Chemical engineering education

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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
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American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
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Storrs, Conn
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Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular

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Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

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Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
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Title from cover.
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Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
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lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00116

Full Text










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VOLUME 26 NUMBER 4 FALL 1992



GRADUATE EDUCATION

ISSUE


| Featuring ...
U
A Course on Parallel Computing
0 Kim
A Pilot Graduate-Recruiting Program
Z Sloan Baldwin, Fiedler,McKinntn, Miller
o A Course on Environmental Remediation
Stokes
A Colloquium Series in Chemical Engineering
Tsouris, Yiacoumi, Hirtzel
Research on Neural Networks, Optimization, and Process Control
Cooper, Aehenie
Chemical Reaction Engineering: A Story of Continuing Fascination
Z Doraiswamy
a Pattern Formation in Convective-Diffusive Transport With Reaction
m Arce, Locke, Vifals
An Introduction to the Fundamentals of Bio(Molecular) Engineering
** Locke
Z Some Thoughts on Graduate Education: A Graduate Student's Perspective
O Kannan

o And also...
z
a Problem: The Influence of Catalysts on Thermodynamic Equilibrium
U Falconer
Random Thoughts: Sorry, Pal-It Doesn't Work That Way
Felder
-a


U
6 )

u












ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


DEPARTMENTAL SPONSORS

The following 153 departments contribute to the support of CEE with bulk subscriptions.

If your department is not a contributor, write to
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION,
c/o Chemical Engineering Department University of Florida *Gainesville, FL 32611
for information on bulk subscriptions

I


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SEditor's Note to Seniors ...


Fall 1991
Carnahan Computing in Engineering Education: From There,
To Here, To Where? (Award Lecture, Part 1)
Deshpande, Krishnaswamy A Graduate Course in Digital Com-
puter Process Control
Churchill Chemical Kinetics, Fluid Mechanics and Heat Trans-
fer in the Fast Lane
Fleischman Risk Reduction in the Chemical Engineering Cur-
riculum
Kodas, et al. Research Opportunities in Ceramics Science and
Engineering
Peters An Introduction to Molecular Transport Phenomena

Fall 1990
Austin, Beronio, Taso Biochemical Engineering Education
Through Videotapes
Ramkrishna Applied Mathematics
Rice Dispersion Model Differential Equation for Packed Beds
Bhada, et al. Consortium on Waste Management
Felder Stoichiometry Without Tears
Cohen, Tsai, Chetty Multimedia Environmental Transport,
Exposure, and Risk Assessment
Schulz, Benge ChE Summer Series at Virginia Polytechnic
Roberge Transferring Knowledge
Coulman ChE Curriculum, 1989
Frey Numerical Simulation of Multicomponent Chroma-
tography Using Spreadsheets
Fried Polymer Science and Engineering at Cincinnati

Fall 1989
San, McIntire Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Kummler, McMicking, Powitz Hazardous Waste Management
Bienkowski, et al. Multidisciplinary Course in Bioengineering
Lauffenburger Cellular Bioengineering
Randolph Particulate Processes
Kumar, Bennett, Gudivaka Hazardous Chemical Spills
Davis Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions
Wang Applied Linear Algebra
Kisaalita, et al. Crossdisciplinary Research: The Neuron-Based
Chemical Sensor Project
Kyle The Essence of Entropy
Rao Secrets of My Success in Graduate School

Fall 1988
Arkun, Charos, Reeves Model Predictive Control
Briedis Technical Communications for Grad Students
Deshpande Multivariable Control Methods
Glandt Topics in Random Media
Ng, Gonzalez, Hu Biochemical Engineering
Goosen Research: Animal Cell Culture in Microcapsules
Teja, Schaeffer Research: Thermodynamics and Fluid
Properties
Duda Graduation: The Beginning of Your Education


Fall 1987
Amundson American University Graduate Work
DeCoursey Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction
Takoudis Microelectronics Processing
McCready, Leighton Transport Phenomena
Seider, Ungar Nonlinear Systems
Skaates Polymerization Reactor Engineering
Edie, Dunham Research: Advanced Engineering Fibers
Allen, Petit Research: Unit Operations in Microgravity
Bartusiak, Price Process Modeling and Control
Bartholomew Advanced Combustion Engineering

Fall 1986
Bird Hougen's Principles
Amundson Research Landmarks for Chemical Engineers
Duda Graduate Studies: The Middle Way
Jorne Chemical Engineering: A Crisis of Maturity
Stephanopoulis Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering
Venkatasubramanian A Course in Artificial Intelligence in
Process Engineering
Moo-Young Biochemical Engineering and Industrial Biotech-
nology
Babu, Sukanek The Processing of Electronic Materials
Datye, Smith, Williams Characterization of Porous Materials
and Powders
Blackmond A Workshop in Graduate Education

Fall 1985
Bailey, Ollis Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals
Belfort Separation and Recovery Processes
Graham, Jutan Teaching Time Series
Soong Polymer Processing
Van Zee Electrochemical and Corrosion Engineering
Radovic Coal Utilization and Conversion Processes
Shah, Hayhurst Molecular Sieve Technology
Bailie, Kono, Henry Fluidization
Kauffman Is Grad School Worth It?
Felder The Generic Quiz

Fall 1984
Lauffenburger, et al, Applied Mathematics
Marnell Graduate Plant Design
Scamehorn Colloid and Surface Science
Shah Heterogeneous Catalysis with Video-Based Seminars
Zygourakis Linear Algebra
Bartholomew, Hecker Research on Catalysis
Converse, et al. Bio-Chemical Conversion of Biomass
Fair Separations Research
Edie Graduate Residency at Clemson
McConica Semiconductor Processing
Duda Misconceptions Concerning Grad School


Fall 1992


This is the 26th graduate education issue published by CEE. It is distributed to chemical engineering seniors
interested in and qualified for graduate school. We include articles on graduate courses and research at various
universities, along with departmental announcements on graduate programs. In order for you to obtain a broad idea of the
nature of graduate work, we encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue, but also those in previous issues. A list
of the papers from recent years follows. If you would like a copy of a previous fall issue, please write to CEE.
Ray W. Fahien, Editor


'I









Chemical Engineering Division

Activities
SHAI


THIRTIETH ANNUAL LECTURESHIP AWARD TO
WILLIAM N. GILL
The 1992 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division
Lecturer is William N. Gill of Rensselaer Polytech-
nic Institute. The purpose of this award is to recog-
nize and encourage outstanding achievement in an
important field of fundamental chemical engineer-
ing theory or practice.
The award, an engraved certificate, is bestowed
annually upon a distinguished engineering educator
who delivers the annual lecture of the Chemical
Engineering Division. This year it was presented to
the winner at the Division's summer school, held at
Montana State University in August. The award is
made on an annual basis, with nominations wel-
comed through February 1, 1993.
Dr. Gill's lecture was entitled "Interactive Dynam-
ics of Convection and Crystal Growth." It will be
published in a forthcoming issue of CEE.

Award Winners
There were a number of significant awards pre-
sented to chemical engineering faculty members dur-
ing the annual conference held at the University of
Toledo in June, 1992. Robert A. Greenkorn (Purdue
University) was named a Fellow of ASEE, having
met the requirements of Fellow Grade membership
as stated in the ASEE Constitution. The Fred
Merryfield Design Award was presented to Klaus
D. Timmerhaus (University of Colorado), recogniz-
ing his sustained excellent in engineering education
and particularly his contributions to teaching chemi-
cal engineering design.
Douglas A. Lauffenburger (University of Illi-


nois, Urbana-Champaign) received the Curtis W.
McGraw Research Award in recognition of his many
outstanding achievements and, in particular, for ex-
panding the boundaries of engineering research and
education by using engineering principles and ap-
proaches in cell biology research. The George
Westinghouse Award was presented to Nicholas A.
Peppas (Purdue University) for his outstanding,
innovative contributions to engineering education
during his fifteen-year tenure at Purdue University.
C. Stewart Slater (Manhattan College) received
the Fluke Award for Excellence in Laboratory In-
struction, recognizing his contributions in the pro-
motion of excellence in experimentation and labora-
tory instruction. The Dow Outstanding Young Fac-
ulty Award for the North Central Section went to J.
Richard Elliot, Jr. (University of Akron), and Rob-
ert M. Ybarra (University of Missouri, Rolla) re-
ceived a plaque naming him as an Outstanding Zone
Campus Representative for Zone III.

ChE Division Officers
The 1992-93 officers for the Chemical Engineering
Division of ASEE are:
Past Chairman Tim Anderson
(University of Florida)
Chairman John C. Friedly
(University of Rochester)
Chairman-Elect L. Davis Clements
(University of Nebraska)
Secretary-Treasurer William L. Conger
(Virginia Polytechnic University)
Directors Thomas R. Hanley
(University of Louisville)
Charles H. Barron
(Clemson University)


Note to Our Readers:
It is with pride that we announce that our editor, Ray W. Fahien, is the 1992 recipient of
the prestigious AIChE Warren K. Lewis award. This singular recognition for his contribu-
tions to chemical engineering over the years is well deserved and gives due testimony to his
devotion to the profession and his adherence to its highest standards of excellence. Those of
us who work closely with him want to add our congratulations and appreciation for his
unselfish and high-minded leadership through the years, and the grace with which he has
conducted himself in all matters.
Tim Anderson, Associate Editor

70 Chemical Engineering Education











EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS:
Chemical Engineering Education
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
FAX 904-392-0861

EDITOR
Ray W. Fahien (904) 392-0857
ASSOCIATE EDITOR
T. J. Anderson (904) 392-2591
CONSULTING EDITOR
Mack Tyner
MANAGING EDITOR
Carole Yocum (904) 392-0861
PROBLEM EDITORS
James 0. Wilkes and Mark A. Burns
University of Michigan

PUBLICATIONS BOARD

CHAIRMAN *
E. Dendy Sloan, Jr.
Colorado School of Mines

PAST CHAIRMEN *
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Georgia Institute of Technology
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MEMBERS
George Burnet
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Richard M. Felder
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Bruce A. Finlayson
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J. David Hellums
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Carol M. McConica
Colorado State University
Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Stanley I Sandler
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Richard C. Seagrave
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M. Sami Selim
Colorado School of Mines
James E. Stice
University of Texas at Austin
Phillip C. Wankat
Purdue University
Donald R. Woods
McMaster University


Fall 1992


Chemical Engineering Education


Volume 26


Number 4


Fall 1992


FEATURES
172 A Course on Parallel Computing, Sangtae Kim

176 Research on Neural Networks, Optimization, and
Process Control,
Douglas J. Cooper, Luke E.K. Achenie

184 Chemical Reaction Engineering: A Story of
Continuing Fascination, L.K. Doraiswamy

190 A Pilot Graduate-Recruiting Program,
E.D. Sloan, R.M. Baldwin, D.J.T. Fiedler,
J.T. McKinnon, R.L. Miller

194 An Introduction to the Fundamentals of
Bio(Molecular) Engineering, Bruce R. Locke

200 A Colloquium Series in Chemical Engineering,
Costas Tsouris, Sotira Yiacoumi, Cynthia S. Hirtzel

204 A Course on Environmental Remediation,
Cynthia L. Stokes

210 Some Thoughts on Graduate Education: A Graduate
Student's Perspective,
Rangaramanujam M. Kannan

214 Pattern Formation in Convective-Diffusive
Transport With Reaction,
Pedro Arce, Bruce R. Locke, Jorge Virials

CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS
180 The Influence of Catalysts on Thermodynamic
Equilibrium, John L. Falconer

RANDOM THOUGHTS
175 Sorry, Pal-It Doesn't Work That Way,
Richard M. Felder


169 Editorial
170 Division Activities
183 Positions Available
174, 182, 213 Book Reviews

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the
University of Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of
address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville,
FL 32611. Copyright 1992 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Societyfor Engineering
Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and
not necessarily those of the ChE Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them.
Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days of publication. Write for information on
subscription costs and for back copy costs and availability. POSTMASTER: Send address changes
to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department., University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.









A Course on .


PARALLEL COMPUTING


SANGTAE KIM
University of Wisconsin
Madison, WI 53706

Parallel computing has received considerable

and favorable attention in sources ranging
from chemical engineering literaturell" to the
popular media (see Figure 1). A new course on paral-
lel computing has been developed at the University
of Wisconsin that meets the needs of both graduate
and advanced undergraduate engineering students.
Why the sudden surge in interest in parallel com-
puting? As a concept, parallel computing has been
around for several decades. As early as 1966, Flynni[2
delineated some of the key features found in a paral-
lel computer. However, the rapid evolution of
uniprocessor speeds squeezed the window for design
and development of parallel computers. The reason-
ing went that during the three to five years over
which a system was designed and developed, its
processor components would be outclassed by a new
generation of uniprocessors. But the pace of
uniprocessor evolution is certainly slowing at the
high end. Figure 2 compares the evolution in com-
puting capabilities of the fastest uniprocessors and a
square inch of silicon during the 1980s.
The performance of a single fast superprocessor is
ultimately bound by fundamental physical con-
straints, such as the speed of light. So we turn
instead to the idea of connecting very many rela-


S Sangtae Kim holds a Wisconsin Distinguished
Professorship, with appointments in both chemi-
cal engineering and computer science at the
University of Wisconsin. He received his BSc
(1979) and MSc (1979) at Caltech and his PhD
(1983) at Princeton. His research interests in
computational microhydrodynamics encompass
S parallel computing solutions to problems in sus-
pension rheology, colloidal hydrodynamics, and
Protein folding.

tively inexpensive processors, an idea that becomes
increasingly more practical as the processing capa-
bility on a square inch of silicon approaches the
100 MegaFLOPS benchmark-a traditional unit
measure of supercomputing performance. Indeed,
with shrinking semiconductor dimensions, it is
quite likely that in the near future a square inch of
silicon will house four, and then sixteen, such pro-
cessors. Thus, in Figure 2 one could extrapolate
the upward slope of the semiconductor processor
curve well into the 1990s.
The emergence of the high-performance parallel
computer creates new opportunities for science and
engineering, and new courses must be developed to
train the next generation of scientists and engineers.
The challenge is twofold: to map currently pop-
ular solution methodologies to parallel algorithms
and to develop new solution methods that naturally
lead to parallel algorithms.


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Figure 1.Doonesbury cartoon
(DOONESBURY copyright 1992 G.B. Trudeau. Reprinted with permission
of UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. All rights reserved.)
Chemical Engineering Education










The course consists of three parts,... an introduction to parallel computing architectures, followed by an
overview of parallel computing extensions of high-level languages .... [and] term projects on various
parallel computers in which students get first-hand opportunities to implement the ideas ...


[+ 80287 8
1980 82 84 86 88 1990
Figure 2. Evolution of floating point performance during
the 1980s. 1000 x 1000 LINPACK, from Dongarra. 31

The course consists of three parts, starting with an
introduction to parallel computing architectures, fol-
lowed by an overview of parallel computing exten-
sions of high-level languages like Fortran. The third
part consists of term projects on various parallel
computers in which students get first-hand opportu-
nities to implement the ideas discussed in the first
and second parts of the course.
The course begins with a survey of historical and
philosophical perspectives on parallel computing, as
summarized in an excellent series of essays in
DAEDALUS, the Journal of the American Academy
of Arts and Sciences.[41 Some essays compare and
contrast the development and societal impact of
the first digital electronic computers and the corre-
sponding changes wrought by the emergence of the
massively parallel computer. Other essays provide
benchmark comparisons of conventional vector
supercomputers, RISC workstations, and parallel
machines on a suite of computational tasks.
Students are also directed to historical accounts of
the founding of the major players in the parallel
computing market. 51
The course then shifts into an introductory de-
scription of parallel computer architectures. The con-
cept of algorithm and machine granularity (fine grain
and coarse grain parallelism) styles of control (SIMD,
MIMD), and memory layout (Shared, Distributed-
Message Passing) are reviewed. The book by
Fall 1992


Bertsekas and Tsitsiklis16I is used as a guide. The
concepts are illustrated with specific examples in-
volving Bus-based architectures (Cray, Alliant),
SIMD computing on the Thinking Machine Corpora-
tion CM2, and message passing on the Intel iPSC/
860 hypercube.
The discussion on parallel computing with high-
level languages centers around parallel extensions
of the Fortran language. The paradigm for shared
memory machines (shared common blocks, forking
of child processes, barrier synchronization, spin locks)
follows the discussion in Brawer,171 and his stan-
dards are then compared with example Fortran codes
on real machines (Sequent Symmetry, IBM 3090).
Fortran extensions on message passing systems (node
programs, host programs, synchronous and asyn-
chronous sends and receives, waiting for messages)
are illustrated with examples from the Intel iPSC/
860 hypercube. Students monitor program perfor-
mance on the iPSC/860 with execution trace files
created by PICLs8 and subsequent visualization on
Unix workstations with the ParaGraph software de-
veloped by Heath and coworkers.191
This section of the course then concludes with a
discussion of Fortran90 and its close relative, CM
Fortran. A four-hour videotape on CM Fortran imple-
mentation on the CM5 provided by the Thinking
Machines Corporation was used. The coverage of
Fortran90 was partly hampered by the lack of an
inexpensive compiler for the workstation environ-
ment. However, we recently obtained the NAG For-
tran90 compiler for our NeXTstations and plan to
use it in the course next year.
A required project takes the last five weeks of the
semester. A list of suggested projects is announced
at the start of the semester so that students have ten
weeks to pick their project and find their partner.
Students are grouped in teams of two, and as far as
possible undergraduates are paired with graduate
students. Since twelve students (including five se-
niors) took the course in the spring of 1992, we had
six teams and projects (see Table 1, next page). In
general, project topics range from the adventurous
(review and reproduction of parallel algorithms from
the burgeoning literature on parallel computing) to
the pragmatic (parallelization of codes from disser-
tation research) implementations on the iPSC/860
or the CM5. One team used both machines.










TABLE 1
Term Projects: Spring 1992
Parallel branch and bound for mixed integer linear
programs
Numerical implementation of conjugate gradient and
Gaussian elimination methods on parallel computers
Parallel computational solutions of hyperbolic PDEs
(humidification waves in solar energy desiccants)
Polyhedra in Stokes flow (particle simulations on the
iPSC/860 and CM5)
Molecular dynamics on the hypercube (simulation of
Lennard-Jones fluids)
Wavelet transforms for signal analysis (signal data
compression)


Oral presentations, conducted during the last two
weeks of the course, present students with the
opportunity to learn from each other. A number
of established techniques in the literature, as well
as new tricks on a particular machine, are dis-
seminated in these discussions. Course grades are
computed on the basis of the oral presentation and
written report.
At the end of the semester, the student evalua-
tions were collected. On the basis of a very favorable
response, it appears that this course will be a regu-
lar spring semester offering in the department
(and in the college of engineering). Work is
also underway to integrate this course into a
multicourse sequence in parallel computing in the
Computer Sciences Department. A two-day version


of the course is also available from the AIChE Con-
tinuing Education Division.l101
One final note: computer programs developed for
the term projects are archived on a file server for
future reference. It is my intention to document the
growth of the parallel computing culture by monitor-
ing the evolution of student projects, in terms of
style and level of sophistication, starting with what
future generations may view as the dawn of the age
of parallel computing.

REFERENCES
1. Amundson, N.R. (Committee Chairman), Frontiers in Chemi-
cal Engineering Research Needs and Opportunities, National
Academy Press (1988)
2. Flynn, M.J., "Very High-Speed Computers," Proc. IEEE, 54,
1901 (1966)
3. Dongarra, J.J., "Performance of Various Computers Using
Standard Linear Equations Software," Supercomputing Re-
view, 3, 49 (1990)
4. Graubard, S.R. (Ed.), DEDALUS (J. Amer. Acad. Arts and
Sci.), Winter (1992)
5. Trew, A., and G. Wilson (Eds.), Past, Present, Parallel: A
Survey of Available Parallel Computing Systems, Springer-
Verlag (1991)
6. Bertsekas, D.P., and J.N. Tsitsiklis, Parallel and Distrib-
uted Computation Numerical Methods, Prentice Hall (1989)
7. Brawer, S., Introduction to Parallel Programming, Academic
Press (1989)
8. Geist, G.A., M.T. Heath, B.W. Peyton, and P.H. Worley, "A
Users' Guide to PICL: A Portable Instrumented Communi-
cation Library," ORNL/TM, 1161Q March (1992)
9. Heath, M.T., and J.A. Etheridge, "ParaGraph: A Tool for
Visualizing Performance of Parallel Programs," ORNL/ TM,
11813 May (1991)
10. Kim, S., A.N. Beris, and J.F. Pekny, "Methodology of Paral-
lel Computing," AIChE Today Series, AIChE (1990) O


Book review


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN
PROJECT: A CASE STUDY APPROACH
by Martyn S. Ray and David W. Johnson
Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York;
357 pages, $90 hardbound, $65 softbound (1989)

Reviewed by
James R. Fair
The University of Texas at Austin

This text is intended for use in the senior design
course for chemical engineering students. It offers
an approach that is different from that of the usual
design course text; whereas the others provide a
general overview of the design process, this text
deals in considerable depth with just one project-
the development and design of a plant to produce
174


nitric acid from ammonia and air. The factors
supporting this project are dealt with in con-
siderably more detail than would be the case for
the usual text.
The book is divided into two main parts plus a
lengthy appendix. Part I covers general aspects of a
proposed nitric acid plant: feasibility study, process
selection, site location, preliminary process design,
and economic evaluation. Part II covers detailed de-
sign aspects, with sub-case studies of the absorption
column, the steam superheater, and a pump to re-
move liquid from the absorber. Appendix contents
include supporting property and cost data and ex-
ample equipment calculations. Notable, the book con-
tains no information on capital or manufacturing
cost estimating or profitability analysis. No mention
is made of discounted cash flow, for example. How-
Continued on page 189
Chemical Engineering Education









Random Thoughts...


SORRY, PAL-

IT DOESN'T WORK THAT WAY

RICHARD M. FIELDER
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-7905


* Dear Professor Felder: Kindly review the enclosed
47-page manuscript, "A New and Much Longer Deri-
vation of the Quantum Correction to Klezmer's Ten-
sor Correlation for Nonnewtonian Flow of Molten
Cheese in an Octagonal Orifice. Part 7: Effects of
Sunspots." Sincerely, W. Schlepper, Editor, Journal
ofPretentious Fluid Mechanics.
P.S. We are attempting to clear our inventory of
back papers and so I would appreciate your re-
turning the review by next Tuesday.

M ... and I know I got a 36 on the final exam, Dr.
Felder, and I know it was my high grade for the
semester, but I really think I should get an A in the
course because I really worked hard on it and I
really understand the material and ...

M Dear Professor Felder: I am a chemical engineer-
ing student at East Indiana Tech. We are using your
book, Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes,
this semester. I think I would learn much better if I
could check my solutions against yours. Please send
me a solution manual. Sincerely yours, Alvin
Wimbish.
P.S. Please send it by Federal Express.

* Um, Dr. Felder-the TA missed this here test
page completely on that quiz we took last January
and it's got everything right on it-I think I should
get full credit.

M Hey, am I speaking to the Chemical Engineering
Department at State? ... Who's this? ... How you
doin', Professor? ... You don't know me, but my wife
got some black crud on our white linoleum floor and
the 409 won't get rid of it, and I said, I'll bet you one
of them chemical engineering fellers over at State
Fall 1992


will know just the thing to clean it up ... so what
should I get, Doc?

* Rich, do me a favor. I just got this manuscript to
review from JPFM and I'm tied up with a proposal
deadline .it's right up your alley-Snaveley's
latest work on nonnewtonian cheese flow ... pick up
this one for me, ok-I'll owe you. Thanks. Walt.
P.S. By the way, could you get it out by Tuesday?

* Hello, is this Dr. Felder? ... This is one of your 205
students...I know it's past midnight, but I can't fig-
ure out the recycle problem that's due tomorrow and
I thought you might ...

* Dear Professor Felder: We have received the re-
views of the paper you submitted in April 1991. All
of the reviewers agree that the work is publishable
but only after major revisions are made. Reviewer 1
wants you to expand the experimental section con-
siderably, providing details of all the sample prepa-
ration steps and adding a glossary of the terms in
Figure 6. Reviewer 2 wants the experimental section
shortened and Figure 6 replaced with a simple flow
chart. Reviewer 3 proposes deleting the experimen-
tal section, since everyone knows how to do this sort
of measurement, and substituting a Far Side car-
toon for Figure 6. I agree with the reviewers' sugges-
tions and request that you comply with all of them.
Sincerely, E. Wombat, Editor.
P.S. We're trying to clear our inventory of back
papers and so I'd like to get the revision back by
next Tuesday.

* Hello, is this Dick Felder? ... Dick, you don't know
me but I've got a fantastic opportunity for you to
earn big bucks. Let me just have a few minutes of
your time to explain ... O









Research on...


NEURAL NETWORKS,

OPTIMIZATION,

AND PROCESS CONTROL

DOUGLAS J. COOPER, LUKE E.K. ACHENIE
University of Connecticut
Storrs, CT 06269-3139
PROCESS
CONTROL
Research into the use of artificial neural net-
works (ANNs) in process control systems has
increased dramatically in recent years. Op-
timization methods play a fundamental role in the
training of ANNs as well as in the implementation of
modern strategies for multivariable process control.
Hence, as illustrated in Figure 1, there is a philo- NEURAL OPTIMIZA1
sophical relationship among ANNs, optimization, and N EWO RKS M ETH O
process control that guides our research program at
the University of Connecticut (UConn).


In this article we will present an overview of
several research projects that focus on these subject
areas. Our goal is to stir the interest and in-
crease the motivation of those students who are
considering graduate studies in chemical engineer-
ing, and in particular, in neural networks, optimiza-
tion, and process control.
The research at UConn is conducted in the Intelli-
gent Process Systems Laboratory (IPS Lab), a lab
associated with the Department of Chemical Engi-
neering. Both the IPS Lab and the department are
located at the UConn campus in Storrs, where about
Douglas J. Cooper is Associate Professor of
Chemical Engineering and Director of the Intelli-
gent Process Systems Laboratory. He received a
BS from the University of Massachusetts (1977), 4
an MS from the University of Michigan (1978),
and after three years of industrial experience
with Chevron Research Company, a PhD from
the University of Colorado (1985).


Luke E. K. Achenie is Assistant Professor of
Chemical Engineering and Associate Director of
the Intelligent Process Systems Laboratory. He
received a BS from MIT in chemical engineering
(1981), an MS from Northwestern in engineering
science (1982), and an MS inappliedmath (1984)
and a PhD in chemical engineering (1988) from
Carnegie Mellon University.


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1992


Figure 1. Philosophical relationship guiding
research program.
12,500 undergraduates and 3,500 graduate students
study under the guidance of some 1,200 faculty mem-
bers. The Department of Chemical Engineering has
about 120 undergraduates, 50 graduate students,
and 13 faculty.
The IPS Lab is a relatively new facility that houses
researchers and equipment for a number of inter-
disciplinary projects. A myriad of computer equip-
ment, including RISC-based workstations and
the newest personal computers, are available for use
by student and faculty researchers. Access to the
Cornell Supercomputer Center and high-end com-
puters, such as the Sequent Symmetry S27 parallel
computer and IBM vector machines, is possible
through high speed networks.
Current projects range from fundamental theo-
retical studies to applied process implementations
and include faculty from chemical, electrical, and
mechanical engineering as well as researchers from
local industry. The IPS Lab also interacts with other
research programs at UConn, including the Biotech-
nology Center, the Booth Center for Computer Ap-
plications Research, the Environmental Research
Center, the Institute of Material Science, and the
Precision Manufacturing Center.
Chemical Engineering Education









CURRENT RESEARCH IN THE IPS LAB
The number and direction of individual research projects
are influenced by technological needs of government agen-
cies and industry, as well as developments in science and
technology. Some of the research projects currently re-
ceiving attention by IPS Lab researchers are discussed in
the following paragraphs.
Neural Network Architectures for Control
ANNs are computing tools made up of many simple,
highly interconnected processing elements. ANNs are
generating excitement both because they are able to
model a wide range of complex and nonlinear problems
with relative ease and because they have proven to be
powerful and easy-to-implement tools for pattern recogni-
tion applications.
ANNs hold additional promise that make them particu-
larly interesting to the process control researcher. For
example, ANNs can be used to model complex processes
without requiring the engineer to possess a fundamental
understanding of the underlying physical phenomena.
Further, they can model processes and recognize patterns
when the data is imprecise or corrupted with "noise."
Finally, ANNs are relatively easy for practitioners to em-
ploy in solving real-world problems compared to more
traditional statistical and first-principles approaches.
In process control research, investigators have proposed
using ANNs for modeling nonlinear process dynamics,
for filtering noisy signals, for modeling the actions of
human operators, for interpreting advanced sensor data,
and for fault detection and diagnosis. Despite these
efforts, there are still a number of issues which must
be addressed if ANNs are to fulfill their promise in pro-
cess control applications.
Knowledge is stored in ANNs by the choice of function
used in each processing element (or neuron), by the way
the neurons are connected to each other, and by the weight-
ing values used in each neuron connection. These choices,
taken together, comprise the network architecture. Three
architectures receiving attention by researchers include
feed forward nets such as the backpropagation ANN shown
in Figure 2, recurrent nets such as the single layer Hopfield
ANN shown in Figure 3, and vector quantizing nets such
as the Kohonen ANN shown in Figure 4.
Each of these architectures has a number of variations.
For example, when considering the backpropagation ANN,
the number of neurons in the input and output layer is
typically determined by the application. However,
the number of hidden layers and the number of neurons
within each hidden layer must be chosen by the engineer
and is often determined by trial-and-error. In one
research project, we are employing analysis tools such
as singular value decomposition and variational ap-
Fall 1992


INPur SIGNALS ro NEr
Figure 2. Backpropagation neural network.

OUTPUT SIGNALS FROM NET


INPUT SIGNALS TO NET
Figure 3. Single layer Hopfield neural network.

OUTPTr SIGNALS FROM NET


NEURONS
FORM V
PA TTERN





EACH NEURON
RECEIVES ENTIRE
S. 1 wNPU PA rERN

NPUTr SIGNALS TO NET
Figure 4. Kohonen neural network.


OUTPUT SIGNALS FROM NEr









proacheswi to develop a theoretically sound method-
ology for determining appropriate net architectures
for particular applications.
Once an architecture is chosen, the engineer must
make decisions about ANN training. Typically,
training data is either historical data from the ac-
tual process or simulated data generated from
computer models of the process. A network is repeat-
edly exposed to this data until it "learns by example"
as it converges on the process relationships con-
tained in the data.
Thus, the engineer must decide how much train-
ing data is adequate, whether this data properly
spans the entire range of expected operation, and
how much training is required before the ANN
can be considered converged. The answers to these
and similar questions, especially as they pertain to
ANN applications in process control, are also under
study at the IPS Lab. In one recent effort,[2I we
compared the strengths and weaknesses to two
ANN architectures when employed for pattern-based
adaptive process control.
A current investigation considers the use of faster
optimization algorithms such as successive quadratic
programming and conjugate gradients coupled with
efficient trust region techniques to sig-
nificantly speed up training times of
ANNs. Implementation of these tech-
niques on parallel computers will also
be investigated.[3]


Pattern-Based Adaptive Process Control
A controller continually adjusts a pro-
cess input variable so that the controlled
output variable successfully tracks a de-
sired value or set point. A well-tuned
controller manipulates the input vari-
able both to minimize the impact of
unplanned disturbances and to track any
changes in the set point value.
Many chemical processes are nonlinear
and/or have a process character which
changes with time. A process may have
a changing character, for example, due
to fouling or catalyst deactivation over
time. Hence the tuning of a controller
on such processes must be self-adjust-
ing or adaptive if desirable performance
is to be maintained.
One approach for making process con-
trollers adaptive is to employ a process
model internal to the controller archi-
tecture which describes the dynamic be-


havior of the process. If, whenever the process char-
acter changes, this model is updated so that it re-
mains descriptive of the current process dynamics,
then a wide variety of popular model-based control
algorithms such as Internal Model Control or Dy-
namic Matrix Control can be used to maintain desir-
able process control performance.
The traditional method for updating the controller
process model is through regression of recently
sampled process input-output data. The result is a
correlative model between the manipulated variable
and controlled variable that can be used in many
adaptive algorithms. This traditional architecture is
illustrated in Figure 5.
In the IPS Lab, a different approach to controller
model updating is under study that may ultimately
prove easier for industrial practitioners to employ.
In this research, the performance of the controller is
assessed by evaluating the patterns exhibited in the
controller error, which is the difference between the
desired set point and the measured value of the
controlled variable. The pattern recognition capa-
bilities of a neural network are exploited to perform
this analysis and to relate observed patterns to re-
quired updates in controller model parameters. A


FEEDBACK SIGNAL
Figure 5. Model-based adaptive process control architecture.



PERFORMANCE
EVALUATION
L NETWORK

CONTROLLER
L DESIGN

--- CONTROLLER -- PROCESS
SET POINT PROCESS PROCESS
CONTROLLER INPUT OUTPUT
S ERROR
UNMEASURED
DISTURBANCE

FEEDBACK SIGNAL
Figure 6. Pattern-based performance feedback adaptive controller.
Chemical Engineering Education










The design of a neural network which can recognize both the oscillatory
and non-oscillatory patterns that are associated with aggressive, desirable, and sluggish
controller performance is reasonably straightforward.


pattern-based performance analysis architecture is
illustrated in Figure 6.
Take as an example a process that responds to a
set point change with a large overshoot, followed by
slowly damping oscillations. One possible explana-
tion is that the gain and/or time constant of the
controller model is small relative to that of the
actual process. Alternatively, an explanation for a
slow response after a set point change is that the
gain and/or time constant of the controller model is
too large. Hence, the manner in which a poorly
performing controller is mistuned can be inferred
from the patterns displayed in the recent history of
the controller error.
The design of a neural network which can recog-
nize both the oscillatory and non-oscillatory patterns
that are associated with aggressive, desirable, and
sluggish controller performance is reasonably
straightforward. The challenge is to associate these
transient patterns with the required updating of the
controller model parameters in order to restore de-
sired performance. Methods for achieving this are
under study in the IPS Lab, and recent successes are
based on approximating all real processes with a
generic or "ideal" simulated process.12,4,51

Pattern-Based Process Excitation Diagnostics
The traditional method for updating the process
model internal to an adaptive controller (as illus-
trated in Figure 5) is based on regression of recently
sampled process input-output data. To ensure that a
properly descriptive process model results from the
regression, data samples must be collected when the
process is experiencing a meaningful or "sufficiently
exciting" dynamic event. During such an event, the
changes in the manipulated process input must im-
part changes to the process output variable that
clearly dominate both the measurement noise and
any dynamics resulting from unmeasured distur-
bances.
The engineer often uses simple criteria for excita-
tion, such as when the difference between the model-
predicted estimate of the output variable
and the actual measurement of that variable exceed
some minimum value. Unfortunately, such an
approach is not very reliable for detecting when
the process is experiencing input-output excitation
Fall 1992


and fails altogether when the disturbance dynamics
dominate the event.
Thus, we are studying innovative methods for
the diagnosis of process excitation that are reliable
and easy to use. In this work, we initially focused
on patterns exhibited in the process input variable
alone under the assumption that if the process in-
put was experiencing significant dynamics, then
the process will be sufficiently excited for reliable
data regression.li6
Building on this idea, current research exploits the
pattern recognition capabilities of ANNs to construct
an improved excitation diagnostic tool. The approach
under study considers the recent histories of both
the input and output sampled data patterns together
as a complete process "snapshot." The neural net-
work is being trained to observe the behavior of both
variables simultaneously and to signal whenever a
dynamic event that is producing process input-out-
put data suitable for model regression is in progress.

Control Design with Objective Prioritization
Controller designs based on the use of an internal
controller model, such as Dynamic Matrix Control
(DMC), are finding their way into industrial prac-
tice. One advantage to the DMC architecture is that
in many applications, relatively simple process mod-
els are adequate to achieve good control performance.
Further, DMC can handle soft control constraints in
a straightforward and systematic manner.
A multivariable DMC implementation where con-
trol objectives are to be balanced against economic
objectives may be achieved through the use of
weights.[71 However, this strategy forces the engi-
neer to specify a large number of weights, which is
equivalent to specifying a large number of tuning
parameters. The problem is compounded when engi-
neers are responsible for many control loops in a
large plant, compelling them to resort to ad hoc or
trial-and-error tuning.
A method for circumventing this problem is the
modular multivariable controller design methodol-
ogy. In this approach, manipulated variables are
designated as primary or secondary, where primary
variables are the last to be allowed to achieve a
desired optimum level. Unfortunately, in order to
Continued on page 221.
179










Inr class and home problems


The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems in
chemical engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a
particular principle in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel home problem, are
requested, as well as those that are more traditional in nature and which elucidate difficult concepts. Please
submit them to Professors James O. Wilkes and Mark A. Burns, Chemical Engineering Department, Univer-
sity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Ml 48109-2136.




THE INFLUENCE OF CATALYSTS ON

THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM


JOHN L. FALCONER
University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0424

he influence of heterogeneous catalysts on how
chemical equilibrium calculations are carried
out is demonstrated by the following short
problem, which will be viewed as a simplified repre-
sentation of methanol synthesis.

Problem Statement
The inlet feed to a catalytic reactor is pure A. What
is the maximum mole fraction of B that can be ob-
tained in a catalytic reactor for the parallel, revers-
ible reactions with the indicated equilibrium con-
stants
A B K, =1.5 (1)
A
Solution)
A reasonable approach is to solve the two equilib-
rium equations simultaneously


K,= XB
K1
XA


K2 XA
XA


to obtain the following mole fractions

x = 0.08
xB = 0.12
xc = 0.80
But if the appropriate catalyst was chosen so as
to accelerate Reaction (1) preferentially, then a
much higher mole fraction of B could be obtained
(xB = 0.60). That is, the mole fraction as a function of
time would follow a pathway such as that shown
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1992


John L. Falconer is professor of chemical engi-
neering at the University of Colorado at Boulder,
where he has been since 1975. He received his
BS degree from the Johns Hopkins University
and his PhD from Stanford University. He
teaches courses in reactor design, thermody-
namics, and catalysis. His research interests
are in the areas of heterogeneous catalysis on
supported metals and oxides, solid-catalyzed
gas-solid reactions, photocatalysis, and cata-
lytic membrane reactors.

in Figure 1, and the above mole fractions would only
be obtained at long times. To simplify generation
of Figure 1, the forward rate constant of Reaction
(1) was assumed to be 100 times the forward rate
constant of Reaction (2). In an actual catalytic
system these rate constants can differ by many
more orders of magnitude. If the reactor residence
time was chosen in the broad region in Figure 1
where product B is favored, then a much higher
concentration of B could be obtained than expected
based on consideration of both equilibrium reactions
simultaneously. Because of its larger rate con-
stants, Reaction (1) reaches equilibrium so rapidly
that it is not affected significantly by Reaction (2)
until longer reaction times.
Discussion
Most undergraduate textbooks in kinetics and re-
actor design discuss heterogeneous catalysis because
the majority of chemical processes use a catalyst to
obtain desired products at high rates. Many of these
textbooks, however, either do not mention the inter-
action between catalysts and thermodynamic equi-
librium, or they give a false impression of how cata-
lysts affect practical equilibrium obtained in a chemi-
cal reactor. For example, typical statements from
reactor design textbooks about this topic are1r-31
SThe thermodynamic equilibrium is unaltered by the presence
Chemical Engineering Education









oJ a catalyst
A catalyst changes only the rate of reaction; it does not
effect the equilibrium.
The position of equilibrium in a reversible reaction is not
changed by the presence of a catalyst.
Equilibrium conversion isO not altered by catalysis.
These statements are all correct, but they may
give the wrong impression because they only apply
at times that may be long compared to the reactor
residence time. They do not indicate that catalysts
give us the option of deciding which reactions to
consider in the equilibrium calculations.
Methanol synthesis from CO and H2 clearly dem-
onstrates this point. Consider the two reactions


CO + 2 H<=> CH OH


Equilibrium
Constant at 500 K
5.3 x10-3


2CO+4H2 = C2HOH+H20 32.8 (4)
At first glance, it would not appear worthwhile
to build a methanol synthesis reactor; indeed,
an ideal equilibrium calculation[41 at 20 atm and
500 K for a 1:1 feed composition yields the following
mole fractions:

X = 0.50

XH 6x 10-3

H30H = 4 x 10

XC2HOH = 0.25
Xo = 0.25

For this feed composition, the equilibrium cal-
culation indicates that H2 is almost completely
consumed and the main products are ethanol and
water. Almost no CH3OH is predicted to form based
on thermodynamic equilibrium for these two reac-
tions. Of course, commercial plants exist that make
methanol on a large scale from CO and H2, and the
undesired reactions are the formation of C2H5OH
and hydrocarbons.
If only Reaction (3) is considered in the equilib-
rium calculation, however, then a reasonable yield
of CHOH is predicted:
xco = 0.50
xH2 = 0.36

[XCHoH = 0.14
In this case, only a fraction of the H2 is consumed.
Clearly this is the correct equilibrium calculation for
the industrial process; even though C2H5OH also
forms,15.6e we do not consider Reaction (4) in the
equilibrium calculation because Reaction (3) is so
Fall 1992


II..




(.4


(.2


,oo B
A-
C
7' "c


0.0. 1
0.1 1.0 10 10: 103 104 105
Figure 1. Mole fractions of A,B,C versus reaction time for
the parallel, reversible decomposition of A to form B
and C. Rate constants in inverse minutes are
indicatedforfirst-order reactions.

much faster. If we did, we would conclude that the
measured methanol conversion is significantly higher
than the equilibrium conversion. The formation of
CH3OH from CO and H2 follows the same type path-
way as shown for component B in Figure 1, except
that the equilibrium constants differ by almost four
orders of magnitude for Reactions (3) and (4) instead
of one order of magnitude for Reactions (1) and (2).
The interaction between catalysis and thermody-
namics was discussed by Hamilton and Greenwald,t71
but their ideas are not addressed in most of the
reactor kinetics or thermodynamics textbooks; only
a few textbooks on heterogeneous catalysis discuss
the influence of thermodynamic equilibrium.lsi
Hamilton and Greenwald distinguished between true
equilibrium (infinite time) and practical equilibrium.
Indeed, if the methanol synthesis reaction is run for
extremely long contact times, then almost no CH3OH
remains.16' Hamilton and Greenwald emphasized that
the catalyst constrains possible reaction pathways
so that the uncatalyzed reaction is essentially for-
bidden. Thus, the minimum Gibbs free energy is not
obtained; instead the minimum along a highly con-
strained path is obtained.
As pointed out by Satterfield,'s8 a selective catalyst
directs one reaction essentially to completion while
having little or no effect on other reactions. Thus,
the most stable products are not formed. What the
reaction to synthesize methanol from synthesis gas
shows is that in calculating equilibrium conversion,
we must consider the two reactions separately be-
cause the rates of reaction differ significantly. That
is, the Gibbs free energy is not minimized for the
system; instead, each equilibrium calculation is done
independently of the other. For our example, this


i


//









means that the maximum mole fraction for CH3OH
is 0.14, not 4 x 10-5.
Thus, catalysts can modify practical thermody-
namic equilibrium by dictating that equilibrium for
each reaction be considered separately. Catalysts do
not change equilibrium constants, but the properly
chosen catalyst allows us to ignore many of the reac-
tions in equilibrium calculations because their rates
are low. As pointed out by Hamilton and Greenwald17]
Of all the compounds that might theoretically form, it is well known
that it is necessary to have thermodynamic information on only CO,
1,, and CH,OH to calculate equilibrium concentrations and yields
in such a selectively catalyzed system.
We ignore an entire class of reactions when we
calculate the equilibrium yield for methanol without
also considering the equilibrium for paraffins forma-
tion, even though AG > 0 for methanol formation,
and AG < 0 for methane and higher paraffin forma-
tion. All the higher alcohols and all the paraffins are
more thermodynamically favored than methanol,1'9
but they are formed in very low concentrations over
the typical ZnO/Cr20 catalyst.
In summary, catalysts affect practical equilibrium


conversions because conversions much higher than
those calculated from equilibrium can be obtained in
catalytic reactors.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I wish to thank Prof. William B. Krantz for very
fruitful discussions about this topic and Prof. Scott
H. Fogler for some useful suggestions. Thanks also
to Eric M. Cordi for generating Figure 1.
REFERENCES
1. Holland, C.D., and R.G. Antony, Fundamentals of Chemical
Reaction Engineering, Prentice Hall (1979)
2. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering,
2nd ed. Prentice Hall (1992)
3. Smith, J.M., Chemical Engineering Kinetics, McGraw-Hill
(1981)
4. O'Brien, J.A., REACT!, Version 2.0 program
5. Campbell, I.M., Catalysis at Surfaces, Chapman and Hall
(1988)
6. Chinchen, G.C., P.J. Denny, J.R. Jennings, M.S. Spencer,
and K.C. Waugh, Appl. Catal., 36, 1 (1988)
7. Hamilton, B.K., and M.J. Greenwald, J. Chem. Ed., 51, 732
(1974)
8. Satterfield, C.N., Heterogeneous Catalysis, McGraw-Hill
(1980)
9. Klier, K., Adv. in Catal., 31, 243 (1982) 0


book review

INTRODUCTION TO
MACROMOLECULAR SCIENCE
by Peter Munk
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York; 522 pages,
$44.95 (1989)
Reviewed by
Matthew Tirrell
University of Minnesota
As a research field, polymer science has flourished
within chemical engineering more than in any other
traditional academic discipline and, while I have not
surveyed this quantitatively, I feel confident in as-
serting that many more courses on aspects of poly-
mer science and technology are taught in chemical
engineering than in any other kind of department.
That fact alone makes the appearance of a new text-
book on polymer science a noteworthy event for
chemical engineering. On top of that, there is the
fact that polymer science has become so broad a
topic that there are many ways to approach its pre-
sentation and concomitant, there is a general dissat-
isfaction with the books available for instruction
during the last five years. It was precisely this feel-
ing that led Professor Munk to write this book, as he
explains in the Preface; for this, I salute him, since
complaining is certainly easier and more immedi-
182


ately gratifying than bookwriting.
The book is intended for a first course in polymer
science but is at a level that would be appropriate for
introducing the subject to either seniors or graduate
students. It comprises five chapters, the first four of
them quite large and broad in themselves: Structure
of Macromolecules, Techniques for Synthesis of Poly-
mers, Macromolecules in Solution, and Bulk Poly-
mers. These are solid, information-rich chapters. The
fifth chapter, Technology of Polymeric Materials, is
but ten pages long and is not really up to the job
announced by its title.
The flow of topics, beginning with a detailed dis-
cussion of the ways that macromolecules can be put
together, followed by a second detailed chapter on
synthetic methods is, in my view, exactly appropri-
ate for an introductory book. Connections made be-
tween uncharged, synthetic polymers, which are the
main subject of the book, and important related top-
ics, such as polyelectrolytes, micelles, proteins, and
polynucleotides, are very well done and useful. Par-
ticular care has gone into placing polymer science in
a proper context, which is both educational for the
reader and likely to stimulate student interest by
helping them see connections.
The third chapter on polymers in solution is also
filled with important and useful information on the
basic physical chemistry of mixture of polymers with
solvents. I begin to find divergence between the
Chemical Engineering Education










author's point of view and mine in the heart of this
chapter. The presentation of experimental methods,
when viewed from the perspective of current prac-
tice, overemphasizes membrane osmometry and ul-
tracentrifugation and underemphasizes scattering
of light and, particularly, of neutrons. Neutron scat-
tering goes unmentioned in this chapter on solutions
and only makes a brief appearance in the fourth
chapter on bulk polymers. The section on equation-
of-state solution theories misses a great opportunity
to highlight the work of Professor Munk's colleague
in chemical engineering, Isaac Sanchez who, with
Bob Lacombe, showed (in the late seventies) how the
Flory-Huggins lattice model could be extended in a
simple but powerful way to comprehend PVT effects
in the phase behavior of polymer mixtures. Nonethe-
less, this is a perfectly usable chapter by any in-
structor of polymer science, no matter what his or
her personal prejudice might be.
Up to this point, this book ranks, in my estima-
tion, with Paul Flory's first book, Principles of Poly-
mer Chemistry, in terms of the sequence and balance
of coverage. (I should add, so that you can calibrate
me and my judgment, that I insist that any new
graduate student working with me become completely
conversant with the entirety of Flory.)
The gap of Professor Munk's divergence from my
ideal path widens in Chapter 4 on bulk polymers. I
suspect that this is related to a divergence from
Professor Munk's own interests, as he is a widely
respected physical chemist with interests in polymer
solutions. Chapter 4 still contains considerable use-
ful information, and most of what is in it is impor-
tant. However, it is the omissions to which I object.
Perhaps the single most important development in
bulk polymers during the eighties has been the elabo-
ration of the concept of reputation. This word is men-
tioned exactly once in this book. Rubber elasticity,
classical viscoelasticity of polymers, and mechanical
properties of semicrystalline polymers are all well
covered in this book, making it very suitable for a
course that deals significantly with physical proper-
ties of polymers. On the other hand, modern poly-
mer melt rheology is essentially absent.
Another point of omission in this book (with which
I disagree, but which is done explicitly and inten-
tionally by the author) is the absence of primary
references. No references are given in the text (ex-
cept for figure captions); references, to other books
exclusively, are given in lists for all chapters at the
end of the book. I don't mind the collection of all
references at the end, or even the lack of references
inserted in the text-but I think it is a mistake not
to tell students where the primary literature is. They
Fall 1992


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The Chemical Engineering Department at Virginia Tech is seeking appli-
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design and modeling, and thermodynamics. However, qualified appli-
cants with other areas of interest will also be considered. Duties include
teaching at the undergraduate and graduate levels, establishing and con-
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cants should send a resume, a statement of research and teaching interests,
and the names and addresses of three references familiar with their work
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Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0211. Applications will be accepted until
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only U.S. citizens and lawfully authorized alien workers. Virginia Tech is
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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
A tenure-track Assistant or Associate Professor position is available for
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miss seeing the origins of textbook facts, complete
with all the experimental considerations, errors, etc.
Without that exposure, some students develop ei-
ther an unwarranted reverence, or an insufficient
appreciation, for the achievement behind what they
read in their textbooks.
On balance, this is a very good, solid, usable text-
book for many variations on polymer science and
engineering courses likely to be taught in chemical
engineering departments. I have used it for the last
year to introduce new graduate students to the re-
search field. As mentioned earlier, complaining about
books is a favorite pastime among instructors of
polymer science. Professor Munk's book should di-
minish the complaints and raise the standard for
those who would aspire to do better. 1










CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING

A Story of Continuing Fascination


L. K. DORAISWAMY
Iowa State University
Ames, IA 50011

C chemical engineering in its most general sense
is broadly centered on two aspects of chemical
processing: transformation engineering and
separation engineering. Transformation engineering
addresses the engineering of physical and chemical
change, while separation engineering deals with the
principles and tools by which the products of trans-
formation can be obtained at stated levels of purity.
The engineering of chemical change constitutes the
core of chemical reaction engineering. Given the cen-
trality of chemical change in any chemical process, it
is surprising that the principles and practices of
chemical change did not coalesce into a well-defined
area until the late 1950s. It was called "applied ki-
netics" before that time. Part 3 of Chemical Process
Principles, by Hougen and Watson,[l1 was perhaps
the first book to attempt a coherent educational pre-
sentation of the principles of reactor design.
The subsequent development of chemical reaction
engineering (CRE) was rapid, almost dramatic, in
the 1960s and 1970s. The increasing use of sophisti-
cated methods, so aptly and appropriately discussed
by Aris,L21 provides a reflective backdrop to the con-
tinuing research in this area. The field has expanded
so vastly and so heterogeneously, through the export
of its basic theme (interaction between chemical and
physical factors) to other areas of chemical transfor-
mation, that its own scope-if one can conceive of a
scope for this "moving boundary problem"-is
now being increasingly linked ("confined" is not
the right word) to chemical and petrochemical pro-
cesses. Among these are biochemical reaction
engineering, microelectronic reaction engineering,
polymer reaction engineering, and electrochemical
reaction engineering.
In the author's opinion, this is an irreversible change
(perhaps in the right direction), and chemical reac-
tion engineering will continue to grow vertically within
its own province, but always overlapping interac-
tively with the boundaries of its progeny. In any case,
considering the quick dispersal of knowledge that is
evident today and the commonality of many prin-
184


ciples, one can only conceive of different disciplines
of CRE. The areas mentioned above are precisely
that. If all of them are to come under a single um-
brella, then CRE, already interdisciplinary, would
be truly ubiquitous.
Over the years, chemical reaction engineering has
progressed along two rather different paths. In Eu-
rope the emphasis has been more on the application
of new and exciting concepts to conventional tech-
nologies, including the "bread and butter" conven-
tions. On the other hand, in the United States
conventional technologies have not normally held
much attraction for academia, except perhaps in
some areas such as catalysis. There is much to be
said in favor of both approaches, but what is likely to
emerge as we move into the 21st Century is a bal-
anced synthesis of the two paths.

UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CRE
Concepts of CRE are taught in different courses.
The emphasis in undergraduate curricula usually
tends to be on homogeneous reactions, catalytic re-
actions, and occasionally on multiphase reactions
involving two or more reactive phases. It is impor-
tant that students get a broad exposure to various
areas and systems covered by CRE in the junior
year-in addition to a more rigorous course involv-
ing a few selected systems (depending on the inter-
est and expertise of the instructor). It is not uncom-
mon in today's world to find a graduating student
who has had little or no exposure to the emerging
areas of a subject, including CRE. This is a situation
that must be addressed immediately. Students must
be given a firmer grounding in order to cope with the
challenges of the next century.

SL. K. Doraiswamy received his BS from Ma-
dras University and his MS and PhD from the
University of Wisconsin. He is presently the
Herbert L. Stiles professor at Iowa State Univer-
sity, where he came after retiring as director of
India's National Chemical Laboratory. His re-
search has spanned several areas of chemical
reaction engineering: gas-solid (catalytic and
noncatalytic) reactions, stochastic analysis, and
surface science approach to catalytic reactor
design.
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1992
Chemical Engineering Education









It is not uncommon in today's world to find a graduating student
who has had little or no exposure to the emerging areas of a subject,
including CRE. This is a situation that must be addressed immediately. Students
must be given a firmer grounding in order to cope with the challenges of the next century.


Another concept that should be implemented is a
scaled-down version of the think-tank concept in
which the student is given a design problem and
makes no a priori assumption as to the type of reac-
tor to be used. This is beautifully brought out in a
Danckwerts Memorial Lecture by O. Levenspiell3l
where he illustrates the concept with a specific ex-
ample. This approach stimulates thinking and analy-
sis, and every effort should be made to provide a
course, or some kind of an individualized or tutorial
mechanism, to foster an "educational think tank" of
the type proposed.

COMPLEMENTARY ROLES
OF ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION
All too often, at the end of a course the student has
learned most of the principles but has no clue as to
the systems (existing or potential) where they might
be used. Sharma and Doraiswamyl4' addressed this
problem in their book, where many examples are
given which illustrate principles or design situa-
tions. Furthermore, the student should acquire a
feel for numbers, e.g., What is a "slow" reaction?
What is the range of effective thermal conductivities
of common catalysts? What is the range of liquid-
side mass transfer coefficients in some real systems?
The argument that these concepts can be acquired
later is moot and less than comforting.
This brings us to the pedagogic problem of analy-
sis vs. application. Many books, including Bird,
Stewart, and Lightfoot's Transport Phenomena,L5l
tend to be analysis oriented. There is great merit in
that approach-it was certainly the correct approach
at a time when there was an overdose of empiricism
and when descriptive and "experience" aspects of
process technology held sway. But it is increasingly
evident that analysis and application must comple-
ment each other. In CRE courses, for example, one
can talk of controlling regimes and can present
detailed analytical methods for discerning the
controlling regimes, but it should be supplemented
with industrial (or even laboratory) examples of
reactions conforming to those regimes. Thus, if
one is considering the mass transfer regime, it
would be instructive to illustrate with examples
such as dehydrogenation of cyclohexane, decom-
position of hydrogen peroxide, and hydrogenation
of phenol (to name a few).
Fall 1992


It should also be mentioned that a regular gradu-
ate course in CRE should involve a problem where
the student is required to design a reactor for a
selected reaction, starting from the base level-a
literature search for getting the correct rate equa-
tion. (This is slightly different from Levenspiel's
concept where the reaction is new and no infor-
mation is available.) Rase's Chemical Reactor De-
sign for Process Plantsl61 contains such examples in
its second volume. In today's context, however, these
examples should have a higher content of analysis
and modeling.

MORE CHEMISTRY IN CRE
And-let's face it-the basis of all chemical engi-
neering is, after all, chemistry, and the average
chemical engineering student's knowledge of chem-
istry is less than it should be. Either during a course
in CRE or by additional coursework in chemistry,
students must be required to gain a firmer feel for
chemistry-definitely for inorganic and organic chem-
istry, and biochemistry and polymer chemistry in
special cases. Here, students of biochemical engi-
neering or polymer reaction engineering are at an
advantage since they enjoy greater exposure to the
chemistry aspects of the subject than do students in
a regular CRE course in chemical engineering. Such
exposure at an early stage enhances the student's
ability not only to deal with everyday problems sub-
sequently encountered on the job, but also in later
years to formulate exciting problems of current or
potential relevance. The need for more chemistry in
chemical engineering was stressed by the author in
a lecture (delivered at Wisconsin some years agol71)
which included a number of examples to strengthen
the argument.

SOME RESEARCH AREAS
In a field that covers such a large mix of possibili-
ties, it would be presumptuous to list areas for con-
tinued or future attention. Even so, there are certain
areas which have the potential for significant im-
pact on the chemical industry (used in its broadest
sense). The following suggestions are perceptions
not uncolored by the author's personal fancy or evalu-
ation, and should therefore be viewed in that light.
Catalysis and Catalytic Reaction Engineering
In an age where there is an increasing tendency to
185








frown on conventional topics, catalysis is a refresh-
ing exception. It is among the oldest areas in chem-
istry, and yet it continues to be new. Perhaps its
main driving forces are the omnipotence of catalysis
and the intriguing fact that, in spite of its long run,
it is just beginning to emerge from the shadows of
empiricism. We are still a long way from answering
the question "Can one design a catalyst for a given
requirement?"-this could be the main reason for
the unrelenting research in this area. With the help
of sophisticated instruments, we are now looking at
catalysis at its most fundamental level, particularly
with the objectives of identifying the participating
sites, mapping their energy levels, and understand-
ing the basis of selectivity. Iowa State University
has a strong school of research in these areas.
From the point of view of catalytic reaction engi-
neering and starting with the early publications of
Amundson,r8s we seem to have almost reached the
end of the line where steady-state analysis is con-
cerned, and the state-of-the-art has been fully cov-
ered by Aris[l (also see Levenspiello10 and Froment
and Bischofftm). That is not so, however, with re-
spect to unsteady state analysis (including multi-
plicity), for which some new mathematical tools have
been developed.[12] The role of adsorption and the use
of nonideal isotherms has all but evaded the atten-
tion of reaction engineers, and only recently have
we started to look at adsorption, catalysis, and reac-
tor design in their totality.l'13 This is presently an
active area of research at Iowa State University, and
a recent conference in Poland addressed the prob-
lem, perhaps for the first time in an international
forum. Another approach that is gaining ground in
catalytic processes is the simultaneous consideration
of feedstock, catalyst, reactor, selectivity, and sepa-
ration. I believe that these trends will continue well
into the 21st Century.
An area of catalytic reactor design that will gain
momentum is gas phase polymerization in fluidized
bed reactors. Following the first flush of success
of fluidized beds in the petroleum and petro-
chemical industries, interest in the area waned
when it was found that fluidization was no panacea
for reactor evils. It began to wax again when coal
conversion processes revived attention-but with a
difference: fluidization of large particles. Perhaps
the stage is now set for another revival-in the area
of polymerization.
In addition to heterogeneous catalysis, we have
homogeneous catalysis, where innovative coordina-
tion chemistry and catalyst recovery play vital roles.
An exciting example is reductive carbonylation of


methanol. It is here that early exposure to inorganic
chemistry would be most useful. It would also be
useful in catalyst preparation technology, and it is
in this area that our ignorance coefficient is woefully
high. Impregnation and drying of catalysts are still
almost entirely empirical operations. The analysis of
Varma and collaborators in a series of ten papers
(see, for example, Part 9 which contains all previous
references141 and Part 10, to appear soon) shows that
an optimum catalyst profile in the pellet can in-
crease catalyst activity and selectivity in many reac-
tions. This underscores the need for a more rigorous
espousal of catalyst manufacturing science.
Solid State Reaction Engineering
Today, research in solid state materials is a fron-
tier of enquiry. Solid-solid reactions were first men-
tioned in the mid-80s[41 as an area of interest in
chemical reaction engineering. With the increasing
participation of chemical engineers in materials
development, this interest has grown to an astonish-
ing level today. Materials of interest include struc-
tural composites, ceramic materials, new metal
compositions, and microelectronic materials. The
engineering science analysis of the reactions in-
volved in these preparations has been late in com-
ing, but it now appears to have taken root. There is
little doubt that this interest will rise exponentially
in the years ahead. Take microelectronics as an ex-
ample of the role of CRE in these materials; here we
have processes such as deposition, etching, diffu-
sion, and implantation, in which different types of
reactors are employed to carry out both homoge-
neous and heterogeneous reactions. CRE inputs are
just beginning to flow into the analysis of these
operations. There is a need to introduce electronic
materials concepts at the undergraduate level, per-
haps as an elective.
Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using
a variety of techniques is an important method of
preparing solid state materials, particularly cata-
lytic materials. A strong school of research as Iowa
State University is exploring the preparation, char-
acterization, and use of such materials.

Reaction-Cum-Separation
(or the reactor-separator combo)
One way to cut capital costs (and increase conver-
sion and selectivity in some cases) is to carry out the
reaction and separation steps in a single piece of
equipment, or to devise technologies where useful
side-products are formed. The earliest example of
the first kind is the well-known Solvay tower in
which a number of operations occur simultaneously
Chemical Engineering Education









to ultimately produce soda ash. Indeed, the Solvay
tower is a veritable combo of multiple operations.
Although this reactor combo is no longer a complete
black box, many aspects of it still are. But that is
only one major example. A number of other, less
complicated, examples of reaction-cum-recovery can
be cited: the removal/recovery of acid gases such as
CO2, H2S, SO2, recovery of valuable products from
waste or dilute streams, or reaction-cum-crystalliza-
tion in the manufacture of such important products
as citric and adipic acids.
There is increasing interest, particularly in schools
outside the United States, in the analysis of combo
reactors. The type of research involved here is
usually concerned with the application of new
and innovative ideas in the so-called conventional
manufacturing processes. At Iowa State, research
in crystallization has been in progress since the
1950s, and more recently the problem of reaction-
cum-crystallization has been added to this continu-
ing program.
In the removal of oxygen present in levels below
2% in gases like CO2, it would be desirable to de-
velop absorbents with the ability to mimic hemoglo-
bin-type regenerative action. Some manganese com-
pounds probably have such an ability. In the separa-
tion of p- and m-xylenes the difference in reactivity
of the two can be successfully exploited. Thus, one
can selectively alkylate m-xylene (with the para iso-
mer untouched) using acetaldehyde to give
dixylylethane (DXE).IIS5 DXE, when cracked, gives
half the amount of the meta isomer back along with
the industrially useful side-product dimethylstyrene.
Innumerable other instances can be quoted involv-
ing reactive extraction, dissociation extraction re-
action, and dissociation extraction crystallization
to buttress the contention that this is indeed an
exciting area of research with unlimited scope for
the use of novel concepts.
This area of research can serve as an example to
strengthen the point made earlier that there should
be more chemistry in CRE education and research.
In a lecture the author heard some years ago, the
point was made that many companies do not expect
significant chemistry input from chemical engineers.
It would seem that chemistry input of the kind men-
tioned here must come primarily from reaction engi-
neers exposed to a lot of chemistry. (Here, chemistry
means the chemistry of relatively large and complex
molecules encountered in, say, drugs and pesticides
manufacture.) It is significant that one sees a greater
degree of chemistry orientation in biotechnology and
polymer science and engineering.
Fall 1992


Microphase Reaction Engineering
Reaction of a component from a liquid phase (which
we will call Phase 1) with another reactant of lim-
ited solubility diffusing from a second phase can be
hastened if a small quantity of a microphase can be
added to the system. If the particle size of the
microphase is smaller than the diffusion scale of the
reactant, then these particles can get inside the liq-
uid film and transport more of the reactant from
Phase 2 intoPhase 1. From two excellent reviews on
the subject,t16.171 it seems clear that the use of a
microphase (which may be a simple adsorbent like
active carbon, a catalyst, or a liquid dispersed as a
colloid) can in some cases enhance the reaction rate
by almost an order of magnitude.
Extension of this concept to include (1) sparingly
soluble solute in Phase 1 itself, (2) a precipitated
product with particles small enough to enter the
liquid film (or the fluid element in the language of
the penetration theory), capture more of the reac-
tant from the neighborhood of the second phase and
discharge it into the bulk of Phase 1, and (3) micellar
catalysis, has shown interesting possibilities. Par-
ticularly in cases like the production of citric acid
(where each of the two major steps involved contains
a precipitating product phase), control of conditions
to reduce particle size to microphase levels can lead
to remarkable enhancements in the precipitation
rate. This is obviously a kind of precipitate-induced
autocatalysis and offers much challenge both for the
theoretician and the experimentalist.

Organic Synthesis Engineering
(selectivity engineering?)
Much of the progress in CRE has been in areas
relating to the production of high tonnage chemicals.
It is only in the last ten to fifteen years that another
focus has emerged: reaction engineering of small
volume chemicals. It is surprising that most of the
hundreds of reactions involved in organic synthesis
have remained outside the pale of CRE. Indeed,
one is hard put to think of more than a few impor-
tant organic name reactions that have been sub-
jected to rigorous analysis. Examples are: Henkel
reaction by Doraiswamy and collaborators,r18l191
Grignard reagent preparation by Hammerschmidt
and Richarz,1201 and Kolbe-Schmitt reaction by
Phadtare and Doraiswamy.[21
With the increasing importance of small-volume
chemicals, particularly in the field of drugs and drug
intermediates, one would be greatly surprised if re-
action engineers do not, almost as a natural course,
extend their domain to include this area as a formal









part of CRE research. One sees considerable activity
in Europe (particularly in Bourne's school) and in
some industrial research and development centers
in Europe and the USA, but a more pronounced
involvement of CRE groups in academia is desirable.
Several ways of improving selectivity have been
used by chemists,[221 some of which are being pur-
sued vigorously by chemical engineers. Phase trans-
fer catalysis is an outstanding example of the former
in which some reaction engineering groups are evinc-
ing keen interest. Other means of increasing selec-
tivity are through the use of micelles, microphases,
catalysts like zeolites and molecularly engineered
layered structures, and controlled levels of
micromixing. The last is particularly attractive from
an engineering science point of view, as attested to
by the extensive publications of Bourne and collabo-
rators (for example, Baldyga and Bournel231). An-
other rewarding line of approach is the use of ultra-
sonics. The finding by Luche and Damiero[241 that
ultrasonification can enhance yields in the Barbier
reaction augers well for the increasing role of ultra-
sonics in synthesis engineering.
A field of research in organic synthesis with great
potential for enhanced selectivity and ease of opera-
tion is the possibility of extending the concept of
supported liquid-phase catalysts to include supported
reagents-with all the attendant advantages. The
edited book of Hodge and Sherrington[251 provides
clear evidence of the favorable role of the solid sup-
port. With the extensive knowledge we now have of
fluid-solid (catalytic and noncatalytic) reactions, this
field offers great scope for innovative approaches to,
among other things, the reaction-diffusion problems
inherent in such systems. Use of photochemistry
and enzymes in organic synthesis can also greatly
enhance specificity. These are well-known areas to
the chemist and biochemist, but there is a definite
need for increased CRE input.
Other Areas
There are many other areas that merit attention
and where there is bound to be continuing interest.
Among these are
interfacial engineering, an area that covers a mul-
titude of systems, including catalysis, colloids, and
micellar action
multiphase reactions (which involve at least one
liquid phase) extensively used in the manufacture
of fine chemicals
gas-solid noncatalytic reactions, so common in pol-
lution abatement, preservation of monuments, ore
processing, and catalyst regeneration
analysis of operation "at the edge" in solid cata-
188


lyzed reactions, meaning operating under condi-
tions where the diffusion and kinetic effects are
balanced to maximum advantage
increased attention to forced cycling
use of appropriate solvents (for liquid phase reac-
tions) such as dimethylsulfoxide to increase reac-
tivity
use of ion exchange resins to replace liquid phase
acid/base catalysts
control strategies in multistep synthesis of phar-
maceuticals (including computerized optimization
of the synthetic route)
use of aqueous-aqueous extraction in reactive sepa-
ration
reaction-cum-separation strategies for recovery of
valuable products from dilute solutions, or removal
of polluting components therefrom
hazard analysis and prevention
Many of the areas listed are not "new topics," but
certainly all of them thrive on the use of innovative
concepts. Areas such as recovery of valuable prod-
ucts from dilute solutions are replete with examples
of the use of reaction as a tool for separation and
recovery. A general strategy of intensification in
which isolated studies have been reported, and which
has the potential for treatment as an area of re-
search, is the role of dilution in process technology.
An attempt was made by the author some years
agol7n to put together the various aspects of intensifi-
cation by dilution, i.e., dilution of the gas and solid
phases in catalytic reactions, dilution of solid in gas-
solid reactions, and "natural intensification" due to
dilution in biological systems. Increased effort in
this area could be very rewarding.

CONCLUSION
Education in CRE must explore new possibilities,
some of which have been described in this article.
Among these are a mini think-tank, a broad expo-
sure to the reaction engineering of a variety of sys-
tems to supplement the prevailing practice of en-
larging on a few, and initiation of electives in some
emerging areas such as solid-state reaction engi-
neering and interface engineering.
The overview presented here with respect to re-
search is indicative of the areas of present/potential
relevance. The element of challenge will continue,
whether the areas are new or traditional. While
the researcher in CRE, like his counterparts in
many other areas, must continue to vigorously ex-
plore new and emerging fields, let us not throw the
conventional areas overboard. Recovery of value-
added products from dilute solutions (or waste
Chemical Engineering Education









streams) is an outstanding example of applying new
concepts to old problems. Whether or not they at-
tract one's fancy, their importance will continue
undiminished. So the educator, the researcher, and
the funding agencies must look at new concepts in
traditional areas with almost the same enthusiasm
as at the emerging areas. Nucleation and growth
must remain simultaneous.
The chemical industry, notwithstanding the strains
and vicissitudes imposed by a fluctuating economy
and an increasing appreciation of environmental con-
cerns, permeates practically every facet of our lives
and depends for its continued development on inven-
tion as well as innovation. Invention is getting a
novel idea which works; innovation is overcoming all
hurdles to its economic use.i261 There is scope for both
in CRE. To ensure continued dominance, academic
research must become increasingly bold, industrial
research must be supported rather than managed,
and both must be more accommodative of shifts in
approach and the delays they entail.

REFERENCES
1. Hougen, O.A., and K.M. Watson, Chemical Process Prin-
ciples, Part 3, Kinetics and Catalysis, Wiley, NY (1947)
2. Aris, R., "Is Sophistication Really Necessary?" Ind. Eng.
Chem., 58, 32(9) (1966)
3. Levenspiel, O., "Chemical Engineering's Grand Adventure,"
P.V. Danckwerts Memorial Lecture, Chem. Eng. Sci., 43,
1427 (1988)
4. Doraiswamy, L.K., and M.M. Sharma, Heterogeneous Reac-
tions: Analysis, Examples, and Reactor Design, Vols. 1, 2,
Wiley, NY (1984)
5. Bird, R.B., W.E. Stewart, and E.N. Lightfoot, Transport
Phenomena, Wiley, NY (1960)
6. Rase, H.F., Chemical Reactor Design for Process Plants,
Vols. 1,2, Wiley, NY (1977)
7. Doraiswamy, L.K., "Across Millenia: Some Thoughts on An-
cient and Contemporary Science and Engineering," Hougen
Lecture Series, Dept. of Chem. Engineering, University of
Wisconsin, Madison, WI (1987)
8. Aris, R., and A. Varma, eds., The Mathematical Under-
standing of Chemical Engineering Systems: Selected Papers
ofNeal R. Amundson, Pergamon Press, NY (1980)
9. Aris, R., The Mathematical Theory of Diffusion and Reac-
tion in Permeable Catalysts, Vols 1,2, Oxford Univ. Press,
London, UK (1975) (The reference here is to Vol. 1)
10. Levenspiel, O., Chemical Reaction Engineering, Wiley, NY
(1972)
11. Froment, G.F., and K.B. Bischoff, Chemical Reactor Analy-
sis and Design, Wiley, NY (1990)
12. Luss, D., "Steady State Multiplicity Features of Chemically
Reacting Systems," Chem. Eng. Ed., 20, 12 (1986)
13. Doraiswamy, L.K., "Chemical Reactions and Reactors: A
Surface Science Approach," Prog. Surf. Sci., 4, Nos. 1-4, 1-
277 (1991)
14. Gavriilidis, A., and A. Varma, "Optimum Catalyst Activity
Profiles in Pellets: 9. Study of Ethylene Oxidation," AIChE
J., 38,291 (1992)
15. Sharma, M.M., "Separations Through Reaction," J. Separ.
Proc. Tech., 6, 9 (1985)
16. Sharma, M.M., "The Fascinating Role of Microphases in
Fall 1992


Multiphase Reactions," Proc. Indian Natnl. Sci. Acad., 57A,
No. 1, 99 (1991)
17. Mehra, A., "Intensification of Multiphase Reactions Through
the Use of a Microphase: 1, Theoretical," Chem. Eng. Sci.,
43, 899 (1988)
18. Gokhale, M.V., A.T. Naik, and L.K. Doraiswamy, "An Un-
usual Observation in the Disproportionation of Potassium
Benzoate to Terephthalate," Chem. Eng. Sci., 28, 401 (1975)
19. Revankar, V.V.S., and L.K. Doraiswamy, "Kinetics of Ther-
mal Conversion of Potassium Salts of Benzene (di- and tri-)
Carboxylic Acids to Terephthalic Acid," Ind. Eng. Chem.
Res., 31, 781 (1992)
20. Hammerschmidt, W.W., and W. Richarz, "Influence of Mass
Transfer and Chemical Reaction on the Kinetics of Grignard
Reagent-Formation for the Example of the Reaction of
Bromocyclopentane with a Rotating Disk of Magnesium,"
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 30, 82 (1991)
21. Phadtare, P.G., and L.K. Doraiswamy, "Kolbe-Schmitt Car-
bonation of 2-naphthol," Ind. Eng. Chem. IProc. Des. & Dev.,
8, 165 (1969)
22. Sharma, M.M., Lecture: "Selectivity Engineering," published
by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New
Delhi, India (1990)
23. Baldyga, J., and J.R. Bourne, "A Fluid Mechanical Ap-
proach to Turbulent Mixing and Chemical Reaction," Chem.
Eng. Commun., 28, 231 (1984)
24. Luche, J.L., and J.C. Damiero, "Ultrasonics in Organic Syn-
thesis: 1, Effect on the Formation of Lithium Organometal-
lic Reagents," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 102, 7926 (1980)
25. Hodge, P., and D.C. Sherrington, eds., Polymer Supported
Reactions in Organic Synthesis, Wiley, NY (1980)
26. Brown, A.V., "Invention and Innovation-Who and How,"
Chemtech (Dec), 709 (1973) O


REVIEW: Design Project
Continued from page 174.
ever, the authors do provide some insight into haz-
ardous operations analysis and general safety con-
siderations.
The nitric acid process selected is the traditional
one without the more modern modification of reac-
tion gas compression. Surprisingly little is said about
the need for cleanup of the tail gases from the ab-
sorber. The authors have provided a relatively simple
process with a great deal of supporting data. This
should have appeal to faculty members who under-
stand quite well that it is an onerous chore to dig up
all the supporting information for a realistic case
study.
The use of this text in the design course should
follow an introductory design course which treats
such matters as equipment cost estimating, profit-
ability studies, profit and loss statements, and the
like. The authors point this out in the introductory
material. If only one semester is allocated to design,
it is the opinion of this reviewer that adoption of this
book would be a mistake. On the other hand, if a
second semester (or quarter) is available, material
in the book can support one or more worthwhile case
study projects. O
189













A PILOT

GRADUATE-RECRUITING PROGRAM


E.D. SLOAN, R.M. BALDWIN, D.J.T. FIEDLER,
J.T. MCKINNON, R.L. MILLER
Colorado School of Mines
Golden, CO 80401

D orothy and John are two outstanding seniors

who are beginning to anticipate graduation.
Dorothy has worked in a chemical engineer-
ing summer job with a company that is eager to have
her take a permanent position, while John has
worked summers helping professors in various re-
search projects in his department. Both students are
vital learners and want to investigate graduate school
as a career option.
As they look through graduate school ads and bro-
chures, talk to other students and professors, and
read the fall issue of this journal, Dorothy and John
begin to generate a list of candidate schools. They
notice several marked differences in regard to re-
search emphasis, size of programs, and location, but
they are particularly interested in the differences in
graduate stipends. Although it appears that the fund-
ing differential is less than 10% for the best candi-
date schools, small discrepancies become significant
when their own current budgets are considered.
In early fall both students mail "inquiry forms" to
various graduate schools, and a few weeks later they
begin to receive the requested information/applica-
tion packets. By October or November they have
submitted several applications (limited somewhat
by their student budgets of time and money). Of
course, since neither Dorothy nor John want to re-
strict their other options, they also interview several
companies that come to campus. They are interested
to note that industrial salaries are a factor of three
greater than academic stipends, and that some in-

As they look through graduate school ads and
brochures... [the seniors] begin to generate a list
of candidate schools. They notice several marked
differences in regard to research emphasis, size
of programs, and location...
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1992


Dendy Sloan has three degrees from Clemson University and did
postdoctoral work at Rice University. He spent five years in industry at
four DuPont locations. He has been at the Colorado School of Mines
since 1976.
Bob Baldwin is a native of Iowa. He received his BS and MS from
Iowa State University and his PhD from the Colorado School of Mines,
all in chemical engineering. He joined the faculty in 1975 and is cur-
rently starting his third year as Department Head.
D.J.T. Fiedler has worked as administrative assistant in the chemical
engineering department at the Colorado School of Mines for the last
two years. Prior to that she spent three years at California Institute of
Technology in the Environmental Engineering Department
Tom McKinnon has been an assistant professor at the Colorado
School of Mines since August of 1991. He received his BS from Cornell
in 1979 and his PhD from MIT in 1989. His research interests are in
gas-phase chemical kinetics, combustion, hazardous waste destruc-
tion, and fullerene synthesis.
Ron Miller obtained his BS and MS at the University of Wyoming and
his PhD from the Colorado School of Mines, all in chemical engineer-
ing. He is currently associate professor on the CSM faculty, where he
has taught since 1986.

terviewers discourage participation in graduate work.
The company interviews go well, and both stu-
dents are subsequently invited for several site visits,
at which time challenging and exciting work is dis-
played. The companies are quite aggressive in their
personal contacts. In fact, Dorothy is contacted ev-
ery month or so by her former summer supervisor
for a friendly chat, during which they discuss
Dorothy's future plans. In late November, while they
are waiting for the first personal contact from a
university, both students are being pressed for posi-
tive answers to job offers from several companies.
Dorothy, under some pressure for financial secu-
rity from her family, accepts an offer from a mid-
western biochemical firm, and in her natural excite-
ment she tells her friends of her decision. When she
subsequently receives a call from Professor Jones of
Whatsamatta U. about an interesting research
project, she feels she cannot change her mind con-
cerning the industrial position without embarrass-
ment before her peers. The graduate school option is
closed in her mind.
John, however, has not applied to the same gradu-
ate schools as Dorothy. One graduate school has
sent him a video tape of their program, along with
Chemical Engineering Education









their application packet. A few weeks later the mail
brings a follow-up letter and a research summary
from the school, inquiring if he has received the
packet and requesting the completion of a card that
ranks his interests in various research projects.
Because John seems to be an excellent candidate,
the department continues to communicate with him
about every three weeks. Faculty members (includ-
ing the department head) call John several times to
express their interest in his application. A depart-
ment administrative assistant, who seems genuinely
interested in John's application, serves as the focal
point for all written communications. In each letter
John receives from the department, he is asked to
return some kind of information (in a postpaid enve-
lope) which then provides the department with a
progressive exploration of his personal interest in
graduate school. With this kind of communication,
John keeps the possibility of graduate school alive,
though he makes no definite commitments either to
industry or academia.
In December the department extends an invita-
tion for John to visit the campus in January, at
the school's expense. When John's plane arrives on
Thursday evening, he is met by Dr. Chehead,
the department head, who takes him directly to a
bed-and-breakfast lodging on the edge of campus.
Friday is spent in taking departmental tours and in
discussions with faculty. Then John's faculty host
takes him to dinner on Friday evening, and they
discuss all the possibilities and questions raised
during the day. John spends Saturday skiing
with prospective colleagues who are already gradu-
ate students in the department, and a pizza dinner
completes an exhausting, but fun-filled, day. Early
Sunday morning, Dr. Chehead takes John to the
airport for his return flight.
A week later a letter of admission and a stipend
offer is sent to John, preceded by a call from Dr.
Chehead telling him that the faculty was impressed
with his potential. Another faculty, Dr. Egghead,
also calls John to discuss concepts in reprints which
interested him during his visit. After deliberating
for another week, John formally accepts the
department's offer and tells friends of his decision.

PLANNING REVISIONS
TO GRADUATE RECRUITING
The above composite case studies of Dorothy and
John emphasize recent applicant contact changes in
our graduate recruiting program at the Colorado
School of Mines. Our program objectives were to
increase the number and quality of accepted appli-
Fall 1992


cants to both our traditional program and to a new
non-thesis MS program for industrial engineers in
the Denver area. Our target population was stu-
dents with a traditional or a non-traditional back-
ground allied to chemical engineering.
Graduate study is no exception to the heuristic
that the quality of the supply material dictates the
quality of the product. Our recruiting program was
organized in an effort to combat the demographics of
future shortages of incoming graduate students. For

Graduate study is no exception to the heuristic
that the quality of the supply material dictates the
quality of the product. Our recruiting program
was organized... to combat the demographics of
future shortages of incoming graduate students.

example, the national number of PhDs in science
and engineering has been forecast by Atkinsonm to
have an annual shortfall from 1,000 to 10,000 de-
grees during the period from 1995 to 2010. Atkinson
indicates that this will be the result of a "cumulative
shortfall of several hundred thousand scientists and
engineers at the baccalaureate level by the turn of
the century." While many such studies differ in quan-
titative predictions, the qualitative trends are al-
most always similar.
The basis for our recruiting changes was obtained
from a study by P.B. Brownl2] of 250 graduate pro-
grams which ranked the reasons that resulted in a
graduate student's choice of a particular school (other
considerations being equal). The five criteria highest
on the list were:
Competitivefinancial assistance
Personal contact (letters, phone, etc.)
Referrals exchanged with colleagues
Promotional materials on programs
Subsidized visits for promising students
Most academics could easily list other, less tan-
gible and perhaps more vital, criteria-such as ex-
pertise in a research area, size of faculty and pro-
gram, reputation, location, etc. However, such
changes are more far-reaching and less easily ad-
dressed by a pilot program than the five criteria
listed above.
The principal ingredient of our program was
the intellectual and energetic commitment of de-
partment personnel. Since the faculty were al-
ready occupied with other important projects, our
first step was to determine resources in the form
of time and funds. These were obtained by a re-










organization of department committee priorities and
through the funding of a two-year pilot program by
the Graduate Dean.
The departmental involvement in graduate recruit-
ing increased from 10% to 40% of the faculty during
this period. Most importantly, an able administra-
tive assistant consistently managed the program de-
tails (communications, record keeping, expenses, etc.)
as one of her primary functions. For example, letters
progressively tailored to an individual's interest are
initiated by the administrative assistant to ensure
that only a small amount of time separates commu-
nications between an inquirer/applicant and the de-
partment. Any student who has his/her GRE scores
sent directly to the school is automatically sent an
application packet.
The Graduate Dean was naturally concerned about
graduate recruiting across the institution. He agreed
to fund our two-year pilot program with two
provisos: (1) that we obtain a mid-point pro-
gram evaluation by a consultant, and (2) that
we make the results of the pilot program available
to the entire campus.

HIGHLIGHTS OF THE PROGRAM
In addition to our efforts to address Brown's five
criteria for cost-effective recruiting, some innovative
aspects of our program are:
We made a professional-quality video tape, complete with music
and voice-overs, that describes faculty research, the department,
the school, and the living environment. As a rule-of-thumb, the
cost of such a tape is $1000/minute for a nominal fifteen-minute
tape. At the suggestion of our consultant, we shipped a copy of
this tape to every U.S. inquirer.
Each year we took part in the Student Career Fair held at the
annual AIChE conference, via a visually at-
tractive display booth staffed by a faculty
member. About five hundred students attend
this event each year.
We held an annual Department Open House,
principally for people from local industry who
hold undergraduate degrees in chemical engi- Year
neering or chemistry. The event included brief
presentations, a poster session highlighting Total Applicants
departmental research, and laboratory tours. a. National C
About 1500 letters of invitation were sent to r,-ir,.gn
members of AIChE and ACS in the Denver U.S. Ap]
area, resulting in twenty attendees and about
forty requests for more written information. b. Graduate
Verbal S
We identified sister institutions which might Analytic
be sources of incoming students and began Quantita
an exchange program of seminar speakers
with them. At each seminar away from cam- c. TOEFL Sc
pus, faculty invited interested students for a Total Applications
meal to discuss graduate school. Total Accepting O
We revised the review process so that each of Total Registering i:
three faculty members independently evalu-
ated the completed applications, both for ad-


mission and for financial support. Soon after each application
was evaluated, the review committee met to finalize admission/
aid decisions and to resolve discrepancies between recommend
dations.
SWe began to be more consistent in obtaining international stu-
dents. Two examples: we began record-keeping on applicant
performance from schools abroad, and we began to organize
recruiting visits to fine chemical engineering schools in Eastern
Europe and the Middle East.

THE PERSONAL TOUCH:
CAMPUS VISIT AND FOLLOW-UP
Of all the components of our enhanced recruiting
program, one of the most important to its success
was the visit of prospective graduate students to our
campus. The close faculty interaction with prospec-
tive students and our location both make us think
the campus visit deserves a ranking close to the top
of Brown's list of cost-effective recruiting measures.
Prior to designing our procedures, we spoke with
several of our own students regarding their experi-
ences in interviewing at other universities as pro-
spective graduate students. Several of the key points
that emerged from these conversations which later
guided the construction of our campus visits were:
It is vital to have close personal interaction with at least one host
faculty member who, ideally, should have the same responsibilities
that were fulfilled by Dr. Chehead in the opening case study.
Efforts should be made to have the student interview the faculty
regarding his or her own research interests and programs; visits
dominated by interviews with other graduate students and post-docs
were not perceived as useful.
Individual student visits are more useful than one group visit. Indi-
vidual students relate to individual faculty, but students visiting in a
group have more in common with each other than with the host
institution.
Quick departmental follow-up after the visit was a key in solidifying
the student's interest and commitment


TABLE 1
CEPR Graduate Recruiting Results

1992 1991 1990 1989

103 51 30 26
)rigin
Applicants 90 41 ? ?
plicants 13 10 ? ?
Record Exam
core 511 497 510 427
al Score 622 576 587 527
itive Score 753 739 725 698
ore (Foreign Appl.) 601 592 575 581
Accepted 50 38 27 19
offer 15 17 15 8
n Fall not avail. 14 12 7


Chemical Engineering Education









Immediately following the student's visit, a recom-
mendation concerning an offer was solicited from
each faculty. Within one week, each qualified visitor
received a personal letter from the Chair of the
Graduate Affairs Committee (GAC) notifying the stu-
dent that an offer would be forthcoming and re-
counting highlights of our research and educational
programs. This letter was also used to remind the
prospective student of acceptance deadlines. Official
graduate school notification of the offer followed
within one to two weeks.
Closing on prospective students was accomplished
by two different mechanisms. Some candidates sim-
ply accepted the offer by returning the required
materials. For others, further follow-up involved
personal calls from the GAC Chair inquiring about
the student's status and time-frame for a final deci-
sion. Again, the personal touch was perceived to be
a key to successfully closing with our more highly
recruited candidates.

PROGRAM EVALUATION
The evaluation of the success of the two-year pilot
recruiting program is quantified in Table 1. From
the data in the table we conclude that our applicant
pool has increased substantially both in quantity
and quality over the course of the program. After the
initial year of the program we invited a graduate
recruiting consultant, Donald G. Dickason, to cri-
tique the program and to provide a campus-wide
seminar on graduate recruiting.

FUTURE PLANS:
FEEDING THE PYRAMID
As outlined above, our effort at turning inquiries
into applications, and applications into new students
has been fairly successful. One area for future im-
provement is what we call "feeding the bottom of the
pyramid," based on a metaphor by Don Dickason.
The pyramid consists of the layers involved in the
graduate school process, starting with inquiries and
ending with degrees granted, each layer being smaller
than the one below it.
We plan two additional recruiting efforts in the
future. The first is to begin a summer internship
program for juniors who are considering graduate
school. This will provide exposure to challenging
research problems and lead to more graduate appli-
cations, both to other institutions and to CSM. The
summer research program will also be used to
strengthen our women and minorities recruiting pro-
grams. NSF has an active program which funds
such undergraduate research.
Fall 1992


The second plan is to develop a hypertext recruit-
ing document for distribution to prospective students.
Hypertext is a method of communicating informa-
tion in which the reader can move freely through a
document, pausing only at interesting points by
"clicking" on "buttons." (Modern Windows or Macin-
tosh help systems are an example of hypertext.)
The hypertext document, which will complement
our recruiting video, has a number of advantages.
The first is that it can be modified quickly and at
little cost; in contrast, our video has a shelf life of
two years, with significant modification costs.
The second advantage of our hypertext document
is that the reader can be highly selective from among
a vast amount of information. For example, a reader
could easily locate the syllabus of an interesting
course, consider a research area in detail, or skip
over these in favor of learning about living or recre-
ational conditions in the Golden area. Such a wealth
of information might be a boring read in a conven-
tional document, but we believe that hypertext will
render it manageable for both the reader and the
producer. Our plan is to develop the document using
existing hypertext shell/hardware for the Macintosh
before porting it to a Windows hypertext system
such as Toolbook.
The programs listed above have the potential, not
just of increasing CSM's share of a fixed pool of
applicants, but of increasing the size of the pool. Our
observation, which we are sure is not unique, is that
many talented students never consider graduate
school simply because they have had little or no
exposure to what faculty and graduate students do
when they disappear behind their laboratory doors.
Increased marketing efforts will, at a minimum, help
students make more-informed decisions.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We gratefully acknowledge the financial support
of Dean Arthur J. Kidnay and former Dean John A.
Cordes for this pilot program. Donald G. Dickason
was, at the time of his consultancy, Vice President
for Higher Education, Peterson's Guides; he is cur-
rently Vice Provost for Enrollment Management,
Drexel University.

REFERENCES
1. Atkinson, R.C., "Supply and Demand for Scientists and
Engineers: A National Crisis in the Making," Science, 248,
425 (1990)
2. Brown, P.B., "Cost Effectiveness of Common Recruitment
Tools," Western Association of Graduate Schools Confer-
ence, Banff, Canada, March 4-6 (1989) 0










AN INTRODUCTION TO THE

FUNDAMENTALS OF

BIO(MOLECULAR) ENGINEERING


BRUCE R. LOCKE
Florida State University, Florida A&M University
Tallahassee, FL 32316-2175

his is a course intended for first-year gradu-
ate students or seniors in chemical engineer-
ing and the physical and chemical sciences
who may have a minimal background in the biologi-
cal sciences and who have strong quantitative skills,
including knowledge of linear algebra, calculus, and
ordinary and partial differential equations. The
course emphasis is on combining fundamental prin-
ciples from physical chemistry, including thermody-
namics and (non-linear) chemical kinetics (including
irreversible thermodynamics), transport phenomena,
and colloidal, interfacial, and molecular science to
understanding a wide range of phenomena in bio-
logical and biochemical systems that are important
in the current applications of biotechnology and in
our understanding of living systems for future appli-
cations of biotechnology.
The goals of the present approach are
to provide an overview of a wide open and rapidly developing
field that encompasses material from subjects in the biological
sciences, the physical and chemical sciences, and engineering
to give the student the necessary fundamental information and
skills to understand current developments
to motivate the student to investigate areas that need further
development, particularly in the area of molecular level design.
The design of structural and functional features of
materials on the molecular scale is essential for mod-
ern developments in biotechnology and materials
science. Examples include the development of new
catalysts and sensors. The general philosophy of the
course used to reach these goals involves the consid-
eration of a hierarchy of structure from the molecu-

IBruce R. Locke is an assistant chemical engi-
neering professor at FAMU/FSU. He received
his BE from Vanderbilt University in 1980, his
MS from the University of Houston in 1982, and
has four years of research experience at the
Research Triangle Institute (North Carolina). He
completed his PhD at North Carolina State in
1989. His research interests are in the dynam-
ics of transport and reaction of biological mac-
S romolecules in multicomponent and multidomain
Composite systems.
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1992


lar to the supracellular in light of known organiza-
tional features to illuminate gaps in our knowledge
and to illustrate how our current understanding may
lead to the design of functional units from the mo-
lecular to the supracellular levels.
Fundamental aspects are stressed in order to pro-
vide a framework for further study of bioengineering
in such areas as biochemical engineering, biomedi-
cal engineering, molecular (protein) engineering,
metabolic engineering, and cellular engineering. This
course differs considerably from conventional bio-
chemical engineering courses offered in chemical en-
gineering in that molecular-level concepts are incor-
porated within a framework of fundamental con-
cepts of (non-linear) chemical kinetics, transport phe-
nomena viscoelasticc fluids), and interfacial and col-
loidal science. In the modern chemical engineering
curriculum it has become necessary for students to
understand the relationships between the functional
and structural properties of macromolecules; this
includes not only conventional treatments of single
macromolecules in solution but also dynamic sys-
tems of macromolecules functioning together in su-
pramolecular and hierarchal structures.
The merging of chemistry and biology through rapid
advances in our understanding of molecular scale
events opens up the possibility for rational design of
materials on the molecular level. The drive for high
specificity, high selectivity, high purity, and increased
quality control in the production and processing of
many materials has stimulated chemists and engi-
neers to look closely at living systems as models for
building materials that have never occurred in na-
ture. The diversity of life on earth provides a frame-
work upon which new developments are being made.
For example, our ability to develop new enzymes
through site-directed mutagenesis and our under-
standing of molecular structure and function is giv-
ing rise to the creation of completely new artificial
catalysts that promote reactions not found in natu-
ral systems.[1"
A recent work by Peacockel21 reviews the literature
on biochemical and biological organization that has
Chemical Engineering Education










arisen through the initial work of Hinshelwood in
the 1940s and 1950s,131 the work of A. Turing in the
1950s,141 and the Brussels school of Prigogine in the
1960s to the present.i5s Peacocke overlooks the pio-
neering work of Rashevsky.i1.71 The emphasis of these
researchers is on the use of chemical reaction kinet-
ics and transport phenomena to describe spatial and
temporal pattern formation in biochemical pathways
and cellular structures. It is very revealing to the
chemical engineering student that major contribu-
tions to this area have been made by chemical engi-
neers through the analysis of chemical reactionsl8-111
and that the students' own fundamental knowledge
of chemical reaction kinetics and transport phenom-
ena can be used to describe, for example, slime mold
aggregation,112,131 cell cycle oscillations,,l41 the forma-
tion of zebra and leopard spots,1121 the spread of a
contagious disease,l121 the functioning of the immune
systems15' and cardiac arrhythmia.1161 Important de-
velopments in the analysis of chemical reactions' lo111
have also aided the advancement of the compart-
mental analysis of biological systems.1171 Peacocke
only reveals part of the story, however, by not clearly
illustrating the connection between the kinetic and
systems ideas and the vast wealth of knowledge on
the molecular structure of biological macromolecules
that has been developed in the last twenty to thirty
years. In addition, very recent developments in

TABLE 1
Outline and Major Topics
Overall lnr.,'ihn ni.'
Part I: Introduction to the structure and organization of life and living
systems
Biodiversity-sources of materials and inspiration
Structure of cells and subcellular components
Molecular components of living systems
Part II: Molecular level uin raiii -irc ~,ilh'i.iu
*Phi .,c.aL'chcmc.l property: ol'i mat romiolecuile
InteiTrolecular forces that stabilize mrcromolec.ular

*Biological recoigriiiinn-relationrisiipbeit\ eern in~ cture and
function
.lcrrnmolecular Inlerjcinons with surfaces and surface
forces that govern these interactions
Part III: Intracellular phenomena-The dynamics of multiple
interacting t,,.ir, c.
Metabolic path& a -, multiple macromolecules working
loge't'her in equernc or pirillel
Design and development of complex. artificial mrnerhbolic
systems
Part IV: Eluracil lular phtnoin-rti-Til d\ uInn. s ot mulfupl
il, rUcii n cpr tll
MulNlcellular proce..e.--chemical communication
between cells
Towards a hierarchy of direct and indirect interactions


Fundamental aspects are stressed in order to provide
aframeworkforfurther study of bioengineering in
such areas as biochemical engineering, biomedical
engineering, molecular (protein) engineering,
metabolic engineering, and cellular engineering

mechanochemical theory that links mechanical mo-
tion of molecular structures such as muscle and gel
fibers to the chemical composition of the molecular
structure1ls.191 and solution are not fully addressed.
The details of molecular structure and function
arise through introductions to molecular biology,[20,211
macromolecular science,[22-241 intermolecular inter-
actions,1251 and recent studies on mechanochemical
coupling.1181 Intermolecular forces are responsible for
the specificity and functioning of most biological
macromolecules by giving rise to biomolecular
recognition. Biomolecular recognition arises through
the simultaneous action of a large number of fairly
weak hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals, electro-
static, and hydrophobic interactions arrayed in
unique geometrical configurations and acting coop-
eratively. This is a key concept that is stressed
throughout the course because it is the basis for
substrate binding to, for example, enzymes, cell sur-
faces, and antibodies.
The overall structure of the course consists of four
parts that progress from a description of structure to
the analysis of function (see Table 1). The first part
of the course begins with an overall view of life and
living systems and progresses to descriptions of cel-
lular and molecular level features. The second part
of the course seeks to develop the fundamental prin-
ciples governing the interactions between macro-
molecules and small molecules, macromolecules and
other macromolecules, and macromolecules and sur-
faces. The third part seeks to explore the dynamic
features of many macromolecules interacting in meta-
bolic pathways, and the fourth part seeks to explore
the area of multiple interacting cells, or other sub-
units such as organelles, through introductions to
multicellular communication through direct and in-
direct interactions and population models.
The mechanics of the course relies heavily on stu-
dent involvement through term projects and class
reports. Table 2 (next page) shows some examples of
term papers. Each student is also responsible for
presenting the general background material neces-
sary for understanding the subject of their term
paper. For example, the student discussing delivery
of drugs to the brain also presents an introductory
lecture on the analysis of facilitated diffusion.


Fall 1992








COURSE OUTLINE AND DISCUSSION OF TOPICS
The introductory material for this course reflects a
very broad and open-minded perspective on the field
of biotechnology. In a general sense, one may con-
sider biotechnology as the use of biomaterials (i.e.,
molecules, combinations of molecules, cells, and tis-
sues derived from living creatures) for feedstocks,
processing tools, products, and as prototype models
for new materials. Although we do not use the nar-
row definition of biotechnology that includes only
the products of genetic engineering methods, it is
clear that recombinant technology is making great
inroads in a wide variety of new applications and
that an understanding of recombinant methods is
crucial. Perhaps the unique feature of this course is
the concept that known biomaterials can be consid-
ered as models for the development of new materi-
als. Protein engineering is the best known example
of this; however, other examples include
biomineralization, facilitated transport processes, and
metabolic engineering.
From an engineering perspective, our major inter-
est in biotechnology arises from the use of biomateri-
als as feedstocks, as processing tools, as products,
and as an inspiration for creating new materials.
Biomaterials encompass a large range of entities,
from relatively simple organic compounds such as
penicillin and amino acids, to complex macromol-
ecules such as proteins and vitamins, to complete
organisms such as yeasts, plants, and animals. Bio-
mass as a feedstock for the production of alcohol and
microorganisms as processing tools for food produc-
tion and waste treatment have long been used. New
bioprocessing tools include immobilized enzymes as
industrial and consumer catalysts, recombinant bac-
teria for the production of eucaryotic proteins, and
transgenic cows for producing human proteins.
From a long-range view, the most exciting devel-
opments use biomaterials to create new materials
that have never occurred in nature. A very interest-
ing example is the development of synthetic heme
for the extraction of oxygen from water for life sup-
port in the ocean.i[2z Biomimicry for synthesizing
new materials is also rapidly advancing.[271 The 1988
Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to D.J. Cram
for his work on the design of molecular hosts and
complexes. This merges synthetic organic chemistry
and biochemistry to create new and exciting materi-
als. Cram states that "evolution has produced
chemical compounds that are exquisitely organized
to accomplish the most complicated and delicate of
tasks ." and his achievements demonstrate that
we can build upon what evolution has produced.
196


TABLE 2
Sample Term Paper Projects
The Role of Recombinant DNA Technology in the Degrada-
tion of Pesticides and Herbicides
Biological Pattern Formation: Temporal Oscillations in the
Eucaryotic Cell Cycle
Drug Delivery to the Brain: Fd':t.iat, d Transport
Enz\m.,,Engineerirn
Biodegradation of Oil Spills
Genetic Engineering for Enhanced Separation Processes

PART
Introduction to the Structure and Organization of Life
and Living Systems
The diversity of life that currently exists on earth,
and that has ever existed on earth, is a tremendous
source of substances and inspiration for the develop-
ment of new materials. Prior to describing and dis-
cussing this diversity it is useful to consider the
unique features of living organisms. Students gener-
ally recall from high school biology that all creatures
grow, reproduce, consume, and excrete materials and
energy from and to the environment, and that all
living things eventually die. This is a useful begin-
ning for the analysis of life, and the students may
even recognize that there are entities such as vi-
ruses that are on the boundary of living and non-
living that are difficult to clearly classify. Other
general features of life that students will easily come
up with are the cell theory and the theory of evolu-
tion. The detailed discussion of these two theories is
of central importance for understanding and analyz-
ing the structure and dynamics of living systems.
Students trained in the physical and chemical sci-
ences should be motivated at this point to ask ques-
tions such as: Do living systems obey the basic laws
of physics? Certainly material and energy balances
apply-but what about the second law? These ideas
are succinctly expressed by Schrodinger,128Iwho specu-
lated that the dynamic aspects of living systems are
related to structural aspects through large molecules,
and that these structural molecules and relation-
ships are of special significance for living systems.
"...it has been explained that the laws of physics, as we know them are
statistical laws. They have a lot to do with the natural tendency of
things to go over into disorder. But, to reconcile the high durability
of the hereditary substance with its minute size, we had to evade the
tendency to disorder by 'inventing the molecule,' in fact, an unusu-
ally large molecule which has to be a masterpiece of highly differ-
entiated order, safeguarded by the conjuring rod of quantum theory.
The laws of chance are not invalidated by this 'invention,' but their
outcome is modified. The physicist is familiar with the fact that the
classical laws of physics are modified by quantum theory, espe-
cially at low temperature. There are many instances of this. Life
seems to be one of them, a particularly striking one. Life seems to
Chemical Engineering Education









be orderly and lawful behavior of matter, not based exclusively on
its tendency to go over from order to disorder, but based partly on
existing order that is kept up ...
Further aspects of ideas from irreversible thermo-
dynamics[l5 will arise later in the course. However,
the main idea in the beginning is to stress that there
are important connections, as Schrodinger stated,
between the need for macromolecules of "highly dif-
ferentiated order" and dynamics of living systems,
i.e., the organisms' struggle against the forces of
entropy. Although he referred primarily to macro-
molecules that carry genetic information (DNA's role
and structure were unknown at the time) and the
need for the long-term stability of such macromol-
ecules, it is clear that the general ideas include other
macromolecules that make up living organisms.
(More recent criticisms of several other aspects of
Schrodinger's ideas can be found in Kilmister.1291)
Macromolecules make up the 'first' level of struc-
tural 'order' in living systems. They are held to-
gether first of all by covalent bonds and secondly
their active structure arises through a number of
intermolecular forces and solution mediated interac-
tions. Introduction to the basic classes of macromol-
ecules, i.e., nucleic acids, proteins and carbohydrates,
can stress the relationship between structure and
function. The assembly of lipids into membrane struc-
tures is a good example where the molecular struc-
ture of individual lipids gives rise to the structure
and function of the membranes that they form. Mem-
brane structure and the organization of lipids into
micelles, liposomes, and other structures is an im-
portant area to consider in detail since it is the basis
of all 'higher level' compartments organelless) in liv-
ing systems, and it has major applications in separa-
tion and reaction processes.3al0
Mere descriptions of the hierarchal structure of
taxonomy,311l cells, subcellular organelles,[321 and mo-
lecular components of living systems can be some-
what dry without constant reference to questions
such as: Why are plants, animals, and cells of par-
ticular sizes? What type of interactions (i.e., direct or
indirect) govern the relationships between different
hierarchical levels? (For this latter point, see Part
IV.) The engineering student, trained in transport
and kinetics and scale-up principles, should be able
to postulate and test ideas to explain these and
other physical biology features.133-351 Concepts from
mass transfer and fluid dynamics can be used to
describe the structure of various sea creatures.[361 In
addition, it benefits the student greatly if key fea-
tures of various levels of description are illustrated.
For example, in discussing the taxonomic levels of
living organisms it is useful to describe which organ-
Fall 1992


isms are used directly by man and for what purpose
they are used and why they are used. When discuss-
ing the structure of eucaryotic organisms, aspects of
intracellular processing such as in the secretion and
post translational processing ofinsulin[37l or the trans-
port of materials in and out of the cells3sl can be
considered in light of their effects on producing eu-
caryotic proteins in procaryotic cells and in analogy
to the processing required in chemical plants (i.e.,
well-defined regions for reactions and extensive ma-
terial sorting and purification structuresl391).

PARTII
Molecular Level Interactions-Biorecognition
Once the student has a clear idea of the multiple
levels of hierarchal structure of living systems from
the molecular to organelle to cellular to organism
discussed above, it is useful to continue with a study
of the physical/chemical properties of biological mac-
romolecules. Basic ideas from colloidal science in-
cluding thermodynamic, hydrodynamic, and electro-
kinetic properties can be introduced within the con-
text of the student's understanding of transport phe-
nomena and physical chemistry. There are a num-
ber of excellent references for this area.I22-24,401 Gen-
eral physical/chemical features of macromolecules
such as size, surface area, charge, and shape should
be considered in light of their effects on separation
(chromatography, filtration, solubility) and reaction
(immobilized enzymes and cell) processes, and in
addition to point to further study of how these mac-
romolecules function in groups or assemblages such
as membranes, and sub-cellular organelles.
Intermolecular forces that stabilize macromolecu-
lar structure can be presented by first considering
the nature and origin of intermolecular forces.1251
Many aspects of fundamental importance such as
the nature of van der Waals forces, hydrogen bond-
ing, and dipole and hydrophobic interactions can be
considered. Many of the fundamental aspects have
been well developed and current experimentsl411 us-
ing the atomic force microscope have led to interest-
ing advances in, for example, molecular rearrange-
ments upon receptor ligand binding. One major area
that needs further development is a quantitative
treatment for the hydrophobic effects.
Biological recognition and the relationships be-
tween structure and function are key areas that can
be considered in much detail. Qualitative examples
such as enzyme catalysis (e.g., a serine protease
such as chymotrypsin[421), antibody binding (avidin/
biotin affinity chromatographyl43l), cell surface inter-
actions, and facilitated membrane transport (oxygen
binding by hemoglobin and myoglobinl441) can be de-
197









scribed in detail. The quantitative description of these
systems can be considered first from the thermody-
namic approach145-471 where binding equilibria are
developed and second from the kinetic approach
through Michaelis Menten type kinetics.
Smoluchowski theory and Brownian motionl481 can
be used to discuss diffusional limitations. In addi-
tion, recent work on the induced fitr49, and directed
binding is useful in developing the dynamic approach
to macromolecular recognition.
Macromolecular interactions with surfaces and sur-
face forces that govern these interactions are vital
for understanding many biochemical separation and
reaction processes such as affinity chromatography
and enzyme immobilization procedures. An under-
standing of surface interactions is also necessary for
biofouling in industry, commerce, and biomedical
devices. The molecular basis for adhesion of biologi-
cal macromolecules on cell surfaces to inorganic ma-
trices can be approached from the fundamental per-
spective as developed by Israelachvilil25s and in light
of recent advances in active site directed binding.1411

PARTIII
Intracellular Phenomena: The Dynamics of Multiple
Interacting Macromolecules
One of the main goals of this course is to foster
development of links between the dynamics of mac-
romolecules working together and the structural fea-
tures of the macromolecules and their complexes.
The chemical engineering perspective for analyzing
multiple linear and nonlinear chemical reactions in
convective-diffusion processes can be used as a basis
for analyzing metabolic pathways (lumping analy-
sis,s101 modal analysis,ls51 metabolic models,152l cyber-
netic modelss53l such as glycolysis, the regulation of
protein synthesis, and the energetic of active trans-
port in cell membranesl44'). This is exemplified in the
development of reaction-diffusion work from both
chemical engineering and biological literature. The
view of the reaction processes, however, must go
beyond treating the reactants as species without
structure since biological structures are dynamic en-
tities that, for example, change shape on substrate
binding and that exhibit a wide range of allosteric
and cooperative behaviors.
Biomechanical theories for the chemomechanical
aspects of structure formation such as muscle action
and cell motion can be considered within the context
of advanced transport phenomena as elaborated by
Murray, et al.1181 The swelling of (bio)polymers and
the electrokinetic effects of applied electrical fields
on (bio)polymers can be treated within the context of
the engineering students' background in continuum
198


mechanics as is appropriate for an introductory
class.54,551 This area is also important for the devel-
opment of devices to convert chemical energy to me-
chanical work with little heat generation. Both of
the above chemical and mechanochemical theories
are useful for the design and development of com-
plex artificial metabolic systems and structural units.

PARTIV
Extracellular Phenomena: The Dynamics of Multiple
Interacting Cells and Subunits
The last level considers direct and indirect interac-
tions for multicellular and multi-subunit (e.g., or-
ganelles) processes. Figure 1, a schematic view of
such interactions, shows features very similar to the
structure of a eucaryotic cell. Direct interactions
between cells is important for a full understanding
of tissue function and development as well as for
such systems as immobilized cells or enzymes in
membranes. Indirect interactions are important for
bioreactor systems where cells, particles of immobi-
lized cells, and particles of immobilized enzymes
communicate through the bulk solution of well-mixed
reactors. This area is currently not covered in detail
for undergraduates; however, graduate students can
appreciate these aspects through comparison to ad-
vances in chemical reactor analysis.i56s In addition,
an introduction to population modelsl52.57,581 is neces-
sary for understanding the growth of microbial or-
ganisms in natural and reactor processes.

CONCLUSIONS
There is currently a need for an introductory-level
course for the engineering and physical and chemi-
cal sciences student that will develop the molecular
and hierarchical organizational features of biotech-
nology, herein considered in a broad sense as the use
ofbiomaterials (i.e., molecules, combinations of mol-
ecules, cells, and tissues derived from living crea-
tures) for feedstocks, processing tools, products, and
as models for new materials. The course described in
this paper seeks to integrate current and past devel-
opments from a wide range of fields into the chemi-
cal engineering curricula, to instill in the student
the necessity for reading and understanding materi-
als from a broad range of subjects and to inspire
students to seek answers to unknown questions about
the applications of the biosciences for improving our
quality of life. This approach can be accomplished by
building upon a fundamental understanding of trans-
port phenomena and chemical kinetics through the
introduction of analysis of non-linear chemical reac-
tion-convective-diffusion processes, non-Newtonian
and viscoelastic mechanics, colloid and interfacial
Chemical Engineering Education





































Figure 1. Hierarchy of direct and indirect interactions
science, and population balance approaches. This
approach will lead to additional coursework to intro-
duce molecular transport theories,1591 statistical me-
chanics, and even quantum mechanics for further
study ofbio(molecular) design.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I would like to thank Dr. Pedro Arce for his invalu-
able comments on the text of this manuscript and for
many useful conversations on the general subject of
direct and indirect interactions in systems with
hierarchial levels of structure.

REFERENCES
1. Chen, C.-H.B., and D.S. Sigman, "Chemical Conversion of a
DNA-Binding Protein into a Site-Specific Nuclease, Science,
237, 1197 (1987)
2. Peacocke, A.R., An Introduction to the Physical Chemistry of
Biological Organization, Oxford Science Publications,
Clarendon Press, Oxford (1989)
3. Dean, A.C.R., and C. Hinshelwood, Growth, Function and
Regulation in Bacterial Cells, Oxford at the Clarendon Press
(1966)
4. Turing, A., "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis, Proc.
Roy. Soc. London, B237, 5 (1952)
5. Nicolis G., and I. Prigogine, Self-Organization in
Nonequilibrium Systems, Wiley-Interscience, New York
(1977)
6. Rachevsky, N., "An Approach to the Mathematical Biophys-
ics of Biological Self-Regulation and of the Cell Polarity,
Bull. Math. Biophy., 2, 15 (1940)
7. Rachevsky, N., Mathematical Biophysics, University of Chi-
cago Press, Chicago, IL (1948)
8. Othmer, H.G., and L.E. Scriven, "Interactions of Reaction
and Diffusion in Open Systems," I. & E.C. Fund., 8, 302
(1969)
9. Gmitro, J.I., and L.E. Scriven, "A Physicochemical Basis for
Fall 1992


Pattern and Rhythm," in Intracellular Transport, K.B. War-
ren, Ed., Academic Press, New York (1966)
10. Wei, J., and C.D. Prater, "The Structure and Analysis of
Complex Reaction Systems," Chap. 5 in Advances in Cataly-
sis, Vol. 13, Academic Press, New York (1962)
11. Aris, R., "Compartmental Analysis and the Theory of Resi-
dence Time," in Intracellular Transport, K.B. Warren, Ed.,
Academic Press, New York (1966)
12. Murray, J.D., Mathematical Biology, Springer-Verlag, Ber-
lin (1989)
13. Segel, L.A., Modeling Dynamic Phenomena in Molecular
and Cellular Biology, Cambridge University Press, Cam-
bridge (1984)
14. Norel, R., and Z. Agur, "A Model for the Adjustment of the
Mitotic Clock by Cyclin and MPF Levels, Science, 251, 1076
(1991)
15. Marchuk, G.I., Mathematical Models in Immunology, Opti-
mization Software Inc., New York (1983)
16. Winfree, A.T., When Time Breaks Down: The Three-Dimen-
sional Dynamics of Electrochemical Waves and Cardiac
Arrhythmias, Princeton University Press (1987)
17. Anderson, D.H., Compartmental Modeling and Tracer Ki-
netics, Lecture Notes in Biomathematics, Vol. 50, Springer-
Verlag (1983)
18. Murray, J.D., P.K. Maini, and R.T. Tranquillo, "Mechano-
chemical Models for Generating Biological Pattern and Form
in Development," Physics Reports, 171, 59 (1988)
19. Osada, Y., H. Okuzaki, and H. Hori, "A Polymer Gel with
Electrically Driven Motility," Nature, 355, 242 (1992)
20. Stryer, L., Molecular Design of Life, W. H. Freeman, New
York (1989)
21. Primrose, S.B., Molecular Biotechnology, 2nd ed., Blackwell
Scientific Publications, London (1991)
22. van Holde, K.E., Physical Biochemistry, 2nd ed., Prentice
Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1985)
23. Tanford, C., Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules, John
Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York (1966)
24. Cantor, C.R., and R. Schimmel, Biophysical Chemistry, Vols.
1-3, W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, CA (1980)
25. Israelachvili, J., Intermolecular and Surface Forces, 2nd
ed., Academic Press, London (1991)
26. De Castro, E.S., "Breathing Under Water," Chemtech, 682,
Nov (1990)
27. Berman, A., et al., "Intercalation of Sea Urchin Proteins in
Calcite: Study of a Crystalline Composite Material, Science,
250, 664 (1990)
28. Schrodinger, E., What is Life? The Physical Aspect of the
Living Cell and Mind and Matter, Cambridge University
Press (1944) (1966 reprint)
29. Kilmister, C.W., ed., Schrodinger, Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge (1987)
30. Lasic, D. "Liposomes," Amer. Sci., 80, 20 (1992)
31. Margulis, L., and K. U. Schwartz, An Illustrated Guide to
the Phyla of Life on Earth, 2nd ed., W.H. Freeman and
Company, New York (1988)
32. de Duve, A Guided Tour of the Living Cell, Vols. 1 and 2,
Scientific American Library (1984)
33. Vogel, S., "Life in Moving Fluids," The Physical Biology of
Flow, Princeton University Press (1981)
34. Vogel, S., Life's Devices: The Physical World of Animals and
Plants, Princeton University Press (1988)
35. McMahon, T.A., and J.T. Bonner, On Size and Life,
Scientific American Library (1983)
36. Patterson, M.R., "A Mass Transfer Explanation of Meta-
bolic Scaling Relations in Some Aquatic Invertebrates and
Algae," Science, 225, 1421 (1992)
Continued on page 203.












A COLLOQUIUM SERIES

IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


COSTAS TSOURIS, SOTIRA YIACOUMI,
CYNTHIA S. HIRTZEL
Syracuse University
Syracuse, NY 13244-1190


In describing a course on technical talks, Felderil
points out the importance of communication skills
for all practicing engineers. The significance of
effective communication skills is also underlined by
Hanzevack and McKeanl2i in a discussion of effective
oral presentations as part of the senior design course
for chemical engineers. In both references, the reader
can find suggestions for successful oral presenta-
tions. Furthermore, in the latter paper a "pre-
sentation feedback form" is illustrated which can be
used not only for evaluation of an oral technical
presentation but also for drawing the attention of
the speaker to some important points during the
organization of the presentation.
Most undergraduate programs in chemical engi-
neering include a course on how to improve oral
communication skills, and some graduate programs
further develop those skills through technical pre-
sentations as part of a course. Good written and oral
communication skills are the goals of the Depart-

Costas Tsouris recently received his PhD in
chemical engineering at Syracuse University. He
worked with Professor L. L. Tavlarides in the
area of liquid dispersions.





Sotira Yiacoumi is finishing her PhD in civil
engineering at Syracuse University. She works
with Professor Chi Tien in the area of uptake of
metal ions and organic compounds by natural
systems.
Cynthia S. Hirtzel is Professor and Chairperson of the Department of
Chemical Engineering and Materials Science at Syracuse University. Her
research interests are in the areas of colloidal and interracial phenomena,
adsorption/desorption phenomena, and stochastic analysis of modeling of
engineering systems. She is also actively involved in technical outreach to
pre-college students. (Photo not available)
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1992


The presentations are designed
to simulate a thesis or dissertation oral
examination. The duration of each seminar
(which the speakers are encouraged not to
exceed) is about thirty minutes.

ment of Chemical Engineering and Materials Sci-
ence at Syracuse University. Faculty and students
are both concerned with the student's ability to com-
municate technical expertise.
A seminar program called "Colloquium Series in
Chemical Engineering and Materials Science"
(ColCEMS) has been initiated and is run by the
students in collaboration with the faculty to satisfy
this mutual concern. The ColCEMS operates during
the fall and spring semesters of the academic year,
as well as during the summer sessions. It is a step
beyond the summer seminar program which was
initiated at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University.[31 The purpose of this article is to de-
scribe all the activities within the colloquium series
and to provide an example for students in other
schools to follow.

OBJECTIVES
The main objectives of ColCEMS are
to improve the communication skills of graduate students
to share knowledge obtained from recent research activities
to exchange ideas and develop constructive criticism.
Although the above objectives are all equally impor-
tant, good communication skills are necessary in
order for a speaker to share ideas and results with
an audience and to receive feedback in the form
of constructive criticism. This is a reality that is
recognized by all students, and it serves to strengthen
their determination to improve their own com-
munication effectiveness.
The departmental seminar program that runs in
parallel is a rich source for examples of both good
and bad presentations. Although the main objective
of the department program is the exchange of ideas,
due to the ColCEMS students are able to see beyond
Chemical Engineering Education










the speaker's ideas and findings. In this way they
develop a rounded critical opinion of both the speaker
and the presented work.

SCHEDULE
Preparation for the subsequent seminar schedule
starts even before the current one ends. The coordi-
nators encourage all graduate students to submit a
seminar title and a preferred date for its presenta-
tion, although participation is voluntary for both
speakers and audience members. Not many students
come forward, however, until they have a consider-
able amount of information to share, usually in the
second or later year of their graduate studies.
To complete the schedule (which consists of ap-
proximately twelve seminars) the coordinators in-
vite research associates, faculty members, and even
some students and faculty from other departments
who have similar backgrounds and interests. In this
way the seminar program covers many research ar-
eas and attracts people with diverse backgrounds.
The participation of research associates and fac-
ulty, both as speakers and as audience, is very im-
portant for the ColCEMS since it engenders more


departmental attention and encourages the speak-
ers to carefully prepare their presentations. A good
balance between graduate students, research associ-
ates, and faculty (corresponding to the number of
people in each category within the department) is
maintained.
The seminar schedule is announced two weeks
before the first presentation. Each speaker and each
member of the department receives a copy of the
schedule, and additional copies are distributed to
faculty members in other departments at Syracuse
and at SUNY/Environmental Science and Forestry
where chemical engineering faculty members col-
laborate on joint research projects. Finally, a copy of
the schedule is sent to the Syracuse Record, a weekly
campus newspaper.

The seminar topics for 1991 are shown in Table 1.
The table also serves to demonstrate the diversity of
research interests in the department. Seminars of
general interest, such as "All You Wanted to Know
About Physics and Were Afraid to Ask," "Quantum
Gravity," and "The Human/Animal Bond: Interac-
tion Among Pets and People" are exciting and well
received by the audience. Our goal is to have such


TABLE 1
Topics: 1991 Colloquium Series in Chemical Engineering and Materials Science


Spring 1991
Modeling of the Electrostatic Corona Discharge Reactor
rprr,, wiitil. Sl. lrnll.'l. r Intraparticle DiTil t IquLn.,. i
TrLnr.p.,rl rl t ill. Nher Fractal Electrodes
Sof. ,ill 'E tra. II. Sepai'iit 'i '/l VowI Gr i'p Elenr it ii a I ,1'1o -
r, t- it Po'l\ i /ic'r'
Ad.i.rpti',il f Al / hil ) fromt, Aqueous Solutions
D. "i ,t P 'lI\r ,hlnipiro %.Il .r Superior s, rparauii, Properties
Precipitation from Homogeneous Solution: A New Technique for
the Preparation of Catalysts and Catalyst Supports
Application of Impregnated Ceramic Membranes for Metal Ion
Separation from Hazardous Waste Streams
Monte Carlo Experiments for Desorption of Molecules from Solid
Surfaces
Computer Modeling of IL re r.m,granrit'i
Design of a Laboratory Supercritical Extraction and Oxidation
') t irn for PCBs
Membrane Processes for Gas Separations
*A Membrane Process for l SiJ iR, mr,rval of ( l -. -,i Du. -r .J J. oi
Diving Atmospheres

Summer 1991
Droplet Breakup in Liquid Dispersions
All You Wanted to Know About Physics and Were Afraid to Ask
Rl ir,,ihi ;p. B, rl t ili' Chemical Structure of Fluorine-Con-
taining Polyimide Membranes and Their Gas Permeability
Quantum Gravity
An I p ~riie. Nlhil L, outri ,irtl. i of I ,llhiiLtl and Active Trans-
port in the Human Placenta
Properties i -lnfplhi. r,. tI Ju.t Surface Charge l., l.pir. pi .


Aqueous Solution and pH Dependence of Metal Ion Adsorption
Deposition of Diffusive Aerosols
Evaluation of Adsorption Energy Distribution for Hii. ., lt.' ii.t ls
Surfaces
Simulation ofBubble Dynamics
Electrical Breakdown of Polymers
Acoustics of Bubbly Liquids
The Human/Animal Bond: Interaction Among Pets and People

Fall 1991
Analysis of Cake Formation and Growth: Formulation and Pos-
sible Solutions
Control of Extraction Columns
I Effect of Intrasegmental Mobility on Gas P,:,.iiail,/,r of
Polyimide Membranes
11. R, pr, ,cairii-n ,,fGas Solubility aol Dlttio,, tan i, (loi, Poly-
mers
Estimation of Parameters in Differential Models by Infeasible Path
Optimization
Interrelationship Between the Source Material for Activated Car-
bons: Its Structure and Chemical Effects During Hydrogen
Adsorption
Water in Polyimides: Solubility and Transport
Aerosol Deposition in Fibrous Systems
Sulfate Adsorption on Mineral Soils
Magnetism in Thin Films
Computer Simulation for Adsorption of Molecules on Solid Sur-
faces
Development of Inorganic Chemically Active Beads for Metal Ion
Separation from Hazardous Waste Streams


Fall 1992 201









seminars not only in the summer but also during the
two academic semesters.

FORMAT
The ColCEMS presentations are designed to simu-
late a thesis or dissertation oral examination. The
duration of each seminar (which the speakers are
encouraged not to exceed) is about thirty minutes.
Overhead and slide projectors are usually used as
visual aids, and some speakers include video-tape
shows and laboratory equipment to make their talk
more understandable. Due to the diversity of back-
grounds in the audience, the seminars usually start
with a relatively long introduction. Only clarifica-
tion questions are allowed during the seminar, but
the presentation is followed by a question-and-an-
swer session directed by the seminar coordinators.
The duration of this session is not fixed-it depends
on the number of questions and may last anywhere
from five to twenty minutes.
There are two seminar coordinators elected at the
end of the summer colloquium series. They are re-
sponsible for preparing the seminar schedule at the
beginning of each semester, arranging for financial
support, arranging for refreshments, announcing
each weekly seminar, arranging for the room and


TABLE 2
Typical Announcement

COLLOQUIUM SERIES
in
CHEMICAL ENGINE ERING AND MA TER IALS SCIENCE

SPEAKER: Ai Chen
Graduate Student
Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
TOPIC: Computer Simulation for
Adsorption of Molecules on Solid Surface,
DATE: Friday, November 22, 1991
TIME: 12:15 PM
PLACE: 017 Hinds Hall

Adsorption of -n'leiuleC orn 'colie li has been -iudled ,iing Monte
Carlo simulations. Site-site potential energies were used to model the
adsorbate-zeolite and adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. In the potential
energy model, the dispersion, repulsion and electrostatic induction ener-
gies have been taken into account for monatomic molecules. In addition
to the above terms, the quadrupole-quadrupole and ion-quadrupole in-
teractions have been taken into account for diatomic molecules. A new
Monte Carlo simulallon model is proposed hbed in, stochastic Markov
process theory to carry out the simulations. A prominent advantage of
the model is that it is suitable for massively parallel implementation.
The preliminary results for the pure-component isotherms are in good
.gr-ee meni % iibi e~%pe'rimcntri data. The study for multicomponent sys-
:emni, -till undergoing.


any visual aids needed, introducing the speakers,
announcing the following week's speaker, and di-
recting the question-and-answer session at the end
of each seminar.

ANNOUNCEMENT
Each seminar is announced in the weekly campus
newspaper Syracuse Record, and an announcement
is also made in the department by the coordinators.
The coordinators ask the speaker for an abstract of
no more than three hundred words, which is then
typed on a special form with the seminar title,
speaker's name, and date, time, and place (see Table
2). Copies of this announcement are placed in the
mailboxes of students, research associates, faculty,
and staff, usually one day before the seminar. An-
nouncement copies are also placed on bulletin boards
where everyone can see them.

SEMINAR DAY
The seminars are usually scheduled for Fridays,
although in the summer of 1991 they were on Thurs-
days. The meeting time of 12 noon is set to avoid
class conflicts. Between 12:00 and 12:15, attendees
can socialize, and at 12:15 the seminar begins with
the introduction of the speaker by one of the coordi-
nators. A question-and-answer session, directed by
the coordinator, is held after the seminar, usually
between 12:45 and 1:00.
Refreshments, usually juice and fruit, are pur-
chased with Graduate Student Organization or
departmental funds just before the seminar. One
of the two coordinators is responsible for pro-
curing the refreshments, while the other readies
the room and arranges for any visual aids the
speaker may require.
Just before the seminar, a sign-up sheet is passed
around the audience, solely for statistical purposes.
These sign-up sheets, along with the abstracts and
seminar schedules, are kept in the ColCEMS files.
From the data obtained during the first year,
we have been able to determine that the audience
primarily consists of chemical engineering grad-
uate students, research associates, and faculty-with
occasional participation of graduate students and
faculty from other engineering and science depart-
ments. A number of faculty members attend all
seminars, and the remainder attend according to
their research interests.

AWARDS
At the end of the last seminar of each semester,
the audience is asked to vote for their choice of the
Chemical Engineering Education










two best seminars. The awards are usually books
provided by the department and presented to
the winners at the first seminar of the following
semester. Also, pointers (useful for seminars) are
given to all speakers.
The gifts express the appreciation of all depart-
ment members for the effort the speakers put
into their presentations. They also serve as a moti-
vation for the graduate students to come forward
and give a seminar.

SUMMARY
The graduate students in the Department of Chemi-
cal Engineering and Materials Science at Syracuse
University, in collaboration with the faculty, have
developed a seminar program called the "Colloquium
Series in Chemical Engineering and Materials Sci-
ence," with the objectives of improving the commu-
nication skills of graduate students, sharing knowl-
edge, and exchanging ideas. Our experience has been
that those objectives have been met. Furthermore,
the ColCEMS program has also served as a catalyst
for bringing all members of the department closer
together. Intellectual relations among graduate stu-
dents, research associates, and faculty have been
enhanced, and everyone has had the opportunity to
see beyond the technical skills of the speakers.
We feel that in an academic setting, where people
are constantly coming and going over a rela-
tively short period of time, this kind of activity is
important for both educators and students. We
wanted to share this experience with the readers
and to urge graduate students at other schools to
initiate a similar program.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors acknowledge and thank the Grad-
uate Student Organization and the Department of
Chemical Engineering and Materials Science for fi-
nancial support of this seminar program. The help of
the seminar coordinators for the academic year 1991-
92, Kaaeid Lokhandwala and Michael Norato, is
also appreciated. In addition, we wish to thank Ms.
Nicole Jones for her expert assistance in preparing
this manuscript.

REFERENCES
1. Felder, R.M., "A Course on Presenting Technical Talks,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 22, 84 (1988)
2. Hanzevack, E.L., and R.A. McKean, "Teaching Effective
Oral Presentations as a Part of the Senior Design Course,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 25, 28 (1991)
3. Schulz, K.H., and G.G. Benge, "The Chemical Engineering
Summer Seminar Series at Virginia Polytechnic Institute
and State University," Chem. Eng. Ed., 24, 220 (1990) O
Fall 1992


BIO(MOLECULAR) ENGINEERING
Continued from page 199.

37. Orci, L., J.-D. Vassalli, and A. Perrelet, "The Insulin Fac-
tory," Sci. Am., Sept (1988)
38. Dautry-Varsat, A., and H.F. Lodish, "How Receptors Bring
Proteins and Particles into Cells," Sci. American, 250, 52
(1984)
39. Rothman, J.E., and L. Orci, "Molecular Dissection of the
Secretory Pathway," Nature, 355, 409 (1992)
40. Hiemenz, P.C. Principles of Colloid and Surface Chemistry,
2nd ed., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York (1986)
41. Leckband, D.E., J.N. Israelachvili, F.-J. Schmitt, and W.
Knoll, "Long Range Attraction and Molecular Rearrange-
ments in Receptor-Ligand Interactions," Science, 225, 1419
(1992)
42. Dressier, D., and H. Potter, Discovering Enzymes, Scientific
American Library, W.H. Freeman (1991)
43. Wilchek, M., and E.A. Bayer, "The Avidin-Biotin Complex
in Bioanalytical Applications," Anal. Biochem., 171, 1 (1988)
44. Segel, L.A., ed., Mathematical Models in Molecular and
Cellular Biology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
(1980)
45. Monod, J., J.-P. Changeux, and F. Jacob, "Allosteric Pro-
teins and Cellular Control Systems, J. Mol. Biol., 6 306
(1963)
46. Monod, J., J. Wyman, and J.-P. Changeux, "On the Nature
of Allosteric Transitions: A Plausible Model," J. Mol. Biol.,
12 88 (1965)
47. Wyman, J., and S.J. Gill, Binding and Linkage: Functional
Chemistry of Biological Macromolecules, University Science
Books (1990)
48. McCammon, J.A., and S.C. Harvey, Dynamics of Proteins
and Nucleic Acids, Cambridge University Press (1987)
49. Rini, J.M., U. Schulze-Gahmen, and I.A. Wilson, "Struc-
tural Evidence for Induced Fit as a Mechanism for Anti-
body-Antigen Recognition," Science, 225, 959 (1992)
50. Liao, J.C., and E.N. Lightfoot, "Lumping Analysis of Bio-
chemical Reaction Systems with Time Scale Separation,"
Biotech. and Bioeng., 31, 869 (1988)
51. Palsson, B., H. Palsson, and E.N. Lightfoot, "Mathematical
Modeling of Dynamics and Control in Metabolic Networks,"
J. Theor. Biol., 113 231 (1985)
52. Shuler, M.L., and M.M. Domach, "Mathematical Models of
the Growth of Individual Cells: Tools for Testing Biochemi-
cal Mechanisms," in Foundations of Biochemical Engineer-
ing, H.W. Blanch, E.T. Papoutsakis, and G. Staphanopoulos,
eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 207, 93 (1983)
53. Straight, J.V., and D. Ramkrishna, "Complex Dynamics in
Batch Cultures: Experiments and cybernetic Models,"
Biotech. and Bioen., 37, 895 (1991)
54. Bereiter-Hahn, J., O.R. Anderson, and W.-E Reif, eds,
Cytomechanics: The Mechanical Basis of Cell Form and
Structure, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1987)
55. Derossi, D., K. Kajiwara, Y. Osada, and A. Yamauchi, Poly-
mer Gels: Fundamentals, Biomedical Applications, Plenum
Press, New York (1991)
56. Arce, P., and D. Ramkrishna, "Pattern Formation in Cata-
lytic Reactors," Latin Am. App. Res., in press (1992)
57. Ramkrishna, D., A.G. Fredrickson, and H.M. Tsuchiya, "Sta-
tistics and Dynamics of Procaryotic Cell Populations, Math.
Biosci., 1, 327 (1967)
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nomena," Chem. Eng. Ed., 25, 210 (1991) J










A Course on ...



ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION


CYNTHIA L. STOKES
University of Houston
Houston, TX 77204-4792


Anew course has been developed at the Univer-
sity of Houston for graduate students and
seniors in chemical engineering on the topic
of environmental remediation. There are numerous
areas throughout the country where soils, surface
water, and/or groundwater are contaminated to such
a degree that they are unsafe for us to use for busi-
ness, to reside near, or to consume the water. This
has created an increasingly stringent regulatory cli-
mate for industry with respect to waste disposal.
These conditions were the motivation for develop-
ment of this course. Today's students must be made
aware of waste treatment and environmental recla-
mation issues in order to function effectively as de-
sign, process, and research engineers and managers.
A number of our faculty have also begun working on
research projects on contaminant transport in soils,
dechlorination processes, and bioremediation, evinc-
ing the widespread interest in environmental issues
within the department.
The purpose of the course is to introduce the stu-
dents to both the traditional and the developmental
methods for removal or destruction of hazardous
wastes at contaminated sites and from industrial
waste streams. The emphasis of the course is not on
hazardous waste management and regulatory issues,
but rather on the destruction, removal, and contain-
ment methods themselves.
The timeliness of the course was demonstrated by
the student enrollment this past spring, the first
time the course was offered; with no advertisement,
we attracted forty-two graduate students and half of


@ (Copyvght ChE DIi.umfl ofASEE 1992


The course concentrates on several aspects of the
hazardous waste problem while touching on
others only superficially. We are mainly
concerned with hazardous wastes in soils,
groundwater, and waste-water ponds and tanks.

the graduating seniors for the course. The graduates
included Master's and doctoral candidates in chemi-
cal (twenty-seven), petroleum (one), civil (two), and
environmental (ten) engineering, as well as geology
(two). Many of the Master's degree candidates were
employed full-time in local industry and hence made
many interesting and useful contributions regard-
ing problems with waste generation, treatment, and
disposal in their companies. The course fulfills a
technical elective requirement for undergraduates
who have selected the environmental specialty, one
of several fields of specialization they can choose.

COURSE CONTENT
An outline of the course is shown in Table 1. The
course concentrates on several aspects of the haz-
ardous waste problem while touching on others only
superficially. We are mainly concerned with hazard-
ous wastes in soils, groundwater, and waste-water
ponds and tanks. Air pollution is not covered (a
separate course on air pollution control is offered in
our department).
A typical scenario considered during the course is,
for instance, a hydrocarbon spill in subsurface soil,
such as from a leaking underground storage tank.
The hydrocarbon may be lighter or heavier than
water, and hence it may float on or sink below the
water table. It may be carried with or dissolve in the
groundwater, adsorb to the soil, break down by ther-
mal, chemical or biological means, or volatilize. Ob-
viously, many physical, chemical, and biological pro-
cesses influence the fate of the spill and our ability
to clean it up. Our discussion of various remediation
methods includes consideration of these issues.
We concentrate on hydrocarbon wastes, though
some discussion of heavy metals and radioactive
waste is included. Hydrocarbons are of particular
Chemical Engineering Education


Cynthia Stokes is an assistant professor in
chemical engineering at the University of Hous-
ton. She received her BS from Michigan State
University and her PhD from the University of
Pennsylvania. She spent eighteen months as a
post-doctoral fellow at the National Institutes of
Health prior to arriving in Houston. Her major
research focus has been in the area of cellular
bioengineering.









interest because of the concentration of the petro-
leum industry in Texas, and because they are com-
mon contaminants throughout the rest of the coun-
try as well. Of the various methods of contaminant
recovery or destruction, we cover bioremediation in
the most depth. Though many bioremediation tech-
niques (other than the long-practiced landfarming)
are still generally considered developmental, the po-
tential for contaminant destruction rather than re-
moval, the in situ treatment options, and the favor
bioremediation is gaining with regulatory agencies
motivated this selection.
We begin the semester with a brief overview of the
origins and the biological and ecological effects of
various types of hazardous wastes, including hydro-
carbons (oil industry, agricultural chemicals, wood-
treatment chemicals, etc.), heavy metals, and radio-
nuclides. These lectures are designed to help the
students understand why certain wastes are consid-
ered hazardous and why we must be concerned about
their uncontrolled release.
We next cover analytical methods that are
commonly used to detect and quantify concentra-
tions of contaminants. The methods include gas
chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC), and various types of de-


TABLE 1
Course Outline

Introduction
Hazardous wastes-types and origins
Biological and ecological effects of hazardous wastes
Introduction to environmental remediation methods
Analytical methods
Contaminant Transport Mechanisms
Physicochemical and geologic factors
Mathematical analysis
Bioremediation
Microbiology and growth kinetics
Methods-in situ, surface, bioreactors
Remedy screening
Case studies
Chemical, Thermal and Physical Remediation Methods
In situ volatilization
Low temperature thermal
High temperature thermal
Supercritical oxidation
Extraction
Adsorption
Case studies
Regulations

Fall 1992


The purpose of the course is to
introduce the students to both the traditional
and the developmental methods for removal or
destruction of hazardous wastes at contaminated
sites and from industrial waste streams.


tectors used with them; mass spectrometry and
its use with GC and HPLC; and atomic absorption
spectrometry. There are numerous reference mate-
rials on these techniques.i1-41
We also illustrate the methods by which one can
measure the concentration of organic matter in
waters, such as Biochemical Oxygen Demand
(BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Or-
ganic Carbon (TOC), and Total Oxygen Demand
(TOD). Chapter 2 of a book on water quality by
Tchobanoglous and Schroederis5 is used, though
nearly all such books will include a section on
these measurements. We also introduce the exist-
ence of the standard numbered analytical methods
that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
requires for detection of various substances in dif-
ferent media (e.g., drinking water or plant effluent
water to be released to a river). A recent paper'6'
discusses the need to consolidate and revise these
prescribed methods.
Following these introductory lectures, we take a
quantitative look at contaminant transport in po-
rous media, such as in a diesel fuel spill in soil.
Professor Kishore Mohanty, an expert in transport
processes in porous media, was a guest lecturer for
this part of the course last spring. He covered math-
ematical models that can be used to calculate the
rate of movement of a fluid, illustrating its depen-
dence on such parameters as groundwater velocity,
soil porosity, tortuosity of pore structure, molecular
diffusivity, and capillary pressure. He also explained
the mechanisms of drainage and imbibition of ground-
water and how these processes affect the movement
of nonaqueous phase liquids. A recent review'l7 is
used as a reference, and several other books serve as
additional resources for the interested student.l8,9e
Since this course concentrates on methods that chemi-
cal engineers might utilize to remediate a site, these
topics are covered only briefly. However, because
one must locate a contaminant before devising an
optimal cleanup strategy, this part of the course will
likely be expanded in the future.
At this point we begin to examine the various
techniques that we can apply to reclaim a contami-
nated site. We begin with the bioremediation meth-
ods, spending four to five weeks on the topic.










The coursework included two take-home exams in
which the students had a week to answer two to
three problems. Both conceptual and
quantitative problems were used.

Because most engineering students have little or
no microbiological background, the first couple of
lectures cover the basics on bacterial growth kinet-
ics, substrate and oxygen utilization, co-metabolism,
and the variety of substances that microbes are
known to metabolize. These lectures were given by
Professor Richard Willson, who conducts biochemi-
cal separations research. He stressed that there is a
maximum rate at which microbes can metabolize a
substrate and that the rate of metabolism will slow
down as substrate concentration decreases. In addi-
tion, the concentration of contaminants that can be
achieved with biodegradation may not be as low as
we require, and many contaminants are not biode-
gradable or degrade very slowly. The latter includes
many chlorinated compounds that, unfortunately,
are usually highly toxic and difficult to remove or
degrade by other methods as well. Anaerobic mi-
crobes appear to dechlorinate hydrocarbons better
than aerobic microbes, but the rate is very slow.
Standard microbiology textbooks can be used as
references, and Biochemical Engineering Fundamen-
talsIlol includes mathematical descriptions of sub-
strate utilization and growth rates. Numerous over-
views of the use of microbes to degrade environmen-
tal contaminants exist; we use a publication by the
Office of Technology Assessmentrll and several other
recent reviews.112-141
Following this introduction, we examine the vari-
ous methods by which we can utilize biodegradation
for waste removal. These include landfarming and
its variations (composting, bioleaching), in situ bio-
remediation with and without additional microbes,
and several types of bioreactors.112-151
Landfarming (the practice of periodically adding
fertilizer and moisture, and tilling to expose the
contaminated soil to oxygen) has been used in the oil
and chemical industries for many years to treat rela-
tively small spills on soil.115 The idea to use in situ
bioremediation has gained favor in recent years be-
cause of its noninvasive nature and typically low
cost. In this method, one only has to inject aqueous
solutions of nutrients (typically nitrogen and phos-
phorous sources), oxygen, and sometimes exogenous
microbes into the area to facilitate the in situ degra-
dation of the offending contaminants. Contaminated
groundwater may be treated simultaneously by
206


pumping it to the surface, treating it through phase
separation, carbon adsorption, or other methods, and
then typically using it as the water source for the
nutrient solution.
We stress that although in situ bioremediation has
the advantages that excavation is not required, con-
taminated soils and groundwater can be treated,
and manpower and maintenance requirements are
low, it also has numerous major limitations. In situ
bioremediation is typically very slow, so cleaning up
a site may take years, low cleanup levels may not be
possible, confirmation of cleanup may be difficult (so
monitoring may have to be continued for several
decades), contaminant migration may occur, low per-
meability areas may be bypassed and not treated, or
the soil may get plugged by the increase in biomass.
An alternative to in situ bioremediation that by-
passes many of these limitations is the use of biore-
actors. We examine several types: the stirred tank
reactor can be used for treatment of liquids as well
as slurries, whereas trickle bed reactors with a grow-
ing biofilm on the packing medium are used with
liquid waste streams.nls-18l Bioreactors are typically
the most expensive method of bioremediation, but
are also the most controlled. Treatment times for the
same amount of waste are typically shorter than
either surface treatment or in situ methods, less
space is required, and air emissions can be con-
trolled. As with other types of bioremediation, low
cleanup levels may not be possible. If soils are to be
treated, a significant water source is required to
form a slurry. An electrical source is also required.
The bioreactor is much easier to study quantita-
tively than either in situ or surface bioremediation
methods, and we derive some bioreactor models that
utilize the substrate utilization and growth kinetics
in this part of the course.
At this point, when the students have several
choices of remediation methods in mind, pro-
cedures for remedy screening and design are intro-
duced. The critical idea is that one must design and
carry out appropriate laboratory studies to test
whether proposed remediation methods are likely to
fulfill one's requirements. These studies must pro-
vide enough information to narrow the choices of
remedy, provide data for pilot-scale studies if neces-
sary, and eventually allow one to obtain the neces-
sary permits and design a full-scale process. The
EPA provides various guideline documents for
treatability studies; we used one for aerobic biodeg-
radation remedy screening.1191
Several case studies are used to illustrate the imple-
mentation of bioremediation methods, the decision
Chemical Engineering Education









processes that lead to their utilization, and the pos-
sible pitfalls involved. A well-documented site that
is on the National Priorities List (Superfund) is an
abandoned wood-treatment facility in Montana.117,181
Both soils and an aquifer are contaminated from
uncontrolled releases of creosote and pentachloro-
phenol during its twenty-three years of operation. In
situ bioremediation, landfarming in contained land
treatment units, and bioreactors for the most con-
taminated groundwater are all being used. Another
wood-treatment facility in Minnesota that has con-
taminated water with pentachlorophenol is being
remediated with a fixed-film bioreactor.1161 Numer-
ous other reports of bioremediation application can
be found in the waste treatment, water quality, and
environmental literature.
Professionals in local industry are also invited to
speak to the class about their involvement in biore-
mediation activities. We had two such guests last
spring. The first, Joseph Jennings (President of
Waste Microbes, Inc.), presented his company's in-
volvement in treating wastewater ponds and tanks.
The company has developed a consortium of mi-
crobes that they add along with nutrients and
sparging air at the bottom of a body of water. His
presentation helped us focus on the common and
important issues of whether aqueous contaminants
may be stripped into the atmosphere rather than
degraded, and whether the addition of exogenous
microbes is necessary or helpful.
The second speaker, Sara McMillen (a microbiolo-
gist at Exxon Production Research), gave a presen-
tation on bioremediation in general which included
her work on composting and Exxon's experimenta-
tion with bioremediation in Prince William Sound
following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (also described
in reference 11).
Following bioremediation, we move on to other
remediation methods. They are grouped in terms of
the physical or chemical means of contaminant sepa-
ration or destruction utilized. We start with in situ
volatilization or soil venting, the removal of organic
compounds from subsurface soils (and possibly
groundwater) by mechanically drawing or venting
air through the soil matrix.[1si We stress the physical
parameters that determine the success of this
method, which include the volatility of the com-
pounds, their adsorption into the soil, and the ease
of drawing or venting air through the soil.
We next cover low temperature thermal treatment
because it also utilizes volatilization, though in a
controlled, heated chamber.[15,20o In this case, excava-
tion of the contaminated soils is required. In both
Fall 1992


methods the off-gases are typically burned or ad-
sorbed on activated carbon or water in scrubbers,
depending on the concentration and type of contami-
nant. An advantage of low temperature thermal is
that it allows the recovery of the hydrocarbon if
desired.
High temperature thermal operations are consid-
ered next. We discuss methods, design parameters,
and operating conditions of incineration, vitrifica-


Some problems on both exams were
designed to illustrate the idea ... that one
has many types of remediation methods to choose
from and one must weigh the advantages
and limitations of each on scientific,
social, and economic scales ...

tion, and pyrolysis. A major advantage of high tem-
perature methods is the greater than 99% destruc-
tion of organic contaminants that is usually attain-
able.[15,201 Major scientific limitations include the need
for substantial air emissions equipment if elevated
levels of halogenated organic compounds or volatile
metals are present, and the production of residual
ash that might need additional treatment or special
disposal. A nonscientific limitation is the societal
objection to incinerators near residential areas. High
temperature methods are typically very expensive
because of the high energy usage, and the permit-
ting process can be extremely lengthy and costly.
Supercritical water oxidation is also included. Last
spring this was discussed by Professor Vemuri
Balakotaiah, who specializes in analysis of various
chemical reactors and reaction mechanisms. He dem-
onstrated how oxidation in supercritical water can
provide very high destruction efficiencies-in many
cases greater than 99.99%, even with very dilute
waste streams.l21,221 He also compared the operation
and destruction efficiencies of supercritical water
oxidation processes with several typical incinerator
designs to illustrate their similarities and differ-
ences.
The last major technology that we study is separa-
tions, specifically adsorption and extraction. An un-
published review by D. W. Tedder at the Georgia
Institute of Technology, entitled "Separations in Haz-
ardous Waste Management," is used as an overview
of the topic. Activated carbon adsorption is discussed
in some detail because of its extensive and long-time
use for air emissions control and polishing wastewa-
ter.[23,241 We also discuss several chemical extraction
methods that are used to separate contaminated









sludges and soils into their respective phase frac-
tions: organic, water, and particulate solids. These
include the supercritical fluid extraction processes
based on carbon dioxide or propane and the Basic
Extraction Sludge Treatment (B.E.S.T.) process of
the Resources Conservation Company (Bellevue, WA)
based on the temperature-dependent separation of
water and aliphatic amines. 115
In situ soil leaching and the potential use of sur-
factants are also briefly discussed. While separa-
tions processes for soil and sludge decontamination
may be considered developmental, they have the
advantages of obtaining a reusable oil phase, can be
used with high moisture content soils and oil con-
centrations up to forty percent, and are usually less
expensive than incineration or commercial landfilling.
The potentially limiting problems include not being
able to handle soil clay content above about twenty-
to-thirty percent and high volatiles content, and dif-
ficulty in handling soils that have been contami-
nated for extended periods of time because of weath-
ering and adsorption. Again, case studies are in-
cluded where possible.
Following our study of these major areas, we briefly
introduce a number of other methods so that the
students are aware of the many options that have
been used or are in development. We include solidifi-
cation and stabilization, which involve the addition
of materials that combine physically and/or chemi-
cally to decrease the mobility of the original waste
constituents. Next are in situ and ex situ isolation
and containment, which involve isolating the con-
taminated soil from the surrounding environment
with physical barriers such as clay caps, synthetic
liners, slurry cut-off walls, and grout curtains. Fi-
nally, we describe the idea of beneficial reuse, such
as incorporating soils containing petroleum hydro-
carbons in hot asphalt mix, or using contaminated
soil as road base material or construction material
for structures such as containment berms.
Regulatory issues are not covered in depth be-
cause of time constraints, though the major national
legislation is introduced early in the course. It in-
cludes the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Re-
sponse Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA),
the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act
of 1986 (SARA), the Clean Water Act (CWA), the
Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and Under-
ground Storage Tank (UST) regulations. In addi-
tion, the process of obtaining a Record of Decision by
the EPA for a remediation plan is described.
We also bring in an outside expert to discuss the


regulatory climate in Texas. Last spring Marilyn
Long (Senior Geologist at the Texas Water Commis-
sion, Texas' partial equivalent of the EPA), gave a
lecture on dealing with hazardous wastes in Texas.
She described the various regulatory agencies in
Texas and their jurisdictions. She discussed the le-
gal ramifications of statutes, rules, and guidelines,
and how a company must work with the regulations
and regulators. She also discussed her involvement
in several bioremediation and low temperature ther-
mal treatment projects.
COURSEWORK
The coursework included two take-home exams in
which the students had a week to answer two to
three problems. Both conceptual and quantitative
problems were used. For example, one problem on
the first exam gave a sketchy description of a
"superfund" site, including volumes of contaminated
surface water, groundwater, soils, and sludge at the
bottom of a pond, types of contaminants (hydrocar-
bons and some heavy metals), and a history of the
site. An "approved" clean-up scenario was described,
which consisted of incineration of the contaminated
soils and sludges, use of ash as backfill, natural
attenuation of the aquifer (to be monitored), and
discharge of the water to a nearby river after polish-
ing. The problem then stated that the responsible
party is requesting permission to evaluate the use of
bioremediation for the site as an alternative to the
selected remedy. The student, as the company's ex-
pert on bioremediation, was to outline the types of
bioremediation that may be appropriate for each of
the contaminated media, outline a laboratory rem-
edy screening study to test the feasibility of his
suggestions in the first part, and then describe how
he would actually implement an overall reclamation
plan utilizing bioremediation for the site. Some as-
pects of the site description were purposely left vague
so that the student could make assumptions or speci-
fications about anything that was not explicitly
stated. His solution then had to be consistent with
the assumptions made.
Some problems on both exams were designed to
illustrate the idea, emphasized throughout the
course, that one has many types ofremediation meth-
ods to choose from and one must weigh the advan-
tages and limitations of each on scientific, social,
and economic scales in order to devise an optimal
solution.
The students also complete a term paper or project
of their choosing. The topics are allowed to range
from site characterizations, critical reviews of ongo-
ing site cleanup, critiques of particular remediation
Chemical Engineering Education










methods, and mathematical models of a method (e.g.,
reaction kinetics in an incinerator) or contaminant
transport. A major requirement for the paper is a
critical evaluation of the selected topic. Last spring,
specific titles included "Dioxin formation in pulp
bleach plants," "Naturally occurring radioactive ma-
terial accumulated as a result of hydrocarbon pro-
duction-waste minimization technology," "The
MOTCO superfund site: an evaluation," and "Dis-
tributed control in wastewater treatment systems."
Several students selected topics that were relevant
to their present jobs so they could learn something
that might help them immediately, whereas others
chose such popular topics as the use of bioremedia-
tion for the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska.

RESOURCE MATERIALS
Because of the broad nature of the material that is
covered, we do not use a specific textbook. Rather, a
number of papers from the literature, as well as
chapters from several books, are used (a number of
which are cited herein). Literature papers are espe-
cially useful for case studies.
A particularly useful resource is a manual pre-
pared by Environmental Solutions, Inc., under con-
tract by the Western States Petroleum Association,
entitled Onsite Treatment: Hydrocarbon Contami-
nated Soil.l5i It is used extensively for summaries of
the various soil-treatment methods. While the
manual does not deal with design of the processes, it
includes excellent qualitative summaries of various
methods, their applicability, advantages and limita-
tions, permitting requirements, whether a method is
developmental or proven, costs, capacity and man-
power estimates, and references for actual usage of
the method. It also provides guidelines for selecting
the best method for site-specific conditions, which is
very useful. Most of the remediation methods the
manual discusses were mentioned above and are
touched on at least briefly during our course.

SUMMARY
The environmental remediation field is changing
rapidly as new methods are developed to handle the
numerous hazardous substances that pollute the soils
and groundwater in many areas of the country.
Chemical engineers are ideally suited to work in this
field because of our expertise in transport phenom-
ena, thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, and unit
operations-all of which are required to quantify the
movement of contaminants in the subsurface and
devise optimal methods of remediation.
This course is designed to introduce both gradu-
ates and seniors to the field. We expect the course
Fall 1992


will evolve to include more emphasis on hydrogeology
and contaminant transport calculations and in-
creased use of models and design equations to evalu-
ate the applicability and efficiency of methods in
different contexts.

Inviting outside speakers from local industry will
continue. The speakers were well received and the
students welcomed the chance to hear from people
experienced with specific remediation technologies.

REFERENCES
1. Hassan, S.S.M., Analysis Using Atomic Absorption Spec-
trometry, Ellis Horwood Limited, Chichester (1984)
2. Howe, I., D.H. Williams, and R.D. Bowen, Mass Spectrom-
etry Principles and Applications, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New
York (1981)
3. Jennings, W., Analytical Gas Chromatography, Academic
Press, Orlando, FL (1987)
4. Miller, J.M., Chromatography: Concepts and Contrasts, John
Wiley and Sons, New York (1988)
5. Tchobanoglous, G., and E.D. Schroeder, Water Quality: Char-
acteristics-Modeling-Modification, Addison-Wesley, Reading,
MA (1985)
6. Hites, R.A., and W.L. Budde, Env. Sci. Tech., 25, 998 (1991)
7. Mercer, J.W., and R.M. Cohen, J. Contam. Hydrol., 6, 107
(1990)
8. Dullien, F.A.L., Porous Media, Fluid Transport and Pore
Structure, Academic Press (1979)
9. Lake, L.W., Enhanced Oil Recovery, Prentice-Hall, New
York (1989)
10. Bailey, J.E., and D.F. Ollis, Biochemical Engineering Fun-
damentals, McGraw-Hill, New York (1986)
11. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Bioreme-
diation for Marine Oil Spills-Background Paper OTA-BP-
0-70 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)
(1991)
12. Nichols, A.B., Water Env. Tech., p. 52, February (1992)
13. Saylor, G.S., J. Haz. Mat., 28, 13 (1991)
14. Shorthouse, B.T., Remediation, 1, 31 (1990)
15. Onsite Treatment: Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils, Envi-
ronmental Solutions, Inc., Irvine, CA (1991)
16. Frick, T.D., R.L. Crawford, M. Martinson, T. Chresand, and
G. Bateson, Environmental Biotechnology, G.S. Omenn, Ed.,
Plenum Press, New York, pp. 173-192 (1988)
17. Piotrowski, M.R., Hydrocarbon Contam. Soils, 1, 433 (1991)
18. Piotrowski, M.R., and J.W. Carraway, "Full-Scale Bioreme-
diation of Soil and Groundwater at a Superfund Site: A
Progress Report," presented to HazMat South '91, Atlanta,
GA (1991)
19. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Guide for Conduct-
ing Treatability Studies Under CERCLA: Aerobic Biodegra-
dation Remedy Screening, Interim Guidance, EPA/540/2-
91/013A (1991)
20. Freeman, H., Innovative Thermal Hazardous Organic Waste
Treatment Processes, Noyes Publication, Park Ridge, NJ
(1985)
21. Helling, R.K., and J.W. Tester, Environ. Sci. Tech., 22, 1319
(1988)
22. Thomason, T.B., and M. Modell, Haz. Waste, 1, 453 (1984)
23. Perrich, J.R., Activated Carbon Adsorption for Wastewater
Treatment, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1981)
24. Voice, T.C., in Standard Handbook of Hazardous Waste
Treatment and Disposal, H.M. Freeman, Ed., p. 6.3, McGraw-
Hill, New York (1989) 0











SOME THOUGHTS

ON GRADUATE EDUCATION

A Graduate Student's Perspective


RANGARAMANUJAM M. KANNAN
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, CA 91125

chemical engineering may well be the most
diverse of the engineering disciplines, and it
is getting broader every year, with practi-
tioners working in such far-removed areas as mo-
lecular genetics, microelectronics, and artificial in-
telligence. In fact diversity and adaptability may be
the main advantages we have over other engineers.
In the future, chemical engineers will have to be
creative thinkers, using their knowledge to expand
the frontiers of science, and we must give consider-
able thought right now to how we can prepare stu-
dents to face that challenge. In response to this
future need, quite a few changes have already been
incorporated in the curriculum, but additional im-
provements will also be necessary if we are to keep
pace with future developments and demands.
A natural consequence of progress is the increase
in the standard at each level of education. For ex-
ample, while I was not introduced to computers un-
til the twelfth grade, today's eighth-grade students
are already using computers. At the college level, it
seems to me that converting chemical engineering
into a multidisciplinary field has been reasonably
well accomplished in the undergraduate curriculum,
and that the curriculum has become more flexible.
In order to prepare students for the next step (either
graduate school or industry) a number of changes
have occurred-undergraduate research being the
most significant, in my opinion, since it gives the
student a flavor of graduate school and research.
The logical sequence now is for graduate education
to follow suit and to introduce students to some of
the characteristics of faculty/industrial research ca-
reers. I do not claim that this has not already been
done, but I do wish to explore opportunities for fur-
ther improvements. I realize that there are profes-
sors who are better qualified and more experienced
to address this issue than I am, but I would like to


Rangaramanujam M. Kannan is a graduate
student in chemical engineering at the Califor-
nia Institute of Technology. He received his BE
(Hons.) from the Birla Institute of Technology
and Science (India) and his MS degrees from
Penn State and Caltech. His primary research
interests are in polymer physics and fluid me-
chanics, with special emphasis on understand-
S ing polymer dynamics from a molecular level.
His other interests include sports, Tamil music,
and movies.

offer my ideas-from a student's point of view.
By coming to graduate school, a student has
already made a strong commitment to developing
a deep understanding of some particular subject.
The student has to have been motivated as an
undergraduate; he or she is not there merely to
get a degree. After completing the PhD, that
student intends to be a leader in teaching, research,
and/or development.
In order to prepare a student to face the diverse
world of chemical engineering, some improvements
in the curriculum are necessary. I will focus on
three important areas-they are related to each other
in the sense that success in one depends on suc-
cess in the other:
Teaching and Course Work
Research
Communication and Motivation Skills

TEACHING AND COURSE WORK
When I was an undergraduate, I participated in a
debate on "education is what you remember, after
you forget what you learned." It sounded odd at first,
but I understood and supported it wholeheartedly
later. University education teaches us many details
(which most students forget as time goes by), but it
is the basics (which are taught as a small fraction of
the total duration) that must be retained. That we
do not remember the details may not be a problem at
all. In fact, the purpose of education is exactly what
my debate topic was-to teach the "collective wis-


Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1992
Chemical Engineering Education









dom." However, many students do not realize
this and lose their motivation, especially at the grad-
uate level, when they take what they think are
irrelevant classes. While it is clear that details are
necessary in certain situations, it is important to
recognize that the collective wisdom is what helps
us in the long run.
If the above statements are valid for undergradu-
ate education, they are even more pertinent at the
graduate level. It is imperative that the graduate
curriculum emphasize new and abstract ideas in
diverse areas. I will expand on a couple of sugges-
tions in the following sections.

Encourage Creativity in the Graduate Classroom
There are two phases to any scientific idea: giving
birth to a creative idea, and having the analytical
ability to carry that idea to conclusion. Our educa-
tion helps us to excel in the latter aspect, but not in
the former. Some people even contend that creativ-
ity cannot be taught. While I cannot make a ruling
on that, I do feel that it can be encouraged. In
an article on graduate education, J. L. Dudaill
said, "...our educational system stifles creativity."
We often see graduate classes where the student
is asked to solve sophisticated versions of prob-
lems such as "given x and y, solve for z"-essen-
tially similar to undergraduate classes. Such prob-
lems are illustrative in the short run, but do not help
a lot in the long run.
Many students agree that the best thing (some-
times the only thing!) we remember from our under-
graduate classes is the design project. However, most
of us do not remember the details of Wei-Prater
analysis. Why? Because the design project was open-
ended and made us think about the practical aspects
of what we learned, thus motivating us to under-
stand and engrave it in our memory.
We should have at least a couple of classes in the
graduate curriculum that are devoted to discussion
of creative, open-ended problems. R. M. Felder[2l has
had great success in such attempts in a graduate
class. For example, he posed the problem, "You are
faced with the task of measuring the volumetric flow
rate of a liquid in a large pipeline. Come up with as
many different ways to do the job as possible." There
were some constraintsr[3 which I shall not list here,
but he received two hundred different responses,
illustrating that a seemingly straightforward ques-
tion posed in an open way elucidates creative an-
swers. It is not important that some of the responses
were not commercially viable; what is important is
that students were able to think creatively and to
Fall 1992


apply their acquired knowledge to the problem. Since
graduate students have already had the basic courses,
the problems need not be confined to one subject, but
can be open and general. They may include case
studies, previously solved problems, and unsolved
problems.
The advantage of such a class is that it encourages
students to think creatively, it stimulates learning
from others' lines of thought (and improving on
them), and it brings various aspects of chemical en-
gineering together in a classroom setting. Some

When I was an undergraduate,
I participated in a debate on "education
is what you remember, after you forget what you
learned." It sounded odd at first, but I understood
and supported it wholeheartedly later.

disadvantages could be that the students may be
initially reluctant to participate because they are
not used to such an approach (Professor Felder states,
"...with a little practice the students become very
enthusiastic"), it may take some time for faculty to
create the right set problems for the course, and the
evaluation method is subjective. (The fact that the
graduate class is small helps in this respect, and at
any rate, grades are not supposed to be that critical
in graduate school.)

Less Material, More Discussions
Classes should be more like James Bond movies.
There should be something in them for everyone.
Involving students in active discussions is a must,
but unfortunately, many classes are simply mono-
logues. There is usually some level of student
interest in every class, and it is important that all
the students get something out of the class. Even
basic things such as explaining the day's topic
in the beginning and summarizing major points
in the end will ensure that students leave the
class with some newly gained knowledge. It might
reduce the amount of material covered in class, but
it would be worth it because students would retain
more of what was taught.
RESEARCH
These days one often hears of the importance of
research with regard to on-the-job success. Upon
graduation, the student is expected to come up with
creative ideas, to write proposals, and to attract co-
workers, among other things, and the first few ideas
and proposals lay the foundation for his or her long-
term survival. A badly written proposal in the









initial stages of a career can have drastic implica-
tions. Even though post-doctoral research provides
time for working on these aspects of a career, it is
better to begin at the graduate level where one has
five years to learn and correct mistakes.
In most cases, a graduate student learns to take a
single task to its conclusion while the research advi-
sor dominates selection of the primary task itself.
Efforts should be made to give the student practice
in identifying new and important problems in
multidisciplinary areas. This would provide students
with the opportunity to test and use their creative
skills. The following sections offer a few suggestions
along this line.
Make Research Proposals Mandatory
Two-time Nobel Laureate at Caltech, Professor
Linus Pauling, once said, "The best way to come up
with great ideas is to come up with many ideas and
later eliminate the bad ones." Every student should
be required to write at least two original research
proposals and to present them to the PhD com-
mittee. This requirement already exists in some
schools. It challenges students to think about com-
pletely new ideas in related areas and opens them
up to many new possibilities. To gauge the student's
improvement, the proposals should be presented one
year apart-once in the third year and once in the
fourth, for example.
The disadvantage, if any, of making proposals com-
pulsory may be that it takes away from the student's
available time during his 'prime' and might impede
his research progress. However, it helps in the over-
all growth of the student, and that is, after all, the
primary purpose of graduate education.
Involve Students in Proposal Writing
It is common knowledge that the competition for
research dollars is getting stiffer every year. This
makes life for a new professor even tougher than it
normally is. Graduate school could be a good start-
ing point for training. If students are exposed to
proposal writing, presentation, and potential fund-
ing agencies during the latter part of their PhD
work, the experience will serve them immensely later
on in their careers. While the ACS guide on proposal
writing is helpful, real-life experience and examples
are certainly more useful. In fact, it may also help
the faculty since the students can critique technical
content and improve the presentation to "outsiders."
I understand that many faculty already do this.
Hold Student Seminars on Common Topics
This does not refer to the usual group seminars
which are held to discuss research progress. It refers
212


to seminars that could serve as vehicles for identify-
ing good research. The emphasis should be on how to
critically analyze a paper and to learn from its con-
tents. The papers should be chosen such that they
are either pioneering or classical, very good or very
bad. In this way the salient features of ground-break-
ing research, good research, or bad research can be
easily illustrated. A very good or very bad paper is
like Madonna-it makes a statement and the point
is easy to see. A just-okay paper is more like a
politician-it is tough to learn anything quantitative
from what it says. In order to add weight to the
seminar and make it even more effective, it could
involve only a small number of students. It might be
more valuable to the students if it is offered toward
the end of the first year or at the beginning of the
second year when they are about to embark on their
research projects. The meetings should be informal
and should be filled with constructive discussions.

COMMUNICATION AND MOTIVATIONAL SKILLS
Communication skills are important for everyone.
However, special emphasis on communication and
motivational skills should be a part of graduate
school. While it is incorrect to generalize, it can be
said that most graduate students are relatively re-
served and introverted. In fact, that may be one of
their strengths! But after graduating and becoming
professors, they will have to deal on a day-to-day
basis with students, faculty and industrial groups,
and as leaders in industry, they will have to interact
with coworkers and other research groups. A leader
must be able to motivate coworkers in order to achieve
the desired results. The importance of communica-
tion and motivational skills for success in the real
world cannot be overstated. It is imperative to stress
their importance in the graduate curriculum. The
best method for achieving this may be hard to iden-
tify, but some possibilities would involve a class on
communication as part of the curriculum (taught by
a communications expert), periodic communication
and motivational workshops (with case studies), and
an elective class on "How to Teach."

CONCLUSIONS
The growing diversity of chemical engineering de-
mands constant readjustment of the graduate cur-
riculum. In order to produce creative leaders who
can survive the changing environment, I have sug-
gested some curriculum improvements as seen from
a student's perspective. I feel the most important
aspect to be considered is to encourage creative think-
ing in teaching and research. In teaching, the value
of discussion-filled, creative classes is stressed, and
Chemical Engineering Education









in order to increase effectiveness in illustrating a
concept, use of open-ended problems is suggested. In
research, the requirement of original research pro-
posals as part of the degree requirements and fac-
ulty-student interaction in proposal writing are ad-
ditional suggestions for consideration. Efforts should
be made to improve student communication and mo-
tivational skills since they play a vital role in later
careers, whether in teaching or in industry.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to thank Professor Richard
Felder (North Carolina State University) for being
the inspiration behind this paper. The comments
and suggestions of Professor J.A. Kornfield (Caltech),
Professor D. Kompala (Colorado), Jeff Moore
(Caltech), and Rajesh Panchanathan (Caltech) are
appreciated.

REFERENCES
1. Duda, J.L., "Graduate Studies: The Middle Way," Chem.
Eng. Edn., 20(4), 164 (1986)
2. Felder, R.M., "On Creating Creative Engineers," Eng. Edn.,
p.222, Jan (1987)
3. Felder, R.M., "A Generic Quiz: A Device to Stimulate Cre-
ativity and Higher-Level Thinking Skills," Chem. Eng. Edn.,
19(4), 176 (1985) 0


book review

MODELING WITH
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
by Stanley M. Walas
Butterworth-Heinemann, Stoneham, MA; $145, (1991)

Reviewed by
M. Sami Selim
Colorado School of Mines
Today there is a recognized need for teaching a
course in mathematical methods to undergraduate
chemical engineers, and several schools have begun
offering such courses. But there are only a few text-
books available that are primarily addressed to
chemical engineering students. This book by Walas
is therefore a very timely addition to the literature.
It is an excellent book.
The book consists of fifteen chapters and an ap-
pendix. Chapters 1 to 7 focus on mathematical meth-
ods of solutions of ordinary and partial differential
equations. Integral equations are briefly treated in
Chapter 6. Theoretical discussions, such as exist-
ence and uniqueness of solutions, have been skipped
Fall 1992


and instead, emphasis has been placed on solution
techniques and detailed applications. All classical
methods of solution are covered in detail. Numerical
and approximate methods are emphasized early on
throughout the presentation. The material is well
presented, and a wealth of references for further
reading are provided. These chapters give the stu-
dent a good background in the different methods
(analytical, numerical, and approximate) for solving
ODEs and PDEs. Limitations of the techniques are
clearly explained, and methods for overcoming the
difficulties are presented.
After the mathematics of differential equations
has been presented, there is a chapter devoted to the
principles of the mathematical formulation of engi-
neering processes. What follows next is the distinc-
tive part of this book-the derivations and solutions
of differential equations of some of the major disci-
plines of chemical engineering. The topics covered
include thermodynamics, mass transfer, fluid flow,
heat transfer, chemical reactions and reactor design,
and process control. Attention is restricted primarily
to the differential equations that occur in these pro-
cesses. Many of the topics are reinforced by math-
ematical or numerical examples as well as problems
for the reader, most of them with answers provided.
Throughout the book the author guides the reader
toward more comprehensive sources of information,
and the reference list is excellent and up to date.
Little mathematics beyond calculus is expected
of the reader. Computer usage by the examples
and problems is restricted to readily available
user-friendly PC diskettes. The treatment of most
topics is fairly complete, and beginning students
will not need to relearn the material as their sophis-
tication advances.
Overall, this book will satisfy the demands of un-
dergraduate and first-year graduate chemical engi-
neering students who usually have difficulty in un-
derstanding the presentations in more general math-
ematics texts. The book may also be of value to those
who have already mastered the typical chemical en-
gineering curriculum, e.g., the chemical engineering
practitioner, and who are now involved in some as-
pect of computational or mathematical modeling of
chemical engineering processes.
In summary, this is a highly recommendable text-
book for senior and beginning graduate students,
set apart by an easy style, a healthy amount of
exercises, lots of references, and a wide coverage of
topics. The author is to be commended for his excel-
lent effort and contribution to the chemical engi-
neering literature. 1










PATTERN FORMATION IN

CONVECTIVE-DIFFUSIVE TRANSPORT

WITH REACTION


PEDRO ARCE, BRUCE R. LOCKE, JORGE VIALS
FAMU/FSU
Tallahassee, FL 32316-2175

t has long been recognized in the chemical engi-
neering profession and in the physical and chemi-
al sciences that material and energy transport
play a central role in both the processing of materi-
als and in chemical reactor performance. Much of
the theoretical and numerical modeling efforts for
transport and reaction, however, has traditionally
been restricted to linearized models (e.g., linear rates
of reactions, linear irreversible thermodynamics for
transport and dissipation, and neglecting convection
as a source of nonlinearity).
It is now clear that approaches solely based on
linear theories fail to describe many interesting prop-
erties of these systems; namely, spatial and tempo-
ral organization, the formation of patterns, and the
existence of time-dependent, periodic states. In fact,
the field of nonlinear dynamics (which encompasses
a variety of distinct disciplines) has emerged as a

Pedro Arce received his ChE degree at
Universidad Nacional del Literal (Santa Fe, Ar-
gentina), and his MS and PhD degrees from
Purdue University (1987, 1990). His main re-
c search interests are in applied computational
mathematics, transport and reaction in multiphase
systems, and molecular transport mechanics in
material design.


Bruce R. Locke received his BE from Vanderbilt
University (1980) and has four years of research
experience at the Research Triangle Institute
(North Carolina). He completed his PhD at North
Carolina State in 1989. His research interests
are in the dynamics of transport and reaction of
biological macromolecules in multicomponent
and multidomain composite systems.



Jorge Vifials received his BS in Physics at the
University de Barcelona, Spain (1981) and his
PhD in Physics-Material Science at the same uni-
versity in 1983. His main areas of research are in
kinetics of first-order transitions, morphological sta-
bility and crystal growth, and pattern formation in
convective instabilities.
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 1992
214


coherent subfield of science in the last decade. In the
field of chemical engineering, pioneering efforts in
the study of strongly nonlinear reaction-diffusion
systems have been pursued by Amundson, Aris, and
collaborators.i1,21
In general, when a system that is initially placed
in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium is forced
(and sometimes maintained) away from that state,
its evolution can lead to a rich variety of phenomena,
quite distinct from systems that are in, or close to,
equilibrium. In some cases the system goes through
a number of instabilities that lead to chaotic behav-
ior. In others the evolution is through a succession of
spatiotemporal patterns that may lead to compli-
cated, albeit stationary, structures.
From a fundamental point of view, the common
feature of all these systems is the essential role
played by the nonlinearities in the relevant equa-
tions of the models. In most cases, the nonlinearities
cannot be studied as perturbations around some well-
characterized state, but rather they lead to qualita-
tively different behavior.
Our research focuses on several complementary
aspects of problems that encompass convective-
diffusive transport (with and without chemical reac-
tions) in a variety of applications of current interest
in chemical engineering. Four main areas of research
will be reviewed here: 1) chemical and catalytic re-
acting systems, 2) biological and biochemical inter-
acting systems, 3) convective instabilities in fluids
and liquid crystals, and 4) crystal growth from the
melt. They share a common methodology based on
nonlinear dynamics, but since a general formulation
(let alone a general solution) to all of the problems is
out of the question at the present time, each re-
search area focuses on the most relevant mecha-
nisms and nonlinearities for the case at hand.
For example, the study of chemical and catalytic
reacting systems is conducted in one spatial dimen-
sion and with considerably simplified convection. In
the study of convective instabilities, only convectiv e
and diffusive transport is considered. In the latter
case the system is also kept not too far above the
Chemical Engineering Education









threshold for the primary convective instability so
that the emerging patterns are relatively simple
(away from a turbulent state). The study of crystal
growth from the melt allows for moving boundaries
of arbitrary shape separating the various phases,
but neglects convection.
The main goals of the research in all cases are
characterization of all possible stationary states
of the system (uniform and, more importantly,
states which are non-uniform in space), determina-
tion of the stability of these stationary states when
the parameters that can be controlled experimen-
tally are changed (e.g., the composition of the reac-
tants and the temperature of the reactor), and the
calculation of the transient evolution between these
stationary states.

HIERARCHICAL APPROACH
FOR INTERACTIONS IN CHEMICAL,
BIOCHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
The overall objective of this part of our research is
to investigate the chemical, biological, and biochemi-
cal structures and functions that arise from the re-
action, diffusion, and convection of molecular spe-
cies. The emphasis is on applying operator-theoretic
techniques and inverse integral formulations to ana-
lyze the dynamics of transport and reaction prob-
lems with multicomponents and in multidimensional
domains of hierarchical structure (shown, for ex-
ample, schematically in Figure 1). Furthermore, the
analysis is aided by group-theoretic methodsts3 and
simulations performed in conventional and parallel
supercomputers. A very wide range of naturally oc-
curring or synthetically constructed chemical, bio-
logical, and biochemical phenomena can be studied
within the framework of reaction and convective-
diffusive transport.
Direct interactions result from the diffusive or con-
vective coupling through adjoining boundaries be-
tween macromolecules, catalyst particles, organelles,
and cells. Indirect interactions refer to interactions
mediated by intervening fluid regions. Within the
framework of the direct and indirect interactions,
we seek to analyze the dynamic behavior of hetero-
geneous populations of macromolecules, catalyst par-
ticles, organelles, cells, and multicellular organisms
from a hierarchical point of view.
In this hierarchical approach, a domain (e.g., a
population of cells or organelles) is considered in
terms of sub-domains (e.g., organelles or macromol-
ecules) and the mathematical description accounts
for the transport and reaction processes that occur
inside these domains, as well as for those occurring
Fall 1992


It is now clear that approaches solely
based on linear theories fail to describe
many interesting properties of these systems;
namely, spatial and temporal organization, the
formation of patterns, and the existence of
time-dependent, periodic states.


Ss3-


44 44
++ +
+# #+


Figure 1. A single domain (which could itself be a
subdomain of a larger domain), showing M subdivisions or
layers such as the ones discussed in the text, and that
corresponds to the model given in Eq. (1).

between the domains throughout the environmental
media. This hierarchical description features an as-
semblage (or superstructure) based on units of
"smaller" dimensions which may, in turn, display
different degrees (or levels) of description.
This approach (although not entirely new) has not
previously been fully exploited to describe the dy-
namics of biological and biochemical systems. Past
efforts have focused almost completely on extend-
ing the Rashevsky-Turingi4,51 ideas to a variety of
situations, but have failed to account for the indirect
interactions which have been shown to be as impor-
tant as the Rashevsky-Turing interactions in gener-
ating a rich variety of behaviors in catalytic reac-
tors.6'1 Our research aims at elucidating the roles of
both types of interactions.
The operator-theoretic technique allows a full char-
acterization of the dynainic behavior of systems with-
out the complete numerical solution to the govern-
ing differential models. This also allows for a cou-
pling of different levels of information in a given
system and thus leads to the analysis of the compos-
ite system in terms of the simpler systems. Further-
more, the inverse integral formulation allows for a
very efficient numerical strategy to solve the com-
plete nonlinear differential model using information
provided by the operator formulation.

Chemical and Catalytic Reacting Systems
The field of pattern formation in catalytic reactors
has been reviewed recently in the framework of di-
215









rect and indirect interactions.m71 The analysis ad-
dresses a wide variety of aspects, including the in-
troduction of a hierarchy of reactor models, math-
ematical techniques, previous work done in the field,
and important problems to be investigated in future
research efforts.
Direct Interactions Recently, Locke and ArcetS~,13
have considered one-dimensional diffusion, reaction,
and convection in a system of M-layers where the
diffusion coefficients, the phase distribution coeffi-
cients, reaction rate constants, and convective trans-
port coefficients were allowed to vary from one layer
to the next. Coupling between the layers was mod-
eled through equilibrium and flux boundary condi-
tions, where the flux condition included both convec-
tion and diffusion. For one-dimensional transport
which may include electrophoretic transport in rect-
angular coordinates, the general molar species con-
tinuity equation for the mth layer is
ac c 2C
-t U \ m + D +kmf (cm) (1)
at L x m dx m
where
c = cross sectional area average molar species con-
centration
(V/L) = applied voltage per unit length
u = electrophoretic mobility
k = reaction rate constant
D = diffusion coefficient
f = function that contains the concentration and spa-
tial variations of the reaction rate.
In the above model formulation, each layer is as-
sumed to be a different phase, and therefore flux
and equilibrium boundary conditions are required at
the M 1 interfaces. A general approach would re-
quire the addition of a material balance over well-
mixed external regions in analogy with the approach
of Ramkrishna and Amundsonl9-111 and Parulekar
and Ramkrishna.,l21 This would give

dc a -,( -x() L i(xo+)
Vo dt cofFo-coFo+a[D -x )o+-uVc (x=O+ )


VL =c FLc. L LF -aD -uM c(x=L )]
L dt LfL LL M'M(
(3)

where
V = volume
c = molar concentration
F = volumetric flow into the mixed cells
a = cross sectional area of the membrane surfaces


The subscripts 0 and L represent the two well-mixed
external regions, and f represents the feed streams
into the two external regions (shown schematically
in Figure 1).
The interactions between the different layers in
this model can be considered to be direct interac-
tions since the layers are physically and geometri-
cally coupled at their (phase) boundaries. This is in
contrast to coupling through indirect interactions
that rely on an intermediate phase, such as a bulk
fluid, to mediate the interactions between the two
systems not physically adjacent. The model described
here may be viewed as a prototype to investigate the
behavior of cells immersed in a fluid environment.
The system will feature an assemblage of domains
as shown in Figure 1. The solution to the above
models is being undertaken by using operator-theo-
retic methods.18-131 Current work is concerned with
performing linear stability analysis for the case of
reacting systems coupled with hydrodynamic and
electrophoretic transport and diffusion.

Indirect Interactions In a series of recent stud-
ies, Arce and Ramkrishna[6,7,141 and Ramkrishna and
Arcel15-17 considered transport and reaction problems
in catalytic reactors. This research has shown that
indirect interactions are as important as the direct
interactions in producing a wide variety of very in-
teresting steady state and dynamic behaviors in cata-
lytic reacting systems. Moreover, assemblies of cata-
lyst particles showing only interactions mediated by
the fluid medium are able to display a broader class
of collaborative phenomena (i.e., behaviors caused
by the mutual interactions among the particles) than
those found in assemblies showing only direct inter-
actions. Assemblages of catalyst particles with only
indirect interactionsl6.7] have uniform steady states
that can show collaborative multiplicity and collabo-
rative reversal of instability before breaking the sym-
metry. This allows the particle to preserve, partially,
the stability inside the reactor. Pattern formation is
displayed when the assembly of catalyst particles
breaks the symmetry of the uniform steady state
(see Figure 2).


Collaborative multiplicity and collaborative rever-
sal of stability can also be observed in patterns;
however, it is impossible for the assembly to show
collaborative reversal of stability. The mathematical
analysis that is used to study this multitude of phe-
nomena is based on a theory that exploits the com-
plete understanding of the isolated particle (or cell)
in an operator-theoretic framework. Furthermore,
the analysis has been pursued further by using sin-


Chemical Engineering Education
































5 6
Figure 2. Pattern formation in a well-mixed system show-
ing two individual interacting catalytic particles or cells.
Configurations 2, 4, and 5 clearly show the cells in two
different steady states. Different steady states inside each
cell are schematically depicted with different patterns.

gularity theory and group-operator methods.118 In
addition, the investigation has been extended to cata-
lytic packed-bed reactorsl161 where indirect interac-
tions among particles (with internal diffusion) are
accounted for in an axial diffusive convective fluid.
This investigation is very relevant for describing
the behavior of assemblies (or superstructures) of
cells in terms of smaller domains (or units). These
computations, which include the determination of
regions of different behaviors in the parameter space
and the identification of all the steady states, can be
efficiently performed using an inverse integral for-
mulation.1191 This inverse integral formulation uses a
non-linear integral operator of the Hammerstein-
Volterra type with a kernel given by the Green func-
tion of the differential problem. The Green function
can be computed in terms of the eigenvalues and
eigenvectors of the differential linear (transport) op-
erator without the reaction terms. This approach
greatly simplifies the computations of steady states
for different kinds of non-linear sources. Further-
more, the integral formulation is very suitable for
implementation by parallel computer architectures
and, therefore, the process of obtaining steady states
from complex assemblages composed of several units
(cells) can be greatly accelerated.
Fall 1992


Biological and Biochemical Interacting Systems
Rapid advances in molecular and cellular biology
over the last ten to twenty years have inspired re-
search efforts in the development of molecular and
metabolic engineering. In order to advance our abili-
ties to create artificial systems through molecular
and metabolic engineering, it is necessary to have a
full understanding of the fundamental dynamics of
living systems. Dynamical aspects of living systems
include subcellular enzymatic reactions for cell
growth and reproduction, enzymatic and genetic-
level control processes, supracellular morphological
development, cell cycles, and evolutionary processes.
In addition to developing an understanding of how
each separate level of process works, it is necessary
to integrate different levels of structure into an over-
all framework that describes the interactions be-
tween these different levels.
The interplay ofconvective-diffusive transport with
reaction yields a wide variety of steady-state and
dynamic behavior in biochemical and biological sys-
tems. This includes oscillations, wave propagation,
multiplicity of uniform stationary states, and (tem-
poral and spatial) pattern formation. Oscillations
occur in enzyme reactions, protein synthesis, cell
cycles, muscle contraction, and many other cellular
and physiological processes.1201 Oscillations in the
glycolytic pathway have been extensively studied
both experimentally and theoretically. Most of the
efforts in the literature have been devoted primarily
to temporal variations and to the determination of
stability conditions for non-linear chemical reactions
with several components. 20,21' Generally, in isother-
mal systems, it is necessary for the chemical reac-
tions to exhibit non-linear kinetics in order for tem-
poral patterns to occur. Higgensl221 considered the
general types of autocatalytic chemical reactions with
positive or negative feedback that give rise to oscilla-
tory variations of species concentrations. Some very
current applications of temporal pattern formation
involves modeling cell cycles via the recently deter-
mined key metabolic component cyclin.L231
Temporal variation alone, however, since it ne-
glects all geometrical and spatial structure, cannot
describe systems where spatial structure is impor-
tant. Reaction/diffusion problems have been used to
consider problems in biological morphological devel-
opment, biochemical reactions, and population ecol-
ogy since the ideas introduced by Rashevsky[4,241 and
Turing.1s5 Turing considered reaction and diffusion
in a two-component and one-dimensional system.
Scriven and coworkersl25,261 have developed a gen-
eral analysis of multicomponent reaction and diffu-
217









sion in a single region coupled to other regions
through indirect transfer expressions.
A large number of phenomena have subsequently
been investigated from the perspectivel20,271 of reac-
tion and diffusion within a single phase. What re-
mains to be considered is a comprehensive approach
to include systems ofmulticomponents in multiphase
domains and a hierarchy of both direct and indirect
interactions. The main goal of our research is the
development of such a comprehensive approach.
Biological and biochemical systems can be broken
down into a number of functional and structural
units (e.g., macromolecules, organelles, cells, tissues,
populations, and communities). These units can in
turn interact through direct or indirect means in
analogy to the chemical reactor and separation mod-
els given above. Martin, et al.,128s have formulated a
one-dimensional multiple layer diffusion and con-
vection model for the transport of auxin, a plant
hormone, up the stem of a plant. Their model is
simpler than the one considered above by Locke and
Arcelsi131 and they have solved it using the cumber-
some method of Laplace transform. This methodol-
ogy gives no indication of the role of the different
parameters on the dynamics of the process.
From a more general perspective, Almirantis
and Papageorgioul291 have considered reaction bound-
ary coupling between multiple layers in a one-
dimensional system as a model of intercellular
communication. They developed a stability analysis
to determine the conditions for pattern forma-
tion. Operator theoretic methods can give a much
clearer view of the stability criteria through an analy-
sis of the spectrum of the operators. Currently,
several geometrical configurations of cell systems
are being investigated to determine their steady-
state structure, linear stability, and pattern forma-
tion characteristics.
CONVECTIVE INSTABILITIES
IN FLUIDS AND LIQUID CRYSTALS
The Rayleigh-B6nard instability in simple fluids is
a classical fluid instability that has been well char-
acterized both theoretically and experimentally, at
least when the Rayleigh number is not too far from
the critical Rayleigh number and the aspect ratio of
the experimental cell is not too large.Iaoa311 Under
these conditions, when the system is brought above
threshold, a convective instability occurs and the
familiar pattern of convective rolls appears.
Although this is a simplified situation, it is very
important in our understanding of nonlinear phe-
nomena because the equations describing the sys-


tem are well known and the fluid parameters that
appear in them can be measured with sufficient
accuracy. Furthermore, experiments can be con-
ducted under well controlled conditions. It therefore
provides a good testing ground for many of the ideas
of pattern formation in nonlinear systems and an
opportunity for detailed and precise comparisons be-
tween the predictions given by well defined models
and the experiments.
Unfortunately, for most commonly studied fluids
the parameters of the fluid are such that systems
comprising only a few convective rolls can be studied
under normal laboratory conditions. The emerging
structures are therefore greatly influenced by the
geometry and size of the experimental cell. More
recently, however, experiments have been conducted
on gases[32' or on the electro-hydrodynamic instabil-
ity in nematic liquid crystals.r33a The scale of the
convective rolls in these cases is much smaller than
the size of the cell and the issues discussed above are
beginning to be studied in greater detail.
We have concentrated on the analysis of the sto-
chastic Swift-Hohenberg equation.[341 This equation
describes the evolution of a scalar field, function of
position r and time t, that can be written in dimen-
sionless form as


t =-(V 1)2] + (r,t) (4)
The quantity e acts as control parameter. From
e < 0 the solution y = 0 is linearly stable, whereas at
e = 0 it becomes unstable to periodic solutions. The
stochastic function, 4(r, t), is normally assumed to be
gaussian distributed and delta-correlated. This equa-
tion has been shown to be equivalent in the long-
wavelength, long-time limit the Boussinesq approxi-
mation to the hydrodynamic equations that described
convection in a simple fluid close to the convective
instability. In that case, the stochastic contribution
is related to the underlying thermal fluctuations in
the fluid. More generally, this equation can be con-
sidered as a generic model that describes the forma-
tion of spatially periodic structures.
Three main issues are investigated. First, the ques-
tion of pattern selection, namely which, out of the
infinitely many linearly stable stationary states, is
dynamically selected from typical initial conditions.
Second, convective patterns are effectively one- or
two-dimensional. Fluctuations might be expected to
destroy the long-range order implicit in the convec-
tive pattern. The third issue is the transient dynam-
ics of roll formation. Eq. (4) has been solved numeri-
cally on the Connection Machine 2 at SCRI. The
Chemical Engineering Education









aspect ratio of the systems studied ranges in the
hundreds (i.e., several hundred convective rolls),
much larger than systems that are experimentally
feasible in simple fluids. As discussed above, recent
experiments in nematic liquid crystals are begin-
ning to be able to measure thermal fluctuations and
to study ratios comparable to the sizes that we have
used in our solutions. We expect that our predictions
will be tested in these latter systems.
Figure 3 shows an example of our resultsr35s with
the various structures of the stationary solutions.
The configurations shown are typical examples of
stationary solutions obtained numerically (only a
portion of the system size studied is shown for clar-
ity). At zero amplitude of the fluctuations, F = 0
(states labeled smectic), configurations of rolls pos-
sess both positional and orientational long-range or-
der. At low values of F' (states labeled nematic)
orientational correlations are long-ranged but the
system is positionally disordered. Above the solid
line in the figure, the pattern is completely disor-
dered. The location of the solid line in the figure has
been found numerically for one value of E. A theoreti-
cal analysis that we have developed predicts that it
is given by F V E, which is what is plotted in the
figure.
Work is now in progress to explore more complex
situations with convection in non-Boussinesq sys-


0.15

Isotro ic
I



0.1 o
Nematic



To
0.05 -
Smectic

0


0
0 0.2 0.4

Figure 3. Portions of typical configurations obtained as
stationary solutions of Eq. (4). The configurations labeled
isotropic, nematic, and smectic correspond to intensities
of the fluctuations F' = 0.075, 0.05, and 0, respectively. In
all these plots the lines drawn are the lines of W(r) = 0.
Fall 1992


teams, the decay of a long-wavelength instability of
periodic patterns known as the Eckhaus instability,
extensions to non-gradient systems, etc. The combi-
nation of experimental work and detailed numerical
solutions to model systems is providing a number of
very interesting results on the pattern forming prop-
erties of systems that are far from thermodynamic
equilibrium.

CRYSTAL GROWTH FROM THE MELT
Crystal growth is but one example in the study of
the evolution of the shape of the interfaces that
separate domains of various phases during a phase
transformation. Although this is one of the most
studied examples, the same phenomenology also
occurs in all phase transformations in which diffu-
sive transport plays a dominant role in controlling
the transformation rate (i.e., diffusion of heat or
of some chemical species). Examples are num-
erous, including the growth of semiconductor crys-
tals from the melt, metal alloy casting, and the growth
of protein crystals.
In the more general formulation, one is confronted
with a nonlinear free boundary problem for which
analytic solutions are rare.[361 Even in the simpler
case in which convective motion in the fluid phase is
neglected, limited progress has been achieved in
determining stable propagating solutions of the front
that separates the different phases. A great deal is
known about the existence of steady states and about
their stability in systems that undergo some type or
morphological instability to a finger-like or cellular
structure.a37 These studies have focused on models of
directional or dendritic solidification of single com-
ponent or multicomponent systems and models of
viscous fingering in fluids. Intricate asymptotic analy-
ses have yielded the stationary solutions of various
models and, in some cases, the stability condition of
such solutions to infinitesimal perturbations.
The approach that we have taken involves recasting
the partial differential equations that describe mass
diffusion in the phases and the appropriate bound-
ary conditions on the moving interface, by an
integrodifferential equation involving the coordinates
of the interface alone, or "interface equation."r38,391
This is accomplished by the introduction of the Green
function for the diffusion operator in the various
phases. The interface equation is then solved as an
initial value problem for a given initial position of
the interface. Studies to date have focused on the
analysis of the evolution of the interface shape fol-
lowing the instability of a planar front. Recent stud-
ies by us and othersL39,40J are focusing on the tran-









sient dynamics of formation of periodic cellular struc-
tures (an example of such evolution is shown in
Figure 4). Numerical studies reveal the existence of
conventional stationary states in addition to travel-
ing wave states or even chaotic structures. This rich
behavior can be observed within a surprisingly nar-
row range of material and control parameters.

CONCLUSION
We have summarized a variety of problems con-
cerning instabilities and the formation of patterns in
convective-diffusive systems, with or without chemi-
cal reactions, that are being addressed in the chemi-
cal engineering department at FAMU/FSU. We fo-
cus our attention on novel mathematical approaches
that combine analytical techniques and numerical
work performed on conventional and parallel
supercomputers. The analytic techniques center
around operator-theoretic, group-theoretic, and Green
function methods to study a variety of nonlinear
processes in chemical and catalytic reacting systems,
and pattern-forming instabilities in fluids and crys-
tal growth. These methods allow the implementa-
tion of powerful numerical algorithms on vector and
massively parallel supercomputers, such as those
presently available at Florida State University.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Part of this work has been conducted in collabora-
tion with other colleagues and former academic ad-
visors. It is a pleasure to acknowledge K. Elder, D.
Jasnow, M. Grant, H. Irazoqui, and D. Ramkrishna
for very fruitful collaborations. One of us (PA) wants
to thank Professor R.G. Carbonell for very interest-
ing discussions and observations. PA and BL ac-


' I' i ij I'

Iii


-00 7 0n 400 60o 0oo 1000 .'ro 14

Figure 4. Example of the temporal evolution of an interfa-
cial pattern separating the solid and fluid phases during
directional solidification. The lines shown are different
times following the instability of a planar front.
220


knowledge support from NASA-TRDA-204 and the
FAMU/FSU College of Engineering. JV is supported
by the Microgravity Science and Applications Divi-
sion of the NASA under contract No. NAG3-1284
and by the Supercomputer Computations Research
Institute, which is partially funded by the U.S. De-
partment of Energy Contract No. DE-FC05-
85ER25000.

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11rl1 I/




i..i










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NEURAL NETWORKS
Continued from page 179.

obtain the correct ordering for both the manipulated
and the controlled variables, the engineer requires a
great deal of process understanding.
An alternative methodology under study in the
IPS Lab is very ambitious in that it seeks to pose the
multivariable control design with objective
prioritization as a multilevel optimization problem
with binary variables. Binary variables can be visu-
alized as on-off keys that switch controller and eco-
nomic objectives and constraints on or off as appro-
priate to achieve the desired prioritization.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS

As our research in neural networks, optimization,
and process control matures, the focus in the IPS
Lab is shifting to demonstration of the methods in
collaboration with local industry. One project has
begun which seeks to use neural network-based meth-
ods for controlling the quality of parts produced from
an injection molding process. A second project is
employing similar methods for controlling the incin-
eration of hazardous wastes. A third effort is explor-
ing the use of neural networks for optimizing the
efficiency of combustion of pulverized coal.
Such real-world implementations are important in
process control research. When developments are
restricted to simulated processes, the complete pro-
cess character can be specified by the same researcher
Fall 1992


who is responsible for the control system develop-
ments. Real plants, on the other hand, have a pro-
cess character that is specified by nature, thereby
truly testing the effectiveness of new developments.
Perhaps the most important aspect, however, is
that real-world demonstrations permit developments
to be tested by the ultimate user of the technology-
the industrial practitioner. It is only when the tech-
nology is in the practitioner's hands that laboratory
developments receive the critical evaluations which
help guide subsequent improvements and refine-
ments, and define new avenues for fruitful research.

REFERENCES

1. Achenie, L.E., and L.T. Biegler, "A Superstructure Based
Approach to Chemical Reactor Network Synthesis," Comp.
Chem. Eng., 14, 23 (1990)
2. Cooper, D.J., L. Megan, and R.F. Hinde, Jr., "Comparing
Two Neural Networks for Pattern Based Adaptive Process
Control," AIChE J., 38, 41 (1992)
3. Vegeais, J.A., D.B. Garrison, and L.E.K. Achenie, "Parallel
NCUBE Implementation of a Layered, Feed-Forward Neu-
ral Network," AIChE meeting, Los Angeles, CA; Nov. (1991)
4. Cooper, D.J., L. Megan, and R.F. Hinde, Jr., "Disturbance
Pattern Classification and Neuro-Adaptive Control," IEEE
Cont. Sys., 12, 42 (1992)
5. Hinde, R.F., Jr., and D.J. Cooper, "Adaptive Process Control
Using Pattern-Based Performance Feedback," J. of Proc.
Cont., 1, 228 (1991)
6. Cooper, D.J., and A.M. Lalonde, "Process Behavior Diagnos-
tics and Adaptive Process Control," Computers and Chem.
Eng., 14, 541 (1990)
7. Prett, D.M., C.E. Garcia, and B.L. Ramaker, The Second
Shell Process Control Workshop, Butterworths (1990) 1











T.he


o university

oAkron sO.. DEPARTMENT OF


-=. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
GRADUATE PROGRAM

GRADUATE PROGRAM


FACULTY
G. A. ATWOOD 1
G. G. CHASE
H. M. CHEUNG
S. C. CHUANG
J.R. ELLIOTT
L. G. FOCHT
K. L. FULLERTON
M. A. GENCER2
H. L. GREENE1
L.K. JU
S. LEE
D. MAHAJAN2
J. W. MILLER2
H. C. QAMMAR
R. W. ROBERTS1
N.D. SYLVESTER
M. S. WILLIS


RESEARCH INTERESTS


Digital Control, Mass Transfer, Multicomponent Adsorption
Multiphase Processes, Heat Transfer, Interfacial Phenomena
Colloids, Light Scattering Techniques
Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Combustion
Thermodynamics, Material Properties
Fixed Bed Adsorption, Process Design
Fuel Technology, Process Engineering, Environmental Engineering
Biochemical Engineering, Environmental Biotechnology
Oxidative Catalysis, Reactor Design, Mixing
Biochemical Engineering, Enzyme and Fermentation Technology
Fuel and Chemical Process Engineering, Reactive Polymers, Waste Clean-Up
Homogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics
Polymerization Reaction Engineering
Hazardous Waste Treatment, Nonlinear Dynamics
Plastics Processing, Polymer Films, System Design
Environmental Engineering, Flow Phenomena
Multiphase Transport Theory, Filtration, Interfacial Phenomena


I Professor Emeritus
2 Adjunct Faculty Member


Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $7,800.
Industrially sponsored fellowships available up to $17,000.
In addition to stipends, tuition and fees are waived.
Ph.D. students may get some incentive scholarships.


Cooperative Graduate Education Program is also available.
The deadline for assistantship applications is February 15th.
For Additional Information, Write *
Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Akron Akron, OH 44325-3906
Chemical Engineering Education









CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PROGRAMS AT

THE UNIVERSITY OF

ALABAMA

The University of Alabama, located in the
sunny South, offers excellent programs lead-
ing to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical
Engineering.
Our research emphasis areas are concentrated
in environmental studies, reaction kinetics
and catalysis, alternate fuels, and related
processes. The faculty has extensive indus-
trial experience, which gives a distinctive
engineering flavor to our programs.
For further information, contact the Director
of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemi-
cal Engineering, Box 870203, Tuscaloosa, AL
35487-0203; (205-348-6450).

FACULTY
G. C. April, Ph.D. (Louisiana State)
D. W. Arnold, Ph.D. (Purdue)
W. C. Clements, Jr., Ph.D. (Vanderbilt)
R. A. Griffin, Ph.D. (Utah State)
W. J. Hatcher, Jr., Ph.D. (Louisiana State)
I. A. Jefcoat, Ph.D. (Clemson)
A. M. Lane, Ph.D. (Massachusetts)
M. D. McKinley, Ph.D. (Florida)
L. Y. Sadler III, Ph.D. (Alabama)
V. N. Schrodt, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania State)

RESEARCH INTERESTS
Biomass Conversion, Modeling Transport Processes, Thermodynamics, Coal-Water Fuel Development,
Process Dynamics and Control, Microcomputer Hardware, Catalysis,
Chemical Reactor Design, Reaction Kinetics, Environmental,
Synfuels, Alternate Chemical Feedstocks, Mass Transfer,
Energy Conversion Processes, Ceramics, Rheology, Mineral Processing,
Separations, Computer Applications, and Bioprocessing.
An equal employment/equal educational
opportunity institution.












UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA




^^y-'^'Pb i R


Degrees: M.Sc., Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering and in Process Control

FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS


K. T. CHUANG, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Mass Transfer Catalysis Separation Processes *
Pollution Control
P. J. CRICKMORE, Ph.D. (Queen's University)
Fractal Analysis Cellular Automata Utilization of Oil
Sand and Coal
I. G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (University of Minnesota)
EMERITUS Chemical Reaction Engineering *
Heterogeneous Catalysis Hydroprocessing
D. G. FISHER, Ph.D. (University of Michigan)
Process Dynamics and Control Real-Time Computer
Applications
M. R. GRAY, Ph.D. (California Institute of Technology)
CHAIRMAN Bioreactors Chemical Kinetics Charac-
terization of Complex Organic Mixtures
R. E. HAYES, Ph.D. (University of Bath)
Numerical Analysis Reactor Modeling Conputational
Fluid Dynamics
S. M. KRESTA, Ph.D. (McMaster University)
Fluid Mechanics Turbulence Mixing
D. T. LYNCH, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Catalysis Kinetic Modeling Numerical Methods *
Reactor Modeling and Design Polymerization
J. H. MASLIYAH, Ph.D. (University of British Columbia)
Transport Phenomena Numerical Analysis Particle-
Fluid Dynamics


A. E. MATHER, Ph.D. (University of Michigan)
Phase Equilibria Fluid Properties at High Pressures *
Thermodynamics
W. K. NADER, Dr. Phil. (Vienna) EMERITUS
Heat Transfer Transport Phenomena in Porous Media *
Applied Mathematics
K. NANDAKUMAR, Ph.D. (Princeton University)
Transport Phenomena Multicomponent Distillation *
Computational Fluid Dynamics
F. D. OTTO, Ph.D. (Michigan) DEAN OF ENGINEERING
Mass Transfer Gas-Liquid Reactions Separation Processes
M. RAO, Ph.D. (Rutgers University)
AI Intelligent Control Process Control
D. B. ROBINSON, Ph.D. (University of Michigan)
EMERITUS Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids *
Phase Equilibria Thermodynamics
J. T. RYAN, Ph.D. (University of Missouri)
Energy Economics and Supply Porous Media
S. L. SHAH, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Computer Process Control System Identification Adaptive
Control
S. E. WANKE, Ph.D. (University of California, Davis)
Heterogeneous Catalysis Kinetics Polymerization
M. C. WILLIAMS, Ph.D. (University of Wisconsin)
Rheology Polymer Characterization Polymer Processing
R. K. WOOD, Ph.D. (Northwestern University)
Process Modeling and Dynamic Simulation Distillation
Column Control Dynamics and Control of Grinding Circuits


Forfurther information, contact
Graduate Program Officer MCY, Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6
PHONE (403) 492-3962 FAX (403) 492-2881

,24 Chemical Engineering Education










THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

TUCSON, AZ

SThe Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona offers a wide range of
research opportunities in all major areas of chemical engineering, and graduate courses are
-II offered in most of the research areas listed below. The department offers a fully accredited
undergraduate degree as well as MS and PhD graduate degrees. Strong interdisciplinary pro-
grams exist in bioprocessing and bioseparations, microcontamination in electronics manufac-
ture, and environmental process modification. Financial support is available through fellow-
ships, government and industrial grants and contracts, teaching and research assistantships.

THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS
ROBERT ARNOLD, Associate Professor"[' (Caltech) BRUCE E. LOGAN, Associate Professor"'' (Berkeley)
Microbiological Hazardous Waste Treatment, Metals Speciation and Bioremediation, Biological Wastewater Treatment, Fixed Film Bioreactors
Toxicity KIMBERLY OGDEN, Assistant Professor (Colorado)
JAMES BAYGENTS, Assistant Professor (Princeton) Bioreactors, Bioremediation, Organics Removal from Soils
Fluid Mechanics, Transport and Colloidal Phenomena, Bioseparations, THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor and Head (CalTech)
Electrokinetics Aerosols, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Microcontamination
MILAN BIER, Professor (Fordham) ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor (Iowa State)
Protein Separation, Electrophoresis, Membrane Transport Crystallization Processes, Nucleation, Particulate Processes
CURTIS W. BRYANT, Associate Professor"' (Clemson) THOMAS R. REHM, Professor (Washington)
Biological Wastewater Treatment, Industrial Waste Treatment Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Computer Aided Design
HERIBERTO CABEZAS, Assistant Professor (Florida) FARHANG SHADMAN, Professor (Berkeley)
Statistical Thermodynamics, Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction, Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactive Membranes,
Protein Separation Microcontamination
WILLIAM P. COSART, Associate Professor (Oregon State) RAYMOND A. SIERKA, Professor"' (Oklahoma)
Heat Transfer in Biological Systems, Blood Processing Adsorption, Oxidation, Membranes, Solar Catalyzed Detox Reactions
EDWARD FREEH, Adjunct Professor (Ohio State) JOST 0. L. WENDT, Professor (Johns Hopkins)
Process Control, Computer Applications Combustion-Generated Air Pollution, Incineration, Waste Management
JOSEPH GROSS, Professor (Purdue) DON H. WHITE, Professor Emeritus (Iowa State)
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Microcirculation, Biorheology Polymers, Microbial and Enzymatic Processes
DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor (Technion)
ROBERTO GUZMAN, Assistant Professor (North Carolina State) DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor (Technion)
Fermentation, Mixing, Energy, Biomass Conversion
Protein Separation, Affinity Methods
"1 Joint appointment with Environmental Engineering Program, CEEM.


Tucson has an excellent climate
and many recreational opportuni-
ties. It is a growing modern city of
450,000 that retains much of the
old Southwestern atmosphere.

For further information, write to

Chairman,
Graduate Study Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721


The University of Arizona is an equal
opportunity educational institution/equal
opportunity employer.
Women and minorities are encouraged
to apply.
Fall 1992 225












ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY


CHEMICAL, BIO, AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING


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Graduate Research in a High Technology Environment


Chemical Engineering
Beckman, James R., Ph.D., U. of
Arizona Crystallization and Solar
Cooling
Bellamy, Lynn, Ph.D., Tulane Process
Simulation
Berman, Neil S., Ph.D., U. of Texas,
Austin Fluid Dynamics and Air
Pollution
Burrows, Veronica A., Ph.D., Princeton
Surface Science, Semiconductor
Processing
Cale, Timothy S., Ph.D., U. of Houston *
Catalysis, Semiconductor Processing
Garcia, Antonio A., Ph.D., U.C.,
Berkeley Acid-Base Interactions.
Biochemical Separation, Colloid
Chemistry
Henry, Joseph D., Jr., Ph.D., U. of
Michigan Biochemical, Molecular
Recognition, Surface and Colloid
Phenomena


Kuester, James L., Ph.D., Texas A&M *
Thermochemical Conversion, Complex
Reaction Systems
Raupp, Gregory B., Ph.D., U. of
Wisconsin Semiconductor Materials
Processing, Surface Science, Catalysis
Rivera, Daniel, Ph.D., Cal Tech Process
Control and Design
Sater, Vernon E., Ph.D., Illinois Institute
of Tech Heavy Metal Removal from
Waste Water, Process Control
Torrest, Robert S., Ph.D., U. of
Minnesota Multiphase Flow, Filtration,
Flow in Porous Media, Pollution Control
Zwiebel, Imre, Ph.D., Yale Adsorption
of Macromolecules, Biochemical
Separations


Bioengineering
Dorson, William J., Ph.D., U. of
Cincinnati Physicochemical
Phenomena, Transport Processes
Guilbeau, Eric J., Ph.D., Louisiana Tech *
Biosensors, Physiological Systems,
Biomaterials
Kipke, Daryl R., Ph.D., University of
Michigan Computation Neuroscience *
Machine Vision, Speech Recognition,
Robotics Neural Networks
Pizziconi, Vincent B., Ph.D. Arizona State
Artificial Organs, Biomaterials,
Bioseparations
Sweeney, James D., Ph.D., Case-Western
Reserve Rehab Engineering, Applied
Neural Control
Towe, Bruce C., Ph.D., Penn State *
Bioelectric Phenomena, Biosensors,
Biomedical Imaging
Yamaguchi, Gary T., Ph.D., Stanford *
Biomechanics, Rehab Engineering,
Computer-Aided Surgery


Materials Science & Engineering
Dey, Sandwip K., Ph.D., NYSC of
Ceramics, Alfred U. Ceramics, Sol-Gel
Processing

Hendrickson, Lester E., Ph.D., U. of
Illinois Fracture and Failure Analysis,
Physical and Chemical Metallurgy

Jacobson, Dean L., Ph.D., UCLA *
Thermionic Energy Conversion, High
Temperature Materials

Krause, Stephen L., Ph.D., U. of Michigan
* Ordered Polymers, Electronic Materials,
Electron X-ray Diffraction, Electron
Microscopy

Mayer, James, Ph.D., Purdue *Thin Film
Processing Ion Bean Modification of
Materials

Stanley, James T., Ph.D., U. of Illinois *
Phase Transformations, Corrosion


For more details regarding the graduate degree programs in the Department of Chemical, Bio, and Materials Engineering,
please call (602) 965-3313 or (602) 965-3676, or write to: Dr. Eric Guilbeau, Chair of the Graduate Committee, Department of
Chemical, Bio, and Materials Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6006.

Chemical Engineering Education


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Leadership inengi eering


isan Anonatradition.


As an Industrial Fellow
at ASU, Mike Wall earned
his master's degree
while working for a major
corporation. It's a unique
opportunity, continuing a
tradition of engineering
excellence that began here
hundreds of years ago.


Hopi Pattern Mathematics, 6th century


Program sponsors include
American Express,
Honeywell, Intel, McDonne
Douglas Helicopter, Motoro
and US WEST Small
Business Services. They're
helping engineers like Sus
Ferreira invest in the future


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Hohokam Acid-Baked Etching, 10th century


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Sinaguan Metate Manufacturing, 13th century


Opportunities to earn a master's degree are
available in computer science, or chemical,
electrical, industrial or mechanical engineering.
MBA opportunities are also available. U.S.,
Canadian or Mexican citizenship required.
Call 602-965-2276
orwrite for more information. 1993 program
applications are due by December 1,1992
(early bird) or January 15,1993 (final).


In the next two years,
Kim Solomon will be able
to complete an advanced
degree and earn over
$55,000 in salaries, awards
and benefits. She'll also
participate in 6ne of the
nation's top leadership
development programs for
engineers.


Industrial Fellows Program
ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY
A Part Of The ASU Corporate Leaders Program
College of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Tempe, Arizona 85287-7406
(602) 965-2276 FAX (602) 965-2267


Arizona State Universityvigorously pursues affirmative action and equal opportunity in its employment, activities, and programs.


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We want you to be yourself...

The Department of Chemical Engineering
at A uburn i universityy knows you have
unique talents and ideas to contribute to
our research programs. A nd because you
are an individual, we will value you as an
individual. That is what makes our
department one of the lop 20 in the nation.
Don't become just another graduate
student at some other institution. Come to
.4A burn and disco ver your potential.


We have a research area THE FACULTY
tailored to you!


RESEARCH APPLICATION AREAS
* Asphalt Chemlitrvy
* Biotechnology
Carbon Chemistry
* Coal Science and Conversion
* Chemical Engineering of Composites
* En ironmentl Chemical Engineering
* Pulp and Paper Chemical Engineering

FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH AREAS
* Biochemical Engineering
* Caialysis
* Fluid Mechanic.
* Inrerfacial Fandamentals
* Mas,, and Heat Transport
* Optimization
* Proces. Mldeling and Identificalion
* Process and Contml
* Process Simulation
* Process Synthelsi
* Comptuer Aided Process Design
* Reaction Kinenice and Engineering
* Surface Science
* Thermod-namric.
* Transport Phenomena


Rl, rr P. Chamber
lin.-r S. Cqhfi'.rri. 4L,
Chriatne W. ('unrt
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Ntahmnud NM. l--Hltutagi
't'CLA. 1994
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For information and application write:
Dr. R.P. Chambers
Chmir al PnoinPerinna


Aubur University, AL


Gel your MS. or Ph.D. degree from one of the fastest growing chemical engineer
departments in the Southeast. Last yer our research tepenidftur topped $3 milwl. 0;
research emiphasi:es e.tpcrimental ad theoretical work inm adres ~ll' ional iterc.st, wuith st
of:-the-ar rcseart h equipiient. Generousinatntial assidtalne i qi aildale to qiiallified student


We want yoi

to be

Your best!


SA. Y. I-
\.Sr\re LnrrniL,. Ue'I
Rn Satd n. Neuman
. '.Inri fMca W ier Chem!ir., ;9.Il
Thn tby D. p cek
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S DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND

M, PETROLEUM ENGINEERING
THE
TH The Department offers graduate programs leading to the M.Sc. and
UNIVERSITY Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering (full-time) and the M.Eng.
OF CALGARY degree in Chemical Engineering or Petroleum Reservoir Engineering
(part-time) in the following areas:


FACULTY
R. G. Moore, Head (Alberta)
A. Badakhshan (Birmingham, U.K.)
L. A. Behie (Western Ontario)
J. D. M. Belgrave (Calgary)
F. Berruti (Waterloo)
P. R. Bishnoi (Alberta)
R. M. Butler (Imperial College, U.K.)
A. Chakma (UBC)
M. A. Hastaoglu (SUNY)
R. A. Heidemann (Washington U.)
A. A. Jeje (MIT)
N. Kalogerakis (Toronto)
A. K. Mehrotra (Calgary)
E. Rhodes (Manchester, U.K.)
P. M. Sigmund (Texas)
J. Stanislav (Prague)
W. Y. Svrcek (Alberta)
E. L. Tollefson (Toronto)
M. A. Trebble (Calgary)


Biochemical Engineering
& Biotechnology
Biomedical Engineering
Environmental Engineering
Modeling, Simulation & Control
Petroleum Recovery
& Reservoir Engineering
Process Development
Reaction Engineering/Kinetics
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena

Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available to all qualified applicants.

SFor Additional Information Write *
Dr. A. K. Mehrotra Chair, Graduate Studies Committee
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
The University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4


The University is located in the City of Calgary, the Oil capital of Canada, the home of the world famous Calgary Stampede
and the 1988 Winter Olympics. The City combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication of a modern urban
center. Beautiful Banff National Park is 110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of Banff, Lake Louise,and Kananaskis
areas are readily accessible. In the above photo the University Campus is shown with the Olympic Oval and the student
residences in the foreground. The Engineering complex is on the left of the picture


Fall 1992


229










THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT


BERKELEY...
... offers graduate programs leading to the
Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy.
Both programs involve joint faculty-student
research as well as courses and seminars within
and outside the department. Students have
-_ the opportunity to take part in the many cul-
tural offerings of the San Francisco Bay Area
and the recreational activities of California's
northern coast and mountains.


FACULTY

ALEXIS T. BELL
HARVEY W. BLANCH
ELTON J. CAIRNS
ARUP K. CHAKRABORTY
DOUGLAS S. CLARK
MORTON M. DENN (CHAIRMAN)
ALAN S. FOSS
SIMON L. GOREN
RESEARCH INTERESTS
DAVID B. GRAVES


BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING
ENERGY UTILIZATION
FLUID MECHANICS
KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
POLYMER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
SEPARATION PROCESSES
SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE
THERMODYNAMICS


JAY D. KEASLING
C. JUDSON KING
SCOTT LYNN
SUSAN J. MULLER
JOHN S. NEWMAN
JOHN M. PRAUSNITZ
CLAYTON J. RADKE
JEFFREY A. REIMER
DAVID S. SOANE
DOROS N. THEODOROU


PLEASE WRITE: DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA 94720


Chemical Engineering Education









UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


RVI


NE


Graduate Studies in

Biochemical and Chemical Engineering)

for
Chemical Engineering, Engineering, and Science Majors


PROGRAM

Offers degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels. Research in
frontier areas in chemical engineering, including biochemi-
cal engineering, biotechnology and materials science and
engineering. Strong biology, biochemistry, microbiology,
material science and engineering, molecular biology, and
other engineering and science research groups.

LOCATION

The 1,510-acre UC Irvine campus is in Orange County, five
miles from the Pacific Ocean and 40 miles south of Los
Angeles. Irvine is one of the nation's fastest growing resi-
dential, industrial, and business areas. Nearby beaches,
mountain and desert area recreational activities, and local
cultural activities make Irvine a pleasant city in which to
live and study.

FACULTY

Nancy A. Da Silva (California Institute of Technology)
G. Wesley Hatfield (Purdue University)
Juan Hong (Purdue University)
James T. Kellis, Jr. (University of California, Irvine)
Henry C. Lim (Northwestern University)
Betty H. Olson (University of California, Berkeley)
Matha L. Mecartney (Stanford University)
Frank G. Shi (California Institute of Technology)
Thomas K. Wood (North Carolina State University)
Fall 1992


RESEARCH
AREAS

Biochemical Processes
Bioreactor Engineering
Bioremediation
Biopesticides
Bioseparations
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering
Interfacial Engineering
Materials Processing
Metabolic Engineering
Microstructure of Materials
Molecular Mechanisms of
Biological Control Systems
Optimization
Process Control
Protein Engineering
Recombinant Cell Technology
Separation Processes
Sol-Gel Processing
Water Pollution Control


For further information
and application forms, contact

Biochemical Engineering Program
School of Engineering
University of California
Irvine, CA 92717









CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT


UCLA


FACULTY

D. T. Allen H. G. Monbouquette


R.L. Bell
(Visiting Professor)


K. Nobe


L. B. Robinson
Y. Cohen (Prof. Emeritus)


T. H. K. Frederking
S. K. Friedlander


S. M. Senkan
0. I. Smith


R. F. Hicks W. D. Van Vorst
(Prof. Emeritus)


E. L. Knuth
(Prof. Emeritus)
V. Manousiouthakis


PROGRAMS
UCLA's Chemical Engineering Department of-
fers a program of teaching and research linking
fundamental engineering science and industrial
practice. Our Department has strong graduate
research programs in environmental chemical
engineering, biotechnology, and materials
processing. With the support of the Parsons
Foundation and EPA, we are pioneering the de-
velopment of methods for the design of clean
chemical technologies, both in graduate research
and engineering education
Fellowships are available for outstanding appli-
cants in both M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. A fellow-
ship includes a waiver of tuition and fees plus a
stipend.
Located five miles from the Pacific Coast,
UCLA's attractive 417-acre campus extends from
Bel Air to Westwood Village. Students have ac-
cess to the highly regarded science programs and
to a variety of experiences in theatre, music, art,
and sports on campus.


V. L. Vilker
A. R. Wazzan


RESEARCH AREAS

Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Process Design and Process Control
Polymer Processing and Rheology
Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics, Combustion, and Catalysis
Semiconductor Device Chemistry and Surface
Science
Electrochemistry and Corrosion
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Aerosol Science and Technology
Air Pollution Control and Environmental Engineering

CONTACT
Admissions Officer
Chemical Engineering Department
5531 Boelter Hall
UCLA
Los Angeles, CA 90024-1592
(310) 825-9063


Chemical Engineering Education













UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA



SANTA BARBARA


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS *
L. GARY LEAL Ph.D. (Stanford) (Chairman) Fluid Mechanics; Transport Phenomena; Polymer Physics.
ERAY S. AYDIL Ph.D. (University of Houston) Microelectronics Materials Processing
SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo) Two-Phase Flow, Chemical & Nuclear Safety, Computational Fluid Dynamics,
Turbulence.
BRADLEY F. CHMELKA Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Guest/Host Interactions in Molecular Sieves, Dispersal of Metals in
Oxide Catalysts, Molecular Structure and Dynamics in Polymeric Solids, Properties of Partially Ordered Materials,
Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.
HENRI FENECH Ph.D. (M.I.T.) (Professor Emeritus) Nuclear Systems Design and Safety. Nuclear Fuel Cycles. Two-
Phase Flow. Heat Transfer.
GLENN H. FREDRICKSON Ph.D. (Stanford) Electronic Transport. Glasses. Polymers. Composites, Phase Separation.
OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Piurdue) Theoretical Methods, Chemical Reactor Analysis. Transport Phenomena.
JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph.D. (Cambridge) Surface and Interfacial Phenomena, Adhesion, Colloidal Systems,
Surface Forces.
FRED F. LANGE Ph.D. (Penn State) Powder Processing of Composite Ceramics: Liquid Precursors for Ceramics;
Superconducting Oxides.
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.) (Vice Chairman) Radiation Damage, Mechanics of Materials.
ERIC McFARLAND Ph.D. (M.I.T) M.D. (Harvard) Biomedical Engineering, NMR and Neutron Imaging, Transport
Phenomena in Complex Liquids. Radiation Interactions.
DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph.D. (Purdue) Computer Control, Process Dynamics. Real-Time Computing.
JOHN E. MYERS Ph.D. (Michigan) (Professor Emeritus) Boiling Heat Transfer.
G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D. (MI. T.) Radiation Effects in Solids. Energy Related Materials Development
DALE S. PEARSON Ph.D. (Northiwestern) Rheological and Optical Properties of Polymer Liquids and Colloidal
Dispersions.
PHILIP ALAN PINCUS Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Theory of Surfactant Aggregates. Colloid Systems.
A. EDWARD PROFIO Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Biomedical Engineering. Reactor Physics. Radiation Transport Analysis.
ROBERT G. RINKER Ph.D. (Caltech) Chemical Reactor Design. Catalysis. Energy Conversion, Air Pollution.
ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Transport Phenomena, Separation Processes.
DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. (Princeton) Process Control, Computer Control. Process Identification.
PAUL SMITH Ph.D. (State University of'Groningen. Netherlands) High Performance Fibers; Processing of Conducting
Polymers; Polymer Processing.
T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D. (Minnesota) Nuclear and Chemical Plant Safety. Multiphase Flow. Thermalhydraulics.
W. HENRY WEINBERG Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Surface Chemistry; Heterogeneous Catalysis; Electronic Materials
JOSEPH A. N. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D. (Minnesota) Surface and Interfacial Phenomen. Structure of Microemulsions.
Fall 1992


PROGRAMS
AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT

The Department offers M.S. and
Ph.D. degree programs Financial
aid, including fellowships, teaching
assistantships, and research assis-
tantships, is available.



THE UNIVERSITY

One of the world's few seashore cam-
puses, UCSB is located on the Pa-
cific Coast 100 miles northwest of
Los Angeles. The student enrollment
is over 18.000. The metropolitan
Santa Barbara area has over
150,000 residents and is famous for
its mild, even climate.


For additional information
and applications,
write to

Chair
Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical and
Nuclear Engineering
University ofCalifornia
Santa Barbara, CA 93106







CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

at the

CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

"At the Leading Edge"


FACULTY
Frances H. Arnold
John F Brady
Mark E. Davis
Richard C. Flagan
George R. Gavalas
Konstantinos P Giapis
Julia A. Kornfield
Manfred Morari
C. Dwight Prater (Visiting)
John H. Seinfeld
Nicholas W. Tschoegl (Emeritus)
Zhen-Gang Wang


RESEARCH INTERESTS
Aerosol Science
Applied Mathematics
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Biocatalysis and Bioreactor Engineering
Bioseparations
Catalysis
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Combustion
Colloid Physics
Fluid Mechanics
Materials Processing
Microelectronics Processing
Microstructured Fluids
Polymer Science
Process Control and Synthesis
Protein Engineering
Statistical Mechanics of Heterogeneous
Systems


* for further information, write *
Professor Mark E. Davis
Department of Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125


Chemical Engineering Education















Joh L. Anderson


Loen T. B**i-eg *-.9

Pau A. DiE e 9






Igai E. Grossmann-

Wila S. Hammack .5.
Chrcerzto of amrpou

maeias pressure-indce amorphorizto

Anet M. Jacobson
Souiizto and surf n as orto

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Gar J. Powers .




JenifeL S incai

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Chemical Engineering in


the 21st Century?


Diamond crystals synthesized by graduate student C. Kovach.


For more information contact:

The Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106


Want to learn what the future holds for
chemical engineers?

Consider graduate study at


CASE

WESTERN

RESERVE

UNIVERSITY

Opportunities for Innovative Research in

Advanced Energy Conversion *
Chemical/Biological Sensors
Intelligent Control *
Micro- and Nano-Materials *
Novel Separations/Processing *


Faculty and Specializations


John C. Angus, Ph.D. 1960, University of Michigan
Redox equilibria, diamond and diamond-like films, modulated
electroplating

Coleman B. Brosilow, Ph.D. 1962, Polytechnic Institute of
Brooklyn
Adaptive inferential control, multi-variable control, coordination
algorithms

Robert V. Edwards, Ph.D. 1968, Johns Hopkins University
Laser anemometry, mathematical modeling, data acquisition
Donald L. Feke, Ph.D. 1981, Princeton University
Colloidal phenomena, ceramic dispersions, fine-particle
processing

Nelson C. Gardner, Ph.D. 1966, Iowa State University
High-gravity separations, sulfur removal processes


Uziel Landau, Ph.D. 1975, University of California (Berkeley)
Electrochemical engineering, current distributions, electro-
deposition
Chung-Chiun Liu, Ph.D. 1968, Case Western Reserve Univer-
sity
Electrochemical sensors, electrochemical synthesis, electro-
chemistry related to electronic materials
J. Adin Mann, Jr., Ph.D. 1962, Iowa State University
Interfacial structure and dynamics, light scattering,
Langmuir-Blodgett films, stochastic processes
Syed Qutubuddin, Ph.D. 1983, Carnegie-Mellon University
Surfactant and polymer solutions, metal extraction, enhanced
oil recovery
Robert F. Savinell, Ph.D. 1977, University of Pittsburgh
Applied electrochemistry, electrochemical system simulation
Sand optimization, electrode processes


CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY


Chemical Engineering Education








The

UNI


OF

CINC


Opportunities for


TY


NNATI


GRADUATE STUDY
in Chemical Engineering

M.S. and PhD Degrees
in Chemical Engineering


* Financial Aid Available *

Faculty


The city of Cincinnati is the 23rd largest city in the United States, with a greater
metropolitan population of 1.7 million. The city offers numerous sites of architec-
tural and historical interest, as well as a full range of cultural attractions, such as
an outstanding art museum, botanical gardens, a world-famous zoo, theaters,
symphony, and opera. The city is also home to the Cincinnati Bengals and the
Cincinnati Reds. The business and industrial base of the city includes pharmaceu-
tics, chemicals, jet engines, autoworks, electronics, printing and publishing, insur-
ance, investment banking, and health care. A number of Fortune 500 companies
are located in the city.


Amy Ciric Robert Jenkins
Joel Fried Yuen-Koh Kao


Stevin Gehrke
Rakesh Govind
David Greenberg
Daniel Hershey
Sun-Tak Hwang


Soon-Jai Khang
Jerry Lin
Glenn Lipscomb
Neville Pinto
Sotiris Pratsinis


o Air Pollution
Modeling and design of gas cleaning devices and systems, source apportionment of air pollutants.
a Biotechnology (Bioseparations)
Novel bioseparation techniques, chromatography, affinity separations, biodegradation of toxic wastes, controlled drug
delivery, two-phase flow, suspension rheology.
a Chemical Reaction Engineering and Heterogeneous Catalysis
Modeling and design of chemical reactors, deactivation of catalysts, flow pattern and mixing in chemical equipment, laser
induced effects.


o Coal Research
New technology for coal combustion power plant, desulfuriza-
tion and denitritication.
a Material Synthesis
Manufacture of advanced ceramics, optical fibers and pigments
by aerosol processes.
a Membrane Separations
Membrane gas separations, membrane reactors, sensors and
probes, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dynamic simulation of
membrane separators, membrane preparation and characteri-
zation for polymeric and inorganic materials.


a Polymers
Thermodynamics, thermal analysis and morphology of polymer blends, high-temperature polymers, hydrogels, polymer
processing.
a Process Synthesis
Computer-aided design, modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit operations,
prediction of reaction by-products.
For Admission Information *
Director, Graduate Studies
Department of Chemical Engineering, # 0171
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0171
Fall 1992 237


VERS


Location







Graduate Study in

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


AT CLARKSON

* CENTER FOR ADVANCED MATERIALS PROCESSING
* NASA CENTER FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF
COMMERCIAL CRYSTAL GROWTH IN SPACE
INSTITUTE OF COLLOID AND SURFACE SCIENCE
For details, please write to:
Dean of the Graduate School
U gi CClarkson University
Potsdam, New York 13699


238


Clarkson University is a nondiscriminatory, equal opportunity, affirmative action educator and employer.
Chemical Engineering Education








Graduate Study at



Clemson University

in Chemical Engineering

Coming Up for Air
No matter where you do your graduate work,
your nose will be in your books and your mind on
your research. But at Clemson University, there's
something for you when you can stretch out for a
break.
Like breathing good air. Or swimming, fish-
ing, sailing, and water skiing in the clean lakes. Or
hiking in the nearby Blue Ridge Mountains. Or
driving to South Carolina's famous beaches for a
weekend. Something that can really relax you.
All this and a top-notch Chemical Engineer-
ing Department, too.
With active research and teaching in poly-
Smer processing, composite materials, process auto-
mation, thermodynamics, catalysis, and membrane
applications what more do you need?
The University
Clemson, the land-grant university of South Carolina, offers 62 undergraduate and 61
graduate fields of study in its nine academic colleges. Present on-campus enrollment is
about 16,000 students, one-third of whom are in the College of Engineering. There are about
3,000 graduate students. The 1,400-acre campus is located on the shores of Lake Hartwell in
South Carolina's Piedmont, and is midway between Charlotte, N.C., and Atlanta, Ga.


The Faculty
Charles H. Barron, Jr.
John N. Beard
Dan D. Edie
Charles H. Gooding


James M. Haile
Douglas E. Hirt
Stephen S. Melsheimer
Joseph C. Mullins


Amod A. Ogale
Richard W. Rice
Mark C. Thies


Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
Financial aid, including fellowships and assistantships, is available

For Further Information and a descriptive brochure, contact:
Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical Engineering
Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina 29634-0909
(803) 656-3055


CLEMgSOf
T7NITvERSIY
College of Engineering


Fall 1992











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO


BOULDER


Graduate students in the Department of Chemical Engineering may also participate in the popular,
interdisciplinary Biotechnology Training Program at the University of Colorado
and in the interdisciplinary NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Center for Separations Using Thin Films.


FACULTY
CHRISTOPHER N. BOWMAN
Assistant Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1991
DAVID E. CLOUGH
Professor, Associate Dean for Academic Affairs
Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1975
ROBERT H. DAVIS
Professor and Acting Chair
Co-Director of Colorado Institute for Research in Biotechnology
Ph.D., Stanford University, 1983
JOHN L. FALCONER
Professor and Patten Chair
Ph.D., Stanford University, 1974
YURIS O. FUENTES
Assistant Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1990
R. IGOR GAMOW
Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1967
HOWARD J. M. HANLEY
Professor Adjoint
Ph.D., University of London, 1963
DHINAKAR S. KOMPALA
Associate Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1984
WILLIAM B. KRANTZ
Professor and President's Teaching Scholar,
Co-Director ofNSF I/UCRC Center for Separations Using Thin Films
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1968
RICHARD D. NOBLE
Professor
Co-Director of NSF I/UCRC Center for Separations Using Thin Films
Ph.D., University of California, Davis, 1976
W. FRED RAMIREZ
Professor
Ph.D., Tulane University, 1965
ROBERT L. SANI
Professor
Director of Center for Low-gravity Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena
Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1963
EDITH M. SEVICK
Assistant Professor
Ph.D., University of Massachusetts, 1989
KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS
Professor and President's Teaching Scholar
Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1951
PAUL W. TODD
Research Professor
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1964 FOR
RONALD E. WEST Director, Graduate Ad
Professor University of
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1958


RESEARCH INTERESTS
Alternative Energy Sources
Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Chemically Specific Separations
Colloidal Phenomena
Enhanced Oil Recovery
Environmental Engineering
Expert Systems and Fault Detection
Fluid Dynamics and Suspension Mechanics
Geophysical Modeling
Global Change
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Interfacial and Surface Phenomena
Mammalian Cell Culture
Materials Processing in Low-G
Mass Transfer
Membrane Transport and Separations
Non-Linear Optical Materials
Numerical and Analytical Modeling
Polymer Reaction Engineering
Polymeric Membrane Morphology
Process Control and Identification
Semiconductor Processing
Statistical Mechanics
Surface Chemistry and Surface Science
Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Thin Films Science


INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE TO
missions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering
Colorado, Boulder Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424
*FAX (303) 492-4341
Chemical Engineering Education













COLORADO oF




SCHOOL OF




MINES Ro



THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH

R. M. BALDWIN, Professor and Head; Ph.D., Colorado School of
Mines. Mechanisms and kinetics of coal liquefaction, catalysis,
oil shale processing, fuels science.
A. L. BUNGE, Professor; Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley.
Membrane transport and separations, mass transfer in porous
media, ion exchange and adsorption chromatography, in place
remediation of contaminated soils, percutaneous absorption.
J.R. DORGAN, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., University of California,
Berkeley. Polymer science and engineering.
J. F. ELY, Professor; Ph.D., Indiana University. Molecular thermo-
dynamics and transport properties offluids.
J. H. GARY, Professor Emeritus; Ph.D., University of Florida. Pe-
troleum refinery processing operations, heavy oil processing,
thermal cracking, visbreaking and solvent extraction.
J.O. GOLDEN, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State University. Hazardous
waste processing, polymers, fluidization engineering
M.S. GRABOSKI, Research Professor; Ph.D., Pennsylvania State
University. Fuels Synthesis and evaluation, engine technology,
alternate fuels
A. J. KIDNAY, Professor and Graduate Dean; D.Sc., Colorado
School of Mines. Thermodynamic properties of gases and liq-
uids, vapor-liquid equilibria, cryogenic engineering.
J.T. McKINNON, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Massachusetts Insti-
tute of Technology. High temperature gas phase chemical kinet-
ics, combustion, hazardous waste destruction.
R. L. MILLER, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Colorado School of
Mines. Liquefaction co-processing of coal and heavy oil, low
severity coal liquefaction, particulate removal with venturi scrub-
bers, interdisciplinary educational methods
M. S. SELIM, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State University. Heat and
mass transfer with a moving boundary, sedimentation and diffu-
sion of colloidal suspensions, heat effects in gas absorption with
chemical reaction, entrance region flow and heat transfer, gas
hydrate dissociation modeling.
E. D. SLOAN, JR., Professor; Ph.D. Clemson University. Phase
equilibrium measurements of natural gas fluids and hydrates,
thermal conductivity of coal derived fluids, adsorption equilib-
ria, education methods research.
V. F. YESAVAGE, Professor; Ph.D., University of Michigan. Vapor
liquid equilibrium and enthalpy ofpolar associating fluids, equa-
tions of state for highly non-ideal systems, flow calorimetry.


For Applications and Further Information
on M.S. and Ph.D. Programs, Write

Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining
Colorado School of Mines
Golden, CO 80401


Fall 1992













university of



onnecticut

Graduate
Study in
Chemical
Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. Programs for
Scientists and Engineers

***FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS+**
Luke E. K. Achenie
Modeling and Optimization, Neural Networks, Process Control
Thomas F. Anderson
Modeling of Separation Processes, Fluid-Phase Equilibria
James P. Bell
Structure-Property Relations in Polymers and Composites, Adhesion
Douglas J. Cooper
Process Control, Artificial Intelligence, Fluidization Technology
Robert W. Couglin
Biotechnology, Biochemical and Environmental Engineering
Catalysis, Kinetics, Separations, Surface Science
Michael B. Cutip
Kinetics and Catalysis, Electrochemical Reaction Engineering,
Numerical Methods
Anthony T. Di Benedetto
Composite Materials, Mechanical Properties of Polymers
James M. Fenton
Electrochemical and Environmental Engineering, Mass Transfer
Processes, Electronic Materials, Energy Systems
G. Michael Howard
Process Systems Analysis and Modeling. Process Safety,
Engineering Education
Jetery T. Koberstein
Polymer Blends/Compatibilization, Polymer Morphology,
Polymer Surface and Interfaces
Montgomery T. Shaw
Polymer Rheology and Processing, Polymer-Solution
Thermodynamics
Donald W. undstrom
Environmental Engineering, Hazardous Wastes, Biochemical
Engineering
Robert A. Weiss
Polymer Structure-Property Relationships, Ion-Containing
And Liquid Crystal Polymers, Polymer Blends

***FOR MORE INFORMATION,,o
Graduate Admissions, 191 Auditorium Road
University of Connecticut, Storrs. CT 06269-3139
Tel. (203) 486-4020









CHEMICAL ENGINEERING



CORNELL


U N I V E R


S I T Y


At Cornell University students have the flexibility to design
interdisciplinary research programs that draw upon the resources of
many excellent departments and NSF-sponsored interdisciplinary
centers such as the Biotechnology Center, the Cornell National
Supercomputing Center, the National Nanofabrication Facility, and
the Materials Science Center. Degrees granted include the Master of
Engineering, Master of Science, and Doctor of Philosophy. All MS
and PhD students are fully funded with attractive stipends and
tuition waivers. Situated in the scenic Finger Lakes region of New
York State, the Cornell campus is one of the most beautiful in the
country. Students enjoy sailing, skiing, fishing, hiking, bicycling,
boating, wine-tasting and many more activities in this popular
vacation region.


Distinguished Faculty ...
A. Brad Anton Robert P. Merrill
Paulette Clancy William L. Olbricht
Claude Cohen A. Panagiotopoulos
T. Michael Duncan Ferdinand Rodriguez
James R. Engstrom George F. Scheele
Keith E. Gubbins Michael L. Shuler
Daniel A. Hammer Paul H. Steen
Peter Harriott William B. Street
Donald L. Koch John A. Zollweg


... With Research In
Biochemical Engineering
Applied Mathematics
Computer Simulation
Environmental Engineering
Kinetics and Catalysis
Surface Science
Heat and Mass Transfer


Polymer Science
Fluid Dynamics
Rheology and Biorheology
Process Control
Molecular Thermodynamics
Statistical Mechanics
Computer-Aided Design


For Further Information, Write:
Professor William L. Olbricht Cornell University Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering Ithaca, NY 14853-5201

Fall 1992 oA









Chemical
The Faculty
Giovanni Astarita
Mark A. Barteau
Antony N. Beris
Kenneth B. Bischoff
Douglas J. Buttrey
Costel D. Denson
Prasad S. Dhurjati
Henry C. Foley
Bruce C. Gates
Eric W. Kaler
Michael T. Klein
Abraham M. Lenhoff
Roy L. McCullough
Arthur B. Metzner
Jon H. Olson
Michael E. Paulaitis
T.W. Fraser Russell
Stanley I. Sandler
Jerold M. Schultz
Annette D. Shine
Norman i. Wagner


Engineering


Andrew L. Zydney |
AndrewL.Zydy The University of Delaware offers M.ChE and Ph.D.
degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course
work in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strong
interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current
fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science and
Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena, Materials
Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction Kinetics,
Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photovoltaic
Processing, Biomedical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering, and Colloid
and Surfactant Science.


For more information and application materials, write:
Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware 19716


The University of
Delaware


Chemical Engineering Education


I










Modern Applications of

Chemical Engineering

at the



University of Florida


Graduate Study Leading to the MS and PhD


FACULTY
TIM ANDERSON Semiconductor Processing, Thermodynamics
IOANNIS BITSANIS Molecular Modeling of Interfaces
SEYMOUR S. BLOCK Biotechnology
OSCAR D. CRISALLE Electronic Materials, Process Control
RAY W. FAHIEN Transport Phenomena, Reactor Design
ARTHUR L. FRICKE Polymers, Pulp & Paper Characterization
GAR HOFLUND Catalysis, Surface Science
LEW JOHNS Applied Design, Process Control, Energy Systems
DALE KIRMSE Computer Aided Design, Process Control
HONG H. LEE Semiconductor Processing, Reaction Engineering
GERASIMOS L YBERA TOS Biochemical Engineering, Chemical Reaction Engineering
FRANK MAY Computer Aided Learning
RANGA NARA YANAN Transport Phenomena, Semiconductor Processing
MARK E. ORAZEM Electrochemical Engineering, Semiconductor Processing
CHANG-WON PARK Fluid Mechanics, Polymer Processing
DINESH 0. SHAH Surface Sciences, Biomedical Engineering
SPYROS SVORONOS Process Control, Biochemical Engineering
GERALD WESTERMANN-CLARK Electrochemical Engineering, Bioseparations

For more information, please write:

Graduate Admissions Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
or call (904) 392-0881


Fall 1992















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Arag gf Rsarc a nd Researc Inteaea


Advnce Maeil (Crmis Colidsn Poly es

Brow~nian Motion
3 iii I^^u^f^^f^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^g. 3 9^^^^^^^^^^iiiIT'^^
Chemical Vapor Deposition Faculty

Co Ma' eria s.351
Cml Fluids Pedro 3* ce Ph.D3
Phas Transitions Purdue Uni versity, 1990
M o e Ph mR i6 Ph. D.
313 T i Polymer GelMediaUivesito
P y Pr ocessin
S in c and Superconducto Processin David Edelsn P
T m a YaeI University, 199I

31'1'' 3amid 3 armestani, Ph.D.*

Bictayi Corel Ui vriy *1989

Bisp3 ain Pete I 3 3. P.D.+3
33ifrm c Z, 3hi Stt Unvriy 196* 7
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Heterogenou5 Caayi and RecoDsg
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Air an Wate Plu ioCnt l
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Jorg *i l PhD.






















CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


The Faculty and Their Research


SHeterogeneous
catalysis, sur-
face chemistry,
f reaction kinetics
Pradeep K. Agrawal


Microelectron-
ics, polymer
processing
Sue Ann Bidstrup


SMolecular
thermodynam-
ics, chemical
kinetics.
separations
Charles A. Eckert


A Heat transport
phenomena,
k fl uidization
Charles W. Gorton


Photochemical
processing,
chemical
vapor
deposition


Pulp and paper


Jeffrey S. Hsleh


Paul A. Kohl


Aerocolloidal
systems, inter-
facial phe-
nomena, fine-
Mhl particle
Technology
MichaelJ. Matteson


W Biomechanics,
mammalian
cell cultures
Robert M. Nerem


Gary W. Poehlein


Polymer sci-
ence and r
engineering
Robert J. Samuels F. Joseph Schork


Emulsion
polymeriza-
ion, latex
technology







Reactor engi-
neering, proc-
ess control,
polymerization
eactor
dynamics


Biochemical
engineering,
mass transfer,
K1 reactor design
Ronnie S. Roberts






Mass transfer,
extraction,
mixing, non-
Newtonian
flow
A. H. Peter Skelland


Al Separation
processes,
crystallization
Ronald W. Rousseau










Process design
\ i L and simulation
Jude T. Sommerfeld


Biochemical
engineering,
microbial and
animal cell
cultures
Athanassios Sambanis




Process synthe-
sis and simula-
tion, chemical
separation,
waste manage-
ment, resource
recovery
D. William Tedder


Thermody-
namic and
transport prop-
erties, phase
equilibria,
supercritical
gas extraction
Mark G. White


Catalysis, ki-
netics, reactor
design


U BBiochemical
engineering,
cell-cell inter-
actions,
biofluid
dynamics
Timothy M. Wick


Electrochemi-
cal engineer-
ing, thermo-
dynamics, air
pollution
control


Jack Winnick


SBiofluid dynam-
ics, rheology,
transport
phenomena
Ajit P. Yoganathan


Polymer
science and
engineering


A.S. Abhiraman


Process
design and
control,
spouted-bed
reactors


Yaman Arxun


Reactor
design.
catalysis


William R Ernst


Mechanics of
aerosols, buoy-
ant plumes and
jets


Polymer engi-
neering, energy
conservation,
economics


John D. Muzzy


Amyn S. Teja


t
I
t








What do graduate students say about the

University of Houston

Department of Chemical Engineering? "It's great!"
"Houston is a university on the move. The chemical engineering department is ranked among
the top ten schools, and you can work in the specialty of your choice: semiconductor processing,
biochemical engineering, the traditional areas. The choice of advisor is yours, too, and you're given enough time
to make the right decision. You can see your advisor almost any time you want to because the student-to-teacher ratio is low.
"Houston is the center of the petrochemical industry, which puts the 'real world' of research within reach.
And Houston is one of the few schools with a major research program in superconductivity.
"The UH campus is really nice, and city life is just 15 minutes away for concerts, plays, nightclubs,
professional sports-everything. Galveston beach is just 40 minutes away.
"The faculty are dedicated and always friendly. People work hard here, but there is time for
intramural sports and Friday-night get-togethers."
If you'd like to be part of this team, let us hear from you.


at


a)!I


aN 4y


+ O A = RA


Y IVz
VI, V
1~v '- +
~d )--4 t


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:/


AREAS OF RESEARCH STRENGTH
Biochemical Engineering Chemical Reaction Engineering
Electronic. Ceramic and Applied Transport Phenomena
Superconducting Materials Thermodynamics
Improved Oil Recovery Polymer Rheology


FACULTY
Neal Amundson Ernest Henley
Vemuri Balakotaiah John Killough
Abe Dukler Dan Luss
Demetre Economou Kishore Mohanty


Richard Pollard
William Prengle
Raj Rajagopalan
Jim Richardson


For an application, write: Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204-4792, or call collect
Tie University' is in compliance with Title IX.


Jay Schieber
Cynthia Stokes
Frank Tiller
Richard Willson
Frank Worley
713/743-4300.


Chemical Engineering Education














The University of Illinois at Chicago

Department of Chemical Engineering



MS and PhD Graduate Program *


FACULTY

Irving F. Miller
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1960
Professor and Head
John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Professor
G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Professor
Sohail Murad
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
Professor
Ludwig C. Nitsche
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1989
Assistant Professor
John Regalbuto
Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986
Associate Professor RESEARCH AREAS


Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Professor
Gina Shreve
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1991
Assistant Professor
Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor
Raffi M. Turian
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
Professor
Bert L. Zuber
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1965
Professor


Transport Phenomena: Slurry transport, multiphase fluid flow
and heat transfer, fixed and fluidized bed combustion, indirect
coal liquefaction, porous media.

Thermodynamics: Transport properties of fluids, statistical
mechanics of liquid mixtures, bioseparations, superficial fluid
extraction/retrograde condensation, asphaltene characterization.

Kinetics and Reaction Engineering: Gas-solid reaction
kinetics, diffusion and adsorption phenomena, energy transfer
processes, laser diagnostics, combustion chemistry, environmental
technology, surface chemistry, optimization, catalyst preparation
and characterization, structure sensitivity, supported metals.

Bioengineering: Membrane transport, pulmonary deposition
and clearance, biorheology, physiological control systems,
bioinstrumentation.


For more information, write to
Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago Box 4348 Chicago, IL 60680 (312) 996-3424


Fall 1992









Chemical Engineering at the

University of Illinois

at Urbana-Champaign


The combination of distinguished
faculty, outstanding facilities and a
diversity of research interests results
in exceptional opportunities for
graduate education.
The chemical engineering department
A offers graduate programs leading to the
M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
ON
Richard C. Alkire Electrochel
OF Thomas J. Hanratty Fluid Dyna
Jonathan J. L. Higdon Fluid Mech
[CE Douglas A. Lauffenburger Cellular Bi
Richard I. Masel Fundamen
Semicond
Anthony J. McHugh Polymer Sc
William R. Schowalter Mechanics
Edmund G. Seebauer Laser Studi
Mark A. Stadtherr Chemical P
Optimizat
Frank B. van Swol Computer
K. Dane Wittrup Biochemic,
Charles F. Zukoski IV Colloid an

For information and application forms write:
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab
1209 West California Street
Urbana, Illinois 61801


mical Engineering
mics
lanics and Transport Phenomena
engineering
tal Studies of Catalytic Processes and
uctor Growth
:ience and Engineering
of Complex Fluids
ies of Semiconductor Growth
processs Flowsheeting and
ion
Simulation and Interfacial Studies
al Engineering
I Interfacial Science


Chemical Engineering Education


TRADITI




EXCELLENT








GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT


Illinois Institute of Technology


THE UNIVERSITY


* Private, coeducational and research university
* 4800 undergraduate students
* 5400 graduate students
* 3 miles from downtown Chicago and 1 mile west of
Lake Michigan
* Campus recognized as an architectural landmark


THE CITY


* One of the largest cities in the world
* National and international center of business and
industry
* Enormous variety of cultural resources
* Excellent recreational facilities
* Industrial collaboration and job opportunities


THE DEPARTMENT
* One of the oldest in the nation
* Approximately 40 full-time and 40 part-time
graduate students
* M.Ch.E., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees
* Financially attractive fellowships and assistant-
ships available to outstanding students


THE FACULTY

* HAMID ARASTOOPOUR (Ph.D., IIT)
Multiphase flow and fluidization, powder and material
processing, environmental engineering

* RICHARD A. BEISSINGER (D.E.Sc., Columbia)
Transport processes in chemical and biological
systems, rheology of polymeric and biological fluids

* ALI CINAR (Ph.D., Texas A& M)
Chemical process control, distributed parameter
systems, expert systems

* DIMITRI GIDASPOW (Ph.D., IIT)
Hydrodynamics of fluidization, multiphase flow,
separations processes

* HENRY R. LINDEN (Ph.D., IIT)
Energy policy, planning, and forecasting

* SATISH J. PARULEKAR (Ph.D., Purdue)
Biochemical engineering, chemical reaction engineering

* J. ROBERT SELMAN (Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Electrochemical engineering and electrochemical
energy storage

* FYODOR A. SHUTOV (Ph.D., Institute for Chemical
Physics, Moscow)
Polymer composite materials and plastic recycling

* DAVID C. VENERUS (Ph.D., Pennsylvania State U)
Polymer rheology and processing, and transport
phenomena

* DARSH T. WASAN (Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Interfacial phenomena, separation processes,
enhanced oil recovery


* APPLICATIONS *
Dr. A. Cinar
Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
Illinois Institute of Technology
1.I.T. Center
Chicago, IL 60616


Fall 1992






GRADUATE PROGRAM FOR M.S. & PH.D. DEGREES
IN CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

FACULTY


GREG CARMICHAEL
Chair; U. of Kentucky,
1979, Global Change/
Supercomputing


RAVI DATTA
UCSB, 1981
Reaction Engineering/
Catalyst Design


DAVID MURHAMMER
U. of Houston, 1989
Animal Cell Culture


J. KEITH BEDDOW
U. of Cambridge, 1959
Particle Morphological
Analysis


JONATHAN DORDICK
MIT, 1986,
Biocatalysis and
Bioprocessing


DAVID RETHWISCH
U. of Wisconsin, 1984
Membrane Science/
Catalysis and Cluster
Science


AUDREY BUTLER
U. of Iowa, 1989
Chemical Precipita-
tion Processes


DAVID LUERKENS
U. of Iowa, 1980
Fine Particle Science


V.G.J. RODGERS
Washington U., 1989
Transport Phenomena
in Bioseparations


For information and application write to:
GRADUATE ADMISSIONS
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
The University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa 52242
319-335-1400


THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA








IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


0.__


For additional
information, please write
Graduate Office
Department of
Chemical Engineering
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011
or call 515 294-7643
E-Mail N2.TSK@ISUMVS.BITNET


Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Charles E. Glaut. Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1975.
Peter J. Reilly, Ph.D., Pennl\ kIania, 1964.
Richard C. Seagrave, Ph.D lo\\a State, 1961.


Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
L. K Dorais\\amn, Ph.D., \Wisconsin, 1952.
Terry S. King, Ph.D., M.I.T.. 1070.
Glenn L. Schrader, Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1976.


Energy and Environmental
George Burnet. Ph.D Io\a State. 1951.
Thomas D. \Vheelock, Ph.D., lo\\a State, 1958


Materials and Crystallization
Kurt R. Hebert, Ph.D., Illinois. 1985.
Maurice A. Larson, Ph.D., lo\\a State, 1958.
Gordon R. Youngquist, Ph.D., Illinois, 1962.


Process Design and Control
W'illiam H. Abraham, Ph.D., Purdue, 1957.
Derrick K. Rollins. Ph.D., Ohio State, 1990.
Dean L. Ulrichson, Ph.D., Iowa State, 1970.

Transport Phenomena and Thermodynamics
James C. Hill, Ph.D., Washington. 1968.
Kenneth R. Jolls, Ph.D., Illinois, 1966.


m


Al


p-...


_W^W"


riu,~~~-cl-~-' ~f~L~I









Graduate Study and Research in



Chemical


Engineering


TIMOTHY A. BARBARI
Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin
Membrane Science
Sorption and Diffusion in Polymers
Polymeric Thin Films

MICHAEL J. BETENBAUGH
Ph.D., University of Delaware
Biochemical Kinetics
Insect Cell Culture
Recombinant DNA Technology

MARC D. DONOHUE
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Equations of State
Statistical Thermodynamics
Phase Equilibria

JOSEPH L. KATZ
Ph.D., University of Chicago
Nucleation
Crystallization
Flame Generation of Ceramic Powders


MARK A. MCHUGH
Ph.D., University of Delaware
High-Pressure Thermodynamics
Polymer Solution Thermodynamics
Supercritical Solvent Extraction

W. MARK SALTZMAN
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Transport in Biological Systems
Polymeric Controlled Release
Cell-Surface Interactions

W. H. SCHWARZ
Dr. Engr., The Johns Hopkins University
Rheology
Non-Newtonian Fluid Dynamics
Physical Acoustics and Fluids
Turbulence

KATHLEEN J. STEBE
Ph.D., The City University of New York
Interfacial Phenomena
Electropermeability of Biological Membranes
Surface Effects at Fluid-Droplet Interfaces


For further information contact:


The Johns Hopkins University
SG. W C. Whiting School of Engineering
Department of Chemical Engineering
o hs 34th and Charles Streets
Baltimore, MD 21218
H (301) 338-7137


HopmkIs E.O.E./A.A.


Chemical Engineering Education















GRADUATE STUDY

IN CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING


GRADUATE PROGRAMS
* M.S. degree with a thesis requirement in both chemical and
petroleum engineering
* M.S. degree with a major in petroleum management offered jointly
with the School of Business
* Ph.D. degree characterized by moderate and flexible course
requirements and a strong research emphasis
* Typical completion times are 16-18 months for a M.S. degree and
4 1/2 years for a Ph.D. degree (from B.S.)

RESEARCH AREAS
Catalytic Kinetics and Reaction Engineering
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Controlled Drug Delivery
Corrosion
Economic Evaluation
Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes
Fluid Phase Equilibria and Process Design
Kinetics and Homogeneous Catalysis for Polymer Reactions
Plasma Modeling and Plasma Reactor Design
Phase Behavior
Process Control
Supercomputer Applications
Supercritical Fluid Applications
Waste Heat and Pollution of Combustion Processes

FINANCIAL AID
Financial aid is available in the form of fellowships and research and
teaching assistantships ($13,000 to $14,000 a year)

THE UNIVERSITY
The University of Kansas is the largest and most comprehensive
university in Kansas. It has an enrollment of more than 28,000 and
almost 2,000 faculty members. KU offers more than 100 bachelors',
nearly ninety masters', and more than fifty doctoral programs. The
main campus is in Lawrence, Kansas, with other campuses in Kansas
City, Wichita, Topeka, and Overland Park, Kansas.


FACULTY
Kenneth A. Bishop (Ph.D., Oklahoma)
John C. Davis (Ph.D., Wyoming)
Don W. Green (Ph.D., Oklahoma)
Colin S. Howat (Ph.D., Kansas)
Carl E. Locke, Jr., Dean (Ph.D., Texas)
Russell D. Osterman (Ph.D., Kansas)
Marylee Z. Southard (Ph.D., Kansas)
Bala Subramaniam (Ph.D., Notre Dame)
Galen J. Suppes (PH.D., Johns Hopkins)
George W. Swift (Ph.D., Kansas)
Brian E. Thompson (Ph.D., MIT)
Shapour Vossoughi (Ph.D., Alberta, Canada)
G. Paul Willhite, Chairman (Ph.D., Northwestern)

RESEARCH FACILITIES
Excellent facilities are available for research and instruction.
Extensive equipment and shop facilities are available for
research in such areas as enhanced oil recovery processes, fluid
phase equilibria, catalytic kinetics, plasma processing, and
supercritical fluid applications. The VAX 9000, along with a
network of Macintosh personal computers and IBM, Apollo,
and Sun workstations, support computational and graphical
needs.

For more information and application
material, write or call
The University of Kansas
The Graduate Adviser
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
4006 Learned Hall
Lawrence, KS 66045-2223


Fall 1992



















































M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
* Chemical Engineering
* Interdisciplinary Areas of Systems Engineering
* Food Science
* Environmental Engineering

Financial Aid Available
Up to $17,000 Per Year

For More Information Write To
Professor B.G. Kyle
Durland Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS 66506


Areas of Study and Research
Transport Phenomena
Energy Engineering
Coal and Biomass Conversion
Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibrium
Biochemical Engineering
Proces Dynamics and Control
Chemical Reaction Engineering
Materials Science
Catalysis and Fuel Synthesis
Process System Engineering and Artificial Intelligence
Environmental Pollution Control
Fluidization and Solid Mixing
Hazardous Waste Treatment


Chemical Engineering Education


KANSAS
STARTER
UJNVERSITY


256


~'4~i~"~,~-/~F~~;-







UnvestyofKntck6


Far From An
Ordinary Ball
Research with advanced
materials (carbon fibers,
nitride catalysts, supercon-
ducting thin films, and liquid
crystalline polymers) and with
Buckyballs is ongoing here in
Lexington.

Anything But An
Ordinary University
At the University of Kentucky-designated by
the Carnegie Foundation as a Research
University of the First Class, and included in
the NSF's prestigious list-
ing of Top 100 research
institutions in America-
CHOICES for Chem. E. grad-
o uate students are anything
but ordinary. There are
joint projects with Pharmacy, the Medical
School, the Markey Cancer Center, and
Chemistry researchers. And abundant opportu-
nities for intense interaction with extraordinary
faculty, as well as access to state-of-the-art
facilities and equipment, including an IBM ES
3900/600J Supercomputer.

With Out-Of-The-
Ordinary
Chem. E.
Specialties
Aerosol Chemistry and
Physics-Weighing picogram
particles in electrodynamic balance,
measuring monolayer adsorption, data
with seven significant figures.
Cellular Bioengineering-Rheological and
transport properties of cell membranes; cell
adhesion, cancer research, transport of drugs
across membranes, and membrane biofouling.
Computational Engineering-Modeling turbulent
diffusion in atmospheric convective boundary


/
/
/


layers; modeling growth of multi-
component aerosol systems.
Environmental Engineering-
EPA-approved analytical labora-
tory; global atmospheric
transport models; atmospheric
photochemistry; control of
heavy metals and hazardous
organic; water pollution research.
Membrane Science-Development of
low pressure charged membranes; thin
film composite membranes; development of bio-
functional synthetic membranes.

From A
Uniquely
Un-Ordinary
Faculty
Recent national awards won by our faculty
include: Larry K. Cecil AIChE Environmental
Division; AIChE Outstanding Counselor Award,
1983, 1991; ASM Henry Marion Howe Medal;
AAAR Kenneth T. Whitby Memorial Award; BMES
Dr. Harold Lamport Award for a Young Investiga-
tor; and two NSF-Presidential Young Investigators.
Recent University-wide awards by faculty include:
Great Teacher;
Research Professor;
Excellence in Under-
graduate Education;
and Alumni Professor.


All Of Which
Create Some
Extraordinary
Opportunities For You
Doctoral incentie-s elli worth your consideration:
up to $20,000 per year stipends plus tuition,
books, research supplies, travel allowances.
Interested in obtaining a degree of extraordinary
worth? Contact Dr. R.I. Kermode, Department of
Chemical Engineering, University of Kentucky,
Lexington, KY 40506-0046.


606-257-4956
University of Kentucky Department of Chemical Engineering










UNIVERSITY




LAVAL

Quebec, Canada


Ph.D. and M.Sc.

in Chemical Engineering

Research Areas

* CATALYSIS (S. Kaliaguine, A. Sayari)

* BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING (L. Choplin, A. LeDuy,
J. -R. Moreau, J. Thibault)

* ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING ( C. Roy)

* COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING (P. A. Tanguy)

* TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT (P. -H. Roy)

* MODELLING AND CONTROL (J. Thibault)

* RHEOLOGY AND POLYMER ENGINEERING
(A. Ait-Kadi, L. Choplin, P. A. Tanguy)

* THERMODYNAMICS (S. Kaliaguine)

* CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL UPGRADING
OF BIOMASS (S. Kaliaguine, A. LeDuy, C. Roy)

* FLUIDISA TION AND SEPARATIONS BY
MEMBRANES (B. Grandjean)
University Laval is a French speaking University. It provides the
graduate student with the opportunity of learning French and
becoming acquainted with French culture.
Please write to:
Le Responsable du Comit6 d'Admission et de Supervision
Departement de genie chimique
Faculty des sciences et de g6nie
University Laval
Sainte-Foy, Qu6bec, Canada G1K 7P4


The Faculty

ABDELLATIF AIT-KADI
Ph.D. Ecole Poly. Montreal
Professeur agregd
LIONEL CHOPLIN
Ph.D. Ecole Poly. Montreal
Professeur titulaire
BERNARD GRANDJEAN
Ph.D. Ecole Poly. Montreal
Professeur adjoint
SERGE KALIAGUINE
D.Ing. I.G.C. Toulouse
Professeur titulaire
ANH LEDUY
Ph.D. Western Ontario
Professeur titulaire
J. -CLAUDE METHOT
D.Sc. Laval
Professeur titulaire
JEAN-R. MOREAU
Ph.D. M.I.T.
Professeur titulaire
CHRISTIAN ROY
Ph.D. Sherbrooke
Professeur titulaire
PAUL-H. ROY
Ph.D. Illinois Inst. of Technology
Professeur titulaire
ABDELHAMID SAYARI
Ph.D. Tunis/Lyon
Professeur adjoint
PHILLIPPE A. TANGUY
Ph.D. Laval
Professeur titulaire
JULES THIBAULT
Ph.D. McMaster
Professeur titulaire
Chemical Engineering Education











1 LEHIGH UNIVERSITY


Synergistic, interdisciplinary research in.
Biochemical Engineering
Catalytic Science & Reaction Engineering
Environmental Engineering
Interfacial Transport
Materials Synthesis Characterization & Processing
Microelectronics Processing
Polymer Science & Engineering
Process Modeling & Control
Thermodynamic Properties
Two-Phase Flow & Heat Transfer

... leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees
in chemical engineering and
polymer science and engineering


Highly attractive financial aid packages, which
provide tuition and stipend,
are available.

Living in Bethlehem, PA, allows easy ac-
cess to cultural and recreational opportu-
nities in the New York-Philadelphia area.

Additional information and applications may b
obtained by writing to:
Dr. Hugo S. Caram
Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
Lehigh University
111 Research Drive
Iacocca Hall
Bethlehem, PA 18015
Fall 1992


We promise the challenge ...

Philip A. Blythe (University of Manchester)
fluid mechanics heat transfer applied mathematics
Hugo S. Caram (University of Minnesota)
gas-solid and gas-liquid systems optical techniques reaction
engineering
Marvin Charles (Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn)
biochemical engineering bioseparations
John C. Chen (University of Michigan)
two-phase vapor-liquid flow fluidization radiative heat transfer *
environmental technology
Mohamed S. El-Aasser (McGill University)
polymer colloids and films emulsion copolymerization polymer
synthesis and characterization
Christos Georgakis (University of Minnesota)
process modeling and control chemical reaction engineering *
batchreactors
Dennis W. Hess (Lehigh University)
microelectronics processing thin film science and technology
James T. Hsu (Northwestern University)
separation processes adsorption and catalysis in zeolites
Arthur E. Humphrey, Emeritus (Columbia University)
biochemical processes
Andrew J. Klein (North Carolina State University)
emulsion polymerization colloidal and surface effects in polymer-
ization
William L. Luyben (University of Delaware)
process design and control distillation
Janice A. Phillips (University of Pennsylvania)
biochemical engineering instrumentation/control of bioreactors *
mammalian cell culture
Maria M. Santore (Princeton University)
polymers adsorption processes and blend stability
William E. Schiesser (Princeton University)
numerical algorithms and software in chemical engineering
Cesar A. Silebi (Lehigh University)
separation of colloidal particles electrophoresis mass transfer
Leslie H. Sperling (Duke University)
mechanical and morphological properties of polymers interpen-
etrating polymer networks
e Fred P. Stein (University of Michigan)
thermodynamic properties of mixtures
Harvey G. Stenger, Jr. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
reactor engineering
Israel E. Wachs (Stanford University)
materials synthesis and characterization surface chemistry *
heterogeneous catalysis
Leonard A. Wenzel, Emeritus (University of Michigan)
thermodynamics






































THE CITY
Baton Rouge is the state capitol and home of the major
state institution for higher education LSU. Situated in the
Acadian region, Baton Rouge blends the Old South and
Cajun Cultures. The Port of Baton Rouge is a main chemi-
cal shipping point, and the city's economy rests heavily on
the chemical and agricultural industries. The great outdoors
provide excellent recreational activities year-round. The
proximity of New Orleans provides for superb nightlife,
especially during Mardi Gras.

THE DEPARTMENT
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
Approximately 70 Graduate Students
DEPARTMENTAL FACILITIES
IBM 4341 and 9370 with more than 70 color graphics
terminals and PC's
Analytical Facilities including GC/MS, FTIR, FT-NMR,
LC, GC, AA, XRD ....
Vacuum to High Pressure Facilities for kinetics,
catalysis, thermodynamics, supercritical processing
Shock Tube and Combustion Laboratories
Laser Doppler Velocimeter Facility
Bench Scale Fermentation Facilities
Polymer Processing Equipment

TO APPLY, CONTACT
DIRECTOR OF GRADUATE INSTRUCTION
Department of Chemical Engineering
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, LA 70803


FACULTY
J.R. COLLIER (Ph.D., Case Institute)
Polymers, Textiles, Fluid Flow
A.B. CORRIPIO (Ph.D., Louisiana State University)
Control, Simulation, Computer-Aided Design
K.M. DOOLEY (Ph.D., University of Delaware)
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering
G.L. GRIFFIN (Ph.D., Princeton University)
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surfaces, Materials Processing
F.R. GROVES (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin)
Control, Modeling, Separation Processes
D.P. HARRISON (Ph.D., University of Texas)
Fluid-Solid Reactions, Hazardous Wastes
M. HJORTSO (Ph.D., University of Houston)
Biotechnology, Applied Mathematics
F.C. KNOPF (Ph.D., Purdue University)
Computer-Aided Design, Supercritical Processing
E. McLAUGHLIN (D.Sc., University of London)
Thermodynamics, High Pressures, Physical Properties
R.W. PIKE (Ph.D., Georgia Institute of Technology)
Fluid Dynamics, Reaction Engineering, Optimization
G.L. PRICE (Ph.D., Rice University)
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surfaces
D.D. REIBLE (Ph.D., California Institute of Technology)
Environmental Chemodynamics, Transport Modeling
R.G. RICE (Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania)
Mass Transfer, Separation Processes
A.M. STERLING (Ph.D., University of Washington)
Transport Phenomena, Combustion
L.J. THIBODEAUX (Ph.D., Louisiana State University)
Chemodynamics, Hazardous Waste
R.D. WESSON (Ph.D., University of Michigan)
Semi-Crystalline Polymer Processing
D.M. WETZEL (Ph.D., University of Delaware)
Physical Properties, Hazardous Wastes


FINANCIAL AID
* Assistantships at $14,400 (waiver of out-of-state tuition)
* Dean's Fellowships at $17,000 per year plus tuition and a
travel grant
Special industrial and alumni fellowships for outstanding
students
Some part-time teaching experience available for graduate
students interested in an academic career
Chemical Engineering Education


LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE SCHOOL














University of Maine


* Faculty and Research Interests Programs and

Financial Support *


DOUGLAS BOUSFIELD Ph.D. (U.C.Berkeley)
Fluid Mechanics, Rheology, Coating Processes,
Particle Motion Modeling

WILLIAM H. CECKLER Sc.D. (M.I.T.)
Heat Transfer, Pressing & Drying Operations,
Energy from Low BTU Fuels, Process Simulation
& Modeling

ALBERT CO Ph.D. (Wisconsin)
Polymeric Fluid Dynamics, Rheology, Transport
Phenomena, Numerical Methods

JOSEPH M. GENCO Ph.D. (Ohio State)
Process Engineering, Pulp and Paper Technology,
Wood Delignification

JOHN C. HASSLER Ph.D. (Kansas State)
Process Control, Numerical Methods,
Instrumentation and Real Time Computer
Applications

MARQUITA K HILL Ph.D. (U.C. Davis)
Environmental Science, Waste Management
Technology

JOHN. HWALEK Ph.D. (Illinois)
Liquid Metal Natural Convection, Electronics
Cooling, Process Control Systems


ERDOGANKIRAN Ph.D. (Princeton)
Polymer Physics & Chemistry, Supercritical
Fluids, Thermal Analysis & Pyrolysis, Pulp &
Paper Science

DAVID J. KRASKE (Chairman)
Ph.D. (Inst. Paper Chemistry)
Pulp, Paper & Coating Technology, Additive
Chemistry, Cellulose & Wood Chemistry

PIERRE LEPOUTRE Ph.D. (North Carolina
State University)
Surface Physics and Chemistry, Materials
Science, Adhesion Phenomena

KENNETH L MUMME Ph.D. (Maine)
Process Simulation and Control, System
Identification & Optimization

HEMANTPENDSE Ph.D. (Syracuse)
Colloidal Phenomena, Particulate & Multiphase
Processes, Porous Media Modeling

EDWARD V. THOMPSON Ph.D., (Polytechnic
Institute of Brooklyn)
Thermal & Mechanical Properties of Polymers,
Papermaking and Fiber Physics, Recycle Paper


Eighteen research groups attack fundamental
problems leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
Industrial fellowships, university fellowships,
research assistantships and teaching assistantships
are available. Presidential fellowships provide
$4,000 per year in addition to the regular stipend
and free tuition.


The University *

The spacious campus is situated on 1,200 acres
overlooking the Penobscot and Stillwater Rivers.
Present enrollment of 12,000 offers the diversity of
a large school, while preserving close personal
contact between peers and faculty. The University's
Maine Center for the Arts, the Hauck Auditorium,
and Pavilion Theatre provide many cultural
opportunities, in addition to those in the nearby city
of Bangor. Less than an hour away from campus
are the beautiful Maine Coast and Acadia National
park, alpine and cross-country ski resorts, and
northern wilderness areas of Baxter State Park
and Mount Katahdin.

Enjoy life, work hard and earn your graduate degree
in one of the most beautiful spots in the world.


Call Collect or Write
Doug Bousfield
Department of Chemical Engineering
Jenness Hall, Box B University of Maine
Orono, Maine 04469-0135
(207) 581-2300


Fall 1992 261












UMBC
UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND
BALTIMORE COUNTY


GRADUATE STDYI





FOR ENIERN AN SCEC MAJR


Emphasis
The UMBC Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Program offers graduate programs leading to M.S.
and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering with a primary research focus in biochemical engineering.

Facilities
The 6000 square feet of space dedicated to faculty and graduate student research includes state-of-the-
art laboratory facilities. The BioProcess Scale-Up Facility on the College Park Campus is also available for
use with classical microbial systems. A new Engineering and Computer Science building with an addi-
tional 7,000 square feet of laboratory space for Chemical and Biochemical Engineering will open in the fall
of 1992.
Faculty


D.F. Bruley, Ph.D. Tennessee
Biodownstream processing and transport pro-
cesses in the microcirculation; Process simula-
tion and control.
T. W. Cadman, Ph.D. Carnegie Mellon
Bioprocess modeling, control, and optimization;
Educational software development
A. Gomezplata, Ph.D. Rensselaer
Heterogeneous flow systems; Simultaneous mass
transfer and chemical reactions
C. S. Lee, Ph.D. Rensselaer
Bioseparations; Biosensors; Protein adsorption
at interfaces
J. A. Lumpkin, Ph.D. Pennsylvania
Analytical chemi- and bioluminescence; Kinetics
of enzymatic reactions; Protein oxidation





FO 1R G 1 I A A


262


A. R. Moreira, Ph.D.* Pennsylvania
rDNA fermentation; Regulatory issues; Scale-up;
Downstream processing
G. F. Payne, Ph.D.* Michigan
Plant cell tissue culture; Streptomyces bioprocessing;
Adsorptive separations; Toxic waste treatment
G. Rao, Ph.D.* Drexel
Animal cell culture; Oxygen toxicity; Biosensing
J. Rosenblatt, Ph.D. Berkeley
Biomedical engineering; Drug delivery; Collagen
applications
M. R. Sierks, Ph.D. Iowa State
Protein engineering; Site-directed mutagenesis;
Catalytic antibodies
D. I C. Wang, Ph.D.** Pennsylvania
Bioreactors; Bioinstrumentation; Protein refolding
*Joint appointment with the Maryland Biotechnology Institute
Adjunct professor/Eminent scholar

S For further information contact:


Dr. A. R. Moreira
Department of Chemical and Biochemical
Engineering
University of Maryland Baltimore County
Baltimore, Maryland 21288
(301) 455-3400

Chemical Engineering Education


I









University of Maryland


Faculty:
William E. Bentley
Richard V. Calabrese

Kyu Yong Choi
Larry L. Gasner
James W. Gentry
Michael L. Mavrovouniotis
Thomas J. McAvoy


College Park

Location:
The University of Maryland College Park is located approximately
ten miles from the heart of the nation, Washington, D.C. Excellent
public transportation permits easy access to points of interest such
as the Smithsonian, National Gallery, Congress, White House,
Arlington Cemetery, and the Kennedy Center. A short drive west
produces some of the finest mountain scenery and recreational
opportunities on the east coast. An even shorter drive brings one to
the historic Chesapeake Bay.
E Degrees Offered:
M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering
STrl Financial Aid Available:
Teaching and Research Assistantships
A Aj at $12,880/yr., plus tuition


~*-~s
'~"tm b


Thomas M. Regan
Theodore G. Smith
Nam Sun Wang
William A. Weigand
Evanghelos Zafiriou


For Applications and
Further Information,
Write:


Chemical Engineering Graduate
Studies
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742-2111


Research Areas:
Aerosol Science
Artificial Intelligence
Biochemical Engineering
Fermentation
Neural Computation
Polymer Processing
Polymer Reaction Engineering
Process Control
Recombinant DNA Technology
Separation Processes
Systems Engineering
Turbulence and Mixing


Fall 1992











University of Massachusetts


at Amherst


M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in

Chemical Engineering

Faculty
M. F. Doherty, Ph.D. (Cambridge), Head
W. C. Conner, Ph.D. (Johns Hopkins)
M. R. Cook, Ph.D. (Harvard)
J. M. Douglas, Ph.D. (Delaware)
V. Haensel, Ph.D. (Northwestern)
M. P. Harold, Ph.D. (Houston)
R. L. Laurence, Ph.D. (Northwestern)
M. F. Malone, Ph.D. (Massachusetts)
P. A. Monson, Ph.D. (London)
K. M. Ng, Ph.D. (Houston)
J. W. van Egmond (Stanford)
P. R. Westmoreland, Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
H. H. Winter, Ph.D. (Stuttgart)

Current Areas of Research F
Fin
* Combustion, Plasma Processing All
* Process Synthesis, Design of Polymer and Solids Processes nat
* Statistical Thermodynamics, Phase Behavior
* Control System Synthesis Loc
* Fluid Mechanics, Rheology ThE
* Polymer Processing, Composites smt
sett
* Catalysis and Kinetics, Reaction Dynamics sett
are.
* Design of Multiphase and Polymerization Reactors siv
* Nonideal Distillation, Adsorption, Crystallization
* Computer Aided Design, Optimization onj
SComnutational Chemistry


Design and Control Center
The Department has a research center in design and
control, which is sponsored by industrial companies.


I


ancial Support


students are awarded full financial aid at a
ionally competitive rate.

ation
SAmherst Campus of the University is in a
ill New England town in Western Massachu-
s. Set amid farmland and rolling hills, the
a offers pleasant living conditions and exten-
e recreational facilities.
For application forms and further information
fellowships and assistantships, academic and research
programs, and student housing, write:
GRADUATE PROGRAM DIRECTOR
DEPARTMENTT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
159 GOESSMANN LABORATORY
UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS
AMHERST, MA 01003


The University of Massachusetts at Amherst prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, creed, sex, sexual orientation,
age, marital status, national origin, disability or handicap, political belief or affiliation, membership or non-membership in
any organization, or veteran status, in any aspect of the admission or treatment of students or in employment.


Chemical Engineering Education










CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT


With the largest chemical engineering research faculty in the country, the
Department of Chemical Engineering at MIT offers programs of research and
teaching which span the breadth of chemical engineering with unprecedented
depth in fundamentals and applications. The Department offers three levels
of graduate programs, leading to Master's, Engineer's, and Doctor's degrees.
In addition, graduate students may earn a Master's degree through the
David H. Koch School of Chemical Engineering Practice, a unique
internship program that stresses defining and solving industrial problems by
applying chemical engineering fundamentals. Students in this program spend
half a semester at each of two Practice School Stations, including Dow Chemi-
cal in Midland, Michigan, and Merck Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Division
in West Point, Pennsylvania, in addition to one or two semesters at MIT.



RESEARCH AREAS

Artificial Intelligence Biomedical Engineering
Biotechnology
Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
Combustion Computer-Aided Design
Electrochemistry Energy Conversion
Environmental Engineering Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics and Reaction Engineering
Microelectronic Materials Processing
Polymers Process Dynamics and Control
Surfaces and Colloids Transport Phenomena


FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT
Chemical Engineering Graduate Office, 66-366
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307
Phone: (617) 253-4579; FAX: (617) 253-9695
Fall 1992


MIT


MIT is located in Cambridge, just across the
Charles River from Boston, a few minutes by
subway from downtown Boston
on the one hand and Harvard Square on the
other. The heavy concentration of colleges,
hospitals, research facilities,
and high technology industry provides a
populace that demands and finds an unending
variety of theaters, concerts, restaurants,
museums, bookstores, sporting events,
libraries, and recreational facilities.


FACULTY


R.A. Brown, Department Head
R.C. Armstrong
P.I. Barton
J.M. Beer
E.D. Blankschtein
H. Brenner
L.G. Cima
R.E. Cohen
C.K. Colton
C.L. Cooney
W.M. Deen
K.K. Gleason
J.G. Harris
T.A. Hatton
J.B. Howard
K.F. Jensen
R.S. Langer
G.J. McRae
E.W. Merrill
C.M. Mohr
G.C. Rutledge
A.F. Sarofim
H.H. Sawin
K.A. Smith
Ge. Stephanopoulos
Gr. Stephanopoulos
M.F. Stephanopoulos
J.W. Tester
P.S. Virk
D.I.C. Wang
J.Y. Ying






Chemical Engineering at




The University of Michigan


Faculty

1. Johannes Schwank Chair, Hetero-
geneous catalysis, surface science
2. Stacy G. Bike Colloids, transport,
electrokinetic phenomena
3. Dale E. Briggs Coal processes
4. Mark A. Burns Biochemical and
field-enhanced separations
5. Brice Carnahan Numerical
methods, process simulation
6. Rane L. Curl Rate processes,
mathematical modeling
7. Frank M. Donahue Electro-
chemical engineering
8. H. Scott Fogler Flow in porous
media, microelectronics processing
9. John L. Gland Surface science
10. Erdogan Gulari Interfacial
phenomena, catalysis, surface science
11. Robert H. Kadlec Ecosystems,
process dynamics
12. Costas Kravaris Nonlinear process
control, system identification
13. Jennifer J. Linderman Engi-
neering approaches to cell biology
14. Bernhard O. Palsson Cellular
bioengineering
15. Phillip E. Savage Reaction
pathways in complex systems
16. Levi T. Thompson, Jr. Catalysis,
processing materials in space
17. Henry Y. Wang Biotechnology
processes, industrial biology
18. James O. Wilkes Numerical
methods, polymer processing
19. Robert M. Ziff Aggregation
processes, statistical mechanics


1 2


*

6


18 19


4








f
8


For More Information, Contact:
Graduate Program Office, Department of Chemical Engineering / The University of Michigan / Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136 / 313 763-1148




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