Citation
Chemical engineering education

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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Genre:
periodical ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
Classification:
TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

UFDC Membership

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Chemical Engineering Documents

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chemical e ieengeducatior



VOLUME XXV NUMB-ER- 4 FALL .91



RADUAT E-DUCTINISS"UE


Award Lecture *q

comptinVP inEgn ing Education
From hereTo Here, To Where
Z~ ~ Pt1Compuuing
Z6 BWuCE CARNAHAN

A Graduat e Corse in Dial Comoputer Procs oto .......DspadKihaw

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44.44*'" m ":,*


4 bDo You Qualy for Product Development *tUIS
44, in the USA. or international? RU




I CHEMICAL ENGUVEE
A 4



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Fall 1990
Austin, Beronio, Taso Biochemical Engineering Education
Through Videotapes
Ramkrishna Applied Mathematics
Rice Dispersion Model Differential Equation for Packed Beds
Bhada, et al. Consortium on Waste Management
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Cohen, Tsai, Chetty Multimedia Environmental Transport,
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Schulz, Benge ChE Summer Series at Virginia Polytechnic
Roberge Transferring Knowledge
Coulman ChE Curriculum, 1989
Frey Numerical Simulation of Multicomponent Chroma-
tography Using Spreadsheets
Fried Polymer Science and Engineering at Cincinnati

Fall 1989
San, McIntire Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Kummler, McMicking, Powitz Hazardous Waste Management
Bienkowski, et al. Multidisciplinary Course in Bioengineering
Lauffenburger Cellular Bioengineering
Randolph Particulate Processes
Kumar, Bennett, Gudivaka Hazardous Chemical Spills
Davis Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions
Wang Applied Linear Algebra
Kisaalita, et al. Crossdisciplinary Research: The Neuron-Based
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Kyle The Essence of Entropy
Rao Secrets of My Success in Graduate School

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Glandt Topics in Random Media
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Duda Graduation: The Beginning of Your Education

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Jorne Chemical Engineering: A Crisis of Maturity
Stephanopoulis Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering
Venkatasubramanian A Course in Artificial Intelligence in
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Moo-Young Biochemical Engineering and Industrial Biotech-
nology
Babu, Sukanek The Processing of Electronic Materials
Datye, Smith, Williams Characterization of Porous Materials
and Powders
Blackmond A Workshop in Graduate Education

Fall 1985
Bailey, Ollis Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals
Belfort Separation and Recovery Processes
Graham, Jutan Teaching Time Series
Soong Polymer Processing
Van Zee Electrochemical and Corrosion Engineering
Radovic Coal Utilization and Conversion Processes
Shah, Hayhurst Molecular Sieve Technology
Bailie, Kono, Henry Fluidization
Kauffman Is Grad School Worth It?
Felder The Generic Quiz

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Lauffenburger, et al, Applied Mathematics
Marnell Graduate Plant Design
Scamehorn Colloid and Surface Science
Shah Heterogeneous Catalysis with Video-Based Seminars
Zygourakis Linear Algebra
Bartholomew, Hecker Research on Catalysis
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Davis Numerical Methods and Modeling
Sawin, Reif Plasma Processing in Integrated Circuit Fabrica-
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Shaeiwitz Advanced Topics in Heat and Mass Transfer
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Fall 1991


(Editor's Note to Seniors ...


This is the 24th graduate education issue published by CEE. It is distributed to chemical engineering seniors interested
in and qualified for graduate school. We include articles on graduate courses and research at various universities, along
with departmental announcements on graduate programs. In order for you to obtain a broad idea of the nature of graduate
work, we encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue, but also those in previous issues. A list of the papers from
recent years follows. If you would like a copy of a previous fall issue, please write to CEE.
Ray W. Fahien, Editor
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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS:
Chemical Engineering Education
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
FAX 904-392-0861

EDITOR
Ray W. Fahien (904) 392-0857
ASSOCIATE EDITOR
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PUBLICATIONS BOARD

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Fall 1991


Chemical Engineering Education


Volume XXV


Number 4


Fall 1991


AWARD LECTURE
218 Computing in Engineering Education: From There,
To Here, To Where?
Part 1. Computing
Brice Carnahan


FEATURES
176 A Graduate Course in Digital Computer Process
Control,
Pradeep B. Deshpande,
Peruvemba R. Krishnaswamy

186 Chemical Kinetics, Fluid Mechanics, and Heat
Transfer in the Fast Lane: The Unexpurgated Story
of a Long-Range Program of Research in
Combustion,
Stuart W. Churchill

198 Risk Reduction in the Chemical Engineering
Curriculum,
Marvin Fleischman

204 Research Opportunities in Ceramics Science and
Engineering,
Toivo Kodas, Jeffrey Brinker, Abhaya Datye,
Douglas Smith

210 An Introduction to Molecular Transport Phenomena,
Michael H. Peters

RANDOM THOUGHTS
196 Meet Your Students: 4. Jill and Perry
Richard M. Felder

181 Letter to the Editor
183, 225 Book Reviews
185 Division Activities

226 Index


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the
Chemical Engineering Division. American Society for Engineering Education and is edited at the
University of Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of
address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department. University of Florida, Gainesville,
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DeLeon Springs. FL 32130. Copyright 1991 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American
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for information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and availability. POSTMASTER:
Send address changes to CEE. Chem. Engineering Dept., University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
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classroom


A GRADUATE COURSE IN

DIGITAL COMPUTER PROCESS CONTROL


PRADEEP B. DESHPANDE AND
PERUVEMBA R. KRISHNASWAMY*
University ofLouisville
Louisville, KY 40292

C omputer-based control systems have become a
routine feature in the process industry. In order
to be competitive, today's students must be familiar
with the recent developments in control technologies
which are having a significant impact on how com-
plex industrial processes are operated. The first-
listed author of this paper began offering a course in
computer process control in 1975, based on the ma-
terial in the literature"10'30 at that time and his own
perspectives. In the ensuing years, however, the
course has been completely revised in light of the
new and significant developments in control tech-
nology.
This paper describes what we believe to be a
modern course in digital computer process control.
Whenever appropriate, recent developments are high-
lighted, and a detailed bibliography of the textbooks
and selected papers used in the course is included at
the end of the article for ready reference.

Pradeep B. Deshpande is professor and a former
chairman of the chemical engineering department
a the University of Louisville. He has twenty years
of academic and full-time industrial experience. He
is the author, co-author, or editor of three textbooks
and sixty papers. He consults for several compa-
nies and offers continuing education courses in
several countries.


9


P.R. Krishnaswamy received his BSc degree from
Banaras Hindu University (India) and his PhD de-
gree from the University of New Brunswick. His
teaching and research interests include process
dynamics, process control, separation operations,
and fluidization. He has recently shared experiences
in control research during a sabbatical at the Uni-
versity of Louisville and Purdue University.


* Visiting professor; permanent affiliation, Department of Chemical Engi-
neering, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore 0511


The goals of the course
are to learn how to design, analyze, and
implement direct-digital control systems for
single-loop and multivariable systems.


THE REVISED COURSE
An outline of the revised course in shown in
Table 1. For convenience, the course is divided into
three parts: Part 1 is devoted to introductory con-
cepts and the development of a mathematical back-
ground; Part 2 covers the analysis and design con-
cepts of SISO digital control systems; and Part 3 is
concerned with advanced control concepts.
PART 1
Introductory Concepts and Mathematical Background
The course begins with an introduction to digital
computer control. The essential features of conven-
tional control based on continuous or analog signals
and of digital control, which encompasses hybrid
(discrete/analog) signals, are outlined. The mean-
ings of direct-digital control (DDC), supervisory con-
trol, and distributed control are explained.
Much of the material in the course deals with
DDC concepts, and as a lead-in to the next series of
topics, the elements of a single-loop DDC system are
examined. We point out that the DDC-loop consists
of the usual elements of any control system-namely,
the process, a measurement-device transmitter, and
a final control element. In addition, a DDC system
has an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter that samples
measured process outputs at a sampling frequency
selected by a real-time programmable clock, a digi-
tal computer or digital controller, and a digital-to-
analog (D/A) converter that converts computer-gen-
erated discrete control commands into continuous
signals for operating the final control elements.
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE 1991


Chemical Engineering Education










The goals of the course are to learn how to de-
sign, analyze, and implement direct-digital control
systems for single-loop and multivariable systems.
It should be emphasized that the availability of con-
trol computers allows the designer to implement
control methodologies that are either impractical or
impossible with conventional control hardware.
Examples include dead-time compensation, feed-
forward control, synthesized digital control algo-
rithms, and model predictive control.

The sequence of lectures is devoted to the study
of each element of the DDC loop. The first among
them is concerned with computer-control hardware
and software. The hardware description includes the
central processing unit, the main memory/bulk
memory, the computer input/output (I/O) devices,
process I/O, the A/D and D/A converters, and a real-
time programmable clock. The software concepts
include an introduction to assembly-level program-
ming, real-time Fortran, and Basic. At the Univer-
sity of Louisville a PDP 11/03-system has served our


TABLE 1
Syllabus: Digital Computer Process Control Course


Topic
# Description


Time Devoted
(50-min. periods) Refei


PART 1: Introductory Concepts and Mathematical Background
1 Introduction to computer process control 1
2 Computer-control hardware and software 3
3 How to implement PID controllers with digital computers 2
4 Mathematical representation of A/D converter 1
5 z-transforms 4
6 Transfer function of D/A converter 1
7 Pulse transfer functions 1

PART 2: Analysis and Design of Digital Control Systems
8 Open-loop response, impulse-response models,
closed-loop responses 3
9 Design of digital-control algorithms; deadbeat-control
Dahlin algorithm; internal-model control factorizationn
method); Smith predictor; simplified-model predictive
control; conservative-model based control; PID control 6
10 Stability of sampled-data control systems 1

PART 3: Advanced Control Concepts
11 Process identification; step testing; pulse testing; dynamic
matrix identification; introduction to time-series
analysis 5
12 Practical nonlinear control 2
13 Adaptive control and self-tuning; auto-tuning; gain
scheduling; model reference adaptive control;
self-tuning regulators 2
14 Feedforward control 1
15 Cascade control 2
16 Multivariable control 7

TOTAL 42


control-computing needs for the last several years.
The Fortran callable subroutines for A/D, D/A, and
the real-time clock for this machine are used to ex-
plain how the real-time commands are embedded
into a Fortran control program.


'he next topic deals with single-loop PID control.
rpical industrial situations, fast loops (flow loops)
ate under digital PID-type control algorithms.
these lectures the instructor derives the digital
algorithm from conventional controller equa-
s that the students are familiar with and points
the role of the sampling period in stability and
brmance. At the end of the lectures the students
lop a computer program and implement digital
control on a four-loop laboratory process.o (Note
doing this work does not require a background
-transforms.) Being able to operate a process
er the control of a digital computer after only
e weeks of the semester has been an exciting ex-
ence for the students.
'he next topics to be covered are mathematical
representation of an A/D converter,
study of z-transforms, derivation
of a pulse-transfer function, and
the zero order hold transfer func-
tion. Then open-loop and closed-
rences loop pulse transfer functions are
derived, and open-loop and closed-
23 loop responses are evaluated by
0 hand and the answers verified by
CAI (Computer-Aided Instruction)
21, 23 software that has only recently
been developed. Information on this
, 7 CAI-control software can be found
in the references at the end of this
article.


25, 11, 7


7,8, 12, 26, 37, 21
7,25



12, 7,6, 36
32, 50, 30,31


28, 2, 59, 61,7
7, 12,21
7,12
7,8,12,46,53,17,
18,40,41
periods: one semester or
equivalent


PART
Design and Analysis of Digital-
Control Systems

The discussion of pulse-trans-
fer functions and open-loop re-
sponses leads us into an exciting
topic-the notion of an impulse re-
sponse (IR) model, which enables
us to predict the process output at
the next sampling instant from past
inputs through use of the equation


N
YK+1 = hi uK+-i
i=l


Fall 1991









Beginning with the definition of the pulse-trans-
fer function, G(z) = Y(z)/U(z), the instructor can eas-
ily derive Eq. (1), as shown for example in Desh-
pande and Ash.71- IR-type models have distinct ad-
vantages: they can be derived from easily-available
step response data; the response curve need not be
fitted to a structured model and the order of the
process is not important; and the use of an IR-type
model considerably simplifies the evaluation of closed-
loop responses by computer simulations.
The next topic is the design of digital-control al-
gorithms for SISO (Single-Input Single-Output) sys-
tems. While controllers can be designed by a number
of methods, we believe that the direct-synthesis
method is best suited for this course. The basic idea
is to solve the closed-loop pulse-transfer-function
equation for the controller, giving

D= Y/R 1 (2)
1-Y/R (

The closed-loop response is specified according to
the equation
S= FG, (3)
By selecting the desired expressions for F, sev-
eral well-known control algorithms can be obtained;
for example, the choice of F = 1 gives deadbeat con-
trol. Through use of the CAI software, students
quickly learn that deadbeat control can give rise to
rippling behavior of the controller output. Further-
more, deadbeat controllers are very sensitive to
modeling errors.
The choice of a first-order lag for F gives a Dahlin
algorithm. The instructor can easily show that a
Dahlin algorithm is the same as an internal-model-
control (IMC) algorithm if a first-order filter is em-
ployed in the latter. It would also be helpful to derive
the IMC structure from the sampled-data control
structure and show that the two representations are
equivalent. Once the IMC structure is derived, one
can go over the stability theorems and design IMC
controllers for a variety of processes-including those
that exhibit dead-time and inverse response.
In the discussion of IMC, the instructor can de-
rive the Smith Predictor algorithm and point out the
similarities between the two approaches. Also,
through simulation exercises, the instructor can show
that the latter does not tolerate modeling errors well
and that the tuning of the Smith Predictor-based
PID controllers becomes difficult in the presence of
modeling errors.
At one end of the spectrum of control equality


there is a notion of perfect control (deadbeat con-
trol). IMC is an algorithm that delivers perfect con-
trol in the absence of modeling errors. In the pres-
ence of modeling errors, however, the designer must
back away from the notion of perfect control in favor
of robustness, by choosing an appropriate filter.
At the other end of the spectrum of control qual-
ity there is the notion of open-loop control. Simpli-
fied model-predictive control (SMPC) and conserva-
tive model-based control (CMBC) are algorithms
which assume that at worst the controller should be
able to provide a set-point response that is as good
as the open-loop response. These algorithms are de-
rived as follows: the open-loop behavior of an open-
loop stable process is given by
Y_ 1 (4)
R K,
Substituting for Y/R from Eq. (4) into Eq. (2) gives

D=M (5)
E K G
The choice of Eq. (5) for the controller will deliver a
set-point response that is the same as the normal-
ized open-loop response. The response can be speeded
up by introducing a tuning-constant ax, giving the
SMPC algorithm
aK
D= P (6)
K -G
p
SMPC features a single-tuning constant that can be
found by offline optimization. Dead-time compensa-
tion can be incorporated by modifying Eq. (5) accord-
ing to A


where


D=-
K AG


A 1- pz (8)
1-P
Equation (7) represents the CMBC control law.
CMBC also features a single-tuning constant P whose
value can be found by offline simulation.
In the discussion of various control algorithms,
the students are reminded that the algorithms which
give the best servo responses are not necessarily the
ones that are best for regulatory control. Further-
more, the design work assumes that the processes
are linear, but in reality they are not. Consequently,
the algorithms that give the best performance in
simulation work may not be the best when they are
implemented on real-life nonlinear processes.
The next topic of discussion is stability. Stability
concepts relating to sampled-data systems can be
effectively derived by utilizing the relationship be-


Chemical Engineering Education









tween the Laplace transform operator s and the z-
transform operator z. The discussion of stability con-
cludes with a method for finding the roots of the
characteristic equation in the z-domain.

PART
Advanced Control Concepts
The next topic is process identification. The tra-
ditional methods which we cover are step testing,
pulse testing, and fitting of models to frequency-
response plots. An ideal method should identify proc-
ess dynamics from a test that does not force the
process away from the steady-state operating condi-
tion. One such method that meets these needs is the
relay method in which a relay perturbs the process
and the resulting process output/input data provide
the ultimate frequency and ultimate gain of the sys-
tem. These data lead to optimized tuning constants
of a PID-type controller.
Another method, called dynamic matrix identifi-
cation, calls for perturbing the process by a series of
up-and-down step changes in the input U(z) around
the steady state, given by the equation
U(z)-= U + U1z1 + U2z-2 + U3Z-3 (9)
Then, in the light of the impulse response model
Y(z) N
Y(z) = hz (10)
U(z) i=1
the output is given by
Y(z)= 0+ hlUoz-1 + (h2U0 + hU)z-2 +... (lla)

= 0 + Yzz- + Y2z-2 +... (lib)
Equations (lla) and (lib) show that the impulse
response coefficients can be computed from the ex-
perimental input and output data.
The last method covered which is suited to use in
a noisy environment is time-series analysis. In this
method the process is described in two parts: one
accounts for the model and the other is a noise term
that accomodates the effect of unmeasured load dis-
turbances. A PRBS (pseudo random binary sequence)
signal is applied to the process and the analysis of
the input-output data gives the model. Time con-
straints prevent an in-depth treatment of the the-
ory, but the software available (e.g., Matlab: see also
Reference 21) can be effectively used to illustrate the
method.
The next topic is practical nonlinear control. The
treatment is restricted to a conceptually simple prac-
tical method which appears to have considerable
Fall 1991


potential. It is well known that the closed-loop re-
sponse of many complex nonlinear SISO systems
can be described by a linear second-order transfer
function, given by


Y(s) r1s + r12
R(s) s2 +r1S+ 12
or, in the time domain
dY = nE+n 2JE dt
&I


(12)



(13)


where E = R Y.
The terms T1, and 12 determine the shape of the
response. Now, the nonlinear process is described by
a nonlinear differential equation of the form

dY f(yn, n Y, eAY, etc.)+U (14)
Equating Eqs. (13) and (14) gives the nonlinear con-
trol law
U=-f(Yn, nY,eAY,etc.)+Tl1E+l2 JEdt (15)
If the resulting control law turns out to have
undesirable properties, such as ringing or constraint
violations, then a minimization problem based on
the difference between actual and the desired values
of the derivative dY/dt is solved to derive the control
law. Note that this analysis of nonlinear control is
based on continuous-time systems. The system
equations would have to be discretized for use in a
digital-computer-based control system.
The next set of topics falls into the category of
what is commonly referred to as advanced control
concepts. The first topic to be covered is adaptive
control and self-tuning. Time limitations permit only
a brief introduction. The need for adaptive control
arises due to changing process characteristics. Auto-
tuning, gain scheduling, self-tuning regulators, and
model-reference adaptive control are examples to be
covered. The use of a relay to identify the ultimate
gain and ultimate period of a proportional controller
in auto-tuning has already been mentioned.
Feedforward and cascade control are the next
topics to be covered. Feedforward control is meant
to improve the response of feedback control systems
in the presence of disturbances in process loads,
while cascade control is meant to arrest the detri-
mental effect of disturbances in the manipulated
variable.
The final topic to be covered deals with multi-
variable control, which includes the topics of inter-
action analysis and variable pairing, multiloop con-
trol for modestly-interacting systems (including PID










controllers designed by the biggest log modulus tun-
ing method), multiloop IMC and CMBC/SMPC con-
trollers, explicit decoupling in conjunction with PID
controllers, reference systems decoupling, and multi-
variable model predictive control. Model predictive
control includes dynamic matrix control, model algo-
rithmic control, and predictive IMC.
Model predictive control techniques utilize step-
or impulse-response models of the process. These
models are used in conjunction with optimization
techniques to calculate controller outputs. It should
be emphasized that complex multivariable processes
must invariably be operated in the vicinity of con-
straints. Therefore, students must have familiarity
with some methods, such as linear and quadratic
programming for solving constrained multivariable
optimization problems and how they are used in
conjunction with model predictive control. Simula-
tion examples can be used to illustrate the concepts.
This concludes the course. The first-listed author
offers the course regularly at the University of Lou-
isville and as an intensive short course for industry
in the U.S., Europe, Kuwait, and India. The reac-
tions of the participants have always been favorable.

NOMENCLATURE
D = digital controller
E = error
F = filter
= model transfer function
G. = nonminimum phase element
h = impulse response coefficient
i = sampling instant
K = process steady-state gain
M = controller output
N = number of sampling periods in open-loop
settling time
R = set-point
s = Laplace transform operator
t = time
U = process input
Y = process output
z = transform operator
Greek
rir12 = PID-type tuning constants
a,P = tuning constants

REFERENCES
Books
1. Anderson, B.D.O., and L. Ljung (Eds.), Automatica: Spe-
cial Issue on Adaptive Control, September (1984)


2. Astrom, K.J., and T. Hagglund, Automatic Tuning of PID
Regulators, ISA (1988)
3. Astrom, K.J., and B. Wittenmark, Computer Controlled
Systems, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1984)
4. Balchen, J.G., and K.I. Mummd, Process Control: Structure
and Applications, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York,
NY (1988)
5. Belanger, P.R., "A Review of Some Adaptive Control Schemes
for Process Control," in Chemical Process Control 2, T.F.
Edgar and D.E. Seborg (Eds.), Engineering Found., New
York, NY, 269 (1982)
6. Box, G.E.P., and G.M. Jenkins, Time Series Analysis Fore-
casting and Control, Holden-Day Publishers, Oakland, CA
(1976)
7. Deshpande, P.B., and R.H. Ash, Computer Process Control
with Advanced Control Applications, ISA (1988)
8. Deshpande, P.B., Multivariable Process Control, ISA (1989)
9. Joseph, B., Real-Time Personal Computing for Data Acqui-
sition and Control, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs,
NJ (1989)
10. Kane, L., Ed., Handbook of Advanced Process Control Sys-
tems and Instrumentation, Gulf Publishing Co., Houston,
TX, 346 (1987)
11. Kuo, B.C.,Analysis and Synthesis of Sampled-Data Control
Systems, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1963)
12. Luyben, W.L., Process Modeling, Simulation, and Control
for Chemical Engineers, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1990)
13. McAvoy, T.J., Interaction Analysis-Principles and Appli-
cations, ISA (1983)
14. Mehra, R.K., and S. Mahmood, "Model Algorithmic Con-
trol," in P.B. Deshpande, Distillation Dynamics and Con-
trol, ISA (1985)
15. Morari, M., and E. Zafiriou, Robust Process Control, Pren-
tice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1989)
16. Newell, R.B., and P.L. Lee, Applied Process Control-A
Case Study, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1989)
17. Prett, D.M., and M. Morari, Shell Process Control Work-
shop, Butterworth Publishers, Stoneham, MA (1987)
18. Prett, D.M., C.E. Garcia, and B.L. Ramaker, The Second
Shell Process Control Workshop, Butterworth Publishers,
Stoneham, MA (1990)
19. Ray, W.H., Advanced Process Control, McGraw Hill, New
York, NY (1981)
20. Roffel, B., and P. Chin, Computer Control in the Process
Industries, Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, MI (1987)
21. Seborg, D.E., T.F. Edgar, and D.A. Mellichamp, Process
Dynamics and Control, John Wiley and Sons, New York,
NY (1989)
22. Stephanopoulos, G., Chemical Process Control: An Intro-
duction to Theory and Practice, Prentice-Hall Inc., Engle-
wood Cliffs, NJ (1984)
23. Shinskey, F.G., Process Control Systems: Application, De-
sign, and Adjustment, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York,
NY (1988)
24. Smith, C.A., and A.B. Corripio, Principles and Practice of
Automatic Process Control, John Wiley & Sons, New York,
NY (1985)
25. Tou, J.T., Digital and Sampled-Data Control Systems,
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, NY (1959)

Journal Articles
26. Arulalan, G.R., and P.B. Deshpande, I&EC Research, 26,
347(1987)
27. Arulalan, G.R., and P.B. Deshpande, Hydrocar. Proc., 65(6),
51(1986)
28. Astrom, K.J., Automatica, 19, 471 (1983)


Chemical Engineering Education










30. Bartee, J.F., K.F. Bloss, and C. Georgakis, paper pre-
sented at the AIChE Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA
(1989)
31. Bartusiak, R.D., C. Georgakis, and M.J. Reilly, paper pre-
sented at the American Control Conferences, Atlanta, GA
(1988)
32. Boye, J.A., and W.L. Brogran, Int. J. Control, 44(5), 1209
(1986)
33. Chawla, V.K, and P.B. Deshpande, Hydrocarbon Process-
ing, 68, 59, October (1989)
34. Chien, I.L., D.A. Mellichamp, and D.E. Seborg, American
Control Conference, San Francisco, CA (1983)
35. Corripio, A.B., Chem. Eng. Ed., 8, Fall (1974)
36. Cutler, C.R., and S. Finlayson, ACC, Atlanta, GA, June
(1988)
37. Daoutidis, P., and C. Kravaris, AIChE J., 35, 1602 (1989)
38. Economou, C.G., and M. Morari, I&EC Proc. Des. Dev., 25,
411(1986)
39. Economou, C.G., M. Morari, and B.O. Palsson, I&EC Proc.
Des. Dev., 25,403 (1986)
40. Garcia, C.E., and M. Morari, I&EC Proc. Des. Dev., 24,
472(1985a)
41. Garcia, C.E., and M. Morari, I&EC Proc. Des. Dev., 24,
484(1985b)
42. Gokhale, N.D., N.V. Shukla, P.B. Deshpande, and P.R.
Krishnaswamy, Hydrocarbon Processing, April (1991)
43. Hallager, L., and S.B. Jorgensen, IFAC Workshop Adap-
tive Sys. Con., San Francisco, CA (1983)
44. Jensen, N., D.G. Fisher, and S.L. Shah, AIChE J., 32, 959
(1986)
45. Kravaris, C., and C.B. Chung, AIChE J., 33, 592 (1987)
46. Krishnaswamy, P.R., N.V. Shukla, P.B. Deshpande, and
M.N. Amrouni, Chem. Eng. Sci., 30,4 (1991)
47. Kulkarni, B.D., S.S. Tambe, N.V. Shukla, and P.B. Desh-
pande, Chem. Eng. Sci., 46,4 (1991)
48. Lau, H., J. Alvarez, and K.F. Jensen, AIChE J., 31, 427
(1985)
49. Lee, P.L., and G.R. Sullivan, presented at IFAC Workshop
on Model Based Process Control, Atlanta, GA, June (1988a)
50. Lee, P.L., and G.R. Sullivan, Computers & Chem. Eng., 12,
573 (1988b)
51. Luecke, R.H., and H.Y. Lin, Chem. Eng. Ed., 20, Spring
(1986)
52. Luyben, W.L., I&EC Proc. Des. Dev., 25, 654 (1986)
53. Luyben, W.L., AIChE J., 16 2; Computers & Chem Eng.,
12, 573 (1970)
54. Mijares, G., J.D. Cole, N.W. Naugle, H.A. Preisig, and
C.D. Holland, AIChE J., 32, 1439 (1986)
55. Moore, C.F. Chem. Eng. Ed., 7, Fall (1973)
56. Parrish, J.R., and C.B. Brosilow, AIChE J., 34,633 (1988)
57. Prasad, P.R., V.K. Chawla, and P.B. Deshpande, I&EC
Res., 29, 1 (1990)
58. Seborg, D.E., T.F. Edgar, and S.L. Shah, AIChE J., 32,
881(1986)
59. Seborg, D.W., IFAC Preprints, Munich, West Germany,
July 27-31 (1987)
60. Wright, R., and C. Kravaris, paper presented at the Ameri-
can Control Conference, Pittsburgh, PA (1989)
61. Wittenmark, B., and K.J. Astrom, Automatica, 20, 595
(1984)
62. Yu, C.C., and W.L. Luyben, I&EC Proc. Des. Dev., 25,498
(1986)

CAI Software in Process Control
63. Arulalan, G.R., Sanjay Kumar, and P.B. Deshpande, "CAI
in Advanced Process Control," CACHE News, 26, Fall


Fall 1991


(1988)
64. Edgar, T.F., "Software for Undergraduate and Graduate
Process Control," CACHE News, 26, Spring (1990)
65. Frederick, D.K., and M. Rimvall, Eds., "ELCS: The Ex-
tended List of Control Software," U.S. Edition No. 4,
CACHE Corporation, Austin, TX, December (1987)
66. Seborg, D.E. T.F. Edgar, and D.A. Mellichamp, Process
Dynamics and Control, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 701 (1989)
(Listing of Control Software) D


to the editor


THE ACADEMIC ELITE IN CHE


Dear Editor:

A ranking of the most highly regarded doctoral
programs in chemical engineering was presented in
the November 1983 edition of Changing Times."'
This ranking was based on a study published by the
National Academy of Sciences.12' For the ranking re-
ported by Changing Times two key measures of repu-
tation from the National Academy study were com-
bined: 1) "faculty quality" assessed how chemical
engineering professors around the country rated their
peers in the same discipline, and 2) "program qual-
ity" assessed how well the faculty thought each pro-
gram educated research scholars and scientists.
Changing Times combined these two measures and
derived a ranking of the top ten percent of the pro-
grams in chemical engineering. If one goes by the
assumptions of the Changing Times article, the eight
schools with the highest combined scores represented
the "academic elite" in chemical engineering-the
"best" programs in the country.
Given the subjective nature of the evaluation
process which produced the National Academy rat-
ings, I decided to examine the composition of the
faculties of the top eight schools. I suspected that
these departments would be substantially linked to
one another through the hiring of one another's
graduates, hence enhancing one another's reputa-
tions. I also expected that among the academic elite
there would be a high degree of academic "inbreed-
ing"-the hiring of graduates from one's own pro-
gram.[3'
I used the American Chemical Society Directory
of Graduate Research 1989 to examine the full-time
faculties of the eight highest-ranked chemical engi-
neering departments. An item of primary interest
was where the full-time faculty members at these
institutions had received their doctoral degrees. It
181


=H letter










soon became obvious that there were numerous in-
terrelationships among the departments in terms of
where the faculty had received their doctoral de-
grees.
The following table lists the top-ranked depart-
ments and indicates the percentages of full-time fac-
ulty who received their doctoral degrees from one of
the "elite" departments on the list (which includes
those who received their degrees from the same de-
partments where they are currently on the faculty).


Rank Program


1 Minnesota
2 Wisconsin
3 Cal-Berkeley
3 Caltech
4 Stanford
5 Delaware
6 M.I.T.
7 Illinois, Urbana
TOTALS


Percentage Number
N Elite' Own2 Produced3

32 50.0 0.0 13
20 65.0 15.0 13
21 71.4 19.0 17
8 75.0 0.0 6
8 62.5 12.5 7
19 52.6 5.3 6
33 69.7 42.4 31
12 75.0 0.0 4
153 97


SPercentage of faculty who received PhDs from one of the eight top-ranked
programs.
2 Percentage of faculty who received PhD.s from the program in which they are now
employed.
SNumber of PhD recipients from the programs who were on the faculty of one of the
top-ranked programs in 1989.

As can be seen in the table, in all of the top-
ranked departments a substantial proportion of the
faculty received PhDs from one of the "academic
elite." The California Institute of Technology and
the University of Illinois had the highest percent-
ages of degree holders from the top-ranked depart-
ments (75.0%), and the University of Minnesota had
the lowest (50.0%). At most of the schools, anywhere
from one-half to three-quarters of the faculty gradu-
ated from one of the prestigious programs.
The table also addresses academic inbreeding
among the top-ranked chemical engineering pro-
grams. Berelson141 and Caplow and McGee561 have
demonstrated that a high degree of inbreeding among
elite schools is not accidental. According to both stud-
ies, if elite programs are to maintain their prestige,
they cannot hire a large number of PhDs from lower-
ranked departments, and this would include PhDs
from upwardly mobile "middlemen" programs where
elite credentials have yet to be established. In his
study of sociology departments, Gross161 found that
the higher the prestige of a department, the greater
the proportion of "home-grown" graduate faculty.
With some modifications, Shichor's study[71 confirmed


Gross' findings. Shichor found the relationship be-
tween departmental inbreeding and the prestige of a
department to be curvilinear, with the highest and
lowest ranking departments having the highest rates
of inbreeding while mid-level departments were found
to have the lowest rates.
As can be seen from the table, in 1989 the school
with the largest percentage of its own graduates on
its full-time chemical engineering faculty was Mas-
sachusetts Institute of Technology (42.4%). The Uni-
versity of Minnesota, California Institute of Tech-
nology, and the University of Illinois had not hired
any of their own graduates.
The table also presents the number of PhDs pro-
duced from each department who were full-time fac-
ulty members of one of the elite departments in
1989. MIT had thirty-one of its graduates in faculty
positions at the elite departments, and Berkeley was
next with seventeen. Illinois had the least with four.
I think that graduate departments in chemical
engineering (or in any discipline) must rely to a
large extent upon their reputations in order to at-
tract highly qualified faculty and graduate students
to participate in their programs. The eight chemical
engineering graduate programs that were top-ranked
in the 1981 National Academy study are undoubt-
edly strong programs. I certainly do not wish to
argue that they are not. However, the data suggest
that a number of subjective factors influence the
procedure by which academic departments are
ranked. Primarily, I contend that a rather small
group of institutions (eight in this instance) tend,
consciously or unconsciously, to enhance one an-
other's reputations by hiring one another's gradu-
ates.
The Changing Times article used two measures
of reputation in order to establish its list of the
"best" graduate departments: how professors rated
their peers in the same discipline, and how well the
faculty thought each program educated research
scholars and scientists. These criteria are vitally
linked; when elite faculty are asked to rate their
peers at other schools, they are (to a large extent)
rating their former professors or students. There are
a total of 153 full-time faculty in the chemical engi-
neering elite, and 97 of them (63.4%) graduated from
one of these distinguished programs. Clearly, it is in
their best interest to rank their alma maters highly.
The remarkable stability in the ranking of elite
programs over the last few decades suggests that
not only do elite faculty rate their own programs
highly, but so also do large numbers of faculty from


Chemical Engineering Education










less prestigious programs. Several factors may ex-
plain this phenomenon. On the one hand, the data
suggest that the consistently high rankings of elite
programs are due to the large number of graduates
that those very same programs put into the disci-
pline each year. While they place some graduates in
other elite schools, most descend into mid-level
schools or less renowned institutions where they
continue to subjectively rank their alma maters as
the very best. The high number of elite school gradu-
ates at all levels also seems to enable them to play a
disproportionate role in shaping opinion within the
discipline.
There is another way of explaining the relative
stability in the ranking of elite programs over time.
Obviously, there are not enough faculty from elite
schools at middle and lower level programs for them
to maintain the high ranking of their alma maters
without some support from their non-elite colleagues.
Tradition may be a partial explanation for the non-
elite's acceptance of their inferior status. Elite schools
have been accorded high esteem for decades, and
these traditions typically have gone unchallenged.
A more likely explanation, however, is that the
non-elite, in a classic example of Marxian false con-
sciousness, E' have adopted their elite peers' assess-
ment that the letters' programs and faculties are
superior. Buttressed by only a few subjective gov-
ernment surveys and contact with a handful of indi-
viduals from elite programs, the non-elite have not
only accepted but also even promoted the notion that
elite graduate programs are deserving of high es-
teem, whereas others, including their own, are not.
Ultimately, I think it should be asked: Are the
eight highest-ranked programs indeed the best PhD
programs in chemical engineering, or do they com-
prise an "academic elite" with a large number of
faculty members in the discipline and an obvious
interest in perpetuating the present ranking sys-
tem? I believe that data suggest that the latter is
true.
Two final comments seem in order. First, I con-
tend that because of their subjectivity, current rank-
ing systems are a detriment to the discipline. They
may impede professional mobility, reward status over
achievement, and result in programs of lesser re-
nown being bypassed, even though they may merit
as high or higher recognition than do those of the
elite. Second, I believe that current, subjective rank-
ing systems incorporate serious distortions and mis-
representations. Because they have the potential to
do as much harm as good, I recommend that as they


are presently constituted, subjective systems of de-
partmental ranking should be routinely ignored.
Jeffrey H. Bair
Emporia State University
Emporia, KS 66801
1. Changing Times, p. 64-67, November (1983)
2. Jones, L.V., G. Lindzey, and P.E. Coggeshall, An Assessment
of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Engi-
neering, National Academy Press, Washington, DC (1982)
3. Bair, J.H., W.E. Thompson, and J.V. Hickey, Curr. Anthro-
pol.,27, 410 (1986)
4. Berelson, B., Graduate Education in the United States,
McGraw-Hill, New York (1960)
5. Caplow, T., and R.J. McGee, The Academic Marketplace,
Anchor-Doubleday, New York (1965)
6. Gross, G.R.,Am. Sociologist, 5, 25-29 (1970)
7. Schichor, D.,Am. Sociologist, 5, 157-160 (1970)
8. Marx, K., and F. Engel, The German Ideology, International
Publishers, New York (1967) O


book review

CHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING
THERMODYNAMICS
Second Edition
by Stanley I. Sandler; John Wiley & Sons, New York;
622 pages and 5-1/4" diskette, $59.95 (1989)

Reviewed by
J.P. O'Connell, D.J. Kirwan
University of Virginia

This is the second edition of a text for under-
graduate chemical engineers. As the author's pref-
ace points out, the objectives of both editions are the
same: 1) to develop a course relevant to other parts
of the curriculum, such as separations, reactors, and
design, and 2) to present sufficient detail in a way
that leads to good understanding and proficiency of
application.
Distinctive treatments of the first edition included
introduction of the mass, first, and second law bal-
ance equations in the same way (this may demystify
entropy for some students). Also, treatment of the
variety of phase equilibrium situations among sol-
ids, liquids, and vapors is more complete and more
categorized than in other texts.
The major change from the first edition is the
inclusion of BASIC programs for calculating 1)
thermodynamic properties and VLE for pure and for
multicomponent systems from a cubic EOS, 2) low-
pressure VLE from activity coefficients from group
contributions, and 3) equilibrium constants and stan-
Continued on page 195.


Fall 1991











The first textbook to present catalysis in a

AMALYTic coherent, unified manner!

HEMISTRY CATALYTIC CHEMISTRY
Bruce C. Gates, University of Delaware
51761-5, 432 pp., 1992

Gathering catalysis material from the fields of chemical
reaction engineering, chemical engineering, kinetics,
organometallic chemistry, and physical chemistry, this
unique text presents the first unified, easy-to-teach treatment
of catalytic chemistry. This exciting new text:
*Demonstrates to students that the fragments to which they have been exposed in other
courses constitute a large, important, challenging and opportunity-rich subject.
*Includes an outline of the subject with examples, problems and solutions. Instructors
can emphasize and build on specific subject areas.
*Is full of practical knowledge and can be used by both scientists and engineers working
in the discipline, including researchers and industry experts.
A Solutions Manual (54588-0) with Answers and Solutions to most problems is available
upon adoption.


Other Titles of Interest

Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Fourth Edition
Robert W. Fox, Purdue University
Alan T. McDonald, Purdue University
54852-9, 704 pp., 1992
Chemical Reactor Analysis & Design,
Second Edition
G. F. Froment, Rijks Universiteit- Gent, Belgium
Kenneth Bischoff, University of Delaware
51044-0, 733 pp., 1990
Fundamentals of Heat & Mass Transfer,
Third Edition
61246-4, 992 pp., 1990
Introduction to Heat Transfer, Second Edition
Frank Incropera, Purdue University
David P. Incropera, Purdue University
61247-2, 896 pp., 1990
Process Dynamics & Control
David E. Seborg, University of California, Santa Barbara
Thomas F. Edgar, University of Texas, Austin
Duncan A. Mellichamp, University of California,
Santa Barbara
86389-0, 714 pp., 1989
Computer Applications for Engineers
Thomas K. Jewell, Union College
60117-9, 800 pp., 1991


Other Best Sellers...


Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics
Munson/Young/Okiishi,
85526-X, 843 pp., 1990
Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes,
Second Edition, Felder/Rousseau
87324-1, 668 pp., 1986
Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics,
Second Edition with Disk, Sandler
83050-X, 622 pp., 1989
Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics
Moran/Shapiro,
89576-8, 707 pp., 1988
Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics,
Third Edition, English/SI Version
Van Wylen/Sonntag,
86173-1, 749 pp., 1986

For more information, contact your local Wiley
Representative, or write to:


Susan Elbe, Dept. 2-0148
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
605 Third Avenue
New York, New York 10158
WIILE


2-0148









Chemical

Engineering

Division

Activities


TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL LECTURESHIP A WARD
TO DARSH WASAN
The 1991 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division
Lecturer is Darsh Wasan of the Illinois Institute of
Technology. The purpose of this award is to recog-
nize and encourage outstanding achievement in an
important field of fundamental chemical engineer-
ing theory or practice. The 3M Company provides
the financial support for this award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engi-
neering educator who delivers the annual lecture of
the Chemical Engineering Division, the award con-
sists of $1,000 and an engraved certificate. These
were presented to Dr. Wasan at the banquet during
the ASEE annual meeting in New Orleans, Louisi-
ana, on June 8, 1991.
Dr. Wasan's lecture was entitled "Interfacial
Transport Processes and Rheology." It will be pub-
lished in a forthcoming issue of CEE.
The award is made on an annual basis, with
nominations being received through February 1,
1992. Your nominations for the 1992 lectureship are
invited.
AWARD WINNERS
George Burnet (Iowa State University) was the
recipient of the highest Society award for service to
education in engineering, engineering technology,
and allied fields, the W. Leighton Collins Award. It
is given for highly significant individual contribu-
tions to the profession.
The Senior Research Award was presented to
Robert S. Schechter (The University of Texas at
Austin). This award recognizes and honors individu-
als who have made significant contributions to engi-
neering research.
The sixth annual Corcoran Award, recognizing
the most outstanding paper published in CEE in
1990, was presented to coauthors John M.
Prausnitz and Davor P. Sutija (University of Cali-
fornia, Berkeley) for their article "Chemical Engi-
neering in the Spectrum of Knowledge."


SHAPING OUR WORLD CENTURY II

S


The Joseph H. Martin Award was presented to
Richard C. Bailie (West Virginia University)
for the best paper presented at the annual ASEE
meeting.
The division presented its DELOS Distinguished
Service Award to Klaus D. Timmerhaus (Univer-
sity of Colorado) in recognition of his many contribu-
tions to the profession.
Peter K. Kilpatrick (North Carolina State Uni-
versity) received an AT&T Foundation Award which
recognizes and honors outstanding teachers of engi-
neering students, while Anthony N. Beris (Univer-
sity of Delaware) and Jeffrey A. Hubbell (The Uni-
versity of Texas at Austin) both were recognized as
Dow Outstanding Young Faculty.
NEW PUBLICATIONS BOARD MEMBERS
The Publications Board of CEE has been reor-
ganized and now includes the following members in
addition to its Chairman E. Dendy Sloan, and its
Past Chairmen, Gary Poehlein and Klaus Tim-
merhaus: George Burnet (Iowa State University),
Anthony T. DiBenedetto (University of Connecti-
cut), Thomas F. Edgar (University of Texas at
Austin), Richard M. Felder (North Carolina State
University), Bruce A. Finlayson (University of
Washington), H. Scott Fogler (University of Michi-
gan), J. David Hellums (Rice University), Carol
M. McConica (Colorado State University), Angelo
J. Perna (NJIT), Stanley I. Sandler (University of
Delaware), Richard C. Seagrave (Iowa State Uni-
versity), M. Sami Selim (Colorado School of Mines),
James E. Stice (University of Texas at Austin),
Phillip C. Wankat (Purdue University), and
Donald R. Woods (McMaster University).
NEW DIVISION OFFICERS
The Chemical Engineering Division officers for
the 1991-1992 term include: Past Chairman, Tom
Hanley; Chairman, Timothy J. Anderson; Secre-
tary-Treasurer, William L. Conger. (Chairman-
Elect and Directors had not been named at the time
this issue of CEE went to press.)


Fall 1991













CHEMICAL KINETICS, FLUID MECHANICS,

AND HEAT TRANSFER IN THE FAST LANE

The Unexpurgated Story of a Long-Range Program of

Research in Combustion


STUART W. CHURCHILL
The University ofPennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6393

The presentation of experimental and theoretical
findings in a journal usually implies that the
path of the investigation of which they are the cul-
mination was well-planned and straightforward.
Such is rarely the case, however, particularly with
exploratory research for which unanticipated results
are the justification and the reward. Indeed, the
most useful results are often the consequence of a
deviation from the original objective in order to ex-
plain, resolve, or explore an apparent anomaly. Most
discoveries and innovations so arise.
This paper utilizes the history of a long-term (40-
year) investigation of combustion inside tubes to
illustrate the true, unvarnished path of exploratory
research with all of its turnings, windfalls, misdirec-
tions, triumphs, and disasters. The primary objec-
tive of this recounting is to persuade doctoral stu-
dents (and perhaps their advisors) that the anoma-
lies observed in experiments or in comparing experi-
ments and theoretical solutions are not to be ig-
nored, hidden, or deplored, but rather should be
taken as a signal of possibly important unknown be-
havior that may actually justify a diversion in, an
addition to, or even a complete redirection of the
research. A second, related objective is to demon-
strate the helpful (and indeed, essential) role of theo-
retical modeling in explaining experimental results
and, particularly, anomalies.


Stuart W. Churchill is the Carl V.S. Patterson Pro-
fessor Emeritus at the University of Pennsylvania
where he has been since 1967. His BSE degrees (in
ChE and Math), MSE, and PhD were obtained at the
University of Michigan where he also taught from
1950-1967. His research has encompassed many
aspects of heat transfer as well as combustion. He is
currently completing a textbook on turbulent flows.


ACOUSTICALLY RESONANT COMBUSTION
The research program that supported me as a
graduate student involved the ignition of solid pro-
pellants by a stream of gas at high temperature. We
rationalized that a mixture of 02 and inert gases was
equivalent in that respect to the products of combus-
tion of a primer. My curiosity was provoked and
unsatisfied as to the possible effects of combustion
itself on heat transfer, and sometime thereafter I
persuaded Donald W. Sundstrom to investigate this
subject for his doctoral research. Supported equip-
ment-wise by an unrestricted grant from the Esso
Engineering and Research Company, we chose a
geometry unrelated to the ignition of propellants but
of more general interest-namely heat transfer from
a flame of premixed air and propane stabilized on a
central bluff body inside a 25.4-mm-ID stainless-
steel tube. The choice of combustion inside a tube,
which was arbitrary on our part and at that time
relatively unexplored, proved to be serendipitous not
only in terms of the immediate results, but also in
precursing the entire subsequent chain of events
described herein.
Although acoustic resonance was not anticipated
to be a significant factor, Sundstrom observed a cor-
relation between the local rate of heat transfer and
the aurally-sensed amplitude of the noise generated
by the flame, and he promptly acquired the appro-
priate instrumentation for characterization of the
latter. The local rate of heat transfer was found to
depend primarily on the pattern of flow generated
by the combustion, but that pattern was found in
turn to be influenced strongly by the flame-gener-
ated acoustics.1" The latter were rationalized to be
initiated by the periodic shedding and combustion of
the vortices generated by the flameholder, and to be
enhanced by the resulting resonant oscillations in
pressure. Theoretical calculations indicated that the
frequency of the oscillations corresponded to the lon-
O Copyright ChE Division, ASEE 1991
Chemical Engineering Education










A study of the literature on flame-generated oscillations suggested that the "screeching" combustion
associated with jet engines might have a similar cause, but be due to tangential
rather than longitudinal oscillations. Sundstrom was unable to
produce screeching combustion in his apparatus...


gitudinal (organ-pipe) mode. This identification and
pursuit of an unexpected aspect of behavior by an
alert, motivated student was an important, if not
essential, element of the entire ensuing program of
research.
A study of the literature on flame-generated os-
cillations suggested that the "screeching" combus-
tion associated with jet engines might have a similar
cause, but be due to tangential rather than longitu-
dinal oscillations. Sundstrom was unable to produce
screeching combustion in his apparatus, but Wil-
liam N. Zartman, the following student, determined
from crude, preliminary experiments with a flame
stabilized on a bluff body inside plain, uninstru-
mented and uncooled pipes of various sizes, that
screeching combustion could be made to occur for
pipe diameters greater than 100 mm. Hence, stain-
less-steel pipe with a diameter of 127 mm was cho-
sen for his doctoral research. Amplitudes of as great
as 160 db at a frequency of 4125 Hz were attained.
The research itself documented a linear increase
in the local heat-transfer coefficient within the tube
with the amplitude of the resonant oscillations, and
indicated that these oscillations could be dampened
by the installation of 1/4-wavelength tubes radially
at the theoretically-identified nodes.[21 The work of
Zartman was distinguished in character by his use
of inexpensive and brief preliminary experiments to
choose the conditions for detailed study and by the
use of theoretical analysis not only to explain but
also to develop a method for controlling the experi-
mentally-observed behavior.

A PRELIMINARY MODEL FOR
THERMALLY STABILIZED COMBUSTION
In order to eliminate the source of the acoustic
resonance, rather than just dampen it, I speculated
on the possibility of stabilization without backmix-
ing. I thereupon persuaded two students to attempt
to model (as a term project in a seminar-type course)
the stabilization of a flame inside a ceramic channel
by thermal feedback only. One of them, Ward O.
Winer, concluded from a very idealized model based
on the postulates of plug flow with perfect radial
mixing, an infinite rate of combustion following the
attainment of an arbitrary temperature of ignition,
and a tube of infinite length with an emissivity of
Fall 1991


unity and a negligible conductivity, that a flame
could be stabilized within the channel by wall-to-
wall radiation only.

THERMAL STABILIZATION IN A CERAMIC TUBE
The promising (if somewhat hypothetical) result
of Winer gave me the courage to persuade Thomas
D. Bath to undertake experimental research on ra-
diative stabilization in a ceramic tube for his doctor-
ate. Bath succeeded in establishing a flame from
premixed propane vapor and air inside a 25.4-mm
ceramic tube, but (as contrasted with the experi-
ments of Sundstrom and Zartman) the temperature
of the wall approached that of the flame. As a conse-
quence, every tube cracked during the process of
startup, raising the spectre that the stabilization
might be due to recirculation downstream from the
crack. We were disappointed that the flame fluctu-
ated and was somewhat noisy, but concluded this
behavior might also be attributable to the cracks.
Because of the poor definition of the conditions in-
side the tube, we chose not to publish these results
in the archival literature.
THERMAL STABILIZATION IN A CERAMIC BLOCK
As a consequence of such a discouraging experi-
ence, I might not have resumed research on ther-
mally-stabilized combustion at the University of
Pennsylvania (where I had now relocated) had I not
discovered, as a consultant to the Marathon Oil
Company, that the ceramic Wulff furnace elements
used by them for the thermal cracking of methane
would withstand (because of their considerable po-
rosity) temperatures and temperature gradients as
high as those encountered in the experiments of
Bath. Marathon graciously donated several elements
for our research. These consisted of 254-mm-long
blocks perforated by round 9.52-mm holes in a trian-
gular array. Cementing three such elements together
produced a burner with seven channels. The central
one was used for the measurements, and the outer
six functioned as guard heaters.
With this promising device in hand, I persuaded
Joseph L.-P. Chen to undertake as his doctoral re-
search a continuation of the work begun by Bath.
Considerable patience and ingenuity were required
to establish a stationary flame in this ceramic block
the first time; without the confidence generated by









the idealized theoretical solution of Winer and the
experiments of Bath with tubes, we might not have
persisted through the many failures. Once we learned
how, establishing a stationary flame became routine
(if time-consuming), and Chen determined by tedi-
ous trial and error the limits of flow for a stable
flame of premixed propane and air within the block.
For all of these conditions, the process of combustion
was noticeably clean, quiet, and non-fluctuating as
compared to conventional processes, all of which
involve backmixing-by diffusion in laminar flames,
by recirculation in bluff-body-stabilized flames, and
by turbulent fluctuations in jet-mixed flames.
Following this phase of the work, Chen decided
to investigate the dependence of the range of stable
flames on the diameter of the channels by cementing
in ceramic liners with an ID of 4.76 mm. Although
combustion could be established in these smaller
channels, the flame was (to our surprise and disap-
pointment) diffuse and oscillatory. This difference in
behavior was clearly associated with the regime of
flow upstream from the flamefront, being laminar in
the 4.76-mm channels and barely turbulent in the
9.52-mm ones.
In retrospect we were lucky. If the original chan-
nels in the Wulff furnace elements had been 8 mm or
less in diameter, we might have abandoned this line
of research as uninteresting owing to the relatively
poor combustion which occurs in the laminar re-
gime. Instead, because of the clean-cut behavior ob-
served in the 9.52-mm channels, we realized that we
had discovered a new and promising process of com-
bustion.131 Even so, we did not yet even begin to
appreciate all of its unique characteristics.

MODELING OF THERMALLY STABILIZED
COMBUSTION
Despite the above-mentioned accomplishments, I
was somewhat critical of Chen because of his failure
to attain a high degree of reproducibility for his data
(which is an essential requirement of good experi-
mental work), particularly in the determinations of
the location of the flamefront for various conditions.
I was also somewhat impatient with his failure to
produce a numerical solution for an extended theo-
retical model. Both of these judgements proved to be
quite unfair. As shown by later work, the irrepro-
ducibility was inherent in the process. As regards
the numerical solution, the model involved an inte-
gro-differential equation with split boundary condi-
tions for the temperature in the solid phase, to-
gether with differential equations for the tempera-
ture and composition in the gaseous phase, and was


truly formidable at that stage of development of
numerical methods.
Despite no previous experience with either com-
puters or numerical methods, Chen eventually did
devise an ingenious and successful procedure that
produced a solution in close accord with his experi-
mental results. The model incorporated a number of
idealizations including global kinetics, plug flow, and
perfect radial mixing, but only one significant em-
piricism-the effective energy of activation, which
he chose to force agreement with respect to location
of the computed and measured longitudinal profiles
in temperature in the ceramic block.
One disturbing aspect of the numerical proce-
dure was the dependence of this effective energy of
activation on grid size. Even more startling was the
prediction of six additional stable solutions for the
same external conditions. Three of these multiple
states were closely grouped upstream and four down-
stream in the tube. We speculated in print[4] that
two of the seven solutions, i.e., one from each group-
ing, might have physical validity by analogy to those
for a perfectly mixed exothermic reactor, but that
the other five were probably artifacts of the approxi-
mate and iterative method of solution-a not un-
common experience with integral equations.
The numerical solution revealed that the tem-
perature of the burned gas just beyond the flamefront
exceeded the adiabatic flame temperature. This re-
sult, which is perhaps startling at first glance, is not
a violation of the second law of thermodynamics but
simply a consequence of the refluxing of energy back-
ward across the flamefront by wall-to-wall radiation
and in-wall conduction. The temperature of the
burned gas leaving the burner is of course below the
adiabatic value by an amount equivalent to the total
heat losses from the ceramic block to the surround-
ings. The calculations revealed that about one-third
of the thermal feedback was by conduction in the
ceramic block and two-thirds by wall-to-wall radia-
tion, and indeed that (contrary to the approximate
model of Winer that encouraged this line of research)
the contribution of thermal conduction through the
ceramic block was essential to the existence of a
stable flame.
Chen also carried out calculations for a variety of
parametric conditions beyond the range of his ex-
periments. His prediction of the limiting flamespeeds
for a 25.4-mm channel agreed closely with the meas-
ured values of Bath, validating them retroactively.
Numerical calculations with Chen's model were not
attempted for a 4.76-mm channel since the postu-
lates of plug flow and perfect radial mixing were
Chemical Engineering Education









obviously not applicable for the laminar regime.
Chen's experimental work revealed a new proc-
ess of both intrinsic and practical value, and his
modeling and numerical solutions were a valuable
complement. Most of the characteristic elements of
behavior of thermally stabilized combustion were
totally unexpected when we began. Luck, my per-
haps excessive confidence in the asymptotic solution
of Winer, and the persistence and ingenuity of Chen
(both experimentally and theoretically) were all es-
sential to the great success of this research.
THE SEARCH FOR
MULTIPLE STATIONARY STATES
Melvin H. Bernstein undertook the task of search-
ing for the predicted multiple stationary states as
his doctoral researchE51 with a newly-acquired set of
Wulff furnace elements. First, he reproduced Chen's
data within its band of variability. Then he searched
for and found the expected second stationary state,
then the five more which we had not expected de-
spite their prediction by the numerical solution. One
curious and (to this day) unexplained aspect of these
measurements was the observation of four closely
grouped upstream states and three even more closely
grouped downstream states, whereas Chen's model
predicted four downstream and three upstream.
The Mobil R&D Company responded favorably
and graciously to my request to analyze several
samples of the burned gas from Bernstein's experi-
ments since we did not then have equipment for
such measurements. We were excited to learn from
these analyses that the thermally stabilized burner
(TSB) produced no residual hydrocarbons since (as
contrasted with all conventional burners) none of
the fuel bypasses the zone of high temperature. Also,
the TSB was found to produce essentially no "prompt"
NO in the flamefront owing to its negligible thick-
ness, and to produce exceptionally low concentra-
tions of "thermal" NOx (5-30 ppm) thereafter owing
to the short post-flame times of residence. The con-
centration of total NOx was found to be directly pro-
portional to the post-flame residence time, as would
be expected for a zero-order reaction. On the other
hand, these low values of NO constituted a tradeoff
with CO in that the same post-flame residence times
were insufficient for complete oxidation to CO2.
I encouraged Bernstein to improve upon Chen's
computer program, but he was unable to make even
the original one operational. Finally, in desperation
and impatience I telephoned Chen and solicited his
help. He offered to retest his program as a first step
and to call back the next day. After a suspicious
Fall 1991


delay of several days he called and shamefacedly
reported that he had inadvertently printed a
preliminary inoperable computer program in his
dissertation, but that he was sending us the
original, correct one, which he had retested and found
operational.
However, Bernstein, in his struggles with the
inoperable program, had discovered two significant
errors. They were found to exist in the "original"
program as well. Both of the errors inflated the heat-
transfer coefficient for convection downstream from
the flamefront as estimated from a standard correla-
tion. When these errors were eliminated, no stable
solutions could be computed. After much agony, we
concluded that an inexplicably high coefficient was
necessary to produce stable solutions, at least with
Chen's model. (It took another decade of work to
explain this anomaly.)
We were now in the unbelievable situation of
having found seven stationary states experimentally
only because we were inspired to search for them
by a theoretical model which now appeared to be
invalid! But for the errors in his computer program,
Chen might never have attained a solution, and
Bernstein would never have searched for or found
all of the six additional stationary states. (The sub-
sequent history of our research suggests that we
would have eventually searched for and found at
least one additional state.) In retrospect, the irrepro-
ducibility of Chen's data arose from the establish-
ment on successive days of different members of the
closely-grouped set of upstream states. The particu-
lar state depended upon minor variations in the
process of startup that we had no reason at the time
to consider relevant.
Again, luck was obviously an important element
in our success, but two lessons stand out. First, the
interaction of experimental and theoretical work is
often synergetic and may produce more than either
one alone. Second, independent efforts by two or
more investigators may identify and explain anoma-
lies that escape attention and/or resolution by only
one. These two lessons have been reinforced by our
subsequent experiences as described below.

THERMALLY STABILIZED COMBUSTION OF A
LIQUID FUEL
As his doctoral research, Byung Choi extended
the investigation of thermally stabilized combustion
to liquid fuels by burning droplets of hexane gener-
ated by vibration of a capillary tube. Stroboscopic
visualization of droplets of water in a preliminary
experiment was utilized to confirm a theoretical









model, which was then used to guide the unobserved
production of a chain of uniformly-sized and uni-
formly-spaced droplets of hexane within the burner.
His results agreed remarkably well with those of
Chen, suggesting that the thermally stabilized burner
was essentially fuel-independent insofar as the drop-
lets were small enough and volatile enough to evapo-
rate completely ahead of the flamefront.
However, Choi was not able to establish more
than one stationary state for a given set of condi-
tions.E61 He extended Chen's model to encompass
evaporation of the droplets and devised a greatly
improved but still approximate method of solving
the integro-differential equation (which proved to
have general utility even outside of combustion and
for solving purely integral equations as well)." With
this method, the effective energy of activation re-
quired to match the computed location of the
flamefront with the experimental one was not de-
pendent on grid size. He avoided the "stiffness" asso-
ciated with the steep gradients of temperature and
composition in the flamefront by using steps in com-
position rather than distance in the numerical inte-
gration. Even so, extreme sensitivity was encoun-
tered in the computational procedure; the stable so-
lution was found to be dependent on the eighth sig-
nificant figure of the temperature of the wall at the
inlet, which quantity was used as the variable of
iteration.
The numerical solution provided a complete, es-
sentially fuel-independent locus of flamefronts ver-
sus the rate of flow of fuel and air in close agreement
with the data for both gaseous propane and droplets
ofhexane.18s However, this relationship predicts only
two stable locations for a given fuel-to-air ratio and
rate of flow, one near the inlet and one near the
outlet of the channel. The other five stable states
predicted by Chen and observed by Bernstein are
only slightly displaced from this locus, and we now
postulate that the slight approximation which expe-
dited the process of solution eliminates the fine struc-
ture which would have resulted in their prediction.
As contrasted with blowoff and flashback for con-
ventional burners, the above-mentioned locus of sta-
bility predicts another unique characteristic for
thermally stabilized combustion: for increasing rates
of flow, both of the computed stable locations of the
flamefront are predicted to shift inward toward a
common point near the longitudinal midpoint of the
channel followed by extinguishment; for decreasing
rates of flow, both of the computed stable locations
are predicted to shift outward to the respective ends
of the channel, with extinguishment occurring some-


what short of the ends. The predicted limiting be-
havior was not tested by Choi, even for the single
downstream stable flame he established, because of
the difficulty of adjusting the fuel and air propor-
tionately while maintaining the same size and spac-
ing for the droplets.
Choi also computed the chemical process of com-
bustion using a global model for conversion of the
hexane to CO and H20, and pseudo-steady-state free-
radical models for the formation of NO and the
oxidation of CO. The predicted concentrations of NO
were greatly in excess of, and those of residual CO
were grossly below, the measured values, suggesting
that these models were inadequate, at least for the
high temperatures and minimal backmixing encoun-
tered in thermally stabilized combustion.
The previously noted lessons concerning the con-
duct of research were reinforced in a slightly differ-
ent context by the work of Choi. Again, a fresh ap-
proach by a second investigator, this time in solving
the general model with some extensions, was very
productive. The resulting solution included a com-
plete locus for the stable flamefronts, and thereby
the prediction of unique and unexpected limiting
behavior. It also provided theoretical confirmation
for the observed fuel-independence of the thermally
stabilized burner. In addition, theoretical modeling
of the atomization was a critical element in the de-
sign of the experiments.

THE SEARCH FOR MULTIPLE STATIONARY
STATES WITH DROPLETS OF HEXANE
John W. Goepp, as his M.S.E. thesis, and with
the help of Shu-Kin (Harry) Tang, completely recon-
structed the experimental apparatus of Choi in or-
der to provide more precise and flexible control of
the rates of flow of air and hexane, and thereby
facilitate the search for multiple stationary states in
that system. Wulff furnace elements were no longer
available, but a geometrically equivalent burner was
cast from a commercial ceramic cement. Equipment
for online analysis for NO, COx, CO, CO,, and 02
was added. The improved control permitted iden-
tification of as many as three upstream and two
downstream multiple stationary states with hexane.?g9
Presumably, two more might have been found with
better control and care. The locations of all of
these stable flamefronts were in good accord with
the predictions of Choi. The online chemical analy-
ses were in agreement with those by Mobil, elimi-
nating the nagging possibility that the latter
were affected by the storage and transportation of

Chemical Engineering Education










samples in Teflon bags.

CHEMICAL MODELING
OF THE POST-FLAME ZONE
Tang utilized the improved apparatus constructed
by Goepp and himself to investigate as his doctoral
research the effects of an addition of small concen-
trations of fuel-nitrogen and fuel-sulfur to hexane on
the formation of NO He covered a more complete
range of residence times than his predecessors by
making periodic, pseudo-steady-state measurements
while the flamefront drifted upstream from a stable
location near the outlet or downstream from one
near the inlet as a result of a perturbation in the
rate of flow. He also investigated a wider range of
equivalence ratios (fuel-to-air ratios divided by the
stoichiometric fuel-to-air ratio). He found that the
conversion of fuel-nitrogen to NOx occurred primar-
ily in the flamefront, was almost quantitative for
equivalence ratios from 0.6 to 1.0, and fell off outside
that range.E10t Fuel-sulfur was found to reduce the
formation of thermal NOx slightly and fuel-NOx sig-
nificantly,'111 a result which was in contrast with
prior observations for other types of burners.
Tang initially resisted my proposal to model the
post-flame reactions with a complete set of free-
radical mechanisms, but relented when I mentioned
that the alternative was explanation and possibly
reinterpretation of his experimental results by an-
other student. By trial-and-error he found that a
kinetic model incorporating twenty-one reversible
reactions was sufficient for the post-flame region for
the combustion of pure hexane, and that twenty-
three additional reactions were necessary for fuel-
nitrogen and sixteen more for fuel-sulfur. He postu-
lated a global model for the combustion of hexane to
CO and H2O. When the mole fraction of hexane fell
to 1 ppm due to combustion, the fuel-nitrogen and
fuel-sulfur were postulated to be converted quanti-
tatively and instantaneously to HCN and H2S re-
spectively. The post-flame model was then initiated.
The predictions of NOx by Tang were in good
agreement with his measurements for equivalence
ratios up to 1.1, but in disagreement beyond.[12' The
details of the computations revealed significant de-
viations of the concentrations of all of the free radi-
cals from their pseudo-steady-state values through-
out the post-flame zone, thus explaining the failure
of prior predictions. The model predicted negligible
formation of NO2 (less than 10 ppb) in contrast to a
significant fraction of the NO in the measurements.
Subsequent calculations suggested that all of the
measured NO2 was formed in the sampling tube,
Fall 1991


and this presumption has since been verified by
spectrographic measurements within a burner. The
deviation of the predicted concentrations of NOx for
very fuel-rich mixtures from the measured values
was presumed to be due to the failure of the postu-
late of quantitative conversion of the fuel to CO and
H20. This speculation was eventually confirmed as
described below. The predictions of NOx for hexane
with added fuel-nitrogen were in good agreement
with the measurements (except for very fuel-rich
mixtures for the same reason as above).J131 The pre-
dictions for added fuel-sulfur were in qualitative
agreement with the measurements, but the reduc-
tions in NO were less.""
The work of Tang reemphasized the generalities
noted above with respect to exploratory research.
The synergetic value of combined experimentation
and modeling was overwhelmingly apparent-par-
ticularly to Tang, who had initially resisted the in-
cremental effort required by the latter. Again, com-
mon wisdom, this time in terms of the pseudo-steady-
state postulate for the concentration of free radicals,
was found to be misleading. The detailed kinetic
model not only improved the predictions of NO. and
CO, but also explained the failure of the early mod-
els. The prediction of NO2 brought the process of
measurement into question, and subsequent model-
ing of the process of sampling demonstrated that the
measurements of NO2 and CO were indeed in error
due to an inadequate rate of quenching.
On the other hand, the extended range of experi-
ments with respect to equivalence ratio identified
the limit of validity of post-flame modeling alone,
and suggested a new direction for this research. The
qualitative agreement between the experimental and
the theoretical effects of fuel-sulfur on the formation
of NO. was essential in obtaining acceptance from
the reviewers of an article for publication, since this
result is contradictory to both experimental meas-
urements and theoretical predictions for other types
of combustion. On the other hand, the quantitative
discrepancy between the measured and predicted
effects of fuel-sulfur suggested an error in the mod-
eling which was examined and resolved in subse-
quent work. The results for fuel-sulfur suggest an-
other generality with respect to exploratory research.
One must be prepared to justify (in great detail and
beyond any question) radical results which invali-
date prior theories or generalities, particularly those
of the reviewers themselves.

CHEMICAL MODELING OF THE PREFLAME ZONE
Lisa D. Pfefferle proposed modeling chemical









kinetics in the preflame region as her doctoral re-
search. Since prior work had indicated the behavior
of the thermally stabilized burner to be essentially
fuel-independent, methane (for which the rate mecha-
nisms were presumed to be the simplest and most
reliable) was chosen as a fuel. This research ap-
peared in advance to be straightforward, but (as
indicated below) unexpected results and difficulties
arose at every turn. First, a clean and non-
oscillatory flame could not be stabilized in the new,
longer (508-mm) burner which had been cast. Sev-
eral weeks were spent recalibrating the metering
devices, analyzing the fuel, making a new 254-mm-
long burner, etc.-all to no avail. In despair, she
turned back to propane, which proved to burn stably
as before. She then tried ethane, which also burned
satisfactorily, and chose it in preference to propane
and methane for the subsequent studies.
Analysis of the data for methane revealed that
the steady rate of flow fell in the laminar regime
upstream from the flamefront as contrasted with the
turbulent regime for ethane, propane, and hexane.
She speculated (and later confirmed by modeling)
that this difference in behavior for methane was due
to the absence of a C-C bond. One productive conse-
quence of this adventure (which was very disturbing
at the time) was the construction of a graphical
correlation for the regimes of stability in the TSB for
various fuels, equivalence ratios, channel-diameters,
and channel-lengths. 41 Another was a computational
study of the adiabatic and non-adiabatic ignition of
various fuels and mixtures thereof.[15,161
The studies of stability confirmed that turbulent
flow is barely achieved in a 9.52-mm channel, even
with C2+ fuels. It may be inferred that turbulent flow
is unlikely to occur in ordinary chemical reactors
since the much lower rates of reaction compared to
those for combustion cannot be compensated for en-
tirely by a larger diameter. 171 Therefore, the postu-
late of plug flow cannot be justified on the basis of
turbulent flow in either homogeneous or heterogene-
ous reactors despite that implication in most text-
books on chemical reaction engineering.
The computational studies of ignition by
Pfefferle revealed that small concentrations of H2 or
C2+ in the mixture greatly enhance the ignitability.
Had ordinary natural gas been used (rather than
chemically pure methane) in her initial experimen-
tal studies in the thermally stabilized burner, the
difficulties which caused such agony and led to the
switch to ethane would not have been encountered.
On the other hand, the long-range effects of this
experience were many and all positive, including


another example of the fundamental difference be-
tween thermally stabilized combustion and other
processes, for which backmixing is a sufficient source
of free radicals for rupture of the C-H bond.
Having established a model for the preflame re-
gion, Pfefferle encountered great difficulty with the
stability of the solution of the set of differential
equations representing the kinetic behavior ahead
of the flamefront as contrasted with the single one
for global kinetics. This characteristic difficulty in
solving ordinary differential equations numerically
is known as "stiffness" and arises from widely sepa-
rated eigenvalues, or in physical terms in this in-
stance from the critical dependence of the kinetics
on minute concentrations of free radicals near the
inlet of the burner. Brute-force calculations require
intolerably small steps in space in that region.
Pfefferle surmounted this difficulty by using an ap-
proximate analytical solution for the very inlet, fol-
lowed by a standard scheme of marching.
Her computations revealed incredibly complex
behavior near the flamefront and resulted in very
good predictions of NO and CO even for very fuel-
rich mixtures. The path of oxidation of ethane to CO
and H20 was found to proceed through many inter-
mediates such as CH2OH.J181 This work confirms that,
while a global kinetic model with adjustable empiri-
cal constants is able to predict the thermal behavior
with reasonable accuracy, it cannot possibly be used
to predict the concentrations of CO, NO, etc., either
locally or overall. Pfefferle also modeled the pre-
flame as well as the post-flame zone for the combus-
tion of ethane with additions of ammonial'1 and of
ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.1201 The predictions of
NOx for pure ethane and for ethane plus ammonia
were in good agreement with her own measured
values, but the initial calculations for the added
effect of hydrogen sulfide were not. She concluded
that some important mechanisms were missing from
the best current compilations. She also concluded
that the greater reduction in fuel-NOx by fuel-sulfur
in the TSB as compared to conventional burners was
due to the higher temperatures in the immediate
preflame zone and to the minimal backmixing. The
contrasting chemical behavior for various conven-
tional burners was successfully modeled with the
same kinetic mechanisms by postulating an adjust-
able combination of a plug-flow reactor and a per-
fectly mixed one.
The productivity of Pfefferle's research was
greatly enhanced relative to original expectations by
the completely unexpected behavior of methane
vis-a-vis other fuels in the TSB. This result was a
Chemical Engineering Education









consequence of the fortuitous use of chemically pure
methane rather than natural gas. Many important
findings followed: 1) the absence of a C-C bond was
identified as the source of fuel-sensitivity; 2) the
absence of backmixing was identified as the source
of the difficulty in burning methane in the TSB as
contrasted with other burners; 3) the study ofignita-
bility revealed the sensitivity of the TSB to small
concentrations of C2+ and H2; and 4) the generalized
analysis of stability resulted in the recognition that
turbulent flow is unlikely in conventional reactors.
Other difficulties and anomalies were also a pre-
cursor to discovery. The stiffness of the free-radical,
preflame kinetic model as compared to a global one
resulted in the development of a new technique for
that purpose. The failure of the predictions of the
effect of fuel-sulfur on the formation of NOx to agree
with experimental measurements in the TSB identi-
fied missing mechanisms as the culprit, and the
different effects in a TSB and conventional burners
were rationalized in terms of a combination of plug-
flow and perfectly mixed reactors-a classical appli-
cation of the methodology of chemical reaction engi-
neering.

TESTING THE POSTULATE OF PLUG FLOW
The study of stability by Pfefferle'14' led to a fur-
ther inference not mentioned above. Since the stable
flow upstream from the flamefront is barely turbu-
lent, at least for a 9.52-mm channel, the approxi-
mately seven-fold increase in absolute temperature
and the associated approximately five-fold increase
in dynamic viscosity result in a decrease of the Rey-
nolds number behind the flamefront to much less
than 2100 for all conditions. Laminarization was
therefore to be expected. In all of the above-
mentioned modeling, plug flow was postulated both
upstream and downstream from the flamefront, ex-
cept for the evaluation of the heat-transfer coeffi-
cient for convection, which was estimated from em-
pirical correlations for fully developed turbulent flow
upstream and for developing laminar flow down-
stream. The postulate of plug flow in the kinetic
model was excused on the basis of the demonstra-
tion by ArisE21' that the error in the conversion of a
reactant due to the postulate of plug flow rather
than laminar (parabolic) flow is less than 11% for a
first-order reaction and even less for higher orders.
Even so, I was very pleased when Lance R. Collins
chose as his doctoral research to investigate lami-
narization behind the flamefront and its effect on
the post-flame reactions. He computed the time-
averaged field of velocity using a low-Reynolds-
Fall 1991


number k-e model for turbulencef221 and then the cor-
responding chemical compositions using a free-
radical kinetic model.'231 His measured pressure gra-
dients and velocities at the centerline were in rea-
sonable accord with the predictions, but both his
measured and predicted concentrations of CO were
as much as 25% higher than computed values based
on plug flow. This unexpected result led to the reali-
zation that the generalization of Aris is not appli-
cable to the residual concentration of a reactant. For
example, the possible error in the residual concen-
trations of a reactant by a first-order reaction due to
assuming plug flow rather than laminar flow is un-
bounded. The formation of NOx is not affected sig-
nificantly since it is effectively zero-order and as
such is independent of the velocity distribution.
The lesson here is that an authoritative gener-
alization, although valid per se, may not be valid for
conditions that differ subtly. We were ourselves
misled for over a decade by the accuracy of the pre-
dictions of NO to the extent of presuming a
chemical-kinetic rather than a fluid-mechanical ex-
planation for the observed errors in the predictions
of CO. It is noteworthy that none of the reviewers of
our several papers seriously challenged the applica-
bility of the postulate of plug flow in our modeling.

GENERATION OF STEAM
AND THE REDUCTION OF RESIDUAL CO
The very low concentrations of NOx produced in
the thermally stabilized combustor are, as noted
above, somewhat at the expense of large residual
concentrations of CO. Furthermore, NO continues
to form in the products of combustion after leaving
the burner insofar as they remain at high tempera-
ture. This period may be significant with conven-
tional boilers, etc. As his doctoral research, Mark R.
Stronger chose to investigate a process devised to
quench the formation of NO in the boiler, but to
allow continued oxidation of CO while generating
steam. The equipment consisted of seven metal tubes
(contiguous with the channels of the combustor) that
passed through a pool of boiling water contained in a
cylindrical jacket.
The process worked exactly as planned chemi-
cally124J but the heat transfer coefficient for forced
convection from the products of combustion was much
higher than expected.'251 A theoretical solution for
the fluid mechanics and heat transfer using the same
k-e model as that of Collins provided an explana-
tion.126' The flow inside the combustor is in transi-
tion from turbulent to laminar flow. As the gas is
cooled inside the metal tubes, the viscosity decreases,










the Reynolds number increases, and a transition
back to turbulent flow occurs. Owing to this transi-
tion, a heat transfer coefficient higher than that for
either fully developed laminar or fully developed
turbulent flow is achieved.
The turbulent-laminar transition explains, at
least in part, the excessive heat transfer coefficients
required in the models of Chen[41 and Choi.'81 The
heat transfer coefficient for forced convection inside
small tubes is much greater than that for radiative
transfer and unconfined convection in conventional
boilers, even without enhancement by transition.
The combined effect produces a reduction of several
orders of magnitude in the size of the boiler.
Although the chemical behavior in Strenger's
research was much as expected, the thermal/fluid-
mechanical behavior produced a favorable surprise
which could be explained only through the theoreti-
cal modeling.

CONCLUSIONS
Combustion is a worthy subject of research by
chemical engineers. It is of obvious practical impor-
tance, but has been the subject of only limited funda-
mental work. As a result of recent progress in chemi-
cal kinetics and machine computation, it is respon-
sive to modeling with the classical techniques of
chemical reaction engineering, and as a result of
recent improvements in instrumental techniques,
the in situ measurements necessary to test critically
such modeling have become possible.
Thermally stabilized combustion proved, as indi-
cated herein, to be a fortunate choice for this pro-
gram of research because the fluid mechanics are
simple relative to all conventional processes of com-
bustion, while the thermal/chemical behavior differs
radically in almost every respect. The characteris-
tics of thermally stabilized combustion, which are
noted herein only in a historical context, are sum-
marized elsewhere.[27]
Conclusions relative to the conduct of academic
exploratory research were drawn above in connec-
tion with each of the separate undertakings, and
only generalities in this regard will be listed here.
Most discoveries arise from experimentally observed
anomalies (the existence of multiple stationary states
was an exception in that it arose from modeling).
Theoretical modeling is usually necessary to
understand and explain observed anomalies, and
thereby to determine whether they represent physical
behavior or experimental error.
The combination of experimentation and modeling is
generally more productive than their separate
performance.


Consecutive individual efforts on a general problem
often provide new insights.
It follows that one of the most important roles of
a faculty advisor is to encourage students to be on
the alert for anomalies and to pursue and/or resolve
them. A more difficult but worthwhile endeavor is to
persuade theoretically inclined students to test their
modeling experimentally, and experimentally in-
clined students to develop a model to explain and
extend their measurements.

REFERENCES
1. Sundstrom, D.W., and S.W. Churchill, "Heat Transfer from
Premixed Gas Flames in a Cooled Tube," Chem. Eng.
Progr. Symp. Series, No. 30, 56, 65 (1960)
2. Zartman, W.N., and S.W. Churchill, "Heat Transfer from
Acoustically Resonating Gas Flames in a Cylindrical
Burner," AIChE J., 7, 588 (1961)
3. Chen, J.L.-P., and S.W. Churchill, "Stabilization of Flames
in Refractory Tubes," Combust. Flame, 18, 37 (1972)
4. Chen, J.L.-P., and S.W. Churchill, "A Theoretical Model
for Stable Combustion Inside a Refractory Tube," Com-
bust. Flame, 18, 27 (1972)
5. Bernstein, M.H., and S.W. Churchill, "Multiple Stationary
States and NO Production for Turbulent Flames in Re-
fractory Tubes," p. 1737, Sixteenth Symp. (Intern.) on Com-
bustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (1977)
6. Choi, Byung, and S.W. Churchill, "Evaporation and Com-
bustion of Uniformly Sized Hexane Droplets in a Refrac-
tory Tube," p. 83, Evaporation-Combustion of Fuels, Ad-
vances in Chemistry Series No. 166, J.T. Zung, Ed., Amer.
Chem. Soc., Washington, DC (1978)
7. Choi, Byung, and S.W. Churchill, "A Technique for Ob-
taining Approximate Solutions for a Class of Integral
Equations Arising in Radiative Transfer," Int. J. Heat
Fluid Flow, 6,42 (1985)
8. Choi, Byung, and S.W. Churchill, "A Model for Combus-
tion of Gaseous and Liquid Fuels in Refractory Tubes," p.
917, Seventeenth Symp. (Intern.) on Combustion, The
Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (1979)
9. Goepp, J.W., Harry Tang, Noam Lior, and S.W. Churchill,
"Multiplicity and Pollutant Formation for the Combustion
of Hexane in a Refractory Tube," AIChE J., 26, 855 (1980)
10. Tang, S.-K., S.W. Churchill, and Noam Lior, "The Forma-
tion of Thermal and Fuel NO. for Radiantly Stabilized
Combustion," p. 73, Eighteenth Symp. (Intern.) on Com-
bustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (1981)
11. Tang, S.-K., S. W. Churchill, and Noam Lior, "The Effect
of Fuel-Sulfur on NOx Formation from a Refractory
Burner,"AIChE Symp. Series No. 211, 77, 77 (1981)
12. Tang, S.-K., and S.W. Churchill, "A Theoretical Model for
Combustion Reactions Inside a Refractory Tube," Chem.
Eng. Commun., 9, 137 (1981)
13. Tang, S.-K., and S.W. Churchill, "The Prediction of NO,
Formation for the Combustion of Nitrogen-Doped Drop-
lets of Hexane Inside a Refractory Tube," Chem. Eng.
Commun., 9, 151(1981)
14. Pfefferle, L.D., and S.W. Churchill, "The Stability of Flames
Inside a Refractory Tube," Combust. Flame, 56, 165 (1984)
15. Pfefferle, L.D., and S.W. Churchill, "The Adiabatic Igni-
tion of Low-Heating Value Gases at Constant Pressure,"
VDI Berichte No. 607, 1835 (1986); Chem.-Ing.-Tech., 58,
138(1986)
16. Pfefferle, L.D., and S.W. Churchill, "The Ignition of Mix-
tures of Methane, Ethane, and Hydrogen in Air by Homo-


Chemical Engineering Education









generous Heating at Constant Pressure," in review.
17. Churchill, S.W., and L.D. Pfefferle, "The Refractory Tube
Burner as an Ideal Stationary Chemical Reactor," Instn.
Chem. Eng., Symp. Series No 87, 279 (1985)
18. Pfefferle, L.D., and S.W. Churchill, "The Kinetic Modeling
of Combustion of Ethane Inside a Refractory Tube Burner,"
Proc. World Congr. III of Chem. Eng., Tokyo, 4, 68 (1986)
19. Pfefferle, L.D., and S.W. Churchill, "NO Production from
the Combustion of Ethane Doped with Ammonia in a
Thermally Stabilized Plug Flow Burner," Combust. Sci.
Tech., 49,235 (1986)
20. Pfefferle, L.D., and S.W. Churchill, "Effect of Fuel Sulfur
on Nitrogen Oxide Formation in a Thermally Stabilized
Plug-Flow Burner," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 28, 1004 (1989)
21. Aris, Rutherford, Introduction to the Analysis of Reactors,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1965)
22. Collins, L.R., and S.W. Churchill, "The Decay of Turbu-
lence in a Tube Following a Combustion-Generated Step
in Temperature," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., in press
23. Collins, L.R., and S.W. Churchill, "Effect of Laminarizing
Flow on Post-Flame Reactions in a Thermally Stabilized
Burner," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 29,456 (1990)
24. Stronger, M.R., and S.W. Churchill, "Formation of NO,
and Burnoff of CO During Thermal Quenching of the
Products from Combustion in a Thermally Stabilized
Burner," Twenty-Second Symposium (Intern.) on
Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA
(1988)
25. Stronger, M.R., and S.W. Churchill, "The Intensification
of Heat Transfer in Transition from Laminar to Turbulent
Flow," Proc. Ninth Intern. Heat Trans. Conf., Jerusalem,
Vol. 6, p. 199 (1990)
26. Stronger, M.R., and S.W. Churchill, "The Prediction of
Heat Transfer from Burned Gases in Transitional Flow
Inside a Tube," Num. Heat Transfer, in press
27. Churchill, S.W., "Thermally Stabilized Combustion," Chem.
Eng. Tech., 12, 249 (1989) 0


REVIEW: Thermodynamics
Continued from page 183.
dard enthalpy change for reactions as a function of
temperature. Further, the units are now essentially
all SI. There has been some rearrangement of mate-
rial that includes putting fugacity earlier and devot-
ing more material to EOS and high-pressure phase
equilibria. Finally, there are revised examples and
problems.
Over the years we have used different editions of
the text in our own teaching. A recent experience
was with students whose first course was in the
engineering core, so this book was used for a subse-
quent chemical engineering course in chemical th-
ermodynamics. Our opinions on the success of the
book are similar. In general, the examples and prob-
lems are very good-they are challenging but consis-
tent with the text. The exposure to all combinations
of phase equilibria is highly desirable. Also, the pro-
grams included in the second edition can be quite
useful to students in addressing real (and therefore
complex) systems, as well as fostering an explora-

Fall 1991


tory mode of how nature actually behaves. This is
especially valuable for students who must encounter
the idealized or limited nonideal descriptions of physi-
cal chemistry thermodynamics.
The connections of the text to other courses is
difficult to measure. Our experience is that differ-
ences of approach and notation usually overwhelm
the similarities that may appear to students in later
courses unless the same instructor is involved.
The text does achieve a significant level of detail,
but this often leads to confusion about the funda-
mentals. The dilemma of how many formulae to put
into the hands of students is solved by using exten-
sive tables of equations for different cases. Often,
the student's reaction is to try to use these tables to
look up a formula rather than to quickly derive the
one they need for a problem. Another effect of this is
to inadequately distinguish between fundamental
concepts, approximate relationships, and specific il-
lustrations. The result is that students become un-
sure of which are the big things that should be
focused on and remembered. It also leads to a great
deal of the material being strictly mathematical,
with little physical connections that are either macro-
scopic or molecular.
Teachers will undoubtedly have differences with
the author about his selection of correlations-that
is inevitable in this area. In any case, the correla-
tions are often presented without indication of
whether they are to be used in real work or whether
they are merely illustrative. The corresponding states
treatment involves graphs from Hougan, Watson,
and Ragatz containing Zc, but equations containing
the acentric factor. While the treatment for mix-
tures is complete, it is quite mathematical and fol-
lows a considerable discussion of the fugacity of pure
components, so the whole exposition appears less
focused than it might be.
All of the above issues may be dealt with by an
experienced instructor who is comfortable with this
difficult subject. In particular, highlighting the im-
portant material and simplifying complexities will
be necessary. This takes a high level of concentra-
tion and a willingness to sacrifice some of the rigor
of the text-this might ask for more commitment
from students than they want to give. They will also
have to deal with the text and the teacher appearing
to conflict with one another.
The qualities of the text are numerous. It has
been adopted in a limited number of situations, ac-
cording to the latest AIChE Education Survey, and
it is worthy of serious consideration at least as a
reference. O










Random Thoughts...



MEET YOUR STUDENTS

4. Jill and Perry


RICHARD M. FIELDER
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-7905

ill and Perry are senior engineering students.
They met at their freshman orientation seminar,
started dating soon afterward, and have been to-
gether ever since. A friend once remarked that they
had the only perfect relationship he had ever seen:
there wasn't a single thing they agreed about!
They had an appointment to meet in the student
lounge at 3:00 this afternoon. It is now well past
4:00. Jill is sitting at a table alone, trying to work
but frequently looking over at the door and scowling.
Perry finally walks in, greets a few friends, walks
over to Jill's table, and sits down.

Perry: (brightly) "Hi-get it all figured out yet?"
Jill: (glaring) "Where were you?"
Perry: "Oh, a few of us in Tau Beta Pi got going
on the plans for the Awards Banquet and I
lost track of the time...I'm not that late, am
I?"
Jill: "Not for you, maybe, but for normal people
an hour and twenty minutes might qualify
for that late. Am I wrong or did we agree
Sunday that we'd study for the design test
from 3 to 4 today?"
Perry: "Come on, lighten up. We still have a couple
of hours till supper, and the exam's not
until Friday-you know Professor Furze
postponed it yesterday."
Jill: "I know he did, but we still had an
appointment...and I've got a 331 lab report
due Thursday and I planned to work on it
between 4 and 6 today and I told you I'd go
to a movie with you tonight. If we study for
the test now and go to the movie, when am


Richard M. Felder is a professor of chemical engi-
neering at North Carolina State University, where he
has been since 1969,. He received his BChE from
City College of C.U.N. Y. and his PhD from Prince-
ton. He has worked at the A.E.R.E., Harwell, and
Brookhaven National Laboratory and has presented
courses on chemical engineering principles, reactor
design, process optimization, and effective teaching
to various American and foreigh industries and insti-
tutions. He is coauthor of the text Elementary Prin-
ciples of Chemical Processes (Wiley, 1986).


I supposed to do the report?"
Perry: "You and your ridiculous schedules...
couldn't you have worked on the report
while you were waiting for me?"
Jill: "Look, my ridiculous schedules are the only
reason we're seniors now-if it were up to
you to plan our lives we'd still be working
on our sophomore course assignments and
the only time we'd ever study for a test is
all night the night before...that is, if you
managed to remember we were having a
test."
Perry: "That's not true...besides, which of us got
the highest grades on the first two design
exams?"
Jill: "That has nothing to do with anything!
Anyway, it's 4:30 and we haven't started
yet...let's see...maybe if we study for about
45 minutes now, then I'll work on the re-
port and we can get a pizza delivered, and
that way we can leave at 7 to get to the
movie...yeah, I think that should..."
Perry: "Why don't we just get started and see
where we are at 7 and decide then what to
do-we can always skip the movie or go
and study some more when we get back if
we need to."
Jill: "No, we need to set it up now or else we'll


@ Copyright ChE Division, ASEE 1991


Chemical Engineering Education


1--:










just drift along and never get anything
done. OK, let's say we work through these
Chapter 5 problems for about twenty min-
utes and then we...now what?"
Perry: "I'm just going for a Coke-be right back.
Want something?"
Jill: "Yeah, I want you for once in your life to
sit still for more than thirty consecutive
seconds and do what you said you would
do-I've just been sitting here for over an
hour waiting, and you finally get here and
ten minutes later you're taking off again!"
Perry: Relax-I'll just be a minute." (Disappears.)
Jill: (Censored)


Jill is ajudger and Perry is a perceiver.* Judg-
ers tend to be organized and decisive: they like to set
and keep agendas and reach closure on issues. Per-
ceivers tend to be spontaneous, flexible, and open-
minded; they like to keep their options open as long
as possible and postpone decision-making until they
feel sure they have all the relevant information.
Judgers plan ahead for most things. As students
they budget their time for homework and study so
they don't have to do it all at the last minute, and
they can usually be relied on to turn in assignments
on time. However, they tend to jump to conclusions,
make decisions prematurely, and doggedly adhere to
agendas that may no longer be appropriate. In their
classes, judging students want clearly defined ex-
pectations, assignments, and grading criteria, and
they don't like rambling lectures or class discussions
that seem to have little point.
Perceivers do as little planning as possible,
preferring to remain flexible in case something

The degree to which one favors one or the other of these types
can be determined with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, a per-
sonality inventory based on Jung's theory of psychological types
that has been administered to over one million people including
many engineering students and professors.11'21 Jill and Perry
are illustrative of the two types, but not all judgers are just like
Jill and not all perceivers are just like Perry. The two catego-
ries represent preferences, not mutually exclusive categories:
the preferences may be strong or weak, and all people exhibit
characteristics of both types to different degrees.
REFERENCES
1. Lawrence, People Types and Tiger Stripes, 2nd Ed., Cen-
ter for Applications of Psychological Type, Gainesville, FL
(1982)
2. McCaulley, M.H., E.S. Godleski, C.F. Yokomoto, L. Har-
risberger, and E.D. Sloan, "Applications of Psychological
Type in Engineering Education," Eng. Ed., 73(5), 394-400
(1983)


better comes up. They tend to work in fits and
starts, alternating between periods of unfocused ac-
tivity and frantic races to meet deadlines. They have
trouble sticking to agendas, tend to start many more
projects at one time than they can possibly finish,
and are often in danger of missing assignments and
doing poorly on tests due to insufficient study time.
However, they are more likely than judgers to be
aware of facts or data that don't fit their mental
picture of a situation and in fact may go out of their
way to look for such contradictions. When they don't
fully understand something they tend to keep it
open, gathering more information or simply waiting
for inspiration to strike rather than accepting the
first plausible explanation that occurs. Their flexi-
bility and tolerance of ambiguity will make some of
them superb researchers.
While students of both types may become excel-
lent engineers and managers, the working habits of
strong perceivers may make getting through school
a major challenge for them, and anything that can
be done to help them survive is worth attempting.
They benefit from opportunities to follow their curi-
osity and work best on tasks that they have chosen
themselves. They are not helped much by advice to
work at a steady pace and not leave things for the
last moment, which may be too radical a departure
from their natural style to be manageable; however,
it might help to ask them to figure out how late they
can start to work on the assignment or study for the
test and still do everything else they have to do.
Perceivers rarely look at the holes they are digging
themselves into through lack of planning. If they can
be persuaded to itemize the things they intend to do,
they might be convinced that without some planning
they don't have a prayer of doing the things they
have to do.
Epilogue: Ten years later

Jill and Perry got married shortly after gradu-
ation, managing (barely) to survive Perry's twenty-
minute late arrival at the church and Jill's insis-
tence on laying out an hour-by-hour schedule for
their honeymoon. Jill got a job in a design and con-
struction firm, eventually became a highly success-
ful project manager, and is now in line for a vice-
presidency. Perry went on to graduate school, got a
PhD, and is now an eminent researcher at a national
laboratory. It took years, but they finally figured out
a good way to get along with each other.* 0

Unfortunately, I haven't been able to figure out what it might
be.


Fall 1991









curriculum


RISK REDUCTION IN THE

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM


MARVIN FLEISCHMAN
University ofLouisville
Louisville, KY40292

Since Bhopal, words such as hazard, risk, waste,
and chemical seem to be synonymous to the pub-
lic and the media. There is increasing public, gov-
ernment, and industry awareness and concern over
a number of problems: hazardous and toxic chemi-
cals in the workplace, the environment, and home;
increasing quantities of waste and costs of disposal,
along with limited treatment capacity; industrial
and transportation spills and accidents involving
chemicals; contamination of water supplies; etc.
These concerns are being manifested by more
(and tighter) local, state, and federal regulations. At
the same time there is public opposition to things
such as siting of incinerators, landfills, and indus-
trial operations involving hazardous materials.
In response to the problem, the US Environmental
Protection Agency created the phrase Risk Reduc-
tion Engineering as part of a multimedia-based "Pol-
lution Prevention" program. The goal is to minimize
wastes that present current and future risks to
human health and the environment.
With regard to chemical engineering, the risk
reduction concept encompasses a broader spectrum
which includes safety, health, and loss prevention,
as well as waste management and environmental
controls. Risk reduction also deals with the techno-
logical/societal interface in the sense that manage-
ment, regulations, and public relations are all com-
ponents.
All of these concepts are implicit in chemical en-
gineering education. However, despite the apparent
job opportunities for chemical engineers in, for ex-
ample, environmental engineering, risk reduction
still seems to be largely ignored in the curriculum.
In particular, chemical engineering will play a
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE 1991


major role in risk reduction by developing, assess-
ing, and applying the technology that will predict,
measure, control, and reduce risks from hazardous
materials. It is thus timely (and perhaps manda-
tory) that, in the chemical engineering curriculum,
greater emphasis be placed on topics such as waste
reduction, safety, and health. While it is not neces-
sary to make experts of all the students, the under-
graduate program is a logical place to begin provid-
ing a background for recognition of potential haz-
ards and an awareness of safe and clean process and
product designs. Risk reduction can be addressed in
most chemical engineering courses, from general
chemistry to plant design, and the concepts should
be easily understood by the students.'"
I do not believe that new engineering programs
in safety and health or waste-reduction engineering
are needed, such as those that exist, for example, in
environmental engineering. Much of the relevant
knowledge and tools are implicit in the existing
chemical engineering curricula. However, concepts
such as hazardous materials, engineering controls,
and materials substitution, are not usually covered,
and could, at the least, be presented through ex-
ample and homework problems such as those avail-
able from the AIChE Center for Chemical Process
Safety.[21
Risk reduction can be viewed as a unifying gen-
eral concept that will provide an awareness, sensi-
tivity, knowledge, and positive attitude for the stu-
dents' future stewardship of health, safety, and the


A


Marvin Flelschman is a professor of chemical engi-
neering and Director of the Waste Minimization As-
sessment Center at the University of Louisville. He
received his BChE from City College of New York,
and his MS and PhD from the University of Cincin-
nati. He has worked for Monsanto, Exxon, Amoco,
U.S. Public Health Service, NIOSH, and the Army.
His research interests include waste reduction, mem-
brane separations, and health effects.


Chemical Engineering Education









environment. Inclusion of these areas in the curricu-
lum could be facilitated without adding numerous
courses by incorporating them in the "Risk Reduc-
tion" spectrum. For example, in the materials and
energy balances course, the properties, effects, and
management of hazardous materials can be presented
from the viewpoint of simultaneous concerns in the
workplace, home, and environment.
In this paper, inclusion of risk reduction in the
curriculum will be explored, and current related
teaching efforts at the University of Louisville will
be described. General principles and commonalities,
synergies, and trade-offs between the components
will be emphasized.

RISK REDUCTION COURSES AT LOUISVILLE
Several ideas for including safety and health in
the chemical engineering curriculum have been pre-
viously presented.",' These ideas can also be put
into the general framework of risk reduction since
many of them also pertain to environmental con-
cerns. At the University of Louisville, risk reduction
was incorporated into the material and energy bal-
ances course when I last taught it. A one-hour course
entitled Safety, Health, and Environment," will be
mandatory for juniors in the spring 1991 term, and a
two-course sequence, "Safety and Health" and "In-
dustrial Waste Management," was developed as first-
year graduate (500-level) electives. (These two
courses would also be suitable as senior electives,
but our seniors do not have electives.) Graduate
students can also take elective courses in "Mem-
brane Separations" and "Chemodynamics," which are
both related to risk reduction. Graduate students at
the University of Louisville include our fifth-year
Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) students.
A common feature in the material and energy
balances, safety and health, and industrial waste
management courses is a segment we call "In the
News." During the first five minutes of class, articles
from the local newspaper, Time magazine, Chemical
& Engineering News, etc., which are related to ei-
ther chemical safety and health or environmental is-
sues are discussed. Since Louisville is a highly-
industrialized city there is always some local or state
news that the students can relate to, and this height-
ens their interest in the courses. In my opinion, the
day-to-day real-world relevance of these courses is
an important feature. In contrast to more traditional
courses, students asked many questions. It is per-
haps not so surprising to find that students are
interested in risk reduction and that many have cho-


In particular, chemical engineering
will play a major role in risk reduction
by developing, assessing, and applying the
technology that will predict, measure, control,
and reduce risks from hazardous materials.

sen chemical engineering as a career for that very
reason.
Sophomore students interview for their first co-
operative internship position while taking the mate-
rial and energy balances course, and the M.Eng.
students are interviewing for permanent positions
at the same time. Both groups asked the interview-
ers about the company's health, safety, and environ-
mental practices and opportunities. Feedback from
the interviewers indicated that this helped to create
a positive impression of our students. After their
first co-op position, many of the sophomore students
reported that they had dealt with risk reduction ma-
terial covered in the material and energy balances
course, e.g., materials safety data sheets, oxygen
demand of waste-waters.
Specifically, some of the teaching modules from
the AIChE Center for Chemical Process Safety12' were
used in the material and energy balances course.
The students were also required to fill out a materi-
als safety data sheet. Next time I teach the course,
problems developed from waste minimization assess-
ments will be incorporated into the course, e.g., re-
covery of nickel salts from electroplating rinse-
waters.

COMMON FORMAT OF COURSES
"Safety and Health" and "Industrial Waste Man-
agement" are broad-based survey courses offered at
the first-year graduate level in the fall and spring
semesters, respectively. We attempt to describe these
courses in a manner that emphasizes generic and
common features. Some of the risk reduction con-
cepts can be covered in either course or in both.
The course outlines by topic are shown in Table
1, and the textbooks used are listed in Table 2. The
same generic topics are covered in both courses,
including regulations and standards, properties, ef-
fects and characteristics of hazardous and toxic ma-
terials, modeling, heirarchy of management and con-
trol options preventive measures such as substitu-
tion and inventory control, control technology, and
risk assessment. By necessity, there is some overlap
of specifics between the two courses, even though


Fall 1991










repetition is minimized. For example, SARA Title III
is discussed in both courses. However, OSHA regu-
lations are discussed primarily in Safety and Health,
and RCRA primarily in Industrial Waste Manage-
ment. Threshold limit values, while referred to in
Industrial Waste Management, is covered in depth
in the safety and health course, while hazardous
waste lists are discussed in Industrial Waste Man-
agement. Hazardous waste characteristics are dis-
cussed in both courses, but with different emphasis.
However, in each course the commonalities and rela-
tionships between the different aspects of risk re-
duction are pointed out.


Both courses include student team audits and
inspections. In Safety and Health, safety and health
inspections of the chemical engineering laboratories
were done, while in Industrial Waste Management
the students did a waste minimization assessment
at a local plant. The students found the inspections
to be eye-opening, interesting, educational, and fun.
Either of these courses is suitable for seniors, and to
help meet accreditation guidelines they can easily be
structured to include design and to enhance student
communication skills. As an aside, student partici-
pation in safety, health, and waste reduction assess-
ments is an excellent teaching tool. Several students


TABLE 1
Course Outline by Topics


Safety and Health Course


Generic and Common Topics


Industrial Waste Management Course


* Toxicology
* Epidemiology
* Fires and explosions
* Reactivity


* Dos
*Risl


Materials Properties: Effects and Hazards
e response Health/environmental effects of pollutants
k State of the environment
Hazardous waste characteristics


Regulations and Liability


* OSHA, TSCA, HMTA, RCRA, CWA, CAA, CERCLA, HMTA, TSCA,
SARA (Worker right to know) SARA (Community right to know, toxics
release inventory)
Emission Sources, Types, and Characteristics: Criteria and Definitions
* Gases, vapors, particulates Materials safety data sheets Hazardous/toxic waste lists and characteristics
* Threshold limit values DOT guidelines Hazardous waste generator reports
* Other hazard classifications, Air toxics
e.g., NFPA Wastewater parameters


* Source models for worker exposure


Modeling
* Radioactivity concentration guide for water Air pollution: Smog 03, NO., VOCs
* Ambient carbon monoxide standard
Coburn, Forster, Kane equation
* Dispersion


Management, Hazards Identification, Inspections
* Checklists, surveys, reviews, HAZOP Hierarchy for prevention and control Environmental audits
* Accident investigations Waste minimization assessments
* Risk assessment fault and event trees,
probability


* Protective equipment and clothing,
monitoring
* Isolation, ventilation
* Relief valves
* Suppression of fires and explosions


Prevention, Protection, Engineering Controls
* Materials substitution, product/process Underground storage tanks
modification Transportation of wastes
* Inventory control Industrial wastewater pretreatment
* Emergency response, spill prevention Waste reduction, resource recovery, recycling
control Thermal treatment
Landfill disposal
Chemical, physical, and biological treatment
Injection well disposal


* Worker protection



* Safety and health inspection of
chemical engineering building


SSite Remediation _



Student Team Project


* Hazard ranking system
* Containment/treatment technologies
* Financial considerations

* Waste minimization assessment of local
manufacturing facility


Chemical Engineering Education










are participating in a funded waste minimization
assessment program and are involved with the prepa-
ration of preliminary engineering feasibility studies
for a variety of different manufacturing facilities.
Two of these students have received job offers from
major companies to work in waste reduction after
graduation.

In general, the courses are more descriptive and
qualitative than quantitative and theoretical, al-
though a limited number of theoretical/calculational
problems are assigned. Safety and Health is the
more technical course, primarily because of the re-
cent availability of a new chemical engineering text-
book.141 However, the students are made aware of the
relevant principles and techniques from traditional
courses and how to apply them. For example, mate-
rial from Transport Phenomenat51 is used to estimate
relative evaporation rates of solvents as a measure
of fire and health hazards and to estimate solvent
loss. With regard to risk reduction, the students
already know much of the necessary technical con-
tent, but need to be shown where and how to use it.
In this sense, the instructor serves as more of a
facilitator than a subject-matter expert.

Since safety, health, waste management, etc.,
cover such a wide range of topics, it would be diffi-
cult for any one instructor to have sufficient overall
expertise. Also, the available textbooks in these sub-
jects do not cover many relevant topics. Therefore,
quest speakers are used to lecture in areas that they
work in, such as waste-water treatment, air-pollu-
tion control, and toxicology. The part-time students


TABLE 2
Textbooks and Other Required Materials

Safety and Health
Crowl and Louvar, Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals
with Applications, Prentice Hall, 1990
Hammer, Occupational Safety Management and Engineering,
Prentice-Hall, 1985
ACGIH, Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure
Indices (latest edition)
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards

Industrial Waste Management
Wentz, Hazardous Waste Management, McGraw-Hill, 1989
Martin and Johnson, Hazardous Waste Management Engi-
neering, Van Nostrand-Reinhold, 1987
Dawson and Mercer, Hazardous Waste Management, Wiley-
Interscience, 1986 (not used in course, but recommended)

Other
Hoover, Hancock, Hutton, Dickerson, and Harris, Health,
Safety and Environmental Control, Van Nostrand-Reinhold,
1989


are an excellent classroom resource, and some of
them also make presentations related to their work.
They can often answer classroom questions better
than I can, and they provide excellent input to class-
room discussions. A partial listing of some of the
topics presented by guest and student speakers in
given in Table 3.

Field trips and plant visits are also part of both
courses (see Table 4). During some field trips, in-
plant lectures are given. The guest lectures and field
trips were highly valued by the majority of the stu-


TABLE 3
Guest Lectures

Safety and Health
"Applications of Toxicology Data to Chemical Operations,"
by Health and Safety Director, Rohm & Haas
"Material Safety Data Sheets," by Occupational Health
Consultant
"Du Pont Philosophy and Management System for Safety and
Health," by Maintenance Supervisor, Du Pont
"Fire Safety and Industrial Hygiene," by Senior Loss Control
Engineer, Travelers Insurance
"Cleanup of Superfund Hazardous Waste Sites," by Emer-
gency Response Engineer, EPA Contractor
"Health Hazard Identification," by Field Inspector, Kentucky
Department of Labor

Industrial Waste Management
"Environmental Management in the Chemical Industry," by
Environmental Affairs Manager, Du Pont
"Environmental Regulations," by Environmental Attorney or
Assistant Commissioner, Kentucky Department for Environ-
mental Protection
"Legal Liability for Environmental Practitioners," by
Environmental Attorney
"Industrial Waste-Water Pretreatment and the Morris Forman
Waste-Water Treatment Plant," by the Director, Industrial
Wastes Metropolitan Sewer District
"Air Pollution Modeling and the Local Smog Situation," by
Director, Jefferson County Air Pollution Control Board
"Prevention, Containment and Response to Hazardous
Materials Spills," by Spill Control Engineer, Metropolitan
Sewer District
"Leaking Underground Storage Tanks," by Consultant
"Waste Incineration," by USEPA Speaker or Technical
Operations Manager, Louisville Incinerator
"EPA Programs in Waste Minimization," by Risk Reduction
Engineer, USEPA
"Environmental Audits for Property Acquisition," by
Consultant
"Remediation and Closure at a RCRA Landfill," by Environ-
mental Manager, Du Pont
"State of the Environment in Kentucky," by Environmental
Activist Attorney
"Transportation and Disposal of Hazardous Wastes and
Waste Oils," by Hazardous Waste Management Broker
"Solid Waste Disposal and Landfill Design: Engineering and
the Decision Making Process," by Director, Division of Waste
Management, Kentucky Department for Environmental
Protection


Fall 1991










dents, and they particularly appreciated the net-
working aspect, as did I.

Many useful movies and video tapes are avail-
able in safety, health, and environmental areas, and
they are also used in class (see Table 5). The videos,
many of which are excellent dramatizations, often
depict things much better than the instructor or a
text can. Study guides for the videos, in the form of
assigned questions, are given to the students. Be-
cause of the deficiencies within the textbooks and
the lack of breadth and currency of the topics, nu-
merous additional materials are also given to the
students (see Table 6).

PART-TIME STUDENTS ATTRACTED TO COURSE

The primary prerequisite for Safety and Health
and Industrial Waste Management is a BS in sci-
ence, math, engineering, or its equivalent. Thus, the
courses are taken by first-year graduate and M.Eng
students from other departments, along with part-
time students from industry, consulting firms, and
government agencies. Many part-time students come
from as far as sixty miles away.

The courses are offered on a one night per week
basis, 2-hours 45-minutes per class, so as to attract
part-time students. Announcements of the courses
are placed in newsletters of various regional and
statewide professional organizations such as the Ken-
tucky Waste Reduction Centers and the Air and
Waste Management Association.

The first offering of Industrial Waste Manage-
ment drew about thirty-five students, two-thirds of
which were part-time students. Several of the part-
time students also took Safety and Health which
was taught the following year with fifteen students
(nine of them part-time). In the second offering, In-
dustrial Waste Management had eighteen students
(fourteen of them part-time) and Safety and Health
had ten students (nine of them part-time). These
courses are being recommended to co-workers, and
the part-time students have requested additional
courses in risk reduction. In response, we plan to
offer a course entitled Waste Reduction, Treatment,
and Disposal in the future.

Many of the part-time students are not pursuing
a degree and thus can register through Continuing
Studies rather than through the usual, more tedi-
ous, routes. Students not applying the credits to-
wards a degree, along with non-chemical engineer-
ing students (who may lack some of the technical


TABLE 4
Field Trips and Plant Visits

Safety and Health
* Safety Features in Emulsion Polymerization Process: Rohm &
Haas
* Emergency Response Simulation: Jefferson County Hazard-
ous Material Mutual Aid Group
* Hazardous Waste Incinerator Siting Hearing

Industrial Waste Management
* Waste-Water Treatment Plant: Metropolitan Sewer District
* Industrial Waste-Water Pretreatment Plant: General Electric
* Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator
* Industrial Landfill: Waste Management Company
* Waste Minimization Assessment: BASF



TABLE 5
Video Tapes and Films'

Safety and Health
* Acceptable Risk, ABC Television
* Safetyin the Chemical Process Industries, AIChE-7 Tape
Series
* Safety and Loss Prevention, First Impressions, BASF
* Chemical Toxicity and How it Affects You and Your Job,
Celanese
* MSDS: Cornerstone of Chemical Safety, ITS
* Health Hazard Evaluation: Environmental-Epidemiological
Study of Workers Exposed to Toluene Diisocyanate, West
Virginia University
* Dual Protection, NIOSH, (Paints and Coatings)
* First Considerations, NIOSH (Pesticide Formulating Plants)
* Case Studies-Flixborough, Bhopal
* BLEVE, NFPA
* Confined Space Entry, NIOSH
* Oxidizers: Identification, Properties, and Safe Handling,
CMA

Industrial Waste Management
* Doing Something, CMA
* The Need to Know, CMA
* The Burial Ground, (Hazardous Waste Dumping)
* The Toxics Release Inventory: Meeting the Challenge, EPA
* In Your Own Back Yard, NFPA (Underground Storage Tanks)
* Tank Closure Without Tears: An Inspectors Guide
* Beyond Business as Usual, EPA (Hazardous Waste Manage-
ment)
* Marine Shale Processor, Let's Clean Up America, (Incinera-
tion/Recycling)
* Pollution Prevention by Waste Minimization, 3M Company
* Less is More: Pollution Prevention Pays, EPA (Waste
Minimization)

Common to Both Courses
* Carcinogens, Anti-Carcinogens, and Risk Assessment,
Council for Chemical Research
* First on the Scene, CMA (Emergency Response)
* Teamwork, CMA (Emergency Response)
* DryPaint Stripping, Promaco/Schlick (Waste Reduction,
Safety)

SNot all used in a given semester


Chemical Engineering Education










background), can take the course on a pass/fail or
audit basis to minimize the pressure of grades. The
courses are taught on an informal, relaxed basis
(similar to a workshop or seminar) which enhanced
the students' enjoyment. For example, on some nights
when movies or video tapes were being shown, pop-
corn was served. Because of the maturity of the
students, it was a pleasure to be on a more collegial
basis with them, and as pointed out earlier, the part-
time students are an excellent classroom and net-
working resource.

SYNERGIES BETWEEN APPLICATIONS
Some examples of the unifying concepts of risk
reduction, resultant synergies, and trade-offs are
briefly explored. These approaches can be used in
either of the two survey courses or as a component of
any appropriate required course.

One example of synergy is in finishing operations
such as paint and coating applications. The same


TABLE 6
Examples of Supplemental Handout Materials

Safety andHealth
Materials Safety Data Sheet and Glossary
Carbon Monoxide Health Effects and Standards
Health Hazard Classification, BASF
SSafety and Hazards Evaluation Review-Protocol, Rohm &
Haas
*OSHA Hazards Communication Standards

Industrial Waste Management
Glossary of Environmental Terms
Leaking Underground Storage Tanks: The NewRCRA
Requirements, EPA
Understanding the Small Quantity Generator Hazardous
Waste Rules: A Handbook for Small Business, EPA
Used Oil Fuel Classification Under RCRA
Definitions, Important RCRA Dates (Land Bans), and TCLP
Requirements
Environmental Progress and Challenges: EPA's Update, 1989
Waste Minimization: Environmental Quality with Economic
Benefits, EPA
1988 SARA Title III Section 313 Summary Report (Ken-
tucky), County Releases
Estimating Releases and Waste-Treatment Efficiencies for the
Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Form

Common to Both Courses
Emergency Response Guidebook, DOT
Hazardous Materials Warning Placards, DOT
Federal Statutes and the Control of Toxic Substances,
Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection
Hazardous Waste Sites and Hazardous Substance Emergen-
cies, NIOSH 1982
Explaining Environmental Risk, EPA
The 13 Commandments of Hazardous Materials Response


properties that make wastes and emissions from
these operations hazardous also contribute to expo-
sure that endangers employee health and plant
safety. Thus, waste reduction measures will simul-
taneously benefit employee safety and health, and
vice versa. These measures include substitute mate-
rials and alternative methods, such as aqueous-based
rather than solvent-based paints, powder coatings,
and airless or electrostatic spray guns. Another syn-
ergy that occurs with waste reduction is conserva-
tion of raw materials. For example, increased recy-
cling of plastics can simultaneously reduce depend-
ence on foreign crude oil.

Trade-offs or conflicts can also be shown (for ex-
ample) between waste minimization and quality
management, and between safety and waste disposi-
tion considerations. Reworking of off-specification
and waste solids from tank cleaning into useful prod-
ucts is a waste minimization technique. Spills on the
one hand must be properly retained and disposed of
so as not to damage the environment. On the other
hand, a reactive (but improper) response to a haz-
ardous materials spill might be to flush it immedi-
ately down the drain.

WHAT IT WILL TAKE

Some preliminary ideas concerning the inclusion
of the risk reduction spectrum into the curriculum
have been presented and exemplified in this paper.
Because of the increasing importance of risk reduc-
tion to chemical engineers, further exploration of
ways to incorporate these concepts seems manda-
tory. Availability of teaching materials such as the
problem sets available from the AIChE Center for
Chemical Process Safety can facilitate this process.
Hopefully, such materials will be available from the
newly-established AIChE Center for Waste Reduc-
tion Technology.

REFERENCES
1. Fleischman, M., "Rationale for Incorporating Health and
Safety into the Curriculum," Chem. Eng. Ed., 22, 30 (1988)
2. Center for Chemical Process Safety, "Student Problems:
Safety, Health, and Loss Prevention in Chemical Proc-
esses," AIChE (1990)
3. Lane, A.M., "Incorporating Health, Safety, Environmental,
and Ethical Issues into the Curriculum," Chem. Eng. Ed.,
23,70(1989)
4. Crowl and Louvar, Chemical Process Safety: Fundamen-
tals With Applications, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs,
NJ (1990)
5. Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, John
Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, p 522 (1960) O


Fall 1991











RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES IN

CERAMICS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


Toivo KODAS, JEFFREY BRINKER,
ABHAYA DATYE, DOUGLAS SMITH
University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, NM 87131


T he United States aerospace, automotive, bio-
materials, chemical, electronics, energy, met-
als, and telecommunications industries collectively
employ more than 7 million people in materials sci-
ence and engineering and have sales in excess of
$1.4 trillion. Recent reports'11 have called the 1990s
the "Age of Materials" and have concluded that the
field of materials science and engineering is enter-
ing a period of unprecedented intellectual chal-
lenge and productivity. Chemical engineers, with
their background in reaction engineering and trans-
port processes, have the skills necessary to make
significant contributions in this area.
A strong component of materials science and en-
gineering is ceramics science and engineering. Al-
though many applications of ceramics have in the
past been low-tech, a vast number of new high-tech
ceramics have been developed in recent years, open-
ing up a large number of new and exciting applica-
tions for a wide variety of industries. Ceramic super-
conductors may provide new methods of energy trans-
mission and new types of electronic devices. Elec-
tronic ceramics such as BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 are used
to make capacitors and sensors. Ferroelectric ceram-


ics can be used to produce memories for computers.
A variety of metal oxides, nitrides and silicides are
used in computer chips and to make substrates for
the chips themselves.
Ceramics can also be used to make chemical sen-
sors for detecting small amounts of hazardous sub-
stances for applications in hazardous waste control.
They are also used as catalysts for chemical reac-
tions or as catalyst supports in the chemical indus-
try. These and other applications have led to a tre-
mendous interest in the synthesis, processing, and
characterization of ceramic materials in the form of
powders and films.
The chemical engineering department at the
University of New Mexico dramatically expanded its
program in ceramics science and engineering follow-
ing the establishment of a National Science Founda-
tion-supported UNM/NSF Center For Micro-Engi-
neered Ceramics (CMEC). Numerous research proj-
ects, many in the areas mentioned above, are now
available to interested students. These opportuni-
ties are particularly interesting since demand is high
for students with a background in ceramics, with
fewer than forty PhDs being granted in the United
States each year in Ceramics Science and Engineer-
ing (with roughly half of them going to foreign stu-
dents).
This article briefly describes some of the research


Toivo T. Kodas received his BS (1981) and PhD
(1986) from the University of Califomia, Los Ange-
les. During that period he also worked at the ALCOA
Research Center. He was a visiting scientist at the
IBM Almaden Research Center from 1986 until 1988
when he joined the faculty at the University of New
Mexico.


Abhaya K. Datye received his BS from the Indian
Institute of Technology, Bombay (1975), his MS from
the University of Cincinnati (1980), and his PhD from
the University of Michigan (1984), and has been a
member of the chemical engineering faculty at the
University of New Mexico since 1984.


iIi


Douglas M. Smith received his BS (1975) and MS
(1977) from Clarkson University and his PhD (1982)
from the University of New Mexico. Previous posi-
tions include Unilever Research and Montana State
University. He is currently professor of chemical
engineering and serves as Director of the UNM/NSF
Center for Micro-Engineered Ceramics.


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE 1991
Chemical Engineering Education


C. Jeffrey Brinker received his BS, MS, and PhD
degrees from Rutgers University, and joined the Ce-
ramic Development Division at Sandia National Labo-
ratories in 1979. He is presently a member of the
technical staff and a University of New Mexico/San-
dia National Laboratory professor of chemistry and
chemical engineering.


I I


PS~'

Ak











A strong component ofmatrerials science and engineering is ceramics science and engineering. Although
many applications of ceramics have in the past been low-tech, a vast number of new high-tech
ceramics have been developed in recent years, opening up a large number of new and
exciting applications for a wide variety of industries.


opportunities in ceramics science and engineering at
the University of New Mexico and the unique inter-
disciplinary nature of the projects which involve in-
vestigators from chemical engineering and other
departments, from centers at UNM involved in ma-
terials, and from Sandia and Los Alamos National
Laboratories.


RESEARCH AREAS

The authors of this paper have extensive pro-
grams in ceramics science and engineering. Their
projects span ceramics synthesis, processing, and
characterization.

Jeffrey Brinker is investigating sol-gel proc-
essing of ceramics-films, fibers, powders, and bulk;
physics and chemistry of film deposition from liquid
precursors; defects in glasses; controlled porosity
materials for sensors, membranes, and adsorbents;
nanoscale materials; multifunctional composites; and
fractals.

Sol-gel processing (see Figure 1) refers to the
room temperature formation of inorganic materials
from molecular precursors.121 Inorganic salts or metal
organic compounds dissolved in aqueous or organic
solvents are hydrolyzed and condensed to form poly-
mers composed of M-O-M bonds. These polymers
may be deposited on substrates to form thin films,
drawn into fibers, or cast in molds and dried to form
"near-net-shape solids." Prior to drying, the struc-
tures of the polymers are often described by fractal
geometry,131 a consequence of kinetically-limited
growth mechanisms such as reaction-limited cluster
aggregation.[4' The properties of fractal objects may
be exploited to prepare materials (films, fibers,
or bulk) with precisely controlled pore structures
(e.g., pore size, surface area, and percent porosity).
Films with controlled pore sizes151 may be used as
molecular sieves to impart steric selectivity to sen-
sor devices or to separate a mixture of gases on the
basis of size.

The inherent porosity of sol-gel-derived materi-
als provides access to reagents throughout the mate-
rial's interior. Surfaces may be modified by reactions
with gas or liquid reagents, and secondary phases
may be depositied within the pores to form nano-

Fall 1991


SOL SOL 1)
FIBERS

ORDERED ARRAYS OF GELATON
UNIFORM PARTICLES EVAPORATION
STRUCTURAL CERAMICS

XEROGEL FILM
E SENSOR
HEAT OPTICAL
'I COATINGS CATALYTIC
DIELECTRIC
m [PROTECTIVE
DENSE GLASS FILM


GEL
EVAPORATION
OF SOLVENT
I


GLASS CERAMIC
SEAUNG GLASS
CATALYST SUPPORT
FIBEROPTIC PREFORI
CONTROLLED PORE GLA


SOLVENT
EXTRACTION
AEROGEL




XEROGEL
DRY HEAT|
cs
TS GLASSES
SS
DENSE GLASS


FIGURE 1. Processes occurring during sol-gel process-
ing of materials

scale composite materials.j6' Alternatively, secondary
phases may be incorporated in the liquid or sol.
Under certain conditions, deposition of the diphasic
sol results in a composite film in which the second
phase is embedded in a dense gel matrix. Zeolite/gel
composites made by this procedure can impart mo-
lecular recognition capabilities to sensor surfaces.j71

Sol-gel-derived materials are highly metastable;
their structures are dictated by kinetics rather than
by thermodynamics.E2' Kinetic pathways may be ex-
ploited to prepare novel inorganic materials. Only
when these materials are processed in the vicinity of
the glass transformation temperature do their struc-
tures approach those of their conventionally pre-
pared counterparts.'81

Abhaya Datye is interested in: heterogeneous
catalysis and surface science; structure and proper-
ties of thin films and interfaces in ceramics and
semiconductors; and materials characterization by
electron microscopy.

Phenomena occurring at the interfaces between
dissimilar materials have enormous implications in
materials we use every day. For instance, the strength
of the bond between a metal and a ceramic deter-
mines the properties of glass metal seals as well as
the high-temperature stability of heterogeneous cata-
lysts. Sometimes a weaker interface is desired (as in


SOL-GEL-PROCESSING


4.









a fiber-reinforced composite) to redistribute stresses
at the interface and deflect cracks to make a brittle
ceramic tougher. In semiconductors the performance
of a device is often determined by the impurities and
defects at an interface. Therefore, engineering of
such complex materials requires a good understand-
ing of the interface region and the means of tailoring
the interface to achieve desired properties. Since
even a monolayer of a hydrocarbon can affect the
wetting of water on a solid substrate, it is apparent
that interfacial properties are determined by changes
occurring over the scale of atomic dimensions. It is
therefore necessary to use probes having high spa-
tial resolution as well as those that give chemical
information from the near-surface region. In the re-
search at the University of New Mexico, high-resolu-
tion transmission electron microscopy and surface-
sensitive spectroscopies are used to study these
materials and correlate their structure with proper-
ties relevant to their commercial applications.

One project involves the study of thin-film coat-
ings of non-oxide ceramics and their interactions
with ceramic substrates.193 We are examining the
potential of boron nitride for use as a high-tempera-
ture coating material for fiber-reinforced compos-
ites. The interaction of BN with ox-
ide ceramics is quite strong, and BN .7
appears to readily wet and coat these
substrates. However, a detailed
study101' of the atomic structure of
this interface reveals that the inter-
atomic spacing between the BN
sheets and MgO is larger than dis-
tances normally associated with
chemical bonding (see Figure 2).
Mg
Other projects deal with funda-
mental studies of oxide surfaces in Mean =11.
order to understand the surface
chemistry involved in preparing
monolayer and multilayer films of I I I
other oxides for potential catalytic
applications.E1',12 Studies of surface
structure in small metal particles
are being conducted in the labora-
tory to examine the effect of pre- FIGURE 2. A
treatments and the ceramic support face.['0 The arn
on catalytic behavior.E13' Finally, the MgO structure
on the right co
high spatial resolution of TEM is on the right c
micrograph wa
exploited to study the structure and spacing between
properties of materials ranging from trace of image
strained layer superlattices1'41 to fine are indicated i
pores in oxides.1151 the BNinterato


Toivo Kodas is studying: the formation and proc-
essing of electronic, mechanical, and superconducting
ceramic powders; laser-processing of materials;
chemical vapor deposition of ceramics and metals for
microelectronics applications; and aerosol physics
and chemistry.
High-purity powders with controlled chemical
compositions, particle size distributions, and micro-
structures are required as precursors for fabrication
of superconducting and conventional ceramic parts.
The goal of this work is to develop gas-phase routes
for the formation of powders with these characteris-
tics. Both gas-to-particle conversion and intrapar-
ticle reaction processes are being examined. Research
is focused on obtaining a basic understanding of the
physical and chemical processes controlling multi-
component powder production by chemical reaction,
and processing these powders to produce ceramics
with unique electrical, optical, and mechanical prop-
erties. Examples include Ag/YBa2Cu3O7x[16-181 for a
variety of applications, Ba1-xCaxTiO3 for tempera-
ture sensors'191 (see Figure 3), mullite for electronic
device substrates,1201 and BN for structural applica-
tions.[21]
Chemical vapor deposition is used extensively in


high-resolution electron micrograph of the BN/MgO inter-
ay of white spots on the left corresponds to a projection of the
imaged along the <110> direction. The rows of light contrast
me from the basal planes of the hexagonal BN lattice. The
rs digitally processed to allow precise measurement of the
n the atomic planes. Shown above is a microdensitometer
intensity along a direction normal to the interface. Spacings
n mm (to an accuracy of-1 pixel = 0.01 mm). A variation in
'mic spacing is evident in the region near the interface.


Chemical Engineering Education









industry for the formation of thin films of a wide
variety of materials. This process begins with a vola-
tile molecular species that is transported to a sub-
strate where it decomposes and results in deposition
of material with desorption of volatile byproducts.
The chemistry occurring during deposition deter-
mines the deposition rate, minimum deposition tem-
perature, adhesion to the substrate, and electronic
properties. Yet the chemistry occurring during most
CVD processes is poorly understood. Our research
involves the use of high pressure and ultrahigh vac-
uum systems utilizing mass spectrometry, Auger
electron spectroscopy, temperature-programmed
desorption, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy to study
the surface and gas phase chemistry. The goal is to
develop a better understanding of the role of chemis-
try in determining the properties of the deposited
material. Current projects are the examination of
deposition of PLZT with Radiant Technology, Cu
with Motorola,[22' and YBa2Cu 30x with Los Alamos
National Laboratories.
Aerosols (fine particles suspended in a gas) play
a fundamental role in fine metallic and ceramic par-
ticle production, optical fiber production, thin film
formation, and contamination control in cleanrooms.
We are currently examining the interaction between


FIGURE 3. Bao,86Cao.14TiO particles made by aerosol
decomposition.


the chemistry and aerosol dynamics in systems for
gas phase particle production,23-24] deposition of these
particles onto surfaces to form coatings,1221 and dur-
ing laser-induced deposition processes.[25'

Douglas Smith is currently examining charac-
terization of porous materials, transport phenomena
in porous media, sol-gel, and powder processing.
The pore structure of materials is of considerable
interest for a large number of applications which in-
clude ceramics processing, catalysis, membrane sepa-
rations, radioactive waste isolation, and coal gasifi-
cation. The basic approach is to study the physics of
both established and innovative pore structure analy-
sis tools in an attempt to extract more detailed infor-
mation about porous solid systems.
Conventional techniques for pore structure analy-
sis include mercury porosimetry, nitrogen adsorp-
tion/condensation, and microscopy (optical, scanning,
and transmission electron). Each of these techniques
suffers from different disadvantages which limit ac-
curacy and preclude their use for in-situ pore struc-
ture analysis. Therefore, considerable incentive ex-
ists for the development of new techniques for pore
structure analysis. Professor Smith's laboratory has
pioneered the development of low-field, NMR spin-
lattice relaxation measurements of fluid contained
in pores as a structure analysis technique. This ap-
proach allows the study of pores of "wet" materials
and allows imaging of pore structure as a function of
time while the structure evolves.
In addition to pore structure analysis, the study
of the physical nature of surfaces is of interest. In
particular, the fractal nature of surfaces is being
studied via molecular probe techniques.[261 A parallel
effort using SAXS (small angle x-ray scattering) and
SANS (small angle neutron scattering) is underway
in collaboration with investigators at Sandia Na-
tional Laboratories. The growth of fine particles and
polymers in solution is studied via both SAXS and
light scattering.
Using expertise in pore structure analysis, a num-
ber of ceramics processing problems are being exam-
ined. These include pore structure evolution and
elimination during sintering of ceramic green bod-
ies, dispersion of powder agglomerates, packing of
powders during green body formation,[271 and pore
structure development during sol-gel processing of
xerogels and aerogels (both bulk[21,29') and coat-
ings.[30,31' Ceramic powder synthesis is conducted us-
ing a range of techniques including reactive laser


Fall 1991









ablation, sol-gel processing,[321 precipitation, and aero-
sol processing.[201

CENTER FOR MICRO-ENGINEERED CERAMICS

Much of the research in ceramics science and
engineering is being carried out in the National Sci-
ence Foundation Center for Micro-Engineered Ce-
ramics, which is housed in the chemical engineering
department. The Center consists of fifteen profes-
sors from the University of New Mexico (seven from
chemical engineering, four from chemistry, one each
from mechanical engineering, physics, and geology),
over ten staff members from Sandia National Labo-
ratory, and over ten staff members from Los Alamos
National Laboratory. A critical feature of the Center
is the membership of more than fifteen industrial
members. This allows the Center to combine the
expertise of the national labs, the university, and
industry to attack ceramics-related problems of
interest to industry. The goals are to attack use-
ful problems, to transfer technology between indus-
try, the National Labs and the University, and to
train students in ceramics science and engineering.
A key feature of the Center is the hands-on policy for
use of equipment. The Center is equipped with a
variety of state-of-the-science equipment, shown in
Table 1.

INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER DEPARTMENTS
AND NATIONAL LABORATORIES

Another feature of the CMEC and the chemical
engineering department is the extensive interactions
with other departments at the university. The proj-
ects in the CMEC are interdisciplinary with faculty
from chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, geol-
ogy, mechanical engineering, and the national labo-
ratories involved in each project. In addition, signifi-
cant interactions occur with the Center for High
Technology Materials in electrical engineering whose
strength is optoelectronic materials.

The extensive interactions of the chemical engi-
neering department and CMEC with the national
laboratories has numerous advantages. The strengths
of SNL include electronic ceramics and glasses, while
LANL is primarily involved in structural and super-
conducting ceramics. These skills complement the
strength of the University in chemical routes to ce-
ramics and materials characterization. Scientists and
engineers at the Center and in the chemical engi-
neering department have access to state-of-the-sci-
ence equipment at the national laboratories. In ad-


Another feature.. .is the extensive interactions
with other departments. .the projects are inter-
disciplinary, with faculty from chemical
engineering, chemistry, physics, geology,
mechanical engineering, and the
national laboratories involved
in each project.


TABLE 1
CMEC Facilities

High-field solution and solids FT-NMR spectrome-
ters: GE NT-360, JEOL GX-400, Bruker AC-250P,
Varian 400 MHz Unity 1
Low-field pulse NMR spectrometers: 10 MHz, 20
MHz, 4-60 MHz, for sol-gel and green body structure
analysis
Hitachi S-800 field emission SEM (20 angstrom
resolution) with low Z x-ray analysis and advanced
image analysis
Electron Beam Microanalysis Facility, including
JEOL 2000FX TEM with TN5500 EDS, JEOL Super-
probe with 5 spectrometers, Hitachi S-450 SEM
Electron spin resonance spectrometer
FT-Infrared spectrometers: NIC-6000, Perkin-Elmer,
Galaxy 6020 coupled to high-vacuum IR cell for
powder studies
Single-crystal and powder x-ray diffractometers
Powders and Granular Materials Laboratory,
includes: Autoscan-33 mercury porosimeter, Quan-
timent 720 image analyzer, Autosorb-1 automated
nitrogen sorption analyzer, Sedigraph particle-size
analyzer, Coulter Counter, 4 adsorption instruments,
gas permeation apparatus, Micromeritics Accupyc
1330 Pycnometer, Micromeritic ASAP-2000 adsorp-
tion analyzer
Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS)
Two RF high-temperature (3000C) furnaces
High-temperature thermal analysis instrumentation
(TGA, DTA, DSC, Dilatometer)
Laser birefringence facility for the in-situ study of
stress in sol-gel and polymer processing
Aerosol powder reactors including high-temperature
(17000C) and scale-up aerosol reactor for production
of oxide ceramic powders (kilograms per day)
Coupled TPD/Auger apparatus for surface analysis
Light scattering: Spectraphysics 2000 krypton laser,
Brookhaven Gonimeter, BI-2030 AT controller
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMRI) for in-
situ studies of transport phenomena in porous
materials
Four gas membrane test stands.


Chemical Engineering Education











edition, fellowships such as the UNM/LANL PhD fel-
lowship are available to outstanding students with a
stipend of $16-18 k/yr.

Researchers at the chemical engineering depart-
ment and CMEC have access to various facilities at
the national laboratories. The facilities of LANL in-
clude the Exploratory Research and Development
Center for Superconducting Ceramics, the LANSCE-
Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center, the Center
for Materials Science, and the Ion Beam Materials
Laboratory. The facilities of SNL include the Sur-
face Modification and Analysis Facility, Ceramics
and Glass Processing Facility, SNL/LANL dedicated
EXAFS lines at Brookhaven and Stanford, and a
30,000 ft2 materials research and development labo-
ratory which is jointly administered by UNM and
SNL.

REFERENCES
1. Press, F., and White, R., Materials Science and Engineer-
ing for the 1990s, National Research Council, National
Academy Press, Washington, DC (1989)
2. Brinker, C.J., and G.W. Scherer, Sol-Gel Science: The Phys-
ics and Chemistry of Sol-Gel Processing, Academic Press,
San Diego, CA (1990)
3. Mandelbrot, B.B., The Fractal Geometry of Nature, Free-
man, San Francisco, CA (1983)
4. Witten, T.A., and M.E. Cates, "Tenuous Structures from
Disorderly Growth Processes, Science, 232, 1607 (1983)
5. Brinker, C.J., A.J. Hurd, G.C. Frye, K.J. Ward, and C.S.
Ashley, "Sol-Gel Thin Film Formation," J. Non-Cryst. Sol-
ids, 121,294 (1990)
6. Brinker, C.J., and D.M. Haaland, "Oxinitride Glass For-
mation from Gels," J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 66, 758 (1983)
7. Bein, T., K. Brown, G.C. Frye, and C.J. Brinker, "Molecu-
lar Sieve Sensors for Selective Detection at the Nanogram
Level," J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 1117640 (1989)
8. Scherer, G., C.J. Brinker, and E.P. Roth, "Structural Re-
laxation in Gel-Derived Glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 82,
191(1986)
9. Datye, A.K., Q. Mei, R.T. Paine, and T.T. Borek, "Stability
of BN Coatings on Ceramic Substrates," Better Ceramics
Through Chemistry IV, MRS Symposia Proc. V 180, 807
(1990)
10. Allard, L.F., A.K. Datye, T.A. Nolan, S.L. Mahan, and R.T.
Paine, "High Resolution Electron Microscopy of BN on
MgO, A Model Ceramic-Ceramic Interface," Ultramicro-
scopy, in press (1991)
11. Anderson, S.L., A.K. Datye, T.A. Wark, and M.H. Smith,
"Homogeneous Rh-Sn Alkoxide Coatings on Silica Sur-
faces: A Novel Route for the Preparation of Bimetallic Rh-
Sn Catalysts," Catal. Lett., 8,345 (1991)
12. Srinivasan, S., A.K. Datye, M.H. Smith, I.E. Wachs, G.B.
Deo, J.M. Jehng, A.M. Turek, and C.H.F. Peden, "The
Formation of Titanium Oxide Monolayer Coatings on Sil-
ica Surfaces," J. Catal., in press (1991)
13. Logan, A.D., and A.K. Datye, "Oxidative Restructuring of
Rhodium Metal Surfaces: Correlations Between Single
Crystals and Small Metal Particles," J. Phys. Chem.,
95,5568(1991)
14. Chadda, S., A.K. Datye, and L.R. Dawson, "The Nature of
Defects in IR Detectors Based on Strained Layer Super-

Fall 1991


lattice Structures," Proc. 49th Ann. Meet. of Electron Mi-
croscopy Soc. ofAm., G.W. Bailey, ed., San Francisco Press,
p. 852(1991)
15. Kaushik, V.S., A.K. Datye, S.S. Tsao, T.E. Guillinger, and
M.J. Kelly, "Microstructure of Pores in N Silicon," Mater.
Lett., 11, 109 (1991)
16. Carim, A., P. Doherty, and T.T. Kodas, "Nanocrystalline
Ba2YCu30/Ag Composite Particles Produced by Aerosol
Decomposition," Mater. Lett., 8, 335 (1989)
17. Kodas, T.T., E.M. Engler, V. Lee, R. Jacowitz, T.H. Baum,
K. Roche, S.S.P. Parkin, W.S. Young, S. Hughes, J. Kle-
der, and W. Auser, "Aerosol Flow Reactor Production of
Fine Y1Ba2Cu07, Powder: Fabrication of Superconducting
Ceramics," Appl. Phys. Lett., 52, 1622 (1988)
18. Kodas, T.T., A. Datye, V. Lee, and E. Engler, "Single-
Crystal YBa2Cu307 Particle Formation by Aerosol Decom-
position," J. Appl. Phys., 65,2149 (1989)
19. Ortega, J., T.T. Kodas, S. Chadda, D.M. Smith, M.
Ciftcioglu, and J. Brennan, "Generation of Dense Barium
Calcium Titanate Particles by Aerosol Decomposition,"
Chem. in Mater., in press (1991)
20. Moore, K., D. Smith, and T.T. Kodas, "Synthesis of Submi-
cron Mullite via High Temperature Aerosol Decomposi-
tion," J. Amer. Cer. Soc., in press (1991)
21. Lindquist, D.A., T.T. Borek, C.K. Narula, R. Schaeffer,
D.M. Smith, and R.T. Paine, "Formation and Microsctruc-
ture of Boron Nitride Aerogels," Communications of the
Amer. Cer. Soc., 73, 757 (1990)
22. Shin, H.K., K.M. Chi, M. Hampden-Smith, T.T. Kodas, J.
Farr, and M. Paffett, "Selective Low Temperature Chemi-
cal Vapor Deposition of Copper Using Hexofluoroacetylace-
tonato Copper(I) Trimethylphosphine," Ad. Mat., 3, 246
(1991)
23. Kodas, T.T., "Generation of Complex Metal Oxides by
Aerosol Processes: Superconducting Ceramic Particles and
Films," Angewandte Chemie: Internat. Ed. in English, 28,
794(1989)
24. Chadda, S., T.T. Kodas, T. Ward, D. Kroeger, and K.C.
Ott, "Synthesis ofY1Ba2Cu307x and YBa2Cu40, by Aerosol
Decomposition," J. Aerosol Sci., in press (1991)
25. Kodas, T.T., and P. Comita, "Role of Mass Transport in
Laser-Induced Chemistry," Accts. of Chem. Res., 23, 188
(1990)
26. Hurd, A.J., D.W. Schaefer, D.M. Smith, S.B. Ross, and A.
LeMehaute, "Surface Areas of Fractally Rough Particles
by Scattering," Phys. Rev. B., 39, 9742 (1989)
27. Hietala, S.L., and D.M. Smith, "Porosity Effects on Par-
ticle Size Determination via Sedimentation," Powder Tech-
nology, 59, 141(1989); T.T. Borek, W. Ackerman, D.W.
Hua, R.T. Paine, and D.M. Smith, "Highly Porous Boron
Nitride for Gas Adsorption," Langmiur, in press
28. Lindquist, D., T.T. Kodas, D.M. Smith, X. Xiu, S. Hietala,
A. Datye, and R.T. Paine, "Boron Nitride Powders Formed
by Aerosol Decomposition of Poly(borazinylamine) Solu-
tions," J. Amer. Cer. Soc., in press (1991)
29. Glaves, C.L., C.J. Brinker, D.M. Smith, and P.J. Davis,
"In-Situ Pore Structure Studies of Xerogel Drying," Chem.
ofMater., 1:1, 34 (1989)
30. Glaves, C.L., G.C. Frye, D.M. Smith, C.J. Brinker, A.
Datye, A.J. Ricco, and S. Martin, "Pore Structure Charac-
terization of Films," Langmuir, 5:2, 459 (1989)
31. Glaves, C., P.J. Davis, K.A. Moore, D.M. Smith, and P.
Hsieh, "Pore Structure Characterization of Composite
Membranes, J. Colloid and Interface Sci., 133:2,377 (1989)
32. Hietala, S.L., J.L. Golden, D.M. Smith, and C.J. Brinker,
"Anomalously Low Surface Areas and Density in the Sil-
ica/Alumina Gel System," Comm. Amer. Cer. Soc., 72,
2354(1988)











AN INTRODUCTION TO

MOLECULAR TRANSPORT PHENOMENA


MICHAEL H. PETERS
Florida State University /Florida A&M University
Tallahassee, FL 32316-2175

T he course "An Introduction to Molecular Trans-
port Phenomena" is intended for upper-level
undergraduates or first-year graduate students in
engineering and science. The overall goal of the course
is to provide a comprehensive description of the mo-
lecular basis of transport phenomena for students
who have no previous background in statistical me-
chanics or statistical physics.
It is clear that recent dramatic advances in com-
putational abilities (e.g., supercomputers and con-
nection machines"1) and in atomic-level experimen-
tation (e.g., atomic force microscopy and scanning
tunneling microscopy121) require that undergraduate
engineers obtain a better molecular understanding
or interpretation of engineering processes. One ex-
ample is a surge in supercomputer purchases in the
chemical industry; an example of the benefits of
supercomputer computations is a reported $1-2 mil-
lion savings in development costs for a new catalytic
process."31 By studying the thermodynamic proper-
ties of the system through use of molecular simula-
tions on a supercomputer, some critically unusual
properties were discovered that would have been
difficult to detect through physical experiments.
These new computational and experimental ca-
pabilities make it possible to examine, design, and/
or enhance systems and processes beginning at a
molecular level description-an approach that may
be called "molecular engineering." In general, mo-
lecular engineering represents a new and powerful
method of analysis where a rational and scientific
framework can be utilized for the systematic study
of highly complex engineering systems.
Michael H. Peters is Associate Professor and Chair
in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the
SJoint College of Engineering between Florida State
University and Florida A&M University. He is also a
Faculty Associate with the Supercomputer Computa-
tions Research Institute at Florida State University.
He received his BS from the University of Dayton in
1977 and his PhD from the Ohio State University in
1981. His research interests are in the areas of macro-
molecular and colloidal phenomena, Brownian motion
theories, and molecular transport phenomena.
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE 1991


TABLE 1
Course Outline
"Introduction to Molecular Transport Phenomena"
Prerequisites: Undergraduate Engineering Mathematics (solu-
tion methods for ordinary and partial differential equations);
Transport Phenomena (momentum, heat, and mass transfer);
Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics or Engineering
Thermodynamics.
Topics for a One-Semester Course:*
Mathematical Preliminaries (3-4)
A. Introduction: A Molecular View of Gases, Liquids, and
Solids (3-4)
B. Transport Phenomena from Elementary Kinetic Theory (4)
C. Phase Space and Liouville's Equation (4)
D. Reduced Distributions and the Equilibrium Behavior of
Matter (7)
E. The General Equations of Change (7)
F. Transport Properties and Solutions to the Reduced Li-
ouville Equation (7)
G. An Introduction to Molecular Dynamic Computations (7)
SSuggested number of classes are given in parentheses based on a fifteen-week
semester, three classes per week; the two classes not shown are reserved for exams.

Molecular engineering also plays a critical role in
the development of newly emerging areas of chemi-
cal engineering (such as advanced polymeric and ce-
ramic materials, and biochemical and biomedical
engineering) where a molecular and macromolecu-
lar description is a necessity rather than just an
alternate method of analysis.[4] There is a current
need in the undergraduate curriculum for both quali-
tative and quantitative descriptions of processes and
phenomena involving gases, liquids, and solids from
a molecular viewpoint.
In this course, the macroscopic treatment of trans-
port phenomena learned in previous courses is de-
veloped from molecular-level descriptions of matter.
It is shown that the ad-hoc assumptions made in
previous transport phenomena courses can be re-
placed by rational and scientific methods that will
provide a general framework for the systematic analy-
sis of complex systems or processes.

COURSE OUTLINE AND DISCUSSION OF TOPICS
The outline of this one-semester course is given
in Table 1, and a more detailed discussion of each


Chemical Engineering Education









section of material is given below. Suggested refer-
encs in formulating the lecture for each section are
also given.
Mathematical Preliminaries
Some mathematical preliminaries may be neces-
sary, depending on the background of the students.
Generally, students should have been exposed to
some vector and tensor operations, such as summa-
rized in Appendix A of Bird, Stewart, and Light-
foot.E51 Additionally, some elementary concepts in
probability are desirable. Our undergraduate stu-
dents are exposed to such conceptse61 in the second-
semester engineering mathematics course. Regard-
less of the student backgrounds, however, I have
found it important to review both of the above before
proceeding with the core material.
A. Introduction: Molecular View of Gases, Liquids, and Solids
The purpose of this section of the course is to
present a qualitative molecular picture of gases, liq-


Figure 1. Mechanical modelfor illustrating the three
phases of matter.


uids, and solids. Additionally, quantitative examples
are given to illustrate the usefulness of a molecular
interpretation of the three phases of matter.
An important dynamic feature of molecules is
their seemingly random motion. The mechanical
model shown in Figure 1 is a useful mechanical ana-
log of the random motion of molecules. In this model,
gravity causes the metallic balls to move down a
cascade of inclined planes. When projected onto a
screen, the balls appear to be under random molecu-
lar motion, as shown in Figure 2a. Of course, actual
random motion is due to the collisions between mole-
cules, where each molecule obeys Newton's Second
Law of Motion.
The same mechanical model can also be used to
provide a qualitative molecular picture of the three
phases of matter. In a gas, the average intermolecu-
lar spacing is much greater than the diameter of a
molecule or the average range over which intermol-
ecular forces act; this is depicted in Figure 2a. In
Figure 2b, a liquid is depicted by allowing all of the
metallic balls to settle to the bottom of the container
and then slightly tilting the container to one side.
Although the intermolecular spacing is relatively
small, there is a great degree of disorder in the mo-
lecular arrangements. This can be contrasted to a
solid, shown in Figure 2c, where the container is
tilted to an even greater angle. In solids, a regular
arrangement of the molecules is observed and vari-
ous types of packing geometries are possible.
In addition to the different geometric arrange-
ment of molecules in gases, liquids, and solids, the
trajectories or dynamics of the molecules are charac-
teristically different. In Figure 3, adapted from
Barker and Henderson,713 computer-generated tra-
jectories of molecules (see section G below) in the
three states of matter are shown. The tight spacing
and strong molecular interactions in solids cause
molecules to be constrained to move about fixed lat-
tice sites in a seemingly vibration-type motion. In


-a- -b- -c-
Figure 2. Overhead projections of the mechanical model shown in Figure 1. (a) Demonstration of random molecular
motions in a gas. (b) Intermolecular arrangements in liquids. (c) Intermolecular arrangements in solids.
Fall 1991 21










liquids and gases, on the other hand, the spacing is
not as close and the interactions are not as strong,
and consequently the molecules have a less con-
strained motion.
The above discussions should lead to the recogni-
tion that the nature of the forces between molecules
is important in determining the molecular picture
and hence the properties of gases, liquids, and sol-
ids. A brief discussion of the Lennard-Jones poten-
tial is given in Bird, et al., although a more extensive
discussion ofintermolecular forces can be found.18'91
Although the above discussions are of a qualita-
tive nature, some very simple, yet motivating, quan-
titative examples can be given that illustrate how
the molecular picture can directly predict the ob-
served macroscopic properties of matter. The follow-
ing example, taken from Tabor,El0 illustrates the cal-
culation of the internal energy change for sublima-
tion of a crystal.

Example: The connection between molecular structure
and macroscopic properties: The internal energy change
for sublimation of an ionic solid.
The molecular structure of a NaCI ionic crystal is shown in
Figure 4. In the process of sublimation, a change from the crystal-
line state to the vapor state takes place. Neglecting any suba-
tomic contributions, the internal energy of the crystal is primarily
due to the electrical potential energy associated with the configu-
ration of the Na' and Cl ions. Considering any ion in the crystal,
we note that geometrically there are six nearest neighbors of op-
posite sign at the distance r from the ion, 12 neighbors of the
same sign at a distanceJ r, 8 neighbors of opposite sign at a
distance of/ r, etc.
According to Coulomb's Law, the total potential energy asso-
ciated with moving each ion to its position relative to the central
ion is
6e2 12e 8e2 2
+ ...= -A (1)
r + r ir r
where e is the electron charge and A is the so-called Madelung
constant determined from the infinite series summation in Eq. (1)
to three significant digits as 1.75.110
The above analysis is deficient in that other pair charge
interactions have been overlooked, i.e., in bringing any charge to
a specific location in the lattice, there will be Coulombic interac-
tions with all other charges in the lattice and not with just the
central charge in Figure 4. Consider, for example, an ion located
adjacent to the central ion in Figure 4. The potential energy of
interaction in bringing it from infinity to its place on the lattice
must include the pair interactions with all of its neighbors and
not just the central ion. Because of the regular geometric arrange-
ment of the lattice, however, the expression for the potential
energy interactions for locating this ion is exactly the same as
that calculated in Eq. (1) for the central ion. The total potential
energy in constructing the lattice is, therefore, obtained by sum-
ming Eq. (1) over all ions in the lattice.
We are still not quite correct, however, in that we have
counted all the pair interactions twice. If there are a total of N
ions in the crystal, the total potential energy in constructing the
lattice is finally given by


U= N[-A- (2)
Equation (2) represents a sum over pair interactions in the
crystal, or "pairwise additivity." A general representation and
discussion of pairwise additivity can also be given where Eq. (2)
represents a special case for the NaCl ionic crystal.
In order to finally compute the internal energy change for the
sublimation process, the internal energy of the NaCI vapor mole-
cules is needed. Each NaCl molecule is a neutral molecule and,
consequently, the total potential energy is obtained by multiply-
ing the electrical potential energy associated with the formation
of a single molecule by the total number of molecules, N/2. i.e.

Uvapor (3)
where r. is the interatomic distance for NaCl in the vapor state.
The internal energy change, per mole, for the sublimation
process represents the difference in electrical potential energy
between the vapor and solid states, which from Eqs. (2) and (3) is

Usub = 1Ne2( 1.75 1(4)
where No is the number of ions per mole. Using the values ofr =
(2.82)(10-8) cm and r, = (2.36)(10-8) cm given by Tabor101 the inter-
nal energy change for sublimation of NaCI crystal is calculated
from Eq. (4) as 65.3 kcal/mole. An experimental value can be


Solid


4. B r S S s
.0 4 ( V 'D 0,
06 > / <


Liquid 'T4Q





Gas





Figure 3. Characteristic molecular trajectories in gases,
liquids, and solids17 corresponding to the molecular ar-
rangements shown in Figure 2.

Figure 4. The NaCl
crystal; closed circles
represent Nao and
open circles represent
Cl-. The internal energy
of the crystal is ob-
tained by summing the
electric potential en-
ergy changes in bring-
ing each ion from in-
finity to its place on the
lattice.


Chemical Engineering Education









estimated from heats of formation data as 54.7 kcal/mole,[11 which
is in good agreement with the calculated value.
Many other examples of this nature can be used
to show the relationship between the molecular-level
description of matter and macroscopically observed
quantities. For example, Tabor also treats the prob-
lem of theoretically predicting the bulk modulus of a
crystal from knowledge of the molecular interac-
tions. These examples are very useful in motivating
the molecular treatments of transport phenomena
that follow in the remaining sections.
B. Transport Phenomena from Elementary Kinetic Theory
A simple, but elegant, treatment of the transport
properties of gases can be shown through the ele-
mentary kinetic theory of gases. The so-called phe-
nomenological laws of transport phenomena (Fick's
Law of Diffusion, Fourier's Law of Heat Conduction,
and Newton's Law of Viscosity) are also derived
through the elementary kinetic theory of gases. Con-
sequently, this is a very useful introductory theory
in establishing a firm physical foundation for dis-
cussing the phenomenological laws.
In general, mass, momentum, and energy can be
transferred by a substance through random motions
and interactions of its constituent molecules. This
transfer takes place even in the absence of any over-
all or bulk-material motion. An everyday example is
the rapid sensation of odors in a closed room, with-
out drafts, at locations many meters away from the
source of their emission. Here, random molecular
motion is the driving force for a macroscopic transfer
of material.'
The phenomenon of macroscopic transfer as the
result of random molecular motion is illustrated in
Figure 5, which shows molecules of two different


4 -0-


4-* _-0


x/-


Figure 5. Random molecular motion and the macroscopic
transfer of material. Closed circles and open circles are
used to denote a binary system; a concentration gradient
has been imposed on the system.
Fall 1991


types, depicted as open and closed circles. The left-
hand side of the plane at z = 0 is more concentrated
in open circles than in closed, although the total
number of circles is equivalent on both sides of the
plane. One of the basic hypotheses of the elementary
kinetic theory of gases is that a gas is comprised of
molecules in constant random motion. Although this
randomness is in all directions, for the sake of sim-
plicity we will consider only one dimension. For ex-
ample, consider random molecular motion in the z-
direction, as shown by the arrows randomly affixed
to each molecule in Figure 5. This could be accom-
plished by a series of coin tosses where a "heads"
corresponds to an arrow pointing to the right, and a
"tails" results in an arrow pointing to the left.
Over a small interval of time, several molecules
will be transferred from the left-half to the right-half
plane, and vice-versa, owing to random molecular
motion, with the total number of molecules on either
side of the plane remaining essentially unchanged
(no overall motion). Because of the imbalance in
concentrations, the several molecules transferred
from the left-half to the right-half plane are pre-
dominantly open circles, whereas the several mole-
cules transferred from the right-half to the left-half
plane are predominantly closed circles. Thus, there
will be a net transfer of open circles from a more
concentrated region of open circles to a lower con-
centrated region of open circles. Likewise, the closed
circles also are transferred from a region of high
concentration of closed circles to a region of lower
concentration of closed circles. Random molecular
motion statistically tends to equalize concentration
differences that exist in a system. The macroscopic
observation is a net transfer of a molecular property
in a direction from a high property concentration to a
low concentration.
In addition to molecules being characterized as a
certain type or species, molecules also possess the
properties of momentum and energy. Since momen-
tum is a vector quantity, there are three scalar com-
ponents of momentum that are considered as sepa-
rate properties. Gradients in the concentration of
these properties (x, y, or z momentum/volume and
energy/volume) will also result in a transfer of those
properties through the system by random molecular
motions.
There are many excellent quantitative develop-
ments of the elementary kinetic theory of gases that
follow from the above qualitative description. A very
concise quantitative treatment of the elementary
By macroscopic, we mean an observation made over a statisti-
cally large group of molecules.









kinetic theory of gases is given by Hirschfelder, et al.
Other elementary transport theories for liquids and
solids can also be discussed, e.g., the Eyring theory
of transport phenomena in liquids.
C. Phase Space and Liouville's Equation
The purpose of this section is to develop the so-
called Liouville equation, which is the starting point
in the derivation of the transport equations and
associated flux relations (see Section E below).
There are several introductory and clearly writ-
ten developments of the Liouville equation that can
be consulted for this section of the course,[12-14] and
only some highlights will be given here.
In this section and the remaining sections, we
consider only molecules of a single type or species;
the transport phenomena of multicomponent sys-
tems is beyond the scope of an introductory, one-
semester course.
The first part of this section of material discusses
the concepts of phase points and phase space. The
phase point represents the collection of all momen-
tum and position variables of the molecules in the
system at any time. As the molecules move accord-
ing to Newton's Second Law of Motion, the phase
point moves through a multidimensional space con-
sisting of the momentum and position coordinates of
all the molecules in the system. I have used simple
cartesian coordinates in an undergraduate class.
However, some instructors may wish to introduce
the concept of generalized coordinates and Hamil-
tonian equations of motion.
Next, the concept of an ensemble of phase points
is introduced. Each phase point or member of the
ensemble initially consists of the same total number
of molecules, same total momentum, and same total
energy. There are, however, a number of different
ways or realizations in distributing the initial posi-
tions and moment of the molecules in order to
achieve the same total values in energy and momen-
tum macroscopicallyy indistinguishable systems). The
collection of these realizations can be visualized as a
"cloud" of phase points at any time. A number den-
sity function is introduced to quantify the "cloud"
that moves through multidimensional space.
An analogy can immediately be drawn between
the number density function for the phase points
and the ordinary mass density function introduced
in the first undergraduate transport course in fluid
mechanics. In fact, the Liouville equation simply
represents a conservation equation for the phase
points as they move through multidimensional space.
I have used Figure 2.1 in Bird, et al., as a start-


ing point in visualizing the development of the
Liouville equation. An analogous figure can be
thought of where a simple cube is replaced by a
"hypercube" and the cartesian coordinates replaced
by multidimensional coordinates (see Figure 6.4 of
Reif131). The rate of phase points entering the hyper-
cube through any of the faces is simply the flux
times the cross-sectional area (multidimensional in
this case). The flux is simply the number density
times the time rate of change of the coordinate nor-
mal to the face of the hypercube. Specific units are
presented for both momentum and position coordi-
nates to dimensionally verify that a "rate of phase
points" is obtained for each term.
The final development involves substitution of
Newton's Second Law of Motion for each molecule
and some simple reductions, although again gener-
alized coordinates and Hamiltonian equations can
be used for a more rigorous treatment. More discus-
sion on the types of ensembles (microcanonical, ca-
nonical, etc.) could also be given at this time, but it is
not necessary for the developments given below.
D. Reduced Distributions and Equilibrium Behavior of Matter
The Liouville equation derived in the previous
section describes the behavior of the phase point
number density function in a multidimensional space
consisting of all momentum and position variables
for the molecules in the system. Since the number of
molecules in a system is typically very large (over a
billion!), the solution of the Liouville equation repre-
sents a formidable problem. Fortunately, it will be
shown in later sections that generally it is only nec-
essary to know the behavior in a reduced space rep-
resenting the positions and momentum of only a few
molecules. Physically, this is because the interac-
tions between molecules which lead to correlated
behavior are generally of a short range and, thus,
locally involve only a few molecules.
The phase point number density function, nor-
malized with respect to the total number of mem-
bers of the ensemble can also be interpreted as the
probability of finding a member of the ensemble in a
differential region of phase space. Below, this func-
tion is denoted as p(rN, pN, t) where (r", pN, t) is
shorthand notation for the multidimensional posi-
tion and momentum coordinates (rl, r2, ..., rN, p1, p2
..., pN, t). With this probability interpretation, the
various types of reduced density functions and rela-
tionships between systems of distinguishable and
indistinguishable molecules can be presented." 813
With the above preliminaries, the reduced form
of the Liouville equation can be derivedsl8. The deri-
vation requires the use of Green's theorem and the
Chemical Engineering Education









assumed "natural" behavior of the phase point num-
ber density function that it tends to zero as the
position and momentum variables of the molecules
tend to infinite values.
The configurational part of the reduced Liouville
equation is useful in the development of equations of
state and thermodynamic properties of gases, liq-
uids, and solids. This equation can be derived as
outlined by Hirschfelder, et al., and is recognized by
statistical thermodynamicists as the "Integral Equa-
tion" for lower-ordered configurational distribution
functions (see Section F below).
E. The General Equations of Change
It is the purpose of this section of the course to
develop the transport equations (or mass, momen-
tum, and energy conservation equations) from first
principles. Although many introductory texts on
kinetic theory and transport phenomena derive the
transport equations beginning with the so-called
Boltzmann transport equation (Section F below), fol-
lowing Irving and KirkwoodE151 we prefer to adopt a
general approach and derive the transport equa-
tions directly from the Liouville equation developed
in Section C. The resulting "General Equations of
Change" are applicable to all types of flows, includ-
ing laminar, turbulent, and shock flows, thus form-
ing an important basis for understanding current
and future developments in transport phenomena.
As mentioned in the previous section, the nor-
malized phase point number density function PN can
be interpreted as a probability density function, i.e.,
pdrNdpN is proportional to the probability of finding
a phase point in a multidimensional region between
(rN, pN) and (rN + drN, pN + dpN) at any time. Just as
one defines the mean, variance, and other moments
of probability density functions, we can also exam-
ine these quantities with respect to the phase point
(probability) density function. More specifically, the
averaging can be performed directly with the
Liouville equation leading to the so-called transport
equations. The transport equations thus represent
the behavior of the various moments of the density
function PN. These moments are defined more spe-
cifically below. Since the Liouville equation is a con-
servation equation, the transport equations also
represent conservation equations for the various
moments of the density function.
Following Irving and Kirkwood, the average or
expectation value of any dynamical variable
a(rN, pN) that does not depend explicitly on time is
introduced as
E{a}= N!j a(rN,pN)fN(rN,pN,t)drNdpN (5)


where fN(rN, pN, t) = N!pN(rN, pN, t) is the phase point
density function for indistinguishable molecules.
A judicious choice of a leads to the definitions of
the average mass (or number) density, average mo-
mentum, and average energy for the fluid as fol-
lows:1'5
1) Average Total Mass Density, E(al = p(r, t)
N
Ka=m Y8 (-r) (6)
where m is the mass of a single molecule and 8 is the
Dirac delta function.
2) Average Total Momentum Density, Elal = p(r, t)v(r, t)
N
a=m k(r -r) (7)
3) Average Total Energy Density, E(a) = U(r, t)
a N 1N N
a= -1 P28(rk-r)+2i1 Y Y ij8(rj-r) (8)
k=1 2i=1 j=l
(j~i)
Note that the first term in Eq. (8) represents the
kinetic energy contribution, and the second term
represents the intermolecular potential energy con-
tribution.
The transport equations can now be derived us-
ing the simple paradigm of multiplying the Liouville
equation by each of the defining relations for a and
integrating over all phase space. Since there are
some similarities in each derivation, this process
can be facilitated by first considering the conserva-
tion equation for a.lS,615 Generally, finding time to
derive the energy balance equation has been diffi-
cult. For the purposes of this introductory course it
is sufficient to derive the mass and momentum con-
servation equations and merely present the results
for the energy conservation equation.
Finally, it should be noted that in the derivation
of the transport equations, use is made of the inte-
gral relationship involving the derivative of the Di-
rac delta function16,171

Jg(x)8(n)(x-x)dx= (-1)n g(n)(xo) (9)

where 6(n) denotes the nth derivative of 5 with respect
to x and, similarly, g("(xo) is the nth derivative of g
with respect to x evaluated at xo. The derivation of
Eq. (15) can be easily obtained by using one of the
limiting definitions of the delta function (a general-
ized function) e.g., the limit of a normal or Gaussian
density function as the variance tends to zero.
F. Transport Properties and Solutions to the
Reduced Liouville Equation
The general equations of change derived in the
previous section contained expressions for the prop-
erty flux vectors representing the transfer of a prop-
erty relative to the mass average velocity of the


Fall 1991









fluid. It was shown that these expressions contain
lower-order density functions whose behavior is dic-
tated by the corresponding reduced forms of the
Liouville equation introduced in Section C.
It is the goal of this section to show that various
types of solutions to the reduced Liouville equation
result in a form of the transport equations known as
the Navier-Stokes equations. This derivation can be
rigorously accomplished for dilute gases which, by
definition, have at most only two molecule encoun-
ters; three or more molecule interactions are ne-
glected. Consequently, the reduced Liouville equa-
tion derived in Section E can be truncated at order
two for a dilute gas. From this truncated equation a
very simple derivation of the so-called Boltzmann
transport equation can be given.1181 Note that some
discussion on the geometry and dynamics of a binary
molecular collision is necessary in the development
of the Boltzmann equation.
Having derived the Boltzmann transport equa-
tion, scaling and dimensional analyses are per-
formed.'119 The Knudsen number, the ratio of a char-
acteristic molecular length scale (such as the gas
mean free path) to a characteristic macroscopic length
scale, is introduced as an important dimensionless
group for the Boltzmann transport equation.
By considering the two extremes (i.e., very small
and very large Knudsen numbers), various approxi-
mate analytical solutions to the Boltzmann equation
can be outlined. Unfortunately, there is not suffi-
cient time in a one-semester course to cover these
solutions in great detail. Typically, I have outlined
the Chapman-Enskog solution to the Boltzmann
equation, asymptotically valid at very small Knudsen
numbers. This discussion includes the Boltzmann
H-Theorem, the first-order perturbation expansion,
and the general forms of the solutions. The overall
presentation is sufficient to obtain the celebrated
Navier-Stokes equation and the energy transport
equation encountered in the students' previous
courses on transport phenomena. Newton's Law of
Viscosity and Fourier's Law of Heat Conduction are
shown to naturally arise in the Chapman-Enskog
solution method. The expressions for the coefficients
of viscosity and heat conduction are also obtained.
However, it is shown that further resolution of these
expressions is needed (via solutions to a set of finite
integral equations) in order to perform actual nu-
merical calculations. Typically, there is not suffi-
cient time to cover the solution to these specific
integral equations, nor is it necessary at this level,
and the final results can be presented without proof.


The above discussions and presentations are also
sufficient for demonstrating the connection between
thermodynamics and transport phenomena. It is
readily shown that, under local equilibrium condi-
tions, the normal component of the pressure tensor
in a dilute gas is the thermodynamic pressure. For
fluids that are far removed from local equilibrium, it
is doubtful that the thermodynamic pressure can be
utilized in a transport equation. Nonetheless, a gen-
eral framework has been established for evaluating
the pressure tensor in both equilibrium and non-
equilibrium fluids; similar analyses can be applied
to the evaluation of the internal energy.
A homework assignment can also be given that
ties together thermodynamic and transport proper-
ties for dilute gases: experimental values of the sec-
ond virial coefficients for a variety of dilute gases are
used to determine the corresponding Lennard-Jones
force constants.8 1 The Lennard-Jones constants de-
termined in this manner are, subsequently, used to
predict the viscosity coefficients of each gas accord-
ing to the Chapman-Enskog formula.
Some instructors may wish to present other solu-
tions to the Boltzmann transport equation, such as
Grad's 13-moment method; some recent reviews on
solutions to the Boltzmann transport equation are
given by Cercignani[191 and by Dorfman and van
Beijeren.1201 A condensed discussion of the Chapman-
Enskog method is given by McQuarrie[211 and a read-
able discussion is given by Vincenti and Kruger.1221
G. An Introduction to Molecular Dynamic Computations
Given the dramatic advances in the scientific
and engineering computational abilities provided by
supercomputers and other machines, it is highly
likely that many problems in transport phenomena
will, in the future, be solved at the molecular level.
It should be clear from the above discussions that
the numerous approximations involved in actually
resolving the transport equations limits the useful-
ness of the results for performing engineering calcu-
lations for a variety of different systems, other than
systems of dilute gases. Although extending the use-
fulness of the statistical mechanical development of
transport phenomena is a subject of current engi-
neering and scientific research, molecular dynamics
computations provide a fundamentally simple and
rigorous means of studying transport phenomena
for almost all classical fluids.
There are many books and review articles on the
molecular dynamics method. No attempt is made
* For a review of nonclassical or quantum mechanical methods for
molecular dynamics, see Kosloff.'25'


Chemical Engineering Education










here to review the literature in this area. Rather,
some suggested discussions and topics are given that
are useful as further expositions of the topics cov-
ered in the previous sections. It is important that
the students understand the basis and salient fea-
tures of the molecular dynamics method and see the
usefulness of the method in predicting equilibrium
or nonequilibrium properties of matter.
A recent text by Heermann1231 discusses a num-
ber of important aspects of the molecular dynamics
method, including finite difference schemes for solv-
ing the equations of motion for the molecules, peri-
odic boundary conditions and minimum image con-
vention, types of ensembles, and averaging methods
for determining macroscopic properties. Heermann
also lists a number of computer programs associated
with the molecular dynamics method. For example,
a clearly presented computer program listing is given
for microcanonical (constant energy) emsemble equi-
librium molecular dynamics. This program can be
readily installed on a mainframe computer or net-
work system. As an enlightening homework assign-
ment,1231 the students can be asked to determine the
equilibrium pair correlation function for a Lennard-
Jones fluid discussed in Section D above. Compari-
sons between dilute gases, dense gases, and liquids
can be made, as well as the study of other types of
intermolecular potentials and equations of state.
Instructors may also wish to present other types
of molecular dynamics methods or applications, in-
cluding nonequilibrium molecular dynamics meth-
ods.[241 Because of the conceptually simple basis of
molecular dynamics, instructors can have a great
degree of flexibility (and fun!) in bringing their own
interests into developing this part of the course.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
In general, I have found this course suitable as
an upper-level chemical engineering elective course.
A final student project is substituted in place of a
final exam. The students can select any project that
illustrates a molecular interpretation of the macro-
scopic properties of matter. Ideally, these topics
should be taken from areas not fully treated in the
lecture material, such as molecular design in solids,
multicomponent systems, and other molecular dy-
namic or Monte Carlo simulation methods. Specific
applications or potential applications to systems of
interest to chemical engineering and related disci-
plines should be emphasized in the students' proj-
ects. These additional topics could also be developed
in a second-semester course where greater emphasis
could be placed on molecular level engineering de-

Fall 1991


sign of materials and processes.
Although the lecture material is taken from a
number of different sources (a course text is cur-
rently in preparation), any introductory book on sta-
tistical mechanics or statistical physics, some of which
are given in the references, should be used as a
required supplementary text for the course. These
texts can provide a source of homework problems
and can be used as a basis for the development of
some of the material suggested above.

REFERENCES
1. Corcoran, E., Sci. American, 264, No 1, 100 (1991)
2. Rugar, D., and P. Hansma, Physics Today, 43, No. 10, 23
(1990)
3. Borman, S., Chem. and Eng. News, p. 29, July 17 (1989)
4. Frontiers in Chemical Engineering, National Research
Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC (1988)
5. Bird, R.B., W.E. Stewart, and E.N. Lightfoot, Transport
Phenomena, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1960)
6. Kreyszig, E., Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Sixth
ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York (1988)
7. Barker, J.A., and D. Henderson, Sci. American, 245,, No.
5,130(1981)
8. Hirschfelder, J.O., C.F. Curtiss, and R.B. Bird, Molecular
Theory of Gases and Liquids, John Wiley & Sons, New
York (1964)
9. Maitland, G.C., M. Rigby, E.B. Smith, and W.A. Wakeham,
Intermolecular Forces: Their Origin and Determination,
Oxford University Press, New York (1981)
10. Tabor, D., Gases, Liquids, and Solids, Penguin Books,
Inc., Baltimore, MD (1969)
11. Keller, R., Basic Tables in Chemistry, McGraw-Hill, New
York (1967)
12. Kittel, C., Elementary Statistical Physics, John Wiley &
Sons, New York (1958)
13. Reif, F., Statistical Physics, Berkeley Physics Course, Vol.
5, McGraw-Hill, New York (1965)
14. Gubbins, K.E., and T. M. Reed, Applied Statistical Me-
chanics, Butterworth Reprint Series in Chemical Engi-
neering, Stoneham, MA (1991)
15. Irving, J.H., and J.G. Kirkwood, J. Chem. Phys., 18, 817
(1950)
16. Schwartz, L. Theorie des Distributions, Actualites Scienti-
figues et Industrielles, Nos. 1092, 1122, Hermans & Cie,
Paris (1950-51)
17. Jones, D.S., The Theory of Generalized Functions, Cambr-
idge University Press (1982)
18. Andrews, F., J. Chem. Phys., 35,922 (1962)
19. Cercignani, C., The Boltzmann Equation and Its Applica-
tions, Springer-Verlag, New York (1988)
20. Dorfman, J.R., and van Beijeren, The Kinetic Theory of
Gases; in Statistical Mechanics, Part B., B.J. Berman, ed.,
Plenum Press, New York (1977)
21. McQuarrie, D.A., Statistical Mechanics, Harper and Row,
New York (1976)
22. Vincenti, W.G., and C.H. Kruger, Introduction to Physical
Gas Dynamics, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1967)
23. Heermann, D.W., Computer Simulation Methods in Theo-
retical Physics, Springer-Verlag, New York (1986)
24. Evans, D.J., and W.G. Hoover, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 18,
243(1986)
25. Kosloff, R., J. Phys. Chem., 92,2087 (1988) 0











Award Lecture



COMPUTING IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION

From There, To Here, To Where?

Part 1: Computing


The ASEE Chemical Engineering
Division Lecturer for 1990 is Brice Car-
nahan of The University of Michigan.
The 3M Company provides financial
support for this annual lectureship
award, and its purpose is to recognize
outstanding achievement in an impor-
tant field of ChE theory or practice.
Brice earned his BS and MS de- \
grees from the Case Institute of Tech-
nology (1955, 1956), and his PhD from
the University of Michigan in 1965, all in chemical engineer-
ing. His doctoral research was on radiation-induced cracking
of paraffins. Between 1959 and 1965, he worked closely with
Professor Donald L. Katz, first as technical director of the
Ford Foundation project Computers in Engineering Educa-
tion and then as associate director of a follow-on NSF project,
Computers in Engineering Design Education.. He joined the
faculty of the University of Michigan in 1965, where his
research activities have focused on applied mathematics, mod-
eling, digital computing, and development of software for
computer-aided process analysis and dynamic simulation. He
is coauthor of two Wiley Texts, Applied Numerical Methods
and Digital Computing and Numerical Methods.
He and his colleague, Professor James Wilkes, are re-
sponsible for the required computing course for all freshmen
engineering students at the University of Michigan, for which
they have produced a steady stream of texts and instructional
aids over the years.
Professor Carnahan was a founding member and first in-
terim chairman of CACHE. He has subsequently served as
CACHE vice-chairman and chairman, and is currently active
as board member and publications chairman. He has held
elected AIChE positions as CAST Division Director, Vice-
Chairman, and Chairman, and is a member of the Editorial
Board of Computers & Chemical Engineering.
Since the early 1980s, Professor Carnahan has been inti-
mately involved with the planning, implementation, and
management of the Michigan College of Engineering
heirarchical, multivendor network, now incorporating over
2000 attached machines of widely varying power.
He has received numerous honors, including the Univer-
sity of Michigan's Distinguished Service Award (1974), the
AIChE CAST Division Computers in Chemical Engineering
Award (1980), the University of Michigan College of Engi-
neering's Outstanding Teaching Award (1984), and the De-
troit Engineering Society's Chemical Engineer of the Year
Award (1989).


BRICE CARNAHAN
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109


Notice of the 3M Lectureship award for 1990
came to me as a complete, though a very pleas-
ant, surprise. Many chemical engineering academics
have had greater impact on their specialties, includ-
ing engineering computation. Nevertheless, I very
much appreciate this singular recognition.
I would be remiss if I did not here acknowledge
the special contributions of two Michigan faculty to
my professional life and, indirectly, to this award.
The first is Don Katz, one of the greats of 20th
Century chemical engineering, who provided me at a
young age with opportunity, responsibility, encour-
agement, and financial support for pursuing my in-
terests in chemical engineering computing. He is
sorely missed by all who knew him. The second is my
colleague, Jim Wilkes, with whom I have worked
and taught on an almost daily basis for the past
thirty years. That sounds like a long time, but in
fact, the years of our collaboration have passed all
too quickly. They have been filled with much work, a
sense of accomplishment, and lots of fun. Thanks,
Jim. It's been great working with you. Here's to the
future...and, yes Jim, I will work on that revision of
Chapter 6...soon....

WHAT IS COMPUTING?
It is a bit disconcerting to be introduced as an
"expert" on almost any topic, since the audience then
expects the speaker to make the complicated simple,
to provide clever insights into the nature of a phe-
nomenon, or to predict the future accurately. It is es-
pecially onerous to be labeled a "computing" expert.
The truth is that no individual can get a handle on
more than a few small subspaces of what has be-
come an enormous and amorphous computing uni-
verse, including, but not limited to:
1. Design and manufacture of hardware for symbolic
(mostly numerical) operations, storage, display, and


Chemical Engineering Education


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE 1991









communication (e.g. networks)
2. Ancillary electronic equipment (e.g., sensors, a/d
converters)
3. Software (e.g., operating systems) for hardware
management, communication, and user interaction
4. A wide variety of procedural, object-oriented, and other
tools for creating applications
5. Application programs for:
Creating and publishing documents
Organized storage and retrieval of information
Business and financial transaction/record keeping
Implementation of numerical and non-numerical
algorithms
Engineering/scientific analysis, design, control, and
simulation
Creation of graphical images
Visualization of computed results
Image analysis and pattern recognition
Integrating media (text, graphics, video, sound, TV) for
education and entertainment
Knowledge-based tools predicated on rules and
heuristics
Language, semantics, organization of the brain and
human thought processes
Everyone, both lay and technically trained, is
profoundly affected by "computing," but each of us
has a private version of what computing is, based on
our own limited experience (much like the elephant
and the blind men).
I chose the lecture title primarily because this is
a meeting of engineering educators, and few techno-
logical developments have had (and will in the fu-
ture have) so pervasive an impact on engineering
education and research as has digital computing.
Unlike many important technological developments
in the history of engineering, computing has not
"matured" after fifty years of steady (often spectacu-
lar) advances. In fact, as we enter the last decade of
this century, the pace of change is accelerating sig-
nificantly in all of the areas listed above. The ques-
tion mark in the title will let me end with some
conjectures about current trends and the future.
Computing developments in engineering educa-
tion have occurred by and large during my profes-
sional lifetime, starting in the mid-1950s. I would
like to start from the perspective of a newly gradu-
ated (in 1955) chemical engineer, trace some of what
I perceive as the most important computing develop-
ments over the past fifty years or so, and then make
some predictions (guesses, really) about what the
future may hold vis-a-vis computers and computing
in engineering education. I chose to put "engineer-
ing" rather than "chemical engineering" in the title
because computing in chemical engineering isn't all
that different from computing in other engineering
disciplines.


I would like to ... trace some of what Iperceive
as the most important computing developments
over the past fifty years or so, and then
make some predictions (guesses,
really) about the future ...

In fact, many of the computing tools used most
by both students and faculty (e.g., word processors,
data-base managers, spreadsheet programs, draw-
ing and plotting packages, electronic mail and con-
ferencing software) are essentially "non-technical";
of course, "technical" computing (involving large-scale
programs for symbolic and numerical mathematics,
analysis, design, and control) is also important to all
of us some of the time, and I don't want to leave it
out-I just want to take a broader view of what com-
puting in engineering education is now and what it
is likely to be in the future.

THERE-THE EARLY YEARS
Let's start with the "there" part of my title. "There"
for me started when I graduated from Case Tech in
1955, within months of the introduction of the IBM
650, the first widely available commercial digital
computer. That event passed without my knowl-
edge. I had heard of (and seen, on television) the
UNIVAC computer, mostly because of its use in tabu-
lating and predicting the vote in the 1952 presiden-
tial election. The only computing device I had seen
personally was an enormous unused mechanical
analog integrator (covering perhaps two-hundred
square feet of floor space) in the ME department at
Case that had been used to solve some ODE's during
World War II. The twelve-foot long K&E sliderule
hanging on the wall of the same room looked a lot
more useful to me. It was a prop for teaching new
freshmen about fast and accurate calculation (three
digits still isn't all that bad!). That giant rule, along
with the dreaded drafting exercises (where were you,
Claris CAD, when I needed you?), is retained vividly
as part of my freshman memory.
I am surprised at how little most students (and
faculty) know about the personalities and historical
events that led up to the successful IBM 650 ven-
ture. Mention "light-bulb" and the response is
"Edison"; "airplane" and the response is "Orville and
Wilbur Wright"; "telephone" and the response is
"Alexander Graham Bell"; "computer" and the re-
sponse is (almost always) silence or (inaccurately)
"IBM." Although many mechanical or electromechani-
cal calculating machines were developed (very early
by Pascal, late in the 19th Century by Burroughs
and Hollerith, and during the first half of the 20th


Fall 1991









Century by IBM and other companies), what most of tude longer than today's computers!
us would call programmable digital computing de- In a classic 1946 paper,1[3 Burks, Goldstine, and
veloped along an essentially independent path, with von Neumann first introduced the stored-program
ideas generated by a small number of clever, deter- and other architectural concepts that appear in nearly
mined, and sometimes irascible, individuals. Table 1
shows a chronology of a few milestone events from TABLE 1
the early history of digital computing. Digital Computing: Early History
Babbage,111 who for a time held Newton's chair at
Date Machine Description Developer
Cambridge, is a tremendously interesting personal- 1833-1848 Analytical engine mechanical general-purpose
ity. His mechanical analytical engine incorporated computer Babbage at Cambridge and London
the most important conceptual elements of the mod- 1939-1942 ABC linear equation solver first all-electronic
ern serial digital computer "architecture," with the computational hardware Atanasoff at Iowa State
exception of the stored program. Much of what we Unversity
w a t B s a l e e s s fm 1944-1946 ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and
know about Babbage's analytical engine stems from Calculator) first general-purpose electronic
its promotion by Lady Ada Lovelace (hence the name computer Eckert and Mauchly at the University
for the programming language Ada), who was Lord of Pennsylvania
Byron's daughter and a mathematician of some note. 1946 EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Electronic
Babbage never got his engine to work, despite the Computer) paper stored program concept
Burks, Goldstine, and von Neumann at Princeton
expenditure of a great deal of his own money and 1947-1952 Mark I, II, III, IV electromechanical computers
earlier support from the British Admiralty (the first with separate data and instruction memories *
federal R&D proposal?). This failure was not caused Aiken at Harvard
by a flaw in his design, but because of his unusual 1947 Whirlwind special-purpose radar processor, first
management style and problems with accurate metal machine with core memory MIT
machining. Parts of his machine were built in the 1949 EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic
Computer) o first operating stored-program
1950s and are on display at the Science Museum in machine Wilkes at Cambridge University
London (see Figure 1). 1950 BINAC first American stored program computer
Nearly a century passed before Atanasoff designed Eckert and Mauchly Co. for Northrup Aviation
the first all-electronic (vacuum tube) computational 1951 UNIVAC o first commercial computer (48 built) *
Remington-Rand Corp.
circuitry and built a special purpose digital com- 1952 IBM 701 first core-memory machine (19 built) *
puter at Iowa State University for solving twenty- IBM
nine (why twenty-nine is not clear) simultaneous 1955 IBM 650 first high-volume computer (hundreds
linear equations. His work was interrupted by World built), drum memory IBM
War II, and his contributions are often slighted by 1955 IBM 704 first large scientific machine, first
historians. However, a recent thoroughly documented built-in floating point unit IBM
bookl21 makes it clear that Atanasoffs contributions
were substantial, and that they influenced the sub-
sequent development of the ENIAC by Eckert and
Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania's Moore
School.
The ENIAC was the first truly programmable
digital computer; all programming was done manu-
ally with switches and cables. It was used for com-
puting firing tables for the military, and its exis-
tence became public knowledge in 1946, after World
War II. Some statistics: the machine was 100 feet
long, 8.5 feet high, and several feet wide; it had
twenty 10-digit registers in its arithmetic unit (each
2 feet long), and 18,000 vacuum tubes. An integer
add required 200 microseconds, making it something
like a 0.005 Mips (Million instructions per second) Figure 1. Part of the mill (arithmetic unit) of Babbage's
machine. The ENIAC (see Figure 2) was two to three Analytical Engine, constructed after his death from origi-
orders of magnitude larger physically, and its typi- nal drawings. (British Crown Copyright, Science Museum, Lon-
cal instruction time was three to six orders of magni- don)
220 Chemical Engineering Education
































all of our current (serial) computers; they called their
machine the EDVAC. EDSAC, built by Wilkes at
Cambridge University, was the first true stored-
program machine built on the EDVAC model; it be-
came operational in 1949.
The first American stored-program machine was
the BINAC, built for Northrup Aviation by Eckert
and Mauchly (who left the Moore School in 1947 to
start their own company). It was fully functional by
mid-1950 and served as the basis for the first com-
mercial digital computer, the Remington-Rand
UNIVAC, released in 1951; forty-eight UNIVAC sys-
tems were built, and the cost per machine was
$250,000 (about $3 million in today's dollars).
IBM entered the digital computing business
shortly after Remington-Rand, introducing its first
computer, the IBM 701, in 1952; nineteen were built.
The IBM 701 was the first stored-program machine
to use truly random access magnetic core memory
(previously developed at MIT in 1947 for a special-
purpose radar signal processor called the Whirlwind).
At the same time, IBM was developing two other
machines. One was a follow-on core-memory ma-
chine with the first built-in floating-point unit, the
IBM 704; it was not really available in quantity
until 1957-58. The second was a less expensive "mass-
market" computer, the IBM 650, with a magnetic
drum memory. IBM eventually built several hundred
of them, mostly for rental. The University of Michi-
gan rented an IBM 650 in early 1956 to replace its
mostly unsuccessful research computer with mer-
cury delay line storage called the MIDAC (MIchigan
Automatic Digital Computer). The few who actually
Fall 1991


used MIDAC derisively said the acronym really stood
for "Machine Is Down Almost Continuously." As I
recall, the rental rate for the 650 was $35 per day-
time hour (but only for hours when it was up!).
The presence of the new computer had nothing to
do with my decision to go to Michigan for PhD work
in the fall of 1956. I chose Michigan because it was
one of the few schools with its own nuclear reactor,
and I wanted to work with Joe Martin on a chemical/
nuclear engineering problem. When I met with Joe
for my first counseling session, he told me about the
new University computer and that the mathematics
department was offering a new course on digital
computing, the first at Michigan. Once I was in that
course (with about twenty other students) I knew
that I wanted to be involved with computers far into
the future (even though my research was to be unre-
lated to it). In fact, I became a teaching assistant in
that first computing course the next term it was
offered.
For those (most of you) who weren't around at
that time, here is a picture of what students did
during that first course offering:
Each of us learned to operate the computer and then
signed up for, at most, one hour at a time to solve our
problems (I always ended up with the 2:00-3:00 AM slot!).
The machine had no keyboard or printer-just a card
reader and card punch. All communication was through
punched cards or directly with keys on the console (the
lights displayed information in bi-quinary format-you
might want to look that one up!).
All programming was in the machine's language; each
instruction contained an operation code plus two
addresses, one for an operand and another for locating
the next instruction in the memory.
The "operating system" consisted of a four-card machine-
language loader. Program execution could be initiated,
interrupted, or stepped one instruction at a time, directly
from the console; the light pattern on the console was the
only feedback available to the programmer/operator (the
repeated light patterns from infinite loops were always
fun to watch).
The machine had a rotating-drum memory with fifty
memory cells arranged in each of twenty "cylinders'
around the drum surface. Because of the time required for
interpreting an instruction, retrieving the operand, and
then processing the instruction, placement of both the
data and the next instruction was critical for efficient
execution. The location of each program instruction and
data item on the drum had to be carefully considered,
since a drum is not a random-access device.
How do you think a current student working on a
Macintosh would respond to the following directions?
If the instruction address is an even number, the data address
should be three word positions later (on any cylinder) and
the next instruction address should be four word positions
beyond that. Since there are fifty word positions around the
cylinder, the correct drum rotation angle for the next










instruction if 50.4 degrees. ... If the instruction address is
odd, the data address should be three word positions later
and the next instruction address should be five positions
beyond that, so the drum rotation angle for the next instruction
is 57.6 degrees.
Not to worry-part-way through the course we
began to use the GAT assembler, written by Gra-
ham, Arden, and Galler of the University of Michi-
gan Computing Center. That helped a bit (symbolic
names for operation codes and addresses) but still
left the angle determination to the programmer. Then
one day, late in the term, the SOAP assembler ar-
rived. .and life was never the same thereafter. The
O in SOAP stood for "optimal," and the SOAP as-
sembler took care of all those nasty angle details.
After struggling with the machine's language, SOAP
seemed nothing short of a miracle (I was amazed,
like the monk in the XEROX ad).
I still have my programs from that course. The
first was (you guessed it), "Find the volume of a
cylinder, given the radius and height as data." I re-
member thinking that I could have done the whole
thing on a slide rule in a tiny fraction of the time it
took me to learn how to run the 650 and get the
program working. But later in the course we were
each asked to solve a problem of our own. I decided
to solve the two-dimensional heat-conduction
(Laplace) equation in an L-shaped section of a fur-
nace wall. I can still remember the thrill of getting
the program working-and not just working, but
working with variable mesh sizes. It was my first ex-
posure to the true power of the computer and of
numerical methods.
For me, the computer die was cast!

TRENDS IN COMPUTER PERFORMANCE
In those very early days, it was clear to me that
computers would get faster, more reliable, and less
expensive-but not that they would get incredibly
smaller, and orders-of-magnitude faster and cheaper
(on a $/instruction or $/memory location basis). Data
from the recent (already classic) text on computer
architecture by Hennessy and Patterson'41 on the
relative performance of several classes of computers
over the past twenty-five years or so is shown in
Figure 3. The performance index is based on the
time to completion of a mix of typical programs.
By and large, prices in current dollars of the
various categories of machines have stayed fairly
stable. Supercomputers typically cost many millions,
mainframes sell for $500,000 to several million,
minicomputers from $50,000 to $500,000, and mi-


crocomputers from $1,000 (minimal personal com-
puters) to $75,000 (for high-performance worksta-
tions). Note that the rate of improvement in the per-
formance index is undiminished over a twenty-five-
year span and varies from about 18% per year for
supercomputers to about twice that for microcompu-
ters.
Figure 4 shows a different performance index for
supercomputers and microprocessors that is particu-
larly relevant to numerical engineering computa-
tions, MFLOPS (Millions of Floating-Point Opera-
tions Per Second). Although supercomputer proces-
sors still perform floating-point operations one to
two orders-of-magnitude faster than the fastest cur-
rent microprocessors, the message here is clear: the
latest RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) mi-
croprocesors (the middle curve) portend a rapid clo-
sure of the floating-point performance gap by rela-
tively inexpensive microprocessors.
Figure 5 shows the rapid price/performance de-
creases over the past decade for DRAM (Dynamic
Random Access Memory) chips used in computer


Micrmomprnters
Minicomputers
Mainframes
Supercomputers


1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990
Figure 3. Relative performance by computer class (data
from Hennessy and Patterson141).


1 Motorola 68881 a CISC processors
SRISC processors
Intel s087 IN Supercomputers
.01
1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992

Figure 4. Floating-point performance of supercomputer
and microcomputer processors (most data from Intel).


Chemical Engineering Education



















16Kb
64Kb
256 Kb
1 Mb


1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990

Figure 5. Costs of several generations of DRAM chips
(data from Hennessy and Patterson1g').


TABLE 2
Hardware/Software Milestones
Year Milestone
1960 ALGOL Magnetic disks
1962 Time sharing (Dartmouth) Virtual memory (ATLAS
at Manchester)
1964 Pipelined processors (CDC 6600) Microcoded proc-
essors, 32 bits, byte (IBM 360)
1965 Interactive graphics, Sketchpad (Sutherland)
1966 Multiprogramming Minicomputer (DEC PDP/8) *
Real-time computing
1967 Multiprocessing Memory cache (IBM 360/85)
1969 Minicomputer (DECPDP/11) PASCAL
1970 UNIX
1971 4-bit Microprocessor (LSI-Intel 4004) IBM 370
1972 Vector processor (CDC STAR)
1974 Personal minicomputerr (XEROX Alto), bitmapped
display, mouse Laser printer Local Area Network
(Ethernet)
1975 Object-oriented programming (Smalltalk) 8-bit
microprocessor (Intel 8008)
1976 16-bit microprocessor (Texas Instrument 9000) *
Supercomputer (Cray I) ARPANET C
1977 Microcomputers (Apple II, TRS-80, PET)
1978 DEC VAX Intel 8086 microprocessor
1979 Spreadsheets (VisiCalc) Hayes Micromodem
1980 RISC processor (Berkeley, Stanford, IBM)
1981 Graphical user interface (XEROX STAR) IBM PC *
DOS Epson dot matrix printer
1982 Compaq portable Cray XMP/4
1983 Apple Lisa Gavilan laptop
1984 Macintosh HP Laserjet printer
1985 Workstation (Apollo) Desktop publishing (Post-
script)
1986 IBM 3090 Windows graphical user interface
1987 Sparc RISC processor (SUN workstation)
1988 Cray Y/MP (8 processors, 6 ns clock) Convex, Alliant
minisupercomputors Stellar, Ardent, Silicon
Graphics, graphics workstations visualization *
massively parallel processing (Connection machine) *
OS/2
1989 Open Software Foundation (Standard UNIX)
1990 Superscalar RISC processor (IBM RS6000)
1991 ACE-MIPS RISC processor consortium HP PA RISC
processor Apple-IBM agreement Pen-based,
notebook, handheld microcomputers


Fall 1991


main stores. Here the prices are in current (inflated)
dollars. Note that for each chip category there is a
similar pattern of a steep (nearly ten-fold) fall in
prices as the chip goes into production and that the
price cycles are almost identical despite the succes-
sive quadrupling of capacity.
Some long-range trends in computing equipment
development are:E41
Performance growth ranges from 18% per year for
supercomputer processors to 35% per year for
microprocessors.
Dynamic RAM chip element density increases about
60% per year. 4-Mbit chips are now in mass production
and IBM has announced plans to begin producing 16-
Mbit chips. Hitachi has already fabricated a 64-Mbit
chip in its laboratories.
Chip transistor count increases about 25% per year,
doubling every three years.
Hard disk bit density increases about 25% per year,
doubling every three years.
Hard disk access time improves slowly (only 3 to 4%
per year).

PREDICTING THE FUTURE
Who, in the late 1950s, would have guessed that
national computer meetings that brought together a
few hundred participants then would, only thirty
years later, sometimes attract in excess of 100,000
attendees-and be held only in one or two dreadful
places like Las Vegas and Anaheim for lack of room
elsewhere? Who then could have guessed the scope
of the computing business now?
Well, some did. I remember a talk by Thomas
Watson, Jr., in 1959, at the dedication ceremony for
the University's new IBM 704. He predicted that by
1990, the computing business would be as big as the
automobile business. That didn't quite happen, as
sales by the major computer companies are still sub-
stantially smaller than for the major auto manufac-
turers. Of course, had the car companies delivered
performance improvements comparable to those for
the products of the computing industry, we would all
be driving $1 Ferraris across the continent in a few
seconds, and car-company sales might not look so
big (one disadvantage-the car would be very, very
small!). If revenues from information-related busi-
nesses such as communication are added to those for
the computing manufacturers, Watson's prediction
has probably already come true. In any event, it is
certain to come true before the turn of the century.
Oh, that I had had some investment cash in 1959!

What about other early predictions? In 1945,
Vannevar Bush, inventor of the electronic analog










computer at MIT and Director of the Office of Scien-
tific Research and Development during World War
II, postulated a future device that is clearly similar
to the personal computer we (almost) all know and
love. In an article entitled "As We May Think,"E61 he
wrote:
The MEMEX will be for individual use, about the size of a
desk, with display and keyboard that would allow quick
reference to private records, journal articles, newspapers,
and perform calculations.

Unfortunately, in 1967, in an article entitled
"MEMEX Revisited," he wrote:
Will we soon have a personal machine for our own use?
Unfortunately not!

How wrong he was, with the first microprocessor
only a few years away. Of course, Vannevar Bush
had apparently been wrong before. As a consultant,
he is reputed to have advised IBM in the early 1950s
that one-hundred IBM 650s would saturate the
market, since they could do all the computing that
the world needed done! (Could he have been right?)
After hearing many predictions over the years, I
don't think that even the brightest are good at pre-
dicting the future of computing much beyond the
next generation of hardware and software. This is
not to be critical. Who among us in 1956 (slide rule
hanging from belt) would have predicted that in
1990 I could buy a pocket calculator for $50 (in
greatly inflated currency) that uses a procedure-
oriented language, can retain several programs in-
definitely, computes to at least eight-digit accuracy,
and operates for months on end on a battery smaller
than a dime?

THREE DECADES OF STEADY PROGRESS
Table 2 shows a chronology of major hardware/
software developments during the past three dec-
ades, as I see them. I have verified most of the dates,
but a few are from my own recollection and may be
off by a year or two.
Having gone from "there" to "here" in the general
categories of hardware and software, Table 3 shows
several areas of chemical engineering where these
technologies have had the biggest impact. Here I
have not tried to arrange the list in strict chronologi-
cal order.
Bob Seader (University of Utah) was the recipi-
ent of the 1990 Katz lectureship in our department.
One of his two lectures was entitled "A Brief History
of Computing in Chemical Engineering." His superb
lecture covered the subject so well that I couldn't
possibly improve on it here. A printed copy of Bob's


TABLE 3
Computing in Chemical Engineering

Topic
Process unit modeling
Data analysis/reduction
Physical property estimation
Steady-state simulation
Costing
Reservoir simulation
Optimization
Scaleup without pilot plants
Dynamic simulation
Process control
Control system design
Process synthesis
Batch-process simulators/schedulers
Knowledge-based (AI/expert system) synthesis and design
Graphics and visualization
Molecular and property modeling (polymers, composites)
Microelectronic processing/sensors
Integrated process/control/information management systems
Biochemical system modeling/simulation/design/control
Intensive use of numerical analysis tools:
linear and nonlinear algebraic/transcendental
equations
ordinary differential equations, stiff systems
partial differential equations (finite difference/
element methods)
Education/training
Office, plant, education networks

lecture was sent to every chemical engineering de-
partment chairman last fall, and I highly recom-
mend that you locate and read it. If you cannot find a
copy, contact me and I will send one to you.
Editor's Note: The second half of this award
lecture will be published in the next issue (Win-
ter 1992) of CEE.

REFERENCES
1. Morrison, Phillip and Emily, Charles Babbage and His
Calculating Engines, Dover, New York (1961)
2. Burks, Alice R. and Arthur W., The First Electronic Com-
puter: The Atanasoff Story, University of Michigan Press,
Ann Arbor, MI (1988)
3. Burks, A.W., H.H. Goldstine, and J. von Neumann, "Pre-
liminary Discussion of the Logical Design of an Electronic
Computing Instrument," report of the Institute for Ad-
vanced Study, Princeton (1946). Reprinted in Datamation,
8,9,10(1962)
4. Hennessy, John L., and David A. Patterson, Computer
Architecture:A Quantitative Approach, Morgan Kauffman,
San Mateo, CA (1990)
5. Bush, Vannevar, Endless Horizons, Public Affairs Press
(1946) 0


Chemical Engineering Education










book review


INDUSTRIAL ELECTROCHEMISTRY,
Second Edition
by Derek Pletcher and Frank Walsh
Chapman and Hall, New York (1990) $115

Reviewed by
Mark E. Orazem
University of Florida

In their preface, the authors write that "... elec-
trochemistry and electrochemical engineering as aca-
demic disciplines ... remain insufficiently taught at
both undergraduate and post graduate levels." Their
perspective is shared by others. The National Asso-
ciation of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) is currently
forming a task group to find ways to improve corro-
sion education in this country. In spite of the fact
that electrochemical systems encompass one-ninth
of the chemical process industry, most chemical en-
gineering undergraduates receive no exposure to the
field beyond a two-week stint in a physical chemis-
try class. The authors express their hope that "this
book will encourage many more teachers to take up
the challenge of teaching an integrated applied elec-
trochemistry course."
This text provides a compelling demonstration of
the importance of electrochemical processes. In ten
chapters and 460 pages the authors explore:
1. Electrolytic production of chlorine and caustic
2. Electrolytic extraction, refining, and produc-tion of
metals through electrowinning, cementation,
electrorefining, and electro-deposition of metal
powders
3. Electrolytic production of a number of low-tonnage
inorganic products such as fluorine, hydrogen
peroxide, ozone, and manganese dioxide
4. Organic electrosynthesis of adiponitrile (used to make
nylon) and other commercial electro-synthesis
processes
5. Waste-water treatment by electrochemical processes
such as electrodeposition of metal ions, in-situ
formation of oxidizers, and electrodialysis
6. Metal finishing including electroplating, electroless
plating, and electrophoretic painting
7. Metals processing, including electroforming and
electrochemical machining and etching
8. Corrosion and corrosion control
9. Batteries and fuel cells


10. Electrochemical sensors and monitoring techniques
This text provides a broad overview of electro-
chemical technology, and the detail with which these
systems are covered is sufficient for a survey course.
The review of electrochemical practice is preceded
by two chapters that cover the fundamentals of elec-
trochemistry and electrochemical engineering. The
discussion of fundamental electrochemical concepts
(Chapter 1) is very compressed and may be tough
going for the typical undergraduate chemical engi-
neer. It does, however, outline the key factors that
distinguish electrochemical processes from traditional
chemical systems. The section on electrochemical
engineering (Chapter 2) emphasizes costing of electro-
chemical processes and introduces typical cell de-
signs.
This text could be used for an elective survey
course directed to senior undergraduate students
and beginning graduate students. The strength of
the book, in this application, is its comprehensive
overview of the field. The authors, however, do not
make it easy for the instructor. The text does not
include homework problems and, while general sug-
gestions are made for further reading, specific attri-
butions are not given for the material presented in
the chapters. Therefore it is difficult to know pre-
cisely where to look for more information on a spe-
cific topic.
The discussion of fundamentals is not integrated
into the discussion of industrial processes. While the
authors stress the importance of current distribu-
tion in Chapters 1 and 2, such calculations are not
employed for the design of industrial processes cov-
ered in Chapters 3 through 12. For example, the
authors present different battery types in Chapter
11, but do not present the manner in which one
would try to optimize the battery design based on
principles governing current and potential distribu-
tion. Impressed current cathodic protection is pre-
sented in Chapter 10 as a means of controlling corro-
sion, but the equations used to design a cathodic
protection system are not presented. This level of
coverage is suitable for a survey course. For an ad-
vanced graduate-level class, I would want to apply
the fundamental concepts by introducing the model-
ing and optimal design of some sample systems.
Industrial Electrochemistry could be an good com-
plement to a text such as Newman's Electrochemical
Systems in an advanced graduate course.
Industrial Electrochemistry would be an excel-
lent textbook for an upper-level undergraduate sur-
vey course on applied electrochemical technology. 0


Fall 1991











Title Index
Note: Titles in italic type are books reviewed.

EA
Accreditation: Changes are Needed -------------------- XXIII,12
Adsorption and Adsorption Processes, Principles of------ XXII, 16
Adsorption Fundamentals, Liquid-Phase--------------- XXI,200
Alarm System Design, An Undergraduate
Experiment in ----------------------------------- XXII,22
Algorithm for Calculation of Phase
Separation, A Simple ------------------------- --- XXII,36
American University Graduate Work --------------------XXI,160
Amundson's Matrix Method for Binary Distillation
Revisited --------------------------------- --XXV,50
Animal Cell Culture in Microcapsules --------------------- XXII, 196
Another Way of Looking at Entropy ------------------ XXIII,154
Application of Mass Balances, A Practical ---------- XXIII,163
Applied Differential Equations, A Second-Year
Undergraduate Course in --------------------------- XXV,88
Applied Linear Algebra ------------------------ -- XXIII,236
Applied Mathematics: Opportunites for ChEs ---------- XXIV,198
Autotrophic Fermentation, An Experiment in ----------XXIII,32
AWARD LECTURES
Computing in Engineering Education: From There,
to Here, to Where? Part 1, Computing ---- -------- XXV,218
From Molecular Theory to Thermodynamic Models;
Part --------------------------------------- ---- XXIV,12
Ibid. Part 2 ----------------------------------- ---- XXIV,80
Random Walk in Porous Media, A --------------------------- XXIV,136
Reflections on Teaching Creativity ---------------------------- XXII,170
SB
Basic Programs for Chemical Engineers ------------------ XXI,77
Binary Distillation Revisited, Amundson's Matrix
Method for -------------------------------------- XXV,50
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering --------------- XXIII,200
Biochemical Engineering ------------------------------- XXII,202
Biochemical Engineering Education Through
Videotapes -------------------------------------XXIV,176
Bioengineering, A Multidisciplinary Course in ---------- XXIII,204
Bioengineering, Cellular ------------------------------- XXIII,208
Bioseparations: Downstream Processing for
Biotechnology ----------------------------------- XXIII,221
Biotechnology for the Mining, Metal-Refining and Fossil
Fuel Processing Industries, Workshop on ---------- XXI,133
Biotechnology Laboratory Methods ------------------ XXIII,182
Biotechnology to High School Students, Introducing
Applications of -------------------------------- XXIV,158
Buoyancy-Induced Flows and Transport ----------- XXIII, 181
Burning of a Liquid Oil Droplet, The ------------------ XXI, 126
SC
Calculations, Principles of Stagewise Separation
Process ------------------------------------- XXV,106
Calculations, The Use of Lotus 1-2-3 Macros in
Engineering ----------------------------------- XXV,100
Catalyst Design: Progress and Perspectives ---------- XXII,86
Catalyst Suports and Supported Catalysts ---------- XXII, 103
Catalytic Reactions, Triangular Diagrams Teach Steady
and Dynamic Behaviour of ---------------------- XXIII,176


Cell Technology, A Course in Immobilized Enzyme and -XXV,82
Cellular Bioengineering -------------------------------- XXIII,208
Ceramics Science and Engineering, Research in ----------XXV,204
Cheating Among Engineering Students: Reasons
for Concern ----------------------------------- XXIII, 16
Chemical Engineering in the Spectrum of Knowledge --- XXIV,20
Chemical Kinetics, Fluid Mechanics, and Heat
Transfer in the Fast Lane -----------------------------XXV,186
Chemical Processes, Elementary Principles of ---------- XXI,47
Chemical Process Computations ----------------------- XXI, 117
Chemical Process Modeling and Control ------------ XXI, 194
Chemical Process Systems, Stochastic Modeling of:
Part 1, Introduction --------------------------------- XXIV,56
Part 2, The Master Equation ----------------------- XXIV,88
Part 3, Application -------------------------------- XXIV,164
Chemical Processing of Electrons and Holes ----------- XXIV,26
Chemical Reaction, Mass Transfer with ----------------- XXI, 164
Chemical Reaction and Reactor Engineering ---------- XXIII,149
Chemical Reaction Engineering, An Open-Ended
Problem in --------------------------------------XXIV, 148
Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status
and Future Directions -------------------------- XXI,210
Chemical Reaction Engineering, Elements of -------- XXII,7
Chemical Reaction Engineering Applications in
Non-Traditional Technologies ------------------- XXV,150
Chemical Reaction Experiment for the
Undergraduate Laboratory -------------------------- XXI,30
Chemical Reactor Analysis and Design -------------- XXV, 131
Chemical Reactor Design ------------------------------- XXIII,31
Coal Liquid Mixtures -------------------------------- XXIII,91
Coal Science: An Introduction to Chemistry, Technology
and Utilization ------------------------------ -- XXI,152
Coffee Pot Experiment, The ----------------------------- XXIII,150
Combustion Engineering, Advanced ------------------- XXI,198
Compatibility of Polymeric Materials, Chemical --------- XXIV,94
Composite Materials:An Educational Need ------------ XXIV,154
Computation of Multiple Reaction Equilibria------------- XXV, 112
Computations, Chemical Process ---------------------- XXI, 117
Computer Process Control Teaching and Research,
A Pilot-Scale Heat Recovery System for -----------XXII,68
Computer Simulation Modules, Purdue-Industry ---------- XXV,98
Computers in the Undergraduate Laboratory,
Incorporation of Process Control ----------------XXIV,106
Computer-Aided Engineering for Injection Molding ----- XXI,172
Computer-Controlled Heat Exchange Experiment, A ------ XXI,84
Computing, Chemical Engineering and Instructional:
Are They in Step? Part 1 -------------------------- XXII,134
Ibid. Part 2 ------------------------------------ XXII,212
Consortium to Address Multidisciplinary Issues of
Waste Management --------------------------- XXIV,180
Content and Gaps in BSChE Training ------------- XXIII,138
Control Projects, Use of a Moder Polymerization
Pilot-Plant for Undergraduate ------------------------ XXV,34
Control Systems Design, Microcomputer-Aided ---------- XXI,34
Creativity, Reflections on Teaching ---------------------- XXII, 170
Creativity in Engineering Education ------------------ XXII, 120
Crossdisciplinary Research, Initiating ------------------ XXIII,242
Crystallization: An Intereresting Experience in

Chemical Engineering Education











the ChE Laboratory ------------------------- -- XXV,102
Curricula, General Education Requirements and ChE -- XXIII,106
Curricula for the Future, Chemical Engineering --------- XXIII, 188
Curriculum-1989, The Chemical Engineering --------- XXIV, 184
Curriculum, TheFuture ChE: Must One Size Fit All? ------ XXI,74
Curriculum, What Will we Remove to Make
Room for X? ------------------------------------ XXI,72
Cryogenics, Heat and Mass Transfer in
Refrigeration and------------------------------ XXII,125
* D
DEPARTMENTS:
Auburn, University ---- ----------------------- -- XXIV,118
Clarkson University ------------------------------- XXII,10
Arizona, University of ----------------------------------- XXIV,2
California at Los Angeles, University of ------------------ XXV,64
Colorado School of Mines --------------------------------- XXIV,66
Illinois Institute of Technology ----------------------------- XXII,62
Johns Hopkins University, The ----------------------------- XXI, 112
Lehigh University ------------ ------------ XXIII,58
Louisiana State University ------------------------------ XXV,2
Manhattan College -------------------------------------XXI,6
Massachusetts, University of ----------------------------- XXV,122
New Jersey Institute of Technology -------------------- XXIII,130
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute ----------------------------- XXIII,6
Texas at Austin, University of ----------------------------XXI,58
Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University ----------- XXII,2
Design Course, Teaching Effective Oral Presentations
as Part of the Senior Design Course---------------- XXV,28
Design Education in Chemical Engineering, Part 1 ----- XXIII,22
Ibid. Part 2 ---------------------------------- -- XXIII, 120
Design Experience, A Meaningful Undergraduate ---------- XXI,90
Differential Equation for Packed Beds, The
Dispersion Model ----------------------------- XXIV,224
Differential Equations, A Second-Year Undergraduate
Course in Applied ----------------------------------- XXV,88
Digital Computer Process Control, A Grad Course in --- XXV,176
Direct Contact Heat Transfer -------------------------- XXIII, 11
Discrete-Event Simulation in Chemical Engineering ------ XXII,98
Dispersion Model Differential Equation for
Packed Beds: Is it Really so Simple? ----------XXIV,224
Distillation Tray Fundamentals -------------------------- XXII,90
Division Activities ----------- XXI,82,167; XXII,177; XXIII,198
XXIV,187; XXV,185
Drying, Advances in --------------------------------- XXIII,37
0E
Economic Evaluation in the Chemical
Process Industries ---------------------------------- XXI,5
Editorial ------------------------------------ ---- XXI,63,157
EDUCATORS:
Acrivos, Andreas, of The City College, CUNY ----------- XXV, 118
Baasel, William D., of Ohio University -------------------- XXI,64
Bailey, James E., of Caltech --------------------------------- XXII,58
Berman, Neil, of Arizona State University ------------------- XXII,8
de Nevers, Noel -------------------------------------- XXII,64
Eagleton, Lee C., of Pennsylvania State University ----------- XXI,2
Friedly, J. C., of Rochester --------------------------------- XXII,116
Lightfoot, Edwin N, of Wisconsin -------------------------- XXIV,8
McConica, Carole, of Colorado State University ---------XXIV,62
Pera, Angelo J., of NJIT ------------------------------- XXV,62
Stephanopoulos, George, of MIT -------------------------- XXI,106


Stewart, Warren E., of Wisconsin -------- --------------- XXIII,2
Stice, Jim, of The University of Texas ------ ------------- XXV,6
Electrochemistry, Industrial ---------------------------- XXV,225
Electrons and Holes, Chemical Processing of----------- XXIV,26
Energy Balances, Introduction to Material and --------- XXIII,161
Engineering Education and Practice in the U.S. ---------- XXII,I 1
Engines, Energy and Entropy ---------------------------- XXI,93
Entropy, A Simple Molecular Interpretation of --------------XXI,98
Entropy, Another Way of Looking at ---------- -----XXIII, 154
Entropy; Engines, Energy and --------------------------- XXI,93
Entropy, The Essence of ------------------------------- XXIII,250
Entropy, The Mystique of ------------------------------ XXII,92
Environmental Transport, Exposure, and Risk
Assessment, A Course on Multimedia ------------ XXIV,212
Epitaxy on Patterless and Patterned Substrates, Chemical
Vapor Deposition ----------------------------------- XXIV,42
Equations of State, Generalized Saturation Properties
of Pure Fluids via Cubic -------------------------- XXIII,168
Equilibria, Computation of Multiple Reaction ----------- XXV, 12
Equilibria, Multible Reaction: With Pencil and Paper ---- XXIII,76
Equilibrium Thermodynamics, An Introduction to:
Part 1. Notation and Mathematics -------------- XXV,74
Part 2. Internal Energy, Entropy, and Temperature- XXV, 164
Equipment Design, Heat Transfer --------------------- XXIV,92
Errors: A Rich Source of Problems and Examples ------- XXV,140
Ethical Issues Into the Curriculum; Incorporating Health
Safety, Environmental, and ---------------------------XXIII,70
Ethics; Developing a Course in Chemical Engineering --- XXV,68
Ethics; Science, Engineering, and --------------------- XXIII,67
Evaporators, A Simpler Way to Tame Multiple-Effect ----XXII,52
Experiment, The Coffee Pot --------------------------- XXIII, 150
Experimental Error?, Do Students Understand ----------- XXIII,92

SF
Faculty Development, Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic
Motivation in ------------------------------------ XXIII, 134
Fermentation, An Experiment in Autotrophic ----------- XXIII,32
Fibers, Advanced Engineering -------------------------- XXI, 186
Film Heat Transfer Coefficients, Introducing the
Concept of ---------------------------------- XXIV, 132
Filtration ofAerosols and Hydrosols, Granular ---------- XXIV,99
Fire Safety Science ----------------------------------- XXII,17
Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions ---------------------- XXIII,228
Fluid Mechanics, and Heat Transfer in the Fast
Lane; Chemical Kinetics, ------------------------ XXV,186
Fluid Properties, Thermodynamics and ------------ XXII,208
Fluidised Bed Combustion ----------------------------- XXII,153
Flow and Heat Exchange, Engineering ------------- XXII,195
Flow Sheet is Process Language ------------------------ XXII,88
Fluid Mechanics, Process ------------------------------ XXII,191
Food, Engineering Properties of -------------------------XXI,66
Freshman Class to Introduce ChE Concepts and
Opportunities, A Novel --------------------------- XXV, 134
Future ChE Curriculum, The: Must One Size Fit All? ----- XXI,74
Future, Chemical Engineering in the --------------------- XXI,12
Future Directions in Chemical Engineering Education ---- XXII, 12

HG
Gas Separation by Adsorption Processes ------------ XXII,9


Fall 1991










General Education Requirements and ChE Curricula --- XXIII, 106
Georgia Tech Rising Senior Summer
Program, The Milliken/ ---------------------------- XXI, 134
Graduate Work, American University -----------------------XXI, 160
Graduate School, Secrets of My Success in --------- XXIII,256
Graduation: The Beginning of Your Education ---------- XXII, 164
Granular Filtration ofAerosols and Hydrosols ---------- XXIV,99

* H
Hazard Analysis Course, A Chemical Plant Safety and -XXIII, 194
Hazardous Chemical Spills ---------------------------- XXIII,216
Hazardous Waste Management ----------------------- XXIII,222
Hazardous Waste Management ----------------------- XXIV,147
Health and Safety into the Curriculum, Rationale
for Incorporating ------------------------------- XXII,30
Health, Safety, Environmental, and Ethical Issues Into
the Curriculum; Incorporating ---------------------- XXIII,70
Heat and Mass Transfer in Refrigeration
and Cryogenics ----------------------------------------XXII, 125
Heat Exchange, Engineering Flow and ------------ XXII, 195
Heat Exchange Experiment, A Computer-Controlled ------ XXI,84
Heat Exchanger and Pressure Vessel Technology,
Fundamentals of -------------------------------- XXI,88
Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis Using Interactive
Microcomputer Graphics, Teaching ------------ XXI, 118
Heat Recovery System for Computer Process Control
Teaching and Research, A Pilot-Scale ------------- XXII,68
Heat Transfer in the Fast Lane; Chemical Kinetics,
Fluid Mechanics, and ------------------------- XXV,186
Heat Transfer, Archives of----------------------------- XXIV,33
Heat Transfer, The Chemical Engineering Guide to ---- XXII,114
Heat Transfer, Direct Contact ------------------------------ XXIII, 11
Heat Transfer Coefficients, Introducing the Concept
of Film -------------------------------------- XXIV,132
Heat Transfer Equipment Design --------------------- XXIV,93
Heterogeneous Catalysis ------------------------------- XXIII, 116
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Temperature Effects in ------- XXIV, 112
High School Students, Introducing Applications of
Biotechnology to --------------------------------- XXIV,158

EI
Immobilized Enzyme and Cell Technology, A Course in -XXV,82
Impedance Response of Semiconductors, The ----------- XXIV,48
Industrialization of a Graduate, The: Methods for
Engineering Education ------------------------------- XXI,68
Industrialization of a Graduate, The : The
Business Arena ----------------------------------- XXI, 18
Injection Molding, Computer-Aided Engineeringfor ----- XXI,172
Integral Methods in Science and Engineering ----------- XXI,101
Integrated Circuit Industry, Working in the ------------ XXIV,38
Interactive Graphics, Inventing Multiloop Control
in a Jiffy with Interactive Graphics ------------ XXV,126
Interfacial Phenomena: Equilibrium and
Dynamic Effects ------------------------------ -- XXII,51
Ion Exchange, Fundamentals and Applications of ---------XXI,143

IJ
Japan and the United States, ChE Education in (Part 1) XXII,144
Ibid. (Part 2) ----------------------------------- XXII,218


SK
Kinetic Parameters Characteristic of Microalgal
Growth, Determining the --------------------------XXV,145
Kinetic Rate Expression, Calculation of
Pre-Exponential Term in -------------------------- XXII,150
Kinetics, A Laboratory Experiment on Combined Mass
Transfer and ------------------------------------ XXIII,86
Knowledge, Chemical Engineering in the Spectrum of-- XXIV,20

L
Lab Experience, A First Chemical Engineering ---------- XXI,146
Laboratory, A Membrane Gas Separation Experiment
for the Undergraduate --------------------------- XXV,10
Laboratory, A Three-Stage Counter Current Leaching
Rig for the Senior ----------------------------------- XXII,96
Laboratory, Chemical Reaction Experiment ------------ XXI,30
Laboratory Course, The Large --------------------------- XXII,42
Laboratory Experiment, The Unstructured Student-
Designed Research Type of ----------------------- XXIV,78
Laboratory Experiment on Combined Mass Transfer and
Kinetics, A ------------------------------------- XXIII,86
Laboratory for Chemical Engineering Students, An
Engineering Applications ---------------------------XXV,16
Laboratory to Develop Engineering
Awareness, Using the ----------------------------- XXIII,144
Large Laboratory Course, The --------------------------- XXII,42
Leaching Rig for the Senior Laboratory, A Three-Stage
Counter Current ------------------------------- XXIII,96
Least Sum of Squares for Linear Regression, A Rubust
Alternate to ------------------------------------- XXV,40
Letters to the Editor --------- XXI,5,77,152; XXII,71,115,166,201;
XXIII,10,75,143,203; XXIV, 65; XXV,181
Liquid-Phase Adsorption Fundamentals ----------------- XXI,200
Linear Algebra, Applied ------------------------------- XX ,236
Linear Regression, A Robust Alternate to Least
Sum of Squares for ---------------------------------- XXV,40
Lotus 1-2-3 Macros in Engineering Calculations --------XXIV,100
Lubrication Flows -----------------------------------XXIII,50
SM
Management, Engineering --------------------------- XXII,80
Mass Balances, A Practical Application of--------- XXIII,163
Mass Transfer and Kinetics, A Laboratory Experiment on
Combined -------------------------------------- XX ,86
Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction ----------------- XXI,164
Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction in
Multiphase Systems ------------------------------- XXII,103
Material and Energy Balances, Introduction to -------- XXIII,161
Mathematics, Applied --------------------------------- XXIV,198
Mathematics Software in the Undergraduate
Curriculum, Use of PC Based ---------------------- XXV,54
Matrices for Engineers --------------------------------- XXII,153
Membrane Gas Separation Experiment for the
Undergraduate Laboratory, A -----------------XV,10
Memo, The Engineer's Essential One-Page: The
Heart of the Matter --------------------------- XXIII,102
MEMORIAL
Christensen, James J. --------------------------------- -- XXII,72
Eagleton, Lee C. --------------------------------- -- XXIV,197

Chemical Engineering Education











Marshall, W. Robert ---------------------------------------- XXII, 126
Pigford, Robert L. ----------------------------------- XXII,207
Ragatz, Roland Andrew ---------------------------------- XXII,73
Microalgal Growth, Determining the Kinetic
Parameters Characteristic of ----------------------XXV,145
Microbiology, An Option in Applied ------------------XXII,158
Microcapsules, Animal Cell Culture in ----------------- XXII,196
Microcomputer Computation Package, Applications of a -XXII, 18
Microcomputer Graphics, Teaching Heat Exchanger
Network Synthesis Using Interactive -------------- XXI, 118
Microcomputer-Aided Control Systems Design -------------XXI,34
Microelectronics Processing (VLSI), Fundamentals of --- XXI, 170
Microgravity, Unit Operations in ----------------------- XXI,190
Model Predictive Control -------------------------------XXII, 178
Modeling, A Systematic Approach to ------------------ XXII,26
Modeling and Control, Chemical Process ------------- XXI,194
Molecular Interpretation of Entropy, a Simple ----------- XXI,98
Molecular Thermodynamicsfor Nonideal Fluids ------- XXIII,260
Molecular Theory to Thermodynamic
Models, From: Part 1 -------------------------------XXIV,12
Ibid. Part 2 --------------------------------------- XXIV,80
Molecular Transport Phenomena, An Introduction to -- XXV,210
Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, Fundamentals of- XXI,132
Motivation in Faculty Development, Extrinsic
Versus Intrinsic ---------------------------------- XXIII,134
MultidisciplinaryCourse in Bioengineering, A -----------XXIII,204
Multiloop Control Systems in a Jiffy with
Interactive Graphics, Inventing ------------------ XXV,126
Multimedia Environmental Transport, Exposure, and
Risk Assessment, A Course on ----------------- XXIV,212
Multiphase Chemical Reactors: Theory,
Design, Scale-Up ----------------------------------- XXI,215
Multiphase Science and Technology -------------------- XXI,197
Multiphase Systems, Mass Transfer with Chemical
Reaction in ----------- --------------------------XII,103
Multiple Reaction Equilibria: With Pencil and Paper -----XXIII,76
Multiple Reaction Equilibria, Computation of----------- XXV, 112
Multivariable Control Methods ------------------------ XXII, 188

SN
Nigeria, The Development of Appropriate Chemical
Engineering Education for ------------------------- XXI,102
Nigeria, ChE Education and Problems in ----------------- XXI,44
Nonlinear Systems ----------------------------------- XXI,178
Numerical Heat Transfer ------------------------------ -- XXI,39
Numerical Methods for Chemical Engineers, An
Introduction to ---------------------------------- XXV, 144

HO
One-Hour Professional Development Course for
Chemical Engineers, A --------------------------- XXIV,124
Open-Ended Problem in Chemical Reaction
Engineering, A ---------------------------------- XXIV,148
Open-Ended Problems, Development and Use of -------- XXV,158
Operations and Process Laboratory, The ------------- XXII,140
Oral Presentations as Part of the Senior Design
Course, Teaching Effective ----------------------XXV,28
Oral Technical Presentation, A Course on Making -------- XXII,48
Osmosis System for an Advanced Separation

Fall 1991


Process Laboratory, A Reverse ----------------------- XXI,138

SP
Packed Beds, The Dispersion Model Differential
Equation for ------------------------------------ XXIV,224
Particulate Processes ----------------------------------- XXIII,214
Patterless and Patterned Substrates, Chemical Vapor
Deposition Epitaxy on ------------------------ -- XXIV,42
PC Based Mathematics Software in the Undergraduate
Curriculum, Use of --------------------------- -- XXV,54
Polymer Chemistry: An Introduction ----------------- XXIV,153
Polymer Science, Introduction to Physical ------------ XXIV,135
Polymer Science and Engineering --------------------- XXIV,208
Polymer Systems, Principles of -------------------------------XXI,33
Polymer Viscoelasticity, Introduction to ----------------- XXII,79
Polymeric Materials, Chemical Compatibility of-------- XXIV,94
Polymerization Pilot-Plant for Undergraduate Control
Projects, Use of a --------------------------------- XXV,34
Polymerization Reactor Engineering ---------------------- XXI, 184
Porous Media, A Random Walk in -------------------- XXIV,136
Pre-Exponential Term in Kinetic Rate
Expression, Calculation of ------------------------- XXII, 150
Process Design Course, An Alternative Approach to the -XXIII,82
Professional Development Course for Chemical
Engineers, A One-Hour ------------------------------- XXIV,124
Phase Change, Unsteady-State Heat Transfer
Involving a ------------------------------------ -- XXIII,44
Phase Separation, A Simple Algorithm for
Calculation of------------------------------------ XX,36
Photoreactive Polymers: The Science and Technology
ofResists ------------------------------------ --- XXIV,33
Plasmid Instability in Batch Cultures of Recombinant
Bacteria: A Laboratory Experiment ----------- XXIV,168
Pressure Vessel Technology, Fundamentals of Heat
Exchanger and ---------------------------------------- XXI,88
PROBLEMS:
Coyotes, a Problem with ---------------------------------- XXI,40
CSTR's in Biochemical Reactions: An Optimization
Problem ---------- ----------- ------------- ----- XXIII, 12
Drainage of Conical Tanks With Piping ---------------- XXV,145
Heat of Crystallization Experiment, a Simple --------- XXV,154
Heat Transfer with Chemical Reaction, Modeling
of: Cooking a Potato -------------------------------- XXI,204
Numerical Simulation of Multicomponent
Chromatography Using Spreadsheets ---------------- XXIV,204
Removal of Chlorine From the Chlorine-Nitrogen
Mixture in a Film of Liquid Water ------ ------------- XXV,92
Thermodynamics, A Contribution to the Teaching of ----------XXI,94
Volatility of Close-Boiling Species, Estimating Relative ---- XXI,144

Process Control, A Grad Course in Digital Computer --- XXV,176
Process Control: Structures and Applications ----------- XXV, 156
Process Control, Principles and Practice of Automatic ---- XXI,89
Process Control Computers in the Undergraduate
Laboratory, Incorporation of ----------------------XXIV,106
Process Control Course, Simulation Exercises for
an Undergraduate Digital ------------------------- XXII, 154
Process Control Education in the Year 2000 ---------------XXIV,72
Process Design and Economics, A Guide to Chemical
Engineering ----------------------------------- -- XXV,79











Process Fluid Mechanics -------------------------------- XXII, 191
Process Industries, Economic Evaluation in
the Chemical ---------------------------------------- XXI,5
Process Laboratory, The Operations and ------------- XXII,140
Process Language, Flow Sheet is ------------------------- XXII,88
Process Reactor Design ---------------------------------------XXI,49
Purdue-Industry Computer Simulation Modules ---------- XXV,98

* R
Random Media, Topics in ------------------------------XXII, 192
RANDOM THOUGHTS
Good Cop/Bad Cop ----------------------------------- XXIII,207
Engineering Education Verses ------------------------------ XXV,22
Imposters Everywhere --------------------------------- XXII, 168
It Goes Without Saying ----------------------------------- XXV, 132
Meet Your Students: 1. Stan and Nathan --------------- XXIII,68
Meet Your Students: 2. Susan and Glenda ---------------- XXIV,7
Meet Your Students: 3. Michelle, Rob, Art ----------- XXIV,130
Meet Your Students: 4. Jill and Perry -------------------- XXV,196
No Respect! -------- ----------- ---------------- XXIV,71
Nobody Asked Me, But... ------ ------------------ XXII,26
View Through the Door, A ------------------------------------ XXIII,166
We Hold These Truths to be Self-Evident -----------------XXV,80
Reactor Design, Chemical ------------------------------- XXIII,31
Reactor Engineering, Chemical Reaction and---------- XXIII,149
Recombinant Bacteria, Plasmid Instability in Batch
Cultures of: A Laboratory Experiemnt ------------ XXIV,168
Report Writing, Tips on Teaching ------------------------- XXI,130
Research Type of Laboratory Experiment, The
Unstructured Student-Designed --------- ---------XXIV,78
Revolutionaries, Engineering Schools Train Social -------- XXI,78
Rheology, An Introduction to ----------------- -- XXV,131
Risk Reduction in the ChE Curriculum ------------ XXV,198

E S
Safety and Hazard Analysis Course, A Chemical Plant -XXII,194
Safety and Loss Prevention in the Undergraduate
Curriculum: A Dual Perspective ----------------- XXII,74
Safety, Environmental, and Ethical Issues Into the
Curriculum; Incorporating Health, -------------- XXIII,70
Safety into the Curriculum, Rationale for
Incorporating Health and ---------------------------- XXII,30
Saturation Properties of Pure Fluids via Cubic
Equations of State ---------------------------------- XXIII, 168
Separation Process Laboratory, A Reverse Osmosis
System for an Advanced ---------------------------- XXI,138
Separation Process Technology, Handbook of ---------- XXII,138
Scaleup, Instruction in ----------------------------------- XXII,128
Schools Train Social Revolutionaries, Engineering ---------XXI,78
Science, Engineering, and Ethics -----------------------XXII,67
Semiconductors, The Impedance Response of-------- XXIV,48
Silicon, Thermal Oxidation of --------------------------- XXIV,34
Simplification, Levels of--------------------------------- XXII,104
Simulation Exercises for an Undergraduate Digital
Process Control Course -----------------------------XXII,154
Spills, Hazardous Chemical ------------------------ XXIII,216
Spreadsheets, The Power of ------------------------------ XXV,46
Stagewise Separation Process Calculations,
Principles of ------------------------------------XXV,106
Statistical Mechanics of Chain Molecules --------- XXV,45


Stirred Pots ----------------------------------- --- XXIV,223
Stochastic Modeling of Chemical Process
Systems; Part 1, Introduction -------------------- XXIV,56
Ibid. Part 2, The Master Equation ---------------- XXIV,88
Ibid. Part 3, Application -------------------------- XXIV,164
Stoichiometry Without Tears ------------------------- XXIV,188
Success in Graduate School, Secrets of My ------------ XXIII,256
Summer Program, The Milliken/Georgia Tech
Rising Senior ----------------------------------- XXI,134
Summer School, 1987 ----------------------------------- XXI,168
Summer Seminar Series, The Chemical Engineering --- XXIV,220
Suspensions, Fluid Mechanics of ---------------------- XX ,228
Symposium, The ChEGSA ---------------------------- XXI,100

ST
Talks, A Course on Presenting Technical ------------- XXII,84
Team Responsibility in Class, Experiencing ---------- XXIII,38
Technical Communications for Graduate Students ------- XXII,184
Technical Presentations, A Course on Making Oral ------- XXII,48
Technical Talks, A Course on Presenting --------------- XXII,84
Temperature Effects in Heterogeneous Catalysis --------XXIV,112
Thermal Oxidation of Silicon --------------------------- XXIV,34
Thermodynamics: An Advanced Textbook for ChEs ---- XXIV,207
Thermodynamics, Chemical and Engineering ------------XXV,183
Thermodynamics, Elementary General ------------ XXV,163
Thermodynamics and Fluid Properties -------------- XXII,208
Thesis, An Alternate Approach to the Undergraduate ---- XXII,28
Transport Phenomena -----------------------------------XXI,174
Transferring Knowledge: A Parallel Between Teaching
ChE and Developing Expert Systems --------- XXIV,228
Transport Phenomena, Introduction to Molecular -------- XXV,210
Transport Phenomena in Turbulent Flows ---------- XXIII,175
Triangular Diagrams Teach Steady and Dynamic
Behaviour of Catalytic Reactions ----------- XXIII,176
Two Phase Flow and Heat Transfer: China-US
Progress------------------------------ --- XXI,145

*U
UC Online: Berkeley's Multiloop Computer
Control Program ----------------------------- --XXI, 122
Undergraduate Education: Where Do We Go from Here?-XXV,96
Unit Operations, Principles of -------------------------- XXI,110
Unit Operations in Microgravity ------------------------ XXI,190
Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering ------------ XXI,48
Unsteady-State Heat Transfer Involving a
Phase Change ----------------------------------------XXIII,44
User-Friendly Program for Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium ----XXV,24
Using the Laboratory to Develop Engineering
Awareness ----------------------------------- XXII,144

* V
Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, A User-Friendly Program for-XXV,24
Videotapes, Biochemical Engineering
Education Through ------------------------------- XXIV, 176
Viscous Flows: The Practical Use of Theory -------------- XXV,97

* W
Waste Management, A Consortium to Address
Multidisciplinary Issues of ---------------------- XXIV,180
Waste Management, Hazardous ----------------------- XX ,222

Chemical Engineering Education












AUTHOR INDEX
HA
Abbott, Michael M. ------------------- XXIII,6
Agrawal, Pradeep K. ----------------- XXI,134
Aird, R.J. ------------------------------ XXV,16
Akella, Laks ------------------------- XXII,150
Allen, David T. ---------XXI,190; XXV,64
Altpeter, Roger J. --------------------- XXII,73
Amundson, Neal R. ----- -------- XXI,160
Amyotte, P. R. --------- XXIII,28,163; XXV,158
Andersen, P.K. -- ---------------- XXV,98
Anderson, Bryce ------------------------ XXII, I
Anderson, Timothy J. ----------- XXIV,26
Arkun, Yaman ---------------------- XXII,178
Atwood, Glenn A. --------------------- XXI,89
Austin, G. D. --------------------- XXV,176
Ayers, W. R. --------------------------- XXI,30

SB
BAez, Luis A. -- --------------- XXV,24
Bair, Jeffrey H. ---------------------- XXV,183
Baird, Donald G. --------------------- XXI,172
Barduhn, Allen J. --------------------- XXI,144
Barker, Dee H. ------------------------ XXII,73
Barnes, Charles D. ----------------- XXIII,242
Barrufet, Maria A. ---------- XXI,36; XXII,168
Bartholomew, Calvin H. --------------- XXI,198
Bartusiak, R. Donald -------------- XXI,194
Benge, G. Gregory ------------------- XXIV,220
Bennett, C. 0. ----------------------- XXIV,112
Bennett, Gary F. -------------------- XXII,216
Bentley, William E. ----------------- XXIV,168
Berg, John C. -------------------------- XXII,51
Berman, Jenny -------------------------- XXII,8
Beronio, Jr.; P. B. ------------------- XXIV,176
Bhada, Ron -------------------------- XXIV,180
Biasca, Karyn --------------------------- XXV,46
Bienkowski, Paul R. ---------------- XXIII,204
Bird, R. B. ---------------------- XXI,5;XXII,2
Blackman, David C. ------------ XXIV,158
Blaine, Steven ------- ----------XXV,150
Bowman, Paul T. -- --------XXIII,100
Bravo, Vincente --------------------- XXV,145
Brewster, B. S. ------- ------------ XXII,48
Briedis, Daina M. ------------------ XXII, 184
Brinker, Jeffrey ------------ -------- XXV,204
Brodkey, Robert S. ----------------- XXIII,175
Brosilow, Coleman B. --------- XXV,156
Brown, Lee F. ----------------------- XXI,24
Burris, Conrad T. ----------------------- XXI,6
Buonopane, Ralph A. ------------ XXIV,158
Butt, John B. -------------------------- XII,103

NC
Callaghan, P. J. ---------------------- XXII,68
Caram, Hugo S. --------- XXI,132; XXIII,58
Camaham, Brice -------------------- XXV,218
Chambers, Robert P. ----------------- XXIV, 118
Charos, G. -------------------------- XXII,178
Chelemer, Marc J. ------------------- XXI,106
Chen, J.J.J. ---------------------------- XXV,50
Chen, John C. ---------------------- XXII,58
Chetty, Steven ----------------------XXIV,212
Christensen, James J. ----------- XXII,170
Chun, Kukjin ----------------------- XXIII,242
Churchill, Stuart W.- XXI,88;XXII,71;XXV,186
Cinar, A. ------------------------------ XXII,22
Cluett, W.R. -- ----------------XXV,34


Co, Albert ------------------------------- XXII,79
Coates, Jesse ----------------------------XXV,2
Coca, Jose ----------------------------- XXII,140
Cohen, Yoram ---------------------- XIV,212
Cole, Robert ---------------------- XXII, 110,114
Conger, William L. -------------------- XXI,2
Conner, Jr.; Wm. Curtis ---------- XXIV,106
Cooney, David -------------------- XXI,200
Cordiner, James B. --------------------- XXV,2
Coulman, George A. ----------- XXIV,184
Crittenden, Barry D. ----------------XXV,106
Crosby, E. Johansen ----------------- XXIII,37
Crowl, Daniel A. ----------------- XXII,74
Cummins, P.T. ------------------------XXV,45
Cutlip, Michael B. -------------------- XXII,18

ED
Dadyburjor, Dady B. ----------------- XXI,47
Dahler, John S. -----------------------XXIII,21
Datye, Abhaya -----------------------XXV,204
Davies, Wayne A. -----------XXIII,96; XXV,16
Davis, Richard A. --------------- XXV,10
Davis, Robert H. ------------ XXIII,182,228
Davis, William C. ------------------ XXII,242
DeCoursey, W. J. ------------------ XXI,164
De Nevers, Noel ------ -------------- XXV,154
Deshpande, P.B.-XXII,188;XXII, 188;XXV, 176
Dickman, Belinda ------------------ XXIV, 118
Dinos, Nicholas ------------------------ XXI,64
Dixon, Anthony G. -------- XXI,101; XXII,149
Dogan, Numan S. ------------------- XXII,242
Douglas, J. M. ------------------- XXIII,22,120
Duckler, A. E. -------- ---------- XXI,145
Duda, J. L. ---------- XXII,164; XXIV,136
Dudukovic, M. P. -------------------- XXI,210
Dunham, Michael G. ------------- XXI,186

HE
Eckert, Roger E. --------------------- XXII,42
Edgar, T. F. -------------------------- XXIV,72
Edie, Dan D. -- ---------------- XXI,186
Eggebrecht, John -------------------- XXII,191
Ellington, Rex T. --------------------- XXI,80
England, R. ---------------------- XXII,144
Eubank, Philip T. -------- XXII,36; XXIII,168

HF
Fahidy, Thomas Z. -------------------- XXV,88
Fair, James R. ------------------------- XXII,90
Falconer, John L. ---------- XXI,24: XXII,7
Famularo, Jack ------------------------- XXI,84
Fan, L.T. --------------------- XXIV,56,88,164
Farag, Ihab --------------------------- XXI,117
Felder, Richard M. -------- XXI,74;XXII,84,120;
XXII,168;XXIII,26;XXIII,68,166,207;
XXIV,7,71,130,188; XXV,22,80,132,196
Fels, M. ---------------------------- XXIII,28
Fehr, Manfred --------------------------XXII,88
Field, R.W. ------------------------ XXIII,144
Field, Robert -------------------------- XXIV,132
Finn, Robert ---------------------------- XXII,58
Fleischman, Marvin --------- XXII,30; XXV,198
Floyd, Sigmund ----------- XXII,144;XXII,218
Forman, J. Charles ------------------- XXII,201
Foss, Alan S. -------------XXI,122; XXV,126
Fox, R.O. -------------------- XXIV,56,88,164
Frey, Douglas D. -------------------XXIV,204


Fried, J. R. --------------------------- XXV,208
Fung, Simon J. ---------------------- XXIII,242
Furter, William F. ------------------ XXIII,163

HG
Gavalas, G. R. ------------------------ XXIII,21
Glandt, Eduardo D. -- -------XXII, 192
Glasser, David ------ --------XXV,74,164
Gonzalez, Jorge F. ---------------------- XXII,202
Good, Robert J. -- ----------------- XXI,94
Goodeve, Peter J. -------------------- XXV,126
Goosen, Mattheus F. A. ----------- XXII,196
Gordon, Martin B. ------------------- XXIII,10
Gorte, R. J. --------------------------- XXII,86
Graber S., Te6filo A. ------------------ XXV,102
Green, Alex E. S. -------------------- XXII,91
Griskey, Richard G. -------------------XXV,96
Gubbins, Keith E. ------------------- XXIII,260
Gudivaka, Venkata V. -----------XXIII,216
Gupta, J.P. --- ---------------- XXIII,194
Gupta, Santosh K. --- -----------XXV,144

SH
Hackenberg, C. M. ------------------- XXIV,93
Halasz, Judit Z. --------------------- XXIV,33
Hanesian, Deran ----------------------- XXV,62
Hanzevack, Emil L. --------- XXIII,102;XXV,28
Harris, S.L. -- --------------- XXIII,150
Hayhurst, A. N. ---------------------XXI,126
Hecker, W. C. --- -------------- XXII,48
Heist, Richard H. ------ --------- XXIV,99
Helfferich, F. G. -------- XXI,143; XXIII,76
Hershey, Daniel ------------------- XXIII,154,235
Hess, Dennis W. --------------------- XXIV,34
Hougen, Joel ------------------------- XXI,7
Hrymak, Andrew N. ------------------ XXV,79
Hsu, Y. Y. -------- ------------------XXI,197
Hu, Wei-Shou ------------------------ XXII,202
Hubbard, Davis W. ------------------- XXI,110
Hudgins, R. R. ---------- XXI,130; XXIII,92,176
Hyman, Carol --------------------------XXI,112

EJ
Jacquez, Ricardo ------------------- XXIV,180
Johannes, Arland H. ------------------- XXI,49
Jolls, Kenneth R. -----------XXII,166; XXIV,223
Jones, Vickie S. ---------------------XXII,64
Joye, Donald D. ------------------------XXII,52
UK
Kabel, Robert L. ---------- XXI,2:XXII,128
Karimi, I.A. --------------------------XXV,98
King, C. Judson ------------------------ XXI,66
Kirkwood, R. L. ----------------- XXIII,22,120
Kirwan, D.J. ------------------------- XXV,183
Kisaalita, William S. ---------------- XXIII,242
Klusacek, K. ------------------------ XXIII,176
Kodas, Toivo ------------------------- XXV,204
Koko Jr., F. William ----------------- XXII,52
Kompala, Dhinakar S. ----XXIII, 182; XXIV,168
Koros, William J. ------------------ XXIV,153
Krishnaswamy, Peruvemba R. --------- XXV,176
Kubias, F. Owen -------------------- XXIV,65
Kuchar, Marvin C. ------------------ XXV,94
Kumar, Ashok ------------------------- XXIII,216
Kumar, R. -------------------------- XXIII,188
Kummler, Ralph H. ------XXIII,222; XXIV,147
Kwon, K. C. ---- ----------------XXI,30


Fall 1991











Kyle, B. G. ----------- XXII,92: XXIII,250

SL
Lane, Alan M. ----------------------- XXIII,70
Lauffenburger, Douglas A. --------- XXIII,208
Laukhuf, L. S. ----------------- XXIII,106,143
Leal, L. Gary -------------------------- XXV,118
Lee, P. L. ------------------------------ XXII,68
Lee III, William E.-XXII,158;XXIII,18;XXV,82
Leighton, David T. ------------------ XXI,174
Levenspiel, Octave --------- XXII,115; XXIII,75;
XXIV,78
Lewandowski, Gordon ------------ XXIII,130
Louvar, Joseph F. --------------------- XX,74

EM
Macias-Machin, A. ------------------XXV,78
Maddox, R. N. -----------------------XXII,138
Maheshwari, Mukesh--------------- XXII,150
Mahoney, John F. -------------------- XXII,153
Malcata, F. Xavier -------------------- XXIII,l 12
Malone, Michael F. ------------------- XXI,39
Manke, Charles --------------------- XXV,131
Manning, Francis S. ------------------- XXI,90
Martinez, Ma Eugenia ---------- XXV,145
Martini, R. A. ------------------------- XXII,22
Matthews, Larryl --------------------XXIV,180
McCluskey, R.J. -------------------- XXIII,150
McConica, Carol M. ------------- XXIV,38
McCready, Mark J. --------- XXI,174; XXIII,82
Mclntire, Larry V. ------------------ XXII,200
McKean, Rob Adams ------- XXIII,102; XXV,28
McMicking, James H. ----------- XXIII,222
Melsheimer, S. S. -----------------------XXI,34
Mendoza-Bustos, S.A. ----------- XXV,34
Middleman, Stanley -------------------- XXV,97
Miller, William M. -------------------XXV,134
Miranda, R. ------- ---------- XXIII,116
Mischke, Roland A. -----------------XXII,195
Misovich, Michael -------------------- XXV,46
Modi, Ajay K. ----------------------- XXIII,100
Molina, Emilio ----------------------- XXV,145
Moo-Young, Murray ------------ XXIII,221
Morgan, J. Derald ------------------ XXIV,180
Mosby, J.F. ---------------------------- XXV,98
Miiller, Erich A. ----------------------- XXV,24
Myers, Alan L. ----------------------- XXV,112

EN
Narasimhan, G. ----- --------- XXIV,196
Nedderman, R. M. -------------------- XXI,126
Neill, Wayne K. ----------------------- XXII,73
Newell, R. B. ------------------------XXI,68
Ng, Terry K-L ----------------------- XXII,202
Nienow, A. W. -------- --------- XXII,153
Nystrom, Lynn ----------------------- XXII,2

NO
O'Connell, John P. ---------- XXI,93; XXV,183
Okorafor, C. ------------------- XXI,44,102
Orazem, MarkE. ------- XXIII,67;XXIV,48,124;
XXV,225

UP
Paccione, J. D. --------------------- XXI,138
Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios -------- XXIV,207
Papanastasiou, Tasos C. ----------XXIII,50
Parulekar, Satish J. ------------------- XXII,62
Patterson, G. K. ---------- XXII,17; XXIV,2


Paul, D. R. --------------------------- XXI,33
Pegg, Michael J. ---------------- XXIII,163
Penlidis, A. -------------------------- XXV,34
Perona, Joseph J. -------------------- XXIII,11
Peters, Max S. ------------------------- XXI,5
Peters, Michael H. ----------------------- XXV,210
Petersen, James N. -------------------- XXV,54
Petrich, Mark A. ----- --------- XXV,134
Pettit, Donald R. -------------------- XXI,190
Plank, C. A. ------------------- XXIII,106,143
Powitz, Robert W. ----------------- XXIII,222
Prausnitz, John --------------------------- XXIV,20
Price, Randel M. ------------------------- XXI,194
Prince, R.G.H. ------- ---------- XXV,16
Punzi, Vito L. --------------------- XXI,146

mR
Ramachandran, P. A. ------------- XXIII,31
Ramkrishna, D. -------- XXIH,188; XXIV,198
Randolph, Alan D. --- ---------- XXIII,214
Rangaiah, G.P. ---------------------- XXV,40
Rao, Ming -- ------- -------- XXIII,256
Rase, Howard F. -- ----- -- XXI, 152
Rasmussen, Don --- ----- XXII, 110
Reed, Gregory D. --- ----------- XXIII,204
Reeves, Deborah E.--------- XXII,154;XXII,178
Reilly, P.M. --- --------------- XXIII,92
Reklaitis, G.V. ------- ---------- XXV,98
Rhinehart, R. Russell------- XXI,18,68;XXIII,38
Rice, William J. ------ --------- XXIV,224
Riggs, James B. ---------------------- XXII,26
Roat, S. D. --------------------------- XXI,34
Roberge, P. R. ----------------------- XXIV,228
Rodriguez, F. ------- ---------- XXIV,135
Rosen, Edward M. ----------------- XXIV,100
Rudisill, J.W. ------- ----------XXV,45
Ruthven, D. M. ----------------------- XXII,91

Es
US
Saliba, Tony E. --- ------------ XXIV,154
Samdani, Gulam ---- --- -------- XXII, 116
San, Ka-Yiu ------------- --------- XXIII,200
Sinchez, Sebastin -------------------XXV,145
Sandall, Orville C. -------------------- XXV,10
Sanders, Stuart A. ----------- -------- XXIII,86
Sandhu, Sarwan S. -------------------- XXV,92
Sandler, Stanley I. ------ XXIV, 12; XXIV,80
Santana, Cesar C. ------------------------ XXIV,33
Sater, V. E. ---------------------------- XXII,8
Sather, Glenn A. ------------------------XXII,140
Savage, Phillip E. ----------XXIV,148; XXV,150
Sayler, Gary S. --------------------- XXIII,204
Schaeffer, Steven T. ------------- XXII,208
Schaper, Charles D. ---------------------XXIV, 112
Schork, F. Joseph ----------------------- XXII,154
Schultheisz, Daniel J. ----------------- XXII,98
Schulz, Kirk H. --------------------- XXIV,220
Sciance, C. T. ------------------------------ XXI,12
Seebauer, Edmund G. --- -- XXV,131
Seider, Warren D. ---------- XXI,178; XXII,134;
XXII,212
Senkan, S.M. ------- ----------- XXV,64
Shacham, Mordechai -------------- XXII, 18
Shah, Dinesh --------------------- XXV,124
Shah, Y. T. --- ---------------- XXI,215
Sharma, M.M. --------------------- XXII,188
Siirola, Jeffrey J. ----------------- XXI,77
Silva, Francisco A. Da ----------------- XXV,24


Silveston, P.L. ---------------------- XXIII,176
Sisson, Edwin A. -------------------- XXIII,16
Skaates, J. Michael ------------------ XXI,184
Skeen, Rodney S. ------------------ XXIII,242
Skelland, A. H. Peter ------------------- XXI,48
Skog, Susan -------------------------- XXIV,62
Slater, C. S. -------------------------- XXI,138
Slaughter, Joseph M. -----------------XXV,54
Sleicher, Charles, A. ------------- XXII,12
Sloan, E. Dendy ----------- XXIII,134; XXIV,66
Smith, Douglas --------------------------- XXV,204
Snide, James A. ------------------------- XXIV,154
Soane, David S. --------------------- XXIV,33
Solen, Kenneth A. -------------------- XXIV,94
Someshwar, A. V. ------------------ XXIII,44
Sommerfeld, Jude T. --------- XXI,134;XXII,98;
XXII,86; XXIV,145
Squires, R.G. -------------------------------XXV,98
Strandberg, Gerald W. ------------ XXIII,204
Sublette, Kerry L. --------- XXI,204;XXIII,32
Sullivan, C. ------------------------- XXII,22
Sundberg, D. C. ------------------------- XXIII,44
Sussman, M. V. ---------------------------- XXI,78
Sutija, Davor ------------------------- XXIV,20

NT
Taboada M., Maria E. --------------- XXV,102
Takoudis, Christos G. ------- XXI,170; XXIV,42
Teja, Amyn S. ---------XXII,208; XXV,163
Timmerhaus, Klaus D. ---------- XXII, 125
Todd-Mancillas, William R. --------- XXIII,16
Tsai, Wangteng ---------------------XXIV,212
Tsao, George T. --------- XXI,133; XXIV,176

0U
Ungar, Lyle H. --------------------- XXI,178

SV
Vahdat, N. ---- ---------------- XXI,30
Varma, Arvind ----------------------- XXII,103
Vrentas, J.S. ------- ---------- XXII,181

SW
Waite, Boyd A. ------------------- XXI,98
Wang,Tse-Wei ------------------- XXIII,236
Wankat, Phillip C. -------------------- XXI,72
Watson, Charles, C. ----------------- XXII,73
Watters, James C. ----- XXIII,106,143; XXV,68
Weaver, James B. ------------------ XXIII,138
Wei, James --------------------------- XXII, 12
Weinbaum, Sheldon ----------------- XXV, 118
Westermann-Clark, Gerald B. -------- XXIII,161
Wheelock, T. D. -------------- ----- XXI,152
Whitaker, Stephen ---------------------- XXII, 104
Whiting, Wallace B. ---------------- XXV,140
Wie, Bernard J. Van -------- ----- XXIII,242
Williams, Donald F. -------------XXV,74, 164
Wise, Donald L. -------------------- XXIV,158

mY
Yang, Ralph T. ----------------------- XXII,16
Ybarra, Robert M. ------------------ XXII,42
Yeh, N.C. ------------------------------ XXV,98
Young, Mark A. ------------------------XXI,40

SZ
Zhang, Guotai -------------------------XXIV,78
Zollars, Richard L. -------------------- XXV,54,68


Chemical Engineering Education











The.


f University
OAKrOn. DEPARTMENT OF


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
GRADUATE PROGRAUX

19rGRADUATE PROGRAM


FACULTY


RESEARCH INTERESTS


G. A. ATWOOD
G. G. CHASE
H. M. CHEUNG
S. C. CHUANG
J.R. ELLIOTT
L. G. FOCHT
K. L. FULLERTON
M. A. GENCER2
H. L. GREENE1
L.K. JU
S. LEE
D. MAHAJAN2
J. W. MILLER2
H. C. QAMMAR
R. W. ROBERTS1
N.D. SYLVESTER
M. S. WILLIS


Digital Control, Mass Transfer, Multicomponent Adsorption
Multiphase Processes, Heat Transfer, Interfacial Phenomena
Colloids, Light Scattering Techniques
Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Combustion
Thermodynamics, Material Properties
Fixed Bed Adsorption, Process Design
Fuel Technology, Process Engineering, Environmental Engineering
Biochemical Engineering, Environmental Biotechnology
Oxidative Catalysis, Reactor Design, Mixing
Biochemical Engineering, Enzyme and Fermentation Technology
Fuel and Chemical Process Engineering, Reactive Polymers, Waste Clean-Up
Homogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics
Polymerization Reaction Engineering
Hazardous Waste Treatment, Nonlinear Dynamics
Plastics Processing, Polymer Films, System Design
Environmental Engineering, Flow Phenomena
Multiphase Transport Theory, Filtration, Interfacial Phenomena


'Professor Emeritus
2 Adjunct Faculty Member


Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $7,800.
Industrially sponsored fellowships available up to $17,000.
In addition to stipends, tuition and fees are waived.
Ph.D. students may get some incentive scholarships.
Cooperative Graduate Education Program is also available.
The deadline for assistantship applications is February 15th.
For Additional Information, Write *
Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Akron Akron, OH 44325-3906


Fall 1991









CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PROGRAMS AT

THE UNIVERSITY OF

ALABAMA

The University of Alabama, located in the
sunny South, offers excellent programs lead-
ing to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical
Engineering.
Our research emphasis areas are concentrated
in environmental studies, reaction kinetics
and catalysis, alternate fuels, and related
processes. The faculty has extensive indus-
trial experience, which gives a distinctive
engineering flavor to our programs.
For further information, contact the Director
of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemi-
cal Engineering, Box 870203, Tuscaloosa, AL
35487-0203; (205-348-6450).

FACULTY
G. C. April, Ph.D. (Louisiana State)
D. W. Arnold, Ph.D. (Purdue)
W. C. Clements, Jr., Ph.D. (Vanderbilt)
R. A. Griffin, Ph.D. (Utah State)
W. J. Hatcher, Jr., Ph.D. (Louisiana State)
L A. Jefcoat, Ph.D. (Clemson)
A. M. Lane, Ph.D. (Massachusetts)
M. D. McKinley, Ph.D. (Florida)
L. Y. Sadler III, Ph.D. (Alabama)
V. N. Schrodt, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania State)

RESEARCH INTERESTS
Biomass Conversion, Modeling Transport Processes, Thermodynamics, Coal-Water Fuel Development,
Process Dynamics and Control, Microcomputer Hardware, Catalysis,
Chemical Reactor Design, Reaction Kinetics, Environmental,
Synfuels, Alternate Chemical Feedstocks, Mass Transfer,
Energy Conversion Processes, Ceramics, Rheology, Mineral Processing,
Separations, Computer Applications, and Bioprocessing.
An equal employment/equal educational
opportunity institution.


Chemical Engineering Education













UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA


Degrees: M.Sc., Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering and in Process Control

FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS


K. T. CHUANG, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Mass Transfer Catalysis Separation Processes *
Pollution Control
P. J. CRICKMORE, Ph.D. (Queen's University)
Fractal Analysis Cellular Automata Utilization of Oil
Sand and Coal
I. G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (University of Minnesota)
EMERITUS Chemical Reaction Engineering *
Heterogeneous Catalysis Hydroprocessing
D. G. FISHER, Ph.D. (University of Michigan)
Process Dynamics and Control Real-Time Computer
Applications
M. R. GRAY, Ph.D. (California Institute of Technology)
CHAIRMAN Bioreactors Chemical Kinetics Charac-
terization of Complex Organic Mixtures
R. E. HAYES, Ph.D. (University of Bath)
Numerical Analysis Reactor Modeling Conputational
Fluid Dynamics
S. M. KRESTA, Ph.D. (McMaster University)
Fluid Mechanics Turbulence Mixing
D. T. LYNCH, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Catalysis Kinetic Modeling Numerical Methods *
Reactor Modeling and Design Polymerization
J. H. MASLIYAH, Ph.D. (University of British Columbia)
Transport Phenomena Numerical Analysis Particle-
Fluid Dynamics


A. E. MATHER, Ph.D. (University of Michigan)
Phase Equilibria Fluid Properties at High Pressures *
Thermodynamics
W. K. NADER, Dr. Phil. (Vienna)
Heat Transfer Transport Phenomena in Porous Media *
Applied Mathematics
K. NANDAKUMAR, Ph.D. (Princeton University)
Transport Phenomena Multicomponent Distillation *
Computational Fluid Dynamics
F. D. OTTO, Ph.D. (Michigan) DEAN OF ENGINEERING
Mass Transfer Gas-Liquid Reactions Separation Processes
M. RAO, Ph.D. (Rutgers University)
AI Intelligent Control Process Control
D. B. ROBINSON, Ph.D. (University of Michigan) EMERITUS
Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids Phase Equili-
bria Thermodynamics
J. T. RYAN, Ph.D. (University of Missouri)
Energy Economics and Supply Porous Media
S. L. SHAH, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Computer Process Control System Identification Adaptive
Control
S. E. WANKE, Ph.D. (University of California, Davis)
Heterogeneous Catalysis Kinetics Polymerization
M. C. WILLIAMS, Ph.D. (University of Wisconsin)
Rheology Polymer Characterization Polymer Processing
R. K. WOOD, Ph.D. (Northwestern University)
Process Modeling and Dynamic Simulation Distillation
Column Control Dynamics and Control of Grinding Circuits


For further information, contact
Graduate Program Officer, Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6
PHONE (403) 492-3962 FAX (403) 492-7219


Fall 1991 23










THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA
TUCSON, AZ

The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic, with a fully accredited
undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through
fellowships, government grants and contracts, teaching and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial
grants. The faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. Graduate courses are
offered in most of the research areas listed below.


STHE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS *


MILAN BIER, Professor, Director of Center for Separation Science*:
Ph.D., Fordham University, 1950
Protein Separation, Electrophoresis, Membrane Transport

HERIBERTO CABEZAS, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., University of Florida, 1985
Statistical Thermodynamics, Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction,
Protein Separation

WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor, Assoc. Dean
Ph.D., Oregon State University, 1973
Heat transfer in Biological Systems, Blood Processing

EDWARD J. FREEH, Adjunct Research Professor
Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1958
Process Control, Computer Applications

JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Mechanics and
Mass Transfer in the Microcirculation, Biorheology

ROBERTO GUZMAN, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., North Carolina State University, 1988
Protein Separation, Affinity Methods

THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor and Head
Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
Combustion Aerosols, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Contamination
in Micro-Electronics



Tucson has an excellent climate and many
recreational opportunities. It is a growing
modern city of 450,000 that retains much
of the old Southwestern atmosphere.


For further information, write to

Chairman,
Graduate Study Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721


The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity
educational institution/equal opportunity employer.
Women and minorities are encouraged
to apply.


ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation
Phenomena, Particulate Processes
THOMAS R. REHM, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation,
Computer Aided Design
FARHANG SHADMAN, Professor
Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Coal Conversion, Advanced
Materials Processing

JOST 0. L. WENDT, Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxide Abate-
ment, Chemical Kinetics, Thermodynamics, Incineration, Waste
Management

DON H. WHITE, Professor Emeritus
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy, Microbial and
Enzymatic Processes

DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor
D.Sc., Technion, 1962
Energy, Fermentation, Mixing

SCenter for Separation Science is staffed by four research professors, several technicians, and several
postdocs and graduate students. Other research involves 2-0 electrophoresis, cell culture, electro cell
fusion, and electro fluid dynamic modelling.


Chemical Engineering Education












ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY

CHEMICAL, BIO, AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING


a a
e10 CHEMICAL SEp4l :

a *.
RTIFICIA4L S

BIO SeN8:0


e "oc'oN;,^.^^B


CROSS
DISCIPLI
RESEARCH


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Graduate Research in a High Technology Environment


Chemical Engineering


Beckman, James R., Ph.D., U. of
Arizona Crystallization and
Solar Cooling
Bellamy, Lynn, Ph.D., Tulane
Process Simulation
Berman, Neil S., Ph.D., U. of Texas,
Austin Fluid Dynamics and Air
Pollution
Burrows, Veronica A., Ph.D.,
Princeton Surface Science,
Semiconductor Processing
Cale, Timothy S., Ph.D., U. of
Houston Catalysis,
Semiconductor Processing
Garcia, Antonio A., Ph.D., U.C.,
Berkeley Acid-Base Interactions,
Biochemical Separation, Colloid
Chemistry
Henry, Joseph D., Jr., Ph.D., U. of
Michigan Biochemical,
Molecular Recognition, Surface
and Colloid Phenomena


Kuester, James L., Ph.D., Texas A&M
* Thermochemical Conversion,
Complex Reaction Systems
Raupp, Gregory B., Ph.D., U. of
Wisconsin Semiconductor
Materials Processing, Surface
Science, Catalysis
Rivera, Daniel, Ph.D., Cal Tech
Process Control and Design
Sater, Vernon E., Ph.D., Illinois
Institute of Tech Heavy Metal
Removal from Waste Water,
Process Control
Torrest, Robert S., Ph.D., U. of
Minnesota Multiphase Flow,
Filtration, Flow in Porous Media,
Pollution Control
Zwiebel, Imre, Ph.D., Yale*
Adsorption of Macromolecules,
Biochemical Separations


Bioengineering
Dorson, William J., Ph.D., U. of
Cincinnati Physicochemical
Phenomena, Transport Processes
Guilbeau, Eric J., Ph.D., Louisiana
Tech Biosensors, Physiological
Systems, Biomaterials
Pizziconi, Vincent B., Ph.D. Arizona
State Artificial Organs,
Biomaterials. Bioseparations
Sweeney, James D., Ph.D., Case-
Western Reserve Rehab
Engineering, Applied Neural
Control
Towe, Bruce C., Ph.D., Penn State *
Bioelectric Phenomena, Biosensors,
Biomedical Imaging
Yamaguchi, Gary T., Ph.D., Stanford
Biomechanics, Rehab Engineering,
Computer-Aided Surgery


Materials Science & Engineering
Dey, Sandwip K., Ph.D., NYSC of
Ceramics, Alfred U. Ceramics, Sol-
Gel Processing
Hendrickson, Lester E., Ph.D., U. of
Illinois Fracture and Failure
Analysis, Physical and Chemical
Metallurgy
Jacobson, Dean L., Ph.D., UCLA *
Thermionic Energy Conversion, High
Temperature Materials
Krause, Stephen L., Ph.D., U. of
Michigan Ordered Polymers,
Electronic Materials, Electron X-ray
Diffraction, Electron Microscopy
Shin, Kwang S., Ph.D., Northwestern *
Mechanical Properties, High
Temperature Materials
Stanley, James T., Ph.D., U. of Illinois
Phase Transformations, Corrosion


For more details regarding the graduate degree programs in the Department of Chemical, Bio, and Materials Engineering,
please call (602) 965-3313 or (602) 965-3676, or write to: Dr. Eric Guilbeau, Chair of the Graduate Committee, Department of
Chemical, Bio, and Materials Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6006.

Fall 1991 23











University of Arkansas

Department of Chemical Engineering


Graduate Study and Research Leading to MS and PhD Degrees


FACULTY AND AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION

Michael D. Ackerson (Ph.D., U. of Arkansas)
Biochemical Engineering, Thermodynamics
Robert E. Babcock (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Water Resources, Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamics,
Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal Gasification
Edgar C. Clausen (Ph.D., U. of Missouri-Rolla)
Biochemical Engineering, Process Kinetics
James L. Gaddy (Ph.D., U. of Tennessee)
Biochemical Engineering, Process Optimization
Jerry A. Havens (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Irreversible Thermodynamics, Fire and Explosion Hazards
Assessment, Dense Gas Dispersion
William A. Myers (M.S., U. of Arkansas)
Natural and Artifical Radioactivity, Nuclear Engineering
W. Roy Penney (Ph.D., Oklahoma State)
Process Engineering, Process Development, Fluid Mechanics
Thomas O. Spicer (Ph.D., U. of Arkansas)
Computer Simulation, Dense Gas Dispersion
Charles Springer (Ph.D., U. of Iowa)
Mass Transfer, Diffusional Processes, Safety and Loss
Prevention
Charles M. Thatcher (Ph.D., U. of Michigan)
Mathematical Modeling, Computer Simulation
Jim L. Turpin (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Fluid Mechanics, Biomass Conversion, Process Design
Richard K. Ulrich (Ph.D., U. of Texas)
Microelectronics Materials Fabrication and Processing
J. Reed Welker (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Risk Analysis, Fire and Explosion Behavior and Control,
Liquefied Gas Technology

FINANCIAL AID
Graduate students are supported by fellowships and
research or teaching assistantships.

FOR FURTHER DETAILS CONTACT
Graduate Program Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
3202 Bell Engineering Center
University of Arkansas
Fayetteville, AR 72701


LOCATION
The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, the flagship
campus in the six-campus system, is situated in the heart
of the Ozark Mountains and offers students a unique
blend of urban and rural environments. Fayetteville is
literally surrounded by some of the most outstanding
outdoor recreation facilities in the nation, but it is also a
dynamic city and serves as the center of trade, government,
and finance for the region. The city and University offer a
wealth of cultural and intellectual events.

FACILITIES
The Department of Chemical Engineering occupies more
than 40,000 sq. ft. in the new Bell Engineering Center, a
$30-million state-of-the-art facility, and an additional
20,000 sq. ft. of laboratories at the Engineering Research
Center.


Chemical Engineering Education












ant you to be yourself..

The Department of Chemical Engineering
at A uburn University knows you have
unique talents and ideas to contribute to
our research programs..4 nd because you
are an individual, we will value you as an
individual. That is what makes our
department one of the top 20 in the nation.
Don't become just another graduate
student at some other institution. Come to
. uburn and discover your potential.


Y-
A~2


t ^k


:~3: UI


-iCULTY


(CaIoria atte of
Y.T.L_ _


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S DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND

TM PETROLEUM ENGINEERING
THE
UNIVERSITY The Department offers graduate programs leading to the M.Sc. and
OF CALGARY Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering (full-time) and the M.Eng.
degree in Chemical Engineering or Petroleum Reservoir Engineering
(part-time) in the following areas:


FACULTY
R. A. Heidemann, Head (Washington U.)
A. Badakhshan (Birmingham, U.K.)
L. A. Behie (Western Ontario)
J. D. M. Belgrave (Calgary)
F. Berruti (Waterloo)
P. R. Bishnoi (Alberta)
R. M. Butler (Imperial College, U.K.)
A. Chakma (UBC)
M. A. Hastaoglu (SUNY)
A. A. Jeje (MIT)
N. Kalogerakis (Toronto)
A. K. Mehrotra (Calgary)
R. G. Moore (Alberta)
E. Rhodes (Manchester, U.K.)
P. M. Sigmund (Texas)
J. Stanislav (Prague)
W. Y. Svrcek (Alberta)
E. L. Tollefson (Toronto)
M. A. Trebble (Calgary)


* Thermodynamics Phase Equilibria
* Heat Transfer and Cryogenics
* Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics and Combustion
* Multiphase Flow in Pipelines
* Fluid Bed Reaction Systems
* Environmental Engineering
* Petroleum Engineering and Reservoir
Simulation
* Enhanced Oil Recovery
* In-Situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils
* Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates
* Computer Simulation of Separation Processes
* Computer Control and Optimization of
Bio/Engineering Processes
* Biotechnology and Biorheology


Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available to all qualified applicants.

For Additional Information Write *
Dr. A. K. Mehrotra, Chairman Graduate Studies Committee
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4
\.____________________________


The University is located in the City of Calgary, the Oil capital of Canada, the home of the world famous Calgary Stampede
and the 1988 Winter Olympics. The City combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication ofa modern urban
center. Beautiful Banff National Park is 110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of Banff Lake Louise,and Kananaskis
areas are readily accessible. In the above photo the University Campus is shown with the Olympic Oval and the student
residences in the foreground. The Engineering complex is on the left of the picture
240 Chemical Engineering Education










THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT


BERKELEY...


RESEARCH INTERESTS

BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING
ENERGY UTILIZATION
FLUID MECHANICS
KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
POLYMER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
SEPARATION PROCESSES
SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE
THERMODYNAMICS


PLEASE WRITE:


... offers graduate programs leading to the
Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy.
Both programs involve joint faculty-student
research as well as courses and seminars
within and outside.the department. Students
have the opportunity to take part in the many
cultural offerings of the San Francisco Bay
Area and the recreational activities of
California's northern coast and mountains.

FACULTY

ALEXIS T. BELL
HARVEY W. BLANCH
ELTON J. CAIRNS
ARUP K. CHAKRABORTY
DOUGLAS S. CLARK
MORTON M. DENN (CHAIRMAN)
ALAN S. FOSS
SIMON L. GOREN
DAVID B. GRAVES
JAY D. KEASLING
C. JUDSON KING
SCOTT LYNN
SUSAN J. MULLER
JOHN S. NEWMAN
JOHN M. PRAUSNITZ
CLAYTON J. RADKE
JEFFREY A. REIMER
DAVID S. SOANE
DOROS N. THEODOROU


DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA 94720


Fall 1991














(n (AL




U(DAV
U( DA S


Davis & Vicinity
The campus is a 20-minute drive from
Sacramento and just an hour away from the San
Francisco Bay Area. Outdoor enthusiasts may
enjoy water sports at nearby Lake Berryessa,
skiing and other alpine activities in the Lake
Tahoe area (2 hours away). These recreational
opportunities combined with the friendly in-
formal spirit of the Davis campus and town
make it a pleasant place in which to live and
study.
The city of Davis is within easy walking or
cyclingdistancetothecampus. Both furnished
and unfurnished apartments are available.
Married student housing, as well as graduate
dorms at reasonable cost, are located on
campus.


faculty & Pe Sdrch Are'd
Abbott, Nicholas L., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Fundamentals of
polymersurfactants, molecular thermodynamic description of surfactantself-assem-
bly, novel polymer structures for biological membranes.
Bell, Richard L., Professor Emeritus. University of Washington, Seattle. Mass
transfer phenomena on non-ideal trays, environmental transport, biochemical engi-
neering.
Dungan, Stephanie R., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Structure &
stability of food emulsions, intracellular transport, transport properties in
microemulsions, interfacial dynamics.
Boulton, Roger, University of Melbourne. Chemical engineering aspects of fer-
mentation &wine processing, fermentation kinetics, modeling & control ofenological
operations.
Higgins, Brian G., University of Minnesota. Wetting hydrodynamics, fluid me-
chanics of thin films, coating flows, Langmuir-Blodgett films, sol-gel processes.
Jackman, Alan P., University of Minnesota. Biological kinetics & reactor design,
kinetics of ion exchange, environmental solute transport, heat & mass transport at air-
water interface, hemodynamics & fluid exchange.
Katz, David F., University of California, Berkeley. Biological fluid mechanics,
biorheology, cell biology, image analysis.
McCoy, Ben J., University of Minnesota. Chemical reaction engineering ab-
sorption, catalysis, multiphase reactors; separation processes chromatography, ion
exchange, supercritical fluid extraction.
McDonald, Karen A., University of Maryland, College Park. Distillation control,
control of multivariable, nonlinear processes, control of biochemical processes,
plant cell.
Palazoglu, Ahmet N., RensselaerPolytechnic Institute. Process control, process
design & synthesis.
Phillips, Ronald J., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Low Reynolds
number hydrodynamics, suspension mechanics, hindered transport, transport in
living plants.
Powell, Robert L., The Johns Hopkins University. Rheology, fluid mechanics,
properties of suspensions & physiological fluids.
Ryu, Dewey D.Y., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kinetics & reaction
engineering of biochemical & enzymesystems, optimization of continuous bioreactor,
biochemical & genetic engineering.
Smith, J.M., Professor Emeritus, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Transport
rates & chemical kinetics for catalytic reactors, studies by dynamic & steady-state
methods in slurry, trickle-bed, single pellet, & fixed-bed reactors.
Stroeve, Pieter, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Transport with chemical
reaction, biotechnology, rheology of heterogeneous media, thin film technology,
interfacial phenomena, image analysis.
Whitaker, Stephen, University of Delaware. Drying porous media, transport
processes in heterogeneous reactors, multiphase transport phenomena in heteroge-
neous systems.

oref Info
Information and application materials (including financial aid) may be obtained
through the following address or telephone number.
Graduate Admissions Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of California, Davis
Davis, CA 95616
Telephone 916/752-2504; FAX 916/752-1031









CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT


UCLA


FACULTY
D. T. Allen K. Nobe
Y. Cohen L. B. Robinson
S (Prof. Emeritus)


I. n. K. FreaerKing
S. K. Friedlander
R. F. Hicks
E. L. Knuth
(Prof. Emeritus)
V. Manousiouthakis
H. G. Monbouquette


PROGRAMS


UCLA's Chemical Engineering Department
offers a program of teaching and research linking
fundamental engineering science and industrial
needs. The department's research strengths are
demonstrated by its established centers of excel-
lence in Hazardous Substances Control (NSF),
Multimedia Environmental Pollution Studies (EPA),
and Biotechnology Research and Education (NSF,
State of California).

Fellowships are available for outstanding ap-
plicants. A fellowship includes a waiver of tuition
and fees plus a stipend.

Located five miles from the Pacific Coast,
UCLA's expansive 417-acre campus extends from
Bel Air to Westwood Village. Students have ac-
cess to the highly regarded science programs
and to a variety of experiences in theatre, music,
art, and sports on campus.


S. M. Senkan
0. I. Smith
W. D. Van Vorst
(Prof. Emeritus)
V. L. Vilker
A. R. Wazzan


RESEARCH AREAS
Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Process Design and Process Control
Polymer Processing and Rheology
Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics, Combustion, and Catalysis
Semiconductor Device Chemistry and Surface
Science
Electrochemistry and Corrosion
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Particle Technology
Environmental Engineering


CONTACT
Admissions Officer
Chemical Engineering Department
5531 Boelter Hall
UCLA
Los Angeles, CA 90024-1592
(213) 825-9063


Fall 1991












UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA



SANTA BARBARA


FACULTYAND RESEARCH INTERESTS *
L. GARY LEAL Ph.D. (Stanford) (Chairman) Fluid Mechanics; Transport Phenomena; Polymer Physics.
SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo) Two-Phase Flow, Chemical & Nuclear Safety, Computational Fluid Dynamics,
Turbulence.
BRADLEY F. CHMELKA Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Guest/Host Interactions in Molecular Sieves, Dispersal of Metals in
Oxide Catalysts, Molecular Structure and Dynamics in Polymeric Solids, Properties of Partially Ordered Materials,
Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.
HENRI FENECH Ph.D. (M.I.T.) (Professor Emeritus) Nuclear Systems Design and Safety, Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two-
Phase Flow, Heat Transfer.
GLENN H. FREDRICKSON Ph.D. (Stanford) Electronic Transport, Glasses, Polymers, Composites, Phase Separation.
OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue) Theoretical Methods, Chemical Reactor Analysis, Transport Phenomena.
JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph.D. (Cambridge) Surface and Interfacial Phenomena, Adhesion, Colloidal Systems,
Surface Forces.
FRED F. LANGE Ph.D. (Penn State) Powder Processing of Composite Ceramics; Liquid Precursors for Ceramics;
Superconducting Oxides.
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.) (Vice Chairman) Radiation Damage, Mechanics of Materials.
ERIC McFARLAND Ph.D. (M.I.T), M.D. (Harvard) Biomedical Engineering, NMR and Neutron Imaging, Transport
Phenomena in Complex Liquids, Radiation Interactions.
DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph.D. (Purdue) Computer Control, Process Dynamics, Real-Time Computing.
JOHN E. MYERS Ph.D. (Michigan) (Professor Emeritus) Boiling Heat Transfer.
G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Radiation Effects in Solids, Energy Related Materials Development
DALE S. PEARSON Ph.D. (Northwestern) Rheological and Optical Properties of Polymer Liquids and Colloidal
Dispersions.
PHILIP ALAN PINCUS Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Theory of Surfactant Aggregates, Colloid Systems.
A. EDWARD PROFIO Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Biomedical Engineering, Reactor Physics, Radiation Transport Analysis.
ROBERT G. RINKER Ph.D. (Caltech) Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis, Energy Conversion, Air Pollution.
ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Transport Phenomena, Separation Processes.
DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. (Princeton) Process Control, Computer Control, Process Identification.
PAUL SMITH Ph.D. (State University of Groningen, Netherlands) High Performance Fibers; Processing of Conducting
Polymers; Polymer Processing.
T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D. (Minnesota) Nuclear and Chemical Plant Safety, Multiphase Flow, Thermalhydraulics.
W. HENRY WEINBERG Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Surface Chemistry; Heterogeneous Catalysis; Electronic Materials
JOSEPH A. N. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D. (Minnesota) Surface and Interfacial Phenomen, Structure of Microemulsions.


PROGRAMS
AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT

The Department offers M.S. and
Ph.D. degree programs Financial
aid, including fellowships, teach-
ing assistantships, and research
assistantships, is available.


THE UNIVERSITY

One of the world's few seashore
campuses, UCSB is located on the
Pacific Coast 100 miles northwest
of Los Angeles. The student enroll-
ment is over 18,000. The metro-
politan Santa Barbara area has over
150,000 residents and is famous for
its mild, even climate.


For additional information
and applications,
write to

Professor Dale Pearson
Department of Chemical and
Nuclear Engineering
University of California
Santa Barbara, CA 93106


Chemical Engineering Education








CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


at the

CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

"At the Leading Edge"


FACULTY
Frances H. Arnold
James E. Bailey
John F Brady
Mark E. Davis
Richard C. Flagan
George R. Gavalas
Konstantinos P. Giapis
Julia A. Kornfield
Manfred Morari
C. Dwight Prater (Visiting)
John H. Seinfeld
Nicholas W. Tschoegl (Emeritus)
Zhen-Gang Wang


RESEARCH INTERESTS
Aerosol Science
Applied Mathematics
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Biocatalysis and Bioreactor Engineering
Bioseparations
Catalysis
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Combustion
Colloid Physics
Fluid Mechanics
Materials Processing
Microelectronics Processing
Microstructured Fluids
Polymer Science
Process Control and Synthesis
Protein Engineering
Statistical Mechanics of Heterogeneous
Systems


*forfurther information, write
Professor John F. Brady
Department of Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125


Fall 1991




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Clue





Jon .. Anderso
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Pau A. 99.ll

Micha. 9M9 .9a



Igai E. Grossmann

Wila S. Hamc in t.99em9


Anntt M. Jacobson9 .















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Gar J. Powers *i
Decision-making^S in the*designofchemical
processing ^^^-I^^^^^ systems^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Dennis C. Prieve Car negiel~~n5^^^B '^K-i^H^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Transportfi^^^^^^^^^^l^^^l~l^^^^ phenomena^ and colloids,^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
especially ^^^^^^^^^^ HelectrokRfinetic phenomena Mell n^^^^^
Jennife^^r L.Sinlair^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^H^^x^S&&ii^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
MulKtipihaseH flow ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Paul J. Sides^^^^^^^^E^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Electrochemical engineering;cfiB^it3S'l~a~flaH^1^n~^^^^^^^^^












Chemical Engineering in


the 21st Century?


Diamond crystals synthesized by graduate student C. Kovach.

For more information contact:


The Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106


Want to learn what the future holds for
chemical engineers?

Consider graduate study at


CASE

WESTERN

RESERVE

UNIVERSITY

Opportunities for Innovative Research in
Advanced Energy Conversion *
Chemical/Biological Sensors
Intelligent Control *
Micro- and Nano-Materials *
Novel Separations/Processing *


Faculty and Specializations


John C. Angus, Ph.D. 1960, University of Michigan
Redox equilibria, diamond and diamond-like films, modulated
electroplating
Coleman B. Brosilow, Ph.D. 1962, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn
Adaptive inferential control, multi-variable control, coordination
algorithms
Robert V. Edwards, Ph.D. 1968, Johns Hopkins University
Laser anemometry, mathematical modeling, data acquisition
Donald L. Feke, Ph.D. 1981, Princeton University
Colloidal phenomena, ceramic dispersions, fine-particle
processing


Nelson C. Gardner, Ph.D. 1966, Iowa State University
High-gravity separations, sulfur removal processes


Uziel Landau, Ph.D. 1975, University of California (Berkeley)
Electrochemical engineering, current distributions, electro-
deposition
Chung-Chiun Liu, Ph.D. 1968, Case Western Reserve University
Electrochemical sensors, electrochemical synthesis, electro-
chemistry related to electronic materials
J. Adin Mann, Jr., Ph.D. 1962, Iowa State University
Interfacial structure and dynamics, light scattering, Langmuir-
Blodgett films, stochastic processes
Syed Qutubuddin, Ph.D. 1983, Carnegie-Mellon University
Surfactant and polymer solutions, metal extraction, enhanced
oil recovery
Robert F. Savinell, Ph.D. 1977, University of Pittsburgh
Applied electrochemistry, electrochemical system simulation
and optimization, electrode processes


CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY


Fall 1991


i










VERS


TY


The

UN

OF

C ll


Opportunities for

GRADUATE STUDY
in Chemical Engineering

M.S. and PhD Degrees
in Chemical Engineering


* Financial Aid Available *
Faculty


The city of Cincinnati is the 23rd largest city in the United States, with a greater
metropolitan population of 1.7 million. The city offers numerous sites of architec-
tural and historical interest, as well as a full range of cultural attractions, such as
an outstanding art museum, botanical gardens, a world-famous zoo, theaters, sym-
phony, and opera. The city is also home to the Cincinnati Bengals and the Cincin-
nati Reds. The business and industrial base of the city includes pharmaceutics,
chemicals, jet engines, autoworks, electronics, printing and publishing, insurance,
investment banking, and health care. A number of Fortune 500 companies are
located in the city.


Amy Ciric
Joel Fried
Stevin Gehrke
Rakesh Govind


Robert Jenkins
Yuen-Koh Kao
Soon-Jai Khang
Jerry Lin


David Greenberg Glenn Lipscomb
Daniel Hershey Neville Pinto
Sun-Tak Hwang Sotiris Pratsinis


a Air Pollution
Modeling and design of gas cleaning devices and systems, source apportionment of air pollutants.
a Biotechnology (Bioseparations)
Novel bioseparation techniques, chromatography, affinity separations, biodegradation of toxic wastes, controlled drug
delivery, two-phase flow, suspension rheology.
a Chemical Reaction Engineering and Heterogeneous Catalysis
Modeling and design of chemical reactors, deactivation of catalysts, flow pattern and mixingin chemical equipment, laser
induced effects.
a Coal Research
New technology for coal combustion power plant, desulfuriza-
tion and denitritication.
a Material Synthesis
Manufacture of advanced ceramics, opticalfibers and pigments ,
by aerosol processes.


o Membrane Separations
Membrane gas separations, membrane reactors, sensors and
probes, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dynamic simulation of
membrane separators, membrane preparation and characteri-
zation for polymeric and inorganic materials.


a Polymers
Thermodynamics, thermal analysis and morphology of polymer blends, high-temperature polymers, hydrogels, polymer
processing.
a Process Synthesis
Computer-aided design, modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit operations, pre-
diction ofreaction by-products.
For Admission Information *
Director, Graduate Studies
Department of Chemical Engineering, #171
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0171
248 Chemical Engineering Education


NNAT


NCI


Location







Graduate Study in

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


AT CLARKSON


CENTER FOR ADVANCED MATERIALS PROCESSING
NASA CENTER FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF
COMMERCIAL CRYSTAL GROWTH IN SPACE
INSTITUTE OF COLLOID AND SURFACE SCIENCE
For details, please write to:
Dean of the Graduate School
Clarkson University
Potsdam, New York 13699




Clarkson University is a nondiscriminatory, equal opportunity, affirmative action educator and employer.


Fall 1991








Graduate Study at



Clemson University

in Chemical Engineering

Coming Up for Air
No matter where you do your graduate work,
your nose will be in your books and your mind on
your research. But at Clemson University, there's
something for you when you can stretch out for a
break.
7% Like breathing good air. Or swimming, fishing,
30 sailing, and water skiing in the clean lakes. Or
hiking in the nearby Blue Ridge Mountains. Or
driving to South Carolina's famous beaches for a
weekend. Something that can really relax you.
All this and a top-notch Chemical Engineering
Department, too.
With active research and teaching in polymer
processing, composite materials, process automa-
tion, thermodynamics, catalysis, and membrane
applications what more do you need?
The University
Clemson, the land-grant university of South Carolina, offers 62 undergraduate and 61
graduate fields of study in its nine academic colleges. Present on-campus enrollment is
about 16,000 students, one-third of whom are in the College of Engineering. There are about
3,000 graduate students. The 1,400-acre campus is located on the shores of Lake Hartwell in
South Carolina's Piedmont, and is midway between Charlotte, N.C., and Atlanta, Ga.


The Faculty
Charles H. Barron, Jr.
John N. Beard, Jr.
Dan D. Edie
Charles H. Gooding


James M. Haile
Douglas E. Hirt
Stephen S. Melsheimer
Joseph C. Mullins


Amod A. Ogale
Richard W. Rice
Mark C. Thies


Fi l Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
Financial aid, including fellowships and assistantships, is available

For Further Information and a descriptive brochure, write:
Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical Engineering
Earle Hall
Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina 29634-0909


CLEDISON
UvNIvErSIrr
College of Engineering

Chemical Engineering Education











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, BOULDER


RESEARCH INTERESTS


Alternative Energy Sources
Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Polymeric Membrane Morphology
Global Change
Geophysical Fluid Mechanics


Materials Processing in Low-G
Enhanced Oil Recovery
Fluid Dynamics and Fluidization
Interfacial and Surface Phenomena
Mass Transfer
Membrane Transport and Separations


Numerical and Analytical Modeling
Polymer Reaction Engineering
Process Control and Identification
Semiconductor Processing
Surface Chemistry and Surface Science
Thermodynamics and Cryogenics


Graduate students in the Department of Chemical Engineering may also participate in the popular, interdisciplinary
Biotechnology Training Program at the University of Colorado.


FACULTY


CHRISTOPHERN. BOWMAN, Assistant Professor
Ph.D., Purdue, 1991
DAVID E. CLOUGH, Professor, Associate Dean for Academic Affairs
Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1975
ROBERT H. DAVIS, Associate Professor
Co-Director of Colorado Institutefor Research in Biotechnology
Ph.D., Stanford University, 1983
JOHN L. FALCONER, Professor
Ph.D., Stanford University, 1974
ZOHREH FATHI, Assistant Research Professor
Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1986
YURIS 0. FUENTES, Assistant Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1990
R. IGOR GAMOW, Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1967
HOWARD J. M. HANLEY, Professor Adjoint
Ph.D., University of London, 1963
DHINAKAR S. KOMPALA, Associate Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1984


WILLIAM B. KRANTZ, Professor and President's Teaching Scholar,
Co-Director NSF I/UCRC Center for Separations Using Thin Films
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1968
RICHARD D. NOBLE, Professor, Co-Director NSFI/UCRC Center for
Separations Using Thin Films
Ph.D., University of California, Davis, 1976
W. FRED RAMIREZ, Professor and Chairman
Ph.D. Tulane University, 1965
ROBERT L. SANI, Professor, Director of Centerfor Low Gravity
Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena
Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1963

KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS, Professor and President's Teaching Scholar
Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1951

PAULW. TODD, Research Professor
Ph.D. University of California, Berkeley, 1964
RONALD E. WEST, Professor
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1958


FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE TO Director, Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical.ngineering
University of Colorado, Boulder Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424


Fall 1991












COLORADO



SCHOOL OF o I



MINES 1874




THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH

SA. J. KIDNAY, Professor and Graduate Dean; D.Sc., Colorado School
of Mines. Thermodynamic properties of gases and liquids, vapor-
liquid equilibria, cryogenic engineering.
J. H. GARY, Professor Emeritus; Ph.D., Florida. Petroleum refinery
processing operations, heavy oil processing, thermal cracking,
visbreaking and solvent extraction.
V. F. YESAVAGE, Professor; Ph.D., Michigan. Vapor liquid
equilibrium and enthalpy of polar associating fluids, equations
of state for highly non-ideal systems, flow calorimetry.
E. D. SLOAN, JR., Professor; Ph.D. Clemson. Phase equilibrium
measurements of natural gas fluids and hydrates, thermal
conductivity of coal derived fluids, adsorption equilibria,
education methods research.
R. M. BALDWIN, Professor and Head; Ph.D., Colorado School of
Mines. Mechanisms and kinetics of coal liquefaction, catalysis,
oil shale processing, fuels science.
M. S. SELIM, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State. Heat and mass transfer
with a moving boundary, sedimentation and diffusion of colloidal
suspensions, heat effects in gas absorption with chemical
reaction, entrance region flow and heat transfer, gas hydrate
dissociation modeling.
A. L. BUNGE, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Berkeley. Membrane
transport and separations, mass transfer in porous media, ion
exchange and adsorption chromatography, in place remediation
of contaminated soils, percutaneous absorption.
R. L. MILLER, Professor; Ph.D., Colorado School of Mines.
Liquefaction co-processing of coal and heavy oil, low severity
coal liquefaction, particulate removal with venturi scrubbers,
interdisciplinary educational methods
J. F. ELY, Professor; Ph.D., Indiana. Molecular thermodynamics
and transport properties of fluids.
J.T. McKINNON, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute
of Technology. High temperature gas phase chemical kinetics,
combustion, hazardous waste destruction.
J.O. GOLDEN, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State University. Hazardous
waste processing, polymers, fluidization engineering

For Applications and Further Information
on M.S. and Ph.D. Programs, Write

Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining
Colorado School of Mines
Golden, CO 80401


Chemical Engineering Education































Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs for Scientists and Engineers


Faculty and Research Areas


THOMAS F. ANDERSON
statistical thermodynamics,
phase equilibria, separations
JAMES P. BELL
structure and
properties of polymers
DOUGLAS J. COOPER
expert systems,
process control,
fluidization
ROBERT W. COUGHLIN
catalysis, biotechnology,
surface science
MICHAEL B. CUTLIP
chemical reaction engineering,
computer applications


ANTHONY T. DIBENEDETTO
polymer science,
composite materials
JAMES M. FENTON
electrochemical engineering,
enrivonmental engineering
G. MICHAEL HOWARD
process dynamics,
energy technology
HERBERT E. KLEI
biochemical engineering,
environmental engineering


JEFFREY T. KOBERSTEIN
polymer morphology
and properties
MONTGOMERY T. SHAW
polymer processing,
rheology
DONALD W. SUNDSTROM
environmental engineering,
biochemical engineering
ROBERT A. WEISS
polymer science


We'll gladly supply the Answers!

THE Graduate Admissions
UNIVERSITY OF Dept. of Chemical Engineering
rT The University of Connecticut
Storrs, CT 06268
(203) 486-4019


- i -- =--- ;-e










Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering


at Cornell University


B World-class research in ...
biochemical engineering
applied mathematics
computer simulation
environmental engineering
kinetics and catalysis
surface science
i A 1 heat and mass transfer
polymer science and engineering
fluid dynamics
rheology and biorheology
process control
molecular thermodynamics
statistical mechanics
computer-aided design


A diverse
intellectual climate
Graduate students arrange indi-
vidual programs with a core of
chemical engineering courses
supplemented by work in other
outstanding Cornell depart-
ments, including chemistry,
biological sciences, physics,
computer science, food science,
materials science, mechanical
engineering, and business
administration

A scenic location
Situated in the scenic Finger
Lakes region of upstate New
York, the Cornell campus is one
of the most beautiful in the
country.

A stimulating university com-
munity offers excellent recrea-
tional and cultural opportunities
in an attractive environment


A distinguished faculty
Brad Anton
Paulette Clancy
Peter A. Clark
Claude Cohen
T. Michael Duncan
James R. Engstrom
Robert K. Finn (Emeritus)
Keith E. Gubbins
Daniel A. Hammer
Peter Harriott
Donald L. Koch
Robert P. Merrill
William L. Olbricht
Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos
Ferdinand Rodriguez
George F. Scheele
Michael L. Shuler
Julian C. Smith (Emeritus)
Paul H. Steen
William B. Street
Raymond G. Thorpe (Emeritus)
Robert L. Von Berg (Emeritus)
Herbert F. Wiegandt (Emeritus)
John A. Zollweg


Graduate programs lead to the
degrees of master of engineering,
master of science, and doctor of
philosophy. Financial aid, including
attractive fellowships, is available.

For further information, write
Professor William L. Olbricht
Cornell University
Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering
Ithaca, NY 14853-5201


Chemical Engineering Education









Chemical En gneerin at
The Faculty
Ricardo Aragon
Giovanni Astarita
Mark A. Barteau
Antony N. Beris
Kenneth B. Bischoff
Douglas J. Buttrey
Costel D. Denson
Prasad S. Dhurjati
Henry C. Foley
Bruce C. Gates
Eric W. Kaler
Michael T. Klein
Abraham M. Lenhoff
Roy L. McCullough
Arthur B. Metzner
Jon H. Olson
Michael E. Paulaitis
T. W. Fraser Russell
Stanley I. Sandler
Jerold M. Schultz
Annette D. Shine
Norman J. Wagner
AndrewL. Zydney T he University of Delaware offers M.ChE and Ph.D.

degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course
work in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strong
interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current
fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science and
Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena, Materials
Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction Kinetics,
Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photovoltaic
Processing, Biomedical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering, and Colloid
and Surfactant Science.

New York For more information and application materials, write:


Philadelphis


GFIUuILu IUV iDu
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware 19716


The University of
Delaware


Baltimore
Washington


Fall 1991


I









Modern Applications of

Chemical Engineering

at the



University of Florida


Graduate Study Leading to the MS and PhD


FACULTY
TIM ANDERSON Semiconductor Processing, Thermodynamics
IOANNIS BITSANIS Molecular Modeling of Interfaces
SEYMOUR S. BLOCK Biotechnology
OSCAR D. CRISALLE Electronic Materials, Process Control
RAY W. FAHIEN Transport Phenomena, Reactor Design
ARTHUR L. FRICKE Polymers, Pulp & Paper Characterization
GAR HOFLUND Catalysis, Surface Science
LEW JOHNS Applied Design, Process Control, Energy Systems
DALE KIRMSE Computer Aided Design, Process Control
HONG H. LEE Semiconductor Processing, Reaction Engineering
GERASIMOS LYBERATOS Biochemical Engineering, Chemical Reaction Engineering
FRANK MAY Computer-Aided Learning
RANGA NARAYANAN Transport Phenomena, Semiconductor Processing
MARK E. ORAZEM Electrochemical Engineering, Semiconductor Processing
CHANG-WON PARK* Fluid Mechanics, Polymer Processing
DINESH 0. SHAH Surface Sciences, Biomedical Engineering
SPYROS SVORONOS* Process Control, Biochemical Engineering
GERALD WESTERMANN-CLARK Electrochemical Engineering, Bioseparations

For more information, please write:
Graduate Admissions Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
or call (904) 392-0881
Chemical Engineering Education














GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Florida A & M University / Florida State University Joint College of Engineering


MS AND PHD PROGRAMS


FACULTY


PEDRO ARCE PH.D.
Purdue University, 1990


RAVI CHELLA PH.D.
University of Massachusetts, 1984


DAVID EDELSON PH.D.
Yale University, 1949


BRUCE LOCKE PH.D.
North Carolina State University, 1989


MICHAEL PETERS PH.D.
Ohio State University, 1981


SAM RICCARDI PH.D. (Adjunct)
Ohio State University, 1949


JOHN TELOTTE PH.D.
University of Florida, 1985


JORGE VIALS PH.D. (Affiliate)
University of Barcelona, Spain, 1981


RESEARCH INTERESTS


Aerosol Science, Air Pollution Control, Applied

Mathematics, Biocatalysis, Bioreactor Design and

Bioseparations, Brownian Motion, Chemical Vapor

Deposition, Chemical Kinetics and Combustion,

Composite Materials, Complex Fluids, Expert Systems,

Fluid Mechanics of Crystal Growth, Macromolecular

Phenomena, Macromolecular Transport in Polymeric

Media, Phase Transitions, Polymer Processing, Stochastic

Processes, Semiconductor Processing, Thermodynamics


At the Forefront of High Technology Research


FOR INFORMATION WRITE TO:

Graduate Studies Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
FAMU/FSU College of Engineering
2525 Pottsdammer Street
Tallahassee, FL. 32316-2175























CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


The Faculty and Their Research clsHetereneus
face chemistry.
reaction kinetics
Pradeep K. Agrawal


Microelectron
ics, polymer
processing
Sue Ann Bidstrup


Molecular
thermodynam-
ics, chemical
kinetics.
separations
Charles A. Eckert


Reactor
design,
catalysis


William R. Ernst


Mechanics of
aerosols. buoy-
ant plumes and
jets


LarryJ. Forney


H eat transport
phenomena,
fluidization
Charles W. Gorton


Photochemical
processing,
chemical
vapor
deposition


Pulp and paper


Jeffrey S. Hsieh


Paul A. Kohl


Aerocolloidal
systems, inter-
facial phe-
nomena, fine-
particle
S 1 technology
MichaelJ. Matteson


Polymer engi-
neering. energy
conservation.
economics
John D. Muzzy


SBiomechanics,
mammalian
Sell cultures
Robert M. Nerem


Emulsion
polymeriza-
tion, latex
technology
Gary W. Poehlein


SBiochemical
engineering,
mass transfer,
reactor design
Ronnie S. Roberts


IK _,W 1V eparaton
4L^ processes,
crystallization
Ronald W. Rousseau


~Biochemical
engineering.
microbial and
animal cell
f cultures
Athanassios Sambanis


Reactor engi-
neering, proc
ess control,
Polymer sci- polymerization
ence and reactor
engineering dynamics
Robert J. Samuels F. Joseph Schork


I Process synthe-
sis and simula-
tion, chemical
separation,
waste manage-
Process design ment, resource
S and simulation recovery
Jude T. Sommerfeld D. William Tedder


SBiochemical
engineering,
cell-cell inter-
actions,
biofluid
dynamics
Timothy M. Wick


Electrochemi-
cal engineer-
ing, thermo-
dynamics, air
pollution
control


Jack Winnick


SBiofluid dynam-
ics, rheology,
transport
phenomena
Ajit P. Yoganathan


A.S. Abhiraman


Polymer
science and
engineering







Process
design and
control,
spouted-bed
reactors


Thermody-
namic and
transport prop-
erties, phase
equilibria,
supercritical
gas extraction


Amyn S. Teja


Catalysis, ki-
netics, reactor
design


marK I. wuire









What do graduate students say about

the University of Houston

Department of Chemical Engineering?
"Houston is a university on the move. The chemical engineering department is ranked
among the top ten schools, and you can work in the specialty of your choice: semiconductor
processing, biochemical engineering, the traditional areas. The choice of advisor is yours, too,
and you're given enough time to make the right decision. You can see your advisor almost any
time you want to because the student-to-teacher ratio is low.
Houston is the center of the petrochemical industry, which puts the 'real world' of
research within reach. And Houston is one of the few schools with a major research program
in superconductivity.
The UH campus is really nice, and city life is just 15 minutes away for concerts, plays,
nightclubs, professional sports-everything. Galveston beach is just 40 minutes away.
"The faculty are dedicated and always friendly. People work hard here, but there is time
for intramural sports and Friday night get togethers"
If you'd like to be part of this team, let us hear from you.


"It's great!"


aN,;.,
dNK~ QP


)T- Ac7_,
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fc\f 1


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ka ;/


AREAS OF RESEARCH STRENGTH:
Biochemical Engineering Chemical Reaction Engineering
Superconducting, Ceramic and Applied Transport Phenomena
Electronic Materials Thermodynamics
Enhanced Oil Recovery


FACULTY:
Neal Amundson
Vemuri Balakotaiah
Elmond Claridge
Abe Dukler


Demetre Economou
Ernest Henley
John Killough
Dan Luss


Richard Pollard
William Prengle
Raj Rajagopalan
Jim Richardson


For an application, write: Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77004, or call collect 713/749-4407
The University is in compliance with Title IX


Cynthia Stokes
Frank Tiller
Richard Willson
Frank Worley


_ _


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r

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UI C The University of Illinois at Chicago

Department of Chemical Engineering



MS and PhD Graduate Program *

FACULTY

John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Professor and Acting Head

G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Professor

Irving F. Miller
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1960
Professor

Sohail Murad
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
Associate Professor

Ludwig C. Nitsche
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1989
Assistant Professor


John Regalbuto
Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986
Assistant Professor

Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Professor

Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor

Raffi M. Turian
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
Professor

David Willcox
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1985
Assistant Professor


RESEARCH AREAS


Transport Phenomena: Slurry transport, multiphase fluid flow
and heat transfer, fixed and fluidized bed combustion, indirect
coal liquefaction, porous media, membrane transport, pulmonary
deposition and clearance, biorheology.
Thermodynamics: Transport properties of fluids, statistical
mechanics of liquid mixtures, supercritical fluid extraction/
retrograde condensation, asphaltene characterization,
bioseparations.
Kinetics and Reaction Engineering: Gas-solid reaction kinetics,
diffusion and adsorption phenomena, energy transfer processes,
laser diagnostics, combustion chemistry, environmental
technology.
Heterogeneous Catalysis: Surface chemistry, catalyst preparation
and characterization, structure sensitivity, supported metals, clay
chemistry, artificial intelligence applications, modeling and
optimization.


For more information, write to
Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago Box 4348 Chicago, IL 60680 (312) 996-3424


Chemical Engineering Education









Chemical Engineering at the

University of Illinois

at Urbana-Champaign



L mJ"'-w


b The combination of distinguished
faculty, outstanding facilities and a
diversity of research interests results
in exceptional opportunities for
graduate education.
The chemical engineering department
A offers graduate programs leading to the
M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
ON
Richard C. Alkire Electroche
OF Thomas J. Hanratty Fluid Dyn
Jonathan J. L. Higdon Fluid Mec
rCE Douglas A. Lauffenburger Cellular Bi
Richard I. Masel Fundamen
Semicon
Anthony J. McHugh Polymer S
William R. Schowalter Mechanics
Edmund G. Seebauer Laser Stud
Mark A. Stadtherr Chemical
Optimiza
Frank B. van Swol Computer
K. Dane Wittrup Biochemic
Charles F. Zukoski IV Colloid an
For information and application forms write:
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab
1209 West California Street
Urbana, Illinois 61801


mical Engineering
amics
hanics and Transport Phenomena
oengineering
ltal Studies of Catalytic Processes and
luctor Growth
science and Engineering
Sof Complex Fluids
.ies of Semiconductor Growth
Process Flowsheeting and
tion
Simulation and Interfacial Studies
al Engineering
d Interfacial Science


Fall 1991


TRADITI



EXCELLENT










GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT


Illinois Institute of Technology


THE UNIVERSITY
* Private, coeducational and research university
* 3000 undergraduate students
* 2400 graduate students
* 3 miles from downtown Chicago and 1 mile west of
Lake Michigan
* Campus recognized as an architectural landmark

THE CITY
* One of the largest cities in the world
* National and international center of business and
industry
* Enormous variety of cultural resources
* Excellent recreational facilities
* Industrial collaboration and job opportunities

THE DEPARTMENT
* One of the oldest in the nation
* Approximately 60 full-time and 40 part-time
graduate students
* M.Ch.E., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees
* Financially attractive fellowships and assistant-
ships available to outstanding students


THE FACULTY

* HAMIDARASTOOPOUR (Ph.D., IIT)
Multiphase flow and fluidization, flow in porous media,
environmental engineering

* RICHARD A. BEISSINGER (D.E.Sc., Columbia)
Transport processes in chemical and biological
systems, rheology of polymeric and biological fluids

* ALl CINAR (Ph.D., Texas A & M)
Chemical process control, distributed parameter
systems, expert systems

* DIMITRI GIDASPOW (Ph.D., IIT)
Hydrodynamics of fluidization, multiphase flow,
separations processes

* HENRY. LINDEN (Ph.D., IIT)
Energy policy, planning, and forecasting

* SATISHJ. PARULEKAR (Ph.D., Purdue)
Biochemical engineering, chemical reaction engineering

* J. ROBERT SELMAN (Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Electrochemical engineering and electrochemical
energy storage

* FYODOR A. SHUTOV (Ph.D., Institute for Chemical
Physics, Moscow, USSR)
Polymer composite materials and plastic recycling

* DAVID C. VENERUS (Ph.D., Pennsylvania State U)
Polymer rheology and processing, and transport
phenomena

* DARSH T. WASAN (Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Interfacial phenomena, separation processes,
enhanced oil recovery


APPLICATIONS *
Drs. S. J. ParulekarorJ. R. Selman
Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
Illinois Institute of Technology
1.1.T. Center
Chicago, IL 60616


Chemical Engineering Education






GRADUATE PROGRAM FOR M.S. & PH.D. DEGREES
IN CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

FACULTY


GREG CARMICHAEL
Chair; U. of Kentucky,
1979, Global Change/
Supercomputing


RAVI DATTA
UCSB, 1981
Reaction Engineering/
Catalyst Design


DAVID MURHAMMER
U. of Houston, 1989
Animal Cell Culture


J. KEITH BEDDOW
U. of Cambridge, 1959
Particle Morphological
Analysis


JONATHAN DORDICK
MIT, 1986,
Biocatalysis and
Bioprocessing


DAVID RETHWISCH
U. of Wisconsin, 1984
Membrane Science/
Catalysis and Cluster
Science


AUDREY BUTLER
U. of Iowa, 1989
Chemical Precipita-
tion Processes


DAVID LUERKENS
U. of Iowa, 1980
Fine Particle Science


V.G.J. RODGERS
Washington U., 1989
Transport Phenomena
in Bioseparations


For information and application write to:
GRADUATE ADMISSIONS
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
The University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa 52242
319-335-1400


THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA








IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOGY Y _
-E~i~s a


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r
ill


For additional
information, please write
Graduate Office
Department of
Chemical Engineering
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011
or call 515 294-7643
E-Mail N2.TSK@ISUMVS.BITNET


Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Charles E. Glatz, Ph.D., \isconsin, 1975.
Peter J. Reilly, Ph.D., Penns\lvania, 1964.
Richard C. Seagra\'e, Ph.D., lo\ta State, 1961.

Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
L K. Doraiswamy, Ph.D., \Wisconsin, 1952.
TerrN 5. King, Ph.D., M.I.T., 1979.
Glenn L. Schrader, Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1976.

Energy and Environmental
George Burnet, Ph.D.. Iow\a State, 1951.
Daniel P. Smith, Ph.D., Stanford, 1987.
Thomas D. Wheelock, Ph.D., Iowa State, 1958.

Materials and Crystallization
Kurt R. Hebert, Ph.D., Illinois, 1985.
Maurice A. Larson, Ph.D., lowa State, 1958.
Gordon R. Youngquist, Ph.D., Illinois, 1962.

Process Design and Control
William H. Abraham, Ph.D., Purdue, 1957.
Derrick K. Rollins, Ph.D., Ohio State, 1990.
Dean L. Ulrichson, Ph.D., Iowa State, 1970.

Transport Phenomena and Thermodynamics
James C. Hill, Ph.D., Washington, 1968.
Kenneth R. Jolls, Ph.D., Illinois, 1966.


I m


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II II








Graduate Study and Research in

Chemical Engineering


TIMOTHY A. BARBARI
Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin
Membrane Science
Sorption and Diffusion in Polymers
Polymeric Thin Films

MICHAEL J. BETENBAUGH
Ph.D., University of Delaware
Biochemical Kinetics
Insect Cell Culture
Recombinant DNA Technology
MARC D. DONOHUE
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Equations of State
Statistical Thermodynamics
Phase Equilibria
JOSEPH L. KATZ
Ph.D., University of Chicago
Nucleation
Crystallization
Flame Generation of Ceramic Powders
ROBERT M. KELLY
Ph.D., North Carolina State University
Process Simulation
Biochemical Engineering
Separations Processes


e


ohns


MARK A. MCHUGH
Ph.D., University of Delaware
High-Pressure Thermodynamics
Polymer Solution Thermodynamics
Supercritical Solvent Extraction
GEOFFREY A. PRENTICE
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Electrochemical Engineering
Corrosion
W. MARK SALTZMAN
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Transport in Biological Systems
Polymeric Controlled Release
Cell-Surface Interactions
W. H. SCHWARZ
Dr. Engr., The Johns Hopkins University
Rheology
Non-Newtonian Fluid Dynamics
Physical Acoustics and Fluids
Turbulence
KATHLEEN J. STEBE
Ph.D., The City University of New York
Interfacial Phenomena
Electropermeability of Biological Membranes
Surface Effects at Fluid-Droplet Interfaces

For further information contact:
The Johns Hopkins University
G. W.C. Whiting School of Engineering
Department of Chemical Engineering
34th and Charles Streets
Baltimore, MD 21218
(301) 338-7137


E.O.E./A.A.


Fall 1991


Hopkins





T H E U V S


GRADUATE STUDY
IN CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM
ENGINEERING


GRADUATE PROGRAMS
* M.S. degree with a thesis requirement in both
chemical and petroleum engineering
M.S. degree with a major in petroleum
management offered jointly with the School of
Business
* Ph.D. degree characterized by moderate and
flexible course requirements and a strong
research emphasis
* Typical completion times are 16-18 months
for a M.S. degree and 4 1/2 years for a Ph.D.
degree (from B.S.).

RESEARCH AREAS
Catalytic Kinetics and Reaction Engineering
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Controlled Drug Delivery
Corrosion
Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes
Ruid Phase Equilibria and Process Design
Nucleate Boiling
Plasma Modeling and Plasma Reactor Design
Process Control
Supercomputer Applications
Supercritical Fluid Applications

FINANCIAL AID
Financial aid is available in the form of fellow-
ships and research and teaching assistantships
($13,000 to $14,000 a year).

THE UNIVERSITY
The University of Kansas is the largest and
most comprehensive university in Kansas. It
has an enrollment of more than 28,000 and
almost 2,000 faculty members. KU offers more
than 100 bachelors', nearly ninety masters',
and more than fifty doctoral programs. The main
campus is in Lawrence, Kansas, with other
campuses in Kansas City, Wichita, Topeka, and
Overland Park, Kansas.


FACULTY
Kenneth A. Bishop (Ph.D., Oklahoma)
John C. Davis (Ph.D., Wyoming)
Don W. Green (Ph.D., Oklahoma)
Colin S. Howat (Ph.D., Kansas)
Carl E. Locke, Jr., Dean (Ph.D., Texas)
James 0. Maloney, Emeritus (Ph.D., Penn State)
Russell B. Mesler (Ph.D., Michigan)
Floyd W. Preston, Emeritus (Ph.D., Penn State)
Harold F. Rosson (Ph.D., Rice)
Marylee Z. Southard (Ph.D., Kansas)
Bala Subramaniam (Ph.D., Notre Dame)
George W. Swift (Ph.D., Kansas)
Brian E. Thompson (Ph.D., MIT)
Shapour Vossoughi (Ph.D., Alberta, Canada)
Stanley M. Walas, Emeritus (Ph.D., Michigan)
G. Paul Willhite, Chairman (Ph.D., Northwestern)

RESEARCH FACILITIES
Excellent facilities are available for research
and instruction. Extensive equipment and shop
facilities are available for research in such
areas as enhanced oil recovery processes, fluid
phase equilibria, nucleate boiling, catalytic
kinetics, plasma processing, and supercritical
fluid applications. The VAX 9000, along with a
network of Macintosh personal computers and
IBM, Apollo, and Sun workstations, support
computational and graphical needs.

For more information and application
material, write or call
The University of Kansas
The Graduate Adviser
Department of Chemical and Petroleum
Engineering
4006 Learned Hall
Lawrence, KS 66045-2223
(913) 864-4965












































KANSAS SATE


M.S. and Ph.D. programs
*Chemical Engineering
*Interdisciplinary Areas of Systems Engineering
*Food Science
*Environmental Engineering


Financial Aid Available
Up to $15,000 Per Year


For More Information Write to
Professor B.G. Kyle
Durland Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS 66506


Areas of Study and Research
Transport Phenomena
Energy Engineering
Coal and Biomass Conversion
Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibrium
Biochemical Engineering
Process Dynamics and Control
Chemical Reaction Engineering
Materials Science
Catalysis and Fuel Synthesis
Process System Engineering
and Artificial Intelligence
Environmental Pollution Control
Fluidization and Solid Mixing
Hazardous Waste Treatment


KANEAS

TJUTVEZRSITY







I Unive sit ofK


Far From An
Ordinary Ball
Research with advanced
materials (carbon fibers,
nitride catalysts, supercon-
ducting thin films, and liquid
crystalline polymers) and with
Buckyballs is ongoing here in
Lexington.

Anything But An
Ordinary University
At the University of Kentucky-designated by
the Carnegie Foundation as a Research
University of the First Class, and included in
the NSF's prestigious list-
ing of Top 100 research
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EPA-approved analytical labora-
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photochemistry; control of
heavy metals and hazardous
organic; water pollution research.
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B:IIeI*1Ii)sI
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UNIVERSITY




LAVAL

Quebec, Canada


Ph.D. and M.Sc.

in Chemical Engineering

Research Areas

* CATALYSIS (S. Kaliaguine)
* BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING (L. Choplin, A. LeDuy,
J. -R. Moreau, J. Thibault)
* ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING (R. S. Ramalho,
C. Roy)
* COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING (P. A. Tanguy)
* TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT (P. -H. Roy)
* MODELLING AND CONTROL (J. Thibault)
* RHEOLOGY AND POLYMER ENGINEERING
(A. Ait-Kadi, L. Choplin, P. A. Tanguy)
* THERMODYNAMICS (R. S. Ramalho, S. Kaliaguine)
* CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL UPGRADING
OF BIOMASS (S. Kaliaguine, A. LeDuy, C. Roy)
FLUIDISA TION AND SEPARATIONS BY
MEMBRANES (B. Grandjean)
University Laval is a French speaking University. It provides the
graduate student with the opportunity of learning French and
becoming acquainted with French culture.
Please write to:
Le Responsable du Comitd d'Admission et de Supervision
Departement de genie chimique
Faculty des sciences et de genie
University Laval
Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada G 1K 7P4


The Faculty

ABDELLATIF AIT-KADI
Ph.D. Ecole Poly. Montreal
Professeur adjoint
LIONEL CHOPLIN
Ph.D. Ecole Poly. Montreal
Professeur titulaire
BERNARD GRANDJEAN
Ph.D. Ecole Poly. Montreal
Professeur adjoint
SERGE KALIAGUINE
D.Ing. I.G.C. Toulouse
Professeur titulaire
ANH LEDUY
Ph.D. Western Ontario
Professeur titulaire
J. -CLAUDE METHOT
D.Sc. Laval
Professeur titulaire
Vice-Recteur Aux Etudes
JEAN-R. MOREAU
Ph.D. M.I.T.
Professeur titulaire
RUBENS S. RAMALHO
Ph.D. Vanderbilt
Professeur titulaire
CHRISTIAN ROY
Ph.D. Sherbrooke
Professeuragrege
PAUL-H. ROY
Ph.D. Illinois Inst. of Technology
Professeur titulaire
ABDELHAMID SAYARI
Ph.D. Tunis/Lyon
Professeur adjoint
PHILLIPPE A. TANGUY
Ph.D. Laval
Professeur agr6g6
JULES THIBAULT
Ph.D. McMaster
Professeur agrdg6


Fall 1991










LEHIGH UNIVERSITY

We promise the challenge ...


Synergistic, interdisciplinary research in
Polymer science and engineering
Biochemical engineering
Process modeling and control
Multiphase processing
leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in
chemical engineering and polymer science
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Superb facilities
One of the largest doctoral programs in the
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Easy access to cultural and recreational
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Highly attractive financial aid packages, which
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are available.

Additional information and applications may be
obtained by writing to:
Dr. Janice A. Phillips
Chairman, Graduate Affairs Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
Lehigh University
111 Research Drive
Bethlehem, PA 18015


Philip A. Blythe (University of Manchester)
fluid mechanics heat transfer e applied mathematics
Hugo S. Caram (University of Minnesota)
gas-solid and gas-liquid systems optical techniques *
reaction engineering
Marvin Charles (Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn)
biochemical engineering bioseparations
John C. Chen (University of Michigan)
two-phase vapor-liquid flow fluidization radiative heat
transfer
Mohamed S. El-Aasser (McGill University)
polymer colloids and films emulsion copolymerization *
polymer synthesis and characterization
Christos Georgakis (University of Minnesota)
process modeling and control chemical reaction
engineering expert systems
Dennis W. Hess (Lehigh University)
semiconductor and thin film processing
James T. Hsu (Northwestern University)
separation processes adsorption and catalysis in zeolites
Arthur E. Humphrey (Columbia University)
biochemical processes pharmaceuticals and enzyme
manufacturing plant cell culture
Andrew J. Klein (North Carolina State University)
emulsion polymerization colloidal and surface effects in
polymerization
William L. Luyben (University of Delaware)
process design and control distillation
Janice A. Phillips (University of Pennsylvania)
biochemical engineering instrumentation/control of
bioreactors mammalian cell culture
Maria M. Santore (Princeton University)
dynamics of macromolecules at interfaces
William E. Schiesser (Princeton University)
numerical algorithms and software in chemical engineering
Cesar A. Silebi (Lehigh University)
separation of colloidal particles electrophoresis mass
transfer
Leslie H. Sperling (Duke University)
mechanical and morphological properties of polymers *
interpenetrating polymer networks
Fred P. Stein (University of Michigan)
thermodynamic properties of mixtures
Harvey G. Stenger, Jr. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
plasma etching catalysis air pollution control
Israel E. Wachs (Stanford University)
materials synthesis and characterization surface chemistry
heterogeneous catalysis


Chemical Engineering Education




Full Text

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z 0 j:: < u ::::, 0 w C) z ii w w z <3 z w 0::: 0 LL u z <( u ii w <( LL 0 z 0 v; > c C) 0::: w w z <3 z w _, <( u w J: u chemical engineering education VOLUMEXXV NUMBER4 FALL 1991 GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE Jlward .Lecture Computing in Engineering Education From There, To Here, To Where? Part 1. Computing BRICE CARNAHAN A Graduate Course in Digital Computer Process Control ......... Deshpande, Krishnaswamy Risk Reduction in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum ..................... Fleischman An Introduction to Molecular Transport Phenomena ............................. Peters Meet Your Students: Jill and Perry ............................................ Felder Research O portunities in Ceramics Science and Engineering .. Kodas, Brinker, Datye Smith and ... Che i ical Kinetics, Fluid Mechanics, and Heat Transfer in the Fast Lane Th Unexpurgated Story of a Long-Range Program of Research in Combustion STUART w. CHURCHILL

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Do You Qualjfy fa r Product D evelop m e n t in the U.S.A. or Int e rna tio nal ? CHEMICAL ENGINEERS .. The World is Yours! .. iEl Mundo es Tuyo! Le Monde est a Vous! Die Welt ist Dein! .. ntfflW-) I f Join Us and Enjo y an Ex citing Procter&GambletotalsalesareoverS27billion f career f worldwide. Major product sectors include beauty care. food and be\'erage, health care. laundry and cleaning and Procter & Gamble has several entry-le\'el product paper products. Our technically based corporation spent f and process development openings for BS and MS O\'er S 780 million in research and product development f Chemical Engineers in Asia, Europe. Mexico, South laS t year. )(,.. f America and the U.S.A. \Ve offer a stimulating environment for personal and t To readily qualify fo r a n internati o nal professional gr0\\'1h, highly competitive salaries. and assignment you mus t b e bilin gu al (inclu d ing excellent benefits package including pension, health f f English) possess app r op ri a t e Citiz e n s hi p care and paid relocation. )(,.. f Immigration Visa or Wo r k P e rmi t from on e If interested, send your resume. including country f T or more of the followi n g c ou ntri e s: qualifications and language fluencies. to: T A ustn'a B elgi u m, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Denma r k, Egypt, France, Germany, Hong T. W. Collins )(,.. f Kong, Indi a, I r eland, Ita/y, Japan, Lebanon, U.S.A. & International ChE Openings l' Malqysi a, Mexico, Netherlands, Peru, The Procter & Gamble Company )(,.. Philippin es, P ortugal Puerto Rico, Saudi Winton Hill Technical Center ( # 11 CEE 1 A rabia Si n ga p ore, Spain, Taiwan, Turkey, 6090CenterHillAvenue 1 U nit e d Kingdom and Venezuela. Cincinnati, OH 45224-1792 1 Procter&Gamble An Equal Opportunity Employer

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Editor's Note to Seniors ... Th i s i s the 24th graduate educa t ion i ssue publ i shed by GEE. I t is d is tr i buted to chemical e ng i neer i ng seniors interested i n and qual i f i ed fo r graduate school. We include art i cl e s on graduate courses and research at var io us universities along w i th departmental announcements on graduate programs In o r der for you to obtain a broad i dea of the nature of graduate work we encourage you to read not only the art i cles i n t h is issue but al so those i n p r evious is sue s. A l i st of the papers from re cent years fo l lows If you wou l d l i k e a copy of a prev i ous fall iss u e p lea se w ri te to GEE. Fall 1990 Austin, Beronio, Taso Bio c h em i ca l Engin ee ring Edu ca tion Throu g h Videotapes Ramkris h na Appli ed Math e mati cs R ic e Disp e r sio n Mod el Diff e r en tial Equation fo r Pa c k e d B e ds B hada et al. Consortium on Wast e Manag eme nt F e ld er St oichiomet r y Without T ea r s Cohen, Tsai Chetty Multim edia En vi r onmental Tr ans por t, Expo s ur e, and Ri sk A ssessment Schulz B e nge ChE Summer Series at Virginia Pol ytechnic Rob e rg e Tran s f e rring Kn owledge Coulman ChE Curriculum 1989 Fr ey Num e ri c al Simulation of Multi co mpon e nt Chroma tography Using Sp r eadsheets Fri e d Pol y m e r S cie nc e and Engin ee rin g at Cincinnati Fall 1989 San McIntire Bio c h e mi c al and Biom ed ical En g in ee rin g Kummler McMicking Powit z Ha za rd o u s Wa ste Mana ge m e nt Bi e nkowski et al. Multidi sciplinary Cou r se in Bio enginee r ing Lauff e nbur ge r Cellular Bio e n gi n ee ring Rando l p h Parti c ulat e Pro cesses Kum ar, B e nnett Gudi va ka Ha za rd ous Chemical Spills Davi s Fluid M ec hani cs of Su s p e n sions Wang Appli e d Lin e ar Alg e bra Kis aa li ta, et al. Crossdisciplinary R ese ar c h: Th e N e uron-Ba sed Chemical S e nsor Proj ect Ky l e Th e Ess e n ce of Entrop y Rao S ec r ets of M y Su ccess in Graduat e School Fall 1988 Arkun Charos Re eves M odel Pr edictive Control Bri e di s T ec hni ca l Communications for Grad Students D es hpande Multivariabl e Control M et hod s G l andt T o pi cs in Random M ed ia Ng Gonzalez Hu Bioch e mi c al En ginee rin g Goo se n R ese arch: Animal Cell Cultur e in Mi c rocapsul es Tej a, Schaeffer R esea rch : Th e rmod y namics and Fluid Prop e rti es Duda Graduation : Th e B eg inning of Your Education Fall 1987 Amundson American Uni vers it y Graduate Work DeCoursey Mas s Transf e r with Ch emic al R e a c tion Takoudis Mi c ro e le c tronic s Proc essing McCrea d y, Leig h ton Transport Ph eno m e na Seider, Ungar Nonlinear Sy s t e m s Skaates Pol y m e ri z ation R e a c tor Engineerin g Edie Dun h am Res e arch: Advanc e d En gi ne e ring Fib e r s Allen Petit Research: Unit Operations in Microgravity Bartusia k Price Process Mod e lin g and Control Bartho l omew Advan ce d Combustion Engin ee ring Fall 199 1 Ray W. Fahien Ed it or Fall 1986 Bird Haug en's Prin ci pl es Am u ndson R ese arch Landmark s fo r Chemical Engin ee r s Duda Graduat e Studi es: Th e Middl e Wa y J orne Chemical En g in ee rin g : A Crisis of Maturit y Stephanopou l is A r tifi c ial Int e lli ge n ce in Proc ess Engin ee ring V e nk a ta s ubramanian A Cours e in Arti ficia l Int e lli ge n ce in Pr ocess En ginee r ing Moo-Young Bi ochemical Engin ee r ing and Indu stria l Bi o t ech nology Babu Sukanek The Processing of El ect ronic M ate r ia l s Dat ye, Smith, William s C h arac t e rization of P oro u s Mat e rial s a nd Powd e r s Blackmond A Worksh op in Graduate Edu cation Fall 1985 Bai l ey, Ollis Bio c h e mi ca l En ginee rin g Fundam e ntal s B e lfort S e paration and R ecove r y Pro cesses Graham, Jutan T eac hin g Tim e Series Soong P olyme r Pr ocessing Van Z ee El ectrochemical and Co rr osion Engin ee rin g Radovic Coal Utilization and Conve r sion Pro cesses Shah, Hayhurst M o l ecula r Si eve T echno l ogy Baili e, Kono H e nry Fluidi zation Kauffman Is Grad S chool Worth It ? Fe l der Th e G e n e ri c Qui z Fall 1984 Lauff e nburger e t al, Applied Math e mati cs Marn e ll Graduate Plant D esign Scamehorn Co ll oid and Surface Scienc e Shah H e t erogeneo u s Cata l ysis wi th Vid eoBa sed Seminars Z ygo uraki s Lin ea r Alg e bra Bartholom ew, H ec k e r R esea r ch on Catalysis Converse, e t al. Bio -C h e mi ca l Conversion of B io ma ss Fair S e parati o ns R esea r c h Edie Graduate R e sid ency at Clemson McConica S e mi c ondu c tor Pro cessi ng Du d a Mi sc on ce ption s Concerning Grad School Fall 1983 Davi s Numerical M et h o d s and Mod eling Sawin R e if Pla sma Pr ocessing in Int egra t ed Ci r c u it Fabri cation Shaeiwitz Ad va n ced T o pi cs in H eat and Mass Tran s f e r Takoudi s Chemical R eacto r D esig n Woods Surfa ce Ph e nom e na M i dd l e man R ese ar c h on Cleaning Up in San Di ego Serage l din R ese ar c h on Combustion Wankat Oreovicz Grad Stud en t 's Guid e to A c ad e mi c Job Hunting Bird Book Writing and ChE Edu ca tion Thom so n Simmon s Grad Edu ca tion Win s in Int e r s tat e Rivalry 173

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~SVVC>~. Long before most people e ven recognized the problems, CH 2 M HILL wa s developing innovative solutions for the world's changing waste, water management energy transportation and laboratory needs It s a race against time now. But our over 40 years experience in environmental consulting engineering makes it a race we re well positioned to win Challenging projects ... early significant responsibility ... the opportunity to work with top professionals in a creative, yet stable environment there are many excellent reason s to begin your career with CH2M HILL. Perhaps the most important is the role you ll have in s haping the engineering for a new world With 60 offices leading more than 4,000 projects annually, excellent opportunities exist in the following areas : Chemical General Civil Sanitary Mechanical Construction Management Computer Science Geotechnical Structural Geohydrology FJectrical \\liter Resources Hazardous Waste Solid Waste Management Hydrogeology Industrial Wastewater Transportation Requirements include a BS degree in engineering from an ABET Engineering program A Master's degree is preferred for most specialties As a member of our employee-owned corporation you'll enjoy a competitive starting salary attractive bonuses and flexible benefits We invite you to learn more about CH2M HILL's current staffing need s by sending your resume to : Staffing Manager, CEE; U91, CH2M HILL, P.O. Box 22ll11, Denver, CO 80222-9998. If you have a PC and a modem find out more about CH 2 M HILL and other opportunities we hav e available Just dial (603) 432-2742, press return twice, and enter "water" when prompted for a password. An Equal Opportunity Employer. Pure Challenge

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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS: Chemical Engineering Education Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 PAX 904-392-0861 EDITOR Ruy W. Fahien (904) 392-0857 ASSOCIATE EDITOR T. /. Anderson (904) 392-2591 CONSULTING EDITOR Mack Tyner MANAGING EDITOR Carole Yocum (904) 392-0861 PROBLEM EDITORS James 0. Wilkes and Mark A. Burn s University of Michigan PUBLICATIONS BOARD Fall 1991 CHAIRMAN E. Dendy Sloan, Jr. Colorado S c hool of Mines PAST CHAIRMEN Gary Poehlein Georgia Institut e of Technology Klaus Timmerhaus University of Colorado MEMBERS George Burnet Iowa State University Anthony T. DiBenedetto Univ e rsit y of Co nn ectic ut Thomas F. Edgar Un iv e r s it y of T e xa s at Aust in Richard M. Felder North Carolina State University Bruce A. Finlayson University of Washington H. Scol"l Fogler University of Mi c hi ga n / David Hellum s Ri ce Universit y Carol M. McConica Colorado Stat e U ni ve rsi ty Angelo/. Perna New J e rs ey In s titut e of T ec hnolo gy Stanley I Sandler Universi t y of D e lawar e Richard C. Seagrave Iowa Stat e University M. Sumi Selim Colorado School of Mines James E. Stice University of Texas at Austin Phillip C. Wankat Purdu e University Donald R. Woods M c Ma s ter University Chemical Engineering Education Volume XXV Number 4 Fall 199 1 AWARD LECTURE 218 Computing in Engineering Education: From There To Here, To Where? Part 1. Computing Brice Carnahan FEATURES 176 A Graduate Course in Digital Computer Process Control, Pradeep B. D esh pand e, Peruuemba R. Krishna swamy 186 Chemical Kinetics, Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer in the Fast Lane: The Unexpurgated Story of a Long-Range Program of Res earch in Combustion, Stuart W. Churchill 198 Risk Reduction in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum, Marvin Fleischman 204 Research Opportunities in Ceramics Science and Engineering, Toiuo Kodas J eff r ey Brinker, Abhaya Dat ye, Douglas Smith 210 An Introduction to Molecular Transport Phenomena, Michael H. Peters RANDOM THOUGHTS 196 Meet Your Students: 4. Jill and Perry Richard M. Felder 181 Letter to the Editor 183, 225 Book Reviews 185 Division Activities 226 Index CHEM I CAL ENGINEER I NG EDUCATION (ISS N 0009-2479/ is published quart e rl y b y th e Chemica l Engineering Division American Society for Engineering Educa tion and is edited at th e U niversit y of Florida Correspondence regardin g e ditorial matt e r circulaUon and c hanges of addr ess should be sent to CEE C h emical Engineering Department U niv ers it y of Florida, Gainesvi ll e FL 32611 Advertising material ma y b e se nt dir ec tl y to E O Paint er Printin g Co ., PO Box 8 77 D e l eo n Spri n gs, FL 32130. C op y right 1991 b y th e C h em i cal Engin e eri n g Division American Society for Eng in ee rin g Edu c ation Th e sta t eme nt s and opinion s ex pressed in this periodical are thos e of th e writers and n o t n ecessarily I.ho se of I h e C hE Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them Defe c tive copies replaced if notified within 120 da ys of publication. Writ e for information on subscrip tion cos t s and for ba c k c opy cos t s and a vailab ilit y. POSTMASTER : S e nd addr ess c han ges lo CEE Chem, Engi n eering Dept. U ni ve rsity of Florida Gainesvill e, FL 32611 175

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i liiillfili~'--=C.:.:la::S::S:.:f_:-0:_:0:.:m~ --------~) A GR ADUA T E COURSE I N DIGITAL COM P UTER PRO C ESS CON T R OL PRADEEP B. DESHPANDE AND PERUVEMBA R. KRISHNASWAMY* University of Louisville Louisville, KY 40292 C omputer-based control systems have become a routine feature in the process industry. In order to be competitive, today's students must be familiar with the recent developments in control technologies which are having a significant impact on how com plex industrial processes are operated. The first listed author of this paper began offering a course in computer process control in 1975, based on the ma terial in the literaturer 1 o 3 oi at that time and his own perspectives In the ensuing years, however, the course has been completely revised in light of the new and significant developments in control tech nology. This paper describes what we believe to be a modern course in digital computer process control. Whenever appropriate, recent developments are high lighted, and a detailed bibliography of the textbooks and selected papers used in the course is included at the end of the article for ready reference. Pradeep B. Deshpande is professor and a former chairman of the chemical engineering department a the University of Louisville He has twenty years of academic and full-time industrial experience He is the author, co-author or editor of three textbooks and sixty papers. He consults for several compa nies and offers continuing education courses in several countries P.R. Krishnaswamy received his BSc degree from Banaras Hindu University (India) and his PhD de gree from the University of New Brunswick His teaching and research interests include process dynamics process control separation operations and fluidization He has recently shared experiences in control research during a sabbatical at the Uni versity of Louisville and Purdue University Vi s iting prof e ssor ; perman e nt affiliation D e partment of Chemical Engi n ee ring Nation a l Uni ve r s it y of Singapor e K e nt Ridg e Singapore 0511 176 The goals of the course are to learn how to design, analyze, and implement direct-digital control systems for single-loop and multivariable systems. THE REVISED COURSE An outline of the revised course in shown in Table 1. For convenience, the course is divided into three parts: Part 1 is devoted to introductory con cepts and the development of a mathematical back ground; Part 2 covers the analysis and design con cepts of SISO digital control systems; and Part 3 is concerned with advanced control concepts PART1 Introductory Concepts and Mathematical B a ckground The course begins with an introduction to digital computer control. The essential features of conven tional control based on continuous or analog signals and of digital control, which encompasses hybrid (discrete/analog) signals, are outlined The mean ings of direct-digital control (DDC), supervisory con trol, and distributed control are explained. Much of the material in the course deals with DDC concepts, and as a lead-in to the next series of topics, the elements of a single-loop DDC system are examined. We point out that the DDC-loop consists of the usual elements of any control system-namely, the process, a measurement-device transmitter, and a final control element. In addition, a DDC system has an analog-to-digital (ND) converter that samples measured process outputs at a sampling frequency selected by a real-time programmable clock, a digi tal computer or digital controller, and a digital-to analog (D/A) converter that converts computer-gen erated discrete control commands into continuous signals for operating the final control elements. Copyright ChE Divi s ion ABEE 1991 Chemical Engineering Education

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The goals of the course are to learn how to de sign, analyze, and implement direct-digital control systems for single-loop and multivariable systems. It should be emphasized that the availability of con trol computers allows the designer to implement control methodologies that are either impractical or impossible with conventional control hardware. Examples include dead-time compensation, feed forward control, synthesized digital control algo rithms, and model predictive control. The sequence of lectures is devoted to the study of each element of the DDC loop. The first among them is concerned with computer-control hardware and software. The hardware description includes the central processing unit, the main memory/bulk memory, the computer input/output (I/0) devices process I/0, the AID and DIA converters, and a real time programmable clock. The software concepts include an introduction to assembly-level program ming, real-time Fortran, and Basic At the Univer sity of Louisville a PDP 11103-system has served our TABLE 1 control-computing needs for the last several years. The Fortran callable subroutines for AID, DIA, and the real-time clock for this machine are used to ex plain how the real-time commands are embedded into a Fortran control program. The next topic deals with single-loop PID control. In typical industrial situations, fast loops (flow loops) operate under digital PID-type control algorithms. In these lectures the instructor derives the digital PID algorithm from conventional controller equa tions that the students are familiar with and points out the role of the sampling period in stability and performance. At the end of the lectures the students develop a computer program and implement digital PID control on a four-loop laboratory process.l1 01 (Note that doing this work does not require a background in z-transforms.) Being able to operate a process under the control of a digital computer after only three weeks of the semester has been an exciting ex perience for the students. The next topics to be covered are mathematical representation of an AID converter, study of z-transforms, derivation Syllabus : Digital Computer Process Control Course of a pulse-transfer function, and the zero order hold transfer func tion. Then open-loop and closed loop pulse transfer functions are derived, and open-loop and closed loop responses are evaluated by hand and the answers verified by Topic # Time Devoted Description (50-min periods) References PART 1: Introductory Concepts and Mathematical Background 1 Introduction to co mput er process contro l 1 7 ,2 1 23 7 9 ,2 0 7 2 Computer-control hardware and software 3 3 How to implement PID controllers with digital co mputers 2 4 Mathematical representation of AID conver ter 1 7 5 z-transforms 4 7, 12,21 23 7,25 6 Transfer function ofD/ A converter 1 7 Pulse transfer functions 1 25 11,7 PART 2: Analysis and Design of Digital Control Systems 8 Open-loop response, impuls e -response models closed-loop responses 9 Design of digital-control algorithms; deadbeat-control Dahlin algorithm; internal-model control (factorization method); Smith predictor; simplified-mod e l predictive contro l ; conservative-model based contro l ; PID control 10 Stability of sampled-data control systems PART 3: Advanced Control Concepts 11 Process identification; step testing; pulse testing ; dynamic matrix identification; introduction to time-series analysis 12 Practical nonlinear control 13 Adaptive control and self-tuning ; auto-tuning ; gain schedul ing ; model reference adaptive control; self-tuning regulators 14 Feedforward control 15 Cascade contro l 16 Multivariable control TOTAL Fall 1991 3 6 1 25, 11, 7 7 8 12 ,2 6 ,3 7 ,2 1 7,25 5 12, 7,6 36 2 32, 50, 30 31 2 28, 2 59 61 7 1 7, 12 21 2 7 12 7 7 8, 12 46, 53, 17 18 ,4 0 ,41 42 periods: one semester or equivalent CAI ( Computer-Aided Instruction ) software that has only recently been developed. Information on this CAI-control software can be found in the references at the end of this article. PART2 Design and Analysis of Digital Control Systems The discussion of pulse-trans fer functions and open-loop re sponses leads us into an exciting topic-the notion of an impulse re sponse ( IR ) model, which enables us to predict the process output at the next sampling instant from past inputs through use of the equation N YK +l = Lhi UK+l i (1) i=l 177

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Beginning with the definition of the pulse-trans fer function, G ( z ) = Y ( z ) /U ( z ), the instructor can eas ily derive Eq. ( 1), as shown for example in Desh pande and Ash. m IR-type models have distinct ad vantages: they can be derived from easily-available step response data ; the response curve need not be fitted to a structured model and the order of the process is not important; and the use of an IR-type model considerably simplifies the evaluation of closed loop responses by computer simulations. The next topic is the design of digital-control al gorithms for SISO ( Single-Input Single-Output ) sys tems While controllers can be designed by a number of methods we believe that the direct-synthesis method is best suited for this course. The basic idea is to solve the closed-loop pulse-transfer-function e quation for the controller giving Y / R 1 D=l Y / Rd ( 2 ) The closed-loop response is specified according to th e equation (3) By selecting the desired expressions for F sev er a l well-known control algorithms can be ohtained; for e xample the choice of F = 1 gives deadbeat con trol. Through use of the CAI software students quickl y learn that deadbeat control can give rise to rippling behavior of the controller output. Further more deadbeat controllers are very sensitive to modeling errors. The choice of a first-order lag for F gives a Dahlin algorithm. The instructor can easily show that a Dahlin algorithm is the same as an internal-model control ( IMC ) algorithm if a first-order filter is em ployed in the latter. It would also be helpful to derive the IMC structure from the sampled-data control s tructure and show that the two representations are equivalent. Once the IMC structure is derived, one can go over the stability theorems and design IMC controllers for a variety of processes-including those that exhibit dead-time and inverse response. In the discussion of IMC, the instructor can de rive the Smith Predictor algorithm and point out the similarities between the two approaches. Also, through simulation exercises the instructor can show that the latter does not tolerate modeling errors well and that the tuning of the Smith Predictor-based PID controllers becomes difficult in the presence of modeling errors. At one end of the spectrum of control equality 17 8 there is a notion of perfect control ( deadbeat con trol ) IMC is an algorithm that delivers perfect con trol in the absence of modeling errors. In the pres ence of modeling errors, however the designer must back away from the notion of perfect control in favor ofrobustness, by choosing an appropriate filter. At the other end of the spectrum of control qual ity there is the notion of open-loop control. Simpli fied model-predictive control ( SMPC ) and conserva tive model-based control ( CMBC ) are algorithms which assume that at worst the controller should be able to provide a set-point response that is as good as the open-loop response. These algorithms are de rived as follows: the open-loop behavior of an open loop stable process is given by y 1 -=G ( 4) R K P Substituting for Y/R from Eq ( 4 ) into Eq. ( 2 ) gives (5 ) The choice of Eq. ( 5 ) for the controller will deliver a set-point response that is the same as the normal ized open-loop response. The response can be speeded up by introducing a tuning-constant a giving the SMPC algorithm aK D= P K G p ( 6 ) SMPC features a single-tuning constant that can be found by offiine optimization. Dead-time compensa tion can be incorporated by modifying Eq. ( 5 ) accord ing to where D= A KP-AG 1 Pz 1 A= 1 P (7 ) (8) Equation ( 7 ) represents the CMBC control law. CMBC also features a single-tuning constant p whose value can be found by offiine simulation. In the discussion of various control algorithms the students are reminded that the algorithms which give the best servo responses are not necessarily the ones that are best for regulatory control. Further more, the design work assumes that the processes are linear but in reality they are not. Consequently, the algorithms that give the best performance in simulation work may not be the best when they are implemented on real-life nonlinear processes. The next topic of discussion is stability. Stability concepts relating to sampled-data systems can be effectivel y derived by utilizing the relationship beC h e m ic al E ngi n ee ring Edu c ation

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tween the Laplace transform operator s and the transform operator z. The discussion of stability con cludes with a method for finding the roots of the characteristic equation in the z-domain. PART 3 Advanced Control Concepts The next topic is process identification. The tra ditional methods which we cover are step testing, pulse testing, and fitting of models to frequency response plots. An ideal method should identify proc ess dynamics from a test that does not force the process away from the steady-state operating condi tion. One such method that meets these needs is the relay method in which a relay perturbs the process and the resulting process output/input data provide the ultimate frequency and ultimate gain of the sys tem. These data lead to optimized tuning constants of a PID-type controller. Another method, called dynamic matrix identifi cation, calls for perturbing the process by a series of up-and-down step changes in the input U (z) around the steady state given by the equation U(z) = U 0 + U 1 z 1 + U 2 z 2 + U 3 z 3 (9) Then, in the light of the impulse response model Y(z) = hi (lO) U(z) ... ,z l = l the output is given by Y ( z) = 0 + h 1 U O z l + ( h 2 U O + h 1 U 1 ) z 2 + ( lla) 0 Y 1 y 2 ( b) = + 1Z + 2 z +... 11 Equations ( lla ) and (ll b ) show that the impulse response coefficients can be computed from the ex perimental input and output data The last method covered which is suited to use in a noisy environment is time-series analysis. In this method the process is described in two parts: one accounts for the model and the other is a noise term that accomodates the effect of unmeasured load dis turbances. A PRBS ( pseudo random binary sequence ) signal is applied to the process and the analysis of the input-output data gives the model. Time con straints prevent an in-depth treatment of the the ory, but the software available (e.g Matlab : see also Reference 21 ) can be effectively used to illustrate the method. The next topic is practical nonlinear control. The treatment is restricted to a conceptually simple prac tical method which appears to have considerable Fall 1991 potential. It is well known that the closed-loop re sponse of many complex nonlinear SISO systems can be described by a linear second-order transfer function, given by Y(s) 11 1 s + 112 R(s) s 2 + ll1S + 11 2 or, in the time domain ~1 1 = 111E + 11d E dt where E = R Y. (12) (13) The terms 11 1 and 11 2 determine the shape of the response. Now the nonlinear process is described by a nonlinear differential equation of the form dY ( n AY ) dt = f Y e n Y e etc. + U (14) Equating Eqs ( 13 ) and ( 14 ) gives the nonlinear con trol law U =-f(Yn e n Y,eAY ,e tc.)+11 1 E+11 2 J Edt (15) If the resulting control law turns out to have undesirable properties such as ringing or constraint violations, then a minimization problem based on the difference between actual and the desired values of the derivative dY / dt is solved to derive the control law. Note that this analysis of nonlinear control is based on continuous-time systems. The system equations would have to be discr etize d for use in a digital-computer-based control system The next set of topics falls into the category of what is commonly referred to as advanced control concepts. The first topic to be covered is adaptive control and self-tuning. Tim e limitations permit only a brief introduction. The need for adaptive control arises du e to changing process characteristics. Auto tuning, gain scheduling self -tuning regulators, and model-reference adaptive control are examples to be covered The use of a relay to identify the ultimate gain and ultimate period of a proportional controller in auto-tuning has already been mentioned. Feedforward and casca de control are the next topics to be covered. Feedforward control is meant to improve the response of feedback control systems in the presence of disturbances in process loads, while cascade control is meant to arrest the detri mental effect of disturbances in the manipulated variable. The final topic to be covered deals with multi variable control, which includes the topics of inter action analysis and variable pairing multiloop con trol for modestly-interacting systems (i ncluding PID 179

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controllers designed by the biggest log modulus tun, ing method), multiloop IMC and CMBC/SMPC con trollers, explicit decoupling in conjunction with PID controllers, reference systems decoupling, and multi variable model predictive control. Model predictive control includes dynamic matrix control, model algo rithmic control, and predictive IMC. Model predictive control techniques utilize step or impulse-response models of the process. These models are used in conjunction with optimization techniques to calculate controller outputs. It should be emphasized that complex multivariable processes must invariably be operated in the vicinity of con straints. Therefore, students must have familiarity with some methods, such as linear and quadratic programming for solving constrained multivariable optimization problems and how they are used in conjunction with model predictive control. Simula tion examples can be used to illustrate the concepts. This concludes the course. The first-listed author offers the course regularly at the University of Lou isville and as an intensive short course for industry in the U.S., Europe, Kuwait, and India. The reac tions of the participants have always been favorable. NOMENCLATURE D digital controller E = error F = filter = model transfer function G = nonminimum phase element + h impulse response coefficient = sampling instant K = process steady-state gain p M = controller output N = number of sampling periods in open-loop settling time R set-point s = Laplace transform operator t = time u = process input y = process output z = transform operator Greek 111 11 2 = PID-type tuning constants a ~ = tuning constants REFERENCES Books 1. Anderson, B D.O., and L. Ljung (Eds.), Automatica: Spe cial Issue on Adaptive Control, September (1984 ) 180 2. Astrom, K.J., and T. Hagglund, Automatic Tuning of PID Regulators ISA (1988) 3. Astrom, K.J., and B. Wittenmark, Computer Controlled Systems, Prentice-Hall Inc Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1984 ) 4 Balchen J G., and K.I. Mumme, Process Control: Structure and Applications Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, NY ( 1988 ) 5. Belanger, P.R., A Review of Some Adaptive Control Schemes for Process Control in Chemical Process Control 2, T.F. Edgar and D.E. Seborg (Eds.), Engineering Found., New York,NY,269 ( 1982) 6. Box, G E.P., and G M Jenkins, Time Series Analysis Fore casting and Control, Holden-Day Publishers Oakland, CA (1976) 7. Deshpande P B and R.H. Ash, Computer Process Control with Advanced Control Applications, ISA ( 1988) 8. Deshpande, P.B., Multivariable Process Control ISA (1989) 9 Joseph, B ., Real-Time Personal Computing for Data Acqui sition and Control, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ ( 1989 ) 10 Kane, L ., Ed., Handbook of Advanced Process Control Sys tems and Instrumentation, Gulf Publishing Co Houston, TX 346 (1987 ) 11. Kuo, B.C ,Analysis and Synthesis of Sampled-Data Control Systems, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1963) 12. Luyben, W.L., Process Modeling, Simulation and Control for Chemical Engineers, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1990) 13 McAvoy T J. Int e raction Analysis-Principles and Appli cation s, ISA ( 1983 ) 14. Mehra R.K., and S Mahmood Model Algorithmic Con trol in P B. Deshpande Distillation Dynamics and Con trol ISA (1985 ) 15 Morari, M., and E Zafiriou, Robust Process Control, Pren tice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1989 ) 16. Newell R.B., and P L Lee, Applied Process Control-A Case Study, Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1989) 17 Prett, D.M., and M. Morari, Shell Process Control Work shop, Butterworth Publishers, Stoneham, MA (1987) 18 Prett D M., C.E. Garcia, and B.L Ramaker, The Second Shell Process Control Workshop Butterworth Publishers, Stoneham, MA ( 1990 ) 19 Ray W.H., Advanced Process Control, McGraw Hill, New York NY (1981 ) 20. Roffe!, B., and P Chin, Computer Control in the Process Industries, Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, MI (1987) 21. Seborg, D.E., T.F. Edgar, and D.A Mellichamp, Process Dynamics and Control John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY (1989 ) 22. Stephanopoulos, G. Chemical Process Control: An Intro duction to Theory and Practice, Prentice-Hall Inc Engle wood Cliffs NJ (1984 ) 23 Shinskey F G., Process Control Systems: Application, De sign and Adjustment McGraw-Hill Book Co ., New York NY ( 1988 ) 24 Smith, C.A., and A.B. Corripio Principles and Practice of Automatic Process Control, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY ( 1985 ) 25. Tou, J.T., Digital and Sampled-Data Control Systems, McGraw-Hill Book Co New York, NY (1959) Journal Articles 26. Arulalan, G.R. and P B Deshpande I&EC Research, 26, 347 (1987 ) 27 Arulalan, G.R., and P B Deshpande,Hydrocar Proc., 65 (6 ) 51 ( 1986) 28. Astrom, K.J., Automatica, 19, 4 71 (1983 ) Chemical Engineering Education

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30. Bartee J F ., K.F. Bloss, and C. Georgaki s, paper pre sented at the AIChE Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA ( 1989 ) 31. Bartusiak R.D ., C Georgakis and M.J. Reill y, paper pr sented at the American Control Conferences, Atlanta GA ( 1988 ) 32. Boye J A. and W L Brogran Int J Control 44 ( 5 ), 1209 ( 1986 ) 33 Chawla, V K. and P.B. Deshpand e, Hydrocarbon Pro cess ing 6 8 59, October ( 1989 ) 34. Chien I.L., D.A. Mellichamp, and D.E Seborg, American Control Conference San Francisco CA (1983) 35 Corripio, A.B. Chem Eng Ed ., 8 Fall ( 1974 ) 36 Cutler, C.R., and S. Finlayson ACC Atlanta, GA, June (1988) 37. Daoutidis, P. and C. Kravaris,AIChE J ., 3 5 1602 ( 1989 ) 38 Economou C.G ., and M Morari I&EC Proc D es D ev., 25 411 ( 1986 ) 39. Economou C.G., M. Morari, and B O Palsson I&EC Pr oc. Des. Dev 2 5 403 ( 1986 ) 40. Garcia C.E. and M Morari I&EC Pro c. D es. Dev ., 24 472 ( 1985a ) 41. Garcia, C E., and M. Morari I&EC Proc D es. Dev ., 24 484(1985b ) 42 Gokhale, N.D ., N V Shukla, P B Deshpande and P.R Krishnaswamy Hydrocarbon Pro cess ing April ( 1991 ) 43 Hallager, L., and S B Jorgensen IFAC Workshop Adap tive Sys. Con., San Francisco, CA ( 1983 ) 44. Jensen, N D G Fisher and S L Shah AIChE J. 32 959 ( 1986 ) 45. Kravaris, C ., and C.B Chung, AIChE J ., 3 3 592 (1987 ) 46. Krishnaswamy, P R., N.V Shukla P B. Deshpande, and M.N. Amrouni Chem. Eng. Sci., 3 0 4 ( 1991 ) 47. Kulkarni, B.D S.S Tambe, N V. Shukla, and P.B. Desh pan d e, Chem. Eng Sci ., 4 6 4 ( 1991 ) 48 Lau H., J. Alvarez, and K.F Jensen, AIChE J ., 3 1, 427 (1985) 49 Lee, P.L ., and G.R. Sullivan presented at IFAC Workshop on Mo d el Based Process Control, Atlanta, GA June ( 1988a ) 50 Lee, P.L., and G R. Sullivan, Comput e r s & Chem. Eng ., 12, 573 ( 1988b ) 51. Luecke, R.H., and H.Y Lin, Chem. Eng. Ed. 20 Spring ( 1986 ) 52. Luyben, W.L I&EC Proc. Des. D ev., 25 654 (1986) 53 Luyben, W L ., AIChE J., 16, 2 ; Computers & Chem Eng ., 12, 573 (1970) 54. Mijares, G ., J.D. Cole N.W. Naugle, H.A. Preisig and C D Holland AIChE J. 3 2 1439 ( 1986 ) 55 Moore, C.F Chem. Eng. Ed ., 7 Fall ( 1973 ) 56. Parrish J R., and C.B Brosilow, AIChE J. 34 633 (1988) 57 Prasad P R. V K. Chawla, and P.B Deshpande, I&EC Res ., 2 9 1 ( 1990 ) 58 Seborg, D E., T.F. Edgar, and S L Shah AIChE J. 32 881 (1986) 59 Seborg D.W., IFAC Preprints Munich, West Germany July 27-31 (1987 ) 60. Wright, R ., and C Kravaris, paper presented at the Ameri can Control Conf e rence, Pittsburgh, PA (1989) 61. Wittenmark, B., and K.J Astrom, Automatica, 20 595 (1984) 62. Yu C C ., and W.L Luyben I&EC Proc. De s. Dev. 2 5 498 ( 1986 ) CAI Software in Process Control 63. Arulalan, G.R. Sanjay Kumar, and P.B Deshpande "CAI in Advanced Process Control ," CACHE News 26 Fall Fall 1991 ( 1988 ) 64 Edgar T F. Softwar e for Undergraduate and Graduate Process Control, CACHE News 26 Spring ( 1990 ) 65 Frederick D.K. and M. Rim va ll Ed s ELCS: The E tended List of Control Software," U.S. Edition N o. 4, CACHE Corporation, Austin TX D ecember ( 1987 ) 66 Seborg, D.E T F Edgar and D .A. M e llichamp Pr ocess Dynamics and Control John Wil ey & Sons Inc ., 701 ( 1989 ) ( Listing of Co ntrol Software ) 0 Nfii letter to the editor ) THE ACADEMIC ELITE IN CHE Dear Editor: A ranking of the most highly regarded doctoral programs in chemical engineering was presented in the November 1983 edition of Changing Time s L 11 This ranking was based on a study published by the National Academy of Sciences _l2 1 For the ranking re ported by Changing Tim es two key measures ofrepu tation from the National Academy study were com bined: 1 ) faculty quality assessed how chemical engineering professors around the country rated their peers in the same discipline, and 2 ) program qual ity" assessed how well the faculty thought each pro gram e d ucate d research scholars and scientists. Changing Times combined these two measures and derived a ranking of the top ten percent of the pro grams in chemical engineering. If one goes by the assumptions of the Changing Times article the eight schools with the highest combined scores represented the academic elite in chemical engineering-the best" programs in the country. Given the subjective nature of the evaluation process which produced the National Academy rat ings, I decided to examine the composition of the faculties of the top eight schools. I suspected that these departments would be substantially linked to one another through the hiring of one another's graduates hence enhancing one another s reputa tions. I also expecte d that among the academic elite there would be a high degree of academic "inbreed ing"-the hiring of gra d uates from one's own pro gram .l31 I used the American Chemical Society Directory of Graduate Research 1989 to examine the full-time faculties of the eight highest-ranked chemical engi neering departments An item of primary interest was where the full-time faculty members at these instit u tions had received their doctoral degrees. It 181

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soon became obvious that there were numerous in terrelationships among the departments in terms of where the faculty had received their doctoral de grees. The following table lists the top-ranked depart ments and indicates the percentages offull-time fac ulty who received their doctoral degrees from one of the "elite" departments on the list (which includes those who received their degrees from the same de partments where they are currently on the faculty ). P e r ce ntag e Numb e r Rank Program N Elite Own Produc e d 1 Minn es ot a 32 50 0 0.0 13 2 Wis c onsin 20 65 0 15 0 1 3 3 Cal-Berk e l ey 2 1 7 1.4 19.0 1 7 3 Calt ec h 8 75.0 0.0 6 4 Stanford 8 6 2 .5 1 2. 5 7 5 D e lawar e 1 9 52 .6 5 3 6 6 M I.T. 33 6 9 7 4 2 .4 31 7 Illinois U rban a --12. 7 5 0 0 0 ___i TOTALS 153 97 1 P erce n tage of facu l ty wh o rece i ve d PhD s fro m o n e of the e i g ht t o p -ranked programs Pe r ce n tage o f fac ult y w h o r ece i ve d PhD .s fro m th e prog r am in w hic h th ey are n ow emp l oyed. 3 Nu m ber of P hD reci p ients from th e prog r ams w h o were on th e fac ul ty of one of the t op-ran k e d prog r a m s in 1 9 8 9. As can be seen in the table, in all of the top ranked departments a substantial proportion of the faculty received PhDs from one of the "academic elite." The California Institute of Technology and the University of Illinois had the highest percent ages of degree holders from the top-ranked depart ments ( 75.0 %), and the University of Minnesota had the lowest ( 50.0 %) At most of the schools anywhere from one-half to three-quarters of the faculty gradu ated from one of the prestigious programs. The table also addresses academic inbreeding among the top-ranked chemical engineering pro grams. Berelson [ 4 l and Caplow and McGee[ 5 J have demonstrated that a high degree of inbreeding among elite schools is not accidental. According to both stud ies if elite programs are to maintain their prestige, they cannot hire a large number of PhDs from lower ranked departments, and this would include PhDs from upwardly mobile "middlemen" programs where elite credentials have yet to be established. In his study of sociology departments, Gross [ 6 1 found that the higher the prestige of a department, the greater the proportion of "home-grown" graduate faculty. With some modifications, Shichor's studyl 7 1 confirmed 182 Gross findings. Shichor found the relationship be tween departmental inbreeding and the prestige of a department to be curvilinear with the highest and lowest ranking departments having the highest rates of inbreeding while mid-level departments were found to have the lowest rates. As can be seen from the table, in 1989 the school with the largest percentage of its own graduates on its full-time chemical engineering faculty was Mas sachusetts Institute of Technology (42.4 % ). The Uni versity of Minnesota California Institute of Tech nology, and the University of Illinois had not hired any of their own graduates. The table also presents the number of PhDs pro duced from each department who were full-time fac ulty members of one of the elite departments in 1989. MIT had thirty-one of its graduates in faculty positions at the elite departments, and Berkeley was next with seventeen. Illinois had the least with four. I think that graduate departments in chemical engineering ( or in any discipline ) must rely to a large extent upon their reputations in order to at tract highly qualified faculty and graduate students to participate in their programs. The eight chemical engineering graduate programs that were top-ranked in the 1981 National Academy study are undoubt edly strong programs. I certainly do not wish to argue that they are not. However, the data suggest that a number of subjective factors influence the procedure by which academic departments are ranked Primarily, I contend that a rather small group of institutions (eight in this instance) tend, consciously or unconsciously, to enhance one an other s reputations by hiring one another's gradu ates. The Changing Times article used two measures of reputation in order to establish its list of the "best" graduate departments: how professors rated their peers in the same discipline, and how well the faculty thought each program educated research scholars and scientists. These criteria are vitally linked; when elite faculty are asked to rate their peers at other schools, they are (to a large extent) rating their former professors or students. There are a total of 153 full-time faculty in the chemical engi neering elite, and 97 of them ( 63.4 %) graduated from one of these distinguished programs. Clearly it is in their best interest to rank their alma maters highly. The remarkable stability in the ranking of elite programs over the last few decades suggests that not only do elite faculty rate their own programs highly but so also do large numbers of faculty from Chemical Engineer i ng Education

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less prestigious programs. Several factors may ex plain this phenomenon. On the one hand the data suggest that the consistently high rankings of elite programs are due to the large number of graduates that those very same programs put into the disci pline each year. While they place some graduates in other elite schools, most descend into mid-level schools or less renowned institutions where they continue to subjectively rank their alma maters as the very best. The high number of elite school gradu ates at all levels also seems to enable them to play a disproportionate role in shaping opinion within the discipline. There is another way of explaining the relative stability in the ranking of elite programs over time. Obviously, there are not enough faculty from elite schools at middle and lower level programs for them to maintain the high ranking of their alma maters without some support from their non-elite colleagues Tradition may be a partial explanation for the non elite's acceptance of their inferior status. Elite schools have been accorded high esteem for decades, and these traditions typically have gone unchallenged. A more likely explanation, however, is that the non-elite, in a classic example of Marxian false con sciousness, [ BJ have adopted their elite peers' assess ment that the latters' programs and faculties are superior. Buttressed by only a few subjective gov ernment surveys and contact with a handful of indi viduals from elite programs, the non-elite have not only accepted but also even promoted the notion that elite graduate programs are deserving of high es teem, whereas others, including their own, are not. Ultimately, I think it should be asked : Are the eight highest-ranked programs indeed the best PhD programs in chemical engineering, or do they com prise an "academic elite" with a large number of faculty members in the discipline and an obvious interest in perpetuating the present ranking sys tem? I believe that data suggest that the latter is true. Two final comments seem in order. First, I con tend that because of their subjectivity, current rank ing systems are a detriment to the discipline. They may impede professional mobility, reward status over achievement, and result in programs of lesser re nown being bypassed, even though they may merit as high or higher recognition than do those of the elite. Second, I believe that current, subjective rank ing systems incorporate serious distortions and mis representations. Because they have the potential to do as much harm as good, I recommend that as they Fall 1991 are presently constituted, subjective systems of de partmental ranking should be routinel y ignored. Jeffrey H. Bair Emporia State Universit y Emporia KS 66801 1. Changin g Tim e s p. 64-67 November ( 198 3) 2. Jones L.V ., G. Lindzey andP.E. Coggeshall A n A ssess m ent o f R ese ar c h Doctorat e Programs in th e Uni te d Stat es: En g i n ee rin g, National Academ y Press Washington DC ( 1982 ) 3. Bair J.H ., W E. Thompson and J V. Hick ey, C urr A n t hr pol. 27 410 (1986 ) 4 Berel s on B ., Gradua te Edu c at ion in th e U n ited S tates, McGraw-Hill New York ( 1960 ) 5. C aplow T ., and R.J. McGee Th e A c a de m ic Mark etp l ace, Anchor Doubleday N e w York ( 1965 ) 6. Gross G R. Am. So c iolo gis t 5 25-29 ( 1970 ) 7 Schichor D.,Am. So c i o lo g ist 5 157-160 ( 1970 ) 8. Marx K. and F Eng e l Th e G e rma n Id eo log y, Intern a ti ona l Publish e rs New York ( 1967 ) 0 161 book review CHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS Second Edition ) by Stanley I. Sandler; John Wiley & Sons New York ; 622 pages and 5-1 I 4" diskette, $59.95 (1989) Reviewed by J.P. O'Connell, D.J. Kirwan University of Virginia This is the second edition of a text for under graduate chemical engineers. As the author's pref ace points out, the objectives of both editions are the same: 1 ) to develop a course relevant to other parts of the curriculum, such as separations, reactors and design, and 2 ) to present sufficient detail in a wa y that leads to good understanding and proficiency of application. Distinctive treatments of the first edition included introduction of the mass, first, and second law bal ance equations in the same way ( this may demystify entropy for some students ) Also treatment of the variety of phase equilibrium situations among sol ids, liquids, and vapors is more complete and more categorized than in other texts The major change from the first edition is the inclusion of BASIC programs for calculating 1 ) thermodynamic properties and VLE for pure and for multicomponent systems from a cubic EOS, 2) low pressure VLE from activity coefficients from group contributions, and 3) equilibrium constants and stan Continued on page 195. 183

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WILEY: 100 YEARS OF ENGINEERING The first textbook to present catalysis in a coherent, unified manner! CATALYTIC CHEMISTRY Bruce C. Gates, University of Delaware 51761-5, 432 pp., 1992 Gathering catalysis material from the fields of chemical reaction engineering, chemical engineering, kinetics, organometallic chemistry, and physical chemistry, this unique text presents the first unified, easy-to-teach treatment of catalytic chemistry. This exciting new text: Demonstrates to students that the fragments to which they have been exposed in other courses constitute a large, important, challeng~ng and opportunity-rich subject. Includes an outline of the subject with examples, problems and solutions. Instructors can emphasize and build on specific subject areas. Is full of practical knowledge and can be used by both scientists and engineers working in the discipline, including researchers and industry experts. A Solutions Manual (54588-0) with Answers and Solutions to most problems is available upon adoption. Other Titles of Interest Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Fourth Edition Robert W Fox, Purdue University Alan T. McDonald, Purdue University 54852-9, 704 pp., 1992 Chemical Reactor Analysis & Design, Second Edition G. F. Froment, Rijks UniversiteitGent, Belgium Kenneth Bischoff, University of Delaware 51044-0, 733 pp., 1990 Fundamentals of Heat & Mass Transfer, Third Edition 61246-4, 992 pp., 1990 Introduction to Heat Transfer, Second Edition Frank Incropera, Purdue University David P. Incropera, Purdue University 61247-2, 896 pp 1990 Process Dynamics & Control David E. Seborg, University of California, Santa Barbara Thomas F Edgar, University of Texas, Austin Duncan A. Mellichamp, University of California, Santa Barbara 86389-0, 714 pp., 1989 Computer Applications for Engineers Thomas K. Jewell, Union College 60117-9, 800 pp., 1991 Other Best Sellers ... Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics Munson/Young/Okiishi, 85526-X, 843 pp., 1990 Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, Second Edition, Felder /Rousseau 87324-1, 668 pp., 1986 Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics, Second Edition with Disk, Sandler 83050-X, 622 pp., 1989 Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics Moran/Shapiro, 89576-8, 707 pp., 1988 Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics, Third Edition, English/SI Version Van Wylen/Sonntag, 86173-1, 749 pp., 1986 For more information, contact your local Wiley Representative, or write to: Susan Elbe, Dept. 2-0148 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 605 Third Avenue WILEY New York, New York 10158 2-0148

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Chemica l Engineering Division Act i vities /_jJ_jJJ SHAPING OUR WORLD CENTURY II TWENTY-NINTH AN NUAL LECTURE S HIP A WARD TO DARSH WASAN The 1991 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division Lecturer is Darsh Wasan of the Illinois Institute of Technology. The purpose of this award is to recog nize and encourage outstanding achievement in an important field of fundamental chemical engineer ing theory or practice. The 3M Company provides the financial support for this award. Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engi neering educator who delivers the annual lecture of the Chemical Engineering Division, the award con sists of $1,000 and an engraved certificate. These were presented to Dr Wasan at the banquet during the ASEE annual meeting in New Orleans Louisi ana, on June 8, 1991. Dr. Wasan's lecture was entit l ed "Interfacial Transport Processes and Rheology." It will be pub lished in a forthcoming issue of CEE The award is made on an annual basis with nominations being received through February 1, 1992. Your nominations for the 1992 lectureship are invited. AWARD WINNERS George Burnet (Iowa State University ) was the recipient of the highest Society award for service to education in engineering, engineering technology, and allied fields, the W. Leighton Collins Award. It is given for highly significant individual contribu tions to the profession. The Senior Research Award was presented to Robert S. Schechter (The University of Texas at Austin). This award recognizes and honors individu als who have made significant contributions to engi neering research. The sixth annual Corcoran Award, recognizing the most outstanding paper published in CEE in 1990, was presented to coauthors John M. Prausnitz and Davor P. Sutija (University of Cali fornia, B erkeley) for their article "Chemical Engi neering in the Spectrum of Knowledge." Fall 1991 The Joseph H. Martin Award was presented to Richard C. Bailie ( West Virginia University ) for the best paper presented at the annual ASEE meeting. The division presented its DELOS Distinguished Service Award to Klaus D. Timmerhaus ( Univer sity of Colorado ) in recognition of his many contribu tions to the profession Peter K. Kilpatrick ( North Carolina State Uni versity ) received an AT&T Foundation Award which recognizes and honors outstanding teachers of engi neering students while Anthony N. Beris (Univer sity of Delaware ) and Jeffrey A. Hubbell ( The Uni versity of Texas at Austin ) both were recognized as Dow Outstanding Young Faculty. NEW PUBLICATIONS BOARD MEMBERS The Publications Board of CEE has been reor ganized and now includes the following members in addition to its Chairman E. Dendy Sloan, and its Past Chairmen Gary Poehlein and Klaus Tim merhaus : George Burnet (Iowa State University), Anthony T. DiBenedetto ( University of Connecti cut ), Thomas F. Edgar ( University of Texas at Austin ), Richard M. Felder ( North Carolina State University ) Bruce A. Finlayson ( University of Washington ) H. Scott Fogler (University of Michi gan), J. David Hellums ( Rice University), Carol M. McConica (Colorado State University), Angelo J. Perna ( NJIT ), Stanley I. Sandler (University of Delaware ) Richard C. Seagrave (Iowa State Uni versity ) M. Sarni Selim ( Colorado School of Mines ) James E. Stice ( University of Texas at Austin), Phillip C. Wankat ( Purdue University), and Donald R. Woods ( McMaster University ) NEW DIVISION OFFICERS The Chemical Engineering Division officers for the 1991-1992 term include: Past Chairman, Tom Hanley ; Chairman, Timothy J. Anderson; Secre tary-Treasurer, William L. Conger ( Chairman Elect and Directors had not been named at the time this issue of CEE went to press. ) 185

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CHEMICAL KINETICS, FLUID MECHANICS, AND HEAT TRANSFER IN THE FAST LANE The Unexpurgated Story of a Long-Range Program of Research in Combustion STUART w. CHUR C HILL Th e University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia PA 19104-6393 T he presentation of experimental and theoretical findings in a journal usually implies that the path of the investigation of which they are the cul mination was well-planned and straightforward. Such is rarely the case, however particularly with exploratory research for which unanticipated results are the justification and the reward. Indeed the most useful results are often the consequence of a deviation from the original objective in order to ex plain resolve, or explore an apparent anomaly Most discoveries and innovations so arise. This paper utilizes the history of a long-term ( 40year ) investigation of combustion inside tubes to illustrate the true unvarnished path of explorato ry research with all of its turnings, windfalls misdirec tions, triumphs, and disasters. The primary objec tive of this recounting is to persuade doctoral stu dents ( and perhaps their advisors ) that the anoma lies observed in experiments or in comparing experi ments and theoretical solutions are not to be ig nored hidden or deplored but rather should be taken as a signal of possibly important unknown be havior that may actually justify a diversion in an addition to or even a complete redirection of the research. A second related objective is to demon strate the helpful ( and indeed essential) role of theo retical modeling in explaining experimental results and, particularly anomalies. Stuart W. Churchill is the Carl V.S Patterson Pro fessor Emeritus at the Univ ers ity of Penns y l v ania where he has been since 196 7 Hi s BSE degrees (in ChE and Math) MSE and PhD were obtained a t the Uni v ers i ty of Michigan where he also taught from 1950 196 7 His research has encompassed many a spects o f he a t transfer as well as combustion He is c urrentl y c o mple ti n g a textbook on turbulent flows 186 ACOUSTICALLY RESONAN T COMBUSTION The research program that supported me as a graduate student involved the ignition of solid pro pellants by a stream of gas at high temperature We rationalized that a mixture of 0 2 and inert gases was equivalent in that respect to the products of combus tion of a primer. My curiosity was provoked and unsatisfied as to the possible effects of combustion itself on heat transfer and sometime thereafter I persuaded Donald W. Sundstrom to investigate this subject for his doctoral research. Supported equip ment-wise by an unrestricted grant from the Esso Engineering and Research Company we chose a geometry unrelated to the ignition of propellants but of more general interest-namely heat transfer from a flame of premixed air and propane stabilized on a central bluff body inside a 25.4-mm-ID stainless steel tube. The choice of combustion inside a tube which was arbitrary on our part and at that time relatively unexplored, proved to be serendipitous not only in terms of the immediate results but also in precursing the entire subsequent chain of events described herein. Although acoustic resonance was not anticipated to be a significant factor, Sundstrom observed a cor relation between the local rate of heat transfer and the aurall y -sensed amplitude of the noise generated by the flame and he promptly acquired the appro priate instrumentation for characterization of the latter. The local rate of heat transfer was found to depend primarily on the pattern of flow generated by the combustion, but that pattern was found in turn to be influenced strongly by the flame-gener ated acoustics. c i i The latter were rationalized to be initiated by the periodic shedding and combustion of the vortices generated by the flameholder, and to be enhanced by the resulting resonant oscillations in pressure. Theoretical calculations indicated that the frequenc y of the oscillations corresponded to the IonCop y r ight ChE Divi s ion AB EE 1 99 1 Chemi c al Engineering Education

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A study of the literature on flame-generated oscillations suggested that the "screeching" combustion associated with jet engines might have a similar cause, but be due to tangential rather than longitudinal oscillations. Sundstrom was unable to produce screeching combustion in his apparatus ... gitudinal ( organ-pipe ) mode. This identification and pursuit of an unexpected aspect of behavior by an alert, motivated student was an important if not essential, element of the entire ensuing program of research. A study of the literature on flame-generated os cillations suggested that the "screeching" combus tion associated with jet engines might have a similar cause, but be due to tangential rather than longitu dinal oscillations. Sundstrom was unable to produce screeching combustion in his apparatus but Wil liam N. Zartman, the following student, determined from crude, preliminary experiments with a flame stabilized on a bluff body inside plain uninstru mented and uncooled pipes of various sizes, that screeching combustion could be made to occur for pipe diameters greater than 100 mm. Hence stain less-steel pipe with a diameter of 127 mm was cho sen for his doctoral research. Amplitudes of as great as 160 db at a frequency of 4125 Hz were attained. The research itself documented a linear increase in the local heat-transfer coefficient within the tube with the amplitude of the resonant oscillations and indicated that these oscillations could be dampened by the installation of 1/4-wavelength tubes radially at the theoretically-identified nodes. l 21 The work of Zartman was distinguished in character by his use of inexpensive and brief preliminary experiments to choose the conditions for detailed study and by the use of theoretical analysis not only to explain but also to develop a method for controlling the experi mentally-observed behavior A PRELIMINARY MODEL FOR THERMALL V STABILIZED COMBUSTION In order to eliminate the source of the acoustic resonance, rather than just dampen it, I speculated on the possibility of stabilization without backmix ing. I thereupon persuaded two students to attempt to model (as a term project in a seminar-type course ) the stabilization of a flame inside a ceramic channel by thermal feedback only. One of them, Ward 0. Winer, concluded from a very idealized model based on the postulates of plug flow with perfect radial mixing, an infinite rate of combustion following the attainment of an arbitrary temperature of ignition, and a tube of infinite length with an emissivity of Fall 1991 unity and a negligible conductivity that a flame could be stabilized within the channel by wall-to wall radiation only. THERMAL STABILIZATION IN A CERAMIC TUBE The promising ( if somewhat hypothetical ) result of Winer gave me the courage to persuade Thomas D. Bath to undertake experimental research on ra diative stabilization in a ceramic tube for his doctor ate Bath succeeded in establishing a flame from premixed propane vapor and air inside a 25.4-mm ceramic tube but ( as contrasted with the experi ments of Sundstrom and Zartman ) the temperature of the wall approached that of the flame As a conse quence every tube cracked during the process of startup raising the spectre that the stabilization might be due to recirculation downstream from the crack We were disappointed that the flame fluctu ated and was somewhat noisy but concluded this behavior might also be attributable to the cracks. Because of the poor definition of the conditions in side the tube, we chose not to publish these results in the archival literature. THERMAL STABILIZATION IN A CERAMIC BLOCK As a consequence of such a discouraging experi ence, I might not have resumed research on ther mally-stabilized combustion at the University of Pennsylvania ( where I had now relocated ) had I not discovered as a consultant to the Marathon Oil Company that the ceramic Wulff furnace elements used by them for the thermal cracking of methane would withstand ( because of their considerable po rosity ) temperatures and temperature gradients as high as those encountered in the experiments of Bath. Marathon graciously donated several elements for our research. These consisted of 254-mm-long blocks perforated by round 9.52-mm holes in a trian gular array. Cementing three such elements together produced a burner with seven channels The central one was used for the measurements, and the outer six functioned as guard heaters. With this promising device in hand I persuaded Joseph L -P. Chen to undertake as his doctoral re search a continuation of th e work begun by Bath Considerable patience and ingenuity were required to establish a stationary flame in this ceramic block the first time; without the confidence generated by 187

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the idealized theoretical solution of Winer and the experiments of Bath with tubes, we might not have persisted through the many failures. Once we learned how, establishing a stationary flame became routine (if time-consuming), and Chen determined by tedi ous trial and error the limits of flow for a stable flame of premixed propane and air within the block. For all of these conditions, the process of combustion was noticeably clean, quiet, and non-fluctuating as compared to conventional processes, all of which involve backmixing-by diffusion in laminar flames, by recirculation in bluff-body-stabilized flames, and by turbulent fluctuations in jet-mixed flames. Following this phase of the work, Chen decided to investigate the dependence of the range of stable flames on the diameter of the channels by cementing in ceramic liners with an ID of 4. 76 mm. Although combustion could be established in these smaller channels, the flame was (to our surprise and disap pointment) diffuse and oscillatory. This difference in behavior was clearly associated with the regime of flow upstream from the flamefront, being laminar in the 4 76-mm channels and barely turbulent in the 9.52-mm ones. In retrospect we were lucky. If the original chan nels in the Wulff furnace elements had been 8 mm or less in diameter, we might have abandoned this line of research as uninteresting owing to the relatively poor combustion which occurs in the laminar re gime. Instead, because of the clean-cut behavior ob served in the 9.52-mm channels, we realized that we had discovered a new and promising process of com bustion. L 3 J Even so, we did not yet even begin to appreciate all of its unique characteristics. MODELING OF TH ER MALLY STABILIZED COMBUSTION Despite the above-mentioned accomplishments, I was somewhat critical of Chen because of his failure to attain a high degree ofreproducibility for his data (which is an essential requirement of good experi mental work), particularly in the determinations of the location of the flamefront for various conditions. I was also somewhat impatient with his failure to produce a numerical solution for an extended theo retical model. Both of these judgements proved to be quite unfair. As shown by later work, the irrepro ducibility was inherent in the process. As regards the numerical solution, the model involved an inte gro-differential equation with split boundary condi tions for the temperature in the solid phase, to gether with differential equations for the tempera ture and composition in the gaseous phase, and was 188 truly formidable at that stage of development of numerical methods. Despite no previous experience with either com puters or numerical methods, Chen eventually did devise an ingenious and successful procedure that produced a solution in close accord with his experi mental results. The model incorporated a number of idealizations including global kinetics, plug flow, and perfect radial mixing, but only one significant em piricism-the effective energy of activation, which he chose to force agreement with respect to location of the computed and measured longitudinal profiles in temperature in the ceramic block. One disturbing aspect of the numerical proce dure was the dependence of this effective energy of activation on grid size. Even more startling was the prediction of six additional stable solutions for the same external conditions. Three of these multiple states were closely grouped upstream and four down stream in the tube. We speculated in print l 4 l that two of the seven solutions, i.e., one from each group ing, might have physical validity by analogy to those for a perfectly mixed exothermic reactor, but that the other five were probably artifacts of the approxi mate and iterative method of solution-a not un common experience with integral equations. The numerical solution revealed that the tem perature of the burned gas just beyond the flamefront exceeded the adiabatic fiame temperature. This re sult, which is perhaps startling at first glance, is not a violation of the second law of thermodynamics but simply a consequence of the refluxing of energy back ward across the flamefront by wall-to-wall radiation and in-wall conduction. The temperature of the burned gas leaving the burner is of course below the adiabatic value by an amount equivalent to the total heat losses from the ceramic block to the surround ings. The calculations revealed that about one-third of the thermal feedback was by conduction in the ceramic block and two-thirds by wall-to-wall radia tion, and indeed that (contrary to the approximate model of Winer that encouraged this line of research) the contribution of thermal conduction through the ceramic block was essential to the existence of a stable flame. Chen also carried out calculations for a variety of parametric conditions beyond the range of his ex periments. His prediction of the limiting flamespeeds for a 25.4-mm channel agreed closely with the meas ured values of Bath, validating them retroactively. Numerical calculations with Chen's model were not attempted for a 4. 76-mm channel since the postu lates of plug flow and perfect radial mixing were Chemical Engineering Education

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obviously not applicable for the laminar regime. Chen's experimental work revealed a new proc ess of both intrinsic and practical value, and his modeling and numerical solutions were a valuable complement. Most of the characteristic elements of behavior of thermally stabilized combustion were totally unexpected when we began. Luck my per haps excessive confidence in the asymptotic solution of Winer, and the persistence and ingenuity of Chen (both experimentally and theoretically ) were all es sential to the great success of this research. THE SEARCH FOR MULTIPLE STATIONARY STATES Melvin H Bernstein undertook the task of search ing for the predicted multiple stationary states as his doctoral research r 5 i with a newly-acquired set of Wulff furnace elements. First he reproduced Chen's data within its band of variability. Then he searched for and found the expected second stationary state then the five more which we had not expected de spite their prediction by the numerical solution. One curious and (to this day ) unexplained aspect of these measurements was the observation of four closely grouped upstream states and three even more closely grouped downstream states, whereas Chen's model predicted four downstream and three upstream. The Mobil R&D Company responded favorably and graciously to my request to analyze several samples of the burned gas from Bernstein s experi ments since we did not then have equipment for such measurements. We were excited to learn from these analyses that the thermally stabilized burner (TSB) produced no residual hydrocarbons since ( as contrasted with all conventional burners ; none of the fuel bypasses the zone of high temperature. Also, the TSB was found to produce essentially no prompt NO in the flamefront owing to its negligible thick ness, and to produce exceptionally low concentra tions of "thermal" NO ( 5-30 ppm ) thereafter owing to the short post-flame times of residence. The con centration of total NO was found to be directly pro portional to the post-dame residence time as would be expected for a zero-order reaction. On the other hand, these low values of NO constituted a tradeoff with CO in that the same post-flame residence times were insufficient for complete oxidation to CO 2 I encouraged Bernstein to improve upon Chen s computer program, but he was unable to make even the original one operational. Finally, in desperation and impatience I telephoned Chen and solicited his help. He offered to retest his program as a first step and to call back the next day. After a suspicious Fall 1991 delay of several days he called and shamefacedly reported that he had inadvertently printed a preliminary inoperable computer program in his dissertation, but that he was sending us the original, correct one, which he had retested and found operational. However Bernstein in his struggles with the inoperable program had discovered two significant errors. They were found to exist in the "original program as well. Both of the errors inflated the heat transfer coefficient for convection downstream from the flamefront as estimated from a standard correla tion When these errors were eliminated no stable solutions could be computed. After much agony we concluded that an inexplicably high coefficient was necessary to produce stable solutions, at least with Chen s model. (It took another decade of work to explain this anomaly. ) We were now in the unbelievable situation of having found seven stationary states experimentally only because we were inspired to search for them by a theoretical model which now appeared to be invalid! But for the errors in his computer program, Chen might never have attained a solution and Bernstein would never have searched for or found all of the six additional stationary states. ( The sub sequent history of our research suggests that we would have eventually searched for and found at least one additional state. ) In retrospect the irrepro ducibility of Chen s data arose from the establish ment on successive days of different members of the closely-grouped set of upstream states. The particu lar state depended upon minor variations in the process of startup that we had no reason at the time to consider relevant Again luck was obviously an important element in our success but two lessons stand out. First the interaction of experimental and theoretical work is often synergetic and may produce more than either one alone. Second independent efforts by two or more investigators may identify and explain anoma lies that escape attention and/or resolution by only one. These two lessons have been reinforced by our subsequent experiences as described below THERMALLY STABILIZED COMBUSTION OF A LIQUID FUEL As his doctoral research, Byung Choi extended the investigation of thermally stabilized combustion to liquid fuels by burning droplets of hexane gener ated by vibration of a capillary tube. Stroboscopic visualization of droplets of water in a preliminary experiment was utilized to confirm a theoretical 189

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model, which was then used to guide the unobserved production of a chain of uniformly-sized and uni formly-spaced droplets of hexane within the burner. His results agreed remarkably well with those of Chen, suggesting that the thermally stabilized burner was essentially fuel-independent insofar as the drop lets were small enough and volatile enough to evapo rate completely ahead of the flamefront. However, Choi was not able to establish more than one stationary state for a given set of condi tions l61 He extended Chen's model to encompass evaporation of the droplets and devised a greatly improved but still approximate method of solving the integro-differential equation (which proved to have general utility even outside of combustion and for solving purely integral equations as well).[?] With this method, the effective energy of activation re quired to match the computed location of the flamefront with the experimental one was not de pendent on grid size. He avoided the "stiffness" asso ciated with the steep gradients of temperature and composition in the flamefront by using steps in com position rather than distance in the numerical inte gration. Even so, extreme sensitivity was encoun tered in the computational procedure; the stable so lution was found to be dependent on the eighth sig nificant figure of the temperature of the wall at the inlet, which quantity was used as the variable of iteration The numerical solution provided a complete, es sentially fuel-independent locus of flamefronts ver sus the rate of flow of fuel and air in close agreement with the data for both gaseous propane and droplets ofhexane .rsi However, this relationship predicts only two stable locations for a given fuel-to-air ratio and rate of flow, one near the inlet and one near the outlet of the channel. The other five stable states predicted by Chen and observed by Bernstein are only slightly displaced from this locus, and we now postulate that the slight approximation which expe dited the process of solution eliminates the fine struc ture which would have resulted in their prediction. As contrasted with blowoff andfiashback for con ventional burners, the above-mentioned locus of sta bility predicts another unique characteristic for thermally stabilized combustion: for increasing rates of flow, both of the computed stable locations of the flamefront are predicted to shift inward toward a common point near the longitudinal midpoint of the channel followed by extinguishment; for decreasing rates of flow, both of the computed stable locations are predicted to shift outward to the respective ends of the channel, with extinguishment occurring some190 what short of the ends. The predicted limiting be havior was not tested by Choi, even for the single downstream stable flame he established, because of the difficulty of adjusting the fuel and air propor tionately while maintaining the same size and spac ing for the droplets. Choi also computed the chemical process of com bustion using a global model for conversion of the hexane to CO and Hp, and pseudo-steady-state free radical models for the formation of NO and the X oxidation of CO. The predicted concentrations ofNOx were greatly in excess of, and those of residual CO were grossly below, the measured values, suggesting that these models were inadequate, at least for the high temperatures and minimal backmixing encoun tered in thermally stabilized combustion. The previously noted lessons concerning the con duct of research were reinforced in a slightly differ ent context by the work of Choi. Again, a fresh ap proach by a second investigator, this time in solving the general model with some extensions was very productive The resulting solution included a com plete locus for the stable flamefronts, and thereby the prediction of unique and unexpected limiting behavior It also provided theoretical confirmation for the observed fuel-independence of the thermally stabilized burner. In addition, theoretical modeling of the atomization was a critical element in the de sign of the experiments. THE SEARCH FOR MULTIPLE STATIONARY ST ATES WITH DROPLETS OF HEXANE John W Goepp, as his M.S.E. thesis, and with the help of Shu-Kin (Harry) Tang, completely recon structed the experimental apparatus of Choi in or der to provide more precise and flexible control of the rates of flow of air and hexane, and thereby facilitate the search for multiple stationary states in that system. Wulff furnace elements were no longer available, but a geometrically equivalent burner was cast from a commercial ceramic cement. Equipment for online analysis for NO COx, CO, CO 2 and 0 2 was added. The improved control permitted iden tification of as many as three upstream and two downstream multiple stationary states with hexane_r 9 i Presumably two more might have been found with better control and care. The locations of all of these stable flamefronts were in good accord with the predictions of Choi. The online chemical analy ses were in agreement with those by Mobil, elimi nating the nagging possibility that the latter were affected by the storage and transportation of Chemical Engineering Education

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samples in Teflon bags. CHEMICAL MODELING OF THE POST-FLAME ZONE Tang utilized the improved apparatus constructed by Goepp and himself to investigate as his doctoral research the effects of an addition of small concen trations offuel-nitrogen and fuel-sulfur to hexane on the formation of NO He covered a more complete range of residence times than his predecessors by making periodic, pseudo-steady-state measurements while the flamefront drifted upstream from a stable location near the outlet or downstream from one near the inlet as a result of a perturbation in the rate of flow He also investigated a wider range of equivalence ratios (fuel-to-air ratios divided by the stoichiometric fuel-to-air ratio ) He found that the conversion of fuel-nitrogen to NO x occurred primar ily in the flamefront, was almost quantitative for equivalence ratios from 0.6 to 1.0 and fell off outside that range. [10 1 Fuel-sulfur was found to reduce the formation of thermal NO x slightly and fuel-NO x sig nificantly crn a result which was in contrast with prior observations for other types of burners. Tang initially resisted my proposal to model the post-flame reactions with a complete set of free radical mechanisms but relented when I mentioned that the alternative was explanation and possibly reinterpretation of his experimental results by an other student. By trial-and-error he found that a kinetic model incorporating twenty-one reversible reactions was sufficient for the post-flame region for the combustion of pure hexane, and that twenty three additional reactions were necessary for fuel nitrogen and sixteen more for fuel-sulfur. He postu lated a global model for the combustion of hexane to CO and H 2 O. When the mole fraction of hexane fell to 1 ppm due to combustion, the fuel-nitrogen and fuel-sulfur were postulated to be converted quanti tatively and instantaneously to HCN and H 2 S re spectively. The post-flame model was then initiated. The predictions of NO by Tang were in good agreement with his meas;rements for equivalence ratios up to 1.1 but in disagreement beyondY 21 The details of the computations revealed significant de viations of the concentrations of all of the free radi cals from their pseudo-steady-state values through out the post-flame zone, thus explaining the failure of prior predictions. The model predicted negligible formation ofNO 2 (less than 10 ppb) in contrast to a significant fraction of the NO x in the measurements. Subsequent calculations suggested that all of the measured NO 2 was formed in the sampling tube, Fall 1991 and this presumption has since been verified by spectrographic measurements within a burner. The deviation of the predicted concentrations ofNO x for very fuel-rich mixtures from the measured values was presumed to be due to the failure of the postu late of quantitative conversion of the fuel to CO and H 2 O. This speculation was eventually confirmed as described below. The predictions of NOx for hexane with added fuel-nitrogen were in good agreement with the measurements ( except for very fuel-rich mixtures for the same reason as above )Y 31 The pre dictions for added fuel-sulfur were in qualitative agreement with the measurements, but the reduc tions in NO were less .cm X The work of Tang reemphasized the generalities noted above with respect to exploratory research. The synergetic value of combined experimentation and modeling was overwhelmingly apparent-par ticularly to Tang who had initially resisted the in cremental effort required by the latter. Again com mon wisdom, this time in terms of the pseudo-steady state postulate for the concentration of free radicals, was found to be misleading The detailed kinetic model not only improved the predictions ofNO x and CO, but also explained the failure of the early mod els. The prediction of NO 2 brought the process of measurement into question and subsequent model ing of the process of sampling demonstrated that the measurements of NO 2 and CO were indeed in error due to an inadequate rate of quenching On the other hand the extended range of experi ments with respect to equivalence ratio identified the limit of validity of post-flame modeling alone, and suggested a new direction for this research. The qualitative agreement between the experimental and the theoretical effects of fuel-sulfur on the formation of NO x was essential in obtaining acceptance from the reviewers of an article for publication, since this result is contradictory to both experimental meas urements and theoretical predictions for other types of combustion. On the other hand, the quantitative discrepancy between the measured and predicted effects of fuel-sulfur suggested an error in the mod eling which was examined and resolved in subse quent work. The results for fuel-sulfur suggest an other generality with respect to exploratory research. One must be prepared to justify ( in great detail and beyond any question ) radical results which invali date prior theories or generalities, particularly those of the reviewers themselves. CHEMICAL MODELING OF THE PREFLAME ZONE Lisa D. Pfefferle proposed modeling chemical 191

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kinetics in the preflame region as her doctoral re search. Since prior work had indicated the behavior of the thermally stabilized burner to be essentially fuel-independent, methane (for which the rate mecha nisms were presumed to be the simplest and most reliable) was chosen as a fuel. This research ap peared in advance to be straightforward, but (as indicated below) unexpected results and difficulties arose at every turn. First, a clean and non oscillatory flame could not be stabilized in the new, longer (508-mm) burner which had been cast. Sev eral weeks were spent recalibrating the metering devices, analyzing the fuel, making a new 254-mm long burner etc -all to no avail. In despair, she turned back to propane, which proved to bum stably as before She then tried ethane, which also burned satisfactorily, and chose it in preference to propane and methane for the subsequent studies Analysis of the data for methane revealed that the steady rate of flow fell in the laminar regime upstream from the flamefront as contrasted with the turbulent regime for ethane propane, and hexane. She speculated (and later confirmed by modeling) that this difference in behavior for methane was due to the absence of a C-C bond. One productive conse quence of this adventure (which was very disturbing at the time) was the construction of a graphical correlation for the regimes of stability in the TSB for various fuels, equivalence ratios, channel-diameters and channel-lengthsP 41 Another was a computational study of the adiabatic and non-adiabatic ignition of various fuels and mixtures thereof. l 15 161 The studies of stability confirmed that turbulent flow is barely achieved in a 9.52-mm channel, even with C 2 + fuels. It may be inferred that turbulent flow is unlikely to occur in ordinary chemical reactors since the much lower rates of reaction compared to those for combustion cannot be compensated for en tirely by a larger diameter.ll7J Therefore, the postu late of plug flow cannot be justified on the basis of turbulent flow in either homogeneous or heterogene ous reactors despite that implication in most text books on chemical reaction engineering. The computational studies of ignition by Pfefferle revealed that small concentrations of H 2 or C 2 + in the mixture greatly enhance the ignitability. Had ordinary natural gas been used (rather than chemically pure methane) in her initial experimen tal studies in the thermally stabilized burner, the difficulties which caused such agony and led to the switch to ethane would not have been encountered. On the other hand, the long-range effects of this experience were many and all positive, including 192 another example of the fundamental difference be tween thermally stabilized combustion and other processes, for which backmixing is a sufficient source of free radicals for rupture of the C-H bond Having established a model for the preflame re gion, Pfefferle encountered great difficulty with the stability of the solution of the set of differential equations representing the kinetic behavior ahead of the flamefront as contrasted with the single one for global kinetics. This characteristic difficulty in solving ordinary differential equations numerically is known as "stiffness" and arises from widely sepa rated eigenvalues, or in physical terms in this in stance from the critical dependence of the kinetics on minute concentrations of free radicals near the inlet of the burner. Brute-force calculations require intolerably small steps in space in that region Pfefferle surmounted this difficulty by using an ap proximate analytical solution for the very inlet, fol lowed by a standard scheme of marching. Her computations revealed incredibly complex behavior near the flamefront and resulted in very good predictions of NO and CO even for very fuel rich mixtures. The path of oxidation of ethane to CO and H 2 O was found to proceed through many inter mediates such as CH 2 OHP 81 This work confirms that, while a global kinetic model with adjustable empiri cal constants is able to predict the thermal behavior with reasonable accuracy, it cannot possibly be used to predict the concentrations of CO, NO, etc., either locally or overall. Pfefferle also modeled the pre flame as well as the post-flame zone for the combus tion of ethane with additions of ammonial 191 and of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. l 201 The predictions of NOx for pure ethane and for ethane plus ammonia were in good agreement with her own measured values, but the initial calculations for the added effect of hydrogen sulfide were not. She concluded that some important mechanisms were missing from the best current compilations. She also concluded that the greater reduction in fuel-NOx by fuel-sulfur in the TSB as compared to conventional burners was due to the higher temperatures in the immediate preflame zone and to the minimal backmixing. The contrasting chemical behavior for various conven tional burners was successfully modeled with the same kinetic mechanisms by postulating an adjust able combination of a plug-flow reactor and a per fectly mixed one. The productivity of Pfefferle's research was greatly enhanced relative to original expectations by the completely unexpected behavior of methane vis-a-vis other fuels in the TSB. This result was a Chemical Engineering Education

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consequence of the fortuitous use of chemically pure methane rather than natural gas. Many important findings followed: 1 ) the absence of a C-C bond was identified as the source of fuel-sensitivity; 2 ) the absence of backmixing was identified as the source of the difficulty in burning methane in the TSB as contrasted with other burners; 3) the study ofignita bility revealed the sensitivity of the TSB to small concentrations of C 2 + and H 2 ; and 4 ) the generalized analysis of stability resulted in the recognition that turbulent flow is unlikely in conventional reactors Other difficulties and anomalies were also a pre cursor to discovery. The stiffness of the free-radical, preflame kinetic model as compared to a global one resulted in the development of a new technique for that purpose. The failure of the predictions of the effect offuel-sulfur on the formation ofNO x to agree with experimental measurements in the TSB identi fied missing mechanisms as the culprit, and the different effects in a TSB and conventional burners were rationalized in terms of a combination of plug flow and perfectly mixed reactors-a classical appli cation of the methodology of chemical reaction engi neering. TESTING THE POSTULATE OF PLUG FLOW The study of stability by Pfefferle l 141 led to a fur ther inference not mentioned above Since the stable flow upstream from the flamefront is barely turbu lent, at least for a 9.52-mm channel the approxi mately seven-fold increase in absolute temperature and the associated approximately five-fold increase in dynamic viscosity result in a decrease of the Rey nolds number behind the flamefront to much less than 2100 for all conditions. Laminarization was therefore to be expected. In all of the above mentioned modeling, plug flow was postulated both upstream and downstream from the flamefront, ex cept for the evaluation of the heat-transfer coeffi cient for convection, which was estimated from em pirical correlations for fully developed turbulent flow upstream and for developing laminar flow down stream. The postulate of plug flow in the kinetic model was excused on the basis of the demonstra tion by Aris l 211 that the error in the conversion of a reactant due to the postulate of plug flow rather than laminar (parabolic) flow is less than 11 % for a first-order reaction and even less for higher orders Even so, I was very pleased when Lance R. Collins chose as his doctoral research to investigate lami narization behind the flamefront and its effect on the post-flame reactions. He computed the time averaged field of velocity using a low-ReynoldsFall 1991 number kmodel for turbulence l 221 and then the cor responding chemical compositions using a free radical kinetic model. l 231 His measured pressure gra dients and velocities at the centerline were in rea sonable accord with the predictions, but both his measured and predicted concentrations of CO were as much as 25 % higher than computed values based on plug flow. This unexpected result led to the reali zation that the generalization of Aris is not appli cable to the residual concentration of a reactant. For example, the possible error in the residual concen trations of a reactant by a first-order reaction due to assuming plug flow rather than laminar flow is un bounded. The formation of NO is not affected sig nificantly since it is effectively zero-order and as such is independent of the velocity distribution. The lesson here is that an authoritative gener alization although valid per se may not be valid for conditions that differ subtly. We were ourselves misled for over a decade by the accuracy of the pre dictions of NO to the extent of presuming a chemical-kinetic rather than a fluid-mechanical ex planation for the observed errors in the predictions of CO. It is noteworthy that none of the reviewers of our several papers seriously challenged the applica bility of the postulate of plug flow in our modeling. GENERATION OF STEAM AND THE REDUCTION OF RESIDUAL CO The very low concentrations of NO x produced in the thermally stabilized combustor are as noted above, somewhat at the expense of large residual concentrations of CO Furthermore NO continues to form in the products of combustion after leaving the burner insofar as they remain at high tempera ture. This period may be significant with conven tional boilers, etc. As his doctoral research, Mark R. Strenger chose to investigate a process devised to quench the formation of NO x in the boiler, but to allow continued oxidation of CO while generating steam. The equipment consisted of seven metal tubes ( contiguous with the channels of the combustor) that passed through a pool of boiling water contained in a cylindrical jacket. The process worked exactly as planned chemi cally l241 but the heat transfer coefficient for forced convection from the products of combustion was much higher than expected. l 251 A theoretical solution for the fluid mechanics and heat transfer using the same kmodel as that of Collins provided an explana tion .l261 The flow inside the combustor is in transi tion from turbulent to laminar flow As the gas is cooled inside the metal tubes, the viscosity decreases, 193

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the Reynolds number increases, and a transition back to turbulent flow occurs. Owing to this transi tion, a heat transfer coefficient higher than that for either fully developed laminar or fully developed turbulent flow is achieved. The turbulent-laminar transition explains, at least in part, the excessive heat transfer coefficients required in the models of Chen l 41 and Choi .f 81 The heat transfer coefficient for forced convection inside small tubes is much greater than that for radiative transfer and unconfined convection in conventional boilers, even without enhancement by transition The combined effect produces a reduction of several orders of magnitude in the size of the boiler Although the chemical behavior in Strenger 's research was much as expected the thermal/fluid mechanical behavior produced a favorable surprise which could be explained only through the theoreti cal modeling. CONCLUSIONS Combustion is a worthy subject of research by chemical engineers. It is of obvious practical impor tance, but has been the subject of only limited funda mental work As a result of recent progress in chemi cal kinetics and machine computation, it is respon sive to modeling with the classical techniques of chemical reaction engineering, and as a result of recent improvements in instrumental techniques, the in situ measurements necessary to test critically such modeling have become possible. Thermally stabilized combustion proved, as indi cated herein, to be a fortunate choice for this pro gram of research because the fluid mechanics are simple relative to all conventional processes of com bustion, while the thermal/chemical behavior differs radically in almost every respect The characteris tics of thermally stabilized combustion, which are noted herein only in a historical context, are sum marized elsewhere.C 271 Conclusions relative to the conduct of academic exploratory research were drawn above in connec tion with each of the separate undertakings, and only generalities in this regard will be listed here. 194 Most discoveries arise from experimentally observed anomalies (the existence of multiple stationary states was an exception in that it arose from modeling). Theoretical modeling is usually necessary to understand and explain observed anomalies, and thereby to determine whether they represent physical behavior or experimental error. The combination of experimentation and modeling is generally more productive than their separate performance. Consecutive individual efforts on a general problem often provide new insights. It follows that one of the most important roles of a faculty advisor is to encourage students to be on the alert for anomalies and to pursue and/or resolve them. A more difficult but worthwhile endeavor is to persuade theoretically inclined students to test their modeling experimentally and experimentally in clined students to develop a model to explain and extend their measurements. REFERENCES 1. Sundstrom D.W ., and S.W. Churchill Heat Transfer from Premixed Gas Flames in a Cooled Tube ," Ch e m Eng. Progr. Symp S e ri es, No. 30, 56 65 (1960) 2. Zartman, W.N ., and S.W. Churchill, Heat Transfer from Acoustically R eso nating Gas Flames in a Cylindrical Burner ," AIChE J ., 7 ,588 (19 61 ) 3 Chen, J L .P ., and S W Churchill, Stabilization of Flames in Refractory Tubes ," Combust. Flam e, 18, 37 ( 1972 ) 4. Chen, J.L -P. and S.W Churchill A Theoretical Model for Stable Combustion Inside a Refractory Tube, Com bust. Flam e, 18 27 ( 1972 ) 5. Bernstein M.H ., and S W Churchill, Multiple Stationary States and NO Production for Turbulent Flames in Re fractory Tube s," p. 1737 Sixteenth Symp (Intern.) on Com bustion, The C ombustion Institute Pittsburgh, PA ( 1977 ) 6. Choi, Byung and S W Churchill, Evaporation and Com bustion of Uniformly Sized Hexan e Droplet s in a Refrac tory Tube ," p 83, E v aporation-Combustion of Fu e l s, Ad vance s in Chemistry Series No 166 J.T Zung Ed., Amer Chem. Soc. Washington DC ( 1978 ) 7 Choi, Byung and S.W. Churchill A Technique for Ob taining Approximate Solutions for a Class of Integral Equations Arising in Radiative Transfer ," Int. J Heat Fluid Flow, 6, 42 (1985) 8. Choi, Byung and S.W Churchill, A Model for Combus tion of Gaseous and Liquid Fuels in Refractory Tubes ," p 917 Sev e nt ee nth Symp. (Intern.) on Combustion The Com bustion In stit ute Pittsburgh PA ( 1979 ) 9 Goepp, J.W. Harry Tang, Noam Lior, and S.W. Churchill, Multiplicit y and Pollutant Formation for the Combustion of Hexane in a Refractory Tube ," AIChE J ., 26 855 (1 980 ) 10 Tang, S -K. S W Churchill and Noam Lior The Form a tion of Thermal and Fuel NO for Radiantly Stabilized Combustion ," p. 73 Eighteenth Symp (Intern .) on Com bustion The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh PA ( 1981 ) 11 Tang, S.-K. S W Churchill, and Noam Lior The Effect of Fuel-Sulfur on NO Formation from a Refractory Burner, AIChE Symp. Series No. 211, 77 77 ( 1981 ) 12 Tang S.-K. and S W. Churchill A Theoretical Model for Combustion Reac t ions Inside a Refractory Tube ," Chem. E ng. Commun., 9 137 (1981) 13 Tang S -K. and S W. Churchill, The Prediction of NO Formation for the Combustion of Nitrogen-Doped Drop lets of Hexane Inside a Refractory Tube ," Chem Eng Commun ., 9, 151 (1981) 14 Pfefferle L.D ., and S.W Churchill, The Stability of Flames Inside a Refractory Tube, Combust Flame 56 165 ( 1984 ) 15 Pfefferle, L D. and S W. Churchill The Adiabatic Igni tion of Low-Heating Value Gases at Constant Pressure ," VDI Berichte No 607 1835 (1986); Chem .ln g. -Tech. 58, 138 ( 1986 ) 16 Pfefferle, L.D ., and S W Churchill, The Ignition o f Mix tures of Methane Ethane and Hydrogen in Air b y HomoChemical Engineering Education

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geneous Heating at Constant Pressure ," in review. 17 Churchill, S W. and L.D. Pfefferle, The Refractory Tube Burner as an Ideal Stationary Chemical Reactor," Instn. Chem Eng., Symp. Series No 87,279 (1985) 18. Pfefferle, L D., and S W. Churchill, "The Kinetic Modeling of Combustion of Ethane Inside a Refractory Tube Burner, Proc World Congr. III of Chem. Eng., Tokyo 4, 68 (1986 ) 19. Pfefferle, L.D. and S.W Churchill, "NO Production from the Combustion of Ethane Doped with Ammonia in a Thermally Stabilized Plug Flow Burner ," Combust Sci. Tech. 49, 235 (1986) 20. Pfefferle, L.D. and S.W. Churchill "Effect of Fuel Sulfur on Nitrogen Oxide Formation in a Thermally Stabilized Plug-Flow Burner," Ind Eng Chem. Res ., 28, 1004 ( 1989 ) 21. Aris, Rutherford, Introduction to the Analysis of Reactors Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1965) 22. Collins L.R., and S.W. Churchill, "The Decay of Turbu lence in a Tube Following a Combustion-Generated Step in Temperature," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., in press 23. Collins, L R ., and S.W Churchill Effect ofLaminarizing Flow on Post-Flame Reactions in a Thermally Stabilized Burner," Ind. Eng. Chem Res., 29, 456 (1990 ) 24. Strenger, M.R and S.W Churchill, "Formation of NO and Burnoff of CO During Thermal Quenching of the Products from Combustion in a Thermally Stabilized Burner," Twenty Second Symposium (Intern. ) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute Pittsburgh PA (1988) 25. Strenger, M.R., and S W Churchill, "The Intensification of Heat Transfer in Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow," Proc. Ninth Intern. Heat Trans Conf, Jerusalem Vol. 6, p. 199 ( 1990 ) 26. Strenger, M R. and S.W. Churchill, The Prediction of Heat Transfer from Burned Gases in Transitional Flow Inside a Tube," Num Heat Transfer, in press 27 Churchill, S.W "Thermally Stabilized Combustion," Chem. Eng Tech., 12, 249 (1989) 0 REVIEW: Thermodynamics Continued from page 183. dard enthalpy change for reactions as a function of temperature. Further, the units are now essentially all SI. There has been some rearrangement of mate rial that includes putting fugacity earlier and devot ing more material to EOS and high-pressure phase equilibria. Finally, there are revised examples and problems. Over the years we have used different editions of the text in our own teaching A recent experience was with students whose first course was in the engineering core, so this book was used for a subse quent chemical engineering course in chemical th ermodynamics. Our opinions on the success of the book are similar. In general, the examples and prob lems are very good-they are challenging but consis tent with the text. The exposure to all combinations of phase equilibria is highly desirable. Also, the pro grams included in the second edition can be quite useful to students in addressing real (and therefore complex) systems, as well as fostering an exploraFall 1991 tory mode of how nature actually behaves. This is especially valuable for students who must encounter the idealized or limited nonideal descriptions of physi cal chemistry thermodynamics. The connections of the text to other courses is difficult to measure. Our experience is that differ ences of approach and notation usually overwhelm the similarities that may appear to students in later courses unless the same instructor is involved. The text does achieve a significant level of detail, but this often leads to confusion about the funda mentals. The dilemma of how many formulae to put into the hands of students is solved by using exten sive tables of equations for different cases. Often, the student's reaction is to try to use these tables to look up a formula rather than to quickly derive the one they need for a problem. Another effect of this is to inadequately distinguish between fundamental concepts, approximate relationships, and specific il lustrations. The result is that students become un sure of which are the big things that should be focused on and remembered. It also leads to a great deal of the material being strictly mathematical, with little physical connections that are either macro scopic or molecular. Teachers will undoubtedly have differences with the author about his selection of correlations-that is inevitable in this area. In any case, the correla tions are often presented without indication of whether they are to be used in real work or whether they are merely illustrative. The corresponding states treatment involves graphs from Hougan, Watson, and Ragatz containing Z c but equations containing the acentric factor. While the treatment for mix tures is complete, it is quite mathematical and fol lows a considerable discussion of the fugacity of pure components, so the whole exposition appears less focused than it might be. All of the above issues may be dealt with by an experienced instructor who is comfortable with this difficult subject. In particular, highlighting the im portant material and simplifying complexities will be necessary. This takes a high level of concentra tion and a willingness to sacrifice some of the rigor of the text-this might ask for more commitment from students than they want to give. They will also have to deal with the text and the teacher appearing to conflict with one another. The qualities of the text are numerous. It has been adopted in a limited number of situations, ac cording to the latest AIChE Education Survey, and it is worthy of serious consideration at least as a reference. 0 195

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Random Thoughts ... MEET YOUR STUDENTS 4 Jill and Perr y RICHARD M. FELDER North Carolina Stat e University Raleigh NC 27695 7905 J ill and Perry are senior engineering students. They met at their freshman orientation seminar, started dating soon afterward, and have been to gether ever since. A friend once remarked that they had the only perfect relationship he had ever seen: there wasn t a single thing they agreed about! They had an appointment to meet in the student lounge at 3:00 this afternoon. It is now well past 4:00. Jill is sitting at a table alone, trying to work but frequently lo o king over at the door and scowling. Perry finally walks in, greets a few friends, walks over to Jill's table, and sits down. Perry: ( brightly ) "H i -get it all figured out yet? Jill : ( glaring ) Where were you?" Perry: Oh a few of us in Tau Beta Pi got going on the plans for the Awar d s B anquet and I lost track of the time .I'm not that late, am I?" Jill: Not for you, maybe, but for normal people an hour and twenty minutes might qualify for that late. Am I wrong or did we agree Sunday that we'd study for the design test from 3 to 4 today?" Perry: "Come on, lighten up We still have a couple of ho u rs till supper, and the exam's not until Friday-you know Professor Furze postponed it yesterday Jill: "I know he did, but we still had an a pp ointment and I've got a 331 lab report due Thursday and I planned to work on it between 4 and 6 today and I told you I'd go to a movie with you tonight. If we stu d y for the test now and go to the movie, when am Richard M. F eld er is a prof esso r o f chemical engi neering at North Carolina Sta t e University where he has been since 1969 ,. He r ec eived his BChE from City College of C U.N. Y and his PhD from Prince ton. He has worked at the A.E.R.E. Harwell and Brookhaven National Laboratory and has presented courses on chemical engineering principles reactor design process optimization and effective teaching to various American and foreigh industries and insti tut i ons. He is coauthor of the text Elementary Prin ciples of Chemical Processes (Wiley 1986 ) I supposed to do the report?" Perry: "You and your ridiculous schedules ... couldn't you have worked on the report while you were waiting for me? Jill: "Look, my ridiculous schedules are the only reason we're seniors now-if it were up to you to plan our lives we d still be working on our sophomore course assignments and the only time we d ever study for a test is all night the night before ... that is if you managed to remember we were having a test." Perry: "That s not true .. besides, which of us got the highest grades on the first two design exams?" Jill: "That has nothing to do with anything! Anyway, it s 4 : 30 and we haven't started yet .let s see ... maybe if we study for about 45 minutes now, then I'll work on the re port and we can get a pizza delivered, and that way we can leave at 7 to get to the movie yeah, I think that should Perry: "Why don't we just get started and see where we are at 7 and decide then what to do-we can always skip the movie or go and study some more when we get back if we need to. Jill: "No we need to set it up now or else we'll C o p y ri g ht C hE Di uisio n ABEE 1991 196 Chemical Enginee r ing Education

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Perry: Jill: Perry: Jill: just drift along and never get anything done. OK, let's say we work through these Chapter 5 problems for about twenty min utes and then we ... now what?" 'Tm just going for a Coke-be right back. Want something?" "Yeah, I want you for once in your life to sit still for more than thirty consecutive seconds and do what you said you would do-I've just been sitting here for over an hour waiting, and you finally get here and ten minutes later you're taking off again!" Relax-I'll just be a minute." (Disappears.) (Cens ored ) Jill is a judger and Perry is a perceiver. Judg ers tend to be organized and decisive: they like to set and keep agendas and reach closure on issues. Per ceivers tend to be spontaneous, flexible, and open minded; they like to keep their options open as long as possible and postpone decision-making until they feel sure they have all the relevant information. Judgers plan ahead for most things. As students they budget their time for homework and study so they don 't have to do it all at the last minute, and they can usually be relied on to turn in assignments on time. However, they tend to jump to conclusions, make decisions prematurely, and doggedly adhere to agendas that may no longer be appropriate. In their classes, judging students want clearly defined ex pectations, assignments, and grading criteria, and they don't like rambling lectures or class discussions that seem to have little point. Perceivers do as little planning as possible, preferring to remain flexible in case something The degree to which one favors one or the other of these types can be determined with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator a per sonality inventory based on Jung s theory of psychological types that has been administered to over one million people including many engineering students and professors. 1 1 2 1 Jill and Perry are illustrative of the two types, but not alljudgers are just like Jill and not all perceivers are just like Perry. The two catego ries represent preferences, not mutually exclusive categories : the preferences may be strong or weak, and all people exhibit characteristics of both types to different degrees. REFERENCES 1. Lawrence, People Types and Tiger Stripes 2nd Ed Cen ter for Applications of Psychological Type, Gainesville FL (1 982 ) 2 McCaulley, M.H., E.S Godleski C.F. Yokomoto, L. Har risberger, and E.D. Sloan, Applications of Psychological Type in Engineering Education," Eng Ed ., 73 (5), 394-400 (1983) Fall 1991 better comes up. They tend to work in fits and starts, alternating between periods of unfocused ac tivity and frantic races to meet deadlines. They have trouble sticking to agendas, tend to start many more projects at one time than they can possibly finish, and are often in danger of missing assignments and doing poorly on tests due to insufficient study time. However, they are more likely than judgers to be aware of facts or data that don't fit their mental picture of a situation and in fact may go out of their way to look for such contradictions. When they don't fully understand something they tend to keep it open gathering more information or simply waiting for inspiration to strike rather than accepting the first plausible explanation that occurs. Their flexi bility and tolerance of ambiguity will make some of them superb researchers. While students of both types may become excel lent engineers and managers, the working habits of strong perceivers may make getting through school a major challenge for them, and anything that can be done to help them survive is worth attempting. They benefit from opportunities to follow their curi osity and work best on tasks that they have chosen themselves. They are not helped much by advice to work at a steady pace and not leave things for the last moment, which may be too radical a departure from their natural style to be manageable; however, it might help to ask them to figure out how late they can start to work on the assignment or study for the test and still do everything else they have to do. Perceivers rarely look at the holes they are digging themselves into through lack of planning. If they can be persuaded to itemize the things they intend to do they might be convinced that without some planning they don't have a prayer of doing the things they have to do. Epilogue: Ten years later Jill and Perry got married shortly after gradu ation, managing (barely) to survive Perry's twenty minute late arrival at the church and Jill's insis tence on laying out an hour-by-hour schedule for their honeymoon. Jill got a job in a design and con struction firm, eventually became a highly success ful project manager, and is now in line for a vice presidency. Perry went on to graduate school, got a PhD, and is now an eminent researcher at a national laboratory. It took years but they finally figured out a good way to get along with each other. 0 Unfortunately, I haven't been able to figure out what it might be. 197

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.iillfili~..____:_ c _:_ u r, r, _:_ _:_ u / _:_ u m ___ _____ ~) RISK REDUCTION IN THE CHEMICAL ENGIN E ERING CURRICULUM MARVIN FLEISCHMAN University of Louisville Louisville KY 40292 S ince Bhopal words such as hazard, risk, waste, and chemical s eem to be synonymous to the pub lic and the media There is increasing public gov ernment and industry awareness and concern ove r a number of problems: hazardous and toxic chemi cals in the workplace the environment and home ; increasing quantities of waste and costs of disposal along with limited treatment capacity; industrial and transportation spills and accidents involving chemicals; contamination of water supplies; etc. These concerns are being manifested by more ( and t i ghter ) local state and federal regulations At the same time there is public opposition to things such as siting o f incinerators landfills, and indus trial operations involving hazardous materials. In response to the problem, the US Environmental Protection Agency created the phrase Risk Reduc tion Engineering as part of a multimedia-based "Pol lution Prevention program. The goal is to minimize wastes that present current and future risks to human health and the environment With regard to chemical engineering the risk reduction concept encompasses a broader spectrum which includes safety, health and loss prevention as well as waste management and environmental controls. Risk reduction also deals with the techno logical/societal interface in the sense that manage ment, regulations and public relations are all com ponents. All of these concepts are implicit in chemical en gineering education. However despite the apparent job opportunities for chemical engineers in, for e x ample, environmental engineering, risk reduction still seems to be largely ignored in the curriculum In particular chemical engineering will play a Copyright ChE Divis io n, ABEE 199 1 19 8 major role in risk reduction by developing assess ing, and applying the technology that will predict, measure control, and reduce risks from hazardous materials. It is thus timely ( and perhaps manda tory) that, in the chemical engineering curriculum, greater emphasis be placed on topics such as waste reduction safety, and health While it is not neces sary to make experts of all the students, the under graduate program is a logical place to begin provid ing a background for recognition of potential haz ards and an awareness of safe and clean process and product designs. Risk reduction can be addressed in most chemical engineering courses, from general chemistry to plant design, and the concepts should be easily understood by the students. [ lJ I do not believe that new engineering programs in safety and health or waste-reduction engineering are needed such as those that exist, for example, in environmental engineering. Much of the relevant knowledge and tools are implicit in the existing chemical engineering curricula. However, concepts such as hazardous materials, engineering controls, and materials substitution, are not usually covered, and could, at the least, be presented through ex ample and homework problems such as those avail able from the AIChE Center for Chemical Process Safety .[ 21 Risk reduction can be viewed as a unifying gen eral concept that will provide an awareness, sensi tivity knowledge and positive attitude for the stu dents' future stewardship of health, safety, and the Marvin Fleischman is a professor of chemical engi neering and Director of the Waste Minimization As sessment Center at the University of Louisville He received his BChE from City College of New York and his MS and PhD from the University of Cincin nati He has worked for Monsanto Exxon Amoco, U.S Public Health Service NIOSH and the Anny. His research interests include waste reduction mem brane separations and health effects Chemical Engineering Education

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environment. Inclusion of these areas in the curricu lum could be facilitated without adding numerous courses by incorporating them in the "Risk Reduc tion" spectrum. For example, in the materials and energy balances course, the properties, effects, and management of hazardous materials can be presented from the viewpoint of simultaneous concerns in the workplace, home, and environment. In this paper, inclusion of risk reduction in the curriculum will be explored, and current related teaching efforts at the University of Louisville will be described. General principles and commonalities, synergies, and trade-offs between the components will be emphasized RI S K REDU C TION C OU RSE S AT LO U I S VILLE Several ideas for including safety and health in the chemical engineering curriculum have been pre viously presentedY 3 1 These ideas can also be put into the general framework of risk reduction since many of them also pertain to environmental con cerns. At the University of Louisville, risk reduction was incorporated into the material and energy bal ances course when I last taught it. A one-hour course entitled" Safety, Health, and Environment," will be mandatory for juniors in the spring 1991 term and a two-course sequence, "Safety and Health and "In dustrial Waste Management," was developed as first year graduate (500-level) electives. (These two courses would also be suitable as senior electives, but our seniors do not have electives.) Graduate students can also take elective courses in "Mem brane Separations" and "Chemodynamics," which are both related to risk reduction. Graduate students at the University of Louisville include our fifth-year Master of Engineering CM.Eng. ) students. A common feature in the material and energy balances, safety and health, and industrial waste management courses is a segment we call "In the News." During the first five minutes of class, articles from the local newspaper, Time magazine, Chemical & Engineering News etc., which are related to ei ther chemical safety and health or environmental is sues are discussed. Since Louisville is a highly industrialized city there is always some local or state news that the students can relate to, and this height ens their interest in the courses. In my opinion, the day-to-day real-world relevance of these courses is an imp o rtant feature. In contrast to more traditional courses, students asked many questions. It is per haps not so surprising to find that students are interested in risk reduction and that many have choFall 1991 In particular, chemical engineering will play a major role in risk reduction by developing, assessing, and applying the technology that will predict, measure, control, and reduce risks from hazardous materials. sen chemical engineering as a career for that very reason. Sophomore students interview for their first co operative internship position while taking the mate rial and energy balances course and the M.Eng. students are interviewing for permanent positions at the same time. Both groups asked the interview ers about the company's health, safety, and environ mental practices and opportunities. Feedback from the interviewers indicated that this helped to create a positive impression of our students After their first co-op position, many of the sophomore students reported that they had dealt with risk reduction ma terial covered in the material and energy balances course, e.g., materials s afety data sheets oxygen demand of waste-waters. Specifically, some of the teaching modules from the AIChE Center for Chemical Process Safetyl 21 were used in the material and energy balances course The students were also required to fill out a materi als safety data sheet. Next t i me I teach the course problems developed from waste minimization assess ments will be incorporated into the course e g ., re covery of nickel salts from electroplating rinse waters. COMMON FORMAT OF COURSES Safety and Health and Industrial Waste Man agement" are broad-based surve y courses offered at the first-year graduate level in the fall and spring semesters, respectively. We attempt to describe these courses in a manner that emphasizes generic and common features. Some of the risk reduction con cepts can be covered in either course or in both. The course outlines by topic are shown in Table 1 and the textbooks used are listed in Table 2. The same generic topics are covered in both courses, including regulations and standards properties ef fects and characteristics of hazardous and toxic ma terials, modeling, heirarchy of management and con trol options preventive measures such as substitu tion and inventory control, control technology, and risk assessment By necessity there is some overlap of specifics between the two courses, even though 199

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repetition is minimized. For example, SARA Title III is discussed in both courses. However OSHA regu lations are discussed primarily in Safety and Health and RCRA primarily in Industrial Waste Manage ment Threshold limit values while referred to i n Industrial Waste Management is covered in depth in the safety and health course while hazardous waste lists are discussed in Industrial Waste Man agement Hazardous waste characteristics are di s cussed in both courses but with different emphasis. However in each course the commonalities and rela tionships between the different aspects of risk re duction are pointed out Both courses include student team aud i ts and inspections In Safety and Health safety and health inspections of the chemical engineering laboratories were done while in Industrial Waste Management the students d i d a waste minimizat i on assessment at a local plant. The students found the inspections to be eye-opening interesting educational and fun. Either of these courses is suitable for seniors and to help meet accreditat i on guidelines the y can easily be structured to i nclude design and to enhance student communication skills As an aside student partici pation in safety, health and waste reduction assess ments is an excellent teaching tool. Several students TABLE 1 Course Outline by Topics Safety and Health Course Generic and Common T opic s Industrial Waste Management Cours e ________________ Materials Propertie s: Effe c ts and Hazard s _______________ Toxicology Epide mi o l ogy Fires an d exp l osions Reactivity OSHA, TSCA, HMTA, SARA (W or k e r r i g ht to know ) D ose res p onse Health/environmenta l effec t s of poll u tants Ris k State of th e environme nt Hazardous waste characteristics R egu lations and Liabili ty ------------------RCRA, CWA, CAA, CERCLA, HMTA, TSCA SARA (Comm u nity right t o know, t oxics release inventory) ___________ Emi ss ion Sources Types and Chara c teristics: Cr iteria and D e finition s __________ Gases, vapors, particu l ates Thresho l d li mit values Other hazar d classificatio n s, e.g., NFPA Materia l s safety data sheets Hazardous/toxic waste lis t s and characteristics D O T guidelines Hazardous waste generator reports Air t oxics Wastewater parameters ______________________ Mod e lin g _____________________ Source mode l s fo r wo r ker exposure R adioactivity concentration guide for water Air pollution: Smog 0 3 NO VOCs Ambient carbon monoxide standard Cob ur n, Forster, Kane equation Di spersion _______________ Management Hazards Identification In s pe c tion s ______________ C h ec kl is t s, s ur veys, reviews, HAZ O P Acciden t i nves ti gations Risk assess m e nt fau lt and event trees, pro b a b ili t y Hierarc h y for prevent i on and contro l Environmen t a l audi t s Waste minimization assessments ________________ Prevention Protection Engin ee ring Control s ______________ Protect i ve equipment and clothing, Materials s u bstitution, product/process Underground storage tanks monitoring modification Transportation of wastes Isola t ion, ventilation Inventory control Industrial wastewater pretreatment Relief va l ves Emergency response, spill prevention Waste reduction resource recovery, rec y cling Suppression offires and exp l osions contro l Thermal treatment Landfill disposal C h emica l physical, and bi ological treatment Injection we ll d isposal _____________________ Sit e Remediation ____________________ Worker protection Hazard ranking system Containment/treatment technologies Financial considerations -------------------Student Team Proj ec t-------------------Safety a n d h ea lth ins p ection of chemica l engineering building 200 Waste minimization assessment of local manufacturing facility Chemical Engine e ring Education

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are participating in a funded waste minimization assessment program and are involved with the prepa ration of preliminary engineering feasibility studies for a variety of different manufacturing facilities Two of these students have received job offers from major companies to work in waste reduction after graduation. In general, the courses are more descriptive and qualitative than quantitative and theoretical, al though a limited number oftheoretical/calculational problems are assigned. Safety and Health is the more technical course, primarily because of the re cent availability of a new chemical engineering text book. [4J However, the students are made aware of the relevant principles and techniques from traditional courses and how to apply them. For example, mate rial from Transport Phenomena[ 5 1 is used to estimate relative evaporation rates of solvents as a measure of fire and health hazards and to estimate solvent loss. With regard to risk reduction, the students already know much of the necessary technical con tent, but need to be shown where and how to use it In this sense, the instructor serves as more of a facilitator than a subject-matter expert Since safety, health, waste management, etc., cover such a wide range of topics, it would be diffi cult for any one instructor to have sufficient overall expertise. Also, the available textbooks in these sub jects do not cover many relevant topics. Therefore, quest speakers are used to lecture in areas that they work in, such as waste-water treatment, air-pollu tion control, and toxicology. The part-time students TABLE 2 Textbooks and Other Required Materials Safety and Health Crowl and Louvar Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals wit h Applications, Prentice Hall, 1990 Hammer, Occupational Safety Management and Engineering, Prentice-Hall 1985 ACGIH, Threshold Limit Va lu es and Biological Exposure Indices (latest edition) NIOSH Po cket Guide to Chemical Hazards Industrial Waste Management Wentz, Hazardous Waste Management McGraw-Hill, 1989 Martin and Johnson Hazardous Waste Manag e ment Engi neering, Van Nostrand-Reinhold, 1987 Dawson and Mercer Hazardous Waste Management, Wiley Interscience, 1986 (not used in course, but recommended) Other Hoover, Hancock, Hutton, Dickerson, and Harris, Health, Safety and Environmental Control Van Nostrand-Reinhold, 1989 Fall 1991 are an excellent classroom resource, and some of them also make presentations related to their work. They can often answer classroom questions better than I can, and they provide excellent input to class room discussions. A partial listing of some of the topics presented by guest and student speakers in given in Table 3. Field trips and plant visits are also part of both courses (see Table 4). During some field trips, in plant lectures are given The guest lectures and field trips were highly valued by the majority of the stuSafety and Health TABLE3 Guest Lectures "Applica tions of Toxicology D ata to Chemical Op erations," by Health and Safety Director, Rohm & Haas "Ma t erial Safety Data Sheets by Occupational Health Consultant "Du Pont Philosophy and Management System for S afety and Health by Maintenance Supervisor, Du Pont "Fire Safety and Industrial Hygiene," by Senior Loss Control Engineer, Trave l ers Insurance "Cleanup of Superfund Hazardous Waste Sites," by Emer gency Response Engineer, EPA Contractor "Health Hazard Identification, by Fie ld Inspector, Kentucky Department of Labor Industrial Waste Management "Environmental Management in th e Chemical Industry," b y Environmental Affairs Manager, Du Pont "Environmental Regulations, by Environmental Attorney or Assistant Commissioner, Kentucky Department for Environ mental Protection Legal Liability for Environmental Practitioners," by Environmenta l Attorney Industrial Waste-Water Pretreatment and the Morris Forman Wast e -Water Treatment Plant," by the Director, Industrial Wastes Metropolitan Sewer District "Air Pollution Modeling and the Local Smog Situation," b y Dir ector, Jefferson County Air Pollution Control Board "Prevent ion Containment and R esponse to Hazardous Materials Spills," by Spill Control Engineer Metropolitan Sewer District "Leaking Underground Storage Tanks, by Consultant "Waste Incineration, by USEPA Speaker or Technical Operations Manager Louisville Incinerator "EPA Programs in Waste Minimization, by Risk R e du ction Engineer USE P A "Environmen tal Audits for Property Acquisition," by Consultant "Remediation and Closure at a RCRA Landfill," b y Environ ment a l Manager Du Pont "St ate of the Environment in Kentucky," b y Environmental Activist Attorney "Transportation and Dispo sa l of Hazardous Wastes and Waste Oils," by Hazardous Waste Management Brok er "Solid Waste Disposal and Landfi ll Design: Engineering and the Decision Making Process by Director, Di vision of Waste Management, Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection 201

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dents and they particularly appreciated the net working aspect, as did I. Many useful movies and video tapes are avail able in safety, health and environmental areas, and they are also used in class (see Table 5). The videos many of which are excellent dramatizations, often depict things much better than the instructor or a text can. Study guides for the videos in the form of assigned questions are given to the students. Be cause of the deficienc i es within the textbooks and the lack of breadth and currency of the topics nu merous additional materials are also given to the student s ( see Table 6 ) PART TIME STUDEN T S ATTRACTED TO COURSE The primary prerequisite for Safety and Health and Industrial Waste Management is a BS in sci ence, math, engineering or its equivalent. Thus, the courses are taken by first -y ear graduate and M Eng students from other departments along with part time students from industry consulting firms, and government agencies. Many part-time students come from as far as sixty miles awa y The courses are offered on a one night per week basis, 2-hours 45-minutes per class, so as to attract part-time students. Announcements of the courses are placed in newsletters of various regional and statewide professional organizations such as the Ken tucky Wast e Reduction Centers and the Air and Waste Management Association The first offering of Industrial Waste Manage ment drew about thirty-five students, two-thirds of which were part-time students Several of the part time students also took Safety and Health which was taught the following year with fifteen students ( nine of them part-time ) In the second offering In dustrial Waste Management had eighteen students ( fourteen of them part-time ) and Safety and Health had ten students ( nine of them part-time). These courses are being recommended to co-workers, and the part-time students have requested a d ditional courses in risk reduction In response, we plan to offer a course entitled Waste Reduction, Treatment, and Disposal in the future. Many of the part-time students are not pursuing a degree and thus can register through Continuing Studies rather than through the usual, more tedi ous, routes Students not applying the credits to wards a degree, along with non-chemical engineer ing students ( who may lack some of the technical 202 T ABLE 4 Fi e ld Tri ps and P la n t Visi ts Safety and Health Safe t y Fea tur es in E mul sion Po l ymer i za ti o n Process: Ro hm & H aas Eme r ge n cy R es p onse Sim ul a ti on: J efferson Co un ty H azardo u s Ma t er i a l Mutua l Aid Gro u p Hazardo u s W as t e I nci n erator Sit ing H e ar i n g Industrial Waste Management Was t e Wa t er Treatme n t Plant : Metropoli t an Sewer D istric t Industr i a l Was t e Wa t er Pretreatment P l ant: General Electric M un icipa l So li d Was t e Inc i nerator Ind u strial Landfill: Waste Managemen t Company Was t e Mini m ization Assess m ent: BASF TABLES Vi deo T apes a n d Films 1 Safety and Health Acceptable Risk ABC Te l evision Safety in the Chemical Process Industries, AIChE-7 Tape Series Safety and L oss Prevention Firs t I mpress i o n s BASF C h e mi ca l T ox i city and How it Affects Yo u and Yo u r J ob Ce l anese M SDS: Co rn e r s t o n e of C h e mi ca l Safety, ITS H ea lth Ha z ard Eva lu at i on: E n viro nm e ntal-Epid e mi o lo gica l S tud y of W orke r s Ex p ose d t o T o lu e n e Dii socy anat e, W es t Vir g i nia U ni versi t y D u a l Protection NI O SH, (Pain t s and Coa ti ngs) Firs t Consideratio n s, NI O SH (Pesticide Formulating Plants) Case Studies Flixborough Bhopal BLEVE NFP A Co n fined Space Entry NI O SH Oxidize r s: I de n tification, Properties, a n d Safe Hand l ing, CMA Industrial Waste Management D o in g So m e thin g C M A Th e Need to Kn ow, CMA Th e B uria l Gro un d, ( Hazar d o u s W as t e Dumpin g ) T h e Toxics R e l ease In ventory: Mee tin g th e C h a ll e n ge, EPA I n Your Own Back Yard NFPA (Underground Storage Tanks) Tank Closure Without Tears : An Inspectors Guide Beyond Bus i ness as Usua l EPA (Hazar d ous Waste Manage me nt) Mari n e Shale Processo r L et's C l ean U p A m er i ca, (In cinera tio n / R ecycl in g) P o ll u t io n P reve nti o n b y Was t e Mi nimi z at io n 3M C om p any L ess i s Mo r e : Polluti o n P reve nt io n P ays, EP A (W as t e Minimi za tion) Common to Both Course s Carcinogens Anti-Carcinogens and Risk Assess m e n t, Co un c il fo r C h emica l Researc h Firs t on t h e Sce n e, CMA (Eme r gency R esponse) Teamwork, CMA (Emergency Res p onse ) D ry P aint Str i pping Promaco/Sch li ck ( W as t e R eduction, Saf ety ) 1 Not al l u sed in a given semes t er Chemical Engineering Education

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background), can take the course on a pass/fail or audit basis to minimize the pressure of grades. The courses are taught on an informal, relaxed basis (similar to a workshop or seminar) which enhanced the students' enjoyment For example, on some nights when movies or video tapes were being shown, pop corn was served. Because of the maturity of the students, it was a pleasure to be on a more collegial basis with them, and as pointed out earlier, the part time students are an excellent classroom and net working resource. SYNERGIES BETWEEN APPLICATIONS Some examples of the unifying concepts of risk reduction, resultant synergies, and trade-offs are briefly explored. These approaches can be used in either of the two survey courses or as a component of any appropriate required course One example of synergy is in finishing operations such as paint and coating applications The same TABLES Examples of Supplemental Handout Materials Safety and Health Materials Safety Data Sheet and Glossary Carbon Monoxide Health Effects and Standards Health Hazard Classification, BASF Safety and Hazards Evaluation Review-Proto co l Rohm & Haas OSHA Hazards Communication Standards Industrial Waste Management Glossary of Environmental Terms Leaking Underground Storage Tanks: Th e New RCRA Requirements EPA Unde rstandin g th e Small Quantity Generator Hazardous Was t e Rul es: A Handb ook for Small Business EPA Used Oil Fu e l Classification Under RCRA Definitions, Important RCRA Dates (Land Bans), and TCLP Requirements Environmenta l Progress and Cha ll enges : EPA 's Update, 1989 Waste Minimization: Environmental Quality wit h Economic Benefits, EPA 1988 SARA Title III S ection 313 Summary Report (Ken tucky), County R e l eases Estimating Releases and Waste-Treatment Efficiencies for the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Form Common to Both Courses Emergency R esponse Guidebook, DOT Hazardous Materials Warning Placards DOT Federal Statutes and the Control of Toxic Substan ces, Kentucky D epartment for Environmental Protection Hazardous Waste Sites and Ha z ardou s Sub sta n ce Emergen c ies NIOSH 1982 Explaining Environmental Risk EPA The 13 Commandments of Hazardous Materials R esponse Fall 1991 properties that make wastes and emissions from these operations hazardous also contribute to expo sure that endangers employee health and plant safety. Thus, waste reduction measures will simul taneously benefit employee safety and health, and vice versa. These measures include substitute mate rials and alternative methods, such as aqueous-based rather than solvent-based paints, powder coatings, and airless or electrostatic spray guns Another syn ergy that occurs with waste reduction is conserva tion of raw materials. For example, increased recy cling of plastics can simultaneously reduce depend ence on foreign crude oil. Trade-offs or conflicts can also be shown (for ex ample) between waste minimization and quality management, and between safety and waste disposi tion considerations. Reworking of off-specification and waste solids from tank cleaning into useful prod ucts is a waste minimization technique. Spills on the one hand must be properly retained and disposed of so as not to damage the environment. On the other hand, a reactive (but improper) response to a haz ardous materials spill might be to flush it immedi ately down the drain. WHAT IT WILL TAKE Some preliminary ideas concerning the inclusion of the risk reduction spectrum into the curriculum have been presented and exemplified in this paper. Because of the increasing importance of risk reduc tion to chemical engineers further exploration of ways to incorporate these concepts seems manda tory. Availability of teaching materials such as the problem sets available from the AIChE Center for Chemical Process Safety can facilitate this process Hopefully such materials will be available from the newly-established AIChE Center for Waste Reduc tion Technology. REFERENCES 1. Fleischman, M ., "Rationale for Incorporating Health and Safety into the Curriculum," Chem Eng. Ed., 22, 30 (1 988 ) 2. Center for Chemical Process Safet y, "Stu dent Probl ems: Safety, Health and Loss Prevention in Chemical Proc esses," AIChE ( 1990) 3 Lane A.M. "Incorporating Health Safety, Environmental, and Ethical Issues into the Curriculum," Chem. Eng Ed. 23 70 (1989) 4 Crowl and Louvar Chemical Pro cess Safety: Fundamen tals With Applications Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ ( 1990 ) 5 Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, John Wiley and Sons New York, NY p 522 (1960) 0 203

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RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES IN CERAMICS SCIENCE AND E N GINEERING Torvo KODAS, JEFFREY BRINKER, ABHAYA DATYE, DOUGLAS SMITH University of New Mexico Albuquerque NM 87131 T he United States aerospace automotive, bio materials, chemical, electronics, energy, met als, and telecommunications industries collectively employ more than 7 million people in materials sci ence and engineering and have sales in excess of $1.4 trillion. Recent reports l1 1 have called the 1990s the "Age of Materials and have concluded that the field of materials science and engineering is enter ing a period of unprecendented intellectual chal lenge and productivity. Chemical engineers, with their background in reaction engineering and trans port processes, have the skills necessary to make significant contributions in this area A strong component of materials science and en gineering is ceramics science and engineering. Al though many applications of ceramics have in the past been low-tech, a vast number of new high-tech ceramics have been developed in recent years, open ing up a large number of new and exciting applica tions for a wide variety of industries. Ceramic super conductors may provide new methods of energy trans mission and new types of electronic devices Elec tronic ceramics such as BaTiO 3 and SrTiO 3 are used to make capacitors and sensors. Ferroelectric ceramTolvo T. Kodas received his BS (1981) and PhD {1986) from the University of California Los Ange les During that period he also worked at the ALCOA Research Center. He was a visiting scientist at the IBM Almaden Research Center from 1986 until 1988 when he joined the faculty at the University of New Mexico. C. Je ff r ey Br i nk er received his BS MS, and PhD degrees from Rutgers University and joined the Ce ramic Development Division at Sandia National Labo ratories in 1979 He is presently a member of the technical staff and a University of New Mexico / San dia National Laboratory professor of chemistry and chemical engineering ics can be used to produce memories for computers A variety of metal oxides, nitrides and silicides are used in computer chips and to make substrates for the chips themselves. Ceramics can also be used to make chemical sen sors for detecting small amounts of hazar d ous sub stances for applications in hazardous waste control. They are also used as catalysts for chemical reac tions or as catalyst supports in the chemical indus try These and other applications have led to a tre mendous interest in the synthesis, processing, and characterization of ceramic materials in the form of powders and films. The chemical engineering department at the University of New Mexico dramatically expan d e d its program in ceramics science and engineering follow ing the establishment of a National Science Fo unda tion-supported UNM/NSF Center For Mic roEngi neered Ceramics ( CMEC). Numerous resea r ch proj ects, many in the areas mentioned above, are now available to interested students These opportuni ties are particularly interesting since deman d is high for students with a background in ceramics, with fewer than forty PhDs being grante d in the United States each year in Ceramics Science and Engineer ing (with roughly half of them going to foreign stu dents ). This article briefly describes some of the research Abhaya K. D a tye received his BS from the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (1975) his MS from the University of Cincinnati (1980) and his PhD from the University of Michigan (1984) and has been a member of the chemical e n gi n eering faculty at the University of New Mexico since 1984 Douglas M S mi th received his BS (1975) and MS (1977) from Clarkson University and his PhD (1982) from the University of New Mexico Previous posi tions include Unilever Research and Montana State University He is currently professor of chemical engineering and serves as Director of the UNMINSF Center for Micro-Engineered Ceramics. Copyr i ght ChE Di vision, ASEE 1991 204 Chemical Engineering Education

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A strong component of matrerials science and engineering is ceramics science and engineering. Although many applications of ceramics have in the past been low-tech, a vast number of new high-tech ceramics have been developed in recent years, opening up a large number of new a n d exciting applications for a wide variety of industries. opportunities in ceramics science and engineering at the University of New Mexico and the unique inter disciplinary nature of the projects which involve in vestigators from chemical engineering and other departments, from centers at UNM involved in ma terials, and from Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories RESEARCH AREAS The authors of this paper have extensive pro grams in ceramics science and engineering. Their projects span ceramics synthesis, processing, and characterization Jeffrey Brinker is investigating sol-gel proc essing of ceramics-films, fibers, powders, and bulk ; physics and chemistry of film deposition from liquid precursors; defects in glasses; controlled porosity materials for sensors, membranes, and adsorbents; nanoscale materials; multifunctional composites; and fractals. Sol-gel processing (see Figure 1 ) refers to the room temperature formation of inorganic materials from molecular precursors. l 21 lnorganic salts or metal organic compounds dissolved in aqueous or organic solvents are hydrolyzed and condensed to form poly mers composed of M-0-M bonds. These polymers may be deposited on substrates to form thin films, drawn into fibers, or cast in molds and dried to form "near-net-shape solids ." Prior to drying, the struc tures of the polymers are often described by fractal geometry/ 31 a consequence of kinetically-limited growth mechanisms such as reaction-limited cluster aggregation .l 41 The properties of fractal objects may be exploited to prepare materials (films, fibers, or bulk) with precisely controlled pore structures (e.g., pore size, surface area, and percent porosity). Films with controlled pore sizes l 51 may be used as molecular sieves to impart steric selectivity to sen sor devices or to separate a mixture of gases on the basis of size. The inherent porosity of sol-gel-derived materi als provides access to reagents throughout the mate rial's interior. Surfaces may be modified by reactions with gas or liquid reagents, and secondary phases may be depositied within the pores to form nanoFall 1991 SOL-GEL-PROCESSING +SOL SOL G) FIBERS @ ~ ........ I ........ ORDERED ARRAYS OF GELATION UNIFORM PARTICLES EVAPORATION STRUCTURAL CERAMICS r.-. I =W--9><~ XEROGEL FILM l SENSOR HEAT 4OPTICA L COATINGS CATALYTIC DtELECTRIC PROTECTIVE DENSE GLASS FILM 0 -+ ~k1f EXTRACTION GEL AEROGEL if~~ 0 1 f& f I XEROGEL ORY HEAT! GLASS CERAMIC S I SEALING GLASSES -+ CATALYST SUPPORTS GLASSES D ABEROPTIC PREFORMS CONTROLLED PORE GLASS DENSE GLASS FIGURE 1. Processes occurring during sol-gel process ing of materials scale composite materials. l 61 Alternatively, secondary phases may be incorporated in the liquid or sol. Under certain conditions deposition of the diphasic sol results in a composite film in which the second phase is embedded in a dense gel matrix. Zeolite/gel composites made by this procedure can impart mo lecular recognition capabilities to sensor surfaces .l7 1 Sol-gel-derived materials are highly metastable; their structures are dictated by kinetics rather than by thermodynamics .l 21 Kinetic pathways may be ex ploited to prepare novel inorganic materials. Only when these materials are processed in the vicinity of the glass transformation temperature do their struc tures approach those of their conventionally pre pared counterparts. lBJ Abhaya Datye is interested in: heterogeneous catalysis and surface science; structure and proper ties of thin films and interfaces in ceramics and semiconductors; and materials characterization by electron microscopy. Phenomena occurring at the interfaces be twe en dissimilar materials have enormous implications in materials we use every day. For instance, the strength of the bond between a metal and a ceramic deter mines the properties of glass metal seals as well as the high-temperature stability ofheterogeneous cata lysts. Sometimes a weaker interface is desired (as in 205

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a fiber-reinforced composite) to redistribute stresses at the interface and deflect cracks to make a brittle ceramic tougher. In semiconductors the performance of a device is often determined by the impurities and defects at an interface. Therefore, engineering of such complex materials requires a good understand ing of the interface region and the means of tailoring the interface to achieve desired properties. Since even a monolayer of a hydrocarbon can affect the wetting of water on a solid substrate, it is apparent that interfacial properties are determined by changes occurring over the scale of atomic dimensions. It is therefore necessary to use probes having high spa tial resolution as well as those that give chemical information from the near-surface region. In the re search at the University of New Mexico, high-resolu tion transmission electron microscopy and surface sensitive spectroscopies are used to study these materials and correlate their structure with proper ties relevant to their commercial applications. One project involves the study of thin-film coat ings of non-oxide ceramics and their interactions with ceramic substrates.l 91 We are examining the potential of boron nitride for use as a high-tempera ture coating material for fiber-reinforced compos ites. The interaction of BN with oxide ceramics is quite strong, and BN appears to readily wet and coat these substrates. However, a detailed studyl 101 of the atomic structure of this interface reveals that the inter atomic spacing between the BN sheets and MgO is larger than dis tances normally associated with chemical bonding (see Figure 2). Other projects deal with funda mental studies of oxide surfaces in order to understand the surface Mean= 11.85 chemistry involved in preparing monolayer and multilayer films of other oxides for potential catalytic applications. l 11 121 Studies of surface structure in small metal particles I I I Toivo Kodas is studying: the formation and proc essing of electronic, mechanical, and superconducting ceramic powders; laser-processing of materials; chemical vapor deposition of ceramics and metals for microelectronics applications; and aerosol physics and chemistry. High-purity powders with controlled chemical compositions, particle size distributions, and micro structures are required as precursors for fabrication of superconducting and conventional ceramic parts. The goal of this work is to develop gas-phase routes for the formation of powders with these characteris tics. Both gas-to-particle conversion and intrapar ticle reaction processes are being examined. Research is focused on obtaining a basic understanding of the physical and chemical processes controlling multi component powder production by chemical reaction, and processing these powders to produce ceramics with unique electrical, optical, and mechanical prop erties. Examples include Ag/YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 xl 16 181 for a variety of applications, Ba 1 .xCaxTiO 3 for tempera ture sensorsl 191 (see Figure 3), mullite for electronic device substrates,[2 1 and BN for structural applica tions.l21 1 Chemical vapor deposition is used extensively in 4 X 11.85 14 99 13 89 13 76 13 78 13.78 /' I I are being conducted in the labora tory to examine the effect of pre treatments and the ceramic support on catalytic behavior.l1 31 Finally, the high spatial resolution of TEM is exploited to study the structure and properties of materials ranging from strained layer superlatticesll 4 l to fine pores in oxides ll 5 J FIGURE 2. A high-resolution electron micrograph of the BN/MgO inter face. 1101 The array of white spots on the left corresponds to a projection of the MgO structure imaged along the <110> direction. The rows of light contrast on the right come from the basal planes of the hexagonal BN lattice. The micrograph was digitally processed to allow precise measurement of the spacing between the atomic planes. Shown above is a microdensitometer trace of image intensity along a direction normal to the interface. Spacings are indicated in mm (to an accuracy of pixel= 0.01 mm) A variation in the BN interatomic spacing is evident in the region near the interface. 206 Chemical Engineering Education

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industry for the formation of thin films of a wide variety of materials. This process begins with a vola tile molecular species that is transported to a sub strate where it decomposes and results in deposition of material with desorption of volatile byproducts The chemistry occurring during deposition deter mines the deposition rate, minimum deposition tem perature, adhesion to the substrate, and electronic properties. Yet the chemistry occurring during most CVD processes is poorly understood. Our research involves the use of high pressure and ultrahigh vac uum systems utilizing mass spectrometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, temperature-programmed desorption, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy to study the surface and gas phase chemistry. The goal is to develop a better understanding of the role of chemis try in determining the properties of the deposited material. Current projects are the examination of deposition of PLZT with Radiant Technology, Cu with Motorola/2 21 and YBa 2 Cu 3 0 7 _x with Los Alamos National Laboratories. Aerosols (fine particles suspended in a gas) play a fundamental role in fine metallic and ceramic par ticle production, optical fiber production, thin film formation, and contamination control in cleanrooms. We are currently examining the interaction between 3.0 m FIGURE 3. Ba 0 86 Ca 0 14 TiO 3 particles made by aerosol decomposition. Fall 1991 the chemistry and aerosol dynamics in systems for gas phase particle production ,f2 3 241 deposition of these particles onto surfaces to form coatings ,c2 21 and dur ing laser-induced deposition processes .r2 51 Douglas Smith is currently examining charac terization of porous materials, transport phenomena in porous media, sol-gel, and powder processing The pore structure of materials is of considerable interest for a large number of applications which in clude ceramics processing, catalysis, membrane sepa rations, radioactive waste isolation, and coal gasifi cation. The basic approach is to study the physics of both established and innovative pore structure analy sis tools in an attempt to extract more detailed infor mation about porous solid systems. Conventional techniques for pore structure analy sis include mercury porosimetry, nitrogen adsorp tion/condensation, and microscopy (optical, scanning and transmission electron). Each of these techniques suffers from different disadvantages which limit ac curacy and preclude their use for in-situ pore struc ture analysis. Therefore, considerable incentive ex ists for the development of new techniques for pore structure analysis. Professor Smith s laboratory has pioneered the development of low-field, NMR spin lattice relaxation measurements of fluid contained in pores as a structure analysis technique. This ap proach allows the study of pores of "wet" materials and allows imaging of pore structure as a function of time while the structure evolves. In addition to pore structure analysis the study of the physical nature of surfaces is of interest. In particular, the fractal nature of surfaces is being studied via molecular probe techniques. L 261 A parallel effort using SAXS (small angle x-ray scattering ) and SANS (small angle neutron scattering ) is underway in collaboration with investigators at Sandia Na tional Laboratories. The growth of fine particles and polymers in solution is studied via both SAXS and light scattering. Using expertise in pore structure analysis a num ber of ceramics processing problems are being exam ined. These include pore structure evolution and elimination during sintering of ceramic green bod ies, dispersion of powder agglomerates, packings of powders during green body formation, L 271 and pore structure development during sol-gel processing of xerogels and aerogels (both bulk r 21 291 ) and coat ings_ cao,311 Ceramic powder synthesis is conducted us ing a range of techniques including reactive laser 207

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ablation, sol-gel processing ,c3 21 precipitation, and aero sol processing czoi CENTER FOR MICRO-ENGINEERED CERAMICS Much of the research in ceramics science and engineering is being carried out in the National Sci ence Foundation Center for Micro-Engineered Ce ramics which is housed in the chemical engineering department The Center consists of fifteen profes sors from the University of New Mexico (seven from chemical engineering four from chemistry, one each from mechanical engineering, physics, and geology ), over ten staff members from Sandia National Labo ratory and over ten staff members from Los Alamos National Laboratory. A critical feature of the Center is the membership of more than fifteen industrial members. This allows the Center to combine the expertise of the national labs, the university, and i ndustry to attack ceramics-related problems of interest to industry The goals are to attack use ful problems, to transfer technology between indus try the National Labs and the University, and to train students in ceramics science and engineering. A key feature of the Center is the hands-on policy for use of equipment. The Center is equipped with a variety of state-of-the-science equipment, shown in Table 1. INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER DEPARTMENTS AND NATIONAL LABORATORIES Another feature of the CMEC and the chemical engi neering department is the extensive interactions with other departments at the university The proj ects in the CMEC are interdisciplinary with faculty from chemical engineering, chemistry physics, geol ogy, mechanical engineering and the national labo ratories involved in each project. In addition, signifi cant interactions occur with the Center for High Technology Materials in electrical engineering whose strength is optoelectronic materials. The extensive interactions of the chemical engi neering department and CMEC with the national laboratories has numerous advantages The strengths of SNL include electronic ceramics and glasses, while LANL is primarily involved in structural and super conducting ceramics These skills complement the strength of the University in chemical routes to ce ramics and materials characterization Scientists and engineers at the Center and in the chemical engi neering department have access to state-of-the-sci ence equipment at the national laboratories. In ad208 Another feature .is the extensive interactions with other departments the projects are inter disciplinary, with faculty from chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, geology, mechanical engineering, and the national laboratories involved in each project. TABLE 1 CMEC Facilities High-field solution and solids FT-NMR spectrome ters: GE NT-360, JEOL GX-400 Bruker AC-250P Varian 400 MHz Unity 1 Low-field pulse NMR spectrometers: 10 MHz, 20 MHz, 4-60 MHz, for sol-gel and green body structure analysis Hitachi S-800 field emission SEM (20 angstrom resolution) with low Z x-ray analysis and advanced image analysis Electron Beam Microanalysis Facility including JEOL 2000FX TEM with TN5500 EDS JEOL Super probe with 5 spectrometers, Hitachi S-450 SEM Electron spin resonance spectrometer FT-Infrared spectrometers: NIC-6000, Perkin-Elmer, Galaxy 6020 coupled to high-vacuum IR cell for powder studies Single-crystal and powder x-ray diffractometers Powders and Granular Materials Laboratory, includes: Autoscan-33 mercury porosimeter, Quan timent 720 image analyzer, Autosorb-1 automated nitrogen sorption analyzer Sedigraph particle-size analyzer Coulter Counter, 4 adsorption instruments, gas permeation apparatus, Micromeritics Accupyc 1330 Pycnometer, Micromeritic ASAP-2000 adsorp tion analyzer Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) Two RF high-temperature (3000 C) furnaces High-temperature thermal analysis instrumentation (TGA, OTA, DSC, Dilatometer) Laser birefringence facility for the in-situ study of stress in sol-gel and polymer processing Aerosol powder reactors including high-temperature (1700C) and scale-up aerosol reactor for production of oxide ceramic powders (kilograms per day) Coupled TPD/Auger apparatus for surface analysis Light scattering: Spectraphysics 2000 krypton laser, Brookhaven Gonimeter, Bl-2030 AT controller Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMRI) for in situ studies of transport phenomena in porous materials Four gas membrane test stands. Chemical Engineering Education

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dition fellowships such as the UNM/LANL PhD fel lowship are available to outstanding students with a stipend of $16-18 k/yr. Researchers at the chemical engineering depart ment and CMEC have access to various facilities at the national laboratories. The facilities of LANL in clude the Exploratory Research and Development Center for Superconducting Ceramics, the LANSCE Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center, the Center for Materials Science, and the Ion Beam Materials Laboratory. The facilities of SNL include the Sur face Modification and Analysis Facility Ceramics and Glass Processing Facility SNULANL dedicated EXAFS lines at Brookhaven and Stanford, and a 30,000 ft 2 materials research and development labo ratory which is jointly administered by UNM and SNL REFERENCES 1. Press F ., and White R. Materials Science and Engineer ing for the 1990s, National Research Council National Academy Press Washington DC (1989) 2 Brinker C.J., and G.W. Scherer, Sol-Gel Science: The Phys ics and Chemistry of Sol-Gel Processing Academic Press San Diego, CA (1990) 3. Mandelbrot, B.B., The Fractal Geometry of Nature, Free man, San Francisco, CA ( 1983 ) 4. Witten, T A., and M E Cates, "Tenuous Structures from Disorderly Growth Processes, Science, 232, 1607 ( 1983 ) 5 Brinker C.J ., A.J. Hurd G C. Frye, K.J. Ward, and C.S. Ashley Sol-Gel Thin Film Formation," J Non-Cryst Sol ids, 121, 294 (1 990 ) 6. Brinker, C.J., and D.M. Haaland, "Oxi nitride Glass For mation from Gels," J. Amer Chem. Soc. ; 66, 758 ( 1983 ) 7. Bein, T. K. Brown, G.C Frye, and C J Brinker "Molecu lar Sieve Sensors for Selective Detection at the N anogram Level, J Amer. Chem Soc., 11), 7640 (1989) 8. Scherer G ., C.J. Brinker and E.P Roth "Structural Re laxation in Gel-Derived Glasses ," J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 82 191 ( 1986 ) 9. Datye A.K., Q. Mei, R.T. Paine, and T.T. Borek "Stability ofBN Coatings on Ceramic Substrates," Better Ceramics Through Chemistry N MRS Symposia Proc V 180 807 ( 1990 ) 10 Allard L F ., A.K. Datye, T.A. Nolan, S.L. Mahan, and R .T. Paine, High Resolution Electron Microscopy of BN on MgO, A Model Ceramic-Ceramic Interface, Ultramicro scopy, in press ( 1991 ) 11. Anderson, S.L., AK. Datye, T.A. Wark, and M.H. Smith "Homogeneous Rh-Sn Alkoxide Coatings on Silica Sur faces : A Novel Route for the Preparation of Bimetallic Rh Sn Catalysts," Cata[. Lett ., 8 345 ( 1991 ) 12. Srinivasan, S., A.K. Datye, M.H Smith, I.E Wachs, G B. Deo, J.M Jehng, A.M. Turek and C H F. Peden, "The Formation of Titanium Oxide Monolayer Coatings on Sil ica Surfaces, J Catal ., in press ( 1991 ) 13. Logan A.D., and A.K. Datye Oxidative Restructuring of Rhodium Metal Surfaces : Correlations Between Single Crystals and Small Metal Particles ," J Ph ys. Chem., 95,5568 (1991) 14 Chadda, S A.K. Datye and L.R. Dawson, "The Nature of Defects in IR Detectors Based on Strained Layer SuperFall 1991 lattice Structures," Proc 49th Ann. Meet. of Electron Mi croscopy Soc. of Am ., G W. Bailey, ed., San Francisco Press, p 852 (1991) 15. Kaushik, V S ., A.K. Datye, S S. Tsao T.E. Guillinger, and M.J. Kelly, "Microstructure of Pores in N Silicon ," Mater L ett ., 11 109 (1 991 ) 16. Carim A. P Doherty, and T.T. Kodas, "Nanocrystalline Ba 2 YCup / Ag Composite Particles Produced by Aerosol Decomposition ," Mater. Lett., 8 335 (1989) 17 Kodas, T.T., E M. Engler, V. Lee, R. Jacowitz, T H Baum K. Roche S.S.P Parkin W.S. Young, S. Hughes, J. Kle der, and W. Auser, "Aerosol Flow Reactor Production of Fine Y 1 Ba 2 Cup 7 Powder: Fabrication of Superconducting Ceramics, Appl Phys Lett ., 52 1622 ( 1988 ) 18. Kodas T.T. A Datye V. Lee, and E. Engler "Single Crystal YBa 2 C up 7 Particle Formation b y Aerosol Decom position," J. Appl. Phys ., 65 2149 (1989) 19. Ortega J., T.T. Kodas S Chadda, D M Smith, M Ciftcioglu, and J. Brennan "Generation of Dense Barium Calcium Titanate Particles by Aeroso l Decomposition ," Chem in Mater ., in press ( 1991 ) 20. Moore K. D. Smith and T.T Kodas Synthesis ofSubmi cron Mullite via High Temperature Aerosol Decomposi tion, J. Amer. Cer. Soc ., in press (1991) 21. Lindquist, D.A. T.T Borek, C.K. Narula, R. Schaeffer D M. Smith and R.T. Paine, Formation and Microsctruc ture of Boron Nitride Aerogels," Communications of the Amer Cer. Soc., 73 757 ( 1990 ) 22. Shin, H K., K.M. Chi, M. Hampden-Smith T.T Kodas, J. Farr, and M. Paffett, "Selective Low Temperature Chemi cal Vapor Deposition of Copper Using Hexofluoroacet y lac tonato Copper(I) Trimethylphosphine," Ad Mat 3, 246 (199 1 ) 23. Kodas T.T., "Generation of Complex Metal Oxides by Aerosol Processes : Superconducting Ceramic Particles and Films ," Angewandte Chemie : Internat Ed in English, 28 794 ( 1989 ) 24 Chadda, S., T.T. Kodas T Ward, D. Kroeger, and KC Ott, "Synthesis ofY 1 Ba 2 Cup 1 _, and Y 1 Ba 2 C u 4 O 8 by Aerosol Decomposition J Aerosol Sci., in press (1991) 25. Kodas, T.T., and P Comita, "Role of Mass Transport in Laser-Induced Chemistry ," Accts. of Chem. Res., 23 188 ( 1990 ) 26 Hurd, A.J ., D.W. Schaefer, D M. Smith, S.B. Ross and A. LeMehaute Surface Areas of Fractally Rough Particles by Scattering ," Phys. Rev. B ., 39, 9742 ( 1989 ) 27 Hietala, S.L., and D.M. Smith, Porosity Effects on Par ticle Size Determination via Sedimentation, Powder Te c nology 59 141 (1989); T.T Borek W. Ackerman, D.W. Hua R.T. Paine, and D M. Smith Highly Porous Boron Nitride for Gas Adsorption," Langmiur, in press 28. Lindquist, D., T T. Kodas, D.M Smith X Xiu, S Hietala, A. Datye and R.T. Pa ine, "Boron Nitride Powders Formed by Aerosol Decomposition of Poly ( borazinylamine ) Solu tions," J. Amer. Cer. Soc ., in press ( 1991 ) 29 Glaves, C.L ., C.J. Brinker D M Smith, and P J. Davis, "In-Situ Pore Structure Studies ofXerogel Drying, Chem of Mater., 1 : 1, 34 (1989) 30. Glaves, C.L., G C Frye D.M Smith, C J. Brinker, A. Dat ye, A.J. Ricco and S Martin, Pore Structure Charac terization of Films," Langmuir, 5 : 2, 459 (1989) 31. Glaves C., P.J. Davis KA. Moore D.M Smith, and P Hsieh, "Pore Structure Characterization of Composite Membranes, J. Colloid and Interface Sci., 133:2, 377 (1989) 32. Hietala S.L., J.L. Golden, D M. Smith, and C.J. Brinker, "Anomalously Low Surface Areas and Density in the Sil ica/Alumina Gel System," Comm. Amer Cer. Soc. 72 2354 ( 1988 ) 0 209

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AN INTRODUCTION TO MOLECULAR TRANSPORT PHENOMENA MICHAEL H. PETERS Florida State University I Florida A&M University Tallahassee, FL 32316-2175 T he course "An Introduction to Molecular Trans port Phenomena" is intended for upper-level undergraduates or first-year graduate students in engineering and science. The overall goal of the course is to provide a comprehensive description of the mo lecular basis of transport phenomena for students who have no previous background in statistical me chanics or statistical physics. It is clear that recent dramatic advances in com putational abilities (e.g., supercomputers and con nection machines C1 1 ) and in atomic-level experimen tation (e.g., atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopyl 21 ) require that undergraduate engineers obtain a better molecular understanding or interpretation of engineering processes. One ex ample is a surge in supercomputer purchases in the chemical industry; an example of the benefits of supercomputer computations is a reported $1-2 mil lion savings in development costs for a new catalytic processP 1 By studying the thermodynamic proper ties of the system through use of molecular simula tions on a supercomputer, some critically unusual properties were discovered that would have been difficult to detect through physical experiments. These new computational and experimental ca pabilities make it possible to examine, design and/ or enhance systems and processes beginning at a molecular level description-an approach that may be called "molecular engineering." In general, mo lecular engineering represents a new and powerful method of analysis where a rational and scientific framework can be utilized for the systematic study of highly complex engineering systems 210 Michael H. Peters is Associate Professor and Chair in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the Joint College of Engineering between Florida State University and Florida A&M University He is also a Faculty Associate with the Supercomputer Computa tions Research Institute at Florida State University He received his BS from the University of Dayton in 19 77 and his PhD from the Ohio State University in 1981 His research interests are in the areas of macro molecular and colloidal phenomena Brownian motion theories and molecular transport phenomena. Copyright C hE Di visio n ASEE 1991 TABLE 1 Course Outline "Introduction to Molecular Transport Phenomena" Prerequisites: Undergraduate Engineering Mathematics (solu tion methods for ordinary and partial differential equations); Transport Phenomena (momentum heat and mass transfer); Chemical Engineering Thermod yna mics or Engineering Thermodynamics. Topics for a One-Semester Course : Mathematical Preliminaries (3-4) A Introduction : A Molecular View of Gases, Liquids, and Solids (3-4) B. Transport Phenomena from Elementary Kinetic Theory ( 4) C. Phase Space and Liouville's Equation (4) D. Reduced Distributions and the Equilibrium Behavior of Matter (7) E. The General Equations of Change (7) F. Transport Properties and Solutions to the Reduc e d Li ouville Equation (7) G. An Introduction to Molecular D y namic Computations (7) Suggested number of classes are given in parentheses based on a fifteen week semes t er, three classes per week; the two classes not shown are r eserved for exams. Molecular engineering also plays a critical role in the development of newly emerging areas of chemi cal engineering (such as advanced polymeric and ce ramic materials, and biochemical and biomedical engineering) where a molecular and macromolecu lar description is a necessity rather than just an alternate method of analysis c 4 J There is a current need in the undergraduate curriculum for both quali tative and quantitative descriptions of processes and phenomena involving gases, liquids and solids from a molecular viewpoint. In this course, the macroscopic treatment of trans port phenomena learned in previous courses is de veloped from molecular-level descriptions of matter. It is shown that the ad-hoc assumptions made in previous transport phenomena courses can be re placed by rational and scientific methods that will provide a general framework for the systematic analy sis of complex systems or processes. COURSE OUTLINE AND DISCUSSION OF TOPICS The outline of this one-semester course is given in Table 1 and a more detailed discussion of each Chemical Engineering Education

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section of material is given below. Suggested refer encs in formulating the lecture for each section are also given. Mathematical Preliminaries Some mathematical preliminaries may be neces sary, depending on the background of the stu dents. Generally, students should have been exposed to some vector and tensor operations, such as summa rized in Appendix A of Bird, Stewart, and Light foot_ r si Additionally, some elementary concepts in probability are desirable. Our undergraduate stu dents are exposed to such concepts [ 61 in the second semester engineering mathematics course. Regard less of the student backgrounds, however, I have found it important to review both of the above before proceeding with the core material. A. Introduction: Molecular View of Gases, Liquids and Solids The purpose of this section of the course is to present a qualitative molecular picture of gases, liqFigure 1. Mechanical model for illustrating the three phases of matter. uids, and solids. Additionally, quantitative examples are given to illustrate the usefulness of a molecular interpretation of the three phases of matter. An important dynamic feature of molecules is their seemingly random motion. The mechanical model shown in Figure 1 is a useful mechanical ana log of the random motion of molecules In this model, gravity causes the metallic balls to move down a cascade of inclined planes When projected onto a screen, the balls appear to be under random molecu lar motion, as shown in Figure 2a. Of course, actual random motion is due to the collisions between mole cules, where each molecule obeys Newton's Second Law of Motion. The same mechanical model can also be used to provide a qualitative molecular picture of the three phases of matter In a gas, the average intermolecu lar spacing is much greater than the diameter of a molecule or the average range over which intermol ecular forces act; this is depicted in Figure 2a. In Figure 2b, a liquid is depicted by allowing all of the metallic balls to settle to the bottom of the container and then slightly tilting the container to one side Although the intermolecular spacing is relatively small, there is a great degree of disorder in the mo lecular arrangements. This can be contrasted to a solid, shown in Figure 2c where the container is tilted to an even greater angle. In solids, a regular arrangement of the molecules is observed and vari ous types of packing geometries are possible. In addition to the different geometric arrange ment of molecules in gases, liquids, and solids, the trajectories or dynamics of the molecules are charac teristically different. In Figure 3 adapted from Barker and Henderson ,c7 1 computer-generated tra jectories of molecules (s ee section G below) in the three states of matter are shown. The tight spacing and strong molecular interactions in solids cause molecules to be constrained to move about fixed lat tice sites in a seemingly vibration-type motion. In -a-b-cFigure 2. Overhead projections of the mechanical model shown in Figure 1. (a) Demonstration of random molecular motions in a gas (b) Intermolecular arrangements in liquids. (c) Intermolecular arrangements in solids. Fall 1991 211

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liquids and gases, on the other hand, the spacing is not as close and the interactions are not as strong, and consequently the molecules have a less con strained motion. The above discussions should lead to the recogni tion that the nature of the forces between molecules is important in determining the molecular picture and hence the properties of gases, liquids, and sol ids A brief discussion of the Lennard-Jones poten tial is given in Bird, et al., although a more extensive discussion of intermolecular forces can be found. r s. 91 Although the above discussions are of a qualita tive nature, some very simple yet motivating, quan titative examples can be given that illustrate how the molecular picture can directly predict the ob served macroscopic properties of matter The follow ing example, taken from Tabor r 101 illustrates the cal culation of the internal energy change for sublima tio n of a crystal. Example: The connection between molecular structure and macroscopic properties: The internal energy change for sublimation of an ionic solid. The molecular structure of a NaCl ionic crystal is shown in Figure 4 In the process of sublimation, a change from the crystal lin e state to the vapor state takes place. Neglecting any suba tomic contributions the internal energy of the crystal is primarily due to the electrical potential e nergy associated with the configu ration of the Na and Cl ions. Considering any ion in the crystal we note that geometrically there ar e six nearest neighbors of op pos i te s ign at the distance r from the ion 12 neighbors of the same sign at a distance./2 r 8 neighbors of opposite sign at a distance o( .j: F etc According to Coulomb s Law the total potential energy asso ciated with moving each ion to its po s ition relative to the central ion is 6e 2 12e 2 8e 2 e 2 --+ ---+ =-Ar '/3 r r (1 ) where e is the electron charge and A i s the so-called Madelung con s tant determined from the infinite series summation in Eq ( 1 ) to three significant digits as 1. 75 _r 10 1 The above anal y sis is deficient in that other pair charge int e ractions have been overlooked i .e., in bringing any charge to a s p e cific location in th e lattice there will be Coulombic interac tions with all other charges in the lattice and not with just the central charge in F i gure 4 Consid e r for example an ion located adjacent to the central ion in Figure 4. The potential energy of interaction in bringing it from infinity to its place on the lattice must include the pair interactions with all of its neighbors and not just the central ion. Because of the regular geometric arrange ment of the l attice however, the expression for the potential energy interactions for locating this ion is exactly the same as that calculated in Eq. ( 1 ) for the central ion The total potential energy in constructing the lattice is, therefore, obtained by sum ming Eq. ( 1 ) over all ions in the lattice We are still not quite correct however in that we have counted all the pair interactions twice. If there are a total of N ions in the crystal th e total potential energy in constructing the lattice is finally given by 212 U = ( -A e: ) (2) Equation (2 ) represents a sum over pair interactions in the crystal, or pairwise additivity A general representation and discussion of pairwise additivity can also be given where Eq. (2 ) represents a special case for the Na Cl ionic crystal. In order to finally compute the internal energy change for the sublimation process, the internal energy of the NaCl vapor mole cules is needed. Each NaCl molecule is a neutral molecule and, consequently, the total potential energy is obtained by multiply ing the electrical potential energy associated with the formation of a single molecule by the total number of molecules, N/2 i e. 1 e 2 Uvapor=-2 N(3) r o where r 0 is the interatomic distance for NaCl in the vapor state. The internal energy change, per mole for the sublimation process represents the difference in electrical potential energy between the vapor and solid states, which from Eqs ( 2 ) and ( 3 ) is ,",U s ub=.!Ne 2 ( 1. 75 ..!. ) (4 ) 2 r r 0 where N 0 is the number of ions per mole. Using the values ofr = ( 2.82 )( 10 -B) cm and r 0 = ( 2.36 )( 10 -B ) cm given by Tabor 101 the inter nal energy change for sublimation of NaCl crystal is calculated from Eq ( 4 ) as 65.3 kcal/mole. An experimental value can be Solid ~'llS,t,1{1J-/r' t,f{f-~ ~1'"'.;. '11,4~'!1SJ"IJ~ t/lJl~'fl .... .l'fl ,IJ$ptl!)i(l('f
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estimated from heats of formation data as 54.7 kcal/mole, 1111 which is in good agreement with the calculated value Many other examples of this nature can be used to show the relationship between the molecular-level description of matter and macroscopically observed quantities. For example, Tabor also treats the prob lem of theoretically predicting the bulk modulus of a crystal from knowledge of the molecular interac tions. These examples are very useful in motivating the m o lecular treatments of transport phenomena that follow in the remaining sections. B. Transport Phenomena f rom E l emen t ary K i ne tic T heo ry A simple, but elegant, treatment of the transport properties of gases can be shown through the ele mentary kinetic theory of gases. The so-called phe nomenological laws of transport phenomena (Fick's Law of Diffusion, Fourier s Law of Heat Conduction, and Newton's Law of Viscosity) are also derived through the elementary kinetic theory of gases. Con sequently, this is a very useful introductory theory in establishing a firm physical foundation for dis cussing the phenomenological laws. In general, mass, momentum, and energy can be transferred by a substance through random motions and interactions of its constituent molecules. This transfer takes place even in the absence of any over all or bulk-material motion. An everyday example is the ra p id sensation of odors in a closed room, with out drafts, at locations many meters away from the source of their emission. Here, random molecular motion is the driving force for a macroscopic transfer of material. The phenomenon of macroscopic transfer as the result of random molecular motion is illustrated in Figure 5, which shows molecules of two different I I 0I --0I ---0 0I ..... I I 0..... I -0 I .... ..... I I )X y Fig ure 5. Random molecular motion and the macroscopic transfer of material. Closed circles and open circles are used to denote a binary system ; a concentration gradient has been imposed on the system. Fall 1991 types, depicted as open and closed circles. The left hand side of the plane at z = 0 is more concentrated in open circles than in closed, although the total number of circles is equivalent on both sides of the plane. One of the basic hypotheses of the elementary kinetic theory of gases is that a gas is comprised of molecules in constant random motion. Although this randomness is in all directions, for the sake of sim plicity we will consider only one dimension For ex ample, consider random molecular motion in the direction, as shown by the arrows randomly affixed to each molecule in Figure 5. This could be accom plished by a series of coin tosses where a "heads" corresponds to an arrow pointing to the right, and a "tails" results in an arrow pointing to the left Over a small interval of time, several molecules will be transferred from the left-half to the right-half plane, and vice-versa, owing to random molecular motion, with the total number of molecules on either side of the plane remaining essentially unchanged (no overall motion). Because of the imbalance in concentrations, the several molecules transferred from the left-half to the right-half plane are pre dominantly open circles, whereas the several mole cules transferred from the right-half to the left-half plane are predominantly closed circles. Thus, there will be a net transfer of open circles from a more concentrated region of open circles to a lower con centrated region of open circles. Likewise the closed circles also are transferred from a region of high concentration of closed circles to a region of lower concentration of closed circles Random molecular motion statistically tends to equalize concentration differences that exist in a system. The macroscopic observation is a net transfer of a molecular property in a direction from a high property concentration to a low concentration. In addition to molecules being characterized as a certain type or species, molecules also possess the properties of momentum and energy. Since momen tum is a vector quantity, there are three scalar com ponents of momentum that are considered as sepa rate properties Gradients in the concentration of these properties (x, y, or z momentum/volume and energy/volume) will also result in a transfer of those properties through the system by random molecular motions. There are many excellent quantitative develop ments of the elementary kinetic theory of gases that follow from the above qualitative description. A very concise quantitative treatment of the elementary By macroscopic, we mean an observation made over a statisti cally large group of molecules 213

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kinetic theory of gase s is given by Hirschfelder, et al. Other elementary transport theories for liquids and solids can also be discussed, e.g., the Eyring theory of transport phenomena in liquids. C. Phase Space and Liouville's Equation The purpose of this section is to develop the so called Liouville equation, which is the starting point in the derivation of the transport equations and associated flux relations ( see Section E below) There are several introductory and clearly writ ten developments of the Liou ville equation that can be consulted for this section of the course,[1 2 14 J and only some highlights will be given here. In this section and the remaining sections, we consider only molecules of a single type or species; the transport phenomena of multicomponent sys tems is beyond the scope of an introductory, one semester course. The first part of this section of material discusses the concepts of phase points and phase space. The phase point represents the collection of all momen tum and position variables of the molecules in the system at any time As the molecules move accord ing to Newton's Second Law of Motion, the phase point moves through a multidimensional space con sisting of the momentum and position coordinates of all the molecules in the system. I have used simple cartesian coordinates in an undergraduate class However, some instructors may wish to introduce the concept of generalized coordinates and Hamil tonian equations of motion. Next, the concept of an ensemble of phase points is introduced. Each phase point or member of the ensemble initially consists of the same total number of molecules, same total momentum, and same total energy. There are, however, a number of different ways or realizations in distributing the initial posi tions and momenta of the molecules in order to achieve the same total values in energy and momen tum (macroscopically indistinguishable systems) The collection of these realizations can be visualized as a "cloud" of phase points at any time A number den sity function is introduced to quantify the "cloud" that moves through multidimensional space An analogy can immediately be drawn between the number density function for the phase points and the ordinary mass density function introduced in the first undergraduate transport course in fluid mechanics. In fact, the Liouville equation simply represents a conservation equation for the phase points as they move through multidimensional space. I have used Figure 2.1 in Bird, et al. as a start214 ing point in visualizing the development of the Liouville equation. An analogous figure can be thought of where a simple cube is replaced by a "hypercube" and the cartesian coordinates replaced by multidimensional coordinates (see Figure 6.4 of ReifU 3 l)_ The rate of phase points entering the hyper cube through any of the faces is simply the flux times the cross-sectional area (multidimensional in this case). The flux is simply the number density times the time rate of change of the coordinate nor mal to the face of the hypercube. Specific units are presented for both momentum and position coordi nates to dimensionally verify that a "rate of phase points" is obtained for each term. The final development involves substitution of Newton's Second Law of Motion for each molecule and some simple reductions, although again gener alized coordinates and Hamiltonian equations can be used for a more rigorous treatment. More discus sion on the types of ensembles (microcanonical, ca nonical etc.) could also be given at this time, but it is not necessary for the developments given below. D. Reduced Distributions and Equilibrium Behavior of Matter The Liouville equation derived in the previous section describes the behavior of the phase point number density function in a multidimensional space consisting of all momentum and position variables for the molecules in the system. Since the number of molecules in a system is typically very large (over a billion!), the solution of the Liou ville equation repre sents a formidable problem. Fortunately, it will be shown in later sections that generally it is only nec essary to know the behavior in a reduced space rep resenting the positions and momentum of only a few molecules. Physically, this is because the interac tions between molecules which lead to correlated behavior are generally of a short range and, thus, locally involve only a few molecules. The phase point number density function, nor malized with respect to the total number of mem bers of the ensemble can also be interpreted as the probability of finding a member of the ensemble in a differential region of phase space. Below, this func tion is denoted as p(i-N, pN, t) where (i-N, pN, t) is shorthand notation for the multidimensional posi tion and momentum coordinates (rl' r 2 rN, P 1 P 2 .. pN, t). With this probability interpretation, the various types of reduced density functions and rela tionships between systems of distinguishable and indistinguishable molecules can be presented_cs ,iai With the above preliminaries, the reduced form of the Liouville equation can be derivedcsi_ The deri vation requires the use of Green's theorem and the Chemical Engineering Education

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assumed "nat ural behavior of the phase point num ber density function that it tends to zero as the position and momentum variables of the molecules tend to infinite values. The configurational part of the reduced Liou ville equation is useful in the development of equations of state and thermodynamic properties of gases, liq uids, and solids. This equation can be derived as outlined by Hirschfelder et al., and is recognized by statistical thermodynamicists as the "Integral Equa tion" for lower-ordered configurational distribution functions (see Section F below) E. The General Equations of Change It is the purpose of this section of the course to develop the transport equations (or mass, momen tum, and energy conservation equations) from first principles. Although many introductory texts on kinetic theory and transport phenomena derive the transport equations beginning with the so-called Boltzmann transport equation (Section F below), fol lowing Irving and KirkwoodE 15 1 we prefer to adopt a general approach and derive the transport equa tions directly from the Liouville equation developed in Section C. The resulting "General Equations of Change" are applicable to all types of flows, includ ing laminar, turbulent, and shock flows, thus form ing an important basis for understanding current and future developments in transport phenomena. As mentioned in the previous section, the nor malized phase point number density function pN can be inte rpreted as a probability density function, i.e., pN denotes the n t h derivative of o with respect to x and, similarly, g (x) is the n th derivative of g with respect to x evaluated at x 0 The derivation of Eq. (15) can be easily obtained by using one of the limiting definitions of the delta function (a general ized function) e.g., the limit of a normal or Gaussian density function as the variance tends to zero. F. Transport Properties and Solutions to the Reduced Liouville Equation The general equations of change derived in the previous section contained expressions for the prop erty flux vectors representing the transfer of a prop erty relative to the mass average velocity of the 215

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fluid. It was shown that these expressions contain lower-order density functions whose behavior is dic tated by the corresponding reduced forms of the Liouville equation introduced in Section C. It is the goal of this section to show that various types of solutions to the reduced Liouville equation result in a form of the transport equations known as the Navier-Stokes equations. This derivation can be rigorously accomplished for dilute gases which, by definition, have at most only two molecule encoun ters; three or more molecule interactions are ne glected. Consequently, the reduced Liouville equa tion derived in Section E can be truncated at order two for a dilute gas From this truncated equation a very simple derivation of the so-called Boltzmann transport equation can be givenP 81 Note that some discussion on the geometry and dynamics of a binary molecular collision is necessary in the development of the Boltzmann equation. Having derived the Boltzmann transport equa tion, scaling and dimensional analyses are per formedP 91 The Knudsen number, the ratio of a char acteristic molecular length scale (such as the gas mean free path) to a characteristic macroscopic length scale, is introduced as an important dimensionless group for the Boltzmann transport equation. By considering the two extremes (i.e., very small and very large Knudsen numbers), various approxi mate analytical solutions to the Boltzmann equation can be outlined Unfortunately, there is not suffi cient time in a one-semester course to cover these solutions in great detail. Typically, I have outlined the Chapman-Enskog solution to the Boltzmann equation asymptotically valid at very small Knudsen numbers. This discussion includes the Boltzmann H-Theorem, the first-order perturbation expansion, and the general forms of the solutions. The overall presentation is sufficient to obtain the celebrated Navier-Stokes equation and the energy transport equation encountered in the students' previous courses on transport phenomena. Newton's Law of Viscosity and Fourier's Law of Heat Conduction are shown to naturally arise in the Chapman-Enskog solution method. The expressions for the coefficients of viscosity and heat conduction are also obtained However, it is shown that further resolution of these expressions is needed (via solutions to a set of finite integral equations) in order to perform actual nu merical calculations. Typically, there is not suffi cient time to cover the solution to these specific integral equations, nor is it necessary at this level, and the final results can be presented without proof. 216 The above discussions and presentations are also sufficient for demonstrating the connection between thermodynamics and transport phenomena It is readily shown that, under local equilibrium condi tions, the normal component of the pressure tensor in a dilute gas is the thermodynamic pressure. For fluids that are far removed from local equilibrium, it is doubtful that the thermodynamic pressure can be utilized in a transport equation. Nonetheless, a gen eral framework has been established for evaluating the pressure tensor in both equilibrium and non equilibrium fluids; similar analyses can be applied to the evaluation of the internal energy. A homework assignment can also be given that ties together thermodynamic and transport proper ties for dilute gases: experimental values of the sec ond virial coefficients for a variety of dilute gases are used to determine the corresponding Lennard-Jones force constants .rsi The Lennard-Jones constants de termined in this manner are, subsequently, used to predict the viscosity coefficients of each gas accord ing to the Chapman-Enskog formula. Some instructors may wish to present other solu tions to the Boltzmann transport equation, such as Grad's 13-moment mothod; some recent reviews on solutions to the Boltzmann transport equation are given by Cercignani r 1 91 and by Dorfman and van Beijeren .r 2 0 1 A condensed discussion of the Chapman Enskog method is given by McQuarrie l 21 1 and a read able discussion is given by Vincenti and Kruger 2 1 G. An Introduction to Molecular Dynamic Computations Given the dramatic advances in the scientific and engineering computational abilities provided by supercomputers and other machines, it is highly likely that many problems in transport phenomena will, in the future, be solved at the molecular level. It should be clear from the above discussions that the numerous approximations involved in actually resolving the transport equations limits the useful ness of the results for performing engineering calcu lations for a variety of different systems, other than systems of dilute gases. Although extending the use fulness of the statistical mechanical development of transport phenomena is a subject of current engi neering and scientific research, molecular dynamics computations provide a fundamentally simple and rigorous means of studying transport phenomena for almost all classical fluids .* There are many books and review articles on the molecular dynamics method. No attempt is made For a review of nonclassical or quantum mechanical methods for molecular dynamics, see Kosloff. 1 25 1 Chemical Engineering Education

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here to review the literature in this area Rather, some suggested discussions and topics are given that are useful as further expositions of the topics cov ered in the previous sections. It is important that the students understand the basis and salient fea tures of the molecular dynamics method and see the usefulness of the method in predicting equilibrium or nonequilibrium properties of matter. A recent text by Heermann c 231 discusses a num ber of important aspects of the molecular dynamics method including finite difference schemes for solv ing the equations of motion for the molecules, peri odic boundary conditions and minimum image con vention, types of ensembles, and averaging methods for determining macroscopic properties. Heermann also lists a number of computer programs associated with the molecular dynamics method. For example, a clearly presented computer program listing is given for microcanonical ( constant energy ) emsemble equi librium molecular dynamics This program can be readily installed on a mainframe computer or net work system. As an enlightening homework assign ment the students can be asked to determine the equilibrium pair correlation function for a Lennard Jones fluid discussed in Section D above. Compari sons between dilute gases, dense gases, and liquids can be made, as well as the study of other types of intermolecular potentials and equations of state. Instructors may also wish to present other types of molecular dynamics methods or applications, in cluding nonequilibrium molecular dynamics meth ods. c241 Because of the conceptually simple basis of molecular dynamics, instructors can have a great degree of flexibility (and fun!) in bringing their own interests into developing this part of the course. CONCLUDING REMARKS In general, I have found this course suitable as an upper-level chemical engineering elective course A final student project is substituted in place of a final exam. The students can select any project that illustrates a molecular interpretation of the macro scopic properties of matter. Ideally these topics should be taken from areas not fully treated in the lecture material, such as molecular design in solids, multicomponent systems, and other molecular dy namic or Monte Carlo simulation methods. Specific applications or potential applications to systems of interest to chemical engineering and related disci plines should be emphasized in the students' proj ects These additional topics could also be developed in a second-semester course where greater emphasis could be placed on molecular level engineering deFall 1991 sign of materials and processes. Although the lecture material is taken from a number of different sources (a course text is cur rently in preparation ), any introductory book on sta tistical mechanics or statistical physics some of which are given in the references, should be used as a required supplementary text for the course. These texts can provide a source of homework problems and can be used as a basis for the development of some of the material suggested above REFERENCES 1. Corcoran, E ., Sci. American, 264 No 1, 100 ( 1991 ) 2 Rugar D., and P Hansma, Physics Today, 43 No 10 23 ( 1990 ) 3 Borman S., Chem. and Eng. News, p. 29, July 17 ( 1989 ) 4. Frontiers in Chemical Engineering, National Research Council, National Academy Press Washington, DC ( 1988 ) 5 Bird, R.B ., W E. Stewart, and E N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena John Wiley & Sons, New York (19 60 ) 6 Kreyszig E., Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Sixth ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York ( 1988 ) 7. Barker, J.A., and D. Henderson Sci. American, 245 ,, No. 5, 130 ( 1981 ) 8. Hirschfelder, J.O., C.F. Curtiss, and R.B. Bird, Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids John Wiley & Sons New York ( 1964 ) 9 Maitland, G.C. M. Rigby, E.B. Smith, and W.A. Wakeham, Intermolecular Forces: Their Origin and Determination, Oxford University Press, New York ( 1981 ) 10. Tabor, D ., Gases, Liquids, and Solids, Penguin Book s, Inc ., Baltimore, MD (19 69 ) 11. Keller R., Basic Tables in Chemistry McGraw-Hill, New York ( 1967 ) 12. Kittel, C., Elementary Statistical Physics John Wiley & Sons, New York (1958) 13 Reif, F., Statistical Physics Berkeley Physics Course, Vol. 5, McGraw-Hill, New York ( 1965 ) 14. Gubbins K.E ., and T M Reed, Applied Statistical Me c hani cs, Butterworth Reprint Series in Chemical Engi neering, Stoneham, MA (1991) 15. Irving J H ., and J.G. Kirkwood, J. Chem Phys., 18, 817 (1950 ) 16. Schwartz L Theorie des Distributions, Actualites Scienti fi,gues et Industrielles Nos. 1092, 1122, Hermans & Cie, Paris (1950-51) 17. Jones, D.S ., The Theory of Generalized Functions, Cambr idge University Press (1982) 18 Andrews, F., J Chem. Phys., 35 ,922 ( 1962 ) 19 Cercignani C. The Boltzmann Equation and Its Applica tions Springer-Verlag New York ( 1988 ) 20 Dorfman, J.R ., and van Beijeren, The Kinetic Theory of Gases; in Statistical Mechanics, Part B ., B J Berman ed., Plenum Press New York ( 1977 ) 21. McQuarrie D A., Statistical Mechanics, Harper and Row New York (1976) 22. Vincenti, W G., and C.H. Kruger, Introduction to Physical Gas Dynami cs, John Wiley & Sons, New York ( 1967 ) 23 Heermann D W., Compute r Simulation Methods in Theo retical Physics, Springer-Verlag New York ( 1986 ) 24. Evans, D J ., and W G. Hoo ver, Ann. Reu Fluid Mech., 18, 243 (1986) 25 Kosloff R., J. Ph ys. Chem., 92 2087 ( 1988 ) 0 217

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Award Lecture COMPUTING IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION From There, To Here, To Where? Part 1 : Computing The ASEE Chemical Engineering Division Lecturer for 1990 is Brice Car nahan of The University of Michigan. The 3M Company provides financial support for this annual lectureship award, and its purpose is to recognize outstanding achievement in an impor tant field ofChE theory or practice. Brice earned his BS and MS de grees from the Case Institute of Tech nology (1955, 1956), and his PhD from the University of Michigan in 1965, all in chemical engineer ing. His doctoral research was on radiation-induced cracking of paraffins. Between 1959 and 1965 he worked closely with Professor Donald L. Katz, first as technical director of the Ford Foundation project Computers in Engineering Educa tion and then as associate director of a follow-on NSF project Comput e rs in Engineering Design Education .. He joined the faculty of the University of Michigan in 1965, where his research activities have focus e d on applied mathematics, mod e ling, digital computing, and d e velopment of software for computer-aided process analysis and dynamic simulation. He is coauthor of two Wiley Texts Applied Numerical Methods and Digital Computing and Numerical Methods He and his colleague, Professor James Wilkes, are re sponsible for the required computing course for all freshmen engineering students at the University of Michigan, for which they have produced a steady stream of texts and instructional aids over the years Professor Carnahan was a founding member and first in terim chairman of CACHE. He has subsequently served as CACHE vice-chairman and chairman and is currently active as board member and publications chairman. He has held elected A!ChE positions as CAST Division Director Vice Chairman and Chairman and is a member of the Editorial Board of Computers & Chemical Engineering. Since the early 1980s, Professor Carnahan has been inti mately involved with the planning, implementation, and management of the Michigan College of Engineering heirarchical, multivendor network now incorporating over 2000 attached machines of widely varying power. He has received numerous honors, including the Univer sity of Michigan s Distinguished Service Award (1974), the A!ChE CAST Division Computers in Chemical Engineering Award (1980), the University of Michigan College of Engi neering's Outstanding Teaching Award (1984), and the De troit Engineering Society's Chemical Engineer of the Year Award (1989) C o p y ri g ht ChE Di v i s i o n ASEE 1991 218 B RICE CARNAHAN University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 N otice of the 3M Lectureship award for 1990 came to me as a complete, though a very pleas ant, surprise. Many chemical engineering academics have had greater impact on their specialties, includ ing engineering computation. Nevertheless, I very much appreciate this singular recognition. I would be remiss if I did not here acknowledge the special contributions of two Michigan faculty to my professional life and, indirectly, to this award. The first is Don Katz, one of the greats of 20th Century chemical engineering, who provided me at a young age with opportunity, responsibility, encour agement, and financial support for pursuing my in terests in chemical engineering computing. He is sorely missed by all who knew him The second is my colleague, Jim Wilkes, with whom I have worked and taught on an almost daily basis for the past thirty years. That sounds like a long time, but in fact, the years of our collaboration have passed all too quickly. They have been filled with much work, a sense of accomplishment, and lots of fun. Thanks, Jim. It's been great working with you. Here's to the future ... and, yes Jim, I will work on that revision of Chapter 6 ... soon .... W H AT IS C OMPU T ING ? It is a bit disconcerting to be introduced as an "expert" on almost any topic, since the audience then expects the speaker to make the complicated simple, to provide clever insights into the nature of a phe nomenon, or to predict the future accurately. It is es pecially onerous to be labeled a "computing" expert. The truth is that no indivi d ual can get a handle on more than a few small subspaces of what has be come an enormous and amorphous computing uni verse, including, but not limited to: 1. Design and manufacture of hardware for symbolic (mostly numerical) operations, storage, display, and Chemical Engineering Education

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communication (e.g. networks) 2. Ancillary electronic equipment (e.g., sensors, aid converters) 3. Software (e.g., operating systems) for hardware management, communication, and user interaction 4. A wide variety of procedural, object-oriented, and other tools for creating applications 5. Application programs for: Creating and publishing documents Organized storage and retrieval of information Business and financial transaction/record keeping Implementation of numerical and non-numerical algorithms Engineering/scientific analysis, design, control, and simulation Creation of graphical images Visualization of computed results Image analysis and pattern recognition Integrating media (text, graphics, video, sound TV) for education and entertainment Knowledge-based tools predicated on rules and heuristics Language, semantics, organization of the brain and human thought processes Everyone, both lay and technically trained, is profoundly affected by "c omputing ," but each of us has a private version of what computing is, based on our own limited experience (much like the elephant and the blind men). I chose the lecture title primarily because this is a meeting of engineering educators and few techno logical developments have had ( and will in the fu ture have) so pervasive an impact on engineering education and research as has digital computing Unlike many important technological developments in the history of engineering, computing has not "matured" after fifty years of steady ( often spectacu lar ) advances. In fact, as we enter the last decade of this century, the pace of change is accelerating sig nificantly in all of the areas listed above. The ques tion mark in the title will let me end with some conjectures about current trends and the future. Computing developments in engineering educa tion have occurred by and large during my profes sional lifetime, starting in the mid-1950s. I would like to start from the perspective of a newly gradu ated (in 1955) chemical engineer, trace some of what I perceive as the most important computing develop ments over the past fifty years or so, and then make some predictions ( guesses really ) about what the future may hold vis-a-vis computers and computing in engineering education. I chose to put "engineer ing" rather than "chemical engineering" in the title because computing in chemical engineering isn 't all that different from computing in other engineering disciplines. Fall 1991 I would like to ... trace some of what I perceive as the most important computing developments over the past fifty years or so, and then make some predictions (guesses, really) about the future ... In fact many of the computing tools used most by both students and faculty (e.g., word processors data-base managers, spreadsheet programs, draw ing and plotting packages, electronic mail and con ferencing software) are essentially "non-tec hnical"; of course, "technical" computing (involving large-scale programs for symbolic and numerical mathematics analysis, design, and control) is also important to all of us some of the time, and I don 't want to leave it out-I just want to take a broader view of what com puting in engineering education is now and what it is likely to be in the future THERE-THE EARLY YEARS Let's start with the "there" part of my title. "There" for me started when I graduated from Case Tech in 1955, within months of the introduction of the IBM 650, the first widely available commercial digital computer. That event passed without my knowl edge. I had heard of (and seen, on television) the UNIV AC computer, mostly because of its use in tabu lating and predicting the vote in the 1952 presiden tial election. The only computing device I had seen personally was an enormous unused mechanical analog integrator ( covering perhaps two-hundred square feet of floor space) in the ME department at Case that had been used to solve some ODE's during World War II. The twelve-foot long K&E sliderule hanging on the wall of the same room looked a lot more useful to me It was a prop for teaching new freshmen about fast and accurate calculation (th ree digits still isn't all that bad!) That giant rule, along with the dreaded drafting exercises ( where were you, Claris CAD, when I needed you?), is retained vividly as part ofmy freshman memory. I am surprised at how little most students (and faculty) know about the personalities and historical events that led up to the successful IBM 650 ven ture. Mention "light-bulb" and the response is "Edison"; "ai rplane and the response is "Orville and Wilbur Wright" ; "telephone" and the response is Alexander Graham Bell "; computer" and the re sponse is (a lmost always ) silence or ( inaccurately ) "IBM." Although many mechanical or electromechani cal calculating machines were developed ( very early by Pascal, late in the 19th Century by Burroughs and Hollerith, and during the first half of the 20th 219

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Century by IBM and other companies ), what most of us would call programmable digital computing de veloped along an essentially independent path, with ideas generated by a small number of clever, deter mined, and sometimes irascible individuals. Table 1 shows a chronology of a few milestone events from the early history of digital computing. Babbage, [1] who for a time held Newton s chair at Cambridge is a tremendously interesting personal ity. His mechanical analytical engine incorporated the most important conceptual elements of the mod ern serial digital computer architecture ," with the exception of the stored program. Much of what we know about Babbage's analytical engine stems from its promotion by Lady Ada Lovelace ( hence the name for the programming language Ada) who was Lord Byron s daughter and a mathematician of some note. Babbage never got his engine to work, despite the expenditure of a great deal of his own money and earlier support from the British Admiralty ( the first federal R&D proposal? ) This failure was not caused by a flaw in his design but because of his unusual management style and problems with accurate metal machining Parts of his machine were built in the 1950s and are on display at the Science Museum in London ( see Figure 1 ) Nearly a century passed before Atanasoff designed the first all-electronic ( vacuum tube ) computational circuitry and built a special purpose digital com puter at Iowa State University for solving twenty nine ( why twenty nine is not clear ) simultaneous linear equations. His work was interrupted by World War II and his contributions are often slighted by historians. However a recent thoroughly documented book l 21 makes it clear that Atanasoffs contributions were substantial, and that they influenced the sub s equent development of the ENIAC by Eckert and Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania s Moore School. The ENIAC was the first truly programmable digital computer; all programming was done manu all y with switches and cables. It was used for com puting firing tables for the military and its exis tence became public knowledge in 1946 after World War II. Some statistics: th e machine was 100 feet lon g 8.5 feet high and several feet wide ; it had twenty 10-digit registers in its arithmetic unit ( each 2 feet long ), and 18 000 vacuum tubes An integer add required 200 microseconds, making it something like a 0.005 Mips ( Million instructions per second ) machine. The ENIAC ( see Figure 2 ) was two to three orders of magnitude larger physically, and its typi cal instruction time was three to six orders ofmagni220 tude longer than today s computers! In a classic 1946 paper /3 1 Burks, Goldstine, and von Neumann first introduced the stored-program and other architectural concepts that appear in nearl y TABLE 1 Digital Computing: Early History Dat e Ma c hin e D esc ription D e v e lop e r 1833-1848 Analytical engine mechanical general purpose computer B abbage at Cambridge and London 1939-1942 ABC linear equation solver first al l -e l ectronic computational hardware Atanasoff at Iowa State University 1944 -1 946 ENIAC (E l ectronic Numerica l I ntegrator a nd Calcu l ator) firs t general-purpose electronic comp ut e r Ecke rt an d Mauch l y a t th e University of Pen n sy l vania 1946 E D VAC (El ectron i c D iscre t e Varia bl e E l ectro ni c Compu t er) paper stored program concept Burks, Goldstine and van Neumann at Princeton 1947-1952 Mark I, II III, IV e l ectromechanical compu t ers with separate data and instruction memories Aiken at Harvard 1947 W hir l wind special purpose radar processor, first mach i ne with core memory MIT 1949 EDSAC ( Electronic D e l ay Storage Automatic Com put er ) fir s t op era t ing s t oredp rogram mac h ine Wilk es at Cam br idge University 1950 B INAC firs t Ame r ican stored program compu t er Eckert and Ma u c hl y Co for Northrup Av i ation 1951 UNIV AC first commercial computer (48 built) Remington-Rand Corp. 1952 IBM 701 first core-memory machine (19 built) IBM 1955 IB M 65 0 first h igh volume computer (hundreds built) dr u m memory IB M 1955 IBM 7 0 4 first l arge scien ti fic mac h ine, firs t b uilt-in fl oati n g p oint unit IB M Figure 1. Part of the mill (arithmetic unit) of Babbage s A nal yt ical En g in e, c on s tru c t e d after hi s death from origi n a l dra w in gs. ( Briti s h Crow n C opyrig ht Sc i e n ce Mu se um L o d o n ) Ch e m ic al Engin e ering Education

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Figure 2. The ENIAC at the Moore School ( 1946). all of our current (serial) computers; they called their machine the EDVAC. EDSAC built by Wilkes at Cambridge University, was the first true stored program machine built on the EDVAC model; it be came operational in 1949. The first American stored-program machine was the BINAC built for Northrup Aviation by Eckert and Mauchly ( who left the Moore School in 194 7 to start their own company ) It was fully functional by mid-1950 and served as the basis for the first com mercial digital computer the Remington-Rand UNIV AC, released in 1951; forty-eight UNIV AC sys tems were built, and the cost per machine was $250,000 (about $3 million in today's dollars ) IBM entered the digital computing business shortly after Remington-Rand introducing its first computer, the IBM 701 in 1952 ; nineteen were built. The IBM 701 was the first stored-program machine to use truly random access magnetic core memory (previously developed at MIT in 194 7 for a special purpose radar signal processor called the Whirlwind ). At the same time, IBM was developing two othe r machines One was a follow-on core-memory ma chine with the first built-in floating-point unit the IBM 704; it was not really available in quantity until 1957-58. The second was a less expensive mass market" computer, the IBM 650, with a magnetic drum memory IBM eventually built several hundred of them, mostly for rental. The University of Michi gan rented an IBM 650 in early 1956 to replace its mostly unsuccessful research computer with mer cury delay line storage called the MIDAC ( Michigan Automatic Digital Computer ). The few who actually Fall 1991 used MIDAC derisively said the acronym really stood for Machine Is Down Almost Continuously. As I recall the rental rate for the 650 was $35 per day time hour ( but only for hours when it was up !) The presence of the new computer had nothing to do with my decision to go to Michigan for PhD work in the fall of 1956 I chose Michigan because it was one of the few schools with its own nuclear reactor and I wanted to work with Joe Martin on a chemical/ nuclear engineering problem. When I met with Joe for my first counseling session he told me about the new University computer and that the mathematics department was offering a new course on digital computing, the first at Michigan. Once I was in that course ( with about twenty other students ) I knew that I wanted to be involved with computers far into the future ( even though my research was to be unre lated to it ) In fact I became a teaching assistant in that first computing course the next term it was offered. For those ( most of you ) who weren t around at that time here is a picture of what students did during that first course offering: Each ofus learned to operate the computer and then signed up for, at most one hour at a time to solve our problems (I always ended up with the 2:00-3:00 AM slot!). The machine had no keyboard or printer-just a card reader and card punch. All communication was through punched cards or directly with keys on the console (the lights displayed information in bi-quinmy format-you might want to look that one up!) All programming was in the machine's language; each instruction contained an operation code plus two addresses, one for an operand and another for locating the next instruction in the memory. The "operating system" consisted of a four-card machine language loader. Program execution could be initiated interrupted or stepped one instruction at a time, directly from the console ; the light pattern on the console was the only feedback available to the programmer/operator (the repeated light patterns from infinite loops were always fun to watch). The machine had a rotating-drum memory with fifty memory cells arranged in each of twenty "cylinders' around the drum surface Because of the time required for interpreting an instruction retrieving the operand and then processing the instruction placement of both the data and the next instruction was critical for efficient execution The location of each program instruction and data item on the drum had to be carefully considered, since a drum is not a random-access device. How do you think a current student working on a Macintosh would respond to the following directions? If the instruction address is an even number, the data address should be three word positions later (on any cylinder) and the next instruction address should be four word positions beyond that. Since there are fifty word positions around the cylinder the correct drum rotation angle for the next 221

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instruction if 50 4 degrees . If the instruction address is odd, the data address should be three word positions later and the next instruction address should be five positions beyond that so the drum rotation angle for the next instruction is 57.6 degrees Not to worry-part-way through the course we began to use the GAT assembler, written by Gra ham, Arden, and Galler of the University of Michi gan Computing Center That helped a bit ( symbolic names for operation codes and addresses ) but still left the angle determination to the programmer. Then one day late in the term, the SOAP assembler ar rived ... and life was never the same thereafter. The 0 in SOAP stood for "optimal," and the SOAP as sembler took care of all those nasty angle details. After struggling with the machine s language SOAP seemed nothing short of a miracle ( I was amazed like the mo nk in the XEROX ad ). I s t ill have my programs from that course. The first was ( you guessed it ) Find the volume of a cylind e r given the radius and height as data. I re member thinking that I could have done the whole thing on a s lide rule in a tiny fraction of the time it took m e to learn how to run the 650 and get th e program working. But later in the course we were each asked to solve a problem of our own. I decided to solve the two-dimensional heat-conduction ( Laplace ) equation in an L-shaped section of a fur nace wall I can still remember the thrill of getting the program working-and not just working but working with variable mesh sizes It was my first ex posure to the true power of the computer and of numerical methods. For me, the computer die was cast! TRENDS IN COMPUTER PERFORMANCE In those very early days it was clear to me that computers would get faster more reli~ble, and less expensive-but not that they would get incredibly smaller and orders-of-magnitude faster and cheaper ( on a $ / instruction or $/memory location basis ) Data from th e recent ( alread y classic ) text on computer architecture by Hennessy and Patterson C 41 on the relative performance of several classes of computers over the past twenty-five years or so is shown in Figure 3 The performance index is based on the time to completion of a mix of typical programs B y and large prices in current dollars of the various categories of machines have stayed fairl y stable. Supercomputers typically cost many millions mainframes sell for $500,000 to several million minicomputers from $50 000 to $500,000 and mi222 crocomputers from $1,000 ( minimal personal com puters ) to $75 000 ( for high-performance worksta tions ) Note that the rate of improvement in the per formance index is undiminished over a twenty-five year span and varies from about 18 % per year for supercomputers to about twice that for microcompu ter s Figure 4 shows a different performance index for supercomputers and microprocessors that is particu larly relevant to numerical engineering computa tions, MFLOPS ( Millions of Floating-Point Opera tions Per Second ). Although supercomputer proces sors still perform floating-point operations one to two orders-of-magnitude faster than the fastest cur rent microprocessors the message here is clear: the latest RISC ( Reduced Instruction Set Computer ) mi croprocesors ( the middle curve ) portend a rapid clo sure of the floating-point performance gap by rela tively inexpensive microprocessors. Figure 5 shows the rapid price/performance de creases over the past decade for DRAM ( Dynamic Random Access Memory ) chips used in computer Miaocomputers M in icompute rs Ma i nf r ames Supercomputer s Figure 3. Relati ve p e rformance b y c omputer class ( data from H e nn es s y and Patt e rson 14 1 ]. 1000 100 10 1 0 1 Cr ay XMP / 4 Cray 2 Intel 808 7 NEC9X 11 CIS C processors R ISC processors Su pe r co m pu t e rs 1978 1 980 1982 1 984 1986 1988 1990 1 99 2 Figure 4. Floatin g -point p e r f o r man ce of s up e r c omput e r and mi c rocomputer pro c essors ( most data f rom Int e l ) Ch e mical Engineering Education

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Q. b 8. 1;! 8 70 60 so 40 30 20 16K b 64Kb 10 2 5 6 K b 1 Mb 0 1 976 1978 1 980 1982 1 984 1 98 6 1 988 1 990 Figure 5 C osts o f s e ve ral ge n e ra tio n s of DRAM c hip s ( data f rom H e nn e ss y an d Patt erso n 141 ). TABLE 2 Hardware/Softwa r e Milestones Year Miles t o n e 1960 ALGOL Magnetic disks 1962 Time sharing (Dartmouth) Virtual memory (ATLAS at Manchester) 1964 Pipelined processors (CDC 6600) Microcoded proc esso rs, 32 bits byte (IBM 360) 1965 Interactive graphics, Sketchp a d (Sutherland) 1966 Multiprogramming Minicomputer (DEC PDP / 8) Real-time comp u ting 1967 Multiprocessing Memory cache (IBM 360/85) 1969 Minicomputer ( D EC PDP/11) PASCAL 1970 UNIX 1971 4 bit Microprocessor (LSI-Intel 4 0 04) IBM 370 1972 Vector processor (CDC ST AR) 1974 Personal (min i ]computer (XEROX Alto), bitmapped disp l ay, mouse Laser printer Local Area Network (Ethernet) 1975 Object oriented programming (Smalltalk) 8-bit microprocessor (Intel 8008) 1976 16-bit microprocessor (Texas Instrument 9000) Supercompu t e r (Cray I) ARP ANET C 1977 Microcomputers ( App l e II TRS 8 0 PET ) 1978 DEC VAX In t e l 8086 microprocessor 1979 Spreadsheets (VisiCalc) Hayes Micromodern 1980 RISC processor (Berke l ey, Stanford IBM) 1981 Graphical user interface (XEROX STAR) IBM PC DOS Epson dot matrix printer 1982 Compaq portable Cray XMP /4 1983 Apple Lisa Gavilan laptop 1984 Macintosh HP Laserjet print er 1985 Workstation (Apollo) Desktop publishing (Postscript) 1986 IBM 3090 Windows graphica l user interface 1987 Spare RISC processor (SUN workstation ) 1988 Cray Y /MP (8 processors, 6 ns clock ) Convex, A lli an t minisupercomputors Ste ll ar, Ardent, Silicon Graphics grap hi cs works t ations visualization massive l y J?aral l el processing (Connection machine) OS /2 1989 Open Soft~are Foundation (Standard UNIX) 1990 Superscalar RISC processor (IBM RS6000) 1991 ACE-MIPS RIS C processor consortium HP PA RI SC processor App l e-IBM agreement Pen-based notebook, handheld microcomputers Fall 19 9 1 main store s Here the prices are in curr e nt ( inflated ) dollars. Note that for each chi p category ther e is a similar pattern of a steep ( nearly ten-fold ) fall in prices as the chip goe s into production and that the price cycles are almost identical despite the succes sive quadrupling of cap a cit y. Some long-range trend s in computing equipment development are: 1 4 1 Performance growth ranges from 18 % per year for supercomputer processors to 35 % per year for microprocessors Dynamic RAM chip element density increases about 60 % per year 4-Mbit chips are now in mass production and IBM has announced plans to begin producing 16 Mbit chips. Hitachi has alread y fabricated a 64-Mbit chip in its laboratories. Chip transistor c ount increases about 25 % pe r ye a r, doubling every three y ears. Hard disk bit density increases about 25 % p e r ye ar doubling every three years Hard disk access time improves slowly (onl y 3 t o 4% per y ear). PREDICTING THE FUTURE Who in the late 1950 s, would have guessed tha t national computer meetings that brought together a few hundred participant s then would only thirty year s later sometimes attract in excess of 100 000 atte n dees-and be held onl y in one or two dreadful plac es like Las Vegas and Anaheim for lack of room else w here? Who then could have guessed the scope of the computing busine ss no w? Well s ome did I r em emb er a talk b y Thomas Watson Jr. in 1959 at th e dedication ceremony for the Universit y' s new IBM 704 He predicted that b y 1990 the computing busine s s would be as big as the automobile business. That didn t quite happen as sales by the major computer companies are still sub s tantially smaller than for the major auto manufac turer s. Of course had the car compan i e s deli v ered performance improvements comparable t o those for the products of the computing i ndu s t ry, w e would a ll be driving $1 Ferrari s acros s th e continent in a few s econds and car-compan y sale s might not look s o big ( one disadvantage-the car would be ver y, very small! ). If revenues from information-related busi nesses such as communication are added to those for the computing manufacturers Watson 's p re dict i on has probably already come true In a n y even t, i t is certain to come true before th e t urn of th e c ent ur y. Oh that I had had some investment cash in 1959! What about other early pr e diction s ? In 1945 Vannevar Bush, inventor of the electron i c analog 223

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computer at MIT and Director of the Office of Scien tific Research and Development during World War II, postulated a future device that is clearly similar to the personal computer we ( almost ) all know and love. In an article entitled "As We May Think,' 'C5l he wrote: The MEMEX will be for individual use, abo u t the size of a desk with display and keyboard that would allow quick reference to private records journal articles, newspapers, and perform calculations Unfortunately in 1967 in an article entitled "MEMEX Revisited ,' he wrote: Will we soon have a personal machine for our own use? Unfortunately not! How wrong he was, with the first microprocessor only a few years away. Of course, Vannevar Bush had apparently been wrong before As a consultant, he is reputed to have advised IBM in the early 1950s that one-hundred IBM 650s would saturate the market since they could do all the computing that the world needed done! ( Could he have been right? ) After hearing many predictions over the years I don t think that even the brightest are good at pre dicting the future of computing much beyond the next generation of hardware and software. This is not to be critical. Who among us in 1956 ( slide rule hanging from belt ) would have predicted that in 1990 I could buy a pocket calculator for $50 ( in greatly inflated currency ) that uses a procedure oriented language, can retain several programs in definitely, computes to at least eight-digit accuracy and operates for months on end on a battery smaller than a dime? THREE DECADES OF STEADY PROGRESS Table 2 shows a chronology of major hardware/ software developments during the past three dec ades as I see them. I have verified most of the dates but a few are from my own recollection and may be off by a year or two. Having gone from there to "here in the general categories of hardware and software, Table 3 shows several areas of chemical engineering where these technologies have had the biggest impact. Here I have not tried to arrange the list in strict chronologi cal order Bob Seader ( University of Utah ) was the recipi ent of the 1990 Katz lectureship in our department One of his two lectures was entitled A Brief History of Computing in Chemical Engineering." His superb lecture covered the subject so well that I couldn t possibly improve on it here A printed copy of Bob's 224 TABLE 3 Computing in Chemical Engineering Topic Process unit m o d e lin g D a t a an al ys i s/re d uct i on P h ys i cal p rop erty estimation Steady s t a t e sim u lation Cos ti ng Reservoir simulation Optimization Scaleup without pilot plants Dynamic simulation Process co ntr o l Con tr o l sys t e m des i gn Process syn th esis B a t c hpr o cess simu l ators/schedu l ers Knowledge based (AI/expert system) sy nth es i s and design Graphics and visualization Molecular and property mod eling (polymers composites) Microelectronic processing/sensors Integrated process/ con trol/information management systems Biochem i cal system modeling/simulation / design /c ontrol In t e n sive u se of n u merica l ana l ys i s too l s: lin ear an d n o nli near a l ge b ra i c/ tr ansce nd e ntal e quation s ord i nary diff eren ti a l eq u ations, stiff syste m s partial d i ffe r ential equations (finite diffe r ence/ e l ement methods) Education/training Office, plant education networks lecture was sent to every chemical engineering de partment chairman last fall, and I highly recom mend that you locate and read it. If you cannot find a copy, contact me and I will send one to you. Editor's Note: The second half of this award lecture will be published in the next issue (Win ter 1992) ofCEE. REFERENCES 1. Morrison Phillip and Emily Charl e s Babbag e and Hi s Cal c ulating Eng i n e s Dover New York (1961 ) 2 Burks Alice R. and Arthur W., Th e First Electronic Com put e r : Th e Atanasoff Story University of Michigan Press Ann Arbor MI (1988 ) 3 Burks A.W. H H Goldstine and J. van Neumann "Pre liminary Discussion o f the Logical Design of an Electronic Computing In s trumen t," report of the Institute for Ad v anc e d Stud y, Princ e ton ( 1946 ). Reprinted in Da t a m at ion, 8, 9, 10 ( 1962 ) 4. Henness y, John L. and Da vi d A. Patterson Compu te r Archit e ctur e: A Quantita t i ve Approach Morgan Kauffman San Mateo CA (1990 ) 5 Bush Vanne v ar Endl ess H o ri zo n s, Public Affairs Press (1 946 ) 0 Chemical Engineering Education

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461 book review ) INDUSTRIAL ELECTROCHEMISTRY, Second Edition by Derek Pletcher and Frank Walsh Chapman and Hall, New York (1990) $115 Reviewed by Mark E. Orazem University of Florida In their preface, the authors write that" ... elec trochemistry and electrochemical engineering as aca demic disciplines ... remain insufficiently taught at both undergraduate and post graduate levels." Their perspective is shared by others The National Asso ciation of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) is currently forming a task group to find ways to improve corro sion education in this country. In spite of the fact that electrochemical systems encompass one-ninth of the chemical process industry, most chemical en gineering undergraduates receive no exposure to the field beyond a two-week stint in a physical chemis try class. The authors express their hope that "this book will encourage many more teachers to take up the challenge of teaching an integrated applied elec trochemistry course." This text provides a compelling demonstration of the importance of electrochemical processes. In ten chapters and 460 pages the authors explore: 1. Electrolytic production of chlorine and caustic 2. Electrolytic extraction, refining, and produc-tion of metals through electrowinning, cementation, electrorefining, and electro-deposition of metal powders 3. Electrolytic production of a number of low-tonnage inorganic products such as fluorine hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and manganese dioxide 4. Organic electrosynthesis ofadiponitrile (used to make nylon) and other commercial electro-synthesis processes 5. Waste-water treatment by electrochemical processes such as electrodeposition of metal ions, in-situ formation of oxidizers, and electrodialysis 6. Metal finishing including electroplating, electroless plating, and electrophoretic painting 7. Metals processing, including electroforming and electrochemical machining and etching 8. Corrosion and corrosion control 9. Batteries and fuel cells Fall 1991 10 Electrochemical sensors and monitoring techniques This text provides a broad overview of electro chemical technology, and the detail with which these systems are covered is sufficient for a survey course. The review of electrochemical practice is preceded by two chapters that cover the fundamentals of elec trochemistry and electrochemical engineering. The discussion of fundamental electrochemical concepts (Chapter 1 ) is very compressed and may be tough going for the typical undergraduate chemical engi neer. It does, however, outline the key facto~s that distinguish electrochemical processes from traditional chemical systems. The section on electrochemical engineering (Chapter 2) emphasizes costing of electro chemical processes and introduces typical cell de signs. This text could be used for an elective survey course directed to senior undergraduate students and beginning graduate students. The strength of the book, in this application, is its comprehensive overview of the field. The authors however, do not make it easy for the instructor. The text does not include homework problems and while general sug gestions are made for further reading, specific attri butions are not given for the material presented in the chapters. Therefore it is difficult to know pre cisely where to look for more information on a spe cific topic. The discussion of fundamentals is not integrated into the discussion of industrial processes. While the authors stress the importance of current distribu tion in Chapters 1 and 2, such calculations are not employed for the design of industrial processes cov ered in Chapters 3 through 12 For example, the authors present different battery types in Chapter 11, but do not present the manner in which one would try to optimize the battery design based on principles governing current and potential distribu tion. Impressed current cathodic protection is pre sented in Chapter 10 as a means of controlling corro sion, but the equations used to design a cathodic protection system are not presented. This level of coverage is suitable for a survey course. For an ad vanced graduate-level class, I would want to apply the fundamental concepts by introducing the model ing and optimal design of some sample systems. Industrial Electrochemistry could be an good com plement to a text such as Newman's Electrochemical Systems in an advanced graduate course Industrial Electrochemistry would be an excel lent textbook for an upper-level undergraduate sur vey course on applied electrochemical technology. 0 225

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Title Index Note : Tit l es i n italic type are books review e d A Accreditation: Changes are Needed------------------------XXIII,12 Adsorption and Adsorption Processes, Principles of-----XXII, 16 Adsorption Fundamentals, Liquid-Phase-------------------XXI,200 Alarm System Design, An Undergraduate Experiment in --------------------------------------------XXII,22 Algorithm for Calculation of Phase Sep aratio n, A Simple ----------------------------------XXII,36 American University Graduate Work------------------------XXI,160 Amundson' s Matrix Method for Binary Distillation Revisited --------------------------------------------------XXV ,50 Animal Cell Culture in Microcapsules ------------------XXII, 196 Another Way of Looking at Entropy---------------------XXIIl,154 Application of Mass Balances, A Practical --------------XXIII, 163 Applied Differential Equations, A SecondYear Undergraduate Course in-------------------------------XXV ,88 Applied Linear Algebra------------------------------------XXIII ,23 6 Applied Mathematics: Opportunites for ChEs ----------XXIV,198 Autotrophic Fermentation, An Experiment in ------------XXIII ,32 A WARD LECTURES Computing in Engineering Education : From There to Here to Where? Part I Computing---------------------XXV,218 From Molecular Theory to Thermodynamic Models ; Part 1 ------------------------------------------------------------XXIV 12 Ibid. Part 2-----------------------------------------------------XXIV,80 Random W allc in Porous Media, A --------------------------XXIV 136 Reflections on Teaching Creativity---------------------------XXII, 170 B Basic Programs for Chemical Engineers -------------------XXI, 77 Binary Distillation Revisited, Amundson's Matrix Method for ------------------------------------------------XXV ,50 Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering --------------XXIII,200 Biochemical Engineering ---------------------------------XXII,202 Biochemical Engineering Education Through Videotapes ---------------------------------------------XXIV 17 6 Bioengineering, A Multidisciplinary Course in ---------XXIII,204 Bioengineering, Cellular-----------------------------------XXIII,208 Bioseparations: Downstream Processing for Biotechnology ----------------------------------------XXIII,221 Biotechnology for the Mining, Metal-Refining and Fossil Fuel Processing Industries, Workshop on-----------XXI,133 Biotechnology Laboratory Methods ----------------------XXIII 182 Biotechnology to High School Students, Introducing Applications of----------------------------------------XXIV, 158 Buoyancy-Induced Flows and Transport ---------------XXIII, 181 Burning of a Liquid Oil Droplet, The----------------------XXI, I 26 c Calculations, Principles of Stagewise Separation Process ---------------------------------------------------XXV, 106 Calculation s, The Use of Lotus 1-2-3 Macros in Engin ee ring --------------------------------------------XXIV, 100 Catalyst Design: Progress and Perspectives --------------XXIl,86 Catalyst Suports and Supported Catalysts -------------XXII,103 Catalytic Reactions, Triangular Diagrams Teach Steady and Dynamic Behaviour of--------------------------XXIII 176 226 Cell Technology, A Course in Immobilized Enzyme and -XXV,82 Cellular Bioengineering--------------------------------XXIII,208 Ceramics Science and Engineering, Research in ----------XXV,204 Cheating Among Engineering Students: Reasons for Concern ----------------------------------------------XXIII, 16 Chemical Engineering in the Spectrum of Knowledge ---XXIV,20 Chemical Kinetics Fluid Mechanics, and Heat Transfer in the Fast Lane -------------------------------XXV, 186 Chemical Processes Elementary Principles of------------XXI,47 Chemical Process Computati o ns ---------------------------XXI,117 Chemical Process Modeling and Control---------------XXI,194 Chemical Process Systems Stochastic Modeling of: Part 1, Introduction -----------------------------------XXIV ,56 Part 2, The Master Equation --------------------------XXIV ,88 Part 3, Application ---------------------------------XXI V, 164 Chemical Processing of Electrons and Holes-------------XXIV ,2 6 Chemical Reaction, Mass Transfer with -------------------XXI, 164 Chemical Reaction and Reactor Engineering ----------XXIII,149 Chemical Reaction Engineering, An Open-Ended Problem in ----------------------------------------------XXIV, 148 Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future Directions ----------------------------------XXI,210 Chemical Reaction Engineering Elements of--------------XXII,7 Chemical Reaction Engineering Applications in Non-Traditional Technologies--------------------XXV,150 Chemical Reaction Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory --------------------------XXI,30 Chemical Reactor Analysis and Design-------------------XXV, 131 Chemical Reactor Design -------------------------------XXIII,31 Coal Liquid Mixtures ----------------------------------------XXIII ,9 1 Coal Science: An Introduction to Chemistry, Technolog y and Utilization ------------------------------------------XXI, 152 Coffee Pot Experiment, The -----------------------------XXIII, 150 Combustion Engineering, Advanced -----------------------XXI, 198 Compatibility of Polymeric Materials, Chemical--------XXIV,94 Composite Materials : An Educational Need-------------XXIV,154 Computation of Multiple Reaction Equilibria------------XXV, 112 Computations, Chemical Process --------------------------XXI, 117 Computer Process Control Teaching and Research, A Pilot-Scale Heat Recovery System for-------------XXII,68 Computer Simulation Modules, Purdue-Industry---------XXV,98 Computers in the Undergraduate Laboratory, Incorporation of Process Control ---------------------XXIV 106 Computer-Aided Engineering for Injection Molding ----XXI,172 Computer-Controlled Heat Exchange Experiment, A-----XXI,84 Computing, Chemical Engineering and Instructional: Are They in Step? Part I ------------------------------XXII, 134 Ibid. Part 2 ----------------------------------------------XXII,212 Consortium to Address Multidisciplinary Issues of Waste Management-----------------------------------XXIV, 180 Content and Gaps in BSChE Training ------------------XXIII,138 Control Projects, Use of a Modern Polymerization Pilot-Plant for Undergraduate ---------------------------XXV ,34 Control Systems Design, Microcomputer-Aided----------XXI,34 Creativity, Reflections on Teaching-----------------------XXIl,170 Creativity in Engineering Education----------------------XXIl,120 Crossdisciplinary Research, Initiating -------------------XXIII,242 Crystallization: An Intereresting Experience in Chemical Engineering Education

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the ChE Laboratory ------------------------------------XXV 102 Curricula General Education Requirements and ChE-XXIII 106 Curricula for the Future, Chemical Engineering --------XXIII, 188 Curriculum-I 989, The Chemical Engineering--------XXIV 184 Curriculum, TheF u ture ChE: Must One Size Fit All?-----XXI,74 Curriculum, What Will we Remove to Make Room for X? ----------------------------------------------XXI 72 Cryog e nics, Heat and Mass Transfer in Refrigeration and--------------------------------------XXII 125 D DEPARTMENTS: Auburn University-------------------------------------------XXIV, 118 Clarkson University-------------------------------------------XXII, 110 Arizona, University of------------------------------------------XXIV ,2 California at Los Angeles, University of----------------------XXV,64 Colorado School of Mines -----------------------------------XXIV ,66 Illinois Institute of Technology-------------------------------XXII,62 Johns Hopkins University, The-------------------------------XXI 112 Lehigh University---------------------------------------------XXIII 58 Louisiana State University--------------------------------------XXV,2 Manhattan College --------------------------------------------------XXI ,6 Massachusetts, University of----------------------------------XXV, 122 New Jersey Institute of Technology ------------------------XXIII 130 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute-------------------------------XXIII,6 Texas at Austin, University of -------------------------------------XXl,58 Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University-------------XXII,2 Design Course, Teaching Effective Oral Presentations as Part of the Senior Design Course-------------------XXV ,28 Design Education in Chemical Engineering, Part 1 ----XXIII,22 Ibid. Part 2 -------------------------------------------XXIII, 120 Design Experience, A Meaningful Undergraduate ----------XXI,90 Differential Equation for Packed Beds, The Dispersion Model -------------------------------------XXIV ,224 Differential Equations, A Second-Year Undergraduate Course in Applied---------------------------------------XXV ,88 Digital Computer Process Control, A Grad Course in --XXV,176 Direct Contact Heat Transfer ------------------------~----XXIII, 11 Discrete-Event Simulation in Chemical Engineering-----XXII,98 Dispersion Model Differential Equation for Packed Beds: Is it Really so Simple?----------------XXIV,224 Distillation Tray Fundamentals -----------------------------XXII 90 Di vision Activities -------------XXI,82, 167; XXII, 177; XXIII, 198 XXIV,187; XXV,185 Drying, Advances in -----------------------------------------XXIII,37 E Economic Evaluation in the Chemical Process Industries-----------------------------------------XXl 5 Editorial ----------------------------------------------------XXl,63 157 EDUCAT O RS: Acrivos, Andreas, of The City College, CUNY ------------XXV, 118 Baasel, William D., of Ohio University------------------------XXI,64 Bailey, James E., of Caltech -----------------------------------XXII,58 Berman, Neil, of Arizona State University -------XXII,8 de Nevers, Noel ----------------------------------------XXIII,64 Eagleton, Lee C ., of Pennsylvania State University------------XXI ,2 Friedly, J C of Rochester-----------------------------------XXII, 116 Lightfoot, Edwin N of Wisconsin--------------------------XXIV,8 McConica, Carole, of Colorado State University-------------XXIV 62 Perna, Angelo J., ofNJIT ----------------------------------------XXV,62 Stephanopoulos, George, of MIT ------------------------------XXI, I 06 Fall 1991 Stewart, Warren E ., of Wi sco n sin----------------------------XXIII,2 Stice Jim of The University of Texas-------------------------XXV,6 Electrochemistry, Industrial------------------------------XXV ,225 Electrons and Holes, Chemical Processing of------------XXIV,26 Energy Balances Introduction to Material and--------XXIII,161 Engineering Education and Pra c ti ce in the U.S. ------XXII 11 Engines, Energy and Entrop y --------------------------------XXI,93 Entropy, A Simple Molecular Interpretation of ------------XXI,98 Entropy, Another Way of Looking at --------------------XXIII, 154 Entropy; Engines, Energy and ----------------------------XXI,93 Entropy, The Essence of ----------------------------------XXIII,250 Entropy The Mystique of-----------------------------XXII,92 Environmental Transport, Exposure and Risk Assessment, A Course on Multimedia-----------XXIV,212 Epitaxy on Patternless and Patterned Substrates Ch e mical Vapor Deposition -------------------------------------XXIV ,42 Equations of State, Generalized Saturation Propertie s of Pure Fluids via Cubic ------------------------------XXIII, 168 Equilibria, Computation of Multiple Reaction-----------XXV, 112 Equilibria, Multible Reaction : With Pencil and Paper---XXIII, 76 Equilibrium Thermodynamics, An Introduction to : Part 1 Notation and Mathematics-----------------XXV,74 Part 2. Internal Energy, Entropy, and TemperatureXXV, 164 Equipment Design Heat Transfer-------------------------XXIV,92 Errors: A Rich Source of Problems and Examples------XXV,140 Ethical Issues Into the Curriculum ; Incorporating Health Safety, Environmental and -----------------------------XXIII, 70 Ethics; Developing a Course in Chemical Engineering --XXV ,68 Ethics; Science Engineering and -------------------------XXIII,67 Evaporators, A Simpler Way to Tame Multiple-Effect ----XXII,52 Experiment, The Coffee Pot------------------------------XXIII, 150 Experimental Error? Do Students Understand-----------XXIII,92 F Faculty Development, Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic Motivation in -------------------------------------------XXIII, 134 Fermentation, An Experiment in Autotrophic -----------XXIII,32 Fibers, Advanced Engineering-------------------------XXI, 186 Film Heat Transfer Coefficients, Introducing the Concept of----------------------------------------------XXIV, 132 Filtration of Aerosols and Hydrosols Granular---------XXIV,99 Fire Safety Science --------------------------------------------XXII, 17 Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions --------------------------XXIII,228 Fluid Mechanics, and Heat Transfer in the Fast Lane; Chemical Kinetics, -----------------------------XXV, 186 Fluid Properties, Thermodynamics and------------------XXII,208 Fluidised Bed Combustion ---------------------------------XXII, 153 Flow and Heat Exchange Engineering------------------XXII, 195 Flow Sheet is Process Language ----------------------------XXII,88 Fluid Mechanics, Process---------------------------------XXII,191 Food, Engineering Properties of --------------------------XXI,66 Freshman Class to Introduce ChE Concepts and Opportunities, A Novel -------------------------------XXV, 134 Future ChE Curriculum, The: Must One Size Fit All? ----XXI ,74 Future, Chemical Engineering in the-----------------------XXI, 12 Future Directions in Chemical Engineering Education --XXII, 12 G Gas Separation by Adsorption Processes ----------------XXII,91 227

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General Education Requirements and ChE Curricula --XXIII I 06 Georgia Tech Rising Senior Summer Program, The Milliken/ --------------------------------XXI, 134 Graduate Work, American University ----------------------XXI, 160 Graduate School, Secrets of My Success in-------------XXIII ,256 Graduation: The Beginning of Your Education ----------XXII, 164 Granular Filtration of Aerosols and H y drosols --------XXIV,99 H Hazard Analysis Course, A Chemical Plant Safety and XXIII, 194 Hazardous Chemical Spills --------------------------------XXIIl ,2 16 Hazardous Waste Management ---------------------------XXIIl,222 Hazardous Waste Management-------------------------XXIV, 147 Health and Safety into the Curriculum Rationale for Incorporating --------------------------------------XXIl,30 Health, Safety, Environmental, and Ethical Issues Into the Curriculum; Incorporating----------------------XXIII,70 Heat and Mass Transfer in Refrigeration and Cryogenics --------------------------------------XXII, 125 Heat Exchange, Engineering Flow and------------------XXIl,195 Heat Exchange Experiment A Computer-Controlled-----XXI,84 Heat Exchanger and Pressure Vessel Technolog y, Fundamentals of -----------------------------------------XXI,88 Heat Exchanger Network Synthesi s Using Interactive Microcomputer Graphics, Teaching ------------------XXI, 118 Heat Recovery System for Computer Process Control Teaching and Research A Pilot-Scale----------------XXII,68 Heat Transfer in the Fast Lane; Chemical Kinetics, Fluid Mechanics, and--------------------------------XXV, 186 Heat Transfer Archives of---------------------------------XXIV ,33 Heat Transfer The Chemical Engineering Guide to ---XXIl 114 Heat Transfer Direct Contact-----------------------------XXIIl,11 Heat Transfer Coefficients Introducing the Concept of Film --------------------------------------------------XXIV, 132 Heat Transfer Equipment D es i g n ----------------------XXIV ,93 Heterogeneous Catalysis -----------------------------------XXIII, 116 Heterogeneous Catalysis Temperature Effects in------XXIV,112 High School Students, Introducing Applications of Biotechnology to -----------------------------------XXIV, 158 I Immobilized Enzyme and Cell Technology A Course in -XXV ,82 Impedance Response of Semiconductors, The -----------XXIV ,48 Industrialization of a Graduate, The: Methods for Engineering Education -----------------------------------XXI,68 Industrialization of a Graduate The : The Business Arena------------------------------------------XXI, 18 Injection Molding, Computer-Aided Engineering for----XXI, 172 Integral Methods in Science and Engineering------------XXI, 101 Integrated Circuit Industry, Working in the --------------XXIV ,38 Interactive Graphics, Inventing Multiloop Control in a Jiffy with Interactive Graphics------------------XXV,126 lnterfacial Phenomena: Equilibrium and Dynamic Effects -------------------------------------XXII,51 Ion Exchange, Fundamentals and Applications of---------XXI, 143 J Japan and the United States ChE Education in (Part 1) XXII, 144 Ibid (Part 2) -------------------------------------------XXII,218 228 K Kinetic Parameters Characteristic of Microalgal Growth, Determining the------------------------------XXV, 145 Kinetic Rate Expression, Calculation of Pre-Exponential Term in ------------------------------XXII, 150 Kinetics, A Laboratory Experiment on Combined Mass Transfer and -------------------------------------------XXIIl,86 Knowledge, Chemical Engineering in the Spectrum of-XXIV,20 L Lab Experience, A First Chemical Engineering ----------XXI, 146 Laboratory, A Membrane Gas Separation Experiment for the Undergraduate -----------------------------------XXV, 10 Laboratory, A Three-Stage Counter Current Leaching Rig for the Senior---------------------------------------XXIII,96 Laboratory Chemical Reaction Experiment----------------XXI,30 Laboratory Course, The Large------------------------------XXII 42 Laboratory Experiment, The Unstructured StudentDesigned Research Type of---------------------------XXIV,78 Laboratory Experiment on Combined Mass Transfer and Kinetics, A ---------------------------------------------XXIIl,86 Laboratory for Chemical Engineering Students, An Engineering Applications -------------------------------XXV, 16 Laboratory to Develop Engineering Awareness, Using the ---------------------------------XXIII, 144 Large Laboratory Course, The-------------------------------XXII,42 Leaching Rig for the Senior Laboratory, A Three-Stage Counter Current--------------------------------------XXIII,96 Least Sum of Squares for Linear Regression, A Rubust Alternate to ---------------------------------------------XXV ,40 Letters to the Editor--------XXI,5 77 152; XXII,71,115,166,201; XXIIl,10,75,143,203; XXIV 65; XXV,181 Liquid-Phase Adsorption Fundamentals -------------------XXl,200 Linear Algebra, Applied----------------------------------XXIIl ,2 36 Linear Regression, A Robust Alternate to Least Sum of Squares for --------------------------------------XXV ,40 Lotus 1-2-3 Macros in Engineering Calculations --------XXIV,100 Lubrication Flows --------------------------------------------XXIII,50 M Management, Engineering-----------------------------------XXIl,80 Mass Balances, A Practical Application of--------------XXIIl,163 Mass Transfer and Kinetics, A Laboratory Experiment on Combined----------------------------------------------XXIIl,86 Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction--------------------XXI,164 Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction in Multiphase Systems -----------------------------------XXII, 103 Material and Energy Balances, Introduction to -------XXIII 161 Mathematics, Applied --------------------------------------XXIV, 198 Mathematics Software in the Undergraduate Curriculum Use of PC Based-------------------------XXV,54 Matrices for Engineers -------------------------------------XXII, 153 Membrane Gas Separation Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory, A --------------------------XXV, 10 Memo, The Engineer 's Essential One-Page : The Heart of the Matter------------------------------------XXIII, I 02 MEMORIAM Christensen Jame s J --------------------------------------------XXII, 72 Eagleton Lee C. ------------------------------------------------XXIV, 197 Chemical Engineering Education

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Marshall W. Robert ---------------------------------------------XXII, 126 Pigford Robert L. -----------------------------------------------XXII,207 Ragatz, Roland Andrew----------------------------------------XXII,73 Microalgal Growth, Determining the Kinetic Parameters Characteristic of------------------------XXV 145 Microbiology, An Option in Applied--------------------XXII, 158 Microcapsules, Animal Cell Culture in -----------------XXII, 196 Microcomputer Computation Package Applications of a -XXII, 18 Microcomputer Graphics Teaching Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis Using Interactive ------------------XXI,l 18 Microcomputer-Aided Control System s Design -------------XXI,34 Microelectronics Processing (VLSI), Fundamental s of --XXI, J 70 Microgravity Unit Operations in -------------------------XXI 190 Model Predictive Control ---------------------------------XXII 178 Modeling, A Systematic Approach to -------------------XXII,26 Modeling and Control, Chemical Process ----------------XXI 194 Molecular Interpretation of Entropy a Simple-------------XXI,98 Molecular Thermodynamics for Nonideal Fluids------XXIIl,260 Molecular Theory to Thermodynamic Models From: Part I -----------------------------------XXIV, I 2 Ibid Part 2 -------------------------------------------XXIV,80 Molecular Transport Phenomena, An Introduction to ----XXV ,2 10 Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, Fundamentals ofXXI,132 Motivation in Faculty Development Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic ------------------------------------------XXIII, 134 MultidisciplinaryCourse in Bioengineering, A----------XXIII,204 Multiloop Control Systems in a Jiffy with Interactive Graphics, Inventing----------------------XXV,126 Multimedia Environmental Transport, Exposure, and Risk Assessment, A Course on---------------------XXIV,212 Multiphase Chemical Reactors: Theory, Design Scale-Up ---------------------------------------XXI,215 Multiphase Science and Technology -----------------------XXI, 197 Multiphase Systems Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction in ----------------------------------------------XXII l 03 Multiple Reaction Equilibria: With Pencil and Paper -----XXIIl,76 Multiple Reaction Equilibria, Computation of------------XXV,112 Multi variable Control Methods ----------------------------XXII, 188 N Nigeria, The Development of Appropriate Chemical Engineering Education for -----------------------------XXI, I 02 Nigeria, ChE Education and Problems in ------------------XXI,44 Nonlinear Systems --------------------------------------------XXI 178 Numerical Heat Transfer ------------------------------------XXl,39 Numerical Methods for Chemical Engineers, An Introduction to --------------------------------------XXV, 144 o One-Hour Professional Development Course for Chemical Engineers, A -------------------------------XXIV, 124 Open-Ended Problem in Chemical Reaction Engineering, A ----------------------------------------XXIV, 148 Open-Ended Problems, Development and Use of------XXV,158 Operations and Process Laboratory, The ---------------XXII, 140 Oral Presentations as Part of the Senior Design Course, Teaching Effective ------------------------------XXV,28 Oral Technical Presentation, A Course on Making -------XXII,48 Osmosis System for an Advanced Separation Fall 1991 Process Laboratory A Reverse ------------------------XXI, 138 P Packed Beds The Dispersion Model Differential Equation for------------------------------------------XXIV ,224 Particulate Processes----------------------------------------XXID,214 Patternless and Patterned Substrates Chemical Vapor Deposition Epitaxy on ---------------------------------XXIV 42 PC Based Mathematics Software in the Undergraduate Curriculum, Use of--------------------------------------XXV 54 P o l y m e r Chemistry : An Introdu ctio n--------------------XXIV,i53 Polymer Science, Introdu c tion to Ph ysical-------------XXIV, 135 Polymer Science and Engineering------------------------XXIV,208 Polymer Systems, Prin cip l es of --------------------------------XXI,33 Pol y m er Viscoelasticity, Introdu c tion to -------------------XXII 79 Polymeric Materials Chemical Compatibility of--------XXIV,94 Polymerization Pilot-Plant for Undergraduate Control Projects Use of a----------------------------------------XXV,34 Polymerization Reactor Engineering -----------------------XXI, 184 Porou s Media A Random Walk in-----------------------XXIV, 136 Pre-Exponential Term in Kinetic Rate Expression, Calculation of----------------------------XXII,150 Proce ss Design Course, An Alternative Approach to the -XXIIl ,82 Professional Development Course for Chemical Engineers, A One-Hour------------------------------XXIV, 124 Phase Change Unsteady-State Heat Transfer Involving a ------------------------------------------------XXIII,44 Phase Separation A Simple Algorithm for Calculation of ----------------------------------------------XXII,36 Photoreactiv e Pol y mers: The Science and Technology of Resists ------------------------------------------------XXIV ,33 Plasmid Instability in Batch Cultures of Recombinant Bacteria : A Laboratory Experiment----------------XXIV, 168 Pressure Vessel Technolog y, Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger and ---------------------------------------------XXI,88 PROBLEMS: Coyotes, a Problem with------------------------------------------XXI 40 CSTR 's in Biochemical Reactions : An Optimization Problem -------------------------------------------------------XXIlI 112 Drainage of Conical Tanks With Piping------------------XXIV : 145 Heat of Crystallization Experiment, a Simple---------------XXV, 154 Heat Transfer with Chemical Reaction Modeling of: Cooking a Potato---------------------------------------XXI,204 Numerical Simulation of Multicomponent Chromatography Using Spreadsheets--------------------XXIV ,2 04 Removal of Chlorine From the Chlorine-Nitrogen Mixture in a Film of Liquid Water------------------------XXV ,92 Thermodynamic s, A Contribution to the Teaching of ----------XXI,94 Volatility of Close-Boiling Species, Estimating Relative---XXI, 144 Process Control, A Grad Course in Digital Computer --XXV 176 Process Control: Structures and Applications-----------XXV, 156 Process Control Principles and Practice of Automatic ---XXI,89 Process Control Computers in the Undergraduate Laboratory, Incorporation of-------------------------XXIV, 106 Process Control Course Simulation Exercises for an Undergraduate Digital---------------------------XXII,154 Process Control Education in the Year 2000 --------------XXIV, 72 Process Design and Economics A Guide to Chemical Engineering ---------------------------------------------XXV 79 229

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Process Fluid Mechanics-------------------------------XXII, 191 Process Industries Economic Evaluation in the Chemical -----------------------------------------------XXI,5 Process Laboratory, The Operations and-----------------XXII,140 Process Language, Flow Sheet is ----------------------------XXII,88 Process Reactor Design ---------------------------------------XXI,49 Purdue-Industry Computer Simulation Modules----------XXV,98 R Random Media Topics in -----------------------------------XXII, 192 RAND O M THOUGHTS Good Cop/Bad Cop ------------------------------------------XXIll,207 Engineering Education Verses ----------------------------------XXV 22 Imposters Everywhere---------------------------------------XXII, 168 It Goes Without Saying-------------------------------------XXV, 132 Meet Your Students : I Stan and Nathan ---------------------XXIll,68 Meet Your Students : 2. Su san and Glenda--------------------XXIV,7 Meet Your Students : 3. Michelle, Rob Art------------------XXIV,130 Meet Your Students : 4. Jill and Perry-----------------------XXV, 196 No Respect! ------------------------------------------------------XXIV, 71 Nobody Asked Me, But... --------------------------------------XXIll,26 View Through the Door A-----------------------------------XXIll 166 We Hold These Truth s to be Self-Evident----------------------XXV 80 Reactor Design Chemical ----------------------------------XXIIl,31 Reactor Engineering, Chemical Reaction and---------XXIIl,149 Recombinant Bacteria Plasmid Instability in Batch Cultures of : A Laboratory Experiernnt -------------XXIV, 168 Report Writing, Tips on Teaching--------------------------XXI,130 Research Type of Laboratory Experiment, The Unstructured Student-Designed -----------------------XXIV 78 Revolutionaries, Engineering Schools Train Social-------XXI,78 Rheology, An Introduction to-------------------------------XXV, 131 Risk Reduction in the ChE Curriculum -------------------XXV, 198 s Safety and Hazard Analysis Course, A Chemical Plant-XXIII ,194 Safety and Loss Prevention in the Undergraduate Curriculum: A Dual Perspective----------------------XXII,74 Safety Environmental and Ethical Issues Into the Curriculum; Incorporating Health ,------------------XXIIl,70 Safety into the Curriculum, Rationale for Incorporating Health and -------------------------------XXIl,30 Saturation Properties of Pure Fluids via Cubic Equations of State-------------------------------------XXIII, 168 Separation Process Laboratory A Reverse Osmosis System for an Advanced -------------------------------XXI, 138 Separation Process Technolog y, Handbook of ----------XXII, 138 Scaleup, Instruction in ---------------------------------------XXII, 128 Schools Train Social Revolutionarie s, Engineering ---------XXI,78 Science Engineering, and Ethics---------------------------XXIII,67 Semiconductors The Impedance Response of-----------XXIV ,48 Silicon Thermal Oxidation of----------------------------XXIV ,34 Simplification, Level s of------------------------------------XXII, 104 Simulation Exercises for an Undergraduate Digital Process Control Course --------------------------------XXII, 154 Spills Hazardous Chemical -------------------------------XXIIl,216 Spreadsheets The Power of----------------------------------XXV ,46 Stagewise Separation Process Calculations Principles of---------------------------------------------XXV, I 06 Statistical Mechanics of Chain Molecules-----------------XXV 45 230 Stirred Pot s-----------------------------------------------XXIV,223 Stochastic Modeling of Chemical Proce ss Systems; Part I, Introduction ------------------------XXIV,56 Ibid. Part 2, The Master Equation --------------------XXIV ,88 Ibid. Part 3, Application -------------------------------XXIV,164 Stoichiometry Without Tears -----------------------------XXIV, 188 Succes s in Graduate School Secrets of My-------------XXIII,256 Summer Program, The Milliken/Georgia Tech Rising Senior--------------------------------------------XXI, 134 Summer School, 1987 ----------------------------------------XXI, 168 Summer Seminar Series, The Chemical Engineering --XXIV,220 Suspensions, Fluid Mechanics of-------------------------XXill,228 Symposium, The ChEGSA --------------------------------XXIII, I 00 T Talks, A Course on Presenting Technical -----------------XXIl,84 Team Responsibility in Class, Experiencing --------------XXIII,38 Technical Communications for Graduate Students ------XXII, 184 Technical Presentations, A Course on Making Oral ------XXII,48 Technical Talks, A Course on Presenting ------------------XXII 84 Temperature Effects in Heterogeneous Catalysis -------XXIV, 112 Thermal Oxidation of Silicon-------------------------------XXIV ,34 Thermodynamics: An Advanced Textbook for ChEs ---XXIV,207 Thermodynamics, Chemical and Engineering ------------XXV,183 Thermodynamics, Elementary General-------------------XXV,163 Thermodynamics and Fluid Properties --------------------XXII,208 Thesis, An Alternate Approach to the Undergraduate---XXIIl,28 Transport Phenomena -----------------------------------------XXI 17 4 Transferring Knowledge: A Parallel Between Teaching ChE and Developing Expert System s -------------XXIV ,228 Transport Phenomena Introduction to Molecular-------XXV,210 Transport Phenom ena in Turbulent Flows--------------XXIII, 175 Triangular Diagram s Teach Steady and Dynamic Behaviour of Catalytic Reactions-----------------XXIII, 176 Two Phase Flow and Heat Transfer: China-US Prag ress---------------------------------------------------XXI, 145 u UC Online: Berkeley 's Multiloop Computer Control Program ----------------------------------------XXI, 122 Undergraduate Education: Where Do We Go from Here ?-XXV,96 Unit Operations, Prin cip les of ------------------------------XXI, 110 Unit Operations in Microgravity----------------------------XXI,190 Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering------------------XXI,48 Unsteady-State Heat Transfer Involving a Phase Change ---------------------------------------------XXIII,44 User-Friendly Program for Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium ---XXV ,24 Using the Laboratory to Develop Engineering Awareness --------------------------------------------XXIII, 144 V Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium A User-Friendly Program for-XXV,24 Videotapes, Biochemical Engineering Education Through -----------------------------------XXIV, 176 Viscous Flows: The Practical Use of Theory--------------XXV,97 w Waste Management, A Consortium to Address Multidisciplinary Issues of--------------------------XXIV, 180 Waste Management, Hazardous ---------------------------XXIIl,222 Chemical Engineering Education

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AU T HOR INDEX A Abbott, Michael M. --------------------XXIII 6 Agrawal, Pradeep K. --------------------XXI, 134 Aird, R.J ------------------------------XXV, 16 Akella, Laks ---------------------------XXII, 150 Allen David T. ---------------XXI, 190; XXV ,64 Altpeter, Roger J. ---------------XXII 73 Amundson, Neal R. -----------XXI 160 Amyotte, P.R.--------XXIII,28 163; XXV,158 Andersen, P.K. -------------------------XXV,98 Anderson, Bry ce ---------------------XXII, 11 Anderson, Timothy J ------------------XXIV ,26 Arkun Y aman --------------------------XXII, 178 Atwood Glenn A. -------------------------XXI 89 Austin G D ----------------------XXIV 176 Ayer s, W R .--------------------------XXI 30 B Bae z, Luis A. ---------------------------XXV ,24 Bair Jeffrey H ---------------------XXV, 183 Baird Donald G. ----------------------XXI, 172 Barduhn Allen J ----------------------XXl,144 Bark er, Dee H ---------------------------XXII,73 Barnes Charles D ------------------XXIII,242 Barrufet Maria A.---------XXII,36; XXIII,168 Bartholomew Calvin H. ---------------XXI,198 Bartu siak, R. Donald -------------------XXI, 194 Benge G Gregory--------------------XXIV,220 Bennett C. 0 ------------------------XXIV,112 Bennett Gary F -----------------------XXIII,216 Bentley WilliamE --------XXIV,168 Berg John C ------------------XXII,51 Berman Jenny ---------------------------XXII,8 Beronio Jr.; P. B. ------------------XXIV, 176 Bhada Ron--------------------------XXIV, 180 Bias ca, Karyn ---------------------------XXV,46 Bienkowski, Paul R. -------------------XXIII,204 Bird R. B. ------------------XXl,5;XXIII,2 Blackman David C -----------------XXIV, 158 Blaine, Steven -------------------------XXV, 150 Bowman Paul T. -----------------XXIII, I 00 Bravo Vincente---------XXV, 145 Brewster B S ---------------------------XXII,48 Briedis Daina M ------------------XXII, 184 Brinker Jeffrey---------------XXV,204 Brodkey, Robert S --------------------XXIII, 175 Brosilow, Coleman B ----------------XXV, 156 Brown, Lee F ---------------------------XXI,24 Burri s, Conrad T. -------------------------XXI,6 Buonopane, Ralph A.----XXIV,158 Butt John B. -------------XII,103 c Callaghan P J --------------------------XXII,68 Caram Hugo S -----------XXI, 132; XXIIl,58 Carnaham Brice ------------------------XXV ,2 18 Chambers RobertP. ------------------XXIV 118 Charos G. -------------------------------XXII 178 Chelemer Marc J. ---------------------XXI, 106 Chen J .J.J. --------------------------------XXV,50 Chen John C. -------------------------XXIII 58 Chetty Steven---------XXIV 212 Chri s tensen, James J -------XXII,170 Chun Kukjin ---------------XXIII,242 Churchill, Stuart W.XXI,88;XXII,71 ; XXV,186 Cinar, A.------------XXII,22 Cluett W R. -------------------------------XXV ,34 Fall 1991 Co, Albert---------------------------------XXIl 79 Coates Jesse -----------------------------XXV ,2 Coca Jose -------------------------------XXII, 140 Cohen, Y oram --------------------------XXIV ,2 12 Cole Robert ------------------------XXII, 110,114 Conger William L. ----------------------XXII,2 Conner, Jr ; Wm Curtis--------------XXIV 106 Cooney, David 0. --------------XXI,200 Cordiner James B ------------------------XXV,2 Coulman George A.------------------XXIV,184 Crittenden, Barry D --------------------XXV ,106 Crosby E. Johan se n ----------------XXIII,37 Crowl Daniel A.-------------------------XXII,74 Cummins, P .T. -----------------------------XXV,45 Cutlip Michael B. -----------------------XXII, 18 D Dadyburjor Dady B. ---------------------XXI,47 Dahler John S --------------------------XXIII,21 Datye Abhaya -------------------XXV,204 D avies, Wayne A -------------XXIII,96; XXV,16 Da v i s, Richard A. -----------------------XXV 10 Da v is Robert H ------------XXIII, 182,228 Davi s, William C ---------------------XXIIl,242 Decoursey, W J. ------------------------XXI, 164 De Nevers Noel ----------------------XXV,154 Deshpande, P B .-XXII, I 88;XXIII, l 88;XXV 176 Dickman, Belinda ------------XXIV, 118 Dinos, Nicholas --------------------------XXI,64 Dixon Anthony G --------XXI, IOI; XXIII,149 Dogan, Numan S -------------~--------XXIII,242 Douglas J. M --------------------XXIII,22, 120 Duckier A. E. ----------------------XXI,145 Duda J. L. -----------------XXII,164; XXIV,136 Dudukovic M. P -----------------------XXI,210 Dunham Michael G ------------------XXl,186 E Eckert, Roger E. -----------------XXII,42 Edgar, T. F ----------------------------XXIV, 72 Edie, Dan D ---------------------XXI, 186 Eggebrecht, John -----------XXII, 191 Ellington, Rex T. -------------------------XXII,80 England, R. -----------------------------XXIII 144 Eubank, Philip T ----------XXIl,36; XXIII, 168 F Fahidy, Thomas Z ----------------------XXV,88 Fair, Jame s R --------------------------XXII,90 Falconer, John L. ---------------XXI,24 : XXII,7 Famularo, Jack ------------------XXI,84 Fan, L.T -----------XXIV 56,88,164 Farag, Ihab---------------------XXI,117 Felder, Richard M. -------XXI,74;XXII,84,120; XXII 168;XXIIl 26;XXIII,68 166 ,207; XXIV,7,71,130, 188 ; XXV,22,80,132,196 Fels, M. -----------------------------------XXIII 28 Fehr Manfred ---------------------------XXIl,88 Field R.W ----------------------------XXIII,144 Field, Robert ------------------------XXIV, 132 Finn, Robert-----------------------------XXII,58 Fleischman, Marvin -------XXII,30; XXV, 198 Floyd Sigmund ------------XXII l 44 ; XXIl 218 Forman J Charles --------------------XXII,201 Foss, Alan S -------XXI, 122 ; XXV 126 Fox, R.O ------------XXIV,56,88 164 Frey Dougla s D -----------------------XXIV 204 Fried, J R ----------------------------XXIV ,208 Fung, Simon J. -------------------------XXIII,242 Furter, William F --------------------XXIII,163 G Gavala s, G. R ---------------------------XXIII,21 Gland! Eduardo D. --------------------XXII 192 Glasser, David----------------------XXV 74, 164 Gonzalez, Jorge F. ---------------------XXII,202 Good, Robert J. ---------------------------XXI,94 Goodeve Peter J. -----------------------XXV 1 26 Goosen Mattheus F A .---------------XXII,196 Gordon Martin B ----------------------XXIII 10 Gorte R. J. --------------------------------XXII,86 Graber S Te6filo A. ------------------XXV, I 02 Green, Alex E S ----------------------XXIII ,9 1 Griskey, Richard G ---------------------XXV ,96 Gubbins K e ith E. ----------------------XXIII,260 Gudi vaka, Venkata V. -----------------XXIII,216 Gupta, J P ------------------------------XXIII, 194 Gupta, Santosh K ------------------------XXV, 144 H Hackenberg, C. M. ---------------------XXIV,93 Hala sz, Judit Z. -------------------------XXIV,33 Hanesian, Deran --------------------------XXV ,62 Hanzeva ck, Emil L. --------XXIII, 102 ;XXV,28 Harri s, S.L. -----------------------------XXIII, 150 Hayhurst A. N. ----------------------------XXI, 126 Hecker W. C. ----------------------------XXII,48 Hei s t Ri c hard H. ------------------------XXIV,99 Helfferich F G --------------XXI, 143 ; XXIII,76 Hershey Daniel -------------------XXIII, 154 ,23 5 Hess, Denni s W ------------------------XXIV ,34 Hougen, Joel 0. --------------------------XXI,7 Hrymak, Andrew N --------------------XXV,79 Hsu Y. Y. ---------------------------------XXI, 197 Hu, Wei-Shou ---------------------------XXII,202 Hubbard, Davi s W. ----------------------XXI, 110 Hudgins R R ---------XXI, 130; XXIII,92, 176 Hyman, Carol --------------------XXI, 112 J Jacquez, Ricardo ----------------------XXIV, 180 Johanne s, Arland H. ----------------------XXI,49 Jolls, Kenneth R. ----------XXII, 166; XXIV ,223 Jones, Vickie S --------------------------XXIII,64 Joye, Donald D ----------------------------XXII,52 K Kabel Robert L. ----------------XXI,2:XXII, 128 Karimi I.A -----------------------XXV ,98 King, C. Jud son--------------------------XXI 66 Kirkwood, R. L. --------------------XXIII,22, 120 Kirwan DJ -----------------------------XXV, 183 Kisaalita, William S ------------------XXIII,242 Klusacek, K. ----------------------------XXIII,176 Kodas Toivo ------------------------XXV ,2 04 Koko Jr. F William---------------------XXII,52 Kompala, Dhinakar S ----XXIII, 182 ; XXIV, 168 Koros, William J ---------------------XXIV 153 Krishnaswamy Peruvemb a R. --------XXV, 176 Kubias F Owen----------------------XXIV,65 Kuchar Marvin C. ---------------------XXIV ,94 Kumar Ashok --------------------------XXIII,216 Kumar R ------------------------------XXIII 188 Kummler, Ralph H ----XXIIl ,222; XXIV,147 Kwon, K C. ------------------------------XXI,30 231

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Kyle, B. G. ------------------XXII,92: XXIIl,250 L Lane, Alan M. -------------------------XXIII, 70 Lauffenburger, Douglas A. -----------XXIII,208 Laukhuf L. S ---------------------XXIIl,106 143 Leal L. Gary --------------------------XXV, 118 Lee P L. -------------------------------XXII,68 Lee III, William E -XXIl,158;XXIIl 18;XXV,82 Leighton, David T ---------------------XXI, 174 Levenspiel, Octave--------XXII, l 15 ; XXIII,75; XXIV,78 Lewandowski, Gordon---------------XXIII,130 Louvar Joseph F. ------------------------XXII,74 M Macias-Machin A. -----------------------XXIV,78 Maddox R N. ---------------------------XXII, 138 Maheshwari Mukesh------------------XXII, 150 Mahoney, John F ----------------------XXII,153 Malcata F. Xavier---------------------XXIII, 112 Malone Michael F. -----------------------XXl,39 Manke Charles -------------------------XXV 131 Manning, Francis S. -----------------------XXI,90 Martinez Ma Eugenia-----------------XXV,145 Martini R. A. ----------------------------XXIl,22 Matthews Larry! -----------------------XXIV, 180 McCluskey, R.J ----------------------XXIIl,150 McConica, Carol M. -------------------XXIV,38 McCready, MarkJ. --------XXI,174; XXIII,82 McIntire, Larry V. -------------------XXIII,200 McKean, Rob Adams ------XXIII, I 02; XXV ,28 McMicking James H ----------------XXIII,222 Melsheimer, S S. --------------------------XXI,3 4 Mendoza-Bustos S.A. --------------------XXV,34 Middleman Stanley---------------------XXV,97 Miller, William M -----------------------XXV, 134 Miranda R. ----------------------------XXIII, I I 6 Mischke Roland A. --------------------XXII, 195 Misovich Michael ----------------------XXV ,46 Modi Ajay K --------------------------XXIII, I 00 Molina Emilio --------------------------XXV, 145 Moo-Young Murray ------------------XXIII,221 Morgan J Derald ---------------------XXIV, 180 Mosby, J .F. --------------------------------XXV ,98 Miiller, Erich A --------------------------XXV,24 Myers Alan L. --------------------------XXV,l 12 N Narasimhan G ------------------------XXIV, 196 Neddennan, R M. -----------------------XXl,126 Neill, Wayne K -----------------------XXII,73 Newell, R B ------------------------------XXII,68 Ng, Terry K-L --------------------------XXII,202 Nienow, A W. -------------------------XXII, 153 Nystrom, Lynn ----------------------------XXII,2 o O'Connell, John P ----------XXI ,93; XXV, I 83 Okorafor, 0. C. -----------------------XXI,44, 102 Orazem, MarkE. ------XXIII,67;XXIV,48,124; XXV,225 P Paccione, J D ---------------------------XXI, 138 Panagiotopoulos Athanassio s -------XXIV ,207 Papanastasiou Tasos C. ---------------XXIII 50 Parulekar Satish J -----------------------XXII,62 Patterson G K ---------------XXII,17; XXIV,2 232 Paul, D R. ---------------------------------XXI,33 Pegg Michael J. ---------------------XXIII, 163 Penlidis, A --------------------------------XXV ,34 Perona Joseph J. ----------------------XXIII, 11 Peters Max S ------------------------------XXl,5 Peters, Michael H. ----------------------XXV 210 Petersen, James N -----------------------XXV,54 Petrich, Mark A. ------------------------XXV, 134 Pettit Donald R. ------------------------XXI, 190 Plank C A. -----------------------XXIII, I 06, I 43 Powitz Robert W -------------------XXIIl,222 Prausnitz John --------------------------XXIV ,20 Price Randel M ------------------------XXI, 194 Prince, R.G H. --------------------------XXV, I 6 Punzi, Vito L. ---------------------------XXI,146 R Ramachandran P.A. ------------------XXIIl,31 Ramkrishna D ---------XXIII 188 ; XXIV 198 Randolph, Alan D --------------------XXIII,214 Rangaiah G P ----------------------------XXV,40 Rao Ming -----------------------------XXIII,256 Rase Howard F --------------------------XXI, 152 Rasmussen Don ------------------------XXII, 110 Reed, Gregory D ---------------------XXIII,204 Reeves, Deborah E. --------XXIl,154;XXII,178 Reilly P.M. -----------------------------XXIII 92 Reklaitis G. V. ----------------------------XXV 98 Rhinehart R. Rus se ll ------XXI, I 8,68;XXIIl,38 Rice William J ------------------------XXIV ,224 Riggs James B -------------------------XXII,26 Roat, S. D ---------------------------------XXI,34 Roberge, P R.-------------------------XXIV,228 Rodriguez, F. -------------------------XXIV, 135 Rosen, Edward M ---------------------XXIV, I 00 Rudisill J W -------------------------------XXV ,45 Ruthven, D M. --------------------------XXII,91 s Saliba Tony E. -------------------------XXIV, 154 Samdani, Gulam ------------------------XXII, 116 San KaYiu ----------------------------XXIII,200 Sanchez Sebastian -----------------------XXV, 145 Sandall, Orville C. ---------------------XXV 10 Sanders Stuart A. -----------------------XXIII,86 Sandhu, Sarwan S. ---------------------XXV,92 Sandler Stanley I. ---------XXIV, 12 ; XXIV ,80 Santana, Cesar C. ----------------------XXIV,33 Sater, V E. --------------------------------XXII,8 Sather Glenn A. -----------------------XXII, 140 Savage Phillip E. ----------XXIV, I 48; XXV I 50 Sayler, Gary S. -----------------------XXIIl,204 Schaeffer, Steven T -------------------XXII,208 Schaper Charles D ---------------------XXIV ,l 12 Schork F. Joseph ----------------------XXII,154 Schultheisz, Daniel J --------------------XXII,98 Schulz, Kirk H ------------------------XXIV ,220 Sciance C. T. -----------------------------XXI, 12 Seebauer, Edmund G. ------------------XXV, I 3 I Seider, Warren D ----------XXI, I 78; XXII, 134; XXII,212 Senkan S M ------------------------------XXV 64 Shacham, Mordechai -------------------XXII, 18 Shah Dinesh 0 -------------------------XXIV,124 Shah, Y. T -----------------------------XXI 215 Sharma, M.M -------------------------XXIII 18 8 Siirola Jeffrey J --------------------------XXI, 77 Silva Francisco A. Da --------------------XXV,24 Silveston, P.L. -------------------------XXIII, 176 Sisson Edwin A. ----------------------XXIII, 16 Skaates J Michael ----------------------XXI, 184 Skeen, Rodney S. ---------------------XXIII ,2 42 Skelland, A. H Peter---------------------XXI,48 Skog Susan ------------------------------XXIV ,62 Slater, C S. ---------------------------XXI, 138 Slaughter, Jo se ph M. ----------------------XXV 54 Sleicher Charles, A -----------------XXIII, 12 Sloan, E. Dendy ----------XXIII 134 ; XXIV,66 Smith, Douglas--------------------------XXV,204 Snide James A. ------------------------XXIV, I 54 Soane David S ------------------------XXIV ,33 Solen Kenneth A ----------------------XXIV ,94 Someshwar A. V. ----------------------XXIII,44 Sommerfeld, Jude T ---------XXl,134;XXII,98; XXIII,86 ; XXIV, I 45 Squires R.G ---------------------------XXV,98 Strandberg, Gerald W ---------------XXIII,204 Sublette Kerry L. -----------XXl 204;XXIII,32 Sullivan, C. -------------------------------XXII,22 Sundberg, D. C. ------------------------XXIII,44 Sussman, M V. ---------------------------XXI,78 Sutija, Davor -------------------------XXIV,20 T Taboada M., Maria E. -------------------XXV,102 Takoudis, Christo s G ------XXI, I 70; XXIV,42 Teja, Amyn S. --------------XXIl,208; XXV,163 Timmerhaus, Klaus D -----------------XXII, I 25 Todd-Mancillas, William R. ----------XXIII, 16 Tsai, Wangteng --------------------------XXIV ,2 12 Tsao George T -----------XXI, 133; XXIV, I 76 u Ungar, Lyle H. ---------------------------XXI, 178 V V ahdat, N. -------------------------------XXI,30 Varma, Arv ind -------------------------XXII, I 03 V rentas, J S ---------------------------XXIII, 181 W Waite Boyd A. ---------------------------XXI,98 Wang, Tse-Wei ----------------------XXIIl,236 Wankat Phillip C. ------------------------XXI,72 Watson Charles, C ---------------------XXII,73 Wa_tters, Jame s C. ---XXIII,106 143 ; XXV,68 Weaver James B ---------------------XXIII,138 Wei, James -------------------------------XXII, 12 Weinbaum, Sheldon --------------------XXV, I 18 Westermann-Clark Gerald B -------XXIII, 161 Wheelock T D. -----------------------XXI 152 Whitaker, Stephen ---------------------XXII, I 04 Whiting, Wallace B. ---------------------XXV,140 Wie, Bernard J. Van ------------------XXIII,242 Williams, Don al d F. -----------------XXV,74, 164 Wise, Donald L. -----------------------XXIV, I 58 Y Yang, Ralph T. --------------------------XXII, 16 Ybarra, Robert M ----------------------XXII,42 Yeh, N .C. ----------------------------------XXV 98 Young, Mark A. ----------------------------XXI,40 z Zhang, Guotai ---------------------------XXIV 78 Zollars, Richard L. -------------------XXV ,54,68 0 Chemical Engineering Education

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of The. ruvers1ty on SM DEPARTMENT oF ,,, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY G. A. ATWOOD 1 G.G.CHASE H.M.CHEUNG S.C.CHUANG J.R. ELLIOTT L. G. FOCHT K. L. FULLERTON M.A. GENCER 2 H. L. GREENE 1 L.K.JU S.LEE D.MAHAJAN 2 J. W. MILLER 2 H.C.QAMMAR R. W. ROBERTS 1 N.D. SYLVESTER .. .... FIAT LUX GRADUATE PROGRAM RESEARCH INTERESTS Digital Control, Mass Transfer, Multicomponent Adsorption Multiphase Processes, Heat Transfer, Interfacial Phenomena Colloids, Light Scattering Techniques Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Combustion Thermodynamics, Material Properties Fixed Bed Adsorption, Process Design Fuel Technology, Process Engineering, Environmental Engineering Biochemical Engineering, Environmental Biotechnology Oxidative Catalysis, Reactor Design, Mixing Biochemical Engineering, Enzyme and Fermentation Technology Fuel and Chemical Process Engineering, Reactive Polymers, Waste Clean-Up Homogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics Polymerization Reaction Engineering Hazardous Waste Treatment, Nonlinear Dynamics Plastics Processing, Polymer Films, System Design Environmental Engineering, Flow Phenomena M.S. WILLIS Multiphase Transport Theory, Filtration, Interfacial Phenomena Professor Emeritus Fall 1991 2 Adjunct Faculty Memb e r Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $7,800. Industrially sponsored fellowships available up to $17,000. In addition to stipends, tuition and fees are waived. Ph.D. students may get some incentive scholarships. Cooperative Graduate Education Program is also available. The deadline for assistantship applications is February 15th For Additional Information Write Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Akron Akron, OH 44325-3906 233

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234 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRAMS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA RESEARCH INTERESTS The University of Alabama, located in the sunny South, offers excellent programs lead ing to M.S. and Ph .D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. Our research emphasis a rea s are concentrated in environmental studies, reaction kinetics and catalysis, alternate fuels, and related processes. The faculty has extensive indus trial experience, which gives a distinctive engineering flavor to our programs. For further information, contact the Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemi cal Engineering, Box 870203, Tuscaloosa AL 35487-0203; (205-348-6450) FACULTY G C April, Ph.D. (Louisiana State) D. W. Arnold, Ph.D. (Purdue) W C Clements, Jr., Ph.D. (Vanderbilt) R. A. Griffin, Ph.D. (Utah State) W. J. Hatcher, Jr., Ph.D. (Louisiana State) I. A. Jefcoat, Ph.D. (Clemson) A M. Lane, Ph.D. (Massachusetts) M. D. McKinley, Ph.D. (Florida) L. Y. Sadler III, Ph.D. (Alabama) V N. Schrodt, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania State) Biomass Conversion, Modeling Transport Processes, Thermodyn a mic s, Coal-Water Fuel Development Process Dynamics and Control, Microcomputer Hardware, Catalysis, Chemical Reactor Design, Reaction Kinetics, Environment a l, Synfuels, Alternate Chemical Feedstock s, Ma ss Transfer, Energy Conversion Processes, Ceramics, Rheology, Mineral Processing, Separations, Computer Applications, and Bioprocessing An equ a l e mpl o yme n t/eq u a l edu ca ti o n a l o ppo r tunity instituti o n Chemical Engineering Education

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Degrees: M.Sc. Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering and in Process Control FA CULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS K. T. C HUAN G Ph.D. (University of Alberta) Mass Transfer Catalysis Separation Processes Pollution Control P. J. C RICKMORE Ph.D. (Queen's University) Fractal Analysis Cellular Automata Utilization of Oil Sand and Coal I. G. DALLA L ANA Ph.D. (University of Minnesota) EMERITUS Chemical Reaction Engineering Heterogeneous Catalysis Hydroprocessing D. G. FISHER Ph.D. (University of Michigan) Process Dynamics and Control Real-Time Computer Applications M. R GRA Y, Ph.D (California Institute of Technology) CHAIRMAN Bioreactors Chemical Kinetics Charac terization of Complex Organic Mixtures R E HA YES Ph.D. (University of Bath) Numerical Analysis Reactor Modeling Conputational Fluid Dynamics S. M. KRESTA Ph.D. (McMaster University) Fluid Mechanics Turbulence Mixing D T LYNCH Ph D. (University of Alberta) Catalysis Kinetic Modeling Numerical Methods Reactor Modeling and Design Polymerization J. H. MASL IY AH Ph D (University ofBritish Columbia) Transport Phenomena Numerical Analysis Particle Fluid Dynamics A. E. MA THER Ph.D. (University of Michigan) Phase Equilibria Fluid Properties at High Pressures Thermodynamics W. K. NA DER Dr. Phil. (Vienn a ) Heat Transfer Transport Phenomena in Porous Media Applied Mathematics K. N ANDAKUMAR Ph.D. (Princeton University) Transport Phenomena Multicomponent Distillation Computational Fluid Dynamics F. D. O TT O Ph.D. (Michigan) DEAN OF ENGINEERING Mass Transfer Gas-Liquid Reactions Separation Processes M. RAO Ph.D. (Rutgers University) AI Intelligent Control Process Control D B. ROBINSON Ph D (University of Michigan) EMERITUS Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids Phase Equili bria Thermodynamics J. T. R Y AN Ph.D. (University of Missouri) Energy Economics and Supply Porous Media S L. SHAH Ph.D (University of Alberta) Computer Process Control System Identification Adaptive Control S. E. W A NKE Ph D. (University of California, Davis) Heterogeneous Catalysis Kinetics Polymerization M. C. WI L LIAMS Ph.D. (University of Wisconsin) Rheology Polymer Chara c terization Polymer Processing R K. WOOD Ph.D. (Northwestern University) Process Modeling and Dynamic Simulation Distillation Column Control Dynamics and Control of Grinding Circuits F or further informa ti on c ontac t Fa ll 1 991 Graduate Program Officer, Department of Chemical Engineering University of Alberta Edmonton Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6 PHONE (403) 492-3962 FAX (403) 492-7219 235

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THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA TUCSON AZ The Chem i cal Eng i neer i ng Departme n t at the Univers i ty of A ri zona i s yo u ng and dynam i c with a fully accred i ted undergraduate degree program and M S and Ph D graduate programs Financ i al support i s available through fellowships government grants an d contracts teaching and research assistantships tra i neeships and i ndustr i a l grants The faculty assures full opportun it y to study in all major areas of chem i ca l eng i neer i ng Graduate courses are offered i n most of the research a r eas l i sted below. THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS MILAN BIER Professor Director of Center f or Separat i on Sc i ence : Ph D ., Fordham Univers i ty 1950 Protein Seporation Electrop h oresis Membrane Transport HERIBERTO CABEZAS, Asst. Professor Ph D., University o f Florida 1985 S t a ti stico l Thermodynamics, Aqueous Two-Phose Extraction, Pro t e i n Seporat i on WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc Professor Assoc Dean Ph.D ., Oregon State University 1973 Heo t t ransfer in Biological Systems Blood Processing EDWARD J. FREEH, Adjunct Research Professor Ph D ., Ohio State University 1958 Process Contro l Co m puter Appl i cat i ons JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor Ph.D ., Purdue University 1956 Bo u ndary Layer Theory Pharmacokin e tics, Fluid Mechanics and Mass Tra n sfe r in t h e Microcirculation Biorheology ROBERTO GUZMAN, Asst. Professor Ph.D. North Carolina State University 1988 P ro t e i n Separatio n Affi n ity Methods ALAND. RANDOLPH, Professor Ph D. I owa St a te Un i vers i ty 1 962 Simu l ation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation P h enomena Particu l ate Processes THOMAS R. REHM P r o f essor Ph D ., University of Wash i ngton 1960 Mass Transfer, Proce ss Instrumentation Packed Column Dis till ation Computer Aided D es ign F ARHANG SHAD MAN, Professo r Ph D ., Uni vers it y of Calif o rni a B e r k eley 19 72 Reaction Engin ee ring Kinetics, Catalysis Coal Conversion, Advanced Materials Pro cess ing J OST 0 L. WENDT, Pr o fessor Ph.D. Johns Hopkin s University 1968 Combustion Generated Air Po ll ution, Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxide Abate ment, Chemical Kinetics, Thermodynamics, Incineration, Waste Managem e nt DON H WHIT E, P r o f essor Emer i tus Ph.D ., I owa State Un iv er sit y 194 9 Polymers Fundam e ntals and Process es, Solar Energy, Microbia l and Enzymatic Process es DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor D Sc ., Technion 1962 THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor and Head Energy Fermentation Mixing Ph.D ., Californ i a Institute o f Technology 197 7 Combust i on Aerosols, Hazardous Waste In c ineration, Contamination 'C ente r for Separati o n Scie n ce is staffe d b y four research profess o rs sever a l tec hn i c i an s a n d several in M i cro-E l ec tronics p os t d o cs an d graduate st ud ents Other research involves 2-D electr op horesis cell c uftur e electr o cell fu s i o n a nd elect r o fluid d y n a m ic mod e lling Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a growing modern city of 450 000 that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere. For further information, write to Chairman Graduate Study Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Arizona Tucson Arizona 85721 The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity educational institution / equal opportunity employer. 236 Women and minorities are encouraged to apply. Ch e m ic al Engin ee r i ng Education

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ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL, BIO, AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING 0 SI: .,, 0 "' -;. "' 0 ,._. ,._. "'-s ,. "'-s-,. ~< ,s, ~<,s, 111 0 ctlEMICAL Graduate Research in a High Technology Environment Chemical Engineering ______________ Beckman, James R., Ph.D .. U. of Arizona Crystallization and Solar Cooling Bellam y, Lynn, Ph.D ., Tulane Proc ess Simulation Berman, Neil S., Ph D ., U. of Texas, Austin Fluid Dynami cs and Air Pollution Burrows Veronica A., Ph.D., Prin ceton Surface Science, Semiconductor Proc essing Cale, Timothy S ., Ph.D., U. of Houston Catalysis, Semiconductor Proce ss ing Garcia, Antonio A., Ph.D U.C Berkele y Acid-Bas e Interaction s, Biochemical Separation, Colloid Chemistry Henry, Joseph D. Jr. Ph.D U of Michigan Biochemical Molecular Recognition Surface and Colloid Phenom e n a Kuester, James L., Ph.D., Texas A&M Thermochemical Conversion, Complex Reaction Systems Raupp Gregory B ., Ph.D., U of Wisconsin Semiconductor Materials Processing, Surface Science, Cata! ysis Rivera, Daniel, Ph.D., Cal Tech Process Control and Design Sater, Vernon E., Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Tech H eavy Metal Removal from Waste Water Process Control Torres!, Robert S ., Ph.D., U. of Minnesota Multiph ase Flow, Filtration Flow in Porous Media, Pollution Control Zwiebel Imre, Ph.D Yale Adsorption of Macromolecules, Biochemi cal Separations Bioengineering _____ Dorson William J. Ph.D., U. of Cincin n ati Ph ysicochemical Phenomena, Transport Processes Guilbeau, Eric J ., Ph.D., Louisiana Tech Biosensors, Physiological Systems, Biomaterials Pizziconi Vincent B. Ph D Arizona State Artificial Organs Biomater i als, Bioseparations Sweeney, James D. Ph D. Cas e Western Reserve Rehab Engineering, Applied Neural Contro l Towe, Bruce C., Ph.D., Penn State Bioelectric Phenomena, Biosensors Biomedical Imaging Yamaguchi, Gary T., Ph.D., Stanford Biomechanics R ehab Engineering Computer-Aided Surgery Materials Science & Engineering Dey Sandwip K., Ph.D ., NYSC of Ceramics, Alfred U. Ceramics, Sol Gel Processing Hendrickson, Lester E., Ph.D., U. of Illinoi s Fracture and Failure Analysis, Physical and Chemical Metallurgy Jacobson, Dean L., Ph D. UCLA Thermioni c Energy Conversion High Temperature Materials Krause, Stephen L Ph.D., U of Michigan Ordered Polymers, Electroni c Materials, E l ectro n X-ray Diffraction, Electron Microscopy Shin Kwang S., Ph.D., Northwestern Mechanical Properties, High Temperature Materials Stanley James T., Ph D U of Illinois Phase Transformations, Corrosion For more details regarding the graduate degree programs in the Department of Chemical Bio, and Materials Engineering please call (602) 965-3313 or (602) 965-3676, or write to: Dr Eric Guilbeau, Chair of the Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Bio, and Materials Engineering, Arizona State University Tempe Arizona 85287-6006. Fall 1991 237

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University of Arkansas Department of Chemical Engineering Graduate Study and Research Leading to MS and PhD Degrees FACULTY AND AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION Michael D. Ackerson ( Ph D U. of Arkansas ) Biochemical Engineering Thermodynamics RobertE.Babcock(Ph.D., U ofOklahoma) Water Resources Fluid Mechanics Thermodynamics, Enhanced Oil Recovery Coal Gasification Edgar C. Clausen (Ph.D. U. of Missouri-Rolla) Biochemical Engineering, Process Kinetics James L. Gaddy (Ph D ., U. of Tennessee ) Biochemical Engineering, Process Optimization Jerry A. Havens (Ph D ., U. of Oklahoma ) Irreversible Thermodynamics Fire and Explosion Hazards Assessment, Dense Gas Dispersion William A. Myers (M S U. of Arkansas ) Natural and Artifical Radioactivity Nuclear Engineering W. Roy Penney (Ph.D Oklahoma State) Process Engineering, Process Development, Fluid Mechanics Thomas 0. Spicer (Ph.D., U. of Arkansas) Computer Simulation, Dense Gas Dispersion Charles Springer ( Ph.D., U. oflowa) Mass Transfer Diffusional Processes, Safety and Loss Prevention Charles M. Thatcher (Ph.D., U. of Michigan ) Mathematical Modeling, Computer Simulation Jim L. Turpin ( Ph D ., U. of Oklahoma) Fluid Mechanics Biomass Conversion, Process Design Richard K. Ulrich (Ph D. U of Texas ) Microelectronics Materials Fabrication and Processing J. Reed Welker (Ph D ., U. of Oklahoma ) Risk Analysis, Fire and Explosion Behavior and Control, Liquefied Gas Technology FINANCIAL AID Graduate students are supported by fellowships and research or teaching assistantships. 238 FOR FURTHER DETAILS CONTACT Graduate Program Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering 3202 Bell Engineering Center University of Arkansas Fayetteville AR 72701 LOCATION The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, the flagship campus in the six-campus system, is situated in the heart of the Ozark Mountains and offers students a unique blend of urban and rural environments. Fayetteville is literally surrounded by some of the most outstanding outdoor recreation facilities in the nation, but it is also a dynamic city and serves as the center of trade, government and finance for the region. The city and University offer a wealth of cultural and intellectual events. FACILITIES The Department of Chemical Engineering occupies more than 40,000 sq. ft. in the new Bell Engineering Center, a $30-million state-of-the-art facility, and an additional 20,000 sq. ft. oflaboratories at the Engineering Research Center. Chemical Engineering Education

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We want you to be yourself. .. The Departmentof Chemical Engineering at Auburn University knows you have unique talents and ideas to contribute to our research programs. And because you are an individual, we will value you as an individual. That is what makes our department one of the top 20 in the nation. Don't become just another graduate student at some other institution. Come to Auburn and discover your potential. We have a research area tailored to you! RESEAllCIIAPPLICATION AREAS Aspba1t Chemistry Biomclmology Carbon Chemistry Coal Science and Conversion -. Chemical Engineering of Composites Environmental Chemical Engineering Pulp and Paper Chemical Engineering FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH AREAS Biochemical Engineering Catalyaia Fluid Mechanics ... lntmfaclal ~s Mass and Heat Transport Opdmmtion Proceu Modeliag and Identification Process and Control Proceas Simulation Process Synthesis Computer Aided Process Design Relction Kinetics and Engineering Surface Science Tbemlodynamics Trwpolt Phenomena Gd.,_ JI.S. ,r PW .,,_ ,,_ of fM /ost,d .,..,. ii a, Sta'I I.JJSt year our research ~nditures rat01li,,,,,,..,aperilllalal and thlorttical work in ~-.,. Gmtroujinllllcialassistmw THE FACULTY R.'lfflyK.Baker (Univcnity of Wales 1966) RobertP.Cllamben (Univenity of California, 1 965 OlrllllaeW.Clll'tll (Florida State University, I MM--' M. El-lfahnial (UCLA, 1990) J-A.Guln Wewtlllt~ 11,1,e ~,,_, JayH. Lee (California Institute of Technology, 1991) Y.Y.Lee

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DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THE UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY TM FACULTY R. A. Heidemann, Head (Washington U.) A. Badakhshan (Birmingham, U.K.) L. A. Behie (Western Ontario) J. D. M. Belgrave (Calgary) F. Berruti (Waterloo) P.R. Bishnoi (Alberta) R. M. Butler (Imperial College, U.K.) A. Chakma (UBC) M. A. Hastaoglu (SUNY) A. A. Jeje (MIT) N. Kalogerakis (Toronto) A. K. Mehrotra (Calgary) R. G. Moore (Alberta) E. Rhodes (Manchester, U.K.) P. M. Sigmund (Texas) J. Stanislav (Prague) W. Y. Svrcek (Alberta) E. L. Tollefson (Toronto) M. A. Trebble (Calgary) The Department offers graduate programs leading to the M.Sc and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering (full-time) and the M.Eng. degree in Chemical Engineering or Petroleum Reservoir Engineering (part-time) in the following areas: Thermodynamics Phase Equilibria Heat Transfer and Cryogenics Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics and Combustion Multiphase Flow in Pipelines Fluid Bed Reaction Systems Environmental Engineering Petroleum Engineering and Reservoir Simulation Enhanced Oil Recovery In-Situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates Computer Simulation of Separation Processes Computer Control and Optimization of Bio/Engineering Processes Biotechnology and Biorheology Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available to all qualified applicants. For Additional Information Write Dr A. K. Mehrotra, Chairman Graduate Studies Committee Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4 The University is located in the City of Calgary, the Oil capital of Canada the home of the world famous Calgary Stampede and the 1988 Winter Olympics The City combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication of a modern urban center. Beautiful BanffNational Park is 110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of Banff, Lake Louise,and Kananaskis areas are readily accessible In the above photo the University Campus is shown with the Olympic Oval and the student residences in the foreground. The Engineering complex is on the left of the picture 240 Chemical Engineering Education

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THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT RESEARCH INTERESTS BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING ENERGY UTILIZATION FLUID MECHANICS KINETICS AND CATALYSIS POLYMER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT SEPARATION PROCESSES SURF ACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE THERMODYNAMICS BERKELEY ... offers graduate programs leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both programs involve joint faculty-student research as well as courses and seminars within and outside the department. Students have the opportunity to take part in the many cultural offerings of the San Francisco Bay Area and the recreational activities of California's northern coast and mountains. FACULTY ALEXIS T. BELL HARVEYW. BLANCH ELTON J. CAIRNS ARUP K CHAKRABORTY DOUGLAS S CLARK MORTON M. DENN (CHAIRMAN) ALAN S. FOSS SIMON L. GOREN DAVID B. GRAVES JAY D. KEASLING C. JUDSON KING SCOTT LYNN SUSAN J MULLER JOHNS. NEWMAN JOHN M. PRAUSNITZ CLAYTON J. RADKE JEFFREY A. REIMER DAVID S SOANE DOROSN THEODOROU PLEASE WRITE: DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BERKELEY CALIFORNIA 94720 Fall 1991 241

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(Mlr\ (Al rnanrr~na UC DAVS Graduate Study Davis & Vicinity The campus is a 2C>-minute drive from Sacramento and just an hour 1J>Nay from the San Francisco Bay Area. Outdoor enthusiasts may enjoy water sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine activities in the Lake Tahoe area(2 hours 1J>Nay) These recreational opportunities combined with the friendly in formal spirit of the Davis campus and toVYn make it a pleasant place in which to live and study The city of Davis is within easy walking or cyclingdistancetothecampus. Both furnished and unfurnished apartments are available. iYiarried student housing, as well as graduate dorms at reasonable cost, are located on campus. faculty & Rne-arch Are-as Abbott, Nicholas L., Massachusetts Institute of Technology Fundamentals of polymer surfactants, molecular thennodynam ic description of surfactant self-assem bly, novel polymer structures for biological membranes. Bell, Richard L., Professor Emeritus. University of Washington, Seattle. iYiass transfer phenomena on non-ideal trays, environmental transport, biochemical engi neering Dungan, Stephanie R., Massachusetts Institute of Technology Structure & stability of food emulsions, intracellular transport, transport properties in microemulsions, interfacial dynamics Boulton, Roger, University of Melbourne. Chemical engineering aspects of fer mentation & wine processing, fermentation kinetics, modeling & control of enological operations Higgins, Brian G., University of Minnesota. Wetting hydrodynamics, fluid me chanics of thin films, coating flows, Langmuir-Blodgett films, sol-gel processes. Jackman, Alan P., University of Minnesota. Biological kinetics & reactor design, kinetics of ion exchange, environmental solute transport, heat & mass transport at air water interface, hemodynamics & fluid exchange. Katz, David F., University of California, Berkeley. Biological fluid mechanics, biorheology, cell biology, image analysis McCoy, Ben J., University of Minnesota. Chemical reaction engineering ab sorption, catalysis, multiphase reactors; separation processes chromatography, ion exchange, supercritical fluid extraction. McDonald, Karen A., University of Maryland, College Park. Distillation control, control of multivariable, nonlinear processes, control of biochemical processes, plant cell. Palazoglu, Ahmet N., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Process control, process design & synthesis Phillips, Ronald J., Massachusetts Institute of Technology Low Reynolds number hydrodynamics, suspension mechanics, hindered transport, transport in living plants. Powell, Robert L., The Johns Hopkins University. Rheology, fluid mechanics, properties of suspensions & physiological fluids. Ryu, Dewey D.Y., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kinetics & reaction engineering of biochemical & enzyme systems, optimization of continuous bioreactor, biochemical & genetic engineering. Smith, J.M., Professor Emeritus, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Transport rates & chemical kinetics for catalytic reactors, studies by dynamic & steady-state methods in slurry, trickle-bed, single pellet, & fixed-bed reactors Stroeve, Pieter, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Transport with chemical reaction, biotechnology, rheology of heterogeneous media, thin film technology, interfacial phenomena, image analysis. Whitaker, Stephen, University of Delaware. Drying porous media, transport processes in heterogeneous reactors, multiphase transport phenomena in heteroge neous systems. r\oreInfo Information and application materials (including financial aid) may be obtained through the following address or telephone number Graduate Admissions Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering University of California, Davis Davis, CA 95616 Telephone 916/752-2504; FAX 916/752-1031

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT PRO GRAM S UCLA's Chemical Engineering Department offers a program of teaching and research linking fundamental engineering science and industrial needs. The department's research strengths are demonstrated by its established centers of excel lence in Hazardous Substances Control (NSF), Multimedia Environmental Pollution Studies (EPA), and Biotechnology Research and Education (NSF, State of California). Fellowships are available for outstanding ap plicants. A fellowship includes a waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend. Located five miles from the Pacific Coast, UCLA's expansive 417-acre campus extends from Bel Air to Westwood Village. Students have ac cess to the highly regarded science programs and to a variety of experiences in theatre, music, art, and sports on campus. Fall 1991 UCLA F ACUL TY D. T. Allen K Nobe Y Cohen L. B Robinson T H K. Frederking (Prof. Emeritus) S. K. Friedlander S. M. Senkan R. F. Hicks 0 I. Smith E. L. Knuth W. D. Van Vorst (Prof Emeritus) (Prof. Emeritus) V. Manousiouthakis V L. Vilker H. G. Monbouquette A. R. Wazzan RESEARCH AREAS Thermodynamics and Cryogenics Process Design and Process Control Polymer Processing and Rheology Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Kinetics Combustion and Catalysis Semiconductor Device Chemistry and Surface Science Electrochemistry and Corrosion Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering Particle Technology Environmental Engineering C ONTA CT Admissions Officer Chemical Engineering Department 5531 Boelter Hall UCLA Los Angeles CA 90024-1592 (213) 825-9063 243

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UNIVERSITY OF CAL I FORNIA SANTA BARBARA FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS L. GARY LEAL Ph.D. (Stanford) (C h airman) Fluid Mechanics ; Transport Phenomena; Polymer Physics. SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo) Two-Phase Flow, Chemical & Nuclear Safety, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Turbulence. BRADLEY F. CHMELKA Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Guest/Host Interactions in Molecular Sieves, Dispersal of Metals in Oxide Catalysts, Molecular Structure and Dynamics in Polymeric Solids, Properties of Partially Ordered Materials, Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy. HENRI FENECH Ph.D. (M.l. T.) (Professor Emeritus) Nuclear Systems Design and Safety, Nuclear Fuel Cycles TwoPhase Flow, Heat Transfer. GLENN H. FREDRICKSON Ph.D. (Stanford) Electronic Transport, Glasses, Polymers, Composites, Phase Separation. OWEN T HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue) Theoretical Methods, Chemical Reactor Analysis, Transport Phenomena. JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph D. (Cambridge) Surface and Int erfacial Phenomena Adhesion, Colloidal Systems, Surface Forces. FRED F LANGE Ph.D. (Penn State) Powder Processing of Composite Ceramics; Liquid Precursors for Ceramics; Superconducting Oxides. GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I. T J (Vice Chairman) Radi ation Damage, Mechanics of Materials. ERIC McFARLAND Ph D. (M.I. T}, M.D. (Harvard) Biomedical Engineering, NMR and Neutron Imaging, Transport Phenomena in Complex Liquids Radiation Inter actions. DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph.D. (P urdu e) Computer Control, Process Dynamics, Real-Time Computing JOHN E. MYERS Ph.D. (Michigan) (Professor Emeritus) Boiling Heat Transfer. G. ROBERT ODETI'E Ph.D. (M.I. T.} Radiation Effects in Solids Energy Related Materials Development DALES. PEARSON Ph D. (Northwestern) Rheological and Optical Properties of Polymer Liquids and Colloidal Dispersions. PHILIP ALAN PINCUS Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Theory of Surfactant Aggregates, Co lloid Systems. A. EDWARD P R OFIO Ph.D. (M. I T ) Biomedical Engineering, Reactor Physics, Radiation Transport Analysis. ROBE R T G. RINKER Ph.D. (Ca lte c h) Chemical Rea ctor Design, Cata l ysis, Energy Conversion Air Pollution. ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph.D. {U.C. Berkeley) Transport Phenomena, Separation Processes. DALE E SEBORG Ph.D. (Prince ton) Process Control, Computer Control, Process Identification. PAUL SMITII Ph.D. (State Un iversity of Groningen, Netherlands) High Performance Fibers; Processing of Conducting Polymers; Polym er Processing. T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph D (Minnesota) Nuclear and Chemical Pl.!nt Safety, Multiphase Flow, Thermalhydraulics. W. HENRY WEINBERG Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Surface Chemistry; Heterogeneous Catalysis; Electronic Materials JOSEPH A. N. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D. /Minneso ta) Surface and Interfacial Phenomen, Structure of Microemulsions. PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT The Department offers M S and Ph.D. degree programs Financ i al aid including fe llow ships, teach ing assistantships and research assistantships is available. THE UNIVERSITY One of the world's few seashore campuses, UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast 100 miles northwest of Los Ange l es. The student enroll ment is over 18,000. The metro politan San ta Barbara area has over 150,000 residents and is famous for its mild, even climate For additional information and applications write to Professor Dale Pearson Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering University of California Santa Barbara, CA 93106 244 Chemical Engineering Education

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING at the CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY '~t the Leading Edge" FACULTY Frances H. Arnold James E. Bailey John F. Brady Mark E. Davis Richard C. Flagan George R. Gavalas Konstantinos P Giapis Julia A. Kornfield Manfred Morari C. Dwight Prater (Visiting) John H. Seinfeld RESEARCH INTERESTS Aerosol Science Applied Mathematics Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Biocatalysis and Bioreactor Engineering Bioseparations Catalysis Chemical Vapor Deposition Combustion Colloid Physics Fluid Mechanics Nicholas W Tschoegl (Emeritus) Zhen-Gang Wang Materials Processing Microelectronics Processing Microstructured Fluids Polymer Science Fall 1991 Process Control and Synthesis Protein Engineering Statistical Mechanics of Heterogeneous Systems for further information, write Professor John F. Brady Department of Chemical Engineering California Institute of Technology Pasadena California 91125 245

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Clues John L. Anderson Membrane and colloid transport phenomena Lorenz T. Biegler Process s i mulation and optimization Paul A. DiMilla Cellular and biomolecular engineering ; cell membranes Michael M. Domach Biochemical engineering and cell biology Ignacio E. Grossmann Batch process synthesis and design William S. Hammack Characterization of amorphous materials; pressure induced amorphorization Annette M. Jacobson Solubilizat i on and surfacant adsorption phenomena Myung S. Jhon Magnetic and magneto-optical recording Edmond I. Ko Chemistry of solid-state materials; semiconductor processing Gregory M. McRae Mathematical modelling and public policy analysis Gary J. Powers Decision-making in the design of chem i cal processing systems Dennis C. Prieve Transport phenomena and colloids especially electrokinetic phenomena Jennifer L. Sinclair Multiphase flow Paul J. Sides Electrochemical engineering ; growth of advanced materials Robert D. Tilton Biomolecules at interfaces Herbert L. Toor Transport phenomena ; energy utilization and transformation Arthur W. Westerberg Engineering design Find Out at~goingon in there? Write to Director of Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pitt r h PA15213

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Chemical Engineering in the 21st Century? Diamond crystals synthesized by graduate student C Kovach. For more information contact: The Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio 44106 Want to learn what the future holds for chemical engineers? Consider graduate study at CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY Opportunities for Innovative Research in Advanced Energy Conversion Chemical/Biological Sensors Intelligent Control Micro-and Nano-Materials Novel Separations/Processing ============== Faculty and Specializations ================================== John C. Angus, Ph.D. 1960, University of Michigan Red ox equilibria, diamond and diamond-like films, modulated electroplating Coleman B. Brosilow, Ph.D. 1962, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn Adaptive inferential control multi-variable control, coordination algorithms Robert V. Edwards, Ph D. 1968, Johns Hopkins University Laser anemometry, mathemati ca l modeling, data acquisition DonaldL. Feke, Ph.D.1981, Princeton University Colloidal phenomena, ceramic dispersions fine-particle processing Uziel Landau, Ph.D. 1975, University of California (Berkeley) Electrochemical engineering, current distributions electro deposition Chung-Chiun Liu, Ph.D 1968, Case Western Reserve University Electrochemical sensors, e l ectrochemical synthesis, electro chemistry related to electronic materials J. Adin Mann Jr., Ph.D. 1962, Iowa State University Interfacial structure and dynamics, light scattering, Langmuir Blodgett films stochastic processes Syed Qutubuddin, Ph.D. 1983, Carnegie-Mellon University Surfactant and polymer solutions, metal extraction, enhanced oil recovery Nelson C. Gardner, Ph.D. 1966, Iowa State University High-gravity separations, sulfur removal processes Robert F. Savinell, Ph.D 1977, University of Pittsburgh Applied electrochemistry, electrochemical system simulation '1a and optimization, electrode processes CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY Fall 1991 247

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The Opportunities for UNIVERSITY GRADUATE STUDY OF CINCINNATI in Chemical Engineering M.S. and PhD Degrees in Chemical Engineering Financial Aid Available Location ----------------Faculty ____ The city of Cincinnati is the 23rd largest city in the United States, with a greater metropolitan population of 1. 7 million. The city offers numerous sites of architec tural and historical interest, as well as a full range of cultural attractions, such as an outstanding art museum botanical gardens, a world-famous zoo, theaters, sym phony, and opera. The city is also home to the Cincinnati Bengals and the Cincin nati Reds The business and industrial base of the city includes pharmaceutics, chemicals, jet engines autoworks electronics printing and publishing, insurance investment banking, and health care A number of Fortune 500 companies are located in the city a Air Pollution AmyCiric Joel Fried Stevin Gehrke Rakesh Govind David Greenberg Daniel Hershey Sun-Tak Hwang Modeling and design of gas cleaning devices and systems, source apportionment of air pollutants. a Biotechnology (Bioseparations) Robert Jenkins Yuen-Koh Kao Soon-Jai Khang Jerry Lin Glenn Lipscomb Neville Pinto Sotiris Pratsinis Novel bioseparation techniques, chromatography, affinity separations, biodegradation of toxic wastes, controlled drug delivery, two-phase flow, suspension rheology. a Chemical Reaction Engineering and Heterogeneous Catalysis Modeling and design of chemical reactors, deactivation of catalysts, flow pattern and mixing in chemical equipment, laser induced effects. a Coal Research New technology for coal combustion power plant, desulfuriza tion and denitritication. a Material Synthesis Manufacture of advanced ceramics, optical fibers and pigments by aerosol processes. a Membrane Separations Membrane gas separations, membrane reactors, sensors and probes, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dynamic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characteri zation for polymeric and inorganic materials. a Polymers Thermodynamics, thermal analysis and morphology of polymer blends, high-temperature polymers, hydrogels, polymer processing. a Process Synthesis Computer-aided design, modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers activated carbon columns, process unit operations, pre diction of reaction by-products 248 For Admission Information Director Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering, #171 University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0171 Chemical Engineering Education

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Graduate Study in Fall 1991 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT CLARKSON CENTER FOR ADVANCED MATERIALS PROCESSING NASA CENTER FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMMERCIAL CRYSTAL GROWTH IN SPACE INSTITUTE OF COLLOID AND SURFACE SCIENCE For details, please write to : Dean of the Graduate School Clarkson University Potsdam, New York 13699 -----Clarkson llnivPrsity ---Clarkson University is a nondiscriminatory equal opportunity affirmative action educator and employer 249

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Graduate Study at Clemson University in Chemical Engineering Coming Up for Air No matter where you do your graduate work, your nose will be in your books and your mind on your research. But at Clemson University, there's something for you when you can stretch out for a break. Like breathing good air. Or swimming, fishing sailing, and water skiing in the clean lakes. Or hiking in the nearby Blue Ridge Mountains. Or driving to South Carolina's famous beaches for a weekend. Something that can really relax you. All this and a top-notch Chemical Engineering Department too. With active research and teaching in polymer processing, composite materials, process automa tion, thermodynamics, catalysis, and membrane applications what more do you need? The University Clemson, the land-grant university of South Carolina, offers 62 undergraduate and 61 graduate fields of study in its nine academic colleges. Present on-campus enrollment is about 16,000 students, one-third of whom are in the College of Engineering. There are about 3,000 graduate students. The 1,400-acre campus is located on the shores of Lake Hartwell in South Carolina's Piedmont, and is midway between Charlotte N.C., and Atlanta, Ga. The Faculty Charles H. Barron, Jr. John N. Beard, Jr. Dan D. Edie J runes M. Haile Douglas E. Hirt Stephen S. Melsheimer Joseph C. Mullins Charles H. Gooding 250 Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph D degrees. Financial aid, including fellowships and assistantships, is available For Further Information and a descriptive brochure, write: Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical Engineering Earle Hall Clemson University Clemson, South Carolina 29634-0909 Amod A. Ogale Richard W. Rice Mark C. Thies CL~ON UNJ:VERSITY College of Engineering Chemical Engineering Education

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UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO B OULD ER --------------RESEARCHINTERESTS--------------Alternative Energy Sources Biot echno logy and Bioengineering Heterogeneous Catalysis Polymeric Membrane Morphology Global Change Geophysical Fluid Mechanics Materials Processing in Low-G Enhanced Oil Recovery Fluid Dynamics and Fluidization Interfacial and Surface Phenomena Mass Transfer Membrane Transport and Separations Numerical and Analytical Modeling Polymer Reaction Engineering Process Control and Identification Semiconductor Processing Surface Chemistry and Surface Science Thermodynamics and Cryogenics Graduate students in th e Department af Chemical Engineering may alsa participate in the popular, interdisciplinary Biatechna/ogy Training Program at th e University af Ca/oroda. FACULTY CHRISTOPHER N BOWMAN, Assistant Professor Ph.D., Purdue, 1991 DAVIDE. CLOUGH, Professor, Associate Dean for Academic Affairs Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1975 ROBERT H. DA VIS, Associate Professor Co-Director of Colorado Institute for Research in Biotechnology Ph.D., Stanford University, 1983 JOHN L. FALCONER, Professor Ph.D., Stanford University, 1974 ZOHREH FA THI, Assistant R ese arch Professor Ph.D ., University of Colorado, 1986 YURIS 0. FUENTES, Assistant Professor Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1990 R. IGOR GAMOW, Associate Professor Ph.D ., University of Colorado, 1967 HOWARD J.M. HANLEY, Professor Adjoint Ph.D., University of London, 1963 DHINAKAR S KOMP ALA, Associate Professor Ph.D ., Purdue University, 1984 WILLIAM B. KRANTZ, Professor and Presid ent's T eac hing Scholar, Co-Director NSF I/UCRC Cent er for Separations U s in g Tnin Films Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley 1968 RICHARD D. NOBLE, Professor Co-Director NSFI/UCRC Center for Separations Using Thin Fifms Ph.D ., University of California, Davis, 1976 W. FRED RAMIREZ, Professor and Chairman Ph.D. Tulane University 1965 ROBERT L. SANI, Prof esso r Dir ector of Center for Low Gravity Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena Ph D., University of Minnesota, 1963 KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS,Pr ofessorand Pr esiden t' s Teaching Scholar Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1951 PAUL W. TODD, Research Professor Ph.D. University of California Berkeley, 1964 RONALD E. WEST, Professor Ph.D ., University of Michigan, 1958 FOR INFORMA T/ON AND APPL/CAT/ON WRITE TO Director Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical.Engineering University of Colorado Boulder Boulder Colorado 80309-0424 Fall 1991 251

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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 252 THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH A. J. KIDNAY, Professor and Graduate Dean; D.Sc., Colorado School of Mines. Thermodynamic properties of gases and liquid s vapor liquid equilibria, cryogenic engineering. J. H GARY, Professor Emeritus; Ph.D., Florida. Petroleum refinery processing operations, heavy oil processing thermal cracking, visbreaking and solvent extraction. V. F. YESAVAGE, Professor; Ph.D., Michigan Vapor liquid equilibrium and enthalpy of polar associating fluids equations of state for highly non-ideal systems, flaw c alorimetry. E. D. SLOAN, JR. Professor; Ph D. Clemson. Phase equilibrium measurements of natural gas fluids and hydrates, thermal conductivity of coal derived fluids adsorption equilibria, ed u cation methods research. R M. BALDWIN Professor and Head; Ph.D., Colorado School of Mines. Mechanisms and kinetics of coal liquefaction catalysis, oil shale processing fuels science. M. S. SELIM, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State Heat and mass transfer with a moving boundary sedimentation and diffusion of colloidal suspensions heat effects in gas absorption with chemical reaction, entrance region flow and heat transfer gas hydrate dissociation modeling. A. L. BUNGE Associate Professor; Ph.D., Berkeley. Membrane transport and separations mass transfer in porous media ion exchange and adsorption chroma to graphy, in place remediation of contaminated soi ls, percutaneous absorption. R. L. MILLER, Professor; Ph.D., Colorado School of Mines Liquefaction co-processing of coal and heavy oil, low severity coal liquefaction particulate removal with venturi scrubbers, interdisciplinary ed u cational methods J. F. ELY, Professor; Ph.D., Indiana. Mol e cular thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids J.T. McKINNON Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. High t emperature gas phase c h emica l kinetics, combustion hazardous waste destruction. J.O. GOLDEN, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State University. Hazardous waste processing, polymers, fluidization enginee rin g For Applications and Further Information on M S and Ph .D. Programs, Write Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Colorado School of Mines Golden CO 80401 Chemical Engineering Education

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs for Scientists and Engineers Faculty and Research Areas THOMAS F. ANDERSON statistical thermodynamics phase equilibria, separations JAMES P. BELL structure and properties of polymers DOUGLAS J. COOPER expert systems process control fluidization ROBERT W. COUGHLIN catalysis biotechnology, surface science MICHAEL B. CUTLIP chemical reaction engineering computer applications ANTHONY T DIBENEDETTO polymer science compos i te materials JAMES M. FENTON electrochemical engineering, enr i vonmental engineering G. MICHAEL HOWARD process dynamics energy technology HERBERT E KLEI biochemical engineering environmental engineering JEFFREY T. KOBERSTEIN polymer morphology and properties MONTGOMERY T. SHAW polymer processing, rheology DONALD W. SUNDSTROM environmental engineering biochemical engineering ROBERT A. WEISS polymer science We'll gladly supply the Answers! i THE C='l IVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT Graduate Admiss i ons Dept. of Chemical Engineering Box U-139 The University of Connecticut Storrs CT 06268 (203) 486-4019

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering A diverse intellectual climate Graduate students arrange indi vidual programs with a core of chemical engineering courses supplemented by work in other outstanding Cornell depart ments, including chemistry biological sciences physics, computer science food science materials science mechanical engineering, and business administration A scenic location Situated in the scenic Finger Lakes region of upstate New York the Cornell campus is one of the most beautiful in t he country A stimulating university com munity offers excellent recrea tional and cultural opportunities in an attractive environment 254 at Cornell University World-class research in ... biochemical engineering applied mathematics computer simulation environmental engineering kinetics and catalysis surface science heat and mass transfer polymer science and engineering fluid dynamics rheology and biorheology process control molecular thermodynamics statistical mechanics computer-aided design A distinguished faculty Brad Anton Graduate programs lead to the degrees of master of engineering master of science, and doctor of philosophy. Financial aid including attractive fellowships is available. Paulette Clancy Peter A. Clark Claude Cohen T. Michael Duncan James R Engstrom Robert K Finn (Emeritus) Keith E. Gubbins Daniel A. Hammer Peter Harriott Donald L. Koch Robert P Merrill William L. Olbricht Athanassios Z Panagiotopoulos Ferdinand Rodriguez George F. Scheele Michael L. Shuler Julian C Smith (Emeritus) Paul H Steen William B St r eett Raymond G Thorpe (Emeritus) Robert L Von Berg (Emeritus) Herbert F. Wiegandt (Emeritus) John A. Zollweg For further information, write Professor William L. Olbricht Cornell University Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering Ithaca, NY 14853-520 l Ch e m ic al Engineering Educat i on

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The Faculty Ricardo Aragon Giovanni Astarita Mark A. Barteau Antony N. Beris Kenneth B. Bischoff Douglas J. Buttrey Coste[ D. Denson Prasad S Dhurjati Henry C. Foley Bruce C. Gates Eric W. Kaler Michael T. Klein Abraham M. Lenhoff Roy L. McCullough Arthur B Metzner JonH. Olson Michael E. Paulaitis T W. Fraser Russell Stanley I. Sandler Jerold M Schultz Annette D Shine Norman J. Wagner Andrew L. Zydney The University of Delaware offers M.ChE and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course work in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strong interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science and Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena, Materials Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction Kinetics, Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photovoltaic Processing, Biomedical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering, and Colloid and Surfactant Science. Fall 1991 ---------For more information and application materials, write: Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering University of Delaware Newark, Delaware 19716 The University of Delaware _____ 255

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256 Modern Applications of Chemical Engineering at the University of Florida Graduate Study Leading to the MS and PhD FACULTY TIM ANDERSON Semiconductor Processing Thermodynamics IOANNIS BITSANIS Molecular Modeling of Interfaces SEYMOUR S. BLOCK Biotechnology OSCAR D. CRISALLE Electronic Materials, Process Control RAY W. FAHi EN Tran sport Phenomena, Reactor Design ARTHUR L. FRICKE Polymers Pulp & Paper Characterization GAR HOFLUND Catalys i s Surface Science LEW JOHNS Applied Design Process Control, Energy Systems DALE KIRMSE Computer Aided Des i gn Process Control HONG H. LEE Semiconductor Processing Reaction Engineering GERASIMOS L YBERATOS Biochemical Engineer in g Chemical Reaction Engineering FRANK MAY Computer Aided Learning RANGA NARAYANAN Transport Phenomena, Semiconductor Processing MARKE. ORAZEM Electrochemical Engineering, Semiconductor Processing CHANG-WON PARK Fluid Mechanics Polymer Processing DINESH 0. SHAH Surface Sciences B i omedical Engineering SPYROS SVORONOS Process Control Biochemical Engineering GERALD WESTERMANN-CLARK Electrochemical Engineering Bioseparations For more informati on please write : Graduate Admissions Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville Florida 32611 or call (904) 392-0881 Chemical Engineering Education

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GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Florida A & M University/ Florida State University Joint College of Engineering FACULTY PEDRO ARCE PH.D. Purdue University, 1990 RAVI CHELLA PH.D. University of Massachusetts, 1984 DAVID EDELSON PH.D. Yale University, 1949 BRUCE LOCKE PH.D. North Carolina State University, 1989 MICHAEL PETERS PH.D. Ohio State University, 1981 SAM RICCARDI PH.D. (Adjunct) Ohio State University, 1949 JOHN TELOTTE PH.D. Unive rsit y of Florida, 1985 JORGE VINALS PH.D. (Affiliate) Unive rsity of Barcelona, Spain, 1981 At the For efro nt of High T ec hnology Res ea r ch MS AND PHD PROGRAMS RESEARCH INTERESTS Aerosol Science, Air Pollution Control, Applied Mathematics, Biocatalysis, Bioreactor Design and Bioseparations, Brownian Motion, Chemical Vapor Deposition, Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Composite Materials, Comp l ex Fluids, Expert Systems, Fluid Mechanics of Crystal Growth, Macromolecular Phenomena, Macromolecular Transport in Polymeric Media, Phase Transitions, Polymer Processing, Stochastic Processes, Semiconductor Processing, Thermodynamics FOR INFORMATION WRITE TO: Graduate Studies Committee Department of Chemical Engineering FAMU/FSU College of Engineering 2525 Pottsdammer Street Tallahassee, FL. 32316-2175

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A.S Abhiraman YamanArkun Polymer scie n ce and e ngin ee rin g Pr ocess design and co ntrol spo uted-b e d reactors Heat tra n sport phenomena fluidi za ti o n CHEMICAL ENG !NEERING The Faculty and Their Research Sue Ann Bidstrup Microelectron i cs polymer pr ocessi n g Pulp and paper Molecular th ermodynam ics chemica l kinetics sepa rati o n s Charles A. Eckert William R. Ernst Photochemical processing c h em i ca l vapor deposition Rea c tor design catalysis Aeroco ll o id a l sys t e m s, int e r facia l phe nomena, fine particle technology H eteroge n eo u s cata l ys i s sur face chemistry r eac ti o n kin et i cs Pradeep K. Agrawal Larry J. Forney Mechanics of aeroso l s buoy ant p lum es and jet s Po l y m e r e n g i neering e n ergy co n servation economics Charles W. Gorton Jeffrey S. Hsieh Paul A. Kohl MichaelJ. Matteson John D. Muzzy Robert M. Nerem Biomechanics, m a mmali an ce ll cu ltur es P o l yme r sci e n ce and e ngin ee ring Robert J. Samuels AmynS. Teja Thermody nami c and transport prop e rtie s, phase equi libria s up e r c ritic a l gas e xtraction Gary W. Poehlein F. Joseph Schork Mark G. White Emulsion polymeriza tion l a t ex te c hn o l ogy Rea cto r eng i neering proc ess co ntr o l polymerization r eac t o r d y nami cs Ca taly s i s, ki n etics, r eac tor design Biochemical e ngin eer in g, mass transfer, reactor design Ronnie S. Roberts ewto ni an fl ow A. H Peter Skelland Timothy M. Wic k Bi oc hemi ca l enginee rin g, cell-cell int e r actions, bi o fluid dynam i cs Separa ti o n processes crys t a lli zation Ronald W. Rousseau Process design a nd s imul at i o n Jude T Sommerfeld JackWinnick Electrochemi ca l engineer ing th e rmo dyn a mi cs a ir pollution co ntrol Proh ,,or 1{011.tltl \\ Htn1,,t HI 1>1n t l o r .., t hool ol ( tu mu .11 J ni.:tnt t rlllJ.:. <,t11n.:,1 1 ln,111111l 111 ltt h1111lt1g\ \1l 1111 1 (,lt1q~1 1 )C l) ) .! 0100 I 10 t) X'}t .!~(IBiochemical e n g in ee rin g microbial and an im a l ce ll cu ltur es Athanassios Sambanis Process synt h e sis and si mul ti o n c h e mi ca l separation, waste manage ment, resource r ecovery D. William Tedder Bi o fluid d y nam ics, rh eo l ogy transport ph e n o mena Ajit P. Yoganathan

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What do graduate students say about the University of Houston Department of Chemical Engineering? "It's great!" Houston is a university on the move The chemica l engineering department is ranked among th e top ten schoo l s and you can wo r k in the specialty of your choice: semiconductor processing biochemical engineering the traditional areas. The choice of advisor is yours too and you re given enough time to make the right decision. You can see your advisor almost an y time xou want to because the student-to-teacher ratio is low. H o u s ton i s the center of the petrochemical in du stry which puts the real world of research w ithin r each. And Houston is one of the few schools with a major research program in s up. erconductivity. Th e UH campus i s really nice and city li fe is just 15 minutes away fo r concerts plays nightclubs, prof essiona l sports everything. Ga l veston beach is just 40 minutes away. Th e tacu l ty a r e dedicated and always friendly. People work hard here but there is time for intramural sports and Friday night get togethers. I f you d lik e to be part of this team let us hear from you. I ( ; >./ ... ~N 4y i:> I\ ) 2 -. + -+~ = i? ,J ~.. c> .., ct ~ AREAS OF RESEARCH STRENGIB: Biochemical Engineering Chemical Reaction Engineering Superconducting, Ceramic and Applied Transport Phenomena Electronic Materials Thermodynamics Enhanced Oil Reco ve ry I FACULTY: Neal Amundson Vemuri Balakotaiah Elmond Claridge AbeDukler ~ I. I lS 'J ,\\ ,. ,., "' Demetre Economou Ernest Henley John Killough Dan Luss Richard Pollard William Prengle Raj Rajagopalan Jim Richardson 1 ,.. )J ., Cynthia Stokes Frank Tiller Richard Willson Frank Worley For an application, write : Dept. of Chemical Engineering University of Houston 4800 Calhoun Houston TX 77004 or call collect 713/749-4407 The University Is In corrp liance with Tille IX

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U IC The Univers i ty o f Illino i s at Chicago Depar tment of Chemical Engin e ering MS and PhD Graduate Program F A CU LTY John H. Kiefer Ph D ., Cornell University, 1961 Professor and Acting Head G. Ali Mansoori Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969 Professor Irving F Miller Ph.D ., University of Michigan, 1960 Professor Sohail Murad Ph.D ., Cornell University, 1979 Associate Professor Ludwig C. Nitsche Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1989 Assistant Professor John Regalbuto Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986 Assistant Professor Satish C. Saxena Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956 Professor Stephen Szepe Ph.D Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966 Associate Professor Raffi M. Turian Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964 Professor David Willcox P h .D., Northwes t ern University, 1985 Assistant Professor RESEARCH AREAS Transport Phenomena: Slurry transport, multiphase fluid flow and heat transfer, fixed and fluidized bed combustion, indirect coal liquefaction, porous media, membrane transport, pulmonary deposition and clearance, biorheology Therm o dynamics: Transport properties of fluids, statistical mechanics of liquid mixtures, supercritical fluid extraction/ retrograde condensation, asphaltene characterization, bioseparations Kinetics and Reaction Engineering: Gas-solid reaction kinetics, diffusion and adsorption phenomena, energy transfer processes, laser diagnostics, combustion chemistry, environmental technology. Het e r og ene o us Catalysis: Surface chemistry, catalyst preparation and characterization, structure sensitivity, supported metals, clay chemistry, artificial intelligence applications, modeling and optimization. For more information, write to 2 6 0 Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering University of Illinois at Chicago Box 4348 Chicago, IL 60680 ( 312 ) 996-3424 Chemical Engineering Education

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A TRADITION OF EXCELLENCE Fall 1991 Chemical E ngineering at the University of Illinois a t U rbanaC hampaign The combination of distinguished faculty, outstanding facilities and a diversity of research interests results in exceptional opportunities for graduate education. The chemical engineering department offers graduate programs leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Electrochemical Engineering Fluid Dynamics Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena Cellular Bioengineering Richard C. Alkire Thomas J. Hanratty Jonathan J. L. Higdon Douglas A. Lauffenburger Richard I. Masel Fundamental Studies of Catalytic Processes and Anthony J. McHugh William R. Schowalter Edmund G. Seebauer Mark A. Stadtherr Frank B. van Swol K. Dane Wittrup Charles F. Zukoski IV Semiconductor Growth Polymer Science and Engineering Mechanics of Complex Fluids Laser Studies of Semiconductor Growth Chemical Process Flowsheeting and Optimization Computer Simulation and Interfacial Studies Biochemical Engineering Colloid and Interfacial Science For information and application forms write : Department of Chemical Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab 1209 West California Street Urbana, Illinois 61801 261

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT Illinois Institute of Technology THE UNIVERSITY Private, coeducational and research university 3000 undergraduate students 2400 graduate students 3 miles from downtown Chicago and 1 mile west of Lake Michigan Campus recognized as an architectural landmark THE CITY One of the largest cities in the world National and international center of business and industry Enormous variety of cultural resources Excellent recreational facilities Industrial collaboration and job opportunities THE DEPARTMENT One of the oldest in the nation Approximately 60 full-time and 40 part-time graduate students M.Ch.E., M.S., and Ph.D degrees Financially attractive fellowships and assistant ships available to outstanding students THE FACULTY HAMID ARASTOOPOUR (Ph.D., /IT) Multiphase flow and fluidization flow in porous media environmental engineering RICHARD A. BEISSINGER (D.E.Sc., Columbia) Transport processes in chemical and biological systems rheology of polymeric and biological fluids ALI CINAR (Ph.D., Texas A & M) Chemical process control distributed parameter systems, expert systems DIMITRI GIDASPOW (Ph.D., /IT) Hydrodynamics of fluidization, multiphase flow separations processes HENRY R LINDEN (Ph.D. /IT) Energy policy planning, and forecasting SAT/SH J. PARULEKAR (Ph D. Purdue) Biochemical engineering chemical reaction engineering J. ROBERT SELMAN (Ph.D., California-Berkeley) Electrochemical engineering and electrochemical energy storage FYODOR A. SHUTOV (Ph.D ., Institute for Chemical Physics Moscow USSR) Polymer composite materials and plastic recycling DAV/DC VENERUS (Ph.D Pennsylvania State U) Polymer rheology and processing and transport phenomena DARSH T. WASAN (Ph.D ., California-Berkeley) lnterfacial phenomena separation processes enhanced oil recovery APPLICATIONS Ors. S. J Parulekar or J R Selman Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering Illinois Institute of Technology I I T Center iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii Chicago IL 60616 262 Chemical Engineering Edu cation

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GRADUATE PROGRAM FOR M.S. & PH.D. DEGREES IN CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY GREG CARMICHAEL Chair ; U. of Kentucky, 1979 Global Change/ Supercomputing RAVI DATTA UCSB, 1981 Reaction Engineering/ Catalyst Design DAVID MURHAMMER U. of Houston, 1989 Animal Cell Culture J. KEITH BEDDOW U. of Cambridge, 1959 Particle Morphological Analysis .. JONATHAN DORDICK MIT, 1986 Biocatalysis and Bioprocessing DAVID RETHWISCH U. of Wisconsin 1984 Membrane Science/ Catalysis and Cluster Science For information and application write to : GRADUATE ADMISSIONS Che mi cal and Biochemical Engineering The University of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa 52242 319-335-1400 AUDREY BUTLER U. of Iowa, 1989 Chemical Precipita tion Processes DAVID LUERKENS U. of Iowa 1980 Fine Particle Science V.G.J. RODGERS Washington U., 1989 Transport Phenomena in Bioseparations THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA

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IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY 0 F S C I E N C E A ND TEC H N 011. 0 G Y in fo rm a ti on please wri te Graduate Office Department of Chemical Engineering Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50011 or call 515 294-7643 E-Mail N2 TSK@ISUMVS.BITNET Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering Charles E. Glatz, Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1975. Peter J. Reilly, Ph.D., Pennsylvania, 1964. Richard C. Seagrave, Ph.D., Iowa State, 1961. Catalysis and Reaction Engineering L. K. Doraiswamy, Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1952. Terry S. King, Ph.D., M.I.T., 1979. Glenn L. Schrader Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1976 Energy and Environmental George Burnet, Ph.D., Iowa State, 1951. Daniel P. Smith, Ph.D ., Stanford, 1987. Thomas D. Wheelock, Ph.D., Iowa State, 1958. Materials and Crystallization Kurt R. Hebert, Ph.D., Illinois, 1985. Maurice A. Larson, Ph.D ., Iowa State 1958. Gordon R. Youngquist, Ph.D ., Illinois 1962. Process Design and Control William H. Abraham, Ph.D., Purdue, 1957. Derrick K. Rollins, Ph.D., Ohio State, 1990. Dean L. Ulrichson, Ph.D., Iowa State, 1970.

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Graduate Study and Research in Chemical Engineering TIMOTHY A. BARBARI MARK A. McHuGH Ph.D. University of Texas Austin Ph.D. University of Delaware Membrane Science High-Pressure Thermodynamics Sorption and Diffusion in Polymers Polymeric Thin Films Polymer Solution Thermodynamics Supercritical Solvent Extraction MICHAEL J. BETENBAUGH GEOFFREY A. PRENTICE Ph.D. University of Delaware Ph.D. University of California Berkeley Biochemical Kinetics Electrochemical Engineer in g Insect Cell Culture Corrosion Recombinant DNA Technology w. MARK SALTZMAN MARC D. DONOHUE Ph.D ., Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ph.D ., University of California Berkeley Transport i n Biological Systems Equations of State Statistical Thermodynamics Polymeric Controlled Release Cell-Surface Interactions Phase Equilibria w. H. SCHWARZ JOSEPH l. KATZ Dr Engr The Johns Hopkins University Ph.D ., University of Chicago Rheology Nucleation Non-Newtonian Fluid Dynamics Crystallization Flame Generation of Ceramic Powders Physical Acoustics and Fluids Turbulence ROBERT M. KELLY KATHLEEN J. STEBE Ph.D. North Carolina State University Ph.D ., The City University of New York Process Simulation lnterfacial Phenomena Biochemical Engineering Electropermeability of Biological Membranes Fall 1991 Separations Processes Surface Effects at Fluid-Droplet Interfaces For further information contact: The Johns Hopkins University G. W C Whiting School of Engineering Department of Chemical Engineering 34th and Charles Streets Baltimore MD 21218 (301) 338-7137 ohns Hopkins E.O.E./A.A. 265

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THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAMS M.S. degree with a thesis requirement in both chemical and petroleum engineering M.S degree with a major in petroleum management offered jointly with the School of Business Ph.D. degree characterized by moderate and flexible course requirements and a strong research emphasis Typical completion times are 16-18 months for a M.S. degree and 4 1/2 years for a Ph.D. degree (from B.S.). RESEARCH AREAS Catalytic Kinetics and Reaction Engineering Chemical Vapor Deposition Controlled Drug Delivery Corrosion Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes Fluid Phase Equilibr i a and Process Design Nucleate Boiling Plasma Modeling and Plasma Reactor Design Process Control Supercomputer Applications Supercritical Fluid Applications FINANCIAL AID Financial aid i s available in the form of fellow ships and research and teaching assistantships ($13,000 to $14,000 a year). THE UNIVERSffY The University of Kansas is the largest and most comprehensive university in Kansas. It has an enrollment of more than 28,000 and almost 2,000 faculty members. KU offers more than 100 bachelors', nearly ninety masters', and more than fifty doctoral programs. The main campus is in Lawrence, Kansas, with other campuses in Kansas City, Wichita, Topeka, and Overland Park, Kansas. FACULTY Kenneth A. Bishop (Ph.D., Oklahoma) John C Davis (Ph.D., Wyoming) Don W. Green (Ph D. Oklahoma) Colin S. Howat (Ph.D., Kansas) Carl E Locke, Jr Dean (Ph.D., Texas) James 0. Maloney, Emeritus (Ph.D., Penn State) Russell B. Mesler (Ph.D Michigan) Floyd W.Preston Emeritus (Ph D Penn State) Harold F. Rosson (Ph.D., Rice) Marylee Z. Southard (Ph.D., Kansas) Bala Subramaniam (Ph.D., Notre Dame) George W. Swift (Ph.D Kansas) Brian E. Thompson (Ph.D., MITI Shapour Vossoughi (Ph.D Alberta, Canada) Stanley M. Walas, Emeritus (Ph.D., Michigan) G. Paul Willhite, Chairman (Ph.D., Northwestern) RESEARCH FACILITIES Excellent facilities are available for research and instruction. Extensive equipment and shop facilities are available for research in such areas as enhanced oil recovery processes, fluid phase equilibria, nucleate boiling, catalytic kinetics plasma processing, and supercritical fluid applications The VAX 9000, along with a network of Macintosh personal computers and IBM, Apollo, and Sun workstations, support computational and graphical needs. For more Information and application material, write or call The University of Kansas The Graduate Adviser Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering 4006 Learned Hall Lawrence, KS 66045-2223 (913) 8644965

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Durland Hall-Home of Chemical Engineering KANSAS ST A TE UNIVERSITY M.S. and Ph.D. programs chemical Engineering nterd i sciplinary Areas of Systems Eng i neering Food Science Environmental Engineering Financial Aid Available Up to $15,000 Per Year For More Information Write to Professor B G Kyle Durland Hall Kansas State University Manhattan KS 66506 Areas of Study and Research Transport Phenomena Energy Engineer i ng Coal and B i omass Conversion Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibrium Biochemical Eng i neering Process Dynam i cs and Control Chemical React i on Engineering Materials Science Catalysis and Fuel Synthesis Process System Engineer i ng and Artificial Intelligence Environmental Pollution Control Fluidization and Solid Mixing Hazardous Waste Treatment KANSAS S'rATE UNIVERSITY'

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University of Kentucky Far From An Ordinary Ball Research with advanced materials (carbon fibers, nitride catalysts, supercon ducting thin films, and liquid crystalline polymers) and with Buckyballs is ongoing here in Lexington. Anything But An Ordinary University At the University of Kentucky-designated by the Carnegie Foundation as a Research University of the First Class, and included in the NSF's prestigious list ing of Top 100 research institutions in America CHOICES for Chem. E. grad uate students are anything but ordinary. There are joint projects with Pharmacy, the Medical School, the Markey Cancer Center, and Chemistry researchers. And abundant opportu nities for intense interaction with extraordinary faculty, as well as access to state-Of-the-art facilities and equipment, including an IBM ES 3900/600J Supercomputer. With OutOf The Ordinary Chem. E. Specialties Aerosol Chemistry and Physics-Weighing picogram particles in electrodynamic balance, measuring monolayer adsorption, data with seven significant figures. Cellular Bioengineering-Rheological and transport properties of cell membranes; cell adhesion, cancer research, transport of drugs across membranes, and membrane biofouling. Computational Engineering-Modeling turbulent diffusion in atmospheric convective boundary layers; modeling growth of multicomponent aerosol systems. Environmental Engineering EPA-approved analytical labora tory; global atmospheric transport models; atmospheric photochemistry; control of heavy metals and hazardous organics; water pollution research. Membrane Science-Development of low pressure charged membranes; thin film composite membranes; development of bio functional synthetic membranes. From A Uniquely Un-Ordinary Faculty Ph.D. Recent national awards won by our faculty include: Larry K. Cecil AIChE Environmental Division; AIChE Outstanding Counselor Award, 1983, 1991; ASM Henry Marion Howe Medal; AAAR Kenneth T. Whitby Memorial Award; BMES Dr. Harold Lamport Award for a Young Investiga tor; and two NSF-Presidential Young Investigators. Recent University-wide awards by faculty include: Great Teacher; Research Professor; Excellence in Under graduate Education; and Alumni Professor. All Of Which Create Some Extraordinary Opportunities For You Doctoral incentives well worth your consideration: Up to $20,000 per year stipends plus tuition, books, research supplies, travel allowances. Interested in obtaining a degree of extraordinary worth? Contact Dr. R.I. Kermode Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0046. 1-800-63UKCHE University of Kentucky Department of Chemical Engineering.

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, UNIVERSITE Quebec, Canada Ph.D. and M.Sc. in Chemical Engineering Research Areas CATALYSIS (S. Kaliaguine} BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING ( L. Chaplin A. LeDu y, J. -R Moreau J Thibaul t} ENVIRONMENTAL ENGI N EERING ( R S. Ramalho C Roy} COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING (P. A. Tangu y} TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT (P -H. Ro y } MODELLING AND CONTROL ( J. T hibault } RHEOLOGY AND POLYMER ENGINEERING (A. Ait-Kadi L. Chaplin P .A Tangu y } THERMODYNAMICS (R S. Ramalho S. Kaliaguine} CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL UPGRADING OF BIOMASS (S. Kaliaguine A. LeDu y, C. Ro y } FLUIDISATION AND SEP ARA TIO NS BY MEMBRANES (B Grandjean} Fall 1991 Universite Laval is a French speaking University. It provides the graduate student with the opportunity of teaming French and becoming acquainted with French culture Please write to: Le Responsable du Comite d'Admission et de Supervision Departement de genie chimique Faculte des sciences et de genie Universite Laval Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada G1K 7P4 The Faculty ABD E LLATIF AIT-KADI Ph.D. Ecole Poly. Montreal Professeur adjo i nt LIO NEL CHOPLIN Ph.D. Eco l e Po l y. Montreal Professeur titulaire BERNARD GRANDJEAN Ph.D. Ecole Po l y. Montreal Professeur adjoint SERG E KALIAGUINE D.Ing l.G.C. Toulouse Professeur titulaire ANHLED UY Ph.D Western Ontario Professeur titulaire J. -CLAUDE METHOT D Sc Lava l Professeur titulaire Vice-Recteur Aux Etudes JEAN-R. MOREA U Ph.D. M.l.T. Professeur titulaire RUBENS S RAMALHO P h D Va n de r bi lt Professe u r titulaire CHRISTIAN ROY P h .D Sherbrooke Professe ur agrege PA UL -H.RO Y P h .D Ill inois Inst of Technology Professe u r titu l aire ABDELHAMID SAYARI P h .D. Tunis/Lyon Pro f esse ur adjoi n t PHILLIPPE A. TANGUY Ph. D Laval Professeur agrege JULES THIBAULT Ph.D. McMaster Professeur agrege 2 69

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L EHIG H u NIVERSITY We promi se th e c hallenge Synergistic, interdisciplinary research in Polymer science and engineering Biochemical engineering Process modeling and control Multiphase processing leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering and polymer science and engineering Superb facilities One of the largest doctoral programs in the nation Easy access to cultural and recreational opportunities in the New York-Philadelphia area Highly attractive financial aid packages, which provide tuition and stipend, are available. Additional information and applications may be obtained by writing to : 270 Dr. Janice A. Phillips Chairman, Graduate Affairs Committee Department of Chemical Engineering Lehigh University 111 Research Drive Bethlehem, PA 18015 Philip A. Blythe (University of Manchester) fluid mechanics heat transfer applied mathematics Hugo S. Caram (University of Minnesota) gas-solid and gas-liquid systems optical techniques reaction engineering Marvin Charles (Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn) biochemical engineering bioseparations John C. Chen (University of Michigan) two-phase vapor-liquid flow fluidization radiative heat transfer Mohamed S. El-Aasser (McGill University) polymer colloids and films emulsion copolymerization polymer synthesis and characterization Christ o s Georgakis (University of Minnesota) process modeling and control chemical reaction engineering expert systems Dennis W. Hess (Lehigh University) semiconductor and thin film processing James T. Hsu (Northwestern University) separation processes adsorption and catalysis in zeolites Arthur E. Humphrey (Columbia University) biochemical processes pharmaceuticals and enzyme manufacturing plant cell culture Andrew J. Klein (North Carolina State University) emulsion polymerization colloidal and surface effects in polymerization William L. Luyben (University of Delaware) process design and control distillation Janice A. Phillips (University of Pennsylvania) biochemical engineering instrumentation/ control of bioreactors mammalian cell culture Maria M. Santore (Princeton University) dynamics of macromolecules at interfaces William E. Schiesser (Princeton University) numerical algorithms and software in chemical engineering Cesar A. Silebi (Lehigh University) separation of colloidal particles electrophoresis mass transfer Leslie H. Sp e rling (Duke University) mechanical and morphological properties of polymers interpenetrating polymer networks Fred P. Stein (University of Michigan) thermodynamic properties of mixtures Harvey G. Stenger, Jr. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) plasma etching catalysis air pollution control Israel E. Wachs (Stanford University) materials synthesis and characterization surface chemistry heterogeneous catalysis Chemical Enginee r ing Education

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I LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY I CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE SCHOOL THE CITY---------Baton Rouge is the state capitol and home of the major state institution for higher education LSU. Situated in the Acadian region, Baton Rouge blends the Old South and Cajun Cultures The Port of Baton Rouge is a main chemical shipping point, and the city's economy rests heavily on the chemical and agricultural industries. The great outdoors provide excellent recreational activities year round. The proximity of New Orleans provides for superb nightlife, especially during Mardi Gras. THE DEPARTMENT ______ M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Approximately 70 Graduate Students DEPARTMENTAL FACILITIES IBM 4341 and 9370 with more than 70 color graphics terminals and PC's Analytical Facilities including GC/MS, FTIR, FT-NMR LC, GC, AA, XRD, .. Vacuum to High Pressure Facilities for kinetics, catalysis, thermodynamics, supercritical processing Shock Tube and Combustion Laboratories Laser Doppler Velocimeter Facility Bench Scale Fermentation Facilities Polymer Processing Equipment TO APPLY, CONTACT _____ DIRECTOR OF GRADUATE INSTRUCTION Department of Chemical Engineering Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA 70803 Fall 1991 FACULTY _________ J.R. COLLIER (Ph.D. Case Institute) Polymers Textiles Fluid Flow A.B. CORRIPIO (Ph.D., Louisiana State University) Control Simulation, Computer-Aided Design K.M. DOOLEY (Ph.D ., University of Delaware) Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering G.L. GRIFFIN (Ph.D. Princeton University) Heterogeneous Catalysis Surfaces Materials Processing F.R. GROVES (Ph.D. University of Wisconsin) Control, Modeling Separation Processes D.P. HARRISON (Ph.D. University of Texas) Fluid-Solid Reactions Hazardous Wastes M. HJORTS0 (Ph.D., University of Houston) Biotechnology Applied Mathematics F.C. KNOPF (Ph.D., Purdue University) Computer-Aided Design, Supercritical Processing E. McLAUGHLIN (D.Sc., University of London) Thermodynamics, High Pressures Physical Properties R.W. PIKE (Ph.D., Georgia Institute ofTechnology) Fluid Dynamics, Reaction Engineering Optimization G.L. PRICE (Ph.D., Rice University) Heterogeneous Catalysis Surfaces D.D. REIBLE (Ph.D. California Institute of Technology) Environmental Chemodynamics, Transport Modeling R.G. RICE (Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania) Mass Transfer Separation Processes A.M. STERLING (Ph.D., University of Washington) Transport Phenomena, Combustion L.J. THIBODEAUX (Ph.D Louisiana State University) Chemodynamics Hazardous Waste R.D. WESSON (Ph.D., University of Michigan) Semi-Crystalline Polymer Processing D.M. WETZEL (Ph.D., University of Delaware) Physical Properties, Hazardous Wastes FINANCIAL AID _______ Assistantships at $14,400 (waiver of out-of-state tuition) Dean's Fellowships at $17,000 per year plus tuition and a travel grant Special industrial and alumni fellowships for outstanding students Some part-time teaching experience available for graduate students interested in an academic career 271

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University: of Maine Faculty and Research Interests Programs and DOUGLAS BOUSFIELD Ph.D. (U.C. Berkel ey) Fluid Mecharucs, Rheology Biochenrical Engineering WILLIAM H. CECKLER Sc.D ( M .I. T .) Heat Transfer, Pressing & Drying Operations Energy from Low BTU Fuels, Process Simulation & Modeling ALBERT CO Ph.D ( Wi sco nsin ) Polymeric Fluid Dynamic s, Rheology Transport Phenomena, Numerical Methods JOSEPH M. GENCO Ph.D. ( Ohio State) Process Engineering, Pulp and Paper Technology Wood Delignification JOHN C. HASSLER Ph D. ( Kansas State) Process Control, Numerical Methods Instrumentation and Real Time Comp uter Applications MARQUITA K HILL Ph.D. ( U.C. Davis ) Environmental Scienc e, Waste Management Technology JOHN J. HWALEK Ph.D. (Illinois ) Liquid Metal Natural Convection, Electrorucs Cooling, Process Control Systems ERDOGAN KIRAN Ph D. ( Princeton ) Polymer Physics & Chenristry, Supercritical Fluids, Thermal Analysis & Pyrolysis, Pulp & Paper Science DA V1D J. KRASKE ( Chairman ) Ph.D. (Inst. Paper Chemistry) Pulp, Paper & Coating Technology Additive C hemistr y, Cellulose & Wood Chemistry PIERRE LEP O UTRE Ph.D. ( North Carolina State Uruversity ) Surface Physics and Chemist r y, Mat e rials Science Adhesion Phenomena JAMES D. LISIUS Ph.D ( Illinoi s) Electrochenrical Engineering Composite Materials, Coupled Mass Transfer KENNETH I. MUMME Ph D. ( Maine ) Process Simulation and Control, System Identification & Optinrization HEMANT PENDSE Ph.D. (Syracuse) Colloi dal Phenomena Particulate & Multiphase Processes Porous Media Modeling EDWARD V. THOMPSON Ph.D., ( Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn ) Thermal & Mecharucal Properties of Polymers Papermaking and Fiber Physics Financial Support Eighteen research groups attack fundamental problems leading to M.S. and Ph.D degrees Industrial fellowships university fellowships, research assistantships and teaching assistantships are available Presidential fellowships provide $4,000 per year in a dd ition to the r egula r stipend and free tuition. $17 000 Pulp and Paper Fellowships are available for qualified applicants. The University The spacious campus is situated on 1 200 acres overlooking the Penobscot and Stillwater Rivers. Present enrollment of 12,000 offers the diversity of a large school while preserving close personal contact between peer s and faculty The Uruversity's Maine Center for the Arts the Hauck Auditorium and Pavilion Theatre pro vi de many culturai opportunites, in addition to those in the nearby city of Bangor Less than an hour away from campus are the beautiful Maine Coast and Acadia National park alpine and cross-country ski resorts and northern wilderness areas of Baxter State Park and Mount Katahdin Enjoy life, work hard and earn your graduate degree in one of the most beautiful spots in the world. Call Co llect or Write Jam es D Li si u s, University of Main e D epa rtment of Ch e mical Engin eering Jenness Hall, B ox B Orono Maine 04469-0135 ( 207) 581-2292 272 Chemical Engineering Education

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UMBC UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND BALTIMORE COUNTY Empha s is GRADUATE STUDY IN BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FOR ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE MAJORS The UMBC Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Program offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D degrees in Chemical Engineering with a primary research focus in biochemical engineering. Facilities The 6000 square feet of space dedicated to faculty and graduate student research includes state-of-the art laboratory facilities The BioProcess Scale-Up Facility on the College Park Campus is also available for use with classical microbial systems Faculty ______ G. F. Payne, Ph.D.* Michigan T. W. Cadman, Ph.D. Carnegie Mellon Bioprocess modeling control, and optimization; Educational software development Plant cell tissue culture; Streptomyces bioprocessing; adsorptive separations; Toxic waste treatment A. Gomezplata, Ph.D. Rensselaer Heterogeneous f/,ow systems; Simultaneous mass transfer and chemical reactions C. S. Lee, Ph.D. Rensselaer Bioseparations ; Biosensors ; Protein adsorption at inte rfaces J. A. Lumpkin, Ph.D. Penn sylvania Analytical chemiand biolum inescence; Kinetics of enzymatic reactions; Protein oxidation A. R. Moreira, Ph.D. Pennsylvania rDNA fermentation ; Regulatory issues; Scale-up; Downstream process ing GRADUATE STUDY IN BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FOR ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE MAJORS Fall 1991 G. Rao, Ph.D.* Drexel Animal cell culture; Oxygen toxicity; Biosensing J. Rosenblatt, Ph.D. Berkeley Biomed ical engineering ; Drug delivery ; Collagen applications M. R Sierks, Ph.D. Iowa State Protein engineering; Site-directed mutagenesis; Catalytic antibodies D. I. C. Wang, Ph.D.** Pennsylvania Bioreactors; Bioinstrumentation ; Protein refolding Joint appointment with the M aryland Biotechnology Institute Adjunct professor / Em inent scholar For further information contact: Dr A. R. Moreira Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering University of Maryland Baltimore County Baltimore, Maryland 21288 ( 301 ) 455-3400 273

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27 4 University of Maryland Faculty: William E. Bentley Richard V. Calabrese Kyu Yong Choi Larry L. Gasner James W. Gentry Michael L. Mavrovouniotis Thomas J. McAvoy Thomas M. Regan Theodore G. Smith Nam Sun Wang William A. Weigand Evanghelos Zafiriou College Park Location: The University of Maryland College Park is located approximately ten miles from the heart of the nation Washington, 0. C Excellent public transportation permits easy access to points of interest such as the Smithsonian National Gallery Congress White House Arlington Cemetery and the Kennedy Center. A short drive west produces some of the finest mountain scenery and recreational opportunities on the east coast. An even shorter drive brings one to the historic Chesapeake Bay. For Applications and Further Information, Write: Degrees Offered: M S. and Ph D programs in Chemical Engineering Financial Aid Available: Teaching and Research Assistantships at $12 880/yr ., plus tuition Research Areas: Aerosol Science Artificial Intelligence Biochemical Engineering Fermentation Neural Computation Polymer Processing Polymer Reaction Engineering Process Control Recombinant DNA Technology Chemical Eng i neering Graduate Studies Separat i on Processes Department of Chemical Engineer i ng University of Maryland Systems Engineering College Park MD 20742-2111 Turbulence and Mixing C h e m ic a l En g in ee ring Edu c at io n

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University of Massachusetts _____ at Amherst M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering F a c ul ty _____________ M. F. Doherty, Ph.D. (Cambridge}, Head W. C. Conner, Ph.D. {Johns Hopkins) M. R. Cook, Ph.D. (Harvard) J M. Douglas, Ph.D. (Delaware) V. Haensel, Ph.D. (Northwestern) M. P. Harold Ph D (Houston) R. L. Laurence, Ph D. (Northwestern) M. F. Malone, Ph.D. (Massachusetts) P.A. Monson, Ph.D. (London) K. M. Ng, Ph.D (Houston) P.R. W estmoreland, Ph.D (M I. T.J H. H. Winter, Ph.D. (Stuttgart) B. E. Ydstie, Ph.D. (London) C urr e n t Areas of Resear c h C o mbustion, Plasma Processing Process Synthesis, Design of Polymer and Solids Processes Statistical Therm o dynamics, Phase Behavior Control S ystem Synthesis, Adaptive Control Fluid Mechanics, Rheology Polymer Processing, Composites Catalysis and Kinetics, Reaction Dynamics Design of Multiphase and Polymerization Reactors Nonideal Distillation, Adsorption, Crystallization Computer Aided Design, Optimization Computational Chemistry Desi g n and Control Cen t e r ----------The Department has a research center in design and control, which is sponsored by industrial companies Financial Support --------All students are awarded full financial aid at a nationally competitive rate. Loc a tion _____________ The Amherst Campus of the University is in a small New England town in Western Massachu setts. Set amid farmland and rolling hills, the area offers pleasant living conditions and exten sive recreational facilities. For application forms and further information on fellowships and assistantships, aca d e mi c and r ese ar c h programs and student hou s ing writ e: GRADUATE PROGRAM DIRECTOR DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 159 GOESSMANN LABORATORY UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST, MA 01003 The University of Massachusetts at Amherst prohibits discrimination on th e ba s is of race, co lor religion, creed, sex, sexua l orientation age, marital status, national origin, disabilit y or handi ca p political b e li e f or affiliation m e mb e rship or non m e mb ers hip in any organization or veteran s tatus in any aspect of th e admi ss i on or treatm en t of s tud e nt s or in emp l oymen t Fall 1991 275

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MIT FACULTY R.A.Brown Department Head R.C. Armstrong J.M.Beer E.D. Blankschtein H.Brenner L.G.Cima R.E.Cohen C.K.Colton C.Cooney W.M.Deen J.L.Feerer K.K. Gleason J.G.Harris T.A.Hatton J.B.Howard K.F Jensen M.Kramer R.S.Langer E.W. Merrill C.M.Mohr G.C. Rutledge A.F. Sarofim C.N. Satterfield H.H.Sawin K.A.Smith G. Stephanopoulos G.N. Stephanopoulos M.F Stephanopoulos J.W.Tester P.S. Virk D.I.C.Wang RESEARCH AREAS Artificial Intelligence Biomedical Engineering Biotechnology Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Combustion Computer-Aided Design Electrochemistry Energy Conversion Environmental Engineering Fluid Mechanics Kinetics and Reaction Engineering Microelectronic Materials Processing Polymers Process Dynamics and Control Surfaces and Colloids Transport Phenomena With the largest chemical engineering research faculty in the country, the Department of Chemical Engineering at MIT offers programs of research and teaching which s pan the breadth of chemical engineering with unprecedented depth in fundamentals and applications The Department offers three levels of graduate programs, leading to Master 's, Engineer's, and Doctor's degre es. In a ddition graduate students may earn a Master's degree through the David H. Koch School of Chemical Engineering Practice a unique internship program that stresses defining and solving industrial problems by applying chemical engineering fundamentals. Students in this program spend half a semester at each of two Practice School Stations, incl uding Dow Chemical in Midland, Michigan, Merck Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Division in West Point Pennsylvania, and Chevron Corporation in Richmond, California, in addition to one or two semesters at MIT. 276 MIT is situated in Cambridge, just across the Charles River from Boston a few minutes by subway from downtown Bo ston on the one hand and Harvard Square on the other. The heavy concentration of colleges, hospitals, research facilities, and high technology industry provides a populace that demands and finds an unending variety of theaters concerts, restaurants, museums bookstores sporting events libraries, and r ecreational facilities FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT Chemical Engineering Graduate Office, 66-366 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 Phone: (617) 253-4579; FAX: (617) 253-9695 Chemical Engineering Education

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Chemical Engineering at The University of Michigan Faculty 1. Johannes Schwank Chair, Hetero geneous catalysis, surface science 2. Stacy G. Bike Colloids, transport, electrokinetic phenomena 3. Dale E. Briggs Coal processes 4. Mark A. Burns Biochemical and field-enhanced separations 5. Brice Carnahan Numerical methods, process simulation 6. Rane L. Curl Rate processes, mathematical modeling 7. Frank M. Donahue Electro chemical engineering 8. H. Scott Fogler Flow in porous media, microelectronics processing 9. John L. Gland Surface science 10. Erdogan Gulari Interfacial phenomena, catal ys is, surface science 11. Robert H. Kadlec Ecosystems process dynamics 12. Costas Kravaris Nonlinear process control system identification 13. Jennifer J. Linderman Engi neering approaches to cell biology 14. Bernhard 0. Palsson Cellular bioengineering 15. Tasos C. Papanastasiou Fluid mechanics, rheology, polymers 16. Phillip E. Savage Reaction pathways in complex systems 17. Michael A. Savageau Theoretical biology 18 Levi T. Thompson, Jr. Catalysis processing materials in space 19. Henry Y. Wang Biotechnology processes, industrial biology 20. James 0. Wilkes Numerical methods, polymer processing 21. Robert M. Ziff Aggregation processes, statistical mechanics 17 For More Information, Contact: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 Graduate Program Office Department of Chemical Engineering / The University of Michigan / Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136 / 313 763-1148

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY The Department of Chemical Engineering offers Graduate Programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. The faculty conduct fundamental and applied research in a variety of Chemical Engineering disciplines The Michigan Biotechnology Institute, the Composite Materials and Structures Center and the Crop Bioprocessing Center provide a forum for interdisciplinary work in current high technology areas. ASSISTANTSHIPS Half-time graduate assistantships for incoming Master's candidates are expected to pay $13 500 per year net after all tuition and fees; the corresponding stipend for Ph D students is about $14,300 Theses may be written on the subject covered by the research assistantship. FELLOWSHIPS Available appointments pay up to $18,000 per year, plus all tuition and fees FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS D. K. ANDERSON, Chairperson PILD ., 1960, University of Washington Transport Phenomena Diffusion In Polym e r Solutions K. A. BERGLUND PILD., 1981, Iowa State University Sensors Applied Spectro s copy, Food and Biochemical Engineer ing, Inorganic Polymers D. M. BRIEDIS PILD., 1981, Iowa State University Sutiace Phenomena In Crystallization Processes Biochemi c al Engineering Ceramic Powder Processing C. M. COOPER, Professor Emeritus Sc.D., 1949, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria Modelin g of Transport Processe s L.T.DRZAL PILD., 1974, Case Western Reserve University Sutiace and lntetiacial Phenomena, Adhesion Composite Mat e rials Sutiace Characterization, Sutiace Modification of Polymers Composite Processing H. E. GRETHLEIN PILD ., 1962 Princeton University Biomass Conversion, Bio Degradation, Waste Treatment Bioprocess Development Distillation Biochemical Engineering E. A. GRULKE PILD 1975, Ohio State University Mass Transport Phenomena Polymer Devolatillzation. Biochemical Engineering Food Engineering M.C.HAWLEY PILD., 1964 Michigan State University Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactions In Plasmas Polymerization Reactions Composite Processing, Biomass Conversion Reaction Engineerin g K. JAYARAMAN PILD ., 1975 Princ e ton University Polym e r Rheology Proces s ing of Polym e r Blends and C omposite s Computational M e thod s C.T.LIRA PILD ., 1986, University offllinois at Urbana-Champaign Th e rmodynami c s and Phase Equilibria of Complex Systems Supercritical Fluid Studies D.J.MILLER PILD. 1982, University of Florida Kineti c s and Catalysis, Rea c tion Engineering Coal Gasification, Catalytic Conversion of Biomass Based Materials R.NARAYAN PILD. 1976, University of Bombay Engin ee ring and Design of Natural Syntheti c Polymer Composit e Systems, Polym e r Bl e nds and Alloys Biodegradabl e Plasti c s Low Cost Composites Using Recycled/Reclaimed and Natural Polymers C.A.PETTY PILD. 1970, University oJFl.orida Fluid Mechanics Turbulent Transport Phenomena, Solid Fluid and Liquid Liquid Separations, Polymer Composite Processing A. B. SCRANTON PILD ., 1990 Purdue University Polym e r Scien ce and Engin e ering, Polym e r Complexation and Net work Formation, Applications of NMR Spectroscopy Mol ec ul ar Mod e ling B. W. WILKINSON, Professor Emeritus Ph.D 1958 Ohio State University Energy Systems and Environmental Control Nucl e ar Reactor, Radioisotope Applications R.M.WORDEN PILD ., 1986, University ofTennessee Biochemical Engin e ering Immobilized Cell Technology, Food Engineering FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE 278 Chairperson Department of Chemical Engineering A202 Engine e ring Building Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1226 MSU is an Affirmativ e A c tion / Equal Opportunity In s titution Chemical Engineering Education

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Michigan Technological University Add your name to the ranks of the prestigious engineering alumni from Michigan Tech Combine a first-rate chemical engineering education with the environmentally exciting surroundings of the Keweenaw Peninsula. Michigan Tech Established in 1885. One of four nationally-recognized research institutions in the state of Michigan 6,500 undergraduate students. 500 graduate students Michigan Tech. The 9th largest chemical engineering program in the country with a vital and focussed graduate program CONTACT Department of Chemical Engineering Michigan Technological University 1400Townsend Drive Houghton, Ml 49931-1295 906/487-2047 FAX 906/487-2061 Chemical Engineering Faculty Process and plant design Bruce A. Barna Associate Professor Ph D ., New Mexico Sta t e 1985 Polymerization, polymer materials, nonlinear dynamics Gerard T Caneba Assistant Professor Ph.D. University of California Berkele y, 1985 Process control, neural networks Tomas B. Co Assistant Profes s or Ph.D. Massachusetts 1988 Energy transfer and excited state processes Edward R. Fisher Professor and Head Ph.D. John s Hopkins University 1965 Numerical analysis, absorption, process safety Anton J Pintar Associate Professor Ph.D., Illinois Institute ofTechnology 1968 Fall 1991 Transport processes and process scaleup Davi s W Hubbard Professor Ph.D. University ofWi s consin Madison 1964 Process control, energy syst~ms Nam K Kim Associate Professor Ph.D. Montana State 1982 Polymer rheology, liquid crystals, composites Faith A. Morrison, Assistant Professor Ph D ., Massachusetts 1988 Surface science, sol-gel processing Michael E Mullins Associate Profes s or Ph.D. Rochester 1983 Polymer Science, polymer and composite processing John G Williams Profe s sor Ph D ., Melbourne University 279

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UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA Chemical Engineering and Materials Science CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRAM DERBY I DAOUTIDIS I PROCESS CONTROL, ANALYSIS RANZ SYNTHESIS, DESIGN DERBY SCRIVEN FLUID THERMODYNAMICS FLUID MECHANICS HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER STATISTICAL MECHANICS DAHLER DAVIS ARIS CARR REACTION ENGINEERING KINETICS MCCORMICK SCHMIDT CATALYSIS HETEROGENEOUS REACTIONS ZEOLITES EVANS DAVIS SCRIVEN COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE SURFACTANCY CAPILLARY HYDRODYNAMICS --ADHESION AND SURFACE FORCES MACOSKO TIRRELL POLYMER SCIENCE POLYMER PROCESSES MOLECULAR SOLIDS BATES DAHLER WARD THERMODYNAMICS TRANSPORT SMYRL WHITE ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSES DERBY MARTINS SURFACE SCIENCE MICROELECTRONICS PREPARATION PROCESSES POLYMER FILMS WHITE SMYRL POROUS MEDIA, SOLS, GELS DISPERSIONS SOL-GEL FILMS MATERIALS SCIENCE PROGRAM GERBERICH PHYSICAL METALLURGY MECHANICAL METALLURGY ORIANI THERMODYNAMICS OF SOLIDS DIFFUSION AND KINETICS SHORES ORIANI CORROSION MATERIALS FAILURE WARD GERBERICH FRANC/OSI WEAVER MICROELECTRONIC MATERIALS METAUSEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACES, THIN FILMS MAGNETIC MATERIALS CARTER SIVERTSEN FRANCIS CHELIKOWSKY CERAMICS INTERFACIAL COHESION FRACTURE MICROMECHAN I CS COATING FLOWS CERAMIC MICROSTRUCTURES MCCORMICK BATES GERBERICH FREDRICKSON SR/ENC CUSSLER BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING ARTIFICIAL ORGANS BIOMATERIALS BIOTECHNOLOGY GEANKOPLIS TISSUE ENG I NEERING I HU CUSSLER The Faculty R Aris A Franciosi F S Bates L.F. Francis R.W. Carr, Jr A.G. Fredrickson C B. Carte.r C J. Geankoplis J.R Chelikowslcy W.W Gerberich E.L. Cussler W-S.Hu J.S Dahler K.H Keller P Daoutidis C.W. Macosko H.T Davis J L. Martins J.J Derby A V. McCormick D : F Evans R.A. Oriani W.E Ranz TRANQUJLLO L.D. Schmid t L.E. Scriven D.A Shores J.M. Sivertsen W.H. Smyrl F Sricnc M Tirrell R. Tranquillo M D. Ward J.H. Weaver H S. White HU KELLER For information and application forms, write : Graduate Admissions Chemical Engineering and Materials Science University of Minnesota 421 Wash i ngton Ave. S.E. Minneapolis, MN 55455

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Department of Chemical Engineering MISSOURI'S TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI-ROLLA M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS N. L. BOOK (Ph.D., Colorado) Computer Aided Process Design Bioconversion 0. K. CROSSER (Ph.D., Rice) Transport Properties Kinetics Catalysis D. FORCINITI (Ph.D., North Carolina State) Bioseparations Thermodynamics Statistical Mechanics J. W. JOHNSON (Ph.D. Missouri) Electrode Reactions Corrosion A. I. LIAPIS (Ph.D., ETH-Zurich) Adsorption Freeze Drying Modeling Optimization Reactor Design D. B. MANLEY (Ph.D., Kansas) Thermodynamics Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium N. C. MOROSOFF (Ph.D., Brooklyn Tech) Plasma Polymerization Membranes Fall 1991 P. NEOGI (Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon) lnterfacia Phenomena G. K. PATTERSON (Ph.D., Missouri-Rolla) Mixing Polymer Rheology X B REED, JR. (Ph.D., Minnesota) Fluid Mechanics Drop Mechanics Coalescence Phenomena Liquid-Liquid Extraction Turbulence Structure S. L. ROSEN (Ph.D., Cornell) Polymerization Reactions Applied Rheology Polymeric Materials 0. C. SITTON (Ph.D., Missouri-Rolla) Bioengineering R. C. WAGGONER (Ph.D., Texas A&M) Multistage Mass Transfer Operations Distillation Extraction Process Control R. M. YBARRA (Ph.D., Purdue) Rheology of Polymer Solutions Chemical Reaction Kinetics Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Gradu ate and Research Assistantships, and Indus trial Fellowships. Aid is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center. Contact Dr. X. B. Reed, Graduate Coordinator Chemical Engineering Department University of Missouri Rolla Rolla, Missouri 65401 Telephone (314) 341-4416 281

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282 G R A D l J A /"r r~ s T lJ I) I E s The Department of Chemical Engineering Chemistry and Environmental Science offers excellent opportunities for interdisciplinary research and graduate studies particularly in the areas of hazardous waste treatment materials science, and biotechnology Both master s and doctoral degrees are C H E M I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G offered in a growing program that has national and international research ties. R E S O l l R C E S 20 000 square feet of modem laboratory and computing facilities Internationally respected faculty Major research facilities in hazardous substance management and microelectronics fabrication S ( 1 P P O R T Nearly $2 million in annual research support from state, federal and industrial sponsors Graduate Cooperative Education Financial assistance programs FLEXIHI LITY Part-time or full-time Evening study Interdisciplinary research Diverse areas of specialization M S and Ph.D. degrees New Jersey Institute of Technology For program information, contact: Dr. Basil C. Baltzis, Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry and Environmental Science 201-596-3619 For graduate admission information call : 201-596-3460 In NJ: 1-800-222-NJIT. New Jersey Institute of Technology University Heights, Newark NJ 07102 NJJT d oes n o t dis c riminat e o n th e b as i s o f se x ra ce h a ndi ca p n a ti o n a l o r ethn ic o rigin o r a ge in the a dministrati o n o f stud e nt pr o gram s Chemical Engineering Education

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The University of New Mexico Research Areas Toxic and radioactive waste management Superconducting ceramics Microelectronics processing Heterogeneous catalysis Laser-enhanced CVD Sol-gel and colloidal processing of ceramics Biomedical engineering Plasma science Surface science Aerosol physics Materials characterization Uncertainty and risk assessment Faculty Harold Anderson C. Jeffrey Brinker Abhaya K. Datye David Kauffman Toivo T. Kodas Richard W. Mead H Eric Nuttall Douglas M Smith Ebtisam S Wilkins Frank L. Williams (chairman) The University of New Mexico along with Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories, and local industry, make Albuquerque a major scientific and research center. The chemical engineering department houses the NSF-supported Center for Micro-Engineered Ceramics and the DOE sponsored Waste Management Education and Research Consortium. Faculty participate in the SEMATECH Center of excellence in semiconductor research, The Center for High Technology Materials, and the Institute for Space Nuclear Power Studies. Fall 1991 The Chemical Engineering Department offers financial aid in the form of research assistantships paying $10-15,000 per year, plus tuition Outstanding students may apply for UNM/National Laboratory fellowships that start at $15,000/year and involve cooperative research at the national laboratories. Albuquerque's southwestern climate and rugged mountainous terrain provide plenty of opportunities for outdoor recreation such as skiing, hiking, and whitewater rafting. For more information, write to: Douglas M. Smith, Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering The University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM 87131 283

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NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Department of Chemical Engineering Box 7905 North Carolina State University Rale i gh North Carolina 27695-7905 The Department as a whole has developed a concentration in four broad areas: biochemical engineering, environmental research, microelectronics processing and polymer science and engineering. Research in each of these areas is characterized by a strong collaboration between departmental faculty faculty and students from other departments and universities, and, frequently, industrial research groups. This diversity affords students a range of research opportunities from fundamental to applied. The particular areas of research interests of the faculty are listed below Ruben G. Carbonell ( Princeton ) ReyT. Chern ( NC State ) Peter S. Fedkiw ( Berkeley ) Richard M. Felder ( Princeton ) James K. Ferrell ( NC State ) Benny D. Freeman ( Berkeley ) Christine S. Grant ( Georgia Tech ) Carol K. Hall ( Stony Brook ) Harold B. Hopfenberg ( MIT ) Robert M. Kelly ( NC State ) Peter K. Kilpatrick ( Minnesota f H. He,;iry Lamb ( Delaware ) P.K. Lim ( Illinois ) David F. Ollis ( Stanford ) Michael R. Overcash ( Minnesota ) Steven W. Peretti ( Caltech ) FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS Multi-Phase Transport Phenomena ; Bioseparations; Colloid and Surface Science Structure-Property Relations of Polymers; Membrane Separations Electrochemical Engineering Computer-Aided Manufacturing of Specialty Chemicals; Process Simulation and Optimization Waste Minimization ; Heat Transfer ; Process Control Polymer Physical Chemistry Surface Science; Electrokinetic Separation s Statistical Thermodynamics; Bioseparations ; Semiconductor Interfaces Transport and Aging in Glassy Polymers; Controlled Release ; Membranes; Barrier Packaging Microorganisms and Biocatalysis at Elevated Temperatures Interfacial and Surfactant Science; Bioseparations Heterogeneous Catalysis; Microelectronics ; Surface Science Interfacial Phenomena ; Homogeneous Catalysis; Free Radical Chemistry Biochemical Engineering ; Heterogeneous Photocatalysis Improving Manufacturing Productivity by Waste Reduction ; Environmental Genetic and Metabolic Engineering ; Microbial, Plant and Animal Cell Culture Georl(e W. Roberts, Head Heterogeneous Catalysis ; Reaction Kinetics and Engineering ( MIT ) C. John Setzer, Assoc. Head Plant and Process Economics and Management ( Ohio State ) Vivian T. Stannett Pure and Applied Polymer Science ( Brooklyn Poly ) Inquiries to: Professor Peter K. Kilpatrick, Director of Graduate Studies (919) 737-7121 284 Chemical Engine e ring Education

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Chemical Engineering at Northwestern University S. George Bankoff Two-phase heat transfer, fluid mechanics Wesley R. Burghardt Polymer science, rheology JohnB. Butt Chemical reaction engineering Stephen H. Carr Solid state properties of polymers Buckley Crist, Jr. Polymer science Joshua S. Dranoff Chemical reaction engineering chromatographic separations Thomas K. Goldstick Biomedical engineering, oxygen transport in the human body Harold H. Kung Kinetics, heterogeneous catalysis Richard S H. Mah Computer-aided process planning design and analysis William M. Miller Biochemical engineering Lyle F. Mochros Biomedical engineering, fluid mechanics in biological systems Julio M. Ottino Fluid mechanics, chaos, mixing in materials processing E. Terry Papoutsakis Biochemical engineering Mark A. Petrich Environmental engineering, electronic materials, applications of solid state NMR Gregory Ryskin Fluid mechanics, computational methods polymeric liquids Wolfgang M. H. Sachtler Heterogeneous catalysis John M. Torkelson Polymer science, meml:_>ranes M. Grae Worster Fluid mechanics, convective heat and mass transfer For information and application to the graduate program, write Fall 1991 William M. Miller Director of Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois 60208 285

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Chemical Engineering at Notre Dame The University of Notre Dame offers programs of graduate study leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Chemical Engineering. The requirements for the master's degree are normally completed in sixteen to twenty-four months. The doctoral program requires about four years of full-time study beyond the bachelor's degree. These programs can usually be tailored to accommodate students whose undergraduate degrees are in areas of science or engineering other than chemical engineering. Financially attractive fellowships and assistantships, which include a full tuition waiver, are available to students pursuing either program. For further information, write to: FACULTY J. T. Banchero J F Brennecke J. J. Carberry H. -C. Chang D. A. Hill J.C. Kantor J.P. Kohn D. T. Leighton Jr. M. J. McCready R. A. Schmitz W C. Strieder A. Varma E. E. Wolf RESEARCH AREAS Advanced Ceramic Materials Artificial Intelligence Catalysis and Surface Science Chemical Reaction Engineering Gas-Liquid Flows Nonlinear Dynamics Phase Equilibria Polymer Science Process Dynamics and Control Statistical Mechanics Supercritical Fluids Suspension Rheology Thermodynamics and Separations Transport Phenomena Dr. J. F. Brennecke Department of Chemical Engineering University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 286 Chemical Engineering Education

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T H E OHIO UNIVERSITY Relevant Graduate Education Excellence in Research Close Relationships Between Graduate Students and Their Faculty Advisors Fall 1991 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING W HY should you consider Ohio State for graduate study in chemical engineering? Some of the facts that may influence your decision are that we have a unique, high quality combination of research projects, facilities, faculty and student body, all situated in pleasant surroundings. We can provide a stimulating, productive and worthwhile means for you to further your education. Financial support is available ranging from $12,000 to $16,000 annually, plus tuition. We would be glad to provide you with complete information regarding our programs, including potential thesis topics and degree requirements. Please write or call collect: Professor Jacques L. Zakin, Chairperson, Department of Chemical Engineering The Ohio State University, 140 W 19th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1180, (614) 292-6986. Robert S. Brodkey, Wisconsin 1952, Turbulence, Mixing, Image Analysis, Reactor Design, and Rheology Jeffrey J. Chalmers, Cornell 1988, Biochemical Engineering, Protein Excretion and Production, and Immobilized Cell Reactor Design James F. Davis, Northwestern 1982, Artificial Intelligence, Computer-Aided Design, and Process Control L. S. Fan, West Virginia 1975 Fluidization, Chemical & Biochemical Reaction Engineering, and Mathematical Modeling Morton H. Friedman, Michigan 1961, Biomedical Engineering, and Hemodynamics Harry C. Hershey, Missouri-Rolla 1965, Thermodynamics, and Drag Reduction Kent S. Knaebel, Delaware 1980, Mass Transfer, Separations, Computer Aided Design, and Power Conversion Cycles L. James Lee, Minnesota 1979, Polymer Processing, Polymerization, and Rheology Won-Kyoo Lee, Missouri-Columbia 1972, Process Control, Computer Control, and Computer-Aided Design Umit Ozkan, Iowa State 1984 Heterogeneous Catalysis and Reaction Kinetics James F. Rathman, Oklahoma 1987, lnterfacial Phenomena, Surfactant Science, Rheology of Surfactant Systems Thomas L. Sweeney, Case 1962 Air Pollution Control, Heat Transfer, and Legal Aspects of Engineering Shang-Tian Yang, Purdue 1984, Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Fermentation Processes, and Kinetics Jacques L. Zakin, New York 1959 Drag Reduction, Rheology, and Emulsions The Ohio State University is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution 287

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The University of Oklahom GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND MATERIALS SCIENC You want unlimited opportunities & the good life. We offer innovation at the forefront of a rewarding profession. We could have a very good working relationship. Let's talk about it. -hairman, Graduate Program Committee hool of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science he University of Oklahoma 00 E. Boyd, Room T-335 orman, Oklahoma 73019-0628 The Univers~y of Oklahoma is an Equal Opportunity lnslttution CEMS Faculty & Their Research Interests Billy L. Crynes, Professor; Dean, College of Engineering. Chemical Engineering: Modeling of hydrocarbon pyrolysis Surface effects during pyrolysis of hydrocarbons Raymond D. Daniels, Professor and Director. Metallurgical Engineering: physical metallurgy gases in metals corrosion metal fracture Roger G. Harrison, Jr., Associate Professor. Chemical Engi neering: production of proteins and peptides using recom binant DNA technology separation and purification of biochemicals enzyme reactors protein engineering drug delivery systems applications of biotechnology to waste treatment Jeffrey H. Harwell, Associate Professor. Chemical Engineer ing: tertiary oil recovery unconventional low energy separation processes mass transfer dynamics of multi component mass transfer processes surface phenomena adsorption kinetics Lloyd L Lee, Professor. Chemical Engineering: thermody namics molecular transport theory statistical mechanics sructured liquids Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics studies conformal solution theory natural gas properties polar fluids, ionic solutions and molten satts surface adsorption turbulent flow polymer process ing, spinning, extrusion and coating Lance L. Lobban, Assistant Professor. Chemical Engineering: catalytic reaction rate mechanisms and modelling partial oxidation of hydrocarbons synthesis of refractory powders Richard G. Mallinson, Associate Professor. Chemical Engi neering: chemical, catalytic and biomedical rate processes synthetic fuels Mathias U. Nollert, Assistant Professor. Chemical Engineer ing: biomedical engineering cellular metabolism and transport fluid mechanics Edgar A. O'Rear Ill, Professor. Chemical Engineering: catalysis .. surface chemistry and physics kinetics blood trauma associated with medical devices biorheology organic chemistry coal technology John F. Scamehorn, Professor. Chemical Engineering: surface and colloid science tertiary oil recovery detergency membrane separations adsorption pollution control polymers Robert L Shambaugh, Associate Professor. Chemical Engi neering: polymerization chemistry polymer processing technology fiber spinning, texturing and extrusion wastewater engineering physicochemical treatment biological treatment ozonation gas-liquid reactions Kenneth E. Starling, George Lynn Cross Research Professor. Chemical Engineering: equation of state development and prediction of thermodynamic and phase behavior equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular theory of fluids correlation of transport properties process simulation low temperature difference cycles geothermal, ocean thermal, solar and waste heat energy conversion

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Oklahoma State University "Where People Are Important" OSU's School of Chemical Engineering offers programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D degrees. Qualified students receive financial assistance at nationally competitive levels. Faculty Kenneth J. Bell (Ph.D University of De lawar e) Ruth C. Erbar (Ph.D., Oklahoma State University) Gary L. Foutch (Ph.D., University of Missouri-Rolla) KAM. Gasem (Ph.D. Oklahoma State University) Martin S High (Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University) A. J Johannes (Ph.D ., University of Kentucky) Robert L. Robinson Jr. (Ph.D. Oklahoma State University ) D Allan Tree (Ph.D University of Illinois) Jan Wagner (Ph d., University of Kansas) James R. Whiteley (Ph.D. Ohio State University) Research Areas Adsorption Air Pollution Biochemical Processes Corrosion Design Fluid Flow Gas Processing Ground Water Quality Hazardous Wastes Heat Transfer Ion Exchange Kinetics and Catalysis Mass Transfer Modeling Phase Equilibria Polymers Process Simulation Thermodynamics For more information, cont Graduate Coordinator School of Chemical Engineer Oklahoma State University Stillwater OK 74078

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University of Pennsylvania Chemi c al Eng i neer i ng Stu art W Churchill Combustion, thermoacoustic convection, Czochralski crystalliza tion, rate processes Ru ssell J. Composto Polymeric materials science surface and interface studies Greg o ry C. Farr ingto n Electrochemistry, solid state and polymer chemistry W illi am C F orsman Polymer science and engineering, graphite intercalation E d uar do D G land t Classical and statistical thermodynamics random media Ra ym ond J. G orte Heterogeneous catalysis, surface science zeolites Da vid J. Gra v es Biochemical and biomedical engineering, bioseparations Mit c hell Litt Biorheology, transport processes in biological systems, biomedi cal engineering Alan L. My ers Adsorption of gases and liquids, molecular simulations D an i e l D P erlmutte r Chemical reactor design, gas-solid reactions, gel kinetics John A. Q uinn Membrane transport, biochemical/biomedical engineering Warr e n D. S eid er Process analysis, simulation, design, and control Ly l e H. Ung a r Artificial intelligence in process control, neural networks T. Kyle Vanderlick Thin-film and interfacial phenomena JohnM. V o hs Surface science and heterogeneous catalysis P au l B We i sz Molecular selectivity in chemical and life processes Pennsylvania's chemical engineering program is designed to be flexible while emphasizing the fundamental nature of chemical and physical processes. Students may focus their studies in any of the research areas of the department. The full resources of this Ivy League university, including the Wharton School of Business and one of this country's foremost medical centers, are available to students in the program. The cultural advantages, historical assets, and recreational facilities of a great city are within walk ing distance of the University. Fall 1991 For a d d iti o n a l inf o rm at i on wr i t e: Director of Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering 311A Towne Building University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6393 291

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PENN STATE Individuals holding the B S in chemistry or other re ) ated areas are encouraged to apply 292 For more information, contact Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee The Pennsylvania State University Department of Chemical Engineering 158 Fenske Laboratory University Park PA 16802 Paul Barton (Penn State) Separat i onal Processes Ali Borhan (Stanford) Fluid Dynamics Transport Phenomena Alfred Carlson (Wisconsin) Biotechnology Bioseparations Lance R. Collins (Penn) Turbulent Flow Combustion Wayne Curtis (Purdue) Plant Biotechnology Ronald P. Danner (Lehigh) Applied Thermodynamics Adsorption Phenomena Thomas E. Daubert (Penn State) Applied Thermodynamics J. Larry Duda (Delaware) Polymers Diffusion Tribology Fluid Mechanics Rheology John A. Frangos (Rice) Biomedical Engineering Biotechnology Kristen Fichthorn (Michigan) Statistical Mechanics Surface Science Catalysis John R. McWhirter (Penn State) Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer Microencapsulation R. Nagarajan (SUNY Buffalo) Colloid and Polymer Science Jonathan Phillips (Wisconsin) Heterogeneous Catalysis Surface Science John M. Tarbell (Delaware) Cardiovascular Fluid Mechanics and Mass Transfer Turbulent Reacting Flows James S. Ultman (Delaware) Mass Transport in the Human Lung Intensive Care Monitoring M. Albert Vannice (Stanford) Heterogeneous Catalysis James S. Vrentas (Delaware) Transport Phenomena Applied Mathematics Polymer Science Chemical Engine e ring Education

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DEGREE PROGRAMS Wh t PhD and MS in Chemical Engineering a MS in Petroleum Engineering MS in Bioengineering IS chemical eng1neer1ng at Pitt? For a more detailed answer, and information about fellowships and applications write or call the A short answer: applied enzymology biochemical engineering biotechnology chemistry of fossil fuels coal science colloidal suspensions combustion flow through porous media 1 heterogeneous catalysis kinetics microemulsions molecular thermodynamics organometallic chemistry petroleum engineering phase equilibria polymers process design Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering 1249 Benedum Hall University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15261 412-624-9635 protein engineering reaction engineering recycling technology separation science solids processing superacids supercritical fluids surface chemistry transport phenomena FACULTY _______ Mohammad M Ataai Robert M Enick Eric J. Beckman Dan Farca siu Donna G Blackmond Jame s G Goodwin Jr. Alan J. Br ainard G era l d D Holder Edward Cape Geo r ge E K l inzing Shiao-Hung Chiang George Marcelin James T Cobb, Jr. Badie I. Morsi Albert J Post Alan A Rezn i k Alan J Ru ssel l Jerome S. Schultz John W Tierney W i l liam Wagne r Irving Wender Joseph Yerulshami

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Otemical Engineering Graduate Studies at Polytechnic University Come to New York City's Polytechnic University, where a dynamic research-oriented faculty carries on a tradition of excellence and innovation in Chemical Engineering. Faculty RC Ackerberg Fluid mechanics, Applied mathematics RJ Farrell Process control and simulation CD Han Rheology, Polymer processing TK Kwei Polymer-polymer miscibility Phase relationships in polymers JS Mijovic Polymer morphology, Fracture properties of polymers AS Myerson Crystallization, Mass transfer EM Pearce Polymer synthesis and degradation LI Stiel Thermodynamics, Proper ties of polar fluids EN Ziegier Kinetics and reactor design, Air pollution control WP Zurawsky Plasma polymerization, polymer adhesion For more information contact: Professor A.S. Myerson Head Dept. of Chemical Engineering Polytechnic University 333 Jay Street Brooklyn NY 11201 (718) 260

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Faculty L F. Albright RP Andres J.M. Caruthers KC Chao W.N. Delgass R.E. Eckert A.H. Emery E.I. Franses R.A. Greenkorn H.L. Hampsch R.E. Hannemann R.N. Houze D P. Kessler J F. Pekny N.A. Peppas D. Ramkrishna G.V Reklaitis R.G Squires C.G Takoudis J. Talbot G T Tsao V Venkatasubramanian N H L Wang P C Wankat J.M Wiest Fall 1991 Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Purdue University Research Areas Applied Mathematics Artificial Intelligence Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Colloids and lnterfacial Engineering Environmental Science Materials and Microelectronics Processing Degrees Offered Master of Science Doctor of Philos o phy Financial Assistance Fellow s hips Research Assistantships Teaching Assi s tantship s Operations and Design Parallel Computing and Combinatorics Polymer Science and Engineering Process Systems Engineering Separation Processes Surface Science and Engineering Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics Transport Phenomena Contact Us Today Graduate Information School of Engineering Purdue Un i versit y West Lafa ye tt e, Indiana 4 7907 P urdu e is an Eq u al Access/Equal O pp ortunity Unive r sity 2 9 5

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University__gf_Queensland --POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Scholarships Available Return Airfare Included STAFF P.R. BELL (New South Wales) J. N. BELTRAMINI (Santa Fe) I. T. CAMERON (Imperial College) C. A. CROSTHWAITE (Queensland) D. D. DO ( Queensland ) R. U. EDGEHILL (Cornell) P. F. GREENFIELD (New South Wales) M. JOHNS (Massey) P. L. LEE ( Monash ) A. A. KROL ( Queensland ) J. D. LITSTER ( Queensland ) M. E. MACKAY (Illinois) D. A. MITCHELL (Queensland) R. B. NEWELL (Alberta) D. J. NICKLIN (Cambridge) S. REID (Griffith) V. RUDOLPH (Natal) B. R. STANMORE ( Manchester ) E.T. WHITE (Im perial College) R. J. WILES (Queensland) ADJUNCT STAFF D. BARNES (Brimingham) J. M. BURGESS (Edinburgh) J. E. HENDRY (Wisconsin) G W. PACE (MIT) D. H. RANDERSON (New South Wales) THE DEPARTMENT --1 I ,.r' RESEARCH AREAS Catalysis Fluidization Systems Analysis Computer Control Applied Mathematics Transport Phenomena Crystallization Polymer Processing Rheology Chemical Reactor Analysis Energy Resource Studies Oil Shale Processing Water and Wastewater Treatment Environmental Systems Modeling Particle Mechanics Process Simulation Fermentation Systems Tissue Culture Enzyme Engineering Environmental Control Process Economics Mineral Processing Adsorption Membrane Processes Hybridoma Technology Numerical Analysis Large Scale Chromatography The Department occupies its own building, is well supported by research grants, and maintains an extensive range of research equipment. It has an active postgraduate programme, which involves course work and research work leading to M. Eng. Studies, M. Eng. Science, M. Sci. Studies, M. Agr. Studies, and Ph.D. degrees THE UNIVERSI1Y AND THE CI1Y The University is one of the largest in Australia, with more than 22,000 students. Brisbane with a population of about one million, enjoys a pleasant climate and attractive coasts which extend northward into the Great Barrier Reef. 296 For further information write to: Co-ordinator of Graduate Studies Department of Ch e mical Engineering, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. 4072, AUSTRALIA Chemical Engineering Education

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Ph.D. and M.S. Programs in Chemical Engineering Advanced Study and Research Areas a Advanced materials a Air pollution control a Biochemical engineering a Bioseparations a Fluid-particle systems a Heat transfer a High temperature kinetics a Interfacial phenomena a Microelectronics manufacturing a Multiphase flow a Polymer reaction engineering a Process control and design a Separation engineering a Simultaneous diffusion and chemical reaction a Thermodynamics a Transport Processes For full details write --Dr W N Gill Head Department of Chemical Engine e r i ng Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy New York 12180-3590 Fall 1991 The Faculty Michael M. Abbott Ph.D. Rensselaer Elmar R. Atwicker Ph.D ., Ohio State Georges Belfort Ph.D. California-Irvine B. Wayne Bequette Ph.D. Texas-Austin Henry R. Bungay, III Ph.D. Syracuse Chan I. Chung Ph.D. Rutgers Steven M. Cramer Ph.D. Yale Arthur Fontijn D.Sc. Amsterdam William N. Gill Ph.D. Syracuse Martin E. Glicksman Ph.D ., Rensselaer Richard T. Lahey, Jr. Ph.D. Stanford Howard Littman Ph.D. Yale Morris H. Morgan, III Ph.D. Rensselaer Charles Muckenfuss Ph.D. Wisconsin E. Bruce Nauman Ph.D., Leeds Joel L. Plawsky D Sc. M.I. T. Todd M. Przybycien Ph D. Cal. Tech Sanford S. Sternstein Ph D ., Rensselaer Hendrick C. Van Ness D.Eng. Yale Peter C. Wayner, Jr. Ph.D. Northwestern Robert H. Wentorf, Jr. Ph D., Wisconsin 297

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Rice University Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering The University Applications and Inquiries Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering PO Box 1892 Rice University The Department Privately endowed coeducational school 2600 undergraduate students 1300 graduate students Quiet and beautiful 300-acre tree-shaded campus 3 miles from downtown Houston Architecturally uniform and aesthetic campus The City Large metropolitan and cultural center Petrochemical capital of the world Industrial collaboration and job opportunities World renowned research and treatment medical center Professional sports Close to recreational areas Houston, TX 77251 M.ChE., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees Approximately 65 graduate students (predominantly Ph.D.) Stipends and Tuition waivers for full-time students Special fellowships with high stipends for outstanding candidates Faculty Research Interests William W. Akers (Michigan, 1950) Applied Mathematics Constantine D. Armeniades (Case Western Reserve 1969) Biochemical Engineering Walter Chapman (Cornell, 1988) Biomedical Engineering Sam H. Davis, Jr. (MIT 1957) Equilibrium Thermodynamic Properties Derek C. Dyson (London, 1966) Fluid Mechanics J. David Hellums (Michigan, 1961) Interfacial Phenomena Joe W Hightower {Johns Hopkins 1963) Kinetics and Catalysis Riki Kobayashi (Michigan 1951) Polymer Science Larry V. McIntire (Princeton, 1970) Process Control Clarence A. Miller (Minnesota 1969) Reaction Engineering Mark A. Robert (Swiss Fed. Inst. of Technology, 1980) Rheology Ka-Yiu San (CalTech 1984) Statistical Mechanics Jacqueline Shanks (CalTech, 1989) Transport Processes Kyriacos Zygourakis (Minnesota, 1981) Transport Properties 298 Chemical Engineering Education

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Chemical Engineering at the UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER JOIN US Graduate Study and Research leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees Fellowships to $14,500 For further information and application, write Professor Harvey J. Palmer, Chair Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rochester Rochester, New York 14627 Phone: (716) 275-4042 Faculty and Research Areas S. H. CHEN, Ph.D. 1981, Minnesota Polymer Science and Engineering, Transport Phenomena, Optical Materials E. H. CHIMOWITZ, Ph.D. 1982, Connecticut Computer-Aided Design, Super-Critical Extraction Control M. R. FEINBERG, Ph.D. 1968, Princeton Complex Reaction Systems, Applied Mathematics J. R. FERRON, Ph.D. 1958, Wisconsin Transport Processes, Applied Mathematics J.C. FRIEDLY, Ph.D 1965, California ( Berkeley ) Process Dynamics, Control, Heat Transfer R.H. HEIST, Ph D. 1972, Purdue Nucleation, Aerosols, Ultrafine Particles S. A. JENEKHE Ph.D 1985, Minnesota Polymer Science and Engineering Materials Chemistry, Electronic and Optical Materials Fall 1991 J. JORNE, Ph.D 1972, California ( Berkeley ) Electrochemical Engineering, Microelectronics Processing, Theoretical Biology R.H. NOITER, Ph D. 1969, Washington (Seattle) M.D. 1980 Rochester Biomedical Engineering, Lung Surfactant, Molecular Biophysics H.J. PALMER, Ph D. 1971, Washington (Sea ttle) Interfacial Phenomena, Phase Transfer Reactions, Mass Transfer, Bioengineering H. SALTSBURG, Ph.D. 1955, Boston Surface Phenomena, Catalysis, S. V. SOTIRCHOS, Ph.D. 1982, Houston Reaction Engineering, Combustion and Gasification of Coal, Gas-Solid Reactions J. H. D. WU, Ph D. 1987 M.I.T. Biochemical Engineering Fermentation Biocatalysis, Genetic and Tissue Engineering 299

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RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY M.S. and Ph.D. PROGRAMS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL & BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AREAS OF TEACHING AND RESEARCH CHEMICAL ENGINEER/NG FUNDAMENTALS e THERMODYNAMICS e TRANSPORT PHENOMENA e KINETICS AND CATALYSIS e CONTROL THEORY e COMPUTERS AND OPTIMIZATION e POLYMERS AND SURFACE CHEMISTRY e SEMIPERMEABLE AND LIQUID MEMBRANES e CHAOTIC FLOWS AND DISORDERED SYSTEMS e INTERFACIAL ENGINEERING BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS e MICROBIAL REACTIONS AND PRODUCTS e SOLUBLE AND IMMOBILIZED BIOCATALYSIS e BIOMATERIALS e ENZYME AND FERMENTATION REACTORS e HYBRIDOMA PLANT AND INSECT CELL CULTURES e INTERDISCIPLINARY BIOTECHNOLOGY e CELLULAR BIOENGINEERING e BIOSEPARATIONS ENGINEERING APPL/CATIONS e BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY e CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY e MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES 300 DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING FOOD PROCESSING GENETIC ENGINEERING PROTEIN ENGINEERING IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY EXPERT SYSTEMS / Al ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING STATISTICAL THERMODYNAM ICS TRANSPORT AND REACTION IN MULTIPHASE SYSTEMS HAZARDOUS & TOXIC WASTE TREATMENT WASTEWATER RECOVERY AND REUSE INCINERATION & RESOURCE RECOVERY MICROBIAL DETOXIFICATION SOURCE CONTROL AND RECYCLING FELLOWSHIPS AND ASSISTANTSHIPS ARE AVA/LAB LE For Application Forms and Further Information Write Phone or FAX to Director of Graduate Program Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey P.O. Box909 Piscataway, NJ 08855-0909 Phone (908)932-2228 or FAX (908) 932-5313 Chemical Eng ineering Education

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The Universityof South Carolina Get to the Point! Graduate Studies in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Th e University of South Carolina, with its main campus in Columbia, is a compre h ensive research university The new and innovative John E. Swearingen Center house s the College of Engineering and serves as a focal point for much of the research in one of the fastest growing areas in the country. Research Areas Cat a ly s i s Compo s ite Materia l s Corrosion E l ectrochemistry Multiphase Flow Pha se Equilibria Fac ult y M. W. Da v i s, Jr. (Erner.) A. E. Farell F. A. Gada l a-Maria J. H Gibbons E. L. Hanzevack Jr E. J. Markel Polymerization Control Proce ss Control Rheology So l vent Extraction Supercritical Fluids F P. Pike (Erner.) R. L. Smith, Jr. T. G. Stanford V. Van Brunt 1 W Van Zee 1 W. Weidner For furt h er in formation contact: Professor J. H. Gibbons Chairman, C h emical Engineering Swearingen Engineering Center The University of South Carolina Col umb ia, South Caroli na 29208 (803) 777-4181

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... Faculty-------------J A. Biesenberger (PhD, Princeton University) G.B. Delancey (PhD, University of Pitsburgh) C G. Gogos (PhD, Princeton University) R. Griskey (PhD, Carnegie Institute of Technology) D. M. Kalyon (PhD, McGill University) S Kovenklioglu (PhD, Stevens Institute of Technology) D H. Sebastian (PhD, Stevens Institute of Technology) H. Silla (PhD, Stevens Institute of Technology) K. K. Sirkar (PhD, University of Illinois) C. Tsenoglou (PhD, Northwestern University) Research in -------------Membrane Technology Separation Processes Biochemical Reaction Engineering Polymer Reaction Engineering Polymer Rheology and Processing Polymer Characterization Catalysis Wastewater Treatment Process Design and Development 302 STEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Beautiful campus on the Hudson River overlooking metropolitan New York City Close to the world's center of science and culture At the hub of major highways, air, rail, and bus lines At the center of the country's largest concentration of research laboratories and chemical, petroleum and pharmaceutical companies Excellent facilities and instrumentation Close collaboration with other disciplines, especially chemistry and biology One of the leaders in chemical engineering computing GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Full and part-time day and evening programs MASTERS CHEMICAL ENGINEER PH.D. For application, contact: Office of Graduate Studies Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-420-5234 For additional information, contact : Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken,NJ 07030 201-420-5546 (financial Aid is Available to qualified students.) Stevens Institute of Technology does not discriminate against any person because of race creed, color, national origin sex, age, marital status, handicap liability for service in the armed forces or status as a disabled or Vietnam era veteran Chemical Engineering Education

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Chemical Engineering atTexas Research Interests Aerosol Physics & Chemistry Aqueous Mass Transfer Barrier Packaging Biochemical & Biomedical Engineering Biomaterials Biosensors Catalysis Chemical Engineering Education Chemical Reaction Kinetics Chemical Vapor Deposition Colloid & Surface Science Combustion Crystal Structure & Properties Crystallization Distillation Electrochemistry Inquiries should be sent to : Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Texas Austin Texas 78712 (512) 471-6991 Research Interests (cont'd) Electronic and Optical Materials Enhanced Oil Recovery Expert Systems Fault Detection & Diagnosis Heat Transfer Laser Processing Liquid Crystalline Polymers Materials Science Membrane Science Microelectronics Processing Optimization Plasma Processing Polymer Blends Polymer Processing Polymer Thermodynamics Process Dynamics & Control Process Modeling & Simulation Protein & Fermentation Engineering Reaction Injection Molding Separation Processes Stack Gas Desulfurization Statistical Thermodynamics Superconductivity Supercritical Fluid Science Surface Science Thermodynamics Faculty Joel W. Barlow Wisconsin James R. Brock Wisconsin Thomas F. Edgar Princeton John G. Ekerdt Berkeley James R. Fair Texas George Georgiou Cornell Adam Heller Hebrew (Jerusalem) David M. Hlmmelblau Washington Jeffrey A. Hubbell Rice Keith P. Johnston Illinois William J. Koros Texas Douglas R. Lloyd Waterloo John J. McKetta Michigan C. Buddle Mullins California Inst. of Technology Donald R. Paul Wisconsin Robert P. Popovich Washington llya Prigogine Brussels Howard F. Rase Wisconsin James B. Rawlings Wisconsin Gary T. Rochelle Berkeley Isaac C. Sanchez Delaware Robert S. Schechter Minnesota Hugo Stelnflnk Polytechnic University James E. Stice Illinois Inst Technology Isaac Trachtenberg Louisiana State Eugene H. Wissler Minnesota

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Chemical Engineering at Texas A&M University THERMODYNAMICS ELECTROCHEMICAL ADVANCED MATERIALS REACTION & CATALYSIS COLLOIDS & INTERFACES TRANSPORT PHENOMENA POLYMERS CONTROL BIOCHEMICAL & ENVIRONMENTAL Maxi111ize your free energy .. increase your total energy .. decrease disorder. and get a solid education. Thats the \Nay \Ne do it at Texas A&M. Ye s, I want to maximize my free energy! Please send me more information and application forms for admission to graduate studies in chemical engineering at Texas A&M. I understand that the adm i ssion forms also help to determine my financial aid status. Graduate Advisor Department of Chem i cal Engineering Te xas A&M Univers ity College Station Te xas 77843-3122 ( 409) 845-3361 Admission to Texas A&M University and any of its sponsored programs is open to qualified individuals regardless of race color religion sex age national origin or educationally unrelated hand icaps.

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The University of Toledo Graduate study toward the M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Assistantships and Fellowships available. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY Gary F. Bennett Ph.D ., University of Michi gan. Professor; Environmental Pollution Control Biochemical Engineering Kenneth J. De Witt Ph D ., Northwestern University Professor ; Transport Phenomena Math ematical Modeling and Numerical Methods Ronald L. Fournier Ph D ., University of Toledo Associate Professor ; Transport Phe nomena Thermodynamics Mathematical Modeling and Biotechnology Saleh Jabarin Ph.D. University of Mass achusetts ; Physical Properties of Polymers Poly mer Orientation and Crystallization James W. Lacksonen Ph.D ., Ohio State Un i versity Professor ; Chemical Reaction Kinetics Reactor Design Pulp and Paper Engineering Steven E. LeBlanc Ph D ., University of Michigan Associate Professor ; Dissolution Kinetics Surface and Colloid Phenomena Controlled Re lease Technology Richard M. Lemert Ph.D ., Un i versity of Texas at Austin. Assistant Professor ; Thermodynamics and Supercritical Fluid Extraction Bruce E. Poling, Chairman Ph.D ., University of Illinois Professor ; Thermodynamics and Physical Properties Sasidhar Varanasi PhD State University of New York at Buffalo Associate Professor ; Colloidal and lnterfacial Phenomena Enzyme Kinetics Membrane Transport For Details Contact : Fall 1991 Dr 8. E. Poling, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Toledo Toledo OH 43606-3390 (419) 537-7736 Regarded as one of the nation s most attractive campuses, The University of To l edo is located in a beautiful resident i al area of the city approximate l y seven miles from downtown The Universi t y's main campus occupies more than 200 acres with 40 major buildings. A member of the s t ate university system of Ohio since July 1967, The University of Toledo observed its 100th anniversary as one of the co u n t ry's ma j or universities in 1972 3 05

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90 YEARS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT TUFTS UNIVERSITY M.s. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering RESEARCH AREAS CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS CRYSTALLIZATION MEMBRANE PROCESSES CHROMATOGRAPHY FACILITATED TRANSPORT OPTIMIZATION HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS ELECTROCATALYTIC PROCESSES THERMODYNAMICS MATERIALS AND INTERFACES COMPOSITE MATERIALS POLYMER AND FIBER SCIENCE CHEMICAL PROCESSING OF HIGH TECH CERAMICS PLASMA POLYMERIZATION OF THIN FILMS STABILITY OF SUSPENSIONS e rnAI C:.I 11001~~ BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY MAMMALIAN CELL BIOREACTORS RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING SOLID-WASTE PROCESS ENGINEERING HAZARDOUS WASTE TECHNOLOGY BIODEGRADATION OF SOLID WASTE APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY PROTEIN REFOLDING BIOSEPARATIONS POLLUTION PREVENTION FACULTY GREGORY D. BOTSARIS Ph.D. Ml T., 1965 A small (4500 students) prestigious private University in Metropolitan Boston Graduate students have close and immediate access to faculty; to the Tufts Biotechnology Engineering Center and the Laboratory for Materials and Interfaces; to the country's foremost medical centers; and of course to the cultural, social, recreational excitement of Boston, Cape Cod, and New England Fellowships and assistantships with tuition paid are available to qualified students. ELIANA R. DEBERNARDEZ-CLARK Ph.D ., U.N.L. (Argentina), 1984 JERRY H. MELDON Ph.D., Ml. T., 1973 JAMES J. NOBLE Ph.D., Ml. T., 1968 DANIEL F. RYDER Ph .D. Worcester Polytechnic, 1984 MICHAEL STOUKIDES Ph.D Ml. T., 1982 MARTIN V. SUSSMAN Ph.D ., Columbia 1958 NAK-HOSUNG 306 For information and applications, write to: Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering Tufts University Medford, MA 02155 Phone (617) 381-3900 FAX (617) 381-3991 Ph.D. Ml. T ., 1972 RANDALL W. SWARTZ Ph.D., Rennselaer Polytechnic, 1972 KENNETH A. VAN WORMER Sc D ., Ml T. 1961 ADJUNCT FACUL TV FROM INDUSTRY GEORGE AVGERINOS FRANCIS BROWN JOHN R. GHUBLIKIAN Chemical Engineering Education

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VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering Graduate Study Leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Kenneth A. Debelak (Ph.D., Kentucky) Artificial intelligence in process control ; coal conversion with emphasis on particle structure and diffusional processes ; hazardous waste minimization. Tomlinson Fort (Ph.D., Tennessee) lnterfacial phenomena in adsorption thin films, new materials polymers tribochemistry, and dispersed systems. Todd D. Giorgio (Ph.D., Rice) Rheological aspects of blood/endothelial cell response ; structured lipid systems ; biochemical cell-cell interaction; mechanism and kinetics of cellular ion transport. Thomas M. Godbold (Ph.D., North Carolina State) Coal pyrolysis and gasification ; sulfur removal from syngas ; computer-aided design. David Hunkeler (Ph.D., McMaster) Water soluble polymers and polyelectrolytes heterophase polymerizations polymer characteri zation light scattering chromatography solution properties John A. Roth (Ph.D., Louisville) Physical-chemical wastewater treatment ; hazardous waste management; corrosion mecha nisms in microcircuitry Karl B. Schnelle, Jr. (Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon) Environmental dispersion modeling ; use of natural gas in atmospheric pollution control; super critical extraction of toxic materials in the environment. Eva M. Sevick (Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon) Optical spectroscopy and imaging in strongly scattering media ; applications for biomedical imaging, measurement of tissue oxygenation and characterization of motion and physical properties of colloidal systems. Robert D. Tanner (Ph.D., Case Western Reserve) Fall 1991 Biochemical engineering; effect of light on yeast growth and protein secretion ; aerated solid fermentation fluidized bed processes; bubble and aerosol fractionation of proteins. VANDERBILT ENGINEERING ------,__ For further information: Professor Eva M. Sevick Chemical Engineering Department Box 1604 Station B Vanderbilt University Nashville TN 37235 1-800-2 88 -7722 307

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V 1iersityinia Graduate g Studies in Chemical Engineering FACULTY AND RESEARCH AREAS Giorgio Carta Ph.D ., University of Delaware Absorption, adsorption, ion exchange, biological separations Peter T. Cummings Ph .D., Uni vers ity of M e lbourn e Statistical thermodynamics process design rheology, bacterial transport Robert J. Davis Ph.D ., Stanford Uni versi ty Heterogeneou s catalysis, characterization of metal clusters, reaction kinetic s Erik J. Fernandez Ph.D ., Uni vers ity of California, Berkeley Mammalian cell biocatalysis, metabolism in diseased tisses Roseanne M. Ford Ph.D. Uni ve r s ity of P e nnsyl v ania Biore mediation bacterial migration (chemotaxis) Elmer L. Gaden, Jr. Ph D ., Columbia Univ e rsity Biochemical engineering, bioprocess development and design John L. Gainer Ph.D ., Uni ve r s ity of Delaware Mass tran s fer including biomedical applications, biochemical engineering John L. Hudson Ph.D ., Northw es t e rn Uni ve rsity Dynamics of chemical reactors, electrochemical and multiphase reactors Donald J. Kirwan Ph.D. Uni vers ity of D e la ware Biochemical engineering, mass transfer, crystallization M. Douglas Le Van Ph D ., Uni ve r s ity of California B erke l ey Adsorption, fluid mechanics, process design Lembit U. Lilleleht Ph.D ., Uni vers ity of Illinoi s Fluid mechanics, heat transfer, multipha se sys tems alternative energy John P. O'Connell Ph.D ., Uni ve r s ity of California B er k e l ey Statistical thermodynamics with applications to physical and bio logical systems FURTHER INFORMATION To receive application materials and fur ther information please write to Graduate Admissions Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Thornton Hall University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22903-2442 Phone: (804) 924 7778 "Acade mi c research s hould prov i de th e opportun i ty for students to impr ove their methods of rational thought and inquiry wi th th e advisor s upplyin g in sigh t and direction. The facu lt y her e at UVa seem dedi ca t e d t o a ll owing s tu dent s th e freedom t o l earn, but wi th gu id a n ce avai la b l e when needed." Jami e Rudi si ll B.S.ChE, North Carolina Sta t e U ni ve r si ty, Ph .D. candidate.

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Virginia nil Tech VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE AND STATE UNIVERSITY Graduate Study and Research at VIRGINIA TECH SURFACE SCIENCE AND CATALYSIS heterogeneous catalysis model catalyst systems metal oxide surface chemistry gas sensors UHV surface analysis and high-pressure reaction studies BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOCHEMICAL PROCESS ENGINEERING affinity and immunoaffinity (monoclonal antibody) isolation of plasma proteins transgenic expression and recovery of human plasma proteins in livestock DNA amplification kinetics in-situ biodegradation of toxic wastes SYSTEM AND COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY artificial intelligence computer-aided design process synthesis and integration NOVEL FLUIDIZED BEDS vibrated beds magnetofluidized beds shallow fluidized beds HAZARDOUS WASTES in-situ treatment of ground water textile dye waste minimization and treatments microbubble flotation enhanced biological treatments POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING rheology processing morphology synthesis surface science biopolymers polymer suspensions physical chemistry of polymer solutions polyelectrolytes polymer composites fiber-reinforced composites COLLOID SCIENCE polymeric stabilization of suspensions suspension rheology synthesis of novel ceramic particles physical chemistry of polymer adsorption at interfaces associating polymers in solution For further information contact the Fall 1991 Department of Chemical Engineering Virginia Tech 133 Randolph Hall Blacksburg, VA 24061 (703) 231-6631 309

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The department offers a vigorous research program and excellent physical facilities, plus support for all full-time graduate students. Approximately 65 graduate students, from about 30 universi ties in over 20 states attend here. About 15-10 students are from foreign countries. Graduate students and faculty enjoy a fine esprit de corps in a stimulating and supportive research environment. Seattle, the Emerald City, provides outstanding cultural opportunities and unparalleled outdoor activities throughout the year. (Selected as the most livable city in the 1989 edition of Places Rated Almanac.) University of Washington Department of Chemical Engineering Your inquiries are welcome. For further information please write: Chairman Dept. of Chemical Engineering, BF -10 University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195 Chemical Engineering Faculty John C Berg, Ph.D., California (Berkeley) E. James Davis, Ph D., Washington Bruce A. Finlayson, Ph.D., Minnesota WilliamJ Heideger, Ph D ., Princeton Bradley R. Holt, Ph.D. Wisconsin Barbara Krieger-Brockett, Ph D. Wayne State N Lawrence Ricker, Ph.D. California (Berkeley) J. W. Rogers, Jr., Ph.D ., Texas (Austin) Daniel T. Schwartz, Ph.D., California (Davis) James C Seferis, Ph.D ., Delaware Eric M. Stuve, Ph.D., Stanford Lewis E. Wedgewood, Ph.D. Wisconsin 310 Research Faculty David G Castner Ph D ., California (Berkeley) Adjunct and Joint Faculty Active in Department Research G. Graham Allan, Ph.D ., Glasgow Albert L. Babb, Ph.D., Ilinois J Ray Bowen, Ph.D., California (Berkeley) (Dean, College of Engineering) Kermit L. Gar lid Ph D ., Minnesota Allan S. Hoffman, Sc.D. M.I.T. Thomas A. Horbett, Ph D. Washington William T. M c K ean, Ph.D ., Washington Michael J Pilat Ph.D., Washington Buddy D. Ratner, Ph D ., Brooklyn Polytechni c Gene L. Woodruff Ph D ., M.I.T. Research Areas Aerosols Biomaterials Colloids and Microemulsions Electrochemistry Fluid Mechanics and Rheology Interfacial Phenomena Mathematical Mod e ling Polymer Composites Process Control Reaction Engineering Surface Scienc e Chemical Engineering Education

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WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering Department Here at Washington State University, we are proud of our graduate program, and of our students. The program has been growing quickly in size and quality, but is still small and informal. For a department of this size, the range of faculty research interests is very broad. Students choose research projects of interest to them, then have the opportunity-and the responsibility-to make an individual contribution. Through a combination of core courses and many electives, students can gain a thorough understanding of the basics of chemical engineering. FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS------------------c. F. Ivory (Ph D ., Princeton) : bioseparations, including electrophoresis, electrochromatography and field flow frac tionation J. M. Lee (Ph D University of Kentucky) : plant tissue cultivation, genetic engineering, enzymatic hydrolysis, mixing K. C.Llddell (Ph D., Iowa State University): semiconduc tor electrochemistry, reactions on fractal surfaces, sepa rations, radioactive waste management R. Mahallngam (Ph D., University of Newcastle-upon Tyne): multiphase systems, physical and chemical sepa rations, particulate phoretic phenomena, electronic mate rials and polymers, synfuels and environment J. N. Petersen (Ph.D., Iowa State University) ; adaptive on line optimization of biochemical processes, adaptive con trol, drying of food products J. C. Sheppard (Ph.D. Washington Univers it y); radio active wastes, actinide element chemistry, atmospheric chemistry radiocarbon dating W. J. Thomson (Ph.D. University of Idaho) ; kinetics of solid state reactions, sintering rates of ceramic and elec tronic material precursers, chemical reaction engineering B. J. Van Wle (Ph.D., University of Oklahoma) ; kinetics of mammalian tissue cultivation, bio-reactor design, centrifu gal blood cellular separations, development of biochemical sensors R. L. Zollars (Ph D ., University of Colorado) ; multiphase reactor design, polymer reactor design colloidal phenom ena, chemical vapor deposition reactor design GRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMS AT WSU M.S. In Chemical Engineering Twelve credits in graduate chemical engineering courses, nine credits in supporting courses, and a thesis are required Ph.D. In Chemical Engineering Eighteen credits in graduate chemical engineering courses, sixteen credits in supporting courses, and a dissertation are required Upon successful completion of the coursework and the Ph D. preliminary examination a student is admitted to candidacy for the degree The dissertation must represent a significant original contribution to the research literature. Conversion Program Students with B S degrees in the physical or life sciences may apply for admission to the conversion program Normally a small number of undergraduate courses must be taken in addition to the regular require ments for the M S or Ph D FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Research or teaching assistantships partial tuition waivers and fellowships are available, and nearly all of our students receive financial assistance. Living costs are quite low. WANT TO APPLY? Contact: Dr. C. F. Ivory, Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2710 509/335-4332 or 509/335-7716

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEM/CAL ENGINEERING MASTER'S AND DOCTORAL PROGRAMS Faculty and R esearch Areas M. P. Dudukovic J. T. Gleaves B. Joseph J. L. Kardos B. Khomami Chemica l Reaction Engineering Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surface Science, Microstructured Materials Process Control, Proce ss Optimization, Expert Systems Composite Materials and Polymer Engineering Rheology, Polymer and Composite Materials Processing J. M. McKelvey R. L. Motard P.A. Ramachandran R. E. Sparks C. Thies M. Underwood Polymer Science a nd Engineering Computer,J\ided Process Engineering, Knowledge-Based Systems Chemical Reaction Engineering Biomedical Engineering, Microencapsulation Transport Phenomena Biochemical Engineering Microencapsulation Unit Operations, Process Safety, Polymer Processing For Information Contact Graduate Admissions Committee Washington University Department of Chemical Engineering Campus Box I 198 One Brookings Drive St. Louis, Missouri 63130-4899 Washington University encourages and gives full consideration to application for admission and financial aid without respect to sex, race handicap co lor, creed or national origin.

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West Virginia Institute of Technology and the University of West Virginia College of Graduate Studies WANT THE BEST OF BOTH WORLDS? Earn your Master's Degree in Control Systems Engineering in Wild, Wonderful West Virginia Tuition-free With a Stipend of $1,000 a Month Earn while you learn in our 18-month graduate program that includes two summers of control work with one of our local industries such as Union Carbide, DuPont, Rhone-Poulenc, Monsanto FMC, Ashland Oil, or Ravens wood Aluminum. Live, study, and work in the pristine natural environment of West Virginia, a land of rugged mountains, serene valleys, and enchanging rivers and streams. Classes are held in the Kanawha Valley, a bustling metropoli tan area of 260,000-home of the state's capital city of Charleston and of a thriving chemical industry. --Schedule Summer Industrial Internship, full-time work Fall 3 er hrs Advanced Differential Equations 3 er hrs Modeling Processes, ChE, ME, EE 3 er hrs Statistical Process Control 3 er hrs State-Space Control, Continuous Spring 3 er hrs Digital Control This exciting opportunity is offered jointly by 3 er hrs Controlling Processes, ChE, ME, EE 3 er hrs Advanced Control local industry Vest Virginia Institute of Technology and University of West Virginia College of Graduate Studies 3 er hrs Project I Planning Thesis Project Summer 3 er hrs Project II Industrial Internship on project, full-time work Fall 3 er hrs Elective 3 er hrs Technical Communication 3 er hrs Project III, write up thesis, possible part-time work call or write Fall 1991 Dr. Ed Crum Or Chemical Engineering Department West Virginia Institute of Technology Montgomery WV 25316 (304) 442-3163 Dr. Bill Crockett School of Engineering and Science West Virginia College of Graduate Studies Institute WV 25112 (304) 766-2040 313

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Chemical Engineering Faculty _______ __ ____ Richard C. Batlle (Iowa State University) Eugene V. CIiento, Chairman (University of Cincinnati) Dady B. Dadyburjor (University of Delaware) Hisashl 0. Kono (Kyushu University) Edwin L. Kugler (Johns Hopkins University) Joseph A. Shaelwltz (Carnegie-Mellon University) Alfred H. Stiller (University of Cincinnati) Richard Turton (Oregon State University) Wallace B. Whiting (University of California, Berkeley) Ray Y. K. Yang (Princeton University) John W. Zondlo (Carnegie-Mellon University) West l/1rgInIa Un1versIly Topics ______ __ Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Separation Processes Surface and Colloid Phenomena Phase Equilibria Fluidization Biomedical Engineering Solution Chemistry Transport Phenomena Biochemical Engineering Biological Separations M.S. and Ph.D. Programs For further information on financial aid write : Professor Richard Turton Graduate Admission Committee Department of Chemical Engineering P.O. Box 6101 West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6101

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Wisconsin A tradition of excellence in Chemical Engineering Faculty Research Interests R. Byron Bird Transport phenomena polymer fluid dynamics polymer kinetic theory Kevin L. Bray High pressure solid state chemistry electronic properties of materials Douglas C. Cameron Biochemical engineering, production of chiral compounds Thomas W. Chapman Electrochemical reaction engineering Camden A. Coberly Hazardous waste management process design composite materials processing Stuart L. Cooper Polymer structure-property relations biomaterials E Johansen Crosby Spray and suspended particle process i ng Juan de Pablo Molecular thermodynamics statistical mechanics James A. Dumeslc Kinetics and catalysis, surface chemistry Fall 1991 Charles G. HIii Jr. (Chairman) Kinetics and catalysis membrane separat i on processes SangtaeKim Fluid mechanics applied mathemat i cs parallel computing Danie/ J Kllngenberg Colloidal science transport phenomena James A. Koutsky Polymer science adhesives, composites Thomas F. Kuech Semiconductor processing solid-state materials, electronic materials Stanley H. Langer Kinetics, catalysis, electrochemistry chromatography hydrometallurgy E N. Lightfoot Jr. Mass transfer and separat i ons processes biochemical engineering Regina M. Murphy B i omed i cal engineering applied immunology protein protein interactions W. Harmon Ray Process dynam i cs and control reaction engineering polymerization Thatcher W. Root Surface chemistry catalysis solid-state NMR DaleF.Rudd Process des i gn and industrial development Warren E. Stewart Reactor modeling transport phen o mena applied mathemat ics Ross E. Swaney Process synthesis and optimization computer-aided design For further information about graduate study in chemical engineering write : The Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Wisconsin-Madison 1415 Johnson Drive Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1691 315

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Graduate Studies in Chemica l Engineering Qualified students seeking M.S. and/or Ph.D. degrees will receive attractive fellowships or assistantships to pursue exciting fundamental and applied research. Areas of Research: Advanced Materials Carbon Filaments Inorganic Membranes Materials Processing in Space Metal Oxides Molecular Sieve Zeolites Superconductors Biochemical Engineering Biopolymer Engineering Bioreactor Anal ysis Bioseparations Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Adsorption and Transport in Porous Media Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Catalysis Zeolite Catalysis Faculty: W. M. Clark Ph D ., Rice University D. DiBiasio Ph.D., Purdue University A G. Dixon Ph D ., Edinburgh University Y. H. Ma Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology J. W. Meader S.M Massachusetts Institute of Technology W.R. Moser Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology J.E. Rollings Ph D. Purdue University A Sacco Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology R. W. Thompson Ph D Iowa State University AH. Weiss Ph.D University of Pennsylvania The Central New England Area: For further information, contact Graduate Coordinator Chemical Engineering Department 100 Institute Road Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester, MA 01609-2280 WPI is situated on a 62-acre hilltop site in a residential area of Worcester, Massachusetts New England 's second largest city and a leading cultural, educational, and entertainment center. It is a one-hour drive from Boston and only two hours from the beaches of Cape Cod and the ski slopes and hiking trails of Vermont and New Hampshire. WORCESTER POL Y T ECHNIC INSTITUTE 316 Chemical Engineering Education

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UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING Chemical Engineering Persons seeking admissio n employment or access to programs of the University of Wyoming shall be conside red without regard to race color, national origin sex, age religion, policitical belief, handicap or veteran s tatu s C. V. Cha solid waste utilization microwave reactors gas clean-up D. 0. Cooney mass transfer scrubbers air and water pollution H. A. Deans enhanced oil recovery carbon dioxide flooding R. E. Ewing reservoir simulation enhanced oil recovery R. D. Gunn coal drying active carbon mathematical modeling H. W. Haynes catalysis reaction kinetics synthetic fuels M. A. Matthews transport properties thermodynamics C. R. McKee in-situ extraction of minerals H. F. Silver coal liquefaction desulfurization J. G. Speight coal chemistry We offer exciting opportunities for research in many processing areas, especially energy related technology development. In recent years we have developed clean coal, solid waste utilization, and advance gas clean-up technologies up to bench scale levels. Currently we are working with industry to construct and operate pilot units of these technologies. This will provide excellent opportunities for students to obtain hands-on experience on industrial projects. Also, research has been conducted in the areas of kinetics, catalysis adsorption, extraction, computer modeling coal processing, and enhanced oil recovery. The Western Coal Consortium has been established by the Chemical Engineering Depart ment with western coal producers and utilities. The Western Coal Consortium and Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute provide excellent financial aid packages to graduate students. The University of Wyoming is located in Laramie Wyoming at an elevation of 7200 feet. The town is surrounded by state and national parks which allow for beautiful year-round outdoor activities. The nearby Snowy Range mountains provide ideal sources of recreation for mountain and rock climbing, skiing, fishing, and hunting. Graduates of any accredited chemical engineering program are eligible for admission, and the department offers both an M.S. and Ph.D. accredited program. Financial aid is available, and all recipients receive full fee waivers. Fall 1991 For more information contact Dr. Chang-Yul Cha, Head Department of Chemical Engineering University of Wyoming P. 0. Box 3295 Laramie, WY 82071-3295 317

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Douglas D. Frey Ph.D. Berkeley Gary L. Haller Ph.D. Northwestern Csaba G. Horvath Ph.D. Frankfurt James A. O'Brien Ph.D. Pennsylvania Lisa D. Pfefferle Ph.D. Pennsylvania Theodore W. Randolph Ph.D. Berkeley Daniel E. Rosner Ph.D. Princeton Robert S. Weber Ph.D. Stanford 318 Department of Chemical Engineering Yale University 2159 Yale Station New Haven, Ct 06520 Phone: (203) 432-2222 FAX: (203) 432-7232 Department of Chemical Engineering Aggregation, Clustering Biochemical Engineering Catalysis Chemical Reaction Engineering Chemical Vapor Deposition Chromatography Combustion Enzyme Technology Fine Particle Technology Heterogeneous Kinetics lnterfacial Phenomena Molecular Beams Multiphase Transport Phenomena Separation Science and Technology Statistical Thermodynamics Supercritical Fluid Phenomena Chemical Engineering Education

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Browrn University Faculty Joseph M. Calo, Ph.D ( Princeton ) Bruce Caswell, Ph.D. (Stanford) Richard A. Dobbins, Ph.D ( Princeton ) Sture K. F. Karlsson, Ph D. ( Johns Hopkins ) Joseph D Kestin, D Sc. (Unive rsity of London) Joseph T.C Liu, Ph.D (California Institute of Technology) Edward A. Mason Ph D. ( Massachusetts Institute of Technology ) T F. Morse, Ph D ( Northwestern ) Peter D. Richardson, Ph.D ., D.Sc Eng. (Uni versity of London ) Merwin Sibulkin, A.E. (C alifornia Institute of Technology ) Eric M. Suuberg, Sc.D. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Research Topics in Chemical Engineering Chemical kinetics, combustion, two phase flows fluidized beds, separation processes numerical simulation, vortex methods, turbulence, hydrodynamic stability, coal chemistry, coal gasification heat and mass transfer aerosol condensation, transport processes irreversible thermodynamics membranes, particulate deposition, physiological fluid mechanics, rheology A program of graduate study in Chemical Engineering leads toward the M Sc. or Ph.D. Degree Teaching and Research Assistantships as well as Industrial and University Fellowships are available. For further information write : Professor J Calo Coordinator Chemical Engineering Program Division of Engineering Brown University Providence, Rhode Island -02912 Graduate Studies in BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING for Chemical Engineering, Engineering, and Science Majors UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE ---------M.S. and Ph.D. Programs xx Program Integration of life sciences into chemical engineering withoutthetraditional boundaries ; interactions with biology, biochemistry, microbiology, molecular biology, and other engineering and science research groups. xx Research Areas Bioreactor Engineering Bioseparations Cell Culture Environmental Engineering Protein Engineering Recombinant Cell Technology Fall 1991 J:t Location The 1 510-acre UC Irvine campus is in Orange County, five miles from the Pacific Ocean and 40 miles south of Los Angeles. Irvine is one of the nation's fastest-growing resi dential industrial and business areas. Nearby beaches, mountain and desert area recreational activities, and local cultural activities make Irvine a pleasant city in which to live and study For further information and application forms contact Biochemical Engineering Program School of Engineering University of California Irvine, CA 92717 319

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I/ 3 20 THE CITY COLLEGE of The City University of New York o ff e r s M.S. and Ph .D P r ograms in C h emical En gineering FACULTY A. A criv o s R. G r a ff L. I saacs RES EA RCH AREAS Fluid Mechanics Coal Liquefaction Materials Colloid & Interfacial Phenomena C. Maldarelli R.Maur i Composite Materials, Suspensions, Porous Media Hydrodynamic Stability R. Pfeffer I. Rinard D. Rumschitz ki R Shinna r C. St e ine r G. Ta r dos H. Weinstein Low Reynolds Number Hydrodynamics Process Simulation Process Control Process systems Engineering and Design Reaction Engineering Industrial Economics Polymer Science Air Pollution Fluidization Biomembranes Bioengineering For appl i cat i ons f or adm i s si on a s s i s ta ntsh i ps and fellowships please wr i te to D Rumschitzkl Department of Chemical Engineering City College of New York Convent Ave. at 140th StreetNew York NY 10031 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY NEW YORK, NEW YORK 10027 Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry and Bioengineering Faculty and Research Areas H Y CHEH Electrochemical Engineering, Two Phase Flow and Heat Transfer C. J. DURNING Polymer Physical Chemistry C C GRYTE P olymer Scie n ce, Sepa r ation Processes E. F. LEONARD Biomedical Engineering, Transport Phenomena B O'SHAUGHNESSY Polyme r Physics ALEX SERESSIOTIS Biochemical Engineering J L SPENCER Ap p lied Mathematics, Chemical Reactor Engineering Financial Assistance is Available For Further Information Wr i te Chairman Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry Columbia University New York NY 10027 (212) 854-4453 Chemical Engineering Education

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CURTIN UNIVERSITY ol TECHNOLOGY FACULTY HEAD OF DEPARTMENT Profe, uo r TN Smith SENIOR LECTURERS HM Ang MS R a y LECTURERS R D Ra dfo r d MO Ta d e D White RESEARCH FELLOWS DA S w ift B Verbaan FIELDS OF R ESEARCH CRYSTALLIZATION FLUID-PARTICLE MECHANICS PROCESS MODELING & OPTIMIZATION BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSING MINERAL PROCESSING PROCESS CONTROL UnIversI1y of Technology Perth Western Australia Information: Dr HM Ang Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology GPO Box U 1987 Perth 6001 Western Australia International Tel + 619 351 7581 Fax +619 351 2681 E-mail on Internet : c hemeng@cc curtin edu au T HA YE R S CH OO L OF E NG I NEER ING AT DARTMO UT H C OLLE GE Doctoral and Masters Programs in Engineering with a concentration in Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering Courses from Thayer School and the Dartmouth Medical School Biochemistry Program and Biology Department DOCTORAL AND MASTERS PROGRAMS WITH OPPORTUNITIES IN: APPLICATIONS OF ANAEROBIC BACTERIAL SYSTEMS THERMOPHILI C ETHANOL PRODU C TION ATTACHED-FILM WASTEWATER TREATMENT MAMMALIAN CELL CULTURE MEMBRANE AND IMMOBILIZED CELL REACTOR DESIGN PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL APPROACHES TO IMPROVING PERFORMANCE ENZMOLOGY FuNDAMENTAL AND APPLIED STUDIES OF CELLULASES KINETIC MODELING B IO MASS CONVE RSIO N PRETREATMENT AND HYDROLYSIS OF LIGNOCELLULOSE SOLVENT RECOVERY BY DISTILLATION PROCESS DESIGN AND EVALUATION FOR FuEL ETHANOL PRODUCTION RELATED RE SEARCH IN B IOMEDICAL E NGINE ER ING LASER SCANNING FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY IMAGE ANALYSIS RELATED TO MICROSCOPY AND TISSUE CHARACTERIZATION HIP AND KNEE PROSTHESES HYPERTHERMIA AND RADIATION CANCER TREATMENT PHYSIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT AND CONTROL Fall 1991 For further information: Director of Admissions, Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering Program, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 321

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DREXEL UNIVERSITY M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering FACULTY===== D.R. Coughanowr RESEARCH AREAS=============== Biochemical Engineering E. D. Grossmann Catalysis and Reactor Engineering M. Gurol Environmental Engineering Y. H. Lee Microcomputer Applications L. Levin S P. Meyer Y. T. Shah R. Mutharasan J R. Thygeson C. B. Weinberger M. A. Wheatley Polymer Processing Process Control and Dynamics Rheology and Fluid Mechanics Semiconductor Processing Systems Analysis and Optimization Thermodynamics and Process Energy Analysis CONSIDER====================== a High faculty I student ratio a Excellent facilities a Outstanding location for c ultural activities and job opportunities a Full time and part time options WRITETO: Dr M .A. Wheatley Department of Chemical Engineering Drex el University Philadelphia, PA 19104 AFFILIEE AL 'UN/VER SITE DE MONTREAL Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Research assistantships are available in the following areas: Rheology and Polymer Engineering Solar Energy, Energy Management, and Energy Conservation Fluidisation and Reaction Kinetics Combustion and Incineration Engineering Process Control, Simulation, and Design Industrial Pollution Control Biochemical and Food Engineering Biotechnology Filtration and Membrane Separation Profitez de cette occasion pour paefaire vos connaissances du Francais! Vive la difference! For information, write to: Denis Rouleau Department du Genie Chimique Ecole Polytechnique C.P. 6079, Station A Montreal H3C 3A 7, Canada Some knowledge of the French language is required 322 Chemical Engineering Education

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---------------------~---------Graduate Studies FLORIDA INSTITUTE otlECHNOLOGY d dent University A Distinc t ive I n epen Master of Science Chemical Engineering us on Florida's Space Coast Join a small, vital cam: tantships AvailableGraduat~~~l~d;st T~~i~n Remission Biochemical Engineering Spacecraft Technology Semiconductor Manufacturing Alternative Energy Sources Environmental Engineering Expert Systems Farnlty R.G. Barile, Ph.D. P.A. Jennings, Ph.D. J.N. Linsley, Ph.D. D.R. Mason, Ph.D. M.R. Shaffer, Ph.D. J.J. Thomas, Ph.D. J.E. Whitlow, Ph.D. For Information Contact: Florida lnstitut~ oflec~nolrirg f Chemical Enginee Head, Depa"!men_t o ulevard, Melbourne, 150 West University Bo Fl 32901-6988 (407) 768-8000, ext. 8068 HOWARD UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering MS Degree ----Faculty/Research Areas ____ M. E. ALUKO, Ph.D., UC (Santa Barbara) ReactorModelingandProcessControl MicroelectronicsProcessing J. N. CANNON, Ph.D. Colorado FluidandTherma/Sciences TransportinEnvironmenta/Systems R. C. CHAWLA, Ph.D., Wayne State Reaction Kinetics Air and Water Pollution Hazardous Waste Treatment M. G. RAO, Ph.D., Washington (Seattle) Geothermal Sorption Processes of Nuclear Wastes, Alternate Energy Systems J.P. THARAKAN, Ph.D., UC (San Diego) BioprocessEngineering Fall 1991 For Information Write Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering Howard University Washington, DC 20059 323

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University of Idaho Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs FACULTY----w. ADMASSU Synthetic Membranes for Gas Separations Biochemical Engineering with Environmental Applications T. E. CARLESON Mass Transfer Enhancement Chemical Reprocessing of Nuclear Wastes Bioseparation D. C. DROWN Process Design, Computer Application Modeling Proces s Economics and Optimization with Emphasis on Food Processing L. L. EDWARDS Computer Aided Process Des i gn Systems Analysis Pulp / Paper Engineering Numerical Methods and Optimizat ion D. S. HOFFMAN Alternative Fuels Process Analysis and Design M. L. JACKSON Mass Transfer in Biological Systems Particulate Control Technology R. A. KORUS Polymers Biochemical Engineering J. V. PARK Chemical Reaction Analysis and Catalysis Laboratory Reactor Development Thermal Pl as ma Systems The department has a highly active research program covering a wide range of interests The northern Idaho region offers a year-round complement of outdoor activities including hiking white water rafting, skiing and camping A wide range of fellowships and assistantships are available FOR FURTHER INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE Graduate Advisor J. J. SCHELDORF Heat Transfer Thermodynamics Chemical Engineering Department University of Idaho 324 M. VON BRAUN Hazardous Waste Site Analysis Computer Mapp in g Moscow, Idaho 83843 Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine University of London Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology Imperial College, one of the constitue nt colleges of the University of London was rated top ofa recent survey ofresearch in Great Britain and best in Europe for engineering in an independent survey of European Universities carried out by the French newspaper Liberation. In both exercises the Department of Chemical Engineering gained the maximum possible rating. The College is located in central London in an area of museums, parks and galleries. Research in the Department ranges from technological studies of processes and equipment through to fundamental scientific study of the underlying physical and chemical phenomena. Excellent facilities are available for study towards Masters degrees (M.Sc. one year) and doctorates (Ph.D. three years). CURRENT FI ELDS OF RESEAR CH ARE Process Systems Engineering Separation Processes Applied Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Combustion and Energy Nuclear Technology Biotechnology The Physical Properties of Fluids, Polymers and Interfaces Generous tax-free stipends covering f ees and l iving costs are available for well-qualified applicant s to the do ctora l programm e. Further information ma y be obtained from The Postgraduate Admissions Tutor Department of Chemical Engineering Imperial College London, SW7 2BY, U.K. Chemical Engineering Education

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Master of Engineering FACULTY Master of Engineering Science Doctor of Engineering RESEARCH AREAS D. H. CHEN (Ph.D. Oklahoma State University) Computer Simulation, Process Dynamics and Control J. R. HOPPER (Ph.D., Louisiana State University) Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering Fluidization and Mass Transfer T. C. HO (Ph.D., Kansas State University) Transport Properties, Mass Transfer Gas-Liquid Reactions K. V. LI (Ph.D. Mississippi State University) Rheology of Drilling Fluids, Computer-Aided Design R. E. WALKER (Ph.D. Iowa State University) Thermodynamic Properties Cost Engineering Photovoltaics C. L. YAWS (Ph.D. University of Houston) 0. R. SHAVER (Ph.D. University of Houston) For further information, please write ------Graduate Admissions Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Lamar University P. 0. Box 10053 Beaumont, TX 7771 0 An equal opportunity/affirmative action university LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY Master of Science and Doctor of Engineering Programs For information write Dr. H. K. Huckabay Professor and Head Department of Chemical Engineering Louisiana T sch University Ruston Louisiana 71272 (318) 257-2483 Fall 1991 The Department of Chemical Engineering at Louisiana Tech Univer sity offers a well-balanced graduate program for either the Master's or Doctor of Engineering degree. Fourteen full-time students (nine doctoral candidates) and fourteen part-time students are pursuing research in Alternative Fuels, Artificial Intelligence Biotechnology Chemical Process Hazards and Fire Safety, Nuclear Process Environmental Effects, Ozonation, and Process Simulation and Design FACULTY Brace H. Boyden, Arkansas Bill B. Elmore, Arkansas Michael W. Hsieh, Kentucky Houston K. Huckabay, LSU Charles M. Sheppard, Washington U. Ronald H. Thompson, Arkansas 325

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University of Louisville Chemica/Engineering 326 Polymers Process Control Biotechnology M.S. and Ph.D. Programs RESEARCH AREAS Catalysis Waste Management Thermodynamics Polymer Processing Separations The Environment ( New facilities include a state-of-the-art Materials Research Laboratory ) FACULTY Dermot J. Collins Pradeep B. Deshpande Marvin Fleischman Dean 0. Harper Walden L. S. Laukhuf Raul Miranda Thomas R. Hanley Charles A. Plank Hugh T. Spencer James C. Watters Competitive fellowships and assistantsh i ps are available t o qualified students Write to : Graduate Student Advisor Chemical Engineering Department University of Louisville Louisville KY 40292 Inquiries can be addressed via Electronic Mail over BITNET to : JCWATT01 @ULKYVM Manhattan College Design-Oriented Master's Degree Program in Chemical Engineering This well-established graduate program emphasizes the application of basic principles to the solution of process engineering problems. Financial aid is available including industrial fellowships i n a one-year program involving participation of the follow i ng companies : Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Exxon Corporation AKZO Chemicals Inc. Mobil Oil Corporation Consolidated Edison Co. Pfizer, Inc. Ma n ha tt a n Co ll ege is l oca t ed in R ive rdal e, a n att ra ctive a r ea in t h e no r t h west sectio n of N ew To r k City. For brochure and application form write to CHAIRMAN, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MANHATTAN COLLEGE RIVERDALE, NY 10471 Che m ical En gi n ee r i n g Edu c a t i on

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M.H.I. Baird, PhD (Ca mbridge ) Mass Transfe r Solvent Extraction J.L. Brash, PhD (Glasgow) Biomedical Engineering Polymers C.M. Crowe, PhD (Cam bridge ) McMASTER UNIVERSITY Graduate Study in Polymer Reaction Engineering, Computer Process Control, and Much More! J F. MacGregor, PhD (Wisconsin) Computer Proce ss Control Polymer Reaction Engineering T.E. Marlin, PhD ( Massachusetts ) Comp ut er Process Control P.E. Wood, PhD. (Caltec h ) Turbulence Modeling Mixing D.R. Woods, PhD (Wiscons in ) Surface Phenomena Cost Estimation Problem Solving Data Reconciliation Optimization Simulation J.M. Dickson, PhD (Virginia Tech ) R.H. Pelton, PhD ( Bristol) Water Soluble Polymers Colloid Polymer Systems J.D Wright, PhD (Camb ridge )-Part Time Computer Process Control Process Dynamics and Modeling Membrane Transporl Ph enomena Reverse Osmosis L.W. Shemilt PhD (To ron to) Electrochemi cal Mass Transfer Corrosion A.E. Hamielec, PhD ( Toronto ) Thermodynami cs Polymer R eaction Engineering Director : McMaster Institute for Polymer P r oduction P.A. Taylor, PhD ( Wales ) Technology Computer Proc ess Control A.N. Hrymak, PhD (Carnegie-Mellon) M. Tsezos, PhD ( McGill ) Compute r-A ided D esign Nume ri cal Method s Wastewater Treatment Biosorptiv e Recovery I.A. Feuerstein, PhD (Mass achusett s) J. Vlachopoulos, DSc ( Washington University) Biomedical En gi n ee r ing Transport Phenomena Polymer Processing Rheology Numerical M ethods Chemical Engineering at Columbia M.Eng. and Ph.D. Programs Research Scholarships and Teaching Assistantships are Available For further information, please contact Professor J. Vlachopoulos Department of Chemical Engin eering McMaster University Hamilton, Ontar i o, Canada LBS 4L 7 [UNIVERSITY OF M1ssouR1, CoLUMB1A] The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Missouri-Columbia offers M S and Ph D. programs. Based on the strengths of the department in the traditional research areas, the department is building strengths in current research areas such as surface science nuclear waste and wastewater treatment, biodegradation, indoor air pollution, supercritical processes plasma polymerization coal transportation ( hydraulic ), chemical kinetics, and allied areas. Financial assistance in the form of teaching and research assistantships is available For details contact: The Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering University of Missouri Columbia, MO 65211 Telephone (314) 882-3563 Fax (314) 882-1831 Fall 1991 FACULTY RAKESH K. BAJPAI Ph.D (/IT, Kanpur) Biochemical Engineering Hazardous Waste PAUL C H. CHAN Ph D. (Ca/Tech) Reactor Analysis Fluid Mechanics DONG-L YUN CHO Ph D. (Missouri) Plasma Chemistry Surface Chemistry NILUFER H. DURAL Ph.D (Missouri) Air Pollution Mass Transfer ANTHONY L. HINES Ph.D. (Texas) Indoor Air Pollution Surface Sc i ence RICHARD H LUECKE Ph.D. (Oklahoma) Process Control Modeling THOMAS R. MARRERO Ph.D (Maryland) Coal Log Transport Conducting Polymers DAVID G. RETZLOFF Ph.D. (Pittsburgh) Reactor Analysis Material s TRUMAN S. STORVICK Ph D (Purdue) Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Thermodynamics DABIR S. VISWANATH Ph.D. (Rochester) Applied Thermodynamics Chemical Kinetics HIROTSUGU K. YASUDA Ph.D (SUNY, Syracuse) Polymers Surfa ce S c ience 327

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Melbourne, Australia Department of Chemical Engineering, including the Australian Pulp and Paper Institute RESEARCH DEGREES: Ph.D., M.Eng.Sc. FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS F. LAWSON (Chairman) Gas-Solid Fluidisation J. R. G. ANDREWS D. J. BRENNAN Brown CoalHydroliquefaction Gasification, Oxygen Removal, Fluidised Bed Drying Pulp and Paper Technology G. A. HOLDER D. F. A. KOCH Chemical Reaction Engineering-Gas-Liquid Gas-Solid, Three Phase Heterogeneous Catalysis Catalyst Design J. F. MATHEWS Transport Phenomena-Heat and Mass Transf e r Transport Prop e rties K. L. NGUYEN W. E. OLBRICH I. H. PARKER I. G. PRINCE 0. E. POTTER Extractive Metallurg y and Mineral Processing Rheolog y -Suspensions, Polymers Foods Biochemi c al Engine e rin g Continuous Cultur e Waste Tr e atment and Wat e r Purification Process E c onomics T.SRIDHAR C. TIU FORFURTHERINFORMATIONANDAPPLICATION WRITE Graduate Studies Coordinator P.H. T. UHLHERR M. W. WADSLEY M.R. W. WALMSLEY Department of Chemical Engineering Monash University Clayton, Victoria, 3168, Australia Montana State University -----------------------Montana State offers M.S. and Ph.D. degree programs in chemical engineering with research programs in Separations, Biotechnology, and Materials Science. Interdisciplinary research opportunities exist with the University s NSF Engineering Research Center for Interfacial Microbial Process Engineering (CIMPE). Faculty ___________________ L. BERG (Ph.D., Purdue) Extractive Distillation W. G. CHARACKLIS Director CIMPE (Ph D., Johns Hopkins) Microbial Engineering Industrial Water Quality M. C. DEIBERT (Sc.D., MIT) Surface Science Catalysis Materials Intermetallic Compounds R. W. LARSEN (Ph.D., Penn State) Biological Processes and Separations J. F. MANDELL (Ph.D MIT) Composites, Interfaces, Ceramics Polymers F. P. McCANDLESS (Ph D., MSU) Membranes Extractive Crystallization R. L. NICKELSON (Ph.D. Minnesota) Process Control W. P. SCARRAH (Ph.D MSU)Process Engineering, Separations J. T. SEARS Head (Ph.D., Princeton) Adsorption of Bacteria on Surfaces CVD D. L. SHAFFER (Ph.D., Penn State) Biomass Energy Conversion, Polymeri c Materials P.S. STEWART (Ph.D., Stanford) Biochemical Engineering, Biofilms B.J. TYLER (Ph.D., Washington)Polymer Surface Chemistry, Numerical Methods Information __________________ Dr. J. T Sears Head Department of Chemical Engineering Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-0007 Telephone : (406) 994-2221 FAX : (406) 994-6098 328 Chemical Engineering Education

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UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OFFERING GRADUATE STUDY FOR M.S OR PH.D. WITH RESEARCH IN BIO-MASS CONVERSION SEPARATION PROCESSES REACTION AND FERMENTATION KINETICS SURFACE SCIENCE REAL-TIME COMPUTING THERMODYNAMICS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS DESIGN AND PROCESS SYNTHESIS ELECTROCHEMICAL AND CORROSION ENGINEERING POLYMER ENGINEERING FOR APPLICATION AND INFORMATION: n Chairman of Chem ic al Engineering 236 Avery Hall University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0126 Graduate study in chemical engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Major research center: Environmental Engineering Bioengineerin g Food Processing Financial assistance is available Computer Aided Design Oil Recover y Chemical Safety Special programs for students with B.S degrees in other fields FOR APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION WRITE Dr Ron Bhada Head Department of Chemical Engineering P 0 Box 30001, Dept. 3805 New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003-0001 New Mexico State University is an Equal Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer Fall 1991 329

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NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Northeastern University has educated superior engineers who have contributed significantly to the technological advances of our coun try The Chemical Engineering De partment offers full and part-time graduate programs leading to M.S and Ph.D. degrees. Our programs are designed to provide up-to-date knowl edge and skills necessary to keep abreast of today's changing technol ogy. Courses are offered in the late afternoon and early evening to allow students to advance their academic and professional careers RESEARCH AREAS: Biotechnology Biopolymers Bioconversion Bioinstrumentation Catalysis Process Control Applied Mathematics Process Design Heat Transfer FOR INFORMATION WRITE: Ralph A. Buonopane Ph.D. Dept. of Chemical Engineering Northeastern University 360 Huntington 342 SN-CEE Boston MA 02115 OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs FACULTY W. J. Frederick Jr Chemical Recovery Technology (Pulp and Paper) Combustion S K i mura Reaction Engineer i ng High-Temperature Materials K L. Levien Process Optimization and Control G L. Rorrer Biochem i cal Reaction Enginee r ing R D Sproull B i ochemical and Env i ronmental Engineering J D Way Membrane-Based Separation Processes J R. Welty Heat Transfer Transport Processes Our current programs reflect not only traditional chemical engineering fields but also new technologies important to the Northwest's industries such as electronic device manufacturing forest products food science and ocean products Oregon State is located only a short drive from the Pacific Ocean white-water r i vers and hiking I skiing I climbing i n the Cascade Mountains Competitive research and teaching assistantsh i ps are available 33 0 For further information write : Chemical Engineering Department Gleeson Hall Room 103 Oregon State Univers i ty Corvallis Oregon 97331-2702 C h e m ical E nginee r i n g Edu c a tion

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Princeton University M.S.E. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering RESEARCH AREAS Applied Mathemat ics; Bioengineering; Chemical Kinetics ; Catalysis ; Chemical Reactor / Reaction Engineering; Colloidal Phenomena; Computer Aided Design; Crystallization and Dendritic Growth ; Electrohydrodynamics ; Molecular Simulations; Nonlinear Dynamics ; Plasma Processing; Polymer Science ; Process Control ; Flow of Granular Media; Rheology; Statistical Mechanics; Supercritical Fluids ; Surface Science; Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria FACULTY ____________________________ Jay B Benziger Joseph L. Cecchi, Pablo G. Debenedetti Christodoulos A. Floudas, John K. Gillham, William W. Graessley Roy Jackson, Steven F. Karel, Yannis G. Kevrekidis Morton D. Kostin Robert K. Prud'homme, Ludwig Rebenfeld Richard A. Register, William B. Russel (Chairman), Dudley A. Saville, Sankaran Sundaresan Write to : Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey 08544-5263 Inquiries can be addressed via Electronic Mail over BITNET to CHEGRAD@PUCC ~een's University Kingston, Ontario, Canada Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering MSc and PhD Degree Programs D.W. Bacon PhD (Wisconsin) H.A. Becker ScD (MIT) D.H. Bone PhD (London) S.H. Cho PhD (Princeton) R.H. Clark PhD (Imperial College) A.J. Daugulis PhD (Queen's) J. Downie PhD (Toronto) M.F.A. Goosen PhD (Toronto) E.W. Grandmaison PhD (Queen's) T.J. Harris PhD (McMaster) C.C. Hsu PhD (Texas) Catalysls and Reaction catalyst ag i ng & decay catalytic oxidation & cracking gas adsorpt i on on catalysis react i on network analysis Physlcal Processing dryforming technology drying of cereal grains turbulent m i xing & flow Bloreactlon and Processing bioreactor modeling and design extractive fermentation fermentation using genetically eng i neered organisms controlled release delivery systems microencapsulat i on technology Fuels and Energy F i scher-Tropsch synthesis flu i dized bed combustion fuel alcohol production gas f l ames and furnaces heat transfer i n steel reheating Process Control and Simulation batch reactor contro l multivariable control systems nonlinear control systems on-line optim i zation statistical identificat i on of process dynamics WRITE Dr. M.F A. Goosen K.B. McAuley PhD (McMaster) P.J. Mclellan PhD (Queen's) B.W. Wojciechowski PhD (Ottawa) Polymer Engineering Z i egler-Natta polymer i zat i on reactor analysis design and control Department of Chemical Engineering Queen's University Kingston, Ontar io, Canada K7L 3N6 Fall 1991 331

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332 UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees --------CURRENT AREAS OF INTEREST-------Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Corrosion Crystallization Processes Thin Films Pollution Prevention Heat and Mass Tran sf er Metallurgy and Ceramics Mixing POR APPLICATIONS APPLY TO Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rhode Island Kingston, RI 02881 Multiphase Flow Phase Change Kinetics Separation Processes Surface Phenomena Applications for financial aid should be received not later than Februar y 16th. OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH AREAS FACULTY Kinetics and Catalysis C. F. Abegg, Ph.D. Iowa State Process Control R. S. Artigue, D.E., Tulane Polymers W. B. Baratuci, Ph D ., Case Western Reserve Thermodynamics J. A. Caskey, Ph.D., Clemson Transport Phenomena M. H. Hariri Ph.D., Manchester S. Leipziger, Ph.D. I.I. T. Biotechnology N. E. Moore, Ph.D. Purdue FORINFORMATIONWRITE -----Dr. Stuart Leipziger Department Graduate Advisor Chemical Engineering Department Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology Terre Haute IN 47803-3999 Chemical Engineering Education

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Graduate Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN DE'11TMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS N.N. Bakhshi Fischer Tropsch Reaction Studies Catalytic Upgrading of Biomass-Derived Oils/Plant Oils Biomass Pyrolysis Heavy Oil Upgrading Studies W.J. Decoursey Absorption with Chemical Reaction Mass Transfer M.N. Esmail Liquid Coating Fluid Mechanics Modeling G. HIii Fermentation and Bioprocessing D.G. Macdonald Biomass Pyrolysis Fermentation D.-Y. Peng Thermodynamics of Hydrocarbons and Petroleum J. Postlethwaite Corrosion Engineering S. Rohani Process Control Crystallization and Mixing Phenomena with Fast Chemical Reactions Dynamics and Control of Crystal Size Distribution Diffusion-Reaction Modeling C.A. Shook Transport Phenomena Slurry Pipelines FOR INFORMATION, WRITE M. N. Esmail Head Department of Chemical Engineering University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon Saskatchewan Canada S7N 0W0 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA, FLORIDA 33260 For furth e r information conta c t: Graduate Program Coordinator Chemical Engineering University of South Florida Tampa, Florida 33620 (813) 974-3997 Fall 1991 Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering Leading to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Faculty V. R. Bhethanabotla J.C. Busot S. W Campbell L. H. Garcia-Rubio R. A Gilbert W E. Lee J. A. Llewellyn C. A. Smith A. K. Sunol Research Areas Artificial Intelligence Automatic Process Control Biomaterials / Biocompatibility Biomedical Engineering Computer Aided Process Engineering Computer Simulation Irreversible Thermodynamics Mathematic Mod e ling Molecular Thermod y namics Phase Equilibria Physical Property Correlation Polymer Reaction Engineering Process Identification Process Monitoring and Analysis Sensors and Instrumentation Statistical Mechanics Supercritical Fluid Technology 333

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334 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA Please write for further information about the program financial support and application forms to : Graduate Admissions Departmen t o f Chemica l Engineer i ng Uni versity o f Southern Califo rnia Un i vers ity P arle Los Angeles C A 900891211 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY W. VICTOR CHANG ( P h D ., Ch E. Calte c h 1976) P hysica l properties of polymers and co m posites; adhesion ; finite element analysis ELMER L. DOUGHERTY JR ( P h D ., Ch E. Illinois Urbana 1955) Optimizat i on of oil and gas producing o p erations ; s i mulation of hydrocarbon reservoir behavior ; energy and environmental economics /RAJ ERSHAGH / M SAHIMI (Ph D ., Ch.E. Minnesota 1984 ) Transport and mechan i cal properties of disordered systems ; percolation theory and non-equil i brium growth processes ; flow, diffusion dis p ersion and reaction in poro u s media RONALD SALO VEY (Ph D ., Phys Chem. Harvard, 1958) Phys i cal chemistry and irradiation of polymers ; characterization of elastomers and filled systems ; pol y mer crystallization ( Ph D ., PTE Southern Cal 1972) Well test analyses of fractured KA T HERINE S SH/NG geothermal and gas storage reservoirs ; reservoir characterization ; ( Ph D ., Ch E. C o rnell 1 982 ) The r modyn a m ic s and stat i st i cal mechanpetrophysical modeling i c s ; supercr i tical extraction FRANK J. LOCKHART ( Ph D ., Ch E. Michigan 1943) Distillation ; air pollution ; des i gn of chemical plants ( Emeritus) RONALD G MINET ( Ph D ., Ch.E. New York University 1959 ) (Adjunct ) Computer aided chem i cal process and plant design ; catalysis ; ceram i c membranes CORNELIUS J PINGS ( P h D ., Ch E. Caltech 1955 ) Ther modynam i cs ; statistical mechan i cs and l iqu i d state phys ic s (Provost and Senior Vice President Academ i c Affairs ) THEODORE T TSOTS/S ( Ph D. Ch E Illino i s, Urb. 1978 ) Chemical reaction enginee ri ng ; process dynamics and control /AN A. WEBSTER ( D Sc ., Ch.E. M I. T ., 1984) (Adjunct ) Catalysis and reaction kinetics ; transport phenomena chemical reaction engineer i ng ; surface spectros copy biochemical engineer i ng Y ANIS C YORTSOS ( Ph D ., Ch.E. Caltech 1978 ) Mathemat i ca l model i ng o f tran s port processes ; flow in porous media and thermal o i l re co very methods CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT STANFORD UNIVERSITY Faculty Mic h el Boudart (Ph.D 1950, Prin ce ton) Kin et i cs a nd C at a l ysis Curtis W. Frank (Ph.D. 1972 Illinois) P o l yme r Ph ys i cs Stanford offers programs of study and research l eading to master of science and doctor of ph i loso phy degrees i n c h emical engineering with a n um ber of financ i ally attractive fellowships and assis tantsh i ps availab l e t o outs t and i ng studen t s Fo r f urther in f orma t io n a n d app li cation forms w r ite to: Admissions Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Stanford University Stanford, California 94305-5025 The clos i ng date for applications is January 1 1992 Gerald G. Fuller (Ph D ., 1 9 80 C a l T ec h ) F lui d Dynam i cs af P o l y m e ri c and Colloi d a l Liqu ids Alice P. Gast (Ph.D. 1984, Prin ce ton) Ph ys i cs af D isperse d S ys t e m s Ch ar l e s F. G oo c h ee (Ph.D. 1 984 U Mar y land) Bi oc h e mi c al Engin ee rin g Ge o rg e M. H o msy (Ph D ., 1969 Illino i s) F luid M ec hani cs and Stabili ty Chaitan Khosla (Ph.D. 1990 Calt ec h) Bi oc atal ys i s Ro b ert J. Madix (Ph.D. 1964 U Cal-B e rk e l ey ) Surface R eac ti vity Franklin M. Orr, Jr. (Ph.D ., 19 7 6 Minn e sota) E n hance d O il R ecovery and R eservo ir En g in eer in g Professor of P e tr o l e u m Engi n ee rin g an d (b y cou rt esy) C h emica l Engi n e e r in g C han ni n g R. Robe rtson (Ph D ., 1969 Stanford) Bioe n g in ee rin g J ohn Ros s (Ph.D. 1951 MIT) Chemi c al In s tabiliti es Prof esso r o f C h em i stry and (b y co urt esy ) C h e m ica l E n g in ee rin g Eric S. G. Sh aq f e h (Ph.D., 1986, Stanford) Tran s p o rt M ec hani cs Chemical Enginee r ing Education

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S. L. Diamond P. Ehrlich R. J. Good R. K. Gupta V.Hlavacek K. M. Kiser D.A.Kofke C.R. F. Lund T J Mountziaris CHEMICAL ENGINEERING A T STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEWYORKAT BUFFALO J M. Nitsche E. Ruckenstein M.E.Ryan D.D.Y.Ryu J A. Tsamopoulos C. J. van Oss T. W Weber S.W Weller R. T Yang -------RESEARCH AREAS --------Adsorption Applied Mathematics Biochemical & Biomedical Catalysis, Kinetics, & Reactor Design Ceramics Coal Conversion Electronic Materials Environmental Engineering Fluid Mechanic s Polymer Processing & Rheology Process Control Reaction Engineering Separation Processes Surface Phenomena & Colloids Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena Academic programs for MS and PhD candidates are designed to provide depth in chemical engineeringfundamentals while preserving the flexibility needed to develop special areas of interest. The Department also draws on the strangths of being part of a large and diverse university center. This environment stimulates interdisciplinary interactions in teaching and research The new departmental facilities offer an exceptional opportunity for students to develop their research skills and capabilities These features, combined with year-round recreational activities afforded by the Western New York countryside and numerous cultural activities centered around the City of Buffalo, make SUNY I Buffalo an especially attractive place to pursue graduate studies. F or information and applications, write to: Chairman, Gradu a te C ommi ttee Departme n t o f Chemical E ngin eering St a te University of New Y ork at Buffalo Buffalo New York 14260 ~~[.IDr:ru@l W@Mrt W@rr @l Q Q Q Fall 1991 Syracuse University Chemical Engineering and Materials Science -------FACULTY------Allen J. Barduhn (emeritus) John C Heydweiller Cynthia S. Hirtzel {Chair) George C. Martin Philip A. Rice Ashok S Sangani Klaus Schroder James A. Schwarz S. Alexander Stern Lawrence L. Tavlarides Chi Tien For information Dr. George C Martin Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science 320 Hinds Hall Syracuse University Syracuse NY 13244 (315) 443-2557 335

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TEXAS A&I UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering M.S. and M.E. Natural Gas Engineering M.S. and M.E. FACULTY R. N. FINCH, Chairman Ph.D ., University of Texas, P E Phase Equilibria and Environmental Engineering F. T. AL-SAADOON Ph D., University of Pittsburgh P.E. Reservoir Engineering and Production W.A.HEENAN D Ch.E., University of Detroit, P.E. Process Control and Thermodynamics C.V.MOONEY M E., Oklahoma University P E Gas Measurement and Production R.W.SERTH R. A. NEVILL B.S ., Texas A&I University, P.E. Natural Gas Engineering P. W. PRITCHETT Ph D ., University of Delaware P.E. Petrochemical Development and Granular Solids C.RAI Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology P E Reservoir Engineering and Gasification Desulfurization D. L. SCHRUBEN Ph.D ., Carnegie-Mellon University P E Transport Phenomena and Polymers Ph.D ., SUNY at Buffalo, P.E. Rheology and Applied Mathematics Texas A&I University is locted in tropical South Texas, forty miles south of the urban center of Corpus Christi and thirty miles west of Padre I sl and National Seashore. FOR INFORMATION AND APPL/CAT/ON WRITE : W. A. HEENAN Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical & Natural Gas Engineering Texas A&I University Campus Box 193 Kingsville, Texas 78363 THE UNIVERSITY OF GRADUATE STUDIES IN (IA (}I ~~!~n!!~~is)~n~~l~g~!RING __ THE FACULTY M. A. Abraham Reaction kinetics, supercritical fluids T Ariman Particulate science and technology multiphase separation processes R. L. Cerro Capillary hydrodynamics, unit operations computer-aided design R. P. Hesketh Coal combustion,fluidization,fluid mechanics FURTHER INFORMATION K.D.Luks F. S. Manning E. J Middlebrooks K. L. Sublette R. E. Thompson K D Wisecarver Thermodynamics phase equilibria Industrial pollution co ntrol surface processing of petroleum Environmental eng ineering Fermentation biocatalysis, hazardous waste treatment Oil and gas processing computer -aided process design Fluidization, bioreactor modeling mass transfer and adsorption in porous so lids If you would like additional information concerning specific research areas, facilities curricu lum and financial assistance contact the director of graduate programs. The University of Tulsa, 600 South College Avenue, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (918) 631-2226 The Universi ty o f Tulsa has an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Program for students and employees 336 Chemical Engineering Education

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ASPIRE TO NEW HEIGHTS T he U niv e r s it y of U tah i s th e oldest sta t erun uni versity we s t of th e Missouri Riv e r The niv e r si t y i s worldr e nown e d for research acliv iti es in m e di c ine sc i e nc e and e ngin ee ring The graduate Chemical Engi n eer in g program offers a numb e r of co llaborativ e, int e rdi sc iplinary re sea rch opport uniti es. The Universi t y i s l oca t e d in Salt Lak e C it y, the only metropolitan area in the c ounlr y which i s within 45 minut es of seve n major sk i areas and within a da y's driv e of five n atio n a l park s. Entertainment in th e ci t y includ es: re s id e nt ball e t sy mphon y, and theat e r organizations; prof ess i onal spo rt s; and a va ri e ty of liv e mu s i c performances in publi c and privat e establis hm e nt s thr o u g hout th e ci t y. General areas of re sea r c h : biot ec hnolog y ca tal ys i s co mbu s tion computer-aided design fo ss il -fue l s co n version hazardou s wa s t e m anagement mineral s pro cess in g mol ec ular mod e lin g non New tonian fluid m ec hani s m s polymer sc i e n ce For information writ e: Dir ec tor of Graduate S tudi es Department of C h e mical Engineering U niversity of U tah Sa lt Lak e City, U tah 84112 Stdiu u,, E~ IJJ UNIVERSITY OF UTAH WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING D.A. Crowl, PhD safety and loss prevention computer applications E. Gulari PhD transport laser light scattering CONTACT Dr Ralph H Kummler Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Wayne State University Detroit Michigan 48202 Fall 1991 R.H. Kummler PhD environmental engineering kinetics C.B. Leffert PhD energy conversion heat transfer C.W. Manke, Jr., PhD polymer engineering rheology R. Marriott PhD computer applications nuclear engineering J.H. McMicking PhD process dynamics mass transfer S. Ng PhD polymer science catalysis E.W. Rothe, PhD molecular beams analysis of experiments S. Salley PhD biosystems modeling kinetics B.O. Shorthouse PhD hazardous waste management S.K. Stynes PhD multi-phase flows environmental engineering G. E. Yawson PhD hazardous waste management 337

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LL BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering MS W. E. KING, JR., Chair (PhD Un ive rs ity of Penn sylvania) Modeling of biomedical systems J.CSERNICA (PhD, M .I. T ) Materials science, polymer structures/property relation s M. E. HANYAK, JR. (PhD Univers i ty of Pennsylvania) Computer-aided design thermodynamics, applied software engineering F. W. KOKO, JR. (PhD Lehigh University) Optimization, flu id mechanics, direct digital control J.E. MANEVAL (PhD, University of California Davis) Multiphase transport processes ion exchange, nuclear magnetic resonance i maging J.M. POMMERSHEIM (PhD, University of Pittsburgh) Transport phenomena mathematical modeling cement hydration M.J.PRINCE (PhD U. of California, Berkeley) Biochemical engineering inter1acial phenomena D. 5. SCHUSTER (PhD, West Virginia Univ.) Fluidi zation, particulate systems agglomerations W.J.SNYDER (PhD Pennsylvania State U.) Catalysis, polymerization instrumentation Bucknell is a small, private, highly selective university with strong programs in engineering, business, and the liberal arts The Department is located in the newly renovated Charles A Dana Engineering Building which provides ample facilities for both computational and experimental research State-of-the-art Apollo workstations for both research and course work and modern laboratory equipment are readily available. Graduate students have a unique opportunity to work very closely with a faculty research advisor Lewisburg located in the center of Pennsylvania, provides the attraction of a rural setting while conveniently located within 200 miles of New York, Philadelphia Washington, D C and Pitts burgh For further information write or phone Dr. William E. King, Jr., Chair Department of Chemical Engineering Bucknell University Lewisburg, PA 17837 ...._ ________ 717-524-1114 ----------' 338 UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO Lake Huron Canada's largest Chemical Engineering Depart ment offers regular and co-operative M.A.Sc., Ph.D., and post-doctoral programs in: Biochemical and Food Engineering Industrial Biotechnology Chemical Kinetics Catalysis, and Reactor Design Environmental and Pollution Control Extractive and Process Metallurgy Polymer Science and Engineering Mathematical Analysis Statistics, and Control Transport Phenomena Multiphase Flow Enhanced Oil Recovery Electrochemical Processes Solids Handling Microwave Heating Financial Aid: RA : $14 500/yr TA: $5,000/yr (approximate) Scholarships AcademicStaff: G. L. Rempel, Ph.D. (UBC), Chairman ; P L. Douglas, PhD (Waterloo), Associate Chairman (Graduate); I. F. Macdonald, PhD (Wisconsin), Associate Chairman (Undergraduate); L. E. Bodnar, PhD (McMaster); C. M. Burns, PhD (Polytech. Inst. Brooklyn); J.J. Byerly, PhD (UBC); I. Chatzis, PhD (Waterloo);T.A. Duever, PhD (Waterloo); F. A. L. Dullien, PhD (UBC); T. Z. Fahidy, PhD (Illinois); G. J. Farquhar, PhD (Wisconsin); J. D. Ford, PhD (Toronto); C. E. Gall PhD (Minnesota); R. Y. M. Huang, PhD (Toronto); R. R. Hudgins, PhD (Princeton), R. L. Legge, PhD (Waterloo); M. Moo-Young, PhD (London); F. T. T. Ng, PhD (UBC); K. F. O'Driscoll, PhD (Princeton); R. Pal, PhD (Waterloo);D. C. T. Pei, PhD (McGill) ; A. Penlidis, PhD (McMaster); M. D. Pritzker, (VP.I.); C. W. Robinson, PhD (Berkeley); A. Rudin, PhD (Northwestern); J. M. Scharer, PhD (Pennsylvania); P. L. Silveston, Dr.Ing (Munich); G. R. Sullivan, PhD (Impe rial College); C. Tzoganakis, PhD (McMaster); J. R. Wynnyckyi, PhD (Toronto) To apply contact ======== The Associate Chairman (Graduate Studies) Department of Chemical Engineering University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 3G1 Phone : 519-885-1211 FAX: 519-746-4979 Chemical Engineering Education

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THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA The Department of Chemical Engineering invites applications for gra d uate stu d y from candi d ates who wish to proceed to the M.E n g., M.Eng. (Pu l p & Paper), M.A.Sc or Ph D degree. For the l a tter two degrees, Assistantships or Fellowships are available. AREAS OF RESEARCH Air P oll u tion Biochemical Enginee r ing Biomedical E n g i neering Biotechnology Liquid Extraction Magnetic Effects Mass Transfer Modeling and Optimization Particle Dynamics Catalysis Coal, Natural Gas and Oil Processing Process Dynamics Pulp &Paper Electrochemical Engineering Elec tr okinetic and Fo u ling Rheology R otary Kilns Phenomena Flui d D ynamics Flui d i zati on Heat T r ansfer Kinetics Separation Processes Spouted Beds Sulphur T h ermodynamics Water Pollution Inqu i r i es s h ould be add r e ss ed to: Gradua t e Adviso r Department o f C hem i cal Engineer i ng THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Vancouver B .C., Canada V6T 1W5 D UNIVERSITY OF DAYTON Graduate Study in Chemical and Materials Engineering Researc h assistantships (inclu d ing competitive stipend and tuitio n ) a r e ava ilabl e for st ud e n ts pursuing M S. in Chemical Engineering o r M .S. or P h D. in Materials Engineering in t h e followi n g resear ch a r eas: PROCESS MODELING EXPERT SYSTEM PROCESS CONTROL COMBUSTION SEPARATION PROCESSES COMPOSITE MATERIALS MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS We s p ecialize in o ff eri n g each st ud ent an in d ividualized program of st ud y an d res ear c h with m ost pr ojects involving pertinent intera c ti on with indu strial pe r sonnel. Fall 1991 For further i nforma t ion w ri te to : Director of Graduate Studie s Department of Chem i ca l and Mate ri als Engineer i ng University of Dayton 300 College Park Avenue Dayton Oh i o 45469 0246 or call ( 5 13) 229-26 2 7 t i Th e University pf D(q Jfo 11 BIOENGINEERING I CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT CARNEGIE MELLON BIOPHYSICS OF CELLULAR PROCESSES : particle (cell) motion an d a dh esion; metabolic mo d els; rheological pro p erties of cells; dynamics of mo l ecules in cytoplasmic structure of cells MICROCIRCULATION: blood flow and transport in normal and tumor microcirculation; transcapilary exchange an d interstitial transport in normal and tumor microcirculation; interaction of blood cells and cancer cells wit h vasc u lat u re; membrane trans p ort an d hin d ere d diffusion; retinal ca p illary changes in diabetes PHYSIOLOGICAL MODELING: pharmacokinetics; p u lmonary an d ci r culatory mo d e l s of tra n s p ort processes; heat transfer; control m echanisms; biosensory perce p tion; metabolic networks an d transformation; mo d eling of the peripheral auditory system; animal models of diabetes FO R GRADUATE APPLICATIONS A N D I NFORMATIO N WRIT E TO CARNEG I E ME L LON UNI V ERSITY B i omed i cal Engineer i ng Program Graduate Admiss i ons DH 2313 Pittsburgh PA 152 1 3 3890 University of Lowell College of Engineer i ng Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering We offer professionally or i en t ed engineer i ng educat i on at the M.S ., Ph.D ., and D.E. levels I n add i tion we offer special i zat i on in PAPER ENGINEERING COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS CONTROL ENGINEERED MATERIALS POLYMERIC MATERIALS BIOENGINEERED MATERIALS ENERGY ENGINEERING Please call ( 508 ) 934 -3 1 71 o r wr it e f o r spec ifi c s to Dr. T. Vasilos (Chemical Engineering) Dr. John White (Nuclear Engineering) Graduate Coordinators One University Avenue Lowell MA 01854 339

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PhD/MS in Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA UNIVERSITY of NEW HAMPSHIRE Imagine an exciting education in a relaxed rural atmosphere. Imagine New Hampshire. We're located in the Seacoast region only an hour from the White Mountains to the north or from Boston to the south. Current research projects at UNH: MS and MEngr. in Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies PROGRAMS: Thesis and non-thesis options available fo r MS degree ; substantial design component required for M Engr. program. A full-time student with BSChE can complete program i n 9-12 months Students with degree in chemistry will require two calendar years to complete MS degree 340 BIOENGINEERING COAL PROCESSING COMPUTER APPLICATIONS ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING POLYMER ENGINEERING FLAME PROCESSING FLUIDIZATION SOLAR ENERGY SPACE APPLICATIONS For information contact Dr. SST Fan, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering University of New Hampshire Durham, NH 03824-3591 RESEARCH PROJECTS: Most funded research projects are energy related with the full spectrum of basic to applied projects available Students participate in project-related thesis problems as project participants. ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH CENTER: A cooperative program of study/research with research projects related to low rank coal conversion and utilization sponsored by U.S Department of Energy and pr i vate i ndustry i s available to a lim i ted number of students FOR INFORMATION WRITE TO Dr Thomas C. Owens Chair Chemical Engineering Department University of North Dakota Grand Forks North Dakota 58202 (701-777-4244) Acknowledgement CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION acl(nowCedges and than~ the 155 chemica{ engineering departments which contri6uted to our support in 1991 through their 6u{l(su6scriptions. 'We afso wish to than!( the 132 departments which have announced their graduate programs in this issue. Chemi c al Engine e ring Education

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AUTHOR GUIDELINES This guide is offered to aid authors in preparing manuscripts for Chemical Engineering Education (CEE), a quarterly journal published by the Chemical Engineering Division of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). CEE publishes papers in the broad field of chemical engineering education. Papers generally describe a course, a laboratory a ChE department, a ChE educator, a ChE curriculum, research program, machine computation, special instructional programs, or give views and opinions on various topics of interest to the profession. Specific suggestions on preparing papers. TITLE Use specific and informative titles. They should be as brief as possible, consistent with the need for defining the subject area covered by the paper. AUTHORSHIP Be consistent in authorship designation. Use first name second initial, and surname. Give complete mailing address of place where work was conducted. If current address is different, include it in a footnote on title page. TEXT Manuscripts of less than twelve double-spaced typewritten pages in length will be given priority over longer ones. Consult recent issues for general style. Assume your reader is not a novice in the field. Include only as much history as is needed to provide background for the particular material covered in your paper Sectionalize the article and insert brief appropriate headings. TABLES Avoid tables and graphs which involve duplication or superfluous data. If you can use a graph, do not include a table If the reader needs the table, omit the graph. Substitute a few typical results for lengthy tables when practical. Avoid computer printouts. NOMENCLATURE Follow nomenclature style of Chemical Abstracts; avoid trivial names. If trade names are used, define at point of first use. Trade names should carry an initial capital only, with no accompanying footnote. Use consistent units of measurement and give dimensions for all terms. Write all equations and formulas clearly, and number important equations consecu tively. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Include in acknowledgment only such credits as are essential LITERATURE CITED References should be numbered and listed on a separate sheet in the order occurring in the text. COPY REQUIREMENTS Send two legible copies of the typed (double-spaced) manuscript on standard letter-size paper. Clear duplicated copies are acceptable. Submit original drawings (or clear prints) of graphs and diagrams, and clear glossy prints of photographs. Prepare original drawings on tracing paper or high quality paper; use black india ink and a lettering set. Choose graph papers with blue cross-sectional lines; other colors interfere with good reproduction. Label ordinates and abscissas of graphs along the axes and outside the graph proper. Figure captions and legends may be set in type and need not be lettered on the drawings. Number all illustrations consecutively. Supply all captions and legends typed on a separate page.

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-...... Chemical Engineers ... Analy z e A Ca r e er Wi t h Th e N u m ber One O ppo rt un it y Co m pa ny As your students consider their futures suggest that they cons i der joining Procter & Gamble, where there are outstanding research and product development open i ngs for BS MS and Ph D. Chemical Engineers No other company can beat P&G's overall opportunity : Immediate mean i ngfu l respons i b ilit y w i t h thorough, customized on-the-job tra i n i ng and con t inuing educat i on opportunities Association w i th top techno l og i sts who know emplo y ee development is one of their major responsibilities. Promotion only from within based on the results achieved Highly competitive salaries and benefits among the very top in all of U S. industry. A heavy financial commitment to support our work This year P&G will spend over $780 million in research and product development, among the largest R&PD programs in all U.S industry. Wide recognition of P&G s super i or i ty by i ndustry surveys : Fortune Most Admired U.S. Corporat i ons ;" Forbes Most Innovat i ve Consumer Products Compa ny;" Computerworld Ten Best Places To Work ; Money Big Companies W i th Best Employee Benef i ts :" Black Enterprise "50 Best Places For B l acks To Work ;" Savvy Best Corporation For Success ..... Involvement across a w i de range of product catego ri es i ncluding beauty care. food and beverage h ea lt h care laundry and cleaning and paper products The challenge to part i c i pate i n the p r og r ess of t ec h no l og ic a l innovations that have produced more than 1 5 000 pate n ts currently i n force worldw i de and n ea rly 1 20 o f th e wo rl d s top consumer products U S techn i ca l centers i n Ba l t i mo r e MD ; C in c inn a ti, OH ; Memphis, TN ; Norw i ch NY ; and She lt o n, CT : and o v e r 20 techn i cal facilit i es i n other ma j or count ri es For more information on USA and i nternat i ona l open i ngs contact the placement off i ce or suggest that you r studen t s send their resumes to : ___,,,,,,. P&li T W Co lli ns The Procte r & Gamb l e Compa ny Winton H ill Techn i ca l Ce n te r 6090 Cente r H ill A v enue (#1 2CEE ) C i nc i nnat i, OH 452241 792 An Equa l Oppo rtunity Emp loy e r


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