Chemical engineering education

http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
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Material Information

Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
Classification:
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00112

Full Text









chemical e ieengeducatior



VOLUME XXV NUMB-ER- 4 FALL .91



RADUAT E-DUCTINISS"UE


Award Lecture *q

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Fall 1990
Austin, Beronio, Taso Biochemical Engineering Education
Through Videotapes
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Coulman ChE Curriculum, 1989
Frey Numerical Simulation of Multicomponent Chroma-
tography Using Spreadsheets
Fried Polymer Science and Engineering at Cincinnati

Fall 1989
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Kyle The Essence of Entropy
Rao Secrets of My Success in Graduate School

Fall 1988
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Glandt Topics in Random Media
Ng, Gonzalez, Hu Biochemical Engineering
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Duda Graduation: The Beginning of Your Education

Fall 1987
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Amundson Research Landmarks for Chemical Engineers
Duda Graduate Studies: The Middle Way
Jorne Chemical Engineering: A Crisis of Maturity
Stephanopoulis Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering
Venkatasubramanian A Course in Artificial Intelligence in
Process Engineering
Moo-Young Biochemical Engineering and Industrial Biotech-
nology
Babu, Sukanek The Processing of Electronic Materials
Datye, Smith, Williams Characterization of Porous Materials
and Powders
Blackmond A Workshop in Graduate Education

Fall 1985
Bailey, Ollis Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals
Belfort Separation and Recovery Processes
Graham, Jutan Teaching Time Series
Soong Polymer Processing
Van Zee Electrochemical and Corrosion Engineering
Radovic Coal Utilization and Conversion Processes
Shah, Hayhurst Molecular Sieve Technology
Bailie, Kono, Henry Fluidization
Kauffman Is Grad School Worth It?
Felder The Generic Quiz

Fall 1984
Lauffenburger, et al, Applied Mathematics
Marnell Graduate Plant Design
Scamehorn Colloid and Surface Science
Shah Heterogeneous Catalysis with Video-Based Seminars
Zygourakis Linear Algebra
Bartholomew, Hecker Research on Catalysis
Converse, et al. Bio-Chemical Conversion ofBiomass
Fair Separations Research
Edie Graduate Residency at Clemson
McConica Semiconductor Processing
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Fall 1983
Davis Numerical Methods and Modeling
Sawin, Reif Plasma Processing in Integrated Circuit Fabrica-
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Shaeiwitz Advanced Topics in Heat and Mass Transfer
Takoudis Chemical Reactor Design
Woods Surface Phenomena
Middleman Research on Cleaning Up in San Diego
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Wankat, Oreovicz Grad Student's Guide to Academic Job
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Bird Book Writing and ChE Education
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Fall 1991


(Editor's Note to Seniors ...


This is the 24th graduate education issue published by CEE. It is distributed to chemical engineering seniors interested
in and qualified for graduate school. We include articles on graduate courses and research at various universities, along
with departmental announcements on graduate programs. In order for you to obtain a broad idea of the nature of graduate
work, we encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue, but also those in previous issues. A list of the papers from
recent years follows. If you would like a copy of a previous fall issue, please write to CEE.
Ray W. Fahien, Editor
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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS:
Chemical Engineering Education
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
FAX 904-392-0861

EDITOR
Ray W. Fahien (904) 392-0857
ASSOCIATE EDITOR
T. J. Anderson (904) 392-2591
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PUBLICATIONS BOARD

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Fall 1991


Chemical Engineering Education


Volume XXV


Number 4


Fall 1991


AWARD LECTURE
218 Computing in Engineering Education: From There,
To Here, To Where?
Part 1. Computing
Brice Carnahan


FEATURES
176 A Graduate Course in Digital Computer Process
Control,
Pradeep B. Deshpande,
Peruvemba R. Krishnaswamy

186 Chemical Kinetics, Fluid Mechanics, and Heat
Transfer in the Fast Lane: The Unexpurgated Story
of a Long-Range Program of Research in
Combustion,
Stuart W. Churchill

198 Risk Reduction in the Chemical Engineering
Curriculum,
Marvin Fleischman

204 Research Opportunities in Ceramics Science and
Engineering,
Toivo Kodas, Jeffrey Brinker, Abhaya Datye,
Douglas Smith

210 An Introduction to Molecular Transport Phenomena,
Michael H. Peters

RANDOM THOUGHTS
196 Meet Your Students: 4. Jill and Perry
Richard M. Felder

181 Letter to the Editor
183, 225 Book Reviews
185 Division Activities

226 Index


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the
Chemical Engineering Division. American Society for Engineering Education and is edited at the
University of Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of
address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department. University of Florida, Gainesville,
FL 32611. Advertising material may be sent directly to E.O. Painter Printing Co., PO Box 877,
DeLeon Springs. FL 32130. Copyright 1991 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American
Society for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are
those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division, ASEE. which body assumes no
responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days of publication. Write
for information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and availability. POSTMASTER:
Send address changes to CEE. Chem. Engineering Dept., University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
32611.









classroom


A GRADUATE COURSE IN

DIGITAL COMPUTER PROCESS CONTROL


PRADEEP B. DESHPANDE AND
PERUVEMBA R. KRISHNASWAMY*
University ofLouisville
Louisville, KY 40292

C omputer-based control systems have become a
routine feature in the process industry. In order
to be competitive, today's students must be familiar
with the recent developments in control technologies
which are having a significant impact on how com-
plex industrial processes are operated. The first-
listed author of this paper began offering a course in
computer process control in 1975, based on the ma-
terial in the literature"10'30 at that time and his own
perspectives. In the ensuing years, however, the
course has been completely revised in light of the
new and significant developments in control tech-
nology.
This paper describes what we believe to be a
modern course in digital computer process control.
Whenever appropriate, recent developments are high-
lighted, and a detailed bibliography of the textbooks
and selected papers used in the course is included at
the end of the article for ready reference.

Pradeep B. Deshpande is professor and a former
chairman of the chemical engineering department
a the University of Louisville. He has twenty years
of academic and full-time industrial experience. He
is the author, co-author, or editor of three textbooks
and sixty papers. He consults for several compa-
nies and offers continuing education courses in
several countries.


9


P.R. Krishnaswamy received his BSc degree from
Banaras Hindu University (India) and his PhD de-
gree from the University of New Brunswick. His
teaching and research interests include process
dynamics, process control, separation operations,
and fluidization. He has recently shared experiences
in control research during a sabbatical at the Uni-
versity of Louisville and Purdue University.


* Visiting professor; permanent affiliation, Department of Chemical Engi-
neering, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore 0511


The goals of the course
are to learn how to design, analyze, and
implement direct-digital control systems for
single-loop and multivariable systems.


THE REVISED COURSE
An outline of the revised course in shown in
Table 1. For convenience, the course is divided into
three parts: Part 1 is devoted to introductory con-
cepts and the development of a mathematical back-
ground; Part 2 covers the analysis and design con-
cepts of SISO digital control systems; and Part 3 is
concerned with advanced control concepts.
PART 1
Introductory Concepts and Mathematical Background
The course begins with an introduction to digital
computer control. The essential features of conven-
tional control based on continuous or analog signals
and of digital control, which encompasses hybrid
(discrete/analog) signals, are outlined. The mean-
ings of direct-digital control (DDC), supervisory con-
trol, and distributed control are explained.
Much of the material in the course deals with
DDC concepts, and as a lead-in to the next series of
topics, the elements of a single-loop DDC system are
examined. We point out that the DDC-loop consists
of the usual elements of any control system-namely,
the process, a measurement-device transmitter, and
a final control element. In addition, a DDC system
has an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter that samples
measured process outputs at a sampling frequency
selected by a real-time programmable clock, a digi-
tal computer or digital controller, and a digital-to-
analog (D/A) converter that converts computer-gen-
erated discrete control commands into continuous
signals for operating the final control elements.
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE 1991


Chemical Engineering Education










The goals of the course are to learn how to de-
sign, analyze, and implement direct-digital control
systems for single-loop and multivariable systems.
It should be emphasized that the availability of con-
trol computers allows the designer to implement
control methodologies that are either impractical or
impossible with conventional control hardware.
Examples include dead-time compensation, feed-
forward control, synthesized digital control algo-
rithms, and model predictive control.

The sequence of lectures is devoted to the study
of each element of the DDC loop. The first among
them is concerned with computer-control hardware
and software. The hardware description includes the
central processing unit, the main memory/bulk
memory, the computer input/output (I/O) devices,
process I/O, the A/D and D/A converters, and a real-
time programmable clock. The software concepts
include an introduction to assembly-level program-
ming, real-time Fortran, and Basic. At the Univer-
sity of Louisville a PDP 11/03-system has served our


TABLE 1
Syllabus: Digital Computer Process Control Course


Topic
# Description


Time Devoted
(50-min. periods) Refei


PART 1: Introductory Concepts and Mathematical Background
1 Introduction to computer process control 1
2 Computer-control hardware and software 3
3 How to implement PID controllers with digital computers 2
4 Mathematical representation of A/D converter 1
5 z-transforms 4
6 Transfer function of D/A converter 1
7 Pulse transfer functions 1

PART 2: Analysis and Design of Digital Control Systems
8 Open-loop response, impulse-response models,
closed-loop responses 3
9 Design of digital-control algorithms; deadbeat-control
Dahlin algorithm; internal-model control factorizationn
method); Smith predictor; simplified-model predictive
control; conservative-model based control; PID control 6
10 Stability of sampled-data control systems 1

PART 3: Advanced Control Concepts
11 Process identification; step testing; pulse testing; dynamic
matrix identification; introduction to time-series
analysis 5
12 Practical nonlinear control 2
13 Adaptive control and self-tuning; auto-tuning; gain
scheduling; model reference adaptive control;
self-tuning regulators 2
14 Feedforward control 1
15 Cascade control 2
16 Multivariable control 7

TOTAL 42


control-computing needs for the last several years.
The Fortran callable subroutines for A/D, D/A, and
the real-time clock for this machine are used to ex-
plain how the real-time commands are embedded
into a Fortran control program.


'he next topic deals with single-loop PID control.
rpical industrial situations, fast loops (flow loops)
ate under digital PID-type control algorithms.
these lectures the instructor derives the digital
algorithm from conventional controller equa-
s that the students are familiar with and points
the role of the sampling period in stability and
brmance. At the end of the lectures the students
lop a computer program and implement digital
control on a four-loop laboratory process.o (Note
doing this work does not require a background
-transforms.) Being able to operate a process
er the control of a digital computer after only
e weeks of the semester has been an exciting ex-
ence for the students.
'he next topics to be covered are mathematical
representation of an A/D converter,
study of z-transforms, derivation
of a pulse-transfer function, and
the zero order hold transfer func-
tion. Then open-loop and closed-
rences loop pulse transfer functions are
derived, and open-loop and closed-
23 loop responses are evaluated by
0 hand and the answers verified by
CAI (Computer-Aided Instruction)
21, 23 software that has only recently
been developed. Information on this
, 7 CAI-control software can be found
in the references at the end of this
article.


25, 11, 7


7,8, 12, 26, 37, 21
7,25



12, 7,6, 36
32, 50, 30,31


28, 2, 59, 61,7
7, 12,21
7,12
7,8,12,46,53,17,
18,40,41
periods: one semester or
equivalent


PART
Design and Analysis of Digital-
Control Systems

The discussion of pulse-trans-
fer functions and open-loop re-
sponses leads us into an exciting
topic-the notion of an impulse re-
sponse (IR) model, which enables
us to predict the process output at
the next sampling instant from past
inputs through use of the equation


N
YK+1 = hi uK+-i
i=l


Fall 1991









Beginning with the definition of the pulse-trans-
fer function, G(z) = Y(z)/U(z), the instructor can eas-
ily derive Eq. (1), as shown for example in Desh-
pande and Ash.71- IR-type models have distinct ad-
vantages: they can be derived from easily-available
step response data; the response curve need not be
fitted to a structured model and the order of the
process is not important; and the use of an IR-type
model considerably simplifies the evaluation of closed-
loop responses by computer simulations.
The next topic is the design of digital-control al-
gorithms for SISO (Single-Input Single-Output) sys-
tems. While controllers can be designed by a number
of methods, we believe that the direct-synthesis
method is best suited for this course. The basic idea
is to solve the closed-loop pulse-transfer-function
equation for the controller, giving

D= Y/R 1 (2)
1-Y/R (

The closed-loop response is specified according to
the equation
S= FG, (3)
By selecting the desired expressions for F, sev-
eral well-known control algorithms can be obtained;
for example, the choice of F = 1 gives deadbeat con-
trol. Through use of the CAI software, students
quickly learn that deadbeat control can give rise to
rippling behavior of the controller output. Further-
more, deadbeat controllers are very sensitive to
modeling errors.
The choice of a first-order lag for F gives a Dahlin
algorithm. The instructor can easily show that a
Dahlin algorithm is the same as an internal-model-
control (IMC) algorithm if a first-order filter is em-
ployed in the latter. It would also be helpful to derive
the IMC structure from the sampled-data control
structure and show that the two representations are
equivalent. Once the IMC structure is derived, one
can go over the stability theorems and design IMC
controllers for a variety of processes-including those
that exhibit dead-time and inverse response.
In the discussion of IMC, the instructor can de-
rive the Smith Predictor algorithm and point out the
similarities between the two approaches. Also,
through simulation exercises, the instructor can show
that the latter does not tolerate modeling errors well
and that the tuning of the Smith Predictor-based
PID controllers becomes difficult in the presence of
modeling errors.
At one end of the spectrum of control equality


there is a notion of perfect control (deadbeat con-
trol). IMC is an algorithm that delivers perfect con-
trol in the absence of modeling errors. In the pres-
ence of modeling errors, however, the designer must
back away from the notion of perfect control in favor
of robustness, by choosing an appropriate filter.
At the other end of the spectrum of control qual-
ity there is the notion of open-loop control. Simpli-
fied model-predictive control (SMPC) and conserva-
tive model-based control (CMBC) are algorithms
which assume that at worst the controller should be
able to provide a set-point response that is as good
as the open-loop response. These algorithms are de-
rived as follows: the open-loop behavior of an open-
loop stable process is given by
Y_ 1 (4)
R K,
Substituting for Y/R from Eq. (4) into Eq. (2) gives

D=M (5)
E K G
The choice of Eq. (5) for the controller will deliver a
set-point response that is the same as the normal-
ized open-loop response. The response can be speeded
up by introducing a tuning-constant ax, giving the
SMPC algorithm
aK
D= P (6)
K -G
p
SMPC features a single-tuning constant that can be
found by offline optimization. Dead-time compensa-
tion can be incorporated by modifying Eq. (5) accord-
ing to A


where


D=-
K AG


A 1- pz (8)
1-P
Equation (7) represents the CMBC control law.
CMBC also features a single-tuning constant P whose
value can be found by offline simulation.
In the discussion of various control algorithms,
the students are reminded that the algorithms which
give the best servo responses are not necessarily the
ones that are best for regulatory control. Further-
more, the design work assumes that the processes
are linear, but in reality they are not. Consequently,
the algorithms that give the best performance in
simulation work may not be the best when they are
implemented on real-life nonlinear processes.
The next topic of discussion is stability. Stability
concepts relating to sampled-data systems can be
effectively derived by utilizing the relationship be-


Chemical Engineering Education









tween the Laplace transform operator s and the z-
transform operator z. The discussion of stability con-
cludes with a method for finding the roots of the
characteristic equation in the z-domain.

PART
Advanced Control Concepts
The next topic is process identification. The tra-
ditional methods which we cover are step testing,
pulse testing, and fitting of models to frequency-
response plots. An ideal method should identify proc-
ess dynamics from a test that does not force the
process away from the steady-state operating condi-
tion. One such method that meets these needs is the
relay method in which a relay perturbs the process
and the resulting process output/input data provide
the ultimate frequency and ultimate gain of the sys-
tem. These data lead to optimized tuning constants
of a PID-type controller.
Another method, called dynamic matrix identifi-
cation, calls for perturbing the process by a series of
up-and-down step changes in the input U(z) around
the steady state, given by the equation
U(z)-= U + U1z1 + U2z-2 + U3Z-3 (9)
Then, in the light of the impulse response model
Y(z) N
Y(z) = hz (10)
U(z) i=1
the output is given by
Y(z)= 0+ hlUoz-1 + (h2U0 + hU)z-2 +... (lla)

= 0 + Yzz- + Y2z-2 +... (lib)
Equations (lla) and (lib) show that the impulse
response coefficients can be computed from the ex-
perimental input and output data.
The last method covered which is suited to use in
a noisy environment is time-series analysis. In this
method the process is described in two parts: one
accounts for the model and the other is a noise term
that accomodates the effect of unmeasured load dis-
turbances. A PRBS (pseudo random binary sequence)
signal is applied to the process and the analysis of
the input-output data gives the model. Time con-
straints prevent an in-depth treatment of the the-
ory, but the software available (e.g., Matlab: see also
Reference 21) can be effectively used to illustrate the
method.
The next topic is practical nonlinear control. The
treatment is restricted to a conceptually simple prac-
tical method which appears to have considerable
Fall 1991


potential. It is well known that the closed-loop re-
sponse of many complex nonlinear SISO systems
can be described by a linear second-order transfer
function, given by


Y(s) r1s + r12
R(s) s2 +r1S+ 12
or, in the time domain
dY = nE+n 2JE dt
&I


(12)



(13)


where E = R Y.
The terms T1, and 12 determine the shape of the
response. Now, the nonlinear process is described by
a nonlinear differential equation of the form

dY f(yn, n Y, eAY, etc.)+U (14)
Equating Eqs. (13) and (14) gives the nonlinear con-
trol law
U=-f(Yn, nY,eAY,etc.)+Tl1E+l2 JEdt (15)
If the resulting control law turns out to have
undesirable properties, such as ringing or constraint
violations, then a minimization problem based on
the difference between actual and the desired values
of the derivative dY/dt is solved to derive the control
law. Note that this analysis of nonlinear control is
based on continuous-time systems. The system
equations would have to be discretized for use in a
digital-computer-based control system.
The next set of topics falls into the category of
what is commonly referred to as advanced control
concepts. The first topic to be covered is adaptive
control and self-tuning. Time limitations permit only
a brief introduction. The need for adaptive control
arises due to changing process characteristics. Auto-
tuning, gain scheduling, self-tuning regulators, and
model-reference adaptive control are examples to be
covered. The use of a relay to identify the ultimate
gain and ultimate period of a proportional controller
in auto-tuning has already been mentioned.
Feedforward and cascade control are the next
topics to be covered. Feedforward control is meant
to improve the response of feedback control systems
in the presence of disturbances in process loads,
while cascade control is meant to arrest the detri-
mental effect of disturbances in the manipulated
variable.
The final topic to be covered deals with multi-
variable control, which includes the topics of inter-
action analysis and variable pairing, multiloop con-
trol for modestly-interacting systems (including PID










controllers designed by the biggest log modulus tun-
ing method), multiloop IMC and CMBC/SMPC con-
trollers, explicit decoupling in conjunction with PID
controllers, reference systems decoupling, and multi-
variable model predictive control. Model predictive
control includes dynamic matrix control, model algo-
rithmic control, and predictive IMC.
Model predictive control techniques utilize step-
or impulse-response models of the process. These
models are used in conjunction with optimization
techniques to calculate controller outputs. It should
be emphasized that complex multivariable processes
must invariably be operated in the vicinity of con-
straints. Therefore, students must have familiarity
with some methods, such as linear and quadratic
programming for solving constrained multivariable
optimization problems and how they are used in
conjunction with model predictive control. Simula-
tion examples can be used to illustrate the concepts.
This concludes the course. The first-listed author
offers the course regularly at the University of Lou-
isville and as an intensive short course for industry
in the U.S., Europe, Kuwait, and India. The reac-
tions of the participants have always been favorable.

NOMENCLATURE
D = digital controller
E = error
F = filter
= model transfer function
G. = nonminimum phase element
h = impulse response coefficient
i = sampling instant
K = process steady-state gain
M = controller output
N = number of sampling periods in open-loop
settling time
R = set-point
s = Laplace transform operator
t = time
U = process input
Y = process output
z = transform operator
Greek
rir12 = PID-type tuning constants
a,P = tuning constants

REFERENCES
Books
1. Anderson, B.D.O., and L. Ljung (Eds.), Automatica: Spe-
cial Issue on Adaptive Control, September (1984)


2. Astrom, K.J., and T. Hagglund, Automatic Tuning of PID
Regulators, ISA (1988)
3. Astrom, K.J., and B. Wittenmark, Computer Controlled
Systems, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1984)
4. Balchen, J.G., and K.I. Mummd, Process Control: Structure
and Applications, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York,
NY (1988)
5. Belanger, P.R., "A Review of Some Adaptive Control Schemes
for Process Control," in Chemical Process Control 2, T.F.
Edgar and D.E. Seborg (Eds.), Engineering Found., New
York, NY, 269 (1982)
6. Box, G.E.P., and G.M. Jenkins, Time Series Analysis Fore-
casting and Control, Holden-Day Publishers, Oakland, CA
(1976)
7. Deshpande, P.B., and R.H. Ash, Computer Process Control
with Advanced Control Applications, ISA (1988)
8. Deshpande, P.B., Multivariable Process Control, ISA (1989)
9. Joseph, B., Real-Time Personal Computing for Data Acqui-
sition and Control, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs,
NJ (1989)
10. Kane, L., Ed., Handbook of Advanced Process Control Sys-
tems and Instrumentation, Gulf Publishing Co., Houston,
TX, 346 (1987)
11. Kuo, B.C.,Analysis and Synthesis of Sampled-Data Control
Systems, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1963)
12. Luyben, W.L., Process Modeling, Simulation, and Control
for Chemical Engineers, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1990)
13. McAvoy, T.J., Interaction Analysis-Principles and Appli-
cations, ISA (1983)
14. Mehra, R.K., and S. Mahmood, "Model Algorithmic Con-
trol," in P.B. Deshpande, Distillation Dynamics and Con-
trol, ISA (1985)
15. Morari, M., and E. Zafiriou, Robust Process Control, Pren-
tice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1989)
16. Newell, R.B., and P.L. Lee, Applied Process Control-A
Case Study, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1989)
17. Prett, D.M., and M. Morari, Shell Process Control Work-
shop, Butterworth Publishers, Stoneham, MA (1987)
18. Prett, D.M., C.E. Garcia, and B.L. Ramaker, The Second
Shell Process Control Workshop, Butterworth Publishers,
Stoneham, MA (1990)
19. Ray, W.H., Advanced Process Control, McGraw Hill, New
York, NY (1981)
20. Roffel, B., and P. Chin, Computer Control in the Process
Industries, Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, MI (1987)
21. Seborg, D.E., T.F. Edgar, and D.A. Mellichamp, Process
Dynamics and Control, John Wiley and Sons, New York,
NY (1989)
22. Stephanopoulos, G., Chemical Process Control: An Intro-
duction to Theory and Practice, Prentice-Hall Inc., Engle-
wood Cliffs, NJ (1984)
23. Shinskey, F.G., Process Control Systems: Application, De-
sign, and Adjustment, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York,
NY (1988)
24. Smith, C.A., and A.B. Corripio, Principles and Practice of
Automatic Process Control, John Wiley & Sons, New York,
NY (1985)
25. Tou, J.T., Digital and Sampled-Data Control Systems,
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, NY (1959)

Journal Articles
26. Arulalan, G.R., and P.B. Deshpande, I&EC Research, 26,
347(1987)
27. Arulalan, G.R., and P.B. Deshpande, Hydrocar. Proc., 65(6),
51(1986)
28. Astrom, K.J., Automatica, 19, 471 (1983)


Chemical Engineering Education










30. Bartee, J.F., K.F. Bloss, and C. Georgakis, paper pre-
sented at the AIChE Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA
(1989)
31. Bartusiak, R.D., C. Georgakis, and M.J. Reilly, paper pre-
sented at the American Control Conferences, Atlanta, GA
(1988)
32. Boye, J.A., and W.L. Brogran, Int. J. Control, 44(5), 1209
(1986)
33. Chawla, V.K, and P.B. Deshpande, Hydrocarbon Process-
ing, 68, 59, October (1989)
34. Chien, I.L., D.A. Mellichamp, and D.E. Seborg, American
Control Conference, San Francisco, CA (1983)
35. Corripio, A.B., Chem. Eng. Ed., 8, Fall (1974)
36. Cutler, C.R., and S. Finlayson, ACC, Atlanta, GA, June
(1988)
37. Daoutidis, P., and C. Kravaris, AIChE J., 35, 1602 (1989)
38. Economou, C.G., and M. Morari, I&EC Proc. Des. Dev., 25,
411(1986)
39. Economou, C.G., M. Morari, and B.O. Palsson, I&EC Proc.
Des. Dev., 25,403 (1986)
40. Garcia, C.E., and M. Morari, I&EC Proc. Des. Dev., 24,
472(1985a)
41. Garcia, C.E., and M. Morari, I&EC Proc. Des. Dev., 24,
484(1985b)
42. Gokhale, N.D., N.V. Shukla, P.B. Deshpande, and P.R.
Krishnaswamy, Hydrocarbon Processing, April (1991)
43. Hallager, L., and S.B. Jorgensen, IFAC Workshop Adap-
tive Sys. Con., San Francisco, CA (1983)
44. Jensen, N., D.G. Fisher, and S.L. Shah, AIChE J., 32, 959
(1986)
45. Kravaris, C., and C.B. Chung, AIChE J., 33, 592 (1987)
46. Krishnaswamy, P.R., N.V. Shukla, P.B. Deshpande, and
M.N. Amrouni, Chem. Eng. Sci., 30,4 (1991)
47. Kulkarni, B.D., S.S. Tambe, N.V. Shukla, and P.B. Desh-
pande, Chem. Eng. Sci., 46,4 (1991)
48. Lau, H., J. Alvarez, and K.F. Jensen, AIChE J., 31, 427
(1985)
49. Lee, P.L., and G.R. Sullivan, presented at IFAC Workshop
on Model Based Process Control, Atlanta, GA, June (1988a)
50. Lee, P.L., and G.R. Sullivan, Computers & Chem. Eng., 12,
573 (1988b)
51. Luecke, R.H., and H.Y. Lin, Chem. Eng. Ed., 20, Spring
(1986)
52. Luyben, W.L., I&EC Proc. Des. Dev., 25, 654 (1986)
53. Luyben, W.L., AIChE J., 16 2; Computers & Chem Eng.,
12, 573 (1970)
54. Mijares, G., J.D. Cole, N.W. Naugle, H.A. Preisig, and
C.D. Holland, AIChE J., 32, 1439 (1986)
55. Moore, C.F. Chem. Eng. Ed., 7, Fall (1973)
56. Parrish, J.R., and C.B. Brosilow, AIChE J., 34,633 (1988)
57. Prasad, P.R., V.K. Chawla, and P.B. Deshpande, I&EC
Res., 29, 1 (1990)
58. Seborg, D.E., T.F. Edgar, and S.L. Shah, AIChE J., 32,
881(1986)
59. Seborg, D.W., IFAC Preprints, Munich, West Germany,
July 27-31 (1987)
60. Wright, R., and C. Kravaris, paper presented at the Ameri-
can Control Conference, Pittsburgh, PA (1989)
61. Wittenmark, B., and K.J. Astrom, Automatica, 20, 595
(1984)
62. Yu, C.C., and W.L. Luyben, I&EC Proc. Des. Dev., 25,498
(1986)

CAI Software in Process Control
63. Arulalan, G.R., Sanjay Kumar, and P.B. Deshpande, "CAI
in Advanced Process Control," CACHE News, 26, Fall


Fall 1991


(1988)
64. Edgar, T.F., "Software for Undergraduate and Graduate
Process Control," CACHE News, 26, Spring (1990)
65. Frederick, D.K., and M. Rimvall, Eds., "ELCS: The Ex-
tended List of Control Software," U.S. Edition No. 4,
CACHE Corporation, Austin, TX, December (1987)
66. Seborg, D.E. T.F. Edgar, and D.A. Mellichamp, Process
Dynamics and Control, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 701 (1989)
(Listing of Control Software) D


to the editor


THE ACADEMIC ELITE IN CHE


Dear Editor:

A ranking of the most highly regarded doctoral
programs in chemical engineering was presented in
the November 1983 edition of Changing Times."'
This ranking was based on a study published by the
National Academy of Sciences.12' For the ranking re-
ported by Changing Times two key measures of repu-
tation from the National Academy study were com-
bined: 1) "faculty quality" assessed how chemical
engineering professors around the country rated their
peers in the same discipline, and 2) "program qual-
ity" assessed how well the faculty thought each pro-
gram educated research scholars and scientists.
Changing Times combined these two measures and
derived a ranking of the top ten percent of the pro-
grams in chemical engineering. If one goes by the
assumptions of the Changing Times article, the eight
schools with the highest combined scores represented
the "academic elite" in chemical engineering-the
"best" programs in the country.
Given the subjective nature of the evaluation
process which produced the National Academy rat-
ings, I decided to examine the composition of the
faculties of the top eight schools. I suspected that
these departments would be substantially linked to
one another through the hiring of one another's
graduates, hence enhancing one another's reputa-
tions. I also expected that among the academic elite
there would be a high degree of academic "inbreed-
ing"-the hiring of graduates from one's own pro-
gram.[3'
I used the American Chemical Society Directory
of Graduate Research 1989 to examine the full-time
faculties of the eight highest-ranked chemical engi-
neering departments. An item of primary interest
was where the full-time faculty members at these
institutions had received their doctoral degrees. It
181


=H letter










soon became obvious that there were numerous in-
terrelationships among the departments in terms of
where the faculty had received their doctoral de-
grees.
The following table lists the top-ranked depart-
ments and indicates the percentages of full-time fac-
ulty who received their doctoral degrees from one of
the "elite" departments on the list (which includes
those who received their degrees from the same de-
partments where they are currently on the faculty).


Rank Program


1 Minnesota
2 Wisconsin
3 Cal-Berkeley
3 Caltech
4 Stanford
5 Delaware
6 M.I.T.
7 Illinois, Urbana
TOTALS


Percentage Number
N Elite' Own2 Produced3

32 50.0 0.0 13
20 65.0 15.0 13
21 71.4 19.0 17
8 75.0 0.0 6
8 62.5 12.5 7
19 52.6 5.3 6
33 69.7 42.4 31
12 75.0 0.0 4
153 97


SPercentage of faculty who received PhDs from one of the eight top-ranked
programs.
2 Percentage of faculty who received PhD.s from the program in which they are now
employed.
SNumber of PhD recipients from the programs who were on the faculty of one of the
top-ranked programs in 1989.

As can be seen in the table, in all of the top-
ranked departments a substantial proportion of the
faculty received PhDs from one of the "academic
elite." The California Institute of Technology and
the University of Illinois had the highest percent-
ages of degree holders from the top-ranked depart-
ments (75.0%), and the University of Minnesota had
the lowest (50.0%). At most of the schools, anywhere
from one-half to three-quarters of the faculty gradu-
ated from one of the prestigious programs.
The table also addresses academic inbreeding
among the top-ranked chemical engineering pro-
grams. Berelson141 and Caplow and McGee561 have
demonstrated that a high degree of inbreeding among
elite schools is not accidental. According to both stud-
ies, if elite programs are to maintain their prestige,
they cannot hire a large number of PhDs from lower-
ranked departments, and this would include PhDs
from upwardly mobile "middlemen" programs where
elite credentials have yet to be established. In his
study of sociology departments, Gross161 found that
the higher the prestige of a department, the greater
the proportion of "home-grown" graduate faculty.
With some modifications, Shichor's study[71 confirmed


Gross' findings. Shichor found the relationship be-
tween departmental inbreeding and the prestige of a
department to be curvilinear, with the highest and
lowest ranking departments having the highest rates
of inbreeding while mid-level departments were found
to have the lowest rates.
As can be seen from the table, in 1989 the school
with the largest percentage of its own graduates on
its full-time chemical engineering faculty was Mas-
sachusetts Institute of Technology (42.4%). The Uni-
versity of Minnesota, California Institute of Tech-
nology, and the University of Illinois had not hired
any of their own graduates.
The table also presents the number of PhDs pro-
duced from each department who were full-time fac-
ulty members of one of the elite departments in
1989. MIT had thirty-one of its graduates in faculty
positions at the elite departments, and Berkeley was
next with seventeen. Illinois had the least with four.
I think that graduate departments in chemical
engineering (or in any discipline) must rely to a
large extent upon their reputations in order to at-
tract highly qualified faculty and graduate students
to participate in their programs. The eight chemical
engineering graduate programs that were top-ranked
in the 1981 National Academy study are undoubt-
edly strong programs. I certainly do not wish to
argue that they are not. However, the data suggest
that a number of subjective factors influence the
procedure by which academic departments are
ranked. Primarily, I contend that a rather small
group of institutions (eight in this instance) tend,
consciously or unconsciously, to enhance one an-
other's reputations by hiring one another's gradu-
ates.
The Changing Times article used two measures
of reputation in order to establish its list of the
"best" graduate departments: how professors rated
their peers in the same discipline, and how well the
faculty thought each program educated research
scholars and scientists. These criteria are vitally
linked; when elite faculty are asked to rate their
peers at other schools, they are (to a large extent)
rating their former professors or students. There are
a total of 153 full-time faculty in the chemical engi-
neering elite, and 97 of them (63.4%) graduated from
one of these distinguished programs. Clearly, it is in
their best interest to rank their alma maters highly.
The remarkable stability in the ranking of elite
programs over the last few decades suggests that
not only do elite faculty rate their own programs
highly, but so also do large numbers of faculty from


Chemical Engineering Education










less prestigious programs. Several factors may ex-
plain this phenomenon. On the one hand, the data
suggest that the consistently high rankings of elite
programs are due to the large number of graduates
that those very same programs put into the disci-
pline each year. While they place some graduates in
other elite schools, most descend into mid-level
schools or less renowned institutions where they
continue to subjectively rank their alma maters as
the very best. The high number of elite school gradu-
ates at all levels also seems to enable them to play a
disproportionate role in shaping opinion within the
discipline.
There is another way of explaining the relative
stability in the ranking of elite programs over time.
Obviously, there are not enough faculty from elite
schools at middle and lower level programs for them
to maintain the high ranking of their alma maters
without some support from their non-elite colleagues.
Tradition may be a partial explanation for the non-
elite's acceptance of their inferior status. Elite schools
have been accorded high esteem for decades, and
these traditions typically have gone unchallenged.
A more likely explanation, however, is that the
non-elite, in a classic example of Marxian false con-
sciousness, E' have adopted their elite peers' assess-
ment that the letters' programs and faculties are
superior. Buttressed by only a few subjective gov-
ernment surveys and contact with a handful of indi-
viduals from elite programs, the non-elite have not
only accepted but also even promoted the notion that
elite graduate programs are deserving of high es-
teem, whereas others, including their own, are not.
Ultimately, I think it should be asked: Are the
eight highest-ranked programs indeed the best PhD
programs in chemical engineering, or do they com-
prise an "academic elite" with a large number of
faculty members in the discipline and an obvious
interest in perpetuating the present ranking sys-
tem? I believe that data suggest that the latter is
true.
Two final comments seem in order. First, I con-
tend that because of their subjectivity, current rank-
ing systems are a detriment to the discipline. They
may impede professional mobility, reward status over
achievement, and result in programs of lesser re-
nown being bypassed, even though they may merit
as high or higher recognition than do those of the
elite. Second, I believe that current, subjective rank-
ing systems incorporate serious distortions and mis-
representations. Because they have the potential to
do as much harm as good, I recommend that as they


are presently constituted, subjective systems of de-
partmental ranking should be routinely ignored.
Jeffrey H. Bair
Emporia State University
Emporia, KS 66801
1. Changing Times, p. 64-67, November (1983)
2. Jones, L.V., G. Lindzey, and P.E. Coggeshall, An Assessment
of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Engi-
neering, National Academy Press, Washington, DC (1982)
3. Bair, J.H., W.E. Thompson, and J.V. Hickey, Curr. Anthro-
pol.,27, 410 (1986)
4. Berelson, B., Graduate Education in the United States,
McGraw-Hill, New York (1960)
5. Caplow, T., and R.J. McGee, The Academic Marketplace,
Anchor-Doubleday, New York (1965)
6. Gross, G.R.,Am. Sociologist, 5, 25-29 (1970)
7. Schichor, D.,Am. Sociologist, 5, 157-160 (1970)
8. Marx, K., and F. Engel, The German Ideology, International
Publishers, New York (1967) O


book review

CHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING
THERMODYNAMICS
Second Edition
by Stanley I. Sandler; John Wiley & Sons, New York;
622 pages and 5-1/4" diskette, $59.95 (1989)

Reviewed by
J.P. O'Connell, D.J. Kirwan
University of Virginia

This is the second edition of a text for under-
graduate chemical engineers. As the author's pref-
ace points out, the objectives of both editions are the
same: 1) to develop a course relevant to other parts
of the curriculum, such as separations, reactors, and
design, and 2) to present sufficient detail in a way
that leads to good understanding and proficiency of
application.
Distinctive treatments of the first edition included
introduction of the mass, first, and second law bal-
ance equations in the same way (this may demystify
entropy for some students). Also, treatment of the
variety of phase equilibrium situations among sol-
ids, liquids, and vapors is more complete and more
categorized than in other texts.
The major change from the first edition is the
inclusion of BASIC programs for calculating 1)
thermodynamic properties and VLE for pure and for
multicomponent systems from a cubic EOS, 2) low-
pressure VLE from activity coefficients from group
contributions, and 3) equilibrium constants and stan-
Continued on page 195.


Fall 1991











The first textbook to present catalysis in a

AMALYTic coherent, unified manner!

HEMISTRY CATALYTIC CHEMISTRY
Bruce C. Gates, University of Delaware
51761-5, 432 pp., 1992

Gathering catalysis material from the fields of chemical
reaction engineering, chemical engineering, kinetics,
organometallic chemistry, and physical chemistry, this
unique text presents the first unified, easy-to-teach treatment
of catalytic chemistry. This exciting new text:
*Demonstrates to students that the fragments to which they have been exposed in other
courses constitute a large, important, challenging and opportunity-rich subject.
*Includes an outline of the subject with examples, problems and solutions. Instructors
can emphasize and build on specific subject areas.
*Is full of practical knowledge and can be used by both scientists and engineers working
in the discipline, including researchers and industry experts.
A Solutions Manual (54588-0) with Answers and Solutions to most problems is available
upon adoption.


Other Titles of Interest

Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Fourth Edition
Robert W. Fox, Purdue University
Alan T. McDonald, Purdue University
54852-9, 704 pp., 1992
Chemical Reactor Analysis & Design,
Second Edition
G. F. Froment, Rijks Universiteit- Gent, Belgium
Kenneth Bischoff, University of Delaware
51044-0, 733 pp., 1990
Fundamentals of Heat & Mass Transfer,
Third Edition
61246-4, 992 pp., 1990
Introduction to Heat Transfer, Second Edition
Frank Incropera, Purdue University
David P. Incropera, Purdue University
61247-2, 896 pp., 1990
Process Dynamics & Control
David E. Seborg, University of California, Santa Barbara
Thomas F. Edgar, University of Texas, Austin
Duncan A. Mellichamp, University of California,
Santa Barbara
86389-0, 714 pp., 1989
Computer Applications for Engineers
Thomas K. Jewell, Union College
60117-9, 800 pp., 1991


Other Best Sellers...


Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics
Munson/Young/Okiishi,
85526-X, 843 pp., 1990
Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes,
Second Edition, Felder/Rousseau
87324-1, 668 pp., 1986
Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics,
Second Edition with Disk, Sandler
83050-X, 622 pp., 1989
Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics
Moran/Shapiro,
89576-8, 707 pp., 1988
Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics,
Third Edition, English/SI Version
Van Wylen/Sonntag,
86173-1, 749 pp., 1986

For more information, contact your local Wiley
Representative, or write to:


Susan Elbe, Dept. 2-0148
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
605 Third Avenue
New York, New York 10158
WIILE


2-0148









Chemical

Engineering

Division

Activities


TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL LECTURESHIP A WARD
TO DARSH WASAN
The 1991 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division
Lecturer is Darsh Wasan of the Illinois Institute of
Technology. The purpose of this award is to recog-
nize and encourage outstanding achievement in an
important field of fundamental chemical engineer-
ing theory or practice. The 3M Company provides
the financial support for this award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engi-
neering educator who delivers the annual lecture of
the Chemical Engineering Division, the award con-
sists of $1,000 and an engraved certificate. These
were presented to Dr. Wasan at the banquet during
the ASEE annual meeting in New Orleans, Louisi-
ana, on June 8, 1991.
Dr. Wasan's lecture was entitled "Interfacial
Transport Processes and Rheology." It will be pub-
lished in a forthcoming issue of CEE.
The award is made on an annual basis, with
nominations being received through February 1,
1992. Your nominations for the 1992 lectureship are
invited.
AWARD WINNERS
George Burnet (Iowa State University) was the
recipient of the highest Society award for service to
education in engineering, engineering technology,
and allied fields, the W. Leighton Collins Award. It
is given for highly significant individual contribu-
tions to the profession.
The Senior Research Award was presented to
Robert S. Schechter (The University of Texas at
Austin). This award recognizes and honors individu-
als who have made significant contributions to engi-
neering research.
The sixth annual Corcoran Award, recognizing
the most outstanding paper published in CEE in
1990, was presented to coauthors John M.
Prausnitz and Davor P. Sutija (University of Cali-
fornia, Berkeley) for their article "Chemical Engi-
neering in the Spectrum of Knowledge."


SHAPING OUR WORLD CENTURY II

S


The Joseph H. Martin Award was presented to
Richard C. Bailie (West Virginia University)
for the best paper presented at the annual ASEE
meeting.
The division presented its DELOS Distinguished
Service Award to Klaus D. Timmerhaus (Univer-
sity of Colorado) in recognition of his many contribu-
tions to the profession.
Peter K. Kilpatrick (North Carolina State Uni-
versity) received an AT&T Foundation Award which
recognizes and honors outstanding teachers of engi-
neering students, while Anthony N. Beris (Univer-
sity of Delaware) and Jeffrey A. Hubbell (The Uni-
versity of Texas at Austin) both were recognized as
Dow Outstanding Young Faculty.
NEW PUBLICATIONS BOARD MEMBERS
The Publications Board of CEE has been reor-
ganized and now includes the following members in
addition to its Chairman E. Dendy Sloan, and its
Past Chairmen, Gary Poehlein and Klaus Tim-
merhaus: George Burnet (Iowa State University),
Anthony T. DiBenedetto (University of Connecti-
cut), Thomas F. Edgar (University of Texas at
Austin), Richard M. Felder (North Carolina State
University), Bruce A. Finlayson (University of
Washington), H. Scott Fogler (University of Michi-
gan), J. David Hellums (Rice University), Carol
M. McConica (Colorado State University), Angelo
J. Perna (NJIT), Stanley I. Sandler (University of
Delaware), Richard C. Seagrave (Iowa State Uni-
versity), M. Sami Selim (Colorado School of Mines),
James E. Stice (University of Texas at Austin),
Phillip C. Wankat (Purdue University), and
Donald R. Woods (McMaster University).
NEW DIVISION OFFICERS
The Chemical Engineering Division officers for
the 1991-1992 term include: Past Chairman, Tom
Hanley; Chairman, Timothy J. Anderson; Secre-
tary-Treasurer, William L. Conger. (Chairman-
Elect and Directors had not been named at the time
this issue of CEE went to press.)


Fall 1991













CHEMICAL KINETICS, FLUID MECHANICS,

AND HEAT TRANSFER IN THE FAST LANE

The Unexpurgated Story of a Long-Range Program of

Research in Combustion


STUART W. CHURCHILL
The University ofPennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6393

The presentation of experimental and theoretical
findings in a journal usually implies that the
path of the investigation of which they are the cul-
mination was well-planned and straightforward.
Such is rarely the case, however, particularly with
exploratory research for which unanticipated results
are the justification and the reward. Indeed, the
most useful results are often the consequence of a
deviation from the original objective in order to ex-
plain, resolve, or explore an apparent anomaly. Most
discoveries and innovations so arise.
This paper utilizes the history of a long-term (40-
year) investigation of combustion inside tubes to
illustrate the true, unvarnished path of exploratory
research with all of its turnings, windfalls, misdirec-
tions, triumphs, and disasters. The primary objec-
tive of this recounting is to persuade doctoral stu-
dents (and perhaps their advisors) that the anoma-
lies observed in experiments or in comparing experi-
ments and theoretical solutions are not to be ig-
nored, hidden, or deplored, but rather should be
taken as a signal of possibly important unknown be-
havior that may actually justify a diversion in, an
addition to, or even a complete redirection of the
research. A second, related objective is to demon-
strate the helpful (and indeed, essential) role of theo-
retical modeling in explaining experimental results
and, particularly, anomalies.


Stuart W. Churchill is the Carl V.S. Patterson Pro-
fessor Emeritus at the University of Pennsylvania
where he has been since 1967. His BSE degrees (in
ChE and Math), MSE, and PhD were obtained at the
University of Michigan where he also taught from
1950-1967. His research has encompassed many
aspects of heat transfer as well as combustion. He is
currently completing a textbook on turbulent flows.


ACOUSTICALLY RESONANT COMBUSTION
The research program that supported me as a
graduate student involved the ignition of solid pro-
pellants by a stream of gas at high temperature. We
rationalized that a mixture of 02 and inert gases was
equivalent in that respect to the products of combus-
tion of a primer. My curiosity was provoked and
unsatisfied as to the possible effects of combustion
itself on heat transfer, and sometime thereafter I
persuaded Donald W. Sundstrom to investigate this
subject for his doctoral research. Supported equip-
ment-wise by an unrestricted grant from the Esso
Engineering and Research Company, we chose a
geometry unrelated to the ignition of propellants but
of more general interest-namely heat transfer from
a flame of premixed air and propane stabilized on a
central bluff body inside a 25.4-mm-ID stainless-
steel tube. The choice of combustion inside a tube,
which was arbitrary on our part and at that time
relatively unexplored, proved to be serendipitous not
only in terms of the immediate results, but also in
precursing the entire subsequent chain of events
described herein.
Although acoustic resonance was not anticipated
to be a significant factor, Sundstrom observed a cor-
relation between the local rate of heat transfer and
the aurally-sensed amplitude of the noise generated
by the flame, and he promptly acquired the appro-
priate instrumentation for characterization of the
latter. The local rate of heat transfer was found to
depend primarily on the pattern of flow generated
by the combustion, but that pattern was found in
turn to be influenced strongly by the flame-gener-
ated acoustics.1" The latter were rationalized to be
initiated by the periodic shedding and combustion of
the vortices generated by the flameholder, and to be
enhanced by the resulting resonant oscillations in
pressure. Theoretical calculations indicated that the
frequency of the oscillations corresponded to the lon-
O Copyright ChE Division, ASEE 1991
Chemical Engineering Education










A study of the literature on flame-generated oscillations suggested that the "screeching" combustion
associated with jet engines might have a similar cause, but be due to tangential
rather than longitudinal oscillations. Sundstrom was unable to
produce screeching combustion in his apparatus...


gitudinal (organ-pipe) mode. This identification and
pursuit of an unexpected aspect of behavior by an
alert, motivated student was an important, if not
essential, element of the entire ensuing program of
research.
A study of the literature on flame-generated os-
cillations suggested that the "screeching" combus-
tion associated with jet engines might have a similar
cause, but be due to tangential rather than longitu-
dinal oscillations. Sundstrom was unable to produce
screeching combustion in his apparatus, but Wil-
liam N. Zartman, the following student, determined
from crude, preliminary experiments with a flame
stabilized on a bluff body inside plain, uninstru-
mented and uncooled pipes of various sizes, that
screeching combustion could be made to occur for
pipe diameters greater than 100 mm. Hence, stain-
less-steel pipe with a diameter of 127 mm was cho-
sen for his doctoral research. Amplitudes of as great
as 160 db at a frequency of 4125 Hz were attained.
The research itself documented a linear increase
in the local heat-transfer coefficient within the tube
with the amplitude of the resonant oscillations, and
indicated that these oscillations could be dampened
by the installation of 1/4-wavelength tubes radially
at the theoretically-identified nodes.[21 The work of
Zartman was distinguished in character by his use
of inexpensive and brief preliminary experiments to
choose the conditions for detailed study and by the
use of theoretical analysis not only to explain but
also to develop a method for controlling the experi-
mentally-observed behavior.

A PRELIMINARY MODEL FOR
THERMALLY STABILIZED COMBUSTION
In order to eliminate the source of the acoustic
resonance, rather than just dampen it, I speculated
on the possibility of stabilization without backmix-
ing. I thereupon persuaded two students to attempt
to model (as a term project in a seminar-type course)
the stabilization of a flame inside a ceramic channel
by thermal feedback only. One of them, Ward O.
Winer, concluded from a very idealized model based
on the postulates of plug flow with perfect radial
mixing, an infinite rate of combustion following the
attainment of an arbitrary temperature of ignition,
and a tube of infinite length with an emissivity of
Fall 1991


unity and a negligible conductivity, that a flame
could be stabilized within the channel by wall-to-
wall radiation only.

THERMAL STABILIZATION IN A CERAMIC TUBE
The promising (if somewhat hypothetical) result
of Winer gave me the courage to persuade Thomas
D. Bath to undertake experimental research on ra-
diative stabilization in a ceramic tube for his doctor-
ate. Bath succeeded in establishing a flame from
premixed propane vapor and air inside a 25.4-mm
ceramic tube, but (as contrasted with the experi-
ments of Sundstrom and Zartman) the temperature
of the wall approached that of the flame. As a conse-
quence, every tube cracked during the process of
startup, raising the spectre that the stabilization
might be due to recirculation downstream from the
crack. We were disappointed that the flame fluctu-
ated and was somewhat noisy, but concluded this
behavior might also be attributable to the cracks.
Because of the poor definition of the conditions in-
side the tube, we chose not to publish these results
in the archival literature.
THERMAL STABILIZATION IN A CERAMIC BLOCK
As a consequence of such a discouraging experi-
ence, I might not have resumed research on ther-
mally-stabilized combustion at the University of
Pennsylvania (where I had now relocated) had I not
discovered, as a consultant to the Marathon Oil
Company, that the ceramic Wulff furnace elements
used by them for the thermal cracking of methane
would withstand (because of their considerable po-
rosity) temperatures and temperature gradients as
high as those encountered in the experiments of
Bath. Marathon graciously donated several elements
for our research. These consisted of 254-mm-long
blocks perforated by round 9.52-mm holes in a trian-
gular array. Cementing three such elements together
produced a burner with seven channels. The central
one was used for the measurements, and the outer
six functioned as guard heaters.
With this promising device in hand, I persuaded
Joseph L.-P. Chen to undertake as his doctoral re-
search a continuation of the work begun by Bath.
Considerable patience and ingenuity were required
to establish a stationary flame in this ceramic block
the first time; without the confidence generated by









the idealized theoretical solution of Winer and the
experiments of Bath with tubes, we might not have
persisted through the many failures. Once we learned
how, establishing a stationary flame became routine
(if time-consuming), and Chen determined by tedi-
ous trial and error the limits of flow for a stable
flame of premixed propane and air within the block.
For all of these conditions, the process of combustion
was noticeably clean, quiet, and non-fluctuating as
compared to conventional processes, all of which
involve backmixing-by diffusion in laminar flames,
by recirculation in bluff-body-stabilized flames, and
by turbulent fluctuations in jet-mixed flames.
Following this phase of the work, Chen decided
to investigate the dependence of the range of stable
flames on the diameter of the channels by cementing
in ceramic liners with an ID of 4.76 mm. Although
combustion could be established in these smaller
channels, the flame was (to our surprise and disap-
pointment) diffuse and oscillatory. This difference in
behavior was clearly associated with the regime of
flow upstream from the flamefront, being laminar in
the 4.76-mm channels and barely turbulent in the
9.52-mm ones.
In retrospect we were lucky. If the original chan-
nels in the Wulff furnace elements had been 8 mm or
less in diameter, we might have abandoned this line
of research as uninteresting owing to the relatively
poor combustion which occurs in the laminar re-
gime. Instead, because of the clean-cut behavior ob-
served in the 9.52-mm channels, we realized that we
had discovered a new and promising process of com-
bustion.131 Even so, we did not yet even begin to
appreciate all of its unique characteristics.

MODELING OF THERMALLY STABILIZED
COMBUSTION
Despite the above-mentioned accomplishments, I
was somewhat critical of Chen because of his failure
to attain a high degree of reproducibility for his data
(which is an essential requirement of good experi-
mental work), particularly in the determinations of
the location of the flamefront for various conditions.
I was also somewhat impatient with his failure to
produce a numerical solution for an extended theo-
retical model. Both of these judgements proved to be
quite unfair. As shown by later work, the irrepro-
ducibility was inherent in the process. As regards
the numerical solution, the model involved an inte-
gro-differential equation with split boundary condi-
tions for the temperature in the solid phase, to-
gether with differential equations for the tempera-
ture and composition in the gaseous phase, and was


truly formidable at that stage of development of
numerical methods.
Despite no previous experience with either com-
puters or numerical methods, Chen eventually did
devise an ingenious and successful procedure that
produced a solution in close accord with his experi-
mental results. The model incorporated a number of
idealizations including global kinetics, plug flow, and
perfect radial mixing, but only one significant em-
piricism-the effective energy of activation, which
he chose to force agreement with respect to location
of the computed and measured longitudinal profiles
in temperature in the ceramic block.
One disturbing aspect of the numerical proce-
dure was the dependence of this effective energy of
activation on grid size. Even more startling was the
prediction of six additional stable solutions for the
same external conditions. Three of these multiple
states were closely grouped upstream and four down-
stream in the tube. We speculated in print[4] that
two of the seven solutions, i.e., one from each group-
ing, might have physical validity by analogy to those
for a perfectly mixed exothermic reactor, but that
the other five were probably artifacts of the approxi-
mate and iterative method of solution-a not un-
common experience with integral equations.
The numerical solution revealed that the tem-
perature of the burned gas just beyond the flamefront
exceeded the adiabatic flame temperature. This re-
sult, which is perhaps startling at first glance, is not
a violation of the second law of thermodynamics but
simply a consequence of the refluxing of energy back-
ward across the flamefront by wall-to-wall radiation
and in-wall conduction. The temperature of the
burned gas leaving the burner is of course below the
adiabatic value by an amount equivalent to the total
heat losses from the ceramic block to the surround-
ings. The calculations revealed that about one-third
of the thermal feedback was by conduction in the
ceramic block and two-thirds by wall-to-wall radia-
tion, and indeed that (contrary to the approximate
model of Winer that encouraged this line of research)
the contribution of thermal conduction through the
ceramic block was essential to the existence of a
stable flame.
Chen also carried out calculations for a variety of
parametric conditions beyond the range of his ex-
periments. His prediction of the limiting flamespeeds
for a 25.4-mm channel agreed closely with the meas-
ured values of Bath, validating them retroactively.
Numerical calculations with Chen's model were not
attempted for a 4.76-mm channel since the postu-
lates of plug flow and perfect radial mixing were
Chemical Engineering Education









obviously not applicable for the laminar regime.
Chen's experimental work revealed a new proc-
ess of both intrinsic and practical value, and his
modeling and numerical solutions were a valuable
complement. Most of the characteristic elements of
behavior of thermally stabilized combustion were
totally unexpected when we began. Luck, my per-
haps excessive confidence in the asymptotic solution
of Winer, and the persistence and ingenuity of Chen
(both experimentally and theoretically) were all es-
sential to the great success of this research.
THE SEARCH FOR
MULTIPLE STATIONARY STATES
Melvin H. Bernstein undertook the task of search-
ing for the predicted multiple stationary states as
his doctoral researchE51 with a newly-acquired set of
Wulff furnace elements. First, he reproduced Chen's
data within its band of variability. Then he searched
for and found the expected second stationary state,
then the five more which we had not expected de-
spite their prediction by the numerical solution. One
curious and (to this day) unexplained aspect of these
measurements was the observation of four closely
grouped upstream states and three even more closely
grouped downstream states, whereas Chen's model
predicted four downstream and three upstream.
The Mobil R&D Company responded favorably
and graciously to my request to analyze several
samples of the burned gas from Bernstein's experi-
ments since we did not then have equipment for
such measurements. We were excited to learn from
these analyses that the thermally stabilized burner
(TSB) produced no residual hydrocarbons since (as
contrasted with all conventional burners) none of
the fuel bypasses the zone of high temperature. Also,
the TSB was found to produce essentially no "prompt"
NO in the flamefront owing to its negligible thick-
ness, and to produce exceptionally low concentra-
tions of "thermal" NOx (5-30 ppm) thereafter owing
to the short post-flame times of residence. The con-
centration of total NOx was found to be directly pro-
portional to the post-flame residence time, as would
be expected for a zero-order reaction. On the other
hand, these low values of NO constituted a tradeoff
with CO in that the same post-flame residence times
were insufficient for complete oxidation to CO2.
I encouraged Bernstein to improve upon Chen's
computer program, but he was unable to make even
the original one operational. Finally, in desperation
and impatience I telephoned Chen and solicited his
help. He offered to retest his program as a first step
and to call back the next day. After a suspicious
Fall 1991


delay of several days he called and shamefacedly
reported that he had inadvertently printed a
preliminary inoperable computer program in his
dissertation, but that he was sending us the
original, correct one, which he had retested and found
operational.
However, Bernstein, in his struggles with the
inoperable program, had discovered two significant
errors. They were found to exist in the "original"
program as well. Both of the errors inflated the heat-
transfer coefficient for convection downstream from
the flamefront as estimated from a standard correla-
tion. When these errors were eliminated, no stable
solutions could be computed. After much agony, we
concluded that an inexplicably high coefficient was
necessary to produce stable solutions, at least with
Chen's model. (It took another decade of work to
explain this anomaly.)
We were now in the unbelievable situation of
having found seven stationary states experimentally
only because we were inspired to search for them
by a theoretical model which now appeared to be
invalid! But for the errors in his computer program,
Chen might never have attained a solution, and
Bernstein would never have searched for or found
all of the six additional stationary states. (The sub-
sequent history of our research suggests that we
would have eventually searched for and found at
least one additional state.) In retrospect, the irrepro-
ducibility of Chen's data arose from the establish-
ment on successive days of different members of the
closely-grouped set of upstream states. The particu-
lar state depended upon minor variations in the
process of startup that we had no reason at the time
to consider relevant.
Again, luck was obviously an important element
in our success, but two lessons stand out. First, the
interaction of experimental and theoretical work is
often synergetic and may produce more than either
one alone. Second, independent efforts by two or
more investigators may identify and explain anoma-
lies that escape attention and/or resolution by only
one. These two lessons have been reinforced by our
subsequent experiences as described below.

THERMALLY STABILIZED COMBUSTION OF A
LIQUID FUEL
As his doctoral research, Byung Choi extended
the investigation of thermally stabilized combustion
to liquid fuels by burning droplets of hexane gener-
ated by vibration of a capillary tube. Stroboscopic
visualization of droplets of water in a preliminary
experiment was utilized to confirm a theoretical









model, which was then used to guide the unobserved
production of a chain of uniformly-sized and uni-
formly-spaced droplets of hexane within the burner.
His results agreed remarkably well with those of
Chen, suggesting that the thermally stabilized burner
was essentially fuel-independent insofar as the drop-
lets were small enough and volatile enough to evapo-
rate completely ahead of the flamefront.
However, Choi was not able to establish more
than one stationary state for a given set of condi-
tions.E61 He extended Chen's model to encompass
evaporation of the droplets and devised a greatly
improved but still approximate method of solving
the integro-differential equation (which proved to
have general utility even outside of combustion and
for solving purely integral equations as well)." With
this method, the effective energy of activation re-
quired to match the computed location of the
flamefront with the experimental one was not de-
pendent on grid size. He avoided the "stiffness" asso-
ciated with the steep gradients of temperature and
composition in the flamefront by using steps in com-
position rather than distance in the numerical inte-
gration. Even so, extreme sensitivity was encoun-
tered in the computational procedure; the stable so-
lution was found to be dependent on the eighth sig-
nificant figure of the temperature of the wall at the
inlet, which quantity was used as the variable of
iteration.
The numerical solution provided a complete, es-
sentially fuel-independent locus of flamefronts ver-
sus the rate of flow of fuel and air in close agreement
with the data for both gaseous propane and droplets
ofhexane.18s However, this relationship predicts only
two stable locations for a given fuel-to-air ratio and
rate of flow, one near the inlet and one near the
outlet of the channel. The other five stable states
predicted by Chen and observed by Bernstein are
only slightly displaced from this locus, and we now
postulate that the slight approximation which expe-
dited the process of solution eliminates the fine struc-
ture which would have resulted in their prediction.
As contrasted with blowoff and flashback for con-
ventional burners, the above-mentioned locus of sta-
bility predicts another unique characteristic for
thermally stabilized combustion: for increasing rates
of flow, both of the computed stable locations of the
flamefront are predicted to shift inward toward a
common point near the longitudinal midpoint of the
channel followed by extinguishment; for decreasing
rates of flow, both of the computed stable locations
are predicted to shift outward to the respective ends
of the channel, with extinguishment occurring some-


what short of the ends. The predicted limiting be-
havior was not tested by Choi, even for the single
downstream stable flame he established, because of
the difficulty of adjusting the fuel and air propor-
tionately while maintaining the same size and spac-
ing for the droplets.
Choi also computed the chemical process of com-
bustion using a global model for conversion of the
hexane to CO and H20, and pseudo-steady-state free-
radical models for the formation of NO and the
oxidation of CO. The predicted concentrations of NO
were greatly in excess of, and those of residual CO
were grossly below, the measured values, suggesting
that these models were inadequate, at least for the
high temperatures and minimal backmixing encoun-
tered in thermally stabilized combustion.
The previously noted lessons concerning the con-
duct of research were reinforced in a slightly differ-
ent context by the work of Choi. Again, a fresh ap-
proach by a second investigator, this time in solving
the general model with some extensions, was very
productive. The resulting solution included a com-
plete locus for the stable flamefronts, and thereby
the prediction of unique and unexpected limiting
behavior. It also provided theoretical confirmation
for the observed fuel-independence of the thermally
stabilized burner. In addition, theoretical modeling
of the atomization was a critical element in the de-
sign of the experiments.

THE SEARCH FOR MULTIPLE STATIONARY
STATES WITH DROPLETS OF HEXANE
John W. Goepp, as his M.S.E. thesis, and with
the help of Shu-Kin (Harry) Tang, completely recon-
structed the experimental apparatus of Choi in or-
der to provide more precise and flexible control of
the rates of flow of air and hexane, and thereby
facilitate the search for multiple stationary states in
that system. Wulff furnace elements were no longer
available, but a geometrically equivalent burner was
cast from a commercial ceramic cement. Equipment
for online analysis for NO, COx, CO, CO,, and 02
was added. The improved control permitted iden-
tification of as many as three upstream and two
downstream multiple stationary states with hexane.?g9
Presumably, two more might have been found with
better control and care. The locations of all of
these stable flamefronts were in good accord with
the predictions of Choi. The online chemical analy-
ses were in agreement with those by Mobil, elimi-
nating the nagging possibility that the latter
were affected by the storage and transportation of

Chemical Engineering Education










samples in Teflon bags.

CHEMICAL MODELING
OF THE POST-FLAME ZONE
Tang utilized the improved apparatus constructed
by Goepp and himself to investigate as his doctoral
research the effects of an addition of small concen-
trations of fuel-nitrogen and fuel-sulfur to hexane on
the formation of NO He covered a more complete
range of residence times than his predecessors by
making periodic, pseudo-steady-state measurements
while the flamefront drifted upstream from a stable
location near the outlet or downstream from one
near the inlet as a result of a perturbation in the
rate of flow. He also investigated a wider range of
equivalence ratios (fuel-to-air ratios divided by the
stoichiometric fuel-to-air ratio). He found that the
conversion of fuel-nitrogen to NOx occurred primar-
ily in the flamefront, was almost quantitative for
equivalence ratios from 0.6 to 1.0, and fell off outside
that range.E10t Fuel-sulfur was found to reduce the
formation of thermal NOx slightly and fuel-NOx sig-
nificantly,'111 a result which was in contrast with
prior observations for other types of burners.
Tang initially resisted my proposal to model the
post-flame reactions with a complete set of free-
radical mechanisms, but relented when I mentioned
that the alternative was explanation and possibly
reinterpretation of his experimental results by an-
other student. By trial-and-error he found that a
kinetic model incorporating twenty-one reversible
reactions was sufficient for the post-flame region for
the combustion of pure hexane, and that twenty-
three additional reactions were necessary for fuel-
nitrogen and sixteen more for fuel-sulfur. He postu-
lated a global model for the combustion of hexane to
CO and H2O. When the mole fraction of hexane fell
to 1 ppm due to combustion, the fuel-nitrogen and
fuel-sulfur were postulated to be converted quanti-
tatively and instantaneously to HCN and H2S re-
spectively. The post-flame model was then initiated.
The predictions of NOx by Tang were in good
agreement with his measurements for equivalence
ratios up to 1.1, but in disagreement beyond.[12' The
details of the computations revealed significant de-
viations of the concentrations of all of the free radi-
cals from their pseudo-steady-state values through-
out the post-flame zone, thus explaining the failure
of prior predictions. The model predicted negligible
formation of NO2 (less than 10 ppb) in contrast to a
significant fraction of the NO in the measurements.
Subsequent calculations suggested that all of the
measured NO2 was formed in the sampling tube,
Fall 1991


and this presumption has since been verified by
spectrographic measurements within a burner. The
deviation of the predicted concentrations of NOx for
very fuel-rich mixtures from the measured values
was presumed to be due to the failure of the postu-
late of quantitative conversion of the fuel to CO and
H20. This speculation was eventually confirmed as
described below. The predictions of NOx for hexane
with added fuel-nitrogen were in good agreement
with the measurements (except for very fuel-rich
mixtures for the same reason as above).J131 The pre-
dictions for added fuel-sulfur were in qualitative
agreement with the measurements, but the reduc-
tions in NO were less.""
The work of Tang reemphasized the generalities
noted above with respect to exploratory research.
The synergetic value of combined experimentation
and modeling was overwhelmingly apparent-par-
ticularly to Tang, who had initially resisted the in-
cremental effort required by the latter. Again, com-
mon wisdom, this time in terms of the pseudo-steady-
state postulate for the concentration of free radicals,
was found to be misleading. The detailed kinetic
model not only improved the predictions of NO. and
CO, but also explained the failure of the early mod-
els. The prediction of NO2 brought the process of
measurement into question, and subsequent model-
ing of the process of sampling demonstrated that the
measurements of NO2 and CO were indeed in error
due to an inadequate rate of quenching.
On the other hand, the extended range of experi-
ments with respect to equivalence ratio identified
the limit of validity of post-flame modeling alone,
and suggested a new direction for this research. The
qualitative agreement between the experimental and
the theoretical effects of fuel-sulfur on the formation
of NO. was essential in obtaining acceptance from
the reviewers of an article for publication, since this
result is contradictory to both experimental meas-
urements and theoretical predictions for other types
of combustion. On the other hand, the quantitative
discrepancy between the measured and predicted
effects of fuel-sulfur suggested an error in the mod-
eling which was examined and resolved in subse-
quent work. The results for fuel-sulfur suggest an-
other generality with respect to exploratory research.
One must be prepared to justify (in great detail and
beyond any question) radical results which invali-
date prior theories or generalities, particularly those
of the reviewers themselves.

CHEMICAL MODELING OF THE PREFLAME ZONE
Lisa D. Pfefferle proposed modeling chemical









kinetics in the preflame region as her doctoral re-
search. Since prior work had indicated the behavior
of the thermally stabilized burner to be essentially
fuel-independent, methane (for which the rate mecha-
nisms were presumed to be the simplest and most
reliable) was chosen as a fuel. This research ap-
peared in advance to be straightforward, but (as
indicated below) unexpected results and difficulties
arose at every turn. First, a clean and non-
oscillatory flame could not be stabilized in the new,
longer (508-mm) burner which had been cast. Sev-
eral weeks were spent recalibrating the metering
devices, analyzing the fuel, making a new 254-mm-
long burner, etc.-all to no avail. In despair, she
turned back to propane, which proved to burn stably
as before. She then tried ethane, which also burned
satisfactorily, and chose it in preference to propane
and methane for the subsequent studies.
Analysis of the data for methane revealed that
the steady rate of flow fell in the laminar regime
upstream from the flamefront as contrasted with the
turbulent regime for ethane, propane, and hexane.
She speculated (and later confirmed by modeling)
that this difference in behavior for methane was due
to the absence of a C-C bond. One productive conse-
quence of this adventure (which was very disturbing
at the time) was the construction of a graphical
correlation for the regimes of stability in the TSB for
various fuels, equivalence ratios, channel-diameters,
and channel-lengths. 41 Another was a computational
study of the adiabatic and non-adiabatic ignition of
various fuels and mixtures thereof.[15,161
The studies of stability confirmed that turbulent
flow is barely achieved in a 9.52-mm channel, even
with C2+ fuels. It may be inferred that turbulent flow
is unlikely to occur in ordinary chemical reactors
since the much lower rates of reaction compared to
those for combustion cannot be compensated for en-
tirely by a larger diameter. 171 Therefore, the postu-
late of plug flow cannot be justified on the basis of
turbulent flow in either homogeneous or heterogene-
ous reactors despite that implication in most text-
books on chemical reaction engineering.
The computational studies of ignition by
Pfefferle revealed that small concentrations of H2 or
C2+ in the mixture greatly enhance the ignitability.
Had ordinary natural gas been used (rather than
chemically pure methane) in her initial experimen-
tal studies in the thermally stabilized burner, the
difficulties which caused such agony and led to the
switch to ethane would not have been encountered.
On the other hand, the long-range effects of this
experience were many and all positive, including


another example of the fundamental difference be-
tween thermally stabilized combustion and other
processes, for which backmixing is a sufficient source
of free radicals for rupture of the C-H bond.
Having established a model for the preflame re-
gion, Pfefferle encountered great difficulty with the
stability of the solution of the set of differential
equations representing the kinetic behavior ahead
of the flamefront as contrasted with the single one
for global kinetics. This characteristic difficulty in
solving ordinary differential equations numerically
is known as "stiffness" and arises from widely sepa-
rated eigenvalues, or in physical terms in this in-
stance from the critical dependence of the kinetics
on minute concentrations of free radicals near the
inlet of the burner. Brute-force calculations require
intolerably small steps in space in that region.
Pfefferle surmounted this difficulty by using an ap-
proximate analytical solution for the very inlet, fol-
lowed by a standard scheme of marching.
Her computations revealed incredibly complex
behavior near the flamefront and resulted in very
good predictions of NO and CO even for very fuel-
rich mixtures. The path of oxidation of ethane to CO
and H20 was found to proceed through many inter-
mediates such as CH2OH.J181 This work confirms that,
while a global kinetic model with adjustable empiri-
cal constants is able to predict the thermal behavior
with reasonable accuracy, it cannot possibly be used
to predict the concentrations of CO, NO, etc., either
locally or overall. Pfefferle also modeled the pre-
flame as well as the post-flame zone for the combus-
tion of ethane with additions of ammonial'1 and of
ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.1201 The predictions of
NOx for pure ethane and for ethane plus ammonia
were in good agreement with her own measured
values, but the initial calculations for the added
effect of hydrogen sulfide were not. She concluded
that some important mechanisms were missing from
the best current compilations. She also concluded
that the greater reduction in fuel-NOx by fuel-sulfur
in the TSB as compared to conventional burners was
due to the higher temperatures in the immediate
preflame zone and to the minimal backmixing. The
contrasting chemical behavior for various conven-
tional burners was successfully modeled with the
same kinetic mechanisms by postulating an adjust-
able combination of a plug-flow reactor and a per-
fectly mixed one.
The productivity of Pfefferle's research was
greatly enhanced relative to original expectations by
the completely unexpected behavior of methane
vis-a-vis other fuels in the TSB. This result was a
Chemical Engineering Education









consequence of the fortuitous use of chemically pure
methane rather than natural gas. Many important
findings followed: 1) the absence of a C-C bond was
identified as the source of fuel-sensitivity; 2) the
absence of backmixing was identified as the source
of the difficulty in burning methane in the TSB as
contrasted with other burners; 3) the study ofignita-
bility revealed the sensitivity of the TSB to small
concentrations of C2+ and H2; and 4) the generalized
analysis of stability resulted in the recognition that
turbulent flow is unlikely in conventional reactors.
Other difficulties and anomalies were also a pre-
cursor to discovery. The stiffness of the free-radical,
preflame kinetic model as compared to a global one
resulted in the development of a new technique for
that purpose. The failure of the predictions of the
effect of fuel-sulfur on the formation of NOx to agree
with experimental measurements in the TSB identi-
fied missing mechanisms as the culprit, and the
different effects in a TSB and conventional burners
were rationalized in terms of a combination of plug-
flow and perfectly mixed reactors-a classical appli-
cation of the methodology of chemical reaction engi-
neering.

TESTING THE POSTULATE OF PLUG FLOW
The study of stability by Pfefferle'14' led to a fur-
ther inference not mentioned above. Since the stable
flow upstream from the flamefront is barely turbu-
lent, at least for a 9.52-mm channel, the approxi-
mately seven-fold increase in absolute temperature
and the associated approximately five-fold increase
in dynamic viscosity result in a decrease of the Rey-
nolds number behind the flamefront to much less
than 2100 for all conditions. Laminarization was
therefore to be expected. In all of the above-
mentioned modeling, plug flow was postulated both
upstream and downstream from the flamefront, ex-
cept for the evaluation of the heat-transfer coeffi-
cient for convection, which was estimated from em-
pirical correlations for fully developed turbulent flow
upstream and for developing laminar flow down-
stream. The postulate of plug flow in the kinetic
model was excused on the basis of the demonstra-
tion by ArisE21' that the error in the conversion of a
reactant due to the postulate of plug flow rather
than laminar (parabolic) flow is less than 11% for a
first-order reaction and even less for higher orders.
Even so, I was very pleased when Lance R. Collins
chose as his doctoral research to investigate lami-
narization behind the flamefront and its effect on
the post-flame reactions. He computed the time-
averaged field of velocity using a low-Reynolds-
Fall 1991


number k-e model for turbulencef221 and then the cor-
responding chemical compositions using a free-
radical kinetic model.'231 His measured pressure gra-
dients and velocities at the centerline were in rea-
sonable accord with the predictions, but both his
measured and predicted concentrations of CO were
as much as 25% higher than computed values based
on plug flow. This unexpected result led to the reali-
zation that the generalization of Aris is not appli-
cable to the residual concentration of a reactant. For
example, the possible error in the residual concen-
trations of a reactant by a first-order reaction due to
assuming plug flow rather than laminar flow is un-
bounded. The formation of NOx is not affected sig-
nificantly since it is effectively zero-order and as
such is independent of the velocity distribution.
The lesson here is that an authoritative gener-
alization, although valid per se, may not be valid for
conditions that differ subtly. We were ourselves
misled for over a decade by the accuracy of the pre-
dictions of NO to the extent of presuming a
chemical-kinetic rather than a fluid-mechanical ex-
planation for the observed errors in the predictions
of CO. It is noteworthy that none of the reviewers of
our several papers seriously challenged the applica-
bility of the postulate of plug flow in our modeling.

GENERATION OF STEAM
AND THE REDUCTION OF RESIDUAL CO
The very low concentrations of NOx produced in
the thermally stabilized combustor are, as noted
above, somewhat at the expense of large residual
concentrations of CO. Furthermore, NO continues
to form in the products of combustion after leaving
the burner insofar as they remain at high tempera-
ture. This period may be significant with conven-
tional boilers, etc. As his doctoral research, Mark R.
Stronger chose to investigate a process devised to
quench the formation of NO in the boiler, but to
allow continued oxidation of CO while generating
steam. The equipment consisted of seven metal tubes
(contiguous with the channels of the combustor) that
passed through a pool of boiling water contained in a
cylindrical jacket.
The process worked exactly as planned chemi-
cally124J but the heat transfer coefficient for forced
convection from the products of combustion was much
higher than expected.'251 A theoretical solution for
the fluid mechanics and heat transfer using the same
k-e model as that of Collins provided an explana-
tion.126' The flow inside the combustor is in transi-
tion from turbulent to laminar flow. As the gas is
cooled inside the metal tubes, the viscosity decreases,










the Reynolds number increases, and a transition
back to turbulent flow occurs. Owing to this transi-
tion, a heat transfer coefficient higher than that for
either fully developed laminar or fully developed
turbulent flow is achieved.
The turbulent-laminar transition explains, at
least in part, the excessive heat transfer coefficients
required in the models of Chen[41 and Choi.'81 The
heat transfer coefficient for forced convection inside
small tubes is much greater than that for radiative
transfer and unconfined convection in conventional
boilers, even without enhancement by transition.
The combined effect produces a reduction of several
orders of magnitude in the size of the boiler.
Although the chemical behavior in Strenger's
research was much as expected, the thermal/fluid-
mechanical behavior produced a favorable surprise
which could be explained only through the theoreti-
cal modeling.

CONCLUSIONS
Combustion is a worthy subject of research by
chemical engineers. It is of obvious practical impor-
tance, but has been the subject of only limited funda-
mental work. As a result of recent progress in chemi-
cal kinetics and machine computation, it is respon-
sive to modeling with the classical techniques of
chemical reaction engineering, and as a result of
recent improvements in instrumental techniques,
the in situ measurements necessary to test critically
such modeling have become possible.
Thermally stabilized combustion proved, as indi-
cated herein, to be a fortunate choice for this pro-
gram of research because the fluid mechanics are
simple relative to all conventional processes of com-
bustion, while the thermal/chemical behavior differs
radically in almost every respect. The characteris-
tics of thermally stabilized combustion, which are
noted herein only in a historical context, are sum-
marized elsewhere.[27]
Conclusions relative to the conduct of academic
exploratory research were drawn above in connec-
tion with each of the separate undertakings, and
only generalities in this regard will be listed here.
Most discoveries arise from experimentally observed
anomalies (the existence of multiple stationary states
was an exception in that it arose from modeling).
Theoretical modeling is usually necessary to
understand and explain observed anomalies, and
thereby to determine whether they represent physical
behavior or experimental error.
The combination of experimentation and modeling is
generally more productive than their separate
performance.


Consecutive individual efforts on a general problem
often provide new insights.
It follows that one of the most important roles of
a faculty advisor is to encourage students to be on
the alert for anomalies and to pursue and/or resolve
them. A more difficult but worthwhile endeavor is to
persuade theoretically inclined students to test their
modeling experimentally, and experimentally in-
clined students to develop a model to explain and
extend their measurements.

REFERENCES
1. Sundstrom, D.W., and S.W. Churchill, "Heat Transfer from
Premixed Gas Flames in a Cooled Tube," Chem. Eng.
Progr. Symp. Series, No. 30, 56, 65 (1960)
2. Zartman, W.N., and S.W. Churchill, "Heat Transfer from
Acoustically Resonating Gas Flames in a Cylindrical
Burner," AIChE J., 7, 588 (1961)
3. Chen, J.L.-P., and S.W. Churchill, "Stabilization of Flames
in Refractory Tubes," Combust. Flame, 18, 37 (1972)
4. Chen, J.L.-P., and S.W. Churchill, "A Theoretical Model
for Stable Combustion Inside a Refractory Tube," Com-
bust. Flame, 18, 27 (1972)
5. Bernstein, M.H., and S.W. Churchill, "Multiple Stationary
States and NO Production for Turbulent Flames in Re-
fractory Tubes," p. 1737, Sixteenth Symp. (Intern.) on Com-
bustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (1977)
6. Choi, Byung, and S.W. Churchill, "Evaporation and Com-
bustion of Uniformly Sized Hexane Droplets in a Refrac-
tory Tube," p. 83, Evaporation-Combustion of Fuels, Ad-
vances in Chemistry Series No. 166, J.T. Zung, Ed., Amer.
Chem. Soc., Washington, DC (1978)
7. Choi, Byung, and S.W. Churchill, "A Technique for Ob-
taining Approximate Solutions for a Class of Integral
Equations Arising in Radiative Transfer," Int. J. Heat
Fluid Flow, 6,42 (1985)
8. Choi, Byung, and S.W. Churchill, "A Model for Combus-
tion of Gaseous and Liquid Fuels in Refractory Tubes," p.
917, Seventeenth Symp. (Intern.) on Combustion, The
Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (1979)
9. Goepp, J.W., Harry Tang, Noam Lior, and S.W. Churchill,
"Multiplicity and Pollutant Formation for the Combustion
of Hexane in a Refractory Tube," AIChE J., 26, 855 (1980)
10. Tang, S.-K., S.W. Churchill, and Noam Lior, "The Forma-
tion of Thermal and Fuel NO. for Radiantly Stabilized
Combustion," p. 73, Eighteenth Symp. (Intern.) on Com-
bustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (1981)
11. Tang, S.-K., S. W. Churchill, and Noam Lior, "The Effect
of Fuel-Sulfur on NOx Formation from a Refractory
Burner,"AIChE Symp. Series No. 211, 77, 77 (1981)
12. Tang, S.-K., and S.W. Churchill, "A Theoretical Model for
Combustion Reactions Inside a Refractory Tube," Chem.
Eng. Commun., 9, 137 (1981)
13. Tang, S.-K., and S.W. Churchill, "The Prediction of NO,
Formation for the Combustion of Nitrogen-Doped Drop-
lets of Hexane Inside a Refractory Tube," Chem. Eng.
Commun., 9, 151(1981)
14. Pfefferle, L.D., and S.W. Churchill, "The Stability of Flames
Inside a Refractory Tube," Combust. Flame, 56, 165 (1984)
15. Pfefferle, L.D., and S.W. Churchill, "The Adiabatic Igni-
tion of Low-Heating Value Gases at Constant Pressure,"
VDI Berichte No. 607, 1835 (1986); Chem.-Ing.-Tech., 58,
138(1986)
16. Pfefferle, L.D., and S.W. Churchill, "The Ignition of Mix-
tures of Methane, Ethane, and Hydrogen in Air by Homo-


Chemical Engineering Education









generous Heating at Constant Pressure," in review.
17. Churchill, S.W., and L.D. Pfefferle, "The Refractory Tube
Burner as an Ideal Stationary Chemical Reactor," Instn.
Chem. Eng., Symp. Series No 87, 279 (1985)
18. Pfefferle, L.D., and S.W. Churchill, "The Kinetic Modeling
of Combustion of Ethane Inside a Refractory Tube Burner,"
Proc. World Congr. III of Chem. Eng., Tokyo, 4, 68 (1986)
19. Pfefferle, L.D., and S.W. Churchill, "NO Production from
the Combustion of Ethane Doped with Ammonia in a
Thermally Stabilized Plug Flow Burner," Combust. Sci.
Tech., 49,235 (1986)
20. Pfefferle, L.D., and S.W. Churchill, "Effect of Fuel Sulfur
on Nitrogen Oxide Formation in a Thermally Stabilized
Plug-Flow Burner," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 28, 1004 (1989)
21. Aris, Rutherford, Introduction to the Analysis of Reactors,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1965)
22. Collins, L.R., and S.W. Churchill, "The Decay of Turbu-
lence in a Tube Following a Combustion-Generated Step
in Temperature," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., in press
23. Collins, L.R., and S.W. Churchill, "Effect of Laminarizing
Flow on Post-Flame Reactions in a Thermally Stabilized
Burner," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 29,456 (1990)
24. Stronger, M.R., and S.W. Churchill, "Formation of NO,
and Burnoff of CO During Thermal Quenching of the
Products from Combustion in a Thermally Stabilized
Burner," Twenty-Second Symposium (Intern.) on
Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA
(1988)
25. Stronger, M.R., and S.W. Churchill, "The Intensification
of Heat Transfer in Transition from Laminar to Turbulent
Flow," Proc. Ninth Intern. Heat Trans. Conf., Jerusalem,
Vol. 6, p. 199 (1990)
26. Stronger, M.R., and S.W. Churchill, "The Prediction of
Heat Transfer from Burned Gases in Transitional Flow
Inside a Tube," Num. Heat Transfer, in press
27. Churchill, S.W., "Thermally Stabilized Combustion," Chem.
Eng. Tech., 12, 249 (1989) 0


REVIEW: Thermodynamics
Continued from page 183.
dard enthalpy change for reactions as a function of
temperature. Further, the units are now essentially
all SI. There has been some rearrangement of mate-
rial that includes putting fugacity earlier and devot-
ing more material to EOS and high-pressure phase
equilibria. Finally, there are revised examples and
problems.
Over the years we have used different editions of
the text in our own teaching. A recent experience
was with students whose first course was in the
engineering core, so this book was used for a subse-
quent chemical engineering course in chemical th-
ermodynamics. Our opinions on the success of the
book are similar. In general, the examples and prob-
lems are very good-they are challenging but consis-
tent with the text. The exposure to all combinations
of phase equilibria is highly desirable. Also, the pro-
grams included in the second edition can be quite
useful to students in addressing real (and therefore
complex) systems, as well as fostering an explora-

Fall 1991


tory mode of how nature actually behaves. This is
especially valuable for students who must encounter
the idealized or limited nonideal descriptions of physi-
cal chemistry thermodynamics.
The connections of the text to other courses is
difficult to measure. Our experience is that differ-
ences of approach and notation usually overwhelm
the similarities that may appear to students in later
courses unless the same instructor is involved.
The text does achieve a significant level of detail,
but this often leads to confusion about the funda-
mentals. The dilemma of how many formulae to put
into the hands of students is solved by using exten-
sive tables of equations for different cases. Often,
the student's reaction is to try to use these tables to
look up a formula rather than to quickly derive the
one they need for a problem. Another effect of this is
to inadequately distinguish between fundamental
concepts, approximate relationships, and specific il-
lustrations. The result is that students become un-
sure of which are the big things that should be
focused on and remembered. It also leads to a great
deal of the material being strictly mathematical,
with little physical connections that are either macro-
scopic or molecular.
Teachers will undoubtedly have differences with
the author about his selection of correlations-that
is inevitable in this area. In any case, the correla-
tions are often presented without indication of
whether they are to be used in real work or whether
they are merely illustrative. The corresponding states
treatment involves graphs from Hougan, Watson,
and Ragatz containing Zc, but equations containing
the acentric factor. While the treatment for mix-
tures is complete, it is quite mathematical and fol-
lows a considerable discussion of the fugacity of pure
components, so the whole exposition appears less
focused than it might be.
All of the above issues may be dealt with by an
experienced instructor who is comfortable with this
difficult subject. In particular, highlighting the im-
portant material and simplifying complexities will
be necessary. This takes a high level of concentra-
tion and a willingness to sacrifice some of the rigor
of the text-this might ask for more commitment
from students than they want to give. They will also
have to deal with the text and the teacher appearing
to conflict with one another.
The qualities of the text are numerous. It has
been adopted in a limited number of situations, ac-
cording to the latest AIChE Education Survey, and
it is worthy of serious consideration at least as a
reference. O










Random Thoughts...



MEET YOUR STUDENTS

4. Jill and Perry


RICHARD M. FIELDER
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-7905

ill and Perry are senior engineering students.
They met at their freshman orientation seminar,
started dating soon afterward, and have been to-
gether ever since. A friend once remarked that they
had the only perfect relationship he had ever seen:
there wasn't a single thing they agreed about!
They had an appointment to meet in the student
lounge at 3:00 this afternoon. It is now well past
4:00. Jill is sitting at a table alone, trying to work
but frequently looking over at the door and scowling.
Perry finally walks in, greets a few friends, walks
over to Jill's table, and sits down.

Perry: (brightly) "Hi-get it all figured out yet?"
Jill: (glaring) "Where were you?"
Perry: "Oh, a few of us in Tau Beta Pi got going
on the plans for the Awards Banquet and I
lost track of the time...I'm not that late, am
I?"
Jill: "Not for you, maybe, but for normal people
an hour and twenty minutes might qualify
for that late. Am I wrong or did we agree
Sunday that we'd study for the design test
from 3 to 4 today?"
Perry: "Come on, lighten up. We still have a couple
of hours till supper, and the exam's not
until Friday-you know Professor Furze
postponed it yesterday."
Jill: "I know he did, but we still had an
appointment...and I've got a 331 lab report
due Thursday and I planned to work on it
between 4 and 6 today and I told you I'd go
to a movie with you tonight. If we study for
the test now and go to the movie, when am


Richard M. Felder is a professor of chemical engi-
neering at North Carolina State University, where he
has been since 1969,. He received his BChE from
City College of C.U.N. Y. and his PhD from Prince-
ton. He has worked at the A.E.R.E., Harwell, and
Brookhaven National Laboratory and has presented
courses on chemical engineering principles, reactor
design, process optimization, and effective teaching
to various American and foreigh industries and insti-
tutions. He is coauthor of the text Elementary Prin-
ciples of Chemical Processes (Wiley, 1986).


I supposed to do the report?"
Perry: "You and your ridiculous schedules...
couldn't you have worked on the report
while you were waiting for me?"
Jill: "Look, my ridiculous schedules are the only
reason we're seniors now-if it were up to
you to plan our lives we'd still be working
on our sophomore course assignments and
the only time we'd ever study for a test is
all night the night before...that is, if you
managed to remember we were having a
test."
Perry: "That's not true...besides, which of us got
the highest grades on the first two design
exams?"
Jill: "That has nothing to do with anything!
Anyway, it's 4:30 and we haven't started
yet...let's see...maybe if we study for about
45 minutes now, then I'll work on the re-
port and we can get a pizza delivered, and
that way we can leave at 7 to get to the
movie...yeah, I think that should..."
Perry: "Why don't we just get started and see
where we are at 7 and decide then what to
do-we can always skip the movie or go
and study some more when we get back if
we need to."
Jill: "No, we need to set it up now or else we'll


@ Copyright ChE Division, ASEE 1991


Chemical Engineering Education


1--:










just drift along and never get anything
done. OK, let's say we work through these
Chapter 5 problems for about twenty min-
utes and then we...now what?"
Perry: "I'm just going for a Coke-be right back.
Want something?"
Jill: "Yeah, I want you for once in your life to
sit still for more than thirty consecutive
seconds and do what you said you would
do-I've just been sitting here for over an
hour waiting, and you finally get here and
ten minutes later you're taking off again!"
Perry: Relax-I'll just be a minute." (Disappears.)
Jill: (Censored)


Jill is ajudger and Perry is a perceiver.* Judg-
ers tend to be organized and decisive: they like to set
and keep agendas and reach closure on issues. Per-
ceivers tend to be spontaneous, flexible, and open-
minded; they like to keep their options open as long
as possible and postpone decision-making until they
feel sure they have all the relevant information.
Judgers plan ahead for most things. As students
they budget their time for homework and study so
they don't have to do it all at the last minute, and
they can usually be relied on to turn in assignments
on time. However, they tend to jump to conclusions,
make decisions prematurely, and doggedly adhere to
agendas that may no longer be appropriate. In their
classes, judging students want clearly defined ex-
pectations, assignments, and grading criteria, and
they don't like rambling lectures or class discussions
that seem to have little point.
Perceivers do as little planning as possible,
preferring to remain flexible in case something

The degree to which one favors one or the other of these types
can be determined with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, a per-
sonality inventory based on Jung's theory of psychological types
that has been administered to over one million people including
many engineering students and professors.11'21 Jill and Perry
are illustrative of the two types, but not all judgers are just like
Jill and not all perceivers are just like Perry. The two catego-
ries represent preferences, not mutually exclusive categories:
the preferences may be strong or weak, and all people exhibit
characteristics of both types to different degrees.
REFERENCES
1. Lawrence, People Types and Tiger Stripes, 2nd Ed., Cen-
ter for Applications of Psychological Type, Gainesville, FL
(1982)
2. McCaulley, M.H., E.S. Godleski, C.F. Yokomoto, L. Har-
risberger, and E.D. Sloan, "Applications of Psychological
Type in Engineering Education," Eng. Ed., 73(5), 394-400
(1983)


better comes up. They tend to work in fits and
starts, alternating between periods of unfocused ac-
tivity and frantic races to meet deadlines. They have
trouble sticking to agendas, tend to start many more
projects at one time than they can possibly finish,
and are often in danger of missing assignments and
doing poorly on tests due to insufficient study time.
However, they are more likely than judgers to be
aware of facts or data that don't fit their mental
picture of a situation and in fact may go out of their
way to look for such contradictions. When they don't
fully understand something they tend to keep it
open, gathering more information or simply waiting
for inspiration to strike rather than accepting the
first plausible explanation that occurs. Their flexi-
bility and tolerance of ambiguity will make some of
them superb researchers.
While students of both types may become excel-
lent engineers and managers, the working habits of
strong perceivers may make getting through school
a major challenge for them, and anything that can
be done to help them survive is worth attempting.
They benefit from opportunities to follow their curi-
osity and work best on tasks that they have chosen
themselves. They are not helped much by advice to
work at a steady pace and not leave things for the
last moment, which may be too radical a departure
from their natural style to be manageable; however,
it might help to ask them to figure out how late they
can start to work on the assignment or study for the
test and still do everything else they have to do.
Perceivers rarely look at the holes they are digging
themselves into through lack of planning. If they can
be persuaded to itemize the things they intend to do,
they might be convinced that without some planning
they don't have a prayer of doing the things they
have to do.
Epilogue: Ten years later

Jill and Perry got married shortly after gradu-
ation, managing (barely) to survive Perry's twenty-
minute late arrival at the church and Jill's insis-
tence on laying out an hour-by-hour schedule for
their honeymoon. Jill got a job in a design and con-
struction firm, eventually became a highly success-
ful project manager, and is now in line for a vice-
presidency. Perry went on to graduate school, got a
PhD, and is now an eminent researcher at a national
laboratory. It took years, but they finally figured out
a good way to get along with each other.* 0

Unfortunately, I haven't been able to figure out what it might
be.


Fall 1991









curriculum


RISK REDUCTION IN THE

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM


MARVIN FLEISCHMAN
University ofLouisville
Louisville, KY40292

Since Bhopal, words such as hazard, risk, waste,
and chemical seem to be synonymous to the pub-
lic and the media. There is increasing public, gov-
ernment, and industry awareness and concern over
a number of problems: hazardous and toxic chemi-
cals in the workplace, the environment, and home;
increasing quantities of waste and costs of disposal,
along with limited treatment capacity; industrial
and transportation spills and accidents involving
chemicals; contamination of water supplies; etc.
These concerns are being manifested by more
(and tighter) local, state, and federal regulations. At
the same time there is public opposition to things
such as siting of incinerators, landfills, and indus-
trial operations involving hazardous materials.
In response to the problem, the US Environmental
Protection Agency created the phrase Risk Reduc-
tion Engineering as part of a multimedia-based "Pol-
lution Prevention" program. The goal is to minimize
wastes that present current and future risks to
human health and the environment.
With regard to chemical engineering, the risk
reduction concept encompasses a broader spectrum
which includes safety, health, and loss prevention,
as well as waste management and environmental
controls. Risk reduction also deals with the techno-
logical/societal interface in the sense that manage-
ment, regulations, and public relations are all com-
ponents.
All of these concepts are implicit in chemical en-
gineering education. However, despite the apparent
job opportunities for chemical engineers in, for ex-
ample, environmental engineering, risk reduction
still seems to be largely ignored in the curriculum.
In particular, chemical engineering will play a
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE 1991


major role in risk reduction by developing, assess-
ing, and applying the technology that will predict,
measure, control, and reduce risks from hazardous
materials. It is thus timely (and perhaps manda-
tory) that, in the chemical engineering curriculum,
greater emphasis be placed on topics such as waste
reduction, safety, and health. While it is not neces-
sary to make experts of all the students, the under-
graduate program is a logical place to begin provid-
ing a background for recognition of potential haz-
ards and an awareness of safe and clean process and
product designs. Risk reduction can be addressed in
most chemical engineering courses, from general
chemistry to plant design, and the concepts should
be easily understood by the students.'"
I do not believe that new engineering programs
in safety and health or waste-reduction engineering
are needed, such as those that exist, for example, in
environmental engineering. Much of the relevant
knowledge and tools are implicit in the existing
chemical engineering curricula. However, concepts
such as hazardous materials, engineering controls,
and materials substitution, are not usually covered,
and could, at the least, be presented through ex-
ample and homework problems such as those avail-
able from the AIChE Center for Chemical Process
Safety.[21
Risk reduction can be viewed as a unifying gen-
eral concept that will provide an awareness, sensi-
tivity, knowledge, and positive attitude for the stu-
dents' future stewardship of health, safety, and the


A


Marvin Flelschman is a professor of chemical engi-
neering and Director of the Waste Minimization As-
sessment Center at the University of Louisville. He
received his BChE from City College of New York,
and his MS and PhD from the University of Cincin-
nati. He has worked for Monsanto, Exxon, Amoco,
U.S. Public Health Service, NIOSH, and the Army.
His research interests include waste reduction, mem-
brane separations, and health effects.


Chemical Engineering Education









environment. Inclusion of these areas in the curricu-
lum could be facilitated without adding numerous
courses by incorporating them in the "Risk Reduc-
tion" spectrum. For example, in the materials and
energy balances course, the properties, effects, and
management of hazardous materials can be presented
from the viewpoint of simultaneous concerns in the
workplace, home, and environment.
In this paper, inclusion of risk reduction in the
curriculum will be explored, and current related
teaching efforts at the University of Louisville will
be described. General principles and commonalities,
synergies, and trade-offs between the components
will be emphasized.

RISK REDUCTION COURSES AT LOUISVILLE
Several ideas for including safety and health in
the chemical engineering curriculum have been pre-
viously presented.",' These ideas can also be put
into the general framework of risk reduction since
many of them also pertain to environmental con-
cerns. At the University of Louisville, risk reduction
was incorporated into the material and energy bal-
ances course when I last taught it. A one-hour course
entitled Safety, Health, and Environment," will be
mandatory for juniors in the spring 1991 term, and a
two-course sequence, "Safety and Health" and "In-
dustrial Waste Management," was developed as first-
year graduate (500-level) electives. (These two
courses would also be suitable as senior electives,
but our seniors do not have electives.) Graduate
students can also take elective courses in "Mem-
brane Separations" and "Chemodynamics," which are
both related to risk reduction. Graduate students at
the University of Louisville include our fifth-year
Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) students.
A common feature in the material and energy
balances, safety and health, and industrial waste
management courses is a segment we call "In the
News." During the first five minutes of class, articles
from the local newspaper, Time magazine, Chemical
& Engineering News, etc., which are related to ei-
ther chemical safety and health or environmental is-
sues are discussed. Since Louisville is a highly-
industrialized city there is always some local or state
news that the students can relate to, and this height-
ens their interest in the courses. In my opinion, the
day-to-day real-world relevance of these courses is
an important feature. In contrast to more traditional
courses, students asked many questions. It is per-
haps not so surprising to find that students are
interested in risk reduction and that many have cho-


In particular, chemical engineering
will play a major role in risk reduction
by developing, assessing, and applying the
technology that will predict, measure, control,
and reduce risks from hazardous materials.

sen chemical engineering as a career for that very
reason.
Sophomore students interview for their first co-
operative internship position while taking the mate-
rial and energy balances course, and the M.Eng.
students are interviewing for permanent positions
at the same time. Both groups asked the interview-
ers about the company's health, safety, and environ-
mental practices and opportunities. Feedback from
the interviewers indicated that this helped to create
a positive impression of our students. After their
first co-op position, many of the sophomore students
reported that they had dealt with risk reduction ma-
terial covered in the material and energy balances
course, e.g., materials safety data sheets, oxygen
demand of waste-waters.
Specifically, some of the teaching modules from
the AIChE Center for Chemical Process Safety12' were
used in the material and energy balances course.
The students were also required to fill out a materi-
als safety data sheet. Next time I teach the course,
problems developed from waste minimization assess-
ments will be incorporated into the course, e.g., re-
covery of nickel salts from electroplating rinse-
waters.

COMMON FORMAT OF COURSES
"Safety and Health" and "Industrial Waste Man-
agement" are broad-based survey courses offered at
the first-year graduate level in the fall and spring
semesters, respectively. We attempt to describe these
courses in a manner that emphasizes generic and
common features. Some of the risk reduction con-
cepts can be covered in either course or in both.
The course outlines by topic are shown in Table
1, and the textbooks used are listed in Table 2. The
same generic topics are covered in both courses,
including regulations and standards, properties, ef-
fects and characteristics of hazardous and toxic ma-
terials, modeling, heirarchy of management and con-
trol options preventive measures such as substitu-
tion and inventory control, control technology, and
risk assessment. By necessity, there is some overlap
of specifics between the two courses, even though


Fall 1991










repetition is minimized. For example, SARA Title III
is discussed in both courses. However, OSHA regu-
lations are discussed primarily in Safety and Health,
and RCRA primarily in Industrial Waste Manage-
ment. Threshold limit values, while referred to in
Industrial Waste Management, is covered in depth
in the safety and health course, while hazardous
waste lists are discussed in Industrial Waste Man-
agement. Hazardous waste characteristics are dis-
cussed in both courses, but with different emphasis.
However, in each course the commonalities and rela-
tionships between the different aspects of risk re-
duction are pointed out.


Both courses include student team audits and
inspections. In Safety and Health, safety and health
inspections of the chemical engineering laboratories
were done, while in Industrial Waste Management
the students did a waste minimization assessment
at a local plant. The students found the inspections
to be eye-opening, interesting, educational, and fun.
Either of these courses is suitable for seniors, and to
help meet accreditation guidelines they can easily be
structured to include design and to enhance student
communication skills. As an aside, student partici-
pation in safety, health, and waste reduction assess-
ments is an excellent teaching tool. Several students


TABLE 1
Course Outline by Topics


Safety and Health Course


Generic and Common Topics


Industrial Waste Management Course


* Toxicology
* Epidemiology
* Fires and explosions
* Reactivity


* Dos
*Risl


Materials Properties: Effects and Hazards
e response Health/environmental effects of pollutants
k State of the environment
Hazardous waste characteristics


Regulations and Liability


* OSHA, TSCA, HMTA, RCRA, CWA, CAA, CERCLA, HMTA, TSCA,
SARA (Worker right to know) SARA (Community right to know, toxics
release inventory)
Emission Sources, Types, and Characteristics: Criteria and Definitions
* Gases, vapors, particulates Materials safety data sheets Hazardous/toxic waste lists and characteristics
* Threshold limit values DOT guidelines Hazardous waste generator reports
* Other hazard classifications, Air toxics
e.g., NFPA Wastewater parameters


* Source models for worker exposure


Modeling
* Radioactivity concentration guide for water Air pollution: Smog 03, NO., VOCs
* Ambient carbon monoxide standard
Coburn, Forster, Kane equation
* Dispersion


Management, Hazards Identification, Inspections
* Checklists, surveys, reviews, HAZOP Hierarchy for prevention and control Environmental audits
* Accident investigations Waste minimization assessments
* Risk assessment fault and event trees,
probability


* Protective equipment and clothing,
monitoring
* Isolation, ventilation
* Relief valves
* Suppression of fires and explosions


Prevention, Protection, Engineering Controls
* Materials substitution, product/process Underground storage tanks
modification Transportation of wastes
* Inventory control Industrial wastewater pretreatment
* Emergency response, spill prevention Waste reduction, resource recovery, recycling
control Thermal treatment
Landfill disposal
Chemical, physical, and biological treatment
Injection well disposal


* Worker protection



* Safety and health inspection of
chemical engineering building


SSite Remediation _



Student Team Project


* Hazard ranking system
* Containment/treatment technologies
* Financial considerations

* Waste minimization assessment of local
manufacturing facility


Chemical Engineering Education










are participating in a funded waste minimization
assessment program and are involved with the prepa-
ration of preliminary engineering feasibility studies
for a variety of different manufacturing facilities.
Two of these students have received job offers from
major companies to work in waste reduction after
graduation.

In general, the courses are more descriptive and
qualitative than quantitative and theoretical, al-
though a limited number of theoretical/calculational
problems are assigned. Safety and Health is the
more technical course, primarily because of the re-
cent availability of a new chemical engineering text-
book.141 However, the students are made aware of the
relevant principles and techniques from traditional
courses and how to apply them. For example, mate-
rial from Transport Phenomenat51 is used to estimate
relative evaporation rates of solvents as a measure
of fire and health hazards and to estimate solvent
loss. With regard to risk reduction, the students
already know much of the necessary technical con-
tent, but need to be shown where and how to use it.
In this sense, the instructor serves as more of a
facilitator than a subject-matter expert.

Since safety, health, waste management, etc.,
cover such a wide range of topics, it would be diffi-
cult for any one instructor to have sufficient overall
expertise. Also, the available textbooks in these sub-
jects do not cover many relevant topics. Therefore,
quest speakers are used to lecture in areas that they
work in, such as waste-water treatment, air-pollu-
tion control, and toxicology. The part-time students


TABLE 2
Textbooks and Other Required Materials

Safety and Health
Crowl and Louvar, Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals
with Applications, Prentice Hall, 1990
Hammer, Occupational Safety Management and Engineering,
Prentice-Hall, 1985
ACGIH, Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure
Indices (latest edition)
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards

Industrial Waste Management
Wentz, Hazardous Waste Management, McGraw-Hill, 1989
Martin and Johnson, Hazardous Waste Management Engi-
neering, Van Nostrand-Reinhold, 1987
Dawson and Mercer, Hazardous Waste Management, Wiley-
Interscience, 1986 (not used in course, but recommended)

Other
Hoover, Hancock, Hutton, Dickerson, and Harris, Health,
Safety and Environmental Control, Van Nostrand-Reinhold,
1989


are an excellent classroom resource, and some of
them also make presentations related to their work.
They can often answer classroom questions better
than I can, and they provide excellent input to class-
room discussions. A partial listing of some of the
topics presented by guest and student speakers in
given in Table 3.

Field trips and plant visits are also part of both
courses (see Table 4). During some field trips, in-
plant lectures are given. The guest lectures and field
trips were highly valued by the majority of the stu-


TABLE 3
Guest Lectures

Safety and Health
"Applications of Toxicology Data to Chemical Operations,"
by Health and Safety Director, Rohm & Haas
"Material Safety Data Sheets," by Occupational Health
Consultant
"Du Pont Philosophy and Management System for Safety and
Health," by Maintenance Supervisor, Du Pont
"Fire Safety and Industrial Hygiene," by Senior Loss Control
Engineer, Travelers Insurance
"Cleanup of Superfund Hazardous Waste Sites," by Emer-
gency Response Engineer, EPA Contractor
"Health Hazard Identification," by Field Inspector, Kentucky
Department of Labor

Industrial Waste Management
"Environmental Management in the Chemical Industry," by
Environmental Affairs Manager, Du Pont
"Environmental Regulations," by Environmental Attorney or
Assistant Commissioner, Kentucky Department for Environ-
mental Protection
"Legal Liability for Environmental Practitioners," by
Environmental Attorney
"Industrial Waste-Water Pretreatment and the Morris Forman
Waste-Water Treatment Plant," by the Director, Industrial
Wastes Metropolitan Sewer District
"Air Pollution Modeling and the Local Smog Situation," by
Director, Jefferson County Air Pollution Control Board
"Prevention, Containment and Response to Hazardous
Materials Spills," by Spill Control Engineer, Metropolitan
Sewer District
"Leaking Underground Storage Tanks," by Consultant
"Waste Incineration," by USEPA Speaker or Technical
Operations Manager, Louisville Incinerator
"EPA Programs in Waste Minimization," by Risk Reduction
Engineer, USEPA
"Environmental Audits for Property Acquisition," by
Consultant
"Remediation and Closure at a RCRA Landfill," by Environ-
mental Manager, Du Pont
"State of the Environment in Kentucky," by Environmental
Activist Attorney
"Transportation and Disposal of Hazardous Wastes and
Waste Oils," by Hazardous Waste Management Broker
"Solid Waste Disposal and Landfill Design: Engineering and
the Decision Making Process," by Director, Division of Waste
Management, Kentucky Department for Environmental
Protection


Fall 1991










dents, and they particularly appreciated the net-
working aspect, as did I.

Many useful movies and video tapes are avail-
able in safety, health, and environmental areas, and
they are also used in class (see Table 5). The videos,
many of which are excellent dramatizations, often
depict things much better than the instructor or a
text can. Study guides for the videos, in the form of
assigned questions, are given to the students. Be-
cause of the deficiencies within the textbooks and
the lack of breadth and currency of the topics, nu-
merous additional materials are also given to the
students (see Table 6).

PART-TIME STUDENTS ATTRACTED TO COURSE

The primary prerequisite for Safety and Health
and Industrial Waste Management is a BS in sci-
ence, math, engineering, or its equivalent. Thus, the
courses are taken by first-year graduate and M.Eng
students from other departments, along with part-
time students from industry, consulting firms, and
government agencies. Many part-time students come
from as far as sixty miles away.

The courses are offered on a one night per week
basis, 2-hours 45-minutes per class, so as to attract
part-time students. Announcements of the courses
are placed in newsletters of various regional and
statewide professional organizations such as the Ken-
tucky Waste Reduction Centers and the Air and
Waste Management Association.

The first offering of Industrial Waste Manage-
ment drew about thirty-five students, two-thirds of
which were part-time students. Several of the part-
time students also took Safety and Health which
was taught the following year with fifteen students
(nine of them part-time). In the second offering, In-
dustrial Waste Management had eighteen students
(fourteen of them part-time) and Safety and Health
had ten students (nine of them part-time). These
courses are being recommended to co-workers, and
the part-time students have requested additional
courses in risk reduction. In response, we plan to
offer a course entitled Waste Reduction, Treatment,
and Disposal in the future.

Many of the part-time students are not pursuing
a degree and thus can register through Continuing
Studies rather than through the usual, more tedi-
ous, routes. Students not applying the credits to-
wards a degree, along with non-chemical engineer-
ing students (who may lack some of the technical


TABLE 4
Field Trips and Plant Visits

Safety and Health
* Safety Features in Emulsion Polymerization Process: Rohm &
Haas
* Emergency Response Simulation: Jefferson County Hazard-
ous Material Mutual Aid Group
* Hazardous Waste Incinerator Siting Hearing

Industrial Waste Management
* Waste-Water Treatment Plant: Metropolitan Sewer District
* Industrial Waste-Water Pretreatment Plant: General Electric
* Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator
* Industrial Landfill: Waste Management Company
* Waste Minimization Assessment: BASF



TABLE 5
Video Tapes and Films'

Safety and Health
* Acceptable Risk, ABC Television
* Safetyin the Chemical Process Industries, AIChE-7 Tape
Series
* Safety and Loss Prevention, First Impressions, BASF
* Chemical Toxicity and How it Affects You and Your Job,
Celanese
* MSDS: Cornerstone of Chemical Safety, ITS
* Health Hazard Evaluation: Environmental-Epidemiological
Study of Workers Exposed to Toluene Diisocyanate, West
Virginia University
* Dual Protection, NIOSH, (Paints and Coatings)
* First Considerations, NIOSH (Pesticide Formulating Plants)
* Case Studies-Flixborough, Bhopal
* BLEVE, NFPA
* Confined Space Entry, NIOSH
* Oxidizers: Identification, Properties, and Safe Handling,
CMA

Industrial Waste Management
* Doing Something, CMA
* The Need to Know, CMA
* The Burial Ground, (Hazardous Waste Dumping)
* The Toxics Release Inventory: Meeting the Challenge, EPA
* In Your Own Back Yard, NFPA (Underground Storage Tanks)
* Tank Closure Without Tears: An Inspectors Guide
* Beyond Business as Usual, EPA (Hazardous Waste Manage-
ment)
* Marine Shale Processor, Let's Clean Up America, (Incinera-
tion/Recycling)
* Pollution Prevention by Waste Minimization, 3M Company
* Less is More: Pollution Prevention Pays, EPA (Waste
Minimization)

Common to Both Courses
* Carcinogens, Anti-Carcinogens, and Risk Assessment,
Council for Chemical Research
* First on the Scene, CMA (Emergency Response)
* Teamwork, CMA (Emergency Response)
* DryPaint Stripping, Promaco/Schlick (Waste Reduction,
Safety)

SNot all used in a given semester


Chemical Engineering Education










background), can take the course on a pass/fail or
audit basis to minimize the pressure of grades. The
courses are taught on an informal, relaxed basis
(similar to a workshop or seminar) which enhanced
the students' enjoyment. For example, on some nights
when movies or video tapes were being shown, pop-
corn was served. Because of the maturity of the
students, it was a pleasure to be on a more collegial
basis with them, and as pointed out earlier, the part-
time students are an excellent classroom and net-
working resource.

SYNERGIES BETWEEN APPLICATIONS
Some examples of the unifying concepts of risk
reduction, resultant synergies, and trade-offs are
briefly explored. These approaches can be used in
either of the two survey courses or as a component of
any appropriate required course.

One example of synergy is in finishing operations
such as paint and coating applications. The same


TABLE 6
Examples of Supplemental Handout Materials

Safety andHealth
Materials Safety Data Sheet and Glossary
Carbon Monoxide Health Effects and Standards
Health Hazard Classification, BASF
SSafety and Hazards Evaluation Review-Protocol, Rohm &
Haas
*OSHA Hazards Communication Standards

Industrial Waste Management
Glossary of Environmental Terms
Leaking Underground Storage Tanks: The NewRCRA
Requirements, EPA
Understanding the Small Quantity Generator Hazardous
Waste Rules: A Handbook for Small Business, EPA
Used Oil Fuel Classification Under RCRA
Definitions, Important RCRA Dates (Land Bans), and TCLP
Requirements
Environmental Progress and Challenges: EPA's Update, 1989
Waste Minimization: Environmental Quality with Economic
Benefits, EPA
1988 SARA Title III Section 313 Summary Report (Ken-
tucky), County Releases
Estimating Releases and Waste-Treatment Efficiencies for the
Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Form

Common to Both Courses
Emergency Response Guidebook, DOT
Hazardous Materials Warning Placards, DOT
Federal Statutes and the Control of Toxic Substances,
Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection
Hazardous Waste Sites and Hazardous Substance Emergen-
cies, NIOSH 1982
Explaining Environmental Risk, EPA
The 13 Commandments of Hazardous Materials Response


properties that make wastes and emissions from
these operations hazardous also contribute to expo-
sure that endangers employee health and plant
safety. Thus, waste reduction measures will simul-
taneously benefit employee safety and health, and
vice versa. These measures include substitute mate-
rials and alternative methods, such as aqueous-based
rather than solvent-based paints, powder coatings,
and airless or electrostatic spray guns. Another syn-
ergy that occurs with waste reduction is conserva-
tion of raw materials. For example, increased recy-
cling of plastics can simultaneously reduce depend-
ence on foreign crude oil.

Trade-offs or conflicts can also be shown (for ex-
ample) between waste minimization and quality
management, and between safety and waste disposi-
tion considerations. Reworking of off-specification
and waste solids from tank cleaning into useful prod-
ucts is a waste minimization technique. Spills on the
one hand must be properly retained and disposed of
so as not to damage the environment. On the other
hand, a reactive (but improper) response to a haz-
ardous materials spill might be to flush it immedi-
ately down the drain.

WHAT IT WILL TAKE

Some preliminary ideas concerning the inclusion
of the risk reduction spectrum into the curriculum
have been presented and exemplified in this paper.
Because of the increasing importance of risk reduc-
tion to chemical engineers, further exploration of
ways to incorporate these concepts seems manda-
tory. Availability of teaching materials such as the
problem sets available from the AIChE Center for
Chemical Process Safety can facilitate this process.
Hopefully, such materials will be available from the
newly-established AIChE Center for Waste Reduc-
tion Technology.

REFERENCES
1. Fleischman, M., "Rationale for Incorporating Health and
Safety into the Curriculum," Chem. Eng. Ed., 22, 30 (1988)
2. Center for Chemical Process Safety, "Student Problems:
Safety, Health, and Loss Prevention in Chemical Proc-
esses," AIChE (1990)
3. Lane, A.M., "Incorporating Health, Safety, Environmental,
and Ethical Issues into the Curriculum," Chem. Eng. Ed.,
23,70(1989)
4. Crowl and Louvar, Chemical Process Safety: Fundamen-
tals With Applications, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs,
NJ (1990)
5. Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, John
Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, p 522 (1960) O


Fall 1991











RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES IN

CERAMICS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


Toivo KODAS, JEFFREY BRINKER,
ABHAYA DATYE, DOUGLAS SMITH
University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, NM 87131


T he United States aerospace, automotive, bio-
materials, chemical, electronics, energy, met-
als, and telecommunications industries collectively
employ more than 7 million people in materials sci-
ence and engineering and have sales in excess of
$1.4 trillion. Recent reports'11 have called the 1990s
the "Age of Materials" and have concluded that the
field of materials science and engineering is enter-
ing a period of unprecedented intellectual chal-
lenge and productivity. Chemical engineers, with
their background in reaction engineering and trans-
port processes, have the skills necessary to make
significant contributions in this area.
A strong component of materials science and en-
gineering is ceramics science and engineering. Al-
though many applications of ceramics have in the
past been low-tech, a vast number of new high-tech
ceramics have been developed in recent years, open-
ing up a large number of new and exciting applica-
tions for a wide variety of industries. Ceramic super-
conductors may provide new methods of energy trans-
mission and new types of electronic devices. Elec-
tronic ceramics such as BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 are used
to make capacitors and sensors. Ferroelectric ceram-


ics can be used to produce memories for computers.
A variety of metal oxides, nitrides and silicides are
used in computer chips and to make substrates for
the chips themselves.
Ceramics can also be used to make chemical sen-
sors for detecting small amounts of hazardous sub-
stances for applications in hazardous waste control.
They are also used as catalysts for chemical reac-
tions or as catalyst supports in the chemical indus-
try. These and other applications have led to a tre-
mendous interest in the synthesis, processing, and
characterization of ceramic materials in the form of
powders and films.
The chemical engineering department at the
University of New Mexico dramatically expanded its
program in ceramics science and engineering follow-
ing the establishment of a National Science Founda-
tion-supported UNM/NSF Center For Micro-Engi-
neered Ceramics (CMEC). Numerous research proj-
ects, many in the areas mentioned above, are now
available to interested students. These opportuni-
ties are particularly interesting since demand is high
for students with a background in ceramics, with
fewer than forty PhDs being granted in the United
States each year in Ceramics Science and Engineer-
ing (with roughly half of them going to foreign stu-
dents).
This article briefly describes some of the research


Toivo T. Kodas received his BS (1981) and PhD
(1986) from the University of Califomia, Los Ange-
les. During that period he also worked at the ALCOA
Research Center. He was a visiting scientist at the
IBM Almaden Research Center from 1986 until 1988
when he joined the faculty at the University of New
Mexico.


Abhaya K. Datye received his BS from the Indian
Institute of Technology, Bombay (1975), his MS from
the University of Cincinnati (1980), and his PhD from
the University of Michigan (1984), and has been a
member of the chemical engineering faculty at the
University of New Mexico since 1984.


iIi


Douglas M. Smith received his BS (1975) and MS
(1977) from Clarkson University and his PhD (1982)
from the University of New Mexico. Previous posi-
tions include Unilever Research and Montana State
University. He is currently professor of chemical
engineering and serves as Director of the UNM/NSF
Center for Micro-Engineered Ceramics.


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE 1991
Chemical Engineering Education


C. Jeffrey Brinker received his BS, MS, and PhD
degrees from Rutgers University, and joined the Ce-
ramic Development Division at Sandia National Labo-
ratories in 1979. He is presently a member of the
technical staff and a University of New Mexico/San-
dia National Laboratory professor of chemistry and
chemical engineering.


I I


PS~'

Ak











A strong component ofmatrerials science and engineering is ceramics science and engineering. Although
many applications of ceramics have in the past been low-tech, a vast number of new high-tech
ceramics have been developed in recent years, opening up a large number of new and
exciting applications for a wide variety of industries.


opportunities in ceramics science and engineering at
the University of New Mexico and the unique inter-
disciplinary nature of the projects which involve in-
vestigators from chemical engineering and other
departments, from centers at UNM involved in ma-
terials, and from Sandia and Los Alamos National
Laboratories.


RESEARCH AREAS

The authors of this paper have extensive pro-
grams in ceramics science and engineering. Their
projects span ceramics synthesis, processing, and
characterization.

Jeffrey Brinker is investigating sol-gel proc-
essing of ceramics-films, fibers, powders, and bulk;
physics and chemistry of film deposition from liquid
precursors; defects in glasses; controlled porosity
materials for sensors, membranes, and adsorbents;
nanoscale materials; multifunctional composites; and
fractals.

Sol-gel processing (see Figure 1) refers to the
room temperature formation of inorganic materials
from molecular precursors.121 Inorganic salts or metal
organic compounds dissolved in aqueous or organic
solvents are hydrolyzed and condensed to form poly-
mers composed of M-O-M bonds. These polymers
may be deposited on substrates to form thin films,
drawn into fibers, or cast in molds and dried to form
"near-net-shape solids." Prior to drying, the struc-
tures of the polymers are often described by fractal
geometry,131 a consequence of kinetically-limited
growth mechanisms such as reaction-limited cluster
aggregation.[4' The properties of fractal objects may
be exploited to prepare materials (films, fibers,
or bulk) with precisely controlled pore structures
(e.g., pore size, surface area, and percent porosity).
Films with controlled pore sizes151 may be used as
molecular sieves to impart steric selectivity to sen-
sor devices or to separate a mixture of gases on the
basis of size.

The inherent porosity of sol-gel-derived materi-
als provides access to reagents throughout the mate-
rial's interior. Surfaces may be modified by reactions
with gas or liquid reagents, and secondary phases
may be depositied within the pores to form nano-

Fall 1991


SOL SOL 1)
FIBERS

ORDERED ARRAYS OF GELATON
UNIFORM PARTICLES EVAPORATION
STRUCTURAL CERAMICS

XEROGEL FILM
E SENSOR
HEAT OPTICAL
'I COATINGS CATALYTIC
DIELECTRIC
m [PROTECTIVE
DENSE GLASS FILM


GEL
EVAPORATION
OF SOLVENT
I


GLASS CERAMIC
SEAUNG GLASS
CATALYST SUPPORT
FIBEROPTIC PREFORI
CONTROLLED PORE GLA


SOLVENT
EXTRACTION
AEROGEL




XEROGEL
DRY HEAT|
cs
TS GLASSES
SS
DENSE GLASS


FIGURE 1. Processes occurring during sol-gel process-
ing of materials

scale composite materials.j6' Alternatively, secondary
phases may be incorporated in the liquid or sol.
Under certain conditions, deposition of the diphasic
sol results in a composite film in which the second
phase is embedded in a dense gel matrix. Zeolite/gel
composites made by this procedure can impart mo-
lecular recognition capabilities to sensor surfaces.j71

Sol-gel-derived materials are highly metastable;
their structures are dictated by kinetics rather than
by thermodynamics.E2' Kinetic pathways may be ex-
ploited to prepare novel inorganic materials. Only
when these materials are processed in the vicinity of
the glass transformation temperature do their struc-
tures approach those of their conventionally pre-
pared counterparts.'81

Abhaya Datye is interested in: heterogeneous
catalysis and surface science; structure and proper-
ties of thin films and interfaces in ceramics and
semiconductors; and materials characterization by
electron microscopy.

Phenomena occurring at the interfaces between
dissimilar materials have enormous implications in
materials we use every day. For instance, the strength
of the bond between a metal and a ceramic deter-
mines the properties of glass metal seals as well as
the high-temperature stability of heterogeneous cata-
lysts. Sometimes a weaker interface is desired (as in


SOL-GEL-PROCESSING


4.









a fiber-reinforced composite) to redistribute stresses
at the interface and deflect cracks to make a brittle
ceramic tougher. In semiconductors the performance
of a device is often determined by the impurities and
defects at an interface. Therefore, engineering of
such complex materials requires a good understand-
ing of the interface region and the means of tailoring
the interface to achieve desired properties. Since
even a monolayer of a hydrocarbon can affect the
wetting of water on a solid substrate, it is apparent
that interfacial properties are determined by changes
occurring over the scale of atomic dimensions. It is
therefore necessary to use probes having high spa-
tial resolution as well as those that give chemical
information from the near-surface region. In the re-
search at the University of New Mexico, high-resolu-
tion transmission electron microscopy and surface-
sensitive spectroscopies are used to study these
materials and correlate their structure with proper-
ties relevant to their commercial applications.

One project involves the study of thin-film coat-
ings of non-oxide ceramics and their interactions
with ceramic substrates.193 We are examining the
potential of boron nitride for use as a high-tempera-
ture coating material for fiber-reinforced compos-
ites. The interaction of BN with ox-
ide ceramics is quite strong, and BN .7
appears to readily wet and coat these
substrates. However, a detailed
study101' of the atomic structure of
this interface reveals that the inter-
atomic spacing between the BN
sheets and MgO is larger than dis-
tances normally associated with
chemical bonding (see Figure 2).
Mg
Other projects deal with funda-
mental studies of oxide surfaces in Mean =11.
order to understand the surface
chemistry involved in preparing
monolayer and multilayer films of I I I
other oxides for potential catalytic
applications.E1',12 Studies of surface
structure in small metal particles
are being conducted in the labora-
tory to examine the effect of pre- FIGURE 2. A
treatments and the ceramic support face.['0 The arn
on catalytic behavior.E13' Finally, the MgO structure
on the right co
high spatial resolution of TEM is on the right c
micrograph wa
exploited to study the structure and spacing between
properties of materials ranging from trace of image
strained layer superlattices1'41 to fine are indicated i
pores in oxides.1151 the BNinterato


Toivo Kodas is studying: the formation and proc-
essing of electronic, mechanical, and superconducting
ceramic powders; laser-processing of materials;
chemical vapor deposition of ceramics and metals for
microelectronics applications; and aerosol physics
and chemistry.
High-purity powders with controlled chemical
compositions, particle size distributions, and micro-
structures are required as precursors for fabrication
of superconducting and conventional ceramic parts.
The goal of this work is to develop gas-phase routes
for the formation of powders with these characteris-
tics. Both gas-to-particle conversion and intrapar-
ticle reaction processes are being examined. Research
is focused on obtaining a basic understanding of the
physical and chemical processes controlling multi-
component powder production by chemical reaction,
and processing these powders to produce ceramics
with unique electrical, optical, and mechanical prop-
erties. Examples include Ag/YBa2Cu3O7x[16-181 for a
variety of applications, Ba1-xCaxTiO3 for tempera-
ture sensors'191 (see Figure 3), mullite for electronic
device substrates,1201 and BN for structural applica-
tions.[21]
Chemical vapor deposition is used extensively in


high-resolution electron micrograph of the BN/MgO inter-
ay of white spots on the left corresponds to a projection of the
imaged along the <110> direction. The rows of light contrast
me from the basal planes of the hexagonal BN lattice. The
rs digitally processed to allow precise measurement of the
n the atomic planes. Shown above is a microdensitometer
intensity along a direction normal to the interface. Spacings
n mm (to an accuracy of-1 pixel = 0.01 mm). A variation in
'mic spacing is evident in the region near the interface.


Chemical Engineering Education









industry for the formation of thin films of a wide
variety of materials. This process begins with a vola-
tile molecular species that is transported to a sub-
strate where it decomposes and results in deposition
of material with desorption of volatile byproducts.
The chemistry occurring during deposition deter-
mines the deposition rate, minimum deposition tem-
perature, adhesion to the substrate, and electronic
properties. Yet the chemistry occurring during most
CVD processes is poorly understood. Our research
involves the use of high pressure and ultrahigh vac-
uum systems utilizing mass spectrometry, Auger
electron spectroscopy, temperature-programmed
desorption, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy to study
the surface and gas phase chemistry. The goal is to
develop a better understanding of the role of chemis-
try in determining the properties of the deposited
material. Current projects are the examination of
deposition of PLZT with Radiant Technology, Cu
with Motorola,[22' and YBa2Cu 30x with Los Alamos
National Laboratories.
Aerosols (fine particles suspended in a gas) play
a fundamental role in fine metallic and ceramic par-
ticle production, optical fiber production, thin film
formation, and contamination control in cleanrooms.
We are currently examining the interaction between


FIGURE 3. Bao,86Cao.14TiO particles made by aerosol
decomposition.


the chemistry and aerosol dynamics in systems for
gas phase particle production,23-24] deposition of these
particles onto surfaces to form coatings,1221 and dur-
ing laser-induced deposition processes.[25'

Douglas Smith is currently examining charac-
terization of porous materials, transport phenomena
in porous media, sol-gel, and powder processing.
The pore structure of materials is of considerable
interest for a large number of applications which in-
clude ceramics processing, catalysis, membrane sepa-
rations, radioactive waste isolation, and coal gasifi-
cation. The basic approach is to study the physics of
both established and innovative pore structure analy-
sis tools in an attempt to extract more detailed infor-
mation about porous solid systems.
Conventional techniques for pore structure analy-
sis include mercury porosimetry, nitrogen adsorp-
tion/condensation, and microscopy (optical, scanning,
and transmission electron). Each of these techniques
suffers from different disadvantages which limit ac-
curacy and preclude their use for in-situ pore struc-
ture analysis. Therefore, considerable incentive ex-
ists for the development of new techniques for pore
structure analysis. Professor Smith's laboratory has
pioneered the development of low-field, NMR spin-
lattice relaxation measurements of fluid contained
in pores as a structure analysis technique. This ap-
proach allows the study of pores of "wet" materials
and allows imaging of pore structure as a function of
time while the structure evolves.
In addition to pore structure analysis, the study
of the physical nature of surfaces is of interest. In
particular, the fractal nature of surfaces is being
studied via molecular probe techniques.[261 A parallel
effort using SAXS (small angle x-ray scattering) and
SANS (small angle neutron scattering) is underway
in collaboration with investigators at Sandia Na-
tional Laboratories. The growth of fine particles and
polymers in solution is studied via both SAXS and
light scattering.
Using expertise in pore structure analysis, a num-
ber of ceramics processing problems are being exam-
ined. These include pore structure evolution and
elimination during sintering of ceramic green bod-
ies, dispersion of powder agglomerates, packing of
powders during green body formation,[271 and pore
structure development during sol-gel processing of
xerogels and aerogels (both bulk[21,29') and coat-
ings.[30,31' Ceramic powder synthesis is conducted us-
ing a range of techniques including reactive laser


Fall 1991









ablation, sol-gel processing,[321 precipitation, and aero-
sol processing.[201

CENTER FOR MICRO-ENGINEERED CERAMICS

Much of the research in ceramics science and
engineering is being carried out in the National Sci-
ence Foundation Center for Micro-Engineered Ce-
ramics, which is housed in the chemical engineering
department. The Center consists of fifteen profes-
sors from the University of New Mexico (seven from
chemical engineering, four from chemistry, one each
from mechanical engineering, physics, and geology),
over ten staff members from Sandia National Labo-
ratory, and over ten staff members from Los Alamos
National Laboratory. A critical feature of the Center
is the membership of more than fifteen industrial
members. This allows the Center to combine the
expertise of the national labs, the university, and
industry to attack ceramics-related problems of
interest to industry. The goals are to attack use-
ful problems, to transfer technology between indus-
try, the National Labs and the University, and to
train students in ceramics science and engineering.
A key feature of the Center is the hands-on policy for
use of equipment. The Center is equipped with a
variety of state-of-the-science equipment, shown in
Table 1.

INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER DEPARTMENTS
AND NATIONAL LABORATORIES

Another feature of the CMEC and the chemical
engineering department is the extensive interactions
with other departments at the university. The proj-
ects in the CMEC are interdisciplinary with faculty
from chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, geol-
ogy, mechanical engineering, and the national labo-
ratories involved in each project. In addition, signifi-
cant interactions occur with the Center for High
Technology Materials in electrical engineering whose
strength is optoelectronic materials.

The extensive interactions of the chemical engi-
neering department and CMEC with the national
laboratories has numerous advantages. The strengths
of SNL include electronic ceramics and glasses, while
LANL is primarily involved in structural and super-
conducting ceramics. These skills complement the
strength of the University in chemical routes to ce-
ramics and materials characterization. Scientists and
engineers at the Center and in the chemical engi-
neering department have access to state-of-the-sci-
ence equipment at the national laboratories. In ad-


Another feature.. .is the extensive interactions
with other departments. .the projects are inter-
disciplinary, with faculty from chemical
engineering, chemistry, physics, geology,
mechanical engineering, and the
national laboratories involved
in each project.


TABLE 1
CMEC Facilities

High-field solution and solids FT-NMR spectrome-
ters: GE NT-360, JEOL GX-400, Bruker AC-250P,
Varian 400 MHz Unity 1
Low-field pulse NMR spectrometers: 10 MHz, 20
MHz, 4-60 MHz, for sol-gel and green body structure
analysis
Hitachi S-800 field emission SEM (20 angstrom
resolution) with low Z x-ray analysis and advanced
image analysis
Electron Beam Microanalysis Facility, including
JEOL 2000FX TEM with TN5500 EDS, JEOL Super-
probe with 5 spectrometers, Hitachi S-450 SEM
Electron spin resonance spectrometer
FT-Infrared spectrometers: NIC-6000, Perkin-Elmer,
Galaxy 6020 coupled to high-vacuum IR cell for
powder studies
Single-crystal and powder x-ray diffractometers
Powders and Granular Materials Laboratory,
includes: Autoscan-33 mercury porosimeter, Quan-
timent 720 image analyzer, Autosorb-1 automated
nitrogen sorption analyzer, Sedigraph particle-size
analyzer, Coulter Counter, 4 adsorption instruments,
gas permeation apparatus, Micromeritics Accupyc
1330 Pycnometer, Micromeritic ASAP-2000 adsorp-
tion analyzer
Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS)
Two RF high-temperature (3000C) furnaces
High-temperature thermal analysis instrumentation
(TGA, DTA, DSC, Dilatometer)
Laser birefringence facility for the in-situ study of
stress in sol-gel and polymer processing
Aerosol powder reactors including high-temperature
(17000C) and scale-up aerosol reactor for production
of oxide ceramic powders (kilograms per day)
Coupled TPD/Auger apparatus for surface analysis
Light scattering: Spectraphysics 2000 krypton laser,
Brookhaven Gonimeter, BI-2030 AT controller
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMRI) for in-
situ studies of transport phenomena in porous
materials
Four gas membrane test stands.


Chemical Engineering Education











edition, fellowships such as the UNM/LANL PhD fel-
lowship are available to outstanding students with a
stipend of $16-18 k/yr.

Researchers at the chemical engineering depart-
ment and CMEC have access to various facilities at
the national laboratories. The facilities of LANL in-
clude the Exploratory Research and Development
Center for Superconducting Ceramics, the LANSCE-
Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center, the Center
for Materials Science, and the Ion Beam Materials
Laboratory. The facilities of SNL include the Sur-
face Modification and Analysis Facility, Ceramics
and Glass Processing Facility, SNL/LANL dedicated
EXAFS lines at Brookhaven and Stanford, and a
30,000 ft2 materials research and development labo-
ratory which is jointly administered by UNM and
SNL.

REFERENCES
1. Press, F., and White, R., Materials Science and Engineer-
ing for the 1990s, National Research Council, National
Academy Press, Washington, DC (1989)
2. Brinker, C.J., and G.W. Scherer, Sol-Gel Science: The Phys-
ics and Chemistry of Sol-Gel Processing, Academic Press,
San Diego, CA (1990)
3. Mandelbrot, B.B., The Fractal Geometry of Nature, Free-
man, San Francisco, CA (1983)
4. Witten, T.A., and M.E. Cates, "Tenuous Structures from
Disorderly Growth Processes, Science, 232, 1607 (1983)
5. Brinker, C.J., A.J. Hurd, G.C. Frye, K.J. Ward, and C.S.
Ashley, "Sol-Gel Thin Film Formation," J. Non-Cryst. Sol-
ids, 121,294 (1990)
6. Brinker, C.J., and D.M. Haaland, "Oxinitride Glass For-
mation from Gels," J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 66, 758 (1983)
7. Bein, T., K. Brown, G.C. Frye, and C.J. Brinker, "Molecu-
lar Sieve Sensors for Selective Detection at the Nanogram
Level," J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 1117640 (1989)
8. Scherer, G., C.J. Brinker, and E.P. Roth, "Structural Re-
laxation in Gel-Derived Glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 82,
191(1986)
9. Datye, A.K., Q. Mei, R.T. Paine, and T.T. Borek, "Stability
of BN Coatings on Ceramic Substrates," Better Ceramics
Through Chemistry IV, MRS Symposia Proc. V 180, 807
(1990)
10. Allard, L.F., A.K. Datye, T.A. Nolan, S.L. Mahan, and R.T.
Paine, "High Resolution Electron Microscopy of BN on
MgO, A Model Ceramic-Ceramic Interface," Ultramicro-
scopy, in press (1991)
11. Anderson, S.L., A.K. Datye, T.A. Wark, and M.H. Smith,
"Homogeneous Rh-Sn Alkoxide Coatings on Silica Sur-
faces: A Novel Route for the Preparation of Bimetallic Rh-
Sn Catalysts," Catal. Lett., 8,345 (1991)
12. Srinivasan, S., A.K. Datye, M.H. Smith, I.E. Wachs, G.B.
Deo, J.M. Jehng, A.M. Turek, and C.H.F. Peden, "The
Formation of Titanium Oxide Monolayer Coatings on Sil-
ica Surfaces," J. Catal., in press (1991)
13. Logan, A.D., and A.K. Datye, "Oxidative Restructuring of
Rhodium Metal Surfaces: Correlations Between Single
Crystals and Small Metal Particles," J. Phys. Chem.,
95,5568(1991)
14. Chadda, S., A.K. Datye, and L.R. Dawson, "The Nature of
Defects in IR Detectors Based on Strained Layer Super-

Fall 1991


lattice Structures," Proc. 49th Ann. Meet. of Electron Mi-
croscopy Soc. ofAm., G.W. Bailey, ed., San Francisco Press,
p. 852(1991)
15. Kaushik, V.S., A.K. Datye, S.S. Tsao, T.E. Guillinger, and
M.J. Kelly, "Microstructure of Pores in N Silicon," Mater.
Lett., 11, 109 (1991)
16. Carim, A., P. Doherty, and T.T. Kodas, "Nanocrystalline
Ba2YCu30/Ag Composite Particles Produced by Aerosol
Decomposition," Mater. Lett., 8, 335 (1989)
17. Kodas, T.T., E.M. Engler, V. Lee, R. Jacowitz, T.H. Baum,
K. Roche, S.S.P. Parkin, W.S. Young, S. Hughes, J. Kle-
der, and W. Auser, "Aerosol Flow Reactor Production of
Fine Y1Ba2Cu07, Powder: Fabrication of Superconducting
Ceramics," Appl. Phys. Lett., 52, 1622 (1988)
18. Kodas, T.T., A. Datye, V. Lee, and E. Engler, "Single-
Crystal YBa2Cu307 Particle Formation by Aerosol Decom-
position," J. Appl. Phys., 65,2149 (1989)
19. Ortega, J., T.T. Kodas, S. Chadda, D.M. Smith, M.
Ciftcioglu, and J. Brennan, "Generation of Dense Barium
Calcium Titanate Particles by Aerosol Decomposition,"
Chem. in Mater., in press (1991)
20. Moore, K., D. Smith, and T.T. Kodas, "Synthesis of Submi-
cron Mullite via High Temperature Aerosol Decomposi-
tion," J. Amer. Cer. Soc., in press (1991)
21. Lindquist, D.A., T.T. Borek, C.K. Narula, R. Schaeffer,
D.M. Smith, and R.T. Paine, "Formation and Microsctruc-
ture of Boron Nitride Aerogels," Communications of the
Amer. Cer. Soc., 73, 757 (1990)
22. Shin, H.K., K.M. Chi, M. Hampden-Smith, T.T. Kodas, J.
Farr, and M. Paffett, "Selective Low Temperature Chemi-
cal Vapor Deposition of Copper Using Hexofluoroacetylace-
tonato Copper(I) Trimethylphosphine," Ad. Mat., 3, 246
(1991)
23. Kodas, T.T., "Generation of Complex Metal Oxides by
Aerosol Processes: Superconducting Ceramic Particles and
Films," Angewandte Chemie: Internat. Ed. in English, 28,
794(1989)
24. Chadda, S., T.T. Kodas, T. Ward, D. Kroeger, and K.C.
Ott, "Synthesis ofY1Ba2Cu307x and YBa2Cu40, by Aerosol
Decomposition," J. Aerosol Sci., in press (1991)
25. Kodas, T.T., and P. Comita, "Role of Mass Transport in
Laser-Induced Chemistry," Accts. of Chem. Res., 23, 188
(1990)
26. Hurd, A.J., D.W. Schaefer, D.M. Smith, S.B. Ross, and A.
LeMehaute, "Surface Areas of Fractally Rough Particles
by Scattering," Phys. Rev. B., 39, 9742 (1989)
27. Hietala, S.L., and D.M. Smith, "Porosity Effects on Par-
ticle Size Determination via Sedimentation," Powder Tech-
nology, 59, 141(1989); T.T. Borek, W. Ackerman, D.W.
Hua, R.T. Paine, and D.M. Smith, "Highly Porous Boron
Nitride for Gas Adsorption," Langmiur, in press
28. Lindquist, D., T.T. Kodas, D.M. Smith, X. Xiu, S. Hietala,
A. Datye, and R.T. Paine, "Boron Nitride Powders Formed
by Aerosol Decomposition of Poly(borazinylamine) Solu-
tions," J. Amer. Cer. Soc., in press (1991)
29. Glaves, C.L., C.J. Brinker, D.M. Smith, and P.J. Davis,
"In-Situ Pore Structure Studies of Xerogel Drying," Chem.
ofMater., 1:1, 34 (1989)
30. Glaves, C.L., G.C. Frye, D.M. Smith, C.J. Brinker, A.
Datye, A.J. Ricco, and S. Martin, "Pore Structure Charac-
terization of Films," Langmuir, 5:2, 459 (1989)
31. Glaves, C., P.J. Davis, K.A. Moore, D.M. Smith, and P.
Hsieh, "Pore Structure Characterization of Composite
Membranes, J. Colloid and Interface Sci., 133:2,377 (1989)
32. Hietala, S.L., J.L. Golden, D.M. Smith, and C.J. Brinker,
"Anomalously Low Surface Areas and Density in the Sil-
ica/Alumina Gel System," Comm. Amer. Cer. Soc., 72,
2354(1988)











AN INTRODUCTION TO

MOLECULAR TRANSPORT PHENOMENA


MICHAEL H. PETERS
Florida State University /Florida A&M University
Tallahassee, FL 32316-2175

T he course "An Introduction to Molecular Trans-
port Phenomena" is intended for upper-level
undergraduates or first-year graduate students in
engineering and science. The overall goal of the course
is to provide a comprehensive description of the mo-
lecular basis of transport phenomena for students
who have no previous background in statistical me-
chanics or statistical physics.
It is clear that recent dramatic advances in com-
putational abilities (e.g., supercomputers and con-
nection machines"1) and in atomic-level experimen-
tation (e.g., atomic force microscopy and scanning
tunneling microscopy121) require that undergraduate
engineers obtain a better molecular understanding
or interpretation of engineering processes. One ex-
ample is a surge in supercomputer purchases in the
chemical industry; an example of the benefits of
supercomputer computations is a reported $1-2 mil-
lion savings in development costs for a new catalytic
process."31 By studying the thermodynamic proper-
ties of the system through use of molecular simula-
tions on a supercomputer, some critically unusual
properties were discovered that would have been
difficult to detect through physical experiments.
These new computational and experimental ca-
pabilities make it possible to examine, design, and/
or enhance systems and processes beginning at a
molecular level description-an approach that may
be called "molecular engineering." In general, mo-
lecular engineering represents a new and powerful
method of analysis where a rational and scientific
framework can be utilized for the systematic study
of highly complex engineering systems.
Michael H. Peters is Associate Professor and Chair
in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the
SJoint College of Engineering between Florida State
University and Florida A&M University. He is also a
Faculty Associate with the Supercomputer Computa-
tions Research Institute at Florida State University.
He received his BS from the University of Dayton in
1977 and his PhD from the Ohio State University in
1981. His research interests are in the areas of macro-
molecular and colloidal phenomena, Brownian motion
theories, and molecular transport phenomena.
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE 1991


TABLE 1
Course Outline
"Introduction to Molecular Transport Phenomena"
Prerequisites: Undergraduate Engineering Mathematics (solu-
tion methods for ordinary and partial differential equations);
Transport Phenomena (momentum, heat, and mass transfer);
Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics or Engineering
Thermodynamics.
Topics for a One-Semester Course:*
Mathematical Preliminaries (3-4)
A. Introduction: A Molecular View of Gases, Liquids, and
Solids (3-4)
B. Transport Phenomena from Elementary Kinetic Theory (4)
C. Phase Space and Liouville's Equation (4)
D. Reduced Distributions and the Equilibrium Behavior of
Matter (7)
E. The General Equations of Change (7)
F. Transport Properties and Solutions to the Reduced Li-
ouville Equation (7)
G. An Introduction to Molecular Dynamic Computations (7)
SSuggested number of classes are given in parentheses based on a fifteen-week
semester, three classes per week; the two classes not shown are reserved for exams.

Molecular engineering also plays a critical role in
the development of newly emerging areas of chemi-
cal engineering (such as advanced polymeric and ce-
ramic materials, and biochemical and biomedical
engineering) where a molecular and macromolecu-
lar description is a necessity rather than just an
alternate method of analysis.[4] There is a current
need in the undergraduate curriculum for both quali-
tative and quantitative descriptions of processes and
phenomena involving gases, liquids, and solids from
a molecular viewpoint.
In this course, the macroscopic treatment of trans-
port phenomena learned in previous courses is de-
veloped from molecular-level descriptions of matter.
It is shown that the ad-hoc assumptions made in
previous transport phenomena courses can be re-
placed by rational and scientific methods that will
provide a general framework for the systematic analy-
sis of complex systems or processes.

COURSE OUTLINE AND DISCUSSION OF TOPICS
The outline of this one-semester course is given
in Table 1, and a more detailed discussion of each


Chemical Engineering Education









section of material is given below. Suggested refer-
encs in formulating the lecture for each section are
also given.
Mathematical Preliminaries
Some mathematical preliminaries may be neces-
sary, depending on the background of the students.
Generally, students should have been exposed to
some vector and tensor operations, such as summa-
rized in Appendix A of Bird, Stewart, and Light-
foot.E51 Additionally, some elementary concepts in
probability are desirable. Our undergraduate stu-
dents are exposed to such conceptse61 in the second-
semester engineering mathematics course. Regard-
less of the student backgrounds, however, I have
found it important to review both of the above before
proceeding with the core material.
A. Introduction: Molecular View of Gases, Liquids, and Solids
The purpose of this section of the course is to
present a qualitative molecular picture of gases, liq-


Figure 1. Mechanical modelfor illustrating the three
phases of matter.


uids, and solids. Additionally, quantitative examples
are given to illustrate the usefulness of a molecular
interpretation of the three phases of matter.
An important dynamic feature of molecules is
their seemingly random motion. The mechanical
model shown in Figure 1 is a useful mechanical ana-
log of the random motion of molecules. In this model,
gravity causes the metallic balls to move down a
cascade of inclined planes. When projected onto a
screen, the balls appear to be under random molecu-
lar motion, as shown in Figure 2a. Of course, actual
random motion is due to the collisions between mole-
cules, where each molecule obeys Newton's Second
Law of Motion.
The same mechanical model can also be used to
provide a qualitative molecular picture of the three
phases of matter. In a gas, the average intermolecu-
lar spacing is much greater than the diameter of a
molecule or the average range over which intermol-
ecular forces act; this is depicted in Figure 2a. In
Figure 2b, a liquid is depicted by allowing all of the
metallic balls to settle to the bottom of the container
and then slightly tilting the container to one side.
Although the intermolecular spacing is relatively
small, there is a great degree of disorder in the mo-
lecular arrangements. This can be contrasted to a
solid, shown in Figure 2c, where the container is
tilted to an even greater angle. In solids, a regular
arrangement of the molecules is observed and vari-
ous types of packing geometries are possible.
In addition to the different geometric arrange-
ment of molecules in gases, liquids, and solids, the
trajectories or dynamics of the molecules are charac-
teristically different. In Figure 3, adapted from
Barker and Henderson,713 computer-generated tra-
jectories of molecules (see section G below) in the
three states of matter are shown. The tight spacing
and strong molecular interactions in solids cause
molecules to be constrained to move about fixed lat-
tice sites in a seemingly vibration-type motion. In


-a- -b- -c-
Figure 2. Overhead projections of the mechanical model shown in Figure 1. (a) Demonstration of random molecular
motions in a gas. (b) Intermolecular arrangements in liquids. (c) Intermolecular arrangements in solids.
Fall 1991 21










liquids and gases, on the other hand, the spacing is
not as close and the interactions are not as strong,
and consequently the molecules have a less con-
strained motion.
The above discussions should lead to the recogni-
tion that the nature of the forces between molecules
is important in determining the molecular picture
and hence the properties of gases, liquids, and sol-
ids. A brief discussion of the Lennard-Jones poten-
tial is given in Bird, et al., although a more extensive
discussion ofintermolecular forces can be found.18'91
Although the above discussions are of a qualita-
tive nature, some very simple, yet motivating, quan-
titative examples can be given that illustrate how
the molecular picture can directly predict the ob-
served macroscopic properties of matter. The follow-
ing example, taken from Tabor,El0 illustrates the cal-
culation of the internal energy change for sublima-
tion of a crystal.

Example: The connection between molecular structure
and macroscopic properties: The internal energy change
for sublimation of an ionic solid.
The molecular structure of a NaCI ionic crystal is shown in
Figure 4. In the process of sublimation, a change from the crystal-
line state to the vapor state takes place. Neglecting any suba-
tomic contributions, the internal energy of the crystal is primarily
due to the electrical potential energy associated with the configu-
ration of the Na' and Cl ions. Considering any ion in the crystal,
we note that geometrically there are six nearest neighbors of op-
posite sign at the distance r from the ion, 12 neighbors of the
same sign at a distanceJ r, 8 neighbors of opposite sign at a
distance of/ r, etc.
According to Coulomb's Law, the total potential energy asso-
ciated with moving each ion to its position relative to the central
ion is
6e2 12e 8e2 2
+ ...= -A (1)
r + r ir r
where e is the electron charge and A is the so-called Madelung
constant determined from the infinite series summation in Eq. (1)
to three significant digits as 1.75.110
The above analysis is deficient in that other pair charge
interactions have been overlooked, i.e., in bringing any charge to
a specific location in the lattice, there will be Coulombic interac-
tions with all other charges in the lattice and not with just the
central charge in Figure 4. Consider, for example, an ion located
adjacent to the central ion in Figure 4. The potential energy of
interaction in bringing it from infinity to its place on the lattice
must include the pair interactions with all of its neighbors and
not just the central ion. Because of the regular geometric arrange-
ment of the lattice, however, the expression for the potential
energy interactions for locating this ion is exactly the same as
that calculated in Eq. (1) for the central ion. The total potential
energy in constructing the lattice is, therefore, obtained by sum-
ming Eq. (1) over all ions in the lattice.
We are still not quite correct, however, in that we have
counted all the pair interactions twice. If there are a total of N
ions in the crystal, the total potential energy in constructing the
lattice is finally given by


U= N[-A- (2)
Equation (2) represents a sum over pair interactions in the
crystal, or "pairwise additivity." A general representation and
discussion of pairwise additivity can also be given where Eq. (2)
represents a special case for the NaCl ionic crystal.
In order to finally compute the internal energy change for the
sublimation process, the internal energy of the NaCI vapor mole-
cules is needed. Each NaCl molecule is a neutral molecule and,
consequently, the total potential energy is obtained by multiply-
ing the electrical potential energy associated with the formation
of a single molecule by the total number of molecules, N/2. i.e.

Uvapor (3)
where r. is the interatomic distance for NaCl in the vapor state.
The internal energy change, per mole, for the sublimation
process represents the difference in electrical potential energy
between the vapor and solid states, which from Eqs. (2) and (3) is

Usub = 1Ne2( 1.75 1(4)
where No is the number of ions per mole. Using the values ofr =
(2.82)(10-8) cm and r, = (2.36)(10-8) cm given by Tabor101 the inter-
nal energy change for sublimation of NaCI crystal is calculated
from Eq. (4) as 65.3 kcal/mole. An experimental value can be


Solid


4. B r S S s
.0 4 ( V 'D 0,
06 > / <


Liquid 'T4Q





Gas





Figure 3. Characteristic molecular trajectories in gases,
liquids, and solids17 corresponding to the molecular ar-
rangements shown in Figure 2.

Figure 4. The NaCl
crystal; closed circles
represent Nao and
open circles represent
Cl-. The internal energy
of the crystal is ob-
tained by summing the
electric potential en-
ergy changes in bring-
ing each ion from in-
finity to its place on the
lattice.


Chemical Engineering Education









estimated from heats of formation data as 54.7 kcal/mole,[11 which
is in good agreement with the calculated value.
Many other examples of this nature can be used
to show the relationship between the molecular-level
description of matter and macroscopically observed
quantities. For example, Tabor also treats the prob-
lem of theoretically predicting the bulk modulus of a
crystal from knowledge of the molecular interac-
tions. These examples are very useful in motivating
the molecular treatments of transport phenomena
that follow in the remaining sections.
B. Transport Phenomena from Elementary Kinetic Theory
A simple, but elegant, treatment of the transport
properties of gases can be shown through the ele-
mentary kinetic theory of gases. The so-called phe-
nomenological laws of transport phenomena (Fick's
Law of Diffusion, Fourier's Law of Heat Conduction,
and Newton's Law of Viscosity) are also derived
through the elementary kinetic theory of gases. Con-
sequently, this is a very useful introductory theory
in establishing a firm physical foundation for dis-
cussing the phenomenological laws.
In general, mass, momentum, and energy can be
transferred by a substance through random motions
and interactions of its constituent molecules. This
transfer takes place even in the absence of any over-
all or bulk-material motion. An everyday example is
the rapid sensation of odors in a closed room, with-
out drafts, at locations many meters away from the
source of their emission. Here, random molecular
motion is the driving force for a macroscopic transfer
of material.'
The phenomenon of macroscopic transfer as the
result of random molecular motion is illustrated in
Figure 5, which shows molecules of two different


4 -0-


4-* _-0


x/-


Figure 5. Random molecular motion and the macroscopic
transfer of material. Closed circles and open circles are
used to denote a binary system; a concentration gradient
has been imposed on the system.
Fall 1991


types, depicted as open and closed circles. The left-
hand side of the plane at z = 0 is more concentrated
in open circles than in closed, although the total
number of circles is equivalent on both sides of the
plane. One of the basic hypotheses of the elementary
kinetic theory of gases is that a gas is comprised of
molecules in constant random motion. Although this
randomness is in all directions, for the sake of sim-
plicity we will consider only one dimension. For ex-
ample, consider random molecular motion in the z-
direction, as shown by the arrows randomly affixed
to each molecule in Figure 5. This could be accom-
plished by a series of coin tosses where a "heads"
corresponds to an arrow pointing to the right, and a
"tails" results in an arrow pointing to the left.
Over a small interval of time, several molecules
will be transferred from the left-half to the right-half
plane, and vice-versa, owing to random molecular
motion, with the total number of molecules on either
side of the plane remaining essentially unchanged
(no overall motion). Because of the imbalance in
concentrations, the several molecules transferred
from the left-half to the right-half plane are pre-
dominantly open circles, whereas the several mole-
cules transferred from the right-half to the left-half
plane are predominantly closed circles. Thus, there
will be a net transfer of open circles from a more
concentrated region of open circles to a lower con-
centrated region of open circles. Likewise, the closed
circles also are transferred from a region of high
concentration of closed circles to a region of lower
concentration of closed circles. Random molecular
motion statistically tends to equalize concentration
differences that exist in a system. The macroscopic
observation is a net transfer of a molecular property
in a direction from a high property concentration to a
low concentration.
In addition to molecules being characterized as a
certain type or species, molecules also possess the
properties of momentum and energy. Since momen-
tum is a vector quantity, there are three scalar com-
ponents of momentum that are considered as sepa-
rate properties. Gradients in the concentration of
these properties (x, y, or z momentum/volume and
energy/volume) will also result in a transfer of those
properties through the system by random molecular
motions.
There are many excellent quantitative develop-
ments of the elementary kinetic theory of gases that
follow from the above qualitative description. A very
concise quantitative treatment of the elementary
By macroscopic, we mean an observation made over a statisti-
cally large group of molecules.









kinetic theory of gases is given by Hirschfelder, et al.
Other elementary transport theories for liquids and
solids can also be discussed, e.g., the Eyring theory
of transport phenomena in liquids.
C. Phase Space and Liouville's Equation
The purpose of this section is to develop the so-
called Liouville equation, which is the starting point
in the derivation of the transport equations and
associated flux relations (see Section E below).
There are several introductory and clearly writ-
ten developments of the Liouville equation that can
be consulted for this section of the course,[12-14] and
only some highlights will be given here.
In this section and the remaining sections, we
consider only molecules of a single type or species;
the transport phenomena of multicomponent sys-
tems is beyond the scope of an introductory, one-
semester course.
The first part of this section of material discusses
the concepts of phase points and phase space. The
phase point represents the collection of all momen-
tum and position variables of the molecules in the
system at any time. As the molecules move accord-
ing to Newton's Second Law of Motion, the phase
point moves through a multidimensional space con-
sisting of the momentum and position coordinates of
all the molecules in the system. I have used simple
cartesian coordinates in an undergraduate class.
However, some instructors may wish to introduce
the concept of generalized coordinates and Hamil-
tonian equations of motion.
Next, the concept of an ensemble of phase points
is introduced. Each phase point or member of the
ensemble initially consists of the same total number
of molecules, same total momentum, and same total
energy. There are, however, a number of different
ways or realizations in distributing the initial posi-
tions and moment of the molecules in order to
achieve the same total values in energy and momen-
tum macroscopicallyy indistinguishable systems). The
collection of these realizations can be visualized as a
"cloud" of phase points at any time. A number den-
sity function is introduced to quantify the "cloud"
that moves through multidimensional space.
An analogy can immediately be drawn between
the number density function for the phase points
and the ordinary mass density function introduced
in the first undergraduate transport course in fluid
mechanics. In fact, the Liouville equation simply
represents a conservation equation for the phase
points as they move through multidimensional space.
I have used Figure 2.1 in Bird, et al., as a start-


ing point in visualizing the development of the
Liouville equation. An analogous figure can be
thought of where a simple cube is replaced by a
"hypercube" and the cartesian coordinates replaced
by multidimensional coordinates (see Figure 6.4 of
Reif131). The rate of phase points entering the hyper-
cube through any of the faces is simply the flux
times the cross-sectional area (multidimensional in
this case). The flux is simply the number density
times the time rate of change of the coordinate nor-
mal to the face of the hypercube. Specific units are
presented for both momentum and position coordi-
nates to dimensionally verify that a "rate of phase
points" is obtained for each term.
The final development involves substitution of
Newton's Second Law of Motion for each molecule
and some simple reductions, although again gener-
alized coordinates and Hamiltonian equations can
be used for a more rigorous treatment. More discus-
sion on the types of ensembles (microcanonical, ca-
nonical, etc.) could also be given at this time, but it is
not necessary for the developments given below.
D. Reduced Distributions and Equilibrium Behavior of Matter
The Liouville equation derived in the previous
section describes the behavior of the phase point
number density function in a multidimensional space
consisting of all momentum and position variables
for the molecules in the system. Since the number of
molecules in a system is typically very large (over a
billion!), the solution of the Liouville equation repre-
sents a formidable problem. Fortunately, it will be
shown in later sections that generally it is only nec-
essary to know the behavior in a reduced space rep-
resenting the positions and momentum of only a few
molecules. Physically, this is because the interac-
tions between molecules which lead to correlated
behavior are generally of a short range and, thus,
locally involve only a few molecules.
The phase point number density function, nor-
malized with respect to the total number of mem-
bers of the ensemble can also be interpreted as the
probability of finding a member of the ensemble in a
differential region of phase space. Below, this func-
tion is denoted as p(rN, pN, t) where (r", pN, t) is
shorthand notation for the multidimensional posi-
tion and momentum coordinates (rl, r2, ..., rN, p1, p2
..., pN, t). With this probability interpretation, the
various types of reduced density functions and rela-
tionships between systems of distinguishable and
indistinguishable molecules can be presented." 813
With the above preliminaries, the reduced form
of the Liouville equation can be derivedsl8. The deri-
vation requires the use of Green's theorem and the
Chemical Engineering Education









assumed "natural" behavior of the phase point num-
ber density function that it tends to zero as the
position and momentum variables of the molecules
tend to infinite values.
The configurational part of the reduced Liouville
equation is useful in the development of equations of
state and thermodynamic properties of gases, liq-
uids, and solids. This equation can be derived as
outlined by Hirschfelder, et al., and is recognized by
statistical thermodynamicists as the "Integral Equa-
tion" for lower-ordered configurational distribution
functions (see Section F below).
E. The General Equations of Change
It is the purpose of this section of the course to
develop the transport equations (or mass, momen-
tum, and energy conservation equations) from first
principles. Although many introductory texts on
kinetic theory and transport phenomena derive the
transport equations beginning with the so-called
Boltzmann transport equation (Section F below), fol-
lowing Irving and KirkwoodE151 we prefer to adopt a
general approach and derive the transport equa-
tions directly from the Liouville equation developed
in Section C. The resulting "General Equations of
Change" are applicable to all types of flows, includ-
ing laminar, turbulent, and shock flows, thus form-
ing an important basis for understanding current
and future developments in transport phenomena.
As mentioned in the previous section, the nor-
malized phase point number density function PN can
be interpreted as a probability density function, i.e.,
pdrNdpN is proportional to the probability of finding
a phase point in a multidimensional region between
(rN, pN) and (rN + drN, pN + dpN) at any time. Just as
one defines the mean, variance, and other moments
of probability density functions, we can also exam-
ine these quantities with respect to the phase point
(probability) density function. More specifically, the
averaging can be performed directly with the
Liouville equation leading to the so-called transport
equations. The transport equations thus represent
the behavior of the various moments of the density
function PN. These moments are defined more spe-
cifically below. Since the Liouville equation is a con-
servation equation, the transport equations also
represent conservation equations for the various
moments of the density function.
Following Irving and Kirkwood, the average or
expectation value of any dynamical variable
a(rN, pN) that does not depend explicitly on time is
introduced as
E{a}= N!j a(rN,pN)fN(rN,pN,t)drNdpN (5)


where fN(rN, pN, t) = N!pN(rN, pN, t) is the phase point
density function for indistinguishable molecules.
A judicious choice of a leads to the definitions of
the average mass (or number) density, average mo-
mentum, and average energy for the fluid as fol-
lows:1'5
1) Average Total Mass Density, E(al = p(r, t)
N
Ka=m Y8 (-r) (6)
where m is the mass of a single molecule and 8 is the
Dirac delta function.
2) Average Total Momentum Density, Elal = p(r, t)v(r, t)
N
a=m k(r -r) (7)
3) Average Total Energy Density, E(a) = U(r, t)
a N 1N N
a= -1 P28(rk-r)+2i1 Y Y ij8(rj-r) (8)
k=1 2i=1 j=l
(j~i)
Note that the first term in Eq. (8) represents the
kinetic energy contribution, and the second term
represents the intermolecular potential energy con-
tribution.
The transport equations can now be derived us-
ing the simple paradigm of multiplying the Liouville
equation by each of the defining relations for a and
integrating over all phase space. Since there are
some similarities in each derivation, this process
can be facilitated by first considering the conserva-
tion equation for a.lS,615 Generally, finding time to
derive the energy balance equation has been diffi-
cult. For the purposes of this introductory course it
is sufficient to derive the mass and momentum con-
servation equations and merely present the results
for the energy conservation equation.
Finally, it should be noted that in the derivation
of the transport equations, use is made of the inte-
gral relationship involving the derivative of the Di-
rac delta function16,171

Jg(x)8(n)(x-x)dx= (-1)n g(n)(xo) (9)

where 6(n) denotes the nth derivative of 5 with respect
to x and, similarly, g("(xo) is the nth derivative of g
with respect to x evaluated at xo. The derivation of
Eq. (15) can be easily obtained by using one of the
limiting definitions of the delta function (a general-
ized function) e.g., the limit of a normal or Gaussian
density function as the variance tends to zero.
F. Transport Properties and Solutions to the
Reduced Liouville Equation
The general equations of change derived in the
previous section contained expressions for the prop-
erty flux vectors representing the transfer of a prop-
erty relative to the mass average velocity of the


Fall 1991









fluid. It was shown that these expressions contain
lower-order density functions whose behavior is dic-
tated by the corresponding reduced forms of the
Liouville equation introduced in Section C.
It is the goal of this section to show that various
types of solutions to the reduced Liouville equation
result in a form of the transport equations known as
the Navier-Stokes equations. This derivation can be
rigorously accomplished for dilute gases which, by
definition, have at most only two molecule encoun-
ters; three or more molecule interactions are ne-
glected. Consequently, the reduced Liouville equa-
tion derived in Section E can be truncated at order
two for a dilute gas. From this truncated equation a
very simple derivation of the so-called Boltzmann
transport equation can be given.1181 Note that some
discussion on the geometry and dynamics of a binary
molecular collision is necessary in the development
of the Boltzmann equation.
Having derived the Boltzmann transport equa-
tion, scaling and dimensional analyses are per-
formed.'119 The Knudsen number, the ratio of a char-
acteristic molecular length scale (such as the gas
mean free path) to a characteristic macroscopic length
scale, is introduced as an important dimensionless
group for the Boltzmann transport equation.
By considering the two extremes (i.e., very small
and very large Knudsen numbers), various approxi-
mate analytical solutions to the Boltzmann equation
can be outlined. Unfortunately, there is not suffi-
cient time in a one-semester course to cover these
solutions in great detail. Typically, I have outlined
the Chapman-Enskog solution to the Boltzmann
equation, asymptotically valid at very small Knudsen
numbers. This discussion includes the Boltzmann
H-Theorem, the first-order perturbation expansion,
and the general forms of the solutions. The overall
presentation is sufficient to obtain the celebrated
Navier-Stokes equation and the energy transport
equation encountered in the students' previous
courses on transport phenomena. Newton's Law of
Viscosity and Fourier's Law of Heat Conduction are
shown to naturally arise in the Chapman-Enskog
solution method. The expressions for the coefficients
of viscosity and heat conduction are also obtained.
However, it is shown that further resolution of these
expressions is needed (via solutions to a set of finite
integral equations) in order to perform actual nu-
merical calculations. Typically, there is not suffi-
cient time to cover the solution to these specific
integral equations, nor is it necessary at this level,
and the final results can be presented without proof.


The above discussions and presentations are also
sufficient for demonstrating the connection between
thermodynamics and transport phenomena. It is
readily shown that, under local equilibrium condi-
tions, the normal component of the pressure tensor
in a dilute gas is the thermodynamic pressure. For
fluids that are far removed from local equilibrium, it
is doubtful that the thermodynamic pressure can be
utilized in a transport equation. Nonetheless, a gen-
eral framework has been established for evaluating
the pressure tensor in both equilibrium and non-
equilibrium fluids; similar analyses can be applied
to the evaluation of the internal energy.
A homework assignment can also be given that
ties together thermodynamic and transport proper-
ties for dilute gases: experimental values of the sec-
ond virial coefficients for a variety of dilute gases are
used to determine the corresponding Lennard-Jones
force constants.8 1 The Lennard-Jones constants de-
termined in this manner are, subsequently, used to
predict the viscosity coefficients of each gas accord-
ing to the Chapman-Enskog formula.
Some instructors may wish to present other solu-
tions to the Boltzmann transport equation, such as
Grad's 13-moment method; some recent reviews on
solutions to the Boltzmann transport equation are
given by Cercignani[191 and by Dorfman and van
Beijeren.1201 A condensed discussion of the Chapman-
Enskog method is given by McQuarrie[211 and a read-
able discussion is given by Vincenti and Kruger.1221
G. An Introduction to Molecular Dynamic Computations
Given the dramatic advances in the scientific
and engineering computational abilities provided by
supercomputers and other machines, it is highly
likely that many problems in transport phenomena
will, in the future, be solved at the molecular level.
It should be clear from the above discussions that
the numerous approximations involved in actually
resolving the transport equations limits the useful-
ness of the results for performing engineering calcu-
lations for a variety of different systems, other than
systems of dilute gases. Although extending the use-
fulness of the statistical mechanical development of
transport phenomena is a subject of current engi-
neering and scientific research, molecular dynamics
computations provide a fundamentally simple and
rigorous means of studying transport phenomena
for almost all classical fluids.
There are many books and review articles on the
molecular dynamics method. No attempt is made
* For a review of nonclassical or quantum mechanical methods for
molecular dynamics, see Kosloff.'25'


Chemical Engineering Education










here to review the literature in this area. Rather,
some suggested discussions and topics are given that
are useful as further expositions of the topics cov-
ered in the previous sections. It is important that
the students understand the basis and salient fea-
tures of the molecular dynamics method and see the
usefulness of the method in predicting equilibrium
or nonequilibrium properties of matter.
A recent text by Heermann1231 discusses a num-
ber of important aspects of the molecular dynamics
method, including finite difference schemes for solv-
ing the equations of motion for the molecules, peri-
odic boundary conditions and minimum image con-
vention, types of ensembles, and averaging methods
for determining macroscopic properties. Heermann
also lists a number of computer programs associated
with the molecular dynamics method. For example,
a clearly presented computer program listing is given
for microcanonical (constant energy) emsemble equi-
librium molecular dynamics. This program can be
readily installed on a mainframe computer or net-
work system. As an enlightening homework assign-
ment,1231 the students can be asked to determine the
equilibrium pair correlation function for a Lennard-
Jones fluid discussed in Section D above. Compari-
sons between dilute gases, dense gases, and liquids
can be made, as well as the study of other types of
intermolecular potentials and equations of state.
Instructors may also wish to present other types
of molecular dynamics methods or applications, in-
cluding nonequilibrium molecular dynamics meth-
ods.[241 Because of the conceptually simple basis of
molecular dynamics, instructors can have a great
degree of flexibility (and fun!) in bringing their own
interests into developing this part of the course.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
In general, I have found this course suitable as
an upper-level chemical engineering elective course.
A final student project is substituted in place of a
final exam. The students can select any project that
illustrates a molecular interpretation of the macro-
scopic properties of matter. Ideally, these topics
should be taken from areas not fully treated in the
lecture material, such as molecular design in solids,
multicomponent systems, and other molecular dy-
namic or Monte Carlo simulation methods. Specific
applications or potential applications to systems of
interest to chemical engineering and related disci-
plines should be emphasized in the students' proj-
ects. These additional topics could also be developed
in a second-semester course where greater emphasis
could be placed on molecular level engineering de-

Fall 1991


sign of materials and processes.
Although the lecture material is taken from a
number of different sources (a course text is cur-
rently in preparation), any introductory book on sta-
tistical mechanics or statistical physics, some of which
are given in the references, should be used as a
required supplementary text for the course. These
texts can provide a source of homework problems
and can be used as a basis for the development of
some of the material suggested above.

REFERENCES
1. Corcoran, E., Sci. American, 264, No 1, 100 (1991)
2. Rugar, D., and P. Hansma, Physics Today, 43, No. 10, 23
(1990)
3. Borman, S., Chem. and Eng. News, p. 29, July 17 (1989)
4. Frontiers in Chemical Engineering, National Research
Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC (1988)
5. Bird, R.B., W.E. Stewart, and E.N. Lightfoot, Transport
Phenomena, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1960)
6. Kreyszig, E., Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Sixth
ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York (1988)
7. Barker, J.A., and D. Henderson, Sci. American, 245,, No.
5,130(1981)
8. Hirschfelder, J.O., C.F. Curtiss, and R.B. Bird, Molecular
Theory of Gases and Liquids, John Wiley & Sons, New
York (1964)
9. Maitland, G.C., M. Rigby, E.B. Smith, and W.A. Wakeham,
Intermolecular Forces: Their Origin and Determination,
Oxford University Press, New York (1981)
10. Tabor, D., Gases, Liquids, and Solids, Penguin Books,
Inc., Baltimore, MD (1969)
11. Keller, R., Basic Tables in Chemistry, McGraw-Hill, New
York (1967)
12. Kittel, C., Elementary Statistical Physics, John Wiley &
Sons, New York (1958)
13. Reif, F., Statistical Physics, Berkeley Physics Course, Vol.
5, McGraw-Hill, New York (1965)
14. Gubbins, K.E., and T. M. Reed, Applied Statistical Me-
chanics, Butterworth Reprint Series in Chemical Engi-
neering, Stoneham, MA (1991)
15. Irving, J.H., and J.G. Kirkwood, J. Chem. Phys., 18, 817
(1950)
16. Schwartz, L. Theorie des Distributions, Actualites Scienti-
figues et Industrielles, Nos. 1092, 1122, Hermans & Cie,
Paris (1950-51)
17. Jones, D.S., The Theory of Generalized Functions, Cambr-
idge University Press (1982)
18. Andrews, F., J. Chem. Phys., 35,922 (1962)
19. Cercignani, C., The Boltzmann Equation and Its Applica-
tions, Springer-Verlag, New York (1988)
20. Dorfman, J.R., and van Beijeren, The Kinetic Theory of
Gases; in Statistical Mechanics, Part B., B.J. Berman, ed.,
Plenum Press, New York (1977)
21. McQuarrie, D.A., Statistical Mechanics, Harper and Row,
New York (1976)
22. Vincenti, W.G., and C.H. Kruger, Introduction to Physical
Gas Dynamics, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1967)
23. Heermann, D.W., Computer Simulation Methods in Theo-
retical Physics, Springer-Verlag, New York (1986)
24. Evans, D.J., and W.G. Hoover, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 18,
243(1986)
25. Kosloff, R., J. Phys. Chem., 92,2087 (1988) 0











Award Lecture



COMPUTING IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION

From There, To Here, To Where?

Part 1: Computing


The ASEE Chemical Engineering
Division Lecturer for 1990 is Brice Car-
nahan of The University of Michigan.
The 3M Company provides financial
support for this annual lectureship
award, and its purpose is to recognize
outstanding achievement in an impor-
tant field of ChE theory or practice.
Brice earned his BS and MS de- \
grees from the Case Institute of Tech-
nology (1955, 1956), and his PhD from
the University of Michigan in 1965, all in chemical engineer-
ing. His doctoral research was on radiation-induced cracking
of paraffins. Between 1959 and 1965, he worked closely with
Professor Donald L. Katz, first as technical director of the
Ford Foundation project Computers in Engineering Educa-
tion and then as associate director of a follow-on NSF project,
Computers in Engineering Design Education.. He joined the
faculty of the University of Michigan in 1965, where his
research activities have focused on applied mathematics, mod-
eling, digital computing, and development of software for
computer-aided process analysis and dynamic simulation. He
is coauthor of two Wiley Texts, Applied Numerical Methods
and Digital Computing and Numerical Methods.
He and his colleague, Professor James Wilkes, are re-
sponsible for the required computing course for all freshmen
engineering students at the University of Michigan, for which
they have produced a steady stream of texts and instructional
aids over the years.
Professor Carnahan was a founding member and first in-
terim chairman of CACHE. He has subsequently served as
CACHE vice-chairman and chairman, and is currently active
as board member and publications chairman. He has held
elected AIChE positions as CAST Division Director, Vice-
Chairman, and Chairman, and is a member of the Editorial
Board of Computers & Chemical Engineering.
Since the early 1980s, Professor Carnahan has been inti-
mately involved with the planning, implementation, and
management of the Michigan College of Engineering
heirarchical, multivendor network, now incorporating over
2000 attached machines of widely varying power.
He has received numerous honors, including the Univer-
sity of Michigan's Distinguished Service Award (1974), the
AIChE CAST Division Computers in Chemical Engineering
Award (1980), the University of Michigan College of Engi-
neering's Outstanding Teaching Award (1984), and the De-
troit Engineering Society's Chemical Engineer of the Year
Award (1989).


BRICE CARNAHAN
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109


Notice of the 3M Lectureship award for 1990
came to me as a complete, though a very pleas-
ant, surprise. Many chemical engineering academics
have had greater impact on their specialties, includ-
ing engineering computation. Nevertheless, I very
much appreciate this singular recognition.
I would be remiss if I did not here acknowledge
the special contributions of two Michigan faculty to
my professional life and, indirectly, to this award.
The first is Don Katz, one of the greats of 20th
Century chemical engineering, who provided me at a
young age with opportunity, responsibility, encour-
agement, and financial support for pursuing my in-
terests in chemical engineering computing. He is
sorely missed by all who knew him. The second is my
colleague, Jim Wilkes, with whom I have worked
and taught on an almost daily basis for the past
thirty years. That sounds like a long time, but in
fact, the years of our collaboration have passed all
too quickly. They have been filled with much work, a
sense of accomplishment, and lots of fun. Thanks,
Jim. It's been great working with you. Here's to the
future...and, yes Jim, I will work on that revision of
Chapter 6...soon....

WHAT IS COMPUTING?
It is a bit disconcerting to be introduced as an
"expert" on almost any topic, since the audience then
expects the speaker to make the complicated simple,
to provide clever insights into the nature of a phe-
nomenon, or to predict the future accurately. It is es-
pecially onerous to be labeled a "computing" expert.
The truth is that no individual can get a handle on
more than a few small subspaces of what has be-
come an enormous and amorphous computing uni-
verse, including, but not limited to:
1. Design and manufacture of hardware for symbolic
(mostly numerical) operations, storage, display, and


Chemical Engineering Education


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE 1991









communication (e.g. networks)
2. Ancillary electronic equipment (e.g., sensors, a/d
converters)
3. Software (e.g., operating systems) for hardware
management, communication, and user interaction
4. A wide variety of procedural, object-oriented, and other
tools for creating applications
5. Application programs for:
Creating and publishing documents
Organized storage and retrieval of information
Business and financial transaction/record keeping
Implementation of numerical and non-numerical
algorithms
Engineering/scientific analysis, design, control, and
simulation
Creation of graphical images
Visualization of computed results
Image analysis and pattern recognition
Integrating media (text, graphics, video, sound, TV) for
education and entertainment
Knowledge-based tools predicated on rules and
heuristics
Language, semantics, organization of the brain and
human thought processes
Everyone, both lay and technically trained, is
profoundly affected by "computing," but each of us
has a private version of what computing is, based on
our own limited experience (much like the elephant
and the blind men).
I chose the lecture title primarily because this is
a meeting of engineering educators, and few techno-
logical developments have had (and will in the fu-
ture have) so pervasive an impact on engineering
education and research as has digital computing.
Unlike many important technological developments
in the history of engineering, computing has not
"matured" after fifty years of steady (often spectacu-
lar) advances. In fact, as we enter the last decade of
this century, the pace of change is accelerating sig-
nificantly in all of the areas listed above. The ques-
tion mark in the title will let me end with some
conjectures about current trends and the future.
Computing developments in engineering educa-
tion have occurred by and large during my profes-
sional lifetime, starting in the mid-1950s. I would
like to start from the perspective of a newly gradu-
ated (in 1955) chemical engineer, trace some of what
I perceive as the most important computing develop-
ments over the past fifty years or so, and then make
some predictions (guesses, really) about what the
future may hold vis-a-vis computers and computing
in engineering education. I chose to put "engineer-
ing" rather than "chemical engineering" in the title
because computing in chemical engineering isn't all
that different from computing in other engineering
disciplines.


I would like to ... trace some of what Iperceive
as the most important computing developments
over the past fifty years or so, and then
make some predictions (guesses,
really) about the future ...

In fact, many of the computing tools used most
by both students and faculty (e.g., word processors,
data-base managers, spreadsheet programs, draw-
ing and plotting packages, electronic mail and con-
ferencing software) are essentially "non-technical";
of course, "technical" computing (involving large-scale
programs for symbolic and numerical mathematics,
analysis, design, and control) is also important to all
of us some of the time, and I don't want to leave it
out-I just want to take a broader view of what com-
puting in engineering education is now and what it
is likely to be in the future.

THERE-THE EARLY YEARS
Let's start with the "there" part of my title. "There"
for me started when I graduated from Case Tech in
1955, within months of the introduction of the IBM
650, the first widely available commercial digital
computer. That event passed without my knowl-
edge. I had heard of (and seen, on television) the
UNIVAC computer, mostly because of its use in tabu-
lating and predicting the vote in the 1952 presiden-
tial election. The only computing device I had seen
personally was an enormous unused mechanical
analog integrator (covering perhaps two-hundred
square feet of floor space) in the ME department at
Case that had been used to solve some ODE's during
World War II. The twelve-foot long K&E sliderule
hanging on the wall of the same room looked a lot
more useful to me. It was a prop for teaching new
freshmen about fast and accurate calculation (three
digits still isn't all that bad!). That giant rule, along
with the dreaded drafting exercises (where were you,
Claris CAD, when I needed you?), is retained vividly
as part of my freshman memory.
I am surprised at how little most students (and
faculty) know about the personalities and historical
events that led up to the successful IBM 650 ven-
ture. Mention "light-bulb" and the response is
"Edison"; "airplane" and the response is "Orville and
Wilbur Wright"; "telephone" and the response is
"Alexander Graham Bell"; "computer" and the re-
sponse is (almost always) silence or (inaccurately)
"IBM." Although many mechanical or electromechani-
cal calculating machines were developed (very early
by Pascal, late in the 19th Century by Burroughs
and Hollerith, and during the first half of the 20th


Fall 1991









Century by IBM and other companies), what most of tude longer than today's computers!
us would call programmable digital computing de- In a classic 1946 paper,1[3 Burks, Goldstine, and
veloped along an essentially independent path, with von Neumann first introduced the stored-program
ideas generated by a small number of clever, deter- and other architectural concepts that appear in nearly
mined, and sometimes irascible, individuals. Table 1
shows a chronology of a few milestone events from TABLE 1
the early history of digital computing. Digital Computing: Early History
Babbage,111 who for a time held Newton's chair at
Date Machine Description Developer
Cambridge, is a tremendously interesting personal- 1833-1848 Analytical engine mechanical general-purpose
ity. His mechanical analytical engine incorporated computer Babbage at Cambridge and London
the most important conceptual elements of the mod- 1939-1942 ABC linear equation solver first all-electronic
ern serial digital computer "architecture," with the computational hardware Atanasoff at Iowa State
exception of the stored program. Much of what we Unversity
w a t B s a l e e s s fm 1944-1946 ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and
know about Babbage's analytical engine stems from Calculator) first general-purpose electronic
its promotion by Lady Ada Lovelace (hence the name computer Eckert and Mauchly at the University
for the programming language Ada), who was Lord of Pennsylvania
Byron's daughter and a mathematician of some note. 1946 EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Electronic
Babbage never got his engine to work, despite the Computer) paper stored program concept
Burks, Goldstine, and von Neumann at Princeton
expenditure of a great deal of his own money and 1947-1952 Mark I, II, III, IV electromechanical computers
earlier support from the British Admiralty (the first with separate data and instruction memories *
federal R&D proposal?). This failure was not caused Aiken at Harvard
by a flaw in his design, but because of his unusual 1947 Whirlwind special-purpose radar processor, first
management style and problems with accurate metal machine with core memory MIT
machining. Parts of his machine were built in the 1949 EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic
Computer) o first operating stored-program
1950s and are on display at the Science Museum in machine Wilkes at Cambridge University
London (see Figure 1). 1950 BINAC first American stored program computer
Nearly a century passed before Atanasoff designed Eckert and Mauchly Co. for Northrup Aviation
the first all-electronic (vacuum tube) computational 1951 UNIVAC o first commercial computer (48 built) *
Remington-Rand Corp.
circuitry and built a special purpose digital com- 1952 IBM 701 first core-memory machine (19 built) *
puter at Iowa State University for solving twenty- IBM
nine (why twenty-nine is not clear) simultaneous 1955 IBM 650 first high-volume computer (hundreds
linear equations. His work was interrupted by World built), drum memory IBM
War II, and his contributions are often slighted by 1955 IBM 704 first large scientific machine, first
historians. However, a recent thoroughly documented built-in floating point unit IBM
bookl21 makes it clear that Atanasoffs contributions
were substantial, and that they influenced the sub-
sequent development of the ENIAC by Eckert and
Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania's Moore
School.
The ENIAC was the first truly programmable
digital computer; all programming was done manu-
ally with switches and cables. It was used for com-
puting firing tables for the military, and its exis-
tence became public knowledge in 1946, after World
War II. Some statistics: the machine was 100 feet
long, 8.5 feet high, and several feet wide; it had
twenty 10-digit registers in its arithmetic unit (each
2 feet long), and 18,000 vacuum tubes. An integer
add required 200 microseconds, making it something
like a 0.005 Mips (Million instructions per second) Figure 1. Part of the mill (arithmetic unit) of Babbage's
machine. The ENIAC (see Figure 2) was two to three Analytical Engine, constructed after his death from origi-
orders of magnitude larger physically, and its typi- nal drawings. (British Crown Copyright, Science Museum, Lon-
cal instruction time was three to six orders of magni- don)
220 Chemical Engineering Education
































all of our current (serial) computers; they called their
machine the EDVAC. EDSAC, built by Wilkes at
Cambridge University, was the first true stored-
program machine built on the EDVAC model; it be-
came operational in 1949.
The first American stored-program machine was
the BINAC, built for Northrup Aviation by Eckert
and Mauchly (who left the Moore School in 1947 to
start their own company). It was fully functional by
mid-1950 and served as the basis for the first com-
mercial digital computer, the Remington-Rand
UNIVAC, released in 1951; forty-eight UNIVAC sys-
tems were built, and the cost per machine was
$250,000 (about $3 million in today's dollars).
IBM entered the digital computing business
shortly after Remington-Rand, introducing its first
computer, the IBM 701, in 1952; nineteen were built.
The IBM 701 was the first stored-program machine
to use truly random access magnetic core memory
(previously developed at MIT in 1947 for a special-
purpose radar signal processor called the Whirlwind).
At the same time, IBM was developing two other
machines. One was a follow-on core-memory ma-
chine with the first built-in floating-point unit, the
IBM 704; it was not really available in quantity
until 1957-58. The second was a less expensive "mass-
market" computer, the IBM 650, with a magnetic
drum memory. IBM eventually built several hundred
of them, mostly for rental. The University of Michi-
gan rented an IBM 650 in early 1956 to replace its
mostly unsuccessful research computer with mer-
cury delay line storage called the MIDAC (MIchigan
Automatic Digital Computer). The few who actually
Fall 1991


used MIDAC derisively said the acronym really stood
for "Machine Is Down Almost Continuously." As I
recall, the rental rate for the 650 was $35 per day-
time hour (but only for hours when it was up!).
The presence of the new computer had nothing to
do with my decision to go to Michigan for PhD work
in the fall of 1956. I chose Michigan because it was
one of the few schools with its own nuclear reactor,
and I wanted to work with Joe Martin on a chemical/
nuclear engineering problem. When I met with Joe
for my first counseling session, he told me about the
new University computer and that the mathematics
department was offering a new course on digital
computing, the first at Michigan. Once I was in that
course (with about twenty other students) I knew
that I wanted to be involved with computers far into
the future (even though my research was to be unre-
lated to it). In fact, I became a teaching assistant in
that first computing course the next term it was
offered.
For those (most of you) who weren't around at
that time, here is a picture of what students did
during that first course offering:
Each of us learned to operate the computer and then
signed up for, at most, one hour at a time to solve our
problems (I always ended up with the 2:00-3:00 AM slot!).
The machine had no keyboard or printer-just a card
reader and card punch. All communication was through
punched cards or directly with keys on the console (the
lights displayed information in bi-quinary format-you
might want to look that one up!).
All programming was in the machine's language; each
instruction contained an operation code plus two
addresses, one for an operand and another for locating
the next instruction in the memory.
The "operating system" consisted of a four-card machine-
language loader. Program execution could be initiated,
interrupted, or stepped one instruction at a time, directly
from the console; the light pattern on the console was the
only feedback available to the programmer/operator (the
repeated light patterns from infinite loops were always
fun to watch).
The machine had a rotating-drum memory with fifty
memory cells arranged in each of twenty "cylinders'
around the drum surface. Because of the time required for
interpreting an instruction, retrieving the operand, and
then processing the instruction, placement of both the
data and the next instruction was critical for efficient
execution. The location of each program instruction and
data item on the drum had to be carefully considered,
since a drum is not a random-access device.
How do you think a current student working on a
Macintosh would respond to the following directions?
If the instruction address is an even number, the data address
should be three word positions later (on any cylinder) and
the next instruction address should be four word positions
beyond that. Since there are fifty word positions around the
cylinder, the correct drum rotation angle for the next










instruction if 50.4 degrees. ... If the instruction address is
odd, the data address should be three word positions later
and the next instruction address should be five positions
beyond that, so the drum rotation angle for the next instruction
is 57.6 degrees.
Not to worry-part-way through the course we
began to use the GAT assembler, written by Gra-
ham, Arden, and Galler of the University of Michi-
gan Computing Center. That helped a bit (symbolic
names for operation codes and addresses) but still
left the angle determination to the programmer. Then
one day, late in the term, the SOAP assembler ar-
rived. .and life was never the same thereafter. The
O in SOAP stood for "optimal," and the SOAP as-
sembler took care of all those nasty angle details.
After struggling with the machine's language, SOAP
seemed nothing short of a miracle (I was amazed,
like the monk in the XEROX ad).
I still have my programs from that course. The
first was (you guessed it), "Find the volume of a
cylinder, given the radius and height as data." I re-
member thinking that I could have done the whole
thing on a slide rule in a tiny fraction of the time it
took me to learn how to run the 650 and get the
program working. But later in the course we were
each asked to solve a problem of our own. I decided
to solve the two-dimensional heat-conduction
(Laplace) equation in an L-shaped section of a fur-
nace wall. I can still remember the thrill of getting
the program working-and not just working, but
working with variable mesh sizes. It was my first ex-
posure to the true power of the computer and of
numerical methods.
For me, the computer die was cast!

TRENDS IN COMPUTER PERFORMANCE
In those very early days, it was clear to me that
computers would get faster, more reliable, and less
expensive-but not that they would get incredibly
smaller, and orders-of-magnitude faster and cheaper
(on a $/instruction or $/memory location basis). Data
from the recent (already classic) text on computer
architecture by Hennessy and Patterson'41 on the
relative performance of several classes of computers
over the past twenty-five years or so is shown in
Figure 3. The performance index is based on the
time to completion of a mix of typical programs.
By and large, prices in current dollars of the
various categories of machines have stayed fairly
stable. Supercomputers typically cost many millions,
mainframes sell for $500,000 to several million,
minicomputers from $50,000 to $500,000, and mi-


crocomputers from $1,000 (minimal personal com-
puters) to $75,000 (for high-performance worksta-
tions). Note that the rate of improvement in the per-
formance index is undiminished over a twenty-five-
year span and varies from about 18% per year for
supercomputers to about twice that for microcompu-
ters.
Figure 4 shows a different performance index for
supercomputers and microprocessors that is particu-
larly relevant to numerical engineering computa-
tions, MFLOPS (Millions of Floating-Point Opera-
tions Per Second). Although supercomputer proces-
sors still perform floating-point operations one to
two orders-of-magnitude faster than the fastest cur-
rent microprocessors, the message here is clear: the
latest RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) mi-
croprocesors (the middle curve) portend a rapid clo-
sure of the floating-point performance gap by rela-
tively inexpensive microprocessors.
Figure 5 shows the rapid price/performance de-
creases over the past decade for DRAM (Dynamic
Random Access Memory) chips used in computer


Micrmomprnters
Minicomputers
Mainframes
Supercomputers


1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990
Figure 3. Relative performance by computer class (data
from Hennessy and Patterson141).


1 Motorola 68881 a CISC processors
SRISC processors
Intel s087 IN Supercomputers
.01
1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992

Figure 4. Floating-point performance of supercomputer
and microcomputer processors (most data from Intel).


Chemical Engineering Education



















16Kb
64Kb
256 Kb
1 Mb


1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990

Figure 5. Costs of several generations of DRAM chips
(data from Hennessy and Patterson1g').


TABLE 2
Hardware/Software Milestones
Year Milestone
1960 ALGOL Magnetic disks
1962 Time sharing (Dartmouth) Virtual memory (ATLAS
at Manchester)
1964 Pipelined processors (CDC 6600) Microcoded proc-
essors, 32 bits, byte (IBM 360)
1965 Interactive graphics, Sketchpad (Sutherland)
1966 Multiprogramming Minicomputer (DEC PDP/8) *
Real-time computing
1967 Multiprocessing Memory cache (IBM 360/85)
1969 Minicomputer (DECPDP/11) PASCAL
1970 UNIX
1971 4-bit Microprocessor (LSI-Intel 4004) IBM 370
1972 Vector processor (CDC STAR)
1974 Personal minicomputerr (XEROX Alto), bitmapped
display, mouse Laser printer Local Area Network
(Ethernet)
1975 Object-oriented programming (Smalltalk) 8-bit
microprocessor (Intel 8008)
1976 16-bit microprocessor (Texas Instrument 9000) *
Supercomputer (Cray I) ARPANET C
1977 Microcomputers (Apple II, TRS-80, PET)
1978 DEC VAX Intel 8086 microprocessor
1979 Spreadsheets (VisiCalc) Hayes Micromodem
1980 RISC processor (Berkeley, Stanford, IBM)
1981 Graphical user interface (XEROX STAR) IBM PC *
DOS Epson dot matrix printer
1982 Compaq portable Cray XMP/4
1983 Apple Lisa Gavilan laptop
1984 Macintosh HP Laserjet printer
1985 Workstation (Apollo) Desktop publishing (Post-
script)
1986 IBM 3090 Windows graphical user interface
1987 Sparc RISC processor (SUN workstation)
1988 Cray Y/MP (8 processors, 6 ns clock) Convex, Alliant
minisupercomputors Stellar, Ardent, Silicon
Graphics, graphics workstations visualization *
massively parallel processing (Connection machine) *
OS/2
1989 Open Software Foundation (Standard UNIX)
1990 Superscalar RISC processor (IBM RS6000)
1991 ACE-MIPS RISC processor consortium HP PA RISC
processor Apple-IBM agreement Pen-based,
notebook, handheld microcomputers


Fall 1991


main stores. Here the prices are in current (inflated)
dollars. Note that for each chip category there is a
similar pattern of a steep (nearly ten-fold) fall in
prices as the chip goes into production and that the
price cycles are almost identical despite the succes-
sive quadrupling of capacity.
Some long-range trends in computing equipment
development are:E41
Performance growth ranges from 18% per year for
supercomputer processors to 35% per year for
microprocessors.
Dynamic RAM chip element density increases about
60% per year. 4-Mbit chips are now in mass production
and IBM has announced plans to begin producing 16-
Mbit chips. Hitachi has already fabricated a 64-Mbit
chip in its laboratories.
Chip transistor count increases about 25% per year,
doubling every three years.
Hard disk bit density increases about 25% per year,
doubling every three years.
Hard disk access time improves slowly (only 3 to 4%
per year).

PREDICTING THE FUTURE
Who, in the late 1950s, would have guessed that
national computer meetings that brought together a
few hundred participants then would, only thirty
years later, sometimes attract in excess of 100,000
attendees-and be held only in one or two dreadful
places like Las Vegas and Anaheim for lack of room
elsewhere? Who then could have guessed the scope
of the computing business now?
Well, some did. I remember a talk by Thomas
Watson, Jr., in 1959, at the dedication ceremony for
the University's new IBM 704. He predicted that by
1990, the computing business would be as big as the
automobile business. That didn't quite happen, as
sales by the major computer companies are still sub-
stantially smaller than for the major auto manufac-
turers. Of course, had the car companies delivered
performance improvements comparable to those for
the products of the computing industry, we would all
be driving $1 Ferraris across the continent in a few
seconds, and car-company sales might not look so
big (one disadvantage-the car would be very, very
small!). If revenues from information-related busi-
nesses such as communication are added to those for
the computing manufacturers, Watson's prediction
has probably already come true. In any event, it is
certain to come true before the turn of the century.
Oh, that I had had some investment cash in 1959!

What about other early predictions? In 1945,
Vannevar Bush, inventor of the electronic analog










computer at MIT and Director of the Office of Scien-
tific Research and Development during World War
II, postulated a future device that is clearly similar
to the personal computer we (almost) all know and
love. In an article entitled "As We May Think,"E61 he
wrote:
The MEMEX will be for individual use, about the size of a
desk, with display and keyboard that would allow quick
reference to private records, journal articles, newspapers,
and perform calculations.

Unfortunately, in 1967, in an article entitled
"MEMEX Revisited," he wrote:
Will we soon have a personal machine for our own use?
Unfortunately not!

How wrong he was, with the first microprocessor
only a few years away. Of course, Vannevar Bush
had apparently been wrong before. As a consultant,
he is reputed to have advised IBM in the early 1950s
that one-hundred IBM 650s would saturate the
market, since they could do all the computing that
the world needed done! (Could he have been right?)
After hearing many predictions over the years, I
don't think that even the brightest are good at pre-
dicting the future of computing much beyond the
next generation of hardware and software. This is
not to be critical. Who among us in 1956 (slide rule
hanging from belt) would have predicted that in
1990 I could buy a pocket calculator for $50 (in
greatly inflated currency) that uses a procedure-
oriented language, can retain several programs in-
definitely, computes to at least eight-digit accuracy,
and operates for months on end on a battery smaller
than a dime?

THREE DECADES OF STEADY PROGRESS
Table 2 shows a chronology of major hardware/
software developments during the past three dec-
ades, as I see them. I have verified most of the dates,
but a few are from my own recollection and may be
off by a year or two.
Having gone from "there" to "here" in the general
categories of hardware and software, Table 3 shows
several areas of chemical engineering where these
technologies have had the biggest impact. Here I
have not tried to arrange the list in strict chronologi-
cal order.
Bob Seader (University of Utah) was the recipi-
ent of the 1990 Katz lectureship in our department.
One of his two lectures was entitled "A Brief History
of Computing in Chemical Engineering." His superb
lecture covered the subject so well that I couldn't
possibly improve on it here. A printed copy of Bob's


TABLE 3
Computing in Chemical Engineering

Topic
Process unit modeling
Data analysis/reduction
Physical property estimation
Steady-state simulation
Costing
Reservoir simulation
Optimization
Scaleup without pilot plants
Dynamic simulation
Process control
Control system design
Process synthesis
Batch-process simulators/schedulers
Knowledge-based (AI/expert system) synthesis and design
Graphics and visualization
Molecular and property modeling (polymers, composites)
Microelectronic processing/sensors
Integrated process/control/information management systems
Biochemical system modeling/simulation/design/control
Intensive use of numerical analysis tools:
linear and nonlinear algebraic/transcendental
equations
ordinary differential equations, stiff systems
partial differential equations (finite difference/
element methods)
Education/training
Office, plant, education networks

lecture was sent to every chemical engineering de-
partment chairman last fall, and I highly recom-
mend that you locate and read it. If you cannot find a
copy, contact me and I will send one to you.
Editor's Note: The second half of this award
lecture will be published in the next issue (Win-
ter 1992) of CEE.

REFERENCES
1. Morrison, Phillip and Emily, Charles Babbage and His
Calculating Engines, Dover, New York (1961)
2. Burks, Alice R. and Arthur W., The First Electronic Com-
puter: The Atanasoff Story, University of Michigan Press,
Ann Arbor, MI (1988)
3. Burks, A.W., H.H. Goldstine, and J. von Neumann, "Pre-
liminary Discussion of the Logical Design of an Electronic
Computing Instrument," report of the Institute for Ad-
vanced Study, Princeton (1946). Reprinted in Datamation,
8,9,10(1962)
4. Hennessy, John L., and David A. Patterson, Computer
Architecture:A Quantitative Approach, Morgan Kauffman,
San Mateo, CA (1990)
5. Bush, Vannevar, Endless Horizons, Public Affairs Press
(1946) 0


Chemical Engineering Education










book review


INDUSTRIAL ELECTROCHEMISTRY,
Second Edition
by Derek Pletcher and Frank Walsh
Chapman and Hall, New York (1990) $115

Reviewed by
Mark E. Orazem
University of Florida

In their preface, the authors write that "... elec-
trochemistry and electrochemical engineering as aca-
demic disciplines ... remain insufficiently taught at
both undergraduate and post graduate levels." Their
perspective is shared by others. The National Asso-
ciation of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) is currently
forming a task group to find ways to improve corro-
sion education in this country. In spite of the fact
that electrochemical systems encompass one-ninth
of the chemical process industry, most chemical en-
gineering undergraduates receive no exposure to the
field beyond a two-week stint in a physical chemis-
try class. The authors express their hope that "this
book will encourage many more teachers to take up
the challenge of teaching an integrated applied elec-
trochemistry course."
This text provides a compelling demonstration of
the importance of electrochemical processes. In ten
chapters and 460 pages the authors explore:
1. Electrolytic production of chlorine and caustic
2. Electrolytic extraction, refining, and produc-tion of
metals through electrowinning, cementation,
electrorefining, and electro-deposition of metal
powders
3. Electrolytic production of a number of low-tonnage
inorganic products such as fluorine, hydrogen
peroxide, ozone, and manganese dioxide
4. Organic electrosynthesis of adiponitrile (used to make
nylon) and other commercial electro-synthesis
processes
5. Waste-water treatment by electrochemical processes
such as electrodeposition of metal ions, in-situ
formation of oxidizers, and electrodialysis
6. Metal finishing including electroplating, electroless
plating, and electrophoretic painting
7. Metals processing, including electroforming and
electrochemical machining and etching
8. Corrosion and corrosion control
9. Batteries and fuel cells


10. Electrochemical sensors and monitoring techniques
This text provides a broad overview of electro-
chemical technology, and the detail with which these
systems are covered is sufficient for a survey course.
The review of electrochemical practice is preceded
by two chapters that cover the fundamentals of elec-
trochemistry and electrochemical engineering. The
discussion of fundamental electrochemical concepts
(Chapter 1) is very compressed and may be tough
going for the typical undergraduate chemical engi-
neer. It does, however, outline the key factors that
distinguish electrochemical processes from traditional
chemical systems. The section on electrochemical
engineering (Chapter 2) emphasizes costing of electro-
chemical processes and introduces typical cell de-
signs.
This text could be used for an elective survey
course directed to senior undergraduate students
and beginning graduate students. The strength of
the book, in this application, is its comprehensive
overview of the field. The authors, however, do not
make it easy for the instructor. The text does not
include homework problems and, while general sug-
gestions are made for further reading, specific attri-
butions are not given for the material presented in
the chapters. Therefore it is difficult to know pre-
cisely where to look for more information on a spe-
cific topic.
The discussion of fundamentals is not integrated
into the discussion of industrial processes. While the
authors stress the importance of current distribu-
tion in Chapters 1 and 2, such calculations are not
employed for the design of industrial processes cov-
ered in Chapters 3 through 12. For example, the
authors present different battery types in Chapter
11, but do not present the manner in which one
would try to optimize the battery design based on
principles governing current and potential distribu-
tion. Impressed current cathodic protection is pre-
sented in Chapter 10 as a means of controlling corro-
sion, but the equations used to design a cathodic
protection system are not presented. This level of
coverage is suitable for a survey course. For an ad-
vanced graduate-level class, I would want to apply
the fundamental concepts by introducing the model-
ing and optimal design of some sample systems.
Industrial Electrochemistry could be an good com-
plement to a text such as Newman's Electrochemical
Systems in an advanced graduate course.
Industrial Electrochemistry would be an excel-
lent textbook for an upper-level undergraduate sur-
vey course on applied electrochemical technology. 0


Fall 1991











Title Index
Note: Titles in italic type are books reviewed.

EA
Accreditation: Changes are Needed -------------------- XXIII,12
Adsorption and Adsorption Processes, Principles of------ XXII, 16
Adsorption Fundamentals, Liquid-Phase--------------- XXI,200
Alarm System Design, An Undergraduate
Experiment in ----------------------------------- XXII,22
Algorithm for Calculation of Phase
Separation, A Simple ------------------------- --- XXII,36
American University Graduate Work --------------------XXI,160
Amundson's Matrix Method for Binary Distillation
Revisited --------------------------------- --XXV,50
Animal Cell Culture in Microcapsules --------------------- XXII, 196
Another Way of Looking at Entropy ------------------ XXIII,154
Application of Mass Balances, A Practical ---------- XXIII,163
Applied Differential Equations, A Second-Year
Undergraduate Course in --------------------------- XXV,88
Applied Linear Algebra ------------------------ -- XXIII,236
Applied Mathematics: Opportunites for ChEs ---------- XXIV,198
Autotrophic Fermentation, An Experiment in ----------XXIII,32
AWARD LECTURES
Computing in Engineering Education: From There,
to Here, to Where? Part 1, Computing ---- -------- XXV,218
From Molecular Theory to Thermodynamic Models;
Part --------------------------------------- ---- XXIV,12
Ibid. Part 2 ----------------------------------- ---- XXIV,80
Random Walk in Porous Media, A --------------------------- XXIV,136
Reflections on Teaching Creativity ---------------------------- XXII,170
SB
Basic Programs for Chemical Engineers ------------------ XXI,77
Binary Distillation Revisited, Amundson's Matrix
Method for -------------------------------------- XXV,50
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering --------------- XXIII,200
Biochemical Engineering ------------------------------- XXII,202
Biochemical Engineering Education Through
Videotapes -------------------------------------XXIV,176
Bioengineering, A Multidisciplinary Course in ---------- XXIII,204
Bioengineering, Cellular ------------------------------- XXIII,208
Bioseparations: Downstream Processing for
Biotechnology ----------------------------------- XXIII,221
Biotechnology for the Mining, Metal-Refining and Fossil
Fuel Processing Industries, Workshop on ---------- XXI,133
Biotechnology Laboratory Methods ------------------ XXIII,182
Biotechnology to High School Students, Introducing
Applications of -------------------------------- XXIV,158
Buoyancy-Induced Flows and Transport ----------- XXIII, 181
Burning of a Liquid Oil Droplet, The ------------------ XXI, 126
SC
Calculations, Principles of Stagewise Separation
Process ------------------------------------- XXV,106
Calculations, The Use of Lotus 1-2-3 Macros in
Engineering ----------------------------------- XXV,100
Catalyst Design: Progress and Perspectives ---------- XXII,86
Catalyst Suports and Supported Catalysts ---------- XXII, 103
Catalytic Reactions, Triangular Diagrams Teach Steady
and Dynamic Behaviour of ---------------------- XXIII,176


Cell Technology, A Course in Immobilized Enzyme and -XXV,82
Cellular Bioengineering -------------------------------- XXIII,208
Ceramics Science and Engineering, Research in ----------XXV,204
Cheating Among Engineering Students: Reasons
for Concern ----------------------------------- XXIII, 16
Chemical Engineering in the Spectrum of Knowledge --- XXIV,20
Chemical Kinetics, Fluid Mechanics, and Heat
Transfer in the Fast Lane -----------------------------XXV,186
Chemical Processes, Elementary Principles of ---------- XXI,47
Chemical Process Computations ----------------------- XXI, 117
Chemical Process Modeling and Control ------------ XXI, 194
Chemical Process Systems, Stochastic Modeling of:
Part 1, Introduction --------------------------------- XXIV,56
Part 2, The Master Equation ----------------------- XXIV,88
Part 3, Application -------------------------------- XXIV,164
Chemical Processing of Electrons and Holes ----------- XXIV,26
Chemical Reaction, Mass Transfer with ----------------- XXI, 164
Chemical Reaction and Reactor Engineering ---------- XXIII,149
Chemical Reaction Engineering, An Open-Ended
Problem in --------------------------------------XXIV, 148
Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status
and Future Directions -------------------------- XXI,210
Chemical Reaction Engineering, Elements of -------- XXII,7
Chemical Reaction Engineering Applications in
Non-Traditional Technologies ------------------- XXV,150
Chemical Reaction Experiment for the
Undergraduate Laboratory -------------------------- XXI,30
Chemical Reactor Analysis and Design -------------- XXV, 131
Chemical Reactor Design ------------------------------- XXIII,31
Coal Liquid Mixtures -------------------------------- XXIII,91
Coal Science: An Introduction to Chemistry, Technology
and Utilization ------------------------------ -- XXI,152
Coffee Pot Experiment, The ----------------------------- XXIII,150
Combustion Engineering, Advanced ------------------- XXI,198
Compatibility of Polymeric Materials, Chemical --------- XXIV,94
Composite Materials:An Educational Need ------------ XXIV,154
Computation of Multiple Reaction Equilibria------------- XXV, 112
Computations, Chemical Process ---------------------- XXI, 117
Computer Process Control Teaching and Research,
A Pilot-Scale Heat Recovery System for -----------XXII,68
Computer Simulation Modules, Purdue-Industry ---------- XXV,98
Computers in the Undergraduate Laboratory,
Incorporation of Process Control ----------------XXIV,106
Computer-Aided Engineering for Injection Molding ----- XXI,172
Computer-Controlled Heat Exchange Experiment, A ------ XXI,84
Computing, Chemical Engineering and Instructional:
Are They in Step? Part 1 -------------------------- XXII,134
Ibid. Part 2 ------------------------------------ XXII,212
Consortium to Address Multidisciplinary Issues of
Waste Management --------------------------- XXIV,180
Content and Gaps in BSChE Training ------------- XXIII,138
Control Projects, Use of a Moder Polymerization
Pilot-Plant for Undergraduate ------------------------ XXV,34
Control Systems Design, Microcomputer-Aided ---------- XXI,34
Creativity, Reflections on Teaching ---------------------- XXII, 170
Creativity in Engineering Education ------------------ XXII, 120
Crossdisciplinary Research, Initiating ------------------ XXIII,242
Crystallization: An Intereresting Experience in

Chemical Engineering Education











the ChE Laboratory ------------------------- -- XXV,102
Curricula, General Education Requirements and ChE -- XXIII,106
Curricula for the Future, Chemical Engineering --------- XXIII, 188
Curriculum-1989, The Chemical Engineering --------- XXIV, 184
Curriculum, TheFuture ChE: Must One Size Fit All? ------ XXI,74
Curriculum, What Will we Remove to Make
Room for X? ------------------------------------ XXI,72
Cryogenics, Heat and Mass Transfer in
Refrigeration and------------------------------ XXII,125
* D
DEPARTMENTS:
Auburn, University ---- ----------------------- -- XXIV,118
Clarkson University ------------------------------- XXII,10
Arizona, University of ----------------------------------- XXIV,2
California at Los Angeles, University of ------------------ XXV,64
Colorado School of Mines --------------------------------- XXIV,66
Illinois Institute of Technology ----------------------------- XXII,62
Johns Hopkins University, The ----------------------------- XXI, 112
Lehigh University ------------ ------------ XXIII,58
Louisiana State University ------------------------------ XXV,2
Manhattan College -------------------------------------XXI,6
Massachusetts, University of ----------------------------- XXV,122
New Jersey Institute of Technology -------------------- XXIII,130
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute ----------------------------- XXIII,6
Texas at Austin, University of ----------------------------XXI,58
Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University ----------- XXII,2
Design Course, Teaching Effective Oral Presentations
as Part of the Senior Design Course---------------- XXV,28
Design Education in Chemical Engineering, Part 1 ----- XXIII,22
Ibid. Part 2 ---------------------------------- -- XXIII, 120
Design Experience, A Meaningful Undergraduate ---------- XXI,90
Differential Equation for Packed Beds, The
Dispersion Model ----------------------------- XXIV,224
Differential Equations, A Second-Year Undergraduate
Course in Applied ----------------------------------- XXV,88
Digital Computer Process Control, A Grad Course in --- XXV,176
Direct Contact Heat Transfer -------------------------- XXIII, 11
Discrete-Event Simulation in Chemical Engineering ------ XXII,98
Dispersion Model Differential Equation for
Packed Beds: Is it Really so Simple? ----------XXIV,224
Distillation Tray Fundamentals -------------------------- XXII,90
Division Activities ----------- XXI,82,167; XXII,177; XXIII,198
XXIV,187; XXV,185
Drying, Advances in --------------------------------- XXIII,37
0E
Economic Evaluation in the Chemical
Process Industries ---------------------------------- XXI,5
Editorial ------------------------------------ ---- XXI,63,157
EDUCATORS:
Acrivos, Andreas, of The City College, CUNY ----------- XXV, 118
Baasel, William D., of Ohio University -------------------- XXI,64
Bailey, James E., of Caltech --------------------------------- XXII,58
Berman, Neil, of Arizona State University ------------------- XXII,8
de Nevers, Noel -------------------------------------- XXII,64
Eagleton, Lee C., of Pennsylvania State University ----------- XXI,2
Friedly, J. C., of Rochester --------------------------------- XXII,116
Lightfoot, Edwin N, of Wisconsin -------------------------- XXIV,8
McConica, Carole, of Colorado State University ---------XXIV,62
Pera, Angelo J., of NJIT ------------------------------- XXV,62
Stephanopoulos, George, of MIT -------------------------- XXI,106


Stewart, Warren E., of Wisconsin -------- --------------- XXIII,2
Stice, Jim, of The University of Texas ------ ------------- XXV,6
Electrochemistry, Industrial ---------------------------- XXV,225
Electrons and Holes, Chemical Processing of----------- XXIV,26
Energy Balances, Introduction to Material and --------- XXIII,161
Engineering Education and Practice in the U.S. ---------- XXII,I 1
Engines, Energy and Entropy ---------------------------- XXI,93
Entropy, A Simple Molecular Interpretation of --------------XXI,98
Entropy, Another Way of Looking at ---------- -----XXIII, 154
Entropy; Engines, Energy and --------------------------- XXI,93
Entropy, The Essence of ------------------------------- XXIII,250
Entropy, The Mystique of ------------------------------ XXII,92
Environmental Transport, Exposure, and Risk
Assessment, A Course on Multimedia ------------ XXIV,212
Epitaxy on Patterless and Patterned Substrates, Chemical
Vapor Deposition ----------------------------------- XXIV,42
Equations of State, Generalized Saturation Properties
of Pure Fluids via Cubic -------------------------- XXIII,168
Equilibria, Computation of Multiple Reaction ----------- XXV, 12
Equilibria, Multible Reaction: With Pencil and Paper ---- XXIII,76
Equilibrium Thermodynamics, An Introduction to:
Part 1. Notation and Mathematics -------------- XXV,74
Part 2. Internal Energy, Entropy, and Temperature- XXV, 164
Equipment Design, Heat Transfer --------------------- XXIV,92
Errors: A Rich Source of Problems and Examples ------- XXV,140
Ethical Issues Into the Curriculum; Incorporating Health
Safety, Environmental, and ---------------------------XXIII,70
Ethics; Developing a Course in Chemical Engineering --- XXV,68
Ethics; Science, Engineering, and --------------------- XXIII,67
Evaporators, A Simpler Way to Tame Multiple-Effect ----XXII,52
Experiment, The Coffee Pot --------------------------- XXIII, 150
Experimental Error?, Do Students Understand ----------- XXIII,92

SF
Faculty Development, Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic
Motivation in ------------------------------------ XXIII, 134
Fermentation, An Experiment in Autotrophic ----------- XXIII,32
Fibers, Advanced Engineering -------------------------- XXI, 186
Film Heat Transfer Coefficients, Introducing the
Concept of ---------------------------------- XXIV, 132
Filtration ofAerosols and Hydrosols, Granular ---------- XXIV,99
Fire Safety Science ----------------------------------- XXII,17
Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions ---------------------- XXIII,228
Fluid Mechanics, and Heat Transfer in the Fast
Lane; Chemical Kinetics, ------------------------ XXV,186
Fluid Properties, Thermodynamics and ------------ XXII,208
Fluidised Bed Combustion ----------------------------- XXII,153
Flow and Heat Exchange, Engineering ------------- XXII,195
Flow Sheet is Process Language ------------------------ XXII,88
Fluid Mechanics, Process ------------------------------ XXII,191
Food, Engineering Properties of -------------------------XXI,66
Freshman Class to Introduce ChE Concepts and
Opportunities, A Novel --------------------------- XXV, 134
Future ChE Curriculum, The: Must One Size Fit All? ----- XXI,74
Future, Chemical Engineering in the --------------------- XXI,12
Future Directions in Chemical Engineering Education ---- XXII, 12

HG
Gas Separation by Adsorption Processes ------------ XXII,9


Fall 1991










General Education Requirements and ChE Curricula --- XXIII, 106
Georgia Tech Rising Senior Summer
Program, The Milliken/ ---------------------------- XXI, 134
Graduate Work, American University -----------------------XXI, 160
Graduate School, Secrets of My Success in --------- XXIII,256
Graduation: The Beginning of Your Education ---------- XXII, 164
Granular Filtration ofAerosols and Hydrosols ---------- XXIV,99

* H
Hazard Analysis Course, A Chemical Plant Safety and -XXIII, 194
Hazardous Chemical Spills ---------------------------- XXIII,216
Hazardous Waste Management ----------------------- XXIII,222
Hazardous Waste Management ----------------------- XXIV,147
Health and Safety into the Curriculum, Rationale
for Incorporating ------------------------------- XXII,30
Health, Safety, Environmental, and Ethical Issues Into
the Curriculum; Incorporating ---------------------- XXIII,70
Heat and Mass Transfer in Refrigeration
and Cryogenics ----------------------------------------XXII, 125
Heat Exchange, Engineering Flow and ------------ XXII, 195
Heat Exchange Experiment, A Computer-Controlled ------ XXI,84
Heat Exchanger and Pressure Vessel Technology,
Fundamentals of -------------------------------- XXI,88
Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis Using Interactive
Microcomputer Graphics, Teaching ------------ XXI, 118
Heat Recovery System for Computer Process Control
Teaching and Research, A Pilot-Scale ------------- XXII,68
Heat Transfer in the Fast Lane; Chemical Kinetics,
Fluid Mechanics, and ------------------------- XXV,186
Heat Transfer, Archives of----------------------------- XXIV,33
Heat Transfer, The Chemical Engineering Guide to ---- XXII,114
Heat Transfer, Direct Contact ------------------------------ XXIII, 11
Heat Transfer Coefficients, Introducing the Concept
of Film -------------------------------------- XXIV,132
Heat Transfer Equipment Design --------------------- XXIV,93
Heterogeneous Catalysis ------------------------------- XXIII, 116
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Temperature Effects in ------- XXIV, 112
High School Students, Introducing Applications of
Biotechnology to --------------------------------- XXIV,158

EI
Immobilized Enzyme and Cell Technology, A Course in -XXV,82
Impedance Response of Semiconductors, The ----------- XXIV,48
Industrialization of a Graduate, The: Methods for
Engineering Education ------------------------------- XXI,68
Industrialization of a Graduate, The : The
Business Arena ----------------------------------- XXI, 18
Injection Molding, Computer-Aided Engineeringfor ----- XXI,172
Integral Methods in Science and Engineering ----------- XXI,101
Integrated Circuit Industry, Working in the ------------ XXIV,38
Interactive Graphics, Inventing Multiloop Control
in a Jiffy with Interactive Graphics ------------ XXV,126
Interfacial Phenomena: Equilibrium and
Dynamic Effects ------------------------------ -- XXII,51
Ion Exchange, Fundamentals and Applications of ---------XXI,143

IJ
Japan and the United States, ChE Education in (Part 1) XXII,144
Ibid. (Part 2) ----------------------------------- XXII,218


SK
Kinetic Parameters Characteristic of Microalgal
Growth, Determining the --------------------------XXV,145
Kinetic Rate Expression, Calculation of
Pre-Exponential Term in -------------------------- XXII,150
Kinetics, A Laboratory Experiment on Combined Mass
Transfer and ------------------------------------ XXIII,86
Knowledge, Chemical Engineering in the Spectrum of-- XXIV,20

L
Lab Experience, A First Chemical Engineering ---------- XXI,146
Laboratory, A Membrane Gas Separation Experiment
for the Undergraduate --------------------------- XXV,10
Laboratory, A Three-Stage Counter Current Leaching
Rig for the Senior ----------------------------------- XXII,96
Laboratory, Chemical Reaction Experiment ------------ XXI,30
Laboratory Course, The Large --------------------------- XXII,42
Laboratory Experiment, The Unstructured Student-
Designed Research Type of ----------------------- XXIV,78
Laboratory Experiment on Combined Mass Transfer and
Kinetics, A ------------------------------------- XXIII,86
Laboratory for Chemical Engineering Students, An
Engineering Applications ---------------------------XXV,16
Laboratory to Develop Engineering
Awareness, Using the ----------------------------- XXIII,144
Large Laboratory Course, The --------------------------- XXII,42
Leaching Rig for the Senior Laboratory, A Three-Stage
Counter Current ------------------------------- XXIII,96
Least Sum of Squares for Linear Regression, A Rubust
Alternate to ------------------------------------- XXV,40
Letters to the Editor --------- XXI,5,77,152; XXII,71,115,166,201;
XXIII,10,75,143,203; XXIV, 65; XXV,181
Liquid-Phase Adsorption Fundamentals ----------------- XXI,200
Linear Algebra, Applied ------------------------------- XX ,236
Linear Regression, A Robust Alternate to Least
Sum of Squares for ---------------------------------- XXV,40
Lotus 1-2-3 Macros in Engineering Calculations --------XXIV,100
Lubrication Flows -----------------------------------XXIII,50
SM
Management, Engineering --------------------------- XXII,80
Mass Balances, A Practical Application of--------- XXIII,163
Mass Transfer and Kinetics, A Laboratory Experiment on
Combined -------------------------------------- XX ,86
Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction ----------------- XXI,164
Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction in
Multiphase Systems ------------------------------- XXII,103
Material and Energy Balances, Introduction to -------- XXIII,161
Mathematics, Applied --------------------------------- XXIV,198
Mathematics Software in the Undergraduate
Curriculum, Use of PC Based ---------------------- XXV,54
Matrices for Engineers --------------------------------- XXII,153
Membrane Gas Separation Experiment for the
Undergraduate Laboratory, A -----------------XV,10
Memo, The Engineer's Essential One-Page: The
Heart of the Matter --------------------------- XXIII,102
MEMORIAL
Christensen, James J. --------------------------------- -- XXII,72
Eagleton, Lee C. --------------------------------- -- XXIV,197

Chemical Engineering Education











Marshall, W. Robert ---------------------------------------- XXII, 126
Pigford, Robert L. ----------------------------------- XXII,207
Ragatz, Roland Andrew ---------------------------------- XXII,73
Microalgal Growth, Determining the Kinetic
Parameters Characteristic of ----------------------XXV,145
Microbiology, An Option in Applied ------------------XXII,158
Microcapsules, Animal Cell Culture in ----------------- XXII,196
Microcomputer Computation Package, Applications of a -XXII, 18
Microcomputer Graphics, Teaching Heat Exchanger
Network Synthesis Using Interactive -------------- XXI, 118
Microcomputer-Aided Control Systems Design -------------XXI,34
Microelectronics Processing (VLSI), Fundamentals of --- XXI, 170
Microgravity, Unit Operations in ----------------------- XXI,190
Model Predictive Control -------------------------------XXII, 178
Modeling, A Systematic Approach to ------------------ XXII,26
Modeling and Control, Chemical Process ------------- XXI,194
Molecular Interpretation of Entropy, a Simple ----------- XXI,98
Molecular Thermodynamicsfor Nonideal Fluids ------- XXIII,260
Molecular Theory to Thermodynamic
Models, From: Part 1 -------------------------------XXIV,12
Ibid. Part 2 --------------------------------------- XXIV,80
Molecular Transport Phenomena, An Introduction to -- XXV,210
Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, Fundamentals of- XXI,132
Motivation in Faculty Development, Extrinsic
Versus Intrinsic ---------------------------------- XXIII,134
MultidisciplinaryCourse in Bioengineering, A -----------XXIII,204
Multiloop Control Systems in a Jiffy with
Interactive Graphics, Inventing ------------------ XXV,126
Multimedia Environmental Transport, Exposure, and
Risk Assessment, A Course on ----------------- XXIV,212
Multiphase Chemical Reactors: Theory,
Design, Scale-Up ----------------------------------- XXI,215
Multiphase Science and Technology -------------------- XXI,197
Multiphase Systems, Mass Transfer with Chemical
Reaction in ----------- --------------------------XII,103
Multiple Reaction Equilibria: With Pencil and Paper -----XXIII,76
Multiple Reaction Equilibria, Computation of----------- XXV, 112
Multivariable Control Methods ------------------------ XXII, 188

SN
Nigeria, The Development of Appropriate Chemical
Engineering Education for ------------------------- XXI,102
Nigeria, ChE Education and Problems in ----------------- XXI,44
Nonlinear Systems ----------------------------------- XXI,178
Numerical Heat Transfer ------------------------------ -- XXI,39
Numerical Methods for Chemical Engineers, An
Introduction to ---------------------------------- XXV, 144

HO
One-Hour Professional Development Course for
Chemical Engineers, A --------------------------- XXIV,124
Open-Ended Problem in Chemical Reaction
Engineering, A ---------------------------------- XXIV,148
Open-Ended Problems, Development and Use of -------- XXV,158
Operations and Process Laboratory, The ------------- XXII,140
Oral Presentations as Part of the Senior Design
Course, Teaching Effective ----------------------XXV,28
Oral Technical Presentation, A Course on Making -------- XXII,48
Osmosis System for an Advanced Separation

Fall 1991


Process Laboratory, A Reverse ----------------------- XXI,138

SP
Packed Beds, The Dispersion Model Differential
Equation for ------------------------------------ XXIV,224
Particulate Processes ----------------------------------- XXIII,214
Patterless and Patterned Substrates, Chemical Vapor
Deposition Epitaxy on ------------------------ -- XXIV,42
PC Based Mathematics Software in the Undergraduate
Curriculum, Use of --------------------------- -- XXV,54
Polymer Chemistry: An Introduction ----------------- XXIV,153
Polymer Science, Introduction to Physical ------------ XXIV,135
Polymer Science and Engineering --------------------- XXIV,208
Polymer Systems, Principles of -------------------------------XXI,33
Polymer Viscoelasticity, Introduction to ----------------- XXII,79
Polymeric Materials, Chemical Compatibility of-------- XXIV,94
Polymerization Pilot-Plant for Undergraduate Control
Projects, Use of a --------------------------------- XXV,34
Polymerization Reactor Engineering ---------------------- XXI, 184
Porous Media, A Random Walk in -------------------- XXIV,136
Pre-Exponential Term in Kinetic Rate
Expression, Calculation of ------------------------- XXII, 150
Process Design Course, An Alternative Approach to the -XXIII,82
Professional Development Course for Chemical
Engineers, A One-Hour ------------------------------- XXIV,124
Phase Change, Unsteady-State Heat Transfer
Involving a ------------------------------------ -- XXIII,44
Phase Separation, A Simple Algorithm for
Calculation of------------------------------------ XX,36
Photoreactive Polymers: The Science and Technology
ofResists ------------------------------------ --- XXIV,33
Plasmid Instability in Batch Cultures of Recombinant
Bacteria: A Laboratory Experiment ----------- XXIV,168
Pressure Vessel Technology, Fundamentals of Heat
Exchanger and ---------------------------------------- XXI,88
PROBLEMS:
Coyotes, a Problem with ---------------------------------- XXI,40
CSTR's in Biochemical Reactions: An Optimization
Problem ---------- ----------- ------------- ----- XXIII, 12
Drainage of Conical Tanks With Piping ---------------- XXV,145
Heat of Crystallization Experiment, a Simple --------- XXV,154
Heat Transfer with Chemical Reaction, Modeling
of: Cooking a Potato -------------------------------- XXI,204
Numerical Simulation of Multicomponent
Chromatography Using Spreadsheets ---------------- XXIV,204
Removal of Chlorine From the Chlorine-Nitrogen
Mixture in a Film of Liquid Water ------ ------------- XXV,92
Thermodynamics, A Contribution to the Teaching of ----------XXI,94
Volatility of Close-Boiling Species, Estimating Relative ---- XXI,144

Process Control, A Grad Course in Digital Computer --- XXV,176
Process Control: Structures and Applications ----------- XXV, 156
Process Control, Principles and Practice of Automatic ---- XXI,89
Process Control Computers in the Undergraduate
Laboratory, Incorporation of ----------------------XXIV,106
Process Control Course, Simulation Exercises for
an Undergraduate Digital ------------------------- XXII, 154
Process Control Education in the Year 2000 ---------------XXIV,72
Process Design and Economics, A Guide to Chemical
Engineering ----------------------------------- -- XXV,79











Process Fluid Mechanics -------------------------------- XXII, 191
Process Industries, Economic Evaluation in
the Chemical ---------------------------------------- XXI,5
Process Laboratory, The Operations and ------------- XXII,140
Process Language, Flow Sheet is ------------------------- XXII,88
Process Reactor Design ---------------------------------------XXI,49
Purdue-Industry Computer Simulation Modules ---------- XXV,98

* R
Random Media, Topics in ------------------------------XXII, 192
RANDOM THOUGHTS
Good Cop/Bad Cop ----------------------------------- XXIII,207
Engineering Education Verses ------------------------------ XXV,22
Imposters Everywhere --------------------------------- XXII, 168
It Goes Without Saying ----------------------------------- XXV, 132
Meet Your Students: 1. Stan and Nathan --------------- XXIII,68
Meet Your Students: 2. Susan and Glenda ---------------- XXIV,7
Meet Your Students: 3. Michelle, Rob, Art ----------- XXIV,130
Meet Your Students: 4. Jill and Perry -------------------- XXV,196
No Respect! -------- ----------- ---------------- XXIV,71
Nobody Asked Me, But... ------ ------------------ XXII,26
View Through the Door, A ------------------------------------ XXIII,166
We Hold These Truths to be Self-Evident -----------------XXV,80
Reactor Design, Chemical ------------------------------- XXIII,31
Reactor Engineering, Chemical Reaction and---------- XXIII,149
Recombinant Bacteria, Plasmid Instability in Batch
Cultures of: A Laboratory Experiemnt ------------ XXIV,168
Report Writing, Tips on Teaching ------------------------- XXI,130
Research Type of Laboratory Experiment, The
Unstructured Student-Designed --------- ---------XXIV,78
Revolutionaries, Engineering Schools Train Social -------- XXI,78
Rheology, An Introduction to ----------------- -- XXV,131
Risk Reduction in the ChE Curriculum ------------ XXV,198

E S
Safety and Hazard Analysis Course, A Chemical Plant -XXII,194
Safety and Loss Prevention in the Undergraduate
Curriculum: A Dual Perspective ----------------- XXII,74
Safety, Environmental, and Ethical Issues Into the
Curriculum; Incorporating Health, -------------- XXIII,70
Safety into the Curriculum, Rationale for
Incorporating Health and ---------------------------- XXII,30
Saturation Properties of Pure Fluids via Cubic
Equations of State ---------------------------------- XXIII, 168
Separation Process Laboratory, A Reverse Osmosis
System for an Advanced ---------------------------- XXI,138
Separation Process Technology, Handbook of ---------- XXII,138
Scaleup, Instruction in ----------------------------------- XXII,128
Schools Train Social Revolutionaries, Engineering ---------XXI,78
Science, Engineering, and Ethics -----------------------XXII,67
Semiconductors, The Impedance Response of-------- XXIV,48
Silicon, Thermal Oxidation of --------------------------- XXIV,34
Simplification, Levels of--------------------------------- XXII,104
Simulation Exercises for an Undergraduate Digital
Process Control Course -----------------------------XXII,154
Spills, Hazardous Chemical ------------------------ XXIII,216
Spreadsheets, The Power of ------------------------------ XXV,46
Stagewise Separation Process Calculations,
Principles of ------------------------------------XXV,106
Statistical Mechanics of Chain Molecules --------- XXV,45


Stirred Pots ----------------------------------- --- XXIV,223
Stochastic Modeling of Chemical Process
Systems; Part 1, Introduction -------------------- XXIV,56
Ibid. Part 2, The Master Equation ---------------- XXIV,88
Ibid. Part 3, Application -------------------------- XXIV,164
Stoichiometry Without Tears ------------------------- XXIV,188
Success in Graduate School, Secrets of My ------------ XXIII,256
Summer Program, The Milliken/Georgia Tech
Rising Senior ----------------------------------- XXI,134
Summer School, 1987 ----------------------------------- XXI,168
Summer Seminar Series, The Chemical Engineering --- XXIV,220
Suspensions, Fluid Mechanics of ---------------------- XX ,228
Symposium, The ChEGSA ---------------------------- XXI,100

ST
Talks, A Course on Presenting Technical ------------- XXII,84
Team Responsibility in Class, Experiencing ---------- XXIII,38
Technical Communications for Graduate Students ------- XXII,184
Technical Presentations, A Course on Making Oral ------- XXII,48
Technical Talks, A Course on Presenting --------------- XXII,84
Temperature Effects in Heterogeneous Catalysis --------XXIV,112
Thermal Oxidation of Silicon --------------------------- XXIV,34
Thermodynamics: An Advanced Textbook for ChEs ---- XXIV,207
Thermodynamics, Chemical and Engineering ------------XXV,183
Thermodynamics, Elementary General ------------ XXV,163
Thermodynamics and Fluid Properties -------------- XXII,208
Thesis, An Alternate Approach to the Undergraduate ---- XXII,28
Transport Phenomena -----------------------------------XXI,174
Transferring Knowledge: A Parallel Between Teaching
ChE and Developing Expert Systems --------- XXIV,228
Transport Phenomena, Introduction to Molecular -------- XXV,210
Transport Phenomena in Turbulent Flows ---------- XXIII,175
Triangular Diagrams Teach Steady and Dynamic
Behaviour of Catalytic Reactions ----------- XXIII,176
Two Phase Flow and Heat Transfer: China-US
Progress------------------------------ --- XXI,145

*U
UC Online: Berkeley's Multiloop Computer
Control Program ----------------------------- --XXI, 122
Undergraduate Education: Where Do We Go from Here?-XXV,96
Unit Operations, Principles of -------------------------- XXI,110
Unit Operations in Microgravity ------------------------ XXI,190
Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering ------------ XXI,48
Unsteady-State Heat Transfer Involving a
Phase Change ----------------------------------------XXIII,44
User-Friendly Program for Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium ----XXV,24
Using the Laboratory to Develop Engineering
Awareness ----------------------------------- XXII,144

* V
Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, A User-Friendly Program for-XXV,24
Videotapes, Biochemical Engineering
Education Through ------------------------------- XXIV, 176
Viscous Flows: The Practical Use of Theory -------------- XXV,97

* W
Waste Management, A Consortium to Address
Multidisciplinary Issues of ---------------------- XXIV,180
Waste Management, Hazardous ----------------------- XX ,222

Chemical Engineering Education












AUTHOR INDEX
HA
Abbott, Michael M. ------------------- XXIII,6
Agrawal, Pradeep K. ----------------- XXI,134
Aird, R.J. ------------------------------ XXV,16
Akella, Laks ------------------------- XXII,150
Allen, David T. ---------XXI,190; XXV,64
Altpeter, Roger J. --------------------- XXII,73
Amundson, Neal R. ----- -------- XXI,160
Amyotte, P. R. --------- XXIII,28,163; XXV,158
Andersen, P.K. -- ---------------- XXV,98
Anderson, Bryce ------------------------ XXII, I
Anderson, Timothy J. ----------- XXIV,26
Arkun, Yaman ---------------------- XXII,178
Atwood, Glenn A. --------------------- XXI,89
Austin, G. D. --------------------- XXV,176
Ayers, W. R. --------------------------- XXI,30

SB
BAez, Luis A. -- --------------- XXV,24
Bair, Jeffrey H. ---------------------- XXV,183
Baird, Donald G. --------------------- XXI,172
Barduhn, Allen J. --------------------- XXI,144
Barker, Dee H. ------------------------ XXII,73
Barnes, Charles D. ----------------- XXIII,242
Barrufet, Maria A. ---------- XXI,36; XXII,168
Bartholomew, Calvin H. --------------- XXI,198
Bartusiak, R. Donald -------------- XXI,194
Benge, G. Gregory ------------------- XXIV,220
Bennett, C. 0. ----------------------- XXIV,112
Bennett, Gary F. -------------------- XXII,216
Bentley, William E. ----------------- XXIV,168
Berg, John C. -------------------------- XXII,51
Berman, Jenny -------------------------- XXII,8
Beronio, Jr.; P. B. ------------------- XXIV,176
Bhada, Ron -------------------------- XXIV,180
Biasca, Karyn --------------------------- XXV,46
Bienkowski, Paul R. ---------------- XXIII,204
Bird, R. B. ---------------------- XXI,5;XXII,2
Blackman, David C. ------------ XXIV,158
Blaine, Steven ------- ----------XXV,150
Bowman, Paul T. -- --------XXIII,100
Bravo, Vincente --------------------- XXV,145
Brewster, B. S. ------- ------------ XXII,48
Briedis, Daina M. ------------------ XXII, 184
Brinker, Jeffrey ------------ -------- XXV,204
Brodkey, Robert S. ----------------- XXIII,175
Brosilow, Coleman B. --------- XXV,156
Brown, Lee F. ----------------------- XXI,24
Burris, Conrad T. ----------------------- XXI,6
Buonopane, Ralph A. ------------ XXIV,158
Butt, John B. -------------------------- XII,103

NC
Callaghan, P. J. ---------------------- XXII,68
Caram, Hugo S. --------- XXI,132; XXIII,58
Camaham, Brice -------------------- XXV,218
Chambers, Robert P. ----------------- XXIV, 118
Charos, G. -------------------------- XXII,178
Chelemer, Marc J. ------------------- XXI,106
Chen, J.J.J. ---------------------------- XXV,50
Chen, John C. ---------------------- XXII,58
Chetty, Steven ----------------------XXIV,212
Christensen, James J. ----------- XXII,170
Chun, Kukjin ----------------------- XXIII,242
Churchill, Stuart W.- XXI,88;XXII,71;XXV,186
Cinar, A. ------------------------------ XXII,22
Cluett, W.R. -- ----------------XXV,34


Co, Albert ------------------------------- XXII,79
Coates, Jesse ----------------------------XXV,2
Coca, Jose ----------------------------- XXII,140
Cohen, Yoram ---------------------- XIV,212
Cole, Robert ---------------------- XXII, 110,114
Conger, William L. -------------------- XXI,2
Conner, Jr.; Wm. Curtis ---------- XXIV,106
Cooney, David -------------------- XXI,200
Cordiner, James B. --------------------- XXV,2
Coulman, George A. ----------- XXIV,184
Crittenden, Barry D. ----------------XXV,106
Crosby, E. Johansen ----------------- XXIII,37
Crowl, Daniel A. ----------------- XXII,74
Cummins, P.T. ------------------------XXV,45
Cutlip, Michael B. -------------------- XXII,18

ED
Dadyburjor, Dady B. ----------------- XXI,47
Dahler, John S. -----------------------XXIII,21
Datye, Abhaya -----------------------XXV,204
Davies, Wayne A. -----------XXIII,96; XXV,16
Davis, Richard A. --------------- XXV,10
Davis, Robert H. ------------ XXIII,182,228
Davis, William C. ------------------ XXII,242
DeCoursey, W. J. ------------------ XXI,164
De Nevers, Noel ------ -------------- XXV,154
Deshpande, P.B.-XXII,188;XXII, 188;XXV, 176
Dickman, Belinda ------------------ XXIV, 118
Dinos, Nicholas ------------------------ XXI,64
Dixon, Anthony G. -------- XXI,101; XXII,149
Dogan, Numan S. ------------------- XXII,242
Douglas, J. M. ------------------- XXIII,22,120
Duckler, A. E. -------- ---------- XXI,145
Duda, J. L. ---------- XXII,164; XXIV,136
Dudukovic, M. P. -------------------- XXI,210
Dunham, Michael G. ------------- XXI,186

HE
Eckert, Roger E. --------------------- XXII,42
Edgar, T. F. -------------------------- XXIV,72
Edie, Dan D. -- ---------------- XXI,186
Eggebrecht, John -------------------- XXII,191
Ellington, Rex T. --------------------- XXI,80
England, R. ---------------------- XXII,144
Eubank, Philip T. -------- XXII,36; XXIII,168

HF
Fahidy, Thomas Z. -------------------- XXV,88
Fair, James R. ------------------------- XXII,90
Falconer, John L. ---------- XXI,24: XXII,7
Famularo, Jack ------------------------- XXI,84
Fan, L.T. --------------------- XXIV,56,88,164
Farag, Ihab --------------------------- XXI,117
Felder, Richard M. -------- XXI,74;XXII,84,120;
XXII,168;XXIII,26;XXIII,68,166,207;
XXIV,7,71,130,188; XXV,22,80,132,196
Fels, M. ---------------------------- XXIII,28
Fehr, Manfred --------------------------XXII,88
Field, R.W. ------------------------ XXIII,144
Field, Robert -------------------------- XXIV,132
Finn, Robert ---------------------------- XXII,58
Fleischman, Marvin --------- XXII,30; XXV,198
Floyd, Sigmund ----------- XXII,144;XXII,218
Forman, J. Charles ------------------- XXII,201
Foss, Alan S. -------------XXI,122; XXV,126
Fox, R.O. -------------------- XXIV,56,88,164
Frey, Douglas D. -------------------XXIV,204


Fried, J. R. --------------------------- XXV,208
Fung, Simon J. ---------------------- XXIII,242
Furter, William F. ------------------ XXIII,163

HG
Gavalas, G. R. ------------------------ XXIII,21
Glandt, Eduardo D. -- -------XXII, 192
Glasser, David ------ --------XXV,74,164
Gonzalez, Jorge F. ---------------------- XXII,202
Good, Robert J. -- ----------------- XXI,94
Goodeve, Peter J. -------------------- XXV,126
Goosen, Mattheus F. A. ----------- XXII,196
Gordon, Martin B. ------------------- XXIII,10
Gorte, R. J. --------------------------- XXII,86
Graber S., Te6filo A. ------------------ XXV,102
Green, Alex E. S. -------------------- XXII,91
Griskey, Richard G. -------------------XXV,96
Gubbins, Keith E. ------------------- XXIII,260
Gudivaka, Venkata V. -----------XXIII,216
Gupta, J.P. --- ---------------- XXIII,194
Gupta, Santosh K. --- -----------XXV,144

SH
Hackenberg, C. M. ------------------- XXIV,93
Halasz, Judit Z. --------------------- XXIV,33
Hanesian, Deran ----------------------- XXV,62
Hanzevack, Emil L. --------- XXIII,102;XXV,28
Harris, S.L. -- --------------- XXIII,150
Hayhurst, A. N. ---------------------XXI,126
Hecker, W. C. --- -------------- XXII,48
Heist, Richard H. ------ --------- XXIV,99
Helfferich, F. G. -------- XXI,143; XXIII,76
Hershey, Daniel ------------------- XXIII,154,235
Hess, Dennis W. --------------------- XXIV,34
Hougen, Joel ------------------------- XXI,7
Hrymak, Andrew N. ------------------ XXV,79
Hsu, Y. Y. -------- ------------------XXI,197
Hu, Wei-Shou ------------------------ XXII,202
Hubbard, Davis W. ------------------- XXI,110
Hudgins, R. R. ---------- XXI,130; XXIII,92,176
Hyman, Carol --------------------------XXI,112

EJ
Jacquez, Ricardo ------------------- XXIV,180
Johannes, Arland H. ------------------- XXI,49
Jolls, Kenneth R. -----------XXII,166; XXIV,223
Jones, Vickie S. ---------------------XXII,64
Joye, Donald D. ------------------------XXII,52
UK
Kabel, Robert L. ---------- XXI,2:XXII,128
Karimi, I.A. --------------------------XXV,98
King, C. Judson ------------------------ XXI,66
Kirkwood, R. L. ----------------- XXIII,22,120
Kirwan, D.J. ------------------------- XXV,183
Kisaalita, William S. ---------------- XXIII,242
Klusacek, K. ------------------------ XXIII,176
Kodas, Toivo ------------------------- XXV,204
Koko Jr., F. William ----------------- XXII,52
Kompala, Dhinakar S. ----XXIII, 182; XXIV,168
Koros, William J. ------------------ XXIV,153
Krishnaswamy, Peruvemba R. --------- XXV,176
Kubias, F. Owen -------------------- XXIV,65
Kuchar, Marvin C. ------------------ XXV,94
Kumar, Ashok ------------------------- XXIII,216
Kumar, R. -------------------------- XXIII,188
Kummler, Ralph H. ------XXIII,222; XXIV,147
Kwon, K. C. ---- ----------------XXI,30


Fall 1991











Kyle, B. G. ----------- XXII,92: XXIII,250

SL
Lane, Alan M. ----------------------- XXIII,70
Lauffenburger, Douglas A. --------- XXIII,208
Laukhuf, L. S. ----------------- XXIII,106,143
Leal, L. Gary -------------------------- XXV,118
Lee, P. L. ------------------------------ XXII,68
Lee III, William E.-XXII,158;XXIII,18;XXV,82
Leighton, David T. ------------------ XXI,174
Levenspiel, Octave --------- XXII,115; XXIII,75;
XXIV,78
Lewandowski, Gordon ------------ XXIII,130
Louvar, Joseph F. --------------------- XX,74

EM
Macias-Machin, A. ------------------XXV,78
Maddox, R. N. -----------------------XXII,138
Maheshwari, Mukesh--------------- XXII,150
Mahoney, John F. -------------------- XXII,153
Malcata, F. Xavier -------------------- XXIII,l 12
Malone, Michael F. ------------------- XXI,39
Manke, Charles --------------------- XXV,131
Manning, Francis S. ------------------- XXI,90
Martinez, Ma Eugenia ---------- XXV,145
Martini, R. A. ------------------------- XXII,22
Matthews, Larryl --------------------XXIV,180
McCluskey, R.J. -------------------- XXIII,150
McConica, Carol M. ------------- XXIV,38
McCready, Mark J. --------- XXI,174; XXIII,82
Mclntire, Larry V. ------------------ XXII,200
McKean, Rob Adams ------- XXIII,102; XXV,28
McMicking, James H. ----------- XXIII,222
Melsheimer, S. S. -----------------------XXI,34
Mendoza-Bustos, S.A. ----------- XXV,34
Middleman, Stanley -------------------- XXV,97
Miller, William M. -------------------XXV,134
Miranda, R. ------- ---------- XXIII,116
Mischke, Roland A. -----------------XXII,195
Misovich, Michael -------------------- XXV,46
Modi, Ajay K. ----------------------- XXIII,100
Molina, Emilio ----------------------- XXV,145
Moo-Young, Murray ------------ XXIII,221
Morgan, J. Derald ------------------ XXIV,180
Mosby, J.F. ---------------------------- XXV,98
Miiller, Erich A. ----------------------- XXV,24
Myers, Alan L. ----------------------- XXV,112

EN
Narasimhan, G. ----- --------- XXIV,196
Nedderman, R. M. -------------------- XXI,126
Neill, Wayne K. ----------------------- XXII,73
Newell, R. B. ------------------------XXI,68
Ng, Terry K-L ----------------------- XXII,202
Nienow, A. W. -------- --------- XXII,153
Nystrom, Lynn ----------------------- XXII,2

NO
O'Connell, John P. ---------- XXI,93; XXV,183
Okorafor, C. ------------------- XXI,44,102
Orazem, MarkE. ------- XXIII,67;XXIV,48,124;
XXV,225

UP
Paccione, J. D. --------------------- XXI,138
Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios -------- XXIV,207
Papanastasiou, Tasos C. ----------XXIII,50
Parulekar, Satish J. ------------------- XXII,62
Patterson, G. K. ---------- XXII,17; XXIV,2


Paul, D. R. --------------------------- XXI,33
Pegg, Michael J. ---------------- XXIII,163
Penlidis, A. -------------------------- XXV,34
Perona, Joseph J. -------------------- XXIII,11
Peters, Max S. ------------------------- XXI,5
Peters, Michael H. ----------------------- XXV,210
Petersen, James N. -------------------- XXV,54
Petrich, Mark A. ----- --------- XXV,134
Pettit, Donald R. -------------------- XXI,190
Plank, C. A. ------------------- XXIII,106,143
Powitz, Robert W. ----------------- XXIII,222
Prausnitz, John --------------------------- XXIV,20
Price, Randel M. ------------------------- XXI,194
Prince, R.G.H. ------- ---------- XXV,16
Punzi, Vito L. --------------------- XXI,146

mR
Ramachandran, P. A. ------------- XXIII,31
Ramkrishna, D. -------- XXIH,188; XXIV,198
Randolph, Alan D. --- ---------- XXIII,214
Rangaiah, G.P. ---------------------- XXV,40
Rao, Ming -- ------- -------- XXIII,256
Rase, Howard F. -- ----- -- XXI, 152
Rasmussen, Don --- ----- XXII, 110
Reed, Gregory D. --- ----------- XXIII,204
Reeves, Deborah E.--------- XXII,154;XXII,178
Reilly, P.M. --- --------------- XXIII,92
Reklaitis, G.V. ------- ---------- XXV,98
Rhinehart, R. Russell------- XXI,18,68;XXIII,38
Rice, William J. ------ --------- XXIV,224
Riggs, James B. ---------------------- XXII,26
Roat, S. D. --------------------------- XXI,34
Roberge, P. R. ----------------------- XXIV,228
Rodriguez, F. ------- ---------- XXIV,135
Rosen, Edward M. ----------------- XXIV,100
Rudisill, J.W. ------- ----------XXV,45
Ruthven, D. M. ----------------------- XXII,91

Es
US
Saliba, Tony E. --- ------------ XXIV,154
Samdani, Gulam ---- --- -------- XXII, 116
San, Ka-Yiu ------------- --------- XXIII,200
Sinchez, Sebastin -------------------XXV,145
Sandall, Orville C. -------------------- XXV,10
Sanders, Stuart A. ----------- -------- XXIII,86
Sandhu, Sarwan S. -------------------- XXV,92
Sandler, Stanley I. ------ XXIV, 12; XXIV,80
Santana, Cesar C. ------------------------ XXIV,33
Sater, V. E. ---------------------------- XXII,8
Sather, Glenn A. ------------------------XXII,140
Savage, Phillip E. ----------XXIV,148; XXV,150
Sayler, Gary S. --------------------- XXIII,204
Schaeffer, Steven T. ------------- XXII,208
Schaper, Charles D. ---------------------XXIV, 112
Schork, F. Joseph ----------------------- XXII,154
Schultheisz, Daniel J. ----------------- XXII,98
Schulz, Kirk H. --------------------- XXIV,220
Sciance, C. T. ------------------------------ XXI,12
Seebauer, Edmund G. --- -- XXV,131
Seider, Warren D. ---------- XXI,178; XXII,134;
XXII,212
Senkan, S.M. ------- ----------- XXV,64
Shacham, Mordechai -------------- XXII, 18
Shah, Dinesh --------------------- XXV,124
Shah, Y. T. --- ---------------- XXI,215
Sharma, M.M. --------------------- XXII,188
Siirola, Jeffrey J. ----------------- XXI,77
Silva, Francisco A. Da ----------------- XXV,24


Silveston, P.L. ---------------------- XXIII,176
Sisson, Edwin A. -------------------- XXIII,16
Skaates, J. Michael ------------------ XXI,184
Skeen, Rodney S. ------------------ XXIII,242
Skelland, A. H. Peter ------------------- XXI,48
Skog, Susan -------------------------- XXIV,62
Slater, C. S. -------------------------- XXI,138
Slaughter, Joseph M. -----------------XXV,54
Sleicher, Charles, A. ------------- XXII,12
Sloan, E. Dendy ----------- XXIII,134; XXIV,66
Smith, Douglas --------------------------- XXV,204
Snide, James A. ------------------------- XXIV,154
Soane, David S. --------------------- XXIV,33
Solen, Kenneth A. -------------------- XXIV,94
Someshwar, A. V. ------------------ XXIII,44
Sommerfeld, Jude T. --------- XXI,134;XXII,98;
XXII,86; XXIV,145
Squires, R.G. -------------------------------XXV,98
Strandberg, Gerald W. ------------ XXIII,204
Sublette, Kerry L. --------- XXI,204;XXIII,32
Sullivan, C. ------------------------- XXII,22
Sundberg, D. C. ------------------------- XXIII,44
Sussman, M. V. ---------------------------- XXI,78
Sutija, Davor ------------------------- XXIV,20

NT
Taboada M., Maria E. --------------- XXV,102
Takoudis, Christos G. ------- XXI,170; XXIV,42
Teja, Amyn S. ---------XXII,208; XXV,163
Timmerhaus, Klaus D. ---------- XXII, 125
Todd-Mancillas, William R. --------- XXIII,16
Tsai, Wangteng ---------------------XXIV,212
Tsao, George T. --------- XXI,133; XXIV,176

0U
Ungar, Lyle H. --------------------- XXI,178

SV
Vahdat, N. ---- ---------------- XXI,30
Varma, Arvind ----------------------- XXII,103
Vrentas, J.S. ------- ---------- XXII,181

SW
Waite, Boyd A. ------------------- XXI,98
Wang,Tse-Wei ------------------- XXIII,236
Wankat, Phillip C. -------------------- XXI,72
Watson, Charles, C. ----------------- XXII,73
Watters, James C. ----- XXIII,106,143; XXV,68
Weaver, James B. ------------------ XXIII,138
Wei, James --------------------------- XXII, 12
Weinbaum, Sheldon ----------------- XXV, 118
Westermann-Clark, Gerald B. -------- XXIII,161
Wheelock, T. D. -------------- ----- XXI,152
Whitaker, Stephen ---------------------- XXII, 104
Whiting, Wallace B. ---------------- XXV,140
Wie, Bernard J. Van -------- ----- XXIII,242
Williams, Donald F. -------------XXV,74, 164
Wise, Donald L. -------------------- XXIV,158

mY
Yang, Ralph T. ----------------------- XXII,16
Ybarra, Robert M. ------------------ XXII,42
Yeh, N.C. ------------------------------ XXV,98
Young, Mark A. ------------------------XXI,40

SZ
Zhang, Guotai -------------------------XXIV,78
Zollars, Richard L. -------------------- XXV,54,68


Chemical Engineering Education











The.


f University
OAKrOn. DEPARTMENT OF


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
GRADUATE PROGRAUX

19rGRADUATE PROGRAM


FACULTY


RESEARCH INTERESTS


G. A. ATWOOD
G. G. CHASE
H. M. CHEUNG
S. C. CHUANG
J.R. ELLIOTT
L. G. FOCHT
K. L. FULLERTON
M. A. GENCER2
H. L. GREENE1
L.K. JU
S. LEE
D. MAHAJAN2
J. W. MILLER2
H. C. QAMMAR
R. W. ROBERTS1
N.D. SYLVESTER
M. S. WILLIS


Digital Control, Mass Transfer, Multicomponent Adsorption
Multiphase Processes, Heat Transfer, Interfacial Phenomena
Colloids, Light Scattering Techniques
Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Combustion
Thermodynamics, Material Properties
Fixed Bed Adsorption, Process Design
Fuel Technology, Process Engineering, Environmental Engineering
Biochemical Engineering, Environmental Biotechnology
Oxidative Catalysis, Reactor Design, Mixing
Biochemical Engineering, Enzyme and Fermentation Technology
Fuel and Chemical Process Engineering, Reactive Polymers, Waste Clean-Up
Homogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics
Polymerization Reaction Engineering
Hazardous Waste Treatment, Nonlinear Dynamics
Plastics Processing, Polymer Films, System Design
Environmental Engineering, Flow Phenomena
Multiphase Transport Theory, Filtration, Interfacial Phenomena


'Professor Emeritus
2 Adjunct Faculty Member


Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $7,800.
Industrially sponsored fellowships available up to $17,000.
In addition to stipends, tuition and fees are waived.
Ph.D. students may get some incentive scholarships.
Cooperative Graduate Education Program is also available.
The deadline for assistantship applications is February 15th.
For Additional Information, Write *
Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Akron Akron, OH 44325-3906


Fall 1991









CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PROGRAMS AT

THE UNIVERSITY OF

ALABAMA

The University of Alabama, located in the
sunny South, offers excellent programs lead-
ing to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical
Engineering.
Our research emphasis areas are concentrated
in environmental studies, reaction kinetics
and catalysis, alternate fuels, and related
processes. The faculty has extensive indus-
trial experience, which gives a distinctive
engineering flavor to our programs.
For further information, contact the Director
of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemi-
cal Engineering, Box 870203, Tuscaloosa, AL
35487-0203; (205-348-6450).

FACULTY
G. C. April, Ph.D. (Louisiana State)
D. W. Arnold, Ph.D. (Purdue)
W. C. Clements, Jr., Ph.D. (Vanderbilt)
R. A. Griffin, Ph.D. (Utah State)
W. J. Hatcher, Jr., Ph.D. (Louisiana State)
L A. Jefcoat, Ph.D. (Clemson)
A. M. Lane, Ph.D. (Massachusetts)
M. D. McKinley, Ph.D. (Florida)
L. Y. Sadler III, Ph.D. (Alabama)
V. N. Schrodt, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania State)

RESEARCH INTERESTS
Biomass Conversion, Modeling Transport Processes, Thermodynamics, Coal-Water Fuel Development,
Process Dynamics and Control, Microcomputer Hardware, Catalysis,
Chemical Reactor Design, Reaction Kinetics, Environmental,
Synfuels, Alternate Chemical Feedstocks, Mass Transfer,
Energy Conversion Processes, Ceramics, Rheology, Mineral Processing,
Separations, Computer Applications, and Bioprocessing.
An equal employment/equal educational
opportunity institution.


Chemical Engineering Education













UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA


Degrees: M.Sc., Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering and in Process Control

FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS


K. T. CHUANG, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Mass Transfer Catalysis Separation Processes *
Pollution Control
P. J. CRICKMORE, Ph.D. (Queen's University)
Fractal Analysis Cellular Automata Utilization of Oil
Sand and Coal
I. G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (University of Minnesota)
EMERITUS Chemical Reaction Engineering *
Heterogeneous Catalysis Hydroprocessing
D. G. FISHER, Ph.D. (University of Michigan)
Process Dynamics and Control Real-Time Computer
Applications
M. R. GRAY, Ph.D. (California Institute of Technology)
CHAIRMAN Bioreactors Chemical Kinetics Charac-
terization of Complex Organic Mixtures
R. E. HAYES, Ph.D. (University of Bath)
Numerical Analysis Reactor Modeling Conputational
Fluid Dynamics
S. M. KRESTA, Ph.D. (McMaster University)
Fluid Mechanics Turbulence Mixing
D. T. LYNCH, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Catalysis Kinetic Modeling Numerical Methods *
Reactor Modeling and Design Polymerization
J. H. MASLIYAH, Ph.D. (University of British Columbia)
Transport Phenomena Numerical Analysis Particle-
Fluid Dynamics


A. E. MATHER, Ph.D. (University of Michigan)
Phase Equilibria Fluid Properties at High Pressures *
Thermodynamics
W. K. NADER, Dr. Phil. (Vienna)
Heat Transfer Transport Phenomena in Porous Media *
Applied Mathematics
K. NANDAKUMAR, Ph.D. (Princeton University)
Transport Phenomena Multicomponent Distillation *
Computational Fluid Dynamics
F. D. OTTO, Ph.D. (Michigan) DEAN OF ENGINEERING
Mass Transfer Gas-Liquid Reactions Separation Processes
M. RAO, Ph.D. (Rutgers University)
AI Intelligent Control Process Control
D. B. ROBINSON, Ph.D. (University of Michigan) EMERITUS
Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids Phase Equili-
bria Thermodynamics
J. T. RYAN, Ph.D. (University of Missouri)
Energy Economics and Supply Porous Media
S. L. SHAH, Ph.D. (University of Alberta)
Computer Process Control System Identification Adaptive
Control
S. E. WANKE, Ph.D. (University of California, Davis)
Heterogeneous Catalysis Kinetics Polymerization
M. C. WILLIAMS, Ph.D. (University of Wisconsin)
Rheology Polymer Characterization Polymer Processing
R. K. WOOD, Ph.D. (Northwestern University)
Process Modeling and Dynamic Simulation Distillation
Column Control Dynamics and Control of Grinding Circuits


For further information, contact
Graduate Program Officer, Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6
PHONE (403) 492-3962 FAX (403) 492-7219


Fall 1991 23










THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA
TUCSON, AZ

The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic, with a fully accredited
undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through
fellowships, government grants and contracts, teaching and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial
grants. The faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. Graduate courses are
offered in most of the research areas listed below.


STHE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS *


MILAN BIER, Professor, Director of Center for Separation Science*:
Ph.D., Fordham University, 1950
Protein Separation, Electrophoresis, Membrane Transport

HERIBERTO CABEZAS, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., University of Florida, 1985
Statistical Thermodynamics, Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction,
Protein Separation

WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor, Assoc. Dean
Ph.D., Oregon State University, 1973
Heat transfer in Biological Systems, Blood Processing

EDWARD J. FREEH, Adjunct Research Professor
Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1958
Process Control, Computer Applications

JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Mechanics and
Mass Transfer in the Microcirculation, Biorheology

ROBERTO GUZMAN, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., North Carolina State University, 1988
Protein Separation, Affinity Methods

THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor and Head
Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
Combustion Aerosols, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Contamination
in Micro-Electronics



Tucson has an excellent climate and many
recreational opportunities. It is a growing
modern city of 450,000 that retains much
of the old Southwestern atmosphere.


For further information, write to

Chairman,
Graduate Study Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721


The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity
educational institution/equal opportunity employer.
Women and minorities are encouraged
to apply.


ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation
Phenomena, Particulate Processes
THOMAS R. REHM, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation,
Computer Aided Design
FARHANG SHADMAN, Professor
Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Coal Conversion, Advanced
Materials Processing

JOST 0. L. WENDT, Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxide Abate-
ment, Chemical Kinetics, Thermodynamics, Incineration, Waste
Management

DON H. WHITE, Professor Emeritus
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy, Microbial and
Enzymatic Processes

DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor
D.Sc., Technion, 1962
Energy, Fermentation, Mixing

SCenter for Separation Science is staffed by four research professors, several technicians, and several
postdocs and graduate students. Other research involves 2-0 electrophoresis, cell culture, electro cell
fusion, and electro fluid dynamic modelling.


Chemical Engineering Education












ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY

CHEMICAL, BIO, AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING


a a
e10 CHEMICAL SEp4l :

a *.
RTIFICIA4L S

BIO SeN8:0


e "oc'oN;,^.^^B


CROSS
DISCIPLI
RESEARCH


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Graduate Research in a High Technology Environment


Chemical Engineering


Beckman, James R., Ph.D., U. of
Arizona Crystallization and
Solar Cooling
Bellamy, Lynn, Ph.D., Tulane
Process Simulation
Berman, Neil S., Ph.D., U. of Texas,
Austin Fluid Dynamics and Air
Pollution
Burrows, Veronica A., Ph.D.,
Princeton Surface Science,
Semiconductor Processing
Cale, Timothy S., Ph.D., U. of
Houston Catalysis,
Semiconductor Processing
Garcia, Antonio A., Ph.D., U.C.,
Berkeley Acid-Base Interactions,
Biochemical Separation, Colloid
Chemistry
Henry, Joseph D., Jr., Ph.D., U. of
Michigan Biochemical,
Molecular Recognition, Surface
and Colloid Phenomena


Kuester, James L., Ph.D., Texas A&M
* Thermochemical Conversion,
Complex Reaction Systems
Raupp, Gregory B., Ph.D., U. of
Wisconsin Semiconductor
Materials Processing, Surface
Science, Catalysis
Rivera, Daniel, Ph.D., Cal Tech
Process Control and Design
Sater, Vernon E., Ph.D., Illinois
Institute of Tech Heavy Metal
Removal from Waste Water,
Process Control
Torrest, Robert S., Ph.D., U. of
Minnesota Multiphase Flow,
Filtration, Flow in Porous Media,
Pollution Control
Zwiebel, Imre, Ph.D., Yale*
Adsorption of Macromolecules,
Biochemical Separations


Bioengineering
Dorson, William J., Ph.D., U. of
Cincinnati Physicochemical
Phenomena, Transport Processes
Guilbeau, Eric J., Ph.D., Louisiana
Tech Biosensors, Physiological
Systems, Biomaterials
Pizziconi, Vincent B., Ph.D. Arizona
State Artificial Organs,
Biomaterials. Bioseparations
Sweeney, James D., Ph.D., Case-
Western Reserve Rehab
Engineering, Applied Neural
Control
Towe, Bruce C., Ph.D., Penn State *
Bioelectric Phenomena, Biosensors,
Biomedical Imaging
Yamaguchi, Gary T., Ph.D., Stanford
Biomechanics, Rehab Engineering,
Computer-Aided Surgery


Materials Science & Engineering
Dey, Sandwip K., Ph.D., NYSC of
Ceramics, Alfred U. Ceramics, Sol-
Gel Processing
Hendrickson, Lester E., Ph.D., U. of
Illinois Fracture and Failure
Analysis, Physical and Chemical
Metallurgy
Jacobson, Dean L., Ph.D., UCLA *
Thermionic Energy Conversion, High
Temperature Materials
Krause, Stephen L., Ph.D., U. of
Michigan Ordered Polymers,
Electronic Materials, Electron X-ray
Diffraction, Electron Microscopy
Shin, Kwang S., Ph.D., Northwestern *
Mechanical Properties, High
Temperature Materials
Stanley, James T., Ph.D., U. of Illinois
Phase Transformations, Corrosion


For more details regarding the graduate degree programs in the Department of Chemical, Bio, and Materials Engineering,
please call (602) 965-3313 or (602) 965-3676, or write to: Dr. Eric Guilbeau, Chair of the Graduate Committee, Department of
Chemical, Bio, and Materials Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6006.

Fall 1991 23











University of Arkansas

Department of Chemical Engineering


Graduate Study and Research Leading to MS and PhD Degrees


FACULTY AND AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION

Michael D. Ackerson (Ph.D., U. of Arkansas)
Biochemical Engineering, Thermodynamics
Robert E. Babcock (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Water Resources, Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamics,
Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal Gasification
Edgar C. Clausen (Ph.D., U. of Missouri-Rolla)
Biochemical Engineering, Process Kinetics
James L. Gaddy (Ph.D., U. of Tennessee)
Biochemical Engineering, Process Optimization
Jerry A. Havens (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Irreversible Thermodynamics, Fire and Explosion Hazards
Assessment, Dense Gas Dispersion
William A. Myers (M.S., U. of Arkansas)
Natural and Artifical Radioactivity, Nuclear Engineering
W. Roy Penney (Ph.D., Oklahoma State)
Process Engineering, Process Development, Fluid Mechanics
Thomas O. Spicer (Ph.D., U. of Arkansas)
Computer Simulation, Dense Gas Dispersion
Charles Springer (Ph.D., U. of Iowa)
Mass Transfer, Diffusional Processes, Safety and Loss
Prevention
Charles M. Thatcher (Ph.D., U. of Michigan)
Mathematical Modeling, Computer Simulation
Jim L. Turpin (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Fluid Mechanics, Biomass Conversion, Process Design
Richard K. Ulrich (Ph.D., U. of Texas)
Microelectronics Materials Fabrication and Processing
J. Reed Welker (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Risk Analysis, Fire and Explosion Behavior and Control,
Liquefied Gas Technology

FINANCIAL AID
Graduate students are supported by fellowships and
research or teaching assistantships.

FOR FURTHER DETAILS CONTACT
Graduate Program Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
3202 Bell Engineering Center
University of Arkansas
Fayetteville, AR 72701


LOCATION
The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, the flagship
campus in the six-campus system, is situated in the heart
of the Ozark Mountains and offers students a unique
blend of urban and rural environments. Fayetteville is
literally surrounded by some of the most outstanding
outdoor recreation facilities in the nation, but it is also a
dynamic city and serves as the center of trade, government,
and finance for the region. The city and University offer a
wealth of cultural and intellectual events.

FACILITIES
The Department of Chemical Engineering occupies more
than 40,000 sq. ft. in the new Bell Engineering Center, a
$30-million state-of-the-art facility, and an additional
20,000 sq. ft. of laboratories at the Engineering Research
Center.


Chemical Engineering Education












ant you to be yourself..

The Department of Chemical Engineering
at A uburn University knows you have
unique talents and ideas to contribute to
our research programs..4 nd because you
are an individual, we will value you as an
individual. That is what makes our
department one of the top 20 in the nation.
Don't become just another graduate
student at some other institution. Come to
. uburn and discover your potential.


Y-
A~2


t ^k


:~3: UI


-iCULTY


(CaIoria atte of
Y.T.L_ _


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S DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND

TM PETROLEUM ENGINEERING
THE
UNIVERSITY The Department offers graduate programs leading to the M.Sc. and
OF CALGARY Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering (full-time) and the M.Eng.
degree in Chemical Engineering or Petroleum Reservoir Engineering
(part-time) in the following areas:


FACULTY
R. A. Heidemann, Head (Washington U.)
A. Badakhshan (Birmingham, U.K.)
L. A. Behie (Western Ontario)
J. D. M. Belgrave (Calgary)
F. Berruti (Waterloo)
P. R. Bishnoi (Alberta)
R. M. Butler (Imperial College, U.K.)
A. Chakma (UBC)
M. A. Hastaoglu (SUNY)
A. A. Jeje (MIT)
N. Kalogerakis (Toronto)
A. K. Mehrotra (Calgary)
R. G. Moore (Alberta)
E. Rhodes (Manchester, U.K.)
P. M. Sigmund (Texas)
J. Stanislav (Prague)
W. Y. Svrcek (Alberta)
E. L. Tollefson (Toronto)
M. A. Trebble (Calgary)


* Thermodynamics Phase Equilibria
* Heat Transfer and Cryogenics
* Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics and Combustion
* Multiphase Flow in Pipelines
* Fluid Bed Reaction Systems
* Environmental Engineering
* Petroleum Engineering and Reservoir
Simulation
* Enhanced Oil Recovery
* In-Situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils
* Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates
* Computer Simulation of Separation Processes
* Computer Control and Optimization of
Bio/Engineering Processes
* Biotechnology and Biorheology


Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available to all qualified applicants.

For Additional Information Write *
Dr. A. K. Mehrotra, Chairman Graduate Studies Committee
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4
\.____________________________


The University is located in the City of Calgary, the Oil capital of Canada, the home of the world famous Calgary Stampede
and the 1988 Winter Olympics. The City combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication ofa modern urban
center. Beautiful Banff National Park is 110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of Banff Lake Louise,and Kananaskis
areas are readily accessible. In the above photo the University Campus is shown with the Olympic Oval and the student
residences in the foreground. The Engineering complex is on the left of the picture
240 Chemical Engineering Education










THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT


BERKELEY...


RESEARCH INTERESTS

BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING
ENERGY UTILIZATION
FLUID MECHANICS
KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
POLYMER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
SEPARATION PROCESSES
SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE
THERMODYNAMICS


PLEASE WRITE:


... offers graduate programs leading to the
Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy.
Both programs involve joint faculty-student
research as well as courses and seminars
within and outside.the department. Students
have the opportunity to take part in the many
cultural offerings of the San Francisco Bay
Area and the recreational activities of
California's northern coast and mountains.

FACULTY

ALEXIS T. BELL
HARVEY W. BLANCH
ELTON J. CAIRNS
ARUP K. CHAKRABORTY
DOUGLAS S. CLARK
MORTON M. DENN (CHAIRMAN)
ALAN S. FOSS
SIMON L. GOREN
DAVID B. GRAVES
JAY D. KEASLING
C. JUDSON KING
SCOTT LYNN
SUSAN J. MULLER
JOHN S. NEWMAN
JOHN M. PRAUSNITZ
CLAYTON J. RADKE
JEFFREY A. REIMER
DAVID S. SOANE
DOROS N. THEODOROU


DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA 94720


Fall 1991














(n (AL




U(DAV
U( DA S


Davis & Vicinity
The campus is a 20-minute drive from
Sacramento and just an hour away from the San
Francisco Bay Area. Outdoor enthusiasts may
enjoy water sports at nearby Lake Berryessa,
skiing and other alpine activities in the Lake
Tahoe area (2 hours away). These recreational
opportunities combined with the friendly in-
formal spirit of the Davis campus and town
make it a pleasant place in which to live and
study.
The city of Davis is within easy walking or
cyclingdistancetothecampus. Both furnished
and unfurnished apartments are available.
Married student housing, as well as graduate
dorms at reasonable cost, are located on
campus.


faculty & Pe Sdrch Are'd
Abbott, Nicholas L., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Fundamentals of
polymersurfactants, molecular thermodynamic description of surfactantself-assem-
bly, novel polymer structures for biological membranes.
Bell, Richard L., Professor Emeritus. University of Washington, Seattle. Mass
transfer phenomena on non-ideal trays, environmental transport, biochemical engi-
neering.
Dungan, Stephanie R., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Structure &
stability of food emulsions, intracellular transport, transport properties in
microemulsions, interfacial dynamics.
Boulton, Roger, University of Melbourne. Chemical engineering aspects of fer-
mentation &wine processing, fermentation kinetics, modeling & control ofenological
operations.
Higgins, Brian G., University of Minnesota. Wetting hydrodynamics, fluid me-
chanics of thin films, coating flows, Langmuir-Blodgett films, sol-gel processes.
Jackman, Alan P., University of Minnesota. Biological kinetics & reactor design,
kinetics of ion exchange, environmental solute transport, heat & mass transport at air-
water interface, hemodynamics & fluid exchange.
Katz, David F., University of California, Berkeley. Biological fluid mechanics,
biorheology, cell biology, image analysis.
McCoy, Ben J., University of Minnesota. Chemical reaction engineering ab-
sorption, catalysis, multiphase reactors; separation processes chromatography, ion
exchange, supercritical fluid extraction.
McDonald, Karen A., University of Maryland, College Park. Distillation control,
control of multivariable, nonlinear processes, control of biochemical processes,
plant cell.
Palazoglu, Ahmet N., RensselaerPolytechnic Institute. Process control, process
design & synthesis.
Phillips, Ronald J., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Low Reynolds
number hydrodynamics, suspension mechanics, hindered transport, transport in
living plants.
Powell, Robert L., The Johns Hopkins University. Rheology, fluid mechanics,
properties of suspensions & physiological fluids.
Ryu, Dewey D.Y., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kinetics & reaction
engineering of biochemical & enzymesystems, optimization of continuous bioreactor,
biochemical & genetic engineering.
Smith, J.M., Professor Emeritus, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Transport
rates & chemical kinetics for catalytic reactors, studies by dynamic & steady-state
methods in slurry, trickle-bed, single pellet, & fixed-bed reactors.
Stroeve, Pieter, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Transport with chemical
reaction, biotechnology, rheology of heterogeneous media, thin film technology,
interfacial phenomena, image analysis.
Whitaker, Stephen, University of Delaware. Drying porous media, transport
processes in heterogeneous reactors, multiphase transport phenomena in heteroge-
neous systems.

oref Info
Information and application materials (including financial aid) may be obtained
through the following address or telephone number.
Graduate Admissions Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of California, Davis
Davis, CA 95616
Telephone 916/752-2504; FAX 916/752-1031









CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT


UCLA


FACULTY
D. T. Allen K. Nobe
Y. Cohen L. B. Robinson
S (Prof. Emeritus)


I. n. K. FreaerKing
S. K. Friedlander
R. F. Hicks
E. L. Knuth
(Prof. Emeritus)
V. Manousiouthakis
H. G. Monbouquette


PROGRAMS


UCLA's Chemical Engineering Department
offers a program of teaching and research linking
fundamental engineering science and industrial
needs. The department's research strengths are
demonstrated by its established centers of excel-
lence in Hazardous Substances Control (NSF),
Multimedia Environmental Pollution Studies (EPA),
and Biotechnology Research and Education (NSF,
State of California).

Fellowships are available for outstanding ap-
plicants. A fellowship includes a waiver of tuition
and fees plus a stipend.

Located five miles from the Pacific Coast,
UCLA's expansive 417-acre campus extends from
Bel Air to Westwood Village. Students have ac-
cess to the highly regarded science programs
and to a variety of experiences in theatre, music,
art, and sports on campus.


S. M. Senkan
0. I. Smith
W. D. Van Vorst
(Prof. Emeritus)
V. L. Vilker
A. R. Wazzan


RESEARCH AREAS
Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Process Design and Process Control
Polymer Processing and Rheology
Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics, Combustion, and Catalysis
Semiconductor Device Chemistry and Surface
Science
Electrochemistry and Corrosion
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Particle Technology
Environmental Engineering


CONTACT
Admissions Officer
Chemical Engineering Department
5531 Boelter Hall
UCLA
Los Angeles, CA 90024-1592
(213) 825-9063


Fall 1991












UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA



SANTA BARBARA


FACULTYAND RESEARCH INTERESTS *
L. GARY LEAL Ph.D. (Stanford) (Chairman) Fluid Mechanics; Transport Phenomena; Polymer Physics.
SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo) Two-Phase Flow, Chemical & Nuclear Safety, Computational Fluid Dynamics,
Turbulence.
BRADLEY F. CHMELKA Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Guest/Host Interactions in Molecular Sieves, Dispersal of Metals in
Oxide Catalysts, Molecular Structure and Dynamics in Polymeric Solids, Properties of Partially Ordered Materials,
Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.
HENRI FENECH Ph.D. (M.I.T.) (Professor Emeritus) Nuclear Systems Design and Safety, Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two-
Phase Flow, Heat Transfer.
GLENN H. FREDRICKSON Ph.D. (Stanford) Electronic Transport, Glasses, Polymers, Composites, Phase Separation.
OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue) Theoretical Methods, Chemical Reactor Analysis, Transport Phenomena.
JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph.D. (Cambridge) Surface and Interfacial Phenomena, Adhesion, Colloidal Systems,
Surface Forces.
FRED F. LANGE Ph.D. (Penn State) Powder Processing of Composite Ceramics; Liquid Precursors for Ceramics;
Superconducting Oxides.
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.) (Vice Chairman) Radiation Damage, Mechanics of Materials.
ERIC McFARLAND Ph.D. (M.I.T), M.D. (Harvard) Biomedical Engineering, NMR and Neutron Imaging, Transport
Phenomena in Complex Liquids, Radiation Interactions.
DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph.D. (Purdue) Computer Control, Process Dynamics, Real-Time Computing.
JOHN E. MYERS Ph.D. (Michigan) (Professor Emeritus) Boiling Heat Transfer.
G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Radiation Effects in Solids, Energy Related Materials Development
DALE S. PEARSON Ph.D. (Northwestern) Rheological and Optical Properties of Polymer Liquids and Colloidal
Dispersions.
PHILIP ALAN PINCUS Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Theory of Surfactant Aggregates, Colloid Systems.
A. EDWARD PROFIO Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Biomedical Engineering, Reactor Physics, Radiation Transport Analysis.
ROBERT G. RINKER Ph.D. (Caltech) Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis, Energy Conversion, Air Pollution.
ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Transport Phenomena, Separation Processes.
DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. (Princeton) Process Control, Computer Control, Process Identification.
PAUL SMITH Ph.D. (State University of Groningen, Netherlands) High Performance Fibers; Processing of Conducting
Polymers; Polymer Processing.
T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D. (Minnesota) Nuclear and Chemical Plant Safety, Multiphase Flow, Thermalhydraulics.
W. HENRY WEINBERG Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Surface Chemistry; Heterogeneous Catalysis; Electronic Materials
JOSEPH A. N. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D. (Minnesota) Surface and Interfacial Phenomen, Structure of Microemulsions.


PROGRAMS
AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT

The Department offers M.S. and
Ph.D. degree programs Financial
aid, including fellowships, teach-
ing assistantships, and research
assistantships, is available.


THE UNIVERSITY

One of the world's few seashore
campuses, UCSB is located on the
Pacific Coast 100 miles northwest
of Los Angeles. The student enroll-
ment is over 18,000. The metro-
politan Santa Barbara area has over
150,000 residents and is famous for
its mild, even climate.


For additional information
and applications,
write to

Professor Dale Pearson
Department of Chemical and
Nuclear Engineering
University of California
Santa Barbara, CA 93106


Chemical Engineering Education








CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


at the

CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

"At the Leading Edge"


FACULTY
Frances H. Arnold
James E. Bailey
John F Brady
Mark E. Davis
Richard C. Flagan
George R. Gavalas
Konstantinos P. Giapis
Julia A. Kornfield
Manfred Morari
C. Dwight Prater (Visiting)
John H. Seinfeld
Nicholas W. Tschoegl (Emeritus)
Zhen-Gang Wang


RESEARCH INTERESTS
Aerosol Science
Applied Mathematics
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Biocatalysis and Bioreactor Engineering
Bioseparations
Catalysis
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Combustion
Colloid Physics
Fluid Mechanics
Materials Processing
Microelectronics Processing
Microstructured Fluids
Polymer Science
Process Control and Synthesis
Protein Engineering
Statistical Mechanics of Heterogeneous
Systems


*forfurther information, write
Professor John F. Brady
Department of Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125


Fall 1991




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Clue





Jon .. Anderso
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Pau A. 99.ll

Micha. 9M9 .9a



Igai E. Grossmann

Wila S. Hamc in t.99em9


Anntt M. Jacobson9 .















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Gar J. Powers *i
Decision-making^S in the*designofchemical
processing ^^^-I^^^^^ systems^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Dennis C. Prieve Car negiel~~n5^^^B '^K-i^H^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Transportfi^^^^^^^^^^l^^^l~l^^^^ phenomena^ and colloids,^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
especially ^^^^^^^^^^ HelectrokRfinetic phenomena Mell n^^^^^
Jennife^^r L.Sinlair^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^H^^x^S&&ii^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
MulKtipihaseH flow ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Paul J. Sides^^^^^^^^E^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Electrochemical engineering;cfiB^it3S'l~a~flaH^1^n~^^^^^^^^^












Chemical Engineering in


the 21st Century?


Diamond crystals synthesized by graduate student C. Kovach.

For more information contact:


The Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106


Want to learn what the future holds for
chemical engineers?

Consider graduate study at


CASE

WESTERN

RESERVE

UNIVERSITY

Opportunities for Innovative Research in
Advanced Energy Conversion *
Chemical/Biological Sensors
Intelligent Control *
Micro- and Nano-Materials *
Novel Separations/Processing *


Faculty and Specializations


John C. Angus, Ph.D. 1960, University of Michigan
Redox equilibria, diamond and diamond-like films, modulated
electroplating
Coleman B. Brosilow, Ph.D. 1962, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn
Adaptive inferential control, multi-variable control, coordination
algorithms
Robert V. Edwards, Ph.D. 1968, Johns Hopkins University
Laser anemometry, mathematical modeling, data acquisition
Donald L. Feke, Ph.D. 1981, Princeton University
Colloidal phenomena, ceramic dispersions, fine-particle
processing


Nelson C. Gardner, Ph.D. 1966, Iowa State University
High-gravity separations, sulfur removal processes


Uziel Landau, Ph.D. 1975, University of California (Berkeley)
Electrochemical engineering, current distributions, electro-
deposition
Chung-Chiun Liu, Ph.D. 1968, Case Western Reserve University
Electrochemical sensors, electrochemical synthesis, electro-
chemistry related to electronic materials
J. Adin Mann, Jr., Ph.D. 1962, Iowa State University
Interfacial structure and dynamics, light scattering, Langmuir-
Blodgett films, stochastic processes
Syed Qutubuddin, Ph.D. 1983, Carnegie-Mellon University
Surfactant and polymer solutions, metal extraction, enhanced
oil recovery
Robert F. Savinell, Ph.D. 1977, University of Pittsburgh
Applied electrochemistry, electrochemical system simulation
and optimization, electrode processes


CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY


Fall 1991


i










VERS


TY


The

UN

OF

C ll


Opportunities for

GRADUATE STUDY
in Chemical Engineering

M.S. and PhD Degrees
in Chemical Engineering


* Financial Aid Available *
Faculty


The city of Cincinnati is the 23rd largest city in the United States, with a greater
metropolitan population of 1.7 million. The city offers numerous sites of architec-
tural and historical interest, as well as a full range of cultural attractions, such as
an outstanding art museum, botanical gardens, a world-famous zoo, theaters, sym-
phony, and opera. The city is also home to the Cincinnati Bengals and the Cincin-
nati Reds. The business and industrial base of the city includes pharmaceutics,
chemicals, jet engines, autoworks, electronics, printing and publishing, insurance,
investment banking, and health care. A number of Fortune 500 companies are
located in the city.


Amy Ciric
Joel Fried
Stevin Gehrke
Rakesh Govind


Robert Jenkins
Yuen-Koh Kao
Soon-Jai Khang
Jerry Lin


David Greenberg Glenn Lipscomb
Daniel Hershey Neville Pinto
Sun-Tak Hwang Sotiris Pratsinis


a Air Pollution
Modeling and design of gas cleaning devices and systems, source apportionment of air pollutants.
a Biotechnology (Bioseparations)
Novel bioseparation techniques, chromatography, affinity separations, biodegradation of toxic wastes, controlled drug
delivery, two-phase flow, suspension rheology.
a Chemical Reaction Engineering and Heterogeneous Catalysis
Modeling and design of chemical reactors, deactivation of catalysts, flow pattern and mixingin chemical equipment, laser
induced effects.
a Coal Research
New technology for coal combustion power plant, desulfuriza-
tion and denitritication.
a Material Synthesis
Manufacture of advanced ceramics, opticalfibers and pigments ,
by aerosol processes.


o Membrane Separations
Membrane gas separations, membrane reactors, sensors and
probes, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dynamic simulation of
membrane separators, membrane preparation and characteri-
zation for polymeric and inorganic materials.


a Polymers
Thermodynamics, thermal analysis and morphology of polymer blends, high-temperature polymers, hydrogels, polymer
processing.
a Process Synthesis
Computer-aided design, modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit operations, pre-
diction ofreaction by-products.
For Admission Information *
Director, Graduate Studies
Department of Chemical Engineering, #171
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0171
248 Chemical Engineering Education


NNAT


NCI


Location







Graduate Study in

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


AT CLARKSON


CENTER FOR ADVANCED MATERIALS PROCESSING
NASA CENTER FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF
COMMERCIAL CRYSTAL GROWTH IN SPACE
INSTITUTE OF COLLOID AND SURFACE SCIENCE
For details, please write to:
Dean of the Graduate School
Clarkson University
Potsdam, New York 13699




Clarkson University is a nondiscriminatory, equal opportunity, affirmative action educator and employer.


Fall 1991








Graduate Study at



Clemson University

in Chemical Engineering

Coming Up for Air
No matter where you do your graduate work,
your nose will be in your books and your mind on
your research. But at Clemson University, there's
something for you when you can stretch out for a
break.
7% Like breathing good air. Or swimming, fishing,
30 sailing, and water skiing in the clean lakes. Or
hiking in the nearby Blue Ridge Mountains. Or
driving to South Carolina's famous beaches for a
weekend. Something that can really relax you.
All this and a top-notch Chemical Engineering
Department, too.
With active research and teaching in polymer
processing, composite materials, process automa-
tion, thermodynamics, catalysis, and membrane
applications what more do you need?
The University
Clemson, the land-grant university of South Carolina, offers 62 undergraduate and 61
graduate fields of study in its nine academic colleges. Present on-campus enrollment is
about 16,000 students, one-third of whom are in the College of Engineering. There are about
3,000 graduate students. The 1,400-acre campus is located on the shores of Lake Hartwell in
South Carolina's Piedmont, and is midway between Charlotte, N.C., and Atlanta, Ga.


The Faculty
Charles H. Barron, Jr.
John N. Beard, Jr.
Dan D. Edie
Charles H. Gooding


James M. Haile
Douglas E. Hirt
Stephen S. Melsheimer
Joseph C. Mullins


Amod A. Ogale
Richard W. Rice
Mark C. Thies


Fi l Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
Financial aid, including fellowships and assistantships, is available

For Further Information and a descriptive brochure, write:
Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical Engineering
Earle Hall
Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina 29634-0909


CLEDISON
UvNIvErSIrr
College of Engineering

Chemical Engineering Education











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, BOULDER


RESEARCH INTERESTS


Alternative Energy Sources
Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Polymeric Membrane Morphology
Global Change
Geophysical Fluid Mechanics


Materials Processing in Low-G
Enhanced Oil Recovery
Fluid Dynamics and Fluidization
Interfacial and Surface Phenomena
Mass Transfer
Membrane Transport and Separations


Numerical and Analytical Modeling
Polymer Reaction Engineering
Process Control and Identification
Semiconductor Processing
Surface Chemistry and Surface Science
Thermodynamics and Cryogenics


Graduate students in the Department of Chemical Engineering may also participate in the popular, interdisciplinary
Biotechnology Training Program at the University of Colorado.


FACULTY


CHRISTOPHERN. BOWMAN, Assistant Professor
Ph.D., Purdue, 1991
DAVID E. CLOUGH, Professor, Associate Dean for Academic Affairs
Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1975
ROBERT H. DAVIS, Associate Professor
Co-Director of Colorado Institutefor Research in Biotechnology
Ph.D., Stanford University, 1983
JOHN L. FALCONER, Professor
Ph.D., Stanford University, 1974
ZOHREH FATHI, Assistant Research Professor
Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1986
YURIS 0. FUENTES, Assistant Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1990
R. IGOR GAMOW, Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1967
HOWARD J. M. HANLEY, Professor Adjoint
Ph.D., University of London, 1963
DHINAKAR S. KOMPALA, Associate Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1984


WILLIAM B. KRANTZ, Professor and President's Teaching Scholar,
Co-Director NSF I/UCRC Center for Separations Using Thin Films
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1968
RICHARD D. NOBLE, Professor, Co-Director NSFI/UCRC Center for
Separations Using Thin Films
Ph.D., University of California, Davis, 1976
W. FRED RAMIREZ, Professor and Chairman
Ph.D. Tulane University, 1965
ROBERT L. SANI, Professor, Director of Centerfor Low Gravity
Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena
Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1963

KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS, Professor and President's Teaching Scholar
Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1951

PAULW. TODD, Research Professor
Ph.D. University of California, Berkeley, 1964
RONALD E. WEST, Professor
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1958


FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE TO Director, Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical.ngineering
University of Colorado, Boulder Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424


Fall 1991












COLORADO



SCHOOL OF o I



MINES 1874




THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH

SA. J. KIDNAY, Professor and Graduate Dean; D.Sc., Colorado School
of Mines. Thermodynamic properties of gases and liquids, vapor-
liquid equilibria, cryogenic engineering.
J. H. GARY, Professor Emeritus; Ph.D., Florida. Petroleum refinery
processing operations, heavy oil processing, thermal cracking,
visbreaking and solvent extraction.
V. F. YESAVAGE, Professor; Ph.D., Michigan. Vapor liquid
equilibrium and enthalpy of polar associating fluids, equations
of state for highly non-ideal systems, flow calorimetry.
E. D. SLOAN, JR., Professor; Ph.D. Clemson. Phase equilibrium
measurements of natural gas fluids and hydrates, thermal
conductivity of coal derived fluids, adsorption equilibria,
education methods research.
R. M. BALDWIN, Professor and Head; Ph.D., Colorado School of
Mines. Mechanisms and kinetics of coal liquefaction, catalysis,
oil shale processing, fuels science.
M. S. SELIM, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State. Heat and mass transfer
with a moving boundary, sedimentation and diffusion of colloidal
suspensions, heat effects in gas absorption with chemical
reaction, entrance region flow and heat transfer, gas hydrate
dissociation modeling.
A. L. BUNGE, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Berkeley. Membrane
transport and separations, mass transfer in porous media, ion
exchange and adsorption chromatography, in place remediation
of contaminated soils, percutaneous absorption.
R. L. MILLER, Professor; Ph.D., Colorado School of Mines.
Liquefaction co-processing of coal and heavy oil, low severity
coal liquefaction, particulate removal with venturi scrubbers,
interdisciplinary educational methods
J. F. ELY, Professor; Ph.D., Indiana. Molecular thermodynamics
and transport properties of fluids.
J.T. McKINNON, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute
of Technology. High temperature gas phase chemical kinetics,
combustion, hazardous waste destruction.
J.O. GOLDEN, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State University. Hazardous
waste processing, polymers, fluidization engineering

For Applications and Further Information
on M.S. and Ph.D. Programs, Write

Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining
Colorado School of Mines
Golden, CO 80401


Chemical Engineering Education































Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs for Scientists and Engineers


Faculty and Research Areas


THOMAS F. ANDERSON
statistical thermodynamics,
phase equilibria, separations
JAMES P. BELL
structure and
properties of polymers
DOUGLAS J. COOPER
expert systems,
process control,
fluidization
ROBERT W. COUGHLIN
catalysis, biotechnology,
surface science
MICHAEL B. CUTLIP
chemical reaction engineering,
computer applications


ANTHONY T. DIBENEDETTO
polymer science,
composite materials
JAMES M. FENTON
electrochemical engineering,
enrivonmental engineering
G. MICHAEL HOWARD
process dynamics,
energy technology
HERBERT E. KLEI
biochemical engineering,
environmental engineering


JEFFREY T. KOBERSTEIN
polymer morphology
and properties
MONTGOMERY T. SHAW
polymer processing,
rheology
DONALD W. SUNDSTROM
environmental engineering,
biochemical engineering
ROBERT A. WEISS
polymer science


We'll gladly supply the Answers!

THE Graduate Admissions
UNIVERSITY OF Dept. of Chemical Engineering
rT The University of Connecticut
Storrs, CT 06268
(203) 486-4019


- i -- =--- ;-e










Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering


at Cornell University


B World-class research in ...
biochemical engineering
applied mathematics
computer simulation
environmental engineering
kinetics and catalysis
surface science
i A 1 heat and mass transfer
polymer science and engineering
fluid dynamics
rheology and biorheology
process control
molecular thermodynamics
statistical mechanics
computer-aided design


A diverse
intellectual climate
Graduate students arrange indi-
vidual programs with a core of
chemical engineering courses
supplemented by work in other
outstanding Cornell depart-
ments, including chemistry,
biological sciences, physics,
computer science, food science,
materials science, mechanical
engineering, and business
administration

A scenic location
Situated in the scenic Finger
Lakes region of upstate New
York, the Cornell campus is one
of the most beautiful in the
country.

A stimulating university com-
munity offers excellent recrea-
tional and cultural opportunities
in an attractive environment


A distinguished faculty
Brad Anton
Paulette Clancy
Peter A. Clark
Claude Cohen
T. Michael Duncan
James R. Engstrom
Robert K. Finn (Emeritus)
Keith E. Gubbins
Daniel A. Hammer
Peter Harriott
Donald L. Koch
Robert P. Merrill
William L. Olbricht
Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos
Ferdinand Rodriguez
George F. Scheele
Michael L. Shuler
Julian C. Smith (Emeritus)
Paul H. Steen
William B. Street
Raymond G. Thorpe (Emeritus)
Robert L. Von Berg (Emeritus)
Herbert F. Wiegandt (Emeritus)
John A. Zollweg


Graduate programs lead to the
degrees of master of engineering,
master of science, and doctor of
philosophy. Financial aid, including
attractive fellowships, is available.

For further information, write
Professor William L. Olbricht
Cornell University
Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering
Ithaca, NY 14853-5201


Chemical Engineering Education









Chemical En gneerin at
The Faculty
Ricardo Aragon
Giovanni Astarita
Mark A. Barteau
Antony N. Beris
Kenneth B. Bischoff
Douglas J. Buttrey
Costel D. Denson
Prasad S. Dhurjati
Henry C. Foley
Bruce C. Gates
Eric W. Kaler
Michael T. Klein
Abraham M. Lenhoff
Roy L. McCullough
Arthur B. Metzner
Jon H. Olson
Michael E. Paulaitis
T. W. Fraser Russell
Stanley I. Sandler
Jerold M. Schultz
Annette D. Shine
Norman J. Wagner
AndrewL. Zydney T he University of Delaware offers M.ChE and Ph.D.

degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course
work in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strong
interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current
fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science and
Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena, Materials
Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction Kinetics,
Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photovoltaic
Processing, Biomedical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering, and Colloid
and Surfactant Science.

New York For more information and application materials, write:


Philadelphis


GFIUuILu IUV iDu
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware 19716


The University of
Delaware


Baltimore
Washington


Fall 1991


I









Modern Applications of

Chemical Engineering

at the



University of Florida


Graduate Study Leading to the MS and PhD


FACULTY
TIM ANDERSON Semiconductor Processing, Thermodynamics
IOANNIS BITSANIS Molecular Modeling of Interfaces
SEYMOUR S. BLOCK Biotechnology
OSCAR D. CRISALLE Electronic Materials, Process Control
RAY W. FAHIEN Transport Phenomena, Reactor Design
ARTHUR L. FRICKE Polymers, Pulp & Paper Characterization
GAR HOFLUND Catalysis, Surface Science
LEW JOHNS Applied Design, Process Control, Energy Systems
DALE KIRMSE Computer Aided Design, Process Control
HONG H. LEE Semiconductor Processing, Reaction Engineering
GERASIMOS LYBERATOS Biochemical Engineering, Chemical Reaction Engineering
FRANK MAY Computer-Aided Learning
RANGA NARAYANAN Transport Phenomena, Semiconductor Processing
MARK E. ORAZEM Electrochemical Engineering, Semiconductor Processing
CHANG-WON PARK* Fluid Mechanics, Polymer Processing
DINESH 0. SHAH Surface Sciences, Biomedical Engineering
SPYROS SVORONOS* Process Control, Biochemical Engineering
GERALD WESTERMANN-CLARK Electrochemical Engineering, Bioseparations

For more information, please write:
Graduate Admissions Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
or call (904) 392-0881
Chemical Engineering Education














GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Florida A & M University / Florida State University Joint College of Engineering


MS AND PHD PROGRAMS


FACULTY


PEDRO ARCE PH.D.
Purdue University, 1990


RAVI CHELLA PH.D.
University of Massachusetts, 1984


DAVID EDELSON PH.D.
Yale University, 1949


BRUCE LOCKE PH.D.
North Carolina State University, 1989


MICHAEL PETERS PH.D.
Ohio State University, 1981


SAM RICCARDI PH.D. (Adjunct)
Ohio State University, 1949


JOHN TELOTTE PH.D.
University of Florida, 1985


JORGE VIALS PH.D. (Affiliate)
University of Barcelona, Spain, 1981


RESEARCH INTERESTS


Aerosol Science, Air Pollution Control, Applied

Mathematics, Biocatalysis, Bioreactor Design and

Bioseparations, Brownian Motion, Chemical Vapor

Deposition, Chemical Kinetics and Combustion,

Composite Materials, Complex Fluids, Expert Systems,

Fluid Mechanics of Crystal Growth, Macromolecular

Phenomena, Macromolecular Transport in Polymeric

Media, Phase Transitions, Polymer Processing, Stochastic

Processes, Semiconductor Processing, Thermodynamics


At the Forefront of High Technology Research


FOR INFORMATION WRITE TO:

Graduate Studies Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
FAMU/FSU College of Engineering
2525 Pottsdammer Street
Tallahassee, FL. 32316-2175























CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


The Faculty and Their Research clsHetereneus
face chemistry.
reaction kinetics
Pradeep K. Agrawal


Microelectron
ics, polymer
processing
Sue Ann Bidstrup


Molecular
thermodynam-
ics, chemical
kinetics.
separations
Charles A. Eckert


Reactor
design,
catalysis


William R. Ernst


Mechanics of
aerosols. buoy-
ant plumes and
jets


LarryJ. Forney


H eat transport
phenomena,
fluidization
Charles W. Gorton


Photochemical
processing,
chemical
vapor
deposition


Pulp and paper


Jeffrey S. Hsieh


Paul A. Kohl


Aerocolloidal
systems, inter-
facial phe-
nomena, fine-
particle
S 1 technology
MichaelJ. Matteson


Polymer engi-
neering. energy
conservation.
economics
John D. Muzzy


SBiomechanics,
mammalian
Sell cultures
Robert M. Nerem


Emulsion
polymeriza-
tion, latex
technology
Gary W. Poehlein


SBiochemical
engineering,
mass transfer,
reactor design
Ronnie S. Roberts


IK _,W 1V eparaton
4L^ processes,
crystallization
Ronald W. Rousseau


~Biochemical
engineering.
microbial and
animal cell
f cultures
Athanassios Sambanis


Reactor engi-
neering, proc
ess control,
Polymer sci- polymerization
ence and reactor
engineering dynamics
Robert J. Samuels F. Joseph Schork


I Process synthe-
sis and simula-
tion, chemical
separation,
waste manage-
Process design ment, resource
S and simulation recovery
Jude T. Sommerfeld D. William Tedder


SBiochemical
engineering,
cell-cell inter-
actions,
biofluid
dynamics
Timothy M. Wick


Electrochemi-
cal engineer-
ing, thermo-
dynamics, air
pollution
control


Jack Winnick


SBiofluid dynam-
ics, rheology,
transport
phenomena
Ajit P. Yoganathan


A.S. Abhiraman


Polymer
science and
engineering







Process
design and
control,
spouted-bed
reactors


Thermody-
namic and
transport prop-
erties, phase
equilibria,
supercritical
gas extraction


Amyn S. Teja


Catalysis, ki-
netics, reactor
design


marK I. wuire









What do graduate students say about

the University of Houston

Department of Chemical Engineering?
"Houston is a university on the move. The chemical engineering department is ranked
among the top ten schools, and you can work in the specialty of your choice: semiconductor
processing, biochemical engineering, the traditional areas. The choice of advisor is yours, too,
and you're given enough time to make the right decision. You can see your advisor almost any
time you want to because the student-to-teacher ratio is low.
Houston is the center of the petrochemical industry, which puts the 'real world' of
research within reach. And Houston is one of the few schools with a major research program
in superconductivity.
The UH campus is really nice, and city life is just 15 minutes away for concerts, plays,
nightclubs, professional sports-everything. Galveston beach is just 40 minutes away.
"The faculty are dedicated and always friendly. People work hard here, but there is time
for intramural sports and Friday night get togethers"
If you'd like to be part of this team, let us hear from you.


"It's great!"


aN,;.,
dNK~ QP


)T- Ac7_,
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fc\f 1


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ka ;/


AREAS OF RESEARCH STRENGTH:
Biochemical Engineering Chemical Reaction Engineering
Superconducting, Ceramic and Applied Transport Phenomena
Electronic Materials Thermodynamics
Enhanced Oil Recovery


FACULTY:
Neal Amundson
Vemuri Balakotaiah
Elmond Claridge
Abe Dukler


Demetre Economou
Ernest Henley
John Killough
Dan Luss


Richard Pollard
William Prengle
Raj Rajagopalan
Jim Richardson


For an application, write: Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77004, or call collect 713/749-4407
The University is in compliance with Title IX


Cynthia Stokes
Frank Tiller
Richard Willson
Frank Worley


_ _


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r

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UI C The University of Illinois at Chicago

Department of Chemical Engineering



MS and PhD Graduate Program *

FACULTY

John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Professor and Acting Head

G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Professor

Irving F. Miller
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1960
Professor

Sohail Murad
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
Associate Professor

Ludwig C. Nitsche
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1989
Assistant Professor


John Regalbuto
Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986
Assistant Professor

Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Professor

Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor

Raffi M. Turian
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
Professor

David Willcox
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1985
Assistant Professor


RESEARCH AREAS


Transport Phenomena: Slurry transport, multiphase fluid flow
and heat transfer, fixed and fluidized bed combustion, indirect
coal liquefaction, porous media, membrane transport, pulmonary
deposition and clearance, biorheology.
Thermodynamics: Transport properties of fluids, statistical
mechanics of liquid mixtures, supercritical fluid extraction/
retrograde condensation, asphaltene characterization,
bioseparations.
Kinetics and Reaction Engineering: Gas-solid reaction kinetics,
diffusion and adsorption phenomena, energy transfer processes,
laser diagnostics, combustion chemistry, environmental
technology.
Heterogeneous Catalysis: Surface chemistry, catalyst preparation
and characterization, structure sensitivity, supported metals, clay
chemistry, artificial intelligence applications, modeling and
optimization.


For more information, write to
Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago Box 4348 Chicago, IL 60680 (312) 996-3424


Chemical Engineering Education









Chemical Engineering at the

University of Illinois

at Urbana-Champaign



L mJ"'-w


b The combination of distinguished
faculty, outstanding facilities and a
diversity of research interests results
in exceptional opportunities for
graduate education.
The chemical engineering department
A offers graduate programs leading to the
M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
ON
Richard C. Alkire Electroche
OF Thomas J. Hanratty Fluid Dyn
Jonathan J. L. Higdon Fluid Mec
rCE Douglas A. Lauffenburger Cellular Bi
Richard I. Masel Fundamen
Semicon
Anthony J. McHugh Polymer S
William R. Schowalter Mechanics
Edmund G. Seebauer Laser Stud
Mark A. Stadtherr Chemical
Optimiza
Frank B. van Swol Computer
K. Dane Wittrup Biochemic
Charles F. Zukoski IV Colloid an
For information and application forms write:
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab
1209 West California Street
Urbana, Illinois 61801


mical Engineering
amics
hanics and Transport Phenomena
oengineering
ltal Studies of Catalytic Processes and
luctor Growth
science and Engineering
Sof Complex Fluids
.ies of Semiconductor Growth
Process Flowsheeting and
tion
Simulation and Interfacial Studies
al Engineering
d Interfacial Science


Fall 1991


TRADITI



EXCELLENT










GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT


Illinois Institute of Technology


THE UNIVERSITY
* Private, coeducational and research university
* 3000 undergraduate students
* 2400 graduate students
* 3 miles from downtown Chicago and 1 mile west of
Lake Michigan
* Campus recognized as an architectural landmark

THE CITY
* One of the largest cities in the world
* National and international center of business and
industry
* Enormous variety of cultural resources
* Excellent recreational facilities
* Industrial collaboration and job opportunities

THE DEPARTMENT
* One of the oldest in the nation
* Approximately 60 full-time and 40 part-time
graduate students
* M.Ch.E., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees
* Financially attractive fellowships and assistant-
ships available to outstanding students


THE FACULTY

* HAMIDARASTOOPOUR (Ph.D., IIT)
Multiphase flow and fluidization, flow in porous media,
environmental engineering

* RICHARD A. BEISSINGER (D.E.Sc., Columbia)
Transport processes in chemical and biological
systems, rheology of polymeric and biological fluids

* ALl CINAR (Ph.D., Texas A & M)
Chemical process control, distributed parameter
systems, expert systems

* DIMITRI GIDASPOW (Ph.D., IIT)
Hydrodynamics of fluidization, multiphase flow,
separations processes

* HENRY. LINDEN (Ph.D., IIT)
Energy policy, planning, and forecasting

* SATISHJ. PARULEKAR (Ph.D., Purdue)
Biochemical engineering, chemical reaction engineering

* J. ROBERT SELMAN (Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Electrochemical engineering and electrochemical
energy storage

* FYODOR A. SHUTOV (Ph.D., Institute for Chemical
Physics, Moscow, USSR)
Polymer composite materials and plastic recycling

* DAVID C. VENERUS (Ph.D., Pennsylvania State U)
Polymer rheology and processing, and transport
phenomena

* DARSH T. WASAN (Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Interfacial phenomena, separation processes,
enhanced oil recovery


APPLICATIONS *
Drs. S. J. ParulekarorJ. R. Selman
Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
Illinois Institute of Technology
1.1.T. Center
Chicago, IL 60616


Chemical Engineering Education






GRADUATE PROGRAM FOR M.S. & PH.D. DEGREES
IN CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

FACULTY


GREG CARMICHAEL
Chair; U. of Kentucky,
1979, Global Change/
Supercomputing


RAVI DATTA
UCSB, 1981
Reaction Engineering/
Catalyst Design


DAVID MURHAMMER
U. of Houston, 1989
Animal Cell Culture


J. KEITH BEDDOW
U. of Cambridge, 1959
Particle Morphological
Analysis


JONATHAN DORDICK
MIT, 1986,
Biocatalysis and
Bioprocessing


DAVID RETHWISCH
U. of Wisconsin, 1984
Membrane Science/
Catalysis and Cluster
Science


AUDREY BUTLER
U. of Iowa, 1989
Chemical Precipita-
tion Processes


DAVID LUERKENS
U. of Iowa, 1980
Fine Particle Science


V.G.J. RODGERS
Washington U., 1989
Transport Phenomena
in Bioseparations


For information and application write to:
GRADUATE ADMISSIONS
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
The University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa 52242
319-335-1400


THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA








IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOGY Y _
-E~i~s a


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r
ill


For additional
information, please write
Graduate Office
Department of
Chemical Engineering
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011
or call 515 294-7643
E-Mail N2.TSK@ISUMVS.BITNET


Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Charles E. Glatz, Ph.D., \isconsin, 1975.
Peter J. Reilly, Ph.D., Penns\lvania, 1964.
Richard C. Seagra\'e, Ph.D., lo\ta State, 1961.

Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
L K. Doraiswamy, Ph.D., \Wisconsin, 1952.
TerrN 5. King, Ph.D., M.I.T., 1979.
Glenn L. Schrader, Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1976.

Energy and Environmental
George Burnet, Ph.D.. Iow\a State, 1951.
Daniel P. Smith, Ph.D., Stanford, 1987.
Thomas D. Wheelock, Ph.D., Iowa State, 1958.

Materials and Crystallization
Kurt R. Hebert, Ph.D., Illinois, 1985.
Maurice A. Larson, Ph.D., lowa State, 1958.
Gordon R. Youngquist, Ph.D., Illinois, 1962.

Process Design and Control
William H. Abraham, Ph.D., Purdue, 1957.
Derrick K. Rollins, Ph.D., Ohio State, 1990.
Dean L. Ulrichson, Ph.D., Iowa State, 1970.

Transport Phenomena and Thermodynamics
James C. Hill, Ph.D., Washington, 1968.
Kenneth R. Jolls, Ph.D., Illinois, 1966.


I m


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II II








Graduate Study and Research in

Chemical Engineering


TIMOTHY A. BARBARI
Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin
Membrane Science
Sorption and Diffusion in Polymers
Polymeric Thin Films

MICHAEL J. BETENBAUGH
Ph.D., University of Delaware
Biochemical Kinetics
Insect Cell Culture
Recombinant DNA Technology
MARC D. DONOHUE
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Equations of State
Statistical Thermodynamics
Phase Equilibria
JOSEPH L. KATZ
Ph.D., University of Chicago
Nucleation
Crystallization
Flame Generation of Ceramic Powders
ROBERT M. KELLY
Ph.D., North Carolina State University
Process Simulation
Biochemical Engineering
Separations Processes


e


ohns


MARK A. MCHUGH
Ph.D., University of Delaware
High-Pressure Thermodynamics
Polymer Solution Thermodynamics
Supercritical Solvent Extraction
GEOFFREY A. PRENTICE
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Electrochemical Engineering
Corrosion
W. MARK SALTZMAN
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Transport in Biological Systems
Polymeric Controlled Release
Cell-Surface Interactions
W. H. SCHWARZ
Dr. Engr., The Johns Hopkins University
Rheology
Non-Newtonian Fluid Dynamics
Physical Acoustics and Fluids
Turbulence
KATHLEEN J. STEBE
Ph.D., The City University of New York
Interfacial Phenomena
Electropermeability of Biological Membranes
Surface Effects at Fluid-Droplet Interfaces

For further information contact:
The Johns Hopkins University
G. W.C. Whiting School of Engineering
Department of Chemical Engineering
34th and Charles Streets
Baltimore, MD 21218
(301) 338-7137


E.O.E./A.A.


Fall 1991


Hopkins





T H E U V S


GRADUATE STUDY
IN CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM
ENGINEERING


GRADUATE PROGRAMS
* M.S. degree with a thesis requirement in both
chemical and petroleum engineering
M.S. degree with a major in petroleum
management offered jointly with the School of
Business
* Ph.D. degree characterized by moderate and
flexible course requirements and a strong
research emphasis
* Typical completion times are 16-18 months
for a M.S. degree and 4 1/2 years for a Ph.D.
degree (from B.S.).

RESEARCH AREAS
Catalytic Kinetics and Reaction Engineering
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Controlled Drug Delivery
Corrosion
Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes
Ruid Phase Equilibria and Process Design
Nucleate Boiling
Plasma Modeling and Plasma Reactor Design
Process Control
Supercomputer Applications
Supercritical Fluid Applications

FINANCIAL AID
Financial aid is available in the form of fellow-
ships and research and teaching assistantships
($13,000 to $14,000 a year).

THE UNIVERSITY
The University of Kansas is the largest and
most comprehensive university in Kansas. It
has an enrollment of more than 28,000 and
almost 2,000 faculty members. KU offers more
than 100 bachelors', nearly ninety masters',
and more than fifty doctoral programs. The main
campus is in Lawrence, Kansas, with other
campuses in Kansas City, Wichita, Topeka, and
Overland Park, Kansas.


FACULTY
Kenneth A. Bishop (Ph.D., Oklahoma)
John C. Davis (Ph.D., Wyoming)
Don W. Green (Ph.D., Oklahoma)
Colin S. Howat (Ph.D., Kansas)
Carl E. Locke, Jr., Dean (Ph.D., Texas)
James 0. Maloney, Emeritus (Ph.D., Penn State)
Russell B. Mesler (Ph.D., Michigan)
Floyd W. Preston, Emeritus (Ph.D., Penn State)
Harold F. Rosson (Ph.D., Rice)
Marylee Z. Southard (Ph.D., Kansas)
Bala Subramaniam (Ph.D., Notre Dame)
George W. Swift (Ph.D., Kansas)
Brian E. Thompson (Ph.D., MIT)
Shapour Vossoughi (Ph.D., Alberta, Canada)
Stanley M. Walas, Emeritus (Ph.D., Michigan)
G. Paul Willhite, Chairman (Ph.D., Northwestern)

RESEARCH FACILITIES
Excellent facilities are available for research
and instruction. Extensive equipment and shop
facilities are available for research in such
areas as enhanced oil recovery processes, fluid
phase equilibria, nucleate boiling, catalytic
kinetics, plasma processing, and supercritical
fluid applications. The VAX 9000, along with a
network of Macintosh personal computers and
IBM, Apollo, and Sun workstations, support
computational and graphical needs.

For more information and application
material, write or call
The University of Kansas
The Graduate Adviser
Department of Chemical and Petroleum
Engineering
4006 Learned Hall
Lawrence, KS 66045-2223
(913) 864-4965












































KANSAS SATE


M.S. and Ph.D. programs
*Chemical Engineering
*Interdisciplinary Areas of Systems Engineering
*Food Science
*Environmental Engineering


Financial Aid Available
Up to $15,000 Per Year


For More Information Write to
Professor B.G. Kyle
Durland Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS 66506


Areas of Study and Research
Transport Phenomena
Energy Engineering
Coal and Biomass Conversion
Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibrium
Biochemical Engineering
Process Dynamics and Control
Chemical Reaction Engineering
Materials Science
Catalysis and Fuel Synthesis
Process System Engineering
and Artificial Intelligence
Environmental Pollution Control
Fluidization and Solid Mixing
Hazardous Waste Treatment


KANEAS

TJUTVEZRSITY







I Unive sit ofK


Far From An
Ordinary Ball
Research with advanced
materials (carbon fibers,
nitride catalysts, supercon-
ducting thin films, and liquid
crystalline polymers) and with
Buckyballs is ongoing here in
Lexington.

Anything But An
Ordinary University
At the University of Kentucky-designated by
the Carnegie Foundation as a Research
University of the First Class, and included in
the NSF's prestigious list-
ing of Top 100 research
institutions in America-
CHOICES for Chem. E. grad-
O uate students are anything
but ordinary. There are
joint projects with Pharmacy, the Medical
School, the Markey Cancer Center, and
Chemistry researchers. And abundant opportu-
nities for intense interaction with extraordinary
faculty, as well as access to state-of-the-art
facilities and equipment, including an IBM ES
3900/600J Supercomputer.

With Out-Of-The-
Ordinary
Chem. E.
Specialties
Aerosol Chemistry and
Physics-Weighing picogram
particles in electrodynamic balance,
measuring monolayer adsorption, data
with seven significant figures.
Cellular Bioengineering-Rheological and
transport properties of cell membranes; cell
adhesion, cancer research, transport of drugs
across membranes, and membrane biofouling.
Computational Engineering-Modeling turbulent
diffusion in atmospheric convective boundary


layers; modeling growth of multi-
component aerosol systems.
Environmental Engineering-
EPA-approved analytical labora-
tory; global atmospheric
transport models; atmospheric
photochemistry; control of
heavy metals and hazardous
organic; water pollution research.
Membrane Science-Development of
low pressure charged membranes; thin
film composite membranes; development of bio-
functional synthetic membranes.

From A
Uniquely
Un-Ordinary
Faculty
Recent national awards won by our faculty
include: Larry K. Cecil AIChE Environmental
Division; AIChE Outstanding Counselor Award,
1983, 1991; ASM Henry Marion Howe Medal;
AAAR Kenneth T. Whitby Memorial Award; BMES
Dr. Harold Lamport Award for a Young Investiga-
tor; and two NSF-Presidential Young Investigators.
Recent University-wide awards by faculty include:
Great Teacher;
Research Professor;
Excellence in Under-
graduate Education;
and Alumni Professor.


All Of Which
Create Some
Extraordinary
Opportunities For You
Doctoral incentives well worth your consideration:
Up to $20,000 per year stipends plus tuition,
books, research supplies, travel allowances.
Interested in obtaining a degree of extraordinary
worth? Contact Dr. R.I. Kermode, Department of
Chemical Engineering, University of Kentucky,
Lexington, KY 40506-0046.


B:IIeI*1Ii)sI
.- =0 .S C--










UNIVERSITY




LAVAL

Quebec, Canada


Ph.D. and M.Sc.

in Chemical Engineering

Research Areas

* CATALYSIS (S. Kaliaguine)
* BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING (L. Choplin, A. LeDuy,
J. -R. Moreau, J. Thibault)
* ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING (R. S. Ramalho,
C. Roy)
* COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING (P. A. Tanguy)
* TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT (P. -H. Roy)
* MODELLING AND CONTROL (J. Thibault)
* RHEOLOGY AND POLYMER ENGINEERING
(A. Ait-Kadi, L. Choplin, P. A. Tanguy)
* THERMODYNAMICS (R. S. Ramalho, S. Kaliaguine)
* CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL UPGRADING
OF BIOMASS (S. Kaliaguine, A. LeDuy, C. Roy)
FLUIDISA TION AND SEPARATIONS BY
MEMBRANES (B. Grandjean)
University Laval is a French speaking University. It provides the
graduate student with the opportunity of learning French and
becoming acquainted with French culture.
Please write to:
Le Responsable du Comitd d'Admission et de Supervision
Departement de genie chimique
Faculty des sciences et de genie
University Laval
Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada G 1K 7P4


The Faculty

ABDELLATIF AIT-KADI
Ph.D. Ecole Poly. Montreal
Professeur adjoint
LIONEL CHOPLIN
Ph.D. Ecole Poly. Montreal
Professeur titulaire
BERNARD GRANDJEAN
Ph.D. Ecole Poly. Montreal
Professeur adjoint
SERGE KALIAGUINE
D.Ing. I.G.C. Toulouse
Professeur titulaire
ANH LEDUY
Ph.D. Western Ontario
Professeur titulaire
J. -CLAUDE METHOT
D.Sc. Laval
Professeur titulaire
Vice-Recteur Aux Etudes
JEAN-R. MOREAU
Ph.D. M.I.T.
Professeur titulaire
RUBENS S. RAMALHO
Ph.D. Vanderbilt
Professeur titulaire
CHRISTIAN ROY
Ph.D. Sherbrooke
Professeuragrege
PAUL-H. ROY
Ph.D. Illinois Inst. of Technology
Professeur titulaire
ABDELHAMID SAYARI
Ph.D. Tunis/Lyon
Professeur adjoint
PHILLIPPE A. TANGUY
Ph.D. Laval
Professeur agr6g6
JULES THIBAULT
Ph.D. McMaster
Professeur agrdg6


Fall 1991










LEHIGH UNIVERSITY

We promise the challenge ...


Synergistic, interdisciplinary research in
Polymer science and engineering
Biochemical engineering
Process modeling and control
Multiphase processing
leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in
chemical engineering and polymer science
and engineering
Superb facilities
One of the largest doctoral programs in the
nation
Easy access to cultural and recreational
opportunities in the New York-Philadelphia
area

Highly attractive financial aid packages, which
provide tuition and stipend,
are available.

Additional information and applications may be
obtained by writing to:
Dr. Janice A. Phillips
Chairman, Graduate Affairs Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
Lehigh University
111 Research Drive
Bethlehem, PA 18015


Philip A. Blythe (University of Manchester)
fluid mechanics heat transfer e applied mathematics
Hugo S. Caram (University of Minnesota)
gas-solid and gas-liquid systems optical techniques *
reaction engineering
Marvin Charles (Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn)
biochemical engineering bioseparations
John C. Chen (University of Michigan)
two-phase vapor-liquid flow fluidization radiative heat
transfer
Mohamed S. El-Aasser (McGill University)
polymer colloids and films emulsion copolymerization *
polymer synthesis and characterization
Christos Georgakis (University of Minnesota)
process modeling and control chemical reaction
engineering expert systems
Dennis W. Hess (Lehigh University)
semiconductor and thin film processing
James T. Hsu (Northwestern University)
separation processes adsorption and catalysis in zeolites
Arthur E. Humphrey (Columbia University)
biochemical processes pharmaceuticals and enzyme
manufacturing plant cell culture
Andrew J. Klein (North Carolina State University)
emulsion polymerization colloidal and surface effects in
polymerization
William L. Luyben (University of Delaware)
process design and control distillation
Janice A. Phillips (University of Pennsylvania)
biochemical engineering instrumentation/control of
bioreactors mammalian cell culture
Maria M. Santore (Princeton University)
dynamics of macromolecules at interfaces
William E. Schiesser (Princeton University)
numerical algorithms and software in chemical engineering
Cesar A. Silebi (Lehigh University)
separation of colloidal particles electrophoresis mass
transfer
Leslie H. Sperling (Duke University)
mechanical and morphological properties of polymers *
interpenetrating polymer networks
Fred P. Stein (University of Michigan)
thermodynamic properties of mixtures
Harvey G. Stenger, Jr. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
plasma etching catalysis air pollution control
Israel E. Wachs (Stanford University)
materials synthesis and characterization surface chemistry
heterogeneous catalysis


Chemical Engineering Education




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