chemical bio logical, and biochemical phenomena can be studied within the framework of reaction and convective diffusive transport. Direct interactions result from the diffusive or con vective coupling through adjoining boundaries be tween macromolecules, catalyst particles, organelles and cells. Indirect interactions refer to interactions mediated by intervening fluid regions. Within the framework of the direct and indirect interactions, we seek to analyze the dynamic behavior of hetero geneous populations of macromolecules catalyst par ticles, organelles cells, and multicellular organisms from a hierarchical point of view. In this hierarchical approach, a domain (e.g., a population of cells or organelles ) is considered in terms of sub-domains (e.g., organelles or macromol ecules ) and the mathematical description accounts for the transport and reaction processes that occur inside these domains, as well as for those occurring Fall 1992 It is now clear that approaches solely based on linear theories fail to describe many interesting properties of these systems; namely, spatial and temporal organization, the formation of patterns, and the existence of time-dependent, aperiodic states. 1 2 ... k ... M-1 M \_, i----------E ~Figure 1. A s in g le d o main (whi c h c ould its e l f b e a subdomain of a lar ge r domain} s h o win g M s ubdi v ision s o r la y ers su c h as th e on e s di sc uss e d in th e t ex t and that c orr e spond s t o th e mod e l g i ve n in Eq ( 1 ) between the domains throughout the environmental media This hierarchical description features an as semblage ( or superstructure ) based on units of smaller" dimensions which may in turn display different degrees ( or levels ) of description. This approach ( although not entirely new ) has not previously been fully exploited to describe the dy namics of biological and biochemical systems. Past efforts have focussed almost completely on extend ing the Rashevsky-Turing[ 4 5 1 ideas to a variety of situations but have failed to account for the indirect interactions which have been shown to be as impor tant as the Rashevsky-Turing interactions in gener ating a rich variety of behaviors in catalytic reac tors .l6l Our research aims at elucidating the roles of both types of interactions The operator-theoretic technique allows a full char acterization of the dynamic behavior of systems with out the complete numerical solution to the govern ing differential models. This also allows for a cou pling of different levels of information in a given system and thus leads to the analysis of the compos ite system in terms of the simpler systems Further more, the inverse integral formulation allows for a very efficient numerical strategy to solve the com plete nonlinear differential model using information provided by the operator formulation Chemical and Catalytic Reacting Systems The field of pattern formation in catalytic reactors has been reviewed recently in the framework of di215

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rect and indirect interactions. 1 1 1 The analysi s ad dresses a wide variety of aspects including the in troduction of a hierarchy of reactor models math ematical techniques previous work done in the field, and important problems to be investigated in future research efforts. Direct Interactions Recently Locke and Arcet s 1 31 have considered one-dimensional diffusion, reaction, and convection in a system of M-layers where the diffusion coefficients the phase distribution coeffi cients reaction rate constant s and convective trans port coefficients were allowed to vary from one layer to the next Coupling between the layers was mod eled through equilibrium and flux boundary condi tions where the flux condition included both convec tion and diffusion. For one-dimensional transport which may include electrophoretic transport in rect angular coordinates, the general molar species con tinuity equation for the m t h layer is a cm ( V) a c m a 2 c m -=u + D + k f ( c ) a t m L m ax m a x 2 m m m ( 1 ) where c = cross sectional area average molar species con centration ( VIL ) applied voltage per unit length u electrophoretic mobility k reaction rate con s tant D diffusion coefficient f function that contains the concentration and spa tial variations of the reaction rate In the above model formulation each layer is as sumed to be a different phase, and therefore flux and equilibrium boundary conditions are required at the M 1 interfaces. A general approach would re quire the addition of a material balance over well mixed external regions in analogy with the approach of Ramkrishna and Amundson1 9 1 1 I and Parulekar and Ramkrishna.l 1 2 1 This would give V 0 ~t o =c 0 r F 0 c 0 F 0 +a [ D i( ~; )x = o + u 1 (r)/ 1 (x=O + )] ( 2 ) VL d;t L = cLfFL cLFL a [ DM (a ;: ). = L uM(ltcM(x = L )] ( 3 ) where V volume c molar concentration F volumetric flow into the mixed cells a cross sectional area of the membrane surfaces 216 The subscripts O and L represent the two well-mixed external regions and f r e present s the feed streams into the two external region s (s hown schematically in Figure 1 ) The interactions between the different layers in this model can be considered to be direct interac tions since the layers are physically and geometri cally coupled at their ( phase ) boundaries. This is in contrast to coupling through indirect interactions that rely on an intermediate phase such as a bulk fluid to mediate the interaction s betwe e n th e two systems not physically adjacent. The model described here may be viewed as a prototype to investigate the behavior of cells immersed in a fluid environment. The system will feature an assemblage of domains as shown in Figure 1. The solution to the above mod els is being undertaken by using operator-theo retic methods .cs-131 Current work is concerned with performing linear stability analysis for the case of reacting system s coupled with hydrodynamic and electrophoretic transport and diffu s ion Indirect Interactions In a series ofrecent stud ies Arce and Ramkrishna cs 7 1 4 1 and Ramkrishna and Arce r i s17 1 considered transport and reaction problems in catalytic reactors This research has shown that indirect interactions are as important as the direct interactions in producing a wide variety of very in teresting steady state and dynamic behaviors in cata lytic reacting systems Moreover assemblies of cata lyst particles showing only interactions mediated by the fluid medium are able to display a broader class of collaborative phenomena ( i e. behaviors caused by the mutual interactions among the particles ) than those found in assemblies showing only direct inter actions Assemblages of catalyst particles with only indirect interactions 1s 7 1 have uniform steady states that can show collaborative multiplicity and collabo rative reversal of instability before breaking the sym metry. This allows the particle to preserve partially, the stability inside the reactor Pattern formation is displayed when the assembly of catalyst particles breaks the symmetry of the uniform steady state ( see Figure 2 ) Collaborative multiplicity and collaborative rever sal of stability can also be observed in patterns ; however, it i s impossible for the assembly to show collaborative reversal of stability. The mathematical analysis that is used to study this multitude of phe nomena is based on a theory that exploits the com plete understanding of the isolated particle ( or cell) in an operator-theoretic framework. Furthermore, the analysis has been pursued further by using sinC h e m ica l En gi n ee r i n g Edu c ati o n

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8 3 s 5 8 6 Figure 2. Pattern formation in a we ll-mix e d sy st e m sho w in g two individual intera c tin g c atalyti c particl e s or c ell s Confi g urations 2 4 and 5 cl e arl y show the ce lls in two diff e r e nt stead y states. Diff e r e nt s t e ad y stat e s insid e ea c h c e ll ar e sc h e mati c all y d e pi c t e d w ith diff e r e nt patterns. gularity theory and group-operator methods .t1a1 In addition, the investigation has been extended to cata lytic packed-bed reactors l 1 6 l where indirect interac tions among particles (with internal diffusion) are accounted for in an axial diffusive convective fluid. This investigation is very relevant for describing the behavior of assemblies ( or superstructures) of cells in terms of smaller domains ( or units ) These computations, which include the determination of regions of different behaviors in the parameter space and the identification of all the steady states, can be efficiently performed using an inverse integral for mulation .L191 This inverse integral formulation uses a non-linear integral operator of the Hammerstein Volterra type with a kernel given by the Green func tion of the differential problem. The Green function can be computed in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the differential linear ( transport ) op erator without the reaction terms. This approach greatly simplifies the computations of steady states for different kinds of non-linear sources. Further more, the integral formulation is very suitable for implementation by parallel computer architectures and therefore, the process of obtaining steady states from complex assemblages composed of several units ( cells ) can be greatly accelerated. Fall 1992 Biological and Biochemical Interacting Systems Rapid advances in molecular and cellular biology over the last ten to tw e nt y years have inspired re search efforts in the development of molecular and metabolic engineering. In order to advance our abili ties to create artificial sy s tems through molecular and metabolic engineering it is necessary to have a full understanding of th e fundam e ntal dynamics of living s y stems Dynamical aspects ofliving systems includ e subcellular enzymatic reactions for cell growth and reproduct i on enzymatic and genetic level control processes s upracellular morphological development, cell cycle s, and evolutionary processes. In addition to developing an understanding of how each separate level of process works, it is necessary to integrate different level s of structure into an over all framework that de s cribes the interactions be tween these different l e vel s The interplay of convective-diffusive transport with reaction yields a wide variety of steady-stat e and dynamic behavior in biochemical and biological sys tems. This includes oscillations wave propagation, multiplicity of uniform stationary states, and ( tem poral and spatial) pattern formation. Oscillations occur in enzyme reactions protein synthesis, cell cycles muscle contraction, and many other cellular and physiological processes. 1201 Oscillations in the glycolytic pathway have been extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically. Most of the efforts in the literature have been devoted primarily to temporal variations and to the determination of stability conditions for non-linear chemical reactions with several components.1 20,2 1 1 Generally, in isother mal systems it is necessary for the chemical reac tion s to exhibit non-linear kin e tics in order for tem poral patterns to occur. Higgens 1221 considered the general types of autocatalytic chemical reactions with positive or negative feedback that give rise to oscilla tory variations of species concentrations Some very current applications of temporal pattern formation involves modeling cell cycles via the recently deter mined key metabolic component cyclin .l231 Temporal variation alone however since it ne glects all geometrical and spatial structure, cannot describe systems where spatial structure is impor tant. Reaction/diffusion problems have been used to consider problems in biological morphological devel opment, biochemical reactions and population ecol ogy since the ideas introduced by Rashevsky t4,24f and Turing. is, Turing considered reaction and diffusion in a two-component and one-dimensional system Scriven and coworker s12 5 2 61 ha v e developed a gen eral analysis of multicomponent reaction and diffu217

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sion in a single region coupled to other regions through indirect transfer expressions. A large number of phenomena have subsequently been investigated from the perspective1 20,2 7 1 of reac tion and diffusion within a single phase. What re mains to be considered is a comprehensive approach to include systems ofmulticomponents in multiphase domains and a hierarchy of both direct and indirect interactions. The main goal of our research is the development of such a comprehensive approach. Biological and biochemical systems can be broken down into a number of functional and structural units (e.g., macromolecules, organelles, cells, tissues populations, and communities) These units can in turn interact through direct or indirect means in analogy to the chemical reactor and separation mod els given above. Martin, et al.,1 2a1 have formulated a one-dimensional multiple layer diffusion and con vection model for the transport of auxin, a plant hormone, up the stem of a plant. Their model is simpler than the one considered above by Locke and Arcel B, 1 3 1 and they have solved it using the cumber some method of Laplace transform. This methodol ogy gives no indication of the role of the different parameters on the dynamics of the process. From a more general perspective, Almirantis and Papageorgioul 2 9 1 have considered reaction bound ary coupling between multiple layers in a one dimensional system as a model of intercellular communication They developed a stability analysis to determine the conditions for pattern forma tion. Operator theoretic methods can give a much clearer view of the stability criteria through an analy sis of the spectrum of the operators. Currently, several geometrical configurations of cell systems are being investigated to determine their steady state structure, linear stability, and pattern forma tion characteristics. CONVECTIVE INSTABILITIES IN FLUIDS AND LIQUID CRYS T AL S The Rayleigh-Benard instability in simple fluids is a classical fluid instability that has been well char acterized both theoretically and experimentally, at least when the Rayleigh number is not too far from the critical Rayleigh number and the aspect ratio of the experimental cell is not too large 1 3 0 311 Under these conditions, when the system is brought above threshold, a convective instability occurs and the familiar pattern of convective rolls appears. Although this is a simplified situation, it is very important in our understanding of nonlinear phe nomena because the equations describing the sys218 tern are well known and the fluid parameters that appear in them can be measured with sufficient accuracy. Furthermore, experiments can be con ducted under well controlled conditions. It therefore provides a good testing ground for many of the ideas of pattern formation in nonlinear systems and an opportunity for detailed and precise comparisons be tween the predictions given by well defined models and the experiments. Unfortunately for most commonly studied fluids the parameters of the fluid are such that systems comprising only a few convective rolls can be studied under normal laboratory conditions The emerging structures are therefore greatly influenced by the geometry and size of the experimental cell. More recently, however, experiments have been conducted on gasesl 32 J or on the electro-hydrodynamic instabil ity in nematic liquid crystals. l33J The scale of the convective rolls in these cases is much smaller than the size of the cell and the issues discussed above are beginning to be studied in greater detail. We have concentrated on the analysis of the sto chastic Swift-Hohenberg equation.l 3 4 J This equation describes the evolution of a scalar field, function of position r and time t, that can be written in dimen sionless form as (4) The quantity acts as control parameter. From < 0 the solution y = 0 is linearly stable, whereas at = 0 it becomes unstable to periodic solutions. The stochastic function, ~(r, t), is normally assumed to be gaussian distributed and delta-correlated. This equa tion has been shown to be equivalent in the long wavelength, long-time limit the Boussinesq approxi mation to the hydrodynamic equations that described convection in a simple fluid close to the convective instability. In that case the stochastic contribution is related to the underlying thermal fluctuations in the fluid. More generally this equation can be con sidered as a generic model that describes the forma tion of spatially periodic structures. Three main issues are investigated. First, the ques tion of pattern selection, namely which, out of the infinitely many linearly stable stationary states, is dynamically selected from typical initial conditions. Second convective patterns are effectively oneor two-dimensional. Fluctuations might be expected to destroy the long-range order implicit in the convec tive pattern The third issue is the transient dynam ics ofroll formation. Eq. (4) has been solved numeri cally on the Connection Machine 2 at SCRI. The Chemical Engineering Education

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aspect ratio of the s y stems studied ranges in the hundreds (i e several hundred convective rolls ), much larger than systems that are experimentall y feasible in simple fluids. As discussed above recent experiments in nematic liquid crystals are begin ning to be able to measure thermal fluctuations and to study ratios comparable to the sizes that we have used in our solutions. We expect that our predictions will be tested in these latter sys tems Figure 3 shows an example of our results f 3 5 J with the various structures of the stationary solutions. The configurations shown are typical examples of stationary solutions obtained numericall y ( onl y a portion of the system size studied is shown for clar ity ). At zero amplitude of the fluctuations F' = 0 ( states labele d smectic ), configurations of rolls pos sess both positional and orientational long-range or der. At low values of F ( states labeled nematic ) orientational correlations are long-ranged but the system is positionally disordered. Above the solid lin e in the figure the pattern i s completely disor dered The location of the solid line in the figure has been found numerically for one value of. A theoreti cal analysis that we have developed predicts that it is given by F oc E which is what is plotted in the figure. Work is now in progress to explore more complex situations with convection in non-Boussinesq sys0 .1 5,....-r---,-~-~-~~-~~-~-~--,0 1 0 05 0 0 2 0.4 E Figure 3. Porti o n s of typi c al c on fig uration s o btain e d a s s tati o na ry s olution s o f Eq. ( 4) Th e c on f i g urations lab e l e d isotropi c, n e mat ic and sm ec ti c co rr e spond to int e nsitie s of th e f lu c tuat io ns F' = 0.0 75 0 0 5 and 0 r es pe c tivel y. In all th e se plots th e lin e s drawn ar e th e lin e s of 'Jl ( r ) = 0 Fall 1 99 2 terns the decay of a long-wavelength instabilit y of periodic patterns known as the Eckhaus instability exten s ion s to non-gradient systems etc. The combi nation of experimental work and detailed numerical solutions to model systems is providing a number of very interesting results on the pattern forming prop erties of systems that are far from thermo d ynamic equilibrium. CRYSTAL GROWTH FROM THE MELT Crystal growth is but one example in the study of the evolution of the shape of the interfaces that s eparate domains of various phases during a phase transformation. Although this is one of the most studied examples, the same phenomenology also occurs in all phase transformations in which diffu sive transport plays a dominant role in controlling the transformation rate ( i. e diffusion of heat or of some chemical species ) Examples are num erous including the growth of s emiconductor crys tals from the melt metal alloy ca s ting and the growth of protein crystals. In the more general formulation one is confronted with a nonlinear free boundary problem for which analytic solutions are rare J 3 6J Even in the simpler case in which convective motion in the flui d phase is neglected limited progress has been achieved in determining stable propagating solutions of the front that separates the different phases A great deal is known about the existence of steady states and about their stability in systems that undergo some type or morphological instability to a finger-like or cellular structure .l3 7J These studies have focused on models of directional or dendritic solidification of single com ponent or multicomponent systems and models of viscous fingering in fluids. Intricate asymptotic analy ses have yielded the stationary solutions of various models and in some cases the stability con d ition of such s olutions to infinitesimal perturbations. The approach that we have taken involves recasting the partial differential equations that describe mass diffusion in the phases and the appropriate bound ary conditions on the moving interface, by an integrodifferential equation involving the coordinates of the interface alone or interface equation "r as 39 1 This i s accomplished by the introduction of the Green function for the diffusion operator in the various phases. The interface equation is then solved as an initial value problem for a given i nitial position of the interface Studies to date have focused on the analysis of the evolution of the interface shape fol lowing the instability of a planar front. Recent stud ies by us and othersL 39 40J are focusing on the tran219

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sient dynamics of formation of periodic cellular struc tures (an example of such evolution is shown in Figure 4). Numerical studies reveal the existence of conventional stationary states in addition to travel ing wave states or even chaotic structures. This rich behavior can be observed within a surprisingly nar row range of material and control parameters. CONCLUSION We have summarized a variety of problems con cerning instabilities and the formation of patterns in convective-diffusive systems, with or without chemi cal reactions, that are being addressed in the chemi cal engineering department at FAMU/FSU. We fo cus our attention on novel mathematical approaches that combine analytical techniques and numerical work performed on conventional and parallel supercomputers. The analytic techniques center around operator-theoretic, group-theoretic, and Green function methods to study a variety of nonlinear processes in chemical and catalytic reacting systems, and pattern-forming instabilities in fluids and crys tal growth. These methods allow the implementa tion of powerful numerical algorithms on vector and massively parallel supercomputers, such as those presently available at Florida State University. ACKNOWLEDGMEN T Part of this work has been conducted in collabora tion with other colleagues and former academic ad visors. It is a pleasure to acknowledge K. Elder, D. Jasnow, M. Grant, H. Irazoqui, and D. Ramkrishna for very fruitful collaborations One of us (PA) wants to thank Professor R.G. Carbonell for very interest ing discussions and observations PA and BL ac300 ~--~-~--~-~--~ -~ 200 100 -1 00 -200 E ': -300 /i /1 \_ _'...~_) '100 500 L--'-----'----'------'---.L_--'----'---~ 200 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1 4 00 Fig u re 4. Exampl e of the temporal evo lution of an interfa c ial patt ern separating the solid and fluid phases during directional solidification The Jin es shown are different times following th e instabilit y of a planar front 220 knowledge support from NASA-TRDA-204 and the FAMU/FSU College of Engineering. JV is supported by the Microgravity Science and Applications Divi sion of the NASA under contract No NAG3-1284 and by the Supercomputer Computations Research Institute, which is partially funded by the U.S. De partment of Energy Contract No. DE-FC0585ER25000. REFERENCES 1. Aris, R. Th e Mathematical Th eory of Diffu sion and Reac tion in Permeable Catalysts, Vols. 1,2, Oxford University Press ( 1975 ) 2 Morbidelli M., A. Varma, and R. Aris, "Reactor Steady State Multiplicity and Stability," in Chemical Reactor and R eacto r Engineering, J Carberry and A. Varma, Eds., M. Dekker New York ( 1987 ) 3. Hill, J.M., Solution of Differential Equations by Means of One Parameter Group, Pitman, Boston MA (1982) 4. Rachevsky N., An Approach to the Mathematical Biophys ics of Biological Self-Regulation and of the Cell Polarity," Bull Math. Bioph. 2 15 ( 1940 ) 5. Turing A.M., "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis," Proc. Roy Soc. B., 237 5 ( 1952 ) 6. Arce, P., and D Ramkrishna "Pattern Formation in Cata lytic Rea ctors: The Role of Fluid Mixing," AIChE J., 37 71 (1991) 7. Arce, P., and D. Ramkrishna Pattern Formation in Cata lytic R eactors, Latin American Applied Research," ( in press ) 8. Lock e, B.R., and P. Arce, "Applications of Self-Adjoint Op erators to Electrophoretic Transport, Enzyme Reactions, and Microwave Heating Problems in Composite Media: I. General Formulation," Chem Eng Sci ., (in press) 9. Rarnkrishna D ., and N.R. Amundson Linear Operator Meth ods in Chemical En gineering, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1985) 10 Rarnkri s hna D. and N R. Amundson, "Stirred Pots, Tubu l ar Reactors, and Self-Adjoint Operators Chem. Eng Sci., 29 1353 ( 1974 ) 11. Rarnkrishna, D. and N.R. Amundson, "Transport in Com po site Materials: Reduction to a Self-Adjoint Formalism, Chem. Eng. Sci., 29 1457 ( 1974) 12. Parulekar, S.J., and D. Ramkrishna, "Ana l ysis of Axially Disp erse d Systems with General Boundary Conditions: III. Solution for Unmixed and Well-Mixed Appended Sections," Chem. Eng. Sci ., 39 1599 ( 1984 ) 13. Locke B.R. and P. Arce, "Applications of Self-Adjoint Op erators to Electrophoretic Transport, Enzyme Reactions, and Microwav e Heating Probl ems in Composite Media: II. Electrophoretic Transport in Layered Membranes, s ubmit ted to Chem. Eng. Sci. April (1992) 14 Arce, P., and D. Ramkrishna "Self -Adjoint Operators of Transport in Interacting Solid Fluid Systems," Chem. Eng. Sci., 41, 1539 (1986) 15 Rarnkrishna, D and P. Arce, "Can Pseudo-Homogeneous Reactor Models be Valid?" Chem Eng Sci., 44, 1949 ( 1989) 16 Ramkrishna, D ., and P. Arce, "So me Furth e r Observations on Heterogeneous Catalytic R eactor Models: Pattern For mation in Catalytic Reactors," Chem. En g Sci ., 46 3123 (1991) 17 Ramkrishna D ., and P Arce, "Se lf-Adjoint Operators of Transport in Interacting Solid-Fluid Systems II ," Chem. Eng. Sci. 43 933 ( 1988 ) 18 Arce P E ., "Fl uid Mediated Int eractions Among Particles in Chemical Engineering Education

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a Catalytic Reactor," PhD Thesis Purdue University (1990 ) 19 Arce P., B R. Locke, and B Trigatti, "Transport and Reac tion in Laminar Regime : A Boundary and Integral-Spectral Equation Approach," preprint ( 1992 ) 20 Peacocke A.R. An Introdu c tion to the Physical Chemistry of Biological Organization Oxford ( 1989 ) 21. Nicolis G ., and I. Prigogine Self-Organi z ation in Nonequilibrium Syst e m s From Di ss ipati ve Stru c tur e s to Or der Through Fluctuations John Wiley and Sons, New York ( 1977 ) 22. Higgins J., I. & E C. 59 19 ( 1967 ) 23 Norel, R., and Z. Agur "A Model for the Adjustment of the Mitotic Clock by Cyclin and MPF Levels Sci e nce, 251 1076 ( 1991 ) 24. Rachevsky N ., Mathematical Biophysics University of Chi cago Press Chicago, IL ( 1948 ) 25 Gmitro J I. and L.E Scriven A Physicochemical Basis for Pattern and Rhythm, in Intra ce llular Transport K.B. War ren, ed Academic Press ( 1966 ) 26 Othmer, H G. and L.E. Scriven "Interactions of Reaction and Diffusion in Open Systems I. & E C. Fund 8 302 ( 1969 ) 27 Britton N.F. Reaction Diffusion Equations and Their Ap plications to Biology Academic Press, London ( 1986 ) 28 Martin, M H. M.H.M. Goldsmith and T H. Goldsmith "On Polar Auxin Transport in Plant Cells, J. Math. Biol., 28 NEURAL NETWORKS Continued from page 179 obtain the correct ordering for both the manipulated and the controlled variables, the engineer requires a great deal of process understanding. An alternative methodology under study in the IPS Lab is very ambitious in that it seeks to pose the multivariable control design with objective prioritization as a multilevel optimization problem with binary variables Binary variables can be visu alized as on-off keys that switch controller and eco nomic objectives and constraints on or off as appro priate to achieve the desired prioritization. FUTURE DIRECTIONS As our research in neural networks, optimization, and process control matures, the focus in the IPS Lab is shifting to demonstration of the methods in collaboration with local industry. One project has begun which seeks to use neural network-based meth ods for controlling the quality of parts produced from an injection molding process. A second project is employing similar methods for controlling the incin eration of hazardous wastes. A third effort is explor ing the use of neural networks for optimizing the efficiency of combustion of pulverized coal. Such real-world implementations are important in process control research. When developments are restricted to simulated processes, the complete pro cess character can be specified by the same researcher Fall 1992 197 ( 1990 ) 29. Almirantis Y., and S Papageorgiou "Cross-Diffusion Ef fects on Chemical and Biological Pattern Formation J Theoret. Biol. 151, 289 ( 1991 ) 30 Newell, A.C., in Lectur e s in the Sci e nce of Compl e xity ed ited by D L Stein, Addison-Wesley Redwood p. 107 ( 1989 ) 31. Ahlers, G ., in Lectures in th e Science of Complexity edited by D L Stein Addison-Wesley Redwood p. 175 ( 1989 ) 32 Bodenschatz E. J.R. de Bruyn G. Ahlers and D S Cannell Ph ys. R ev Lett. 67 3078 (1991 ) 33. Rehberg, I., S. Rasenat M. de la Torre, W. Schtipf, F Horner G. Ahlers, and R.R. Brand Phys R e v. Lett., 67, 596 ( 1991 ) 34 Swift J ., and P.C. Hohenberg, Phys. Rev. A. 15 319 (1977) 35. Elder, K.R. J. Viiials and M. Grant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68 3024 ( 1992 ) 36 Pelee, P ., Dynamics of Curved Fronts Academic Press New York ( 1988 ) 37 Mullins W W ., and R F Sekerka J Appl. Phys., 34, 323 ( 1963 ) 38. Caroli, B ., C Caroli, and B. Roulet J Physique, 48, 1423 ( 1987 ) 39. Viiials, J. and D. Jasnow in Computer Simulations in Cond e ns e d Matter Physics N, edited by D.P. Landau, e t al. Springer-Verlag, New York ( 1992 ) 40. Bennett, M.J K. Tsiveriotis, and R.A. Brown, Phys. Rev. B., 45, 9562 (1992 ) 0 who is responsible for the control system develop ments. Real plants, on the other hand, have a pro cess character that is specified by nature, thereby truly testing the effectiveness of new developments. Perhaps the most important aspect, however, is that real-world demonstrations permit developments to be tested by the ultimate user of the technology the industrial practitioner. It is only when the tech nology is in the practitioner's hands that laboratory developments receive the critical evaluations which help guide subsequent improvements and refine ments, and define new avenues for fruitful research. REFERENCES 1. Achenie, L E ., and L.T. Biegler "A Superstructure Based Approach to Chemical Reactor Network Synthesis, Comp. Chem Eng ., 14, 23 ( 1990 ) 2. Cooper, D J., L Megan and R.F. Hinde, Jr. Comparing Two Neural Networks for Pattern Based Adaptive Process Control ," AIChE J ., 38 41 ( 1992 ) 3. Vegeais, J.A ., D B Garrison and L.E K. Achenie "Parallel NCUBE Implementation of a Layered, Feed-Forward Neu ral Network," AIChE meeting, Los Angeles CA; Nov ( 1991) 4 Cooper, D.J., L. Megan, and R.F. Hinde, Jr., "Disturbance Pattern Classification and Neuro-Adaptive Control ," IEEE Cont Sys. 12, 42 ( 1992 ) 5. Hinde R.F. Jr ., and D J Cooper, Adaptive Process Control Using Pattern-Based Performance Feedback, J of Proc. Cont ., 1 228 (1991 ) 6. Cooper D J., and A.M. Lalonde, Process Behavior Diagnos tics and Adaptive Process Control," Comput e rs and Chem. Eng. 14, 541 ( 1990 ) 7 Prett, D M. C.E Garcia and B L. Ramaker Th e Se c ond Shell Process Control Workshop, Butterworths ( 1990 ) 0 221

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of The. ruvers1ty on SM DEPARTMENT oF Ill CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Ill.: ::.FACULTY G. A. ATWOOD 1 G G CHAS E H.M.CHEUNG S C CHUANG J.R ELLIOTT L. G FOCH T ... FIAT LUX GRADUATE PROGRAM RESEARCH INTERESTS Digital Control, Mass Transfer, Multicomponent Adsorption Multiphase Processes, Heat Transfer, Interfacial Phenomena Colloids, Light Scattering Techniques Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Combustion Thermodynamics, Material Properties Fixed Bed Adsorption, Process Design K. L. FUL LER T O N Fuel Technology, Process Engineering, Environmental Engineering Biochemical Engineering, Environmental Biotechnology 222 M. A GENCER 2 H. L. GREENE 1 L.K. JU S .L E E D.MAHAJAN 2 J. W MILLER 2 H C.QAMMAR R W ROBERTS 1 N. D SYLVESTER Oxidative Catalysis, Reactor Design, Mixing Biochemical Engineering, Enzyme and Fermentation Technology Fuel and Chemical Process Engineering, Reactive Polymers, Waste Clean-Up Homogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics Polymerization Reaction Engineering Hazardous Waste Treatment, Nonlinear Dynamics Plastics Processing, Polymer Films, System Design Environmental Engineering, Flow Phenomena M. S. WILLIS Multiphase Transport Theory, Filtration, Interfacial Phenomena Professor Emeritus 2 Adjunct Faculty Member Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $7,800. Industrially sponsored fellowships available up to $17,000. In addition to stipends, tuition and fees are waived. Ph.D students may get some incentive scholarships. Cooperati v e Graduate E ducation Program i s al s o a v a i labl e The deadline for assistantship applications is February 15th For Additional Information, Write Chairman G r aduate Committe e Department of Chemical Enginee ri n g T h e U nivers ity o f Akr on Akr on OH 44325 -3 906 Chemical Engineering Education

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRAMS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA RESEARCH INTERESTS The University of Alabama, located in the sunny South, offers excellent programs lead ing to M.S and Ph D degrees in Chemical Engineering Our research emphasis areas are concentrated in environmental studies, reaction kinetics and catalysis, alternate fuels, and related processes. The faculty has extensive indus trial experience, which gives a distinctive engineering flavor to our programs For further information, contact the Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemi cal Engineering, Box 870203, Tuscaloosa AL 35487-0203; (205-348-6450) FACULTY G. C. April, Ph.D. (Louisiana State) D W. Arnold, Ph.D. (Purdue) W. C Clements, Jr., Ph.D. (Vanderbilt) R. A. Griffin, Ph.D. (Utah State) W. J. Hatcher, Jr., Ph.D. (Louisiana State) I. A. Jefcoat, Ph.D. (Clemson) A. M. Lane, Ph.D. (Massachusetts) M. D. McKinley, Ph.D. (Florida) L. Y. Sadler III, Ph.D. (Alabama) V. N. Schrodt, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania State) Biomas s Conversion, Modeling Transp ort Processes, Thermodynamics, Coal-Water Fuel Development, Process Dynamics and Control, Microcomputer Hardware, Catalysis, Chemical Reactor Design, Reaction Kinetics, Environmental, Synfuels, Alternate Chemical Feedstocks, Mass Transfer, Energy Conversion Processes, Ceramics, Rheology, Mineral Processing, Separations, Computer Applications, and Bioprocessing An eq u a l e mpl oy m en t /e qu a l educational opportunity institution.

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224 UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA Degrees: M.Sc. Ph D. in Chemical Engineering and in Process Control FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS K T. C HUANG P h. D. (University of Alberta) Mass Transfer Catalysis Separation Processes Pollution Cont r ol P. J. CRICKMORE, P h .D. (Queen's University) Fractal Analysis Cellular Automata Utilization of Oil Sand and Coal I. G DALLA LANA, Ph.D ( University of Minnesota ) EMERITUS Chemical Reaction Engineering Heterogeneous Catalysis Hydroprocessing D. G. FISHER Ph.D. (University of Michigan) Process Dynamics and Control Real-Time Computer Applications M. R GRAY P h .D. (Ca l ifornia Institute of Technology) CHAIRMAN Bioreactors Chemical Kinetics Charac terization of Complex Organic Mixtures R. E HAYES, Ph D. (University of Bath) Nume r ical Analysis Reactor Modeling Conputational Fluid Dynamics S. M. KRESTA, Ph.D. (McMaster University) Fluid Mechanics Turbulence Mixing D. T. LYNCH P h. D (University of Alberta) Catalysis Kinetic Modeling Numerical Methods Reacto r Modeling and Design Polymerization J. H. MASLIYAH Ph.D. (University of British Columbia ) Transport Phenomena Numerical Analysis Particle Fluid Dynamics A. E MATHER Ph.D (University of Michigan ) Phase Equilibria Fluid Properties at High Pressures Thermodynamics W. K NADER D r. P hil. (Vienna) EMERITUS Heat T r ansfer Transpo r t Phenomena in Porous Media Applied Mathematics K. NANDAKUMAR Ph D (Princeton University) Transport Phenomena Multicomponent Distillation Computational Fluid Dynamics F. D. OTTO Ph.D (Michigan) DEAN OF ENGINEERING Mass Transfer Gas-Liquid Reactions Separation Processes M. RAO Ph. D (Rutgers University) Al Intelligent Control Process Control D. B. ROBINSON P h. D. (University of Michigan) EMERITUS Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids Phase Equi l ibria Thermodynamics J T RYAN Ph.D. (University of Missouri) Energy Economics and Supply Porous Media S. L. SHAH Ph.D. ( University of Alberta ) Computer Process Control System Identification Adaptive Control S. E. WANKE Ph.D. (University of California, Davis) Heterogeneous Catalysis Kinetics Polyme r ization M. C. WILLIAMS P h. D (University of Wisconsin) Rheology Polymer Characterization Polymer Processing R. K. WOOD Ph.D. (Northwestern University) Process Modeling and Dynamic Simulation Distillation Column Control Dynamics and Control of Grinding Circuits For fur th e r in fo rma tion, co n t a ct Graduate Program Officer MCY, Department of Chemical Engineering University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6 PHONE (403) 492-3962 FAX (403) 492-2881 Chemical Engineering Education

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THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA TUCSON AZ The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Ariz ona offers a wide range of research opportunities in all major areas of chemical engineering and grad u ate cour ses are offere d in most of the research areas listed below The department offers a fully accredi ted undergra du ate degree as well as MS and PhD graduate degrees. Strong interdisciplinary pr o gra m s exist in bio p rocessing and biose p arations microcontamination in electronics manufac ture, and environmenta l process mo d ification Financial support is available through fellow s h i p s, government and in d ustrial grants and contracts teaching and research assistant s hips THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ROB E RT A RNOLD Associate Profes s or 111 ( Caltec h ) Mi c robiological Ha z ardous Wast e Tr e atm en t M e tal s Sp ecia tion and Toxi c ity JA ME S BAYG E NT S, Assista nt P rofessor (Pri n ceto n ) Fluid Mechanic s Tran s port and Colloidal Ph e n o m ena, Bios e parati o n s, Ele c trokin e tics MIL A N BIER Profes s or (Ford h am) Prot e in Separati o n El ec tr o phor es i s, M e mbran e Transport CURTIS W BR Y AN T, Associate Profe ss or 111 (Cle m so n ) Biol og i c al Wa s t ew at e r Tr ea tm e nt Indu s trial Wast e Treatment HERIBERTO CA BEZ A S Assistant Profe ss or ( Flo ri da) Statisti c a l Thermod y nami cs, Aqueou s Two-Phas e Extraction Prot e in Separation WILLIAM P. COSAR T, Associa t e Professor (Orego n State) H e at Tra n sf e r in Biological S ys tems Bl ood Pr ocess in g EDW A RD FREEH Adj un ct Professor (Ohio State ) Pro cess Control Computer Appl i cations JOS E PH GROS S, Professor (P u rdue ) Boundary Layer Th eory, Pharmacokin e ti cs, Mi c r oc ir c ulation Biorh eology ROBERTO G U ZMAN Assista n t P rofessor (North Caroli n a State) Protein Separation, Affinity Methods Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportuni ties. It is a growing modern city of 450 000 that reta i ns much of the old Southwestern atmosphere For further information write to Chairman Graduate Study Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Arizona Tucson Arizona 85 7 21 The Un i versity o f A rizon a i s a n e qu a l opportunity edu ca ti on al in st i tut i on /e qu a l opportunity emp l oyer Women a nd m i norit ie s are en c our a ged to a ppl y Fa ll 19 9 2 BR UCE E. LOGAN, Associate Pro fessor' 11 ( Berkel ey) Bi o r e mediati o n, Bi ol ogi c al Wast ewater Treatme nt Fix ed Film Bioreacto rs KIM B E RL Y O GDEN, A ss i sta nt Profe sso r (Co lorad o) Bior e a c t o rs B ioreme diation, Organi cs R emov al fr o m Soils T HO MAS W. PETE R SON, Profe ssor and Head ( CalTe c h ) Aerosols, Ha z ard o us Wa ste In c in erat i on, Microco ntamin ation ALAND. RANDOLPH, Prof esso r ( I owa State) Crys t allization P rocesses, Nucl eation, Part icu lat e P rocesses T H OMAS R. REHM, Profe sso r (Washington) Ma ss Tran sfe r Pr ocess In strumentation Compu t e r Aided D esign FARHANG SHADMAN, Profes so r ( B erke ley ) R eact i on Engin eering, Kin etics, Ca t alysis R eac tive M em bran es, Mi c ro co nt amination RAYM O ND A SIE R KA, Profe sso r' 1 1 ( Oklahoma ) Adsorption Oxidation, M e m branes, Solar Cata l yzed D etox R eac ti ons JO ST 0. L. WENDT, Profe sso r (Joh n s H o pkin s) Combustion-G e n erate d Air Pollution In cinera ti o n Wast e Mana gement D O N H. WHITE, Professor Emeritus (Iow a State ) P o l ymers, Mi crob ial and En zy m atic P rocesses DAVID WOLF, Visiting Pro fessor ( Technion) F e rm en tati on, Mi xing, Energ y, B io m ass Convers i on 111 Jo int a pp ointment with Enviro n me n tal Engineer i ng Progra m CEEM. 225

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ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL, BIO, AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING 0 J: .., 0 "' -::. "' 0 ...... "'11., ....... .. .,, -:,
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~dershipine~~ring JS anAnwna tradition. Honeywell lAC, 1986 Program sponsors include American Express Honeywell, Intel, McDonnell Douglas Helicopter, Motorola and US WEST Small Business Services. They're helping engineers like Susan Ferreira invest in the future. Hopi Pattern Mathematics 6th century As an Industrial Fellow at ASU, Mike Wall earned his master s degree while working for a major corporation. It's a unique opportunity, continuing a tradition of engineering excellence that began here hundreds of years ago. Hohokam Acid-Based Etching 10th century Motorola GEG 1989 In the next two years, Intel 1991 Sinaguan Metate Manufacturing, 13th century Kim Solomon will be able to complete an advanced degree and earn over $55 000 in salaries, awards and benefits She'I I also participate in o ne of the nation's top leadership development programs for engineers. Opportunities to earn a master's degree are available in computer science, or chemical, electrical, industrial or mechanical engineering. MBA opportunities are also available. U.S., Canadian or Mexican citizenship required. Call 602-965-2276 or write for more information. 1993 program applications are due by December 1, 1992 ( early bird) or January 15, 1993 (final). Industrial Fellows Program ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY A Part Of The ASU Corporate Leaders P rogram College of Engineering and Applied Sciences Tempe Arizona 85?87-7406 (602) 965-2276 FAX (602) 965-2267 Arizona State Univers i ty vigorously pursues affirmative action and equal opportunity i~ its employment, activities and programs

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The Department of Chemical Engineering at Auburn University knows you have unique talents and ideas to contribute to our research programs. And because you are an individual, we will value you as an individual. That is what makes our department one of the top 20 in the nation. Don't become just another graduate student at some other institution. Come to Auburn and discover your potential.

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TM DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THE UNIVERSllY OF CALGARY FACULTY R. G. Moore, Head (Al b e r ta ) A. Badakhshan ( B irmingham, U.K.) L.A. Behie (Wes t ern On ta r io) J. D. M. Belgrave (C al g a ry) F. Berruti (W at e rloo ) P.R. Bishnoi (A lb e rta ) R. M. Butler (I mp e r i al Co ll ege, U. K. ) A. Chakma ( UB C) M.A. Hastaoglu (SUNY) R. A. Heidemann (Was h ington U.) A. A. Jeje ( MIT ) N. Kalogerakis ( Tor o n to) A. K. Mehrotra (Ca l g a ry) E. Rhodes ( Man c h este r U. K. ) P. M. Sigmund ( T ex a s) J. Stanislav (P ra gue) W. Y. Svrcek (A lb e rt a) E. L Tollefson ( T o r o nt o) M.A. Trebble (C al g a ry) The Depa r tment offe r s graduate programs leading to the M.Sc and P h .D deg r ees in C h emical Enginee r ing (full-time ) and th e M Eng deg r ee in Chemica l E nginee r ing o r Pet r o l eum Rese r voir Enginee r ing ( p art-time) in the following a r eas: Biochemical Engineering & Biotechnology Biomedical Engineering Environmental Engineering Modeling, Simulation & Control Petroleum Recovery & Reservoir Engineering Process Development Reaction Engineering/Kinetics Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena Fe ll o w s hip s a nd R esea r c h Ass i s t a n ts hip s a r e ava ilabl e to a ll q u a lifi e d appli ca n ts. For Additional Information Wri te Dr. A. K. Me hr ot r a C h air, G r a du ate Studies Committee De p artment of C h emical an d Petroleum E ngineering T he Unive r sity of Ca l gary Ca l gary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4 The Unive r sity is located in the City of Calgary the Oi l capital of Canada, the home of the wo r ld famous Calgary Stampede and the 1 988 Winte r Olympics The City combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication of a modern urban center. B ea u tiful Banff National Park is 110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of Banff, Lake Louise and Kananaskis a r e a s a r e readily accessible In the a b ove photo the Univ e rsity Campus is shown with the Olympic Oval and the student residences in the foreground The Engineering complex is on the left of the picture Fall 1992 229

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230 THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFOR N IA A T BERKELE Y ... offers graduate programs leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both programs involve joint faculty-student research as well as courses and seminars within a n d o u tside the department. Students have t h e opportunity to take part in the many cul11!!~~!!: tural offerings of the San Francisco Bay Area RESEARCH INTERES TS BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING ENERGY UTILIZATION FLUID MECHANICS KINETICS AND CATALYSIS POLYMER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT SEPARATION PROCESSES SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE THERMODYNAMICS and the recreational activities of California's northern coast and mountains. FACULTY ALEXIS T BELL HARVEY W BLANCH ELTON J. CAIRNS ARUP K. CHAKRABORTY DOUGLAS S CLARK MORTON M DENN (C HAIRMAN ) ALANS.FOSS SIMON L. GOREN DAVID B GRAVES JAY D. KEASLING C. JUDSON KING SCOTT LYNN SUSAN J MULLER JOHNS NEWMAN JOHN M. PRAUSNITZ CLAYTON J RADKE JEFFREY A. REIMER DAVID S. SOANE DOROSN.THEODOROU P LEASE WR I T E: DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BERKELEY CALIFORNIA 94720 Chemical Engin ee ring Education

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA IRVINE Graduate Studies in Biochem.ical and Chem.ical Engineering for Chemical Engineering, Engineering, and Science Majors PROGRAM Offers degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels. Research in frontier areas in chemical engineering, including biochemi cal engineering biotechnology and materials science and engineering. Strong biology, biochemistry, microbiology material science and engineering, molecular biology, and other engineering and science research groups. LOCATION The 1,510-acre UC Irvine campus is in Orange County, five miles from the Pacific Ocean and 40 miles south of Los Angeles. Irvine is one of the nation's fastest growing resi dential, industrial, and business areas. Nearby beaches, mountain and desert area recreational activities, and local cultural activities make Irvine a pleasant city in which to live and study. FACULTY Nancy A. Da Silva (California Institute of Technology) G. Wesley Hatfield (Purdue University) Juan Hong (Purdue University) James T. Kellis, Jr. (University of California, Irvine) Henry C. Lim (Northwestern University) Betty H. Olson (University of California, Berkeley ) Matha L. Mecartney (Stanford University) Frank G. Shi (California Institute of Technology) Thomas K. Wood (North Carolina State University) Fall 1992 RESEARCH AREAS Biochemical Processes Bioreactor Engineering Bioremediation Biopesticides Bioseparations Environmental Chemistry Environmental Engineering lnterfacial Engineering Materials Processing Metabolic Engineering Microstructure of Materials Molecular Mechanisms of Biological Control Systems Optimization Process Control Protein Engineering Recombinant Cell Technology Separation Processes Sol-Gel Processing Water Pollution Control For further information and application forms, contact Biochemical Engineering Program School of Engineering University of California Irvine, CA 92717 231

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT PROGRAMS UCLA's Chemical Engineering Department of fers a program of teaching and research linking fundamental engineering science and industrial practice. Our Department has strong graduate research programs in environmental chemical engineering, biotechnology, and materials processing. With the support of the Parsons Foundation and EPA, we are pioneering the de velopment of methods for the design of clean chemical technologies, both in graduate research and engineering education Fellowships are available for outstanding appli cants in both M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. A fellow ship includes a waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend. Located five miles from the Pacific Coast UCLA's attractive 417-acre campus extends from Bel Air to Westwood Village. Students have ac cess to the highly regarded science programs and to a variety of experiences in theatre, music, art, and sports on campus. 232 UCLA FACULTY D. T. Allen H G Monbouquette R.L. Bell K.Nobe ( Visiting Professor) L. B. Robinson Y. Cohen (Prof. Emeritus) T. H. K. Frederking S. M. Senkan S K. Friedlander 0. I. Smith R. F. Hicks W. D Van Vorst (Prof. Emeritus) E L. Knuth (Prof Emeritus) V. L. Vilker V. Manousiouthakis A. R. Wazzan RESEARCH AREAS Thermodynamics and Cryogenics Process Design and Process Control Polymer Processing and Rheology Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Kinetics Combustion and Catalysis Semiconductor Device Chemistry and Surface Science Electrochemistry and Corrosion Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering Aerosol Science and Technology Air Pollution Control and Environmental Engineering CONTACT Admissions Officer Chemical Engineering Department 5531 Boelter Hall UCLA Los Angeles CA 90024-1592 (310) 825-9063 Chemical Engineering Education

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANTA BARBARA FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS L. GARY L E AL Ph D (Sta 1if o r d) (C hairman ) F lu i d M ec h a ni cs; T ran s p o rt Ph e n o m e n a; P o l y m e r Ph ys i cs. ERA Y S. A YDIL Ph .D (U n iversi t y of H o u s t o n ) Mi croe l ec l ronics M a t er i a l s Pr ocess in g SANJOY BANERJE E Ph D (Wa t er l oo) TwoPh ase F l ow. C h e mi ca l & N u c l ea r Safety, Co mpu ta t io n a l Fluid D y nami cs Tu rb ul e n ce. BRADLEY F. CHM ELKA Ph .D. (U.C. Berke l ey) G u es l/H os l lnt e ra c 1i ons i n M o l ec ul a r S i eves, D is p ersa l of M e t a l s in O x id e C a t a ly s t s. M o l ec ul a r S1ru c 1Ur e a n d D y n a mi cs in P o l y m e ri c S o lid s. Pr o p erties of P artia ll y O r de r e d M a t e ri a l s So lid Stal e NMR S p ec 1ro sco p y. HENRI FENECH Ph .D. ( M I T.) ( P rofesso r E m e ritu s) Nu clea r Sys tem s D es i g n a nd Safe t y, N u c l ea r Fu e l Cy cl es T woPh ase Fl o w H eat T r a n sfe r. GLENN H. FREDRICKSON Ph. D. (S t wifo r d) E l ec t ro ni c Tra n spo rt Gl asses, P o l y m e r s Com p osi t es, Ph ase S e p ara ti o n OWEN T HANNA Ph .D. ( Pur d u e) T h eo r e 1i cal M e th ods Chemica l R eac t o r A n a l ys i s T ra n s p ort P h e n o m ena. JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph D. (Ca m b ri dge) Su rface a n d ln1 erfacia l Ph e n o m e n a, A dh es i o n Co ll o id a l S ys t e m s, Sur face Fo r ces FRED F. LANGE Ph D ( P e nn Stat e) P o wd e r P rocess in g o f Co mpo s it e Cera mi cs; Liquid Pr ec ur so r s fo r Ce rami cs; Sup e r c ondu c lin g O x id es GLENN E LUCAS Ph.D ( M I.T. ) ( Vice C hairman ) R a di at i o n D a m age, M ec h a ni cs of M a t e ri a l s. ERIC McFARLAND Ph D ( M I T .) M .D. ( H arva r d) Bi o m ed i ca l E n gi n eer in g, NMR a nd N e ut ro n Im ag in g, Tran s p o rt Ph e n o m e n a in Co mpl ex Liquid s R ad i a ti o n lnl eract i o n s. DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph D ( Pur d u e) Co m p ul c r Co nt ro l P rocess Dy n a mi cs, R ea l -T im e Co mputin g JOHN E. MYERS Ph.D ( Mi c h iga n ) ( P rofessor E m eri tu s) B o ili ng H ea l T ra n sfer G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D ( M.I T .) R a diaii o n E ff ec t s in So lid s, E n e r gy R e l a t ed M a 1 e ri a l s D e v e l o pment DALES. PEARSON Ph D (No rth weste rn ) Rh eo l og i ca l a nd Op ti ca l P ro p e rti es of P o l y m e r L i q uid s a nd Co ll o id a l Di s p ers ion s. PHILIP ALAN PIN C US Ph D. (U.C. B erke l ey) T h eory of Surfac t a nt Agg r ega t es Co ll o id Sys t e m s. A. EDWARD PROFIO Ph D ( M I T.) Bi o m e di ca l E n g in ee rin g. R eac t o r Ph ys i cs. R a di a ti o n T ran s p o rt An a l ys i s. ROBERT G. RINKER Ph D. (Ca lt ec h ) C h e mi ca l R eac t o r D esig n Ca t a l ys i s, E n ergy Co n vers i on, Ai r P o llut io n ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph D (U.C. B er k e l ey) T ra n s p o rt Ph e n o m e n a, S e p a r a t io n P rocesses DALE E SEBORG Ph D ( Prin ce t o n ) P rocess Co nt ro l. Co mput e r Co nt ro l P rocess Id e nti fica ti o n PAUL SMITH Ph .D. (S t a t e U ni ve r s it y ofGro nin ge n Ne th e rl a n ds) Hi g h P e r fo rm a n ce F ib e r s; P rocess in g o f Co n d u c tin g P o l y mer s ; P o l y m e r P rocess in g. T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph D. ( Minn esota) N u clea r a n d C h e mi ca l Pl a nt Sa f e t y. Muhipha se F l ow, Th e rm a lh y drauli cs. W H E NRY WEINBERG Ph D (U C. B e r ke l ey) Sur face C h e mi s tr y; H e l eroge n eo u s Ca t a l ys i s; E l ec t ro ni c M a t e ri a l s JOSEPH A. N. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D ( M i n nesota) S u rface a n d lnt erfac i a l Ph eno m e n St ruc tur e of Mi croe mul s i o n s. Fall 1992 PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT Th e D epar tm e nt offers M.S. a nd Ph. D. deg r ee p rog r a m s Fin a n cia l a id in cl u d in g fe ll ows hip s, t eac hin g ass i sta nt s hi ps, a nd resea r c h assis tant sh ip s, is av ail a bl e. THE UNIVERSITY O n e of th e wo rld 's few se a s h o r e ca m pus es, UC SB is l oc at e d 0 11 th e P cific Co a s t J OO mil es n o rth wes t of L m ~ A n ge l es. Th e s tud e nt e nr o llm e nt i s ov e r 1 8,000. Th e m e t ro p o litan Sa nt a B a rbar a a r ea ha s ove r 1 50 000 r es id e nt s a nd i s f am o u s fo r i t s mi ld, eve n cl im a t e For additional information and applications write to Chair Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Univer s ity of California Santa Barbara CA 93106 233

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING at the CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY '~t the Leading Edge" FACULTY Frances H. Arnold John F Brady Mark E. Davis Richard C. Flagan George R. Gavalas Konstantinos P Giapis Julia A. Kornfield Manfred Morari C. Dwight Prater (Visiting) John H. Seinfeld RESEARCH INTERESTS Aerosol Science Applied Mathematics Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Biocatalysis and Bioreactor Engineer i ng Bioseparations Catalysis Chemical Vapor Deposition Combustion Colloid Physics Fluid Mechanics Nicholas W Tschoegl (Emeritus) Zhen-Gang Wang Materials Processing Microelectronics Process i ng Microstructured Fluids Polymer Science 234 Process Control and Synthesis Protein Engineer i ng Statistical Mechanics of Heterogeneo u s Systems for further information write P rofessor Ma r k E D avis Department o f Chemical Eng in ee r i ng Cal i forn ia Insti tute of Tech nology Pasa d e na Cal i forn i a 9 1125 Chemical Engine e r ing Education

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Clues John L. Anderson Membrane and colloid transport phenomena Lorenz T. Biegler Process simulation and optimization Paul A. DiMilla Cellular and biomolecular engineering; cell membranes Michael M. Domach Biochemical engineering and cell biology Ignacio E. Grossmann Batch process synthesis and design William S. Hammack Characterization of amorphous materials ; pressure-induced amorphorization Annette M. Jacobson Solubilization and surfacant adsorption phenomena Myung S. Jhon Magnetic and magneto-optical recording Edmond I. Ko Chemistry of solid-state materials; semiconductor processing Gary J. Powers Decision-making in the design of chemical pr@cessing systems Dennis C. Prieve Transport phenomena and colloids especially electrokinetic phenomena Jennifer L. Sinclair Multiphase flow Paul J. Sides Eleclrochemical engineering; growth of advanced materials Robert D. Tilton Biomolecules at interfaces Herbert L. Toor Transport phenomena ; energy utilization and transformation Arthur W. Westerberg Engineering design B. Erik Ydstle Process Control Find Out What~ going o in there? Write to Director of Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.

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Chemical Engineering the 21st Century? 1n Diam o nd cr ys tal s synthesi ze d b y g raduat e swdenr C. K ov a c h. F or more information contact: The Graduate Coordinator Depa rt ment of Chemical Engineering C as e Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio 44106 Want to learn what the future holds for chemical engineers? Cons id er gra d uate study at CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY Opportunities for Innovative Research in Advanced Energy Conversion Chemical/Biological Sensors Intelligent Control Micro and Nano Materials Novel Separations/Processing ============ Faculty and Specializations ============ John C. Angus, Ph.D. 1960 University of Michigan Redox e quilibria, diamond and diamond lik e films, modulat e d electroplating C ol em a n B. B r o s ilo w, Ph.D. 1962, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn Adaptive inferential control, multi-variable control, coordination algorithms Ro bert V E d wa rd s, Ph.D 1968, Johns Hopkins University Laser anemometry, math e matical mod e ling, data acquisition D o n a ld L Fe k e, Ph D 1981 Princeton University Colloidal phenomena ceramic dispersions fin eparticl e proc ess ing Uziel Landau, Ph D 1975, University of California (Be rk e l ey) El ec trochemical engineering, c urr ent distributions, e le ct ro d e position C h ung-C h i un Liu, Ph D. 1968, Case Western Reserve Univer sity Electrochemical sensors, electrochemical synthesis e l ect ro chemistry related to electronic material s J. A d in Ma nn Jr., Ph D. 1962, Iowa State University Int e rfa c ial structure and dynamic s, light sc att e ring Lan g muir-Blod ge tt films, stochastic pro cesses Syed Qut u buddin, Ph D. 1983 Carnegie-Mellon University Surfactant and pol y m e r solutions, m eta l ext ra ct ion en han ce d oil r ec overy Robert F. Savinell, Ph.D. 1977 University of Pittsburgh N e l s on C G ardn er, Ph.D. 1966 Iowa State University Alla Applied electrochemistry, electrochemical system simulation High -g ravity separations, sulfur removal processes A1ra and optimization e lectrode process es CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY 236 Chemical Engine e rin g Education

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The Opportunities for UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI GRADUATE STUDY in Chemical Engineering M.S. and PhD Degrees in Chemical Engineering Financial Aid Available Locatio,._ ___________ The city of Cincinnati is the 23rd largest city in the United States, with a greater metropolitan population of 1.7 million. The city offers numerous sites of architec tural and historical interest, as well as a full range of cu ltural attractions such as an outstanding art museum botanical gardens, a world-famous zoo, theaters, sympho ny and opera. The city is also home to the Cincinnati Bengals and the Cincinnati R eds. The business and industrial base of the city includ es pharmaceu tics, chem icals jet engines, autoworks, electronics, printing and publishing, insW' ance, investment banking, and h ea lth care. A number of Fortune 500 companies are located in the city. a Air Pollution Faculty _____ Amy Ciric Joel Fried Slevin Gehrke Rakesh Govind David Greenberg Daniel Hershey Sun-Tak Hwang Robert Jenkins Yuen-Koh Kao Soon-Jai Khang Jerry Lin Glenn Lipscomb Neville Pinto Sotiris Pratsinis Modeling and design of gas cleaning devices and systems, source apportionment of air pollutants. a Biotechnology (Bioseparations) Novel bioseparation techniqu es, c hromatography, affinity separations, biodegradation of toxic wastes, controlled drug delivery, two-phase flow, suspension rheology. a Chemical Reaction Engineering and Heterogeneous Catalysis Modeling and design of chemical reactors, deactivation of cata lysts, flow pattern and mixing in chemical equipment, laser induced effects. a Coal Research New technology for coal combustion power plant, desulfuriza tion and denitritication. a Material Synthesis Manufacture of advanced ceramics optical fibers and pigments by aerosol processes. a Membrane Separations Membrane gas separations, membrane reactors sensors and probes, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dynamic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characteri zation for polymeric and inorganic materials. a Polymers Thermodynamics, thermal analysis and morphology of polymer blends high-temperature polymers hydrogels, polymer processing a Process Synthesis Computer-aided design, modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit operations, prediction of reaction by-products Fall 1992 For Admission Information Director, Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering, # 0171 University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0171 237

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Graduate Study in 238 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT CLARKSON CENTER FOR ADVANCED MATERIALS PROCESSING NASA CENTER FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMMERCIAL CRYSTAL GROWTH IN SPACE INSTITUTE OF COLLOID AND SURFACE SCIENCE For details please write to: Dean of the Graduate School Clarkson University Potsdam, New York 13699 Clarkson University is a nondiscriminatory equal opportunity, affirmative action educator and employer. Chemical Engineering Education

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Graduate Study at Clemson University The University in Chemical Engineering Coming Up for Air No matter where you do your graduate work, your nose will be in your books and your mind on your research. But at Clemson University, there's something for you when you can stretch out for a break Like breathing good air. Or swimming, fish ing, sailing, and water skiing in the clean lakes. Or hiking in the nearby Blue Ridge Mountains. Or driving to South Carolina's famous beaches for a weekend. Something that can really relax you. All this and a top-notch Chemical Engineer ing Department too. With active research and teaching in poly mer processing, composite materials process auto mation, thermodynamics, catalysis and membrane applications what more do you need? Clemson, the land-grant university of South Carolina, offers 62 undergraduate and 61 graduate fields of study in its nine academic colleges. Present on-campus enrollment is about 16,000 students, one-third of whom are in the College of Engineering. There are about 3,000 graduate students. The 1 400-acre campus is located on the shores of Lake Hartwell in South Carolina's Piedmont, and is midway between Charlotte N.C., and Atlanta, Ga. The Faculty Charles H. Barron, Jr John N. Beard James M. Haile Douglas E. Hirt Stephen S Melsheimer Joseph C. Mullins Dan D. Edie Charles H. Gooding Fall 1992 Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph.D degrees. Financial aid including fellowships and assistantships, is available For Further Information and a descriptive brochure, contact: Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Clemson University Clemson South Carolina 29634-0909 (803) 656-3055 Amod A. Ogale Richard W. Rice Mark C. Thies CLEMSON UN:IVERS:ITY College of Engineering 239

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UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO BOULDER Graduate st u dents in the Department of Chemical Engineering may also participate in the popular interdisciplinary Biotechno l ogy Training Program at the Univers it y of Colorado and in the interdisciplinary NSF Ind ustry/Univers i ty Cooperative Research Center for Separations Using Thin Films. FACULTY CHRISTOPHER N. BOWMAN Assis t an t Prof essor Ph D ., Purdu e U ni ve r si t y, 1991 DAVID E. CLOUGH Professor, Assoc i ate Dean for Academic Affairs Ph.D., Un i ve r sity of Co l orado, 1 975 ROBERT H. DA VIS Pr ofesso r and Ac t ing C h air Co-Director of Co l orado I ns titut e for Researc h in Biot ec h nology P h.D ., Stanford University, 1983 JOHN L. FALCONER Professor and Patten C h air Ph .D., Stanford Un i versity, 1974 YURIS 0. FUENTES Assistant Prof esso r Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison I 990 R. IGOR GAMOW Associa t e P rofesso r Ph D. Un i ve r sity of Co l orado, 1 967 HOWARD J. M. HANLEY P rofessor Adjoin t Ph D. U ni ve r sity of London 1963 DHINAKAR S. KOMPALA Associate Professor Ph D. Purdu e U niv ersity, 1 984 WILLIAM B. KRANTZ Professor and Pr es ident 's Teaching Scholar, Co-D ir ec t or of NSF I IUCRC Ce nt er for Separations Using Thin Films Ph.D. U ni versi t y of California, Berkeley 1 968 RICHARD D NOBLE Professor Co-Direc t or of NSF 1 /UCRC Center for Separations Using Thin Films Ph.D ., University of California Davis 1 976 W. FRED RAMIREZ Professor Ph .D., Tu l a n e Un i ve r s it y, 1 965 ROBERT L. SANI Professor Dir ec t or of Center for Low-gravity Fluid M ec h anics a n d Transport Phenomena Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1 963 EDITH M. SEVICK Assistant Professor Ph.D., U ni ve r s it y of Massachusetts 1 989 KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS Professor and Pr es id e nt 's T e aching Scholar Ph.D. University of Illin ois, 1 95 1 PAUL W. TODD R esea r ch Pr ofesso r RESEARCH INTERESTS Alternative Energy Sources Biotechnology a nd Bioengineering C h emica ll y Spec ifi c Separation s Colloida l Phenomena En h anced Oil Recovery E n viro nm e nt al E n gi n eering Expert Systems and Fault Detection F lui d Dynamic s a nd Suspe n sion Mechanics Geophysica l Mode lin g Global Change Het eroge neous Catalysis lnterfacial and Surface Phenomena Mammalian Cell Culture Materials Pr ocessi n g in Low-G Mas s Transfer Membrane Transport and Separa ti ons Non-Linear Optical Materials Numerical and Ana l ytical Modeling Polymer Reaction Engineering Polymeric Membrane Morphology Proce ss Co n trol a nd Id entification Semiconductor Processing Statistica l Mechanics S urf ace C h e mi stry a nd Surface Science Thermodynamic s and Cryoge ni cs Thin Fi lm s Science Ph D ., University of Ca li fornia, Berkeley, 1 964 FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE TO RONALD E. WEST P rofessor Ph D., Un i ve r sity of Michigan 1958 240 Director Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Colorado, Boulder Boulder Colorado 80309 -04 24 FAX (3 03) 492-4341 Chemical Engineering Education

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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES Fall 1992 THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH R. M. BALDWIN, Profe sso r and Head ; Ph D Colorado School of Mine s. M ec hanism s and kineti cs of coa l liquefa ct i o n catalysis, oil s hal e processing, fuels science. A. L. BUNGE, Professor; Ph D. University of California Berkeley. Membrane tran spo rt and se paration s, mass transf e r in porous m e dia ion exc han ge and adsorption c hromat ogra ph y, in pla ce r e m edia ti on of co ntaminat e d so ils p e r c utan eo u s absorption. J R DO R GAN, Assistant Pr ofesso r ; Ph.D University of California B er k e l ey P o l y m er science and engi n eeri n g. J F ELY, Profe sso r; Ph D Indiana University. Mol ec ular th er mo dynamics and tran spo rt properties of fluids. J H. GA R Y, Professor Emeritus; Ph.D., University of Florida P troleum refin ery processing o p e rati o n s, h eavy oil pro cess ing, th e rm a l c ra c kin g, visb r ea king and solvent ex t ra c ti o n J .O. G O L D EN, Profes sor; Ph D Iowa State University. H aza rdou s waste pro cess in g, polymers, fluidi z ation e n gi n eeri n g M.S GRA BO S KI Research Profe sso r; Ph D ., P e nnsy l vania State University. Fuels Sy nth es is and eva luati o n e n g in e t ec hn o l ogy, altematefuels A. J KIDNA Y Profe ssor and Graduate Dean; D Sc., Colorado School of Mines Th ermody nami c properties of gases and liq uids vapo r liquid eq uilibri a cryoge ni c e n gi n eering. J.T. M c KINNON, Assistant Profes so r ; Ph D ., Mas s ach u setts Inst i tute of Techno l ogy Hi g h t e mp e ratur e gas phas e c h e mi c al kinet ics, co mbusti on, ha z ard o u s waste d es tru c tion. R. L. MIL L E R Asso c iate Professor; Ph.D Colorado School of Mi n es. Liqu efac ti o n co-p r ocess ing of co al and h e av y oil, low sever i ty coa l liqu efac ti on, particulate r e mo va l with ve nturi sc rub b e r s, int er dis c iplinary ed u ca ti o nal m e th o ds M. S SELIM, Profes so r ; Ph D ., Iowa St a te University. H ea t and mass transf e r with a m ovi n g b o unda ry sed im e ntati on and diffu s i on of co ll o idal s u spe n sions, heat effects in gas absorption w ith c h em i ca l r e a c ti o n entrance r eg i o n flow a nd h ea t transf er, gas h yd rat e dissociation m ode lin g. E. D SLOAN, JR. Profes so r ; Ph D Clemson Univer sity. Ph ase eq uilibrium m eas ur e m e nt s of natural gas fluids and hydrat es, th e rm a l co ndu c tivi ty of coa l d e ri ve d fluids, adsorption e quilib ri a, e du ca ti o n m et h ods r esea r c h V F. YESA V AGE, Profe sso r ; Ph D ., University of Mich i ga n Vapor liquid eq uilibrium and e nthalp y of polar associating fluids, e qua ti o n s of sta t e fo r hi g h l y n o n -idea l sys t ems,flow ca l o rim e t ry. For Applications and Further Information on M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Write Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Co l orado Sc h ool of M i nes Go ld en, CO 80401 241

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niversiry of onnecticut Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs for Scientists and Engineers FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS Luke E. K. Achenie Modeling and Optimization, Neural Networiatibilization Polymer Morphology Polymer Surface and Interfaces Montgomery T. Shaw Polymer Rheology and Processing, Polymer-Solution Thermodynamics Donald W. Sundstrom Environmental Engineering, Hazardous Wastes, Biochemical Engineering Robert A Weiss Polymer Structure-Property Relationships, Ion-Containing And Liquid Crystal Polymers, Polymer Blends +FOR MORE INFORMATION++ Graduate Admissions, 191 Auditorium Road University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 Tel. (203) 486-4020

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CORNELL UN I V Distinguished Facult y ... A. Brad Anton Paulette Clancy Cla ude Cohen T. Michael Duncan James R. Engstrom Keith E. Gubbins Daniel A. Hammer Peter Harriott Donald L. Koch Robert P Merrill William L. Olbricht A. Panagiotopoulos Ferdinand Rodriguez George F. Scheele Michael L. Shuler Paul H. Steen William B. Streett John A. Zollweg For Further Information, Write: E R s IT Y At Cornell University students have the flexibility to design interdisciplinary research program s that draw upon the resourc es of many excellent departments and NSF-sponsor e d interdisciplinary centers such as the Biotechnology Center, the Cornell National Super comp uting Center, the National Nanofabrication Facility and the Mat e rials S cie nce Center. D egrees granted include the Master of Engineering, Master of Science, and Doctor of Philosophy All MS and PhD students are fully funded with attractive stipends and tuition waivers. Situated in the scenic Finger Lakes region of New York State the Cornell campus is one of the most beautiful in the country. Students e njoy sailing, skiing, fishing hiking bicycling, boating, wine-tasting and many more activities in this popular vacation region. ... With Research In Biochemical Engineering Applied Mathematics Computer Simulation Environmental Engineering Kinetics and Catalysis Surface Science Heat and Mass Transfer Polymer Science Fluid Dynamics Rheology and Biorheology Process Control Molecular Thermodynamics Statistical Mechanics Computer-Aided Design Professor William L. Olbricht Cornell University Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering Ithaca, NY 14853-5201 Fall 1992 243

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Chemical The Faculty Giovanni Astarita Mark A. Barteau Antony N. Beris Kenneth B. Bischoff Dou g la s J. Buttrey Castel D Denson Prasad S Dhurjati H enry C. Fo l ey Bruce C. Gates Eric W. Kal e r Micha e l T. Klein Abraham M. Lenhoff Roy L. McCullou gh Arthur B. Met z ner Jon H. Olson Michael E. Paulaitis T. W. Fra se r Ru sse ll Stanley I. Sandler Jerold M. Schultz Annette D. Shine Norman J. Wa gner Andrew L. Zydney T 1neer1n he University of Delaware offers M.ChE and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course work in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strong interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science and Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena, Materials Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction Kinetics, Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photovoltaic Processing, Biomedical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering, and Colloid and Surfactant Science. 244 __________ For more information and application materials wr it e: Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering University of Delaware Newark, Delaware 19716 Tite University of Delaware _____ Chemical Engineering Education

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Fall 1992 Modern Applications of Chemical Engineering at the University of Florida Graduate Study Leading to the MS and PhD FACULTY TIM ANDERSON Semicon d uctor Pr ocessi n g T hermodyna m ics IOANNIS 8/TSANIS Molec u lar Mo d eli n g of I nterfaces SEYMOUR S BLOCK B iotechnology OSCAR D. CR/SALLE E lectronic M ate r ials P rocess Control RAY W FAHIEN Transport P henomena R eactor Desig n ARTHUR L. FRfCKE Polymers Pul p & Paper Characterization GAR HOFLUND Catalysis Surface S cience LEW JOHNS A pplie d Design Process Control E nergy Systems DALE KIRMSE C o m p uter Aide d Design P rocess Control HONG H LEE Semicon d uctor P rocessing R eaction Engineeri n g GERASIMOS L YBERATOS B ioche m ical En gineering Che m ical R eactio n E ngi n eeri n g FRANK MAY Comp u ter-Aided Learning RANGA NARA YANAN Transport P henomena, S emicond u ctor Processi n g MARK E. ORAZEM E lect ro che m ical En gineering S e m ic ondu c to r P rocessi n g CHANG-WON PARK F l u i d Mec h a n ics P oly m e r Pro cessi n g DINESH 0. SHAH Su rface S ciences B i om e d ic a l E ngi n eeri n g SPYROS SVORONOS Pro cess Co ntro l B i o c h e m ica l Engin eeri n g GERALD WESTERMANN-CLARK E lectroche m ical En gi n eeri n g B i o se p a r a t ions For more information, please write : Graduate Admissions Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering University of Flor i da Gainesville Florida 32611 or call (904) 392 0881 245

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Research and Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Florida A & M University/ Florida State University Joint College of Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Areas of Research and Research Interest Advanced Materials (Ceramics, Colloids, and Polymers) Brownian Motion Chemical Vopor Deposition Composite Materials Complex Fluids Phase Transitions Macromolecular Phenomena Macromolecular Transport in Polymer Gel Media Polymer Processing Semiconductor ond Superconductor Processing Thermodynamics Bioengineering Biocatalysis Bioseparations Bioinlormatics Process Synthesis and Control Non Linear Process Control Process Optimization Expert Systems Surface Science, Catalysis and Inorganic Mater als Fluid Mechanics of Crystal Growth Kinetics and Combustion Other Areas Heterogenous Catalysis and Reactor Design Molecular Transport Mechanics in Material Design Applied and Computational Mathematics Air and Water Pollution Control For Information Write to: Dr Ravi (hello Choir Groduote Studies Deportment of Chemical Engineering FAMU/FSU College of Engineering 2525 Pottsdommer Street Tallahassee FL 32316 2175 Ph (904)487 6170 Fax (904) 487 6150 j ':' Faculty Pedro Arce Ph D. Purdue University 1990 Ravi (hello Ph D University of Massachusetts 1984 David Edelson Ph D. Yale University > 1949 \ Hamid Garmestani, Ph.D .* \. Cornell University 1989 "". ;, Peter Gielisse Ph D Ohio State Un!zersity, 1967 r --1 Hwa Lim, Ph.D .* Rochester University, 1986 Bruce Locke Ph.D. North Carolina State University, 1989 / Srinivas Palanki, Ph.D University of Michigan, 1992 Michael Peters Ph.D Ohio State University, 1981 Sam Riccardi Ph.D Ohio Stale University, 1949 John Telotte Ph.D. University of Florida, 1985 Jorge Viiials Ph D .* University of Barcelona, Spoin, 198 l ~:'',:.~

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A.S. Abhiraman YamanArlam P o l y m e r sc i e n ce a nd e n g in ee rin g P rocess d es i g n a nd co ntr o l s p o ut e d bed r e a c t o r s H ea t transp o rt ph e n o m e n a fluidi za ti o n CHEMICAL ENG !NEERING The Faculty and Their Research Sue Ann Bidstrup Mi c ro e l ec t ro n i cs p o l y mer p rocess ing Pulp a nd p a p e r M o l ec ular th e rm ody n a m i c s c hem ica l kin e ti cs se p a r a ti o n s C harles A. Eckert William R. Ernst Ph o t oc h e mi cal p r ocess in g c h e m ical va p o r d e p os iti o n R eac tor d esig n ca t a l ys i s Ae r oc o ll oi d a l sys t e m s int e r fa c i a l ph e n o m e na fin p a rticle t ec hn o l ogy Het e rog e n e ou s ca talysi s s ur fa ce c h e mistry r e a c ti o n kin e ti cs Pradeep K. Agrawal Larry J. Forney M ec h a ni cs o f ae ro so l s buo ant plum es a nd j e t s P o l y mer e ngi n e ering e nergy co n s erv a tion e co nomi c s Charles W. Gorton Jeffre y s Hsieh Pau!A. Kohl Michael]. Matteson John D Muzzy Robert M. Nerem Bi o m ec h a ni cs mammalian ce ll c ultur e s P o l y m e r sc i e n ce and en g in ee ring Robert]. S amuels AmynS. Ttja Th e rm o d y n a mic a nd tran s p o rt prop erties phase e quilibri a super c ritical ga s ex tra c ti o n Gary W. Poehlein F.Joseph Schork Mark G. White E mul s i o n p o l y m e riz ti o n lat e x t ec hn o l ogy R eac t or e n g i n ee rin g pr oc ess co ntrol p o lym e ri z ati o n r eac t o r d y nami cs Ca tal ys i s ki n e tic s r e act o r d e sign Bi oc h e mi ca l e ngin ee r i n g ma ss tr a ns fe r r eac t o r d es i g n S ep a rati o n pro ce ss es, c ry s t a lli z ati o n Bi oc hemi ca l en g ineering mi c robi a l and animal c e ll c ultur es Ronnie S. Roberts Ronald W. Rousseau Athanassios Sambanis M ass tr a n s f e r e xtra c ti o n mixin g n o n New t o ni a n fl o w Pr ocess sy nth si s a nd s imula ti o n c hemic a l s e p a rati o n wa s te manag ePro ces s d es ign m e nt res o ur c e and s imul a ti o n r eco very A. H Peter Skelland Jude T. Sommerfeld D. William Tedder Timothy M. Wick I Bi oc h e mi ca l e n g in ee rin g ce ll -ce ll int e r ac ti o n s bi o fluid d y nami cs Jack Winnick Proh ,,or Hon,1hl \\ Hou,,t .111 I )11 t l tor ..,l hool ol ( ht lllll ,ll I 111,.!llll l r Ill!.:, <,c.orJ.!1.1 111.,lllllll ol hd111olol,.!\ \ll.1111.1 t,tnl!.:,1,1 W)),! OJOO ( 1t11l/'N1 .!:-{(1El ec tr oc h e mi ca l e n g in ee r in g therm d y n a mi cs a ir p o llution c ontrol Bi o fluid dynam ics rh e ology tran s port phenomen a Ajit P. Yoganathan

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What do graduate students say about the University of Houston Department of Chemical Engineering? "Houston is a university on the move. The chemical engineeri n g department i s ranked among the top ten sc hool s, and you can work in the specialty of your c hoi ce : se miconductor processing "It's great!" biochemical engineering, the traditional areas The choice of advisor i s yours, too and you're given enough time to mak e the right deci s ion You can see your advisor a lm ost any tim e yo u want to becau se the st udent-to-teach e r ratio is low. Houston is the center of the petrochemical indu s try which put s the real world of r esea rch within reach. And Houston is one of the few schools with a major re sea rch program in s uperconductivity "The UH campus i s really nic e, a nd city life i s ju s t 15 minutes away for co ncert s, pl ays, ni g htclub s, profe ss ional sports-everything. Galve s ton beach i s ju s t 40 minute s a way. "The faculty are dedicated and alway s friendly. People work hard here but there i s time for intramural sports and Friday-night get-togethers." If you'd like to be part of thi s team, let u s hear from you A REAS OF RESEARCH STRENGTH Biochemi ca l E n g ine e rin g Electronic Ceram ic a nd Superconductin g Material s Improved Oil R ecovery Chemical R eac ti on Engineering Applied Transport Ph e n o m e n a Thermod y nami cs P o l y m er Rh eo l ogy FACULTY Neal Am und so n V e muri B a l ako t aia h Abe Dukl e r Dem e tr e Eco n o m o u E rn es t H e nl ey John Kill o u g h Dan Lu ss Ki s h ore Mohanty Rich a rd P o llard William Pr e n g l e Raj R ajago palan Jim Ri c h a rd so n Jay Schieber Cy nthi a Stoke s Frank Tiller Ri c h ard Willson Frank Worley For a n a ppli ca tion write: D ep t. of Chemical E n g in ee rin g, University o f Hou sto n 4800 Cal h o un H o u s t o n TX 772 04-4792 or ca ll co ll ect 713/743-4300. Th e Un i ve r si t y is in co m p l iance wi th Title I X. 248 C h e mical Engine e ring Education

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UIC The University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Chemical Engineering MS and PhD Graduate Program FACULTY Irving F. Miller Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1960 Professor and Head John H Kiefer Ph D., Cornell University, 1961 Professor G. Ali Mansoori Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969 Professor Sohail Murad Ph D Cornell University, 1979 Professor Ludwig C. Nitsche Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1989 Assistant Professor John Regalbuto Ph D., University of Notre Dame, 1986 Associate Professor Satish C. Saxena Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956 Professor Gina Shreve Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1991 Assistant Professor Stephen Szepe Ph.D Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966 Associate Professor Raffi M. Turian Ph D University of Wisconsin, 1964 Professor Bert L. Zuber Ph D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1965 Professor RESEAllCH AllEAS T r an s po rt Phen ome n a : Slurry transport, multiphase fluid flow and heat transfer, fixed and fluidized bed combustion, indirect coal liquefaction, porous media Thermod y n a mic s: Transport properties of fluids, statistical mechanics of liquid mixtures, bioseparations, superficial fluid extraction/ retrograde condensation, asphaltene characterization. K in etic s and React i on E ngi neerin g : Gas-solid reaction kinetics, diffusion and adsorption phenomena, energy transfer processes, laser diagnostics, combustion chemistry, environmental technology, surface chemistry, optimization, catalyst preparation and characterization, structure sensitivity, supported metals. B i oengineering : Membrane transport, pulmonary deposition and clearance, biorheology, physiological control systems, bioinstrumenta tion. For more information write to Fall 1992 Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering University of Illinois at Chicago Box 4348 Chicago IL 60680 ( 312) 996-3424 249

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A TRADITION OF EXCELLENCE 250 Chemical Engineering at the Univers i ty of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign The combination of distinguished faculty, outstanding facilities and a diversity of research interests results in exceptional opportunities for graduate education. The chemical engineering department offers graduate programs leading to the M.S. and Ph D degrees. Richard C. Alkire Thomas J. Hanratty Jonathan J. L. Higdon Douglas A. Lauffenburger Rich ar d I. Masel Anthony J. McHugh William R. Schowalter Edmund G. Seebauer Mark A. Stadtherr Frank B. van Swol K. D ane Wittrup Charles F. Zukoski IV Electrochemical Engineering Fluid Dynamics Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena Cellular Bioengineering Fundamental Studies of Catalytic Processes and Semiconductor Growth Polymer Science and Engineering Mechanics of Complex Fluids Laser Studies of Semiconductor Growth Chemical Process Flowsheeting and Optimization Computer Simulation and Int erfac i al Studies Bioch em i ca l Engineering Colloid and Int erfacial Science For information and application forms write : Department of Chemical Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab 1209 West California Street Urbana Illinois 61801 Chemical Engineering Education

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT Illinois Institute of Technology THE UNIVERSITY Private, coeducational and research university 4800 undergraduate students 5400 graduate students 3 miles from downtown Chicago and 1 mile west of Lake Michigan Campus recognized as an architectural landmark THE CITY One of the largest cities in the world National and international center of business and industry Enormous variety of cultural resources Excellent recreational facilities Industrial collaboration and job opportunities THE DEPARTMENT One of the oldest in the nation Approximately 40 full-time and 40 part-time graduate students M.Ch.E., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees Financially attractive fellowships and assistant ships available to outstanding students THE FACULTY HAMID ARASTOOPOUR (Ph.D ., /IT) Multiphase flow and fluidization powder and material processing environmental engineering RICHARD A. BEISSINGER (D E.Sc. Columbia) Transport processes in chemical and biological systems rheology of polymeric and biological fluids ALI CINAR (Ph D. Texas A & M) Chemical process control distributed parameter systems expert systems DIMITRI GIDASPOW (Ph.D., /IT} Hydrodynamics of fluidization multiphase flow separations processes HENRY R. LINDEN (Ph.D. /IT} Energy policy planning and forecasting SA TISH J. PARULEKAR (Ph.D ., Purdue) Biochemical engineering chemical reaction engineering J. ROBERT SELMAN (Ph.D., California-Berkeley) Electrochemical engineering and electrochemical energy storage FYODOR A. SHUTOV (Ph.D., Institute for Chemical Physics Moscow) Polymer composite mater i als and plastic recycling DAVID C. VENERUS (Ph.D. Pennsylvania State U) Polymer rheology and processing and transport phenomena DARSH T. WASAN (Ph D., California-Berkeley) lnterfacial phenomena separation processes enhanced oil recovery APPLICATIONS Dr A. Cinar Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering Illinois Institute of Technology 1./.T. Center ;.;;iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii~ Chicago IL 60616 Fall 1992 251

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GRADUATE PROGRAM FOR M.S. & PH.D. DEGREES IN CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY GREG CARMICHAEL Chair; U. of Kentucky 1979, Global Change/ Supercomputing RAVI DATTA UCSB, 1981 Reaction Engineering/ Catalyst Design DAVID MURHAMMER U. of Houston, 1989 Animal Cell Culture J. KEITH BEDDOW U. of Cambridge 1959 Particle Morphological Analysis JONATHAN DORDICK MIT, 1986 Biocatalysis and Bioprocessing DAVID RETHWISCH U of Wisconsin, 1984 Membrane Science/ Catalysis and Cluster Science For information and application write to: GRADUATE ADMISSIONS Chemical and Biochemical Engineering The University of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa 52242 319-335-1400 AUDREY BUTLER U. of Iowa 1989 Chemical Precipita tion Processes DAVID LUERKENS U. of Iowa 1980 Fine Particle Science V.G.J. RODGERS Washington U. 1989 Transport P henorrena in Bioseparations THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA

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IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHN O L O GY i nform ation, p l e a se wri te Graduate Office Department of Chemical Engineering Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50011 or call 515 294-7643 E-Mail N2.TSK@ISUMVS BITNET Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering Charles E. Glatz, Ph.D. Wisconsin 1975. Peter J. Reilly, Ph.D., Penns y lvania, 1964. Richard C. Seagrave, Ph.D. Iowa State, 1961. Catalysis and Reaction Engineering L. K. Doraiswamy, Ph.D., Wisconsin 1952. Terry S. King, Ph.D., M.l.T. 1979. Glenn L. Schrader, Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1976. Energy and Environmental George Burnet, Ph D ., Iowa State, 1951. Thomas D. Wheelock, Ph.D. Iowa State, 1958. Materials and Crystallization Kurt R. Hebert, Ph.D., Illinois 1985 Maurice A. Larson, Ph D., Iowa State, 1958. Gordon R. Youngquist Ph.D., Illinois, 1962. Process Design and Control William H. Abraham, Ph. D ., Purdue 1957. Derrick K. Rollins, Ph D., Ohio State, 1990. Dean L. Ulrichson, Ph.D., Iowa State, 1970. Transport Phenomena and Thermodynamics James C. Hill, Ph.D., Washington, 1968. Kenneth R. Jolls, Ph.D Illinois, 1966.

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254 Graduate Study and Research in Chemical Engineering TIMOTHY A. BARBARI MARK A. MCHUGH Ph.D. University of Texas Austin Ph.D ., University of Delaware Membrane Science High-Pressure Thermodynamics Sorption and Diffusion in Polymers Polymeric Thin Films Polymer Solution Thermodynamics Supercritical Solvent Extraction MICHAEL J. BETENBAUGH w. MARK SALTZMAN Ph.D ., University of Delaware Ph D ., Massachusetts Institute of Technology Biochemical Kinetics Transport in Biological Systems Insect Cell Culture Polymeric Controlled Release Recombinant DNA Technology Cell-Surface Interactions MARC D. DONOHUE w. H. SCHWARZ Ph.D. University of California Berkeley Dr. Engr ., The Johns Hopkins University Equations of State Rheology Statistical Thermodynamics Non-Newtonian Fluid Dynamics Phase Equilibria Phys i cal Acoustics and Fluids Turbulence JOSEPH l. KATZ Ph.D ., University of Chicago Nucleation KATHLEEN J. STEBE Ph.D ., The City University of New York Crystallization lnterfacial Phenomena Flame Generation of Ceramic Powders Electropermeability of Biological Membranes Surface Effects at Fluid Droplet Interfaces For further information contact: The Johns Hopkins University G. W.C Whiting School of Engineering Department of Chemical Engineering 34th and Charles Streets Baltimore MD 21218 ohns Hopkins (301) 338-7137 E.O.E. / A.A. Chemical Engin ee ring Education

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I THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAMS M.S. de gree with a the s i s requirement in both c h emica l and petroleum engineering M S. degree with a m ajo r in petroleum m anage m e nt offered jointly with the School of Bu si ne ss Ph.D. degre e c hara c teri ze d b y mod erate and fl ex ibl e co ur se requirement s and a s tron g r esearch e mph asis Typical completion times are 16-18 month s fo r a M.S. d egree and 4 1/2 years for a Ph.D. d egree (from B S. ) RESEARCH AREAS Catalytic Kin etics a nd Reacti o n Engineering Ch emica l V a por D e po sition Controlled Dru g D elivery Corrosion Economic Eva l uation Enhanced Oil Recov e ry Proc esses Fluid Pha se Equilibria and Pro cess D esign Kinetics and Homo ge neou s Catalysis for Polymer R eact ion s Pl asma Modelin g and Pl asma R eactor D esign Pha se Behavi or Pro cess Control Supercomputer Applications Supercritical Fluid Applications W as te Heat and Pollution of Combustion Processes FINANCIAL AID Financial aid is ava ilable in the form of fe ll ows hips a nd research and teaching assista nt s hip s ($ 1 3,000 to $ 1 4,000 a year) THE UNIVERSITY The University of Kan sas i s th e largest and most comprehensive university in Kan sas. It ha s an enrollment of mor e than 28,000 and almost 2 000 faculty member s. KU offers more than I 00 bach e l ors', nearly ninety ma s t e r s', and mor e than fifty doctoral programs. The main ca mpu s i s in Lawrence, K a n sas, w ith o th er campuses in Kansa s City, Wichit a, Topeka and Overland Park Kan sas Fall 1992 FACULTY Kenneth A. Bi sho p ( Ph .D. Oklah oma) John C. Da v i s ( Ph.D. Wyomin g) Don W Green ( Ph.D Oklahoma ) Co lin S. How at ( Ph D ., K a n sas) Car l E. Locke, Jr., D ea n (P h D ., Texa s) Ru sse ll D Osterman (P h .D., Kan sas) Marylee Z. Southard (P h.D ., Kansas ) B a l a Subramaniam ( Ph.D ., Notre Dame) Galen J. Suppe s (P H.D. John s H opkins) George W. Swif t (P h.D ., Kan sas) Br ian E. T h ompso n ( Ph.D ., MIT ) Shapour Yossoug hi ( Ph .D., Alberta, Canada) G. P a ul Willhite, Chairman (Ph.D. Nort h western) RESEARCH FACILITIES Excellent facilities are ava il ab l e for resea r c h a nd in struction. Extensive equipme nt a nd s hop facilities a r e available for r esearch in s uch areas as en h anced oil recovery proce sses, flui d ph ase eq u ilibria, catalytic kinetics, plasma p rocessing, and s up erc r itica l flu i d a ppli cations. Th e VAX 9000 a l o n g with a n etwo rk of Maci n to s h personal compute r s a nd IBM Apoll o, an d Sun worksta ti o n s, s upp ort computatio n a l a nd graphical n eeds. For more information and application material write or call The University of Kansas The Graduat e Advise r Department of Chemical and Petro l e um Engineering 4006 Learned Hall Lawrence, KS 66045-2223 255

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M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Chemical Engineering Interdisciplinary Areas of Systems Engineering Food Science Environmental Engineering Financial Aid Available Up to $17 000 Per Year For More Information Write To Professor B.G Kyle Durland Hall Kansas State University Manhattan KS 66506 25 6 Areas of Study and Research Transport Phenomena Energy Engineering Coal and Biomass Conversion Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibrium Biochemical Engineering Proces Dynamics and Control Chemical Reaction Engineering Materials Science Catalysis and Fuel Synthesis Process System Engineering and Artificial Intelligence Environmental Pollution Control Fluidization and Solid Mixing Hazardous Waste Treatment KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY C h emical E ngi n ee r ing Ed u cation

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University of Kentucky Far From An Ordinary Ball Research with advanced materials (carbon fibers, nitride catalysts, supercon ducting thin films and liquid crystalline polymers) and with Buckyballs is ongoing here in Lexington Anything But An Ordinary University At the University of Kentucky-designated by the Carnegie Foundation as a Research University of the First Class, and included in the NSF's prestigious list ing of Top 100 research institutions in America CHOICES for Chem. E. grad uate students are anything but ordinary There are joint projects with Pharmacy, the Medical School, the Markey Cancer Center, and Chemistry researchers. And abundant o pp ortu nities for intense interaction with extraordinary faculty, as well as access to state-of-the-art facilities and equipment, including an IBM ES 3900 / 600J Supercomputer. With Out-Of-The Ordinary Chem. E. Specialties Aeroso l Chemistry an d Phy s ic s-Weighing picogram particles in electrodynamic balance, measuring monolayer adsorption data with seven significant figures. Cellular Bioengineering -Rheological and transport properties of cell membranes; ce l l adhesion, cancer research transport of drugs across membranes, and membrane biofouling. Computational Engineering -Modeling turbulent diffusion in atmospheric convective boundary layers; modeling growth of multicomponent aerosol systems. Environmental Engineer i ng EPA-approved analytical labora tory; global atmospheric transport models; atmospheric photochemistry; control of heavy metals and hazardous organics ; water pollution research. Membrane Science -Development of low pressure charged membranes; thin film composite membranes; development of bio functional synthetic membranes. From A Uniquely Un-Ordinary Faculty Ph.D. Recent national awards won by our faculty include: Larry K. Cecil AIChE Environmental Division; AIChE O utstanding Counselor Award, 1983, 1991 ; ASM Henry Marion Howe Medal; MAR Kenneth T. Whitby Memorial Award; BMES Dr. Harold Lamport Award for a Young Investiga tor; and two NSF-Presidential Young Investigators. Recent University-wide awards by faculty include: Great Teacher; Research Professor; Excellence in Under graduate Education; and Alumni Professor. All Of Which Create Some Extraordinary Opportunities For You Doctoral incentives well worth your consideration: Up to $20,000 per year stipends plus tuition, books, research supplies, travel allowances. Interested in obtaining a degree of extraordinary worth? Contact Dr. R I. Kermode Department of C h emical Engineering University of Ken t ucky Lexington KY 40506-0046 606-257-4956 University o f Ken tu cky Dep artment o f C he mi cal Engineering

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Quebec, Canada Ph.D. and M.Sc. in Chemical Engineering Research Areas CATALYSIS (S. Kalia g uin e, A Sa y ari ) BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING (L. Chaplin A. LeDu y, J. -R. Moreau J Thibault) ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING ( C. Ro y ) COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING ( P A. Tangu y) TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT (P. -H. Ro y) MODELLING AND CONTROL (J. Thibault) RHEOLOGY AND POLYMER ENGINEERING (A Ait-Kadi L. Chaplin P. A. Tangu y ) THERMODYNAMICS (S Kaliaguin e) CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL UPGRADING OF BIOMASS (S. Kaliaguine A. LeDu y, C. Ro y) FLUIDISATION AND SEP ARA TIO NS BY MEMBRANES (B. Grandjean) 258 Universite Laval is a French speaking Un i versity It prov i des the graduate student with the opportunity of learning French and becoming acquainted with French culture Please write to : Le Responsable du Comite d'Admission et de Supervision Departement de genie chimique Faculte des sciences et de genie Universite Laval Sainte-Foy Quebec Canada G 1 K 7P4 The Faculty ABDELLATIF AIT-KADI Ph D Ecole Poly. Montreal Professeur agrege LIONEL CHOPLIN Ph.D. Ecol e Poly. Montreal Professeur titulaire BERNARD GRANDJEAN Ph D Ecole Poly Montr e al Professeur adjoint SERGE KALIAGUINE D.Ing. I.G .C. Toulouse Professeur titulaire ANHLEDUY Ph D Western Ontario Professeur titulaire J. -CLAUDE METHOT D.Sc. Laval Professeur titulaire JEAN-R. MOREAU Ph.D. M.I.T. Prof esse ur titulaire CHRISTIAN ROY Ph.D. Sherbrooke Professeur titulaire PAUL-H. ROY Ph.D Ill inois Inst. of Technology Professeur titulaire ABDELHAMID SA YARI Ph D Tunis / Lyon Professeur adjoint PHILLIPPE A TANGUY Ph.D Laval Professeur titulaire JULES THIBAULT Ph D McMaster Professeur titulaire Chemical Engineering Education

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LEHIGH UNIVERSITY We promise the challenge Synergistic interdisciplinary resea r c h in ... Biochemical E n gi n eeri n g Cata l ytic Science & Rea ction E n g ine ering E n viro nm e n ta l Engineering lnt e rfa c ial Transport Materials Synthesi s Characterization & Processing Microelectronics Processing Polymer Science & Engineering Process Mod e lin g & Control Thermodynam i c Properties Two-Phase Flow & Heat Transfer ... leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in c h emical engineering and polymer scie nc e a nd engineering Highly attractive financial aid packages, which provide tuition and stipend, are available. Living in B e thlehem PA, allows easy ac cess to cultural and recreational opportu nities in the New York-Philadelphia area. A dditional information and appli c ation s ma y b e obtain e d by w riting ta: Dr. Hugo S. Caram Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering Lehigh University 111 Research Drive Iacocca Hall Bethlehem, PA 18015 Fall 1992 Philip A. Blythe (University of Manchester ) fluid mechanic s heat transfer applied mathematics Hugo S. Caram (University of Minnesota) gas-solid and gas-liquid sys tems optical techniques reaction engineering Marvin Charles (Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn) biochemical engineering bioseparations John C. Chen (University of Michigan ) two-p h ase vapor-liquid flow fluidization ra diati ve heat transfer environmental technology Mohamed S. EI-Aasser (McGill University) polymer colloids and films emulsion copolymerization polymer synt he sis and characterization Christos Georgakis (University of Minnesota) process modeling and co ntr ol chemical reaction engineering batchreactors Dennis W. Hess (Le hi gh University) microelectronics processing thin fi lm science and technology James T. Hsu (Northwestern University) separation processes adsorption and catalysis in zeolites Arthur E. Humphrey Emeritus (Columbia University) biochemical processes Andrew J. Klein ( North Carolina State University) emulsion polymerization colloidal and s urf ace effects in polymer ization William L. Lu y ben (University of Delaware) proces s design a nd control distillation Janice A. Phillips (University of Pennsylvania) biochemical engi n eering in str umentation/control of bioreactor s mammalian cell cu ltu re Maria M. Santore (Princeton University) po l ymers adsorption processes and blend stability William E. Schiesser ( Princeton University) numerical a l gorit hm s and software in c h emical e n g ine eri n g Cesar A. Silebi (Le hi gh University) se paration of co ll oidal particle s electrop h oresis mass transfer Leslie H. Sperling (Duke University) mechanical and morphological properties of polymers interpen etrating polymer network s Fred P. Stein (University of Michigan ) thermodynamic properties of mixtures Harvey G. Stenger, Jr. ( Massachu setts Institute of Technology ) reactor engineering Israel E. Wachs (Stanford University ) materials synthesis and c h aracterizatio n s urf ace c hemi stry heterogeneous catalysis Leonard A. Wenzel, Emeritus (U niversity of Michigan) thermodynamics 259

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I LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY! CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE SCHOOL THE CITY---------Baton Rouge is the state capitol and home of the ma j or state institution for higher education LSU. Situated in the Acadian region Baton Rouge blends the Old South and Cajun Cultures. The Port of Baton Rouge is a main chemi cal shipping point, and the city's economy rests heavily on the chemical and agricultural i ndustries The great outdoors provide excellent recreational activities year-round The proximity of New Orleans provides for superb nightlife, especially during Mardi Gras THE DEPARTMENT ______ M S. and Ph.D Programs Approximately 70 Graduate Students DEPARTMENTAL FACILITIES IBM 4341 and 9370 with more than 70 color graphics terminals and PC s Analytical Facilities including GC/MS, FTIR, FT-NMR LC, GC AA XRD Vacuum to High Pressure Facilities for kinetics catalysis, thermodynamics, supercritical processing Shock Tube and Combustion Laboratories Laser Doppler Velocimeter Facility Bench Scale Fermentation Facilities Polymer Processing Equipment TO APPLY, CONTACT _____ 260 DIRECTOR OF GRADUATE INSTRUCTION Department of Chemical Engineering Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA 70803 FACULTY---------J.R. COLLIER {Ph.D ., Case Institute) Polymers Textiles Fluid Flow A.B. CORRIPIO {Ph.D Louisiana State University) Control Simulation Computer-Aided Design K.M. DOOLEY { Ph D Un i versity of Delaware ) Heterogeneous Catalysis Re a ct i on Enginee ri ng G.L. GRIFFIN {Ph.D Princeton University) Heterogeneous Catalysis Surfaces Mater i als Process i ng F.R. GROVES {Ph D University of Wisconsin) Control Modeling Separation Processes D P. HARRISON (Ph.D University of Texas ) Fluid-Sol i d Reactions Hazardous Wastes M. HJORTS0 {Ph.D ., Un i versity o f Houston ) Biotechnology Appl i ed Mathematic s F.C. KNOPF ( Ph D ., Purdue Univers i ty ) Compu t er-Aided Design Super c rit i cal Processing E. McLAUGHLIN (D.Sc ., University of London ) Thermodynam i cs High Pressures Physical Properties R.W. PIKE (Ph.D. Georgia Institute of Technology) Fluid Dynamics Reaction Engineer i ng Optimi z ation G.L. PRICE {Ph D ., Rice University ) Heterogeneous Catalysis Surfaces D.D. REIBLE { Ph.D ., Ca l iforn ia Ins ti tute of Technology ) Environmental Chemodynam i cs Transport Model i ng R.G. RICE (Ph.D Unive r s i ty o f Pennsylvan ia) Mass Transfer Separation Processes A.M. STERLING (Ph.D ., University of Washington) Transport Phenomena Combustion L.J. THIBODEAUX (Ph D ., Louisiana State University) Chemodynamics Hazardous Waste R.D. WESSON {Ph.D. University of Michigan ) Sem iCrystalline Polymer Processing D.M. WETZEL (Ph.D University of Delaware ) Physical Properties Hazardous Wastes FINANCIAL AID Assistantships at $14,400 (waiver of out-of-state tuition) Dean s Fellowships at $17 000 per year plus tuition and a travel grant Special industrial and alumni fellowships for outstanding students Some part-time teaching experience available for graduate students interested in an academic career Ch e mica l Enginee r ing E d u cation

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University: of Maine Faculty and Research Interests DOUGLAS BOUSFIELD Ph.D. (U.C.Berkeley) Fluid Mechanics Rheology, Coating Processes Particle Motion Modeling WILLIAM H. CECKLER Sc D. ( M I.T. ) Heat Transfer, Pressing & Drying Operations, Energy from Low BTU Fuels, Process Simulation &Modeling ALBERT CO Ph.D ( Wisconsin ) Polymeric Flu id Dynamics Rheology, Transport Phenomena, Numerical Methods JOSEPH M. GENCO Ph.D. (Ohio State ) Process Engineering Pulp and Paper T e chnology Wood Delignification JOHN C. HASSLER Ph D ( Kansas State ) Process Co ntr o l, Numerical Methods Instrumentation and Real Time Computer Applications MARQUITA K HILL Ph.D. ( U.C. Davis ) Environmental Science Waste Management Technology JOHN J HWALEK Ph.D ( Illin ois) Liquid Metal Natural Convection Electronics Cooling Process Contro l Systems Fall 1992 ERDOGAN KIRAN Ph.D. (P rinceton ) Po lym er Physics & Chemistry Supercritical Fluids, Thermal Analysis & Pyrolysi s, Pulp & Paper Science DA V1D J. KRASKE (C hairman ) Ph.D. ( Inst Pap e r Chemistry) Pulp, Paper & Coating Technology, Additiv e Chemistry, Cellulose & Wood Chemistry PIERRE LEPOUTRE Ph.D ( North Carolina State University) Surface Physics and Chemistry Materials Science Adhesion Phenomena KENNETH I. MUMME Ph D ( Main e) Process Simulation and Control Sys te m Identification & Optimization HEMANT PENDSE Ph D. ( Syracus e) Co lloid a l Phenomena Particulate & Multiphase Processes, Porous Media Modeling EDWARD V. THOMPSON Ph D. ( Polytechnic Institut e of Brooklyn ) Thermal & Mechanical Properties of Polym e rs, P a perm a king and Fiber Physic s, Recycl e P a p e r Call Collect or Write Doug Bousfield D e partm e nt of Chemical Engineering Jenn e ss Hall Box B University of Maine Orono Main e 04469-0135 (2 07 ) 581-2300 Programs and Financial Support Eighteen research groups attack fundamental problems leading to M .S. and Ph D. d egrees. Industrial fe llowship s, university fellowships, research assistantships and teaching assistantships are availab l e. Presidential fellowships provide $4,000 p e r year in addition to the regular stipe nd and free tuition The University Th e spacio u s campus is sit uated on 1 200 acres overlooking the Penobscot an d Stillwater Rivers Present enrollme nt of 12,000 offers the diversity of a larg e sc hool while preserving c lo se personal contact between peers and faculty. The University's Maine Center for the Arts t h e Hauck Auditorium, and Pavilion Theatre provide many cultural opportunites, in adclition to those in the n ea rby city of Bangor. Less than an hour away from campus ar e the beautiful Maine Coast and Acadia National park alpine and cross-country ski resort s, an d northern wilderness areas of Baxter State Park and Mount Katahdin Enjoy life work hard and earn your graduate d egree in one of the most beautiful spots in the world 261

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262 UMBC UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND BALTIMORE COUNTY Emphasis GRADUATE STUDY IN BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FOR ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE MAJORS The UMBC Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Program offers graduate programs leading to M.S and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering with a primary research focus in biochemical engineering Facilities The 6000 square feet of space dedicated to faculty and graduate student research includes state-of-the art laboratory facilities The BioProcess Scale-Up Facility on the College Park Campus is also available for use with classical microbial systems A new Engineering and Computer Science building with an addi tional 7 000 square feet of laboratory space for Chemical and Biochemical Engineering will open in the fall of 1992 -------Faculty D F. Bruley, Ph.D. Tennessee B iodownst r eam processing and transport pro cesses in the microcirculation; Process simula tion and control T. W. Cadman, Ph.D. Carnegie Mellon Bioprocess modeling, cont rol and optimization ; Educational software development A. Gomezplata, Ph.D. Ren sselaer H ete rogeneous flow systems; Simultaneous mass transfer and chemical reactions C. S. Lee, Ph.D. Rensselaer Bioseparations; Biosensors ; Protein adsorption at interfaces J. A. Lumpkin, Ph.D. Pennsylvania Analytical chemiand bioluminescence; Kinetics of enzymatic r eactions; Protein oxidation GRADUATE STUDY IN BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FOR ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE MAJORS A. R. Moreira, Ph.D.* Pennsylvania rDNA fermentation; Regulatory issues; Scale-up; Downstream processing G. F Payne, Ph.D. Michigan Plant cell tissue culture; Streptomyces bioprocessing; Adsorptive separations; Toxic waste treatment G. Rao, Ph.D.* Drexel Animal cell culture; Oxygen toxicity; Biosensing J. Rosenblatt, Ph.D. Berkeley Biomedical engineering; Drug delivery ; Collagen applications M. R. Sierks, Ph.D Iowa State Protein engineering; Site-directed mutagenesis; Catalytic antibodies D. I. C. Wang, Ph.D.** Pennsylvania Bior eactors; Bioin strumentation; Protein refolding Joint appointment with the Maryland Biotechnology Institut e Adjunct prof ess or / Eminent scholar For further information contact: Dr. A. R. Moreira Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering University of Maryland Baltimore County Baltimore Maryland 21288 (301) 455-3400 Chemical Engine e ring Edu cation

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University of Maryland Faculty: William E. Bentley Richard V. Calabrese Kyu Yong Choi Larry L. Gasner James W Gentry Michael L. Mavrovouniotis Thomas J. McAvoy Thomas M. Regan Theodore G. Smith Nam Sun Wang William A. Weigand Evanghelos Zafiriou Fall 1992 College Park Location: The University of Maryland College Park is located approximately ten miles from the heart of the nation Washington D. C Excellent public transportation permits easy access to points of interest such as the Smithsonian National Gallery Congress White House Arlington Cemetery and the Kennedy Center A short drive west produces some of the finest mountain scenery and recreational opportunities on the east coast. An even shorter drive brings one to the historic Chesapeake Bay For Applications and Further Information, Write: Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering University of Maryland College Park MD 20742 2111 Degrees Offered: M S and Ph.D programs in Chem i cal Engineering Financial Aid Available: Teaching and Research Assistantships at $12 880/yr. plus tuition Research Areas: Aerosol Science Artificial Intelligence Biochemical Engineering Fermentation Neural Computat i on Polymer Processing Polymer Reaction Engineering Process Control Recombinant DNA Technology Separation Processes Systems Engineering Turbulence and Mixing 263

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University of Massachusetts _____ at Amherst M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering Faculty M. F. Doherty, Ph.D. (Cambridge], Head W. C. Conner, Ph.D. (Johns Hopkins] M. R. Cook, Ph.D. (Harvard] J.M. Douglas, Ph.D. (Delaware] V. Haensel, Ph.D. (Northwestern] M. P. Harold, Ph.D. (Houston} R. L. Laurence, Ph.D. (Northwestern] M. F. Malone, Ph.D. (Massachusetts] P.A. Monson, Ph.D. (London] K. M. Ng, Ph.D. (Houston} J. W. van Egmond (Stanford} P. R. Westmoreland, Ph.D. (M.I. T.} H. H. Winter, Ph.D. (Stuttgart} Current Areas of Research Combustion, Plasma Processing Process Synthesis, Design of Polymer and Solids Processes Statistical Thermodynamics, Phase Behavior Control System Synthesis Fluid Mechanics, Rheology Polymer Processing, Composites Catalysis and Kinetics, Reaction Dynamics Design of Multiphase and Polymerization Reactors Nonideal Distillation, Adsorption, Crystallization Computer Aided Design, Optimization Computational Chemistry Design and Con trol Center -----------The Department has a research center in design and control, which is sponsored by industrial companies. Financial Support ---------All students are awarded full financial a id at a nationally competitive rate. Location The Amherst Campus of the University is in a small New England town in Western Massachu setts Set amid farmland and rolling hills the area offers pleasant living conditions and exten sive recreational facilities. For application forms and further information on fellowships and assistantships academic and research programs and student housing write: GRADUATE PROGRAM DIRECTOR DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 159 GOESSMANN LABORATORY UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST,MA 01003 The Un iv ers it y of Massa c hus etts at Amherst prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, co lor religion creed sex, sexual orientat ion age marital status nation al origin, disability or handicap, politi cal belief or affiliation, membership or non-membership in any organization, or veteran status in any aspect of the admission or treatment of students or in employment. 264 Chemical Engine ering Education

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT With the largest chemical engineering research faculty in the country, the Department of Chemical Engineering at MIT offers program s ofresearch and teaching which span the breadth of chemical engineering with unpr ece dented depth in fundamentals and applications The Department offers three levels of graduate programs, leading to Master's Engineer's, and Doctor 's degrees. In addition, graduate students may earn a Master 's degree through the David H Koch School of Chemical Engineering Practice a unique internship program that stresses defining and solving industrial problems by applying chemical engineering fundamentals. Students in this program spend half a semester at each of two Practice School Stations, including Dow Chemi cal in Midland, Michigan, and Merck Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Division in West Point Pennsylvania, in addition to one or two semesters at MIT. RESEAR,CH AR,EAS Artificial Intelligence Biomedical Engineering Biotechnology Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Combustion Computer-Aided Design Electrochemistry Energy Conversion Environmental Engineering Fluid Mechanics Kinetic s and Reaction Engineering Microelectronic Materials Processing Polymers Process Dynamics and Control Surfaces and Colloids Transport Phenomena FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT MIT MIT is located in Cambridge, just across th e Charles River from Boston, a few minutes by subway from downtown Boston on the one hand and Harvard Square on the other The heavy concentration of colleges hospitals research facilities, and high technology industry provides a populace that demands and finds an un e ndin g variety of theaters, concerts, r esta urants museums bookstores, s porting events libraries, and recreational facilities. FACULTY R.A. Brown Department Head R.C. Armstrong P.I. Barton J.M. Beer E.D. Blankschtein H Brenner LG.Cima R .E. Co hen C.K. C olton C.L. C oone y W.M.Deen K.K. Gleason J.G. Harris T.A. Hatton J.B. Howard K.F. Jensen R.S. La nger G.J.McRae E.W Merrill C.M.Mohr G.C. Rutledge A.F. Sarofim H.H. Sawin KA.Smith Ge. Stephanopoulos Gr Stephanopoulos M.F. Stephanopoulos J.W. Tester Chemical Engineering Graduate Office 66-366 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 Phone: (617) 253-4579 ; FAX: (617) 253-9695 P.S. Virk D.I. C. Wang J.Y. Ying Fall 1992 265

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Chemical Engineering at The University of Michigan Faculty 1. Johannes Schwank Chair, Hetero ge n eous catalysis, s u rface science 2. Stac y G. Bike Colloids, transport, electrokinetic phenomena 3. Dale E. Brigg s Coal processes 4. Mark A. Burns Biochemical and field-en h anced separa t ions 5. Brice Carnahan Numerical methods, process simulation 6. Rane L. Curl Rate processes mathematical modeling 7. F r ank M. Donahue Electro chemical engineering 8. H. Scott Fogler F l ow in porous media microe l ec t ronics processing 9. John L. Gland Surface science 10. Erdogan Gulari Interfacial phenomena, catalysis, surface science 11. Robert H Kadle c Ecosystems, process dynamics 12 Costas Kravaris Nonlinear process control system identification 13. Jennifer J Linderman Engi neering approaches to cell biology 14. Bernhard 0. Palsson Cellular bioengi n eering 15. Ph i llip E. Savage Reaction pathways in complex systems 16 Le vi T. Thompson J r. Catal ys i s processing materials in space 17. Henr y Y. Wang Biotechnology processes, industrial biology 18 James 0. Wilkes Numerical methods polymer processing 19. Robert M. Ziff Aggregation processes, statistical mechanics For More Information Contact : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 12 1 3 1 4 1 5 16 17 18 1 9 Graduate Program Office, Department of Chemical Engineering / The University of Michigan / Ann Arbor MI 48109 2136 / 313 76 3 -1148

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY The Department of Chemical Engineering offers Graduate Programs leading to M.S and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering The fa cul ty conduct fundamental and applied research in a variety of Chemical Engineering disciplines The Michigan Biotechnology Institute, the Composite Materials and Structures Ce nter and the Crop Bioprocessing Center provide a forum for interdisciplinary work in current high technology areas ASSISTANTSHIPS Half time graduate assistantships for incoming Master s candidates are expected to pay $13,500 per year net after all tuition and fees ; the corresponding stipend for Ph D stu den ts is about $14,300 Theses may be written on the subject covered by the research assistantship. FELLOWSHIPS Available appointments pay up to $18,000 per year plus all tuition and fees FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS D. K. ANDERSON Chairperson Ph.D., 1960, University of Washington K JAYARAMAN Ph.D. 1975 Princeton University Transport Phenomena, Diffusion In Po l ymer Solutions K. A. BERGLUND Polymer Rheology, Processing of Polymer Blends and Composites, Computational Methods Ph.D., 1981, Iowa State University Sensors, Applled Spectroscopy, Food and Biochemical Engineer ing, Inorganic Polymers. D. M BRIEDIS Ph.D. 1981, Iowa State University Surface Phenomena in Crystallization Processes, Biochemical Engineering. Ceramic Powder Processing C. M CO OPER Professor Emeritus Sc.D., 1949, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria. Modeling of Transport Processes L.T.DRZAL Ph.D .. 1974, Case Westem Reserve University Surface and lnterfacial Phenomena Adhesion, Composite Materials, Surface Characterization, Surface Modification of Polymers Composite Processing H. E. GRETHLEIN Ph D ., 1962 Princeton University Biomass Conversion, Bio-Degradation. Waste Treatment. Bioprocess Development, Distillation, Biochemical Engineering E. A. GRULKE Ph.D. 1975 Ohio State University Mass Transport Phenome n a, Po lym er Devolatiliz atio n, Biochemical Engineering. Food Engineering M. C. HAWLEY Ph.D., 1964, Michigan State University Kin etics. Catalysis, Reactions in P l asmas, Po l ymerization Reactions. Composite Processing, Biomass Conversion, Reaction Engineering C.T.LIRA Ph.D. 1986 University of lllinois at Urbana Champaign Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria of Complex Systems, Supercritical Fluid Studies D.J.MILLER Ph.D., 1982 University of F1.orida Kinetics and Catalysis Reaction Engineering, Coal Gasification, Catalytic Conversion of Biomass-Based Materials R.NARAYAN Ph D., 1976 Unive rsity of Bombay Engineering and Design of Natural Synthetic Polymer Composite Systems, Po l ymer Blends and Alloys, Biodegradab l e Plastics, Low Cost Composites Using Recycled/Reclaimed and Natural Polymers C. A. PETTY Ph.D., 1970, University of F1.orid.a Fluid Mechanics, Turbulent Transport Ph e nomena, Solid-Fluid and Liquid-Liquid Separations, Polymer Composite Processing A. B. SCRANTON Ph.D. 1990 Purdue University Polymer Science and Engineering Polymer Complexation and Net work Formation, Applications of NMR Spectroscopy Molecular Modeling B. W. WILKINSON, Professor Emeritus Ph.D ., 1958, Ohio State University Energy Systems and Environmental Control, Nuclear Reactor Radioisotope App lication s R M.WORDEN Ph.D., 1986, University of Tennessee Biochemical Engineering, Immobilized Cell Technology, Food Engineering FOR ADDITIONAL I NFORMATION WRITE Fall 1992 Chairperson Department of Chemical Engineering A202 Engineering Buildin g Michigan State University East Lansing Michigan 48824-1226 MSU is an Affi rmati ve A c tion/Equal Opportunity In stitution 267

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Michigan Technological University Add your name to the ranks of the prestigious engineering alumni from Michigan Tech Combine a first-rate chemical engi neering education with the environ mentally exciting surroundings of th, Keweenaw Peninsula. Michigan Tech. Established ir 1885. One of four nationally-recognizec research institutions in the state o J Michigan. 6,500 undergraduate stu dents. 500 graduate students. Michigan Tech. The 9th largest chemical engineering program in the country, with a vital and focussed graduate program. CONTACT Department of Chemical Engineering Michigan Technological University 1400 Townsend Drive Houghton Ml 49931-1295 906/487-204 7 FAX 906/487-2061 Chemical Engineering Faculty Process and plant design Bruce A. Barna, Associate Professor Ph.D., New Mexico State, 1985 Polymerization, polymer materials, nonlinear dynamics Gerard T. Caneba Assistant Professor Ph.D. University of California Berkeley 1985 Process control, neural networks Tomas B Co Assistant Professor Ph.D ., Massachusetts 1988 Energy transfer and excited state processes Edward R. Fisher Professor and Head Ph D ., Johns Hopkins University, 1965 Numerical analysis, absorption, process safety Anton J Pintar Associate Professor Ph.D. Illinois Institute of Technology, 1968 Transport processes and process scaleup Davis W Hubbard, Professor Ph.D ., University of Wisconsin Madison 1964 Process control, energy systems Nam K. Kim, Associate Professor Ph D., Montana State, 1982 Polymer rheology, liquid crystals, composites Faith A. Morrison, Assistant Professor Ph.D ., Massachusetts, 1988 Surface science, sol-gel processing Michael E. Mullins, Associate Professor Ph D Rochester 1983 Polymer Science, polymer and composite processing John G. Williams Professor Ph D. Melbourne University __________ Michigan Technological University is an equal opportunity educational institution/equal opportunity employer _________ 268 Chemical Engin e ering Education

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UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA Chemical Engineering and Materials Science CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRAM I DERBY DA OUT/DIS PROCESS CONTROL ANALYSIS RANZ SYNTHESIS DESIGN DERBY SCRIVEN FLUID THERMODYNAMICS FLUID MECHANICS MACOSKO TIRRELL POLYMER SCIENCE POLYMER PROCESSES MOLECULAR SOLIDS BATES DAHLER WARD I THERMODYNAMICS I HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER DAHLER I TRANSPORT I STATISTICAL MECHANICS DAVIS ARIS CARR SMYRL WHITE I REACTION ENGINEERING I I ELECTROCHEMICAL I KINETICS I I PROCESSES I DERBY MARTINS MCCORMICK SCHMIDT SURFACE SCIENCE CATALYSIS MICROELECTRONICS HETEROGENEOUS REACTIONS PREPARATION PROCESSES ZEOLITES POLYMER FILMS WHITE SMYRL EVANS DAVIS SCRIVEN COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE POROUS MEDIA SUR FACT ANCY SOLS, GELS CAPILLARY HYDRODYNAMICS DISPERSIONS ADHESION AND SURFACE FORCES SOL GEL FILMS COATING FLOWS CERAMIC MICROSTRUCTURES MCCORMICK BATES SR/ENC FREDRICKSON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING I BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING iaEANKOPLIS ARTIFICIAL ORGANS BIOTECHNOLOGY TISSUE ENGINEERING H u cuss LER TRANQUILLO HU THE FACULTY R. Aris H.T. Davis K.H. Keller F.S. Bates J .J Derb y C.W. Macosko R.W. Carr, Jr D.F. Evans J L Martins C. B. Carter A. Franciosi A.V. McCormick J.R. Chelikowsky L.F Francis R.A. Oriani E.L Cussler A.G. Fredrickson W.E Ranz J.S. Dahler C.J. Geankoplis L.D. Schmidt P. Daoutidis W.W. Gerberich L.E. Scriven W-S. Hu D.A. Shores F o r information and appli cation forms w rit e : MATERIALS SCIENCE PROGRAM GERBERICH I PHYSICAL METALLURGY I MECHANICAL METALLURGY OR/AN/ THERMODYNAMICS OF SOLIDS DIFFUSION AND KINETICS SHORES OR/AN/ CORROSION I I MATERIALS FAILURE WARD GERBERICH FRANCIOS/ WEAVER MICROELECTRONIC MATERIALS METAUSEMICONDUCTOR IN TERFACES THIN FILMS MAGNETIC MATERIALS CARTER S/LVERTSEN FRANCIS CHELIKOWSKY CERAMICS INTERFACIAL COHESION FRACTURE MICROMECHANICS GERBERICH CUSSLER I BIOMATERIALS I KELLER J.M. Sivertsen W.H. Smyrl F. Srienc M. Tirrell R. Tranquillo M.D. Ward J.H. Weaver H.S. White Graduate Adtnissions Chemical Engineering and Materials Science University of Minnesota 421 Washington Ave. S.E. Minneapolis, MN 55455 Fall 1992 269

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Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI-ROLLA M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS N. L. BOOK (Ph.D., Colorado} Computer Aided Process Design Bioconversion 0. K. CROSSER (Ph.D., Rice) Transport Properties Kinetics Catalysis D. FORCINITI (Ph.D., North Carolina State) Bioseparations Thermodynamics Statistical Mechanics J. W. JOHNSON (Ph.D. Missouri) Electrode Reactions Adsorption A. I. LIAPIS (Ph.D., ETH-Zurich) Adsorption Affinity Chromatography Perfusion Chromatography Transport Phenomena Lyophilization (Freeze Drying) D. B. MANLEY (Ph.D., Kansas) Thermodynamics Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium N. C. MOROSOFF (Ph.D., Brooklyn Polytech) Plasma Polymerization Membranes 2 70 P. NEOGI (Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon) lnterfacial and Transport Phenomena G. K. PATTERSON (Ph.D., Missouri-Roi/a) Mixing Polymer Rheology X B REED, JR. (Ph.D., Minnesota) Fluid Mechanics Drop and Particle Mechanics Transport Phenomena Turbulence Structure Turbulence Modeling including Reactions S. L. ROSEN (Ph.D., Cornell) Polymerization Reactions Applied Rheology Polymeric Materials 0. C. SITTON (Ph.D., Missouri-Rolla) Bioengineering R. C. WAGGONER (Ph.D., Texas A&M) Multistage Mass Transfer Operations Distillation Extraction Process Control R. M. YBARRA (Ph.D., Purdue) Rheology of Polymer Solutions Chemical Reaction Kinetics Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Gradu ate and Research Assistantships, and Indus trial Fellowships. Aid is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center. Contact Dr. X B Reed, Graduate Coordinator Chemical Engineering Department University of Missouri Rolla Rolla, Missouri 65401 Telephone (314) 341-4416 C h e m ic al En g ine e r i n g Edu c ation

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Fall 1992 GRADUATE STUDIES The Department of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry and Environmental Science offers excellent opportunities for interdisciplinary research and graduate studies, particularly in the areas of hazardous waste treatment, materials C H E M I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G science and biotechnology. Both master 's and doctoral degrees are offered in a growing program that has national and international research ties. R E S O U R C E S 20 000 square feet of modern laboratory and computing facilities Internationally respected faculty Major research facilities in hazardous substance management and microelectronics fabrication S U P P O R T Nearly $2 million in annual research suppo rt from state federal and industrial sponsors Graduate Cooperative Education Financial assistance programs F L E X I B I L I T Y Part-time or full-time Evening study Interdisciplinary research Diverse areas of specialization M.S. and Ph D. degrees New Jersey Institute of Technology For program information contact: Dr. Dana Knox Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering Chemistry and Environmental Science 201-596 -3599 For graduate admission information, call: 201-596-3460 o In NJ: 1-800-222-NJIT. New Jersey Institute of Technology University Heights, Newark NJ 07102 N JIT does not di sc rimin a te o n t h e b as i s of sex, race, hand icap n at i o n a l o r e thni c o ri g in or age in the ad mini stration of st ud e nt progra m s 271

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272 The University of New Mexico Research Areas Toxic and radioactive waste management Superconducting ceramics Microelectronics processing Heterogeneous catalysis Laser-enhanced CVD Sol-gel and colloidal processing of ceramics Biomedical engineering Plasma science Surface science Aerosol physics Materials characterization Uncertainty and risk assessment Faculty Harold Anderson C. Jeffrey Brinker Abhaya K. Datye David Kauffman Toivo T. Kodas Richard W. Mead H Eric Nuttall Douglas M Smith Ebtisam S. Wilkins The University of New Mexico along with Sandia and Los Alamos National Labora tories, and local industry, make Albuquerque a major scientific and research center. The chemical engineering department houses the NSF-supported Center for Micro Engineered Ceramics and the DOE sponsored Waste Management Education and Research Consortium. Faculty participate in the SEMATECH Center of excellence in semiconductor research, The Center for High Technology Materials, and the Insti tute for Space Nuclear Power Studies. The Chemical Engineering Department offers financial aid in the form of research assistantships paying $10-15,000 per year, plus tuition. Outstanding students may apply for UNM/National Laboratory fellowships that start at $15,000/year and in volve cooperative research at the national laboratories. Albuquerque's southwestern climate and rugged mountainous terrain provide plenty of opportunities for outdoor recreation such as skiing, hiking, and whitewater rafting. For more information, write to: Douglas M. Smith, Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering The University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM 87131-1341 Ch e mi c al En gi n ee rin g Education

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NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Box 7905 North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905 The Department as a whole has developed a concentration in four broad areas: biochemical engineering environmental research, microelectronics processing and polymer science and engi neering Research in each of these areas is characterized by a strong collaborat i on between departmental faculty, faculty and students from other departments and universities and frequently industrial research groups This diversity affords students a range of research opportunities, from fundamental to applied The particular areas of research interests of the faculty are list ed below. FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS Ruben G. Carbonell ( Princeton i Peter S. Fedkiw ( Berkeley ) Multi-Phase Transport Phenomena ; Bioseparations; Colloid and Surface Science Electrochemical Engineering Richard M. Felder ( Princeton ) Computer-Aided Manufacturing of Specialty Chemicals; Process Simulation and James K. Ferrell ( NC State) Benny D. Freeman ( Berkeley) Christine S. Grant ( Georgia Tech ) Carol K. Hall ( Stony Brook ) Optimization Waste Minimization; Heat Transfer; Process Control Polymer Physical Chemistry Surface Science; Electrokinetic Separations Statistical Thermodynamics; Bioseparations ; Semiconductor Interfaces Harold B. Hopfenberg ( MIT ) Tran sport and Aging in Glassy Polymers; Controlled Release; M e mbranes; Barri e r Robert M. Kelly ( NC State) Peter K. Kilpatrick ( Minnesota} H. HeI_lrY Lamb ( Delaware) P. K. Lim (Illinois ) David F. Ollis ( Stanford ) Michael R. Overcash ( Minnesota ) Gregory N. Parsons ( N C. State Physics ) Packaging Microorganisms and B iocatalysis at Elevated Temperatures Interfacial and Surfactant Science; Bios eparations Heterogeneous Catalysis ; Microelectronics; Surface Science Interfacial Phenomena; Homogeneous Catalysis ; Free Radical Chemistry Bio chemical Engineerin g ; Heterogeneous Photocatalysis Improving Manufacturing Productivity by Waste Reduction ; En v ironmental Electronic Materials; Flat Panel Displays Steven W. Peretti ( Caltech ) Genetic and Metabolic Engineering; Microbial, Plant and Animal Cell Culture Geort?e W. Roberts, Head H eterogeneous Catalysis; Reaction Kinetics and Engineering ( MIT ) C. John Setzer, Assoc. HeadPlant and Process Economics and Management ( Ohio State ) Vivian T. Stannett Pure and Applied Polymer Science ( Brooklyn Poly ) Inquiries to: Professor Peter K. Kilpatrick Director of Graduate Studies, (919) 737-7121 Fall 1992 27 3

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Chemical Engineering at Northwestern University S. George Bankoff Ph.D ., Purdue 1955 T wo-p ha se h eat transfer, fluid mechanics Wesley R. Burghardt Ph.D ., Stanford, 1990 P olyme r sc i e n ce, rh eo l og y John B. Butt D.Eng ., Yale, 1960 Chemical reaction enginee r ing Stephen H. Carr Ph.D Ca se Western R eserve 1970 Solid state properties of polymers Buckle y Crist, Jr. Ph D ., Duk e, 1966 P o l y m e r science Joshua S. Dranoff Ph.D Princeton 1960 Chemical reaction engineering, c h romatographic se paration s Thomas K. Goldstick Ph.D. Berk e l ey, 1966 Bi omedical engineering oxygen transport in the human body Harold H. Kung Ph.D ., Northwestern 1974 Kinetics, heterogeneous catalysis Richard S. H. Mah Ph D ., London 1961 Computer-aided process planning, design and analysis William M. Miller Ph D ., Berk e le y, 1987 Bi ochemical engineering Lyle F. Mockros Ph.D B erkeley, 196 2 Bi omedical engineering fluid mechanics in biological systems Julio M. Ottino Ph D ., Minne sota, 1979 Fluid me cha ni cs, chaos, mixing in materials processing E. Terry Papoutsakis Ph D ., Purdue 1980 Bio chemical engineering Mark A. Petrich Ph.D ., Berk e l ey, 1987 Environmental enginee rin g, electronic materials solid sta t e NMR Gregory Ryskin Ph.D. Caltech, 1983 Fluid mechanics, computational methods, polymeric liquids Wolfgang M. H. Sachtler Dr. rer.nat., Braun sc hw eig 1952 H eterogeneous catalysis John M. Torkelson Ph D ., Minne so t a, 1983 P olymer science, membranes 274 For information and application to the graduate program, write D irector of Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science Northwestern University Evanston Illinois 60208-3120 Chemical Engineering Education

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Chemical Engineering at Notre Dame The University of Notre Dame offers programs of gradu ate study leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Chemical Engineering. The require ments for the master's degree are normally completed in sixteen to twenty-four months. The doctoral program re quires about four years of full-time study beyond the bachelor's degree. These programs can usually be tailored to accommodate students whose undergraduate degrees are in areas of science or engineering other than chemical engineering. Financially attractive fellowships and assistantships, which include a full tuition waiver, are available to stu d ents pu rsuing either program. For further information ~ write t o : F ACULTY J. T. Banchero J. F. Brennecke J. J. Carberry H. -C. Chang D. A. Hill J.C. Kantor J.P. Kohn D. T. Leighton, Jr. M. J. McCready R. A. Schmitz W. C. Strie d er A. Varma E. E. Wolf RE S EA R CH A R EA S Advanced Ceramic Materials Artificial Intelligence Catalysis and Surface Science Chemical Reaction Engineering Gas-Liquid Flows Nonlinear Dynamics Phase Equilibria Polymer Science Process Dynamics and Control Statistical Mechanics Supercritical Fluids Suspension Rheology Thermodynamics and Separations Transport Phenomena Dr. D T. Leighton, Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 Fall 1992 275

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T H E OHIO UNIVERSITY Cutting Edge Research Excellent Opportunities for Personal and Professional Growth Close Relationships Between Graduate Students and Faculty 276 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING If yo u ar e co n s id e rin g gra du a t e s ch oo l h e r e are fo ur goo d r easo n s to emoll in c h e m ica l e n g in ee rin g a t Ohi o St a t e: Excellent facilitie s and a unique combination of re s earch projects at the frontier s of s cience and technology. Out s tanding faculty and s tudent body who are both dedicat e d and profes s ional. Attractive campu s only minute s awa y from newly-revitali z ed downtown Columbu s Financial s upport ranging from $12 000 to $16 000 annuall y, plus tuition. Fo r co mpl e t e in for m a ti o n o n o ur p rogra m s, p o t e nti a l th es i s to pi cs, and de g r ee re quir e m e nt s wri te o r ca ll co ll ec t: Pro fesso r Ja c qu es L. Z aki n Ch a irp e r s on D e p ar tm e nt of C h e mi ca l E n g in eer in g, Th e Ohi o S tate Uni ve r si t y, 1 4 0 W 1 9t h Ave nu e, Co lumbu s, O hi o 432 10 11 80, (6 1 4) 292-6986. Robert S. Brodkey, Wisconsin 1952 Turbu l ence Mixing Image Analys i s Reactor Design and Rheology Jeffrey J. Chalmers, Cornell 1988 Biochemical Engineering Protein Excretion and Production and Immobilized Cell Reactor Design James F Davis, Northwestern 1981 Artificial Intelligence Process Control and Computer Aided Design L. S. Fan, West Virginia 1975 Fluidization Powder Technology Multiphase and Particulates Reaction Engineering and Mathematical Modeling Morton H. Friedman, Michigan 1961 B i omedical Engineering and Hemodynamics Harry C. Hershey, Missouri-Rolla 1965 Thermodynamics and Drag Reduction Kurt W. Koelling, Princeton 1992 Polymer Processing Liquid Crystalline Poly mers Biodegradable Polymers Polymer Rheology and Morphology L. James Lee, Minnesota 1979 Polymer Processing Polymerization and Rheology Won-Kyoo Lee, Missouri Columbia 1972 Process Control Computer Control and Computer-Aided Design Umit S. Ozkan, Iowa State 1984 Application of Heterogeneous Catalysis to Energy and Environmental Issues Catalyt i c Materials and Heterogeneous Kinetics James F. Rathman Oklahoma 1987 lnterfacial Phenomena Surfactant Science Rheology of Surfactant Systems David L. Tomasko, Illinois 1992 Intermolecular Interact i ons i n Supercritical Fluids Supercritical Fluid Extraction Shang-Tian Yang Purdue 1984 Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology Fermentation Processes and Kinetics Jacques L. Zakin, New York 1959 Surfactant and Polymer Drag Reduction Rheology and Emulsions The Ohio State University is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution. Chemical Engineering Education

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Ohio Univ e rsity Chemical Enginee ri n g Graduate Programs The Department of Chemical En g ineering offers programs leading to both the M S and Ph D. degree s. The department ls located in the Stocker Engineering Center, which recently (1985) underwent extensive modernization and now contains some of the finest state-of-the-art equipment available. The department's activities are enhanced by the Stocker endowment which was made possible by the generosity of Dr. C Paul and Beth K. Stocker and which has now grown to over $14 million. The Interest on this endow ment ls used to help support research efforts in su c h w a ys as providing competitive graduate fellowships and assoclateshlps, matching equipment funds, and seed money for new project areas Research Areas Multiphase Flow and Associated Corrosion Coal Conversion Technology and Desulfurization Aerosol Science and T e chnology Process Control Transport Processes and Modelling Separations Energy and Environmental Engineering Thin Film Materials Metallic Corrosion Chemical Reaction Engineering Wastewater Treatment Bloreactor Analysis Downstream Processing of Proteins Financial Aid Financial support includes teaching and grant related assoclateships and fellowships ranging from $10,000 to $15,000 per twelve months In addition, students are granted a full tuition scholarship for both the regular and summer academic terms Stocker Fellowships are available to especially well-qualifi e d students The Faculty William D. Baasel, P E (Ph.D Cornell 1962) Calvin H. Baloun, P.E. (Ph.D ., Cincinnati 1962) W J. Russell Chen (Ph D., Syracuse 1974) Nicholas Dinos (Ph.D., Lehigh. 1967) Tingyue Gu (Ph.D. Purdue, 1991) Daniel A. Gulino (Ph.D., Illinois, 1983) W. Paul Jepson, Chair (Ph.D., Heriot-Watt, 1980) H Benne Kendall, P.E., Emeritus (Ph.D. Case Institute oJTechnolngy, 1956) Michael E Prudich (Ph.D West Virginia, 1979) Darin Ridgway, P.E (Ph.D ., Florida State 1990) Kendree J. Sampson (Ph.D. Purdue, 1981) Robert L Savage, P.E., Emeritus (Ph.D., Case Institute of Technology, 1948) Ohio Uni1Jersity is an a_[Jlnnati1Je action institution. For More Information: Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemical Engineering, 172 Stocker Center Ohio University, Athens OH 45701-2979 44 27 92

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University Oklahoma GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND MATERIALS SCIENCE You want unlimited opportunities & the good life. We offer innovation at the forefront of a rewarding profession. We could have a very good working relationship. Let's talk about it. $: Call us: (405) 325-5811 Fax us: (405) 325-5813 Or write: Chairman, Graduate Program Committee School of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science The University of Oklahoma 1 00 E. Boyd, Room T-335 Norman Oklahoma 73019-0628 The University of Oklahoma is an Equal Opportunity lnstMon CEMS Faculty & Their Research Interests Billy L Crynes, Professor; Dean, College of Engineering. Chemical Engineering: Modeling of hydrocarbon pyrolysis Surface effects during pyrolysis of hydrocarbons Raymond D. Daniels, Professor. Metallurgical Engineering: physical metallurgy gases in metals corrosion metal fracture Roger G. Harrison, Jr., Associate Professor. Chemical Engineering: production of proteins and peptides using recombinant DNA technology separation and purification of biochemicals enzyme reactors protein engineer ing drug delivery systems applications of biotech nology to waste treatment Jeffrey H. Harwell, Professor and Director. Chemical Engineer ing : tertiary oil recovery unconventional low energy separation processes mass transfer dynamics of multicomponent mass transfer processes surface phenomena adsorption kinetics Lloyd L. Lee, Professor. Chemical Engineering : thermodynamics molecular transport theory statistical mechanics structured liquids Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics studies conformal solution theory natural gas properties polar fluids, ionic solutions and molten salts surface adsorption turbulent flow polymer processing spinning, extrusion and coating Lance L Lobban, Assistant Professor. Chemical Engineering : catalytic reaction rate mechanisms and modeling partial oxidation of hydrocarbons synthesis of refractory powders Richard G. Mallinson, Associate Professor. Chemical Engineering : chemical, catalytic and biomedical rate processes synthetic fuels Matthias U. Noller~ Assistant Professor. Chemical Engineering : viscous flow computational fluid mechanics suspension rheology mammalian cell physiology endothelliumJtilood interactions thrombosis and fibrinolysis hematopoiesis Edgar A. O'Rear, Ill, Professor. Chemical Engineering : catalysis surface chemistry and physics kinetics blood trauma associated with medical devices biorheology organic chemistry coal technology John F. Scamehorn, George Lynn Cross Research Professor. Chemical Engineering: surface and colloid science tertiary oil recovery detergency membrane separations adsorption pollution control polymers Robert LShambaugh, Associate Professor. Chemical Engineer ing : polymerization chemistry polymer processing technology fber spinning, texturing and extrusion wastewater engineering physicochemical treatment biological treatment ozonation gas-liquid reactions Kenneth E. Starling, George Lynn Cross Research Professor. Chemical Engineering: equation of state development and prediction of thermodynamic and phase behavior equilib rium and non-equilibrium molecular theory of fluids correla tion of transport properties process simulation low temperature difference cycles geothermal, ocean thermal, solar and wastewater heat energy conversion

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Oklahoma State University "Where People Are Important" Faculty Kenneth J Bell (Ph.D., University of Delaware) OSU's School of Chemical Engineering offers programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Qualified students receive financial assistance at nationally competitive levels. Gary L. Foutch (Ph.D. University of Missouri-Rolla) K.A.M. Gasem (Ph.D Oklahoma State University) Martin S. High (Ph.D. Pennsylvania State University) A.J. Johannes (Ph.D ., University of Kentucky) Robert L. Robinson, Jr. (Ph.D ., Oklahoma State University) D Alan Tree (Ph.D., University of Illinois) Jan Wagner (Ph.D., University of Kansas) James R. Whiteley (Ph.D., Ohio State University) Research Areas Adsorption Air Pollut i on Biochemical Processes Corrosion Design Fluid Flow Gas Processing Ground Water Quality Hazardous Wastes Heat Transfer Ion Exchange Kinetics and Catalysis Mass Transfer Modeling For more information contact Graduate Coordinator Fall 1992 Phase Equilibria Polymers Process Simulation Thermodynamics School of Chemical Engineering Oklahoma State University Stillwater OK 74078 279

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OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY Chem i ca l E ng i neer i ng M.S. and Ph.D. Program s Our programs reflect not only traditional chemical engineering fields but also new tech nologies important to the Northwest's industries, such as electronic material processing, forest products, food science, and ocean products. Oregon State is located only a short drive from the Pacific Ocean, white-water rivers and hiking I skiing I climbing in the Cascade Mountains FACULTY W. J. Frederick T.M Grace Chemical Recovery Technology ( Pump and Paper ), Combustion Chemical Recovery Technology 280 M K. Iisa G N. Jovanovic S. Kim ur a J G. Kn ud sen M D Koretsky 0 Levens pi el K L. Levien J.McGuire G. L. Ro r rer R. D. Spro u ll J.D. Way C. E. Wicks . Combustion, Waste Minimization Fine Particle Processing Transport Phenomena Reaction Engineering, High Temperature Material s Heat Transfer Electronic Materials Processing Fluidization Chemical Reaction Engineering Proce ss Optimization and Control Protein Adsorption, Biofilm Development Biochemical Reaction Engineering Biochemical and Environmental Engineering Membrane Based Separation Proce sses Mas s Tran sfer Co-rnpet it i v e res e arch and t each i n g as sis tan t sh i ps ar e ava i lab le. For further information, write: Chemical Engineering Department Oregon State University Gleeson Hall, Room 103 Corvallis, Oregon 97331-2702 Chemical Engineering Education

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University of Pennsylvania Chemical Engineering Stuart W. Churchill Combustion th e rm oacoustic convection Czac hral ski crystalliza ti on rate pr ocesses Russell J. Composto P olyme ri c mat erials sc i ence, surfa c e and in t erface s tudi es Gregory C. Farr in gton Electrochemistry, so lid state and polymer c h emis t ry William C. Forsman P olyme r scie n ce and e n g in ee rin g, g raphit e int e r ca l at i o n Eduardo D. Gla nd t Classical and s tati s ti ca l th e rm ody nami cs random m ed i a Raymond J. Gorte H eterogeneo u s ca tal ys i s, s urfa ce science z eolites David J. Graves Bi oc h em i ca l and b iome di ca l eng in ee rin g, bio separa tion s Mitchell Litt Bi o rh eo l ogy, transport processes in biological sys t e m s biomedi ca l e n g in ee rin g Alan L. Myers Adsorption of gases and liquid s, m olecu lar s imulati o n s Daniel D. Perlmutter C h emica l reactor design, gas-so lid reactions ge l kinetics John A. Quinn M emb ran e tran spo rt biochemical/biomedical e n gi n ee rin g Warren D. Seider Pro cess analysis, s imulation design, a nd co ntr ol Lyle H. Ungar Artificial int e lli ge n ce in pr ocess contro l neural networks T. Kyle Vanderlick Thin-film an d interfacial ph enome na John M. Vohs Surface science and h e t erogeneo u s c ata l ys i s Paul B. Weisz M o l ec ular se le ctivity i n c h e mi ca l and lif e processes Pennsylvania's chemical engineering program is designed to be flexible while emphasizing the fundamental nature of chemical and physical pro cesse s. Students may focus their studies in an y of the research areas of the department. The full resources of this Ivy League university including the Wharton School of Business and one of this country's foremost medical centers, are available to students in the program The c ultural advantages historical assets, and recreational facilities of a great city are within walk ing distance of the University Fall 1992 For additional information write: Director of Graduate Admissions Dep artment of Chemical Engineering 311A Towne Building University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6393 28 1

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PENN STATE ~---==.:=-=;....==-==----------------------Individuals holding the B S in chemistry or other related areas are encouraged to apply 282 For more information, contact Chairman Graduate Admissions Committee The Pennsylvania State University Department of Chemical Engineering 158 Fenske Laboratory University Park PA 16802 Paul Barton (Penn State) Separational Processes Ali Borhan (Stanford) Fluid Dynamics Transport Phenomena Alfred Carlson (Wisconsin) Biotechnology Bioseparations Lance R. Collins (Penn) Turbulent Flow Combustion Wayne Curtis (Purdue) Plant Biotechnology Ronald P. Danner (Lehigh) Applied Thermodynamics Adsorption Phenomena Thomas E. Daubert (Penn State) Applied Thermodynamics J. Larry Duda (Delaware) Polymers Diffusion Tribology Fluid Mechanics Rheology John A. Frangos (Rice) Biomedical Engineering, Biotechnology Kristen Fichthorn (Michigan) Statistical Mechanics, Surface Science Catalysis William P. Hegarty (Michigan) Plant Design Arthur E. Humphrey (Columbia) Biotechnology John R. McWhirter (Penn State) Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer Microencapsulation R. Nagarajan (SUNY Buffalo) Colloid and Polymer Science Jonathan Phillips (Wisconsin) Heterogeneous Catalysis Surface Science John M. Tarbell (Delaware) Cardiovascular Fluid Mechanics and Mass Transfer, Turbulent Reacting Flows James S. Ultman (Delaware) Mass Transport in the Human Lung Intensive Care Monitoring M. Albert Vannice (Stanford) Heterogeneous Catalysis James S. Vrentas (Delaware) Transport Phenomena Applied Mathematics Polymer Science C h emical Engineering Education

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DEGREE PROGRAMS Wh t PhD and MS in Chemical Engineering a MS in Petroleum Engineering MS in Bioengineering IS chemical eng1neer1ng at Pitt? For a mo r e detailed answer and i nformation about fellowships a n d applications, wr i te or c all the A short answer: Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering 1249 Benedum Hall University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh.PA 1526 1 412-624-9630 applied enzymology biochemical engineering biotechnology chemistry of fossil fuels coal science colloidal suspensions combustion flow through porous media 1 heterogeneous catalysis kinetics microemulsions molecular thermodynamics organometallic chemistry petroleum engineering phase equilibria polymers process design protein engineering reaction engineering recycling technology separation science solids processing superacids supercritical fluids surface chemistry transport phenomena FACULTY ___ ____ Mohammad M Ataai Robert M Enick E ric J Beckman Dan Farcasiu Donna G Blackmond Jame s G Goodwin, Jr. Alan J. Brainard Gerald D Ho lder Edward Cape George E Klinzing Shiao Hung Chiang George Marcelin Jame s T Cobb, Jr Bad i e I. Mors i Alan A. R eznik Alan J. Russell JeromeS Schultz Sindee Simon John W.Tiemey William Wagner Irving Wender JosephYerulshami University of Pittsburgh The University of Pittsburgh is an affirmative action equal opportunity institution

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Cllemical Engineering Graduate Studies at Polytechnic University .. ... ~ uild your __ ridge to a er future Come to New York City's Polytechnic University, where a dynamic research-oriented faculty carries on a tradition of excellence and innovation in Chemical Engineering. Faculty RC Ackerberg Fluid mechanics, Applied mathematics RJ Farrell Process control and simulation CD Han Rheology Polymer processing TK Kwei Polymer-polymer miscibility Phase relationships in polymers JS Mijovic Polymer morphology Fracture properties of polymers AS Myerson Crystallization Mass transfer EM Pearce Polymer synthesis and degradation LI Stiel Thermodynamics Proper ties of polar fluids EN Ziegier Kinetics and reactor design Air pollution control WP Zurawsky Plasma polymerization polymer adhesion For more informa t ion con t act : Professor A.S Myerson Head Dept. of Chemical Engineering Polytechnic Un i ve r s it y 333 Jay Street Brooklyn NY 1 1 201 (718) 260-3620

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faculty L.F. Albright,fmeritus R.P. Andres J.M. Caruthers K.C. Chao W.N. Delgass F.J. Doyle R.E. Eckert A.H. Emery E.I. Franses R.A. Greenkorn H.L. Hampsch R.E. Hannemann R.N. Houze D.P. Kessler J.F. Pekny N.A. Peppas D. Ramkrishna G.V. Reklaitis R.G. Squires C.G. Takoudis J. Talbot G.T. Tsao Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Purdue University ~czsczarch firczas Applied Mathematics Materials and Microelectronics Processing Artificial Intelligence Parallel Computing and Combinatorics Biochemical Engineering Polymer Science and Engineering V. Venkatasubramanian N.H.L. Wang Biomedical Engineering Process Control Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Separation Processes Colloids and lnterfacial Engineering Surface Science and Engineering P.C. Wankat J.M. Wiest Process Operations and Design Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics Environmental Science Transport Phenomena Degrees Offered Master of Science Doctor of Philosophy financial Assistance Fellowships Research Assistantships Teaching Assistantships Purdue Is an Equal Access/Equal Opportunity University for more information about our graduate studies program please contact: Graduate Studies Purdue University 1283 Chemical Engineering Building West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-1283 Phone: (317) 494-4057

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Postgraduate Study in Chemical Engineering Scholarships Available R eturn Ailfare I ncluded Staff P.R. B e ll (New South Wales ) I. T. Cameron (Imperial College) C. A. Crosthwaite (Queens land ) D. D. Do (Q u eens land ) R U. Edgehill (Co rnell ) P. F. Greenfield (New South Wale s) M. R. John s (Massey) P. L. Lee (Monash) A. A. Krol (Queens land ) J. D. Litster (Q u ee n s l and) M. E. Mackay ( Illinoi s) D A. Mitchell ( Queensland) R B Newell (A lberta ) D J Nicklin (Cambridge) S. Reid (Griffith) V. Rud olph (Natal) B R. Stanmore ( Manche s ter ) E T. White (Imperial College) R. J Wile s (Queens l and) Adjunct Staff D Barnes (Birming ham ) J. M. Bur gess (E dinburgh ) W.W Eckenfelder ( Manhattan ) J E. Hendry (Wisconsin) G W. P ace (MIT) D. H. Rand erson (New South Wale s) The Department The Departm e nt occupies its own building i s well s upported b y research grants, and maintains a n extensive ra n ge of researc h eq uipment. It h as a n active postgraduate programme, which involves course wo rk and research wo rk leading to Masters degree s and PhD degrees. For further information write to: Research Areas Catalysis Fluidization Systems Ana l ysis Computer Control Applied Mathematic s Transport Phenomena Crystallization Polymer Processing Rheology Chemical R eac tor Analysis Enviro nm enta l System s Modeling Process Simulation Fermentation Sy s tem s Tissue Culture Enzyme Engineering Environmental Control Process Economics Mineral Processing Adsorption Energy Re so urce Studie s Membrane Proces ses Oil Shale Proce ss ing Hybridoma Technology Water and Wa s tewater Numerical Ana l ysis Treatment Lar ge Scale Particle Mechanic s Chromatography The University and the City The University is on e of the lar gest in Australia with more than 22,000 s tudents. Bri sbane, with a population of a bou t one million enjoys a pleasant climate and attractive coasts whic h exte nd northward into the Great Barrier R eef Co-or dinator of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Queensland Brisbane Qld 4072 A u st ralia.

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Rensselaer Ph.D. and M.S. Programs in Chemical Engineering Advanced Study and Research Areas a Advanced materials a Air pollution control a Biochemical engineering a Bioseparations a Fluid-particle systems a Heat transfer a High temperature kinetics a Interfacial phenomena a Microelectronics manufacturing a Multiphase flow a Polymer reaction engineering a Process control and design a Separation engineering a Simultaneous diffusion and chemical reaction a Thermodynamics a Transport Processes For full details write --D epartment Head D epartment of Chemical Engineering Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, New York 12180-3590 Fall 1992 The Faculty Michael M. Abbott Ph.D., Rensselaer Elmar R. Atwicker Ph.D., Ohio State Georges Belfort Ph.D., California-Irvine B. Wayne Bequette Ph.D., Texas-Austin Henry R. Bungay, III Ph.D., Syracuse Chan I. Chung Ph.D., Rutgers Steven M. Cramer Ph.D., Yale Arthur Fontijn D.Sc., Amsterdam William N. Gill Ph.D., Syracuse Martin E. Glicksman Ph.D., Rensselaer Richard T. Lahey, Jr. Ph.D., Stanford Howard Littman Ph.D., Yale Morris H. Morgan, III Ph.D., Rensselaer Charles Muckenfuss Ph.D., Wisconsin E. Bruce Nauman Ph.D., Leeds Joel L. Plawsky D.Sc., M.I. T. Todd M. Przybycien Ph.D., Cal. Tech Sanford S. Sternstein Ph.D., Rensselaer Hendrick C. Van Ness D.Eng., Yale Peter C Wayner, Jr. Ph.D., Northwestern Robert H. Wentorf, Jr. Ph.D., Wisconsin 287

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Rice University Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Applications and Inquiries Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering PO Box 1892 The Univers i t y Privately endowed coeducational school 2600 undergraduate students 1300 graduate students Quiet and beautiful 300-acre tree-shaded campus 3 miles from downtown Houston Architecturally uniform and aesthetic campus The City Large metropolitan and cultural center Petrochemical capital of the world Industrial collaboration and job opportunities World renowned research and treatment medical center Professional sports Close to recreational areas Rice University Houston TX 77251 The Department M.ChE., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees Approximately 65 graduate students (predominantly Ph.D. ) Stipends and Tuition waivers for full-time students Special fellowships with high stipends for outstanding candidates Faculty William W. Akers (Michigan, 1950) Constantine D. Armeniades (Case Western Reserve, 1969) Walter Chapman (Cornell, 1988) Sam H. Davis, Jr (MIT, 1957) Derek C Dyson (London, 1966) J. D avi d Hell u ms (Michigan, 1961) Joe W. Hightower (Johns Hopkins, 1963) Riki Kobayashi (Michigan, 1951) Larry V. McIntire (Princeton, 1970) Antonios G. Mikos (Purdue, 1988) Clarence A. M il ler (Minnesota, 1969) Mark A. Robert (Swiss Fed. Inst. of Technology, 1980) Ka-Yiu San (CalTech, 1984) Jacqueline Shanks (CalTech, 1989) Kyriacos Zygourakis (Minnesota, 1981) 288 Research Interests Applied Mathematics Biochemical Engineering Biome d ical Engineering Equilibrium Thermodynamic Properties Fluid Mechanics Interfacial Phenomena Kinetics and Catalysis Polymer Science Process Control Reaction Engineering Rheology Statistical Mechanics Transport Processes Transport Properties Chemical Engin ee ring Education

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Chemical Engineering at the UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER JOIN US Graduat e S t udy and Research le ading t o M S and Ph.D. degrees Fellowships to $14 500 For further information and application, write Professor Harvey J. Palmer, Chair Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rochester Rochester, New York 14627 Phone: (716) 275-4042 Fax: (716) 442 6686 Faculty and Research Areas S H. C HEN Ph.D. 1981, Minnesota Polymer Science and Engineering, Transport Phenomena, Optical Materials E H CHIMOWITZ Ph.D. 1982, Connecticut Critical Phenomena, Statistical Mechanics of Fluids, and Computer-Aided Design M R. FEINBERG Ph.D. 1968, Princeton Complex Reaction Systems, Optimal Reactor Design, Applied Mathematics J. R. FERRON Ph.D. 1958, Wisconsin Transport Processes, Applied Mathematics J .C FRIEDLY Ph.D. 1965, California (Berkeley) Process Dynamics, Control, Heat Transfer R. H. HEIST Ph.D. 1972, Purdue Nucleation, Aerosols, Ultrafine Particles S. A. JENEKHE, Ph.D. 1985, Minnesota Polymer Science and Engineering, Materials Chemistry, Electronic and Optical Materials Fall 1992 J. JORNE Ph D. 1972, California ( B erkeley) Electrochemical Engineering, Microelectronics Processing, Theoretical Biology R H. NOTTER Ph.D. 1969, Washington (Seattle) M.D. 1980, Rochester Biomedical Engineering, Lung Surfactant, Molecular Biophysics H.J. PALMER, Ph.D. 1971, Washi n gton (Seattle) lnterfacial Phenomena, Phase Transfer Reactions, Mass Transfe r B ioengineering H. SALTSBURG Ph D. 1955, Boston Surface Phenomena, Catalysis S. V SOTIRCHOS P h.D. 1 9 82, Ho u ston Reaction Engineering, Gas-Solid Reactions, Processing of Ceramic Materials J. H. D. WU P h D. 1987, M.I.T. Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation Biocatalysis, Genetic and Tissue Engineering 289

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RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY M.S. and Ph.D. PROGRAMS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL & BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AREAS OF TEACHING AND RESEARCH CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS e THERMODYNAMICS e TRANSPORT PHENOMENA e KINETICS AND CATA L YSIS e CON T RO L T HEORY e COMPUTERS AND OPTIMIZATION e POLYMERS AND SURFACE CHEMIS T R Y e S EMIPERMEAB LE A N D LI QUID MEMBRANES e CHAOTIC FLOWS AND DISORDERED SYSTEMS e INTERFACIAL ENGINE E RING BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEER/NG FUNDAMENTALS e MICROBIAL REACTIONS AND PRODUCTS e SOLUBLE AND IMMOBILIZED BIOCATALYSIS e BIOMATERIALS e ENZYME AND FERMENTATION REACTORS e HYBRIDOMA PLANT AND INSEC T C EL L CULTURES e I NTERDISCIPLINARY BIOTECHNOLOGY e CELLULAR BIOENGINEERING e BIOSEPARATIONS ENGINEERING APPL/CATIONS e BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY e CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY e MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WAS TE S 2 90 DO W NST REA M P ROCESSING FOOD PROCESS I NG GE N ETIC ENG I NEER ING P R OTE I N ENGI N EE R ING IMMUNO T E C HNOL OGY EXPE R T SYSTEMS/ Al ELECTROCHEM I CAL ENGINEERING STAT I STICAL THE RM ODY NAM ICS TR AN S POR T AND RE A C TI ON IN M UL T IPHA SE SYST EM S HAZARDOUS & TOXIC WASTE TREATMENT WASTEWATER RECOVERY AND REUSE INCINERAT I ON & R ESOURCE RECOVERY MICROBIAL DETOX I FICATION SO UR CE C ONTR OL AND RECYCLING FELLOWSHIPS AND ASSISTANTSHIPS ARE AVAILABLE For Application Forms and Further Information Write Phone or FAX to D irector of Gra du ate Program D e p artment of Chemical an d Bioc h emical Engineering R u tgers, The State University of New Jersey P O Box 909 P iscataway, NJ 0 8855-0909 P h one (908) 9 322 228 or FAX (908) 932-5313 Chemical Enginee r ing Education

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The Universityof South Carolina Ge t to the Point! Graduate Studies in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING The University of South Carolina, with its main campus in Columbia, is a comprehensive research university. The new and innovative John E. Swearingen Center houses the College of Engineering and serves as a focal point for much of the research in one of the fastest growing areas in the country. Research Areas Cataly sis Compo site Materials Corro sio n Electrochemistry Multiphase Flow Pha se Equilibria Faculty M. W. Davis Jr. (E rner. ) A. E. Farell F. A. Gadala-Maria J H Gibbons E L. Hanzevack, Jr. E J Markel Polymeri za tion Control Proce ss Control Rheology Solvent Extraction Supercritical Fluids F. P. Pike (E rner.) R L. Smith, Jr. T G Stanford Y Yan Brunt J. W Yan Zee J W Weidner For further information contact: Professor J. H. Gibbo n s Chairman, Chemical Engineering Swearingen Engineering Center The University of South Carolina Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (803) 777-4181

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Faculty J A Biesenberger (PhD Princeton University) G.B Delancey (PhD University of P i tsburgh) C. G Gogos (PhD Pr i nce t on Univers i ty) D M. Kalyon (PhD McGill Un i versity) S. Kovenklioglu (PhD Stevens Institute of Technology) S. Rivera (PhD Colorado State University) D H Sebastian (PhD Stevens Insti t ute of Technology ) H Silla Head (PhD Stevens Inst i tute of Technology ) Research in Separation Processes Biochemical Reaction Engineering Polymer Reaction Engineering Polymer Rheology and Processing Polymer Character i zation Catalysis Wastewater Treatment Process Design and Development Process Control and Identification 292 STEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Multidisciplinary department cons i st i ng o f chemical and polymer eng i neering chem i stry and biology Beautiful campus on the Hudson R i ve r overlooking metropolitan New Yo r k C ity Close to the world s center of sc i ence and culture At the hub of major highways a i r rail and bus lines At the center of the country's largest concentrat i on of research laborator i es and chemical petroleum pharmaceutical and b i otechnology companies Well equipped analyt i cal laborator i es mach i ne and electronic shops One of the leaders in polymer engineering comput i ng GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Full and part-time Day and evening programs MASTERS CHEMICAL ENGINEER PH.D. For application c ontact : Office of Graduate Studi es Stev e ns Institut e of Te c hnology Hoboken,NJ 07030 201-216-5546 F or additional i nformat i on contact: D e partm e nt of Chemistry and Chemical En gi n eer in g St evens In s titut e of T ec hnology Hobok en,N J 070 3 0 201-216-5546 ( Financial Aid is Available to qualified students ) S t e v e n s I ns t it u te o f Tec hnol ogy d oes n o t d i sc rim i n a t e aga i nst any perso n b ecause of r ace creed, co l or, na ti o n a l origi n sex, age m ari t a l s t atus, h a nd icap, liabi lit y fo r se r v i ce i n t h e a rm ed fo r ces o r sta tu s as a disa bl ed or V i et n a m e r a vete r an Chemical Engin ee ring Education

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Chemical Engineering at Texas Research Interests Aerosol Phy s ic s & Chemistry Aqueous Mass Transfer Barrier Pa ckagi n g Bi oc hemical & Biomedi ca l Eng ine ering Bi omateria l s Bi ose n sors Catalysis Chemical Engineering Ed u cat ion Chemical Reaction Kinetics Chemical Vapor Deposition Colloid & Surface Science Combustion Crystal Structure & Properties Crystallization Di sti ll at ion Electrochemistry Electronic and Optic a l Materials Research Interests (cont'd) E nh a n ce d Oil R ecovery Expert Systems Fault Detection & Di agnosis Flow of Suspensions Fluid Mechanic s Heat Transfer Laser Processing Liquid Crystalline Polymers Materials Science Membrane Science Microelectronics Pro cessing Optimization Plasma Pro cessing Polymer Bl ends Polymer Pro cessing Polymer Thermodynamics Process Dynamics & Control Proc ess Modelin g & Simulation Protein & Fermentation Engineering Re actio n Injection Moldin g Separation Processes Stack Gas Desulfurization Statistical Therm odynamics Superconductivity Supercritical Fluid Science Surface Science Thermodynami cs Inquiries should be sent to: Graduate Advisor Department of Cherrucal Engmeenng The University of Texas Austin, T exas 78712 (5 12 ) 471-6991 Fall 1992 Faculty Joel W. Barlow Wisconsin Roger T. Bonnecaze Caltech James R. Brock Wisconsin Thomas F. Edgar Princeton John G. Ekerdt Berkeley James R. Fair Texas George Georgiou Cornell Adam Heller Hebr ew ( J er usal em) David M. Himmelblau Washington Jeffrey A. Hubbell Ri ce Keith P. Johnston Illinoi s William J. Koros Texas Douglas R. Lloyd Waterloo John J. McKetta Mi c hi gan C. Buddie Mullins Caltech Donald R. Paul Wisconsin Robert P. Popovich Washington Ilya Prigogine Brussels Howard F. Rase Wisconsin James B. Rawlings Wis consi n Gary T. Rochelle B e rk e l ey Isaac C. Sa nchez D e lawar e Robert S. Schechter Minn esota Hugo Steinfink Pol y t echnic (New York) James E. Stice Illinois Tech Isaac Trachtenberg Louisiana State Eugene H. Wissler Minnesota 293

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The University of Toledo Graduate study toward the M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Assistantships and Fellowships available. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY Kenneth J. De Witt Professor Ph.D ., Northwestern Univers i ty Transport Phenomena Mathematical Modeling and Numerical Methods Ronald L. Fournier Associate Professor Ph.D. University of Toledo Transport Phenomena Thermodynamics Mathemat i cal Modeling and Biotechnology Saleh Jabarin, Professor Ph.D. University of Massachusetts Physical Properties of Polymers Polymer Orientation and Crystallization Steven E. LeBlanc Associate Professor Ph.D ., University of M i ch i gan Dissolution Kinet i cs Surface and Colloid Phenomena Controlled Release Technology Richard M. Lemert, Assistant Professor Ph.D ., University of Texas at Austin Thermodynamics and Supercritical Fluid Extraction Bruce E. Poling, Professor Chairman Ph.D ., University of Illinois Professor ; Thermodynamics and Physical Properties Sasidhar Varanasi Associate Professor PhD ., State University of New York at Buffalo Colloidal and lnterfacial Phenomena Enzyme Kinetics Membrane Transport For Details Contact : Dr. B E. Pol i ng Cha i rman Department of Chem i cal Engineering The University of Toledo Toledo OH 43606-3390 (419) 537-7736 Regarded as one of the nation's most attractive campuses, The University of Toledo is located in a beautiful residential area of the city approximately seven miles from downtown. The University 's main campus occupies more than 200 acres with 40 major buildings. A member of the s tat e university system of Ohio since July 1967 The University of Toledo observed its 100th anniversary as one of the country s major universities in 1972.

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Research Excellence Chemical Engineering Texas A&M University You can count on Texas A&M for excellence in engineering graduate studies. We're one of the top U.S. research universities Outstanding faculty bring a strong multi-university background to our chemical engineering programs. Our departmental facilities are among the best in the nation and stipends are competitive Call or write for our free video and application/information pack age: Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University College Station Texas 77843-3122, ( 409) 845-3361. Admission to Texas A&M Univer sity and any of its sponsored pro grams is open to qualified individuals. Faculty Aydin Akgerman (University of Virginia 1971 ): Separations and Reaction Engineering, Environ mental Remediation/Restoration Rayford G Anthony (University of Texas 1966): Catalysis Reaction Engineering. Dragomir B. Bukur (University of Minnesota, 197 4 ): Reaction Engineering, Catalysis, Multiphase Fluid Flow. Jerry A. Bullin (University of Houston, 1972) : Gas Treating and Processing Roadway Asphalts Air Quality Bruce E. Dale (Purdue University 1979) : Biochemical Engineering Environmental Toxicology Ron Darby (Rice University 1962): Rheology, Fluid Mechanics Transport Phenomena in Non Newtonian Fluids Richard R. Davison (Texas A&M University 1962): Asphalt Chemistry and Technology. Leo D Durbin (Rice University 1961 ) : Process Control. Philip T Eubank (Northwestern University 1961): Thermodynamics, Plasma Technologies. Raymond W. Flumerfelt (North western University, 1965) : Transport Phenomena Polymers. Ahmed M. Gadalla (Sheffield University 1964): Advanced Materials and Ceramics Charles J. Glover (Rice University 1975): Polymers Asphalt Character ization Kenneth R. Hall (University of Oklahoma 1967) : Thermodynamics. Daniel T Hanson (University of Minnesota, 1967) : Biochemical Engineering Charles D. Holland (Texas A&M University, 1953) : Separa tions Processes Risk Assess ment. James C Holste (Iowa State University 1973): Thermody namics Mark T. Holtzapple (University of Pennsylvania, 1981) : Bio chemical Engineering Heat Transfer Refrigeration James C Liao (University of Wisconsin 1987) : Cellular Metabolism Molecular Biology. Michael N i kolaou (University of California-Los Angeles 1989): Process Control, Modeling Harry J P l oehn (Princeton University 1988) : Po l ymeric and Colloidal Materials lnterfacial Phenomena. John C. Slattery (University of Wisconsin 1959): lnterfacial and Multiphase Transport Phenomena. A. Ted Watson (California Institute of Technology 1980): Flow Through Porous Media, NMR Imaging Ralph E. White (University of California-Berkeley 1977): Electrochemical Engineering Mathematical Modeling.

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91 YEARS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT TUFTS UNIVERSITY M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS CRYSTALLIZATION MEMBRANE PROCESSES CHROMATOGRAPHY FACILITATED TRANSPORT OPTIMIZATION HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS ELECTROCATALYTIC PROCESSES THERMODYNAMICS RESEARCH AREAS MATERIALS AND INTERFACES COMPOSITE MATERIALS POLYMER AND FIBER SCIENCE CHEMICAL PROCESSING OF HIGH TECH CERAMICS PLASMA POLYMERIZATION OF THIN FILMS STABILITY OF SUSPENSIONS COAL SLURRIES BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY MAMMALIAN CELL BIOREACTORS RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING SOLID-WASTE PROCESS ENGINEERING HAZARDOUS WASTE TECHNOLOGY BIODEGRADATION OF SOLID WASTE APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY POLLUTION PROTEIN REFOLDING BIOSEPARATIONS PREVEN TI ON FACULTY GREGORY D. BOTSARIS Ph.D ., Ml T., 1965 A small (4500 students) prestigious private University in Metropolitan Boston Graduate students have close and immediate access to faculty; to the Tufts Biotechnology Engineering Center and the Laboratory for Materials and Interfaces; to the country's foremost medical centers; and of course to the cultural social recreational excitement of Boston, Cape Cod and New England Fellowships and assistantships with tuition paid are available to qualified students. ELIANA R. DEBERNARDEZ-CLARK Ph.D ., U.N.L. (Arge ntina ), 1984 JERRY H. MELDON Ph.D. Ml T. 1973 JAMES J. NOBLE Ph.D. Ml T. 1968 DANIEL F RYDER Ph .D Worcester Polytechnic 1984 MICHAEL STOUKIDES Ph.D. Ml T. 1982 MARTIN V. SUSSMAN Ph.D ., Columbia 1958 NAK-HO SUNG 2 96 For information and applications write to: Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering Tufts University Medford, MA 02155 Phone(617)627-3900 FAX (617) 627-3991 Ph.D Ml T. 1972 KENNETH A VAN WORMER Sc D ., Ml T ., 1961 ADJUNCT FACULTY FROM INDUSTRY FRANCIS BROWN JOHN R. GHUBLIKIAN ALAN S. MICHAELS RANDALL SWARTZ PARAM H. TEWARI Chemical Engineering Education

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VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering Graduate Study Leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Kenneth A. Debelak (Ph.D., Kentucky) Artificial intelligence in process control; coal conversion with emphasis on particle structure and diffusional processes ; hazardous waste minimization. Tomlinson Fort (Ph.D., Tennessee) lnterfacial phenomena in adsorption thin films, new materials, polymers tribochemistry and dispersed systems. Todd D. Giorgio (Ph.D., Rice) Rheological aspects of blood/endothelial cell response ; structured lipid systems ; biochemical cell-cell interaction ; mechanism and kinetics of cellular ion transport Thomas M. Godbold (Ph.D., North Carolina State) Coal pyrolysis and gasification ; sulfur removal from syngas; computer-aided design. David Hunkeler (Ph.D., McMaster) Water soluble polymers and polyelectrolytes heterophase polymerizations polymer characteri zation light scattering chromatography solution properties. John A. Roth (Ph.D., Louisville) Physical-chemical wastewater treatment ; hazardous waste management ; corrosion mecha nisms in microcircuitry Karl B. Schnelle, Jr. (Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon) Environmental dispersion modeling; use of natural gas in atmospheric pollution control; super critical extraction of toxic materials in the environment Eva M. Sevick (Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon) Optical spectroscopy and imaging in strongly scattering media ; applications for biomedical imaging, measurement of tissue oxygenation and characterization of motion and physical properties of colloidal systems. Robert D. Tanner (Ph.D., Case Western Reserve) F a ll 19 92 Biochemical engineering ; effect of light on yeast growth and protein secretion ; aerated solid fermentation fluidized bed processes; bubble and aerosol fractionation of proteins. VANDERBILT ENGINEERING ... -1111 --WIIIIIIII For further information: Professor Eva M. Sevick Chemical Engineering Department Box 1604 Station B Vanderbilt University Nashville TN 37235 1 800-288 7722 2 97

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V 1fersityinia Graduate g Studies in Chemical Engineering FACUL'IY AND RESEARCH AREAS Giorgio Carta Ph.D., University of Delaware Absorption, adsorption, ion exchange, biological separations Peter T. Cummings Ph.D. University of Melbourne Statistical thermodynamics, process design, rheology bacterial transport Robert J. Davis Ph.D. Stanford Uni versity Heterogeneous catalysis, characterization of metal clusters reaction kinetics Erik J. Fernandez Ph.D., Uni versity of California Berkeley Mammalian cell biocataly s i s, metabolism in diseased tissues Roseanne M. Ford Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania Biore mediation bacterial migratio,n (chemotaxis) Elmer L. Gaden, Jr. Ph.D., Columbia University Biochemical engineering, bioprocess development and design John L. Gainer Ph.D. University of Delaware Mass tran sfe r including biomedical applications, biochemical engineering John L. Hudson Ph.D ., Northwestern Univ ers ity Dynamics of chemical reactors, electrochemical and multiphase reactors Donald J. Kirwan Ph.D. University of Delaware Biochemical engineering, mas s tran sfer, crystallization M. Douglas Le Van Ph.D. Uni vers ity of California Berk e l ey Adsorption, fluid mechanic s, process design Lem bit U. Lilleleht Ph.D., University of Illin ois Fluid mechanics, heat transfer, multiphase systems, alternative energy John P. O'Connell Ph.D. Univer s ity of California B er kel e y Statistical thermodynamic s with applications to physical and bio logical systems FURTHER INFORMATION To receive application materials and fur ther information please write to Graduate Admissions Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Thornton Hall University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22903-2442 Phone: (804) 924 7778 "Academic research s h ou l d provide th e opport unity for students t o impro ve th e ir m e thod s of rationa l th o u g ht and inquiry with th e ad v i sor s upplyin g insight and direction. The faculty here at UVa seem dedicated to allowing stu dents the freedo m to l earn, but with g uidan ce available when n eeded l nmie Rudisill, B.S.ChE, Nor th Caro/inn State Uni vers ity Ph.D. candidate.

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Virginia fllTech VIRGINIA POL Y TE C HN IC INSTIT U T E AND ST A TE UNIVER S IT Y Graduate Study and Research at VIRGINIA TECH SURFACE SCIENCE AND CATALYSIS heterogeneous catalysis model catalyst systems metal oxide surface chemistry gas sensors UHV surface analysis and high-pressure reaction studies BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOCHEMICAL PROCESS ENGINEERING affinity and immunoaffinity (monoclonal antibody) isolation of plasma proteins transgenic expression and recovery of human plasma proteins in livestock DNA amplification kinetics in-situ biodegradation of toxic wastes SYSTEM AND COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY artificial intelligence computer-aided design process synthesis and integration HAZARDOUS WASTES in-situ treatment of ground water textile dye waste minimization and treatments microbubble flotation enhanced biological treatments POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING rheology processing morphology synthesis surface science biopolymers polymer suspensions physical chemistry of polymer solutions polyelectrolytes polymer composites fiber-reinforced composites COLLOID SCIENCE polymeric stabilization of suspensions suspension rheology synthesis of novel ceramic particles physical chemistry of polymer adsorption at interfaces associating polymers in solution For further information contact the Fall 19 9 2 Department of Chemical Engineering Virginia Tech 133 Randolph Hall Blacksburg, VA 24061 Telephone (703) 231-6631 Fax (703) 231-5022 299

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University of Washington Department of Chemical Engineering Vigorous research program Excellent physical fac iliti es Financial s upp ort for all full-time gra duat e students Inquiries welcome. Please contact: 65 grad u ate st ud ents from 30 universities and 20 states 15-20 stu d en t s from foreign co untri es Graduate st ud e nt s a nd faculty enjoy a fine esprit de corps in a st imulatin g a nd su pp ortive research e nvir o nm e nt. Seattle, The Emera l d City, provides o ut standi n g cu ltu ral opportu niti es a nd unparalleled o utd oor activities throughout the year. (Se l ected as the most livable city in the 1989 editio n of Places R ated Almanac.) Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering, BF-10 University of Washington Seattle Washington 98195 Phone: (206) 543-2250 Fax : (206) 543-3778 .---------Chemical Engineering Faculty Research Areas --------~ Frarn;:ois Bane yx, Ph.D., Texas (Austi n ) Biotechnology; Protein Technology; Biochemical Engineering 300 John C. Berg, Ph D., California (Berkeley) Interfacial Phenomena; Surface and Colloid Science E. James Davis, Ph.D Washington Co ll oid Science; Aerosol Chemistry and Physics; Electrokinet i cs Bru ce A. Fin l ayso n Ph D., Minnesota Mathematical Modeling William J Heideger, Ph D., Princeton Mass Transfer Bradley R. H o lt Ph D ., Wisconsin Process Design and Co n trol Barbara Krieger-Brockett, Ph.D ., Wayne State Reaction E n gineering N. Lawrence Ri cker Ph D. California (Berkeley) Process Control and Optimization J. W Rogers, Jr., Ph.D., Texas (Austin) Surface Science ; Thin-Film Deposition D a ni e l T Schwartz, Ph D., Ca liforni a (Davis) E l ectrochemica l Engineering ; Electrolytic Thin-Film Science James C Seferis Ph.D. Delaware Polymeric Composites Eric M. Stuve, Ph.D ., Stanford Catalytic and Electrochemical Surface Science Lewis E. Wedgewood, Ph .D., Wisconsin Polymer Rheology Research Faculty David G. Cast n er, Ph D Cal i fornia (Berke l ey) Biomaterials; Surface Science Adjunct and Joint Faculty Active in Department Research G. Graham Allan, Ph.D. D Sc., Glasgow Fiber and Polymer Science Albert L. Babb Ph D. Illinois Biomedical Engineering; Hemodialysi s Kermit L. Garlid, Ph.D Minnesota Nuclear Engineering; Radioactive Waste Richard R. Gustafson Ph.D ., Washington Pulp and Paper Allan S Hoffman, Sc.D., MIT Biomaterials in Medicine and Biotechnology Thomas A. Horbett, Ph.D., Washington Biomaterials; Peptide Drug Delivery William T. McKean, Ph .D. Washington Pulp and Paper Science Budd y D. Ratner, Ph.D., Brooklyn P o l ytechnic Biomaterials; Polymers; Surface Characterization Gene L. Woodruff, Ph D., MIT Nuclear Engineering Chemical Engin e ering Edu c ation

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WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering Department Here at Washington State University, we are proud of our graduate program, and of our students. The program has been growing quickly in size and quality but is still small and informal. For a department of this size the range of faculty research interests is ve,y broad. Students choose research projects of interest to them, then have the opportunity and the responsibility-to make an individual contribution. Through a combination of core courses and many electives students can gain a thorough understanding of the basics of chemical engineering. FACUL TV AND RESEARCH INTERESTS ------------------C. F. Ivory (Ph.D., Princeton) : bioseparations, including electrophoresis electrochromatography and field flow frac tionation J. M. Lee (Ph.D ., University of Kentucky) : plant tissue cultivation, genetic engineering enzymatic hydrolysis mixing K. C.Liddell (Ph.D., Iowa State University): semiconduc tor electrochem i stry, reactions on fractal surfaces sepa rations radioactive waste management R. Mahalingam (Ph D University of Newcastle-upon Tyne): multiphase systems, physical and chemical sepa rations particulate phoretic phenomena electronic mate rials and polymers, synfuels and environment J. N. Petersen (Ph.D. Iowa State University) ; adaptive on line optimization of biochemical processes adaptive con trol drying of food products J. C. Sheppard (Ph.D Washington University) ; radio active wastes actinide element chemistry atmospheric chemistry radiocarbon dating W. J. Thomson (Ph.D University of Idaho} ; kinetics of solid state reactions, sintering rates of ceramic and elec tronic material precursers chemical reaction engineering B. J. Van Wie (Ph.D., University of Oklahoma); kinetics of mammalian tissue cultivation bio-reactor design, centrifu gal blood cellular separations development of biochemical sensors R. L. Zollars (Ph.D. University of Colorado} ; multiphase reactor design polymer reactor design colloidal phenom ena chemical vapor deposition reactor design GRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMS AT WSU M S. in Chemical Engineering Twelve credits in graduate chemical engineering courses, nine credits in support i ng courses and a thesis are required Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering E i ghteen credits in graduate chemical engineering courses si x teen credits i n supporting courses and a dissertat i on are required Upon successful completion of the coursework and the Ph D. preliminary examination, a student is admitted to candidacy for the degree The dissertation must represent a s i gn ific ant origina l contribution to the research l i terature Conversion Program Students with B.S degrees in the physical or life sc i ences may apply for adm issi on to the conversion program Normally a small number of undergraduate courses must be taken in addition to the regular require ments for the M S. or Ph.D FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Research or teaching assistantships partial tuition waivers --and fellowships are available and nearly all of our students --receive financial assistance Living costs are quite low WANT TO APPLY? Contact: Dr. C. F. Ivory, Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Washington State University Pullman WA 99164-2710 509/335-4332 or 509/3357716

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(,, Washington WASHING'Ta'J U NIVERSITY IN STIDUIS School ofEngineering & Applied Science GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING MASTER'S AND DOCTORAL PROGRAMS Faculty and R esearch Areas M. P. Dudukovic Chemical Re ac tion Engineering 302 J. T. Gleaves H e terogeneou s Catalysis, Surface Sci e nce, Microstru c tured Material s B. Joseph Proc ess Control Proc ess Optimization Expert Syst e ms J. L. Kardos Composite Materials and Polymer Engineering B. Khomami Rheolo gy, Polym e r and Composite Material s Processing J. M. McKelvey Polymer Science and Engineering R. L. Motard Computer Aided P rocess Engineering, Knowledge Ba se d Sy s t e ms P.A. Ramachandran Chemical Reaction Engineering R. E. Sparks Biomedical Engineering Micro encapsulation Transport Phenomena C. Thies Biochemical Engineering, Microencap s ulation M. Underwood Unit Operation s, Proce ss Safety Polymer Proce ss in g For Information Contact Graduate Admissions Committee Washington University Department of Chemical Engineering Campus Box 1198 One Brookings Drive St. Loui s Missouri 63130-4899 Washington Un i vers i ty e n courages and gives full con s id e rati on t o application for admission and fina n cial aid wi th out respect t o sex, ra ce, handicap co l or creed or nati o nal origi n Chemical Engin ee ring Education

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West Virginia Institute of Technology and the West Virginia Graduate College WANT THE BEST OF BOTH WORLDS? Earn your Master s Degree in Control Systems Engineering i n Wild, Wonderful West Virginia Tuition-free With a Stipend of $1,000 a Month ~-Schedule Summ e r Industrial Internship full time work Fall Earn while you learn in our 18-month graduate program that in cludes two summers of control work with one of our local industries, such as Union Carbide, DuPont, Rhone-Poulenc, Monsanto, FMC, Ashland Oil, or Ravenswood Aluminum. Live, study, and work in the pristine natural environment of West Virginia, a land of rugged mountains, serene valleys, and enchanting rivers and streams. Classes are held in the Kanawha Valley, a bustling metropoli tan area of 260,000-home of the state's capital city of Charleston and of a thriving c h emical in d ustry. 3 er hrs Advanced Differential Equations 3 er hrs Modeling Processes, ChE, ME, EE 3 er hrs Statistical Process Control 3 er hrs State-Space Control Continuous S pr i n g 3 er hrs Digital Control This exciting opportunity is offered jointly by 3 er hrs Controlling Processes ChE, ME, EE 3 er hrs Advanced Control 3 er hrs Project I Planning Thesis Project local industry West Virginia Institute of Technology, and West Virginia Graduate College S umm er 3 er hrs Project II Industrial Internship on project, full-time work Fall 3 er hrs Elective 3 er hrs Technical Communication 3 er hrs Project III, write u p t h esis possible part-time work call or write Fall 1992 D r. E d Crum or C h e mic al Engi n eeri n g D e p artment West Virginia Ins ti tute of Technology Montgomery, WV 253 16 (304) 44 2 -3 1 63 Dr. Bill Crockett Sc h ool of En gi n eeri n g an d Sc i ence West Virginia G r a du ate College Institute, WV 25112 (304) 76 6 20 40 303

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West Virginia University Chemical Engineering 304 FACULTY Richard C. Bailie (Iowa State University) Eugene V Cilento C h airma n ( University of Cincinnati) Dady B. Dadyburjor ( University of Delawar e ) Rakesh K. Gupta (Univ e rsity of D elaware) Hisashi 0. Kono (Kyushu Unive r sity) Edwin L. Kugler ( J ohns H opkins University) Joseph A Shaeiwitz (Carnegie-Mellon University) Alfred H. Stiller ( University of Cin c innati) Richard Turton (O r egon State University) Wallace B. Whiting ( University of California, Berkele y) Ray Y K. Yang ( P rinceton University) John W. Zondlo (Carnegie-Mellon University) TOPICS Catalysis and R eaction E n gineering Separa t ion Processes Surface a n d Colloid Phe n omena Phase Equilibria F l uidization Biome d ical Engineering So lu tio n C h emistry Transport P h enomena Bioc h emica l Engineering Biological Separatio n s Polymer Rh eology M.S. and Ph.D. Programs For Application Information Wr i te Professor R i chard Turton Graduate Adm is s i on Comm i ttee Department of Chem i cal Engineering P O Box 6101 West Virg i n i a Un i vers i ty Morgantown West V i rg i nia 26506 6 1 01 Chemical Engin ee ring Education

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Wisconsin A tradition of excellence in Chemical Engineering Faculty Research Interests Kevin L Bray High pressure solid state chemistry electronic properties of materials Douglas C. Cameron Biotechnology metabolic engineering Thomas W. Chapman E l ectroc h emical reac t ion engineering Stuart L. Cooper {Chairman) Polymer physics multiphase polymers io nom ers biomaterials Juan de Pablo M o l ecu l ar t h ermodyna m ics, statistical mechanics James A. Dumesic Kinetics and catalysis, s u rface chemistry Charles G Hill Jr Ki n etics a n d catalysis membrane separation processes i m mobilized enzymes SangtaeKim Fluid mechanics applied mathematics, parallel computing Fall 1992 Daniel J. Klingenberg Colloid science transport phenomena James A Koutsky Po l ymer scie n c.e adhesives composites Thomas F Kuech Semicond u ctor processing solid state and electron i c mater i als thin films Stanley H Langer Kinet i cs catalysis electrochemist ry, chromatography hydrometallurgy E N Lightfoot Jr Mass transfer and separations processes b ioch emical engineering Regina M. Murphy Biomedical engineering app li ed immunology prote i n protein intera ctio n s W Harmon Ray Process dynami cs and c ontro l reaction eng i neer i ng polymerizat i on Thatcher W Root Surface chemistry catalysis solid-state NMR DaleF Rudd Process des i gn a n d industria l deve lo pme n t Warren E. Stewart Reactor modeling fract i onat i on mode l ing tr ansport phenomena app l ied mathematics Ross E. Swaney Process des i gn synthes i s model i ng and opt i m i zation For fu rthe r informat ion about graduate study i n chem i cal engineering wr i te : T he Grad u ate Committee Department of C hemical Engineering Un ive rsit y of W iscons inMad i son 1 415 Johnso n Dri v e M a d i son Wis c ons in 537 06 -1 69 1 305

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Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Qualified students seeking M S. and/or Ph.D degrees will receive attractive fellowships or assistantships to pursue exciti ng fundamental and applied research. Areas of Research: Advanced Materials Carbon Filaments Inorganic Membranes Materials Processing in Spac e Metal Oxides Molecular Sieve Zeolites Superconductors Biochemical Engineering Biopolymer Engin ee ring Bioreactor Analysis Bioseparations Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Adsorption and Transport in Porous Media Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Catalysis Zeolite Catalysis Faculty: W. M. Clark Ph.D., Ri ce University D. DiBiasio Ph D. Purdu e University A. G. Dixon Ph.D ., Edinburgh University Y. H. Ma Sc.D ., Massachus etts In stitute of T ec hnology J. W. Meader S.M. Mas s achus e tts Institut e of T ec hnology W.R. Moser Ph D ., Massa c hus etts Institut e of T ec hnolog y J. E. Rollings Ph D. Purdu e University A. Sacco Ph.D ., Massachus etts Institute of T ec hnology R. W. Thompson Ph.D ., Iowa State University A. H. Weiss Ph.D. University of P e nnsyl v ania The Central New England Area: For further information, contact Graduate Coordinator Chemical Engineering Department 100 In st itute Road Worcester Polytechnic Institut e Worcester MA 01609-2280 WPI i s situate d on a 62-acre hilltop site in a r esidential area of Worcester Massachusetts New England 's second largest city and a leading cultural, educat i onal, and entertainment center It is a one-hour drive from Boston and only two hours from the beach es of Cape Cod and the ski s lop es and hikin g trails of Vermont and New Hampshire WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE 306 Chemical Engineering Edu catio n

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UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING Chemical Engineering Persons seeking admission, emplo y ment or access to prog r a m s of t he Un i v ersity of W y om i n g s h a ll b e consi d e r ed wit h o u t r ega rd to r ace, color, n a t iona l o r i g i n sex, a g e re l i g io n policitica l b eli ef h an d ica p o r ve t e r a n s t a tu s. C. Y. Cha solid waste utilization microwave reactors gas clean-up D. 0. Cooney mass transfer scrubbers air and water pollution H. A. Deans enhanced oil recovery carbon dioxide flooding R. D. Gunn coal drying active carbon mathematical modeling H. W. Haynes catalysis reaction kinetics synthetic fuels M. A. Matthews transport properties thermodynamics C. R. McKee in-situ extraction of minerals M. Merrill applications of magnetic resonance imaging H. F. Silver coal liquefaction desulfurization J. G. Speight coal chemistry We offer exciting opportunities for research in many processing areas, especially energy related technology development. In recent years we have developed clean coal, solid waste utilization and advance gas clean-up technologies up to bench scale levels. Currently we are working with industry to construct and operate pilot units of these technologies. This will provide excellent opportunities for students to obtain hands-on experience on industrial projects. Al s o research has been conducted in the areas of kinetics catalysis adsorption, extraction computer modeling coal processing and enh an ced oil recovery. The Western Coal Consortium has been established by the Chemical Engineering Depart ment with western coal producers and utilities The Western Coal Consortium and Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute provide excellent financial aid packages to graduate students. The University of Wyoming is located in Laramie W y oming at an elevation of 7200 feet. The town is surrounded by state and national parks which allow for beautiful year-round outdoor activities. The nearby Snow y Range mountains provide ideal sources of recreation for mountain and rock climbing skiing fi s hing and hunting Graduate s of any accredited chemical engineering program are eligible for admission and the department offers both an M S and Ph D accredited program. Financial aid is available and all recipients receive full fee waiver s. Fall 1992 For more information contact Dr Chang-Yul Cha Head Department of Chemical Engineering University of Wyoming P 0. Box 3295 Laramie WV 82071-3295 3 0 7

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Douglas D. Frey, Ph D. Berkeley Gary L. Haller, Ph.D Northwestern Csaba G. Horvath, Ph.D. Frankfurt James A. O'Brien, Ph D. Pennsylvania Lisa D. Pfefferle, Ph D Pennsylvania Theodore W. Randolph, Ph.D Berkeley Daniel E. Rosner, Ph.D. Princeton Robert S. Weber, Ph.D. Stanford Adjunct Professors: Leslie S. Ettre John P. Marano Lecturer: Joseph J. Levitzky 308 Department of Chemical Engineering Yale University 2159 Yale Station New Haven Ct 06520 Phone : (203) 432-2222 FAX: (203) 432-7232 Department of Chemical Engineering Adsorption Aggregation Clustering Biochemical Engineering Catalysis Chemical Reaction Engineering Chemical Vapor Deposition Chromatography Combustion Enzyme Technology Fine Particle Technology Heterogeneous Kinetics lnterfacial Phenomena Molecular Beams Multiphase Transport Phenomena Separation Science and Technology Statistical Thermodynamics Supercritical Fluid Phenomena Chemical Engineering Education

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BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering MS W. E. KING JR. Chair (PhD Univ e r sity of P e nn sy lvan ia) Modeling of biomedical systems J. CSERNICA (PhD, M I.T ) Materials science polymer s tru c ture s/ pr o perty relations M. E. HANYAK JR. ( PhD University of Pennsylvan ia) Computer-aided design thermody n amics applied software engineering F. W. KOKO, JR. ( PhD Lehigh Un iv ersity ) Optimization, fluid mechanics direct digital control t J.E. MANEVAL (PhD University of California Dav is) Multiph ase transport processes, ion exc h ange, nuclear magnetic resonance i maging J. M. POMMERSHEIM (PhD, University of Pittsburgh) Transport phenomena, mathematical modeling cement hydration M. J. PRINCE ( PhD U. of California Berkeley ) Biochemical engineering interfacial phenomena D. S. SCHUSTER ( PhD Wes t Virginia Univ ) Fluidization particulate systems, agglomerations W. J. SNYDER (PhD Pennsylvania State U .) Cata l ysis, polymerization i n s trumentati o n Bucknell is a small private highly selective university with strong programs in engineering business and the liberal arts. The Department is located in the newly renovated Charles A. Dana Engineering Building which provides ample facilities for both computational and experimental research State of-the art Apollo workstations for both research and course work and modern laboratory equipment are readily available Graduate students have a unique opportunity to work very closely with a faculty research advisor. Lewisburg located in the center of Pennsylvania provides the attraction of a rural setting while conveniently located within 200 miles of New York Philadelphia Washington, D C ., and Pittsburgh For further information write or phone Dr. William E. King Jr., Chair Department of Chemical Engineering Bucknell University Lewisburg, PA 17837 .__ _______ 717-524-1114 Fall 1992 UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO Lake Huron Canada's largest Chemical Engineering Depart ment offers regular and co-operative M.A.Sc., Ph.D., and post-doctoral programs in: Biochemical and Food Engineering Industrial Biotechnology Chemical Kinetics Catalysis and Reactor Design Environmental and Pollution Control Extractive and Process Metallurgy Polymer Science and Engineering Mathematical Analysis Statistics and Control Transport Phenomena Multiphase Flow Enhanced Oil Recovery Electrochemical Processes, Solids Handling Financial Aid: RA : $14,500/yr TA: $5,000/yr (approximate) Scholarships Academic Staff: G. L. Rempel Ph D (UBC), Chairman ; P. L. Douglas PhD (Waterloo) Associate Chairman (Graduate); I. F. Macdonald PhD (Wisconsin) Associate Chairman (Undergraduate) ; W. A. Anderson PhD (Wa terloo); L. E. Bodnar PhD (McMaster); H. Budman, PhD (Technion-Israel); C. M. Burns, PhD (Polytech. Inst. Brook lyn) ; J. J. Byerley, PhD (UBC); I. Chatzis, PhD (Water loo) ; T. A Duever PhD (Waterloo); F. A. L. Dullien PhD (UBC); T. Z. Fahidy PhD (Illinois); G. J. Farquhar PhD (Wisconsin); J. D. Ford PhD (Toronto); B. R. Glick PhD (Waterloo); R. Y. M. Huang PhD (Toronto); R.R. Hudgins PhD ( Princeton); R. L. Legge PhD (Waterloo); M. Moo Young, PhD (London); F T. T. Ng, PhD (UBC); K. F. O'Driscoll PhD (Princeton); R. Pal PhD (Waterloo); A. Penlidis, PhD (McMaster); M. D. Pritzker (VP I.); P. M. Reilly,PhD (London) ; C. W. Robinson, PhD (Ber keley); A. Rudin PhD (Northwestern) ; J. M. Scharer, PhD (Pennsylv ania) ; D. S. Scott, PhD (Illinois) ; P. L. Silveston, Dr.Ing. (Munich); C. Tzoganakis, PhD (McMaster) ; J. R. Wynnyckyi, PhD (Toronto) ===== == = To a ppl y contact ======== The Associate Chairman (Graduate Studies) Department of Chemical Engineering University of Waterloo Waterloo Ontario Canada N2L 3G1 Phone : 519-885-1211 FAX : 519-746-4979 309

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Brovvn University Faculty Joseph M. Calo, Ph.D (Princeton) Bruce Caswell, Ph.D (Stanford) Richard A. Dobbin s, Ph.D. (Princeton) Sture K. F Karlsson, Ph.D (Johns Hopkins) Joseph D. Kestin, D.Sc. (U niver sity of London) Joseph T.C. Liu, Ph.D. (California In st itute of Technology) Edward A Mason, Ph D (Massac hu setts Institute of Technology) T. F. Morse Ph D. (Northwestern) Peter D. Richardson Ph D., D Sc. Eng (University of London) Merwin Sibulkin, A.E. (California Institute of Technology ) Eric M. Suuberg Sc D ( Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Stephen L. Woodruff, Ph D. (Univers ity of Michigan) Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Research Topics in Chemical Engineering Chemical kinetics, combustion two phase flows fluidized beds separation processes numerical simulation, vortex methods turbulence, hydrodynamic stability, coal chemistry coal gasifi cation, heat and mass transfer, aerosol condensation, transport processes, irreversible thermodynamics, membranes, particulate deposition physiological fluid mechanics rheology A program of graduate study in Chemical Engineering leads toward the M.Sc. or Ph.D. Degree. Teaching and Research Assistantships as well as Industrial and University Fellowships are available. For further information write: Professor J. Calo, Coordinator Chemical Engineering Program Division of Engineering Brown University Providence, Rhode Island 02912 The University of California, San Diego Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Located in a park-like setting high on the bluffs overlooking the Pacific Ocean at La Jolla UCSD is recognized today as a major center for innovation in sc ience and technology. The Chemical Engineering Program established in 1979 exists as a formal program within the large broad-based engineering department, the Department of Applied Mechanics and Engineering Science s. The Faculty Research Areas Pao C. Chau Biochemical Engineering Joe D. Goddard Mechanics and Transport Processes Richard K. Herz Catalysis, Chemical Reaction Engineering Stanley Middleman Fluid Dynamics David R. Miller Gas/Surface Interactions and Gas Dynamics C. Pozrikidis Fluid Mechanics K. Seshadri Reactive Gas Flows Jan B. Talbot Electrochemical Engineering Jack L. White Materials Engineering For further information, please write: Graduate Student Affairs 0413 D epa rtment of AMES/Chemical Engineering University of California, San Di ego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0310 310 Chemical Engineering Education

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Fall 1992 THE CITY COLLEGE of The City University of New York offe r s M S. and Ph.D. Pr og ra ms in Chemica l Engi n ee r i n g FACULTY A. Acrivos R Graff L. Isaacs RESEARCH AREAS Fluid M ec h a ni cs Coal Liquefa c tion Materials Colloid & Interfac i a l Phenomena C Maldarelli R Mauri Composite Mat e rials, Suspensions, Poro u s Media H y drodynamic Stabi lit y R. Pfeffer I. Rinard D. Rumschitzki R. Shinnar C. Steiner G. Tardos H. Weinstein Low Reyno l ds Number Hydrodynamics Process S i mulation and Contro l Cr i tica l Separations Process Systems Engineering and D esign Reaction En g ine e ring Industr i al E c onomi c s Po l ymer Science Air Po ll ution F lu idization Biomembranes Bioeng i neering For applications for admission assistantships and fellowships please write to D. Rumschitzki Department of Chemical Engineering City College of New York Convent Ave. at 140th Street New York NY 10031 CLEVELAND STATE UNIVERSITY Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering M.Sc and D.Eng Programs RESEARCH AREAS M ateria l s P rocess in g a nd E n gi n ee r i n g Mat h e m at i ca l M o d e lin g, Simul a ti o n of B atc h P rocesses A d so rpti o n P rocesses Sur face Ph e n o m e n a a nd M ass Tra n sfer T h e rm o d y n a mi cs a nd Fluid P h ase E quilib ria Tra n spo rt Ph e n o m e n a, F lu id Mec h a ni cs Tri b o l ogy Zeo lit es: S y nth es i s, So rpt io n Diff u sion M a mm a l ia n Ce ll C ul t ur e FACULTY-----G. A. Co ulm a n (Case R eserve) R. P. E lli o t t ( IIT ) B Gh oras h i (O hi o State) E. S. G o dl eski ( Okl a h o m a S t a t e) E. E. G ra h a m (No rthw es t e rn ) J M Sav in e ll (Mic hi ga n ) D B Sh a h ( Mi c hi ga n St a t e) 0 Ta tu (Arizo n a S t a t e) S N T e w ar i ( Purdue ) Cl eve land St a t e Un iv er s ity ha s 1 8 0 00 s tud e n ts e nr o lled in it s academi c pro g ram s it is l oca t ed in th e c ent e r o f th e ci ty of Cl ev eland w ith man y out s tandin g c ultural a nd r ec reational o pp o rtun i t ies n ear b y. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION WRITE TO D 8. Shah Department of Chemical Engineering Cle v eland State Universit y Cleveland OH 44115 Telephone ( 216 ) 687 2571 csu~State 311

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312 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY NEW YORK NEW YORK 10027 Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry and Bioengineering Faculty and Research Areas H. Y. CHEH El ec tro c h e mi cal Engineering, Two Phase F low, and H eat Transfer C. J. DURNING Pol y m e r Physical C h emis t ry C. C GRYTE Polym er S cie n ce, Separation Processes E F LE O N ARD Biom e di ca l En ginee rin g Transport Ph e nomena B O 'S HA UG HNE SSY Polym e r Phy sics ALE X S ER ESS IOTI S Bio c h e mi ca l En gineering J. L S PE NCE R Appli e d Ma t h ematics Chemical R eac tor Engin eeri n g A. C WE ST El ec tro c h emica l Engineering, Math ematica l Mod e ling Financial Assistance is Available -For F urther Informat i on Wr ite Chairman Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry Columbia University New York NY 10027 (212) 854-4453 / THAYER SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING A T DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Ph.D. and M.S. in Engineering Science s with Specialization in Biochemical Engineering Research Fields Advanced bioreactors B iomass conversion Biomimetics B ioremediation Ce ll an d tiss u e culture Enviro n mental biotechno l ogy E nzyme kinetics Ethanol production E vo lu tionary biotechnology Metabo l ic engineering Primary Faculty Alvin 0 Converse, Ph D., Delaware Chair Engineering Sciences Department Carole A. Heath, Ph D. RPI PYI 1991-1996 Lee R. L yn d D E., D artmouth PYI 19 9 0-1995 John Yin, Ph.D. Berkeley Research Fellow: Max Planck Institute Contact: Director of Admissions Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering Program Thayer School of Engineering Dartmouth College Hanover NH 03755 Chemical Engine e ring Education

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DREXEL UNIVERSITY M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering FACULTY===== RESEARCH AREAS ======= D. R. Coughanowr Biochemical Engineering E. D. Grossmann Catalysis and Reactor Engineering M. Gural Environmental Engineering Y. H. Lee L. Levin S. P. Meyer Y. T. Shah R. Mutharasan J. R. Thygeson Microcomputer Applications Polymer Processing Process Control and Dynamics Rheology and Fluid Mechanics Semiconductor Processing C. B. Weinberger Systems Analysis and Optimization Thermodynamics and Process Energy Analysis M A. Wheatley CONSIDER ===================== High faculty / student ratio Excellent facilities Outstanding location for cultural activities and job opportunities Full time and part time options WRITE TO : Dr M. A. Wheatley Department of Chemical Engineering Dr exe l University Philadelphia PA 19104 AFFILIEE A L'UNIVERSITE DE MONTREAL Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Research assistantships are available in the following areas: Rheology and Polymer Engineering Polymerization Polymer Composites and Blends Characterization and Modification of Polymer Surfaces Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology Industrial Pollution Control Fluidization and Chemical Reactor Engineering Natural Gas Technologies Combustion and Incineration Engineering Process Control, Simulation, and Design Profitez de cette occasion pour parfaire vos connaissances du Fram;ais! Vive la difference!* For information, write to: Denis Rouleau Department de Genie Chimique Ecole Polytechnique C.P. 6079 Station A Montreal H3C 3A7 Canada Some knowledge of the French languag e is required Fall 1992 313

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Florida Tech Graduate Master of Science Chemical Engineering l d S p ace Coas t s m a ll vibr a nt ca mpu s on F on a s J oin a 1 bl Gr a duat e Stud e nt A ss i s t a nt s h1~ s ~ va 1 a e Includ es Tuition R e m1 ss 1 o n M Pozo de l'ernandez Ph D P.A Jennings Ph.D. P.L \langonon. Ph D. D.R \tason Ph.D \t.R Shaffer Ph D J.E. Withlow. Ph D For Information Contact: Biochemical Engineering Spacecraft Technolo~ y Semiconductor Manufacturing Alternative Ener~y Sources '.\taterials Science Environmental Engineering Expert Systems F l o rid a I n sti tut e o f Tech n o l ogy H d Departme n t o f C h e mi ca l E n g in ee rin g ea I d M l bou rn e 150 West U ni ve r s i ty Bou evar e F L 32901-6988 (407) 768-8000 ex t. 8068 University of Idaho Chemical Engineering M S. and Ph D Progra ms FACULTY W. ADMASSU Synthetic Membranes for Gas Separations Biochemical Engineering with Environmental Applicatio n s T E CARLESON Mass Transfer Enhancement Chemical Reprocessing of Nuclear Wastes Bioseparation D. C. DROWN Process Design Computer Ap plication Modeling Process Economics and Optimization with Emphasis on Food Processing L. L. EDWARDS Computer Aided Process Design Systems Analys i s Pulp / Paper Engineering Numerical Methods and Optim iz ation D S. HOFFMAN Alternative Fuels Process Analysis and Design M L. JACKSON Mass Transfer in Biological Systems Particulate Control Technology R. A KORUS Polymers Biochemical Engineering J Y PARK Chemical Reaction Analysis and Catalys i s Laboratory Reactor Developme n t Thermal Plasma Systems J J SCHELDORF H eat Tra n sfer Thermodynamics M VON BRAUN Hazardous Waste Site Analysis Computer Mapping 314 The department has a highly activ e research program cover i ng a wide range of interests The northern Idaho region offers a year-round complement of outdoor activities includ ing hiking white water rafting ski i ng and camping A wide range of fellowships and assistantships is available. FO R FU R T H E R IN F OR M A TI ON A ND APPL/ C A TION WR ITE Graduate Advisor Chemical Engineer i ng Department University of Idaho Moscow Idaho 83843 Chemi c al Engineering Education

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY Master of Engineering Master of Engineering Science Master of Environmental Engineering Doctor of Engineering RESEARCH AREAS D. H. CHEN (Ph.D., Oklahoma State University) Computer Simulation, Process Dynamics and Control Heterogeneous Catalysis Reaction Engineering J. R. HOPPER (Ph.D., Louisiana State University) Fluidization, Incineration T. C. HO (Ph.D., Kansas State University) Transport Properties Mass Transfer Gas-Liquid Reactions K. Y. LI (Ph.D., Mississippi State University) Rheology of Drilling Fluids Computer-Aided Design Thermodynamic Properties Cost Engineering Photovoltaics C. L. YAWS (Ph.D ., University of Houston) Air Pollution, Bioremediation Waste Minimizat i on For further information, please write Graduate Admissions Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Lamar University P. 0. Box 10053 Beaumont TX 77710 An e qual opportunity I affirmative action university. LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY Master of Science and Doctor of Engineering Programs For info rma tion write Dr H K Hu ckabay P rofessor and H ead Department of Chemical Engineering Louisiana Tech University Ruston Louis iana 71272 (318) 257 2483 Fall 1992 The Department of Chemical Engineering at Louisiana Tech University offers a well-balanced graduate program for either the Master's or Doctor of Engineering degree Eleven full-time students (three doctoral candidates) and fourteen part-time students are pursuing research in Alternative Fuels Artifi cial Intelligence Biotechnology Chemical Process Hazards and Fire Safety Nuclear Process Environmental Effects Ozonation and Process Simulation and Design FACULTY Bill B. Elmore, Arkansas Houston K. Huckabay, LSU Francis Jones, Drexel U. Charles M. Sheppard, Washington U Ronald H. Thompson, Arkansas 315

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316 University of Louisville Chemica/Engineering Polymers Process Control Biotechnology M.S. and Ph.D. Programs RESEARCH AREAS Catalysis Waste Management Thermodynamics Polymer Processing Separations The Env ir onment ( New facilities include a state-of -t he -art Materials Research Laboratory ) FACULTY Dermot J. Collins Pradeep B. Deshpande Marvin Fleischman Dean 0. Harper Walden L. S Laukhuf Raul Miranda Thomas R. Hanley Charles A Plank Hugh T. Spencer James C. Watters Competitive fellowships and assistantships are available to qualified students Write to : Graduate Student Advisor Chemical Engineering Department University of Louisville Louisville KY 40292 Inquiries can be addressed via Electronic Mail over BITNET to : JCWATT01 @ULKYVM Manhattan College Design-Oriented Master's Degree Program in Chemical Engineering This well-established graduate program emphasizes the application of basic principles to the solution of process engineering problems. Financial aid is available including industrial fellowships in a one-year program involving participat i on of the following companies : Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Exxon Corporation Mobil Oil Corporation Consolidated Edison Co. Pfizer, Inc. Manhattan College is located in Ri verdale, an attractive area in the no r thwest section of New York City. For brochure and application form write to CHAIRMAN, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MANHATTAN COLLEGE RIVERDALE, NY 10471 Chemical Engineering Education

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M.H.I Baird, PhD (C ambridge ) Mass Transfer Solvent Extraction J.L Brash, PhD ( Glasgow ) Biomedical Engineering Polymers McMASTER UNIVERSITY Graduate Study in Polymer Reaction Engineering, Computer Process Control, and Much More! J.F. MacGregor, PhD ( Wisconsin ) Computer Process Control Polymer Reaction Enginee r ing D R. Woods, PhD ( Wisconsin ) Surface Phenomena Cost Estimation Probl em Solving C.M. Crowe, PhD (Camb rid ge) Data R econcilia tion Optimization Simulation T.E. Marlin, PhD (Massachusetts) Compute r Proces s Control R H. Pelton, PhD ( Bristol ) J.D Wright, PhD (Ca mbridge }-Part Time Computer Process Control Pr ocess Dynami cs and Mod eli n g Wat er Soluble Polymers Colloid Polymer Systems J.M. Dickson, PhD (Virginia Tech ) Membrane Transport Phenom ena Reverse Osmosis L.W. She m ilt, PhD ( Toronto ) Electrochemical Mas s Transfer Corrosion A.E. Hamielec, PhD ( Toronto ) Thermodynamics Polymer Reaction Engineering Director: M c Mast e r Institute for Polym e r Production P.A. Taylor, PhD (Wales ) M Eng. and Ph. D. Progr am s Research Sch ol arships and Teaching Assistantshi p s are Availab l e Technology Computer Pr ocess Control A.N. Hrymak, PhD (Carnegie-Me llon ) J Vlach o p o ulos, DSc ( Washington University) ComputerAided D esign Numerical M et hod s Polymer Pr ocessing Rh eology Numerical Methods I.A. Feuerstein, PhD ( Massachusetts ) P.E. Wood, PhD (Cal tech ) Biom edica l Engineering Transport Phenomena Turbulence Modeling Mixin g Chemical Engineering at Columbia F o r further information, please contact Professor J. Vlachopoulos Department of C h emical Engineering McMaster University Hamilton, Ontario, Ca nada LBS 4L7 [ UNIVERSITY OF M1ssouR1, CoLUMBIA] The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Missouri-Columbia offers M.S and Ph D. programs. Based on the strengths of the department in the traditional research areas, the department is building strengths in current re search areas such as surface science, nuclear waste and wastewater treatment, biodegradation, indoor air pollution supercritical proce sses, plasma poly merization, coal transportation ( hydraulic ), chemi cal kinetics and allied areas Financial assistance in the form of teaching and research assistantships is available. Fo r details contact: The D irector of Gra du ate St u dies Depart m e n t of Chemical Engineering University o f Missouri Columbia, M O 6 5211 Telephone (314) 882-3563 Fax (314) 884 4940 Fall 1992 FACULTY RAKESH K BAJPAI Ph.D (/IT, Kanpur) Biochemical Engineering Hazardous Waste PAUL C H CHAN Ph.D (Ca/Tech) Reactor Analysis Fluid Mechanics D ONG L YUN CHO Ph.D (Missouri) Plasma Chemistry Surface Chemistry NILUFER H DURA L Ph D (Missouri) Air Pollution Mass Transfer ANTHONY L. HINES Ph.D (Texas) Indoor Air Pollution Surface Science RICHARD H LUECKE Ph.D (Oklahoma) Process Control Modeling THOMAS R MARRERO Ph.D (Maryland) Coal Log Transport Conducting Polymers DAVID G RETZLOFF Ph.D (Pittsburgh) Reactor Analysis Materials TRUMAN S. STORVICK Ph.D. (Pur d ue) Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Thermodynamics DABIR S. VISWANATH Ph D (Rochester) Applied Thermodynamics Chemical Kinetics HIROTSUGU K YASUDA Ph.D. (SU N Y Syracuse) Polymers Surface Science 317

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Melbourne, Australia Department of Chemical Engineering including the Australian Pulp and Paper Institute RESEARCH DEGREES: Ph.D., M.Eng.Sc. FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS T SR/DHAR (Chairman) Gas-Solid F l uidisation J R. G. ANDREWS D J. BRENNAN Brown Coal Hydro li quefaction, Gasification Ox ygen R emova l Fluidised Bed Dr y ing Pulp and Paper Techno log y F.LAWSON G. A. HOLDER Chemical Reaction Engineering Gas-Liquid Gas-Solid, Thre e Phase H eteroge n eo us Catalysis Catalyst D es i gn D. F. A. KOCH Transport Phenomena Heat and Mass Transfer, Transport Properties J. F. MATHEWS Extractive Metallurgy and Min eral Processing K. L NGUYEN Rheology Suspensions Polym ers, Foods W. E OLBRICH Bio c h emical Engineering Continuous Culture I. H PARKER Waste Treatment and Water Purification I. G PRINCE Process Economics 0 E POTTER C. TIU P. H. T. UHLHERR FOR FURTHER INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE Graduate Studies Coordinator M. W WADSLEY Deparbnent of Chemical Engineering Monash University M. R. W. WALMSLEY Clayton, Victoria, 3168, Australia Montana State University Montana State offers M S and Ph.D degree programs in chemical engineering with research programs in Separations, Biotechnology, and Materials Science Interdisciplinary research opportunities exist with the University 's NSF Engineering Research Center for Interfacial Microbial Process Engineering (C IMPE ). Faculty L. BERG ( Ph.D. Purdue ) Extractive Di st illation M. C. DEIBERT ( Sc.D., MIT ) Surface Science Catalysis Materials lntermetallic Compounds R. W. LARSEN ( Ph.D. Penn State ) -Biological Processes and Separations J. F. MANDELL ( Ph.D ., MIT ) Composites, Int e rfaces, Ceramics, Polymers F. P. McCANDLESS ( Ph.D ., MSU ) Membranes, Extractive Crystallization R. L. NICKELSON ( Ph D Minnesota ) Process Control W. P. SCARRAH ( Ph.D MSU ) Process Engineering, Separations J. T. SEARS Head ( Ph D ., Princeton ) -Adsorption of Bacteria on Surfaces, CVD D. L. SHAFFER ( Ph.D. Penn State ) Biomass Energy Conversion, Polymeric Materials P.S. STEWART ( Ph.D. Stanford) Biochemical Engineering Biofilms B.J. TYLER ( Ph D. Washington) Polymer Surface Chemistry Numeri ca l Methods Information -------------------Dr. J. T. Sears Head Department of Chemical Engineering Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-0007 Telephone : (4 06 ) 994-2221 FAX: (4 06 ) 994-6098 318 Chemical Engin ee r ing Educa tion

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UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OFFERING GRADUATE STUDY FOR M.S. OR PH.D. WITH RESEARCH IN BIO-MASS CONVERSION SEPARATION PROCESSES REACTION AND FERMENTATION KINETICS SURFACE SCIENCE COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS DESIGN AND THERMODYNAMICS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA PROCESS SYNTHESIS ELECTROCHEMICAL AND CORROSION ENGINEERING POLYMER ENGINEERING THIN FILMS FOR APPLICATION AND INFORMATION: Chairman of Chemical Engineering 236 Avery Hall University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0126 Graduate study Ill chemical engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Major research center: Environmental Engineering Bioengineering Food Processing Financial assistance is available Computer Aided Design Oil Recovery Chemical Safety Special programs for students with B.S. degrees in other fields FOR APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION WRITE Department of Chemical Engineering P. 0. Box 30001, Dept. 3805 New Mexico State University Las Cruces New Mexico 88003-0001 New Mexico State University is an Equal Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer Fall 1992 319

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320 9\&rtli C arofina 5'L & 'TS tate 'University Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering with Close Faculty-Student Interaction Faculty Angela B. Clark, Virginia 1990 Shamsuddin Ilias, Queens 1986 Vinayak Kabadi, Penn State 1982 Franklin G. King, Stevens In stitute 1966 Research Areas Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Environmental Engineering Material s Science Mixing Keith A. Schimmel, Northwestern 1990 Gary B. Tatterson, Ohio State 1977 For Mor e Information Contact: Process Control Thermodynamic s Transport Phenomena Separation Processes Professor Gary B Tatterson Department of Chemical Engineering North Carolina A&T State University Gr ee nsboro NC 27411 Phone: ( 919 ) 334-7564 ( Financial Aid Available ) NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Nortneastern University has educated superior engineers who have contributed significantly to the technological advances of our country The Chemical Engineering Department offers full and part time graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D degrees. Our pro grams are designed to provide up to-date knowledge and skills neces sary to keep abreast of today's changing technology. Courses are offered in the late afternoon and early evening to allow students to advance their academic and profes sional careers RESEARCH AREAS: Biotechnology Biopolymers Bioconversion Bioinstrumentation Catalysis Process Control Applied Mathematics Process Design Heat Transfer FOR INFORMATION WRITE: Ralph A Buonopane Ph.D Dept. of Chemical Engineer ing Northeastern University 360 Huntington 342 SN-GEE Boston MA 02115 Chemical Engineering Education

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Princeton University M.S.E. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering RESEARCH AREAS Applied Mathematics ; Bioengineer i ng ; Ceramic Materials ; Chemical Kinetics ; Catalysis ; Chemical Reactor / Reaction Engineer i ng ; Colloidal Phenomena ; Computer Aided Design ; Crystallizat i on and Dendritic Growth ; Electrohydrodynam ic s ; Molecular S i mulations ; Nonl i near Dynamics ; Plasma Processing ; Polymer Science ; Process Control ; Flow o f Granular Med i a ; Rheology ; Stat i st i cal Mechan i cs ; Supercritica l Flu i ds ; Surface Sc i ence ; Thermodynam i cs and Phase Equilibr i a FACULTY _____________________ ___ __ ____ llhan Aksay Jay B Benziger Joseph L. Cecchi Pablo G. Debenedett i, Christodoulos A. Floudas John K. Gillham Will i am W. Graessley Roy Jackson Steven F. Karel Yannis G Kevrekid i s Morton D Kostin Robert K Prud'homme Ludwig Rebenfeld Richard A. Register William B Russel (Chairman ), Dudley A. Saville Sankaran Sundaresan Write to : Director of Graduate Studies C hem i cal Engineering Princeton University Princeton New Jersey 08544-5263 Inquiries can be a d dresse d via E l ectroni c M ai l over BITNE T to C H EG RAD @ P UCC Qgeen's University Kingston, Ontario, Canada Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering MSc and PhD Degree Programs D.W. Bacon PhD ( Wisconsin) H.A. Becker ScD (MIT) D.H. Bone PhD (London) S.H. Cho PhD (Princeton) Ca tal ys i s and R e a c tio n catalyst aging & decay catalytic oxidation & cracking gas a d sorption on catalysis reactio n network analysis Fuel s and En e rgy Fischer-Tropsch synthesis flwdized bed comb u stion fue l alco h o l production gas flames and furnaces heat transfer in steel reheating R.H. Clark PhD (Imperial College) A.J. Daugulis PhD (Queen s) J. Downie PhD (Toronto) M.F.A. Goosen PhD (Toronto) E.W. Grandmaison PhD (Queen s) T.J. Harris PhD (McMaster) Ph ys i c al Proc e s s ing dryforming techno l ogy drying of cereal grains tu r bulent mixing & flow Bioreaction and Proce ss ing bioreactor modeling and design extractive fermentation fermentation using genetically Process Con t rol and Simulation batch reactor contro l multivariable contro l syste m s nonlinear contro l systems C.C. Hsu PhD (Texas) K.B. McAuley PhD (McMaster) P.J. Mclellan PhD (Queen's) B.W. Wojciechowski PhD (Ottawa) Fall 1992 engineered organisms controlled release delivery systems microencapsulation technology biomaterials Polymer Engineering Ziegler-Natta polymerization reactor analysis design, and control on-line optimization statistical identification of process dynamics ----WRITE ----Co ordinator of Graduat e Studi es D e partm e nt o f C h e mic a l E ngine e ring Qu ee n 's U ni vers i ty Kings ton Ontario C anada K7L 31, 6 32 1

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322 UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees -------CURRENT AREAS OF INTEREST-------Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Corrosion Crystallization Processes Thin Films Pollution Prevention Heat and Mass Transfer Metallurgy and Ceramics Mixing FOR APPLICAT I ONS APPLY TO Chairman Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rhode Island Kingston, RI 02881 Multiphase Flow Phas e Change Kinetics Separation Processes Surface Phenomena Applications for financial aid s hould b e rec e ived not later than February 16th. OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH AREAS FACULTY Kinetics and Catalysis C. F. Abegg, Ph.D., Iowa State Process Control R. S. Artigue, D.E. Tulane Polymers W. B. Baratuci, Ph.D., Case Western Reserve Thermodynamics J. A. Caskey, Ph.D., Clemson Transport Phenomena Biotechnology M. H. Hariri, Ph.D., Manchester S. Leipziger, Ph.D., I.I. T. N. E. Moore, Ph.D., Purdue FOR INFORMATION WRITE Dr Stuart Leipziger Department Graduate Advisor Chemical Engineering Department Rose-Hu/man Institute of Technology Terre Haute IN 47803-3999 Chemical Eng inee ring Education

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UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA, FLORIDA 33260 For further information contact: Graduate Pro g ram C oordinato r Chemical En g ineerin g U niversi ty of South Flor i da Tampa Florida 33620 (813) 974-3997 Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering Leading to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Faculty V. R. Bhethanabotla J.C. Busot S. W. Campbell L. H Garcia Rubio R. A. Gilbert W. E. Lee J. A. Llewellyn C. A Smith A. K. Sunol Research Areas Artificial Intelligence Automatic Process Control Biomaterials / Biocompatibility Biomedical Engineering Computer Aided Process Engineering Computer Simulation Irreversible Thermodynamics Mathematic Modeling Molecular Thermodynamics Phase Equilibria Physical Property Correlation Polymer Reaction Engineering Process Identification Process Monitoring and Analysis Sensors and Instrumentation Statistical Me c hanics Supercritical Fluid Technology UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY MUHAMMAD SAHIMI W VICTOR CHANG (Ph.D Ch.E., Caltech 1976) Physical properties of polymers and composites ; adhesion; finite element analysis (Ph.D., Ch.E ., Minnesota 1984) Transport and mechanical prope rt ies of disordered systems ; percolation theory and non-eq u ilib r ium growth processes; flow diffusion, dispersion and reaction in porous media Please write for further information about the program financial support and application forms to: Graduate Adm i ss i on s Department of Chemical Engineer i ng Univers i ty of Southern Californ i a Univers ity Park Los Angeles CA 90089-12 11 Fall 1992 ELMER L. DOUGHERTY JR (Ph.D., Ch E. Illinois, Urbana, 1955) Optimization of oil and gas producing operations; simulation of hydrocarbon reservoir behavior ; energy and environmental economics /RAJ ERSHAGHI (Ph.D., PTE Southern Cal 1972) W ell test a n alyses of fractured geothermal and gas storage reservoirs; reservoir characterization ; petrophysical modeling RONALD G. MINET (Ph.D., Ch .E., New York Un iversity 1959) (Adjunct) Computer aided chemical process and plant design ; catalysis; ceramic membra n es CORNELIUS J. PINGS (Ph D Ch E. Caltech 1955) Ther modynamics; statistical mechanics and liquid state physics (Provost and Senior Vice President Academic Affairs) RONALD SALOVEY (Ph.D ., Phys Chem ., Harvard 1958) Physical chemistry and irradiation of polymers ; characterization of elastomers and filled systems ; polymer crysta l lization KATHERINE S SH/NG (Ph.D ., Ch E. Cornell, 1982) Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics; supercritical extraction THEODORE T TSOTSIS (Ph.D., Ch.E., Illinois Urbana 1978) Chemical reaction engineering ; process dynamics and control /AN A WEBSTER (D.Sc., Ch E., M. I. T ., 1984) {Adjunct) Catalysis and reaction kinetics; transport phe n omena, chemical reactio n engineeri n g ; s u rface spectrosco p y biochemical engineering YANIS C YORTSOS (Ph.D ., Ch E. Caltech 1979) Mathematical modeling of transport processes; flow and transport in porous media 323

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324 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEWYORKAT BUFFALO ----FACULTY -----------RESEARCH AREAS -------S L Diamond P .Ehr lich R. J. Good V. Hlavacek K. M. Kiser D.A.Kofke D. E. Leckband C.R. F Lund T J Mountziaris J. M. Nitsche E Ruckenstein M E. Ryan D D Y. Ryu J. A. Tsamopoulos C. J van Oss T W. Weber S. W. Weller R. T. Yang Adsorption Applied Mathematics Biochemical & Biomedical Catalysis Kinetics & Reactor Design Ceramics Coal Conversion Electronic Materials Environmental Engineering Fluid Mechanics Polymer Processing & Rheology Process Control Reaction Engineering Separation Processes Surface Phenomena & Colloids Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena Academic programs for MS and PhD candidates are designed to provide depth in chemica l engineeri n g fundamentals while preserving the flexibility n ee ded to develop special areas of interest The Department also draws on the strangths of being part of a large and diverse university center. This environment stimulates interdisciplinary interactions in teaching and research. The new departmental facilities offer an exceptio nal opportunit y for students to develop their resear c h skills and capab iliti es Thes e features combined with year-round recreational activities afforded b y th e Western New York countryside and numerous cultural activities centered around the City of Buffalo mak e SUNY I Buffalo an especially attractive place to pursue graduate studies F o r inf o r ma ti on and appli c ation s, write t a: C ha ir man Gr adu ate Co mm ittee D e partm e nt o f Che m ic al Engineering St at e Unive r sity o f New Y a rk a t B u ffalo Bu ff alo Ne w Y a rk 14260 &I:f(FJ@@@J W@Mll wrl@llll@J Q Q Q Syracuse University Chemical Engineering and Materials Science FACULTY-----Allen J. Barduhn (emeritus) John C. Heydweiller Cynthia S. Hirtzel (Chair) George C. Martin Klaus Schroder James A. Schwarz S. Alexander Stern Lawrence L. Tavlarides Chi Tien Philip A. Rice Ashok S. Sangani For i nformation Dr. George C. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science 320 Hinds Hall Syracuse University Syracuse NY 13244 (315) 443-2557 Chemical Engineering Education

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TEXAS A&I UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering M S. and M E Natural Gas Engineering M.S. and M E FACULTY F T AL-SAADOON C. V MOONEY Ph D ., University of Pittsburgh P E M E ., Oklahoma University P E Reservo i r Engineering and Product i on Gas Measurement and Production J. L. CHISHOLM P. W. PRITCHETT Ph.D ., University of Oklahoma Ph D ., University of Delaware P.E Texas A&I University is locted in tropical South T ex as forty miles south of th e urban center of Cor pus Christi and thirty mil es west of Padre Island National Seashor e. Reservoir Engineering and Production Granular Solids and Petrochemicals R N FINCH C.RAI FOR INFORMATION AND APPL/CATION WRITE: Ph D ., University of Texas P E Ph.D ., Ill i nois Institute of Technology P.E Phase Equilibria and Environment a l Reservo i r Engineering and Gas i ficat i on W A. HEENAN Graduate Adv i sor Departmen t of Engineer i ng De s u/fur i z ati on W A HEENAN D L. SCHRUBEN Chemical & Natural Gas Engineering Texas A&I Un i versity Campus Bo x 193 Kingsville Texas 78363 D Ch E ., University of Detroit P E Ph.D. Carnegie-Mellon University P E Process Control and Thermodynamics Fluid Systems Transport R. W. SERTH Ph D. SUNY at Buffalo P E Rheology a nd Applied Mathemat i cs U THEbi NIVERSITY 0 fTVLSA MS. AND PH.D. PROGRAMS IN OIEMICAL ENGINEERING The U niv ers it y of Tulsa bu an Equa1 Opportunit y/ Affirmativ e A c tion Pro gra m for s tudents and e mployee s. Fall 1992 THE FACULTY M.A. Abraham T. Ariman R.L. Cerro R.P. He s keth K.D Luks F.S. Manning E.J. Middlebrooks K.L. Sublett e R e a c tion kin e ti cs, c atal ys i s, s up e r c riti c al fluid s P a rti c ulat e sc i e n ce a nd t ec hnolo gy, multipha se se paration pro cesses Ca pilla ry h y drodynami cs, multiph ase flow s Fluidiz e d b e d co mbu s ti o n fluid m ec hani cs Th e rm o d yn ami cs, p ha se e quilibri a Indu s trial pollution co ntr o l s urf ace p ro cess in g of pe tr o l e um Envir o nm e ntal e ngin ee rin g Fe rm e nt a ti o n bio c atal ysis, h a z a rd o u s wa s t e tr ea tm e nt R.E Thompson Oil and g a s p r ocess in g co mput e r -ai d e d p r ocess des ign K.D. Wisecarver Fluidizati o n bior e a c t o r m o d e ling ma ss tran s fer and a d so rpti o n in p o rou s s olid s FURTHER INFORMATION Graduat e Program Dir ec t o r C h e mi c al Engin ee rin g D e partm e nt Th e U ni ve r s i ty of Tulsa 6 00 So uth C oll ege Ave nu e Tulsa Oklahoma 74 1 043189 (9 18 ) 631-297 8 325

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ASPIRE TO NEW HEIGHTS T University of Utah is the o ld est ate-run un ive r s ity west of th e Mi sou ri Ri ver. The University is world renowned for r esearc h activities in medi c in e, sc ience a nd e ngineerin g. The grad ate Chemical Engineering program offe r s a numb e r of collaborative int e rdi scip lin ary re searc h o pportunitie s. The University is l oca t ed in Salt Lake C it y, the only m e tropolitan area in the co un try which i s within 45 minut es of seven major ski areas and within a da y's drive of five n a ti o nal parks Entertainment in th e city includes: re si dent ball e t sy mphon y, a nd th eater orga ni zatio n s; professional sports; a nd a variety of liv e music perfor mance s in publi c a nd private establishments throughout the city General areas of resear c h : bi o t ec hn o lo gy catalysis co mbu stion co mput er-a id ed design fossil-fue l s co n vers i o n h azardo u s waste management min era l s processing m o l ec ular modeling n o n-N ewto ni a n fluid me c hani sms p o l y m e r science For information, write 326 Dir ec tor of Graduate Stuclies Department of C h emical and Fuels Engin eering University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 Graduate Studies in Chemical and Fuels Engineering IJJ UNIVERSITY OF UTAH WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CONTACT Dr Ralph H. Kumml er, Chairman D e partment of Chemical Engineering Wayn e State University Detroit Michigan 48202 D.A. Crowl, PhD safety and loss prevention computer applications E. Gulari, PhD transport laser light scattering R.H. Kummler, PhD environmental engineering kinetics C.B. Leffert, PhD energy conversion heat transfer C.W. Manke, Jr. PhD polymer engineering rheology R. Marriott, PhD computer applications nuclear engineering J.H. McMicking, PhD process dynamics mass transfer S Ng PhD polymer science catalysis E.W. Rothe PhD molecular beams analysis of experiments S. Salley PhD biosystems modeling kinetics 8.0. Shorthouse PhD hazardous waste management S K. Stynes PhD multi-phase flows environmental engineering G. E. Yawson PhD hazardous waste management Chemical Engineering Education

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Widener Master's Program in Chemical Engineering \le ta.ke your education personally. UNIVERSITY (Including Environmental Engineering Option ) Advanced study in chemical engineering including process analysis sy nthesi s and de sign. Core Courses ... Thermodynamics Transport phenomena Reaction kinetics Applied mathematic s Wide range of technical electives Thesis option Environ m e ntal engi n eering option provides the know-how to apply advanced c h e mi cal engineering techniques to problems in that area. Topics include ... Environmental law Advanced water and wastewater systems Incineration/hazardous waste management Related program in Engineering Management also available For more information contact: Prof essor D H.T Chen Assistant Dean/Graduate Program s a nd R esearc h School of Engineering Wid e n er University One University Pla ce Chester PA 19013-579 2 Phone 215 /499-4198 FAX 2 15/499 -4059 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA The Departm e nt of Chemical Eng in eering invites app li catio n s for grad u ate st ud y from cand id ates who wish to proceed to the M.Eng ., M.Eng. ( Pulp & Paper ), M A.Sc. or Ph.D. degree For the l atter two degree s, A ss i stants hip s or Fellowship s are availa bl e UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS Department of Chemical Engineering AREAS OF RESEARCH Air Poll uti on Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Biotechnology Catalysis Coal Natural Gas and Oil Processing Electrochemical Engineering Electrokinetic and Fouling Phenomena Fluid Dynamics Fluidization Heat Transfer Kinetics Liquid Extraction Magnetic Effects Mass Transfer Modeling and Optimization Particle D ynam ics Process Dynami cs Pulp & Paper Rheolog y Rotar y Kilns Separation Processes Spouted Beds Sulphur Thermodynamics Water Pollution Inquirie s should b e addressed to : Fall 1992 Graduate Advisor D e partm ent of Chemical Engineering THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Vancouver, B.C ., Cana d a V6T 1Z4 FAX : ( 604 ) 822-6003 Areas of Research fluid mechanics of th i n films environmental transport reactor design & catalys i s supercritical extraction suspension dynamics interfacial transport. biopolymers polymer adhes i on transport in porous media rheology Langmuir Blodgett films process control biomedical, biochemical & genet i c eng i neer i ng Faculty Abbott, Nicholas L. Mc.Coy, Ben J Anderson Herbert R ., Jr Mc.Donald, Karen A. Bell, Richard L. Palazoglu, Mmet N. Boulton Roger Ph illi ps Ronald J. Dungan, Stephanie R Powell, Robert L. Gates Bruce C. Ryu, Dewey D Y Higgins, Brian G Smith, J M Jackman Alan P Stroeve, P i eter Katz, David F Wh i taker, Stephen For more i nformation please write to : Graduate Admiss i ons Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering University of Cal if orn ia Dav is, CA 95616 n11 JlJL ____ l.l]lJjlJjl.lj 327

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BIOENGINEERING AT CARNEGIE MELLON Molecular Biophysics and Cellular Dynamics transmembrane d i ffusion ; mutagenes i s and prote i n stab i lity ; dynamics of cytoplasmic molecules ; cytoskeleton assembly ; cell adhesion and motility Physiology and Regulation bio-sensory pe r ception ; modeling of peripheral auditory sys tem ; metabolic networks and flux control ; animal models of diabetes ; xenobiotic challenges to pulmonary system Signal Processing/Bioinstrumentation pattern recognition ; monitoring of physiological rates ; signal processing in sensory systems ; three dimensional cell imaging ; fluorescent probe molecular des i gn and applicat i ons ; develop ment of in situ fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy methods to investigate cells Biomaterials and Biomechanics orthopedic b i omechanics ; bipedal locomotion ; regulatory stan dards and testing of implantable devices ; terminal of environ mental hazards ; surface-protein interaction. FOR FURTHER IN F ORMATI O N WRITE TO; CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY Biomedical Engineering Program Graduate Admissions DH 2313 Pittsburgh PA 15213 PhD/MS in Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY of NEW HAMPSHIRE Imagine an exciting education in a relaxed rural atmosphere. Imagine New Hampshire We re lo cated in the Seacoast region only an hour from the White Mountains to the north or from Boston to the south. Current research projects at UNH : 328 BIOENGINEERING COAL PROCESSING COMPUTER APPLICATIONS ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENT AL ENGINEERING POLYMER ENGINEERING FLAME PROCESSING FLUIDIZATION SOLAR ENERGY SPACE APPLICATIONS F or information contact Dr. SST Fan Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering University of New Hampshire Durham NH 03824-3591 UNIVERSITY OF DAYTON Graduate Study in Chemical and Materials Engineering Researc h assistantships (inc lu ding competitive stipend and tuition) are avai l ab l e for students pursuing M.S in Chemical Engineering o r M.S. or Ph.D. in Materials Engineer i ng in the following researc h areas: PROCESS MODELING EXPERT SYSTEM PROCESS CONTROL COMBUSTION SEPARATION PROCESSES COMPOSITE MATERIALS MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS We specia l ize in offering each student an individualized program of st u dy and research with most projects involving pertinent in teraction with industria l personnel. For furth e r i nforma tio n w ri t e t o: Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemica l and Materia l s Engine e ring University of Dayton 300 College Park Avenu e Dayton Ohio 45469-0246 or call (5 13 ) 229-2627 t a Th e {_ ~/:iversily ff Dr ~ IJfr m UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA MS and MEngr. in Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies PROGRAMS: Thesis and non thes i s options ava i lable for MS degree ; subs t antial design componen t requir e d for M Engr program A f ull-time student wi t h BSChE can compl e te pro gram in 9-12 months Students with degree i n chemistry will require two calendar years to complete MS degree A PhD program in Energy Engineering is also available to students with MS in Chemical Engineer i ng RESEARCH PROJECTS : Most funded research projects are energy related with the full spectrum of basic to applied projects available Students participate i n project related thes i s prob lems as project participants ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH CENTER: A cooperative program of study / research with r e search projects related to low-rank coal conversion and utilization sponsored by U S Department of Energy and private industry is available to a limited number of students FOR INFORMATION WRITE TO D r. Thomas C. Owen s, Cha i r Chemical Eng i neer i ng Departmen t Un i versity of Nort h Dakot a Grand Forks North D ak ota 58 2 0 2 ( 7017774 2 44 ) C h emical E n ginee r ing Education

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AUTHOR GUIDELINES This guide is offered to aid authors in preparing manuscripts for Chemical Engineering Education ( CEE ) a quarterly journal published by the Chemical Engineering Division of the Ameri can Society for Engineering Education ( ASEE ) CEE publishes papers in the broad field of chemical engineering education. Papers generally describe a course, a laboratory, a ChE department, a ChE educator, a ChE curriculum, research program, machine computation special instructional programs, or give views and opinions on various topics of interest to the profession. Specific suggestions on preparing papers TITLE Use specific and informative titles. They should be as brief as possible consistent with the need for defining the subject area covered by the paper. AUTHORSHIP Be consistent in authorship designation. Use first name second initial, and surname. Give complete mailing address of place where work was conducted. If current address is different include it in a footnote on title page. TEXT Manuscripts of less than twelve double-spaced typewritten pages in length will be given priority over longer ones. Consult recent issues for general style. Assume your reader is not a novice in the field Include only as much history as is needed to provide background for the particular material covered in your paper. Sectionalize the article and insert brief appropriate headings. TABLES Avoid tables and graphs which involve duplication or superfluous data. If you can use a graph do not include a table. If the reader needs the table omit the graph Substitute a few typical results for lengthy tables when practical. Avoid computer printouts. NOMENCLATURE Follow nomenclature style of Chemical Abstracts ; avoid trivial names. If trade names are used, define at point of first use. Trade names should carry an initial capital only, with no accompanying footnote. Use consistent units of measurement and give dimensions for all terms. Write all equations and formulas clearly, and number important equations consecutively. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Include in acknowledgment only such credits as are essential. LITERATURE CITED References should be numbered and listed on a separate sheet in the order occurring in the text. COPY REQUIREMENTS Send two legible copies of the typed ( double-spaced ) manuscript on standard letter-size paper. Clear duplicated copies are acceptable. Submit original drawings ( or clear prints) of graphs and diagrams, and clear glossy prints of photographs. Prepare original drawings on tracing paper or high quality paper; use black india ink and a lettering set Choose graph papers with blue cross-sectional lines; other colors interfere with good reproduction. Label ordinates and abscis sas of graphs along the axes and outside the graph proper. Figure captions and legends may be set in type and need not be lettered on the drawings. Number all illustrations consecutively. Supply all captions and legends typed on a separate page. If drawings are mailed under separate cover, identify by name of author and title of manuscript. State in cover letter if drawings or photographs are to be returned. Authors should include brief biographical sketches and recent photographs with the manuscript.

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